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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Giner Electrochemicals Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Giner Electrochemicals Inc Giner Electrochemicals Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name Giner Electrochemicals Inc Place Newton, Massachusetts Zip 2466 Product Specializes in the development of fuel cell technologies and products. Coordinates 43.996685°, -87.803724° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":43.996685,"lon":-87.803724,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

2

Giner, Inc./GES  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Giner, Inc.: Founded in 1973 Giner, Inc.: Founded in 1973 * Giner Electrochemical Systems, LLC (GES): Founded in 2000 with a 30% Ownership by General Motors Specializing in development of PEM based electrochemical technology, devices, and systems Giner, Inc./GES Newton , Ma. Monjid Hamdan Senior Program Manager May 23, 2011 Synergy of Giner, Inc./GES Technologies PEM Electrolyzer Stack Technology Over 7500 units in the field Over last 15 years there has been rapid development of high-efficiency PEM- based water electrolyzer stacks for both military and commercial applications PEM Electrolyzer can generate hydrogen at high or low, balanced or differential pressure PEM Stacks have shown high durability and reliability with over 7500 Giner stacks in field use today Electrolyzers are also used for oxygen

3

Hydrogen Production by PEM Electrolysis: Spotlight on Giner and Proton  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

BY BY PEM ELECTROLYSIS: SPOTLIGHT ON GINER AND PROTON US DOE WEBINAR (May 23, 2011) 2 Webinar Outline *Water Electrolysis H 2 Production Overview DOE-EERE-FCT: Eric L. Miller *Spotlight: PEM Electrolysis R&D at Giner Giner Electrochemical Systems: Monjid Hamdan *Spotlight: PEM Electrolysis R&D at Proton Proton OnSite: Kathy Ayers *Q&A 3 DOE EERE-FCT Goals and Objectives Develop technologies to produce hydrogen from clean, domestic resources at a delivered and dispensed cost of $2-$4/gge Capacity (kg/day) Distributed Central 100,000,000 100,000 50,000 10,000 1,000 10 Natural Gas Reforming Photo- electro- chemical Biological Water Electrolysis (Solar) 2015-2020 Today-2015 2020-2030 Coal Gasification (No Carbon Capture) Electrolysis Water (Grid) Coal Gasification (Carbon Capture)

4

Hydrogen Production by PEM Electrolysis: Spotlight on Giner and...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

PRODUCTION BY PEM ELECTROLYSIS: SPOTLIGHT ON GINER AND PROTON US DOE WEBINAR (May 23, 2011) 2 Webinar Outline *Water Electrolysis H 2 Production Overview DOE-EERE-FCT: Eric L....

5

Electrochemical thermodynamic measurement system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides systems and methods for accurately characterizing thermodynamic and materials properties of electrodes and electrochemical energy storage and conversion systems. Systems and methods of the present invention are configured for simultaneously collecting a suite of measurements characterizing a plurality of interconnected electrochemical and thermodynamic parameters relating to the electrode reaction state of advancement, voltage and temperature. Enhanced sensitivity provided by the present methods and systems combined with measurement conditions that reflect thermodynamically stabilized electrode conditions allow very accurate measurement of thermodynamic parameters, including state functions such as the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy of electrode/electrochemical cell reactions, that enable prediction of important performance attributes of electrode materials and electrochemical systems, such as the energy, power density, current rate and the cycle life of an electrochemical cell.

Reynier, Yvan (Meylan, FR); Yazami, Rachid (Los Angeles, CA); Fultz, Brent T. (Pasadena, CA)

2009-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

6

Electrochemical Thermodynamic Measurement System - Energy ...  

The present invention provides systems and methods for accurately characterizing thermodynamic and materials properties of electrodes and electrochemical energy ...

7

System and method for networking electrochemical devices  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved electrochemically active system and method including a plurality of electrochemical devices, such as fuel cells and fluid separation devices, in which the anode and cathode process-fluid flow chambers are connected in fluid-flow arrangements so that the operating parameters of each of said plurality of electrochemical devices which are dependent upon process-fluid parameters may be individually controlled to provide improved operating efficiency. The improvements in operation include improved power efficiency and improved fuel utilization in fuel cell power generating systems and reduced power consumption in fluid separation devices and the like through interstage process fluid parameter control for series networked electrochemical devices. The improved networking method includes recycling of various process flows to enhance the overall control scheme.

Williams, Mark C. (Morgantown, WV); Wimer, John G. (Morgantown, WV); Archer, David H. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Low-temperature thermally regenerative electrochemical system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermally regenerative electrochemical system is described including an electrochemical cell with two water-based electrolytes separated by an ion exchange membrane, at least one of the electrolytes containing a complexing agent and a salt of a multivalent metal whose respective order of potentials for a pair of its redox couples is reversible by a change in the amount of the ocmplexing agent in the electrolyte, the complexing agent being removable by distillation to cause the reversal.

Loutfy, R.O.; Brown, A.P.; Yao, N.P.

1982-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

9

Sheet electrode for electrochemical systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical cell construction features a novel co-extruded plastic electrode in an interleaved construction with a novel integral separator-spacer. Also featured is a leak and impact resistant construction for preventing the spill of corrosive materials in the event of rupture.

Tsien, Hsue C. (Chatham Township, Morris County, NJ); Newby, Kenneth R. (Berkeley Heights, NJ); Grimes, Patrick G. (Westfield, NJ); Bellows, Richard J. (Westfield, NJ)

1983-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

10

Lithium based electrochemical cell systems having a degassing agent  

SciTech Connect

A lithium based electrochemical cell system includes a positive electrode; a negative electrode; an electrolyte; and a degassing agent.

Hyung, Yoo-Eup (Naperville, IL); Vissers, Donald R. (Naperville, IL); Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL)

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Portable Electrochemical Sensing System - Available ...  

The device can use either a flow injection system with a mercury-film electrode or a mercury-free system involving the use of functionalized ...

12

Electrochemical sensor/detector system and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical detection system is described comprising in combination: (a) a multielement, microelectrode array detector containing means for acquiring a plurality of signals; (b) electronic means for receiving said signals and converting said signals into a readout or display providing information with respect to the nature and concentration of elements present in a solution being tested. Also described is the means of making the above described microelectrode detector.

Glass, R.S.; Perone, S.P.; Ciarlo, D.R.; Kimmons, J.F.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

13

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Reversible Fuel Cell Systems at Proton Energy, Mr. Everett Anderson, PROTON ON SITE Regenerative Fuel Cells for Energy Storage, Mr. Corky Mittelsteadt, Giner Electrochemical...

14

Characterization and Modeling of Electrochemical Energy Conversion Systems by Impedance Techniques.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis introduces (i) amendments to basic electrochemical measurement techniques in the time and frequency domain suitable for electrochemical energy conversion systems like fuel cells (more)

Klotz, Dino

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

An improved system and method for networking electrochemical devices  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved electrochemically active system and method including a plurality of electrochemical devices, such as fuel cells and fluid separation devices are disclosed, in which the anode and cathode process-fluid flow chambers are connected in fluid-flow arrangements so that the operating parameters of each of said plurality of electrochemical devices which are dependent upon process-fluid parameters may be individually controlled to provide improved operating efficiency. Improvements in operation include improved power efficiency and improved fuel utilization in fuel cell power generating systems and reduced power consumption in fluid separation devices and the like through interstage process fluid parameter control for series networked electrochemical devices. The improved networking method includes recycling of various process flows to enhance the overall control scheme.

Williams, M.C.; Wimer, J.G.; Archer, D.H.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

16

Separator-spacer for electrochemical systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical cell construction features a novel co-extruded plastic electrode in an interleaved construction with a novel integral separator-spacer. Also featured is a leak and impact resistant construction for preventing the spill of corrosive materials in the event of rupture.

Grimes, Patrick G. (Westfield, NJ); Einstein, Harry (Springfield, NJ); Newby, Kenneth R. (Berkeley Heights, NJ); Bellows, Richard J. (Westfield, NJ)

1983-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

17

Microsoft PowerPoint - SRNL_20apr09.ppt  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

, 2009 , 2009 Giner Electrochemical Systems, LLC Novel Approaches to the HyS SDE Anode Simon G. Stone Giner Electrochemical Systems, LLC April 20, 2009 April 20, 2009 Giner Electrochemical Systems, LLC Hybrid Sulfur Electrolyzers ('SDEs') S R N L U S C D O E P h I S B I R April 20, 2009 Giner Electrochemical Systems, LLC Narrow-Gap Anode for HyS Electrolyzer Objectives: * Demonstrate concept of NGA configuration for HyS electrolyzer * Determine i-V performance and SO 2 crossover characteristics * Project suitability of NGA approach for large scale application * US Publ. Pat. Appl. 2009/0045073 * SRNL Subcontract AC54775O April 20, 2009 Giner Electrochemical Systems, LLC Narrow-Gap Anode for HyS Electrolyzer * Employs a gas diffusion electrode

18

Systems, methods and computer-readable media for modeling cell performance fade of rechargeable electrochemical devices  

SciTech Connect

A system includes an electrochemical cell, monitoring hardware, and a computing system. The monitoring hardware periodically samples performance characteristics of the electrochemical cell. The computing system determines cell information from the performance characteristics of the electrochemical cell. The computing system also develops a mechanistic level model of the electrochemical cell to determine performance fade characteristics of the electrochemical cell and analyzing the mechanistic level model to estimate performance fade characteristics over aging of a similar electrochemical cell. The mechanistic level model uses first constant-current pulses applied to the electrochemical cell at a first aging period and at three or more current values bracketing a first exchange current density. The mechanistic level model also is based on second constant-current pulses applied to the electrochemical cell at a second aging period and at three or more current values bracketing the second exchange current density.

Gering, Kevin L

2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

19

Electrochemical energy storage using PEM systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper gives the results of an engineering assessment for future, long-lived space power systems for extraterrestrial applications. Solar-based, regenerative fuel cell power plants formed from either alkaline or PEM components are the focus. Test results on advanced PEM fuel cell stack components are presented. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Vanderborgh, N.E.; Hedstrom, J.C.; Huff, J.R.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Electrochemical system including lamella settler crystallizer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A crystallizer which incorporates a lamella settler and which is particularly applicable for use in batteries and power cells for electric vehicles or stationary applications. The lamella settler can be utilized for coarse particle separation or for agglomeration, and is particularly applicable to aluminum-air batteries or power cells for solving the hydrargillite (aluminum-hydroxide) removal problems from such batteries. This invention provides the advantages of very low energy consumption, turbulence, shear, cost and maintenance. Thus, due to the low shear and low turbulence of this invention, it is particularly effective in the control of aluminum hydroxide particle size distribution in the various sections of an aluminum-air system, as will as in other elecrochemical systems requiring separation for phases of different densities.

Maimoni, Arturo (Orinda, CA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "giner electrochemical systems" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Current-potential characteristics of electrochemical systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This dissertation contains investigations in three distinct areas. Chapters 1 and 2 provide an analysis of the effects of electromagnetic phenomena during the initial stages of cell discharge. Chapter 1 includes the solution to Maxwell`s equations for the penetration of the axial component of an electric field into an infinitely long cylindrical conductor. Chapter 2 contains the analysis of the conductor included in a radial circuit. Chapter 3 provides a complete description of the equations that describe the growth of an oxide film. A finite difference program was written to solve the equations. The system investigated is the iron/iron oxide in a basic, aqueous solution. Chapters 4 and 5 include the experimental attempts for replacing formaldehyde with an innocuous reducing agent for electroless deposition. In chapter 4, current-versus-voltage curves are provided for a sodium thiosulfate bath in the presence of a copper disk electrode. Also provided are the cathodic polarization curves of a copper/EDTA bath in the presence of a copper electrode. Chapter 5 contains the experimental results of work done with sodium hypophosphite as a reducing agent. Mixed-potential-versus-time curves for solutions containing various combinations of copper sulfate, nickel chloride, and hypophosphite in the presence of a palladium disk electrode provide an indication of the reducing power of the solutions.

Battaglia, V.S.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Sandia National Laboratories Electrochemical Storage System Abuse Test Procedure Manual  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The series of tests described in this report are intended to simulate actual use and abuse conditions and internally initiated failures that may be experienced in electrochemical storage systems (ECSS). These tests were derived from Failure Mode and Effect Analysis, user input, and historical abuse testing. The tests are to provide a common framework for various ECSS technologies. The primary purpose of testing is to gather response information to external/internal inputs. Some tests and/or measurements may not be required for some ECSS technologies and designs if it is demonstrated that a test is not applicable, and the measurements yield no useful information.

Unkelhaeuser, Terry; Smallwood David

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Systems, methods and computer readable media for estimating capacity loss in rechargeable electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system includes an electrochemical cell, monitoring hardware, and a computing system. The monitoring hardware periodically samples charge characteristics of the electrochemical cell. The computing system periodically determines cell information from the charge characteristics of the electrochemical cell. The computing system also periodically adds a first degradation characteristic from the cell information to a first sigmoid expression, periodically adds a second degradation characteristic from the cell information to a second sigmoid expression and combines the first sigmoid expression and the second sigmoid expression to develop or augment a multiple sigmoid model (MSM) of the electrochemical cell. The MSM may be used to estimate a capacity loss of the electrochemical cell at a desired point in time and analyze other characteristics of the electrochemical cell. The first and second degradation characteristics may be loss of active host sites and loss of free lithium for Li-ion cells.

Gering, Kevin L.

2013-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

24

Characterization of electrochemical systems and batteries: Materials and systems  

SciTech Connect

Materials are a pacing problem in battery development. The battery environment, particularly in rechargeable batteries, places great demands on materials. Characterization of battery materials is difficult because of their complex nature. In many cases meaningful characterization requires iii situ methods. Fortunately, several new electrochemical and spectroscopic techniques for in situ characterization studies have recently become available, and reports of new techniques have become more frequent. The opportunity now exists to utilize advanced instrumentation to define detailed features, participating chemical species and interfacial structure of battery materials with a precision heretofore not possible. This overview gives key references to these techniques and discusses the application of x-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of battery materials.

McBreen, J.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Characterization of electrochemical systems and batteries: Materials and systems  

SciTech Connect

Materials are a pacing problem in battery development. The battery environment, particularly in rechargeable batteries, places great demands on materials. Characterization of battery materials is difficult because of their complex nature. In many cases meaningful characterization requires iii situ methods. Fortunately, several new electrochemical and spectroscopic techniques for in situ characterization studies have recently become available, and reports of new techniques have become more frequent. The opportunity now exists to utilize advanced instrumentation to define detailed features, participating chemical species and interfacial structure of battery materials with a precision heretofore not possible. This overview gives key references to these techniques and discusses the application of x-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of battery materials.

McBreen, J.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Systems, methods and computer-readable media to model kinetic performance of rechargeable electrochemical devices  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system includes an electrochemical cell, monitoring hardware, and a computing system. The monitoring hardware samples performance characteristics of the electrochemical cell. The computing system determines cell information from the performance characteristics. The computing system also analyzes the cell information of the electrochemical cell with a Butler-Volmer (BV) expression modified to determine exchange current density of the electrochemical cell by including kinetic performance information related to pulse-time dependence, electrode surface availability, or a combination thereof. A set of sigmoid-based expressions may be included with the modified-BV expression to determine kinetic performance as a function of pulse time. The determined exchange current density may be used with the modified-BV expression, with or without the sigmoid expressions, to analyze other characteristics of the electrochemical cell. Model parameters can be defined in terms of cell aging, making the overall kinetics model amenable to predictive estimates of cell kinetic performance along the aging timeline.

Gering, Kevin L.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Separation system with a sheath-flow supported electrochemical detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical detector including side channels associated with a separation channel of a sample component separation apparatus is provided. The side channels of the detector, in one configuration, provide a sheath-flow for an analyte exiting the separation channel which directs the analyte to the electrically developed electrochemical detector.

Mathies, Richard A. (Moraga, CA); Emrich, Charles A. (Berkeley, CA); Singhal, Pankaj (Pasadena, CA); Ertl, Peter (Styria, AT)

2008-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

28

Review of thermally regenerative electrochemical systems. Volume I. Synopsis and executive summary  

SciTech Connect

Thermally regenerative electrochemical systems (TRES) are closed systems that convert heat into electricity in an electrochemical heat engine that is Carnot cycle limited in efficiency. Past and present work on such systems is reviewed. Two broad classes of TRES are based on the types of energy inputs required for regeneration: thermal alone and coupled thermal and electrolytic. The thermal regeneration alone encompasses electrochemical systems (galvanic or fuel cells) in which one or more products are formed. The regeneration can be performed in single or multiple steps. The compounds include metal hydrides, halides, oxides, chalcogenides, and alloys or bimetallic systems. The coupled thermal and electrolytic regeneration encompasses electrochemical systems (galvanic or fuel cells) regenerated by electrolysis at a different temperature or different pressure. Examples include metal halides and water. Thermogalvanic or nonisothermal cells are included in this category. Also included are electrochemical engines in which the working electroactive fluid is isothermally expanded through an electrolyte. TRES cover temperature ranges from about 20/sup 0/C to 1000/sup 0/C. Engines with power outputs of 0.1 mW/cm/sup 2/ to 1 W/cm/sup 2/ have been demonstrated. Recommendations are made of areas of research in science and engineering that would have long-range benefit to a TRES program.

Chum, H. L.; Osteryoung, R. A.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

A Plan to Develop and Demonstrate Electrochemical Noise Based Corrosion Monitoring Systems in Hanford Site Waste Tanks  

SciTech Connect

This document describes changes that need to be made to the site's authorization basis and technical concerns that need to be resolved before proceduralized use of Electrochemical Noise based corrosion monitoring systems is fully possible at the Hanford Site.

NORMAN, E.C.

2000-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

30

System and method for charging electrochemical cells in series  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A battery charging system capable of equalizing the charge of each individual cell at a selected full charge voltage includes means for regulating charger current to first increase current at a constant rate until a bulk charging level is achieved or until any cell reaches a safe reference voltage. A system controller then begins to decrease the charging rate as long as any cell exceeds the reference voltage until an equalization current level is reached. At this point, the system controller activates a plurality of shunt modules to permit shunting of current around any cell having a voltage exceeding the reference voltage. Leads extending between the battery of cells and shunt modules are time shared to permit alternate shunting of current and voltage monitoring without the voltage drop caused by the shunt current. After each cell has at one time exceeded the reference voltage, the charging current is terminated.

DeLuca, William H. (Naperville, IL); Hornstra, Jr, Fred (St. Charles, IL); Gelb, George H. (Rancho Palos Verdes, CA); Berman, Baruch (Rancho Palos Verdes, CA); Moede, Larry W. (Manhattan Beach, CA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Electrochemical Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Synthesis and Characterization of Pt-CeO2 Electrocatalysts by the Polymeric Precursor Method for Ethanol Oxidation: Maria Joao Paulo1; Renato Freitas2;...

32

Electrochemical Characterization Laboratory (Fact Sheet), NREL...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The research focus at the Electrochemical Characterization Laboratory at NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) is evaluating the electrochemical properties of novel...

33

In-situ TEM Characterization of Electrochemical Processess in Energy Storage Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The accelerated development of materials for utilization in electrical energy storage systems will hinge critically upon our understanding of how interfaces (particularly electrode-electrolyte solid liquid interfaces) control the physical and electrochemical energy conversion processes in energy storage systems. A prime example is found in Lt ion-based battery systems, where a passive multiphase layer grows at the electrode/electrolyte interface due to the decomposition of the liquid electrolyte [ l]. Once formed, this solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) protects the active electrode materials from degradation and also regulates the transport and intercalation of Lt ions during battery charge/discharge cycling [2]. Due to the dynamically evolving nature of this nm-scaled interface, it has proven difficult to design experiments that will not only elucidate the fundamental mechanisms controlling SEI nucleation and growth, but will enable the SEI microstructural and chemical evolution as a function of charge/discharge cycling to be monitored in real time.

Unocic, Raymond R [ORNL; Adamczyk, Leslie A [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL; Alsem, D. H. [Hummingbird Scientific; Salmon, Norman [Hummingbird Scientific; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Investigation of Synergy Between Electrochemical Capacitors, Flywheels, and Batteries in Hybrid Energy Storage for PV Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes the results of a study that investigated the synergy between electrochemical capacitors (ECs) and flywheels, in combination with each other and with batteries, as energy storage subsystems in photovoltaic (PV) systems. EC and flywheel technologies are described and the potential advantages and disadvantages of each in PV energy storage subsystems are discussed. Seven applications for PV energy storage subsystems are described along with the potential market for each of these applications. A spreadsheet model, which used the net present value method, was used to analyze and compare the costs over time of various system configurations based on flywheel models. It appears that a synergistic relationship exists between ECS and flywheels. Further investigation is recommended to quantify the performance and economic tradeoffs of this synergy and its effect on overall system costs.

Miller, John; Sibley, Lewis, B.; Wohlgemuth, John

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Creating systems that effectively convert energy, such as efficient solar cells and electrochemical batteries, has been a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SEMTE abstract Creating systems that effectively convert energy, such as efficient solar cells stimuli, the solar energy from sunlight, and the mechanical motion is commonplace, indeed fundamental and electrochemical batteries, has been a longstanding scientific pursuit, especially given the global energy

Reisslein, Martin

36

Bench-Scale Electrochemical System for Generation of CO and Syn-Gas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A bench-scale system for the electrochemical reduction of CO2 has been developed which produces CO and H2 (syn-gas) mixtures. The system is equipped with a gas-diffusion electrode which partially alleviates some of the mass-transport issues associated with CO2 delivery to the cathode. The positive effect of temperature was discovered where at 70C a reduction in cell voltage of 1.57 V (compared to ambient) was observed at 70 mA cm-2. Controlling the flow of CO2 made it possible to maintain set H2:CO ratios with CO accounting for 25-90% of the product and H2 accounting for 10-75%. The cell, after an initial stabilization period of 40 min, displays reproducible, stable behavior. The current cell design brings the current densities for CO2 reduction closer to what is currently achieved in industrial alkaline electrolysis cells. This report discusses the electrolyte, electrode materials and variables which have been found to be significant in the production of CO and syn-gas mixtures.

Eric J. Dufek; Tedd E. Lister; Michael E. McIlwain

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Speaker biographies for the Fuel Cell Technologies Program Webinar titled Hydrogen Production by PEM Electrolysis … Spotlight on Giner and Proton  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Professional Bios - Kathy Ayers and Monjid Hamdan Professional Bios - Kathy Ayers and Monjid Hamdan Kathy Ayers, Director of Research, Proton Energy Systems Kathy Ayers is the Director of Research at Proton Energy Systems. She is responsible for developing the long term research direction for improvements in performance, reliability, and cost of Proton's electrolyzer cell stack as well as overseeing Proton's military and

38

Solid state electrochemical composite  

SciTech Connect

Provided is a composite electrochemical device fabricated from highly electronically conductive materials such as metals, metal alloys, or electronically conductive ceramics. The electronic conductivity of the electrode substrate is maximized. The invention allows for an electrode with high electronic conductivity and sufficient catalytic activity to achieve high power density in ionic (electrochemical) devices such as fuel cells and electrolytic gas separation systems including oxygen generation system.

Visco, Steven J. (Berkeley, CA); Jacobson, Craig P. (Moraga, CA); DeJonghe, Lutgard C. (Lafayette, CA)

2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

39

Electrochemical Energy Storage and Conversion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 4, 2013 ... Design and Discovery of Novel Energy Materials: Stephan Lany1; 1NREL ... determine and characterise the state of an electrochemical system,...

40

PEM Electrolyzer Incorporating an Advanced Low-Cost Membrane - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 1 FY 2012 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Monjid Hamdan (Primary Contact), Tim Norman Giner, Inc. (Formerly Giner Electrochemical Systems, LLC.) 89 Rumford Ave. Newton, MA 02466 Phone: (781) 529-0526 Email: mhamdan@ginerinc.com DOE Managers HQ: Erika Sutherland Phone: (202) 586-3152 Email: Erika.Sutherland@ee.doe.gov GO: David Peterson Phone: (720) 356-1747 Email: David.Peterson@go.doe.gov Contract Number: DE-FG36-08GO18065 Subcontractors: * Virginia Polytechnic Institute and University, Blacksburg, VA * Parker Hannifin Ltd domnick hunter Division, Hemel Hempstead, United Kingdom Project Start Date: May 1, 2008

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "giner electrochemical systems" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Alternating-polarity operation for complete regeneration of electrochemical deionization system  

SciTech Connect

An electrically regeneratable battery of electrochemical cells for capacitive deionization (including electrochemical purification) and regeneration of electrodes is operated at alternate polarities during consecutive cycles. By polarizing the cells, ions are removed from the electrolyte and are held in the electric double layers formed at the carbon aerogel surfaces of the electrodes. As the electrodes of each cell of the battery are saturated with the removed ions, the battery is regenerated electrically at a reversed polarity from that during the deionization step of the cycle, thus significantly minimizing secondary wastes.

Tran, Tri D. (Livermore, CA); Lenz, David J. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Proceedings of the Workshop: Fuel Cells for Portable Power  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

With DOE funding they are working on precious metal loading and bipolar plates. * Jack Kosek, Giner Electrochemical, described DMFC units built for the Army under an SBIR program,...

43

Laboratory Evaluation of an Electrochemical Noise System for Detection of Localized and General Corrosion of Natural Gas Transmission Pipelines  

SciTech Connect

Gas transmission pipelines are susceptible to both internal (gas side) and external (soil side) corrosion attack. Internal corrosion is caused by the presence of salt laden moisture, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, and perhaps O{sub 2} in the natural gas. Internal corrosion usually manifests itself as general corrosion. However, the presence of chlorides in entrained water also can lead to pitting corrosion damage. The electrochemical noise technique can differentiate general from localized corrosion and provide estimates of corrosion rates without external perturbation of the corroding system. It is increasingly being applied to field and industrial installations for in situ corrosion monitoring. It has been used here to determine its suitability for monitoring internal and external corrosion damage on gas transmission pipelines. Corrosion measurements were made in three types of environments: (1) aqueous solutions typical of those found within gas pipelines in equilibrium with th e corrosive components of natural gas; (2) biologically-active soils typical of wetlands; and (3) a simulated, unpressurized, internal gas/liquid gas pipeline environment. Multiple sensor designs were evaluated in the simulated pipe environment. Gravimetric measurements were conducted in parallel with the electrochemical noise measurements to validate the results.

