National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for giner electrochemical systems

  1. Panel 3, Giner Overview

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High efficiency Low Cap Ex 15 N , 210 Nm 3 h Energy Storage Low Cap Ex Rapid Response time MW Stacks, 2 MW - 5 MW Systems RFC Electrolyzers UUV 20 Nm 3 Backup Power 2 ...

  2. Giner Electrochemicals Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Inc Place: Newton, Massachusetts Zip: 2466 Product: Specializes in the development of fuel cell technologies and products. Coordinates: 43.996685, -87.803724 Show Map...

  3. Hydrogen Production by PEM Electrolysis: Spotlight on Giner and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PRODUCTION BY PEM ELECTROLYSIS: SPOTLIGHT ON GINER AND PROTON US DOE WEBINAR (May 23, 2011) 2 Webinar Outline *Water Electrolysis H 2 Production Overview DOE-EERE-FCT: Eric L. ...

  4. Electrochemical thermodynamic measurement system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reynier, Yvan; Yazami, Rachid; Fultz, Brent T.

    2009-09-29

    The present invention provides systems and methods for accurately characterizing thermodynamic and materials properties of electrodes and electrochemical energy storage and conversion systems. Systems and methods of the present invention are configured for simultaneously collecting a suite of measurements characterizing a plurality of interconnected electrochemical and thermodynamic parameters relating to the electrode reaction state of advancement, voltage and temperature. Enhanced sensitivity provided by the present methods and systems combined with measurement conditions that reflect thermodynamically stabilized electrode conditions allow very accurate measurement of thermodynamic parameters, including state functions such as the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy of electrode/electrochemical cell reactions, that enable prediction of important performance attributes of electrode materials and electrochemical systems, such as the energy, power density, current rate and the cycle life of an electrochemical cell.

  5. Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Electrolysis—Spotlight on Giner and Proton

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Slides presented at the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar "Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Electrolysis—Spotlight on Giner and Proton" on May 23, 2011.

  6. Webinar: Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Electrolysis—Spotlight on Giner and Proton

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Video recording of the webinar, Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Electrolysis—Spotlight on Giner and Proton, originally presented on May 23, 2011.

  7. Electrochemical hydrogen Storage Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Digby Macdonald

    2010-08-09

    As the global need for energy increases, scientists and engineers have found a possible solution by using hydrogen to power our world. Although hydrogen can be combusted as a fuel, it is considered an energy carrier for use in fuel cells wherein it is consumed (oxidized) without the production of greenhouse gases and produces electrical energy with high efficiency. Chemical storage of hydrogen involves release of hydrogen in a controlled manner from materials in which the hydrogen is covalently bound. Sodium borohydride and aminoborane are two materials given consideration as chemical hydrogen storage materials by the US Department of Energy. A very significant barrier to adoption of these materials as hydrogen carriers is their regeneration from 'spent fuel,' i.e., the material remaining after discharge of hydrogen. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) formed a Center of Excellence for Chemical Hydrogen Storage, and this work stems from that project. The DOE has identified boron hydrides as being the main compounds of interest as hydrogen storage materials. The various boron hydrides are then oxidized to release their hydrogen, thereby forming a 'spent fuel' in the form of a lower boron hydride or even a boron oxide. The ultimate goal of this project is to take the oxidized boron hydrides as the spent fuel and hydrogenate them back to their original form so they can be used again as a fuel. Thus this research is essentially a boron hydride recycling project. In this report, research directed at regeneration of sodium borohydride and aminoborane is described. For sodium borohydride, electrochemical reduction of boric acid and sodium metaborate (representing spent fuel) in alkaline, aqueous solution has been investigated. Similarly to literature reports (primarily patents), a variety of cathode materials were tried in these experiments. Additionally, approaches directed at overcoming electrostatic repulsion of borate anion from the cathode, not described in the previous literature for electrochemical reduction of spent fuels, have been attempted. A quantitative analytical method for measuring the concentration of sodium borohydride in alkaline aqueous solution has been developed as part of this work and is described herein. Finally, findings from stability tests for sodium borohydride in aqueous solutions of several different compositions are reported. For aminoborane, other research institutes have developed regeneration schemes involving tributyltin hydride. In this report, electrochemical reduction experiments attempting to regenerate tributyltin hydride from tributyltin chloride (a representative by-product of the regeneration scheme) are described. These experiments were performed in the non-aqueous solvents acetonitrile and 1,2-dimethoxyethane. A non-aqueous reference electrode for electrolysis experiments in acetonitrile was developed and is described. One class of boron hydrides, called polyhedral boranes, became of interest to the DOE due to their ability to contain a sufficient amount of hydrogen to meet program goals and because of their physical and chemical safety attributes. Unfortunately, the research performed here has shown that polyhedral boranes do not react in such a way as to allow enough hydrogen to be released, nor do they appear to undergo hydrogenation from the spent fuel form back to the original hydride. After the polyhedral boranes were investigated, the project goals remained the same but the hydrogen storage material was switched by the DOE to ammonia borane. Ammonia borane was found to undergo an irreversible hydrogen release process, so a direct hydrogenation was not able to occur. To achieve the hydrogenation of the spent ammonia borane fuel, an indirect hydrogenation reaction is possible by using compounds called organotin hydrides. In this process, the organotin hydrides will hydrogenate the spent ammonia borane fuel at the cost of their own oxidation, which forms organotin halides. To enable a closed-loop cycle, our task was then to be able to hydrogenate the organotin halides back to their hydride form. In addition to this experimental work, a parallel project was carried out to develop a new model of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) that could be used to define the mechanisms of the electrochemical hydrogenation reactions. The EIS technique is capable of probing complex chemical and electrochemical reactions, and our model was written into a computer code that allowed the input of experimental EIS data and the extraction of kinetic parameters based on a best-fit analysis of theoretical reaction schemes. Finally, electrochemical methods for hydrogenating organic and metallo-organic materials have been explored.

  8. Regenerative Fuel Cells for Energy Storage

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Corky Mittelsteadt, Giner Electrochemical Systems, at the NREL Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop, April 19, 2011

  9. Lithium based electrochemical cell systems having a degassing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Lithium based electrochemical cell systems having a degassing agent A lithium based electrochemical cell system includes a positive electrode; a negative electrode; an ...

  10. Sheet electrode for electrochemical systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsien, Hsue C.; Newby, Kenneth R.; Grimes, Patrick G.; Bellows, Richard J.

    1983-04-12

    An electrochemical cell construction features a novel co-extruded plastic electrode in an interleaved construction with a novel integral separator-spacer. Also featured is a leak and impact resistant construction for preventing the spill of corrosive materials in the event of rupture.

  11. System and method for networking electrochemical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, Mark C.; Wimer, John G.; Archer, David H.

    1995-01-01

    An improved electrochemically active system and method including a plurality of electrochemical devices, such as fuel cells and fluid separation devices, in which the anode and cathode process-fluid flow chambers are connected in fluid-flow arrangements so that the operating parameters of each of said plurality of electrochemical devices which are dependent upon process-fluid parameters may be individually controlled to provide improved operating efficiency. The improvements in operation include improved power efficiency and improved fuel utilization in fuel cell power generating systems and reduced power consumption in fluid separation devices and the like through interstage process fluid parameter control for series networked electrochemical devices. The improved networking method includes recycling of various process flows to enhance the overall control scheme.

  12. Low-temperature thermally regenerative electrochemical system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loutfy, R.O.; Brown, A.P.; Yao, N.P.

    1982-04-21

    A thermally regenerative electrochemical system is described including an electrochemical cell with two water-based electrolytes separated by an ion exchange membrane, at least one of the electrolytes containing a complexing agent and a salt of a multivalent metal whose respective order of potentials for a pair of its redox couples is reversible by a change in the amount of the ocmplexing agent in the electrolyte, the complexing agent being removable by distillation to cause the reversal.

  13. Low temperature thermally regenerative electrochemical system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loutfy, Raouf O.; Brown, Alan P.; Yao, Neng-Ping

    1983-01-01

    A thermally regenerative electrochemical system including an electrochemical cell with two water-based electrolytes separated by an ion exchange membrane, at least one of the electrolytes containing a complexing agent and a salt of a multivalent metal whose respective order of potentials for a pair of its redox couples is reversible by a change in the amount of the complexing agent in the electrolyte, the complexing agent being removable by distillation to cause the reversal.

  14. Gas permeable electrode for electrochemical system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ludwig, Frank A.; Townsend, Carl W.

    1989-01-01

    An electrode apparatus adapted for use in electrochemical systems having an anode compartment and a cathode compartment in which gas and ions are produced and consumed in the compartments during generation of electrical current. The electrode apparatus includes a membrane for separating the anode compartment from the cathode compartment wherein the membrane is permeable to both ions and gas. The cathode and anode for the assembly are provided on opposite sides of the membrane. During use of the membrane-electrode apparatus in electrochemical cells, the gas and ions generated at the cathode or anode migrate through the membrane to provide efficient transfer of gas and ions between the anode and cathode compartments.

  15. Lithium based electrochemical cell systems having a degassing agent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hyung, Yoo-Eup; Vissers, Donald R.; Amine, Khalil

    2012-05-01

    A lithium based electrochemical cell system includes a positive electrode; a negative electrode; an electrolyte; and a degassing agent.

  16. Electrochemical sensor/detector system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glass, Robert S.; Perone, Sam P.; Ciarlo, Dino R.; Kimmons, James F.

    1992-01-01

    An electrochemical detection system is described comprising in combination: (a) a multielement, microelectrode array detector containing means for acquiring a plurality of signals; (b) electronic means for receiving said signals and converting said signals into a readout or display providing information with respect to the nature and concentration of elements present in a solution being tested. Also described is the means of making the above described microelectrode detector.

  17. Electrochemical sensor/detector system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glass, Robert S.; Perone, Sam P.; Ciarlo, Dino R.; Kimmons, James F.

    1994-01-01

    An electrochemical detection system is described comprising in combination: (a) a multielement, microelectrode array detector containing means for acquiring a plurality of signals; (b) electronic means for receiving said signals and converting said signals into a readout or display providing information with respect to the nature and concentration of elements present in a solution being tested. Also described is the means of making the above described microelectrode detector.

  18. Gas permeable electrode for electrochemical system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ludwig, F.A.; Townsend, C.W.

    1989-09-12

    An electrode apparatus is described which is adapted for use in electrochemical systems having an anode compartment and a cathode compartment in which gas and ions are produced and consumed in the compartments during generation of electrical current. The electrode apparatus includes a membrane for separating the anode compartment from the cathode compartment wherein the membrane is permeable to both ions and gas. The cathode and anode for the assembly are provided on opposite sides of the membrane. During use of the membrane-electrode apparatus in electrochemical cells, the gas and ions generated at the cathode or anode migrate through the membrane to provide efficient transfer of gas and ions between the anode and cathode compartments. 3 figs.

  19. Measuring Physical Properties of Polymer Electrolyte Membranes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presented by Cortney Mittelsteadt of Giner Electrochemical Systems, LLC, at the DOE High Temperature Membrane Working Group held September 14, 2006.

  20. A Novel System for Carbon Dioxide Capture Utilizing Electrochemical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Membrane Technology (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: A Novel System for Carbon Dioxide Capture Utilizing Electrochemical Membrane Technology Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Novel System for Carbon Dioxide Capture Utilizing Electrochemical Membrane Technology FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE), in collaboration with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and URS Corporation, is developing a novel Combined Electric Power and Carbon-Dioxide Separation (CEPACS)

  1. Separator-spacer for electrochemical systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grimes, Patrick G.; Einstein, Harry; Newby, Kenneth R.; Bellows, Richard J.

    1983-08-02

    An electrochemical cell construction features a novel co-extruded plastic electrode in an interleaved construction with a novel integral separator-spacer. Also featured is a leak and impact resistant construction for preventing the spill of corrosive materials in the event of rupture.

  2. Systems, methods and computer-readable media for modeling cell performance fade of rechargeable electrochemical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gering, Kevin L

    2013-08-27

    A system includes an electrochemical cell, monitoring hardware, and a computing system. The monitoring hardware periodically samples performance characteristics of the electrochemical cell. The computing system determines cell information from the performance characteristics of the electrochemical cell. The computing system also develops a mechanistic level model of the electrochemical cell to determine performance fade characteristics of the electrochemical cell and analyzing the mechanistic level model to estimate performance fade characteristics over aging of a similar electrochemical cell. The mechanistic level model uses first constant-current pulses applied to the electrochemical cell at a first aging period and at three or more current values bracketing a first exchange current density. The mechanistic level model also is based on second constant-current pulses applied to the electrochemical cell at a second aging period and at three or more current values bracketing the second exchange current density.

  3. Electrochemical system including lamella settler crystallizer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maimoni, Arturo

    1988-01-01

    A crystallizer which incorporates a lamella settler and which is particularly applicable for use in batteries and power cells for electric vehicles or stationary applications. The lamella settler can be utilized for coarse particle separation or for agglomeration, and is particularly applicable to aluminum-air batteries or power cells for solving the hydrargillite (aluminum-hydroxide) removal problems from such batteries. This invention provides the advantages of very low energy consumption, turbulence, shear, cost and maintenance. Thus, due to the low shear and low turbulence of this invention, it is particularly effective in the control of aluminum hydroxide particle size distribution in the various sections of an aluminum-air system, as will as in other elecrochemical systems requiring separation for phases of different densities.

  4. Current-potential characteristics of electrochemical systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Battaglia, V.S.

    1993-07-01

    This dissertation contains investigations in three distinct areas. Chapters 1 and 2 provide an analysis of the effects of electromagnetic phenomena during the initial stages of cell discharge. Chapter 1 includes the solution to Maxwell`s equations for the penetration of the axial component of an electric field into an infinitely long cylindrical conductor. Chapter 2 contains the analysis of the conductor included in a radial circuit. Chapter 3 provides a complete description of the equations that describe the growth of an oxide film. A finite difference program was written to solve the equations. The system investigated is the iron/iron oxide in a basic, aqueous solution. Chapters 4 and 5 include the experimental attempts for replacing formaldehyde with an innocuous reducing agent for electroless deposition. In chapter 4, current-versus-voltage curves are provided for a sodium thiosulfate bath in the presence of a copper disk electrode. Also provided are the cathodic polarization curves of a copper/EDTA bath in the presence of a copper electrode. Chapter 5 contains the experimental results of work done with sodium hypophosphite as a reducing agent. Mixed-potential-versus-time curves for solutions containing various combinations of copper sulfate, nickel chloride, and hypophosphite in the presence of a palladium disk electrode provide an indication of the reducing power of the solutions.

  5. Giner, Inc./GES

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Laser- Drilled Chem-Etch Cost Reduction BPSH DSM Supports PFSA Supported Membranes ... High electrical conductivity and high surface conductivity Resistant to hydrogen ...

  6. Systems, methods and computer readable media for estimating capacity loss in rechargeable electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gering, Kevin L.

    2013-06-18

    A system includes an electrochemical cell, monitoring hardware, and a computing system. The monitoring hardware periodically samples charge characteristics of the electrochemical cell. The computing system periodically determines cell information from the charge characteristics of the electrochemical cell. The computing system also periodically adds a first degradation characteristic from the cell information to a first sigmoid expression, periodically adds a second degradation characteristic from the cell information to a second sigmoid expression and combines the first sigmoid expression and the second sigmoid expression to develop or augment a multiple sigmoid model (MSM) of the electrochemical cell. The MSM may be used to estimate a capacity loss of the electrochemical cell at a desired point in time and analyze other characteristics of the electrochemical cell. The first and second degradation characteristics may be loss of active host sites and loss of free lithium for Li-ion cells.

  7. Characterization of electrochemical systems and batteries: Materials and systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBreen, J.

    1992-12-01

    Materials are a pacing problem in battery development. The battery environment, particularly in rechargeable batteries, places great demands on materials. Characterization of battery materials is difficult because of their complex nature. In many cases meaningful characterization requires iii situ methods. Fortunately, several new electrochemical and spectroscopic techniques for in situ characterization studies have recently become available, and reports of new techniques have become more frequent. The opportunity now exists to utilize advanced instrumentation to define detailed features, participating chemical species and interfacial structure of battery materials with a precision heretofore not possible. This overview gives key references to these techniques and discusses the application of x-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of battery materials.

  8. Characterization of electrochemical systems and batteries: Materials and systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBreen, J.

    1992-01-01

    Materials are a pacing problem in battery development. The battery environment, particularly in rechargeable batteries, places great demands on materials. Characterization of battery materials is difficult because of their complex nature. In many cases meaningful characterization requires iii situ methods. Fortunately, several new electrochemical and spectroscopic techniques for in situ characterization studies have recently become available, and reports of new techniques have become more frequent. The opportunity now exists to utilize advanced instrumentation to define detailed features, participating chemical species and interfacial structure of battery materials with a precision heretofore not possible. This overview gives key references to these techniques and discusses the application of x-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of battery materials.

  9. Systems, methods and computer-readable media to model kinetic performance of rechargeable electrochemical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gering, Kevin L.

    2013-01-01

    A system includes an electrochemical cell, monitoring hardware, and a computing system. The monitoring hardware samples performance characteristics of the electrochemical cell. The computing system determines cell information from the performance characteristics. The computing system also analyzes the cell information of the electrochemical cell with a Butler-Volmer (BV) expression modified to determine exchange current density of the electrochemical cell by including kinetic performance information related to pulse-time dependence, electrode surface availability, or a combination thereof. A set of sigmoid-based expressions may be included with the modified-BV expression to determine kinetic performance as a function of pulse time. The determined exchange current density may be used with the modified-BV expression, with or without the sigmoid expressions, to analyze other characteristics of the electrochemical cell. Model parameters can be defined in terms of cell aging, making the overall kinetics model amenable to predictive estimates of cell kinetic performance along the aging timeline.

  10. Solid electrolyte-electrode system for an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuller, Harry L.; Kramer, Steve A.; Spears, Marlene A.

    1995-01-01

    An electrochemical device including a solid electrolyte and solid electrode composed of materials having different chemical compositions and characterized by different electrical properties but having the same crystalline phase is provided. A method for fabricating an electrochemical device having a solid electrode and solid electrolyte characterized by the same crystalline phase is also provided.

  11. Solid electrolyte-electrode system for an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuller, H.L.; Kramer, S.A.; Spears, M.A.

    1995-04-04

    An electrochemical device including a solid electrolyte and solid electrode composed of materials having different chemical compositions and characterized by different electrical properties but having the same crystalline phase is provided. A method for fabricating an electrochemical device having a solid electrode and solid electrolyte characterized by the same crystalline phase is also provided. 17 figures.

  12. Reproducibility of electrochemical noise data from coated metal systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bierwagen, G.P.; Mills, D.J.; Tallman, D.E.; Skerry, B.S.

    1996-12-31

    The use of electrochemical noise (ECN) as a method to characterize the corrosion-protection properties of organic coatings on metal substrates was pioneered by Skerry and Eden, and since then has been used by others as a probe for coating metal corrosion studies. However, no statistical examination of the reproducibility of the data from such measurements has been published. In the data the authors present, they have done a systematic analysis of important experimental variables in such systems. They have examined the method for accuracy and reproducibility with respect to sample preparation, sample immersion, and metal substrate preparation. They have taken several marine coatings systems typical of US Navy use, prepared duplicate samples of coating metal systems, and examined them under the same immersion exposure. The variables they considered for reproducibility are paint application (in three-coat systems), metal panel preparation (grit-blasted steel), and immersion conditions. The authors present ECN data with respect to immersion time on the values of noise voltage standard deviation {sigma}{sub V}, noise current standard deviation {sigma}{sub I}, and the noise resistance R{sub n} as given by {sigma}{sub V}/{sigma}{sub I}. The variation among supposedly identical sample pairs in identical immersion monitored under identical conditions is presented. The statistics of the time records of the data are considered, and the variations with respect to specific coatings classes are also considered within the limits of the data. Based on these data, comments concerning ECN on coated metal systems as a predictive test method are presented along with special considerations that must be made to properly use the method for coating ranking and lifetime prediction.

  13. Integrated Microfluidics/Electrochemical Sensor System for Field-Monitoring of Toxic Metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Yuehe; Matson, Dean W.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Thrall, K D.; Timchalk, Chuck; W. Ehrfeld

    2000-01-01

    Discusses a miniaturized analytical system based on a microfluidics/electrochemical detection scheme. Individual modules, such as microfabricated piezoelectrically actuated pumps, a micro-membrane separator and a microelectrochemical cell will be integrated onto a portable platform.

  14. Monolithic three-dimensional electrochemical energy storage system on aerogel or nanotube scaffold

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farmer, Joseph C; Stadermann, Michael

    2013-11-12

    A monolithic three-dimensional electrochemical energy storage system is provided on an aerogel or nanotube scaffold. An anode, separator, cathode, and cathodic current collector are deposited on the aerogel or nanotube scaffold.

  15. Monolithic three-dimensional electrochemical energy storage system on aerogel or nanotube scaffold

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farmer, Joseph Collin; Stadermann, Michael

    2014-07-15

    A monolithic three-dimensional electrochemical energy storage system is provided on an aerogel or nanotube scaffold. An anode, separator, cathode, and cathodic current collector are deposited on the aerogel or nanotube scaffold.

  16. Electrochemical Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Gang; Lin, Yuehe

    2008-07-20

    Sensitive and selective detection techniques are of crucial importance for capillary electrophoresis (CE), microfluidic chips, and other microfluidic systems. Electrochemical detectors have attracted considerable interest for microfluidic systems with features that include high sensitivity, inherent miniaturization of both the detection and control instrumentation, low cost and power demands, and high compatibility with microfabrication technology. The commonly used electrochemical detectors can be classified into three general modes: conductimetry, potentiometry, and amperometry.

  17. A biofilm microreactor system for simultaneous electrochemical and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renslow, Ryan S.; Babauta, Jerome T.; Majors, Paul D.; Mehta, Hardeep S.; Ewing, R. James; Ewing, Thomas; Mueller, Karl T.; Beyenal, Haluk

    2014-03-01

    In order to fully understand electrochemically active biofilms and the limitations to their scale-up in industrial biofilm reactors, a complete picture of the microenvironments inside the biofilm is needed. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques are ideally suited for the study of biofilms and for probing their microenvironments because these techniques allow for non-invasive interrogation and in situ monitoring with high resolution. By combining NMR with simultaneous electrochemical techniques, it is possible to sustain and study live electrochemically active biofilms. Here, we introduce a novel biofilm microreactor system that allows for simultaneous electrochemical and NMR techniques (EC-NMR) at the microscale. Microreactors were designed with custom radiofrequency resonator coils, which allowed for NMR measurements of biofilms growing on polarized gold electrodes. For an example application of this system, we grew Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilms. NMR was used to investigate growth media flow velocities, which were compared to simulated laminar flow, and electron donor concentrations inside the biofilms. We use Monte Carlo error analysis to estimate standard deviations of the electron donor concentration measurements within the biofilm. The EC-NMR biofilm microreactor system can ultimately be used to correlate extracellular electron transfer rates with metabolic reactions and explore extracellular electron transfer mechanisms.

  18. System and method for charging electrochemical cells in series

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeLuca, William H.; Hornstra, Jr, Fred; Gelb, George H.; Berman, Baruch; Moede, Larry W.

    1980-01-01

    A battery charging system capable of equalizing the charge of each individual cell at a selected full charge voltage includes means for regulating charger current to first increase current at a constant rate until a bulk charging level is achieved or until any cell reaches a safe reference voltage. A system controller then begins to decrease the charging rate as long as any cell exceeds the reference voltage until an equalization current level is reached. At this point, the system controller activates a plurality of shunt modules to permit shunting of current around any cell having a voltage exceeding the reference voltage. Leads extending between the battery of cells and shunt modules are time shared to permit alternate shunting of current and voltage monitoring without the voltage drop caused by the shunt current. After each cell has at one time exceeded the reference voltage, the charging current is terminated.

  19. A Novel System for Carbon Dioxide Capture Utilizing Electrochemical Membrane Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghezel-Ayagh, Hossein; Jolly, Stephen; Patel, Dilip; Hunt, Jennifer; Steen, William A.; Richardson, Carl F.; Marina, Olga A.

    2013-06-03

    FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE), in collaboration with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and URS Corporation, is developing a novel Combined Electric Power and Carbon-Dioxide Separation (CEPACS) system, under a contract from the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-FE0007634), to efficiently and cost effectively separate carbon dioxide from the emissions of existing coal fired power plants. The CEPACS system is based on FCEs electrochemical membrane (ECM) technology utilizing the Companys internal reforming carbonate fuel cell products carrying the trade name of Direct FuelCell (DFC). The unique chemistry of carbonate fuel cells offers an innovative approach for separation of CO2 from existing fossil-fuel power plant exhaust streams (flue gases). The ECM-based CEPACS system has the potential to become a transformational CO2-separation technology by working as two devices in one: it separates the CO2 from the exhaust of other plants such as an existing coal-fired plant and simultaneously produces clean and environmentally benign (green) electric power at high efficiency using a supplementary fuel. The overall objective of this project is to successfully demonstrate the ability of FCEs electrochemical membrane-based CEPACS system technology to separate ? 90% of the CO2 from a simulated Pulverized Coal (PC) power plant flue-gas stream and to compress the captured CO2 to a state that can be easily transported for sequestration or beneficial use. Also, a key project objective is to show, through a Technical and Economic Feasibility Study and bench scale testing (11.7 m2 area ECM), that the electrochemical membrane-based CEPACS system is an economical alternative for CO2 capture in PC power plants, and that it meets DOE objectives for the incremental cost of electricity (COE) for post-combustion CO2 capture.

  20. Compact electrochemical sensor system and method for field testing for metals in saliva or other fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Yuehe; Bennett, Wendy D.; Timchalk, Charles; Thrall, Karla D.

    2004-03-02

    Microanalytical systems based on a microfluidics/electrochemical detection scheme are described. Individual modules, such as microfabricated piezoelectrically actuated pumps and a microelectrochemical cell were integrated onto portable platforms. This allowed rapid change-out and repair of individual components by incorporating "plug and play" concepts now standard in PC's. Different integration schemes were used for construction of the microanalytical systems based on microfluidics/electrochemical detection. In one scheme, all individual modules were integrated in the surface of the standard microfluidic platform based on a plug-and-play design. Microelectrochemical flow cell which integrated three electrodes based on a wall-jet design was fabricated on polymer substrate. The microelectrochemical flow cell was then plugged directly into the microfluidic platform. Another integration scheme was based on a multilayer lamination method utilizing stacking modules with different functionality to achieve a compact microanalytical device. Application of the microanalytical system for detection of lead in, for example, river water and saliva samples using stripping voltammetry is described.

  1. Investigation of Synergy Between Electrochemical Capacitors, Flywheels, and Batteries in Hybrid Energy Storage for PV Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, John; Sibley, Lewis, B.; Wohlgemuth, John

    1999-06-01

    This report describes the results of a study that investigated the synergy between electrochemical capacitors (ECs) and flywheels, in combination with each other and with batteries, as energy storage subsystems in photovoltaic (PV) systems. EC and flywheel technologies are described and the potential advantages and disadvantages of each in PV energy storage subsystems are discussed. Seven applications for PV energy storage subsystems are described along with the potential market for each of these applications. A spreadsheet model, which used the net present value method, was used to analyze and compare the costs over time of various system configurations based on flywheel models. It appears that a synergistic relationship exists between ECS and flywheels. Further investigation is recommended to quantify the performance and economic tradeoffs of this synergy and its effect on overall system costs.

  2. Portable system and method combining chromatography and array of electrochemical sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zaromb, Solomon; Stetter, Joseph R.

    1989-01-01

    A portable system for analyzing a fluid sample includes a small, portable, low-pressure and low-power chromatographic analyzer and a chemical parameter spectrometry monitor including an array of sensors for detecting, identifying and measuring the concentrations of a variety of components in the eluent from the chromatographic analyzer. The monitor includes one or more operating condition controllers which may be used to change one or more of the operating conditions during exposure of the sensors to the eluent from the chromatography analyzer to form a response pattern which is then compared with a library of previously established patterns. Gas and liquid chromatographic embodiments are disclosed. In the gas embodiment, the operating condition controllers include heated filaments which may convert electrochemically inactive components to electrochemically active products. In the liquid chromatography embodiment, low-power, liquid-phase equivalents of heated filaments are used with appropriate sensors. The library response patterns may be divided into subsets and the formed pattern may be assigned for comparison only with the patterns of a particular subset.

  3. Electrochemical nitridation of metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Heli; Turner, John A.

    2015-06-30

    Electrochemical nitridation of metals and the produced metals are disclosed. An exemplary method of electrochemical nitridation of metals comprises providing an electrochemical solution at low temperature. The method also comprises providing a three-electrode potentiostat system. The method also comprises stabilizing the three-electrode potentiostat system at open circuit potential. The method also comprises applying a cathodic potential to a metal.

  4. Theoretical approach for optical response in electrochemical systems: Application to electrode potential dependence of surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iida, Kenji; Noda, Masashi; Nobusada, Katsuyuki

    2014-09-28

    We propose a theoretical approach for optical response in electrochemical systems. The fundamental equation to be solved is based on a time-dependent density functional theory in real-time and real-space in combination with its finite temperature formula treating an electrode potential. Solvation effects are evaluated by a dielectric continuum theory. The approach allows us to treat optical response in electrochemical systems at the atomistic level of theory. We have applied the method to surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of 4-mercaptopyridine on an Ag electrode surface. It is shown that the SERS intensity has a peak as a function of the electrode potential. Furthermore, the real-space computational approach facilitates visualization of variation of the SERS intensity depending on an electrode potential.

  5. Solid state electrochemical composite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Visco, Steven J. (Berkeley, CA); Jacobson, Craig P. (Moraga, CA); DeJonghe, Lutgard C. (Lafayette, CA)

    2009-06-30

    Provided is a composite electrochemical device fabricated from highly electronically conductive materials such as metals, metal alloys, or electronically conductive ceramics. The electronic conductivity of the electrode substrate is maximized. The invention allows for an electrode with high electronic conductivity and sufficient catalytic activity to achieve high power density in ionic (electrochemical) devices such as fuel cells and electrolytic gas separation systems including oxygen generation system.

  6. Alternating-polarity operation for complete regeneration of electrochemical deionization system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tran, Tri D.; Lenz, David J.

    2002-01-01

    An electrically regeneratable battery of electrochemical cells for capacitive deionization (including electrochemical purification) and regeneration of electrodes is operated at alternate polarities during consecutive cycles. By polarizing the cells, ions are removed from the electrolyte and are held in the electric double layers formed at the carbon aerogel surfaces of the electrodes. As the electrodes of each cell of the battery are saturated with the removed ions, the battery is regenerated electrically at a reversed polarity from that during the deionization step of the cycle, thus significantly minimizing secondary wastes.

  7. Leveraging National Lab Capabilities in Fuel Cells and Electrochemical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Leveraging National Lab Capabilities in Fuel Cells and Electrochemical Systems-Phoenix, Arizona Leveraging National Lab Capabilities in Fuel Cells and Electrochemical ...

  8. Alternating-polarity operation for complete regeneration of electrochemical deionization system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tran, Tri D.; Lenz, David J.

    2006-11-21

    An electrically regeneratable battery of electrochemical cells for capacitive deionization (including electrochemical purification) and regeneration of electrodes is operated at alternate polarities during consecutive cycles. In other words, after each regeneration step operated at a given polarity in a deionization-regeneration cycle, the polarity of the deionization step in the next cycle is maintained. In one embodiment, two end electrodes are arranged one at each end of the battery, adjacent to end plates. An insulator layer is interposed between each end plate and the adjacent end electrode. Each end electrode includes a single sheet of conductive material having a high specific surface area and sorption capacity, preferably a sheet formed of carbon aerogel composite. The batter further includes a plurality of generally identical double-sided intermediate electrodes that are equidistally separated from each other, between the two end electrodes. As the electrolyte enters the battery of ells, t flows through a continuous open serpentine channel defined by the electrodes, substantially parallel to the surfaces of the electrodes. By polarizing the cells, ions are removed from the electrolyte and are held in the electric double layers formed at the carbon aerogel surfaces of the electrodes. As the electrodes of each cell of the battery are saturated with the removed ions, the battery is regenerated electrically at a reversed polarity from that during the deionization step of the cycle, thus significantly minimizing secondary wastes.

  9. Alternating-polarity operation for complete regeneration of electrochemical deionization system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tran, Tri D.; Lenz, David J.

    2004-07-13

    An electrically regeneratable battery of electrochemical cells for capacitive deionization (including electrochemical purification) and regeneration of electrodes is operated at alternate polarities during consecutive cycles. In other words, after each regeneration step operated at a given polarity in a deionization-regeneration cycle, the polarity of the deionization step in the next cycle is maintained. In one embodiment, two end electrodes are arranged one at each end of the battery, adjacent to end plates. An insulator layer is interposed between each end plate and the adjacent end electrode. Each end electrode includes a single sheet of conductive material having a high specific surface area and sorption capacity, preferably a sheet formed of carbon aerogel composite. The battery further includes a plurality of generally identical double-sided intermediate electrodes that are equidistally separated from each other, between the two end electrodes. As the electrolyte enters the battery of cells, it flows through a continuous open serpentine channel defined by the electrodes, substantially parallel to the surfaces of the electrodes. By polarizing the cells, ions are removed from the electrolyte and are held in the electric double layers formed at the carbon aerogel surfaces of the electrodes. As the electrodes of each cell of the battery are saturated with the removed ions, the battery is regenerated electrically at a reversed polarity from that during the deionization step of the cycle, thus significantly minimizing secondary wastes.

  10. Electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, Laszlo I.; Vissers, Donald R.; Prakash, Jai

    1996-01-01

    An electrochemical cell having a bimodal positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal, and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at the cell operating temperature. The positive electrode has an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride at least partially present as a charging product, and additives of bromide and/or iodide and sulfur in the positive electrode or the electrolyte. Electrode volumetric capacity is in excess of 400 Ah/cm.sup.3 ; the cell can be 90% recharged in three hours and can operate at temperatures below 160.degree. C. There is also disclosed a method of reducing the operating temperature and improving the overall volumetric capacity of an electrochemical cell and for producing a positive electrode having a BET area greater than 6.times.10.sup.4 cm.sup.2 /g of Ni.

  11. Electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, Laszlo I.; Vissers, Donald R.; Prakash, Jai

    1994-01-01

    An electrochemical cell having a bimodal positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal, and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at the cell operating temperature. The positive electrode has an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride at least partially present as a charging product, and additives of bromide and/or iodide and sulfur in the positive electrode or the electrolyte. Electrode volumetric capacity is in excess of 400 Ah/cm.sup.3 ; the cell can be 90% recharged in three hours and can operate at temperatures below 160.degree. C. There is also disclosed a method of reducing the operating temperature and improving the overall volumetric capacity of an electrochemical cell and for producing a positive electrode having a BET area greater than 6.times.10.sup.4 cm.sup.2 /g of Ni.

  12. Electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, L.I.; Vissers, D.R.; Prakash, J.

    1994-02-01

    An electrochemical cell is described having a bimodal positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal, and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at the cell operating temperature. The positive electrode has an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride at least partially present as a charging product, and additives of bromide and/or iodide and sulfur in the positive electrode or the electrolyte. Electrode volumetric capacity is in excess of 400 Ah/cm[sup 3]; the cell can be 90% recharged in three hours and can operate at temperatures below 160 C. There is also disclosed a method of reducing the operating temperature and improving the overall volumetric capacity of an electrochemical cell and for producing a positive electrode having a BET area greater than 6[times]10[sup 4] cm[sup 2]/g of Ni. 8 figures.

  13. Electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, L.I.; Vissers, D.R.; Prakash, J.

    1996-07-16

    An electrochemical cell is described having a bimodal positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal, and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at the cell operating temperature. The positive electrode has an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride at least partially present as a charging product, and additives of bromide and/or iodide and sulfur in the positive electrode or the electrolyte. Electrode volumetric capacity is in excess of 400 Ah/cm{sup 3}; the cell can be 90% recharged in three hours and can operate at temperatures below 160 C. There is also disclosed a method of reducing the operating temperature and improving the overall volumetric capacity of an electrochemical cell and for producing a positive electrode having a BET area greater than 6{times}10{sup 4}cm{sup 2}/g of Ni. 6 figs.

  14. Electrochemical construction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Einstein, Harry; Grimes, Patrick G.

    1983-08-23

    An electrochemical cell construction features a novel co-extruded plastic electrode in an interleaved construction with a novel integral separator-spacer. Also featured is a leak and impact resistant construction for preventing the spill of corrosive materials in the event of rupture.

  15. Electrochemical device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grimes, Patrick G.; Einstein, Harry; Bellows, Richard J.

    1988-01-12

    A tunnel protected electrochemical device features channels fluidically communicating between manifold, tunnels and cells. The channels are designed to provide the most efficient use of auxiliary power. The channels have a greater hydraulic pressure drop and electrical resistance than the manifold. This will provide a design with the optimum auxiliary energy requirements.

  16. Electrochemical capacitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Marc A.; Liu, Kuo -Chuan; Mohr, Charles M.

    1999-10-05

    An inexpensive porous metal oxide material having high surface area, good conductivity and high specific capacitance is advantageously used in an electrochemical capacitor. The materials are formed in a sol-gel process which affords control over the properties of the resultant metal oxide materials.

  17. Supported liquid membrane electrochemical separators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pemsler, J. Paul; Dempsey, Michael D.

    1986-01-01

    Supported liquid membrane separators improve the flexibility, efficiency and service life of electrochemical cells for a variety of applications. In the field of electrochemical storage, an alkaline secondary battery with improved service life is described in which a supported liquid membrane is interposed between the positive and negative electrodes. The supported liquid membranes of this invention can be used in energy production and storage systems, electrosynthesis systems, and in systems for the electrowinning and electrorefining of metals.

  18. A High Temperature Electrochemical Energy Storage System Based on Sodium Beta-Alumina Solid Electrolyte (Base)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anil Virkar

    2008-03-31

    This report summarizes the work done during the period September 1, 2005 and March 31, 2008. Work was conducted in the following areas: (1) Fabrication of sodium beta{double_prime} alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) using a vapor phase process. (2) Mechanistic studies on the conversion of {alpha}-alumina + zirconia into beta{double_prime}-alumina + zirconia by the vapor phase process. (3) Characterization of BASE by X-ray diffraction, SEM, and conductivity measurements. (4) Design, construction and electrochemical testing of a symmetric cell containing BASE as the electrolyte and NaCl + ZnCl{sub 2} as the electrodes. (5) Design, construction, and electrochemical evaluation of Na/BASE/ZnCl{sub 2} electrochemical cells. (6) Stability studies in ZnCl{sub 2}, SnCl{sub 2}, and SnI{sub 4} (7) Design, assembly and testing of planar stacks. (8) Investigation of the effect of porous surface layers on BASE on cell resistance. The conventional process for the fabrication of sodium ion conducting beta{double_prime}-alumina involves calcination of {alpha}-alumina + Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} + LiNO{sub 3} at 1250 C, followed by sintering powder compacts in sealed containers (platinum or MgO) at {approx}1600 C. The novel vapor phase process involves first sintering a mixture of {alpha}-alumina + yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) into a dense ceramic followed by exposure to soda vapor at {approx}1450 C to convert {alpha}-alumina into beta{double_prime}-alumina. The vapor phase process leads to a high strength BASE, which is also resistant to moisture attack, unlike BASE made by the conventional process. The PI is the lead inventor of the process. Discs and tubes of BASE were fabricated in the present work. In the conventional process, sintering of BASE is accomplished by a transient liquid phase mechanism wherein the liquid phase contains NaAlO{sub 2}. Some NaAlO{sub 2} continues to remain at grain boundaries; and is the root cause of its water sensitivity. In the vapor phase process, NaAlO{sub 2} is never formed. Conversion occurs by a coupled transport of Na{sup +} through BASE formed and of O{sup 2-} through YSZ to the reaction front. Transport to the reaction front is described in terms of a chemical diffusion coefficient of Na{sub 2}O. The conversion kinetics as a function of microstructure is under investigation. The mechanism of conversion is described in this report. A number of discs and tubes of BASE have been fabricated by the vapor phase process. The material was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), before and after conversion. Conductivity (which is almost exclusively due to sodium ion transport at the temperatures of interest) was measured. Conductivity was measured using sodium-sodium tests as well as by impedance spectroscopy. Various types of both planar and tubular electrochemical cells were assembled and tested. In some cases the objective was to determine if there was any interaction between the salt and BASE. The interaction of interest was mainly ion exchange (possible replacement of sodium ion by the salt cation). It was noted that Zn{sup 2+} did not replace Na+ over the conditions of interest. For this reason much of the work was conducted with ZnCl{sub 2} as the cathode salt. In the case of Sn-based, Sn{sup 2+} did ion exchange, but Sn{sup 4+} did not. This suggests that Sn{sup 4+} salts are viable candidates. These results and implications are discussed in the report. Cells made with Na as the anode and ZnCl{sub 2} as the cathode were successfully charged/discharged numerous times. The key advantages of the batteries under investigation here over the Na-S batteries are: (1) Steel wool can be used in the cathode compartment unlike Na-S batteries which require expensive graphite. (2) Planar cells can be constructed in addition to tubular, allowing for greater design flexibility and integration with other devices such as planar SOFC. (3) Comparable or higher open circuit voltage (OCV) than the Na-S battery. (4) Wider operating temperature range and higher temper

  19. Blend Down Monitoring System Fissile Mass Flow Monitor Implementation at the ElectroChemical Plant, Zelenogorsk, Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uckan, T.

    2005-11-11

    The implementation plans and preparations for installation of the Fissile Mass Flow Monitor (FMFM) equipment at the ElectroChemical Plant (ECP), Zelenogorsk, Russia, are presented in this report. The FMFM, developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is part of the Blend Down Monitoring System (BDMS), developed for the U.S. Department of Energy Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Transparency Implementation Program. The BDMS provides confidence to the United States that the Russian nuclear facilities supplying the lower-assay ({approx}4%) product low enriched uranium (P-LEU) to the United States from down-blended weapons-grade HEU are meeting the nonproliferation goals of the government-to-government HEU Purchase Agreement, signed between the Russian Federation and the United States in 1993. The first BDMS has been operational at Ural Electrochemical Integrated Plant, Novouralsk, since February 1999 and is successfully providing HEU transparency data to the United States. The second BDMS was installed at ECP in February 2003. The FMFM makes use of a set of thermalized californium-252 ({sup 252}Cf) spontaneous neutron sources for a modulated fission activation of the UF{sub 6} gas stream for measuring the {sup 235}U fissile mass flow rate. To do this, the FMFM measures the transport time of the fission fragments created from the fission activation process under the modulated source to the downstream detectors by detecting the delayed gamma rays from the fission fragments. The FMFM provides unattended, nonintrusive measurements of the {sup 235}U mass flow in the HEU, LEU blend stock, and P-LEU process legs. The FMFM also provides the traceability of the HEU flow to the product process leg. This report documents the technical installation requirements and the expected operational characteristics of the ECP FMFM.

  20. Electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, Laszlo I.; Vissers, Donald R.; Prakash, Jai

    1994-01-01

    An electrochemical cell having an alkali metal negative electrode such as sodium and a positive electrode including Ni or transition metals, separated by a .beta." alumina electrolyte and NaAlCl.sub.4 or other compatible material. Various concentrations of a bromine, iodine and/or sulfur containing additive and pore formers are disclosed, which enhance cell capacity and power. The pore formers may be the ammonium salts of carbonic acid or a weak organic acid or oxamide or methylcellulose.

  1. Electrochemical cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walsh, F.M.

    1986-12-23

    This patent describes an electrochemical cell having a metal anode wherein the metal is selected from zinc and cadmium; a bromine cathode; and an aqueous electrolyte containing a metal bromide, the metal bromide having the same metal as the metal of the anode. The improvement described here comprises: a bromine complexing agent in the aqueous metal bromide electrolyte, the complexing agent consisting solely of a quaternary ammonium salt of an N-organo substituted alpha amino acid, ester, or betaine.

  2. Electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, Laszlo I.; Myles, Kevin M.; Vissers, Donald R.; Prakash, Jai

    1996-01-01

    An electrochemical cell with a positive electrode having an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride. A negative electrode of an alkali metal and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at cell operating temperature is included in the cell. The electrolyte is present at least partially as a corrugated .beta." alumina tube surrounding the negative electrode interior to the positive electrode. The ratio of the volume of liquid electrolyte to the volume of the positive electrode is in the range of from about 0.1 to about 3. A plurality of stacked electrochemical cells is disclosed each having a positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal molten at cell operating temperature, and a compatible electrolyte. The electrolyte is at least partially present as a corrugated .beta." alumina sheet separating the negative electrode and interior to the positive electrodes. The alkali metal is retained in a porous electrically conductive ceramic, and seals for sealing the junctures of the electrolyte and the adjacent electrodes at the peripheries thereof.

  3. Electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, L.I.; Myles, K.M.; Vissers, D.R.; Prakash, J.

    1996-07-02

    An electrochemical cell is described with a positive electrode having an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride. A negative electrode of an alkali metal and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at cell operating temperature is included in the cell. The electrolyte is present at least partially as a corrugated {beta}{double_prime} alumina tube surrounding the negative electrode interior to the positive electrode. The ratio of the volume of liquid electrolyte to the volume of the positive electrode is in the range of from about 0.1 to about 3. A plurality of stacked electrochemical cells is disclosed each having a positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal molten at cell operating temperature, and a compatible electrolyte. The electrolyte is at least partially present as a corrugated {beta}{double_prime} alumina sheet separating the negative electrode and interior to the positive electrodes. The alkali metal is retained in a porous electrically conductive ceramic, and seals for sealing the junctures of the electrolyte and the adjacent electrodes at the peripheries thereof. 8 figs.

  4. Electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nagy, Zoltan; Yonco, Robert M.; You, Hoydoo; Melendres, Carlos A.

    1992-01-01

    An electrochemical cell has a layer-type or sandwich configuration with a Teflon center section that houses working, reference and counter electrodes and defines a relatively narrow electrolyte cavity. The center section is surrounded on both sides with thin Teflon membranes. The membranes are pressed in place by a pair of Teflon inner frames which are in turn supported by a pair of outer metal frames. The pair of inner and outer frames are provided with corresponding, appropriately shaped slits that are in plane generally transverse to the plane of the working electrode and permit X-ray beams to enter and exit the cell through the Teflon membranes that cover the slits so that the interface between the working electrode and the electrolyte within the cell may be analyzed by transmission geometry. In one embodiment, the center section consists of two parts, one on top of the other. Alternatively, the center section of the electrochemical cell may consist of two intersliding pieces or may be made of a single piece of Teflon sheet material. The electrolyte cavity is shaped so that the electrochemical cell can be rotated 90.degree. in either direction while maintaining the working and counter electrodes submerged in the electrolyte.