Bullard, S.J.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Russell, J.H.; Holcomb, G.R.; Cramer, S.D.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Eden, D.

2003-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

44

Alternating-polarity operation for complete regeneration of electrochemical deionization system  

SciTech Connect

An electrically regeneratable battery of electrochemical cells for capacitive deionization (including electrochemical purification) and regeneration of electrodes is operated at alternate polarities during consecutive cycles. In other words, after each regeneration step operated at a given polarity in a deionization-regeneration cycle, the polarity of the deionization step in the next cycle is maintained. In one embodiment, two end electrodes are arranged one at each end of the battery, adjacent to end plates. An insulator layer is interposed between each end plate and the adjacent end electrode. Each end electrode includes a single sheet of conductive material having a high specific surface area and sorption capacity, preferably a sheet formed of carbon aerogel composite. The batter further includes a plurality of generally identical double-sided intermediate electrodes that are equidistally separated from each other, between the two end electrodes. As the electrolyte enters the battery of ells, t flows through a continuous open serpentine channel defined by the electrodes, substantially parallel to the surfaces of the electrodes. By polarizing the cells, ions are removed from the electrolyte and are held in the electric double layers formed at the carbon aerogel surfaces of the electrodes. As the electrodes of each cell of the battery are saturated with the removed ions, the battery is regenerated electrically at a reversed polarity from that during the deionization step of the cycle, thus significantly minimizing secondary wastes.

Tran, Tri D. (Livermore, CA); Lenz, David J. (Livermore, CA)

2006-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

45

Electrochemical Characterization Laboratory (Fact Sheet)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This fact sheet describes the purpose, lab specifications, applications scenarios, and information on how to partner with NREL's Electrochemical Characterization Laboratory at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. The research focus at the Electrochemical Characterization Laboratory at NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) is evaluating the electrochemical properties of novel materials synthesized by various techniques and understanding and delineating the reaction mechanisms to provide practical solutions to PEMFCs commercialization issues of cost, performance and durability. It is also involved in the development of new tools and techniques for electrochemical characterization. The laboratory concentrates on the development and characterization of new materials for PEMFCs such as electrocatalysts, catalyst supports in terms of electrochemical activity, electrochemical surface area and corrosion/durability. The impact of impurities and/or contaminants on the catalyst activity is also under study. Experiments that can be performed include: (1) Determination and benchmarking of novel electrocatalyst activity; (2) Determination of electrochemical surface area; (3) Determination of electrocatalyst and support corrosion resistance and durability; (4) Synthesis and characterization of novel electrocatalyst; (5) Determination of fundamental electrochemical parameters; and (6) Estimation of electrocatalyst utilization.

Not Available

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical cell is described having a bimodal positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal, and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at the cell operating temperature. The positive electrode has an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride at least partially present as a charging product, and additives of bromide and/or iodide and sulfur in the positive electrode or the electrolyte. Electrode volumetric capacity is in excess of 400 Ah/cm{sup 3}; the cell can be 90% recharged in three hours and can operate at temperatures below 160 C. There is also disclosed a method of reducing the operating temperature and improving the overall volumetric capacity of an electrochemical cell and for producing a positive electrode having a BET area greater than 6{times}10{sup 4}cm{sup 2}/g of Ni. 6 figs.

Redey, L.I.; Vissers, D.R.; Prakash, J.

1996-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

47

Electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical cell having a bimodal positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal, and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at the cell operating temperature. The positive electrode has an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride at least partially present as a charging product, and additives of bromide and/or iodide and sulfur in the positive electrode or the electrolyte. Electrode volumetric capacity is in excess of 400 Ah/cm.sup.3 ; the cell can be 90% recharged in three hours and can operate at temperatures below 160.degree. C. There is also disclosed a method of reducing the operating temperature and improving the overall volumetric capacity of an electrochemical cell and for producing a positive electrode having a BET area greater than 6.times.10.sup.4 cm.sup.2 /g of Ni.

Redey, Laszlo I. (Downers Grove, IL); Vissers, Donald R. (Naperville, IL); Prakash, Jai (Downers Grove, IL)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical cell having a bimodal positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal, and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at the cell operating temperature. The positive electrode has an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride at least partially present as a charging product, and additives of bromide and/or iodide and sulfur in the positive electrode or the electrolyte. Electrode volumetric capacity is in excess of 400 Ah/cm.sup.3 ; the cell can be 90% recharged in three hours and can operate at temperatures below 160.degree. C. There is also disclosed a method of reducing the operating temperature and improving the overall volumetric capacity of an electrochemical cell and for producing a positive electrode having a BET area greater than 6.times.10.sup.4 cm.sup.2 /g of Ni.

Redey, Laszlo I. (6851 Carpenter St., Downers Grove, IL 60516); Vissers, Donald R. (611 Clover Ct., Naperville, IL 60540); Prakash, Jai (2205 Arbor Cir. 8, Downers Grove, IL 60515)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Supported liquid membrane electrochemical separators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Supported liquid membrane separators improve the flexibility, efficiency and service life of electrochemical cells for a variety of applications. In the field of electrochemical storage, an alkaline secondary battery with improved service life is described in which a supported liquid membrane is interposed between the positive and negative electrodes. The supported liquid membranes of this invention can be used in energy production and storage systems, electrosynthesis systems, and in systems for the electrowinning and electrorefining of metals.

Pemsler, J. Paul (Lexington, MA); Dempsey, Michael D. (Revere, MA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Electrochemical device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A tunnel protected electrochemical device features channels fluidically communicating between manifold, tunnels and cells. The channels are designed to provide the most efficient use of auxiliary power. The channels have a greater hydraulic pressure drop and electrical resistance than the manifold. This will provide a design with the optimum auxiliary energy requirements.

Grimes, Patrick G. (Westfield, NJ); Einstein, Harry (Springfield, NJ); Bellows, Richard J. (Westfield, NJ)

1988-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

51

Electrochemical construction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical cell construction features a novel co-extruded plastic electrode in an interleaved construction with a novel integral separator-spacer. Also featured is a leak and impact resistant construction for preventing the spill of corrosive materials in the event of rupture.

Einstein, Harry (Springfield, NJ); Grimes, Patrick G. (Westfield, NJ)

1983-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

52

Direct electrochemical conversion of carbon: systems for efficient conversion of fossil fuels to electricity  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The direct electrochemical conversion of carbon involves discharge of suspensions of reactive carbon particles in a molten salt electrolyte against an oxygen (air) cathode. (Figure 1). The free energy and the enthalpy of the oxidation reaction are nearly identical. This allows theoretical efficiencies ({Delta}G(T)/{Delta}H) to approach 100% at temperatures from 500 to 800 C. Entropy heat losses are therefore negligible. The activities of the elemental carbon and of the carbon dioxide product are uniform throughout the fuel cell and constant over discharge time. This stabilizes cell EMF and allows full utilization of the carbon fuel in a single pass. Finally, the energy cost for pyrolysis of hydrocarbons is generally very low compared with that of steam reforming or water gas reactions. Direct electrochemical conversion of carbon might be compared with molten carbonate fuel cell using carbon rather than hydrogen. However, there are important differences. There is no hydrogen involved (except from trace water contamination). The mixture of molten carbonate and carbon is not highly flammable. The carbon is introduced in as a particulate, rather than as a high volume flow of hydrogen. At the relatively low rates of discharge (about 1 kA/m{sup 2}), the stoichiometric requirements for carbon dioxide by the cathodic reaction may be met by diffusion across the thin electrolyte gap. We report recent experimental work at LLNL using melt slurries of reactive carbons produced by the thermal decomposition of hydrocarbons. We have found that anodic reactivity of carbon in mixed carbonate melts depends strongly on form, structure and nano-scale disorder of the materials, which are fixed by the hydrocarbon starting material and the conditions of pyrolysis. Thus otherwise chemically pure carbons made by hydrocarbon pyrolysis show rates at fixed potentials that span an order of magnitude, while this range lies 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than the current density of graphite plate electrodes. One carbon materials was identified which delivered anode current densities of 1 kA/m{sup 2} at 0.8 V (i.e., 80% efficiency, based on the standard enthalpy of carbon/oxygen reaction, and assuming full conversion), which we believe to be sufficiently great to allow practical application in fuel cell arrays. Since the hydrocarbon starting materials are ''ash free,'' entrainment of ash into the melt is not limiting. Finally, the use of fine carbon particulates in slurries avoids cost and logistics of carbon electrode manufacture and distribution.

Cooper, J F; Cherepy, N; Krueger, R

2000-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

53

Blend Down Monitoring System Fissile Mass Flow Monitor Implementation at the ElectroChemical Plant, Zelenogorsk, Russia  

SciTech Connect

The implementation plans and preparations for installation of the Fissile Mass Flow Monitor (FMFM) equipment at the ElectroChemical Plant (ECP), Zelenogorsk, Russia, are presented in this report. The FMFM, developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is part of the Blend Down Monitoring System (BDMS), developed for the U.S. Department of Energy Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Transparency Implementation Program. The BDMS provides confidence to the United States that the Russian nuclear facilities supplying the lower-assay ({approx}4%) product low enriched uranium (P-LEU) to the United States from down-blended weapons-grade HEU are meeting the nonproliferation goals of the government-to-government HEU Purchase Agreement, signed between the Russian Federation and the United States in 1993. The first BDMS has been operational at Ural Electrochemical Integrated Plant, Novouralsk, since February 1999 and is successfully providing HEU transparency data to the United States. The second BDMS was installed at ECP in February 2003. The FMFM makes use of a set of thermalized californium-252 ({sup 252}Cf) spontaneous neutron sources for a modulated fission activation of the UF{sub 6} gas stream for measuring the {sup 235}U fissile mass flow rate. To do this, the FMFM measures the transport time of the fission fragments created from the fission activation process under the modulated source to the downstream detectors by detecting the delayed gamma rays from the fission fragments. The FMFM provides unattended, nonintrusive measurements of the {sup 235}U mass flow in the HEU, LEU blend stock, and P-LEU process legs. The FMFM also provides the traceability of the HEU flow to the product process leg. This report documents the technical installation requirements and the expected operational characteristics of the ECP FMFM.

Uckan, T.

2005-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

54

A High Temperature Electrochemical Energy Storage System Based on Sodium Beta-Alumina Solid Electrolyte (Base)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the work done during the period September 1, 2005 and March 31, 2008. Work was conducted in the following areas: (1) Fabrication of sodium beta{double_prime} alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) using a vapor phase process. (2) Mechanistic studies on the conversion of {alpha}-alumina + zirconia into beta{double_prime}-alumina + zirconia by the vapor phase process. (3) Characterization of BASE by X-ray diffraction, SEM, and conductivity measurements. (4) Design, construction and electrochemical testing of a symmetric cell containing BASE as the electrolyte and NaCl + ZnCl{sub 2} as the electrodes. (5) Design, construction, and electrochemical evaluation of Na/BASE/ZnCl{sub 2} electrochemical cells. (6) Stability studies in ZnCl{sub 2}, SnCl{sub 2}, and SnI{sub 4} (7) Design, assembly and testing of planar stacks. (8) Investigation of the effect of porous surface layers on BASE on cell resistance. The conventional process for the fabrication of sodium ion conducting beta{double_prime}-alumina involves calcination of {alpha}-alumina + Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} + LiNO{sub 3} at 1250 C, followed by sintering powder compacts in sealed containers (platinum or MgO) at {approx}1600 C. The novel vapor phase process involves first sintering a mixture of {alpha}-alumina + yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) into a dense ceramic followed by exposure to soda vapor at {approx}1450 C to convert {alpha}-alumina into beta{double_prime}-alumina. The vapor phase process leads to a high strength BASE, which is also resistant to moisture attack, unlike BASE made by the conventional process. The PI is the lead inventor of the process. Discs and tubes of BASE were fabricated in the present work. In the conventional process, sintering of BASE is accomplished by a transient liquid phase mechanism wherein the liquid phase contains NaAlO{sub 2}. Some NaAlO{sub 2} continues to remain at grain boundaries; and is the root cause of its water sensitivity. In the vapor phase process, NaAlO{sub 2} is never formed. Conversion occurs by a coupled transport of Na{sup +} through BASE formed and of O{sup 2-} through YSZ to the reaction front. Transport to the reaction front is described in terms of a chemical diffusion coefficient of Na{sub 2}O. The conversion kinetics as a function of microstructure is under investigation. The mechanism of conversion is described in this report. A number of discs and tubes of BASE have been fabricated by the vapor phase process. The material was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), before and after conversion. Conductivity (which is almost exclusively due to sodium ion transport at the temperatures of interest) was measured. Conductivity was measured using sodium-sodium tests as well as by impedance spectroscopy. Various types of both planar and tubular electrochemical cells were assembled and tested. In some cases the objective was to determine if there was any interaction between the salt and BASE. The interaction of interest was mainly ion exchange (possible replacement of sodium ion by the salt cation). It was noted that Zn{sup 2+} did not replace Na+ over the conditions of interest. For this reason much of the work was conducted with ZnCl{sub 2} as the cathode salt. In the case of Sn-based, Sn{sup 2+} did ion exchange, but Sn{sup 4+} did not. This suggests that Sn{sup 4+} salts are viable candidates. These results and implications are discussed in the report. Cells made with Na as the anode and ZnCl{sub 2} as the cathode were successfully charged/discharged numerous times. The key advantages of the batteries under investigation here over the Na-S batteries are: (1) Steel wool can be used in the cathode compartment unlike Na-S batteries which require expensive graphite. (2) Planar cells can be constructed in addition to tubular, allowing for greater design flexibility and integration with other devices such as planar SOFC. (3) Comparable or higher open circuit voltage (OCV) than the Na-S battery. (4) Wider operating temperature range and higher temper

Anil Virkar

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

55

Electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical cell having an alkali metal negative electrode such as sodium and a positive electrode including Ni or transition metals, separated by a .beta." alumina electrolyte and NaAlCl.sub.4 or other compatible material. Various concentrations of a bromine, iodine and/or sulfur containing additive and pore formers are disclosed, which enhance cell capacity and power. The pore formers may be the ammonium salts of carbonic acid or a weak organic acid or oxamide or methylcellulose.

Redey, Laszlo I. (Downers Grove, IL); Vissers, Donald R. (Naperville, IL); Prakash, Jai (Downers Grove, IL)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of an electrochemical cell has a layer-type or sandwich configuration with a Teflon center section that houses working, reference and counter electrodes and defines a relatively narrow electrolyte cavity. The center section is surrounded on both sides with thin Teflon membranes. The membranes are pressed in place by a pair of Teflon inner frames which are in turn supported by a pair of outer metal frames. The pair of inner and outer frames are provided with corresponding, appropriately shaped slits that are in plane generally transverse to the plane of the working electrode and permit X-ray beams to enter and exit the cell through the Teflon membranes that cover the slits so that the interface between the working electrode and the electrolyte within the cell may be analyzed by transmission geometry. In one embodiment, the center section consists of two parts, one on top of the other. Alternatively, the center section of the electrochemical cell may consist of two intersliding pieces or may be made of a single piece of Teflon sheet material. The electrolyte cavity is shaped so that the electrochemical cell can be rotated 900 in either direction while maintaining the working-and counter electrodes submerged in the electrolyte.

Nagy, Z.; Yonco, R.M.; You, Hoydoo; Melendres, C.A.

1991-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

57

Electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical cell has a layer-type or sandwich configuration with a Teflon center section that houses working, reference and counter electrodes and defines a relatively narrow electrolyte cavity. The center section is surrounded on both sides with thin Teflon membranes. The membranes are pressed in place by a pair of Teflon inner frames which are in turn supported by a pair of outer metal frames. The pair of inner and outer frames are provided with corresponding, appropriately shaped slits that are in plane generally transverse to the plane of the working electrode and permit X-ray beams to enter and exit the cell through the Teflon membranes that cover the slits so that the interface between the working electrode and the electrolyte within the cell may be analyzed by transmission geometry. In one embodiment, the center section consists of two parts, one on top of the other. Alternatively, the center section of the electrochemical cell may consist of two intersliding pieces or may be made of a single piece of Teflon sheet material. The electrolyte cavity is shaped so that the electrochemical cell can be rotated 90[degree] in either direction while maintaining the working and counter electrodes submerged in the electrolyte. 5 figs.

Nagy, Z.; Yonco, R.M.; You, H.; Melendres, C.A.

1992-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

58

Symposium on Electrochemical and Thermal Modeling of Battery, Fuel Cell, and Photoenergy Conversion Systems, San Diego, CA, Oct. 20-22, 1986, Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

Papers are presented on modeling of the zinc chlorine battery, design modeling of zinc/bromine battery systems, the modeling of aluminum-air battery systems, and a point defect model for a nickel electrode structure. Also considered are the impedance of a tubular electrode under laminar flow, mathematical modeling of a LiAl/Cl2 cell with a gas diffusion Cl2 electrode, ultrahigh power batteries, and battery thermal modeling. Other topics include an Na/beta-alumina/NaAlCl4, Cl2/C circulating cell, leakage currents in electrochemical systems having common electrodes, modeling for CO poisoning of a fuel cell anode, electrochemical corrosion of carbonaceous materials, and electrolyte management in molten carbonate fuel cells.

Selman, J.R.; Maru, H.C.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical cell is described having an alkali metal negative electrode such as sodium and a positive electrode including Ni or transition metals, separated by a [beta] alumina electrolyte and NaAlCl[sub 4] or other compatible material. Various concentrations of a bromine, iodine and/or sulfur containing additive and pore formers are disclosed, which enhance cell capacity and power. The pore formers may be the ammonium salts of carbonic acid or a weak organic acid or oxamide or methylcellulose. 6 figs.

Redey, L.I.; Vissers, D.R.; Prakash, J.

1994-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

60

Electrochemical cell  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An electrochemical cell is disclosed that has a lithium anode, a thionyl chloride depolarizer and a sulphur dioxide passivation control agent which further includes having the pressure relieved to substantially reduce the internal pressure of the cell. The internal cell pressure is relieved by venting for sufficient time at an elevated temperature to reduce the internal cell pressure to less than five psi at room temperature, preferably by a plurality of venting cycles and a temperature ranging from room temperature to the elevated temperature. Normally, the elevated temperature ranges from at least 100/sup 0/ to greater than 150/sup 0/ F.

Chua, D.L.; Garoutte, K.F.; Levy, L.L.

1982-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "giner electrochemical systems" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

U.S. DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Categorical Exclusion Determination Form  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy: Phase III Xlerator Program Funding Opportunity Number DE-FOA-0000397 Applicant Name: Giner Electrochemical Systems, LLC Location: Newton, MA Project Title Dimensionally Stable High Performance Membrane Proposed Action or Project Description American Recovery and Reinvestment Act: The use of fuel cells for automobiles, stationary power and grid stability is limited in part due to the expense and durability of the membrane at the heart of the fuel cell. Scale-up of a highly durable membrane for fuel cells is proposed. The focus of this program is to develop a method to generate Dimensionally Stable Membranes as a roll-good product. In Phase I Giner Electrochemical Systems, LLC (GES), demonstrated methods for incorporating the polymer electrolyte and the support structure.

62

In-situ short-circuit protection system and method for high-energy electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An in-situ thermal management system for an energy storage device. The energy storage device includes a plurality of energy storage cells each being coupled in parallel to common positive and negative connections. Each of the energy storage cells, in accordance with the cell's technology, dimensions, and thermal/electrical properties, is configured to have a ratio of energy content-to-contact surface area such that thermal energy produced by a short-circuit in a particular cell is conducted to a cell adjacent the particular cell so as to prevent the temperature of the particular cell from exceeding a breakdown temperature. In one embodiment, a fuse is coupled in series with each of a number of energy storage cells. The fuses are activated by a current spike capacitively produced by a cell upon occurrence of a short-circuit in the cell, thereby electrically isolating the short-circuited cell from the common positive and negative connections.

Gauthier, Michel (La Prairie, CA); Domroese, Michael K. (South St. Paul, MN); Hoffman, Joseph A. (Minneapolis, MN); Lindeman, David D. (Hudson, WI); Noel, Joseph-Robert-Gaetan (St-Hubert, CA); Radewald, Vern E. (Austin, TX); Rouillard, Jean (Saint-Luc, CA); Rouillard, Roger (Beloeil, CA); Shiota, Toshimi (St. Bruno, CA); Trice, Jennifer L. (Eagan, MN)

2003-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

63

Breakthrough Flow Battery Cell Stack: Transformative Electrochemical Flow Storage System (TEFSS)  

SciTech Connect

GRIDS Project: UTRC is developing a flow battery with a unique design that provides significantly more power than today's flow battery systems. A flow battery is a cross between a traditional battery and a fuel cell. Flow batteries store their energy in external tanks instead of inside the cell itself. Flow batteries have traditionally been expensive because the battery cell stack, where the chemical reaction takes place, is costly. In this project, UTRC is developing a new stack design that achieves 10 times higher power than todays flow batteries. This high power output means the size of the cell stack can be smaller, reducing the amount of expensive materials that are needed. UTRCs flow battery will reduce the cost of storing electricity for the electric grid, making widespread use feasible.

None

2010-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

64

Breakthrough Flow Battery Cell Stack: Transformative Electrochemical Flow Storage System (TEFSS)  

SciTech Connect

GRIDS Project: UTRC is developing a flow battery with a unique design that provides significantly more power than today's flow battery systems. A flow battery is a cross between a traditional battery and a fuel cell. Flow batteries store their energy in external tanks instead of inside the cell itself. Flow batteries have traditionally been expensive because the battery cell stack, where the chemical reaction takes place, is costly. In this project, UTRC is developing a new stack design that achieves 10 times higher power than todays flow batteries. This high power output means the size of the cell stack can be smaller, reducing the amount of expensive materials that are needed. UTRCs flow battery will reduce the cost of storing electricity for the electric grid, making widespread use feasible.

2010-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

65

In-situ short circuit protection system and method for high-energy electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An in-situ thermal management system for an energy storage device. The energy storage device includes a plurality of energy storage cells each being coupled in parallel to common positive and negative connections. Each of the energy storage cells, in accordance with the cell's technology, dimensions, and thermal/electrical properties, is configured to have a ratio of energy content-to-contact surface area such that thermal energy produced by a short-circuit in a particular cell is conducted to a cell adjacent the particular cell so as to prevent the temperature of the particular cell from exceeding a breakdown temperature. In one embodiment, a fuse is coupled in series with each of a number of energy storage cells. The fuses are activated by a current spike capacitively produced by a cell upon occurrence of a short-circuit in the cell, thereby electrically isolating the short-circuited cell from the common positive and negative connections.

Gauthier, Michel (La Prairie, CA); Domroese, Michael K. (South St. Paul, MN); Hoffman, Joseph A. (Minneapolis, MN); Lindeman, David D. (Hudson, WI); Noel, Joseph-Robert-Gaetan (St-Hubert, CA); Radewald, Vern E. (Austin, TX); Rouillard, Jean (Saint-Luc, CA); Rouillard, Roger (Beloeil, CA); Shiota, Toshimi (St. Bruno, CA); Trice, Jennifer L. (Eagan, MN)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Wide electrochemical window solvents for use in electrochemical ...  

Wide electrochemical window solvents for use in electrochemical devices and electrolyte solutions incorporating such solvents United States Patent

67

Microfluidic electrochemical reactors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A microfluidic electrochemical reactor includes an electrode and one or more microfluidic channels on the electrode, where the microfluidic channels are covered with a membrane containing a gas permeable polymer. The distance between the electrode and the membrane is less than 500 micrometers. The microfluidic electrochemical reactor can provide for increased reaction rates in electrochemical reactions using a gaseous reactant, as compared to conventional electrochemical cells. Microfluidic electrochemical reactors can be incorporated into devices for applications such as fuel cells, electrochemical analysis, microfluidic actuation, pH gradient formation.

Nuzzo, Ralph G. (Champaign, IL); Mitrovski, Svetlana M. (Urbana, IL)

2011-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

68

Separator material for electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical cell is characterized as utilizing an aramid fiber as a separator material. The aramid fibers are especially suited for lithium/thionyl chloride battery systems. The battery separator made of aramid fibers possesses superior mechanical strength, chemical resistance, and is flame retardant.

Cieslak, W.R.; Storz, L.J.

1991-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

69

Separator material for electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical cell characterized as utilizing an aramid fiber as a separator material. The aramid fibers are especially suited for lithium/thionyl chloride battery systems. The battery separator made of aramid fibers possesses superior mechanical strength, chemical resistance, and is flame retardant. 1 tab.

Cieslak, W.R.; Storz, L.J.

1989-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

70

Separator material for electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical cell characterized as utilizing an aramid fiber as a separator material. The aramid fibers are especially suited for lithium/thionyl chloride battery systems. The battery separator made of aramid fibers possesses superior mechanical strength, chemical resistance, and is flame retardant.

Cieslak, Wendy R. (1166 Laurel Loop NE., Albuquerque, NM 87122); Storz, Leonard J. (2215 Ambassador NE., Albuquerque, NM 87112)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Unitized Design for Home Refueling Appliance for Hydrogen Generation to 5,000 psi - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2 2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report Timothy Norman (Primary Contact), Monjid Hamdan Giner, Inc. (formerly Giner Electrochemical Systems, LLC) 89 Rumford Avenue Newton, MA 02466 Phone: (781) 529-0556 Email: tnorman@ginerinc.com DOE Manager HQ: Eric L. Miller Phone: (202) 287-5829 Email: Eric.Miller@hq.doe.gov Contract Number: DE-SC0001486 Project Start Date: August 15, 2010 Project End Date: August 14, 2012 Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives Detail design and demonstrate subsystems for a unitized * electrolyzer system for residential refueling at 5,000 psi to meet DOE targets for a home refueling appliance (HRA) Fabricate and demonstrate unitized 5,000 psi system * Identify and team with commercialization partner(s) * Technical Barriers

72

Mediated electrochemical oxidation of organic wastes using a Co (III) mediator in a nitric acid based system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical cell with a Co(III) mediator and nitric acid electrolyte provides efficient destruction of organic and mixed wastes. The organic waste is concentrated in the anolyte reservoir, where the mediator oxidizes the organics and insoluble transuranic compounds and is regenerated at the anode until the organics are converted to CO.sub.2. The nitric acid is an excellent oxidant that facilitates the destruction of the organic components. The anode is not readily attacked by the nitric acid solution, thus the cell can be used for extended continual operation without electrode replacement.

Balazs, G. Bryan (Livermore, CA); Chiba, Zoher (Moraga, CA); Lewis, Patricia R. (Livermore, CA); Nelson, Norvell (Palo Alto, CA); Steward, G. Anthony (Los Altos Hills, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Mediated electrochemical oxidation of organic wastes using a Co (III) mediator in a nitric acid based system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical cell with a Co(III) mediator and nitric acid electrolyte provides efficient destruction of organic and mixed wastes. The organic waste is concentrated in the anolyte reservoir, where the mediator oxidizes the organics and insoluble transuranic compounds and is regenerated at the anode until the organics are converted to CO[sub 2]. The nitric acid is an excellent oxidant that facilitates the destruction of the organic components. The anode is not readily attacked by the nitric acid solution, thus the cell can be used for extended continual operation without electrode replacement. 2 figs.

Balazs, G.B.; Chiba, Z.; Lewis, P.R.; Nelson, N.; Steward, G.A.

1999-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

74

Electrochemical Performance of LiFeMnPO4  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Energy Storage: Materials, Systems, and Applications. Presentation Title, Electrochemical Performance of LiFeMnPO4: A Comparison of Synthesis...

75

Real Space Mapping of Oxygen Vacancy Diffusion and Electrochemical ...  

The electrochemical energy storage and conversion systems based on solid-gas and solid-liquid ... high energy and power density materials necessitates understanding ...

76

Real Space Mapping of Oxygen Vacancy Diffusion and Electrochemical ...  

Electrochemical energy storage and conversion systems based on solidgas ... energy and power-density materials necessitates understanding the nanoscale

77

Electrochemical methane sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and instrument including an electrochemical cell for the detection and measurement of methane in a gas by the oxidation of methane electrochemically at a working electrode in a nonaqueous electrolyte at a voltage about 1.4 volts vs R.H.E. (the reversible hydrogen electrode potential in the same electrolyte), and the measurement of the electrical signal resulting from the electrochemical oxidation.

Zaromb, S.; Otagawa, T.; Stetter, J.R.

1984-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

78

Characterizing electrocatalytic surfaces: Electrochemical and...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Characterizing electrocatalytic surfaces: Electrochemical and NMR studies of methanol and carbon monoxide on PtC Title Characterizing electrocatalytic surfaces: Electrochemical...

79

Planar electrochemical device assembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pre-fabricated electrochemical device having a dense electrolyte disposed between an anode and a cathode preferably deposited as thin films is bonded to a porous electrically conductive support. A second porous electrically conductive support may be bonded to a counter electrode of the electrochemical device. Multiple electrochemical devices may be bonded in parallel to a single porous support, such as a perforated sheet to provide a planar array. Planar arrays may be arranged in a stacked interconnected array. A method of making a supported electrochemical device is disclosed wherein the method includes a step of bonding a pre-fabricated electrochemical device layer to an existing porous metal or porous metal alloy layer.

Jacobson; Craig P. (Lafayette, CA), Visco; Steven J. (Berkeley, CA), De Jonghe; Lutgard C. (Lafayette, CA)

2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

80

Planar electrochemical device assembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pre-fabricated electrochemical device having a dense electrolyte disposed between an anode and a cathode preferably deposited as thin films is bonded to a porous electrically conductive support. A second porous electrically conductive support may be bonded to a counter electrode of the electrochemical device. Multiple electrochemical devices may be bonded in parallel to a single porous support, such as a perforated sheet to provide a planar array. Planar arrays may be arranged in a stacked interconnected array. A method of making a supported electrochemical device is disclosed wherein the method includes a step of bonding a pre-fabricated electrochemical device layer to an existing porous metal or porous metal alloy layer.

Jacobson, Craig P. (Lafayette, CA); Visco, Steven J. (Berkeley, CA); De Jonghe, Lutgard C. (Lafayette, CA)

2007-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "giner electrochemical systems" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

HIGH TEMPERATURE REMOVAL OF H{sub 2}S FROM COAL GASIFICATION PROCESS STREAMS USING AN ELECTROCHEMICAL MEMBRANE SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

A bench scale set-up was constructed to test the cell performance at 600-700 C and 1 atm. The typical fuel stream inlet proportions were 34% CO, 22% CO{sub 2}, 35% H{sub 2}, 8% H{sub 2}O, and 450-2000 ppm H{sub 2}S. The fundamental transport restrictions for sulfur species in an electrochemical cell were examined. Temperature and membrane thickness were varied to examine how these parameters affect the maximum flux of H{sub 2}S removal. It was found that higher temperature allows more sulfide species to enter the electrolyte, thus increasing the sulfide flux across the membrane and raising the maximum flux of H{sub 2}S removal. The results identify sulfide diffusion across the membrane as the rate-limiting step in H{sub 2}S removal. The maximum H{sub 2}S removal flux of 1.1 x 10-6 gmol H{sub 2}S min{sup -1} cm{sup -2} (or 3.5 mA cm{sup -2}) was obtained at 650 C, with a membrane that was 0.9 mm thick, 36% porous, and had an estimated tortuosity of 3.6. Another focus of this thesis was to examine the stability of cathode materials in full cell trials. A major hurdle that remains in process scale-up is cathode selection, as the lifetime of the cell will depend heavily on the lifetime of the cathode material, which is exposed to very sour gas. Materials that showed success in the past (i.e. cobalt sulfides and Y{sub 0.9}Ca{sub 0.1}FeO{sub 3}) were examined but were seen to have limitations in operating environment and temperature. Therefore, other novel metal oxide compounds were studied to find possible candidates for full cell trials. Gd{sub 2}TiMoO{sub 7} and La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}VO{sub 3} were the compounds that retained their structure best even when exposed to high H{sub 2}S, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O concentrations.

Jack Winnick; Meilin Liu

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Nanoelectrode array for electrochemical analysis  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nanoelectrode array comprises a plurality of nanoelectrodes wherein the geometric dimensions of the electrode controls the electrochemical response, and the current density is independent of time. By combining a massive array of nanoelectrodes in parallel, the current signal can be amplified while still retaining the beneficial geometric advantages of nanoelectrodes. Such nanoelectrode arrays can be used in a sensor system for rapid, non-contaminating field analysis. For example, an array of suitably functionalized nanoelectrodes can be incorporated into a small, integrated sensor system that can identify many species rapidly and simultaneously under field conditions in high-resistivity water, without the need for chemical addition to increase conductivity.

Yelton, William G. (Sandia Park, NM); Siegal, Michael P. (Albuquerque, NM)

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Handbook of Electrochemical Nanotechnology  

SciTech Connect

This 2-volume handbook provides an overview of recent advances in the field of electrochemical nanotechnology. It will be of great interst to graduate students, scientists, and engineering professionals whose research is at the interface of electrochemistry and nanotechnology.

Lin, Yuehe; Nalwa, H. S.

2009-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

84

Gerald S. Frankel1 Electrochemical Techniques in Corrosion: Status,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of electrochemical methods. Interested readers are referred to other works. Instead, the focus tank holding liquid radio- active waste at the Hanford Site 30 . A probe made from a thick. For a system such as Fe in sulfuric acid, all of the electrochemical techniques work quite well

85

Available Technologies: Electrochemical Environmental Cell ...  

Electrochemical Environmental Cell with Vertical, Aligned Electrodes for TEM IB-3330. ... Energy storage device / battery research and development;

86

Argonne Chemical Sciences & Engineering - Facilities - Electrochemical  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electrochemical Analysis and Diagnostics Laboratory Electrochemical Analysis and Diagnostics Laboratory Panagiotis Prezas Argonne researcher Panagiotis Prezas prepares lithium-ion cells for evaluation. At the EADL, researchers can test everything from a quarter-sized coin cell to an 800-kilogram automotive battery pack. The Electrochemical Analysis and Diagnostics Laboratory (EADL) provides battery and fuel cell developers with reliable, independent, and unbiased performance evaluations of their cells, modules, and battery packs. These evaluations have been performed for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), government and industry consortia, and industrial developers to provide insight into the factors that limit the performance and life of advanced battery systems. Such evaluations help battery developers and DOE

87

State of zincate in supersaturated solutions obtained during the discharging of a nickel-zinc electrochemical system  

SciTech Connect

This article examines the ultraviolet (UV) spectra of supersaturated zincate solutions obtained as a result of the discharging of the nickel-zinc system during their aging. A disadvantage of the nickel-zinc storage battery is its relatively short service life due to the instability of the zinc electrode. This instability is caused by the tendency of the zincate solution to become supersaturated. The UV spectra of the supersaturated zincate solutions obtained in the silver-zinc and nickel-zinc systems show significant absorption at 240 nm and strong absorption at 280 nm. The strong absorption at 280 nm in the supersaturated zincate solutions corresponds to the weak absorption in the solution obtained by ordinary dissolution. It is suggested that the stability of supersaturated zincate solutions may be increased by the formation of additional bridging bonds, which link the individual molecules of their aggregates to form a three-dimensional structure.

Smitrenko, V.E.; Baulov, V.I.; Kotov, A.V.; Zubov, M.S.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Electrochemical Membrane Incinerator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Electrochemical incineration of benzoquinone was evaluated as a model for the mineralization of carbon in toxic aromatic compounds. A Ti or Pt anode was coated with a film of the oxides of Ti, Ru, Sn and Sb. This quaternary metal oxide film was stable; elemental analysis of the electrolyzed solution indicated the concentration of these metal ions to be 3 {micro}g/L or less. The anode showed good reactivity for the electrochemical incineration of benzoquinone. The use of a dissolved salt matrix as the so-called ''supporting electrolyte'' was eliminated in favor of a solid-state electrolyte sandwiched between the anode and cathode.

Johnson, Dennis C.; Houk, Linda L.; Feng, Jianren

1998-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

89

Electrochemical micro sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A micro-amperometric electrochemical sensor for detecting the presence of a pre-determined species in a fluid material is disclosed. The sensor includes a smooth substrate having a thin coating of solid electrolytic material deposited thereon. The working and counter electrodes are deposited on the surface of the solid electrolytic material and adhere thereto. Electrical leads connect the working and counter electrodes to a potential source and an apparatus for measuring the change in an electrical signal caused by the electrochemical oxidation or reduction of the species. Alternatively, the sensor may be fabricated in a sandwich structure and also may be cylindrical, spherical or other shapes.

Setter, Joseph R. (Naperville, IL); Maclay, G. Jordan (Maywood, IL)

1989-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

90

Electrochemical membrane incinerator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Electrochemical incineration of p-benzoquinone was evaluated as a model for the mineralization of carbon in toxic aromatic compounds. A Ti or Pt anode was coated with a film of the oxides of Ti, Ru, Sn and Sb. This quaternary metal oxide film was stable; elemental analysis of the electrolyzed solution indicated the concentration of these metal ions to be 3 .mu.g/L or less. The anode showed good reactivity for the electrochemical incineration of benzoquinone. The use of a dissolved salt matrix as the so-called "supporting electrolyte" was eliminated in favor of a solid-state electrolyte sandwiched between the anode and cathode.

Johnson, Dennis C. (Ames, IA); Houk, Linda L. (Ames, IA); Feng, Jianren (Ames, IA)

2001-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

91

The application of solid-state NMR spectroscopy to electrochemical systems: CO adsorption on Pt electrocatalysts at the aqueous-electrode interface  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A fuel cell is an electrochemical energy conversion device, the continuous-flow analogue of the popular electrochemical storage device known as the battery. While the potential of fuel cells as power sources was recognized well over a century ago, they have since found limited application; a myriad of chemical, engineering and materials issues can be cited for this disappointing showing. Recent growing concern over the fate of the environment, however, has helped to renew interest in fuel cell research. This paper describes the methanol fuel cell and catalytic problems associated with the anode. On this task, the adsorption of carbon monoxide on platinum has been investigated.

Yahnke, M.S.; Reimer, J.A.; Cairns, E.J.

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Characterization of high performance electrochemical systems for portable power. Final report for period September 15, 1993 - December 31, 2001  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The long-term objective of research has been to perform the enabling materials research necessary for the development of a battery oriented to the consumer market with special requirements in terms of safety, cycling life, and high specific energy and power. We have discovered novel processing of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} gels that leads to aerogel (ARG) and xerogel (XRG) films with specific energy and Li insertion capacity that are much higher than for other amorphous or crystalline forms of V{sub 2}O{sub 5}. We have also found that the new materials will host Mg{sup +2} and other cations which should be the basis for novel high-energy, high-power consumer battery systems. The investigation has examined (1) low-temperature synthesis of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} aerogel host materials, (2) characterization of insertion of Mg{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, and Al{sup 3+} into the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} hosts, (3) anode materials for the new systems, and alternate anode materials to replace the intrinsically unsafe lithium metal for lithium batteries, and (4) the feasibility of safer, nonaqueous, high-performance battery designs.

Smyrl, W.H.; Owens, B.B.

2002-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

93

Electrochemical Energy Storage for the Grid | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Electrochemical Energy Storage for the Grid Electrochemical Energy Storage for the Grid Electrochemical Energy Storage for the Grid Electrochemical Energy Storage for the Grid More...

94

Chemical and electrochemical behavior of the Cr(III)/Cr(II) half cell in the NASA Redox Energy Storage System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Cr(III) complexes in the NASA Redox Energy Storage System have been isolated and identified as Cr(H/sub 2/O)/sub 6//sup +3/ and Cr(H/sub 2/O)/sub 5/Cl/sup +2/ by ion-exchange chromatography and visible spectrophotometry. The cell reactions during charge-discharge cycles have been followed by means of visible spectrophotometry. The spectral bands were resolved into component peaks and concentrations calculated using Beer's Law. During the charge mode Cr(H/sub 2/O)/sub 5/Cl/sup +2/ is reduced to Cr(H/sub 2/O)/sub 5/Cl/sup +/ and during the discharge mode Cr(H/sub 2/O)/sub 5/Cl/sup +/ is oxidized back to Cr(H/sub 2/O)/sub 5/Cl/sup +2/. Both electrode reactions occur via a chloride-bridge inner-sphere reaction pathway. Hysteresis effects can be explained by the slow attainment of equilibrium between Cr(H/sub 2/O)/sub 6//sup +3/ and Cr(H/sub 2/O)/sub 5/Cl/sup +2/.

Johnson, D.A.; Reid, M.A.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Metallic and bimetallic catalysts for electrochemical reduction of problematic aqueous anions.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Metallic and bimetallic systems are investigated voltammetrically as possible catalysts for the electrochemical reduction of nitrate. Iindium and palladium are the most thoroughly examined metals (more)

Mahle, Thomas

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Techniques for Battery Health Conscious Power Management via Electrochemical Modeling and Optimal Control.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This dissertation combines electrochemical battery models and optimal control theory to study power management in energy storage/conversion systems. This topic is motivated by the need (more)

Moura, Scott J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Electrochemical cell operation and system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Thermal control in fuel cell operation is affected through sensible heat of process gas by providing common input manifolding of the cell gas flow passage in communication with the cell electrolyte and an additional gas flow passage which is isolated from the cell electrolyte and in thermal communication with a heat-generating surface of the cell. Flow level in the cell gas flow passage is selected based on desired output electrical energy and flow level in the additional gas flow passage is selected in accordance with desired cell operating temperature.

Maru, Hansraj C. (Brookfield Center, CT)

1980-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

98

Remote electrochemical sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical sensor for remote detection, particularly useful for metal contaminants and organic or other compounds. The sensor circumvents technical difficulties that previously prevented in-situ remote operations. The microelectrode, connected to a long communications cable, allows convenient measurements of the element or compound at timed and frequent intervals and instrument/sample distances of ten feet to more than 100 feet. The sensor is useful for both downhole groundwater monitoring and in-situ water (e.g., shipboard seawater) analysis.

Wang, Joseph (Las Cruces, NM); Olsen, Khris (Richland, WA); Larson, David (Las Cruces, NM)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Electrochemical Apparatus with Disposable and Modifiable Parts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electrochemical Apparatus with Disposable and Modifiable Parts Electrochemical Apparatus with Disposable and Modifiable Parts Electrochemical Apparatus with Disposable and Modifiable Parts The invention also includes electrochemical apparatus that can interface with optical instrumentation. If the working electrode is transparent, light from an optical fiber may be directed through the working electrode and into a cuvette. July 3, 2013 Electrochemical Apparatus with Disposable and Modifiable Parts Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Electrochemical Apparatus with Disposable and Modifiable Parts Applications: Electrochemical experiments in solution Electrochemical experiments on surfaces Bulk electrolysis experiments Fuel cells Corrosion studies Academic Labs Teaching and research Benefits: Incorporates disposable, commercially available cuvettes

100

Asymptotic analysis of extreme electrochemical transport  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the study of electrochemical transport processes, experimental exploration currently outpaces theoretical understanding of new phenomena. Classical electrochemical transport theory is not equipped to explain the behavior ...

Chu, Kevin Taylor

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "giner electrochemical systems" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Electrochemical thinning of silicon  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Porous semiconducting material, e.g. silicon, is formed by electrochemical treatment of a specimen in hydrofluoric acid, using the specimen as anode. Before the treatment, the specimen can be masked. The porous material is then etched with a caustic solution or is oxidized, depending of the kind of structure desired, e.g. a thinned specimen, a specimen, a patterned thinned specimen, a specimen with insulated electrical conduits, and so on. Thinned silicon specimen can be subjected to tests, such as measurement of interstitial oxygen by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR). 14 figures.

Medernach, J.W.

1994-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

102

Remote electrochemical sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical sensor is described for remote detection, particularly useful for metal contaminants and organic or other compounds. The sensor circumvents technical difficulties that previously prevented in-situ remote operations. The microelectrode, connected to a long communications cable, allows convenient measurements of the element or compound at timed and frequent intervals and instrument/sample distances of ten feet to more than 100 feet. The sensor is useful for both downhole groundwater monitoring and in-situ water (e.g., shipboard seawater) analysis. 21 figs.

Wang, J.; Olsen, K.; Larson, D.

1997-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

103

Electrochemical Capacitors for Utility Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electrochemical capacitors have over 100 times the energy density of conventional electrolytic capacitors, while retaining the high-power, high-life-cycle properties of conventional capacitors. This report presents a summary of the technical trends, commercialization status, and feasibility of electrochemical capacitor (ECC) technology in utility applications.

2005-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

104

Electrochemical photovoltaic cells and electrodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Improved electrochemical photovoltaic cells and electrodes for use therein, particularly electrodes employing amorphous silicon or polyacetylene coating are produced by a process which includes filling pinholes or porous openings in the coatings by electrochemical oxidation of selected monomers to deposit insulating polymer in the openings.

Skotheim, Terje A. (East Patchogue, NY)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Electrochemical sensor for monitoring electrochemical potentials of fuel cell components  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical sensor comprised of wires, a sheath, and a conduit can be utilized to monitor fuel cell component electric potentials during fuel cell shut down or steady state. The electrochemical sensor contacts an electrolyte reservoir plate such that the conduit wicks electrolyte through capillary action to the wires to provide water necessary for the electrolysis reaction which occurs thereon. A voltage is applied across the wires of the electrochemical sensor until hydrogen evolution occurs at the surface of one of the wires, thereby forming a hydrogen reference electrode. The voltage of the fuel cell component is then determined with relation to the hydrogen reference electrode.

Kunz, Harold R. (Vernon, CT); Breault, Richard D. (Coventry, CT)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Technology Base Research Project for electrochemical energy storage  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The US DOE's Office of Propulsion Systems provides support for an electrochemical energy storage program, which includes R D on advanced rechargeable batteries and fuel cells. A major goal of this program is to develop electrochemical power sources suitable for application in electric vehicles (EVs). The program centers on advanced systems that offer the potential for high performance and low life-cycle costs, both of which are necessary to permit significant penetration into commercial markets. The general R D areas addressed by the project include identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced batteries, determination of technical feasibility of the new couples, improvements in battery components and materials, establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage and conversion, and the development of air-system (fuel cell, metal/air) technology for transportation applications. Major emphasis is given to applied research which will lead to superior performance and lower life-cycle costs. The TBR Project is divided into three major project elements: Exploratory Research, Applied Science Research, and Air Systems Research. Highlights of each project element are summarized according to the appropriate battery system or electrochemical research area. 16 figs., 4 tabs.

Kinoshita, Kim (ed.)

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Technology Base Research Project for electrochemical energy storage  

SciTech Connect

The US DOE's Office of Propulsion Systems provides support for an electrochemical energy storage program, which includes R D on advanced rechargeable batteries and fuel cells. A major goal of this program is to develop electrochemical power sources suitable for application in electric vehicles (EVs). The program centers on advanced systems that offer the potential for high performance and low life-cycle costs, both of which are necessary to permit significant penetration into commercial markets. The general R D areas addressed by the project include identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced batteries, determination of technical feasibility of the new couples, improvements in battery components and materials, establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage and conversion, and the development of air-system (fuel cell, metal/air) technology for transportation applications. Major emphasis is given to applied research which will lead to superior performance and lower life-cycle costs. The TBR Project is divided into three major project elements: Exploratory Research, Applied Science Research, and Air Systems Research. Highlights of each project element are summarized according to the appropriate battery system or electrochemical research area. 16 figs., 4 tabs.

Kinoshita, Kim (ed.)

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Process for electrochemically gasifying coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is claimed for electrochemically gasifying coal by establishing a flowing stream of coal particulate slurry, electrolyte and electrode members through a transverse magnetic field that has sufficient strength to polarize the electrode members, thereby causing them to operate in combination with the electrolyte to electrochemically reduce the coal particulate in the slurry. Such electrochemical reduction of the coal produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide at opposite ends of the polarized electrode members. Gas collection means are operated in conjunction with the process to collect the evolved gases as they rise from the slurry and electrolyte solution. 7 figs.

Botts, T.E.; Powell, J.R.

1985-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

109

Renewable-reagent electrochemical sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new electrochemical probe(s) design allowing for continuous (renewable) reagent delivery. The probe comprises an integrated membrane-sampling/electrochemical sensor that prevents interferences from surface-active materials and greatly extends the linear range. The probe(s) is useful for remote or laboratory-based monitoring in connection with microdialysis sampling and electrochemical measurements of metals and organic compounds that are not readily detected in the absence of reacting with the compound. Also disclosed is a method of using the probe(s).

Wang, Joseph (Las Cruces, NM); Olsen, Khris B. (Richland, WA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Renewable-reagent electrochemical sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new electrochemical probe(s) design allowing for continuous (renewable) reagent delivery is described. The probe comprises an integrated membrane sampling/electrochemical sensor that prevents interferences from surface-active materials and greatly extends the linear range. The probe(s) is useful for remote or laboratory-based monitoring in connection with microdialysis sampling and electrochemical measurements of metals and organic compounds that are not readily detected in the absence of reacting with the compound. Also disclosed is a method of using the probe(s). 19 figs.

Wang, J.; Olsen, K.B.

1999-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

111

Electrochemical catalyst recovery method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of recovering catalyst material from latent catalyst material solids includes: a) combining latent catalyst material solids with a liquid acid anolyte solution and a redox material which is soluble in the acid anolyte solution to form a mixture; b) electrochemically oxidizing the redox material within the mixture into a dissolved oxidant, the oxidant having a potential for oxidation which is effectively higher than that of the latent catalyst material; c) reacting the oxidant with the latent catalyst material to oxidize the latent catalyst material into at least one oxidized catalyst species which is soluble within the mixture and to reduce the oxidant back into dissolved redox material; and d) recovering catalyst material from the oxidized catalyst species of the mixture. The invention is expected to be particularly useful in recovering spent catalyst material from petroleum hydroprocessing reaction waste products having adhered sulfides, carbon, hydrocarbons, and undesired metals, and as well as in other industrial applications.

Silva, Laura J. (Richland, WA); Bray, Lane A. (Richland, WA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Electrochemical Hydrogen Compression (EHC)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electrochemical Hydrogen Compression (EHC) Pinakin Patel and Ludwig Lipp Presentation at DOE Hydrogen Compression, Storage and Dispensing Workshop at ANL Argonne, IL March 20, 2013 2 * Experience with all fuel cells - MCFC, SOFC, PEM, PAFC, etc. * Excellent progress in commercialization of MCFC technology (>300 MW installed + backlog, >50 MW per year production rate, 11 MW single site unit in Korea, >1.5 billion kWh produced) * Unique internal reforming technology for high efficiency fuel cells FCE Overview $- $2,000 $4,000 $6,000 $8,000 $10,000 2003 2007 2011 mid-term Product cost per kW 3 H 2 Peak and Back- up Power Fuel Cell Cars DFC ® Power Plant (Electricity + Hydrogen) Solid State Hydrogen Separator (EHS) Solid State Hydrogen

113

Electrochemical catalyst recovery method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of recovering catalyst material from latent catalyst material solids includes: (a) combining latent catalyst material solids with a liquid acid anolyte solution and a redox material which is soluble in the acid anolyte solution to form a mixture; (b) electrochemically oxidizing the redox material within the mixture into a dissolved oxidant, the oxidant having a potential for oxidation which is effectively higher than that of the latent catalyst material; (c) reacting the oxidant with the latent catalyst material to oxidize the latent catalyst material into at least one oxidized catalyst species which is soluble within the mixture and to reduce the oxidant back into dissolved redox material; and (d) recovering catalyst material from the oxidized catalyst species of the mixture. The invention is expected to be particularly useful in recovering spent catalyst material from petroleum hydroprocessing reaction waste products having adhered sulfides, carbon, hydrocarbons, and undesired metals, and as well as in other industrial applications. 3 figs.

Silva, L.J.; Bray, L.A.