  5. Electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nagy, Z.; Yonco, R.M.; You, H.; Melendres, C.A.

    1992-08-25

    An electrochemical cell has a layer-type or sandwich configuration with a Teflon center section that houses working, reference and counter electrodes and defines a relatively narrow electrolyte cavity. The center section is surrounded on both sides with thin Teflon membranes. The membranes are pressed in place by a pair of Teflon inner frames which are in turn supported by a pair of outer metal frames. The pair of inner and outer frames are provided with corresponding, appropriately shaped slits that are in plane generally transverse to the plane of the working electrode and permit X-ray beams to enter and exit the cell through the Teflon membranes that cover the slits so that the interface between the working electrode and the electrolyte within the cell may be analyzed by transmission geometry. In one embodiment, the center section consists of two parts, one on top of the other. Alternatively, the center section of the electrochemical cell may consist of two intersliding pieces or may be made of a single piece of Teflon sheet material. The electrolyte cavity is shaped so that the electrochemical cell can be rotated 90[degree] in either direction while maintaining the working and counter electrodes submerged in the electrolyte. 5 figs.

  6. Electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, L.I.; Vissers, D.R.; Prakash, J.

    1994-08-23

    An electrochemical cell is described having an alkali metal negative electrode such as sodium and a positive electrode including Ni or transition metals, separated by a [beta] alumina electrolyte and NaAlCl[sub 4] or other compatible material. Various concentrations of a bromine, iodine and/or sulfur containing additive and pore formers are disclosed, which enhance cell capacity and power. The pore formers may be the ammonium salts of carbonic acid or a weak organic acid or oxamide or methylcellulose. 6 figs.

  7. Electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL)

    1984-01-01

    An improved secondary electrochemical cell is disclosed having a negative electrode of lithium aluminum, a positive electrode of iron sulfide, a molten electrolyte of lithium chloride and potassium chloride, and the combination that the fully charged theoretical capacity of the negative electrode is in the range of 0.5-1.0 that of the positive electrode. The cell thus is negative electrode limiting during discharge cycling. Preferably, the negative electrode contains therein, in the approximate range of 1-10 volume % of the electrode, an additive from the materials of graphitized carbon, aluminum-iron alloy, and/or magnesium oxide.

  8. Electrochemical cell (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Electrochemical cell An electrochemical cell having an alkali metal negative electrode such as sodium and a positive electrode including Ni or transition metals, separated ...

  9. Electrochemical cell (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Electrochemical cell An electrochemical cell having a bimodal positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal, and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali ...

  10. Anode-cathode power distribution systems and methods of using the same for electrochemical reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koehl, Eugene R; Barnes, Laurel A; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Williamson, Mark A; Willit, James L

    2014-01-28

    Power distribution systems are useable in electrolytic reduction systems and include several cathode and anode assembly electrical contacts that permit flexible modular assembly numbers and placement in standardized connection configurations. Electrical contacts may be arranged at any position where assembly contact is desired. Electrical power may be provided via power cables attached to seating assemblies of the electrical contacts. Cathode and anode assembly electrical contacts may provide electrical power at any desired levels. Pairs of anode and cathode assembly electrical contacts may provide equal and opposite electrical power; different cathode assembly electrical contacts may provide different levels of electrical power to a same or different modular cathode assembly. Electrical systems may be used with an electrolyte container into which the modular cathode and anode assemblies extend and are supported above, with the modular cathode and anode assemblies mechanically and electrically connecting to the respective contacts in power distribution systems.

  11. Electrochemical flow capacitors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gogotsi, Yury; Presser, Volker; Kumbar, Emin Caglan

    2015-11-05

    The present invention generally relates to devices for energy storage technologies, and more particularly to electrochemical flow capacitor systems and applications. In some aspects, these flow capacitors have at least one electrode comprising a non-stationary solid or semi-solid composition comprising supercapacitive particles and an electrolytic solvent in electrical communication with at least one current collector, and energy is stored and/or released by charging and/or discharging the electrode(s).

  12. Electrochemical flow capacitors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gogotsi, Yury; Presser, Volker; Kumbur, Emin Caglan

    2015-10-27

    The present invention generally relates to devices for energy storage technologies, and more particularly to electrochemical flow capacitor systems and applications. In some aspects, these flow capacitors have at least one electrode comprising a non-stationary solid or semi-solid composition comprising supercapacitive particles and an electrolytic solvent in electrical communication with at least one current collector, and energy is stored and/or released by charging and/or discharging the electrode(s).

  13. Electrochemical supercapacitors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rudge, Andrew J.; Ferraris, John P.; Gottesfeld, Shimshon

    1996-01-01

    A new class of electrochemical capacitors provides in its charged state a positive electrode including an active material of a p-doped material and a negative electrode including an active material of an n-doped conducting polymer, where the p-doped and n-doped materials are separated by an electrolyte. In a preferred embodiment, the positive and negative electrode active materials are selected from conducting polymers consisting of polythiophene, polymers having an aryl group attached in the 3-position, polymers having aryl and alkyl groups independently attached in the 3- and 4-positions, and polymers synthesized from bridged dimers having polythiophene as the backbone. A preferred electrolyte is a tetraalykyl ammonium salt, such as tetramethylammonium trifluoromethane sulphonate (TMATFMS), that provides small ions that are mobile through the active material, is soluble in acetonitrile, and can be used in a variety of capacitor configurations.

  14. Feasibility of a super high-energy-density battery of the Li/Br/F sub 3 electrochemical system. Final report, 15 August 1989-14 May 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frysz, C.A.; Pyszczek, M.F.; Ebel, S.J.

    1990-08-16

    Feasibility studies on the practical aspects of developing a lithium/bromine trifluoride battery have been studied. Efforts directed toward identifying materials for porous electrode separators, glasses for insulated electrical feed-throughs, and metals for lid, case and current collector fabrication via electrochemical testing techniques have resulted in a list of materials suitable for these applications. Prototype cells utilizing a spirally wound electrode configuration have been constructed and discharged. The use of lithium salts as an electrolyte additive has been explored, and has shown a positive effect on discharge performance. Through the use of currently available technology, however, the lithium/bromine trifluoride couple has not delivered energy density comparable to other high energy density lithium systems. This investigation has revealed that practical Li/BrF3 cell development will require further extensive fundamental electrochemical research.

  15. Preliminary studies of the use of an automated flow-cell electrodeposition system for the formation of CdTe thin films by electrochemical atomic layer epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, B.M.; Colletti, L.P.; Gregory, B.W.; Anderson, J.L.; Stickney, J.L.

    1995-09-01

    This paper is the first report of the formation of thin films, thicker than ten monolayers, using electrochemical atomic layer epitaxy (ECALE). Thin films of CdTe have been electrodeposited on polycrystalline gold substrates in an electrochemical thin-layer flow-cell deposition system using the ECALE methodology. Studies of the deposit morphology have been performed using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscope Significant improvements in deposit morphology are reported as a result of changes to the ECALE cycle program and deposition hardware. Deposit components analyzed using electron probe microanalysis and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, were found to be stoichiometric and nearly independent of the number of cycles and the Cd deposition potential. In addition, the deposition rate was shown to be one CdTe monolayer per cycle (half monolayer of Cd and half monolayer of Te per ECALE cycle).

  16. Breakthrough Flow Battery Cell Stack: Transformative Electrochemical Flow Storage System (TEFSS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-09

    GRIDS Project: UTRC is developing a flow battery with a unique design that provides significantly more power than today's flow battery systems. A flow battery is a cross between a traditional battery and a fuel cell. Flow batteries store their energy in external tanks instead of inside the cell itself. Flow batteries have traditionally been expensive because the battery cell stack, where the chemical reaction takes place, is costly. In this project, UTRC is developing a new stack design that achieves 10 times higher power than today’s flow batteries. This high power output means the size of the cell stack can be smaller, reducing the amount of expensive materials that are needed. UTRC’s flow battery will reduce the cost of storing electricity for the electric grid, making widespread use feasible.

  17. In-situ short-circuit protection system and method for high-energy electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gauthier, Michel; Domroese, Michael K.; Hoffman, Joseph A.; Lindeman, David D.; Noel, Joseph-Robert-Gaetan; Radewald, Vern E.; Rouillard, Jean; Rouillard, Roger; Shiota, Toshimi; Trice, Jennifer L.

    2003-04-15

    An in-situ thermal management system for an energy storage device. The energy storage device includes a plurality of energy storage cells each being coupled in parallel to common positive and negative connections. Each of the energy storage cells, in accordance with the cell's technology, dimensions, and thermal/electrical properties, is configured to have a ratio of energy content-to-contact surface area such that thermal energy produced by a short-circuit in a particular cell is conducted to a cell adjacent the particular cell so as to prevent the temperature of the particular cell from exceeding a breakdown temperature. In one embodiment, a fuse is coupled in series with each of a number of energy storage cells. The fuses are activated by a current spike capacitively produced by a cell upon occurrence of a short-circuit in the cell, thereby electrically isolating the short-circuited cell from the common positive and negative connections.

  18. In-situ short circuit protection system and method for high-energy electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gauthier, Michel; Domroese, Michael K.; Hoffman, Joseph A.; Lindeman, David D.; Noel, Joseph-Robert-Gaetan; Radewald, Vern E.; Rouillard, Jean; Rouillard, Roger; Shiota, Toshimi; Trice, Jennifer L.

    2000-01-01

    An in-situ thermal management system for an energy storage device. The energy storage device includes a plurality of energy storage cells each being coupled in parallel to common positive and negative connections. Each of the energy storage cells, in accordance with the cell's technology, dimensions, and thermal/electrical properties, is configured to have a ratio of energy content-to-contact surface area such that thermal energy produced by a short-circuit in a particular cell is conducted to a cell adjacent the particular cell so as to prevent the temperature of the particular cell from exceeding a breakdown temperature. In one embodiment, a fuse is coupled in series with each of a number of energy storage cells. The fuses are activated by a current spike capacitively produced by a cell upon occurrence of a short-circuit in the cell, thereby electrically isolating the short-circuited cell from the common positive and negative connections.

  19. Microfluidic electrochemical reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Mitrovski, Svetlana M.

    2011-03-22

    A microfluidic electrochemical reactor includes an electrode and one or more microfluidic channels on the electrode, where the microfluidic channels are covered with a membrane containing a gas permeable polymer. The distance between the electrode and the membrane is less than 500 micrometers. The microfluidic electrochemical reactor can provide for increased reaction rates in electrochemical reactions using a gaseous reactant, as compared to conventional electrochemical cells. Microfluidic electrochemical reactors can be incorporated into devices for applications such as fuel cells, electrochemical analysis, microfluidic actuation, pH gradient formation.

  20. Separator material for electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cieslak, W.R.; Storz, L.J.

    1991-03-26

    An electrochemical cell is characterized as utilizing an aramid fiber as a separator material. The aramid fibers are especially suited for lithium/thionyl chloride battery systems. The battery separator made of aramid fibers possesses superior mechanical strength, chemical resistance, and is flame retardant.

  1. Recognized Leader in Electrochemical Purification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoppe, Eric

    2013-11-20

    PNNL scientists developed an electrochemical method for purifying copper, a key material that makes possible radiation detection systems of unprecedented sensitivity. The method begins with the purest copper materials available, and results in the lowest-background copper in the world. Chemist Eric Hoppe explains the process.

  2. Separator material for electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cieslak, Wendy R.; Storz, Leonard J.

    1991-01-01

    An electrochemical cell characterized as utilizing an aramid fiber as a separator material. The aramid fibers are especially suited for lithium/thionyl chloride battery systems. The battery separator made of aramid fibers possesses superior mechanical strength, chemical resistance, and is flame retardant.

  3. Recognized Leader in Electrochemical Purification

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Hoppe, Eric

    2014-07-24

    PNNL scientists developed an electrochemical method for purifying copper, a key material that makes possible radiation detection systems of unprecedented sensitivity. The method begins with the purest copper materials available, and results in the lowest-background copper in the world. Chemist Eric Hoppe explains the process.

  4. Mediated electrochemical oxidation of organic wastes using a Co (III) mediator in a nitric acid based system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balazs, G. Bryan; Chiba, Zoher; Lewis, Patricia R.; Nelson, Norvell; Steward, G. Anthony

    1999-01-01

    An electrochemical cell with a Co(III) mediator and nitric acid electrolyte provides efficient destruction of organic and mixed wastes. The organic waste is concentrated in the anolyte reservoir, where the mediator oxidizes the organics and insoluble transuranic compounds and is regenerated at the anode until the organics are converted to CO.sub.2. The nitric acid is an excellent oxidant that facilitates the destruction of the organic components. The anode is not readily attacked by the nitric acid solution, thus the cell can be used for extended continual operation without electrode replacement.

  5. Mediated electrochemical oxidation of organic wastes using a Co (III) mediator in a nitric acid based system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balazs, G.B.; Chiba, Z.; Lewis, P.R.; Nelson, N.; Steward, G.A.

    1999-06-15

    An electrochemical cell with a Co(III) mediator and nitric acid electrolyte provides efficient destruction of organic and mixed wastes. The organic waste is concentrated in the anolyte reservoir, where the mediator oxidizes the organics and insoluble transuranic compounds and is regenerated at the anode until the organics are converted to CO[sub 2]. The nitric acid is an excellent oxidant that facilitates the destruction of the organic components. The anode is not readily attacked by the nitric acid solution, thus the cell can be used for extended continual operation without electrode replacement. 2 figs.

  6. Leveraging National Lab Capabilities in Fuel Cells and Electrochemical

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Systems-Phoenix, Arizona | Department of Energy Leveraging National Lab Capabilities in Fuel Cells and Electrochemical Systems-Phoenix, Arizona Leveraging National Lab Capabilities in Fuel Cells and Electrochemical Systems-Phoenix, Arizona August 26, 2015 - 1:45pm Addthis On October 12 and 13, the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Office will host several events at the Electrochemical Energy Summit 2015 in Phoenix, Arizona, to foster increased collaboration between National

  7. Electrochemical methane sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zaromb, S.; Otagawa, T.; Stetter, J.R.

    1984-08-27

    A method and instrument including an electrochemical cell for the detection and measurement of methane in a gas by the oxidation of methane electrochemically at a working electrode in a nonaqueous electrolyte at a voltage about 1.4 volts vs R.H.E. (the reversible hydrogen electrode potential in the same electrolyte), and the measurement of the electrical signal resulting from the electrochemical oxidation.

  8. Electro-Chemical Processes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electro-Chemical Processes - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations ... ARPA-E Basic Energy Sciences Materials Sciences and Engineering Chemical Sciences ...

  9. Device and Software to Measure Thermal Impedance of Electrochemical...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Device and Software to Measure Thermal Impedance of Electrochemical Systems National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary ...

  10. Electrochemical cell stack assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2010-06-22

    Multiple stacks of tubular electrochemical cells having a dense electrolyte disposed between an anode and a cathode preferably deposited as thin films arranged in parallel on stamped conductive interconnect sheets or ferrules. The stack allows one or more electrochemical cell to malfunction without disabling the entire stack. Stack efficiency is enhanced through simplified gas manifolding, gas recycling, reduced operating temperature and improved heat distribution.

  11. Planar electrochemical device assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobson; Craig P. (Lafayette, CA), Visco; Steven J. (Berkeley, CA), De Jonghe; Lutgard C. (Lafayette, CA)

    2010-11-09

    A pre-fabricated electrochemical device having a dense electrolyte disposed between an anode and a cathode preferably deposited as thin films is bonded to a porous electrically conductive support. A second porous electrically conductive support may be bonded to a counter electrode of the electrochemical device. Multiple electrochemical devices may be bonded in parallel to a single porous support, such as a perforated sheet to provide a planar array. Planar arrays may be arranged in a stacked interconnected array. A method of making a supported electrochemical device is disclosed wherein the method includes a step of bonding a pre-fabricated electrochemical device layer to an existing porous metal or porous metal alloy layer.

  12. Planar electrochemical device assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Craig P. (Lafayette, CA); Visco, Steven J. (Berkeley, CA); De Jonghe, Lutgard C. (Lafayette, CA)

    2007-06-19

    A pre-fabricated electrochemical device having a dense electrolyte disposed between an anode and a cathode preferably deposited as thin films is bonded to a porous electrically conductive support. A second porous electrically conductive support may be bonded to a counter electrode of the electrochemical device. Multiple electrochemical devices may be bonded in parallel to a single porous support, such as a perforated sheet to provide a planar array. Planar arrays may be arranged in a stacked interconnected array. A method of making a supported electrochemical device is disclosed wherein the method includes a step of bonding a pre-fabricated electrochemical device layer to an existing porous metal or porous metal alloy layer.

  13. Electrode for electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, T.D.; Nelson, P.A.; Miller, W.E.

    1980-05-09

    An electrode structure for a secondary electrochemical cell includes an outer enclosure defining a compartment containing electrochemical active material. The enclosure includes a rigid electrically conductive metal sheet with perforated openings over major side surfaces. The enclosure can be assembled as first and second trays each with a rigid sheet of perforated electrically conductive metal at major side surfaces and normally extending flanges at parametric margins. The trays can be pressed together with moldable active material between the two to form an expandable electrode. A plurality of positive and negative electrodes thus formed are arranged in an alternating array with porous frangible interelectrode separators within the housing of the secondary electrochemical cell.

  14. Electrochemical Membrane for Carbon Dioxide Separation and Power Generation

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Electrochemical Membrane for Carbon Dioxide Separation and Power Generation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electrochemical Membrane for Carbon Dioxide Separation and Power Generation uelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) has developed a novel system concept for separation of carbon dioxide (CO2) from greenhouse gas (GHG) emission sources using an electrochemical membrane (ECM). The salient feature of the ECM is its capability to produce electric

  15. Electrochemical heat engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Guy R. B.; Holley, Charles E.; Houseman, Barton L.; Sibbitt, Jr., Wilmer L.

    1978-01-01

    Electrochemical heat engines produce electrochemical work, and mechanical motion is limited to valve and switching actions as the heat-to-work cycles are performed. The electrochemical cells of said heat engines use molten or solid electrolytes at high temperatures. One or more reactions in the cycle will generate a gas at high temperature which can be condensed at a lower temperature with later return of the condensate to electrochemical cells. Sodium, potassium, and cesium are used as the working gases for high temperature cells (above 600 K) with halogen gases or volatile halides being used at lower temperature. Carbonates and halides are used as molten electrolytes and the solid electrolyte in these melts can also be used as a cell separator.

  16. Electrochemical Energy Summit 2015

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Fuel Cell Technologies Office will host several events at the Electrochemical Energy Summit 2015 in Phoenix, Arizona, October 12–14, 2015, to foster increased collaboration between the national...

  17. Nanoelectrode array for electrochemical analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yelton, William G. (Sandia Park, NM); Siegal, Michael P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-12-01

    A nanoelectrode array comprises a plurality of nanoelectrodes wherein the geometric dimensions of the electrode controls the electrochemical response, and the current density is independent of time. By combining a massive array of nanoelectrodes in parallel, the current signal can be amplified while still retaining the beneficial geometric advantages of nanoelectrodes. Such nanoelectrode arrays can be used in a sensor system for rapid, non-contaminating field analysis. For example, an array of suitably functionalized nanoelectrodes can be incorporated into a small, integrated sensor system that can identify many species rapidly and simultaneously under field conditions in high-resistivity water, without the need for chemical addition to increase conductivity.

  18. Feasibility of a superhigh energy-density battery of the Li/BrF sub 3 electrochemical system. Technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pyszczek, M.F.; Ebel, S.J.; Frysz, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    To date, design and construction of a material-handling and measurement system along with the apparatus required for waste material disposal has been completed. Preliminary corrosion screening of potential case materials is currently underway. A review of the literature, has led us to the use of Monel (trademark) 400 as the material of construction for the handling and measurement system. The inherent stability of this material with bromine trifluoride in its liquid state is crucial to ensure that contamination does not occur during storage and handling. For applications which require a flexible or transparent material, items fabricated from perfluoroalkyoxy polymers (Teflon) (trademark PFA) were utilized. One such application encountered was in the design of the graduated tank which allows visual inspection of the material prior to dispensing. Containers used for compatibility/corrosion testing were also constructed of PFA.

  19. Feasibility of a superhigh energy-density battery of the Li/BrF sub 3 electrochemical system. Progress report, 15 October-15 December 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pyszczek, M.F.; Ebel, S.J.; Frysz, C.A.

    1989-12-15

    The feasibility of developing a lithium/bromine trifluoride battery is being studied. Critical to this product development is materials selection. Consequently, efforts have been directed toward identifying candidate porous electrode separators, glasses for insulated electrical feed-throughs and metals for lid, case, and current-collector fabrication. Samples were evaluated via electrochemical testing techniques and one month storage in Teflon vials. Vial test results for metal samples did not vary significantly from those reported in technical report 0001AA. Of the separator samples tested, Raychem proves to be most promising. Further study is required regarding glass selection. Electrochemical testing is still in progress.

  20. Electrochemical micro sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Setter, Joseph R. (Naperville, IL); Maclay, G. Jordan (Maywood, IL)

    1989-09-12

    A micro-amperometric electrochemical sensor for detecting the presence of a pre-determined species in a fluid material is disclosed. The sensor includes a smooth substrate having a thin coating of solid electrolytic material deposited thereon. The working and counter electrodes are deposited on the surface of the solid electrolytic material and adhere thereto. Electrical leads connect the working and counter electrodes to a potential source and an apparatus for measuring the change in an electrical signal caused by the electrochemical oxidation or reduction of the species. Alternatively, the sensor may be fabricated in a sandwich structure and also may be cylindrical, spherical or other shapes.

  1. Electrochemical membrane incinerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Dennis C. (Ames, IA); Houk, Linda L. (Ames, IA); Feng, Jianren (Ames, IA)

    2001-03-20

    Electrochemical incineration of p-benzoquinone was evaluated as a model for the mineralization of carbon in toxic aromatic compounds. A Ti or Pt anode was coated with a film of the oxides of Ti, Ru, Sn and Sb. This quaternary metal oxide film was stable; elemental analysis of the electrolyzed solution indicated the concentration of these metal ions to be 3 .mu.g/L or less. The anode showed good reactivity for the electrochemical incineration of benzoquinone. The use of a dissolved salt matrix as the so-called "supporting electrolyte" was eliminated in favor of a solid-state electrolyte sandwiched between the anode and cathode.

  2. Electrochemical fabrication of capacitors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mansour, Azzam N. (Fairfax Sta., VA); Melendres, Carlos A. (Lemont, IL)

    1999-01-01

    A film of nickel oxide is anodically deposited on a graphite sheet held in osition on an electrochemical cell during application of a positive electrode voltage to the graphite sheet while exposed to an electrolytic nickel oxide solution within a volumetrically variable chamber of the cell. An angularly orientated x-ray beam is admitted into the cell for transmission through the deposited nickel oxide film in order to obtain structural information while the film is subject to electrochemical and in-situ x-ray spectroscopy from which optimum film thickness, may be determined by comparative analysis for capacitor fabrication purposes.

  3. Separators for electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Steven Allen; Anakor, Ifenna Kingsley

    2014-11-11

    Provided are separators for use in an electrochemical cell comprising (a) an inorganic oxide and (b) an organic polymer, wherein the inorganic oxide comprises organic substituents. Preferably, the inorganic oxide comprises an hydrated aluminum oxide of the formula Al.sub.2O.sub.3.xH.sub.2O, wherein x is less than 1.0, and wherein the hydrated aluminum oxide comprises organic substituents, preferably comprising a reaction product of a multifunctional monomer and/or organic carbonate with an aluminum oxide, such as pseudo-boehmite and an aluminum oxide. Also provided are electrochemical cells comprising such separators.

  4. Method for conducting nonlinear electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adler, Stuart B.; Wilson, Jamie R.; Huff, Shawn L.; Schwartz, Daniel T.

    2015-06-02

    A method for conducting nonlinear electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The method includes quantifying the nonlinear response of an electrochemical system by measuring higher-order current or voltage harmonics generated by moderate-amplitude sinusoidal current or voltage perturbations. The method involves acquisition of the response signal followed by time apodization and fast Fourier transformation of the data into the frequency domain, where the magnitude and phase of each harmonic signal can be readily quantified. The method can be implemented on a computer as a software program.

  5. Electrochemical cell operation and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maru, Hansraj C.

    1980-03-11

    Thermal control in fuel cell operation is affected through sensible heat of process gas by providing common input manifolding of the cell gas flow passage in communication with the cell electrolyte and an additional gas flow passage which is isolated from the cell electrolyte and in thermal communication with a heat-generating surface of the cell. Flow level in the cell gas flow passage is selected based on desired output electrical energy and flow level in the additional gas flow passage is selected in accordance with desired cell operating temperature.

  6. Electro-Chemical Processes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electro-Chemical Processes - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs

  7. Remote electrochemical sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Joseph; Olsen, Khris; Larson, David

    1997-01-01

    An electrochemical sensor for remote detection, particularly useful for metal contaminants and organic or other compounds. The sensor circumvents technical difficulties that previously prevented in-situ remote operations. The microelectrode, connected to a long communications cable, allows convenient measurements of the element or compound at timed and frequent intervals and instrument/sample distances of ten feet to more than 100 feet. The sensor is useful for both downhole groundwater monitoring and in-situ water (e.g., shipboard seawater) analysis.

  8. Electrochemical cells for medium- and large-scale energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Wei; Wei, Xiaoliang; Choi, Daiwon; Lu, Xiaochuan; Yang, G.; Sun, C.

    2014-12-12

    This is one of the chapters in the book titled “Advances in batteries for large- and medium-scale energy storage: Applications in power systems and electric vehicles” that will be published by the Woodhead Publishing Limited. The chapter discusses the basic electrochemical fundamentals of electrochemical energy storage devices with a focus on the rechargeable batteries. Several practical secondary battery systems are also discussed as examples

  9. Borup wins Electrochemical Society Award

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Borup wins Electrochemical Society Award Borup wins Electrochemical Society Award Rod Borup has won the 2015 Research Award presented annually by the Energy Technology Division of the Electrochemical Society. January 26, 2015 Rod Borup Rod Borup Borup and his team are focused on improving the polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell, which converts hydrogen to electricity for power, but emits only water. Rod Borup of Materials Synthesis and Integrated Devices (MPA-11) has won the 2015

  10. In-Situ Electrochemical Transmission Electron Microscopy for Battery Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehdi, Beata L; Gu, Meng; Parent, Lucas; Xu, WU; Nasybulin, Eduard; Chen, Xilin; Unocic, Raymond R; Xu, Pinghong; Welch, David; Abellan, Patricia; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Liu, Jun; Wang, Chongmin; Arslan, Ilke; Evans, James E; Browning, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    The recent development of in-situ liquid stages for (scanning) transmission electron microscopes now makes it possible for us to study the details of electrochemical processes under operando conditions. As electrochemical processes are complex, care must be taken to calibrate the system before any in-situ/operando observations. In addition, as the electron beam can cause effects that look similar to electrochemical processes at the electrolyte/electrode interface, an understanding of the role of the electron beam in modifying the operando observations must also be understood. In this paper we describe the design, assembly, and operation of an in-situ electrochemical cell, paying particular attention to the method for controlling and quantifying the experimental parameters. The use of this system is then demonstrated for the lithiation/delithiation of silicon nanowires.

  11. Electrochemical cell method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, T.D.; Eshman, P.F.

    1980-05-09

    A secondary electrochemical cell is prepared by providing positive and negative electrodes having outer enclosures of rigid perforated electrically conductive material defining an internal compartment containing the electrode material in porous solid form. The electrodes are each immersed in molten electrolyte salt prior to cell assembly to incorporate the cell electrolyte. Following solidification of the electrolyte substantially throughout the porous volume of the electrode material, the electrodes are arranged in an alternating positive-negative array with interelectrode separators of porous frangible electrically insulative material. The completed array is assembled into the cell housing and sealed such that on heating the solidified electrolyte flows into the interelectrode separator.

  12. Remote electrochemical sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, J.; Olsen, K.; Larson, D.

    1997-10-14

    An electrochemical sensor is described for remote detection, particularly useful for metal contaminants and organic or other compounds. The sensor circumvents technical difficulties that previously prevented in-situ remote operations. The microelectrode, connected to a long communications cable, allows convenient measurements of the element or compound at timed and frequent intervals and instrument/sample distances of ten feet to more than 100 feet. The sensor is useful for both downhole groundwater monitoring and in-situ water (e.g., shipboard seawater) analysis. 21 figs.

  13. Electrochemical thinning of silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Medernach, John W.

    1994-01-01

    Porous semiconducting material, e.g. silicon, is formed by electrochemical treatment of a specimen in hydrofluoric acid, using the specimen as anode. Before the treatment, the specimen can be masked. The porous material is then etched with a caustic solution or is oxidized, depending of the kind of structure desired, e.g. a thinned specimen, a specimen, a patterned thinned specimen, a specimen with insulated electrical conduits, and so on. Thinned silicon specimen can be subjected to tests, such as measurement of interstitial oxygen by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR).

  14. Electrochemical thinning of silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Medernach, J.W.

    1994-01-11

    Porous semiconducting material, e.g. silicon, is formed by electrochemical treatment of a specimen in hydrofluoric acid, using the specimen as anode. Before the treatment, the specimen can be masked. The porous material is then etched with a caustic solution or is oxidized, depending of the kind of structure desired, e.g. a thinned specimen, a specimen, a patterned thinned specimen, a specimen with insulated electrical conduits, and so on. Thinned silicon specimen can be subjected to tests, such as measurement of interstitial oxygen by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR). 14 figures.

  15. Metal halogen electrochemical cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walsh, F.M.

    1986-06-03

    An electrochemical cell is described having a metal anode selected from the group consisting of zinc and cadmium; a bromine cathode; and, an aqueous electrolyte containing a metal bromide, the metal having the same metal as the metal of the anode, the improvement comprising: a bromine complexing agent in the aqueous metal bromide electrolyte consisting solely of a tetraorgano substituted ammonium salt, which salt is soluble of water and forms and substantially water immiscible liquid bromine complex at temperatures in the range of about 10/sup 0/C. to about 60/sup 0/C. and wherein the tetraorgano substituted ammonium salt is selected from asymmetric quaternary ammonium compounds.

  16. Fail-Safe, Inexpensive Electrochemical Device Stack Design - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Fail-Safe, Inexpensive Electrochemical Device Stack Design Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryCraig Jacobson, Steven Visco, and Lutgard DeJonghe have invented a robust and low cost electrochemical device stack system based on a modified segmented-cell-in-series design. In this invention a number of small cylindrical cell segments are in contact with a planar metallic interconnect sheet that electrically

  17. Real Space Mapping of Oxygen Vacancy Diffusion and Electrochemical

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transformations by Hysteretic Current Reversal Curve Measurements - Energy Innovation Portal Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Energy Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search Real Space Mapping of Oxygen Vacancy Diffusion and Electrochemical Transformations by Hysteretic Current Reversal Curve Measurements Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryElectrochemical energy storage and conversion systems based on

  18. Electrochemical photovoltaic cells and electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skotheim, Terje A.

    1984-01-01

    Improved electrochemical photovoltaic cells and electrodes for use therein, particularly electrodes employing amorphous silicon or polyacetylene coating are produced by a process which includes filling pinholes or porous openings in the coatings by electrochemical oxidation of selected monomers to deposit insulating polymer in the openings.

  19. Microcantilever Counter Electrode Electrochemical Sensor in a

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Three-Electrode Cell - Energy Innovation Portal Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Early Stage R&D Early Stage R&D Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Microcantilever Counter Electrode Electrochemical Sensor in a Three-Electrode Cell Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryResearchers at ORNL have invented a compact, highly accurate system to detect and measure chemicals in solution. The device

  20. Electrochemical sensor for monitoring electrochemical potentials of fuel cell components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kunz, Harold R.; Breault, Richard D.

    1993-01-01

    An electrochemical sensor comprised of wires, a sheath, and a conduit can be utilized to monitor fuel cell component electric potentials during fuel cell shut down or steady state. The electrochemical sensor contacts an electrolyte reservoir plate such that the conduit wicks electrolyte through capillary action to the wires to provide water necessary for the electrolysis reaction which occurs thereon. A voltage is applied across the wires of the electrochemical sensor until hydrogen evolution occurs at the surface of one of the wires, thereby forming a hydrogen reference electrode. The voltage of the fuel cell component is then determined with relation to the hydrogen reference electrode.

  1. Electrochemical catalyst recovery method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silva, Laura J.; Bray, Lane A.

    1995-01-01

    A method of recovering catalyst material from latent catalyst material solids includes: a) combining latent catalyst material solids with a liquid acid anolyte solution and a redox material which is soluble in the acid anolyte solution to form a mixture; b) electrochemically oxidizing the redox material within the mixture into a dissolved oxidant, the oxidant having a potential for oxidation which is effectively higher than that of the latent catalyst material; c) reacting the oxidant with the latent catalyst material to oxidize the latent catalyst material into at least one oxidized catalyst species which is soluble within the mixture and to reduce the oxidant back into dissolved redox material; and d) recovering catalyst material from the oxidized catalyst species of the mixture. The invention is expected to be particularly useful in recovering spent catalyst material from petroleum hydroprocessing reaction waste products having adhered sulfides, carbon, hydrocarbons, and undesired metals, and as well as in other industrial applications.

  2. Electrochemical catalyst recovery method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silva, L.J.; Bray, L.A.

    1995-05-30

    A method of recovering catalyst material from latent catalyst material solids includes: (a) combining latent catalyst material solids with a liquid acid anolyte solution and a redox material which is soluble in the acid anolyte solution to form a mixture; (b) electrochemically oxidizing the redox material within the mixture into a dissolved oxidant, the oxidant having a potential for oxidation which is effectively higher than that of the latent catalyst material; (c) reacting the oxidant with the latent catalyst material to oxidize the latent catalyst material into at least one oxidized catalyst species which is soluble within the mixture and to reduce the oxidant back into dissolved redox material; and (d) recovering catalyst material from the oxidized catalyst species of the mixture. The invention is expected to be particularly useful in recovering spent catalyst material from petroleum hydroprocessing reaction waste products having adhered sulfides, carbon, hydrocarbons, and undesired metals, and as well as in other industrial applications. 3 figs.

  3. Electrochemical cell design

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arntzen, John D.

    1978-01-01

    An electrochemical cell includes two outer electrodes and a central electrode of opposite polarity, all nested within a housing having two symmetrical halves which together form an offset configuration. The outer electrodes are nested within raised portions within the side walls of each housing half while the central electrode sealingly engages the perimetric margins of the side-wall internal surfaces. Suitable interelectrode separators and electrical insulating material electrically isolate the central electrode from the housing and the outer electrodes. The outer electrodes are electrically connected to the internal surfaces of the cell housing to provide current collection. The nested structure minimizes void volume that would otherwise be filled with gas or heavy electrolyte and also provides perimetric edge surfaces for sealing and supporting at the outer margins of frangible interelectrode separator layers.

  4. Process for electrochemically gasifying coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Botts, T.E.; Powell, J.R.

    1985-10-25

    A process is claimed for electrochemically gasifying coal by establishing a flowing stream of coal particulate slurry, electrolyte and electrode members through a transverse magnetic field that has sufficient strength to polarize the electrode members, thereby causing them to operate in combination with the electrolyte to electrochemically reduce the coal particulate in the slurry. Such electrochemical reduction of the coal produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide at opposite ends of the polarized electrode members. Gas collection means are operated in conjunction with the process to collect the evolved gases as they rise from the slurry and electrolyte solution. 7 figs.

  5. Renewable-reagent electrochemical sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, J.; Olsen, K.B.

    1999-08-24

    A new electrochemical probe(s) design allowing for continuous (renewable) reagent delivery is described. The probe comprises an integrated membrane sampling/electrochemical sensor that prevents interferences from surface-active materials and greatly extends the linear range. The probe(s) is useful for remote or laboratory-based monitoring in connection with microdialysis sampling and electrochemical measurements of metals and organic compounds that are not readily detected in the absence of reacting with the compound. Also disclosed is a method of using the probe(s). 19 figs.

  6. Renewable-reagent electrochemical sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Joseph; Olsen, Khris B.

    1999-01-01

    A new electrochemical probe(s) design allowing for continuous (renewable) reagent delivery. The probe comprises an integrated membrane-sampling/electrochemical sensor that prevents interferences from surface-active materials and greatly extends the linear range. The probe(s) is useful for remote or laboratory-based monitoring in connection with microdialysis sampling and electrochemical measurements of metals and organic compounds that are not readily detected in the absence of reacting with the compound. Also disclosed is a method of using the probe(s).

  7. Technology Base Research Project for electrochemical energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinoshita, Kim

    1991-06-01

    The US DOE's Office of Propulsion Systems provides support for an electrochemical energy storage program, which includes R D on advanced rechargeable batteries and fuel cells. A major goal of this program is to develop electrochemical power sources suitable for application in electric vehicles (EVs). The program centers on advanced systems that offer the potential for high performance and low life-cycle costs, both of which are necessary to permit significant penetration into commercial markets. The general R D areas addressed by the project include identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced batteries, determination of technical feasibility of the new couples, improvements in battery components and materials, establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage and conversion, and the development of air-system (fuel cell, metal/air) technology for transportation applications. Major emphasis is given to applied research which will lead to superior performance and lower life-cycle costs. The TBR Project is divided into three major project elements: Exploratory Research, Applied Science Research, and Air Systems Research. Highlights of each project element are summarized according to the appropriate battery system or electrochemical research area. 16 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Borup wins Electrochemical Society Award

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Borup wins Electrochemical Society Award January 26, 2015 Rod Borup of Materials Synthesis and Integrated Devices (MPA-11) has won the 2015 Research Award presented annually by the Energy Technology Division of the Electrochemical Society (ECS). The society recognized him for "his seminal contributions to the fundamental understanding of the durability of polymer electrolyte fuel cells." Borup's achievements Borup and his team are focused on improving the polymer electrolyte membrane

  9. Electrochemical polishing of notches

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kephart, A.R.; Alberts, A.H.

    1989-02-21

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for the selective electrochemical polishing of a lateral tip of a deep longitudinal notch in a work piece used to test crack initiation properties of materials. A DC power source is connected to the work piece and to an electrode disposed laterally along the distal end of an insulated body which is inserted in the longitudinal notch. The electrode and distal end of the body are disposed along the tip of the notch, but are spaced from the notch so as to provide a lateral passage for an electrolyte. The electrolyte is circulated through the passage so that the electrolyte only contacts the work piece adjacent the passage. Conveniently, the electrolyte is circulated by use of an inlet tube and an outlet tube provided at opposite ends of the passage. These tubes are preferably detachably located adjacent the ends of the passage and suitable seals are provided. A holding device including arms to which the tubes are attached is conveniently used to rapidly and easily locate the test specimen with the passage aligned with the tubes. The electrode is preferably a wire which is located in grooves along the distal end of the insulated body and up one side of the body or a plastic sheath insulated thin metal strip. 4 figs.

  10. Electrochemical polishing of notches

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kephart, Alan R.; Alberts, Alfred H.

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for the selective electrochemical polishing of a lateral tip of a deep longitudinal notch in a work piece used to test crack initiation properties of materials. A DC power source is connected to the work piece and to an electrode disposed laterally along the distal end of an insulated body which is inserted in the longitudinal notch. The electrode and distal end of the body are disposed along the tip of the notch, but are spaced from the notch so as to provide a lateral passage for an electrolyte. The electrolyte is circulated through the passage so that the electrolyte only contacts the work piece adjacent the passage. Conveniently, the electrolyte is circulated by use of an inlet tube and an outlet tube provided at opposite ends of the passage. These tubes are preferably detachably located adjacent the ends of the passage and suitable seals are provided. A holding device including arms to which the tubes are attached is conveniently used to rapidly and easily locate the test specimen with the passage aligned with the tubes. The electrode is preferably a wire which is located in grooves along the distal end of the insulated body and up one side of the body or a plastic sheath insulated thin metal strip.

  11. Wick-and-pool electrodes for electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roche, Michael F.; Faist, Suzan M.; Eberhart, James G.; Ross, Laurids E.

    1980-01-01

    An electrode system includes a reservoir of liquid-metal reactant, and a wick extending from a submersed location within the reservoir into the molten electrolyte of an electrochemical cell structure. The wick is flooded with the liquid metal and thereby serves as one electrode within the cell. This electrode system has application in high-temperature batteries employing molten alkali metals or their alloys as active material within an electrode submersed within a molten salt electrolyte. It also can be used in electrochemical cells where the purification, separation or electrowinning of liquid metals is accomplished.

  12. Wick-and-pool electrodes for electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roche, Michael F.; Faist, Suzan M.; Eberhart, James G.; Ross, Laurids E.

    1977-01-01

    An electrode system includes a reservoir of liquid-metal reactant, and a wick extending from a submersed location within the reservoir into the molten electrolyte of an electrochemical cell structure. The wick is flooded with the liquid metal and thereby serves as one electrode within the cell. This electrode system has application in high-temperature batteries employing molten alkali metals or their alloys as active material within an electrode submersed within a molten salt electrolyte. It also can be used in electrochemical cells where the purification, separation or electrowinning of liquid metals is accomplished.

  13. Evaluation Of Electrochemical Machining Technology For Surface...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Evaluation Of Electrochemical Machining Technology For Surface Improvements In Additive Manufactured Components ... ORNL Manufacturing Demonstration Facility worked with ECM ...

  14. Electrochemical cell with calcium anode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F.; Hosmer, Pamela K.; Kelly, Benjamin E.

    1979-01-01

    An electrochemical cell comprising a calcium anode and a suitable cathode in an alkaline electrolyte consisting essentially of an aqueous solution of an hydroxide and a chloride. Specifically disclosed is a mechanically rechargeable calcium/air fuel cell with an aqueous NaOH/NaCl electrolyte.

  15. Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy in liquid using Electrochemical Force Microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Collins, Liam; Jesse, Stephen; Kilpatrick, J.; Tselev, Alexander; Okatan, Mahmut Baris; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Rodriguez, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Conventional closed loop-Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) has emerged as a powerful technique for probing electric and transport phenomena at the solid-gas interface. The extension of KPFM capabilities to probe electrostatic and electrochemical phenomena at the solid–liquid interface is of interest for a broad range of applications from energy storage to biological systems. However, the operation of KPFM implicitly relies on the presence of a linear lossless dielectric in the probe-sample gap, a condition which is violated for ionically-active liquids (e.g., when diffuse charge dynamics are present). Here, electrostatic and electrochemical measurements are demonstrated in ionically-active (polar isopropanol, milli-Q watermore » and aqueous NaCl) and ionically-inactive (non-polar decane) liquids by electrochemical force microscopy (EcFM), a multidimensional (i.e., bias- and time-resolved) spectroscopy method. In the absence of mobile charges (ambient and non-polar liquids), KPFM and EcFM are both feasible, yielding comparable contact potential difference (CPD) values. In ionically-active liquids, KPFM is not possible and EcFM can be used to measure the dynamic CPD and a rich spectrum of information pertaining to charge screening, ion diffusion, and electrochemical processes (e.g., Faradaic reactions). EcFM measurements conducted in isopropanol and milli-Q water over Au and highly ordered pyrolytic graphite electrodes demonstrate both sample- and solvent-dependent features. Finally, the feasibility of using EcFM as a local force-based mapping technique of material-dependent electrostatic and electrochemical response is investigated. The resultant high dimensional dataset is visualized using a purely statistical approach that does not require a priori physical models, allowing for qualitative mapping of electrostatic and electrochemical material properties at the solid–liquid interface.« less

  16. Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy in liquid using Electrochemical Force Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, Liam; Jesse, Stephen; Kilpatrick, J.; Tselev, Alexander; Okatan, Mahmut Baris; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Rodriguez, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Conventional closed loop-Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) has emerged as a powerful technique for probing electric and transport phenomena at the solid-gas interface. The extension of KPFM capabilities to probe electrostatic and electrochemical phenomena at the solid–liquid interface is of interest for a broad range of applications from energy storage to biological systems. However, the operation of KPFM implicitly relies on the presence of a linear lossless dielectric in the probe-sample gap, a condition which is violated for ionically-active liquids (e.g., when diffuse charge dynamics are present). Here, electrostatic and electrochemical measurements are demonstrated in ionically-active (polar isopropanol, milli-Q water and aqueous NaCl) and ionically-inactive (non-polar decane) liquids by electrochemical force microscopy (EcFM), a multidimensional (i.e., bias- and time-resolved) spectroscopy method. In the absence of mobile charges (ambient and non-polar liquids), KPFM and EcFM are both feasible, yielding comparable contact potential difference (CPD) values. In ionically-active liquids, KPFM is not possible and EcFM can be used to measure the dynamic CPD and a rich spectrum of information pertaining to charge screening, ion diffusion, and electrochemical processes (e.g., Faradaic reactions). EcFM measurements conducted in isopropanol and milli-Q water over Au and highly ordered pyrolytic graphite electrodes demonstrate both sample- and solvent-dependent features. Finally, the feasibility of using EcFM as a local force-based mapping technique of material-dependent electrostatic and electrochemical response is investigated. The resultant high dimensional dataset is visualized using a purely statistical approach that does not require a priori physical models, allowing for qualitative mapping of electrostatic and electrochemical material properties at the solid–liquid interface.

  17. Electrochemical synthesis of multisegmented nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kok, Kuan-Ying; Ng, Inn-Khuan; Saidin, Nur Ubaidah

    2012-11-27

    Electrochemical deposition has emerged as a promising route for nanostructure fabrication in recent years due to the many inherent advantages it possesses. This study focuses on the synthesis of high-aspect-ratio multisegmented Au/Ni nanowires using template-directed sequential electrochemical deposition techniques. By selectively removing the Ni segments in the nanowires, high-yield of pure gold nanorods of predetermined lengths was obtained. Alternatively, the sacrificial Ni segments in the nanowires can be galvanically displaced with Bi and Te to form barbells structures with Bi{sub x}Te{sub y} nanotubes attached to neighbouring gold segments. Detailed studies on the nanostructures obtained were carried out using various microscopy, diffraction and probebased techniques for structural, morphological and chemical characterizations.