1995-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

114

Evaluation of SAFT America, Inc. electrochemical capacitors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The electrochemical capacitor devices described in this report were deliverables from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Contract No. 4606510 with SAFT America, Inc., as part of LBNL`s exploratory research program. Dr. Kimio Kinoshita is the Program Manager at LBNL. The contract was in support of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) exploratory electrochemical energy storage program which includes development projects for a wide variety of advanced high-energy/high-power energy storage systems for electric and hybrid vehicle programs. The DOE is currently developing various electrochemical capacitors as candidate power assist devices for the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) fast-response engine requirements. The LBNL contract with SAFT America, Inc., was intended to evaluate various activated carbon-based electrode formulations and develop an electrical model of the double-layer capacitor. The goal is to design and deliver prototypes meeting the DOE requirement of > 1,000 W/kg, 16 Wh/kg. Deliverables were sent to the INEEL EST laboratory for independent testing and evaluation. The following report describes performance testing on ten devices received September 2, 1996. Due to the initial performance of these early devices, life-cycle testing was not conducted. Additional devices, with improved performance, are expected to be tested. Future results will be reported in a follow-on report.

Wright, R.B.; Murphy, T.C.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Application of photothermal deflection spectroscopy to electrochemical interfaces  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This dissertation discusses the theory and practice of Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy (PDS, which is also known as probe beam deflection spectroscopy, PBDS, probe deflection technique, and mirage effect spectroscopy) with respect to electrochemical systems. Much of the discussion is also relevant to non-electrochemical systems. PDS can measure the optical absorption spectrum of interfaces and concentration gradients in the electrolyte adjacent to the electrode. These measurements can be made on a wide variety of electrode surfaces and can be performed under dynamic conditions. The first three chapters discuss the theory of the phenomena that can be detected by PDS, and the equipment used in a PDS system. A secondary gradient technique'' is proposed, which places the probe beam on the back of an electrode. The results of a numerical model yield a method for determining the offset of the probe beam from the electrode surface based on the frequency response of the PDS signal. The origin and control of noise in the PDS signal are discussed. A majority of the signal noise appears to be acoustic in origin. The electrochemical oxidation of platinum is used to demonstrate that PDS has sub-monolayer sensitivity necessary to study interfacial chemistry. The results allow us to propose a two-reaction oxidation mechanism: the platinum is electrochemically oxidized to form platinum dihydroxide and dehydrated by a non-electrochemical second-order reaction. The final chapter discusses the relation of PDS to similar and competing techniques, and considers possibilities for the future of the technique.

Rudnicki, J.D.; McLarnon, F.R.; Cairns, E.J.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Application of photothermal deflection spectroscopy to electrochemical interfaces  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This dissertation discusses the theory and practice of Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy (PDS, which is also known as probe beam deflection spectroscopy, PBDS, probe deflection technique, and mirage effect spectroscopy) with respect to electrochemical systems. Much of the discussion is also relevant to non-electrochemical systems. PDS can measure the optical absorption spectrum of interfaces and concentration gradients in the electrolyte adjacent to the electrode. These measurements can be made on a wide variety of electrode surfaces and can be performed under dynamic conditions. The first three chapters discuss the theory of the phenomena that can be detected by PDS, and the equipment used in a PDS system. A ``secondary gradient technique`` is proposed, which places the probe beam on the back of an electrode. The results of a numerical model yield a method for determining the offset of the probe beam from the electrode surface based on the frequency response of the PDS signal. The origin and control of noise in the PDS signal are discussed. A majority of the signal noise appears to be acoustic in origin. The electrochemical oxidation of platinum is used to demonstrate that PDS has sub-monolayer sensitivity necessary to study interfacial chemistry. The results allow us to propose a two-reaction oxidation mechanism: the platinum is electrochemically oxidized to form platinum dihydroxide and dehydrated by a non-electrochemical second-order reaction. The final chapter discusses the relation of PDS to similar and competing techniques, and considers possibilities for the future of the technique.

Rudnicki, J.D.; McLarnon, F.R.; Cairns, E.J.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Wick-and-pool electrodes for electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrode system includes a reservoir of liquid-metal reactant, and a wick extending from a submersed location within the reservoir into the molten electrolyte of an electrochemical cell structure. The wick is flooded with the liquid metal and thereby serves as one electrode within the cell. This electrode system has application in high-temperature batteries employing molten alkali metals or their alloys as active material within an electrode submersed within a molten salt electrolyte. It also can be used in electrochemical cells where the purification, separation or electrowinning of liquid metals is accomplished.

Roche, Michael F. (Downers Grove, IL); Faist, Suzan M. (Haddonfield, NJ); Eberhart, James G. (Naperville, IL); Ross, Laurids E. (Naperville, IL)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Wick-and-pool electrodes for electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrode system includes a reservoir of liquid-metal reactant, and a wick extending from a submersed location within the reservoir into the molten electrolyte of an electrochemical cell structure. The wick is flooded with the liquid metal and thereby serves as one electrode within the cell. This electrode system has application in high-temperature batteries employing molten alkali metals or their alloys as active material within an electrode submersed within a molten salt electrolyte. It also can be used in electrochemical cells where the purification, separation or electrowinning of liquid metals is accomplished.

Roche, Michael F. (Downers Grove, IL); Faist, Suzan M. (Norwood, NJ); Eberhart, James G. (Naperville, IL); Ross, Laurids E. (Naperville, IL)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Electrochemical Grafting of Naphthylmethyl Radicals to Epitaxial Graphene: A Versatile Platform to Reversibly Engineer the Band Structure and Transport Properties of Graphene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Kolbe electrochemical oxidation strategy has been utilized to achieve an efficient quasireversible electrochemical grafting of the alpha-naphthylmethyl functional group to graphene. The method facilitates reversible bandgap engineering in graphene and preparation of electrochemically erasable organic dielectric films. The picture shows Raman D-band maps of both systems.

Sarkar, Santanu; Haddon, Robert C

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Zelenay wins Electrochemical Society's Research Award  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electrochemical Society's Research Award Electrochemical Society's Research Award Zelenay wins Electrochemical Society's Research Award The award includes a monetary prize and membership in the Electrochemical Society's Energy Technology Division. December 11, 2012 Piotr Zelenay Piotr Zelenay The award recognizes Zelenay's "outstanding and original contributions to the science and technology of energy-related research areas that include scientific and technological aspects of fossil fuels and alternative energy sources, energy management and environmental consequences of energy utilization." Piotr Zelenay of LANL's Sensors and Electrochemical Devices group has won the 2012 Research Award presented by the Energy Technology Division of The Electrochemical Society. The award recognizes Zelenay's "outstanding

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "giner electrochemical systems" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Electrochemical polishing of notches  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method are disclosed for the selective electrochemical polishing of a lateral tip of a deep longitudinal notch in a work piece used to test crack initiation properties of materials. A DC power source is connected to the work piece and to an electrode disposed laterally along the distal end of an insulated body which is inserted in the longitudinal notch. The electrode and distal end of the body are disposed along the tip of the notch, but are spaced from the notch so as to provide a lateral passage for an electrolyte. The electrolyte is circulated through the passage so that the electrolyte only contacts the work piece adjacent the passage. Conveniently, the electrolyte is circulated by use of an inlet tube and an outlet tube provided at opposite ends of the passage. These tubes are preferably detachably located adjacent the ends of the passage and suitable seals are provided. A holding device including arms to which the tubes are attached is conveniently used to rapidly and easily locate the test specimen with the passage aligned with the tubes. The electrode is preferably a wire which is located in grooves along the distal end of the insulated body and up one side of the body or a plastic sheath insulated thin metal strip. 4 figs.

Kephart, A.R.; Alberts, A.H.

1989-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

122

Development of an electrochemical hydrogen separator  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The EHS is an electrochemical hydrogen separator based on the uniquely reversible nature of hydrogen oxidation-reduction reactions in electrochemical systems. The principle and the hardware concept are shown in Figure 1. Hydrogen from the mixed gas stream is oxidized to H{sup +} ions, transported through a cation transport electrolyte membrane (matrix) under an applied electric field and discharged in a pure hydrogen state on the cathode. The cation transfer electrolyte membrane provides a barrier between the feed and product gases. The EHS design is an offshoot of phosphoric acid fuel cell development. Although any proton transfer electrolyte can be used, the phosphoric acid based system offers a unique advantage because its operating temperature of {approximately}200{degree}C makes it tolerant to trace CO and also closely matches the water-shift reactor exit gas temperature ({approximately}250{degree}C). Hydrogen-containing streams in coal gasification systems have large carbon monoxide contents. For efficient hydrogen recovery, most of the CO must be converted to hydrogen by the low temperature water-shift reaction (Figure 2). Advanced coal gasification and gas separation technologies offer an important pathway to the clean utilization of coal resources.

Abens, S.; Fruchtman, J.; Kush, A.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Argonne Chemical Sciences & Engineering -Electrochemical Energy...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Events Search Argonne ... Search Argonne Home > Chemical Sciences & Engineering > Battery Testing * Members * Contact * Publications * Overview * EADL EES Home Electrochemical...

124

Battery Materials and Electrochemical Processes I - Programmaster ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 4, 2013 ... Mesoscale Computational Materials Science of Energy Materials: Battery Materials and Electrochemical Processes I Sponsored by: TMS...

125

Electrochemical Shock of Lithium Battery Materials - Programmaster ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Mesoscale Computational Materials Science of Energy Materials. Presentation Title, Electrochemical Shock of Lithium Battery Materials. Author(s)...

126

Argonne Chemical Sciences & Engineering - People - Electrochemical...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

News & Highlights Events Search Argonne ... Search Argonne Home > Chemical Sciences & Engineering > Fundamental Interactions Catalysis & Energy Conversion Electrochemical...

127

Results from Combined NMR and Electrochemical Impedance ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Oxygen-vacancy Transport in Heavily Doped Cubic Zirconia: Results from Combined NMR and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopies.

128

Electrochem Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Electrochem Inc Electrochem Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name Electrochem Inc Address 400 W. Cummings Park Place Woburn, Massachusetts Zip 01801 Sector Hydrogen Product Fuel cell hardware and testing equipment Website http://fuelcell.com/ Coordinates 42.4964246°, -71.1263367° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":42.4964246,"lon":-71.1263367,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

129

Microstructure Change of SOFC Anode Caused by Electrochemical Redox Cycles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Power Systems. All Rights Reserved. 2 Contents Manufacturing development dependencies SOFC elements Reserved. 6 SOFC Elements: Independent of Construction Need to create and join the electrochemical Rights Reserved. 7 SOFC Stack Elements Fuel cell ­ Electrolyte, cathode, anode Interconnects ­ Deliver

Tokyo, University of

130

Electrochemical measurements on lightweight composite nickel-graphite battery electrodes  

SciTech Connect

Graphite mat fibers and nickel metal composite electrodes are superior to sintered carbonyl-nickel powder electrodes in nickel-cadmium cells. The composite electrode functions as a thin electrode and can be utilized in nickel-cadmium, nickel-iron, nickel-zinc, and nickel-hydrogen electrochemical systems. 4 refs.

Sutula, R.A.; Crowe, C.R.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Regenerative Fuel Cells for Energy Storage  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

11 1 Regenerative Fuel Cells for Energy Storage April 2011 Corky Mittelsteadt April 2011 2 Outline 1. Regenerative Fuel Cells at Giner 2. Regenerative Systems for Energy Storage 1....

132

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program: 2005 Annual Progress Report...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

129 KB) Novel, Low-cost Solid Membrane Water Electrolyzer (Phase II Project), John A. Kosek, Giner, Inc. (PDF 149 KB) Complex Coolant Fluid for PEM Fuel Cell Systems, Satish C....

133

ELECTROCHEMICAL POWER FOR TRANSPORTATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Air High-Temperature Cells Molten Salt Electrolytes Solidelectrolytes, either molten salts or ionically conductivereactants. A family of molten-salt electrolyte systems that

Cairns, Elton J.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Exploratory Technology Research Program for electrochemical energy storage. Annual report fr 1994  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy`s Office of Propulsion Systems provides support for an Electrochemical Energy Storage Program, that includes research and development (R&D) on advanced rechargeable batteries and fuel cells. A major goal of this program is to develop electrochemical power sources suitable for application in electric vehicles (EVs). The program centers on advanced systems that offer the potential for high performance and low life-cycle costs, both of which are necessary to permit significant penetration into commercial markets. The DOE Electrochemical Energy Storage Program is divided into two projects: the Electric Vehicle Advanced Battery Systems (EVABS) Development Program and the Exploratory Technology Research (ETR) Program. The general R&D areas addressed by the program include identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced batteries, determination of technical feasibility of the new couples, improvements in battery components and materials, establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage and conversion, and the development of air-system (fuel cell, metal/air) technology for transportation applications. Major emphasis is given to applied research which will lead to superior performance and lower life-cycle costs. The ETR Program is divided into three major program elements: Exploratory Research, Applied Science Research, and Air Systems Research. Highlights of each program element are summarized according to the appropriate battery system or electrochemical research area.

Kinoshita, K. [ed.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Graphene-based Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage: Fuel cells, Supercapacitors and Lithium Ion Batteries  

SciTech Connect

Graphene has attracted extensive research interest due to its strictly 2-dimensional (2D) structure, which results in its unique electronic, thermal, mechanical, and chemical properties and potential technical applications. These remarkable characteristics of graphene, along with the inherent benefits of a carbon material, make it a promising candidate for application in electrochemical energy devices. This article reviews the methods of graphene preparation, introduces the unique electrochemical behavior of graphene, and summarizes the recent research and development on graphene-based fuel cells, supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries. In addition, promising areas are identified for the future development of graphene-based materials in electrochemical energy conversion and storage systems.

Hou, Junbo; Shao, Yuyan; Ellis, Michael A.; Moore, Robert; Yi, Baolian

2011-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

136

Electrochemical synthesis of multisegmented nanowires  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electrochemical deposition has emerged as a promising route for nanostructure fabrication in recent years due to the many inherent advantages it possesses. This study focuses on the synthesis of high-aspect-ratio multisegmented Au/Ni nanowires using template-directed sequential electrochemical deposition techniques. By selectively removing the Ni segments in the nanowires, high-yield of pure gold nanorods of predetermined lengths was obtained. Alternatively, the sacrificial Ni segments in the nanowires can be galvanically displaced with Bi and Te to form barbells structures with Bi{sub x}Te{sub y} nanotubes attached to neighbouring gold segments. Detailed studies on the nanostructures obtained were carried out using various microscopy, diffraction and probebased techniques for structural, morphological and chemical characterizations.

Kok, Kuan-Ying; Ng, Inn-Khuan; Saidin, Nur Ubaidah [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang (Malaysia)

2012-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

137

Solid state electrochemical current source  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cathode and a solid state electrochemical cell comprising said cathode, a solid anode and solid fluoride ion conducting electrolyte. The cathode comprises a metal oxide and a compound fluoride containing at least two metals with different valences. Representative compound fluorides include solid solutions of bismuth fluoride and potassium fluoride; and lead fluoride and potassium fluoride. Representative metal oxides include copper oxide, lead oxide, manganese oxide, vanadium oxide and silver oxide.

Potanin, Alexander Arkadyevich (Sarov, RU); Vedeneev, Nikolai Ivanovich (Sarov, RU)

2002-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

138

Cathode composition for electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high-temperature, secondary electrochemical cell includes a negative electrode containing an alkali metal such as lithium, an electrolyte of molten salt containing ions of that alkali metal and a positive electrode containing a mixture of metallic sulfides. The positive electrode composition is contained within a porous structure that permits permeation of molten electrolyte and includes a mixture of about 5% to 30% by weight Cu.sub.2 S in FeS.

Steunenberg, Robert K. (Naperville, IL); Martin, Allan E. (Woodridge, IL); Tomczuk, Zygmunt (Palos Hills, IL)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Compacted carbon for electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention provides compacted carbon that is useful in the electrode of an alkali metal/carbon electrochemical cell of improved capacity selected from the group consisting of: (a) coke having the following properties: (i) an x-ray density of at least 2.00 grams per cubic centimeters, (ii) a closed porosity of no greater than 5%, and (iii) an open porosity of no greater than 47%; and (b) graphite having the following properties: (i) an x-ray density of at least 2.20 grams per cubic centimeters, (ii) a closed porosity of no greater than 5%, and (iii) an open porosity of no greater than 25%. This invention also relates to an electrode for an alkali metal/carbon electrochemical cell comprising compacted carbon as described above and a binder. This invention further provides an alkali metal/carbon electrochemical cell comprising: (a) an electrode as described above, (b) a non-aqueous electrolytic solution comprising an organic aprotic solvent and an electrolytically conductive salt and an alkali metal, and (c) a counterelectrode.

Greinke, Ronald Alfred (Medina, OH); Lewis, Irwin Charles (Strongsville, OH)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Compacted carbon for electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention provides compacted carbon that is useful in the electrode of an alkali metal/carbon electrochemical cell of improved capacity selected from the group consisting of: (a) coke having the following properties: (1) an x-ray density of at least 2.00 grams per cubic centimeters, (2) a closed porosity of no greater than 5%, and (3) an open porosity of no greater than 47%; and (b) graphite having the following properties: (1) an x-ray density of at least 2.20 grams per cubic centimeters, (2) a closed porosity of no greater than 5%, and (3) an open porosity of no greater than 25%. This invention also relates to an electrode for an alkali metal/carbon electrochemical cell comprising compacted carbon as described above and a binder. This invention further provides an alkali metal/carbon electrochemical cell comprising: (a) an electrode as described above, (b) a non-aqueous electrolytic solution comprising an organic aprotic solvent and an electrolytically conductive salt and an alkali metal, and (c) a counter electrode. 10 figs.

Greinke, R.A.; Lewis, I.C.

1997-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "giner electrochemical systems" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Shock-activated electrochemical power supplies  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A shock-activated electrochemical power supply is provided which is initiated extremely rapidly and which has a long shelf life. Electrochemical power supplies of this invention are initiated much faster than conventional thermal batteries. Power supplies of this invention comprise an inactive electrolyte and means for generating a high-pressure shock wave such that the shock wave is propagated through the electrolytes rendering the electrolyte electrochemically active. 2 figs.

Benedick, W.B.; Graham, R.A.; Morosin, B.

1988-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

142

Electrochemical modeling of lithium polymer batteries.  

SciTech Connect

An electrochemical model for lithium polymer cells was developed and a parameter set for the model was measured using a series of laboratory experiments. Examples are supplied to demonstrate the capabilities of the electrochemical model to obtain the concentration, current, and potential distributions in lithium polymer cells under complex cycling protocols. The modeling results are used to identify processes that limit cell performance and for optimizing cell design. Extension of the electrochemical model to examine two-dimensional studies is also described.

Dees, D. W.; Battaglia, V. S.; Belanger, A.; Chemical Engineering; Inst. de recherche d' Hydro-Quebec

2002-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

143

Shock-activated electrochemical power supplies  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A shock-activated electrochemical power supply is provided which is initiated extremely rapidly and which has a long shelf life. Electrochemical power supplies of this invention are initiated much faster than conventional thermal batteries. Power supplies of this invention comprise an inactive electrolyte and means for generating a high-pressure shock wave such that the shock wave is propagated through the electrolytes rendering the electrolyte electrochemically active.

Benedick, William B. (Albuquerque, NM); Graham, Robert A. (Los Lunas, NM); Morosin, Bruno (Albuquerque, NM)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Shock-activated electrochemical power supplies  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A shock-activated electrochemical power supply is provided which is initiated extremely rapidly and which has a long shelf life. Electrochemical power supplies of this invention are initiated much faster than conventional thermal batteries. Power supplies of this invention comprise an inactive electrolyte and means for generating a high-pressure shock wave such that the shock wave is propagated through the electrolyte rendering the electrolyte electrochemically active. 2 figs.

Benedick, W.B.; Graham, R.A.; Morosin, B.

1987-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

145

Electrochemical Arsenic Remediation for Rural Bangladesh  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electrochemical Arsenic Remediation for Rural Bangladesh NOTICE Due to the current lapse of federal funding, Berkeley Lab websites are accessible, but may not be updated until...

146

Electrochemical device and process of making  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process of making an electrochemical device comprising providing a trilayer structure comprising an electrode/electrolyte/electrode and simultaneously sintering the trilayer structure.

Jacobson, Craig P. (Lafayette, CA); Visco, Steven J. (Berkeley, CA); De Jonghe, Lutgard C. (Lafayette, CA)

2004-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

147

Wide Electrochemical Window Solvents - Energy Innovation Portal  

Biomass and Biofuels; ... This solvent has such a wide electrochemical window and such powerful solvating properties that it is an excellent target solvent ...

148

Nanomaterial-Based Electrochemical Biosensors and Bioassays  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This book chapter summarizes the recent advance in nanomaterials for electrochemical biosensors and bioassays. Biofunctionalization of nanomaterials for biosensors fabrication and their biomedical applications are discussed.

Liu, Guodong; Mao, Xun; Gurung, Anant; Baloda, Meenu; Lin, Yuehe; He, Yuqing

2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

149

Fundamentals of Electrochemical Deposition, Second Edition - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jul 25, 2007 ... Fundamentals of Electrochemical Deposition, 2nd Edition by Milan Paunovic and Mordechay Schlesinger provides a ... This is not a handbook.

150

Electrochemical process for the preparation of nitrogen ...  

Electrochemical process for the preparation of nitrogen fertilizers United States Patent. Patent Number: 8,152,988: Issued: April 10, 2012: Official Filing:

151

Electrochemical Behavior of CIGS Electrodeposition for the ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Electrochemical Behavior of CIGS Electrodeposition for the Application of Photovoltaic Cell. Author(s), Hyunju Lee, Jae-Ho Lee, Yangdo Kim.

152

Thermal regeneration of an electrochemical concentration cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system and method are described for thermally regenerating an electrochemical concentration cell having first and second aluminum electrodes respectively positioned in contact with first and second electrolytes separated by an ion exchange member, the first and second electrolytes being composed of different concentrations of an ionic solvent and a salt, preferably an aluminum halide. The ionic solvent may be either organic or inorganic with a relatively low melting point, the ionic solvent and the salt form a complex wherein the free energy of formation of said complex is less than about -5 kcal/mole. A distillation column using solar heat or low grade industrial waste heat receives the first and second electrolytes and thermally decomposes the salt-solvent complex to provide feed material for the two half cells.

Krumpelt, M.; Bates, J.K.

1980-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

153

Cogeneration with Thermionics and Electrochemical Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermionic energy converters convert high-temperature heat into high-current low-voltage direct current, rejecting heat at a temperature that is high enough to generate process steam. Electrochemical cells are high-current low-voltage devices, which are ideally suited for coupling to the output of the thermionic converters. A test is under way in which an array of thermionic converters is coupled to a industrial heater. The array will be tested to yield thermionic performance data. These data will be used in the design of a thermionic cogeneration system specifically applied to the chlorine caustic soda industry. A full-scale cogeneration installation of this type is expected to produce about 12 kilowatts of direct current power for each million Btu fired.

Miskolczy, G.; Goodale, D.; Huffman, F.; Morgan, D.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Argonne Chemical Sciences & Engineering - People - Electrochemical Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electrochemical Analysis and Diagnostics Laboratory Electrochemical Analysis and Diagnostics Laboratory Ira Bloom, Inorganic Chemist and Manager/Group Leader phone 630/252-4516, fax: 630/252-4176, e-mail: ira.bloom@anl.gov Ph.D., Inorganic Chemistry, University of Chicago Battery and fuel cell evaluation and testing Javier Bareño, Assistant Materials Scientist (630) 252-5856, fax: 630/972-4528, e-mail: bareno@anl.gov John K. Basco, Engineering Specialist Sr. phone: 630/252-7627, fax: 630/252-4418, e-mail: jkbasco@anl.gov Testing and evaluation of advanced battery systems Testing and evaluation of advanced hydrogen fuel cell systems Panos D. Prezas, Engineering Specialist phone: 630/252-3360, fax: 630/972-4422, e-mail: Prezas@anl.gov BS, Electrical Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology Battery and fuel cell analysis for HEV/PHEV applications

155

Carbon microstructures for electrochemical studies  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thin layers of photoresist were spin coated onto silicon wafers, and then carbonized to form smooth carbon films by heating in nitrogen for 1 hour at temperatures between 600 to 1100 C. Well-defined carbon microstructures on Si wafers that are being considered for electrodes in a microbattery concept were obtained by additional processing steps involving patterning and lithography of the photoresist prior to carbonization. The status of the fabrication of carbon microelectrodes obtained by pyrolysis of photoresist, characterization of the carbons by surface-sensitive techniques and electrochemical analysis by cyclic voltammetry of the I{sup -}/I{sub 3}{sup -} redox reaction is described.

Kostecki, Robert; Song, Xiang Yun; Kinoshita, Kim

2001-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

156

Material protection, control and accounting cooperation at the Urals Electrochemical Integrated Plant (UEIP), Novouralsk, Russia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Urals Electrochemical Integrated Plant is one of the Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy`s nuclear material production sites participating in the US Department of Energy`s Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program. The Urals Electrochemical Integrated Plant is Russia`s largest uranium enrichment facility and blends tons of high-enriched uranium into low enriched uranium each year as part of the US high-enriched uranium purchase. The Electrochemical Integrated Plant and six participating national laboratories are cooperating to implement a series of enhancements to the nuclear material protection, control, and accountability systems at the site This paper outlines the overall objectives of the MPC&A program at Urals Electrochemical Integrated Plant and the work completed as of the date of the presentation.

McAllister, S., LLNL

1998-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

157

Development and demonstration of advanced technologies for direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons (methanol, methane, propane)  

SciTech Connect

Direct methanol fuel cells use methanol directly as a fuel, rather than the reformate typically required by fuel cells, thus eliminating the reformer and fuel processing train. In this program, Giner, Inc. advanced development of two types of direct methanol fuel cells for military applications. Advancements in direct methanol proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (DMPEMFC) technology included developement of a Pt-Ru anode catalyst and an associated electrode structure which provided some of the highest DMPEMFC performance reported to date. Scale-up from a laboratory-scale single cell to a 5-cell stack of practical area, providing over 100 W of power, was also demonstrated. Stable stack performance was achieved in over 300 hours of daily on/off cycling. Direct methanol aqueous carbonate fuel cells were also advanced with development of an anode catalyst and successful operation at decreased pressure. Improved materials for the cell separator/matrix and the hardware were also identified.

Kosek, J.A.; LaConti, A.B.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Buffered Electrochemical Polishing of Niobium  

SciTech Connect

The standard preparation of superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities made of pure niobium include the removal of a 'damaged' surface layer, by buffered chemical polishing (BCP) or electropolishing (EP), after the cavities are formed. The performance of the cavities is characterized by a sharp degradation of the quality factor when the surface magnetic field exceeds about 90 mT, a phenomenon referred to as 'Q-drop'. In cavities made of polycrystalline fine grain (ASTM 5) niobium, the Q-drop can be significantly reduced by a low-temperature ({approx} 120 C) 'in-situ' baking of the cavity if the chemical treatment was EP rather than BCP. As part of the effort to understand this phenomenon, we investigated the effect of introducing a polarization potential during buffered chemical polishing, creating a process which is between the standard BCP and EP. While preliminary results on the application of this process to Nb cavities have been previously reported, in this contribution we focus on the characterization of this novel electrochemical process by measuring polarization curves, etching rates, surface finish, electrochemical impedance and the effects of temperature and electrolyte composition. In particular, it is shown that the anodic potential of Nb during BCP reduces the etching rate and improves the surface finish.

Gianluigi Ciovati, Hui Tian, Sean Corcoran

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Solid oxide electrochemical reactor science.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solid-oxide electrochemical cells are an exciting new technology. Development of solid-oxide cells (SOCs) has advanced considerable in recent years and continues to progress rapidly. This thesis studies several aspects of SOCs and contributes useful information to their continued development. This LDRD involved a collaboration between Sandia and the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) ins solid-oxide electrochemical reactors targeted at solid oxide electrolyzer cells (SOEC), which are the reverse of solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFC). SOECs complement Sandia's efforts in thermochemical production of alternative fuels. An SOEC technology would co-electrolyze carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) with steam at temperatures around 800 C to form synthesis gas (H{sub 2} and CO), which forms the building blocks for a petrochemical substitutes that can be used to power vehicles or in distributed energy platforms. The effort described here concentrates on research concerning catalytic chemistry, charge-transfer chemistry, and optimal cell-architecture. technical scope included computational modeling, materials development, and experimental evaluation. The project engaged the Colorado Fuel Cell Center at CSM through the support of a graduate student (Connor Moyer) at CSM and his advisors (Profs. Robert Kee and Neal Sullivan) in collaboration with Sandia.

Sullivan, Neal P. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO); Stechel, Ellen Beth; Moyer, Connor J. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO); Ambrosini, Andrea; Key, Robert J. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO)

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Molecular-scale measurements of electric fields at electrochemical interfaces.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Spatially resolved measurements of electric fields at electrochemical interfaces would be a critical step toward further understanding and modeling the detailed structure of electric double layers. The goal of this project was to perform proof-of-principle experiments to demonstrate the use of field-sensitive dyes for optical measurements of fields in electrochemical systems. A confocal microscope was developed that provides sensitive detection of the lifetime and high resolution spectra of excited fluorescence for dyes tethered to electrically conductive surfaces. Excited state lifetimes for the dyes were measured and found to be relatively unquenched when linked to indium tin oxide, but strongly quenched on gold surfaces. However, our fluorescence detection is sufficiently sensitive to measure spectra of submonolayer dye coatings even when the fluorescence was strongly quenched. Further work to create dye labeled interfaces on flat, uniform and durable substrates is necessary to make electric field measurements at interfaces using field sensitive dyes.

Hayden, Carl C.; Farrow, Roger L.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "giner electrochemical systems" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Electrochemical oxygen pumps. Final CRADA report.  

SciTech Connect

All tasks of the Work Plan of ISTC Project 2277p have been completed, thus: (1) techniques of chemical synthesis were developed for more than ten recipes of electrolyte based on cerium oxide doped with 20 mole% of gadolinium (CeGd)O{sub 2}, doped by more than 10 oxide systems including 6 recipes in addition to the Work Plan; (2) electric conductivity and mechanical strength of CeGd specimens with additions of oxide systems were performed, two candidate materials for the electrolyte of electrochemical oxygen pump (pure CeGd and CeGd doped by 0.2 wt% of a transition metal) were chosen; (3) extended studies of mechanical strength of candidate material specimens were performed at room temperature and at 400, 600, 800 C; (4) fixtures for determination of mechanical strength of tubes by external pressure above 40 atmospheres at temperature up to 700 C were developed and fabricated; and (5) technology of slip casting of tubes from pure (Ce,Gd)O{sub 2} and of (Ce,Gd)O{sub 2} doped by 0.2 wt% of a transition metal, withstanding external pressure of minimum 40 atmospheres at temperature up to 700 C was developed, a batch of tubes was sent for testing to Argonne National Laboratory; (6) technology of making nanopowder from pure (Ce,Gd)O{sub 2} was developed based on chemical synthesis and laser ablation techniques, a batch of nanopowder with the weight 1 kg was sent for testing to Argonne National Laboratory; (7) a business plan for establishing a company for making powders of materials for electrochemical oxygen pump was developed; and (8) major results obtained within the Project were reported at international conferences and published in the Russian journal Electrochemistry. In accordance with the Work Plan a business trip of the following project participants was scheduled for April 22-29, 2006, to Tonawanda, NY, USA: Manager Victor Borisov; Leader of technology development Gennady Studenikin; Leader of business planning Elena Zadorozhnaya; Leader of production Vasily Lepalovsky; and Translator Vladimir Litvinov. During this trip project participants were to discuss with the project Technical Monitor J.D. Carter and representative of Praxair Inc. J. Chen the results of project activities (prospects of transition metal-doped material application in oxygen pumps), as well as the prospects of cooperation with Praxair at the meeting with the company management in the following fields: (1) Deposition of thin films of oxide materials of complex composition on support by magnetron and ion sputtering, research of coatings properties; (2) Development of block-type structure technology (made of porous and dense ceramics) for oxygen pump. The block-type structure is promising because when the size of electrolyte block is 2 x 2 inches and assembly height is 10 inches (5 blocks connected together) the area of active surface is ca. 290 square inches (in case of 8 slots), that roughly corresponds to one tube with diameter 1 inch and height 100 inches. So performance of the system made of such blocks may be by a factor of two or three higher than that of tube-based system. However one month before the visit, J. Chen notified us of internal changes at Praxair and the cancellation of the visit to Tonawanda, NY. During consultations with the project Technical Monitor J.D. Carter and Senior Project Manager A. Taylor a decision was made to extend the project term by 2 quarters to prepare proposals for follow-on activities during this extension (development of block-type structures made of dense and porous oxide ceramics for electrochemical oxygen pumps) using the funds that were not used for the trip to the US.

Carter, J. D. Noble, J.

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Mapping Ionic Currents and Reactivity on the Nanoscale: Electrochemical Strain Microscopy  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solid-state electrochemical processes in oxides underpin a broad spectrum of energy and information storage devices, ranging from Li-ion and Li-air batteries, to solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) to electroresistive and memristive systems. These functionalities are controlled by the bias-driven diffusive and electromigration transport of mobile ionic species, as well as intricate a set of electrochemical and defect-controlled reactions at interfaces and in bulk. Despite the wealth of device-level and atomistic studies, little is known on the mesoscopic mechanisms of ion diffusion and electronic transport on the level of grain clusters, individual grains, and extended defects. The development of the capability for probing ion transport on the nanometer scale is a key to deciphering complex interplay between structure, functionality, and performance in these systems. Here we introduce Electrochemical Strain Microscopy, a scanning probe microscopy technique based on strong strain-bias coupling in the systems in which local ion concentrations are changed by electrical fields. The imaging capability, as well as time- and voltage spectroscopies analogous to traditional current based electrochemical characterization methods are developed. The reversible intercalation of Li and mapping electrochemical activity in LiCoO2 is demonstrated, illustrating higher Li diffusivity at non-basal planes and grain boundaries. In Si-anode device structure, the direct mapping of Li diffusion at extended defects and evolution of Li-activity with charge state is explored. The electrical field-dependence of Li mobility is studied to determine the critical bias required for the onset of electrochemical transformation, allowing reaction and diffusion processes in the battery system to be separated at each location. Finally, the applicability of ESM for probing oxygen vacancy diffusion and oxygen reduction/evolution reactions is illustrated, and the high resolution ESM maps are correlated with aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging. The future potential for deciphering mechanisms of electrochemical transformations on an atomically-defined single-defect level is discussed.

Kalinin, S.V. (Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, ORNL)

2010-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

163

Battery State of Health Assessment System - Energy Innovation ...  

Described herein are systems and methods for accurately characterizing thermodynamic and materials properties of electrodes and electrochemical energy storage and ...

164

Process for electrochemically gasifying coal using electromagnetism  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for electrochemically gasifying coal by establishing a flowing stream of coal particulate slurry, electrolyte and electrode members through a transverse magnetic field that has sufficient strength to polarize the electrode members, thereby causing them to operate in combination with the electrolyte to electrochemically reduce the coal particulate in the slurry. Such electrochemical reduction of the coal produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide at opposite ends of the polarized electrode members. Gas collection means are operated in conjunction with the process to collect the evolved gases as they rise from the slurry and electrolyte solution.

Botts, Thomas E. (Markham, VA); Powell, James R. (Shoreham, NY)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Electrolyte for an electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making the same having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte amorphous lithium phosphorus oxynitride which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between {minus}15 C and 150 C. 9 figs.

Bates, J.B.; Dudney, N.J.

1997-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

166

Electrolyte for an electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making same having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte amorphous lithium phosphorus oxynitride which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between -15.degree. C. and 150.degree. C.

Bates, John B. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dudney, Nancy J. (Knoxville, TN)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Cathode for an electrochemical cell  

SciTech Connect

Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making same having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode. Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between -15.degree. C. and 150.degree. C.

Bates, John B. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dudney, Nancy J. (Knoxville, TN); Gruzalski, Greg R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Luck, Christopher F. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Mediated electrochemical hazardous waste destruction  

SciTech Connect

There are few permitted processes for mixed waste (radioactive plus chemically hazardous) treatment. We are developing electrochemical processes that convert the toxic organic components of mixed waste to water, carbon dioxide, an innocuous anions such as chloride. Aggressive oxidizer ions such as Ag{sup 2+} or Ce{sup +4} are produced at an anode. These can attack the organic molecules directly. They can also attack water which yields hydroxyl free radicals that in turn attack the organic molecules. The condensed (i.e., solid and/or liquid) effluent streams contain the inorganic radionuclide forms. These may be treated with existing technology and prepared for final disposal. Kinetics and the extent of destruction of some toxic organics have been measured. Depending on how the process is operated, coulombic efficiency can be nearly 100%. In addition, hazardous organic materials are becoming very expensive to dispose of and when they are combined with transuranic radioactive elements no processes are presently permitted. Mediated electrochemical oxidation is an ambient-temperature aqueous-phase process that can be used to oxidize organic components of mixed wastes. Problems associated with incineration, such as high-temperature volatilization of radionuclides, are avoided. Historically, Ag (2) has been used as a mediator in this process. Fe(6) and Co(3) are attractive alternatives to Ag(2) since they form soluble chlorides during the destruction of chlorinated solvents. Furthermore, silver itself is a toxic heavy metal. Quantitative data has been obtained for the complete oxidation of ethylene glycol by Fe(6) and Co(3). Though ethylene glycol is a nonhalogenated organic, this data has enabled us to make direct comparisons of activities of Fe(6) and Co(3) with Ag(2). Very good quantitative data for the oxidation of ethylene glycol by Ag(2) had already been collected. 4 refs., 6 figs.

Hickman, R.G.; Farmer, J.C.; Wang, F.T.

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Nonaqueous Electrolyte Development for Electrochemical Capacitors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this project were to demonstrate and develop new nonaqueous electrolytes that enable the development of high power (in excess of 2 kW/kg) and high energy (in excess of 8 Wh/kg) capacitors. Electrochemical capacitors are attractive to use because of their long cycle life and inherent high-power (or fast charge/discharge) capabilities. To realize the inherent high-power nature of the capacitor, the resistance of the capacitor needs to be low. The main focus of this project is on the ionic part of capacitor resistance, which is largely determined by the electrolyte, especially the electrolyte's conductivity. To achieve the objectives of this project, two approaches were used. The first was to search for the proper solvent mixtures within the commercially available quaternary ammonium salts such as tetraethyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate (Et4NBF4) or tetraethyl ammonium hexafluorophosphate (Et4NPF6). The second approach was to use the commonly available solvent system s but develop new salts. Substantial advances were made in quaternary ammonium salts and solvent systems were identified that can withstand high voltage operations. However, improvement in the salt alone is not sufficient. Improvements in the low-temperature stability of a capacitor rely not only on the salts but also on the solvents. Likewise, the high-temperature stability of the capacitor will depend not only on the salts but also on the solvents and carbon electrode materials.

K. Xu; S. P. Ding; T. R. Jow

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

NETL: Electrochemical Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Power  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electrochemical Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Power Generation Electrochemical Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Power Generation Project No.: DE-FE0007634 FuelCell Energy, Inc. has developed a novel system concept for the separation of carbon dioxide (CO2) from greenhouse gas (GHG) emission sources using an electrochemical membrane. The proposed membrane has its genesis from the company's patented Direct FuelCell® (DFC®) technology. The prominent feature of the DFC membrane is its capability to produce power while capturing CO2 from the flue gas from a pulverized coal (PC) plant. The DFC membrane does not require flue gas compression as it operates on the principles of electrochemistry, resulting in net efficiency gains. The membrane utilizes a fuel (different from the plant flue gas, such as coal-derived syngas, natural gas, or a renewable resource) as the driver for the combined carbon capture and electric power generation. The electrochemical membrane consists of ceramic-based layers filled with carbonate salts, separating CO2 from the flue gas. Because of the electrode's high reaction rates, the membrane does not require a high CO2 concentration in its feed gas. The planar geometry of the membrane offers ease of scalability to large sizes suitable for deployment in PC plants, which is an important attribute in membrane design. The membrane has been tested at the laboratory scale, verifying the feasibility of the technology for CO2 separation from simulated flue gases of PC plants as well as combined cycle power plants and other industrial facilities. Fuel Cell Energy, Inc. is advancing the technology to a maturity level suitable for adaption by industry for pilot-scale demonstration and subsequent commercial deployment.

171

Rechargeable thin-film electrochemical generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved electrochemical generator is disclosed. The electrochemical generator includes a thin-film electrochemical cell which is maintained in a state of compression through use of an internal or an external pressure apparatus. A thermal conductor, which is connected to at least one of the positive or negative contacts of the cell, conducts current into and out of the cell and also conducts thermal energy between the cell and thermally conductive, electrically resistive material disposed on a vessel wall adjacent the conductor. The thermally conductive, electrically resistive material may include an anodized coating or a thin sheet of a plastic, mineral-based material or conductive polymer material. The thermal conductor is fabricated to include a resilient portion which expands and contracts to maintain mechanical contact between the cell and the thermally conductive material in the presence of relative movement between the cell and the wall structure. The electrochemical generator may be disposed in a hermetically sealed housing.

Rouillard, Roger (Beloeil, CA); Domroese, Michael K. (South St. Paul, MN); Hoffman, Joseph A. (Minneapolis, MN); Lindeman, David D. (Hudson, WI); Noel, Joseph-Robert-Gaetan (St-Hubert, CA); Radewald, Vern E. (Austin, TX); Ranger, Michel (Lachine, CA); Sudano, Anthony (Laval, CA); Trice, Jennifer L. (Eagan, MN); Turgeon, Thomas A. (Fridley, MN)

2000-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

172

Electrochemical photovoltaic cells. Project 65039 quarterly technical progress report, April 15-July 31, 1980  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Liquid-junction photoelectrochemical cells can be used either for the direct conversion of solar energy to electricity or to generate stored chemical species available for later electrochemical discharge. The objectives of this program are to identify experimental approaches for electrochemical photovoltaic cells that not only show promise of high power-conversion efficiencies but also have the potential to achieve long life and the capacity for energy storage. The work is organized as follows: (1) selection of high-efficiency semiconductor photoelectrode/electrolyte systems, (2) development of long-life electrochemical photovoltaic cells, (3) all solid-state electrochemical photovoltaic cell with in situ storage, and (4) demonstration of laboratory-size photoelectrochemical cell with redox storage. This program is directed toward identifying a suitable match between the proposed semiconductor and the redox species present in aqueous, nonaqueous, and solid electrolytes for achieving the necessary performance and semiconductor stability requirements. Emphasis is on aqueous electrolyte-based systems where fast kinetics are favored. The proposed systems will be compatible with convenient storage of the electroactive species generated and its later electrochemical discharge in a redox cell. Progress is reported.

Ang, P. G.P.; Sammells, A. F.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Electrochemical photovoltaic cells. Quarterly technical progress report, August 1-October 31, 1980  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Liquid-junction photoelectrochemical cells can be used either for the direct conversion of solar energy to electricity or to generate stored chemical species available for later electrochemical discharge. The objective of this program is to identify experimental approaches for electrochemical photovoltaic cells that not only show promise of high power-conversion efficiencies but also have the potential to achieve long life and the capacity for energy storage. The work is organized as follows: (1) selection of high-efficiency semiconductor photoelectrode/electrolyte systems; (2) development of long-life electrochemical photovoltaic cells; (3) development of an all solid-state electrochemical photovoltaic cell with in-situ storage; and (4) demonstration of laboratory-size photoelectrochemical cell with redox storage. This program is directed toward identifying a suitable match between the proposed semiconductor and the redox species present in aqueous, nonaqueous, and solid electrolytes for achieving the necessary performance and semiconductor stability requirements. Emphasis is on aqueous electrolyte-based systems where fast kinetics are favored. The proposed systems will be compatible with convenient storage of the electroactive species generated and their later electrochemical discharge in a redox cell.

Ang, P. G.P.; Sammells, A. F.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Exploratory technology research program for electrochemical energy storage. Annual report for 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The US DOE Office of Transportation Technologies provides support for an Electrochemical Energy Storage Program, that includes research and development (R&D) on advanced rechargeable batteries and fuel cells. A major goal of this program is to develop electrochemical power sources suitable for application in electric vehicles (EV`s)and hybrid systems. The program centers on advanced electrochemical systems that offer the potential for high performance and low life- cycle costs, both of which are necessary to permit significant penetration into commercial markets. The DOE Electric Vehicle Technology Program is divided into two project areas: the US Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) and Advanced battery R&D which includes the Exploratory Technology Research (ETR) program managed by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The role of the ETR program is to perform supporting research on the advanced battery systems under development by the USABC and the Sandia Laboratories (SNL) Electric Vehicle Advanced Battery Systems (EVABS) program, and to evaluate new systems with potentially superior performance, durability and/of cost characteristics. The specific goal of the ETR program is to identify the most promising electrochemical technologies and development and scale-up. This report summarizes the research, financial and management activities relevant to the ETR program in CY 1995. This is a continuing program, and reports for prior years have been published; they are listed in this report.The general R&D areas addressed by the program include identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced batteries, determination of technical feasibility of the new couples, improvements in battery components and materials, establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage and conversion, and the development of fuel cell technology for transportation applications.

Kinoshita, Kim [ed.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

PowerPoint Presentation  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Nanostructured Electrode and Electrolyte Nanostructured Electrode and Electrolyte Development for Energy Storage Devices Presented by Karen Waldrip Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, NM Funded by the Energy Storage Systems Program of the U.S. Department Of Energy (DOE/ESS) and by the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program, and managed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Sandia is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration, under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. - SNL, GINER, and ADA - Electrochemical Storage Program Reviews - Capacitor Development Activities D. Ingersoll, F.M. Delnick, and K.E. Waldrip Sandia National Laboratories PO Box 5800 Albuquerque, NM 87185-0614

176

Transport in PEMFC Stacks - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

0 0 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report Cortney Mittelsteadt (Primary Contact), Hui Xu, Junqing Ma (GES); John Van Zee, Sirivatch Shimpalee, Visarn Lilavivat (USC); James E. McGrath Myoungbae Lee, Nobuo Hara, Kwan-Soo Lee, Chnng Hyun (VT); Don Conners, Guy Ebbrell (Ballard); Kevin Russell (Tech Etch) Giner Electrochemical Systems, LLC 89 Rumford Ave. Newton, MA 02466 Phone: (781) 529-0529 Email: cmittelsteadt@ginerinc.com DOE Managers HQ: Donna Ho Phone: (202) 586-8000 Email: Donna.Ho@ee.doe.gov GO: Gregory Kleen Phone: (720) 356-1672 Email: Gregory.Kleen@go.doe.gov Contract Number: DE-EE0000471 Subcontractors: * Tech-Etch, Plymouth, MA * Ballard Material Products, Inc., Lowell, MA

177

CX-004036: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

4036: Categorical Exclusion Determination 4036: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-004036: Categorical Exclusion Determination Dimensionally Stable High Performance Membrane CX(s) Applied: B3.6, B5.1 Date: 09/14/2010 Location(s): Newton, Massachusetts Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy In Phase III of the program, Giner Electrochemical Systems, LLC (GES) will take the molding methods that were generated in Phase II and apply them to a roll-good process. A number of different methods will be used to generate the molds. The Phase III tasks for scaling up the fabrication of patterned porous polymer membrane support structures using micro-molding technology is designed around six tasks: improve process parameters for Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micromolding from the Phase II program; seek

178

Experimental electrochemical capacitor test results  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Various electrochemical capacitors (ultracapacitors) are being developed for hybrid vehicles as candidate power assist devices for the fast response engine. The primary functions of the ultracapacitor are to level the dynamic power loads on the primary propulsion device and recover available energy from regenerative breaking during off-peak power periods. Ultracapacitors show promise toward being able to accept high regenerative pulses while exhibiting very high cycle life. This paper will present test data from selected US Department of Energy (DOE) supported ultracapacitor projects designed to meet the fast response engine requirements. Devices containing carbon, conducting polymers, and metal oxide electrode materials in combination with aqueous or organic electrolytes are being supported by the DOE. This paper will present and discuss testing data obtained from recent prototype capacitors supplied by Maxwell Energy Products, Inc., SAFT America, Inc., Federal Fabrics-Fibers and the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Constant-current, constant-power, leakage-current, and self-discharge testing of these various capacitors have been conducted. All devices were cycled between the rated charged voltage and zero volts for the constant-current tests and between the rated charged voltage and half that value for the constant-power tests.

Wright, R.B.; Murphy, T.C.; Kramer, W.E. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.; Satula, R.A.; Rogers, S.A. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Electrochemical oxidation of organic materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is a method and apparatus for the direct oxidation of organic materials, especially organic wastes, in an electrochemical cell. It fulfills the need for a simple, cost-effective way for generators of small quantities of waste to deal with that waste. It does not use an electron transfer agent, which may be a source of additional hazardous waste. The anode is made of carbon felt; the cathode is platinum; and the electrolyte is a strong oxidizer, preferably nitric acid. The potential difference is 2 to 3 volts; the current density is 0.15 to 0.25 A/cm{sup 2}. The porous barrier is a medium grade alumina frit or an ion exchange membrane. The organic materials are fed to the anode compartment; the resulting oxygen bubbling circumvents the need for stirring or circulating the waste. Many different types of waste (e.g. rubber gloves, TBP, process solutions, etc.) can be fed to the anode compartment without the need to process or store it. 3 figs. (DLC)

Almon, A.C.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Spectroscopic ellipsometry of electrochemical precipitation and oxidation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Spectroscopic ellipsometry of electrochemical precipitation and oxidation Spectroscopic ellipsometry of electrochemical precipitation and oxidation of nickel hydroxide films Title Spectroscopic ellipsometry of electrochemical precipitation and oxidation of nickel hydroxide films Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 1998 Authors Kong, Fanping, Robert Kostecki, Frank R. McLarnon, and Rolf H. Muller Journal Thin Solid Films Volume 313-314 Pagination 775-780 Keywords effective medium approximation, electrochemical precipitation, inhomogeneous films, nickel hydroxide, spectroscopic ellipsometry Abstract In situ spectroscopic ellipsometry was used to investigate the electrochemical precipitation of nickel hydroxide films. By use of optical models for inhomogeneous films it was found that a specific precipitation current density produced the most compact and homogeneous film structures. The density of nickel hydroxide films was derived to be 1.25-1.50 g/cm3. The redox behavior of precipitated nickel hydroxide films was studied with an effective-medium optical model. Incomplete conversion to nickel oxyhydroxide and a reduction in film thickness were found during the oxidation cycle.

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181

Electrochemical detector integrated on microfabricated capillary electrophoresis chips  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A microfabricated capillary electrophoresis chip which includes an integral thin film electrochemical detector for detecting molecules separated in the capillary.

Mathies, Richard A. (Moraga, CA); Glazer, Alexander N. (Orinda, CA); Lao, Kaiqin (San Francisco, CA); Woolley, Adam T. (Albany, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Electrochemical detector integrated on microfabricated capilliary electrophoresis chips  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A microfabricated capillary electrophoresis chip which includes an integral thin film electrochemical detector for detecting molecules separated in the capillary.

Mathies, Richard A. (Moraga, CA); Glazer, Alexander N. (Orinda, CA); Woolley, Adam T. (Albany, CA); Lao, Kaigin (San Francisco, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Electrochemical deposition of high purity silicon from molten fluoride ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, 2014 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium , Solar Cell Silicon. Presentation Title, Electrochemical deposition of high purity...

184

A27: Electrochemical Study of Ag Ionization in Molten Lead ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The concentration of Ag+ in the molten glass significantly increased with ... Electrochemical Deposition of High Purity Silicon in Molten Salts.