  18. Solid state electrochemical current source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Potanin, Alexander Arkadyevich; Vedeneev, Nikolai Ivanovich

    2002-04-30

    A cathode and a solid state electrochemical cell comprising said cathode, a solid anode and solid fluoride ion conducting electrolyte. The cathode comprises a metal oxide and a compound fluoride containing at least two metals with different valences. Representative compound fluorides include solid solutions of bismuth fluoride and potassium fluoride; and lead fluoride and potassium fluoride. Representative metal oxides include copper oxide, lead oxide, manganese oxide, vanadium oxide and silver oxide.

  19. Compacted carbon for electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greinke, Ronald Alfred; Lewis, Irwin Charles

    1997-01-01

    This invention provides compacted carbon that is useful in the electrode of an alkali metal/carbon electrochemical cell of improved capacity selected from the group consisting of: (a) coke having the following properties: (i) an x-ray density of at least 2.00 grams per cubic centimeters, (ii) a closed porosity of no greater than 5%, and (iii) an open porosity of no greater than 47%; and (b) graphite having the following properties: (i) an x-ray density of at least 2.20 grams per cubic centimeters, (ii) a closed porosity of no greater than 5%, and (iii) an open porosity of no greater than 25%. This invention also relates to an electrode for an alkali metal/carbon electrochemical cell comprising compacted carbon as described above and a binder. This invention further provides an alkali metal/carbon electrochemical cell comprising: (a) an electrode as described above, (b) a non-aqueous electrolytic solution comprising an organic aprotic solvent and an electrolytically conductive salt and an alkali metal, and (c) a counterelectrode.

  20. Compacted carbon for electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greinke, R.A.; Lewis, I.C.

    1997-10-14

    This invention provides compacted carbon that is useful in the electrode of an alkali metal/carbon electrochemical cell of improved capacity selected from the group consisting of: (a) coke having the following properties: (1) an x-ray density of at least 2.00 grams per cubic centimeters, (2) a closed porosity of no greater than 5%, and (3) an open porosity of no greater than 47%; and (b) graphite having the following properties: (1) an x-ray density of at least 2.20 grams per cubic centimeters, (2) a closed porosity of no greater than 5%, and (3) an open porosity of no greater than 25%. This invention also relates to an electrode for an alkali metal/carbon electrochemical cell comprising compacted carbon as described above and a binder. This invention further provides an alkali metal/carbon electrochemical cell comprising: (a) an electrode as described above, (b) a non-aqueous electrolytic solution comprising an organic aprotic solvent and an electrolytically conductive salt and an alkali metal, and (c) a counter electrode. 10 figs.

  1. Exploratory Technology Research Program for electrochemical energy storage. Annual report fr 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinoshita, K.

    1995-09-01

    The US Department of Energy`s Office of Propulsion Systems provides support for an Electrochemical Energy Storage Program, that includes research and development (R&D) on advanced rechargeable batteries and fuel cells. A major goal of this program is to develop electrochemical power sources suitable for application in electric vehicles (EVs). The program centers on advanced systems that offer the potential for high performance and low life-cycle costs, both of which are necessary to permit significant penetration into commercial markets. The DOE Electrochemical Energy Storage Program is divided into two projects: the Electric Vehicle Advanced Battery Systems (EVABS) Development Program and the Exploratory Technology Research (ETR) Program. The general R&D areas addressed by the program include identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced batteries, determination of technical feasibility of the new couples, improvements in battery components and materials, establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage and conversion, and the development of air-system (fuel cell, metal/air) technology for transportation applications. Major emphasis is given to applied research which will lead to superior performance and lower life-cycle costs. The ETR Program is divided into three major program elements: Exploratory Research, Applied Science Research, and Air Systems Research. Highlights of each program element are summarized according to the appropriate battery system or electrochemical research area.

  2. Electrochemical apparatus comprising modified disposable rectangular

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    cuvette (Patent) | SciTech Connect Electrochemical apparatus comprising modified disposable rectangular cuvette Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electrochemical apparatus comprising modified disposable rectangular cuvette Electrochemical apparatus includes a disposable rectangular cuvette modified with at least one hole through a side and/or the bottom. Apparatus may include more than one cuvette, which in practice is a disposable rectangular glass or plastic cuvette modified by

  3. Zelenay wins Electrochemical Society's Research Award

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    wins Electrochemical Society's Research Award December 11, 2012 Piotr Zelenay of LANL's Sensors and Electrochemical Devices group has won the 2012 Research Award presented by the Energy Technology Division of The Electrochemical Society. The award recognizes Zelenay's "outstanding and original contributions to the science and technology of energy-related research areas that include scientific and technological aspects of fossil fuels and alternative energy sources, energy management and

  4. Shock-activated electrochemical power supplies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benedick, W.B.; Graham, R.A.; Morosin, B.

    1988-11-08

    A shock-activated electrochemical power supply is provided which is initiated extremely rapidly and which has a long shelf life. Electrochemical power supplies of this invention are initiated much faster than conventional thermal batteries. Power supplies of this invention comprise an inactive electrolyte and means for generating a high-pressure shock wave such that the shock wave is propagated through the electrolytes rendering the electrolyte electrochemically active. 2 figs.

  5. Shock-activated electrochemical power supplies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benedick, William B.; Graham, Robert A.; Morosin, Bruno

    1988-01-01

    A shock-activated electrochemical power supply is provided which is initiated extremely rapidly and which has a long shelf life. Electrochemical power supplies of this invention are initiated much faster than conventional thermal batteries. Power supplies of this invention comprise an inactive electrolyte and means for generating a high-pressure shock wave such that the shock wave is propagated through the electrolytes rendering the electrolyte electrochemically active.

  6. Shock-activated electrochemical power supplies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benedick, W.B.; Graham, R.A.; Morosin, B.

    1987-04-20

    A shock-activated electrochemical power supply is provided which is initiated extremely rapidly and which has a long shelf life. Electrochemical power supplies of this invention are initiated much faster than conventional thermal batteries. Power supplies of this invention comprise an inactive electrolyte and means for generating a high-pressure shock wave such that the shock wave is propagated through the electrolyte rendering the electrolyte electrochemically active. 2 figs.

  7. Electrochemical components employing polysiloxane-derived binders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Delnick, Frank M.

    2013-06-11

    A processed polysiloxane resin binder for use in electrochemical components and the method for fabricating components with the binder. The binder comprises processed polysiloxane resin that is partially oxidized and retains some of its methyl groups following partial oxidation. The binder is suitable for use in electrodes of various types, separators in electrochemical devices, primary lithium batteries, electrolytic capacitors, electrochemical capacitors, fuel cells and sensors.

  8. Electrochemical Design Associates EDA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Design Associates EDA Jump to: navigation, search Name: Electrochemical Design Associates (EDA) Place: California Zip: 94608-2513 Product: EDA is a technology development company...

  9. Electronic structural and electrochemical properties of lithium...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Relation: Journal Name: Journal of the Electrochemical Society; Journal Volume: 3; Journal Issue: 1 Research Org: National Energy Technology Laboratory - In-house Research ...

  10. GROWTH AND ELECTROCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF CARBON NANOSPIKE...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: GROWTH AND ELECTROCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF CARBON NANOSPIKE THIN FILM ELECTRODES Authors: Sheridan, Leah B 1 ; Hensley, Dale K 1 ; Lavrik, Nickolay V 1 ; Smith, ...

  11. Electrochemical device and process of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2004-07-27

    A process of making an electrochemical device comprising providing a trilayer structure comprising an electrode/electrolyte/electrode and simultaneously sintering the trilayer structure.

  12. Center for Electrochemical Energy Science | Argonne National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Science Research Program Publications & Presentations News An Energy Frontier Research Center Exploring the electrochemical reactivity of oxide materials and their...

  13. Electrochemical apparatus comprising modified disposable rectangular...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The apparatus are suitable for a variety of electrochemical experiments, including surface electrochemistry, bulk electrolysis, and flow cell experiments. Authors: Dattelbaum, ...

  14. Solid flexible electrochemical supercapacitor using Tobacco mosaic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    mosaic virus nanostructures and ALD ruthenium oxide Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Solid flexible electrochemical supercapacitor using Tobacco mosaic virus ...

  15. MIT- Electrochemical Energy Laboratory | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: MIT- Electrochemical Energy Laboratory Address: 77 Massachusetts Avenue Place: Cambridge, Massachusetts Zip: 02139 Region: Greater Boston Area Website: web.mit.edueel...

  16. Evaluation Of Electrochemical Machining Technology For Surface...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technology For Surface Improvements In Additive Manufactured Components Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Evaluation Of Electrochemical Machining Technology For ...

  17. Nanomaterial-Based Electrochemical Biosensors and Bioassays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Guodong; Mao, Xun; Gurung, Anant; Baloda, Meenu; Lin, Yuehe; He, Yuqing

    2010-08-31

    This book chapter summarizes the recent advance in nanomaterials for electrochemical biosensors and bioassays. Biofunctionalization of nanomaterials for biosensors fabrication and their biomedical applications are discussed.

  18. Quantification of Electrochemical Nanoscale Processes in Lithium...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in Lithium Batteries By OperandoEC-(S)TEM Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Quantification of Electrochemical Nanoscale Processes in Lithium Batteries By ...

  19. Zelenay wins Electrochemical Society's Research Award

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The award includes a monetary prize and membership in the Electrochemical Society's Energy Technology Division. It will be presented at the society's spring meeting in...

  20. Apparatus for combinatorial screening of electrochemical materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    A high throughput combinatorial screening method and apparatus for the evaluation of electrochemical materials using a single voltage source is disclosed wherein temperature changes arising from the application of an electrical load to a cell array are used to evaluate the relative electrochemical efficiency of the materials comprising the array. The apparatus may include an array of electrochemical cells that are connected to each other in parallel or in series, an electronic load for applying a voltage or current to the electrochemical cells , and a device , external to the cells, for monitoring the relative temperature of each cell when the load is applied.

    2009-12-15

    A high throughput combinatorial screening method and apparatus for the evaluation of electrochemical materials using a single voltage source (2) is disclosed wherein temperature changes arising from the application of an electrical load to a cell array (1) are used to evaluate the relative electrochemical efficiency of the materials comprising the array. The apparatus may include an array of electrochemical cells (1) that are connected to each other in parallel or in series, an electronic load (2) for applying a voltage or current to the electrochemical cells (1), and a device (3), external to the cells, for monitoring the relative temperature of each cell when the load is applied.

  1. Graphene-based Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage: Fuel cells, Supercapacitors and Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hou, Junbo; Shao, Yuyan; Ellis, Michael A.; Moore, Robert; Yi, Baolian

    2011-09-14

    Graphene has attracted extensive research interest due to its strictly 2-dimensional (2D) structure, which results in its unique electronic, thermal, mechanical, and chemical properties and potential technical applications. These remarkable characteristics of graphene, along with the inherent benefits of a carbon material, make it a promising candidate for application in electrochemical energy devices. This article reviews the methods of graphene preparation, introduces the unique electrochemical behavior of graphene, and summarizes the recent research and development on graphene-based fuel cells, supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries. In addition, promising areas are identified for the future development of graphene-based materials in electrochemical energy conversion and storage systems.

  2. Thermal regeneration of an electrochemical concentration cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumpelt, Michael; Bates, John K.

    1981-01-01

    A system and method for thermally regenerating an electrochemical concentration cell having first and second aluminum electrodes respectively positioned in contact with first and second electrolytes separated by an ion exchange member, the first and second electrolytes being composed of different concentrations of an ionic solvent and a salt, preferably an aluminum halide. The ionic solvent may be either organic or inorganic with a relatively low melting point, the ionic solvent and the salt form a complex wherein the free energy of formation of said complex is less than about -5 Kcal/mole. A distillation column using solar heat or low grade industrial waste heat receives the first and second electrolytes and thermally decomposes the salt-solvent complex to provide feed material for the two half cells.

  3. Thermal regeneration of an electrochemical concentration cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumpelt, M.; Bates, J.K.

    1980-05-09

    A system and method are described for thermally regenerating an electrochemical concentration cell having first and second aluminum electrodes respectively positioned in contact with first and second electrolytes separated by an ion exchange member, the first and second electrolytes being composed of different concentrations of an ionic solvent and a salt, preferably an aluminum halide. The ionic solvent may be either organic or inorganic with a relatively low melting point, the ionic solvent and the salt form a complex wherein the free energy of formation of said complex is less than about -5 kcal/mole. A distillation column using solar heat or low grade industrial waste heat receives the first and second electrolytes and thermally decomposes the salt-solvent complex to provide feed material for the two half cells.

  4. An isoperibolic calorimeter to study electrochemical insertion of deuterium into palladium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gur, T.M. ); Schreiber, M. ); Lucier, G.; Ferrante, J.A.; Chao, J. ); Huggins, R.A. )

    1994-07-01

    The design and the operational characteristics of a new isoperibolic calorimeter that is developed to study the electrochemical insertion of deuterium into palladium are described. The design is simple and involves inexpensive materials to build. It possesses a number of distinct advantages that makes it suitable for thermal measurements in other electrochemical systems. It is insensitive to the nature and the location of the heat source within the electrochemical cell. The calibration constant is found to be stable with [+-]0.5% uncertainty over a wide range of input power levels up to 22 W. It also has the capability of operating over a wide temperature range. In principle, the calorimeter can be used up to 600[degrees]C, provided that the electrochemical cell design and materials are chosen appropriately. The design also provides flexibility to adjust the sensitivity of the calorimeter according to the needs of the system under study. 25 refs., 11 figs.

  5. Electrochemical formation of field emitters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernhardt, Anthony F.

    1999-01-01

    Electrochemical formation of field emitters, particularly useful in the fabrication of flat panel displays. The fabrication involves field emitting points in a gated field emitter structure. Metal field emitters are formed by electroplating and the shape of the formed emitter is controlled by the potential imposed on the gate as well as on a separate counter electrode. This allows sharp emitters to be formed in a more inexpensive and manufacturable process than vacuum deposition processes used at present. The fabrication process involves etching of the gate metal and the dielectric layer down to the resistor layer, and then electroplating the etched area and forming an electroplated emitter point in the etched area.

  6. Electrolyte composition for electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vissers, Donald R.; Tomczuk, Zygmunt; Anderson, Karl E.; Roche, Michael F.

    1979-01-01

    A high-temperature, secondary electrochemical cell that employs FeS as the positive electrode reactant and lithium or lithium alloy as the negative electrode reactant includes an improved electrolyte composition. The electrolyte comprises about 60-70 mole percent LiCl and 30-40 percent mole percent KCl which includes LiCl in excess of the eutectic composition. The use of this electrolyte suppresses formation of the J phase and thereby improves the utilization of positive electrode active material during cell cycling.

  7. High temperature sealed electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Valentin Chung, Brice Hoani; Burke, Paul J.; Sadoway, Donald R.

    2015-10-06

    A cell for high temperature electrochemical reactions is provided. The cell includes a container, at least a portion of the container acting as a first electrode. An extension tube has a first end and a second end, the extension tube coupled to the container at the second end forming a conduit from the container to said first end. A second electrode is positioned in the container and extends out of the container via the conduit. A seal is positioned proximate the first end of the extension tube, for sealing the cell.

  8. Electrochemical method of controlling thiolate coverage on a conductive substrate such as gold

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Porter, Marc D.; Weisshaar, Duane E.

    1998-10-27

    An electrochemical method for forming a partial monomolecular layer of a predetermined extent of coverage of a thiolate of the formula, XRS--, therein R can be a linear or branched chain hydrocarbon or an aromatic or the like and X can be any compatible end group, e.g., OH, COOH, CH.sub.3 or the like, upon a substrate such as gold, which involves applying in an electrochemical system a constant voltage preselected to yield the desired predetermined extent of coverage.

  9. A new design for a disposable and modifiable electrochemical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A new design for a disposable and modifiable electrochemical cell Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A new design for a disposable and modifiable electrochemical cell ...

  10. Advanced Hybrid Water-Heater Using Electrochemical Compression...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hybrid Water-Heater Using Electrochemical Compression (ECC) 2016 Building Technologies ... Key Partners: Project Goal: Develop a heat pump water heater utilizing electrochemical ...

  11. Method for making an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuller, Harry L.; Kramer, Steve A.; Spears, Marlene A.; Pal, Uday B.

    1996-01-01

    An electrochemical device including a solid electrolyte and solid electrode composed of materials having different chemical compositions and characterized by different electrical properties but having the same crystalline phase is provided. A method for fabricating an electrochemical device having a solid electrode and solid electrolyte characterized by the same crystalline phase is provided.

  12. Solid oxide electrochemical reactor science.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, Neal P.; Stechel, Ellen Beth; Moyer, Connor J.; Ambrosini, Andrea; Key, Robert J.

    2010-09-01

    Solid-oxide electrochemical cells are an exciting new technology. Development of solid-oxide cells (SOCs) has advanced considerable in recent years and continues to progress rapidly. This thesis studies several aspects of SOCs and contributes useful information to their continued development. This LDRD involved a collaboration between Sandia and the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) ins solid-oxide electrochemical reactors targeted at solid oxide electrolyzer cells (SOEC), which are the reverse of solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFC). SOECs complement Sandia's efforts in thermochemical production of alternative fuels. An SOEC technology would co-electrolyze carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) with steam at temperatures around 800 C to form synthesis gas (H{sub 2} and CO), which forms the building blocks for a petrochemical substitutes that can be used to power vehicles or in distributed energy platforms. The effort described here concentrates on research concerning catalytic chemistry, charge-transfer chemistry, and optimal cell-architecture. technical scope included computational modeling, materials development, and experimental evaluation. The project engaged the Colorado Fuel Cell Center at CSM through the support of a graduate student (Connor Moyer) at CSM and his advisors (Profs. Robert Kee and Neal Sullivan) in collaboration with Sandia.

  13. Analysis and Simulation of Electrochemical Energy Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C.

  14. Analysis and Simulation of Electrochemical Energy Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C.

  15. Bussing Structure In An Electrochemical Cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Romero, Antonio L.

    2001-06-12

    A bussing structure for bussing current within an electrochemical cell. The bussing structure includes a first plate and a second plate, each having a central aperture therein. Current collection tabs, extending from an electrode stack in the electrochemical cell, extend through the central aperture in the first plate, and are then sandwiched between the first plate and second plate. The second plate is then connected to a terminal on the outside of the case of the electrochemical cell. Each of the first and second plates includes a second aperture which is positioned beneath a safety vent in the case of the electrochemical cell to promote turbulent flow of gasses through the vent upon its opening. The second plate also includes protrusions for spacing the bussing structure from the case, as well as plateaus for connecting the bussing structure to the terminal on the case of the electrochemical cell.

  16. Materials for electrochemical capacitors: Theoretical and experimental constraints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarangapani, S.; Tilak, B.V.; Chen, C.P.

    1996-11-01

    Electrochemical capacitors, also called supercapacitors, are unique devices exhibiting 20 to 200 times greater capacitance than conventional capacitors. The large capacitance exhibited by these systems has been demonstrated to arise from a combination of the double-layer capacitance and pseudocapacitance associated with surface redox-type reactions. The purpose of this review is to survey the published data of available electrode materials possessing high specific double-layer or pseudocapacitance and examine their reported performance data in relation to their theoretical expectations.

  17. Material protection, control and accounting cooperation at the Urals Electrochemical Integrated Plant (UEIP), Novouralsk, Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McAllister, S., LLNL

    1998-07-15

    The Urals Electrochemical Integrated Plant is one of the Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy`s nuclear material production sites participating in the US Department of Energy`s Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program. The Urals Electrochemical Integrated Plant is Russia`s largest uranium enrichment facility and blends tons of high-enriched uranium into low enriched uranium each year as part of the US high-enriched uranium purchase. The Electrochemical Integrated Plant and six participating national laboratories are cooperating to implement a series of enhancements to the nuclear material protection, control, and accountability systems at the site This paper outlines the overall objectives of the MPC&A program at Urals Electrochemical Integrated Plant and the work completed as of the date of the presentation.

  18. Electrochemical oxygen pumps. Final CRADA report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, J. D. Noble, J.

    2009-10-01

    All tasks of the Work Plan of ISTC Project 2277p have been completed, thus: (1) techniques of chemical synthesis were developed for more than ten recipes of electrolyte based on cerium oxide doped with 20 mole% of gadolinium (CeGd)O{sub 2}, doped by more than 10 oxide systems including 6 recipes in addition to the Work Plan; (2) electric conductivity and mechanical strength of CeGd specimens with additions of oxide systems were performed, two candidate materials for the electrolyte of electrochemical oxygen pump (pure CeGd and CeGd doped by 0.2 wt% of a transition metal) were chosen; (3) extended studies of mechanical strength of candidate material specimens were performed at room temperature and at 400, 600, 800 C; (4) fixtures for determination of mechanical strength of tubes by external pressure above 40 atmospheres at temperature up to 700 C were developed and fabricated; and (5) technology of slip casting of tubes from pure (Ce,Gd)O{sub 2} and of (Ce,Gd)O{sub 2} doped by 0.2 wt% of a transition metal, withstanding external pressure of minimum 40 atmospheres at temperature up to 700 C was developed, a batch of tubes was sent for testing to Argonne National Laboratory; (6) technology of making nanopowder from pure (Ce,Gd)O{sub 2} was developed based on chemical synthesis and laser ablation techniques, a batch of nanopowder with the weight 1 kg was sent for testing to Argonne National Laboratory; (7) a business plan for establishing a company for making powders of materials for electrochemical oxygen pump was developed; and (8) major results obtained within the Project were reported at international conferences and published in the Russian journal Electrochemistry. In accordance with the Work Plan a business trip of the following project participants was scheduled for April 22-29, 2006, to Tonawanda, NY, USA: Manager Victor Borisov; Leader of technology development Gennady Studenikin; Leader of business planning Elena Zadorozhnaya; Leader of production Vasily Lepalovsky; and Translator Vladimir Litvinov. During this trip project participants were to discuss with the project Technical Monitor J.D. Carter and representative of Praxair Inc. J. Chen the results of project activities (prospects of transition metal-doped material application in oxygen pumps), as well as the prospects of cooperation with Praxair at the meeting with the company management in the following fields: (1) Deposition of thin films of oxide materials of complex composition on support by magnetron and ion sputtering, research of coatings properties; (2) Development of block-type structure technology (made of porous and dense ceramics) for oxygen pump. The block-type structure is promising because when the size of electrolyte block is 2 x 2 inches and assembly height is 10 inches (5 blocks connected together) the area of active surface is ca. 290 square inches (in case of 8 slots), that roughly corresponds to one tube with diameter 1 inch and height 100 inches. So performance of the system made of such blocks may be by a factor of two or three higher than that of tube-based system. However one month before the visit, J. Chen notified us of internal changes at Praxair and the cancellation of the visit to Tonawanda, NY. During consultations with the project Technical Monitor J.D. Carter and Senior Project Manager A. Taylor a decision was made to extend the project term by 2 quarters to prepare proposals for follow-on activities during this extension (development of block-type structures made of dense and porous oxide ceramics for electrochemical oxygen pumps) using the funds that were not used for the trip to the US.

  19. Electrochemical formation of field emitters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernhardt, A.F.

    1999-03-16

    Electrochemical formation of field emitters, particularly useful in the fabrication of flat panel displays is disclosed. The fabrication involves field emitting points in a gated field emitter structure. Metal field emitters are formed by electroplating and the shape of the formed emitter is controlled by the potential imposed on the gate as well as on a separate counter electrode. This allows sharp emitters to be formed in a more inexpensive and manufacturable process than vacuum deposition processes used at present. The fabrication process involves etching of the gate metal and the dielectric layer down to the resistor layer, and then electroplating the etched area and forming an electroplated emitter point in the etched area. 12 figs.

  20. Cathode for an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bates, John B.; Dudney, Nancy J.; Gruzalski, Greg R.; Luck, Christopher F.

    2001-01-01

    Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making same having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode. Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between -15.degree. C. and 150.degree. C.

  1. Electrolyte for an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bates, John B.; Dudney, Nancy J.

    1997-01-01

    Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making same having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte amorphous lithium phosphorus oxynitride which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between -15.degree. C. and 150.degree. C.

  2. Electrolyte for an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bates, J.B.; Dudney, N.J.

    1997-01-28

    Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making the same having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte amorphous lithium phosphorus oxynitride which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between {minus}15 C and 150 C. 9 figs.

  3. Process for electrochemically gasifying coal using electromagnetism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Botts, Thomas E.; Powell, James R.

    1987-01-01

    A process for electrochemically gasifying coal by establishing a flowing stream of coal particulate slurry, electrolyte and electrode members through a transverse magnetic field that has sufficient strength to polarize the electrode members, thereby causing them to operate in combination with the electrolyte to electrochemically reduce the coal particulate in the slurry. Such electrochemical reduction of the coal produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide at opposite ends of the polarized electrode members. Gas collection means are operated in conjunction with the process to collect the evolved gases as they rise from the slurry and electrolyte solution.

  4. Chemically modified graphite for electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greinke, Ronald Alfred (Medina, OH); Lewis, Irwin Charles (Strongsville, OH)

    1998-01-01

    This invention relates to chemically modified graphite particles: (a) that are useful in alkali metal-containing electrode of a electrochemical cell comprising: (i) the electrode, (ii) a non-aqueous electrolytic solution comprising an organic aprotic solvent which solvent tends to decompose when the electrochemical cell is in use, and an electrically conductive salt of an alkali metal, and (iii) a counterelectrode; and (b) that are chemically modified with fluorine, chlorine, iodine or phosphorus to reduce such decomposition. This invention also relates to electrodes comprising such chemically modified graphite and a binder and to electrochemical cells containing such electrodes.

  5. Chemically modified graphite for electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greinke, R.A.; Lewis, I.C.

    1998-05-26

    This invention relates to chemically modified graphite particles: (a) that are useful in alkali metal-containing electrode of a electrochemical cell comprising: (1) the electrode, (2) a non-aqueous electrolytic solution comprising an organic aprotic solvent which solvent tends to decompose when the electrochemical cell is in use, and an electrically conductive salt of an alkali metal, and (3) a counter electrode; and (b) that are chemically modified with fluorine, chlorine, iodine or phosphorus to reduce such decomposition. This invention also relates to electrodes comprising such chemically modified graphite and a binder and to electrochemical cells containing such electrodes. 3 figs.

  6. Bismuth-based electrochemical stripping analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Joseph

    2004-01-27

    Method and apparatus for trace metal detection and analysis using bismuth-coated electrodes and electrochemical stripping analysis. Both anodic stripping voltammetry and adsorptive stripping analysis may be employed.

  7. Rechargeable thin-film electrochemical generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouillard, Roger; Domroese, Michael K.; Hoffman, Joseph A.; Lindeman, David D.; Noel, Joseph-Robert-Gaetan; Radewald, Vern E.; Ranger, Michel; Sudano, Anthony; Trice, Jennifer L.; Turgeon, Thomas A.

    2000-09-15

    An improved electrochemical generator is disclosed. The electrochemical generator includes a thin-film electrochemical cell which is maintained in a state of compression through use of an internal or an external pressure apparatus. A thermal conductor, which is connected to at least one of the positive or negative contacts of the cell, conducts current into and out of the cell and also conducts thermal energy between the cell and thermally conductive, electrically resistive material disposed on a vessel wall adjacent the conductor. The thermally conductive, electrically resistive material may include an anodized coating or a thin sheet of a plastic, mineral-based material or conductive polymer material. The thermal conductor is fabricated to include a resilient portion which expands and contracts to maintain mechanical contact between the cell and the thermally conductive material in the presence of relative movement between the cell and the wall structure. The electrochemical generator may be disposed in a hermetically sealed housing.

  8. From corrosion to batteries: Electrochemical interface studies...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    From corrosion to batteries: Electrochemical interface studies Thursday, October 18, 2012 - 11:00am SSRL, Bldg. 137, Rm 226 Dr. Frank Uwe Renner Max-Planck-Institut fr ...

  9. Minimizing Wind Power Producer's Balancing Costs Using Electrochemical Energy Storage: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miettinen, J.; Tikka, V.; Lassila, J.; Partanen, J.; Hodge, B. M.

    2014-08-01

    This paper examines how electrochemical energy storage can be used to decrease the balancing costs of a wind power producer in the Nordic market. Because electrochemical energy storage is developing in both technological and financial terms, a sensitivity analysis was carried out for the most important variables in the wind-storage hybrid system. The system was studied from a wind power producer's point of view. The main result is that there are no technical limitations to using storage for reducing the balancing costs. However, in terms of economic feasibility, installing hybrid wind-storage systems such as the one studied in this paper faces challenges in both the short and long terms.

  10. Electrochemical and Photophysical Properties of electropolymerized

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Thieno[32-b]thiophene and 22'-Bithiophene polymers: A comparative study. (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Electrochemical and Photophysical Properties of electropolymerized Thieno[32-b]thiophene and 22'-Bithiophene polymers: A comparative study. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electrochemical and Photophysical Properties of electropolymerized Thieno[32-b]thiophene and 22'-Bithiophene polymers: A comparative study. Abstract not provided. Authors: Lambert, Timothy N. ; Steen,

  11. Electronic Structure Modeling of Electrochemical Reactions at

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electrode/Electrolyte Interfaces in Lithium Ion Batteries (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Electronic Structure Modeling of Electrochemical Reactions at Electrode/Electrolyte Interfaces in Lithium Ion Batteries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electronic Structure Modeling of Electrochemical Reactions at Electrode/Electrolyte Interfaces in Lithium Ion Batteries Authors: Leung, Kevin Publication Date: 2013-01-31 OSTI Identifier: 1105237 DOE Contract Number:

  12. Progress Towards Commercialization of Electrochemical Membrane Technology

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for CO2 Capture and Power Generation (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Progress Towards Commercialization of Electrochemical Membrane Technology for CO2 Capture and Power Generation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Progress Towards Commercialization of Electrochemical Membrane Technology for CO2 Capture and Power Generation To address the concerns about climate change resulting from emission of CO2 by coal-fueled power plants, FuelCell Energy, Inc. has developed Combined Electric

  13. Electrochemical Energy Storage Technical Team Roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-06-01

    This U.S. DRIVE electrochemical energy storage roadmap describes ongoing and planned efforts to develop electrochemical energy storage technologies for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). The Energy Storage activity comprises a number of research areas (including advanced materials research, cell level research, battery development, and enabling R&D which includes analysis, testing and other activities) for advanced energy storage technologies (batteries and ultra-capacitors).

  14. Multi-layer seal for electrochemical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chou, Yeong-Shyung [Richland, WA; Meinhardt, Kerry D [Kennewick, WA; Stevenson, Jeffry W [Richland, WA

    2010-09-14

    Multi-layer seals are provided that find advantageous use for reducing leakage of gases between adjacent components of electrochemical devices. Multi-layer seals of the invention include a gasket body defining first and second opposing surfaces and a compliant interlayer positioned adjacent each of the first and second surfaces. Also provided are methods for making and using the multi-layer seals, and electrochemical devices including said seals.

  15. Multi-layer seal for electrochemical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chou, Yeong-Shyung [Richland, WA; Meinhardt, Kerry D [Kennewick, WA; Stevenson, Jeffry W [Richland, WA

    2010-11-16

    Multi-layer seals are provided that find advantageous use for reducing leakage of gases between adjacent components of electrochemical devices. Multi-layer seals of the invention include a gasket body defining first and second opposing surfaces and a compliant interlayer positioned adjacent each of the first and second surfaces. Also provided are methods for making and using the multi-layer seals, and electrochemical devices including said seals.

  16. Refractory lining for electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, Milton; Cook, Glenn M.

    1987-01-01

    Apparatus for processing a metallic fluid containing iron oxide, container for a molten metal including an electrically conductive refractory disposed for contact with the molten metal which contains iron oxide, an electrolyte in the form of a basic slag on top of the molten metal, an electrode in the container in contcat with the slag electrically separated from the refractory, and means for establishing a voltage across the refractory and the electrode to reduce iron oxide to iron at the surface of the refractory in contact with the iron oxide containing fluid. A process is disclosed for refining an iron product containing not more than about 10% by weight oxygen and not more than about 10% by weight sulfur, comprising providing an electrolyte of a slag containing one or more of calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, silica or alumina, providing a cathode of the iron product in contact with the electrolyte, providing an anode in contact with the electrolyte electrically separated from the cathode, and operating an electrochemical cell formed by the anode, the cathode and the electrolyte to separate oxygen or sulfur present in the iron product therefrom.

  17. Fact Sheet: Codes and Standards for Energy Storage System Performance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    batteries, flywheels, electrochemical capacitors, superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES), power electronics, and control systems, visit the Energy Storage Program page. ...

  18. Exploratory technology research program for electrochemical energy storage. Annual report for 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinoshita, Kim

    1996-06-01

    The US DOE Office of Transportation Technologies provides support for an Electrochemical Energy Storage Program, that includes research and development (R&D) on advanced rechargeable batteries and fuel cells. A major goal of this program is to develop electrochemical power sources suitable for application in electric vehicles (EV`s)and hybrid systems. The program centers on advanced electrochemical systems that offer the potential for high performance and low life- cycle costs, both of which are necessary to permit significant penetration into commercial markets. The DOE Electric Vehicle Technology Program is divided into two project areas: the US Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) and Advanced battery R&D which includes the Exploratory Technology Research (ETR) program managed by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The role of the ETR program is to perform supporting research on the advanced battery systems under development by the USABC and the Sandia Laboratories (SNL) Electric Vehicle Advanced Battery Systems (EVABS) program, and to evaluate new systems with potentially superior performance, durability and/of cost characteristics. The specific goal of the ETR program is to identify the most promising electrochemical technologies and development and scale-up. This report summarizes the research, financial and management activities relevant to the ETR program in CY 1995. This is a continuing program, and reports for prior years have been published; they are listed in this report.The general R&D areas addressed by the program include identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced batteries, determination of technical feasibility of the new couples, improvements in battery components and materials, establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage and conversion, and the development of fuel cell technology for transportation applications.

  19. Efficient electrochemical CO2 conversion powered by renewable energy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kauffman, Douglas R.; Thakkar, Jay; Siva, Rajan; Matranga, Christopher; Ohodnicki, Paul R.; Zeng, Chenjie; Jin, Rongchao

    2015-06-29

    The catalytic conversion of CO2 into industrially relevant chemicals is one strategy for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. Along these lines, electrochemical CO2 conversion technologies are attractive because they can operate with high reaction rates at ambient conditions. However, electrochemical systems require electricity, and CO2 conversion processes must integrate with carbon-free, renewable-energy sources to be viable on larger scales. We utilize Au25 nanoclusters as renewably powered CO2 conversion electrocatalysts with CO2 → CO reaction rates between 400 and 800 L of CO2 per gram of catalytic metal per hour and product selectivities between 80 and 95%. These performance metrics correspond tomore » conversion rates approaching 0.8–1.6 kg of CO2 per gram of catalytic metal per hour. We also present data showing CO2 conversion rates and product selectivity strongly depend on catalyst loading. Optimized systems demonstrate stable operation and reaction turnover numbers (TONs) approaching 6 × 106 mol CO2 molcatalyst–1 during a multiday (36 hours total hours) CO2electrolysis experiment containing multiple start/stop cycles. TONs between 1 × 106 and 4 × 106 molCO2 molcatalyst–1 were obtained when our system was powered by consumer-grade renewable-energy sources. Daytime photovoltaic-powered CO2 conversion was demonstrated for 12 h and we mimicked low-light or nighttime operation for 24 h with a solar-rechargeable battery. This proof-of-principle study provides some of the initial performance data necessary for assessing the scalability and technical viability of electrochemical CO2 conversion technologies. Specifically, we show the following: (1) all electrochemical CO2 conversion systems will produce a net increase in CO2 emissions if they do not integrate with renewable-energy sources, (2) catalyst loading vs activity trends can be used to tune process rates and product distributions, and (3) state-of-the-art renewable-energy technologies are sufficient to power larger-scale, tonne per day CO2 conversion systems.« less

  20. Electrochemical sensor having suspended element counter electrode and deflection method for current sensing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thundat, Thomas G.; Brown, Gilbert M.

    2010-05-18

    An electrochemical suspended element-based sensor system includes a solution cell for holding an electrolyte comprising solution including at least one electrochemically reducible or oxidizable species. A working electrode (WE), reference electrode (RE) and a counter electrode (CE) are disposed in the solution. The CE includes an asymmetric suspended element, wherein one side of the suspended element includes a metal or a highly doped semiconductor surface. The suspended element bends when current associated with reduction or oxidation of the electrochemically reducible or oxidizable species at the WE passes through the suspended element. At least one measurement system measures the bending of the suspended element or a parameter which is a function of the bending.

  1. Electrochemical Lithium Ion Battery Performance Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2007-03-29

    The Electrochemical Lithium Ion Battery Performance Model allows for the computer prediction of the basic thermal, electrical, and electrochemical performance of a lithium ion cell with simplified geometry. The model solves governing equations describing the movement of lithium ions within and between the negative and positive electrodes. The governing equations were first formulated by Fuller, Doyle, and Newman and published in J. Electrochemical Society in 1994. The present model solves the partial differential equations governingmore » charge transfer kinetics and charge, species, heat transports in a computationally-efficient manner using the finite volume method, with special consideration given for solving the model under conditions of applied current, voltage, power, and load resistance.« less

  2. Thermoelectrochemical system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ludwig, Frank A.; Townsend, Carl W.; Eliash, Bruce M.

    1995-11-28

    A thermal electrochemical system in which an electrical current is generated between a cathode immersed in a concentrated aqueous solution of phosphoric acid and an anode immersed in a molten salt solution of ammonium phosphate and monohydric ammonium phosphate. Reactants consumed at the electrodes during the electrochemical reaction are thermochemically regenerated and recycled to the electrodes to provide continuous operation of the system.

  3. Tunable Electrochemical Properties of Fluorinated Graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meduri, Praveen; Chen, Honghao; Xiao, Jie; Martinez, Jayson J.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Zhang, Jiguang; Deng, Zhiqun

    2013-06-18

    The structural and electrochemical properties of fluorinated graphene have been investigated by using a series of graphene fluorides (CFx, x=0.47, 0.66, 0.89). Fluorinated graphene exhibited high capacity retentions of 75-81% of theoretical capacity at moderate rates as cathode materials for primary lithium batteries. Specifically, CF0.47 maintained a capacity of 356 mAhg-1 at a 5C rate, superior to that of traditional fluorinated graphite. The discharged graphene fluorides also provide an electrochemical tool to probe the chemical bonding on the parent graphene substrate.

  4. Electrochemical apparatus comprising modified disposable rectangular cuvette

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dattelbaum, Andrew M; Gupta, Gautam; Morris, David E

    2013-09-10

    Electrochemical apparatus includes a disposable rectangular cuvette modified with at least one hole through a side and/or the bottom. Apparatus may include more than one cuvette, which in practice is a disposable rectangular glass or plastic cuvette modified by drilling the hole(s) through. The apparatus include two plates and some means of fastening one plate to the other. The apparatus may be interfaced with a fiber optic or microscope objective, and a spectrometer for spectroscopic studies. The apparatus are suitable for a variety of electrochemical experiments, including surface electrochemistry, bulk electrolysis, and flow cell experiments.

  5. Heteroatom incorporated coke for electrochemical cell electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, Irwin Charles (Strongsville, OH); Greinke, Ronald Alfred (Medina, OH)

    1997-01-01

    This invention relates to an electrode for a coke/alkali metal electrochemical cell comprising: (a) calcined coke particles: (i) that contain at least 0.5 weight percent of nitrogen heteroatoms and at least 1.0 weight percent sulfur heteroatoms, and (ii) that have an average particle size from 2 microns to 40 microns with essentially no particles being greater than 50 microns. (b) a binder This invention also relates to a coke/alkali metal electrochemical cell comprising: (a) an electrode as described above, (b) a non-aqueous electrolytic solution comprising an organic aprotic solvent and an electrically conductive salt, and (c) a counterelectrode.

  6. Heteroatom incorporated coke for electrochemical cell electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, I.C.; Greinke, R.A.

    1997-06-17

    This invention relates to an electrode for a coke/alkali metal electrochemical cell comprising: (a) calcined coke particles: (1) that contain at least 0.5 weight percent of nitrogen heteroatoms and at least 1.0 weight percent sulfur heteroatoms, and (2) that have an average particle size from 2 microns to 40 microns with essentially no particles being greater than 50 microns and (b) a binder. This invention also relates to a coke/alkali metal electrochemical cell comprising: (a) an electrode as described above, (b) a non-aqueous electrolytic solution comprising an organic aprotic solvent and an electrically conductive salt, and (c) a counterelectrode. 5 figs.

  7. Nanomaterial Labels in Electrochemical Immunosensors and Immunoassays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Guodong; Lin, Yuehe

    2007-12-15

    This article reviews recent advances in nanomaterial labels in electrochemical immunosensors and immunoassays. Various nanomaterial labels are discussed, including colloidal gold/silver, semiconductor nanoparticles, and markers loaded nanocarriers (carbon nanotubes, apoferritin, silica nanoparticles, and liposome beads). The enormous signal enhancement associated with the use of nanomaterial labels and with the formation of nanomaterialantibody-antigen assemblies provides the basis for ultrasensitive electrochemical detection of disease-related protein biomarkers, biothreat agents, or infectious agents. In general, all endeavors cited here are geared to achieve one or more of the following goals: signal amplification by several orders of magnitude, lower detection limits, and detecting multiple targets.

  8. Electrochemical Discovery Laboratory - Joint Center for Energy Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Electrochemical Discovery Laboratory March 28, 2016, Accomplishments The Electrochemical Discovery Laboratory The Electrochemical Discovery Laboratory (EDL) - a key JCESR discovery tool located at Argonne - synthesizes high-quality materials for testing in beyond-lithium-ion batteries and characterizes their properties with state-of-the-art analytical techniques. Read More Electrochemical Discovery Laboratory February 29, 2016, Accomplishments Water as a Catalyst - Improving how

  9. Electrochemical detector integrated on microfabricated capilliary electrophoresis chips

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mathies, Richard A.; Glazer, Alexander N.; Woolley, Adam T.; Lao, Kaigin

    2000-01-01

    A microfabricated capillary electrophoresis chip which includes an integral thin film electrochemical detector for detecting molecules separated in the capillary.

  10. Electrochemical detector integrated on microfabricated capillary electrophoresis chips

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mathies, Richard A.; Glazer, Alexander N.; Lao, Kaiqin; Woolley, Adam T.

    1999-01-01

    A microfabricated capillary electrophoresis chip which includes an integral thin film electrochemical detector for detecting molecules separated in the capillary.

  11. Evaluation Of Electrochemical Machining Technology For Surface Improvements

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In Additive Manufactured Components (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Evaluation Of Electrochemical Machining Technology For Surface Improvements In Additive Manufactured Components Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Evaluation Of Electrochemical Machining Technology For Surface Improvements In Additive Manufactured Components ORNL Manufacturing Demonstration Facility worked with ECM Technologies LLC to investigate the use of precision electro-chemical machining technology to

  12. The Electrochemical Discovery Laboratory - Joint Center for Energy Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Electrochemical Discovery Laboratory The Electrochemical Discovery Laboratory (EDL) - a key JCESR discovery tool located at Argonne - synthesizes high-quality materials for testing in beyond-lithium-ion batteries and characterizes their properties with state-of-the-art analytical techniques. Download Electrochemical Discovery Laboratory

  13. Electrochemical method of controlling thiolate coverage on a conductive substrate such as gold

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Porter, M.D.; Weisshaar, D.E.

    1998-10-27

    An electrochemical method is described for forming a partial monomolecular layer of a predetermined extent of coverage of a thiolate of the formula, XRS-, therein R can be a linear or branched chain hydrocarbon or an aromatic or the like and X can be any compatible end group, e.g., OH, COOH, CH{sub 3} or the like, upon a substrate such as gold, which involves applying in an electrochemical system a constant voltage preselected to yield the desired predetermined extent of coverage. 13 figs.

  14. Electrochemical method of controlling thiolate coverage on a conductive substrate such as gold

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Porter, Marc D.; Weisshaar, Duane E.

    1997-06-03

    An electrochemical method for forming a partial monomolecular layer of a predetermined extent of coverage of a thiolate of the formula, XRS.sup.-, wherein R can be a linear or branched chain hydrocarbon or an aromatic or the like and X can be any compatible end group, e.g., OH, COOH, CH.sub.3 or the like, upon a substrate such as gold, which involves applying in an electrochemical system a constant voltage preselected to yield the desired predetermined extent of coverage.

  15. Method of constructing an improved electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grimes, Patrick G.; Einstein, Harry

    1984-10-09

    An electrochemical cell construction features a novel co-extruded plastic electrode in an interleaved construction with a novel integral separator-spacer. Also featured is a leak and impact resistant construction for preventing the spill of corrosive materials in the event of rupture.

  16. Gas recombination assembly for electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levy, Isaac; Charkey, Allen

    1989-01-01

    An assembly for recombining gases generated in electrochemical cells wherein a catalyst strip is enveloped within a hydrophobic, gas-porous film which, in turn, is encased between gas-porous, metallic layers. The sandwich construction of metallic layers and film is formed into a spiral with a tab for connection to the cell.

  17. Minimizing electrode contamination in an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Yu Seung; Zelenay, Piotr; Johnston, Christina

    2014-12-09

    An electrochemical cell assembly that is expected to prevent or at least minimize electrode contamination includes one or more getters that trap a component or components leached from a first electrode and prevents or at least minimizes them from contaminating a second electrode.

  18. Predicting Electrochemical Windows of Nitrogen Containing Aromatic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Molecules - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research October 20, 2014, Research Highlights Predicting Electrochemical Windows of Nitrogen Containing Aromatic Molecules Various nitrogen containing aromatic base molecules and a descriptive relationship derived to predict their reduction potentials is shown. Scientific Achievement A descriptive relationship is derived for computing reduction potentials of quinoxaline derivatives from the orbital energies of the neutral molecules without

  19. Microfluidic electrochemical device and process for chemical imaging and electrochemical analysis at the electrode-liquid interface in-situ

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, Xiao-Ying; Liu, Bingwen; Yang, Li; Zhu, Zihua; Marshall, Matthew J.

    2016-03-01

    A microfluidic electrochemical device and process are detailed that provide chemical imaging and electrochemical analysis under vacuum at the surface of the electrode-sample or electrode-liquid interface in-situ. The electrochemical device allows investigation of various surface layers including diffuse layers at selected depths populated with, e.g., adsorbed molecules in which chemical transformation in electrolyte solutions occurs.

  20. Exploratory technology research program for electrochemical energy storage, annual report for 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinoshita, K. [ed.

    1998-06-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Transportation Technologies provides support for an Electrochemical Energy Storage Program, that includes research and development on advanced rechargeable batteries. A major goal of this program is to develop electrochemical power sources suitable for application in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid systems. The program centers on advanced electrochemical systems that offer the potential for high performance and low life-cycle costs, both of which are necessary to permit significant penetration into commercial markets. The DOE Electric Vehicle Technology Program is divided into two project areas: the US Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) and Advanced Battery R and D which includes the Exploratory Technology Research (ETR) Program managed by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The specific goal of the ETR Program is to identify the most promising electrochemical technologies and transfer them to the USABC, the battery industry and/or other Government agencies for further development and scale-up. This report summarizes the research, financial and management activities relevant to the ETR Program in CY 1997. This is a continuing program, and reports for prior years have been published; they are listed at the end of this Executive Summary. The general R and D areas addressed by the program include identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced batteries, determination of technical feasibility of the new couples, improvements in battery components and materials, and establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage. Major emphasis is given to applied research which will lead to superior performance and lower life-cycle costs.

  1. Exploratory Technology Research Program for electrochemical energy storage: Annual report for 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinoshita, K.

    1994-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Propulsion Systems provides support for an Electrochemical Energy Storage Program, that includes research and development (R&D) on advanced rechargeable batteries and fuel cells. A major goal of this program is to develop electrochemical power sources suitable for application in electric vehicles (EVs). The program centers on advanced systems that offer the potential for high performance and low life-cycle costs, both of which are necessary to permit significant penetration into commercial markets. The DOE Electrochemical Energy Storage Program is divided into two projects: the Electric Vehicle Advanced Battery Systems (EVABS) Development Program and the Exploratory Technology Research (ETR) Program. The EVABS Program management responsibility has been assigned to Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is responsible for management of the ETR Program. The EVABS and ETR Programs include an integrated matrix of R&D efforts designed to advance progress on selected candidate electrochemical systems. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), a tripartite undertaking between DOE, the U.S. automobile manufacturers and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), was formed in 1991 to accelerate the development of advanced batteries for consumer EVs. The role of the FIR Program is to perform supporting research on the advanced battery systems under development by the USABC and EVABS Program, and to evaluate new systems with potentially superior performance, durability and/or cost characteristics. The specific goal of the ETR Program is to identify the most promising electrochemical technologies and transfer them to the USABC, the battery industry and/or the EVABS Program for further development and scale-up. This report summarizes the research, financial and management activities relevant to the ETR Program in CY 1993.

  2. Automatic electrochemical ambient air monitor for chloride and chlorine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mueller, Theodore R.

    1976-07-13

    An electrochemical monitoring system has been provided for determining chloride and chlorine in air at levels of from about 10-1000 parts per billion. The chloride is determined by oxidation to chlorine followed by reduction to chloride in a closed system. Chlorine is determined by direct reduction at a platinum electrode in 6 M H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 electrolyte. A fully automated system is utilized to (1) acquire and store a value corresponding to electrolyte-containing impurities, (2) subtract this value from that obtained in the presence of air, (3) generate coulometrically a standard sample of chlorine mixed with air sample, and determine it as chlorine and/or chloride, and (4) calculate, display, and store for permanent record the ratio of the signal obtained from the air sample and that obtained with the standard.

  3. Electrochemical performance studies of MnO{sub 2} nanoflowers recovered from spent battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, Gomaa A.M.; Tan, Ling Ling; Jose, Rajan; Yusoff, Mashitah M.; Chong, Kwok Feng

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: MnO{sub 2} is recovered from spent zinccarbon batteries as nanoflowers structure. Recovered MnO{sub 2} nanoflowers show high specific capacitance. Recovered MnO{sub 2} nanoflowers show stable electrochemical cycling up to 900 cycles. Recovered MnO{sub 2} nanoflowers show low resistance in EIS data. - Abstract: The electrochemical performance of MnO{sub 2} nanoflowers recovered from spent household zinccarbon battery is studied by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. MnO{sub 2} nanoflowers are recovered from spent zinccarbon battery by combination of solution leaching and electrowinning techniques. In an effort to utilize recovered MnO{sub 2} nanoflowers as energy storage supercapacitor, it is crucial to understand their structure and electrochemical performance. X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the recovery of MnO{sub 2} in birnessite phase, while electron microscopy analysis shows the MnO{sub 2} is recovered as 3D nanostructure with nanoflower morphology. The recovered MnO{sub 2} nanoflowers exhibit high specific capacitance (294 F g{sup ?1} at 10 mV s{sup ?1}; 208.5 F g{sup ?1} at 0.1 A g{sup ?1}) in 1 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte, with stable electrochemical cycling. Electrochemical data analysis reveal the great potential of MnO{sub 2} nanoflowers recovered from spent zinccarbon battery in the development of high performance energy storage supercapacitor system.

  4. Alternative Waste Forms for Electro-Chemical Salt Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Sundaram, S. K.; Riley, Brian J.; Matyas, Josef; Arreguin, Shelly A.; Vienna, John D.

    2009-10-28

    This study was undertaken to examine alternate crystalline (ceramic/mineral) and glass waste forms for immobilizing spent salt from the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) electrochemical separations process. The AFCI is a program sponsored by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and demonstrate a process for recycling spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The electrochemical process is a molten salt process for the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel in an electrorefiner and generates spent salt that is contaminated with alkali, alkaline earths, and lanthanide fission products (FP) that must either be cleaned of fission products or eventually replaced with new salt to maintain separations efficiency. Currently, these spent salts are mixed with zeolite to form sodalite in a glass-bonded waste form. The focus of this study was to investigate alternate waste forms to immobilize spent salt. On a mole basis, the spent salt is dominated by alkali and Cl with minor amounts of alkaline earth and lanthanides. In the study reported here, we made an effort to explore glass systems that are more compatible with Cl and have not been previously considered for use as waste forms. In addition, alternate methods were explored with the hope of finding a way to produce a sodalite that is more accepting of as many FP present in the spent salt as possible. This study was done to investigate two different options: (1) alternate glass families that incorporate increased concentrations of Cl; and (2) alternate methods to produce a mineral waste form.

  5. SEPARATION OF OVERLAPPED ELECTROCHEMICAL PEAKS USING THE KALMAN FILTER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, T.F.; Brown, S.D.

    1981-01-01

    A major limitation in the use of electrochemical techniques for the quantitative analysis of mixtures is the difficulty of resolving overlapped peaks. This problem is further complicated by the low signal-to-noise ratios often encountered in trace analysis and by the use of electrochemical techniques that produce broad, asymmetric waveforms. This paper demonstrates the use of the Kalman Filter for multi-component analysis of linear sweep voltammograms. Even with the broad, asymmetric LSV waveform, synthetic data runs show that a peak separation of as little as 2.5 mV is sufficient for peak deconvolution in the presence of random noise. Besides separating overlapped peaks, the methods also filters the noise from the signal and can be used to separate the capacitive current component from the faradaic current component. The method is validated further using the Cd(II)/In(III) and Cd(II)/In(III)/Pb(II) systems which show peak separations of 40 to 200 mV. The use of the techniques with two other voltammetric waveforms is also demonstrated.

  6. Electrochemical Processing of Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. M. Goff; J. C. Wass; G. M. Teske

    2011-08-01

    As part of the Department of Energys Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program an electrochemical technology employing molten salts is being developed for recycle of metallic fast reactor fuel and treatment of light water reactor oxide fuel to produce a feed for fast reactors. This technology has been deployed for treatment of used fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) in the Fuel Conditioning Facility, located at the Materials and Fuel Complex of Idaho National Laboratory. This process is based on dry (non-aqueous) technologies that have been developed and demonstrated since the 1960s. These technologies offer potential advantages compared to traditional aqueous separations including: compactness, resistance to radiation effects, criticality control benefits, compatibility with advanced fuel types, and ability to produce low purity products. This paper will summarize the status of electrochemical development and demonstration activities with used nuclear fuel, including preparation of associated high-level waste forms.

  7. Environmentally Benign Electrolytes With Wide Electrochemical Windows -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Environmentally Benign Electrolytes With Wide Electrochemical Windows DOE Grant Recipients Arizona Technology Enterprises Contact Arizona Technology Enterprises About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryAs mobile electronics continue to evolve, the need for safe, long-lasting rechargeable batteries has grown tremendously. In the search for suitable materials from which to construct high energy density solid state batteries, one of the principal obstacles has

  8. electrochemical battery stress-induced degradation mechanisms

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    electrochemical battery stress-induced degradation mechanisms - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle

  9. ELECTROCHEMICAL DECONTAMINATION AND RECOVERY OF URANIUM VALUES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLaren, J.A.; Goode, J.H.

    1958-05-13

    An electrochemical process is described for separating uranium from fission products. The method comprises subjecting the mass of uranium to anodic dissolution in an electrolytic cell containing aqueous alkali bicarbonate solution as its electrolyte, thereby promoting a settling from the solution of a solid sludge from about the electrodes and separating the resulting electrolyte solution containing the anodically dissolved uranium from the sludge which contains the rare earth fission products.

  10. Method of making electrodes for electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D.; Kilsdonk, Dennis J.

    1983-01-01

    A method of making an electrode for an electrochemical cell in which particulate electrode-active material is mixed with a liquid organic carrier chemically inert with respect to the electrode-active material, mixing the liquid carrier to form an extrudable slurry. The liquid carrier is present in an amount of from about 10 to about 50 percent by volume of the slurry, and then the carrier is removed from the slurry leaving the electrode-active material.

  11. Electrochemically controlled charging circuit for storage batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Onstott, E.I.

    1980-06-24

    An electrochemically controlled charging circuit for charging storage batteries is disclosed. The embodiments disclosed utilize dc amplification of battery control current to minimize total energy expended for charging storage batteries to a preset voltage level. The circuits allow for selection of Zener diodes having a wide range of reference voltage levels. Also, the preset voltage level to which the storage batteries are charged can be varied over a wide range.

  12. Sealed joint structure for electrochemical device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tucker, Michael C; Jacobson, Craig P; De Jonghe, Lutgard C; Visco, Steven J

    2013-05-21

    Several members make up a joint in a high-temperature electrochemical device, wherein the various members perform different functions. The joint is useful for joining multiple cells (generally tubular modules) of an electrochemical device to produce a multi-cell segment-in-series stack for a solid oxide fuel cell, for instance. The joint includes sections that bond the joining members to each other; one or more seal sections that provide gas-tightness, and sections providing electrical connection and/or electrical insulation between the various joining members. A suitable joint configuration for an electrochemical device has a metal joint housing, a first porous electrode, a second porous electrode, separated from the first porous electrode by a solid electrolyte, and an insulating member disposed between the metal joint housing and the electrolyte and second electrode. One or more brazes structurally and electrically connects the first electrode to the metal joint housing and forms a gas tight seal between the first electrode and the second electrode.

  13. Electrochemically Modulated Separation for Plutonium Safeguards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, Sandra H.; Breshears, Andrew T.; Arrigo, Leah M.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Duckworth, Douglas C.

    2013-12-31

    Accurate and timely analysis of plutonium in spent nuclear fuel is critical in nuclear safeguards for detection of both protracted and rapid plutonium diversions. Gamma spectroscopy is a viable method for accurate and timely measurements of plutonium provided that the plutonium is well separated from the interfering fission and activation products present in spent nuclear fuel. Electrochemically modulated separation (EMS) is a method that has been used successfully to isolate picogram amounts of Pu from nitric acid matrices. With EMS, Pu adsorption may be turned "on" and "off" depending on the applied voltage, allowing for collection and stripping of Pu without the addition of chemical reagents. In this work, we have scaled up the EMS process to isolate microgram quantities of Pu from matrices encountered in spent nuclear fuel during reprocessing. Several challenges have been addressed including surface area limitations, radiolysis effects, electrochemical cell performance stability, and chemical interferences. After these challenges were resolved, 6 g Pu was deposited in the electrochemical cell with approximately an 800-fold reduction of fission and activation product levels from a spent nuclear fuel sample. Modeling showed that these levels of Pu collection and interference reduction may not be sufficient for Pu detection by gamma spectroscopy. The main remaining challenges are to achieve a more complete Pu isolation and to deposit larger quantities of Pu for successful gamma analysis of Pu. If gamma analyses of Pu are successful, EMS will allow for accurate and timely on-site analysis for enhanced Pu safeguards.

  14. Method of determining methane and electrochemical sensor therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zaromb, Solomon; Otagawa, Takaaki; Stetter, Joseph R.

    1986-01-01

    A method and instrument including an electrochemical cell for the detection and measurement of methane in a gas by the oxidation of methane electrochemically at a working electrode in a nonaqueous electrolyte at a voltage about about 1.4 volts versus R.H.E. (the reversible hydrogen electrode potential in the same electrolyte), and the measurement of the electrical signal resulting from the electrochemical oxidation.

  15. Electrochemical and infrared studies of the reduction of organic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Electrochemical and infrared studies of the reduction of organic carbonates Citation Details ... Publication Date: 2001-06-01 OSTI Identifier: 821009 Report ...

  16. Microbial Electrochemical Technology (MxCs): Challenges and Opportunit...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrochemical Technology (MxCs): Challenges and ... MxC is a platform technology that integrates ... capacity of WW Limits ion transfer in MFC, resulting low ...

  17. A Two-Dimensional Thermal-Electrochemical Model for Prismatic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Two-Dimensional Thermal-Electrochemical Model for Prismatic Lithium Ion Cells National ... readily implemented onto hardware for interfacing with and controlling lithium ion cells. ...

  18. Electrochemical Characterization of Voltage Fade in LMR-NMC cells...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Characterization of Voltage Fade in LMR-NMC cells Electrochemical Characterization of Voltage Fade in LMR-NMC cells 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle ...

  19. Advanced Hybrid Water-Heater Using Electrochemical Compression...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bamdad Bahar bamdad.bahar@xergyinc.com Xergy, Inc. Advanced Hybrid Water-Heater Using ... Project Goal: Develop a heat pump water heater utilizing electrochemical ...

  20. Low-Cost Electrochemical Compressor Utilizing Green Refrigerants...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrochemical Compressor Utilizing Green Refrigerants for HVAC Applications Low-Cost ... 31, 2017 Funding Opportunity: Building Energy Efficiency Frontiers and Innovation ...

  1. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: INL Electrochemical Performance Testing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Idaho National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about INL electrochemical...

  2. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: INL Electrochemical Performance Testing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by [company name] at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about INL electrochemical...

  3. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Electrochemical Performance Testing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about electrochemical...

  4. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Electrochemical Performance Testing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about electrochemical...

  5. Variable temperature electrochemical strain microscopy of Sm-doped ceria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jesse, Stephen; Morozovska, A. N.; Kalinin, Sergei V; Eliseev, E. A.; Yang, Nan; Doria, Sandra; Tebano, Antonello

    2013-01-01

    Variable temperature electrochemical strain microscopy has been used to study the electrochemical activity of Sm-doped ceria as a function of temperature and bias. The electrochemical strain microscopy hysteresis loops have been collected across the surface at different temperatures and the relative activity at different temperatures has been compared. The relaxation behavior of the signal at different temperatures has been also evaluated to relate kinetic process during bias induced electrochemical reactions with temperature and two different kinetic regimes have been identified. The strongly non-monotonic dependence of relaxation behavior on temperature is interpreted as evidence for water-mediated mechanisms.

  6. Electrochemical NOxSensor for Monitoring Diesel Emissions | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy PDF icon pm_02_glass.pdf More Documents & Publications NOxsensor development Electrochemical NOx Sensors for Monitoring Diesel Emissions NOx Sensor Development

  7. Quantitative Electrochemical TEM to Study Alloying for Advanced...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Quantitative Electrochemical TEM to Study Alloying for Advanced Battery Anodes. Abstract not provided. Authors: Zavadil, Kevin Robert ; Liu, Yang ; Kotula, Paul Gabriel ; ...

  8. Flotation process for removal of precipitates from electrochemical chromate reduction unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeMonbrun, James R.; Schmitt, Charles R.; Williams, Everett H.

    1976-01-01

    This invention is an improved form of a conventional electrochemical process for removing hexavalent chromium or other metal-ion contaminants from cooling-tower blowdown water. In the conventional process, the contaminant is reduced and precipitated at an iron anode, thus forming a mixed precipitate of iron and chromium hydroxides, while hydrogen being evolved copiously at a cathode is vented from the electrochemical cell. In the conventional process, subsequent separation of the fine precipitate has proved to be difficult and inefficient. In accordance with this invention, the electrochemical operation is conducted in a novel manner permitting a much more efficient and less expensive precipitate-recovery operation. That is, the electrochemical operation is conducted under an evolved-hydrogen partial pressure exceeding atmospheric pressure. As a result, most of the evolved hydrogen is entrained as bubbles in the blowdown in the cell. The resulting hydrogen-rich blowdown is introduced to a vented chamber, where the entrained hydrogen combines with the precipitate to form a froth which can be separated by conventional techniques. In addition to the hydrogen, two materials present in most blowdown act as flotation promoters for the precipitate. These are (1) air, with which the blowdown water becomes saturated in the course of normal cooling-tower operation, and (2) surfactants which commonly are added to cooling-tower recirculating-water systems to inhibit the growth of certain organisms or prevent the deposition of insoluble particulates.

  9. Portable Analyzer Based on Microfluidics/Nanoengineered Electrochemical Sensors for in Situ Characterization of Mixed Wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Joseph

    2006-06-01

    This research effort aims at developing a portable analytical system for fast, sensitive, and inexpensive, on-site monitoring of toxic transition metals and radionuclides in contaminated DOE Sites. The portable devices will be based on Microscale Total Analytical systems ( -TAS) or ''Lab-on-a-chip'' in combination with electrochemical (stripping-voltammetric) sensors. The resulting microfluidics/electrochemical sensor system would allow testing for toxic metals to be performed more rapidly, inexpensively, and reliably in a field setting. Progress Summary/Accomplishments: This report summarizes the ASU activity over the second year of the project. In accordance to our original objectives our studies have focused on various fundamental and practical aspects of sensing and microchip devices for monitoring metal contaminants. As described in this section, we have made a substantial progress, and introduced effective routes for improving the on-site detection of toxic metals and for interfacing microchips with the real world.

  10. Electrochemical Corrosion Testing of Borated Stainless Steel Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    lister, tedd e; Mizia, Ronald E

    2007-05-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management has specified borated stainless steel manufactured to the requirements of ASTM A 887-89, Grade A, UNS S30464, to be the material used for the fabrication of the fuel basket internals of the preliminary transportation, aging, and disposal canister system preliminary design. The long-term corrosion resistance performance of this class of borated materials must be verified when exposed to expected YMP repository conditions after a waste package breach. Electrochemical corrosion tests were performed on crevice corrosion coupons of Type 304 B4 and Type 304 B5 borated stainless steels exposed to single postulated in-package chemistry at 60C. The results show low corrosion rates for the test period

  11. Cell structure for electrochemical devices and method of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    2007-03-27

    An electrochemical device comprising alternating layers of positive and negative electrodes separated from each other by separator layers. The electrode layers extend beyond the periphery of the separator layers providing superior contact between the electrodes and battery terminals, eliminating the need for welding the electrode to the terminal. Electrical resistance within the battery is decreased and thermal conductivity of the cell is increased allowing for superior heat removal from the battery and increased efficiency. Increased internal pressure within the battery can be alleviated without damaging or removing the battery from service while keeping the contents of the battery sealed off from the atmosphere by a pressure release system. Nonoperative cells within a battery assembly can also be removed from service by shorting the nonoperative cell thus decreasing battery life.

  12. Electrochemical mercerization, souring, and bleaching of textiles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F.

    1995-01-01

    Economical, pollution-free treatment of textiles occurs in a low voltage electrochemical cell that mercerizes (or scours), sours, and optionally bleaches without effluents and without the purchase of bulk caustic, neutralizing acids, or bleaches. The cell produces base in the cathodic chamber for mercerization and an equivalent amount of acid in the anodic chamber for neutralizing the fabric. Gas diffusion electrodes are used for one or both electrodes and may simultaneously generate hydrogen peroxide for bleaching. The preferred configuration is a stack of bipolar electrodes, in which one or both of the anode and cathode are gas diffusion electrodes, and where no hydrogen gas is evolved at the cathode.

  13. Electrochemical mercerization, souring, and bleaching of textiles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, J.F.

    1995-10-10

    Economical, pollution-free treatment of textiles occurs in a low voltage electrochemical cell that mercerizes (or scours), sours, and optionally bleaches without effluents and without the purchase of bulk caustic, neutralizing acids, or bleaches. The cell produces base in the cathodic chamber for mercerization and an equivalent amount of acid in the anodic chamber for neutralizing the fabric. Gas diffusion electrodes are used for one or both electrodes and may simultaneously generate hydrogen peroxide for bleaching. The preferred configuration is a stack of bipolar electrodes, in which one or both of the anode and cathode are gas diffusion electrodes, and where no hydrogen gas is evolved at the cathode. 5 figs.

  14. Methods for performing electrochemical nitration reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lister, Tedd Edward; Fox, Robert Vincent

    2010-05-11

    A method for the electrochemical synthesis of dinitro compounds is disclosed. The method comprises using an anode to oxidize an inactive chemical mediator, such as a ferrocyanide (Fe(CN).sub.6.sup.-4) ion, to an active chemical mediator or oxidizing agent, such as a ferricyanide (Fe(CN).sub.6.sup.-3) ion, in the presence of a differential voltage. The oxidizing agent reacts with a nitro compound and a nitrite ion to form a geminal dinitro compound. The anode may continuously oxidize ferrocyanide to regenerate active ferricyanide, thus keeping sufficient amounts of ferricyanide available for reaction..

  15. Morphology in electrochemically grown conducting polymer films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rubinstein, I.; Gottesfeld, S.; Sabatani, E.

    1992-04-28

    A conducting polymer film with an improved space filling is formed on a metal electrode surface. A self-assembling monolayer is formed directly on the metal surface where the monolayer has a first functional group that binds to the metal surface and a second chemical group that forms a chemical bonding site for molecules forming the conducting polymer. The conducting polymer is then conventionally deposited by electrochemical deposition. In one example, a conducting film of polyaniline is formed on a gold electrode surface with an intermediate monolayer of p-aminothiophenol. 2 figs.

  16. Morphology in electrochemically grown conducting polymer films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rubinstein, Israel; Gottesfeld, Shimshon; Sabatani, Eyal

    1992-01-01

    A conducting polymer film with an improved space filling is formed on a metal electrode surface. A self-assembling monolayer is formed directly on the metal surface where the monolayer has a first functional group that binds to the metal surface and a second chemical group that forms a chemical bonding site for molecules forming the conducting polymer. The conducting polymer is then conventioonally deposited by electrochemical deposition. In one example, a conducting film of polyaniline is formed on a gold electrode surface with an intermediate monolayer of p-aminothiophenol.

  17. Method for manufacturing an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D.; Eshman, Paul F.

    1982-01-01

    A secondary electrochemical cell is prepared by providing positive and negative electrodes having outer enclosures of rigid perforated electrically conductive material defining an internal compartment containing the electrode material in porous solid form. The electrodes are each immersed in molten electrolyte salt prior to cell assembly to incorporate the cell electrolyte. Following solidification of the electrolyte substantially throughout the porous volume of the electrode material, the electrodes are arranged in an alternating positive-negative array with interelectrode separators of porous frangible electrically insulative material. The completed array is assembled into the cell housing and sealed such that on heating the solidified electrolyte flows into the interelectrode separator.

  18. Electrochemical cell with high conductivity glass electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Paul A.; Bloom, Ira D.; Roche, Michael F.

    1987-01-01

    A secondary electrochemical cell with sodium-sulfur or other molten reactants is provided with a ionically conductive glass electrolyte. The cell is contained within an electrically conductive housing with a first portion at negative potential and a second portion insulated therefrom at positive electrode potential. The glass electrolyte is formed into a plurality of elongated tubes and placed lengthwise within the housing. The positive electrode material, for instance sulfur, is sealed into the glass electrolyte tubes and is provided with an elongated axial current collector. The glass electrolyte tubes are protected by shield tubes or sheets that also define narrow annuli for wicking of the molten negative electrode material.

  19. Solid oxide electrochemical cell fabrication process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dollard, Walter J.; Folser, George R.; Pal, Uday B.; Singhal, Subhash C.

    1992-01-01

    A method to form an electrochemical cell (12) is characterized by the steps of thermal spraying stabilized zirconia over a doped lanthanum manganite air electrode tube (14) to provide an electrolyte layer (15), coating conductive particles over the electrolyte, pressurizing the outside of the electrolyte layer, feeding halide vapors of yttrium and zirconium to the outside of the electrolyte layer and feeding a source of oxygen to the inside of the electrolyte layer, heating to cause oxygen reaction with the halide vapors to close electrolyte pores if there are any and to form a metal oxide coating on and between the particles and provide a fuel electrode (16).

  20. Electrochemical cell assembled in discharged state

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yao, Neng-Ping; Walsh, William J.

    1976-01-01

    A secondary, electrochemical cell is assembled in a completely discharged state within a sealed containment. As assembled, the cell includes a positive electrode separated from a negative electrode by a molten salt electrolyte. The positive electrode is contained within a porous structure, permitting passage of molten electrolyte, and includes one or more layers of a metallic mesh, e.g. iron, impregnated with an intimate mixture of lithium sulfide and the electrolyte. The negative electrode is a porous plaque of aluminum metal. Prior to using the cell, an electrical charge forms lithium-aluminum alloy within the negative electrode and metal sulfide within the positive electrode.

  1. Electrochemical cell with high conductivity glass electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, P.A.; Bloom, I.D.; Roche, M.F.

    1986-04-17

    A secondary electrochemical cell with sodium-sulfur or other molten reactants is provided with an ionically conductive glass electrolyte. The cell is contained within an electrically conductive housing with a first portion at negative potential and a second portion insulated therefrom at positive electrode potential. The glass electrolyte is formed into a plurality of elongated tubes and placed lengthwise within the housing. The positive electrode material, for instance sulfur, is sealed into the glass electrolyte tubes and is provided with an elongated axial current collector. The glass electrolyte tubes are protected by shield tubes or sheets that also define narrow annuli for wicking of the molten negative electrode material.

  2. Electrochemical cell with high conductivity glass electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, P.A.; Bloom, I.D.; Roche, M.F.

    1987-04-21

    A secondary electrochemical cell with sodium-sulfur or other molten reactants is provided with a ionically conductive glass electrolyte. The cell is contained within an electrically conductive housing with a first portion at negative potential and a second portion insulated therefrom at positive electrode potential. The glass electrolyte is formed into a plurality of elongated tubes and placed lengthwise within the housing. The positive electrode material, for instance sulfur, is sealed into the glass electrolyte tubes and is provided with an elongated axial current collector. The glass electrolyte tubes are protected by shield tubes or sheets that also define narrow annuli for wicking of the molten negative electrode material. 6 figs.

  3. Electrochemical NOx Sensor for Monitoring Diesel Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woo, L Y; Glass, R S

    2008-11-14

    Increasingly stringent emissions regulations will require the development of advanced gas sensors for a variety of applications. For example, compact, inexpensive sensors are needed for detection of regulated pollutants, including hydrocarbons (HCs), CO, and NO{sub x}, in automotive exhaust. Of particular importance will be a sensor for NO{sub x} to ensure the proper operation of the catalyst system in the next generation of diesel (CIDI) automobiles. Because many emerging applications, particularly monitoring of automotive exhaust, involve operation in harsh, high-temperature environments, robust ceramic-oxide-based electrochemical sensors are a promising technology. Sensors using yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) as an oxygen-ion-conducting electrolyte have been widely reported for both amperometric and potentiometric modes of operation. These include the well-known exhaust gas oxygen (EGO) sensor. More recently, ac impedance-based (i.e., impedance-metric) sensing techniques using YSZ have been reported for sensing water vapor, hydrocarbons, CO, and NO{sub x}. Typically small-amplitude alternating signal is applied, and the sensor response is measured at a specified frequency. Most impedance-metric techniques have used the modulus (or magnitude) at low frequencies (< 1 Hz) as the sensing signal and attribute the measured response to interfacial phenomena. Work by our group has also investigated using phase angle as the sensing signal at somewhat higher frequencies (10 Hz). The higher frequency measurements would potentially allow for reduced sampling times during sensor operation. Another potential advantage of impedance-metric NO{sub x} sensing is the similarity in response to NO and NO{sub 2} (i.e., total-NO{sub x} sensing). Potentiometric NO{sub x} sensors typically show higher sensitivity to NO2 than NO, and responses that are opposite in sign. However, NO is more stable than NO{sub 2} at temperatures > 600 C, and thermodynamic calculations predict {approx}90% NO, balance NO{sub 2}. Since automotive exhaust sensors will probably be required to operate at temperatures > 600 C, NO is the dominant component in thermodynamic equilibrium and the target NOx species. Also, the use of upstream catalysts could further promote the conversion of NO{sub x} species to NO. Therefore, the focus of current work is to investigate the response to NO. Nevertheless, minimizing the sensitivity to a variety of competing species is important in order to obtain the accuracy necessary for achieving the emission limits. Mitigating the effect of interfering gases (e.g., O{sub 2}, water vapor, HCs, etc.) is an area of current study. For impedance metric NO{sub x} sensors, our previous work has demonstrated that the cross-sensitivity to O{sub 2} may be accounted for by comparing measurements at multiple frequencies. Other strategies for compensation are also being explored, including calibration using data from existing sensors located nearby. Our current work has made significant advances in terms of developing prototype sensors more suitable for commercialization. Also, dynamometer testing has provided real-world sensor performance data that will be useful in approaching potential suppliers to whom we can transfer the technology for commercialization. The advances are a direct result of understanding the sensing mechanisms responsible for impedance-based NO{sub x} sensing and the effect of materials choice and sensor design/geometry.

  4. Electrochemical aspects of stress-corrosion crack growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newman, R.C.; Sieradzki, K.

    1982-06-01

    Some contributions of electrochemical methods to the understanding of stress-corrosion cracking are described, with examples drawn from studies of stainless steels, nickel alloys and brasses. Considerations related to the local alloy composition, solution composition and electrode potential within a crack are classified and illustrated. The relationship between electrochemical and acoustic noise is discussed.

  5. Electrochemical NOx Sensors for Monitoring Diesel Emissions | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy A unique electrochemical sensing strategy correlating the level of NOx with an impedance-based signal shows promise for sensitivity, stability, and accuracy while incorporating single-cell structures and simple electronics into low-cost designs PDF icon deer10_woo.pdf More Documents & Publications NOxsensor development NOx sensor development Electrochemical NOxSensor for Monitoring Diesel Emissions

  6. Electrochemical Aging of Thermal-Sprayed Zinc Anodes on Concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.R.; Bullard, S.J.; Covino, B.S. Jr.; Cramer, S.D.; Cryer, C.B.; McGill, G.E.

    1996-10-01

    Thermal-sprayed zinc anodes are used in impressed current cathodic protection systems for some of Oregon's coastal reinforced concrete bridges. Electrochemical aging of zinc anodes results in physical and chemical changes at the zinc-concrete interface. Concrete surfaces heated prior to thermal-spraying had initial adhesion strengths 80 pct higher than unheated surfaces. For electrochemical aging greater than 200 kC/m{sup 2} (5.2 A h/ft{sup 2}), there was no difference in adhesion strengths for zinc on preheated and unheated concrete. Adhesion strengths decreased monotonically after about 400 to 600 kC/m{sup 2} (10.4 to 15.6 A-h/ft{sup 2}) as a result of the reaction zones at the zinc-concrete interface. A zone adjacent to the metallic zinc (and originally part of the zinc coating) was primarily zincite (ZnO), with minor constituents of wulfingite (Zn(OH){sub 2}), simonkolleite (Zn{sub 5}(OH) {sub 8}C{sub l2}{sup .}H{sub 2}O), and hydrated zinc hydroxide sulfates (Zn{sub 4}SO{sub 4}(OH){sub 6}{sup .}xH{sub 2}O). This zone is the locus for cohesive fracture when the zinc coating separates from the concrete during adhesion tests. Zinc ions substitute for calcium in the cement paste adjacent to the coating as the result of secondary mineralization. The initial estimate of the coating service life based on adhesion strength measurements in accelerated impressed current cathodic protection tests is about 27 years.

  7. Sensor apparatus using an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thakur, Mrinal

    2003-07-01

    A method for sensing mechanical quantities such as force, stress, strain, pressure and acceleration is disclosed. This technology is based on a change in the electrochemically generated voltage (electromotive force) with application of force, stress, strain, pressure or acceleration. The change in the voltage is due to a change in the internal resistance of the electrochemical cell with a change in the relative position or orientation of the electrodes (anode and cathode) in the cell. The signal to be detected (e.g. force, stress, strain, pressure or acceleration) is applied to one of the electrodes to cause a change in the relative position or orientation between the electrodes. Various materials, solid, semisolid, gel, paste or liquid can be utilized as the electrolyte. The electrolyte must be an ion conductor. The examples of solid electrolytes include specific polymer conductors, polymer composites, ion conducting glasses and ceramics. The electrodes are made of conductors such as metals with dissimilar electro negativities. Significantly enhanced sensitivities, up to three orders of magnitude higher than that of comparable commercial sensors, are obtained. The materials are substantially less expensive than commercially used materials for mechanical sensors. An apparatus for sensing such mechanical quantities using materials such as doped 1,4 cis-polyisopropene and nafion. The 1,4 cis-polyisopropene may be doped with lithium perchlorate or iodine. The output voltage signal increases with an increase of the sensing area for a given stress. The device can be used as an intruder alarm, among other applications.

  8. Sensor apparatus using an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thakur, Mrinal

    2002-01-01

    A novel technology for sensing mechanical quantities such as force, stress, strain, pressure and acceleration has been invented. This technology is based on a change in the electrochemically generated voltage (electromotive force) with application of force, stress, strain, pressure or acceleration. The change in the voltage is due to a change in the internal resistance of the electrochemical cell with a change in the relative position or orientation of the electrodes (anode and cathode) in the cell. The signal to be detected (e.g. force, stress, strain, pressure or acceleration) is applied to one of the electrodes to cause a change in the relative position or orientation between the electrodes. Various materials, solid, semisolid, gel, paste or liquid can be utilized as the electrolyte. The electrolyte must be an ion conductor. The examples of solid electrolytes include specific polymer conductors, polymer composites, ion conducting glasses and ceramics. The electrodes are made of conductors such as metals with dissimilar electronegativities. Significantly enhanced sensitivities, up to three orders of magnitude higher than that of comparable commercial sensors, are obtained. The materials are substantially less expensive than commercially used materials for mechanical sensors.

  9. Exploratory technology research program for electrochemical energy storage. Annual report for 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinoshita, K. [ed.

    1997-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Transportation Technologies provides support for an Electrochemical Energy Storage Program, that includes research and development on advanced rechargeable batteries and fuel cells. A major goal of this program is to develop electrochemical power sources suitable for application in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid systems. The program centers on advanced electrochemical systems that offer the potential for high performance and low life-cycle costs, both of which are necessary to permit significant penetration into commercial markets. The DOE Electric Vehicle Technology Program is divided into two project areas: the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) and Advanced Battery R&D which includes the Exploratory Technology Research (ETR) Program managed by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The USABC, a tripartite undertaking between DOE, the U.S. automobile manufacturers and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), was formed in 1991 to accelerate the development of advanced batteries for EVs. In addition, DOE is actively involved in the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) Program which seeks to develop passenger vehicles with a range equivalent to 80 mpg of gasoline. The role of the ETR Program is to perform supporting research on the advanced battery systems under development by the USABC and the PNGV Program, and to evaluate new systems with potentially superior performance, durability and/or cost characteristics. The specific goal of the ETR Program is to identify the most promising electrochemical technologies and transfer them to the USABC, the battery industry and/or other Government agencies for further development and scale-up. This report summarizes the research, financial and management activities relevant to the ETR Program in CY 1996. This is a continuing program, and reports for prior years have been published; they are listed at the end of this Executive Summary.

  10. Gas venting system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khan, Amjad; Dreier, Ken Wayne; Moulthrop, Lawrence Clinton; White, Erik James

    2010-06-29

    A system to vent a moist gas stream is disclosed. The system includes an enclosure and an electrochemical cell disposed within the enclosure, the electrochemical cell productive of the moist gas stream. A first vent is in fluid communication with the electrochemical cell for venting the moist gas stream to an exterior of the enclosure, and a second vent is in fluid communication with an interior of the enclosure and in thermal communication with the first vent for discharging heated air to the exterior of the enclosure. At least a portion of the discharging heated air is for preventing freezing of the moist gas stream within the first vent.

  11. Stability enhancement of an electrically tunable colloidal photonic crystal using modified electrodes with a large electrochemical potential window

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shim, HongShik; Gyun Shin, Chang; Heo, Chul-Joon; Jeon, Seog-Jin; Jin, Haishun; Woo Kim, Jung; Jin, YongWan; Lee, SangYoon; Gyu Han, Moon E-mail: jinklee@snu.ac.kr; Lim, Joohyun; Lee, Jin-Kyu E-mail: jinklee@snu.ac.kr

    2014-02-03

    The color tuning behavior and switching stability of an electrically tunable colloidal photonic crystal system were studied with particular focus on the electrochemical aspects. Photonic color tuning of the colloidal arrays composed of monodisperse particles dispersed in water was achieved using external electric field through lattice constant manipulation. However, the number of effective color tuning cycle was limited due to generation of unwanted ions by electrolysis of the water medium during electrical switching. By introducing larger electrochemical potential window electrodes, such as conductive diamond-like carbon or boron-doped diamond, the switching stability was appreciably enhanced through reducing the number of ions generated.

  12. A review of iron and cobalt porphyrins, phthalocyanines, and related complexes for electrochemical and photochemical reduction of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manbeck, Gerald F.; Fujita, Etsuko

    2015-03-30

    This review summarizes research on the electrochemical and photochemical reduction of CO? using a variety of iron and cobalt porphyrins, phthalocyanines, and related complexes. Metalloporphyrins and metallophthalocyanines are visible light absorbers with extremely large extinction coefficients. However, yields of photochemically-generated active catalysts for CO? reduction are typically low owing to the requirement of a second photoinduced electron. This requirement is not relevant to the case of electrochemical CO? reduction. Recent progress on efficient and stable electrochemical systems includes the use of FeTPP catalysts that have prepositioned phenyl OH groups in their second coordination spheres. This has led to remarkable progress in carrying out coupled proton-electron transfer reactions for CO? reduction. Such ground-breaking research has to be continued in order to produce renewable fuels in an economically feasible manner.

  13. A review of iron and cobalt porphyrins, phthalocyanines, and related complexes for electrochemical and photochemical reduction of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manbeck, Gerald F.; Fujita, Etsuko

    2015-03-30

    This review summarizes research on the electrochemical and photochemical reduction of CO₂ using a variety of iron and cobalt porphyrins, phthalocyanines, and related complexes. Metalloporphyrins and metallophthalocyanines are visible light absorbers with extremely large extinction coefficients. However, yields of photochemically-generated active catalysts for CO₂ reduction are typically low owing to the requirement of a second photoinduced electron. This requirement is not relevant to the case of electrochemical CO₂ reduction. Recent progress on efficient and stable electrochemical systems includes the use of FeTPP catalysts that have prepositioned phenyl OH groups in their second coordination spheres. This has led to remarkable progress in carrying out coupled proton-electron transfer reactions for CO₂ reduction. Such ground-breaking research has to be continued in order to produce renewable fuels in an economically feasible manner.

  14. A review of iron and cobalt porphyrins, phthalocyanines, and related complexes for electrochemical and photochemical reduction of carbon dioxide

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Manbeck, Gerald F.; Fujita, Etsuko

    2015-03-30

    This review summarizes research on the electrochemical and photochemical reduction of CO₂ using a variety of iron and cobalt porphyrins, phthalocyanines, and related complexes. Metalloporphyrins and metallophthalocyanines are visible light absorbers with extremely large extinction coefficients. However, yields of photochemically-generated active catalysts for CO₂ reduction are typically low owing to the requirement of a second photoinduced electron. This requirement is not relevant to the case of electrochemical CO₂ reduction. Recent progress on efficient and stable electrochemical systems includes the use of FeTPP catalysts that have prepositioned phenyl OH groups in their second coordination spheres. This has led to remarkable progressmore » in carrying out coupled proton-electron transfer reactions for CO₂ reduction. Such ground-breaking research has to be continued in order to produce renewable fuels in an economically feasible manner.« less

  15. Thermoelectrochemical system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ludwig, F.A.; Townsend, C.W.; Eliash, B.M.

    1995-11-28

    A thermal electrochemical system is described in which an electrical current is generated between a cathode immersed in a concentrated aqueous solution of phosphoric acid and an anode immersed in a molten salt solution of ammonium phosphate and monohydric ammonium phosphate. Reactants consumed at the electrodes during the electrochemical reaction are thermochemically regenerated and recycled to the electrodes to provide continuous operation of the system. 5 figs.

  16. Composite electrode for use in electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vanderborgh, Nicholas E.; Huff, James R.; Leddy, Johna

    1989-01-01

    A porous composite electrode for use in electrochemical cells. The electrode has a first face and a second face defining a relatively thin section therebetween. The electrode is comprised of an ion conducting material, an electron conducting material, and an electrocatalyst. The volume concentration of the ion conducting material is greatest at the first face and is decreased across the section, while the volume concentration of the electron conducting material is greatest at the second face and decreases across the section of the electrode. Substantially all of the electrocatalyst is positioned within the electrode section in a relatively narrow zone where the rate of electron transport of the electrode is approximately equal to the rate of ion transport of the electrode.

  17. Electrochemical cell and negative electrode therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1982-01-01

    A secondary electrochemical cell with the positive and negative electrodes separated by a molten salt electrolyte with the negative electrode comprising a particulate mixture of lithium-aluminum alloy and electrolyte and an additive selected from graphitized carbon, Raney iron or mixtures thereof. The lithium-aluminum alloy is present in the range of from about 45 to about 80 percent by volume of the negative electrode, and the electrolyte is present in an amount not less than about 10 percent by volume of the negative electrode. The additive of graphitized carbon is present in the range of from about 1 to about 10 percent by volume of the negative electrode, and the Raney iron additive is present in the range of from about 3 to about 10 percent by volume of the negative electrode.

  18. Electrochemical Cell Design With A Hollow Gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Romero, Antonio; Oweis, Salah; Chagnon, Guy; Staniewicz, Robert; Briscoe, Douglas

    2000-02-01

    An electrochemical cell having a spiral winding around a central core, wherein the central core is provided with longitudinal grooves on its outer surface to facilitate electrolyte filing and accommodate overpressure. The core itself improves dissipation of heat generated along the center of the cell, and the hollow core design allows the cell core to have a larger radius, permitting the "jelly roll" winding to begin at a larger radius and thereby facilitate the initial turns of the winding by decreasing the amount of bending required of the electrode laminate at the beginning of the winding operation. The hollow core also provides mechanical support end-to-end. A pair of washers are used at each end of the cell to sandwich current collection tabs in a manner that improves electrical and thermal conductivity while also providing structural integrity.

  19. Method for making an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bates, J.B.; Dudney, N.J.

    1996-10-22

    Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making the same, having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode. Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between {minus}15 C and 150 C. 9 figs.

  20. Method for making an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bates, John B.; Dudney, Nancy J.

    1996-01-01

    Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making same having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between -15.degree. C. and 150.degree. C.

  1. Electrochemical cell and method of assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimotake, Hiroshi; Voss, Ernst C. H.; Bartholme, Louis G.

    1979-01-01

    A method of preparing an electrochemical cell is disclosed which permits the assembly to be accomplished in air. The cell includes a metal sulfide as the positive electrode reactant, lithium alloy as the negative electrode reactant and an alkali metal, molten salt electrolyte. Positive electrode reactant is introduced as Li.sub.2 FeS.sub.2, a single-phase compound produced by the reaction of Li.sub.2 S and FeS. The use of this compound permits introduction of lithium in an oxidized form. Additional lithium can be introduced in the negative electrode structure enclosed within an aluminum foil envelope between layers of porous aluminum. Molten salt electrolyte is added after assembly and evacuation of the cell by including an interelectrode separator that has been prewet with an organic solution of KCl.

  2. Electrochemical cell having cylindrical electrode elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Paul A. (Wheaton, IL); Shimotake, Hiroshi (Hinsdale, IL)

    1982-01-01

    A secondary, high temperature electrochemical cell especially adapted for lithium alloy negative electrodes, transition metal chalcogenide positive electrodes and alkali metal halide or alkaline earth metal halide electrolyte is disclosed. The cell is held within an elongated cylindrical container in which one of the active materials is filled around the outside surfaces of a plurality of perforate tubular current collectors along the length of the container. Each of the current collector tubes contain a concentric tubular layer of electrically insulative ceramic as an interelectrode separator. The active material of opposite polarity in elongated pin shape is positioned longitudinally within the separator layer. A second electrically conductive tube with perforate walls can be swagged or otherwise bonded to the outer surface of the pin as a current collector and the electrically insulative ceramic layer can be coated or otherwise layered onto the outer surface of this second current collector. Alternatively, the central pin electrode can include an axial core as a current collector.

  3. Graphene nanocomposites for electrochemical cell electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhamu, Aruna; Jang, Bor Z.; Shi, Jinjun

    2015-11-19

    A composite composition for electrochemical cell electrode applications, the composition comprising multiple solid particles, wherein (a) a solid particle is composed of graphene platelets dispersed in or bonded by a first matrix or binder material, wherein the graphene platelets are not obtained from graphitization of the first binder or matrix material; (b) the graphene platelets have a length or width in the range of 10 nm to 10 .mu.m; (c) the multiple solid particles are bonded by a second binder material; and (d) the first or second binder material is selected from a polymer, polymeric carbon, amorphous carbon, metal, glass, ceramic, oxide, organic material, or a combination thereof. For a lithium ion battery anode application, the first binder or matrix material is preferably amorphous carbon or polymeric carbon. Such a composite composition provides a high anode capacity and good cycling response. For a supercapacitor electrode application, the solid particles preferably have meso-scale pores therein to accommodate electrolyte.

  4. Composite electrode for use in electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vanderborgh, N.E.; Huff, J.R.; Leddy, J.