185

MIT- Electrochemical Energy Laboratory | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

MIT- Electrochemical Energy Laboratory MIT- Electrochemical Energy Laboratory Jump to: navigation, search Name MIT- Electrochemical Energy Laboratory Address 77 Massachusetts Avenue Place Cambridge, Massachusetts Zip 02139 Region Greater Boston Area Coordinates 42.359089°, -71.093412° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":42.359089,"lon":-71.093412,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

186

Electrochemical Energy Storage Technical Team Roadmap  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electrochemical Energy Storage Electrochemical Energy Storage Technical Team Roadmap June 2013 This roadmap is a document of the U.S. DRIVE Partnership. U.S. DRIVE (Driving Research and Innovation for Vehicle efficiency and Energy sustainability) is a voluntary, non-binding, and nonlegal partnership among the U.S. Department of Energy; USCAR, representing Chrysler Group LLC, Ford Motor Company, and General Motors; Tesla Motors; five energy companies - BP America, Chevron Corporation, Phillips 66 Company, ExxonMobil Corporation, and Shell Oil Products US; two utilities - Southern California Edison and DTE Energy; and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The Electrochemical Energy Storage Technical Team is one of 12 U.S. DRIVE technical teams ("tech teams") whose mission is to accelerate the development of pre-competitive and innovative technologies to

187

Graphene to Graphane: Novel Electrochemical Conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A novel electrochemical means to generate atomic hydrogen, simplifying the synthesis and controllability of graphane formation on graphene is presented. High quality, vacuum grown epitaxial graphene (EG) was used as starting material for graphane conversion. A home-built electrochemical cell with Pt wire and exposed graphene as the anode and cathode, respectively, was used to attract H+ ions to react with the exposed graphene. Cyclic voltammetry of the cell revealed the potential of the conversion reaction as well as oxidation and reduction peaks, suggesting the possibility of electrochemically reversible hydrogenation. A sharp increase in D peak in the Raman spectra of EG, increase of D/G ratio, introduction of a peak at ~2930 cm-1 and respective peak shifts as well as a sharp increase in resistance showed the successful hydrogenation of EG. This conversion was distinguished from lattice damage by thermal reversal back to graphene at 1000{\\deg}C.

Daniels, Kevin M; Zhang, R; Chowdhury, I; Obe, A; Weidner, J; Williams, C; Sudarshan, T S; Chandrashekhar, MVS

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Development of electrochemical photovoltaic cells. Third technical progress report, November 1, 1979-January 31, 1980  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The development of stable, efficient, electrochemical photovoltaic cells based on silicon and gallium arsenide in non-aqueous electrolyte systems is being investigated. The effect of surface condition of silicon electrodes on electrochemical and physical characteristics has been studied. An electrode-supporting electrolyte interaction in acetonitrile has been identified which leads to etching of the surface. Improved performance can result, which has practical significance. Gallium arsenide electrodes have been electrochemically characterized in cells containing propylene carbonate with a ferrocene/ferricenium redox additive. Degradation of the ferricenium salt under illumination has been investigated. Other redox couples studied to date have not given promising results. Long-term stability experiments have been deferred while a better understanding of electrode behavior is being obtained.

Byker, H.J.; Schwerzel, R.E.; Wood, V.E.; Austin, A.E.; Brooman, E.W.

1980-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

189

Heteroatom incorporated coke for electrochemical cell electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to an electrode for a coke/alkali metal electrochemical cell comprising: (a) calcined coke particles: (i) that contain at least 0.5 weight percent of nitrogen heteroatoms and at least 1.0 weight percent sulfur heteroatoms, and (ii) that have an average particle size from 2 microns to 40 microns with essentially no particles being greater than 50 microns. (b) a binder This invention also relates to a coke/alkali metal electrochemical cell comprising: (a) an electrode as described above, (b) a non-aqueous electrolytic solution comprising an organic aprotic solvent and an electrically conductive salt, and (c) a counterelectrode.

Lewis, Irwin Charles (Strongsville, OH); Greinke, Ronald Alfred (Medina, OH)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Heteroatom incorporated coke for electrochemical cell electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to an electrode for a coke/alkali metal electrochemical cell comprising: (a) calcined coke particles: (1) that contain at least 0.5 weight percent of nitrogen heteroatoms and at least 1.0 weight percent sulfur heteroatoms, and (2) that have an average particle size from 2 microns to 40 microns with essentially no particles being greater than 50 microns and (b) a binder. This invention also relates to a coke/alkali metal electrochemical cell comprising: (a) an electrode as described above, (b) a non-aqueous electrolytic solution comprising an organic aprotic solvent and an electrically conductive salt, and (c) a counterelectrode. 5 figs.

Lewis, I.C.; Greinke, R.A.

1997-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

191

Exploratory technology research program for electrochemical energy storage, annual report for 1997  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Transportation Technologies provides support for an Electrochemical Energy Storage Program, that includes research and development on advanced rechargeable batteries. A major goal of this program is to develop electrochemical power sources suitable for application in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid systems. The program centers on advanced electrochemical systems that offer the potential for high performance and low life-cycle costs, both of which are necessary to permit significant penetration into commercial markets. The DOE Electric Vehicle Technology Program is divided into two project areas: the US Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) and Advanced Battery R and D which includes the Exploratory Technology Research (ETR) Program managed by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The specific goal of the ETR Program is to identify the most promising electrochemical technologies and transfer them to the USABC, the battery industry and/or other Government agencies for further development and scale-up. This report summarizes the research, financial and management activities relevant to the ETR Program in CY 1997. This is a continuing program, and reports for prior years have been published; they are listed at the end of this Executive Summary. The general R and D areas addressed by the program include identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced batteries, determination of technical feasibility of the new couples, improvements in battery components and materials, and establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage. Major emphasis is given to applied research which will lead to superior performance and lower life-cycle costs.

Kinoshita, K. [ed.

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Exploratory Technology Research Program for electrochemical energy storage: Executive summary report for 1993  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Propulsion Systems provides support for an Electrochemical Energy Storage Program, that includes research and development (R&D) on advanced rechargeable batteries and fuel cells. A major goal of this program is to develop electrochemical power sources suitable for application in electric vehicles (EVs). The program centers on advanced systems that offer the potential for high performance and low life-cycle costs, both of which are necessary to permit significant penetration into commercial markets. The DOE Electrochemical Energy Storage Program is divided into two projects: the Electric Vehicle Advanced Battery Systems (EVABS) Development Program and the Exploratory Technology Research (ETR) Program. The EVABS Program management responsibility has been assigned to Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is responsible for management of the FIR Program. The EVABS and ETR Programs include an integrated matrix of R&D efforts designed to advance progress on selected candidate electrochemical systems. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), a tripartite undertaking between DOE, the U.S. automobile manufacturers and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), was formed in 1991 to accelerate the development of advanced batteries for consumer EVs. The role of the FIR Program is to perform supporting research on the advanced battery systems under development by the USABC and EVABS Program, and to evaluate new systems with potentially superior performance, durability and/or cost characteristics. The specific goal of the ETR Program is to identify the most promising electrochemical technologies and transfer them to the USABC, the battery industry and/or the EVABS Program for further development and scale-up. This report summarizes the research, financial and management activities relevant to the ETR Program in CY 1993.

Kinoshita, K. [ed.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Exploratory Technology Research Program for electrochemical energy storage. Executive summary report for 1991  

SciTech Connect

The US DOE Office of Propulsion Systems provides support for an electrochemical energy storage program, that includes research and development (R&D) on advanced rechargeable batteries and fuel cells. A major goal of this program is to develop electrochemical power sources suitable for application in electric vehicles. The program centers on advanced systems that offer the potential for high performance and low life-cycle costs. The DOE Electrochemical Energy Storage Program is divided into two projects: the Electric Vehicle Advanced Battery Systems Development (EVABS) Program and the Exploratory Technology Research (EM) Program. The EVABS Program management responsibility has been assigned to Sandia National Laboratory, and the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is responsible for management of the ETR Program. The EVABS and ETR Programs include an integrated matrix of R&D efforts designed to advance progress on several candidate electrochemical systems. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), a tripartite undertaking between DOE, the US automobile manufacturers and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), was formed in 1991 to accelerate the development of advanced batteries for consumer EVs. The role of the ETR Program is to perform supporting research on the advanced battery systems under development by the USABC and EVABS Program, and to evaluate new systems with potentially superior performance, durability and/or cost characteristics. The specific goal of the ETR Program is to identify the most promising electrochemical technologies and transfer them to the USABC, the battery industry and/or the EVABS Program for further development and scaleup. This executive summary summarizes the research, financial and management activities relevant to the ETR Program in CY 1991.

Kinoshita, K. [ed.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Exploratory Technology Research Program for electrochemical energy storage. Annual report for 1991  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy`s Office of Propulsion Systems provides support for an electrochemical energy storage program, that includes research and development (R&D) on advanced rechargeable batteries and fuel cells. A major goal of this program is to develop electrochemical power sources suitable for application in electric vehicles. The program centers on advanced systems that offer the potential for high performance and low life-cycle costs. The DOE Electrochemical Energy Storage Program is divided into two projects: the Electric Vehicle Advanced Battery Systems Development (EVABS) Program and the Exploratory Technology Research (ETR) Program. The EVABS Program management responsibility has been assigned to Sandia National Laboratory, and the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is responsible for management of the ETR Program. The EVABS and ETR Programs include an integrated matrix of R&D efforts designed to advance progress on several candidate electrochemical systems. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), a tripartite undertaking between DOE, the US automobile manufacturers and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), was formed in 1991 to accelerate the development of advanced batteries for consumer EVs. The role of the ETR Program is to perform supporting research on the advanced battery systems under development by the USABC and EVABS Program, and to evaluate new systems with potentially superior performance, durability and/or cost characteristics. The specific goal of the ETR Program is to identify the most promising electrochemical technologies and transfer them to the USABC, the battery industry and/or the EVABS Program for further development and scaleup. This report summarizes the research, financial and management activities relevant to the ETR Program in CY 1991.

Kinoshita, K. [ed.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Exploratory Technology Research Program for electrochemical energy storage: Annual report for 1993  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Propulsion Systems provides support for an Electrochemical Energy Storage Program, that includes research and development (R&D) on advanced rechargeable batteries and fuel cells. A major goal of this program is to develop electrochemical power sources suitable for application in electric vehicles (EVs). The program centers on advanced systems that offer the potential for high performance and low life-cycle costs, both of which are necessary to permit significant penetration into commercial markets. The DOE Electrochemical Energy Storage Program is divided into two projects: the Electric Vehicle Advanced Battery Systems (EVABS) Development Program and the Exploratory Technology Research (ETR) Program. The EVABS Program management responsibility has been assigned to Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is responsible for management of the ETR Program. The EVABS and ETR Programs include an integrated matrix of R&D efforts designed to advance progress on selected candidate electrochemical systems. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), a tripartite undertaking between DOE, the U.S. automobile manufacturers and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), was formed in 1991 to accelerate the development of advanced batteries for consumer EVs. The role of the FIR Program is to perform supporting research on the advanced battery systems under development by the USABC and EVABS Program, and to evaluate new systems with potentially superior performance, durability and/or cost characteristics. The specific goal of the ETR Program is to identify the most promising electrochemical technologies and transfer them to the USABC, the battery industry and/or the EVABS Program for further development and scale-up. This report summarizes the research, financial and management activities relevant to the ETR Program in CY 1993.

Kinoshita, K. [ed.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Automatic electrochemical ambient air monitor for chloride and chlorine  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical monitoring system has been provided for determining chloride and chlorine in air at levels of from about 10-1000 parts per billion. The chloride is determined by oxidation to chlorine followed by reduction to chloride in a closed system. Chlorine is determined by direct reduction at a platinum electrode in 6 M H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 electrolyte. A fully automated system is utilized to (1) acquire and store a value corresponding to electrolyte-containing impurities, (2) subtract this value from that obtained in the presence of air, (3) generate coulometrically a standard sample of chlorine mixed with air sample, and determine it as chlorine and/or chloride, and (4) calculate, display, and store for permanent record the ratio of the signal obtained from the air sample and that obtained with the standard.

Mueller, Theodore R. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1976-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

197

Exploratory Technology Research Program for Electrochemical Energy Storage. Annual report, 1992  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the progress made by the Exploratory Technology Research (ETR) Program for Electrochemical Energy Storage during calendar year 1992. The primary objective of the ETR Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), is to identify electrochemical technologies that can satisfy stringent performance, durability and economic requirements for electric vehicles (EVs). The ultimate goal is to transfer the most-promising electrochemical technologies to the private sector or to another DOE program (e.g., SNL`s Electric Vehicle Advanced Battery Systems Development Program, EVABS) for further development and scale-up. Besides LBL, which has overall responsibility for the ETR Program, LANL and BNL have participated in the ETR Program by providing key research support in several of the program elements. The ETR Program consists of three major elements: Exploratory Research; Applied Science Research; and Air Systems Research. The objectives and the specific battery and electrochemical systems addressed by each program element are discussed in the following sections, which also include technical summaries that relate to the individual programs. Financial information that relates to the various programs and a description of the management activities for the ETR Program are described in the Executive Summary.

Kinoshita, K. [ed.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Exploratory Technology Research Program for Electrochemical Energy Storage. Executive Summary report, 1992  

SciTech Connect

This summary denotes the progress made by the Exploratory Technology Research (ETR) Program for Electrochemical Energy Storage during calendar year 1992. The primary objective of the ETR Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), is to identify electrochemical technologies that can satisfy stringent performance, durability and economic requirements for electric vehicles (EVs). The ultimate goal is to transfer the most-promising electrochemical technologies to the private sector or to another DOE program (e.g., SNL`s Electric Vehicle Advanced Battery Systems Development Program, EVABS) for further development and scale-up. Besides LBL, which has overall responsibility for the ETR Program, LANL and BNL have participated in the ETR Program by providing key research support in several of the program elements. Program consists of three major elements: Exploratory Research; Applied Science Research; and Air Systems Research. The objectives and the specific battery and electrochemical systems addressed by each program element are discussed. Financial information that relates to the various programs and a description of the management activities for the ETR Program are described.

Kinoshita, K. [ed.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Argonne Chemical Sciences & Engineering -Electrochemical Energy Storage -  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Basic Research Basic Research * Members * Contact * Publications * Overview * CEES EES Home Electrochemical Energy Storage - Basic Research Electrochemical Energy Storage Chemistry co-op student Sara Busking loads a lithium-ion battery cell in a pouch into a test oven to evaluate its electrochemical performance. EES conducts basic research to support its applied electrochemical energy storage R&D initiatives. EES also leads an Energy Frontier Research Center (EFRC), recently awarded by DOE's Office of Science, with partners at Northwestern University and the University of Illinois (Urbana Champaign). The EFRC, the Center for Electrical Energy Storage: Tailored Interfaces (CEES), focuses on understanding electrochemical phenomena at electrode/electrolyte interfaces

200

Argonne Chemical Sciences & Engineering - Publications - Electrochemical  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electrochemical Energy Storage Electrochemical Energy Storage Basic Research S.-H. Kang and M. M. Thackeray, "Stabilization of xLi2MnO3·(1-x)LiMO2 Electrode Surfaces (M=Mn, Ni, Co) with Mildly Acidic, Fluorinated Solutions," Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 155, A269 (2008) C. S. Johnson, N. Li, C. Lefief, J. T. Vaughey and M. M. Thackeray, "Synthesis, Characterization and Electrochemistry of Lithium Battery Electrodes: xLi2MnO3*(1-x)LiMn0.333Ni0.333Co0.333O2 (0Electrochemical Society 155, A448 (2008)

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "giner electrochemical systems" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Method of constructing an improved electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical cell construction features a novel co-extruded plastic electrode in an interleaved construction with a novel integral separator-spacer. Also featured is a leak and impact resistant construction for preventing the spill of corrosive materials in the event of rupture.

Grimes, Patrick G. (Westfield, NJ); Einstein, Harry (Springfield, NJ)

1984-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

202

Improved magnesium/manganese dioxide electrochemical cell  

SciTech Connect

A magnesium/manganese dioxide electrochemical cell, stored following partial usage, is improved by increasing the cathode moisture content at the time of making the cell to reduce the self-discharge and increase the operating capacity after the cell has been stored following partial usage.

Jarvis, L.P.; Brundage, M.T.; Atwater, T.B.

1988-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

203

Titanium Carbide Bipolar Plate for Electrochemical Devices  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Titanium carbide comprises a corrosion resistant, electrically conductive, non-porous bipolar plate for use in an electrochemical device. The process involves blending titanium carbide powder with a suitable binder material, and molding the mixture, at an elevated temperature and pressure.

LaConti, Anthony B.; Griffith, Arthur E.; Cropley, Cecelia C.; Kosek, John A.

1998-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

204

Gas recombination assembly for electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An assembly for recombining gases generated in electrochemical cells wherein a catalyst strip is enveloped within a hydrophobic, gas-porous film which, in turn, is encased between gas-porous, metallic layers. The sandwich construction of metallic layers and film is formed into a spiral with a tab for connection to the cell.

Levy, Isaac (New Fairfield, CT); Charkey, Allen (Brookfield, CT)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Electrochemical NOx Sensor for Monitoring Diesel Emissions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Increasingly stringent emissions regulations will require the development of advanced gas sensors for a variety of applications. For example, compact, inexpensive sensors are needed for detection of regulated pollutants, including hydrocarbons (HCs), CO, and NO{sub x}, in automotive exhaust. Of particular importance will be a sensor for NO{sub x} to ensure the proper operation of the catalyst system in the next generation of diesel (CIDI) automobiles. Because many emerging applications, particularly monitoring of automotive exhaust, involve operation in harsh, high-temperature environments, robust ceramic-oxide-based electrochemical sensors are a promising technology. Sensors using yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) as an oxygen-ion-conducting electrolyte have been widely reported for both amperometric and potentiometric modes of operation. These include the well-known exhaust gas oxygen (EGO) sensor. More recently, ac impedance-based (i.e., impedance-metric) sensing techniques using YSZ have been reported for sensing water vapor, hydrocarbons, CO, and NO{sub x}. Typically small-amplitude alternating signal is applied, and the sensor response is measured at a specified frequency. Most impedance-metric techniques have used the modulus (or magnitude) at low frequencies ( 600 C, and thermodynamic calculations predict {approx}90% NO, balance NO{sub 2}. Since automotive exhaust sensors will probably be required to operate at temperatures > 600 C, NO is the dominant component in thermodynamic equilibrium and the target NOx species. Also, the use of upstream catalysts could further promote the conversion of NO{sub x} species to NO. Therefore, the focus of current work is to investigate the response to NO. Nevertheless, minimizing the sensitivity to a variety of competing species is important in order to obtain the accuracy necessary for achieving the emission limits. Mitigating the effect of interfering gases (e.g., O{sub 2}, water vapor, HCs, etc.) is an area of current study. For impedance metric NO{sub x} sensors, our previous work has demonstrated that the cross-sensitivity to O{sub 2} may be accounted for by comparing measurements at multiple frequencies. Other strategies for compensation are also being explored, including calibration using data from existing sensors located nearby. Our current work has made significant advances in terms of developing prototype sensors more suitable for commercialization. Also, dynamometer testing has provided real-world sensor performance data that will be useful in approaching potential suppliers to whom we can transfer the technology for commercialization. The advances are a direct result of understanding the sensing mechanisms responsible for impedance-based NO{sub x} sensing and the effect of materials choice and sensor design/geometry.

Woo, L Y; Glass, R S

2008-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

206

Rechargeable Batteries, Photochromics, Electrochemical Lithography: From  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Rechargeable Batteries, Photochromics, Electrochemical Lithography: From Rechargeable Batteries, Photochromics, Electrochemical Lithography: From Interfacial Studies to Practical Applications Speaker(s): Robert Kostecki Date: January 11, 2001 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg 90 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Satkartar K. Kinney The constantly growing power requirements of portable electronic devices and the need for high-power batteries for electric vehicles have created a strong demand for new batteries or substantial improvements of existing ones. Fundamental problems associated with complex interfacial processes in batteries must be resolved to enhance battery performance and lifetime. An overview of the principles of electrode-electrolyte interfacial studies, experimental methods, recent results, and potential applications will be presented. Advanced instrumental techniques and

207

Application of ion implantation to electrochemical studies  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The application of ion implantation to electrochemical studies is illustrated with a study of electrocatalysis of the chlorine evolution reaction at RuO{sub 2}, IrO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2} mixed oxide anodes in chloride solutions. Electrode/solution interfaces of well defined catalyst composition are generated in a reproducible manner by implantation of Ru (or Ir) into Ti followed by in situ oxidation of the near surface titanium alloys. Ion implantation enables the tailoring on an atomic scale of an electrochemical interface. Analysis by Rutherford backscattering adds the ability of quantitative mechanistic study in terms of actual ion concentration at the interface. In addition, ion implantation, as a processing technique, creates new materials with improved properties which may have future practical use in catalytic materials.

Vallet, C.E.; White, C.W.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Electrochemically controlled charging circuit for storage batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemically controlled charging circuit for charging storage batteries is disclosed. The embodiments disclosed utilize dc amplification of battery control current to minimize total energy expended for charging storage batteries to a preset voltage level. The circuits allow for selection of Zener diodes having a wide range of reference voltage levels. Also, the preset voltage level to which the storage batteries are charged can be varied over a wide range.

Onstott, E.I.

1980-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

209

ELECTROCHEMICAL DECONTAMINATION AND RECOVERY OF URANIUM VALUES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical process is described for separating uranium from fission products. The method comprises subjecting the mass of uranium to anodic dissolution in an electrolytic cell containing aqueous alkali bicarbonate solution as its electrolyte, thereby promoting a settling from the solution of a solid sludge from about the electrodes and separating the resulting electrolyte solution containing the anodically dissolved uranium from the sludge which contains the rare earth fission products.

McLaren, J.A.; Goode, J.H.

1958-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

210

Webinars for the Fuel Cell Technologies Program, 2011  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

Webinars presented in 2011: 1) Hydrogen Storage Materials Database Demonstration - EERE has launched a hydrogen storage materials database to collect and disseminate materials data and accelerate advanced materials research and development. Marni Lenahan of BCS Incorporated demonstrated the functionality of the database including accessing and extracting data, submitting new material property data for inclusion, and performing organized searches; 2) Hydrogen Production by PEM Electrolysis: Spotlight on Giner and Proton - Available commercially, Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) electrolysis is a hydrogen-production technology that can enable a zero carbon footprint when used with renewable resources. Leaders in these research efforts, Monjid Hamdan of Giner Electrochemical Systems and Kathy Ayers of Proton Onsite discussed recent progress, as well as future scenarios for renewable hydrogen production by PEM electrolysis; 3) Science Magazine Article Highlight: Moving Towards Near Zero Platinum Fuel Cells - Dr. Piotr Zelenay of Los Alamos National Laboratory described his innovative work with a family of non-precious metal catalysts that approach the performance of platinum-based systems at a cost sustainable for high-power fuel cell applications. This strategy uses polyaniline as a precursor to a carbon-nitrogen template for high-temperature synthesis of catalysts incorporating iron and cobalt; 4) I2CNER: An International Collaboration to Enable a Carbon-Neutral, Energy Economy; 5) Photosynthesis for Hydrogen and Fuels Production - Dr. Tasios Melis of the University of California at Berkeley, a pre-eminent researcher in the field of Photobiological Hydrogen Production, provided an overview of his invention disclosing methods and compositions to minimize the chlorophyll antenna size of photosynthesis by decreasing the expression of the novel TLA1 gene, thereby improving solar conversion efficiencies and photosynthetic productivity in plants and algae [copied from http://www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/webinar_archives_2011.html

211

Sealed joint structure for electrochemical device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Several members make up a joint in a high-temperature electrochemical device, wherein the various members perform different functions. The joint is useful for joining multiple cells (generally tubular modules) of an electrochemical device to produce a multi-cell segment-in-series stack for a solid oxide fuel cell, for instance. The joint includes sections that bond the joining members to each other; one or more seal sections that provide gas-tightness, and sections providing electrical connection and/or electrical insulation between the various joining members. A suitable joint configuration for an electrochemical device has a metal joint housing, a first porous electrode, a second porous electrode, separated from the first porous electrode by a solid electrolyte, and an insulating member disposed between the metal joint housing and the electrolyte and second electrode. One or more brazes structurally and electrically connects the first electrode to the metal joint housing and forms a gas tight seal between the first electrode and the second electrode.

Tucker, Michael C; Jacobson, Craig P; De Jonghe, Lutgard C; Visco, Steven J

2013-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

212

Flotation process for removal of precipitates from electrochemical chromate reduction unit  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is an improved form of a conventional electrochemical process for removing hexavalent chromium or other metal-ion contaminants from cooling-tower blowdown water. In the conventional process, the contaminant is reduced and precipitated at an iron anode, thus forming a mixed precipitate of iron and chromium hydroxides, while hydrogen being evolved copiously at a cathode is vented from the electrochemical cell. In the conventional process, subsequent separation of the fine precipitate has proved to be difficult and inefficient. In accordance with this invention, the electrochemical operation is conducted in a novel manner permitting a much more efficient and less expensive precipitate-recovery operation. That is, the electrochemical operation is conducted under an evolved-hydrogen partial pressure exceeding atmospheric pressure. As a result, most of the evolved hydrogen is entrained as bubbles in the blowdown in the cell. The resulting hydrogen-rich blowdown is introduced to a vented chamber, where the entrained hydrogen combines with the precipitate to form a froth which can be separated by conventional techniques. In addition to the hydrogen, two materials present in most blowdown act as flotation promoters for the precipitate. These are (1) air, with which the blowdown water becomes saturated in the course of normal cooling-tower operation, and (2) surfactants which commonly are added to cooling-tower recirculating-water systems to inhibit the growth of certain organisms or prevent the deposition of insoluble particulates.

DeMonbrun, James R. (Knoxville, TN); Schmitt, Charles R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Williams, Everett H. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Method of determining methane and electrochemical sensor therefor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and instrument including an electrochemical cell for the detection and measurement of methane in a gas by the oxidation of methane electrochemically at a working electrode in a nonaqueous electrolyte at a voltage about about 1.4 volts versus R.H.E. (the reversible hydrogen electrode potential in the same electrolyte), and the measurement of the electrical signal resulting from the electrochemical oxidation.

Zaromb, Solomon (Hinsdale, IL); Otagawa, Takaaki (Westmont, IL); Stetter, Joseph R. (Naperville, IL)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Electrochemical Behavior of Calcium-Bismuth Alloys in Molten Salt ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, The electrochemical properties of calcium-bismuth alloys were investigated to ... Behavior of Silicon Electrodepositing in Fluoride Molten Salts.

215

ELECTROCHEMICAL CORROSION STUDY FOR TANK 241-AY-102 SLUDGE  

SciTech Connect

The report describes the analyses performed on core samples from the sludge region of the waste in Tank 241-AY-102 to determine the electrochemical corrosion potential.