    1987-10-16

    A porous composite electrode for use in electrochemical cells. The electrode has a first face and a second face defining a relatively thin section therebetween. The electrode is comprised of an ion conducting material, an electron conducting material, and an electrocatalyst. The volume concentration of the ion conducting material is greatest at the first face and is decreased across the section, while the volume concentration of the electron conducting material is greatest at the second face and decreases across the section of the electrode. Substantially all of the electrocatalyst is positioned within the electrode section in a relatively narrow zone where the rate of electron transport of the electrode is approximately equal to the rate of ion transport of the electrode. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Electrochemical removal of material from metallic work

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Csakvary, Tibor; Fromson, Robert E.

    1980-05-13

    Deburring, polishing, surface forming and the like are carried out by electrochemical machining with conformable electrode means including an electrically conducting and an insulating web. The surface of the work to be processed is covered by a deformable electrically insulating web or cloth which is perforated and conforms with the work. The web is covered by a deformable perforated electrically conducting screen electrode which also conforms with, and is insulated from, the work by the insulating web. An electrolyte is conducted through the electrode and insulating web and along the work through a perforated elastic member which engages the electrode under pressure pressing the electrode and web against the work. High current under low voltage is conducted betwen the electrode and work through the insulator, removing material from the work. Under the pressure of the elastic member, the electrode and insulator continue to conform with the work and the spacing between the electrode and work is maintained constant.

  6. Nanoparticles for Enhanced Sensitivity in Electrochemical Immunoassays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Yuehe; Wang, Jun; Wang, Hua; Wu, Hong; Tang, Zhiwen

    2008-10-12

    In this manuscript, we report on electrochemical biosensors based on various nanoparticles (NPs) as labels for sensitive detection of protein biomarkers. We used silica nanoparticle as a carrier to loading a large amount of electroactive species such as poly(guanine) for sensitive immunoassay of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a). We took the advantages of the unique hollow structure and reconstruction properties of apoferritin to prepare Cd3(PO4)2 nanoparticles as labels for sensitive assay of TNF-a. A novel immunochromatographic/electro-chemical biosensor based on quantum dots as labels has also been developed for rapid and sensitive detection of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in human serum. These biosensors are quite sensitive with the detection limit at pM level and these approaches based on nanoparticle labels offer a new avenue for sensitive detection of protein biomarkers.

  7. Synthesis of graphene platelets by chemical and electrochemical route

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramachandran, Rajendran; Felix, Sathiyanathan [Centre for Nanotechnology Research, VIT University, Vellore 632014, Tamil Nadu (India); Joshi, Girish M. [Materials Physics Division, School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore 632014, Tamil Nadu (India); Raghupathy, Bala P.C., E-mail: balapraveen2000@yahoo.com [Centre for Nanotechnology Research, VIT University, Vellore 632014, Tamil Nadu (India); Research and Advanced Engineering Division (Materials), Renault Nissan Technology and Business Center India (P) Ltd., Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India); Jeong, Soon Kwan, E-mail: jeongsk@kier.re.kr [Climate Change Technology Research Division, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Grace, Andrews Nirmala, E-mail: anirmalagrace@vit.ac.in [Centre for Nanotechnology Research, VIT University, Vellore 632014, Tamil Nadu (India); Climate Change Technology Research Division, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: A schematic showing the overall reduction process of graphite to reduced graphene platelets by chemical and electrochemical route. - Highlights: Graphene was prepared by diverse routes viz. chemical and electrochemical methods. NaBH{sub 4} was effective for removing oxygen functional groups from graphene oxide. Sodium borohydride reduced graphene oxide (SRGO) showed high specific capacitance. Electrochemical rendered a cheap route for production of graphene in powder form. - Abstract: Graphene platelets were synthesized from graphene oxide by chemical and electrochemical route. Under the chemical method, sodium borohydride and hydrazine chloride were used as reductants to produce graphene. In this paper, a novel and cost effective electrochemical method, which can simplify the process of reduction on a larger scale, is demonstrated. The electrochemical method proposed in this paper produces graphene in powder form with good yield. The atomic force microscopic images confirmed that the graphene samples prepared by all the routes have multilayers of graphene. The electrochemical process provided a new route to make relatively larger area graphene sheets, which will have interest for further patterning applications. Attempt was made to quantify the quantum of reduction using cyclic voltammetry and choronopotentiometry techniques on reduced graphene samples. As a measure in reading the specific capacitance values, a maximum specific capacitance value of 265.3 F/g was obtained in sodium borohydride reduced graphene oxide.

  8. ELECTROCHEMICALLY MODULATED SEPARATIONS FOR MATERIAL ACCOUNTABILITY MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hazelton, Sandra G.; Liezers, Martin; Naes, Benjamin E.; Arrigo, Leah M.; Duckworth, Douglas C.

    2012-07-08

    A method for the accurate and timely analysis of accountable materials is critical for safeguards measurements in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Non-destructive analysis (NDA) methods, such as gamma spectroscopy, are desirable for their ability to produce near real-time data. However, the high gamma background of the actinides and fission products in spent nuclear fuel limits the use of NDA for real-time online measurements. A simple approach for at-line separation of materials would facilitate the use of at-line detection methods. A promising at-line separation method for plutonium and uranium is electrochemically modulated separations (EMS). Using an electrochemical cell with an anodized glassy carbon electrode, Pu and U oxidation states can be altered by applying an appropriate voltage. Because the affinity of the actinides for the electrode depends on their oxidation states, selective deposition can be turned “on” and “off” with changes in the applied target electrode voltage. A high surface-area cell was designed in house for the separation of Pu from spent nuclear fuel. The cell is shown to capture over 1 µg of material, increasing the likelihood for gamma spectroscopic detection of Pu extracted from dissolver solutions. The large surface area of the electrode also reduces the impact of competitive interferences from some fission products. Flow rates of up to 1 mL min−1 with >50% analyte deposition efficiency are possible, allowing for rapid separations to be effected. Results from the increased surface-area EMS cell are presented, including dilute dissolver solution simulant data.

  9. ELECTROCHEMICALLY-MODULATED SEPARATIONS FOR SAFEGUARDS MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, Michael A.; Arrigo, Leah M.; Liezers, Martin; Orton, Christopher R.; Douglas, Matthew; Peper, Shane M.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Hazelton, Sandra G.; Duckworth, Douglas C.

    2010-08-11

    A critical objective of materials accountability in safeguards is the accurate and timely analysis of fuel reprocessing streams to detect both abrupt and prolonged diversions of nuclear materials. For this reason both on-line nondestructive (NDA) and destructive analysis (DA) approaches are sought-after. Current methods for DA involve grab sampling and laboratory based column extractions that are costly, hazardous, and time consuming. While direct on-line gamma measurements of Pu are desirable, they are not possible due to contributions from other actinides and fission products. Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory are currently investigating electrochemically-modulated separation (EMS) as a straightforward, cost-effective technology for selective separation of Pu or U from aqueous reprocessing streams. The EMS selectivity is electrochemically controlled and results from the sorption of Pu4+ and U4+ redox states onto the anodized target electrode, allowing for selective accumulation of U or Pu from nitric acid streams to be turned “on” or “off.” It is envisioned that this technology can be utilized to isolate Pu for both NDA and DA analysis. For the NDA approach, rapid Pu analysis by gamma-ray spectroscopy could be performed after chemical clean-up of activation and fission products by EMS. Likewise, in the DA approach, EMS could be used to retain and concentrate the Pu in nanogram quantities on the electrode surface to be transported to the lab for analysis using high precision mass spectrometry. Due to the challenges associated with complex matrices, a systematic investigation of the redox-dependent accumulation of Pu using EMS was necessary, and results will be presented. Approaches to mitigate interelement effects using large surface area cells will also be discussed. The EMS chemistry and spectroscopy for Pu isolation and measurement will be presented, proof-of-principle measurements will be described, and the application of this approach for materials accountability will be discussed.

  10. Development of an Electrochemical Separator and Compressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trent Molter

    2011-04-28

    Global conversion to sustainable energy is likely to result in a hydrogen-based economy that supports U.S. energy security objectives while simultaneously avoiding harmful carbon emissions. A key hurdle to successful implementation of a hydrogen economy is the low-cost generation, storage, and distribution of hydrogen. One of the most difficult requirements of this transformation is achieving economical, high density hydrogen storage in passenger vehicles. Transportation applications may require compression and storage of high purity hydrogen up to 12,000 psi. Hydrogen production choices range from centralized low-pressure generation of relatively impure gas in large quantities from steam-methane reformer plants to distributed generation of hydrogen under moderate pressure using water electrolysis. The Electrochemical Hydrogen Separator + Compressor (EHS+C) technology separates hydrogen from impurities and then compresses it to high pressure without any moving parts. The Phase I effort resulted in the construction and demonstration of a laboratory-scale hardware that can separate and compress hydrogen from reformate streams. The completion of Phase I has demonstrated at the laboratory scale the efficient separation and compression of hydrogen in a cost effective manner. This was achieved by optimizing the design of the Electrochemical Hydrogen Compression (EHC) cell hardware and verified by parametric testing in single cell hardware. A broad range of commercial applications exist for reclamation of hydrogen. One use this technology would be in combination with commercial fuel cells resulting in a source of clean power, heat, and compressed hydrogen. Other applications include the reclamation of hydrogen from power plants and other industrial equipment where it is used for cooling, recovery of process hydrogen from heat treating processes, and semiconductor fabrication lines. Hydrogen can also be recovered from reformate streams and cryogenic boil-offs using this technology.

  11. Real space mapping of ionic diffusion and electrochemical activity in energy storage and conversion materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalinin, Sergei V; Balke, Nina; Kumar, Amit; Dudney, Nancy J; Jesse, Stephen

    2014-05-06

    A method and system for probing mobile ion diffusivity and electrochemical reactivity on a nanometer length scale of a free electrochemically active surface includes a control module that biases the surface of the material. An electrical excitation signal is applied to the material and induces the movement of mobile ions. An SPM probe in contact with the surface of the material detects the displacement of mobile ions at the surface of the material. A detector measures an electromechanical strain response at the surface of the material based on the movement and reactions of the mobile ions. The use of an SPM tip to detect local deformations allows highly reproducible measurements in an ambient environment without visible changes in surface structure. The measurements illustrate effective spatial resolution comparable with defect spacing and well below characteristic grain sizes of the material.

  12. Coupling Mechanical with Electrochemical-Thermal Models for Batteries under Abuse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wierzbicki, Tomasz; Sahraei, Elham; Dajka, Stephen; Li, Genong; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Zhang, Chao; Kim, Gi-Heon; Sprague, Michael A.

    2015-06-09

    This presentation provides an update on coupled mechanical-electrochemical-thermal models for batteries under abuse.

  13. Selectively-etched nanochannel electrophoretic and electrochemical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Surh, Michael P.; Wilson, William D.; Barbee, Jr., Troy W.; Lane, Stephen M.

    2006-06-27

    Nanochannel electrophoretic and electrochemical devices having selectively-etched nanolaminates located in the fluid transport channel. The normally flat surfaces of the nanolaminate having exposed conductive (metal) stripes are selectively-etched to form trenches and baffles. The modifications of the prior utilized flat exposed surfaces increase the amount of exposed metal to facilitate electrochemical redox reaction or control the exposure of the metal surfaces to analytes of large size. These etched areas variously increase the sensitivity of electrochemical detection devices to low concentrations of analyte, improve the plug flow characteristic of the channel, and allow additional discrimination of the colloidal particles during cyclic voltammetry.

  14. Selectively-etched nanochannel electrophoretic and electrochemical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Surh, Michael P.; Wilson, William D.; Barbee, Jr., Troy W.; Lane, Stephen M.

    2004-11-16

    Nanochannel electrophoretic and electrochemical devices having selectively-etched nanolaminates located in the fluid transport channel. The normally flat surfaces of the nanolaminate having exposed conductive (metal) stripes are selectively-etched to form trenches and baffles. The modifications of the prior utilized flat exposed surfaces increase the amount of exposed metal to facilitate electrochemical redox reaction or control the exposure of the metal surfaces to analytes of large size. These etched areas variously increase the sensitivity of electrochemical detection devices to low concentrations of analyte, improve the plug flow characteristic of the channel, and allow additional discrimination of the colloidal particles during cyclic voltammetry.

  15. Coupled Mechanical-Electrochemical-Thermal Modeling for Accelerated Design of EV Batteries; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, Ahmad; Zhang, Chao; Kim, Gi-heon; Santhanagopalan, Shriram

    2015-06-10

    The physical and chemical phenomena occurring in a battery are many and complex and in many different scales. Without a better knowledge of the interplay among the multi-physics occurring across the varied scales, it is very challenging and time consuming to design long-lasting, high-performing, safe, affordable large battery systems, enabling electrification of the vehicles and modernization of the grid. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory, a U.S. Department of Energy laboratory, has been developing thermal and electrochemical models for cells and battery packs. Working with software producers, carmakers, and battery developers, computer-aided engineering tools have been developed that can accelerate the electrochemical and thermal design of batteries, reducing time to develop and optimize them and thus reducing the cost of the system. In the past couple of years, we initiated a project to model the mechanical response of batteries to stress, strain, fracture, deformation, puncture, and crush and then link them to electrochemical and thermal models to predict the response of a battery. This modeling is particularly important for understanding the physics and processes that happen in a battery during a crush-inducing vehicle crash. In this paper, we provide an overview of electrochemical-thermal-mechanical models for battery system understanding and designing.

  16. Research Update: Electrical monitoring of cysts using organic electrochemical transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huerta, M.; Rivnay, J.; Ramuz, M.; Hama, A.; Owens, R. M.

    2015-03-01

    Organotypic three-dimensional (3D) cell culture models have the potential to act as surrogate tissues in vitro, both for basic research and for drug discovery/toxicology. 3D cultures maintain not only 3D architecture but also cell-cell and cell extracellular matrix interactions, particularly when grown in cysts or spheroids. Characterization of cell cultures grown in 3D formats, however, provides a significant challenge for cell biologists due to the incompatibility of these structures with commonly found optical or electronic monitoring systems. Electronic impedance spectroscopy is a cell culture monitoring technique with great potential; however, it has not been possible to integrate 3D cultures with commercially available systems to date. Cyst-like 3D cultures are particularly challenging due to their small size and difficulty in manipulation. Herein, we demonstrate isolation of cyst-like 3D cultures by capillarity and subsequent integration with the organic electrochemical transistor for monitoring the integrity of these structures. We show not only that this versatile device can be adapted to the cyst format for measuring resistance and, therefore, the quality of the cysts, but also can be used for quantitative monitoring of the effect of toxic compounds on cells in a 3D format. The ability to quantitatively predict effects of drugs on 3D cultures in vitro has large future potential for the fields of drug discovery and toxicology.

  17. Testing of a Microfluidic Sampling System for High Temperature...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Testing of a Microfluidic Sampling System for High Temperature Electrochemical MC&A ... Country of Publication: United States Language: ENGLISH Word Cloud More Like This Full ...

  18. Template-free electrochemical synthesis of tin nanostructures...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Template-free electrochemical synthesis of tin nanostructures. Citation ... OSTI Identifier: 1185003 Report Number(s): SAND2014-20374J Journal ID: ISSN 0022--2461; ...

  19. Electrochemical cells and methods of manufacturing the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bazzarella, Ricardo; Slocum, Alexander H; Doherty, Tristan; Cross, III, James C

    2015-11-03

    Electrochemical cells and methods of making electrochemical cells are described herein. In some embodiments, an apparatus includes a multi-layer sheet for encasing an electrode material for an electrochemical cell. The multi-layer sheet including an outer layer, an intermediate layer that includes a conductive substrate, and an inner layer disposed on a portion of the conductive substrate. The intermediate layer is disposed between the outer layer and the inner layer. The inner layer defines an opening through which a conductive region of the intermediate layer is exposed such that the electrode material can be electrically connected to the conductive region. Thus, the intermediate layer can serve as a current collector for the electrochemical cell.

  20. Electronic structural and electrochemical properties of lithium zirconates

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and their capabilities of CO2 capture: A first-principles density-functional theory and phonon dynamics approach (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Electronic structural and electrochemical properties of lithium zirconates and their capabilities of CO2 capture: A first-principles density-functional theory and phonon dynamics approach Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electronic structural and electrochemical properties of lithium zirconates and their capabilities

  1. GROWTH AND ELECTROCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF CARBON NANOSPIKE THIN FILM

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ELECTRODES (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect GROWTH AND ELECTROCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF CARBON NANOSPIKE THIN FILM ELECTRODES Citation Details In-Document Search Title: GROWTH AND ELECTROCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF CARBON NANOSPIKE THIN FILM ELECTRODES Authors: Sheridan, Leah B [1] ; Hensley, Dale K [1] ; Lavrik, Nickolay V [1] ; Smith, Sean C [1] ; Schwartz, Viviane [1] ; Liang, Chengdu [1] ; Rondinone, Adam Justin [1] + Show Author Affiliations ORNL Publication Date: 2014-01-01 OSTI

  2. Graphene-Au Nanoparticles Composite-Based Electrochemical Aptamer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Biosensors (Conference) | SciTech Connect Graphene-Au Nanoparticles Composite-Based Electrochemical Aptamer Biosensors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Graphene-Au Nanoparticles Composite-Based Electrochemical Aptamer Biosensors Authors: Guo, Shaojun [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory [Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2014-03-27 OSTI Identifier: 1126641 Report Number(s): LA-UR-13-28234 DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396 Resource Type:

  3. Size Effects in the Electrochemical Alloying and Cycling of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electrodeposited Aluminum with Lithium. (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Size Effects in the Electrochemical Alloying and Cycling of Electrodeposited Aluminum with Lithium. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Size Effects in the Electrochemical Alloying and Cycling of Electrodeposited Aluminum with Lithium. Abstract not provided. Authors: Hudak, Nicholas ; Huber, Dale L. Publication Date: 2011-10-01 OSTI Identifier: 1106948 Report Number(s): SAND2011-7589J 464917 DOE Contract

  4. Solid flexible electrochemical supercapacitor using Tobacco mosaic virus

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    nanostructures and ALD ruthenium oxide (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Solid flexible electrochemical supercapacitor using Tobacco mosaic virus nanostructures and ALD ruthenium oxide Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Solid flexible electrochemical supercapacitor using Tobacco mosaic virus nanostructures and ALD ruthenium oxide Authors: Gnerlich, Markus ; Pomerantseva, Ekaterina ; Gregorczyk, Keith ; Ketchum, D ; Rubloff, Gary W ; Ghodssi, Reza Publication Date: 2013-10-24 OSTI

  5. Advanced Hybrid Water Heater using Electrochemical Compressor | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Hybrid Water Heater using Electrochemical Compressor Advanced Hybrid Water Heater using Electrochemical Compressor Xergy is using its Electro Chemical Compression (ECC) technology to operate a heat pump cycle using water as the working fluid<br /> Image: Xergy Xergy is using its Electro Chemical Compression (ECC) technology to operate a heat pump cycle using water as the working fluid Image: Xergy Xergy's technology has the potential to move away from vapor compression

  6. Optical and electrochemical properties of hydrogen-bonded

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    phenol-pyrrolidino[60]fullerenes (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Optical and electrochemical properties of hydrogen-bonded phenol-pyrrolidino[60]fullerenes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Optical and electrochemical properties of hydrogen-bonded phenol-pyrrolidino[60]fullerenes Authors: Moore, Gary F. ; Megiatto Jr., Jackson D. ; Hambourger, Michael ; Gervaldo, Miguel ; Moore, Thomas A. ; Gust, Devens ; Moore, Ana L. Publication Date: 2012-01-01 OSTI Identifier: 1066403 DOE

  7. Predicting the voltage dependence of interfacial electrochemical processes

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    at lithium-intercalated graphite edge planes (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Predicting the voltage dependence of interfacial electrochemical processes at lithium-intercalated graphite edge planes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Predicting the voltage dependence of interfacial electrochemical processes at lithium-intercalated graphite edge planes Authors: Leung, Kevin Publication Date: 2014-01-01 OSTI Identifier: 1210241 DOE Contract Number: SC0001160 Resource Type: Journal

  8. Quantification of Electrochemical Nanoscale Processes in Lithium Batteries

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    By OperandoEC-(S)TEM (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Quantification of Electrochemical Nanoscale Processes in Lithium Batteries By OperandoEC-(S)TEM Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Quantification of Electrochemical Nanoscale Processes in Lithium Batteries By OperandoEC-(S)TEM Lithium (Li)-ion batteries are currently used for a wide variety of portable electronic devices, electric vehicles and renewable energy applications. In addition, extensive worldwide research

  9. Quantitative Electrochemical TEM to Study Alloying for Advanced Battery

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Anodes. (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Quantitative Electrochemical TEM to Study Alloying for Advanced Battery Anodes. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Quantitative Electrochemical TEM to Study Alloying for Advanced Battery Anodes. Abstract not provided. Authors: Zavadil, Kevin Robert ; Liu, Yang ; Kotula, Paul Gabriel ; Jungjohann, Katherine Leigh ; Hahn, Nathan Publication Date: 2014-02-01 OSTI Identifier: 1141149 Report Number(s): SAND2014-1392C 503568 DOE Contract

  10. Graphene-Au Nanoparticles Composite-Based Electrochemical Aptamer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Biosensors (Conference) | SciTech Connect Graphene-Au Nanoparticles Composite-Based Electrochemical Aptamer Biosensors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Graphene-Au Nanoparticles Composite-Based Electrochemical Aptamer Biosensors × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information

  11. Immobilization of azurin with retention of its native electrochemical

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    properties at alkylsilane self-assembled monolayer modified indium tin oxide Immobilization of azurin with retention of its native electrochemical properties at alkylsilane self-assembled monolayer modified indium tin oxide Authors: Ashur, I. and Jones, A. K. Title: Immobilization of azurin with retention of its native electrochemical properties at alkylsilane self-assembled monolayer modified indium tin oxide Source: Electrochimica Acta Year: 2012 Volume: 85 Pages: 169-174 ABSTRACT: Indium

  12. Electrochemical Discovery Laboratory - Joint Center for Energy Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Electrochemical Discovery Laboratory The Electrochemical Discovery Laboratory (EDL)-a key JCESR discovery tool located at Argonne-synthesizes high-quality electrodes and electrolytes for beyond Li-ion batteries and then characterizes their properties with state-of-the-art analytical techniques. These techniques include electron diffraction, ion scattering, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The goal is to

  13. Template-free electrochemical synthesis of tin nanostructures. (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Template-free electrochemical synthesis of tin nanostructures. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Template-free electrochemical synthesis of tin nanostructures. Abstract not provided. Authors: Mackay, David T. ; Janish, Matthew T. ; Sahaym, Uttara ; Kotula, Paul Gabriel ; Jungjohann, Katherine Leigh ; Carter, Clive Barry ; Norton, M. Grant Publication Date: 2014-12-01 OSTI Identifier: 1185003 Report Number(s): SAND2014-20374J Journal ID:

  14. Dynamic Characterization of Dendrite Deposition and Growth in Li-Surface by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hernandez-Maya, R; Rosas, O; Saunders, J; Castaneda, H

    2015-01-13

    The evolution of dendrite formation is characterized by DC and AC electrochemical techniques. Interfacial mechanisms for lithium deposition are described and quantified by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) between a lithium electrode and a graphite electrode. The initiation and growth of dendrites in the lithium surface due to the cathodic polarization conditions following anodic dissolution emulate long term cycling process occurring in the lithium electrodes. The dendrite initiation at the lithium/organic electrolyte interface is proposed to be performed through a combination of layering and interfacial reactions during different cathodic conditions. The growth is proposed to be performed by surface geometrical deposition. In this work, we use EIS in galvanostatic mode to assess the initiation and growth stages of dendrites by the accumulation of precipitates formed under different current conditions. The lithium/organic solvent experimental system using frequency domain techniques is validated by the theoretical approach using a deterministic model that accounts for the faradaic processes at the interface assuming a coverage fraction of the electrodic surface affected by the dendritic growth. (C) 2015 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Thermal conductor for high-energy electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoffman, Joseph A.; Domroese, Michael K.; Lindeman, David D.; Radewald, Vern E.; Rouillard, Roger; Trice, Jennifer L.

    2000-01-01

    A thermal conductor for use with an electrochemical energy storage device is disclosed. The thermal conductor is attached to one or both of the anode and cathode contacts of an electrochemical cell. A resilient portion of the conductor varies in height or position to maintain contact between the conductor and an adjacent wall structure of a containment vessel in response to relative movement between the conductor and the wall structure. The thermal conductor conducts current into and out of the electrochemical cell and conducts thermal energy between the electrochemical cell and thermally conductive and electrically resistive material disposed between the conductor and the wall structure. The thermal conductor may be fabricated to include a resilient portion having one of a substantially C-shaped, double C-shaped, Z-shaped, V-shaped, O-shaped, S-shaped, or finger-shaped cross-section. An elastomeric spring element may be configured so as to be captured by the resilient conductor for purposes of enhancing the functionality of the thermal conductor. The spring element may include a protrusion that provides electrical insulation between the spring conductor and a spring conductor of an adjacently disposed electrochemical cell in the presence of relative movement between the cells and the wall structure. The thermal conductor may also be fabricated from a sheet of electrically conductive material and affixed to the contacts of a number of electrochemical cells.

  16. BF3-promoted electrochemical properties of quinoxaline in propylene carbonate

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Carino, Emily V.; Diesendruck, Charles E.; Moore, Jeffrey S.; Curtiss, Larry A.; Assary, Rajeev S.; Brushett, Fikile R.

    2015-02-04

    Electrochemical and density functional studies demonstrate that coordination of electrolyte constituents to quinoxalines modulates their electrochemical properties. Quinoxalines are shown to be electrochemically inactive in most electrolytes in propylene carbonate, yet the predicted reduction potential is shown to match computational estimates in acetonitrile. We find that in the presence of LiBF4 and trace water, an adduct is formed between quinoxaline and the Lewis acid BF3, which then displays electrochemical activity at 1–1.5 V higher than prior observations of quinoxaline electrochemistry in non-aqueous media. Direct synthesis and testing of a bis-BF3 quinoxaline complex further validates the assignment of the electrochemically activemore » species, presenting up to a ~26-fold improvement in charging capacity, demonstrating the advantages of this adduct over unmodified quinoxaline in LiBF4-based electrolyte. The use of Lewis acids to effectively “turn on” the electrochemical activity of organic molecules may lead to the development of new active material classes for energy storage applications.« less

  17. Electrochemical processes in recovering metals from ores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felker, D.L. ); Bautista, R.G. . Dept. of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering)

    1990-04-01

    Chalcopyrite (CuFeS{sub 2}) is one of the most abundant copper-bearing minerals in the U.S. Oxidative leaching and smelting and refining are the most common methods used for recovering copper from chalcopyrite. One of the problems associated with oxidative leaching is the formation of an elemental sulfur product layer around the unreacted chalcopyrite core. The sulfur coating slows the reaction by inhibiting both the diffusion of the oxidant to the unreacted core, and the diffusion of the copper and iron species to the bulk solution. Another problem with leaching is that the iron and copper are oxidized simultaneously. Both appear in the bulk solution in their most oxidized states. The direct electrodissolution of copper sulfide ore slurries could reduce the number of steps involved in the copper recovery process, possibly leading to significant reductions in energy consumption and operating costs. The potential application of electrodissolution processes in hydrometallurgy has been reviewed. This paper reviews investigations of the electrochemical dissolution of chalcopyrite, digenite (Cu{sub 1.8}S), chalcocite (Cu{sub 2}S) and covellite (CuS).

  18. Electrochemical cell having improved pressure vent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dean, Kevin (Pontiac, MI); Holland, Arthur (Troy, MI); Fillmore, Donn (Waterford, MI)

    1993-01-01

    The electrochemical cell of the instant invention includes a case having a gas outlet, one or more positive electrodes positioned within the case, one or more negative electrodes positioned within the case electrode separators positioned between the positive and negative electrodes, electrolyte positioned within the case, and a pressure vent for releasing internal pressure occurring in the case to the surrounding atmosphere. The pressure vent is affixed to the case covering the gas outlet, the pressure vent includes a vent housing having a hollow interior area in gaseous communication with the surrounding atmosphere and the interior of the case via the gas outlet, a pressure release piston positioned within the hollow interior area, the pressure release piston sized to surround the gas outlet and having a seal groove configured to encapsulate all but one surface of a seal mounted within the seal groove, leaving the non-encapsulated surface of the seal exposed, and a compression spring positioned to urge the pressure release piston to compress the seal in the seal groove and block the gas outlet in the case.

  19. Steel refining with an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, Milton; Cook, Glenn M.

    1988-01-01

    Apparatus for processing a metallic fluid containing iron oxide, container for a molten metal including an electrically conductive refractory disposed for contact with the molten metal which contains iron oxide, an electrolyte in the form of a basic slag on top of the molten metal, an electrode in the container in contact with the slag electrically separated from the refractory, and means for establishing a voltage across the refractory and the electrode to reduce iron oxide to iron at the surface of the refractory in contact with the iron oxide containing fluid. A process is disclosed for refining an iron product containing not more than about 10% by weight oxygen and not more than about 10% by weight sulfur, comprising providing an electrolyte of a slag containing one or more of calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, silica or alumina, providing a cathode of the iron product in contact with the electrolyte, providing an anode in contact with the electrolyte electrically separated from the cathode, and operating an electrochemical cell formed by the anode, the cathode and the electrolyte to separate oxygen or sulfur present in the iron product therefrom.

  20. Steel refining with an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, M.; Cook, G.M.

    1985-05-21

    Disclosed is an apparatus for processing a metallic fluid containing iron oxide, container for a molten metal including an electrically conductive refractory disposed for contact with the molten metal which contains iron oxide, an electrolyte in the form of a basic slag on top of the molten metal, an electrode in the container in contact with the slag electrically separated from the refractory, and means for establishing a voltage across the refractory and the electrode to reduce iron oxide to iron at the surface of the refractory in contact with the iron oxide containing fluid. A process is disclosed for refining an iron product containing not more than about 10% by weight sulfur, comprising providing an electrolyte of a slag containing one or more of calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, silica or alumina, providing a cathode of the iron product in contact with the electrolyte, providing an anode in contact with the electrolyte electrically separated from the cathode, and operating an electrochemical cell formed by the anode, the cathode and the electrolyte to separate oxygen or sulfur present in the iron product therefrom.

  1. Current Density Scaling in Electrochemical Flow Capacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoyt, NC; Wainright, JS; Savinell, RF

    2015-02-18

    Electrochemical flow capacitors (EFCs) are a recently developed energy storage technology. One of the principal performance metrics of an EFC is the steady-state electrical current density that it can accept or deliver. Numerical models exist to predict this performance for specific cases, but here we present a study of how the current varies with respect to the applied cell voltage, flow rate, cell dimensions, and slurry properties using scaling laws. The scaling relationships are confirmed by numerical simulations and then subsequently by comparison to results from symmetric cell EFC experiments. This modeling approach permits the delimitation of three distinct operational regimes dependent on the values of two nondimensional combinations of the pertinent variables (specifically, a capacitive Graetz number and a conductivity ratio). Lastly, the models and nondimensional numbers are used to provide design guidance in terms of criteria for proper EFC operation. (C) The Author(s) 2015. Published by ECS. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License (CC BY, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse of the work in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. All rights reserved.

  2. Steel refining with an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, M.; Cook, G.M.

    1988-05-17

    Apparatus is described for processing a metallic fluid containing iron oxide, container for a molten metal including an electrically conductive refractory disposed for contact with the molten metal which contains iron oxide, an electrolyte in the form of a basic slag on top of the molten metal, an electrode in the container in contact with the slag electrically separated from the refractory, and means for establishing a voltage across the refractory and the electrode to reduce iron oxide to iron at the surface of the refractory in contact with the iron oxide containing fluid. A process is disclosed for refining an iron product containing not more than about 10% by weight oxygen and not more than about 10% by weight sulfur, comprising providing an electrolyte of a slag containing one or more of calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, silica or alumina, providing a cathode of the iron product in contact with the electrolyte, providing an anode in contact with the electrolyte electrically separated from the cathode, and operating an electrochemical cell formed by the anode, the cathode and the electrolyte to separate oxygen or sulfur present in the iron product therefrom. 2 figs.

  3. Method of doping interconnections for electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pal, Uday B.; Singhal, Subhash C.; Moon, David M.; Folser, George R.

    1990-01-01

    A dense, electronically conductive interconnection layer 26 is bonded on a porous, tubular, electronically conductive air electrode structure 16, optionally supported by a ceramic support 22, by (A) forming a layer of oxide particles of at least one of the metals Ca, Sr, Co, Ba or Mg on a part 24 of a first surface of the air electrode 16, (B) heating the electrode structure, (C) applying a halide vapor containing at least lanthanum halide and chromium halide to the first surface and applying a source of oxygen to a second opposite surface of the air electrode so that they contact at said first surface, to cause a reaction of the oxygen and halide and cause a dense lanthanum-chromium oxide structure to grow, from the first electrode surface, between and around the oxide particles, where the metal oxide particles get incoporated into the lanthanum-chromium oxide structure as it grows thicker with time, and the metal ions in the oxide particles diffuse into the bulk of the lanthamum-chromium oxide structure, to provide a dense, top, interconnection layer 26 on top of the air electrode 16. A solid electrolyte layer 18 can be applied to the uncovered portion of the air electrode, and a fuel electrode 20 can be applied to the solid electrolyte, to provide an electrochemical cell 10.

  4. Joint with application in electrochemical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weil, K Scott [Richland, WA; Hardy, John S [Richland, WA

    2010-09-14

    A joint for use in electrochemical devices, such as solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), oxygen separators, and hydrogen separators, that will maintain a hermetic seal at operating temperatures of greater than 600.degree. C., despite repeated thermal cycling excess of 600.degree. C. in a hostile operating environment where one side of the joint is continuously exposed to an oxidizing atmosphere and the other side is continuously exposed to a wet reducing gas. The joint is formed of a metal part, a ceramic part, and a flexible gasket. The flexible gasket is metal, but is thinner and more flexible than the metal part. As the joint is heated and cooled, the flexible gasket is configured to flex in response to changes in the relative size of the metal part and the ceramic part brought about by differences in the coefficient of thermal expansion of the metal part and the ceramic part, such that substantially all of the tension created by the differences in the expansion and contraction of the ceramic and metal parts is absorbed and dissipated by flexing the flexible gasket.

  5. A Novel System for Carbon Dioxide Capture Utilizing Electrochemical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Ghezel-Ayagh, Hossein ; Jolly, Stephen ; Patel, Dilip ; Hunt, Jennifer ; Steen, William A. ; Richardson, Carl F. ; Marina, Olga A. Publication Date: 2013-06-03 OSTI ...

  6. Electrochemical studies of calcium chloride-based molten salt systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanchard, T.P. Jr.

    1992-12-01

    Conductance and EMF studies of CaCl{sub 2}-based melts were performed in the temperature range 790--990 C. Conductivity data collected using magnesia tubes and capillaries showed deviations from the data recommended by the National Bureau of Standards. These deviations are attributed to the slow dissolution of magnesia by the CaCl{sub 2}-CaO melt. Conductivity data for molten CaCl{sub 2} using a pyrolytic boron nitride capillary were in reasonable agreement with the recommended data; however, undissolved CaO in CaCl{sub 2} may have caused blockage of the pyrolytic boron nitride capillary, resulting in fluctuations in the measured resistance. The utility of the AgCl/Ag reference electrode in CaCl{sub 2}-AgCl and CaCl{sub 2}-CaO-AgCl melts, using asbestos diaphragms and Vycor glass as reference half-cell membranes, was also investigated. Nernstian behavior was observed using both types of reference half-cell membranes in CaCl{sub 2}-AgCl melts. The AgCl/Ag reference electrode also exhibited Nernstian behavior in CaCl{sub 2}-CaO-AgCl melts using a Vycor reference half-cell membrane and a magnesia crucible. The use of CaCl{sub 2} as a solvent is of interest since it is used in plutonium metal purification, as well as various other commercial applications. 97 refs., 33 figs., 13 tabs.

  7. CO.sub.2 utilization in electrochemical systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boxley, Chett; Akash, Akash; Zhao, Qiang

    2013-01-22

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with a quantity of spray dryer ash (SDA) and water to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and form a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 40%, and in some cases less than 20%, of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. An optional alkaline activator may be mixed with the fly ash and SDA to facilitate the geopolymerization reaction. The alkaline activator may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  8. SISGR: Improved Electrical Energy Storage with Electrochemical Double Layer Capacitance Based on Novel Carbon Electrodes, New Electrolytes, and Thorough Development of a Strong Science Base

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruoff, Rodney S.; Alam, Todd M.; Bielawski, Christopher W.; Chabal, Yves; Hwang, Gyeong; Ishii, Yoshitaka; Rogers, Robin

    2014-07-23

    The broad objective of the SISGR program is to advance the fundamental scientific understanding of electrochemical double layer capacitance (EDLC) and thus of ultracapacitor systems composed of a new type of electrode based on chemically modified graphene (CMG) and (primarily) with ionic liquids (ILs) as the electrolyte. Our team has studied the interplay between graphene-based and graphene-derived carbons as the electrode materials in electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLC) systems on the one hand, and electrolytes including novel ionic liquids (ILs), on the other, based on prior work on the subject.

  9. Efficient electrochemical CO2 conversion powered by renewable energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kauffman, Douglas R.; Thakkar, Jay; Siva, Rajan; Matranga, Christopher; Ohodnicki, Paul R.; Zeng, Chenjie; Jin, Rongchao

    2015-06-29

    The catalytic conversion of CO2 into industrially relevant chemicals is one strategy for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. Along these lines, electrochemical CO2 conversion technologies are attractive because they can operate with high reaction rates at ambient conditions. However, electrochemical systems require electricity, and CO2 conversion processes must integrate with carbon-free, renewable-energy sources to be viable on larger scales. We utilize Au25 nanoclusters as renewably powered CO2 conversion electrocatalysts with CO2 → CO reaction rates between 400 and 800 L of CO2 per gram of catalytic metal per hour and product selectivities between 80 and 95%. These performance metrics correspond to conversion rates approaching 0.8–1.6 kg of CO2 per gram of catalytic metal per hour. We also present data showing CO2 conversion rates and product selectivity strongly depend on catalyst loading. Optimized systems demonstrate stable operation and reaction turnover numbers (TONs) approaching 6 × 106 mol CO2 molcatalyst–1 during a multiday (36 hours total hours) CO2electrolysis experiment containing multiple start/stop cycles. TONs between 1 × 106 and 4 × 106 molCO2 molcatalyst–1 were obtained when our system was powered by consumer-grade renewable-energy sources. Daytime photovoltaic-powered CO2 conversion was demonstrated for 12 h and we mimicked low-light or nighttime operation for 24 h with a solar-rechargeable battery. This proof-of-principle study provides some of the initial performance data necessary for assessing the scalability and technical viability of electrochemical CO2 conversion technologies. Specifically, we show the following: (1) all electrochemical CO2 conversion systems will produce a net increase in CO2 emissions if they do not integrate with renewable-energy sources, (2) catalyst loading vs activity trends can be used to tune process rates and product distributions, and (3) state-of-the-art renewable-energy technologies are sufficient to power larger-scale, tonne per day CO2 conversion systems.

  10. Fuel cell system with interconnect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goettler, Richard; Liu, Zhien

    2015-08-11

    The present invention includes a fuel cell system having a plurality of adjacent electrochemical cells formed of an anode layer, a cathode layer spaced apart from the anode layer, and an electrolyte layer disposed between the anode layer and the cathode layer. The fuel cell system also includes at least one interconnect, the interconnect being structured to conduct free electrons between adjacent electrochemical cells. Each interconnect includes a primary conductor embedded within the electrolyte layer and structured to conduct the free electrons.

  11. Fuel cell system with interconnect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goettler, Richard; Liu, Zhien

    2015-03-10

    The present invention includes a fuel cell system having a plurality of adjacent electrochemical cells formed of an anode layer, a cathode layer spaced apart from the anode layer, and an electrolyte layer disposed between the anode layer and the cathode layer. The fuel cell system also includes at least one interconnect, the interconnect being structured to conduct free electrons between adjacent electrochemical cells. Each interconnect includes a primary conductor embedded within the electrolyte layer and structured to conduct the free electrons.

  12. Fuel cell system with interconnect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Zhien; Goettler, Richard

    2015-09-29

    The present invention includes a fuel cell system having a plurality of adjacent electrochemical cells formed of an anode layer, a cathode layer spaced apart from the anode layer, and an electrolyte layer disposed between the anode layer and the cathode layer. The fuel cell system also includes at least one interconnect, the interconnect being structured to conduct free electrons between adjacent electrochemical cells. Each interconnect includes a primary conductor embedded within the electrolyte layer and structured to conduct the free electrons.

  13. Analysis of the published calorimetric evidence for electrochemical fusion of deuterium in palladium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miskelly, G.M.; Heben, M.J.; Kumar, A.; Penner, R.M.; Sailor, M.J.; Lewis, N.S. )

    1989-11-10

    Estimates are given of the raw data that are the basis for the claims of excess power production by the electrochemical charging of palladium in deuterium oxide (D{sub 2}O). Calorimetric results are also presented that show no anomalous power production in either 0.1M LiOD/D{sub 2}O or 0.1M LiOH/H{sub 2}O (LiOH is lithium hydroxide). Several possible sources of error in open-system calorimetry are discussed that can confound interpretation of temperature changes in terms of anomalous power production. 13 refs., 3 figs., 2 tab.

  14. ElectroChemical Noise Data Acquistion and Interpretation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2000-01-14

    This software is part of an effort to develop an effective measurement method, using electrochemical noise techniques, to differentiate localized pitting corrosion from general uniform corrosion. It is designed to obtain the electrochemical noise signal from in-situ electrochemical probes in a pipeline and convert the signal from a time-domain to a frequency domain by using a Fourier transform. The converted signal, named "power spectral density'', is then further used to calculate the value of characteristicmore » parameters which describe the mechanism and progress of a corrosion process. The results obtained from this software enable one to differentiate localized pitting corrosion from general uniform corrosion attack in a utility pipeline.« less

  15. Electrochemical-thermal modeling and microscale phase change for passive internal thermal management of lithium ion batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuller, Thomas F.; Bandhauer, Todd; Garimella, Srinivas

    2012-01-01

    A fully coupled electrochemical and thermal model for lithium-ion batteries is developed to investigate the impact of different thermal management strategies on battery performance. In contrast to previous modeling efforts focused either exclusively on particle electrochemistry on the one hand or overall vehicle simulations on the other, the present work predicts local electrochemical reaction rates using temperature-dependent data on commercially available batteries designed for high rates (C/LiFePO{sub 4}) in a computationally efficient manner. Simulation results show that conventional external cooling systems for these batteries, which have a low composite thermal conductivity ({approx}1 W/m-K), cause either large temperature rises or internal temperature gradients. Thus, a novel, passive internal cooling system that uses heat removal through liquid-vapor phase change is developed. Although there have been prior investigations of phase change at the microscales, fluid flow at the conditions expected here is not well understood. A first-principles based cooling system performance model is developed and validated experimentally, and is integrated into the coupled electrochemical-thermal model for assessment of performance improvement relative to conventional thermal management strategies. The proposed cooling system passively removes heat almost isothermally with negligible thermal resistances between the heat source and cooling fluid. Thus, the minimization of peak temperatures and gradients within batteries allow increased power and energy densities unencumbered by thermal limitations.

  16. Electrochemical arsenic remediation for rural Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Addy, Susan Amrose

    2009-01-01

    Arsenic in drinking water is a major public health problem threatening the lives of over 140 million people worldwide. In Bangladesh alone, up to 57 million people drink arsenic-laden water from shallow wells. ElectroChemical Arsenic Remediation(ECAR) overcomes many of the obstacles that plague current technologies and can be used affordably and on a small-scale, allowing for rapid dissemination into Bangladesh to address this arsenic crisis. In this work, ECAR was shown to effectively reduce 550 - 580 mu g=L arsenic (including both As[III]and As[V]in a 1:1 ratio) to below the WHO recommended maximum limit of 10 mu g=L in synthetic Bangladesh groundwater containing relevant concentrations of competitive ions such as phosphate, silicate, and bicarbonate. Arsenic removal capacity was found to be approximately constant within certain ranges of current density, but was found to change substantially between ranges. In order of decreasing arsenic removal capacity, the pattern was: 0.02 mA=cm2> 0.07 mA=cm2> 0.30 - 1.1 mA=cm2> 5.0 - 100 mA=cm2. Current processing time was found to effect arsenic removal capacity independent of either charge density or current density. Electrode polarization studies showed no passivation of the electrode in the tested range (up to current density 10 mA=cm2) and ruled out oxygen evolution as the cause of decreasing removal capacity with current density. Simple settling and decantation required approximately 3 days to achieve arsenic removal comparable to filtration with a 0.1 mu m membrane. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) showed that (1) there is no significant difference in the arsenic removal mechanism of ECAR during operation at different current densities and (2) the arsenic removal mechanism in ECAR is consistent with arsenate adsorption onto a homogenous Fe(III)oxyhydroxide similar in structure to 2-line ferrihydrite. ECAR effectively reduced high arsenic concentrations (100 - 500 mu g=L) in real Bangladesh tube well water collected from three regions to below the WHO limit of 10 mu g=L. Prototype fabrication and field testing are currently underway.

  17. Portable Analyzer Based on Microfluidics/Nanoengineered Electrochemical Sensors for In-situ Characterization of Mixed Wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuehe Lin; Glen E. Fryxell; Wassana Yantasee; Guodong Liu; Zheming Wang

    2006-06-01

    Required characterizations of the DOE's transuranic (TRU) and mixed wastes (MW) before disposing and treatment of the wastes are currently costly and have lengthy turnaround. Research toward developing faster and more sensitive characterization and analysis tools to reduce costs and accelerate throughputs is therefore desirable. This project is aimed at the development of electrochemical sensors, specific to toxic transition metals, uranium, and technetium, that can be integrated into the portable sensor systems. This system development will include fabrication and performance evaluation of electrodes as well as understanding of electrochemically active sites on the electrodes specifically designed for toxic metals, uranium and technetium detection. Subsequently, these advanced measurement units will be incorporated into a microfluidic prototype specifically designed and fabricated for field-deployable characterizations of such species.

  18. Cooperative efforts of the materials protection control and accounting program at the electrochemical plant (Krasnoyarsk-45) in Russia-011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, L.

    1998-07-22

    The USDOE Material Protection Control and Accountability Program (MPC&A) has established a Project Team with the goal of providing the Russian Electrochemical Plant (ECP) with equipment and training to enable ECP to evaluate, develop, and implement a comprehensive plan and systems for physical protection, material controls, and accountancy upgrades. The MPC&A project will provide for improvements such as risk assessments, access control upgrades, computerized MC&A, communications systems upgrades, building perimeter surveillance and intrusion detection upgrades, vault upgrades, metal and nuclear material detection upgrades, along with mass measurement and non- destructive analysis (NDA) instrumentation. This paper outlines the overall objectives of the MPC&A project at the Electrochemical Plant.

  19. Electrochemical process and production of novel complex hydrides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zidan, Ragaiy

    2013-06-25

    A process of using an electrochemical cell to generate aluminum hydride (AlH.sub.3) is provided. The electrolytic cell uses a polar solvent to solubilize NaAlH.sub.4. The resulting electrochemical process results in the formation of AlH.sub.3. The AlH.sub.3 can be recovered and used as a source of hydrogen for the automotive industry. The resulting spent aluminum can be regenerated into NaAlH.sub.4 as part of a closed loop process of AlH.sub.3 generation.

  20. Regeneration of anion exchange resins by catalyzed electrochemical reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gu, Baohua; Brown, Gilbert M.

    2002-01-01

    Anion exchange resins sorbed with perchlorate may be regenerated by a combination of chemical reduction of perchlorate to chloride using a reducing agent and an electrochemical reduction of the oxidized reducing agent. Transitional metals including Ti, Re, and V are preferred chemical reagents for the reduction of perchlorate to chloride. Complexing agents such as oxalate are used to prevent the precipitation of the oxidized Ti(IV) species, and ethyl alcohol may be added to accelerate the reduction kinetics of perchlorate. The regeneration may be performed by continuously recycling the regenerating solution through the resin bed and an electrochemical cell so that the secondary waste generation is minimized.

  1. Electrochemical cell utilizing molten alkali metal electrode-reactant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Virkar, Anil V.; Miller, Gerald R.

    1983-11-04

    An improved electrochemical cell comprising an additive-modified molten alkali metal electrode-reactant and/or electrolyte is disclosed. Various electrochemical cells employing a molten alkali metal, e.g., sodium, electrode in contact with a cationically conductive ceramic membrane experience a lower resistance and a lower temperature coefficient of resistance whenever small amounts of selenium are present at the interface of the electrolyte and the molten alkali metal. Further, cells having small amounts of selenium present at the electrolyte-molten metal interface exhibit less degradation of the electrolyte under long term cycling conditions.

  2. 229th Electrochemical Society (ECS) Meeting (San Diego, CA) - JCAP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    229th Electrochemical Society (ECS) Meeting (San Diego, CA) 229th Electrochemical Society (ECS) Meeting (San Diego, CA) Sun, May 29, 2016 12:00pm 12:00 Thu, Jun 2, 2016 1:00pm 13:00 San Diego, CA USA Joel A. Haber, "Development of Solar Fuels Photoanodes through Combinatorial Integration of Ni-La-Co-Ce Oxide and Ni-Fe-Co-Ce Oxide Catalysts on BiVO4" The development of an efficient photoanode remains the primary materials challenge in the establishment of a scalable technology for solar

  3. Electrochemical reduction of nitrate in the presence of an amide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dziewinski, Jacek J.; Marczak, Stanislaw

    2002-01-01

    The electrochemical reduction of nitrates in aqueous solutions thereof in the presence of amides to gaseous nitrogen (N.sub.2) is described. Generally, electrochemical reduction of NO.sub.3 proceeds stepwise, from NO.sub.3 to N.sub.2, and subsequently in several consecutive steps to ammonia (NH.sub.3) as a final product. Addition of at least one amide to the solution being electrolyzed suppresses ammonia generation, since suitable amides react with NO.sub.2 to generate N.sub.2. This permits nitrate reduction to gaseous nitrogen to proceed by electrolysis. Suitable amides include urea, sulfamic acid, formamide, and acetamide.

  4. Enhanced electrochemical etching of ion irradiated silicon by localized amorphization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dang, Z. Y.; Breese, M. B. H.; Lin, Y.; Tok, E. S.; Vittone, E.

    2014-05-12

    A tailored distribution of ion induced defects in p-type silicon allows subsequent electrochemical anodization to be modified in various ways. Here we describe how a low level of lattice amorphization induced by ion irradiation influences anodization. First, it superposes a chemical etching effect, which is observable at high fluences as a reduced height of a micromachined component. Second, at lower fluences, it greatly enhances electrochemical anodization by allowing a hole diffusion current to flow to the exposed surface. We present an anodization model, which explains all observed effects produced by light ions such as helium and heavy ions such as cesium over a wide range of fluences and irradiation geometries.

  5. Nitrogen-doped Graphene and Its Electrochemical Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Yuyan; Zhang, Sheng; Engelhard, Mark H.; Li, Guosheng; Shao, Guocheng; Wang, Yong; Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Lin, Yuehe

    2010-06-04

    Nitrogen-doped graphene (N-graphene) is obtained by exposing graphene to nitrogen plasma. N-graphene exhibits much higher electrocatalytic activity toward oxygen reduction and H2O2 reduction than graphene, and much higher durability and selectivity than the widely-used expensive Pt. The excellent electrochemical performance of N-graphene is attributed to nitrogen functional groups and the specific properties of graphene. This indicates that N-graphene is promising for applications in electrochemical energy devices (fuel cells, metal-air batteries) and biosensors.

  6. Portable Analyzer Based on Microfluidics/Nanoengineered Electrochemical Sensors for in Situ Characterization of Mixed Wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Joseph

    2006-06-01

    Portable Analyzer Based on Microfluidic/Nanoengineered Electrochemical Sensors for in Situ Characterization of Mixed Wastes PI: Dr. Joseph Wang (In Collaboration with the PNNL PI Dr. Y. Lin). Objective of Research: This research effort aims at developing a portable analytical system for fast, sensitive, and inexpensive, on-site monitoring of toxic transition metals and radionuclides in contaminated DOE Sites. The portable devices will be based on Microscale Total Analytical systems ( -TAS) or 'Lab-on-a-chip' in combination with electrochemical (stripping-voltammetric) sensors. The resulting microfluidics/electrochemical sensor system would allow testing for toxic metals to be performed more rapidly, inexpensively, and reliably in a field setting. Progress Summary/Accomplishments: This report summarizes the ASU activity over the second year of the project. In accordance to our original objectives our studies have focused on various fundamental and practical aspects of sensing and microchip devices for monitoring metal contaminants. As described in this section, we have made a substantial progress, and introduced effective routes for improving the on-site detection of toxic metals and for interfacing microchips with the real world. This activity has already resulted in 7 research papers (published or in press in major international journals). The electrochemical sensors being developed rely on the highly sensitive adsorptive stripping voltammetry (AdSV) technique to detect metal ions of interest to the DOE, particularly uranium and chromium. Traditionally, AdSV measurements of U and Cr require the use of mercury electrodes which are not suitable attractive for field deployment. Our initial goal was thus to replace these toxic mercury electrodes with 'environmentally-friendly' sensor materials. In particular, we demonstrated recently that bismuth-film electrodes offer high-quality measurements of heavy metals that compare favorably with that of mercury electrodes. Bismuth is a 'green' element, with very low toxicity, and widespread pharmaceutical use. A major effort of our activity this year has been devoted to the development of a 'mercury-free' uranium sensor based on the bismuth film electrode. Bismuth-coated carbon-fiber electrodes have thus been successfully applied for adsorptive-stripping voltammetric measurements of trace uranium in the presence of the cupferron complexing agent.

  7. Effect of Pore Morphology on the Electrochemical Properties of Electric Double Layer Carbon Cryogel Supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia, B.B.; Feaver, A.M.; Zhang, Q.; Champion, R.D.; Cao, G.; Fister, T.T.; Nagle, K.P.; Seidler, G.T.

    2008-07-28

    In this study, a group of carbon cryogels have been synthesized using resorcinol formaldehyde as precursors, and altered via catalysis and activation, to obtain varied nanostructures and pore size distributions. To understand the relation between structure and electrochemical properties, an alternate approach to de Levi's cylindrical pore, transmission line method was utilized. Using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, the capacitor can be studied as a dielectric system composed of a porous electrode and the electrolyte (tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate in propylene carbonate). The complex capacitance and power are used to study the behavior of the system below the relaxation frequency f{sub 0} ({var_phi} = -45{sup o}). Therefore, the relaxation of the capacitor system at the low frequency range, f

  8. perform coupled thermal electrical electrochemical and mechanical...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Solar Thermal Test Facility Nuclear ... Climate & Earth Systems Climate Measurement & Modeling ... Tribal Energy Program Intellectual Property Current EC ...

  9. ELECTROCHEMICAL STUDIES OF CARBON STEEL CORROSION IN HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DUNCAN, J.B.; WINDISCH, C.F.

    2006-10-13

    This paper reports on the electrochemical scans for the supernatant of Hanford double-shell tank (DST) 241-SY-102 and the electrochemical scans for the bottom saltcake layer for Hanford DST 241-AZ-102. It further reports on the development of electrochemical test cells adapted to both sample volume and hot cell constraints.

  10. Electrochemical biosensor based on immobilized enzymes and redox polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skotheim, Terje A.; Okamoto, Yoshiyuki; Hale, Paul D.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention relates to an electrochemical enzyme biosensor for use in liquid mixtures of components for detecting the presence of, or measuring the amount of, one or more select components. The enzyme electrode of the present invention is comprised of an enzyme, an artificial redox compound covalently bound to a flexible polymer backbone and an electron collector.

  11. Mediated electrochemical oxidation of organic wastes without electrode separators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farmer, Joseph C.; Wang, Francis T.; Hickman, Robert G.; Lewis, Patricia R.

    1996-01-01

    An electrochemical cell/electrolyte/mediator combination for the efficient destruction of organic contaminants using metal salt mediators in a sulfuric acid electrolyte, wherein the electrodes and mediator are chosen such that hydrogen gas is produced at the cathode and no cell membrane is required.

  12. Mediated electrochemical oxidation of organic wastes without electrode separators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farmer, J.C.; Wang, F.T.; Hickman, R.G.; Lewis, P.R.

    1996-05-14

    An electrochemical cell/electrolyte/mediator combination is described for the efficient destruction of organic contaminants using metal salt mediators in a sulfuric acid electrolyte, wherein the electrodes and mediator are chosen such that hydrogen gas is produced at the cathode and no cell membrane is required. 3 figs.

  13. EFFECTS OF GAMMA RADIATION ON ELECTROCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF IONIC LIQUIDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Visser, A; Nicholas Bridges, N; Thad Adams, T; John Mickalonis, J; Mark02 Williamson, M

    2009-04-21

    The electrochemical properties of ionic liquids (ILs) make them attractive for possible replacement of inorganic salts in high temperature molten salt electrochemical processing of nuclear fuel. To be a feasible replacement solvent, ILs need to be stable in moderate and high doses of radiation without adverse chemical and physical effects. Here, we exposed seven different ILs to a 1.2 MGy dose of gamma radiation to investigate their physical and chemical properties as they related to radiological stability. The azolium-based ILs experienced the greatest change in appearance, but these ILs were chemically more stable to gamma radiation than some of the other classes of ILs tested, due to the presence of aromatic electrons in the azolium ring. All the ILs exhibited a decrease in their conductivity and electrochemical window (at least 1.1 V), both of which could affect the utility of ILs in electrochemical processing. The concentration of the irradiation decomposition products was less than 3 mole %, with no impurities detectable using NMR techniques.

  14. Electrode electrolyte interlayers containing cerium oxide for electrochemical fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borglum, Brian P.; Bessette, Norman F.

    2000-01-01

    An electrochemical cell is made having a porous fuel electrode (16) and a porous air electrode (13), with solid oxide electrolyte (15) therebetween, where the air electrode surface opposing the electrolyte has a separate, attached, dense, continuous layer (14) of a material containing cerium oxide, and where electrolyte (16) contacts the continuous oxide layer (14), without contacting the air electrode (13).

  15. Oxide modified air electrode surface for high temperature electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Prabhakar; Ruka, Roswell J.

    1992-01-01

    An electrochemical cell is made having a porous cermet electrode (16) and a porous lanthanum manganite electrode (14), with solid oxide electrolyte (15) between them, where the lanthanum manganite surface next to the electrolyte contains a thin discontinuous layer of high surface area cerium oxide and/or praseodymium oxide, preferably as discrete particles (30) in contact with the air electrode and electrolyte.

  16. Mediated electrochemical oxidation treatment for Rocky Flats combustible low-level mixed waste. Final report, FY 1993 and 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiba, Z.; Lewis, P.R.; Murguia, L.C.

    1994-09-01

    Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation (MEO) is an aqueous process which destroys hazardous organics by oxidizing a mediator at the anode of an electrochemical cell; the mediator in turn oxidizes the organics within the bulk of the electrolyte. With this process organics can be nearly completely destroyed, that is, the carbon and hydrogen present in the hydrocarbon are almost entirely mineralized to carbon dioxide and water. The MEO process is also capable of dissolving radioactive materials, including difficult-to-dissolve compounds such as plutonium oxide. Hence, this process can treat mixed wastes, by destroying the hazardous organic components of the waste, and dissolving the radioactive components. The radioactive material can be recovered if desired, or disposed of as non-mixed radioactive waste. The process is inherently safe, since the hazardous and radioactive materials are completely contained in the aqueous phase, and the system operates at low temperatures (below 80{degree}C) and at ambient pressures.

  17. Electrochemical Membrane for Carbon Dioxide Separation and Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jolly, Stephen; Ghezel-Ayagh, Hossein; Hunt, Jennifer; Patel, Dilip; Steen, William A.; Richardson, Carl F.; Marina, Olga A.

    2012-12-28

    uelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) has developed a novel system concept for separation of carbon dioxide (CO2) from greenhouse gas (GHG) emission sources using an electrochemical membrane (ECM). The salient feature of the ECM is its capability to produce electric power while capturing CO2 from flue gas, such as from an existing pulverized coal (PC) plant. Laboratory scale testing of the ECM has verified the feasibility of the technology for CO2 separation from simulated flue gases of PC plants as well as combined cycle power plants and other industrial facilities. Recently, FCE was awarded a contract (DE-FE0007634) from the U.S. Department of Energy to evaluate the use of ECM to efficiently and cost effectively separate CO2 from the emissions of existing coal fired power plants. The overarching objective of the project is to verify that the ECM can achieve at least 90% CO2 capture from flue gas of an existing PC plant with no more than 35% increase in the cost of electricity (COE) produced by the plant. The specific objectives and related activities planned for the project include: 1) conduct bench scale tests of a planar membrane assembly consisting of ten or more cells of about 0.8 m2 area each, 2) develop the detailed design for an ECM-based CO2 capture system applied to an existing PC plant, and 3) evaluate the effects of impurities (pollutants such as SO2, NOx, Hg) present in the coal plant flue gas by conducting laboratory scale performance tests of the membrane. The results of this project are anticipated to demonstrate that the ECM is an advanced technology, fabricated from inexpensive materials, based on proven operational track records, modular, scalable to large sizes, and a viable candidate for >90% carbon capture from existing PC plants. In this paper, the fundamentals of ECM technology including: material of construction, principal mechanisms of operation, carbon capture test results and the benefits of applications to PC plants will be presented.

  18. Best Practices for Operando Battery Experiments: Influences of X-ray Experiment Design on Observed Electrochemical Reactivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borkiewicz, O. J.; Wiaderek, Kamila M.; Chupas, Peter J.; Chapman, Karena W.

    2015-06-04

    Dynamic properties and multiscale complexities governing electrochemical energy storage in batteries are most ideally interrogated under simulated operating conditions within an electrochemical cell. We assess how electrochemical reactivity can be impacted by experiment design, including the X-ray measurements or by common features or adaptations of electrochemical cells that enable X-ray measurements.

  19. Electrical modeling of semiconductor bridge (SCB) BNCP detonators with electrochemical capacitor firing sets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marx, K.D.; Ingersoll, D.; Bickes, R.W. Jr.

    1998-11-01

    In this paper the authors describe computer models that simulate the electrical characteristics and hence, the firing characteristics and performance of a semiconductor bridge (SCB) detonator for the initiation of BNCP [tetraammine-cis-bis (5-nitro-2H-tetrazolato-N{sup 2}) cobalt(III) perchlorate]. The electrical data and resultant models provide new insights into the fundamental behavior of SCB detonators, particularly with respect to the initiation mechanism and the interaction of the explosive powder with the SCB. One model developed, the Thermal Feedback Model, considers the total energy budget for the system, including the time evolution of the energy delivered to the powder by the electrical circuit, as well as that released by the ignition and subsequent chemical reaction of the powder. The authors also present data obtained using a new low-voltage firing set which employed an advanced electrochemical capacitor having a nominal capacitance of 350,000 {micro}F at 9 V, the maximum voltage rating for this particular device. A model for this firing set and detonator was developed by making measurements of the intrinsic capacitance and equivalent series resistance (ESR < 10 m{Omega}) of a single device. This model was then used to predict the behavior of BNCP SCB detonators fired alone, as well as in a multishot, parallel-string configuration using a firing set composed of either a single 9 V electrochemical capacitor or two of the capacitors wired in series and charged to 18 V.

  20. The electrochemical performance of ordered mesoporous carbon/nickel compounds composite material for supercapacitor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Jicheng; Zhao, Jiachang; Tang, Bohejin; Liu, Ping; Xu, Jingli

    2010-12-15

    A series of high performance ordered mesoporous carbon/nickel compounds composites have been synthesized by a combination of incipient wetness impregnation and hydrothermal method for the first time. X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption isotherms and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are used to characterize the composites derived at the hydrothermal temperature of 125, 150, 175, 200, 250, 275 and 300 {sup o}C. The formation of nanosized nickel compounds, fully inside the mesopore system, was confirmed with XRD and TEM. An N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption isotherms measurements still revealed mesoporosity for the host/guest compounds. It is noteworthy that an OMC/nickel nitrate hydroxide hydrate composite (OMCN-150) exhibits more excellent performance. Based on the various hydrothermal temperatures of the composite, the capacitance of an OMCN-150 delivering the best electrochemical performance is about 2.4 (5 mV s{sup -1}) and 1.5 (50 mV s{sup -1}) times of the pristine OMC. The capacitance retention of an OMCN-150 is 96.1%, which indicates that the electrochemical performance of the supercapacitor is improved greatly, and represents novel research and significant advances in the field of electrode composite materials for supercapacitor. -- Graphical abstract: A series of high performance nickel compound/ordered mesoporous carbon composites were synthesized by a combination of incipient wetness impregnation and hydrothermal method for the first time. Display Omitted

  1. Development of a tritium monitor combined with an electrochemical tritium pump using a proton conducting oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanaka, M.; Sugiyama, T.

    2015-03-15

    The detection of low level tritium is one of the key issues for tritium management in tritium handling facilities. Such a detection can be performed by tritium monitors based on proton conducting oxide technique. We tested a tritium monitoring system composed of a commercial proportional counter combined with an electrochemical hydrogen pump equipped with CaZr{sub 0.9}In{sub 0.1}O{sub 3-α} as proton conducting oxide. The hydrogen pump operated at 973 K under electrolysis conditions using tritiated water vapor (HTO). The proton conducting oxide extracts tritium molecules (HT) from HTO and tritium concentration is measured by the proportional counter. The advantage of the proposed tritium monitoring system is that it is able to convert HTO into molecular hydrogen.

  2. Nanodisperse transition metal electrodes (NTME) for electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Striebel, Kathryn A. (Oakland, CA); Wen, Shi-Jie (Sunnyvale, CA)

    2000-01-01

    Disclosed are transition metal electrodes for electrochemical cells using gel-state and solid-state polymers. The electrodes are suitable for use in primary and secondary cells. The electrodes (either negative electrode or positive electrode) are characterized by uniform dispersion of the transition metal at the nanoscale in the polymer. The transition metal moiety is structurally amorphous, so no capacity fade should occur due to lattice expansion/contraction mechanisms. The small grain size, amorphous structure and homogeneous distribution provide improved charge/discharge cycling performance, and a higher initial discharge rate capability. The cells can be cycled at high current densities, limited only by the electrolyte conductivity. A method of making the electrodes (positive and negative), and their usage in electrochemical cells are disclosed.

  3. Electrochemical behavior of carbon aerogels derived from different precursors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pekala, R.W.; Alviso, C.T.; Nielson, J.K.; Tran, T.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Reynolds, G.M.; Dresshaus, M.S. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1995-04-01

    The ability to tailor the structure and properties of porous carbons has led to their increased use as electrodes in energy storage devices. Our research focuses on the synthesis and characterization of carbon aerogels for use in electrochemical double layer capacitors. Carbon aerogels are formed from the sol-gel polymerization of (1) resorcinol-formaldehyde or (2) phenolic-furfural, followed by supercritical drying from carbon dioxide, and subsequent pyrolysis in an inert atmosphere. These materials can be produced as monoliths, composites, thin films, powders, or microspheres. In all cases, the areogels have an open-cell structure with an ultrafine pore size (<100 nm), high surface area (400-1 100 m{sup 2}/g), and a solid matrix composed of interconnected particles, fibers, or platelets with characteristic dimensions of 10 nm. This paper examines the effects of the carbon precursor and processing conditions on electrochemical performance in aqueous and organic electrolytes.

  4. The electrochemical oxidation of polyacetylene and its battery applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrington, G.C.; DeNuzzio, J.; Frydrych, D.; Scrosati, B.

    1984-01-01

    When oxidized in a nonaqueous cell containing 1.0M LiClO/sub 4/ in propylene carbonate, polyacetylene develops a voltage of 3.4-4.0V vs. Li/Li/sup +/ ClO/sub 4//sup -/. Oxidation levels at least as high as (CH(CLO/sub 4/) /SUB 1/10/ ) /SUB x/ can be produced electrochemically and then reduced to the undoped state with nearly 100% coulombic efficiency. The electrochemical doping (oxidation) process is only efficient when carried out with a minimum of liquid electrolyte under ultraclean conditions. Similar results are observed with a LiAsF/sub 6/ electrolyte. Polyacetylene is an extraordinary material of great importance for electrochemistry. However, on the basis of this and other published research, it is not yet clear that it offers major advantages over current electrodes for high energy density nonaqueous batteries.

  5. Continuous-feed electrochemical cell with nonpacking particulate electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, J.F.

    1995-07-18

    An electrochemical cell providing full consumption of electrochemically active particles in a nonpacking, electrolyte-permeable bed has a tapered cell cavity bounded by two nonparallel surfaces separated by a distance that promotes bridging of particles across the cavity. The gap/particle size ratio is maintained as the particles are consumed, decrease in size, and travel from the point of entry to the narrower end of the cell. A cell of this configuration supports a bed of low packing density maintained in a dynamic steady state by alternate formation and collapse of particle bridges across the gap and associated voids over the entire active area of the cell. The cell design can be applied to refuelable zinc/air cells and zinc/ferrocyanide storage batteries. 6 figs.

  6. Continuous-feed electrochemical cell with nonpacking particulate electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F.

    1995-01-01

    An electrochemical cell providing full consumption of electrochemically active particles in a nonpacking, electrolyte-permeable bed has a tapered cell cavity bounded by two nonparallel surfaces separated by a distance that promotes bridging of particles across the cavity. The gap/particle size ratio is maintained as the particles are consumed, decrease in size, and travel from the point of entry to the narrower end of the cell. A cell of this configuration supports a bed of low packing density maintained in a dynamic steady state by alternate formation and collapse of particle bridges across the gap and associated voids over the entire active area of the cell. The cell design can be applied to refuelable zinc/air cells and zinc/ferrocyanide storage batteries.

  7. Structures and fabrication techniques for solid state electrochemical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Visco, Steven J.; Jacobson, Craig P.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    2003-08-12

    Provided are low-cost, mechanically strong, highly electronically conductive porous substrates and associated structures for solid-state electrochemical devices, techniques for forming these structures, and devices incorporating the structures. The invention provides solid state electrochemical device substrates of novel composition and techniques for forming thin electrode/membrane/electrolyte coatings on the novel or more conventional substrates. In particular, in one embodiment the invention provides techniques for co-firing of device substrate (often an electrode) with an electrolyte or membrane layer to form densified electrolyte/membrane films 5 to 20 microns thick. In another embodiment, densified electrolyte/membrane films 5 to 20 microns thick may be formed on a pre-sintered substrate by a constrained sintering process. In some cases, the substrate may be a porous metal, alloy, or non-nickel cermet incorporating one or more of the transition metals Cr, Fe, Cu and Ag, or alloys thereof.

  8. Structures and fabrication techniques for solid state electrochemical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Visco, Steven J.; Jacobson, Craig P.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    2006-10-10

    Low-cost, mechanically strong, highly electronically conductive porous substrates and associated structures for solid-state electrochemical devices, techniques for forming these structures, and devices incorporating the structures provide solid state electrochemical device substrates of novel composition and techniques for forming thin electrode/membrane/electrolyte coatings on the novel or more conventional substrates. In particular, in one aspect the invention provides techniques for co-firing of device substrate (often an electrode) with an electrolyte or membrane layer to form densified electrolyte/membrane films 5 to 20 microns thick. In another aspect, densified electrolyte/membrane films 5 to 20 microns thick may be formed on a pre-sintered substrate by a constrained sintering process. In some cases, the substrate may be a porous metal, alloy, or non-nickel cermet incorporating one or more of the transition metals Cr, Fe and Cu, or alloys thereof.

  9. Structures And Fabrication Techniques For Solid State Electrochemical Devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Visco, Steven J.; Jacobson, Craig P.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    2005-12-27

    Provided are low-cost, mechanically strong, highly electronically conductive porous substrates and associated structures for solid-state electrochemical devices, techniques for forming these structures, and devices incorporating the structures. The invention provides solid state electrochemical device substrates of novel composition and techniques for forming thin electrode/membrane/electrolyte coatings on the novel or more conventional substrates. In particular, in one embodiment the invention provides techniques for co-firing of device substrate (often an electrode) with an electrolyte or membrane layer to form densified electrolyte/membrane films 5 to 20 microns thick. In another embodiment, densified electrolyte/membrane films 5 to 20 microns thick may be formed on a pre-sintered substrate by a constrained sintering process. In some cases, the substrate may be a porous metal, alloy, or non-nickel cermet incorporating one or more of the transition metals Cr, Fe, Cu and Ag, or alloys thereof.

  10. Method of preparing a positive electrode for an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomczuk, Zygmunt

    1979-01-01

    A method of preparing an electrochemical cell including a metal sulfide as the positive electrode reactant and lithium alloy as the negative electrochemical reactant with an alkali metal, molten salt electrolyte is disclosed which permits the assembly to be accomplished in air. The electrode reactants are introduced in the most part as a sulfide of lithium and the positive electrode metal in a single-phase compound. For instance, Li.sub.2 FeS.sub.2 is a single-phase compound that is produced by the reaction of Li.sub.2 S and FeS. This compound is an intermediate in the positive electrode cycle from FeS.sub.2 to Fe and Li.sub.2 S. Its use minimizes volumetric changes from the assembled to the charged and discharged conditions of the electrode and minimizes electrode material interaction with air and moisture during assembly.

  11. Single particle electrochemical sensors and methods of utilization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schoeniger, Joseph; Flounders, Albert W.; Hughes, Robert C.; Ricco, Antonio J.; Wally, Karl; Kravitz, Stanley H.; Janek, Richard P.

    2006-04-04

    The present invention discloses an electrochemical device for detecting single particles, and methods for using such a device to achieve high sensitivity for detecting particles such as bacteria, viruses, aggregates, immuno-complexes, molecules, or ionic species. The device provides for affinity-based electrochemical detection of particles with single-particle sensitivity. The disclosed device and methods are based on microelectrodes with surface-attached, affinity ligands (e.g., antibodies, combinatorial peptides, glycolipids) that bind selectively to some target particle species. The electrodes electrolyze chemical species present in the particle-containing solution, and particle interaction with a sensor element modulates its electrolytic activity. The devices may be used individually, employed as sensors, used in arrays for a single specific type of particle or for a range of particle types, or configured into arrays of sensors having both these attributes.

  12. Electrochemical cell apparatus having an exterior fuel mixer nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reichner, Philip; Doshi, Vinod B.

    1992-01-01

    An electrochemical apparatus (10) is made having a generator section (22) containing electrochemical cells (16), a fresh gaseous feed fuel inlet (28), a gaseous feed oxidant inlet (30), and at least one hot gaseous spent fuel recirculation channel (46), where the spent fuel recirculation channel (46), a portion of which is in contact with the outside of a mixer chamber (52), passes from the generator chamber (22) to combine with the fresh feed fuel inlet (28) at the entrance to the mixer chamber, and a mixer nozzle (50) is located at the entrance to the mixer chamber, where the mixer chamber (52) connects with the reforming chamber (54), and where the mixer-diffuser chamber (52) and mixer nozzle (50) are exterior to and spaced apart from the combustion chamber (24), and the generator chamber (22), and the mixer nozzle (50) can operate below 400.degree. C.

  13. Electrochemical Proteolytic Beacon for Detection of Matrix Metalloproteinase Activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Guodong; Wang, Jun; Wunschel, David S.; Lin, Yuehe

    2006-09-27

    This communication describes a novel method for detecting of matrix metalloproteinase-7 activity using a peptide substrate labeled with a ferrocene reporter. The substrate serves as a selective electrochemical proteolytic beacon (EPB) for this metalloproteinase. The EPB is immobilized on a gold electrode surface to enable on-off electrochemical signaling capability for uncleaved and cleaved events. The EPB is efficiently and selectively cleaved by MMP-7 as measured by the rate of decrease in redox current of ferrocene. Direct transduction of a signal corresponding to peptide cleavage events into an electronic signal thus provides a simple, sensitive route for detecting the MMP activity. The new method allows for identification of the activity of MMP-7 in concentrations as low as 3.4 pM. The concept can be extended to design multiple peptide substrate labeled with different electroactive reporters for assaying multiple MMPs activities.

  14. Enzyme electrochemical sensor electrode and method of making it

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rishpon, Judith; Zawodzinski, Thomas A.; Gottesfeld, Shimshon

    1992-01-01

    An electrochemical sensor electrode is formed from an electronic conductor coated with a casting solution containing a perfluorosulfonic acid ionomer and a selected enzyme. The selected enzyme catalyzes a reaction between a predetermined substance in a solution and oxygen to form an electrochemically active compound that is detected at the electronic conductor. The resulting perfluorosulfonic acid polymer provides a stable matrix for the enzyme for long lived enzyme activity, wherein only thin coatings are required on the metal conductor. The polymer also advantageously repels interfering substances from contacting the enzyme and contains quantities of oxygen to maintain a sensing capability during conditions of oxygen depletion in the sample. In one particular embodiment, glucose oxidase is mixed with the perfluorosulfonic acid ionomer to form an electrode for glucose detection.

  15. Electrochemical cell apparatus having an exterior fuel mixer nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reichner, P.; Doshi, V.B.

    1992-12-08

    An electrochemical apparatus is made having a generator section containing electrochemical cells, a fresh gaseous feed fuel inlet, a gaseous feed oxidant inlet, and at least one hot gaseous spent fuel recirculation channel, where the spent fuel recirculation channel, a portion of which is in contact with the outside of a mixer chamber, passes from the generator chamber to combine with the fresh feed fuel inlet at the entrance to the mixer chamber, and a mixer nozzle is located at the entrance to the mixer chamber, where the mixer chamber connects with the reforming chamber, and where the mixer-diffuser chamber and mixer nozzle are exterior to and spaced apart from the combustion chamber, and the generator chamber, and the mixer nozzle can operate below 400 C. 2 figs.

  16. High-performance Electrochemical Capacitors - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search High-performance Electrochemical Capacitors Nanoscale metal oxide coatings on 3D carbon nanoarchitectures Naval Research Laboratory Contact NRL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication ENE05FactSheet (310 KB) Technology Marketing Summary A capacitor comprising an anode, cathode, and an electrolyte, wherein the anode, the cathode, or both comprise a composite of porous carbon structure with a coating on the

  17. Structures and fabrication techniques for solid state electrochemical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Visco, Steven J.; Jacobson, Craig P.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    2012-10-09

    Porous substrates and associated structures for solid-state electrochemical devices, such as solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), are low-cost, mechanically strong and highly electronically conductive. Some preferred structures have a thin layer of an electrocatalytically active material (e.g., Ni--YSZ) coating a porous high-strength alloy support (e.g., SS-430) to form a porous SOFC fuel electrode. Electrode/electrolyte structures can be formed by co-firing or constrained sintering processes.

  18. Non-Equilibrium Pathways during Electrochemical Phase Transformations in

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Single Crystals Revealed by Dynamic Chemical Imaging at Nanoscale Resolution | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Non-Equilibrium Pathways during Electrochemical Phase Transformations in Single Crystals Revealed by Dynamic Chemical Imaging at Nanoscale Resolution Friday, February 27, 2015 The energy density of current batteries is limited by the practical capacity of the positive electrode, which is the determined by the properties of the active material and its concentration in the

  19. Suite of Photo-electrochemical Technologies for Hydrogen Production -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Suite of Photo-electrochemical Technologies for Hydrogen Production National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary The primary fuel powering new fuel cell technologies is hydrogen. The market for fuel cells is expected

  20. Structures and fabrication techniques for solid state electrochemical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Visco, Steven J.; Jacobson, Craig P.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    2008-04-01

    Porous substrates and associated structures for solid-state electrochemical devices, such as solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), are low-cost, mechanically strong and highly electronically conductive. Some preferred structures have a thin layer of an electrocatalytically active material (e.g., Ni--YSZ) coating a porous high-strength alloy support (e.g., SS-430) to form a porous SOFC fuel electrode. Electrode/electrolyte structures can be formed by co-firing or constrained sintering processes.

  1. Electrochemical cell having an alkali-metal-nitrate electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roche, M.F.; Preto, S.K.

    1982-06-04

    A power-producing secondary electrochemical cell includes a molten alkali metal as the negative-electrode material and a molten-nitrate salt as the positive-electrode material. The molten material in the respective electrodes are separated by a solid barrier of alkali-metal-ion conducting material. A typical cell includes active materials of molten sodium separated from molten sodium nitrate and other nitrates in mixture by a layer of sodium ..beta..'' alumina.

  2. Modified electrochemical properties of organic quinoxaline via electrolyte

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    interactions in propylene carbonate - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research 4, 2015, Research Highlights Modified electrochemical properties of organic quinoxaline via electrolyte interactions in propylene carbonate Theoretical gravimetric capacity of quinoxaline : 410 mAh/g Solubility > 5M in carbonate solvents Scientific Achievement Quinoxalines are highly sensitive to solvent and electrolyte interactions. For example, bare quinoxaline is active in acetonitrile at DFT-predicted

  3. Coating Active Materials for Applications in Electrochemical Devices |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne National Laboratory Coating Active Materials for Applications in Electrochemical Devices Technology available for licensing: A process that includes suspending/dissolving an electro-active material and a carbon precursor in a solvent; and then depositing the carbon precursor on the electro-active material to form a carbon-coated electro-active material Process reduces manufacturing cost Coating process produces carbon-coated metal oxides without the problems associated with

  4. Microfluidic devices with thick-film electrochemical detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Joseph; Tian, Baomin; Sahlin, Eskil

    2005-04-12

    An apparatus for conducting a microfluidic process and analysis, including at least one elongated microfluidic channel, fluidic transport means for transport of fluids through the microfluidic channel, and at least one thick-film electrode in fluidic connection with the outlet end of the microfluidic channel. The present invention includes an integrated on-chip combination reaction, separation and thick-film electrochemical detection microsystem, for use in detection of a wide range of analytes, and methods for the use thereof.

  5. Electrochemical cell with powdered electrically insulative material as a separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mathers, James P.; Olszanski, Theodore W.; Boquist, Carl W.

    1978-01-01

    A secondary electrochemical cell includes electrodes separated by a layer of electrically insulative powder. The powder includes refractory materials selected from the oxides and nitrides of metals and metaloids. The powdered refractory material, blended with electrolyte particles, can be compacted in layers with electrode materials to form an integral electrode structure or separately assembled into the cell. The assembled cell is heated to operating temperature leaving porous layers of electrically insulative, refractory particles, containing molten electrolyte between the electrodes.

  6. Polymer-electrolyte membrane, electrochemical fuel cell, and related method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krishnan, Lakshmi; Yeager, Gary William; Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

    2014-12-09

    A polymer-electrolyte membrane is presented. The polymer-electrolyte membrane comprises an acid-functional polymer, and an additive incorporated in at least a portion of the membrane. The additive comprises a fluorinated cycloaliphatic additive, a hydrophobic cycloaliphatic additive, or combinations thereof, wherein the additive has a boiling point greater than about 120.degree. C. An electrochemical fuel cell including the polymer-electrolyte membrane, and a related method, are also presented.

  7. Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, P.; Vasilow, T.R.; Richards, V.L.

    1996-05-14

    The invention is comprised of an electrically conducting doped or admixed cerium oxide composition with niobium oxide and/or tantalum oxide for electrochemical devices, characterized by the general formula: Nb{sub x}Ta{sub y}Ce{sub 1{minus}x{minus}y}O{sub 2} where x is about 0.0 to 0.05, y is about 0.0 to 0.05, and x+y is about 0.02 to 0.05, and where x is preferably about 0.02 to 0.05 and y is 0, and a method of making the same is also described. This novel composition is particularly applicable in forming a protective interlayer of a high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell, characterized by a first electrode; an electrically conductive interlayer of niobium and/or tantalum doped cerium oxide deposited over at least a first portion of the first electrode; an interconnect deposited over the interlayer; a solid electrolyte deposited over a second portion of the first electrode, the first portion being discontinuous from the second portion; and, a second electrode deposited over the solid electrolyte. The interlayer is characterized as being porous and selected from the group consisting of niobium doped cerium oxide, tantalum doped cerium oxide, and niobium and tantalum doped cerium oxide or admixtures of the same. The first electrode, an air electrode, is a porous layer of doped lanthanum manganite, the solid electrolyte layer is a dense yttria stabilized zirconium oxide, the interconnect layer is a dense, doped lanthanum chromite, and the second electrode, a fuel electrode, is a porous layer of nickel-zirconium oxide cermet. The electrochemical cell can take on a plurality of shapes such as annular, planar, etc. and can be connected to a plurality of electrochemical cells in series and/or in parallel to generate electrical energy. 5 figs.

  8. Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Prabhakar; Vasilow, Theodore R.; Richards, Von L.

    1996-01-01

    The invention comprises of an electrically conducting doped or admixed cerium oxide composition with niobium oxide and/or tantalum oxide for electrochemical devices, characterized by the general formula: Nb.sub.x Ta.sub.y Ce.sub.1-x-y O.sub.2 where x is about 0.0 to 0.05, y is about 0.0 to 0.05, and x+y is about 0.02 to 0.05, and where x is preferably about 0.02 to 0.05 and y is 0, and a method of making the same. This novel composition is particularly applicable in forming a protective interlayer of a high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell (10), characterized by a first electrode (12); an electrically conductive interlayer (14) of niobium and/or tantalum doped cerium oxide deposited over at least a first portion (R) of the first electrode; an interconnect (16) deposited over the interlayer; a solid electrolyte (18) deposited over a second portion of the first electrode, the first portion being discontinuous from the second portion; and, a second electrode (20) deposited over the solid electrolyte. The interlayer (14) is characterized as being porous and selected from the group consisting of niobium doped cerium oxide, tantalum doped cerium oxide, and niobium and tantalum doped cerium oxide or admixtures of the same. The first electrode (12), an air electrode, is a porous layer of doped lanthanum manganite, the solid electrolyte layer (18) is a dense yttria stabilized zirconium oxide, the interconnect layer (16) is a dense, doped lanthanum chromite, and the second electrode (20), a fuel electrode, is a porous layer of nickel-zirconium oxide cermet. The electrochemical cell (10) can take on a plurality of shapes such as annular, planar, etc. and can be connected to a plurality of electrochemical cells in series and/or in parallel to generate electrical energy.

  9. Direct Observation of SEI and Dendrite Dynamics by Operando Electrochemical

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research February 23, 2015, Research Highlights Direct Observation of SEI and Dendrite Dynamics by Operando Electrochemical Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (Top) Li deposited on the Pt anode at the beginning (left), during (middle) and end (right) of the second cycle. Residual "dead Li" can be seen around the anode. (Center) Simultaneous cyclic voltammetry of the second Li deposition/dissolution

  10. Method of making gas diffusion layers for electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frisk, Joseph William; Boand, Wayne Meredith; Larson, James Michael

    2002-01-01

    A method is provided for making a gas diffusion layer for an electrochemical cell comprising the steps of: a) combining carbon particles and one or more surfactants in a typically aqueous vehicle to make a preliminary composition, typically by high shear mixing; b) adding one or more highly fluorinated polymers to said preliminary composition by low shear mixing to make a coating composition; and c) applying the coating composition to an electrically conductive porous substrate, typically by a low shear coating method.

  11. Electrochemical power-producing cell. [Li/Se

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cairns, E.J.; Chilenskas, A.A.; Steunenberg, R.K.; Shimotake, H.

    1972-05-30

    An electrochemical power-producing cell including a molten lithium metal anode, a molten selenium metal cathode, a paste electrolyte separating the anode from the cathode, an anode current collector, and a single layer of niobium expanded metal formed in corrugated shape as cathode current collector is described. In addition, means are provided for sealing the anode and the cathode from loss of lithium and selenium, respectively, and an insulator is provided between the anode housing and the paste electrolyte disk.

  12. Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isenberg, Arnold O.; Ruka, Roswell J.

    1986-01-01

    A high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell is made, having a first and second electrode with solid electrolyte between them, where the electrolyte is formed by hot chemical vapor deposition, where a solid, interlayer material, which is electrically conductive, oxygen permeable, and protective of electrode material from hot metal halide vapor attack, is placed between the first electrode and the electrolyte, to protect the first electrode from the hot metal halide vapors during vapor deposition.

  13. Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isenberg, Arnold O.; Ruka, Roswell J.; Zymboly, Gregory E.

    1985-01-01

    A high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell is made, having a first and second electrode with solid electrolyte between them, where the electrolyte is formed by hot chemical vapor deposition, where a solid, interlayer material, which is electrically conductive, oxygen permeable, and protective of electrode material from hot metal halide vapor attack, is placed between the first electrode and the electrolyte, to protect the first electrode from the hot metal halide vapors during vapor deposition.

  14. Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isenberg, Arnold O.; Ruka, Roswell J.

    1987-01-01

    A high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell is made, having a first and second electrode with solid electrolyte between them, where the electrolyte is formed by hot chemical vapor deposition, where a solid, interlayer material, which is electrically conductive, oxygen permeable, and protective of electrode material from hot metal halide vapor attack, is placed between the first electrode and the electrolyte, to protect the first electrode from the hot metal halide vapors during vapor deposition.

  15. Electrochemical cell and separator plate thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Bernard S.; Dharia, Dilip J.

    1979-10-02

    A fuel cell includes a separator plate having first and second flow channels extending there through contiguously with an electrode and respectively in flow communication with the cell electrolyte and in flow isolation with respect to such electrolyte. In fuel cell system arrangement, the diverse type channels are supplied in common with process gas for thermal control purposes. The separator plate is readily formed by corrugation of integral sheet material. 10 figs.

  16. Electrochemical cell and separator plate thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Bernard S.; Dharia, Dilip J.

    1979-01-01

    A fuel cell includes a separator plate having first and second flow channels extending therethrough contiguously with an electrode and respectively in flow communication with the cell electrolyte and in flow isolation with respect to such electrolyte. In fuel cell system arrangement, the diverse type channels are suplied in common with process gas for thermal control purposes. The separator plate is readily formed by corrugation of integral sheet material.

  17. Quantum-Dots Based Electrochemical Immunoassay of Interleukin-1?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Hong; Liu, Guodong; Wang, Jun; Lin, Yuehe

    2007-07-01

    We describe a quantum-dot (QD, CdSe@ZnS)-based electrochemical immunoassay to detect a protein biomarker, interleukin-1? (IL-1?). QD conjugated with anti-IL-1? antibody was used as a label in an immunorecognition event. After a complete sandwich immunoreaction among the primary IL-1? antibody (immobilized on the avidin-modified magnetic beads), IL-1?, and the QD-labeled secondary antibody, QD labels were attached to the magnetic-bead surface through the antibody-antigen immunocomplex. Electrochemical stripping analysis of the captured QDs was used to quantify the concentration of IL-1? after an acid-dissolution step. The streptavidin-modified magnetic beads and the magnetic separation platform were used to integrate a facile antibody immobilization (through a biotin/streptavidin interaction) with immunoreactions and the isolation of immunocomplexes from reaction solutions in the assay. The voltammetric response is highly linear over the range of 0.5 to 50 ng mL-1 IL 1?, and the limit of detection is estimated to be 0.3 ng mL-1 (18 pM). This QD-based electrochemical immunoassay shows great promise for rapid, simple, and cost-effective analysis of protein biomarkers.

  18. Circuits and methods for determination and control of signal transition rates in electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jamison, David Kay

    2016-04-12

    A charge/discharge input is for respectively supplying charge to, or drawing charge from, an electrochemical cell. A transition modifying circuit is coupled between the charge/discharge input and a terminal of the electrochemical cell and includes at least one of an inductive constituent, a capacitive constituent and a resistive constituent selected to generate an adjusted transition rate on the terminal sufficient to reduce degradation of a charge capacity characteristic of the electrochemical cell. A method determines characteristics of the transition modifying circuit. A degradation characteristic of the electrochemical cell is analyzed relative to a transition rate of the charge/discharge input applied to the electrochemical cell. An adjusted transition rate is determined for a signal to be applied to the electrochemical cell that will reduce the degradation characteristic. At least one of an inductance, a capacitance, and a resistance is selected for the transition modifying circuit to achieve the adjusted transition rate.

  19. Size Effects in the Electrochemical Alloying and Cycling ofElectrodep...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Size Effects in the Electrochemical Alloying and Cycling of Electrodeposited Aluminum with Lithium. Abstract not provided. Authors: Hudak, Nicholas ; Huber, Dale L. ...

  20. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Electrochemical Modeling of LMR-NMC Materials and Electrodes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about electrochemical...

  1. A MEMS platform for in situ, real-time monitoring of electrochemically...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: A MEMS platform for in situ, real-time monitoring of electrochemically induced mechanical changes in lithium-ion battery electrodes Authors: Pomerantseva, Ekaterina ; Jung, ...