DUNCAN JB

2002-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

216

Variable temperature electrochemical strain microscopy of Sm-doped ceria  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Variable temperature electrochemical strain microscopy has been used to study the electrochemical activity of Sm-doped ceria as a function of temperature and bias. The electrochemical strain microscopy hysteresis loops have been collected across the surface at different temperatures and the relative activity at different temperatures has been compared. The relaxation behavior of the signal at different temperatures has been also evaluated to relate kinetic process during bias induced electrochemical reactions with temperature and two different kinetic regimes have been identified. The strongly non-monotonic dependence of relaxation behavior on temperature is interpreted as evidence for water-mediated mechanisms.

Jesse, Stephen [ORNL; Morozovska, A. N. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL; Eliseev, E. A. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine; Yang, Nan [ORNL; Doria, Sandra [ORNL; Tebano, Antonello [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

The Electrochemical Behavior of Electro-Deoxidation Process of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, The Electrochemical Behavior of Electro-Deoxidation Process of Ilmenite Concentrate in Molten Salt. Author(s), Xuyang Liu, Meilong Hu,...

218

Electrochemical Evaluation of Pyrite Films Prepared by Plasma Spraying  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thermally activated batteries use electrodes that are typically fabricated by cold pressing of powder. In the LiSi/FeS2 system, natural (mineral) pyrite is used for the cathode. In an effort to increase the energy density and specific energy of these batteries, flame and plasma spraying to form thin films of pyrite cathodes were evaluated. The films were deposited on a 304 stainless steel substrate (current collector) and were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and x-ray dlfllaction. The films were electrochemically tested in single cells at 5000C and the petiormance compared to that of standard cells made with cold-pressed powders. The best results were obtained with material deposited by de-arc plasma spraying with a proprietq additive to suppress thermal decomposion of the pyrite.

Guidotti, R.A.; Reinhardt, F.W.

1998-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

219

Exploratory technology research program for electrochemical energy storage. Annual report for 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Transportation Technologies provides support for an Electrochemical Energy Storage Program, that includes research and development on advanced rechargeable batteries and fuel cells. A major goal of this program is to develop electrochemical power sources suitable for application in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid systems. The program centers on advanced electrochemical systems that offer the potential for high performance and low life-cycle costs, both of which are necessary to permit significant penetration into commercial markets. The DOE Electric Vehicle Technology Program is divided into two project areas: the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) and Advanced Battery R&D which includes the Exploratory Technology Research (ETR) Program managed by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The USABC, a tripartite undertaking between DOE, the U.S. automobile manufacturers and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), was formed in 1991 to accelerate the development of advanced batteries for EVs. In addition, DOE is actively involved in the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) Program which seeks to develop passenger vehicles with a range equivalent to 80 mpg of gasoline. The role of the ETR Program is to perform supporting research on the advanced battery systems under development by the USABC and the PNGV Program, and to evaluate new systems with potentially superior performance, durability and/or cost characteristics. The specific goal of the ETR Program is to identify the most promising electrochemical technologies and transfer them to the USABC, the battery industry and/or other Government agencies for further development and scale-up. This report summarizes the research, financial and management activities relevant to the ETR Program in CY 1996. This is a continuing program, and reports for prior years have been published; they are listed at the end of this Executive Summary.

Kinoshita, K. [ed.

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Electrochemical mercerization, souring, and bleaching of textiles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Economical, pollution-free treatment of textiles occurs in a low voltage electrochemical cell that mercerizes (or scours), sours, and optionally bleaches without effluents and without the purchase of bulk caustic, neutralizing acids, or bleaches. The cell produces base in the cathodic chamber for mercerization and an equivalent amount of acid in the anodic chamber for neutralizing the fabric. Gas diffusion electrodes are used for one or both electrodes and may simultaneously generate hydrogen peroxide for bleaching. The preferred configuration is a stack of bipolar electrodes, in which one or both of the anode and cathode are gas diffusion electrodes, and where no hydrogen gas is evolved at the cathode. 5 figs.

Cooper, J.F.

1995-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "giner electrochemical systems" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Magnesium/manganese dioxide electrochemical cell  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an improvement in a magnesium/manganese dioxide electrochemical cell that has been stored following partial usage and including an alloy of magnesium as the anode, a moist cathode mix of carbon black, manganese dioxide, magnesium hydroxide, barium chromate and lithium chromate as the cathode, and 3.5 to 4.0 normal magnesium perchlorate as the electrolyte. The improvement involves increasing the moisture content of the cathode mix from 34 to 38 percent at the time of making the cell to reduce the self discharge and increase the operating capacity after the cell has been stored following partial usage.

Jarvis, L.P.; Brundage, M.T.; Atwater, T.B.

1989-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

222

Electrochemical cell with high conductivity glass electrolyte  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A secondary electrochemical cell with sodium-sulfur or other molten reactants is provided with a ionically conductive glass electrolyte. The cell is contained within an electrically conductive housing with a first portion at negative potential and a second portion insulated therefrom at positive electrode potential. The glass electrolyte is formed into a plurality of elongated tubes and placed lengthwise within the housing. The positive electrode material, for instance sulfur, is sealed into the glass electrolyte tubes and is provided with an elongated axial current collector. The glass electrolyte tubes are protected by shield tubes or sheets that also define narrow annuli for wicking of the molten negative electrode material. 6 figs.

Nelson, P.A.; Bloom, I.D.; Roche, M.F.

1987-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

223

Electrochemical cell with high conductivity glass electrolyte  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A secondary electrochemical cell with sodium-sulfur or other molten reactants is provided with an ionically conductive glass electrolyte. The cell is contained within an electrically conductive housing with a first portion at negative potential and a second portion insulated therefrom at positive electrode potential. The glass electrolyte is formed into a plurality of elongated tubes and placed lengthwise within the housing. The positive electrode material, for instance sulfur, is sealed into the glass electrolyte tubes and is provided with an elongated axial current collector. The glass electrolyte tubes are protected by shield tubes or sheets that also define narrow annuli for wicking of the molten negative electrode material.

Nelson, P.A.; Bloom, I.D.; Roche, M.F.

1986-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

224

Morphology in electrochemically grown conducting polymer films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A conducting polymer film with an improved space filling is formed on a metal electrode surface. A self-assembling monolayer is formed directly on the metal surface where the monolayer has a first functional group that binds to the metal surface and a second chemical group that forms a chemical bonding site for molecules forming the conducting polymer. The conducting polymer is then conventionally deposited by electrochemical deposition. In one example, a conducting film of polyaniline is formed on a gold electrode surface with an intermediate monolayer of p-aminothiophenol. 2 figs.

Rubinstein, I.; Gottesfeld, S.; Sabatani, E.

1992-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

225

Electrochemical cell assembled in discharged state  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A secondary, electrochemical cell is assembled in a completely discharged state within a sealed containment. As assembled, the cell includes a positive electrode separated from a negative electrode by a molten salt electrolyte. The positive electrode is contained within a porous structure, permitting passage of molten electrolyte, and includes one or more layers of a metallic mesh, e.g. iron, impregnated with an intimate mixture of lithium sulfide and the electrolyte. The negative electrode is a porous plaque of aluminum metal. Prior to using the cell, an electrical charge forms lithium-aluminum alloy within the negative electrode and metal sulfide within the positive electrode.

Yao, Neng-Ping (Hinsdale, IL); Walsh, William J. (Naperville, IL)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Electrochemical NOx Sensor for Monitoring Diesel Emissions  

SciTech Connect

Increasingly stringent emissions regulations will require the development of advanced gas sensors for a variety of applications. For example, compact, inexpensive sensors are needed for detection of regulated pollutants, including hydrocarbons (HCs), CO, and NO{sub x}, in automotive exhaust. Of particular importance will be a sensor for NO{sub x} to ensure the proper operation of the catalyst system in the next generation of diesel (CIDI) automobiles. Because many emerging applications, particularly monitoring of automotive exhaust, involve operation in harsh, high-temperature environments, robust ceramic-oxide-based electrochemical sensors are a promising technology. Sensors using yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) as an oxygen-ion-conducting electrolyte have been widely reported for both amperometric and potentiometric modes of operation. These include the well-known exhaust gas oxygen (EGO) sensor. More recently, ac impedance-based (i.e., impedance-metric) sensing techniques using YSZ have been reported for sensing water vapor, hydrocarbons, CO, and NO{sub x}. Typically small-amplitude alternating signal is applied, and the sensor response is measured at a specified frequency. Most impedance-metric techniques have used the modulus (or magnitude) at low frequencies (< 1 Hz) as the sensing signal and attribute the measured response to interfacial phenomena. Work by our group has also investigated using phase angle as the sensing signal at somewhat higher frequencies (10 Hz). The higher frequency measurements would potentially allow for reduced sampling times during sensor operation. Another potential advantage of impedance-metric NO{sub x} sensing is the similarity in response to NO and NO{sub 2} (i.e., total-NO{sub x} sensing). Potentiometric NO{sub x} sensors typically show higher sensitivity to NO2 than NO, and responses that are opposite in sign. However, NO is more stable than NO{sub 2} at temperatures > 600 C, and thermodynamic calculations predict {approx}90% NO, balance NO{sub 2}. Since automotive exhaust sensors will probably be required to operate at temperatures > 600 C, NO is the dominant component in thermodynamic equilibrium and the target NOx species. Also, the use of upstream catalysts could further promote the conversion of NO{sub x} species to NO. Therefore, the focus of current work is to investigate the response to NO. Nevertheless, minimizing the sensitivity to a variety of competing species is important in order to obtain the accuracy necessary for achieving the emission limits. Mitigating the effect of interfering gases (e.g., O{sub 2}, water vapor, HCs, etc.) is an area of current study. For impedance metric NO{sub x} sensors, our previous work has demonstrated that the cross-sensitivity to O{sub 2} may be accounted for by comparing measurements at multiple frequencies. Other strategies for compensation are also being explored, including calibration using data from existing sensors located nearby. Our current work has made significant advances in terms of developing prototype sensors more suitable for commercialization. Also, dynamometer testing has provided real-world sensor performance data that will be useful in approaching potential suppliers to whom we can transfer the technology for commercialization. The advances are a direct result of understanding the sensing mechanisms responsible for impedance-based NO{sub x} sensing and the effect of materials choice and sensor design/geometry.

Woo, L Y; Glass, R S

2008-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

227

W-36: Electrochemical Capacitance of Polyaniline, Evaluated in ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Electrochemical capacitors (EC) are novel energy storage devices ... in the supercapacitors due to its high capacitive characteristics, low cost and ease ... In this work we present a comparative study of charge storage in acid and ... W-101: Synthesis and Electrochemical Performance of LiMnBO3 as a Novel...

228

JV Task-121 Electrochemical Synthesis of Nitrogen Fertilizers  

SciTech Connect

An electrolytic renewable nitrogen fertilizer process that utilizes wind-generated electricity, N{sub 2} extracted from air, and syngas produced via the gasification of biomass to produce nitrogen fertilizer ammonia was developed at the University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center. This novel process provides an important way to directly utilize biosyngas generated mainly via the biomass gasification in place of the high-purity hydrogen which is required for Haber Bosch-based production of the fertilizer for the production of the widely used nitrogen fertilizers. Our preliminary economic projection shows that the economic competitiveness of the electrochemical nitrogen fertilizer process strongly depends upon the cost of hydrogen gas and the cost of electricity. It is therefore expected the cost of nitrogen fertilizer production could be considerably decreased owing to the direct use of cost-effective 'hydrogen-equivalent' biosyngas compared to the high-purity hydrogen. The technical feasibility of the electrolytic process has been proven via studying ammonia production using humidified carbon monoxide as the hydrogen-equivalent vs. the high-purity hydrogen. Process optimization efforts have been focused on the development of catalysts for ammonia formation, electrolytic membrane systems, and membrane-electrode assemblies. The status of the electrochemical ammonia process is characterized by a current efficiency of 43% using humidified carbon monoxide as a feedstock to the anode chamber and a current efficiency of 56% using high-purity hydrogen as the anode gas feedstock. Further optimization of the electrolytic process for higher current efficiency and decreased energy consumption is ongoing at the EERC.

Junhua Jiang; Ted Aulich

2008-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

229

JV Task-121 Electrochemical Synthesis of Nitrogen Fertilizers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An electrolytic renewable nitrogen fertilizer process that utilizes wind-generated electricity, N{sub 2} extracted from air, and syngas produced via the gasification of biomass to produce nitrogen fertilizer ammonia was developed at the University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center. This novel process provides an important way to directly utilize biosyngas generated mainly via the biomass gasification in place of the high-purity hydrogen which is required for Haber Bosch-based production of the fertilizer for the production of the widely used nitrogen fertilizers. Our preliminary economic projection shows that the economic competitiveness of the electrochemical nitrogen fertilizer process strongly depends upon the cost of hydrogen gas and the cost of electricity. It is therefore expected the cost of nitrogen fertilizer production could be considerably decreased owing to the direct use of cost-effective 'hydrogen-equivalent' biosyngas compared to the high-purity hydrogen. The technical feasibility of the electrolytic process has been proven via studying ammonia production using humidified carbon monoxide as the hydrogen-equivalent vs. the high-purity hydrogen. Process optimization efforts have been focused on the development of catalysts for ammonia formation, electrolytic membrane systems, and membrane-electrode assemblies. The status of the electrochemical ammonia process is characterized by a current efficiency of 43% using humidified carbon monoxide as a feedstock to the anode chamber and a current efficiency of 56% using high-purity hydrogen as the anode gas feedstock. Further optimization of the electrolytic process for higher current efficiency and decreased energy consumption is ongoing at the EERC.

Junhua Jiang; Ted Aulich

2008-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

230

Thermoelectrochemical system and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermal electrochemical system is described in which an electrical current is generated between a cathode immersed in a concentrated aqueous solution of phosphoric acid and an anode immersed in a molten salt solution of ammonium phosphate and monohydric ammonium phosphate. Reactants consumed at the electrodes during the electrochemical reaction are thermochemically regenerated and recycled to the electrodes to provide continuous operation of the system. 5 figs.

Ludwig, F.A.; Townsend, C.W.; Eliash, B.M.

1995-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

231

Transition from supercapacitor to battery behavior in electrochemical energy storage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper the storage of electrochemical energy in battery, supercapacitor, and double-layer capacitor devices is considered. A comparison of the mechanisms and performance of such systems enables their essential features to be recognized and distinguished, and the conditions for transition between supercapacitor and battery behavior to be characterized. Supercapacitor systems based on two-dimensional underpotential deposition reactions are highly reversible and their behavior arises from the pseudocapaccitance associated with potential-dependence of two-dimensional coverage of electroactive adatoms on an electrode substrate surface. Such capacitance can be 10-100 times the double-layer capacitance of the same electrode area. An essential fundamental difference from battery behavior arises because, in such systems, the chemical and associated electrode potentials are a continuous function of degree of charge, unlike the thermodynamic behavior of single-phase battery reactants. Quai-two-dimensional systems, such as hyperextended hydrous RuP{sub 2}, also exhibit large pseudocapacitance which, in this case, is associated with a sequence of redox redox processes that are highly reversible.

Conway, B.E. (Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry)

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Cr-Ga-N materials for negative electrodes in Li rechargeable batteries : structure, synthesis and electrochemical performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electrochemical performances of two ternary compounds (Cr2GaN and Cr3GaN) in the Cr-Ga-N system as possible future anode materials for lithium rechargeable batteries were studied. Motivation for this study was dealt in ...

Kim, Miso

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Dissolution and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies of thin copper oxide films on copper in semi-aqueous fluoride solutions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The selective dissolution of thin copper oxide films grown on copper in semi-aqueous formulations containing dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), ammonium fluoride (NH"4F) and water was studied. Optimization of the formulations was carried out by systematic evaluation ... Keywords: BEOL cleaning, Copper oxide removal, Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, SAF chemical system

N. Venkataraman; S. Raghavan

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

A Combined Electrochemical and Ultra-High Vacuum Approach to Heterogeneous  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Combined Electrochemical and Ultra-High Vacuum Approach to Heterogeneous A Combined Electrochemical and Ultra-High Vacuum Approach to Heterogeneous Electrocatalysis Friday, February 24, 2012 - 11:00am SSRL Bldg. 137-322, 3rd floor Conference Room Matthew A. Rigsby, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Improved energy conversion and storage technologies are crucial for meeting the growing energy demands of the world. Understanding the factors that are currently limiting the advancement of these technologies is vital. One must examine the fundamental properties of electrocatalyst/photoelectrocatalyst materials and the fluid-solid interfaces of which they are a part, and one of the simplest ways to do this is to study model electrocatalyst systems. In the work presented here, studies began with real nanoparticle fuel cell electrocatalysts that demonstrated the key relationship between reactivity

235

SURFACE SEGREGATION STUDIES OF SOFC CATHODES: COMBINING SOFT X-RAYS AND ELECTROCHEMICAL IMPEDENCE SPECTROSCOPY  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A system to grow heteroepitaxial thin-films of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathodes on single crystal substrates was developed. The cathode composition investigated was 20% strontium-doped lanthanum manganite (LSM) grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on single crystal (111) yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrates. By combining electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) with x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and x-ray absorption spectroscopy XAS measurements, we conclude that electrically driven cation migration away from the two-phase gas-cathode interface results in improved electrochemical performance. Our results provide support to the premise that the removal of surface passivating phases containing Sr2+ and Mn2+, which readily form at elevated temperatures even in O2 atmospheric pressures, is responsible for the improved cathodic performance upon application of a bias.

Miara, Lincoln J.; Piper, L.F.J.; Davis, Jacob N.; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Basu, Soumendra; Smith, K. E.; Pal, Uday B.; Gopalan, Srikanth

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Standard guide for online monitoring of corrosion in plant equipment (electrical and electrochemical methods)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Standard guide for online monitoring of corrosion in plant equipment (electrical and electrochemical methods)

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Alternative Electrochemical Salt Waste Forms, Summary of FY2010 Results  

SciTech Connect

In FY2009, PNNL performed scoping studies to qualify two waste form candidates, tellurite (TeO2-based) glasses and halide minerals, for the electrochemical waste stream for further investigation. Both candidates showed promise with acceptable PCT release rates and effective incorporation of the 10% fission product waste stream. Both candidates received reprisal for FY2010 and were further investigated. At the beginning of FY2010, an in-depth literature review kicked off the tellurite glasses study. The review was aimed at ascertaining the state-of-the-art for chemical durability testing and mixed chloride incorporation for tellurite glasses. The literature review led the authors to 4 unique binary and 1 unique ternary systems for further investigation which include TeO2 plus the following: PbO, Al2O3-B2O3, WO3, P2O5, and ZnO. Each system was studied with and without a mixed chloride simulated electrochemical waste stream and the literature review provided the starting points for the baseline compositions as well as starting points for melting temperature, compatible crucible types, etc. The most promising glasses in each system were scaled up in production and were analyzed with the Product Consistency Test, a chemical durability test. Baseline and PCT glasses were analyzed to determine their state, i.e., amorphous, crystalline, phase separated, had undissolved material within the bulk, etc. Conclusions were made as well as the proposed direction for FY2011 plans. Sodalite was successfully synthesized by the sol-gel method. The vast majority of the dried sol-gel consisted of sodalite with small amounts of alumino-silicates and unreacted salt. Upon firing the powders made by sol-gel, the primary phase observed was sodalite with the addition of varying amounts of nepheline, carnegieite, lithium silicate, and lanthanide oxide. The amount of sodalite, nepheline, and carnegieite as well as the bulk density of the fired pellets varied with firing temperature, sol-gel process chemistry, and the amount of glass sintering aid added to the batch. As the firing temperature was increased from 850 C to 950 C, chloride volatility increased, the fraction of sodalite decreased, and the fractions nepheline and carnegieite increased. This indicates that the sodalite structure is not stable and begins to convert to nepheline and carnegieite under these conditions at 950 C. Density has opposite relationship with relation to firing temperature. The addition of a NBS-1, a glass sintering aid, had a positive effect on bulk density and increased the stability of the sodalite structure in a minimal way.

Riley, Brian J.; Rieck, Bennett T.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Matyas, Josef; McCloy, John S.; Sundaram, S. K.; Vienna, John D.

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Performance Characteristics of an Electrochemically Powered Turboprop: A Comparison with State of the Art Gas Turbines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As we search for alternative fuels and energy efficient vehicles it is important to consider the role of electrochemical fuel cells in aircraft propulsion systems. This paper focuses on this issue with regards to small turboprop aircraft. An electrochemical propulsion system would employ liquid hydrogen in an air breathing fuel cell that would generate electricity to run electric motors which in tum power the props. The major question this paper addresses is: under what conditions will a hydrogen/fuel cell power system be superior to a state of the art hydrogen/gas turbine power system? The systems are compared on a fuel consumption basis, a cost basis, and a reliability/ maintainability basis. The analysis show that both specific power and efficiency play an important role in determining which configuration uses less fuel. In general, the fuel cell system is heavier but more efficient than the gas turbine. It appears that the fuel cell system will begin to compete with the gas turbine as the power densities surpass 1 kw/kg and the efficiencies approaches .45. From a cost perspective gas turbines presently cost $500/ Kw and fuel cells are far more expensive. However, the raw materials in a fuel cell are inexpensive and could conceivably be cheaper, thus making the fuel cells increasingly attractive. From a reliability perspective, the fuel cell system appears to have a significant advantage due to the lack of moving parts and the high reliability of electric motors.

Johnson, M. C.; Swan, D. H.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Selectively-etched nanochannel electrophoretic and electrochemical devices  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Nanochannel electrophoretic and electrochemical devices having selectively-etched nanolaminates located in the fluid transport channel. The normally flat surfaces of the nanolaminate having exposed conductive (metal) stripes are selectively-etched to form trenches and baffles. The modifications of the prior utilized flat exposed surfaces increase the amount of exposed metal to facilitate electrochemical redox reaction or control the exposure of the metal surfaces to analytes of large size. These etched areas variously increase the sensitivity of electrochemical detection devices to low concentrations of analyte, improve the plug flow characteristic of the channel, and allow additional discrimination of the colloidal particles during cyclic voltammetry.

Surh, Michael P. (Livermore, CA); Wilson, William D. (Pleasanton, CA); Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA); Lane, Stephen M. (Oakland, CA)

2006-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

240

Argonne Chemical Sciences & Engineering -Electrochemical Energy Storage -  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Engineering Engineering * Members * Contact * Publications * Overview EES Home Electrochemical Energy Storage - Engineering Electrochemical Energy Storage Argonne researcher Panagiotis Prezas examines a lithium-ion battery cell at the Battery Test Facility. Capabilities In support of and as part of the applied research and development (R&D) area, the Argonne's Electrochemical Energy Storage department (EES) has established and employs a variety of engineering R&D capabilities. These capabilities include electrode modeling, engineering, & fabrication; electrode/electrolyte interface modeling; cell modeling & engineering; cell, module, and battery design modeling; and cell, module, and battery cost modeling. Additionally, EES is developing new capabilities in the

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241

Method for making an electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making the same, having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode. Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between {minus}15 C and 150 C. 9 figs.

Bates, J.B.; Dudney, N.J.

1996-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

242

Electrochemical cell having cyclindircal electrode elements  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A secondary, high temperature electrochemical cell especially adapted for lithium alloy negative electrodes, transition metal chalcogenide positive electrodes and alkali metal halide or alkaline earth metal halide electrolyte is disclosed. The cell is held within an elongated cylindrical container in which one of the active materials is filled around the outside surfaces of a pluraity of perforate tubular current collectors along the length of the container. Each of the current collector tubes contain a concentric atubular layer of electrically insulative ceramic as an interelectrode separator. The active material of opposite polarity in elongated pin shape is positioned longitudinally within the separator layer. A second electrically conductive tube with perforate walls can be swagged or otherwise bonded to the outer surface of the pin as a current cllector and the electrically insulative ceramic layer can be coated or otherwise layered onto the outer surface of this second current collector. Alternatively, the central pin electrode can include an axial core as a current collector.

Nelson, P.A.; Shimotake, H.

1981-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

243

Electrochemical cell having cylindrical electrode elements  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A secondary, high temperature electrochemical cell especially adapted for lithium alloy negative electrodes, transition metal chalcogenide positive electrodes and alkali metal halide or alkaline earth metal halide electrolyte is disclosed. The cell is held within an elongated cylindrical container in which one of the active materials is filled around the outside surfaces of a plurality of perforate tubular current collectors along the length of the container. Each of the current collector tubes contain a concentric tubular layer of electrically insulative ceramic as an interelectrode separator. The active material of opposite polarity in elongated pin shape is positioned longitudinally within the separator layer. A second electrically conductive tube with perforate walls can be swagged or otherwise bonded to the outer surface of the pin as a current collector and the electrically insulative ceramic layer can be coated or otherwise layered onto the outer surface of this second current collector. Alternatively, the central pin electrode can include an axial core as a current collector.

Nelson, Paul A. (Wheaton, IL); Shimotake, Hiroshi (Hinsdale, IL)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Electrochemical removal of material from metallic work  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Deburring, polishing, surface forming and the like are carried out by electrochemical machining with conformable electrode means including an electrically conducting and an insulating web. The surface of the work to be processed is covered by a deformable electrically insulating web or cloth which is perforated and conforms with the work. The web is covered by a deformable perforated electrically conducting screen electrode which also conforms with, and is insulated from, the work by the insulating web. An electrolyte is conducted through the electrode and insulating web and along the work through a perforated elastic member which engages the electrode under pressure pressing the electrode and web against the work. High current under low voltage is conducted betwen the electrode and work through the insulator, removing material from the work. Under the pressure of the elastic member, the electrode and insulator continue to conform with the work and the spacing between the electrode and work is maintained constant.

Csakvary, Tibor (Wilkens Township, Allegheny County, PA); Fromson, Robert E. (Wilkens Township, Allegheny County, PA)

1980-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

245

Composite electrode for use in electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A porous composite electrode for use in electrochemical cells. The electrode has a first face and a second face defining a relatively thin section therebetween. The electrode is comprised of an ion conducting material, an electron conducting material, and an electrocatalyst. The volume concentration of the ion conducting material is greatest at the first face and is decreased across the section, while the volume concentration of the electron conducting material is greatest at the second face and decreases across the section of the electrode. Substantially all of the electrocatalyst is positioned within the electrode section in a relatively narrow zone where the rate of electron transport of the electrode is approximately equal to the rate of ion transport of the electrode.