  2. Parallel macromolecular delivery and biochemical/electrochemical interface to cells employing nanostructures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKnight, Timothy E; Melechko, Anatoli V; Griffin, Guy D; Guillorn, Michael A; Merkulov, Vladimir L; Simpson, Michael L

    2015-03-31

    Systems and methods are described for parallel macromolecular delivery and biochemical/electrochemical interface to whole cells employing carbon nanostructures including nanofibers and nanotubes. A method includes providing a first material on at least a first portion of a first surface of a first tip of a first elongated carbon nanostructure; providing a second material on at least a second portion of a second surface of a second tip of a second elongated carbon nanostructure, the second elongated carbon nanostructure coupled to, and substantially parallel to, the first elongated carbon nanostructure; and penetrating a boundary of a biological sample with at least one member selected from the group consisting of the first tip and the second tip.

  3. Material protection control and accounting program activities at the electrochemical plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McAllister, S.

    1997-11-14

    The Electrochemical Plant (ECP) is the one of the Russian Federation`s four uranium enrichment plants and one of three sites in Russia blending high enriched uranium (HEU) into commercial grade low enriched uranium. ECP is located approximately 200 km east of Krasnoyarsk in the closed city of Zelenogorsk (formerly Krasnoyarsk- 45). DOE`s MPC&A program first met with ECP in September of 1996. The six national laboratories participating in DOE`s Material Protection Control and Accounting program are cooperating with ECP to enhance the capabilities of the physical protection, access control, and nuclear material control and accounting systems. The MPC&A work at ECP is expected to be completed during fiscal year 2001.

  4. Material protection control and accounting program activities at the Urals electrochemical integrated plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McAllister, S.

    1997-11-14

    The Urals Electrochemical Integrated Plant (UEIP) is the Russian Federation`s largest uranium enrichment plant and one of three sites in Russia blending high enriched uranium (HEU) into commercial grade low enriched uranium. UEIP is located approximately 70 km north of Yekaterinburg in the closed city of Novouralsk (formerly Sverdlovsk- 44). DOE`s MPC&A program first met with UEIP in June of 1996, however because of some contractual issues the work did not start until September of 1997. The six national laboratories participating in DOE`s Material Protection Control and Accounting program are cooperating with UEIP to enhance the capabilities of the physical protection, access control, and nuclear material control and accounting systems. The MPC&A work at UEIP is expected to be completed during fiscal year 2001.

  5. Test report for measurement of performance vs temperature of Whittaker Electrochemical Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vargo, G.F., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-13

    This document is the test report that summarizes the results of the tests on the Whittaker cells between the temperatures of -20{degrees}F and +120{degrees}F. These sensors are used on the Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) flammable gas interlock (FGI), to detect and quantify hydrogen gas. The test consisted of operating five Whittaker electrochemical cells in an environmental chamber that was varied in temperature from -20{degrees}F to +120{degrees}F. As the rate rise of the voltage from the cells changed, after exposure to a gas concentration of 1% hydrogen at the different temperatures, the voltage was recorded on a computer controlled data acquisition system. Analysis of the data was made to determine if the cells maximum output voltages and rise times were effected by temperature.

  6. Electrochemical aging of humectant-treated thermal-sprayed zinc anodes for cathodic protection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Covino, B.S. Jr.; Holcomb, G.R.; Bullard, S.J.; Russell, J.H.; Cramer, S.D.; Bennett, J.E.; Laylor, H.M.

    1999-07-01

    Humectants, substances that promote the retention of moisture, were studied to determine their effectiveness in improving the performance and extending the service life of both new and previously-aged thermal-sprayed Zn anodes used in impressed current (ICCP) and galvanic cathodic protection (GCP) systems for steel-reinforced concrete structures. Potassium acetate, lithium nitrate, and lithium bromide were applied to a series of thermal-sprayed Zn-coated concrete slabs before starting the ICCP or GCP experiment. All of the humectants altered the behavior of the thermal-sprayed Zn anodes. LiNO{sub 3} was the most beneficial for ICCP anodes and LiBr was the most beneficial for GCP anodes. Circuit resistances for ICCP anodes and galvanic current density for GCP anodes are compared on the basis of electrochemical aging, humidity, and type of humectant.

  7. Electrochemical Thermal Network Model for Multi-Cell Lithium Ion Battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-02-28

    Increasing the numbers and size of cells in a battery pack complicates electrical and thermal control of the system. In addition to keeping a battery pack in the optimal temperature range, maintaining temperature uniformity among all cells in a pack is important to prolong life and enhance safety. Electrical, electrochemical, and thermal responses of a lithium ion battery are closely coupled through macroscopic design factors of the cells and module or pack. The model has to resolve complex interaction between cell characteristics, pack design, and load conditions. Safe and durable battery pack design requires a battery thermal model that can be coupled with a battery performance more and/or safety model with good accuracy and simulation time. The model is proposed to be used for various technical purposes: Design optimization for safety and/or performance, On-board control.

  8. Electrochemical Thermal Network Model for Multi-Cell Lithium Ion Battery

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-02-28

    Increasing the numbers and size of cells in a battery pack complicates electrical and thermal control of the system. In addition to keeping a battery pack in the optimal temperature range, maintaining temperature uniformity among all cells in a pack is important to prolong life and enhance safety. Electrical, electrochemical, and thermal responses of a lithium ion battery are closely coupled through macroscopic design factors of the cells and module or pack. The model hasmore » to resolve complex interaction between cell characteristics, pack design, and load conditions. Safe and durable battery pack design requires a battery thermal model that can be coupled with a battery performance more and/or safety model with good accuracy and simulation time. The model is proposed to be used for various technical purposes: Design optimization for safety and/or performance, On-board control.« less

  9. Silicon on insulator achieved using electrochemical etching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Anthony M.

    1997-01-01

    Bulk crystalline silicon wafers are transferred after the completion of circuit fabrication to form thin films of crystalline circuitry on almost any support, such as metal, semiconductor, plastic, polymer, glass, wood, and paper. In particular, this technique is suitable to form silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers, whereby the devices and circuits formed exhibit superior performance after transfer due to the removal of the silicon substrate. The added cost of the transfer process to conventional silicon fabrication is insignificant. No epitaxial, lift-off, release or buried oxide layers are needed to perform the transfer of single or multiple wafers onto support members. The transfer process may be performed at temperatures of 50.degree. C. or less, permits transparency around the circuits and does not require post-transfer patterning. Consequently, the technique opens up new avenues for the use of integrated circuit devices in high-brightness, high-resolution video-speed color displays, reduced-thickness increased-flexibility intelligent cards, flexible electronics on ultrathin support members, adhesive electronics, touch screen electronics, items requiring low weight materials, smart cards, intelligent keys for encryption systems, toys, large area circuits, flexible supports, and other applications. The added process flexibility also permits a cheap technique for increasing circuit speed of market driven technologies such as microprocessors at little added expense.

  10. Silicon on insulator achieved using electrochemical etching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCarthy, A.M.

    1997-10-07

    Bulk crystalline silicon wafers are transferred after the completion of circuit fabrication to form thin films of crystalline circuitry on almost any support, such as metal, semiconductor, plastic, polymer, glass, wood, and paper. In particular, this technique is suitable to form silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers, whereby the devices and circuits formed exhibit superior performance after transfer due to the removal of the silicon substrate. The added cost of the transfer process to conventional silicon fabrication is insignificant. No epitaxial, lift-off, release or buried oxide layers are needed to perform the transfer of single or multiple wafers onto support members. The transfer process may be performed at temperatures of 50 C or less, permits transparency around the circuits and does not require post-transfer patterning. Consequently, the technique opens up new avenues for the use of integrated circuit devices in high-brightness, high-resolution video-speed color displays, reduced-thickness increased-flexibility intelligent cards, flexible electronics on ultrathin support members, adhesive electronics, touch screen electronics, items requiring low weight materials, smart cards, intelligent keys for encryption systems, toys, large area circuits, flexible supports, and other applications. The added process flexibility also permits a cheap technique for increasing circuit speed of market driven technologies such as microprocessors at little added expense. 57 figs.

  11. Electrochemical synthesis of nanosized hydroxyapatite by pulsed direct current method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nur, Adrian; Rahmawati, Alifah; Ilmi, Noor Izzati; Affandi, Samsudin; Widjaja, Arief

    2014-02-24

    Synthesis of nanosized of hydroxyapatite (HA) by electrochemical pulsed direct current (PDC) method has been studied. The aim of this work is to study the influence of various PDC parameters (pH initial, electrode distance, duty cycle, frequency, and amplitude) on particle surface area of HA powders. The electrochemical synthesis was prepared in solution Ca{sup 2+}/EDTA{sup 4?}/PO{sub 4}{sup 3+} at concentration 0.25/0.25/0.15 M for 24 h. The electrochemical cell was consisted of two carbon rectangular electrodes connected to a function generator to produce PDC. There were two treatments for particles after electrosynthesized, namely without aging and aged for 2 days at 40 C. For both cases, the particles were filtered and washed by demineralized water to eliminate the impurities and unreacted reactants. Then, the particles were dried at 100 C for 2 days. The dried particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, surface area analyzer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectra and thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis. HA particles can be produced when the initial pH > 6. The aging process has significant effect on the produced HA particles. SEM images of HA particles showed that the powders consisted of agglomerates composed of fine crystallites and have morphology plate-like and sphere. The surface area of HA particles is in the range of 25 91 m{sup 2}/g. The largest particle surface area of HA was produced at 4 cm electrode distance, 80% cycle duty, frequency 0.1 Hz, amplitude 9 V and with aging process.

  12. Electrochemical devices utilizing molten alkali metal electrode-reactant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hitchcock, D.C.; Mailhe, C.C.; De Jonghe, L.C.

    1985-07-10

    Electrochemical cells are provided with a reactive metal to reduce the oxide of the alkali metal electrode-reactant. Cells employing a molten alkali metal electrode, e.g., sodium, in contact with a ceramic electrolyte, which is a conductor of the ions of the alkali metal forming the electrode, exhibit a lower resistance when a reactive metal, e.g., vanadium, is allowed to react with and reduce the alkali metal oxide. Such cells exhibit less degradation of the electrolyte and of the glass seals often used to joining the electrolyte to the other components of the cell under cycling conditions.

  13. Electrochemical cell with high discharge/charge rate capability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, Laszlo

    1988-01-01

    A fully charged positive electrode composition for an electrochemical cell includes FeS.sub.2 and NiS.sub.2 in about equal molar amounts along with about 2-20 mole percent of the reaction product Li.sub.2 S. Through selection of appropriate electrolyte compositions, high power output or low operating temperatures can be obtained. The cell includes a substantially constant electrode impedance through most of its charge and discharge range. Exceptionally high discharge rates and overcharge protection are obtainable through use of the inventive electrode composition.

  14. Apparatus and method for electrochemical modification of liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    James, Patrick I

    2015-04-21

    An apparatus for electrochemical modification of liquid streams employing an electrolytic cell which includes an anode compartment defined by an anode structure where oxidation is effected, containing a liquid electrolyte anolyte, and a cathode compartment defined by a cathode structure where reduction is effected containing a liquid electrolyte catholyte. In addition, the electrolytic cell includes at least one additional compartment arranged at least partially between the anode compartment and the cathode compartment and separated from the anode compartment and the cathode compartment by a separator structure arranged to supports ionic conduction of current between the anode structure and the cathode structure.

  15. Non-pulsed electrochemical impregnation of flexible metallic battery plaques

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maskalick, Nicholas J.

    1982-01-01

    A method of loading active battery material into porous, flexible, metallic battery plaques, comprises the following steps: precipitating nickel hydroxide active material within the plaque, by making the plaque cathodic, at a high current density, in an electro-precipitation cell also containing a consumable nickel anode and a solution comprising nickel nitrate, having a pH of between 2.0 and 2.8; electrochemically oxidizing the precipitate in caustic formation solution; and repeating the electro-precipitation step at a low current density.

  16. Method of low temperature operation of an electrochemical cell array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, P.; Ruka, R.J.; Bratton, R.J.

    1994-04-26

    A method is described for operating an electrochemical cell generator apparatus containing a generator chamber containing an array of cells having interior and exterior electrodes with solid electrolyte between the electrodes, where a hot gas contacts the outside of the cells and the generating chamber normally operates at over 850 C, where N[sub 2] gas is fed to contact the interior electrode of the cells in any case when the generating chamber temperature drops for whatever reason to within the range of from 550 C to 800 C, to eliminate cracking within the cells. 2 figures.

  17. Sulfur tolerant composite cermet electrodes for solid oxide electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isenberg, Arnold O.

    1987-01-01

    An electrochemical apparatus is made containing an exterior electrode bonded to the exterior of a tubular, solid, oxygen ion conducting electrolyte where the electrolyte is also in contact with an interior electrode, said exterior electrode comprising particles of an electronic conductor contacting the electrolyte, where a ceramic metal oxide coating partially surrounds the particles and is bonded to the electrolyte, and where a coating of an ionic-electronic conductive material is attached to the ceramic metal oxide coating and to the exposed portions of the particles.

  18. Graphene Based Electrochemical Sensors and Biosensors: A Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Yuyan; Wang, Jun; Wu, Hong; Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Lin, Yuehe

    2010-05-01

    Graphene, emerging as a true 2-dimensional material, has received increasing attention due to its unique physicochemical properties (high surface area, excellent conductivity, high mechanical strength, and ease of functionalization and mass production). This article selectively reviews recent advances in graphene-based electrochemical sensors and biosensors. In particular, graphene for direct electrochemistry of enzyme, its electrocatalytic activity toward small biomolecules (hydrogen peroxide, NADH, dopamine, etc.), and graphene-based enzyme biosensors have been summarized in more detail; Graphene-based DNA sensing and environmental analysis have been discussed. Future perspectives in this rapidly developing field are also discussed.

  19. Electrochemical devices utilizing molten alkali metal electrode-reactant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hitchcock, David C.; Mailhe, Catherine C.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    1986-01-01

    Electrochemical cells are provided with a reactive metal to reduce the oxide of the alkali metal electrode-reactant. Cells employing a molten alkali metal electrode, e.g., sodium, in contact with a ceramic electrolyte, which is a conductor of the ions of the alkali metal forming the electrode, exhibit a lower resistance when a reactive metal, e.g., vanadium, is allowed to react with and reduce the alkali metal oxide. Such cells exhibit less degradation of the electrolyte and of the glass seals often used to joining the electrolyte to the other components of the cell under cycling conditions.

  20. Method of low temperature operation of an electrochemical cell array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Prabhakar; Ruka, Roswell J.; Bratton, Raymond J.

    1994-01-01

    In the method of operating an electrochemical cell generator apparatus containing a generator chamber (20) containing an array of cells (12) having interior and exterior electrodes with solid electrolyte between the electrodes, where a hot gas (F) contacts the outside of the cells (12) and the generating chamber normally operates at over 850.degree. C., where N.sub.2 gas is fed to contact the interior electrode of the cells (12) in any case when the generating chamber (20) temperature drops for whatever reason to within the range of from 550.degree. C. to 800.degree. C., to eliminate cracking within the cells (12).

  1. Electrochemical impedance analysis of anti-corrosive latex paint films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbour, C.J.

    1996-10-01

    Short term Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopic (EIS) evaluation and ranking of experimental styrene - acrylic co-polymer, a few days after the draw down, showed good correlation with long term performance in the field. The formulations containing a reactive pigment had superior EIS behavior to those without reactive pigment. EIS also differentiated between two reactive pigments and predicted their relative performance. These experiments were performed in an effort to correlate EIS data with exterior exposure data and applications data. The correlation may lead to EIS data`s use as a predictor for coating performance in the field.

  2. Integrated seal for high-temperature electrochemical device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tucker, Michael C; Jacobson, Craig P

    2013-07-16

    The present invention provides electrochemical device structures having integrated seals, and methods of fabricating them. According to various embodiments the structures include a thin, supported electrolyte film with the electrolyte sealed to the support. The perimeter of the support is self-sealed during fabrication. The perimeter can then be independently sealed to a manifold or other device, e.g., via an external seal. According to various embodiments, the external seal does not contact the electrolyte, thereby eliminating the restrictions on the sealing method and materials imposed by sealing against the electrolyte.

  3. Corner heating in rectangular solid oxide electrochemical cell generators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reichner, Philip

    1989-01-01

    Disclosed is an improvement in a solid oxide electrochemical cell generator 1 having a rectangular design with four sides that meet at corners, and containing multiplicity of electrically connected fuel cells 11, where a fuel gas is passed over one side of said cells and an oxygen containing gas is passed into said cells, and said fuel is burned to form heat, electricity, and an exhaust gas. The improvement comprises passing the exhaust gases over the multiplicity of cells 11 in such a way that more of the heat in said exhaust gases flows at the corners of the generator, such as through channels 19.

  4. Analysis of the published calorimetric evidence for electrochemical fusion of deuterium in palladium. Technical report. [Cold fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miskelly, G.M.; Heben, M.J.; Kumar, A.; Penner, R.M.; Sailor, M.J.

    1989-11-10

    Estimates are given of the raw data that are the basis for the claims of excess power production by the electrochemical charging of palladium in deuterium oxide (D2O). Calorimetric results are also presented that show no anomalous power production in either 0.1 M LiOD/D2O or 0.1 M LiOH/H2O (LiOH is lithium hydroxide). Several possible sources of error in open-system calorimetry are discussed that can confound interpretation of temperature changes in terms of anomalous power production.

  5. Portable Analyzer Based on Microfluidics/Nanoengineered Electrochemical Sensors for In-situ Characterization of Mixed Wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Yuehe; Wang, Joseph

    2004-06-01

    Required characterizations of the DOE's transuranic (TRU) and mixed wastes (MW) before disposing and treatment of the wastes are currently costly and have lengthy turnaround. Research toward developing faster and more sensitive characterization and analysis tools to reduce costs and accelerate throughputs is therefore desirable. This project is aimed at the development of electrochemical sensors, specific to toxic transition metals, uranium, and technetium, that can be integrated into the portable sensor systems. This system development will include fabrication and performance evaluation of electrodes as well as understanding of electrochemically active sites on the electrodes specifically designed for toxic metals, uranium and technetium detection. Subsequently, these advanced measurement units will be incorporated into a microfluidic prototype specifically designed and fabricated for field-deployable characterizations of such species. The electrochemical sensors being invest igated are based on a new class of nanoengineered sorbents, Self-Assembled Monolayer on Mesoporous Supports (SAMMS). SAMMS are highly efficient sorbents due to their interfacial chemistry that can be fine-tuned to selectively sequester a specific target species. Adsorptive stripping voltammetry (AdSV) will be performed on two classes of electrodes: the SAMMS modified carbon paste electrodes, and the SAMMS thin film immobilized on microelectrode arrays. Interfacial chemistry and electrochemistry of metal species on the surfaces of SAMMS-based electrodes will be studied. This fundamental knowledge is required for predicting how the sensors will perform in the real wastes which consist of many interferences/ligands and a spectrum of pH levels. The best electrode for each specific waste constituent will be integrated onto the portable microfluidic platform. Efforts will also be focused on testing the portable microfluidics/electrochemical sensor systems with the selected MW and T RU waste samples at the Hanford site. The outcome of this project will lead to the development of a portable analytical system for in-situ characterization of MW and TRU wastes. The technology will greatly reduce costs and accelerate throughputs for characterizations of MW and TRU wastes.

  6. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of electrochemical capacitors for advanced vehicle applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vimmerstedt, L.J.; Hammel, C.J.

    1997-04-01

    Electrochemical capacitors are a candidate for traction power assists in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Other advanced automotive applications, while not the primary focus of current development efforts, are also possible. These include load leveling high-energy batteries, power conditioning electronics, electrically hated catalysts, electric power steering, and engine starter power. Higher power and longer cycle life are expected for electrochemical capacitors than for batteries. Evaluation of environmental, health, and safety (EH and S) issues of electrochemical capacitors is an essential part of the development and commercialization of electrochemical capacitors for advanced vehicles. This report provides an initial EH and S assessment. This report presents electrochemical capacitor electrochemistry, materials selection, intrinsic material hazards, mitigation of those hazards, environmental requirements, pollution control options, and shipping requirements. Most of the information available for this assessment pertains to commercial devices intended for application outside the advanced vehicle market and to experiment or prototype devices. Electrochemical capacitors for power assists in HEVs are not produced commercially now. Therefore, materials for advanced vehicle electrochemical capacitors may change, and so would the corresponding EH and S issues. Although changes are possible, this report describes issues for likely electrochemical capacitor designs.

  7. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of NiO nanospindles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Hai; Lv, Baoliang; Xu, Yao; Wu, Dong

    2014-02-01

    Graphical abstract: NiO nanospindles with a different electrochemical activity as compared to those previous reports were synthesized via an agglomeration–dissolution–recrystallization growth process without the addition of any surfactant. - Highlights: • NiO nanospindles were synthesized without the addition of any surfactant. • The agglomeration–dissolution–recrystallization growth process was used to explain the precursors’ formation process of the spindle-like NiO. • As-obtained spindle-like NiO showed a different electrochemical activity as compared to those previous reports. - Abstract: NiO nanospindles were successfully synthesized via a hydrothermal and post-treatment method. The as-synthesized nanospindles were about several hundred nanometers in width and about one micrometer in length. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the spindle-like structure was cubic NiO phase crystalline. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis indicated that these NiO nanospindles were of single crystal nature. On the basis of time-dependent experiments, a possible agglomeration–dissolution–recrystallization growth process was proposed to explain the formation process of the spindle-like precursors. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurement showed that the as-prepared spindle-like NiO exhibited a pseudo-capacitance behavior.

  8. Facile and controllable electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide and its applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Yuyan; Wang, Jun; Engelhard, Mark H.; Wang, Chong M.; Lin, Yuehe

    2010-01-01

    Graphene oxide is electrochemically reduced which is called electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ER-G). ER-G is characterized with scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The oxygen content is significantly decreased and the sp 2 carbon is restored after electrochemical reduction. ER-G exhibits much higher electrochemical capacitance and cycling durability than carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and chemically reduced graphene; the specific capacitance measured with cyclic voltammetry (20 mV/s) is ~165 F/g, ~86 F/g, and ~100 F/g for ER-G, CNTs, and chemically reduced graphene,1 respectively. The electrochemical reduction of oxygen and hydrogen peroxide was greatly enhanced on ER-G electrodes as compared with CNTs. ER-G has shown a good potential for applications in energy storage, biosensors, and electrocatalysis.

  9. Electrochemical energy storage device based on carbon dioxide as electroactive species

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nemeth, Karoly; van Veenendaal, Michel Antonius; Srajer, George

    2013-03-05

    An electrochemical energy storage device comprising a primary positive electrode, a negative electrode, and one or more ionic conductors. The ionic conductors ionically connect the primary positive electrode with the negative electrode. The primary positive electrode comprises carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) and a means for electrochemically reducing the CO.sub.2. This means for electrochemically reducing the CO.sub.2 comprises a conductive primary current collector, contacting the CO.sub.2, whereby the CO.sub.2 is reduced upon the primary current collector during discharge. The primary current collector comprises a material to which CO.sub.2 and the ionic conductors are essentially non-corrosive. The electrochemical energy storage device uses CO.sub.2 as an electroactive species in that the CO.sub.2 is electrochemically reduced during discharge to enable the release of electrical energy from the device.

  10. DOE-EMSP Project Report FY 04: Portable Analyzer Based on Microfluidics/Nanoengineered Electrochemical Sensors for In-situ Characterization of Mixed Wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Yuehe; Yantasee, Wassana; Fryxell, Glen E.; Wang, Zheming; Wang, Joseph

    2004-11-02

    Required characterizations of the DOE's transuranic (TRU) and mixed wastes (MW) before disposing and treatment of the wastes are currently costly and have lengthy turnaround. Research toward developing faster and more sensitive characterization and analysis tools to reduce costs and accelerate throughputs is therefore desirable. This project is aimed at the development of electrochemical sensors, specific to toxic transition metals, uranium, and technetium, that can be integrated into the portable sensor systems. This system development will include fabrication and performance evaluation of electrodes as well as understanding of electrochemically active sites on the electrodes specifically designed for toxic metals, uranium and technetium detection. Subsequently, these advanced measurement units will be incorporated into a microfluidic prototype specifically designed and fabricated for field-deployable characterizations of such species. The electrochemical sensors being investigate d are based on a new class of nanoengineered sorbents, Self-Assembled Monolayer on Mesoporous Supports (SAMMS). SAMMS are highly efficient sorbents due to their interfacial chemistry that can be fine-tuned to selectively sequester a specific target species. Adsorptive stripping voltammetry (AdSV) will be performed on two classes of electrodes: the SAMMS modified carbon paste electrodes, and the SAMMS thin film immobilized on microelectrode arrays. Interfacial chemistry and electrochemistry of metal species on the surfaces of SAMMS-based electrodes will be studied. This fundamental knowledge is required for predicting how the sensors will perform in the real wastes which consist of many interferences/ligands and a spectrum of pH levels. The best electrode for each specific waste constituent will be integrated onto the portable microfluidic platform. Efforts will also be focused on testing the portable microfluidics/electrochemical sensor systems with the selected MW and TRU waste samples at the Hanford site. The outcome of this project will lead to the development of a portable analytical system for in-situ characterization of MW and TRU wastes. The technology will greatly reduce costs and accelerate throughputs for characterizations of MW and TRU wastes.

  11. Cascade redox flow battery systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horne, Craig R.; Kinoshita, Kim; Hickey, Darren B.; Sha, Jay E.; Bose, Deepak

    2014-07-22

    A reduction/oxidation ("redox") flow battery system includes a series of electrochemical cells arranged in a cascade, whereby liquid electrolyte reacts in a first electrochemical cell (or group of cells) before being directed into a second cell (or group of cells) where it reacts before being directed to subsequent cells. The cascade includes 2 to n stages, each stage having one or more electrochemical cells. During a charge reaction, electrolyte entering a first stage will have a lower state-of-charge than electrolyte entering the nth stage. In some embodiments, cell components and/or characteristics may be configured based on a state-of-charge of electrolytes expected at each cascade stage. Such engineered cascades provide redox flow battery systems with higher energy efficiency over a broader range of current density than prior art arrangements.

  12. Exploratory Technology Research Program for Electrochemical Energy Storage - Annual Report for 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinoshita, K.

    1999-06-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies conducts research and development on advanced rechargeable batteries for application in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid systems. Efforts are focused on advanced batteries that offer the potential for high performance and low life-cycle costs, both of which are necessary to permit significant penetration into commercial markets. DOE battery R and D supports two major programs: the US Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), which develops advanced batteries for EVS, and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), which seeks to develop passenger vehicles with a fuel economy equivalent to 80 mpg of gasoline. This report describes the activities of the Exploratory Technology Research (ETR) Program, managed by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The role of the ETR Program is to perform supporting research on the advanced battery systems under development by the USABC and PNGV Programs, and to evaluate new systems with potentially superior performance, durability and/or cost characteristics. The specific goal of the ETR Program is to identify the most promising electrochemical technologies and transfer them to the USABC, the battery industry and/or other Government agencies for further development and scale-up. This report summarizes the research, financial and management activities relevant to the ETR Program in CY 1998. This is a continuing program, and reports for prior years have been published; they are listed at the end of this Program Summary.

  13. Pathways to low-cost electrochemical energy storage: a comparison of aqueous and nonaqueous flow batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Darling, Robert M.; Gallagher, Kevin G.; Kowalski, Jeffrey A.; Ha, Seungbum; Brushett, Fikile R.

    2014-11-01

    Energy storage is increasingly seen as a valuable asset for electricity grids composed of high fractions of intermittent sources, such as wind power or, in developing economies, unreliable generation and transmission services. However, the potential of batteries to meet the stringent cost and durability requirements for grid applications is largely unquantified. We investigate electrochemical systems capable of economically storing energy for hours and present an analysis of the relationships among technological performance characteristics, component cost factors, and system price for established and conceptual aqueous and nonaqueous batteries. We identified potential advantages of nonaqueous flow batteries over those based on aqueousmore » electrolytes; however, new challenging constraints burden the nonaqueous approach, including the solubility of the active material in the electrolyte. Requirements in harmony with economically effective energy storage are derived for aqueous and nonaqueous systems. The attributes of flow batteries are compared to those of aqueous and nonaqueous enclosed and hybrid (semi-flow) batteries. Flow batteries are a promising technology for reaching these challenging energy storage targets owing to their independent power and energy scaling, reliance on facile and reversible reactants, and potentially simpler manufacture as compared to established enclosed batteries such as lead–acid or lithium-ion.« less

  14. Pathways to low-cost electrochemical energy storage: a comparison of aqueous and nonaqueous flow batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darling, Robert M.; Gallagher, Kevin G.; Kowalski, Jeffrey A.; Ha, Seungbum; Brushett, Fikile R.

    2014-11-01

    Energy storage is increasingly seen as a valuable asset for electricity grids composed of high fractions of intermittent sources, such as wind power or, in developing economies, unreliable generation and transmission services. However, the potential of batteries to meet the stringent cost and durability requirements for grid applications is largely unquantified. We investigate electrochemical systems capable of economically storing energy for hours and present an analysis of the relationships among technological performance characteristics, component cost factors, and system price for established and conceptual aqueous and nonaqueous batteries. We identified potential advantages of nonaqueous flow batteries over those based on aqueous electrolytes; however, new challenging constraints burden the nonaqueous approach, including the solubility of the active material in the electrolyte. Requirements in harmony with economically effective energy storage are derived for aqueous and nonaqueous systems. The attributes of flow batteries are compared to those of aqueous and nonaqueous enclosed and hybrid (semi-flow) batteries. Flow batteries are a promising technology for reaching these challenging energy storage targets owing to their independent power and energy scaling, reliance on facile and reversible reactants, and potentially simpler manufacture as compared to established enclosed batteries such as lead–acid or lithium-ion.

  15. Electrochemical Deposition of Iron Nanoneedles on Titanium Oxide Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gan Y. X.; Zhang L.; Gan B.J.

    2011-10-01

    Iron as a catalyst has wide applications for hydrogen generation from ammonia, photodecomposition of organics, and carbon nanotube growth. Tuning the size and shape of iron is meaningful for improving the catalysis efficiency. It is the objective of this work to prepare nanostructured iron with high surface area via electrochemical deposition. Iron nanoneedles were successfully electrodeposited on Ti supported TiO2 nanotube arrays in a chlorine-based electrolyte containing 0.15 M FeCl2 {center_dot} 4H2O and 2.0 M HCl. Transmission electron microscopic analysis reveals that the average length of the nanoneedles is about 200 nm and the thickness is about 10 nm. It has been found that a high overpotential at the cathode made of Ti/TiO2 nanotube arrays is necessary for the formation of the nanoneedles. Cyclic voltammetry test indicates that the electrodeposition of iron nanoneedles is a concentration-limited process.

  16. Electro-chemical sensors, sensor arrays and circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, Howard E.; Kong, Hoyoul

    2014-07-08

    An electro-chemical sensor includes a first electrode, a second electrode spaced apart from the first electrode, and a semiconductor channel in electrical contact with the first and second electrodes. The semiconductor channel includes a trapping material. The trapping material reduces an ability of the semiconductor channel to conduct a current of charge carriers by trapping at least some of the charge carriers to localized regions within the semiconductor channel. The semiconductor channel includes at least a portion configured to be exposed to an analyte to be detected, and the trapping material, when exposed to the analyte, interacts with the analyte so as to at least partially restore the ability of the semiconductor channel to conduct the current of charge carriers.

  17. Electrochemical method of producing eutectic uranium alloy and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horton, James A. (Livermore, CA); Hayden, H. Wayne (Oakridge, TN)

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus and method for continuous production of liquid uranium alloys through the electrolytic reduction of uranium chlorides. The apparatus includes an electrochemical cell formed from an anode shaped to form an electrolyte reservoir, a cathode comprising a metal, such as iron, capable of forming a eutectic uranium alloy having a melting point less than the melting point of pure uranium, and molten electrolyte in the reservoir comprising a chlorine or fluorine containing salt and uranium chloride. The method of the invention produces an eutectic uranium alloy by creating an electrolyte reservoir defined by a container comprising an anode, placing an electrolyte in the reservoir, the electrolyte comprising a chlorine or fluorine containing salt and uranium chloride in molten form, positioning a cathode in the reservoir where the cathode comprises a metal capable of forming an uranium alloy having a melting point less than the melting point of pure uranium, and applying a current between the cathode and the anode.

  18. Battery paste compositions and electrochemical cells for use therewith

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, J.B.

    1999-02-16

    An improved battery paste composition and a lead-acid electrochemical cell which incorporates the composition are disclosed. The cell includes a positive current collector and a negative current collector which are each coated with a paste containing one or more lead-containing compositions and a paste vehicle to form a positive plate and a negative plate. An absorbent electrolyte-containing separator member may also be positioned between the positive and negative plates. The paste on the positive current collector, the negative current collector, or both further includes a special additive consisting of polyvinyl sulfonic acid or salts thereof which provides many benefits including improved battery cycle life, increased charge capacity, and enhanced overall stability. The additive also makes the pastes smoother and more adhesive, thereby improving the paste application process. The paste compositions of interest may be used in conventional flat-plate cells or in spirally wound batteries with equal effectiveness. 2 figs.

  19. Quasi-periodic quantum dot arrays produced by electrochemical synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandyopadhyay, S.; Miller, A.E.; Yue, D.F.; Banerjee, G.; Ricker, R.E.; Jones, S.; Eastman, J.A.; Baugher, E.; Chandrasekhar, M.

    1994-06-01

    We discuss a ``gentle`` electrochemical technique for fabricating quasi-periodic quantum dot arrays. The technique exploits a self-organizing phenomenon to produce quasi-periodic arrangement of dots and provides excellent control over dot size and interdot spacing. Unlike conventional nanolithography, it does not cause radiation damage to the structures during exposure to pattern delineating beams (e-beam, ion-beam or x-ray). Moreover, it does not require harsh processing steps like reactive ion etching, offers a minimum feature size of {approximately}40 {angstrom}, allows the fabrication of structures on nonplanar surfaces (e.g. spherical or cylindrical substrates), is amenable to mass production (millions of wafers can be processed simultaneously) and is potentially orders of magnitude cheaper than conventional nanofabrication. In this paper, we describe our initial results and show the promise of this technique for low-cost and high-yield nanosynthesis.

  20. Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Riley, B.; Szreders, B.E.

    1988-04-26

    In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (/approximately/1100/degree/ /minus/ 1300/degree/C) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20--50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

  1. Method of electrode fabrication for solid oxide electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jensen, Russell R.

    1990-01-01

    A process for fabricating cermet electrodes for solid oxide electrochemical cells by sintering is disclosed. First, a porous metal electrode is fabricated on a solid oxide cell, such as a fuel cell by, for example, sintering, and is then infiltrated with a high volume fraction stabilized zirconia suspension. A second sintering step is used to sinter the infiltrated zirconia to a high density in order to more securely attach the electrode to the solid oxide electrolyte of the cell. High performance fuel electrodes can be obtained with this process. Further electrode performance enhancement may be achieved if stabilized zirconia doped with cerium oxide, chromium oxide, titanium oxide, and/or praseodymium oxide for electronic conduction is used.

  2. Method of electrode fabrication for solid oxide electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jensen, R.R.

    1990-11-20

    A process for fabricating cermet electrodes for solid oxide electrochemical cells by sintering is disclosed. First, a porous metal electrode is fabricated on a solid oxide cell, such as a fuel cell by, for example, sintering, and is then infiltrated with a high volume fraction stabilized zirconia suspension. A second sintering step is used to sinter the infiltrated zirconia to a high density in order to more securely attach the electrode to the solid oxide electrolyte of the cell. High performance fuel electrodes can be obtained with this process. Further electrode performance enhancement may be achieved if stabilized zirconia doped with cerium oxide, chromium oxide, titanium oxide, and/or praseodymium oxide for electronic conduction is used. 5 figs.

  3. Method of making an electrolyte for an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bates, John B.; Dudney, Nancy J.

    1996-01-01

    Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making same having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between -15.degree. C. and 150.degree. C.

  4. Method of making an electrolyte for an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bates, J.B.; Dudney, N.J.

    1996-04-30

    Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making same having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode. Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between {minus}15 C and 150 C. 9 figs.

  5. Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brian, Riley; Szreders, Bernard E.

    1989-01-01

    In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (approximately 1100.degree.-1300.degree. C.) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20-50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

  6. Survey of electrochemical production of inorganic compounds. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    The electrochemical generation of inorganic compounds, excluding chlorine/caustic, has been critically reviewed. About 60 x 10/sup 12/ Btu/y fossil fuel equivalent will be used in the year 2000 for the electrosynthesis of inorganic compounds. Significant energy savings in chlorate production can result from the development of suitable electrocatalysts for lowering the cathodic overpotential. Perchlorates, electrolytic hypochlorite, electrolytic manganese dioxide, fluorine and other miscellaneous compounds use relatively small amounts of electrical energy. Implementation of caustic scrubber technology for stack gas cleanup would result in appreciable amounts of sodium sulfate which could be electrolyzed to regenerate caustic. Hydrogen peroxide, now produced by the alkyl anthraquinone process, could be made electrolytically by a new process coupling anodic oxidation of sulfate with cathodic reduction of oxygen in alkaline solution. Ozone is currently manufactured using energy-inefficient silent discharge equipment. A novel energy-efficient approach which uses an oxygen-enhanced anodic reaction is examined.

  7. Battery paste compositions and electrochemical cells for use therewith

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, John B.

    1999-12-07

    An improved battery paste composition and a lead-acid electrochemical cell which incorporates the composition. The cell includes a positive current collector and a negative current collector which are each coated with a paste containing one or more lead-containing compositions and a paste vehicle to form a positive plate and a negative plate. An absorbent electrolyte-containing separator member may also be positioned between the positive and negative plates. The paste on the positive current collector, the negative current collector, or both further includes a special additive consisting of polyvinylsulfonic acid or salts thereof which provides many benefits including improved battery cycle life, increased charge capacity, and enhanced overall stability. The additive also makes the pastes smoother and more adhesive, thereby improving the paste application process. The paste compositions of interest may be used in conventional flat-plate cells or in spirally wound batteries with equal effectiveness.

  8. Battery paste compositions and electrochemical cells for use therewith

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, John B.

    1999-02-16

    An improved battery paste composition and a lead-acid electrochemical cell which incorporates the composition. The cell includes a positive current collector and a negative current collector which are each coated with a paste containing one or more lead-containing compositions and a paste vehicle to form a positive plate and a negative plate. An absorbent electrolyte-containing separator member may also be positioned between the positive and negative plates. The paste on the positive current collector, the negative current collector, or both further includes a special additive consisting of polyvinylsulfonic acid or salts thereof which provides many benefits including improved battery cycle life, increased charge capacity, and enhanced overall stability. The additive also makes the pastes smoother and more adhesive, thereby improving the paste application process. The paste compositions of interest may be used in conventional flat-plate cells or in spirally wound batteries with equal effectiveness.

  9. Method of preparing an electrochemical cell in uncharged state

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimotake, Hiroshi; Bartholme, Louis G.; Arntzen, John D.

    1977-02-01

    A secondary electrochemical cell is assembled in an uncharged state for the preparation of a lithium alloy-transition metal sulfide cell. The negative electrode includes a material such as aluminum or silicon for alloying with lithium as the cell is charged. The positive electrode is prepared by blending particulate lithium sulfide, transition metal powder and electrolytic salt in solid phase. The mixture is simultaneously heated to a temperature in excess of the melting point of the electrolyte and pressed onto an electrically conductive substrate to form a plaque. The plaque is assembled as a positive electrode within the cell. During the first charge cycle lithium alloy is formed within the negative electrode and transition metal sulfide such as iron sulfide is produced within the positive electrode.

  10. Electrochemical method of producing nano-scaled graphene platelets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhamu, Aruna; Jang, Joan; Jang, Bor Z.

    2013-09-03

    A method of producing nano-scaled graphene platelets with an average thickness smaller than 30 nm from a layered graphite material. The method comprises (a) forming a carboxylic acid-intercalated graphite compound by an electrochemical reaction; (b) exposing the intercalated graphite compound to a thermal shock to produce exfoliated graphite; and (c) subjecting the exfoliated graphite to a mechanical shearing treatment to produce the nano-scaled graphene platelets. Preferred carboxylic acids are formic acid and acetic acid. The exfoliation step in the instant invention does not involve the evolution of undesirable species, such as NO.sub.x and SO.sub.x, which are common by-products of exfoliating conventional sulfuric or nitric acid-intercalated graphite compounds. The nano-scaled platelets are candidate reinforcement fillers for polymer nanocomposites. Nano-scaled graphene platelets are much lower-cost alternatives to carbon nano-tubes or carbon nano-fibers.

  11. ELECTROCHEMICAL SEPARATION AND CONCENTRATION OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE FROM GAS MIXTURES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winnick, Jack; Sather, Norman F.; Huang, Hann S.

    1984-10-30

    A method of removing sulfur oxides of H.sub.2 S from high temperature gas mixtures (150.degree.-1000.degree. C.) is the subject of the present invention. An electrochemical cell is employed. The cell is provided with inert electrodes and an electrolyte which will provide anions compatible with the sulfur containing anions formed at the anode. The electrolyte is also selected to provide inert stable cations at the temperatures encountered. The gas mixture is passed by the cathode where the sulfur gases are converted to SO.sub.4 -- or, in the case of H.sub.2 S, to S--. The anions migrate to the anode where they are converted to a stable gaseous form at much greater concentration levels (>10X). Current flow may be effected by utilizing an external source of electrical energy or by passing a reducing gas such as hydrogen past the anode.

  12. Electrochemical separation and concentration of hydrogen sulfide from gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winnick, Jack; Sather, Norman F.; Huang, Hann S.

    1984-10-30

    A method of removing sulfur oxides of H.sub.2 S from high temperature gas mixtures (150.degree.-1000.degree. C.) is the subject of the present invention. An electrochemical cell is employed. The cell is provided with inert electrodes and an electrolyte which will provide anions compatible with the sulfur containing anions formed at the anode. The electrolyte is also selected to provide inert stable cations at the temperatures encountered. The gas mixture is passed by the cathode where the sulfur gases are converted to SO.sub.4 -- or, in the case of H.sub.2 S, to S--. The anions migrate to the anode where they are converted to a stable gaseous form at much greater concentration levels (>10X). Current flow may be effected by utilizing an external source of electrical energy or by passing a reducing gas such as hydrogen past the anode.

  13. Stabilizing metal components in electrodes of electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spengler, Charles J.; Ruka, Roswell J.

    1989-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of reducing the removal or transfer into a gas phase of a current carrying metal in an apparatus, such as an electrochemical cell 2 having a porous fuel electrode 6 containing metal particles 11, where the metal is subject to removal or transfer into a gaseous phase, the method characterized in that (1) a metal organic compound that decomposes to form an electronically conducting oxide coating when heated is applied to the metal and porous electrode, and (2) the compound on the metal is then heated to a temperature sufficient to decompose the compound into an oxide coating 13 by increasing the temperature at a rate that is longer than 1 hour between room temperature and 600.degree. C., resulting in at least one continuous layer 13, 14 of the oxide coating on the metal.

  14. Investigation of Electrochemical Recovery of Zirconium from Spent Nuclear Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Simpson; II-Soon Hwang

    2014-06-01

    This project uses both modeling and experimental studies to design optimal electrochemical technology methods for recovery of zirconium from used nuclear fuel rods for more effective waste management. The objectives are to provide a means of efficiently separating zirconium into metallic high-level waste forms and to support development of a process for decontamination of zircaloy hulls to enable their disposal as low- and intermediate-level waste. Modeling work includes extension of a 3D model previously developed by Seoul National University for uranium electrorefining by adding the ability to predict zirconium behavior. Experimental validation activities include tests for recovery of zirconium from molten salt solutions and aqueous tests using surrogate materials. *This is a summary of the FY 2013 progress for I-NERI project # 2010-001-K provided to the I-NERI office.

  15. Nanoparticle shape evolution and proximity effects during tip-induced electrochemical processes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yang, Sangmo; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Noh, Tae Won; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Strelcov, Evgheni

    2016-01-08

    The voltage spectroscopies in scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques are widely used to investigate the electrochemical processes in nanoscale volumes, which are important for current key applications, such as batteries, fuel cells, catalysts, and memristors. The spectroscopic measurements are commonly performed on a grid of multiple points to yield spatially resolved maps of reversible and irreversible electrochemical functionalities. Hence, the spacing between measurement points is an important parameter to be considered, especially for irreversible electrochemical processes. Here, we report nonlocal electrochemical dynamics in chains of Ag particles fabricated by the SPM tip on a silver ion solid electrolyte. When themore » grid spacing is small compared with the size of the formed Ag particles, anomalous chains of unequally sized particles with double periodicity evolve. This behavior is ascribed to a proximity effect during the tip-induced electrochemical process, specifically, size-dependent silver particle growth following the contact between the particles. In addition, fractal shape evolution of the formed Ag structures indicates that the growth-limiting process changes from Ag+/Ag redox reaction to Ag+-ion diffusion with the increase in the applied voltage and pulse duration. Our study shows that characteristic shapes of the electrochemical products are good indicators for determining the underlying growth-limiting process, and emergence of complex phenomena during spectroscopic mapping of electrochemical functionalities.« less

  16. Development of Advanced Electrochemical Emission Spectroscopy for Monitoring Corrosion in Simulated DOE Liquid Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Digby Macdonald; Brian Marx; Balaji Soundararajan; Morgan Smith

    2005-07-28

    The different tasks that have been carried out under the current program are as follows: (1) Theoretical and experimental assessment of general corrosion of iron/steel in borate buffer solutions by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), ellipsometry and XPS techniques; (2) Development of a damage function analysis (DFA), which would help in predicting the accumulation of damage due to pitting corrosion in an environment prototypical of DOE liquid waste systems; (3) Experimental measurement of crack growth rate, acoustic emission signals, and coupling currents for fracture in carbon and low alloy steels as functions of mechanical (stress intensity), chemical (conductivity), electrochemical (corrosion potential, ECP), and microstructural (grain size, precipitate size, etc) variables in a systematic manner, with particular attention being focused on the structure of the noise in the current and its correlation with the acoustic emissions; (4) Development of fracture mechanisms for carbon and low alloy steels that are consistent with the crack growth rate, coupling current data and acoustic emissions; (5) Inserting advanced crack growth rate models for SCC into existing deterministic codes for predicting the evolution of corrosion damage in DOE liquid waste storage tanks; (6) Computer simulation of the anodic and cathodic activity on the surface of the steel samples in order to exactly predict the corrosion mechanisms; (7) Wavelet analysis of EC noise data from steel samples undergoing corrosion in an environment similar to that of the high level waste storage containers, to extract data pertaining to general, pitting and stress corrosion processes, from the overall data. The work has yielded a number of important findings, including an unequivocal demonstration of the role of chloride ion in passivity breakdown on nickel in terms of cation vacancy generation within the passive film, the first detection and characterization of individual micro fracture events in stress corrosion cracking, and the determination of kinetic parameters for the generation and annihilation of point defects in the passive film on iron. The existence of coupling between the internal crack environment and the external cathodic environment, as predicted by the coupled environment fracture model (CEFM), has also been indisputably established for the AISI 4340/NaOH system. It is evident from the studies that analysis of coupling current noise is a very sensitive tool for studying the crack tip processes in relation to the chemical, mechanical, electrochemical, and microstructural properties of the system. Experiments are currently being carried out to explore these crack tip processes by simultaneous measurement of the acoustic activity at the crack tip in an effort to validate the coupling current data. These latter data are now being used to deterministically predict the accumulation of general and localized corrosion damage on carbon in prototypical DOE liquid waste storage tanks. Computer simulation of the cathodic and anodic activity on the steel surfaces is also being carried out in an effort to simulate the actual corrosion process. Wavelet analysis of the coupling current data promises to be a useful tool to differentiate between the different corrosion mechanisms. Hence, wavelet analysis of the coupling current data from the DOE waste containers is also being carried out to extract data pertaining to general, pitting and stress corrosion processes, from the overall data which is bound to contain noise fluctuations due to any or all of the above mentioned processes.

  17. Properties of ethylene carbonate and its use in electrochemical applications: a literature review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, P.H.

    1985-06-01

    Ethylene carbonate (C/sub 3/H/sub 4/O/sub 3/) is an important industrial solvent and used extensively in the textile and cosmetic industry. Ethylene carbonate (EC) and propylene carbonate (PC) were tested for use as solvents for electrochemical applications. High chemical and electrochemical stability, low toxicity, good ionizing and solvating ability and low volatility make both EC and PC suitable solvents for electrochemical applications. Propylene carbonate has been used extensively in lithium batteries and nonaqueous electrochemical studies. The intent of this review is to stimulate the use of ethylene carbonate in nonaqueous electrochemistry. This review covers the literature up to January 1, 1985. 147 refs., 14 figs., 51 tabs.

  18. Method for transferring thermal energy and electrical current in thin-film electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouillard, Roger; Domroese, Michael K.; Hoffman, Joseph A.; Lindeman, David D.; Noel, Joseph-Robert-Gaetan; Radewald, Vern E.; Ranger, Michel; Sudano, Anthony; Trice, Jennifer L.; Turgeon, Thomas A.

    2003-05-27

    An improved electrochemical generator is disclosed. The electrochemical generator includes a thin-film electrochemical cell which is maintained in a state of compression through use of an internal or an external pressure apparatus. A thermal conductor, which is connected to at least one of the positive or negative contacts of the cell, conducts current into and out of the cell and also conducts thermal energy between the cell and thermally conductive, electrically resistive material disposed on a vessel wall adjacent the conductor. The thermally conductive, electrically resistive material may include an anodized coating or a thin sheet of a plastic, mineral-based material or conductive polymer material. The thermal conductor is fabricated to include a resilient portion which expands and contracts to maintain mechanical contact between the cell and the thermally conductive material in the presence of relative movement between the cell and the wall structure. The electrochemical generator may be disposed in a hermetically sealed housing.

  19. One-step electrochemical synthesis of a grapheneZnO hybrid for improved photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Ang; Xiong, Li; Sun, Li; Liu, Yanjun; Li, Weiwei; Lai, Wenyong; Liu, Xiangmei; Wang, Lianhui; Huang, Wei; Dong, Xiaochen

    2013-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: GrapheneZnO hybrid was synthesized by one-step electrochemical deposition. GrapheneZnO hybrid presents a special structure and wide UVvis absorption spectra. GrapheneZnO hybrid exhibits an exceptionally higher photocatalytic activity for the degradation of dye methylene blue. - Abstract: A grapheneZnO (G-ZnO) hybrid was synthesized by one-step electrochemical deposition. During the formation of ZnO nanostructure by cathodic electrochemical deposition, the graphene oxide was electrochemically reduced to graphene simultaneously. Scanning electron microscope images, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectra, and UVvis absorption spectra indicate the resulting G-ZnO hybrid presents a special structure and wide UVvis absorption spectra. More importantly, it exhibits an exceptionally higher photocatalytic activity for the degradation of dye methylene blue than that of pure ZnO nanostructure under both ultraviolet and sunlight irradiation.

  20. Electrochemical Synthesis of Pd Nanorods and Nanowires on High Surface Area

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    C Supports - Energy Innovation Portal Startup America Startup America Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Find More Like This Return to Search Electrochemical Synthesis of Pd Nanorods and Nanowires on High Surface Area C Supports Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Anisotropic growth of palladium nanoparticles on high surface area carbon supports is encouraged by the choice of surface preparation and electrochemical

  1. A MEMS platform for in situ, real-time monitoring of electrochemically

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    induced mechanical changes in lithium-ion battery electrodes (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect A MEMS platform for in situ, real-time monitoring of electrochemically induced mechanical changes in lithium-ion battery electrodes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A MEMS platform for in situ, real-time monitoring of electrochemically induced mechanical changes in lithium-ion battery electrodes Authors: Pomerantseva, Ekaterina ; Jung, H. ; Gnerlich, Markus ; Gerasopoulos, K ; Ghodssi,

  2. Relative electrochemical stability of lithium and aluminum salts and their solvents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ciemiecki, K.T.; Auborn, J.J.

    1983-10-01

    The stability series were determined by cyclic voltammetric measurements at platinum electrodes in dry acetonitrile. These results are applicable to the electrochemical synthesis of new organic electrodes and to the development of an ambient temperature rechargeable battery. Cyclic voltammetry was also used to establish electrochemical windows for a class of room temperature chloroaluminate molten salts from which aluminum can be reversibly electrodeposited. Enhancement of oxidative stability by increased Lewis acidity was observed in both the melts and the more conventional electrolytes.

  3. Cathodic ALD V2O5 thin films for high-rate electrochemical energy storage

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Cathodic ALD V2O5 thin films for high-rate electrochemical energy storage Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Cathodic ALD V2O5 thin films for high-rate electrochemical energy storage Authors: Chen, X ; Pomerantseva, Ekaterina ; Gregorczyk, Keith ; Ghodssi, Reza ; Rubloff, Gary W Publication Date: 2013-01-01 OSTI Identifier: 1105360 DOE Contract Number: SC0001160 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: RSC Advances; Journal

  4. Center for Electrochemical Energy Science (CEES) | U.S. DOE Office of

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Science (SC) Center for Electrochemical Energy Science (CEES) Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers EFRC External Websites Research Science Highlights News & Events Publications History Contact BES Home Centers Center for Electrochemical Energy Science (CEES) Print Text Size: A A A FeedbackShare Page CEES Header Director Paul Fenter Lead Institution Argonne National Laboratory Year Established 2009 Mission To create a robust fundamental understanding of the

  5. Glass composition and process for sealing void spaces in electrochemical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Kirby, Brent W.

    2012-05-01

    A glass foaming material and method are disclosed for filling void spaces in electrochemical devices. The glass material includes a reagent that foams at a temperature above the softening point of the glass. Expansion of the glass fills void spaces including by-pass and tolerance channels of electrochemical devices. In addition, cassette to cassette seals can also be formed while channels and other void spaces are filled, reducing the number of processing steps needed.

  6. Electrochemical Behavior of Disposable Electrodes Prepared by Ion Beam Based Surface Modification for Biomolecular Recognition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erdem, A.; Karadeniz, H.; Caliskan, A.; Urkac, E. Sokullu; Oztarhan, A.; Oks, E.; Nikolayev, A.

    2009-03-10

    Many important technological advances have been made in the development of technologies to monitor interactions and recognition events of biomolecules in solution and on solid substrates. The development of advanced biosensors could impact significantly the areas of genomics, proteomics, biomedical diagnostics and drug discovery. In the literature, there have recently appeared an impressive number of intensive designs for electrochemical monitoring of biomolecular recognition. Herein, the influence of ion implanted disposable graphite electrodes on biomolecular recognition and their electrochemical behaviour was investigated.

  7. Novel electrochemical method of fast and reproducible fabrication of metallic nanoelectrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silva, E. L. Silva, R. F.; Oliveira, F. J.; Zheludkevich, M.

    2014-09-15

    A novel electrochemical wire etching method of fabrication of ultrasharp nanoelectrodes is reported. Tungsten wires can be sharpened to less than 10 nm tip radius in a reproducible manner in less than 1 min by using controllable hydrodynamic electrolyte flow combined with optimized electrochemical etching parameters. The method relies on the variations of the electric field at the surface of a metal wire, while the electrolyte solution is in motion, rather than on the ionic gradient generated in a static solution.

  8. Methods for making a multi-layer seal for electrochemical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chou, Yeong-Shyung; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2007-05-29

    Multi-layer seals are provided that find advantageous use for reducing leakage of gases between adjacent components of electrochemical devices. Multi-layer seals of the invention include a gasket body defining first and second opposing surfaces and a compliant interlayer positioned adjacent each of the first and second surfaces. Also provided are methods for making and using the multi-layer seals, and electrochemical devices including said seals.

  9. Constructing Ordered Sensitized Heterojunctions: Bottom-Up Electrochemical Synthesis of p-Type Semiconductors in Oriented n-TiO2 Nanotube Arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Q.; Zhu, K.; Neale, N. R.; Frank. A. J.

    2009-01-01

    Fabrication of efficient semiconductor-sensitized bulk heterojunction solar cells requires the complete filling of the pore system of one semiconductor (host) material with nanoscale dimensions (<100 nm) with a different semiconductor (guest) material. Because of the small pore size and electrical conductivity of the host material, it is challenging to employ electrochemical approaches to fill the entire pore network. Typically, during the electrochemical deposition process, the guest material blocks the pores of the host, precluding complete pore filling. We describe a general synthetic strategy for spatially controlling the growth of p-type semiconductors in the nanopores of electrically conducting n-type materials. As an illustration of this strategy, we report on the facile electrochemical deposition of p-CuInSe{sub 2} in nanoporous anatase n-TiO{sub 2} oriented nanotube arrays and nanoparticle films. We show that by controlling the ambipolar diffusion length the p-type semiconductors can be deposited from the bottom-up, resulting in complete pore filling.

  10. BF3-promoted electrochemical properties of quinoxaline in propylene carbonate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carino, Emily V.; Diesendruck, Charles E.; Moore, Jeffrey S.; Curtiss, Larry A.; Assary, Rajeev S.; Brushett, Fikile R.

    2015-02-04

    Electrochemical and density functional studies demonstrate that coordination of electrolyte constituents to quinoxalines modulates their electrochemical properties. Quinoxalines are shown to be electrochemically inactive in most electrolytes in propylene carbonate, yet the predicted reduction potential is shown to match computational estimates in acetonitrile. We find that in the presence of LiBF4 and trace water, an adduct is formed between quinoxaline and the Lewis acid BF3, which then displays electrochemical activity at 1–1.5 V higher than prior observations of quinoxaline electrochemistry in non-aqueous media. Direct synthesis and testing of a bis-BF3 quinoxaline complex further validates the assignment of the electrochemically active species, presenting up to a ~26-fold improvement in charging capacity, demonstrating the advantages of this adduct over unmodified quinoxaline in LiBF4-based electrolyte. The use of Lewis acids to effectively “turn on” the electrochemical activity of organic molecules may lead to the development of new active material classes for energy storage applications.

  11. Electrochemical preparation of poly(methylene blue)/graphene nanocomposite thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erar?kc?, Elif; Da?c?, Kader; Topu, Ezgi; Alanyal?o?lu, Murat

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: Poly(MB)/graphene thin films are prepared by a simple electrochemical approach. Graphene layers in the film show a broad band in visible region of absorbance spectra. Morphology of composite films indicates both disordered and ordered regions. XRD reveals that nanocomposite films include rGO layers after electropolymerization process. Chemically prepared graphene is better than electrochemically prepared graphene for electrooxidation of nitrite. - Abstract: Poly(methylene blue)/graphene nanocomposite thin films were prepared by electropolymerization of methylene blue in the presence of graphene which have been synthesized by two different methods of a chemical oxidation process and an electrochemical approach. Synthesized nanocomposite thin films were characterized by using cyclic voltammetry, UVvis. absorption spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and scanning tunneling microscopy techniques. Electrocatalytical properties of prepared poly(methylene blue)/graphene nanocomposite films were compared toward electrochemical oxidation of nitrite. Under optimized conditions, electrocatalytical effect of nanocomposite films of chemically prepared graphene through electrochemical oxidation of nitrite was better than that of electrochemically prepared graphene.

  12. Electrochemical method of producing eutectic uranium alloy and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horton, J.A.; Hayden, H.W.

    1995-01-10

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for continuous production of liquid uranium alloys through the electrolytic reduction of uranium chlorides. The apparatus includes an electrochemical cell formed from an anode shaped to form an electrolyte reservoir, a cathode comprising a metal, such as iron, capable of forming a eutectic uranium alloy having a melting point less than the melting point of pure uranium, and molten electrolyte in the reservoir comprising a chlorine or fluorine containing salt and uranium chloride. The method of the invention produces an eutectic uranium alloy by creating an electrolyte reservoir defined by a container comprising an anode, placing an electrolyte in the reservoir, the electrolyte comprising a chlorine or fluorine containing salt and uranium chloride in molten form, positioning a cathode in the reservoir where the cathode comprises a metal capable of forming an uranium alloy having a melting point less than the melting point of pure uranium, and applying a current between the cathode and the anode. 2 figures.

  13. Electrochemical Testing of Ni-Cr-Mo-Gd Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T. E. Lister; R. E. Mizia; H. Tian

    2005-10-01

    The waste package site recommendation design specified a boron-containing stainless steel, Neutronit 976/978, for fabrication of the internal baskets that will be used as a corrosion-resistant neutron-absorbing material. Recent corrosion test results gave higher-than-expected corrosion rates for this material. The material callout for these components has been changed to a Ni-Cr-Mo-Gd alloy (ASTM-B 932-04, UNS N06464) that is being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory. This report discusses the results of initial corrosion testing of this material in simulated in-package environments that could contact the fuel baskets after breach of the waste package outer barrier. The corrosion test matrix was executed using the potentiodynamic and potentiostatic electrochemical test techniques. The alloy performance shows low rates of general corrosion after initial removal of a gadolinium-rich second phase that intersects the surface. The high halide-containing test solutions exhibited greater tendencies toward initiation of crevice corrosion.

  14. Structure and electrochemical properties of nanometer Cu substituted ?-nickel hydroxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bao, Jie; Zhu, Yanjuan; Zhang, Zhongju; Xu, Qingsheng; Zhao, Weiren; Chen, Jian; Zhang, Wei; Han, Quanyong

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Cu substituted ?-nickel hydroxide was prepared by ultrasonic assisted precipitation. ? The XRD peaks are anisotropic broadening. ? The electrode for 0.9 wt.% Cu has the highest capacity of 310 mAh/g at 0.2 C. -- Abstract: Nanometer Cu-substituted ?-nickel hydroxide was synthesized by means of ultrasonic-assisted precipitation. Particle size distribution (PSD) measurement, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM) were used to characterize the physical properties of the synthesized samples. The results indicate that the average particle size of the samples is about 96110 nm and the XRD diffraction peaks are anisotropic broadening. The crystal grains are mainly polycrystal structure with columnar or needle-like morphology, containing many defects. With increase of Cu content, the shape of primary particles transform from columnar to needle-like. The influences of doping amounts of Cu on the electrochemical performance were investigated through constant current charge/discharge and cyclic voltammetric measurements. The specific capacity increases initially and then decreases with increasing Cu-doping ratio, the electrode C containing 0.9 wt.% Cu shows the maximum discharge capacity of 310 mAh/g at 0.2 C, and it has the lowest charging voltage, higher discharge voltage plateau, better cycle performance and larger proton diffusion coefficient than the other electrodes.

  15. Status of the DOE Battery and Electrochemical Technology Program V

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, R.

    1985-06-01

    The program consists of two activities, Technology Base Research (TBR) managed by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and Exploratory Technology Development and Testing (EDT) managed by the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The status of the Battery Energy Storage Test (BEST) Facility is presented, including the status of the batteries to be tested. ECS program contributions to the advancement of the lead-acid battery and specific examples of technology transfer from this program are given. The advances during the period December 1982 to June 1984 in the characterization and performance of the lead-acid, iron/nickel-oxide, iron/air, aluminum/air, zinc/bromide, zinc/ferricyanide, and sodium/sulfur batteries and in fuel cells for transport are summarized. Novel techniques and the application of established techniques to the study of electrode processes, especially the electrode/electrolyte interface, are described. Research with the potential of leading to improved ceramic electrolytes and positive electrode container and current-collectors for the sodium/sulfur battery is presented. Advances in the electrocatalysis of the oxygen (air) electrode and the relationship of these advances to the iron/air and aluminum/air batteries and to the fuel cell are noted. The quest for new battery couples and battery materials is reviewed. New developments in the modeling of electrochemical cell and electrode performance with the approaches to test these models are reported.

  16. Electrolytes including fluorinated solvents for use in electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tikhonov, Konstantin; Yip, Ka Ki; Lin, Tzu-Yuan

    2015-07-07

    Provided are electrochemical cells and electrolytes used to build such cells. The electrolytes include ion-supplying salts and fluorinated solvents capable of maintaining single phase solutions with the salts at between about -30.degree. C. to about 80.degree. C. The fluorinated solvents, such as fluorinated carbonates, fluorinated esters, and fluorinated esters, are less flammable than their non-fluorinated counterparts and increase safety characteristics of cells containing these solvents. The amount of fluorinated solvents in electrolytes may be between about 30% and 80% by weight not accounting weight of the salts. Fluorinated salts, such as fluoroalkyl-substituted LiPF.sub.6, fluoroalkyl-substituted LiBF.sub.4 salts, linear and cyclic imide salts as well as methide salts including fluorinated alkyl groups, may be used due to their solubility in the fluorinated solvents. In some embodiments, the electrolyte may also include a flame retardant, such as a phosphazene or, more specifically, a cyclic phosphazene and/or one or more ionic liquids.

  17. Air electrode material for high temperature electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruka, Roswell J.

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a solid solution with a perovskite-like crystal structure having the general formula La.sub.1-x-w (M.sub.L).sub.x (Ce).sub.w (M.sub.S1).sub.1-y (M.sub.S2).sub.y O.sub.3 where M.sub.L is Ca, Sr, Ba, or mixtures thereof, M.sub.S1 is Mn, Cr, or mixtures thereof and M.sub.S2 is Ni, Fe, Co, Ti, Al, In, Sn, Mg, Y, Nb, Ta, or mixtures thereof, w is about 0.05 to about 0.25, x+w is about 0.1 to about 0.7, and y is 0 to about 0.5. In the formula, M.sub.L is preferably Ca, w is preferably 0.1 to 0.2, x+w is preferably 0.4 to 0.7, and y is preferably 0. The solid solution can be used in an electrochemical cell where it more closely matches the thermal expansion characteristics of the support tube and electrolyte of the cell.

  18. Preparation and electrochemical properties of polyaniline nanofibers using ultrasonication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manuel, James; Kim, Miso; Fapyane, Deby; Chang, In Seop; Ahn, Hyo-Jun; Ahn, Jou-Hyeon

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: Nanofibrous structured polyaniline (PANI) was prepared by simple ultrasonication. PANI nanofibers prepared at 5 C are uniform with an average diameter of 50 nm. The conductivity is increased by 2 10{sup 8} times after doping with LiClO{sub 4}. The cell with PANI-LiClO{sub 4} shows good cycle performance at high current densities. - Abstract: Polyaniline nanofibers have been successfully prepared by applying ultrasonic irradiation during oxidative polymerization of aniline in dilute hydrochloric acid and evaluated for suitability in lithium cells after doping with lithium perchlorate salt. Polyaniline nanofibers are confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy, and the efficiency of doping is confirmed by DC conductivity measurements at different temperatures. Electrochemical properties of nanofibers are evaluated, of which a remarkable increase in cycle stability is achieved when compared to polyaniline prepared by simple oxidative polymerization of aniline. The cell with nanofibrous polyaniline doped with LiClO{sub 4} delivers an initial discharge capacity value of 86 mA h g{sup ?1} at 1 C-rate which is about 60% of theoretical capacity, and the capacity is slightly lowered during cycle and reaches 50% of theoretical capacity after 40 cycles. The cell delivers a stable and higher discharge capacity even at 2 C-rate compared to that of the cell prepared with bulk polyaniline doped with LiClO{sub 4}.

  19. Support tube for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruka, Roswell J.; Rossing, Barry R.

    1986-01-01

    Disclosed is a compound having a fluorite-like structure comprising a solid solution having the general formula [(ZrO.sub.2).sub.1-x (MO.sub.s).sub.x ].sub.1-y [(La.sub.m A.sub.1-m).sub.2-z (Mn.sub.n B.sub.1-n).sub.z O.sub.r ].sub.y where MO.sub.5 is an oxide selected from the group consisting of calcia, yttria, rare earth oxides, and mixtures thereof, x is about 0.1 to 0.3, y is about 0.005 to about 0.06, z is about 0.1 to about 1.9, A is yttrium, rare earth element, alkaline earth element, or mixture thereof, B is iron, nickel, cobalt, or mixture thereof, m is 0.3 to 1, n is 0.5 to 1, and r is 2 to 4. A porous tube made from such a composition can be coated with an electrically conducting mixed oxide electrode such as lanthanum manganite, and can be used in making high temperature electrochemical cells such as solid electrolyte fuel cells.

  20. Electrochemical/Pyrometallurgical Waste Stream Processing and Waste Form Fabrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Frank; Hwan Seo Park; Yung Zun Cho; William Ebert; Brian Riley

    2015-07-01

    This report summarizes treatment and waste form options being evaluated for waste streams resulting from the electrochemical/pyrometallurgical (pyro ) processing of used oxide nuclear fuel. The technologies that are described are South Korean (Republic of Korea – ROK) and United States of America (US) ‘centric’ in the approach to treating pyroprocessing wastes and are based on the decade long collaborations between US and ROK researchers. Some of the general and advanced technologies described in this report will be demonstrated during the Integrated Recycle Test (IRT) to be conducted as a part of the Joint Fuel Cycle Study (JFCS) collaboration between US Department of Energy (DOE) and ROK national laboratories. The JFCS means to specifically address and evaluated the technological, economic, and safe guard issues associated with the treatment of used nuclear fuel by pyroprocessing. The IRT will involve the processing of commercial, used oxide fuel to recover uranium and transuranics. The recovered transuranics will then be fabricated into metallic fuel and irradiated to transmutate, or burn the transuranic elements to shorter lived radionuclides. In addition, the various process streams will be evaluated and tested for fission product removal, electrolytic salt recycle, minimization of actinide loss to waste streams and waste form fabrication and characterization. This report specifically addresses the production and testing of those waste forms to demonstrate their compatibility with treatment options and suitability for disposal.

  1. Preparation and electrochemical properties of lamellar MnO{sub 2} for supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Jun; Wei, Tong; Cheng, Jie; Fan, Zhuangjun; Zhang, Milin

    2010-02-15

    Lamellar birnessite-type MnO{sub 2} materials were prepared by changing the pH of the initial reaction system via hydrothermal synthesis. The interlayer spacing of MnO{sub 2} with a layered structure increased gradually when the initial pH value varied from 12.43 to 2.81, while the MnO{sub 2}, composed of {alpha}-MnO{sub 2} and {gamma}-MnO{sub 2}, had a rod-like structure at pH 0.63. Electrochemical studies indicated that the specific capacitance of birnessite-type MnO{sub 2} was much higher than that of rod-like MnO{sub 2} at high discharge current densities due to the lamellar structure with fast intercalation/deintercalation of protons and high utilization of MnO{sub 2}. The initial specific capacitance of MnO{sub 2} prepared at pH 2.81 was 242.1 F g{sup -1} at 2 mA cm{sup -2} in 2 mol L{sup -1} (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} aqueous electrolyte. The capacitance increased by about 8.1% of initial capacitance after 200 cycles at a current density of 100 mA cm{sup -2}.

  2. A Novel Thermal Electrochemical Synthesis Method for Production of Stable Colloids of "Naked" Metal (Ag) Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Michael Z.; Easterly, Clay E

    2009-01-01

    Solution synthesis of nanocrystal silver is reviewed. This paper reports a novel thermal electrochemical synthesis (TECS) for producing metal Ag nanocrystals as small as a few nanometers. The TECS method requires mild conditions (25-100oC), low voltage (1-50 V DC) on Ag electrodes, and simple water or aqueous solutions as reaction medium. Furthermore, a tubular dialysis membrane surround electrodes proves favorable to produce nanosized (<10 nm) Ag nanocrystals. Different from those nanocrystals reported in literature, our nanocrystals have several unique features: (1) small nanometer size, (2) nakedness , i.e., surfaces of metal nanocrystals are free of organic ligands or capping molecules and no need of dispersant in synthesis solutions, and (3) colloidally stable in water solutions. It was discovered that Ag nanoparticles with initially large size distribution can be homogenized into near-monodispersed system by a low power (< 15 mW) He-Ne laser exposure treatment. The combination of the TECS technique and the laser treatment could lead to a new technology that produces metal nanoparticles that are naked, stable, and uniform sized. In the presence of stabilizing agent (also as supporting electrolyte) such as polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), large yield of silver nanoparticles (<100nm) in the form of thick milky sols are produced.

  3. Sulfuric acid thermoelectrochemical system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ludwig, Frank A.

    1989-01-01

    A thermoelectrochemical system in which an electrical current is generated between a cathode immersed in a concentrated sulfuric acid solution and an anode immersed in an aqueous buffer solution of sodium bisulfate and sodium sulfate. Reactants consumed at the electrodes during the electrochemical reaction are thermochemically regenerated and recycled to the electrodes to provide continuous operation of the system.

  4. System and method for detecting gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chow, Oscar Ken; Moulthrop, Lawrence Clinton; Dreier, Ken Wayne; Miller, Jacob Andrew

    2010-03-16

    A system to detect a presence of a specific gas in a mixture of gaseous byproducts comprising moisture vapor is disclosed. The system includes an electrochemical cell, a transport to deliver the mixture of gaseous byproducts from the electrochemical cell, a gas sensor in fluid communication with the transport, the sensor responsive to a presence of the specific gas to generate a signal corresponding to a concentration of the specific gas, and a membrane to prevent transmission of liquid moisture, the membrane disposed between the transport and the gas sensor.

  5. Enhanced molten salt purification by electrochemical methods: feasibility experiments with flibe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan K Wertsching; Brandon S Grover; Pattrick Calderoni

    2010-09-01

    Molten salts are considered within the Very High Temperature Reactor program as heat transfer media because of their intrinsically favorable thermo-physical properties at temperatures starting from 300 C and extending up to 1200 C. In this context two main applications of molten salt are considered, both involving fluoride-based materials: as primary coolants for a heterogeneous fuel reactor core and as secondary heat transport medium to a helium power cycle for electricity generation or other processing plants, such as hydrogen production. The reference design concept here considered is the Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR), which is a large passively safe reactor that uses solid graphite-matrix coated-particle fuel (similar to that used in gas-cooled reactors) and a molten salt primary and secondary coolant with peak temperatures between 700 and 1000 C, depending upon the application. However, the considerations included in this report apply to any high temperature system employing fluoride salts as heat transfer fluid, including intermediate heat exchangers for gas-cooled reactor concepts and homogenous molten salt concepts, and extending also to fast reactors, accelerator-driven systems and fusion energy systems. The most important initial requirement for heat transfer test of molten salt systems is the establishment of reference coolant materials to use in the experiments. An earlier report produced within the same project (INL/EXT-10-18297) highlighted how thermo-physical properties of the materials that directly impact the heat transfer behavior are strongly correlated to the of composition and impurities concentration of the melt. It is therefore essential to establish laboratory techniques that can measure the melt composition, and to develop purification methods that would allow the production of large quantities of coolant with the desired purity. A companion report titled An experimental test plan for the characterization of molten salt thermo-chemistry properties in heat transport systems describes the options available to reach such objectives and contains extended references to published work. The report highlights how electrochemical methods are the most promising techniques for the development of instrumentation aimed at the measurement of melts composition and for enhanced purification systems. The purpose of this work is to summarize preliminary experimental activities performed at the INL Safety and Tritium Applied Research facility in support of the development of electrochemistry based instrumentation and purification systems. The experiments have been focused on the LiF-BeF2 eutectic (67 and 33 mol%, respectively), also known as flibe.

  6. Advanced Electrochemical Technologies for Hydrogen Production by Alternative Thermochemical Cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lvov, Serguei; Chung, Mike; Fedkin, Mark; Lewis, Michele; Balashov, Victor; Chalkova, Elena; Akinfiev, Nikolay; Stork, Carol; Davis, Thomas; Gadala-Maria, Francis; Stanford, Thomas; Weidner, John; Law, Victor; Prindle, John

    2011-01-06

    Hydrogen fuel is a potentially major solution to the problem of climate change, as well as addressing urban air pollution issues. But a key future challenge for hydrogen as a clean energy carrier is a sustainable, low-cost method of producing it in large capacities. Most of the world's hydrogen is currently derived from fossil fuels through some type of reforming processes. Nuclear hydrogen production is an emerging and promising alternative to the reforming processes for carbon-free hydrogen production in the future. This report presents the main results of a research program carried out by a NERI Consortium, which consisted of Penn State University (PSU) (lead), University of South Carolina (USC), Tulane University (TU), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Thermochemical water decomposition is an emerging technology for large-scale production of hydrogen. Typically using two or more intermediate compounds, a sequence of chemical and physical processes split water into hydrogen and oxygen, without releasing any pollutants externally to the atmosphere. These intermediate compounds are recycled internally within a closed loop. While previous studies have identified over 200 possible thermochemical cycles, only a few have progressed beyond theoretical calculations to working experimental demonstrations that establish scientific and practical feasibility of the thermochemical processes. The Cu-Cl cycle has a significant advantage over other cycles due to lower temperature requirements around 530 C and below. As a result, it can be eventually linked with the Generation IV thermal power stations. Advantages of the Cu-Cl cycle over others include lower operating temperatures, ability to utilize low-grade waste heat to improve energy efficiency, and potentially lower cost materials. Another significant advantage is a relatively low voltage required for the electrochemical step (thus low electricity input). Other advantages include common chemical agents and reactions going to completion without side reactions, and lower demands on materials of construction. Three university research groups from PSU, USC, and TU as well as a group from ANL have been collaborating on the development of enabling technologies for the Cu-Cl cycle, including experimental work on the Cu-Cl cycle reactions, modeling and simulation, and particularly electrochemical reaction for hydrogen production using a CuCl electrolyzer. The Consortium research was distributed over the participants and organized in the following tasks: (1) Development of CuCl electrolyzer (PSU), (2) Thermodynamic modeling of anolyte solution (PSU), (3) Proton conductive membranes for CuCl electrolysis (PSU), (4) Development of an analytical method for online analysis of copper compounds in highly concentrated aqueous solutions (USC), (5) Electrodialysis as a means for separation and purification of the streams exiting the electrolyzer in the Cu-Cl cycle (USC), (6) Development of nanostructured electrocatalysts for the Cu-Cl electrolysis (USC), (7) Cu-Cl electrolyzer modeling (USC), (8) Aspen Plus modeling of the Cu-Cl thermochemical cycle (TU), (9) International coordination of research on the development of the Cu-Cl thermochemical cycle (ANL). The results obtained in the project clearly demonstrate that the Cu-Cl alternative thermochemical cycle is a promising and viable technology to produce hydrogen efficiently.

  7. Development of the chemical and electrochemical coal cleaning (CECC) process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, Roe-Hoan; Basilio, C.I.

    1992-05-01

    The Chemical and Electrochemical Coal Cleaning (CECC) process developed at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University was studied further in this project. This process offers a new method of physically cleaning both low- and high-rank coals without requiring fine grinding. The CECC process is based on liberating mineral matter from coal by osmotic pressure. The majority of the work was conducted on Middle Wyodak, Pittsburgh No. 8 and Elkhorn No. 3 coals. The coal samples were characterized for a variety of physical and chemical properties. Parametric studies were then conducted to identify the important operating parameters and to establish the optimum conditions. In addition, fundamental mechanisms of the process were studied, including mineral matter liberation, kinetics of mineral matter and pyrite dissolution, ferric ion regeneration schemes and alternative methods of separating the cleaned coal from the liberated mineral matter. The information gathered from the parametric and fundamental studies was used in the design, construction and testing of a bench-scale continuous CECC unit. Using this unit, the ash content of a Middle Wyodak coal was reduced from 6.96 to 1.61% at a 2 lbs/hr throughput. With an Elkhorn No. 3 sample, the ash content was reduced from 9.43 to 1.8%, while the sulfur content was reduced from 1.57 to 0.9%. The mass balance and liberation studies showed that liberation played a more dominant role than the chemical dissolution in removing mineral matter and inorganic sulfur from the different bituminous coals tested. However, the opposite was found to be the case for the Wyodak coal since this coal contained a significant amount of acid-soluble minerals.

  8. Fuel Cell Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cells » Fuel Cell Systems Fuel Cell Systems The design of fuel cell systems is complex, and can vary significantly depending upon fuel cell type and application. However, several basic components are found in many fuel cell systems: Fuel cell stack Fuel processor Power conditioners Air compressors Humidifiers Fuel Cell Stack The fuel cell stack is the heart of a fuel cell power system. It generates electricity in the form of direct current (DC) from electro-chemical reactions that take place in

  9. Quantification of Electrochemical Nanoscale Processes in Lithium Batteries By OperandoEC-(S)TEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehdi, Beata L.; Qian, Jiangfeng; Nasybulin, Eduard; Welch, David A.; Park, Chiwoo; Faller, Roland; Mehta, Hardeep S.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Xu, Wu; Evans, James E.; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jiguang; Mueller, Karl T.; Browning, Nigel D.

    2015-07-27

    Lithium (Li)-ion batteries are currently used for a wide variety of portable electronic devices, electric vehicles and renewable energy applications. In addition, extensive worldwide research efforts are now being devoted to more advanced “beyond Li-ion” battery chemistries - such as lithium-sulfur (Li-S) and lithium-air (Li-O2) - in which the carbon anode is replaced with Li metal. However, the practical application of Li metal anode systems has been highly problematic. The main challenges involve controlling the formation of a solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer and the suppression of Li dendrite growth during the charge/discharge process (achieving “dendrite-free” cycling). The SEI layer formation continuously consumes the electrolyte components creating highly resistive layer, which leads to the rapid decrease of cycling performance and degradation of the Li anode. The growth of Li metal dendrites at the anode contributes to rapid capacity fading (the presence of “dead Li” created during the discharge leads to an increased overpotential) and, in the case of continuous growth, leads to internal short circuits and extreme safety issues. Here we demonstrate the application of an operando electrochemical scanning transmission electron microscopy (ec-(S)TEM) cell to study the SEI layer formation and the initial stages of Li dendrite growth - the goal is to develop a mechanism for mitigating the degradation processes and increasing safety. Bright field (BF) STEM images in Figure 1 A-C show Li metal deposition and dissolution processes at the interface between the Pt working electrode and the lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) in propylene carbonate (PC) electrolyte during three charge/discharge cycles. A contrast reversal caused by Li metal being lighter/less dense than surrounding electrolyte (Li appears brighter than the background in BF STEM images) allows Li to be uniquely identified from the other components in the system - the only solid material that is less dense than the electrolyte is Li metal. Using these images, we can precisely quantify the total volume of Li deposition, the thickness of the SEI layer (observed as a ring of positive contrast around the electrode) and alloy formation due to Li+ ion insertion during each cycle. Furthermore, at the end of each discharge cycle we can quantify the presence of “dead Li” detached from the Pt electrode, thereby demonstrating the degree of irreversibility (and degradation of Pt electrode) associated with insertion/removal of Li+during this process with direct correlation to electrochemical performance. Such analyses provide significant insights into Li metal dendrite growth, which is critical to understand the complex interfacial reactions needed to be controlled for future Li-based and next generation energy storage systems.

  10. Electrochemical Polishing Applications and EIS of a Novel Choline Chloride-Based Ionic Liquid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wixtrom, Alex I.; Buhler, Jessica E.; Reece, Charles E.; Abdel-Fattah, Tarek M.

    2013-06-01

    Minimal surface roughness is a critical feature for high-field superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities used to engineer particle accelerators. Current methods for polishing Niobium cavities typically utilize solutions containing a mixture of concentrated sulfuric and hydrofluoric acid. Polishing processes such as these are effective, yet there are many hazards and costs associated with the use (and safe disposal) of the concentrated acid solutions. An alternative method for electrochemical polishing of the cavities was explored using a novel ionic liquid solution containing choline chloride. Potentiostatic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to analyze the ionic polishing solution. Final surface roughness of the Nb was found to be comparable to that of the acid-polishing method, as assessed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). This indicates that ionic liquid-based electrochemical polishing of Nb is a viable replacement for acid-based methods for preparation of SRF cavities.

  11. Surface working of 304L stainless steel: Impact on microstructure, electrochemical behavior and SCC resistance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Acharyya, S.G.; Khandelwal, A.; Kain, V.; Kumar, A.; Samajdar, I.

    2012-10-15

    The effect of surface working operations on the microstructure, electrochemical behavior and stress corrosion cracking resistance of 304L stainless steel (SS) was investigated in this study. The material was subjected to (a) solution annealing (b) machining and (c) grinding operations. Microstructural characterization was done using stereo microscopy and electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) technique. The electrochemical nature of the surfaces in machined, ground and solution annealed condition were studied using potentiodynamic polarization and scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) in borate buffer solution. The stress corrosion cracking resistance of 304L SS in different conditions was studied by exposing the samples to boiling MgCl{sub 2} environment. Results revealed that the heavy plastic deformation and residual stresses present near the surface due to machining and grinding operations make 304L SS electrochemically more active and susceptible to stress corrosion cracking. Ground sample showed highest magnitude of current density in the passive potential range followed by machined and solution annealed 304L SS. Micro-electrochemical studies established that surface working promotes localized corrosion along the surface asperities which could lead to crack initiation. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Machining/grinding produce extensive grain fragmentation near the surface of 304L SS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Machining/grinding result in martensitic transformation near the surface of 304L SS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Machining/grinding drastically reduce the SCC resistance of 304L SS in chloride. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Machining/grinding make the surface of 304L SS electrochemically much more active. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SECM study reveal that preferential dissolution takes place along surface asperities.

  12. Papers Based Electrochemical Biosensors: From Test Strips to Paper-Based Microfluidics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Bingwen; Du, Dan; Hua, Xin; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Lin, Yuehe

    2014-05-08

    Papers based biosensors such as lateral flow test strips and paper-based microfluidic devices (or paperfluidics) are inexpensive, rapid, flexible, and easy-to-use analytical tools. An apparent trend in their detection is to interpret sensing results from qualitative assessment to quantitative determination. Electrochemical detection plays an important role in quantification. This review focuses on electrochemical (EC) detection enabled biosensors. The first part provides detailed examples in paper test strips. The second part gives an overview of paperfluidics engaging EC detections. The outlook and recommendation of future directions of EC enabled biosensors are discussed in the end.

  13. A new design for a disposable and modifiable electrochemical cell (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: A new design for a disposable and modifiable electrochemical cell Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A new design for a disposable and modifiable electrochemical cell Authors: Dattelbaum, Andrew M [1] ; Gupta, Gautam [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2011-09-09 OSTI Identifier: 1095867 Report Number(s): LA-UR-11-05239; LA-UR-11-5239 DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396 Resource Type: Journal

  14. 2015 Electrochemical Energy Summit at the 228th ECS Meeting (Phoenix, AZ)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2015 DOE National Cleanup Workshop 2015 DOE National Cleanup Workshop Addthis 1 of 5 2 of 5 3 of 5 4 of 5 5 of 5 - JCAP

    2015 Electrochemical Energy Summit at the 228th ECS Meeting (Phoenix, AZ) 2015 Electrochemical Energy Summit at the 228th ECS Meeting (Phoenix, AZ) Sun, Oct 11, 2015 4:30pm 16:30 Fri, Oct 16, 2015 5:30pm 17:30 Phoenix, AZ USA Harry Atwater, "Artificial Photosynthesis: Progress and Prospects" View presentation here Matthew McDowell, "New Advances in

  15. Method of bonding an interconnection layer on an electrode of an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pal, Uday B.; Isenberg, Arnold O.; Folser, George R.

    1992-01-01

    An electrochemical cell containing an air electrode (16), contacting electrolyte and electronically conductive interconnection layer (26), and a fuel electrode, has the interconnection layer (26) attached by: (A) applying a thin, closely packed, discrete layer of LaCrO.sub.3 particles (30), doped with an element selected from the group consisting of Ca, Sr, Co, Ba, Mg and their mixtures on a portion of the air electrode, and then (B) electrochemical vapor depositing a dense skeletal structure (32) between and around the doped LaCrO.sub.3 particles (30).

  16. Method of bonding an interconnection layer on an electrode of an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pal, U.B.; Isenberg, A.O.; Folser, G.R.

    1992-01-14

    An electrochemical cell containing an air electrode, contacting electrolyte and electronically conductive interconnection layer, and a fuel electrode, has the interconnection layer attached by: (A) applying a thin, closely packed, discrete layer of LaCrO[sub 3] particles, doped with an element selected from the group consisting of Ca, Sr, Co, Ba, Mg and their mixtures on a portion of the air electrode, and then (B) electrochemical vapor depositing a dense skeletal structure between and around the doped LaCrO[sub 3] particles. 2 figs.

  17. Development of Advanced Electrochemical Emission Spectroscopy for Monitoring Corrosion in Simulated DOE Liquid Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Digby D. Macdonald; Brian M. Marx; Sejin Ahn; Julio de Ruiz; Balaji Soundararaja; Morgan Smith; and Wendy Coulson

    2008-01-15

    Various forms of general and localized corrosion represent principal threats to the integrity of DOE liquid waste storage tanks. These tanks, which are of a single wall or double wall design, depending upon their age, are fabricated from welded carbon steel and contain a complex waste-form comprised of NaOH and NaNO{sub 3}, along with trace amounts of phosphate, sulfate, carbonate, and chloride. Because waste leakage can have a profound environmental impact, considerable interest exists in predicting the accumulation of corrosion damage, so as to more effectively schedule maintenance and repair. The different tasks that are being carried out under the current program are as follows: (1) Theoretical and experimental assessment of general corrosion of iron/steel in borate buffer solutions by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), ellipsometry and XPS techniques; (2) Development of a damage function analysis (DFA) which would help in predicting the accumulation of damage due to pitting corrosion in an environment prototypical of DOE liquid waste systems; (3) Experimental measurement of crack growth rate, acoustic emission signals and coupling currents for fracture in carbon and low alloy steels as functions of mechanical (stress intensity), chemical (conductivity), electrochemical (corrosion potential, ECP), and microstructural (grain size, precipitate size, etc) variables in a systematic manner, with particular attention being focused on the structure of the noise in the current and its correlation with the acoustic emissions; (4) Development of fracture mechanisms for carbon and low alloy steels that are consistent with the crack growth rate, coupling current data and acoustic emissions; (5) Inserting advanced crack growth rate models for SCC into existing deterministic codes for predicting the evolution of corrosion damage in DOE liquid waste storage tanks; (6) Computer simulation of the anodic and cathodic activity on the surface of the steel samples in order to exactly predict the corrosion mechanisms; (7) Wavelet analysis of EC noise data from steel samples undergoing corrosion in an environment similar to that of the high level waste storage containers, to extract data pertaining to general, pitting and stress corrosion processes, from the overall data. The Point Defect Model (PDM) is directly applied as the theoretical assessment method for describing the passive film formed on iron/steels. The PDM is used to describe general corrosion in the passive region of iron. In addition, previous work suggests that pit formation is due to the coalescence of cation vacancies at the metal/film interface which would make it possible to use the PDM parameters to predict the onset of pitting. This previous work suggests that once the critical vacancy density is reached, the film ruptures to form a pit. Based upon the kinetic parameters derived for the general corrosion case, two parameters relating to the cation vacancy formation and annihilation can be calculated. These two parameters can then be applied to predict the transition from general to pitting corrosion for iron/mild steels. If cation vacancy coalescence is shown to lead to pitting, it can have a profound effect on the direction of future studies involving the onset of pitting corrosion. The work has yielded a number of important findings, including an unequivocal demonstration of the role of chloride ion in passivity breakdown on nickel in terms of cation vacancy generation within the passive film, the first detection and characterization of individual micro fracture events in stress corrosion cracking, and the determination of kinetic parameters for the generation and annihilation of point defects in the passive film on iron. The existence of coupling between the internal crack environment and the external cathodic environment, as predicted by the coupled environment fracture model (CEFM), has also been indisputably established for the AISI 4340/NaOH system. It is evident from the studies that analysis of coupling current noise is a very sensitive tool f

  18. Low-Cost Electrochemical Compressor Utilizing Green Refrigerants...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Key Milestones: 1. Test Novel (low cost) Membrane systems 2. Develop Advanced MEA based on Membranes 3. Design and build prototype ECC system for testing 4. Design and build ...

  19. Fuel cell system with coolant flow reversal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kothmann, Richard E. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1986-01-01

    Method and apparatus for cooling electrochemical fuel cell system components. Periodic reversal of the direction of flow of cooling fluid through a fuel cell stack provides greater uniformity and cell operational temperatures. Flow direction through a recirculating coolant fluid circuit is reversed through a two position valve, without requiring modulation of the pumping component.

  20. Metallic sulfide additives for positive electrode material within a secondary electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walsh, William J.; McPheeters, Charles C.; Yao, Neng-ping; Koura, Kobuyuki

    1976-01-01

    An improved active material for use within the positive electrode of a secondary electrochemical cell includes a mixture of iron disulfide and a sulfide of a polyvalent metal. Various metal sulfides, particularly sulfides of cobalt, nickel, copper, cerium and manganese, are added in minor weight proportion in respect to iron disulfide for improving the electrode performance and reducing current collector requirements.