Vanderborgh, Nicholas E. (Los Alamos, NM); Huff, James R. (Los Alamos, NM); Leddy, Johna (Flushing, NY)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Electrochemical Approaches to PV Busbar Application  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Busbars are an integral component of any thin-film photovoltaic module and must be easy and quick to apply by PV manufacturers, as well as provide long-term reliability in deployed modules. Potential reliability issues include loss of adhesion and delamination, chemical instability under current collection conditions (electromigration or corrosion), compatibility of material and application method with subsequent encapsulation steps. Several new and novel busbar materials and application methods have been explored, including adhering metal busbars with various one- and two-part conductive epoxies or conductive adhesive films, ultrasonic bonding of metal busbar strips, and bonding of busbar strips using low-temperature solders. The most promising approach to date has been the direct application of metal busbars via various electrochemical techniques, which offers a variety of distinct advantages.

Pankow, J. W.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Method for making an electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making same having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between -15.degree. C. and 150.degree. C.

Bates, John B. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dudney, Nancy J. (Knoxville, TN)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Composite electrode for use in electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A porous composite electrode for use in electrochemical cells. The electrode has a first face and a second face defining a relatively thin section therebetween. The electrode is comprised of an ion conducting material, an electron conducting material, and an electrocatalyst. The volume concentration of the ion conducting material is greatest at the first face and is decreased across the section, while the volume concentration of the electron conducting material is greatest at the second face and decreases across the section of the electrode. Substantially all of the electrocatalyst is positioned within the electrode section in a relatively narrow zone where the rate of electron transport of the electrode is approximately equal to the rate of ion transport of the electrode. 4 figs., 1 tab.

Vanderborgh, N.E.; Huff, J.R.; Leddy, J.

1987-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

249

Electrochemical cell and method of assembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of preparing an electrochemical cell is disclosed which permits the assembly to be accomplished in air. The cell includes a metal sulfide as the positive electrode reactant, lithium alloy as the negative electrode reactant and an alkali metal, molten salt electrolyte. Positive electrode reactant is introduced as Li.sub.2 FeS.sub.2, a single-phase compound produced by the reaction of Li.sub.2 S and FeS. The use of this compound permits introduction of lithium in an oxidized form. Additional lithium can be introduced in the negative electrode structure enclosed within an aluminum foil envelope between layers of porous aluminum. Molten salt electrolyte is added after assembly and evacuation of the cell by including an interelectrode separator that has been prewet with an organic solution of KCl.

Shimotake, Hiroshi (Hinsdale, IL); Voss, Ernst C. H. (Liederbach, DE); Bartholme, Louis G. (Joliet, IL)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Electrochemical studies of perovskite mixed conductors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Research into the growth of high-quality single crystal thin films of high transition temperature {Tc} superconductors have stimulated interest in other perovskite metal oxides with a variety of physical properties. Thin films of perovskite materials are among the major focal research areas for optical, sensor, electronic, and superconducting applications. Two lanthanum-based oxygen/electronic conducting perovskite oxides of particular interest for high temperature fuel cell electrodes and interconnects and for other electrochemical applications such as oxygen separation devices are La{sub 1{minus}x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3{minus}y} and La{sub 1{minus}x}Sr{sub x}CoO{sub 3{minus}y}. The La-based perovskites are valuable for these technologies because they reduce interfacial resistances by eliminating the need for a three phase contact area (gas, metal electrode, electrolyte). In addition, these oxides may also serve a valuable role as novel catalysts or catalytic supports; however, little is known about what catalytic properties they may possess. Fundamental study of the electrochemical, diffusional oxygen transport, and surface catalytic properties of these materials can be greatly simplified if the complications associated with the presence of grain boundaries and multiple crystallite orientations can be avoided. Therefore, single crystals of these La-based perovskites become highly desirable. In this work, the authors report the structural and electrical properties of highly oriented thin films of La{sub 0.84}Sr{sub 0.16}MnO{sub 3} and La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}CoO{sub 3} grown on single crystal Y-ZrO{sub 2} substrates. An addition, the authors have demonstrated growing, in situ, epitaxial multilayer perovskite/fluorite/perovskite configurations for fundamental fuel cell modeling.

Brosha, E.L.; Chung, B.W.; Garzon, F.H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Electronic and Electrochemical Materials and Devices Group

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Development of an Electrochemical Separator and Compressor  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Global conversion to sustainable energy is likely to result in a hydrogen-based economy that supports U.S. energy security objectives while simultaneously avoiding harmful carbon emissions. A key hurdle to successful implementation of a hydrogen economy is the low-cost generation, storage, and distribution of hydrogen. One of the most difficult requirements of this transformation is achieving economical, high density hydrogen storage in passenger vehicles. Transportation applications may require compression and storage of high purity hydrogen up to 12,000 psi. Hydrogen production choices range from centralized low-pressure generation of relatively impure gas in large quantities from steam-methane reformer plants to distributed generation of hydrogen under moderate pressure using water electrolysis. The Electrochemical Hydrogen Separator + Compressor (EHS+C) technology separates hydrogen from impurities and then compresses it to high pressure without any moving parts. The Phase I effort resulted in the construction and demonstration of a laboratory-scale hardware that can separate and compress hydrogen from reformate streams. The completion of Phase I has demonstrated at the laboratory scale the efficient separation and compression of hydrogen in a cost effective manner. This was achieved by optimizing the design of the Electrochemical Hydrogen Compression (EHC) cell hardware and verified by parametric testing in single cell hardware. A broad range of commercial applications exist for reclamation of hydrogen. One use this technology would be in combination with commercial fuel cells resulting in a source of clean power, heat, and compressed hydrogen. Other applications include the reclamation of hydrogen from power plants and other industrial equipment where it is used for cooling, recovery of process hydrogen from heat treating processes, and semiconductor fabrication lines. Hydrogen can also be recovered from reformate streams and cryogenic boil-offs using this technology.

Trent Molter

2011-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

252

ELECTROCHEMICALLY-MODULATED SEPARATIONS FOR SAFEGUARDS MEASUREMENTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A critical objective of materials accountability in safeguards is the accurate and timely analysis of fuel reprocessing streams to detect both abrupt and prolonged diversions of nuclear materials. For this reason both on-line nondestructive (NDA) and destructive analysis (DA) approaches are sought-after. Current methods for DA involve grab sampling and laboratory based column extractions that are costly, hazardous, and time consuming. While direct on-line gamma measurements of Pu are desirable, they are not possible due to contributions from other actinides and fission products. Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory are currently investigating electrochemically-modulated separation (EMS) as a straightforward, cost-effective technology for selective separation of Pu or U from aqueous reprocessing streams. The EMS selectivity is electrochemically controlled and results from the sorption of Pu4+ and U4+ redox states onto the anodized target electrode, allowing for selective accumulation of U or Pu from nitric acid streams to be turned on or off. It is envisioned that this technology can be utilized to isolate Pu for both NDA and DA analysis. For the NDA approach, rapid Pu analysis by gamma-ray spectroscopy could be performed after chemical clean-up of activation and fission products by EMS. Likewise, in the DA approach, EMS could be used to retain and concentrate the Pu in nanogram quantities on the electrode surface to be transported to the lab for analysis using high precision mass spectrometry. Due to the challenges associated with complex matrices, a systematic investigation of the redox-dependent accumulation of Pu using EMS was necessary, and results will be presented. Approaches to mitigate interelement effects using large surface area cells will also be discussed. The EMS chemistry and spectroscopy for Pu isolation and measurement will be presented, proof-of-principle measurements will be described, and the application of this approach for materials accountability will be discussed.

Green, Michael A.; Arrigo, Leah M.; Liezers, Martin; Orton, Christopher R.; Douglas, Matthew; Peper, Shane M.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Hazelton, Sandra G.; Duckworth, Douglas C.

2010-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

253

Decoupling Electrochemical Reaction and Diffusion Processes in Ionically-Conductive Solids on the Nanometer Scale  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a scanning probe microscopy approach to explore voltage-controlled ion dynamics in ionically conductive solids and decouple transport and local electrochemical reactivity on the nanometer scale. Electrochemical strain microscopy allows detection of bias-induced ionic motion through the dynamic (0.1-1 MHz) local strain. Spectroscopic modes based on low-frequency ({approx}1 Hz) voltage sweeps allow local ion dynamics to be probed locally. The bias dependence of the hysteretic strain response accessed through first-order reversal curve (FORC) measurements demonstrates that the process is activated at a certain critical voltage and is linear above this voltage everywhere on the surface. This suggests that FORC spectroscopic ESM data separates local electrochemical reaction and transport processes. The relevant parameters such as critical voltage and effective mobility can be extracted for each location and correlated with the microstructure. The evolution of these behaviors with the charging of the amorphous Si anode in a thin-film Li-ion battery is explored. A broad applicability of this method to other ionically conductive systems is predicted.

Balke, Nina [ORNL; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL; Kim, Yoongu [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Adamczyk, Leslie A [ORNL; Ivanov, Ilia N [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Monitoring charge storage processes in nanoscale oxides using electrochemical scanning probe microscopy.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advances in electrochemical energy storage science require the development of new or the refinement of existing in situ probes that can be used to establish structure - activity relationships for technologically relevant materials. The drive to develop reversible, high capacity electrodes from nanoscale building blocks creates an additional requirement for high spatial resolution probes to yield information of local structural, compositional, and electronic property changes as a function of the storage state of a material. In this paper, we describe a method for deconstructing a lithium ion battery positive electrode into its basic constituents of ion insertion host particles and a carbon current collector. This model system is then probed in an electrochemical environment using a combination of atomic force microscopy and tunneling spectroscopy to correlate local activity with morphological and electronic configurational changes. Cubic spinel Li{sub 1+x}Mn{sub 2-x}O{sub 4} nanoparticles are grown on graphite surfaces using vacuum deposition methods. The structure and composition of these particles are determined using transmission electron microscopy and Auger microprobe analysis. The response of these particles to initial de-lithiation, along with subsequent electrochemical cycling, is tracked using scanning probe microscopy techniques in polar aprotic electrolytes (lithium hexafluorophosphate in ethylene carbonate:diethylcarbonate). The relationship between nanoparticle size and reversible ion insertion activity will be a specific focus of this paper.

Zavadil, Kevin Robert; Lu, Ping; Huang, Jian Yu

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Argonne Chemical Sciences & Engineering - Electrochemical Energy Storage  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electrochemical Energy Storage Electrochemical Energy Storage * Basic Research * Applied R&D * Engineering * Battery Testing Electrochemical Energy Storage The Energy Storage Theme The electrochemical Energy Storage (EES) Theme is internationally recognized as a world-class center for lithium battery R&D. It effectively integrates basic research, applied R&D, engineering, and battery testing, as shown in the diagram below. ees chart Its current focus is on developing improved materials and cell chemistries that will enable lithium-ion (Li-Ion) batteries for commercial light-duty vehicle applications, e.g. hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), and electric vehicle (EV) applications. Basic Research EES recently won a new Office of Science Energy Frontier Research Center (EFRC) denoted the "Center for Electrical Energy Storage: Tailored Interfaces." This new EFRC will focus on the science of stabilizing electrode/electrolyte interfaces in lithium batteries to achieve longer life and enhanced abuse tolerance.

256

Electrochemical development of hydrogen silsesquioxane by applying an electrical potential  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a new method for developing hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) by using electrical potentials and deionized water. Nested-L test structures with a pitch as small as 9 nm were developed using this electrochemical ...

Strobel, Sebastian

257

Development of a morphing helicopter blade with electrochemical actuators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The use of the expansion of electrochemical cells, upon ion intercalation, for the development of a morphing helicopter blade is explored. Using commercially available lithium-ion batteries as demostrators of the technology, ...

Tubilla Kuri, Fernando

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

High Temperature Corrosion and Electrochemical Behavior of Weld ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cathodic Behavior of Silicon (?) in BaF2-CaF2 SiO2 Melts ... Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy of Uranium Chloride in Molten LiCl-KCl Eutectic.

259

Surface electrochemical control for fine coal and pyrite separation  

SciTech Connect

The ongoing work includes the characterization of coal pyrites, the floatability evaluation of three typical US coal samples, the flotation behavior of coal pyrites, the electrochemical measurement of the surface properties of coal pyrites, and the characterization of species produced at pyrite surfaces. This report contains three sections, Transpassive Oxidation of Pyrite,'' Flotation and Electrochemical Pretreatment,'' and Flotation Kinetics of Coal and Coal Pyrite.''

Hu, Weibai; Huang, Qinping; Li, Jun; Zhu, Ximeng; Bodily, D.M.; Liang, Jun; Zhong, Tingke; Wadsworth, M.E.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Thermal conductor for high-energy electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermal conductor for use with an electrochemical energy storage device is disclosed. The thermal conductor is attached to one or both of the anode and cathode contacts of an electrochemical cell. A resilient portion of the conductor varies in height or position to maintain contact between the conductor and an adjacent wall structure of a containment vessel in response to relative movement between the conductor and the wall structure. The thermal conductor conducts current into and out of the electrochemical cell and conducts thermal energy between the electrochemical cell and thermally conductive and electrically resistive material disposed between the conductor and the wall structure. The thermal conductor may be fabricated to include a resilient portion having one of a substantially C-shaped, double C-shaped, Z-shaped, V-shaped, O-shaped, S-shaped, or finger-shaped cross-section. An elastomeric spring element may be configured so as to be captured by the resilient conductor for purposes of enhancing the functionality of the thermal conductor. The spring element may include a protrusion that provides electrical insulation between the spring conductor and a spring conductor of an adjacently disposed electrochemical cell in the presence of relative movement between the cells and the wall structure. The thermal conductor may also be fabricated from a sheet of electrically conductive material and affixed to the contacts of a number of electrochemical cells.

Hoffman, Joseph A. (Minneapolis, MN); Domroese, Michael K. (South St. Paul, MN); Lindeman, David D. (Hudson, WI); Radewald, Vern E. (Austin, TX); Rouillard, Roger (Beloeil, CA); Trice, Jennifer L. (Eagan, MN)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "giner electrochemical systems" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

The Use of Electrochemical Techniques to Characterize Wet Steam Environments  

SciTech Connect

The composition of a steam phase in equilibrium with a water phase at high temperature is remarkably affected by the varying capabilities of the water phase constituents to partition into the steam. Ionic impurities (sodium, chloride, sulfate, etc.) tend to remain in the water phase, while weakly ionic or gaseous species (oxygen) partition into the steam. Analysis of the water phase can provide misleading results concerning the steam phase composition or environment. This paper describes efforts that were made to use novel electrochemical probes and sampling techniques to directly characterize a wet steam phase environment in equilibrium with high temperature water. Probes were designed to make electrochemical measurements in the thin film of water existing on exposed surfaces in steam over a water phase. Some of these probes were referenced against a conventional high temperature electrode located in the water phase. Others used two different materials (typically tungsten and platinum) to make measurements without a true reference electrode. The novel probes were also deployed in a steam space removed from the water phase. It was necessary to construct a reservoir and an external, air-cooled condenser to automatically keep the reservoir full of condensed steam. Conventional reference and working electrodes were placed in the water phase of the reservoir and the novel probes protruded into the vapor space above it. Finally, water phase probes (both reference and working electrodes) were added to the hot condensed steam in the external condenser. Since the condensing action collapsed the volatiles back into the water phase, these electrodes proved to be extremely sensitive at detecting oxygen, which is one of the species of highest concern in high temperature power systems. Although the novel steam phase probes provided encouraging initial results, the tendency for tungsten to completely corrode away in the steam phase limited their usefulness. However, the conventional water phase electrodes, installed both in the reservoir and in the external condensing coil, provided useful data showing the adverse impact of oxygen and carbon dioxide on the REDOX potential and high temperature pH, respectively.

Bruce W. Bussert; John A. Crowley; Kenneth J. Kimball; Brian J. Lashway

2003-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

262

Tribo-electrochemical Characterization of Tantalum during Electrochemical-Mechanical Polishing (ECMP)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electrochemical Mechanical Polishing (ECMP) has become increasingly important due to the continuous decrease of the device size in integrated circuit (IC) fabrication. Tantalum (Ta) is a promising material as a substitute for copper in ICs. This dissertation studies the tribology and electrochemistry of Ta ECMP. The present research uses experimental combined analysis approaches. A specially designed experimental setup assembling a tribometer and a potentiostat was used to carry out Ta ECMP. The friction force and electrochemical reactions were measured simultaneously. Using this setup, we found the factors which affected the frictional behaviors of Ta during ECMP. The technique of single frequency electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was employed to investigate the material removal mechanisms in Ta ECMP. The results presented the competing mechanisms of removal and formation of a surface oxide layer of Ta. In order to further the investigation in a nanoscale, the atomic force microscope (AFM) was used to measure the material removal rate. The Preston equation for the Ta ECMP was established. A new methodology was developed to study the oxidation state and process of Ta during ECMP. Through comparing the material removal rate measured by using the AFM and the calculated one via the Faradays law, the distribution of the Ta suboxides and pentoxide, as well as the oxidation process, was revealed. The oxidation process was strongly dependent of the applied anodic potential, thickness of the oxide layer, mechanical forces, and surface orientation. A polymer environmental cell was designed and produced. Using this cell and AFM, it was found that the material removal in the nanometer scale was a function of the surface orientations. This research is beneficial for optimization of the Ta ECMP process. This dissertation includes six chapters. After Introduction and Motivation and Objectives, the material, setup, and testing conditions are discussed in Chapter III. Chapter IV discusses the tribology and material removal mechanisms in Ta ECMP, while Chapter V the oxidation of Ta during ECMP, followed by Conclusions and Future Work.

Gao, Feng

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Method of doping interconnections for electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A dense, electronically conductive interconnection layer 26 is bonded on a porous, tubular, electronically conductive air electrode structure 16, optionally supported by a ceramic support 22, by (A) forming a layer of oxide particles of at least one of the metals Ca, Sr, Co, Ba or Mg on a part 24 of a first surface of the air electrode 16, (B) heating the electrode structure, (C) applying a halide vapor containing at least lanthanum halide and chromium halide to the first surface and applying a source of oxygen to a second opposite surface of the air electrode so that they contact at said first surface, to cause a reaction of the oxygen and halide and cause a dense lanthanum-chromium oxide structure to grow, from the first electrode surface, between and around the oxide particles, where the metal oxide particles get incoporated into the lanthanum-chromium oxide structure as it grows thicker with time, and the metal ions in the oxide particles diffuse into the bulk of the lanthamum-chromium oxide structure, to provide a dense, top, interconnection layer 26 on top of the air electrode 16. A solid electrolyte layer 18 can be applied to the uncovered portion of the air electrode, and a fuel electrode 20 can be applied to the solid electrolyte, to provide an electrochemical cell 10.

Pal, Uday B. (Monroeville, PA); Singhal, Subhash C. (Murrysville, PA); Moon, David M. (Pittsburgh, PA); Folser, George R. (Lower Burrell, PA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Joint with application in electrochemical devices  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A joint for use in electrochemical devices, such as solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), oxygen separators, and hydrogen separators, that will maintain a hermetic seal at operating temperatures of greater than 600.degree. C., despite repeated thermal cycling excess of 600.degree. C. in a hostile operating environment where one side of the joint is continuously exposed to an oxidizing atmosphere and the other side is continuously exposed to a wet reducing gas. The joint is formed of a metal part, a ceramic part, and a flexible gasket. The flexible gasket is metal, but is thinner and more flexible than the metal part. As the joint is heated and cooled, the flexible gasket is configured to flex in response to changes in the relative size of the metal part and the ceramic part brought about by differences in the coefficient of thermal expansion of the metal part and the ceramic part, such that substantially all of the tension created by the differences in the expansion and contraction of the ceramic and metal parts is absorbed and dissipated by flexing the flexible gasket.

Weil, K Scott [Richland, WA; Hardy, John S [Richland, WA

2010-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

265

Electrochemical cell having improved pressure vent  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The electrochemical cell of the instant invention includes a case having a gas outlet, one or more positive electrodes positioned within the case, one or more negative electrodes positioned within the case electrode separators positioned between the positive and negative electrodes, electrolyte positioned within the case, and a pressure vent for releasing internal pressure occurring in the case to the surrounding atmosphere. The pressure vent is affixed to the case covering the gas outlet, the pressure vent includes a vent housing having a hollow interior area in gaseous communication with the surrounding atmosphere and the interior of the case via the gas outlet, a pressure release piston positioned within the hollow interior area, the pressure release piston sized to surround the gas outlet and having a seal groove configured to encapsulate all but one surface of a seal mounted within the seal groove, leaving the non-encapsulated surface of the seal exposed, and a compression spring positioned to urge the pressure release piston to compress the seal in the seal groove and block the gas outlet in the case.

Dean, Kevin (Pontiac, MI); Holland, Arthur (Troy, MI); Fillmore, Donn (Waterford, MI)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Electrochemical processing of nitrate waste solutions  

SciTech Connect

The second phase of research performed at The Electrosynthesis Co., Inc. has demonstrated the successful removal of nitrite and nitrate from a synthetic effluent stream via a direct electrochemical reduction at a cathode. It was shown that direct reduction occurs at good current efficiencies in 1,000 hour studies. The membrane separation process is not readily achievable for the removal of nitrites and nitrates due to poor current efficiencies and membrane stability problems. A direct reduction process was studied at various cathode materials in a flow cell using the complete synthetic mix. Lead was found to be the cathode material of choice, displaying good current efficiencies and stability in short and long term tests under conditions of high temperature and high current density. Several anode materials were studied in both undivided and divided cell configurations. A divided cell configuration was preferable because it would prevent re-oxidation of nitrite by the anode. The technical objective of eliminating electrode fouling and solids formation was achieved although anode materials which had demonstrated good stability in short term divided cell tests corroded in 1,000 hour experiments. The cause for corrosion is thought to be F[sup [minus

Genders, D.; Weinberg, N.; Hartsough, D. (Electrosynthesis Co., Inc., Cheektowaga, NY (United States))

1992-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

267

Steel refining with an electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus is described for processing a metallic fluid containing iron oxide, container for a molten metal including an electrically conductive refractory disposed for contact with the molten metal which contains iron oxide, an electrolyte in the form of a basic slag on top of the molten metal, an electrode in the container in contact with the slag electrically separated from the refractory, and means for establishing a voltage across the refractory and the electrode to reduce iron oxide to iron at the surface of the refractory in contact with the iron oxide containing fluid. A process is disclosed for refining an iron product containing not more than about 10% by weight oxygen and not more than about 10% by weight sulfur, comprising providing an electrolyte of a slag containing one or more of calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, silica or alumina, providing a cathode of the iron product in contact with the electrolyte, providing an anode in contact with the electrolyte electrically separated from the cathode, and operating an electrochemical cell formed by the anode, the cathode and the electrolyte to separate oxygen or sulfur present in the iron product therefrom. 2 figs.

Blander, M.; Cook, G.M.

1988-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

268

Electrochemical-thermal modeling and microscale phase change for passive internal thermal management of lithium ion batteries.  

SciTech Connect

A fully coupled electrochemical and thermal model for lithium-ion batteries is developed to investigate the impact of different thermal management strategies on battery performance. In contrast to previous modeling efforts focused either exclusively on particle electrochemistry on the one hand or overall vehicle simulations on the other, the present work predicts local electrochemical reaction rates using temperature-dependent data on commercially available batteries designed for high rates (C/LiFePO{sub 4}) in a computationally efficient manner. Simulation results show that conventional external cooling systems for these batteries, which have a low composite thermal conductivity ({approx}1 W/m-K), cause either large temperature rises or internal temperature gradients. Thus, a novel, passive internal cooling system that uses heat removal through liquid-vapor phase change is developed. Although there have been prior investigations of phase change at the microscales, fluid flow at the conditions expected here is not well understood. A first-principles based cooling system performance model is developed and validated experimentally, and is integrated into the coupled electrochemical-thermal model for assessment of performance improvement relative to conventional thermal management strategies. The proposed cooling system passively removes heat almost isothermally with negligible thermal resistances between the heat source and cooling fluid. Thus, the minimization of peak temperatures and gradients within batteries allow increased power and energy densities unencumbered by thermal limitations.

Fuller, Thomas F. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Bandhauer, Todd (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Garimella, Srinivas (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

CO.sub.2 utilization in electrochemical systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with a quantity of spray dryer ash (SDA) and water to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and form a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 40%, and in some cases less than 20%, of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. An optional alkaline activator may be mixed with the fly ash and SDA to facilitate the geopolymerization reaction. The alkaline activator may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

Boxley, Chett; Akash, Akash; Zhao, Qiang

2013-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

270

First-Principles Prediction of the Equilibrium Shape of Nanoparticles Under Realistic Electrochemical Conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A first-principles model of the electrochemical double layer is applied to study surface energies and surface coverage under realistic electrochemical conditions and to determine the equilibrium shape of metal nanoparticles ...

Bonnet, Nicephore

271

Net primary energy balance of a solar-driven photo-electrochemical...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Net primary energy balance of a solar-driven photo-electrochemical water-splitting device Title Net primary energy balance of a solar-driven photo-electrochemical water-splitting...

272

Design of an electrochemical cell making syngas (CO+H-2) from...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Design of an electrochemical cell making syngas (CO+H-2) from C02 and H20 reduction at room temperature Title Design of an electrochemical cell making syngas (CO+H-2) from C02 and...

273

Equipment specifications for an electrochemical fuel reprocessing plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electrochemical reprocessing is a technique used to chemically separate and dissolve the components of spent nuclear fuel, in order to produce new metal fuel. There are several different variations to electrochemical reprocessing. These variations are accounted for by both the production of different types of spent nuclear fuel, as well as different states and organizations doing research in the field. For this electrochemical reprocessing plant, the spent fuel will be in the metallurgical form, a product of fast breeder reactors, which are used in many nuclear power plants. The equipment line for this process is divided into two main categories, the fuel refining equipment and the fuel fabrication equipment. The fuel refining equipment is responsible for separating out the plutonium and uranium together, while getting rid of the minor transuranic elements and fission products. The fuel fabrication equipment will then convert this plutonium and uranium mixture into readily usable metal fuel.

Hemphill, Kevin P [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

High temperature electrochemical polishing of H{sub 2}S from coal gasification process streams: Quarterly progress report, October 1, 1994--December 31, 1994  

SciTech Connect

A high temperature electrochemical cell capable of polishing hydrogen sulfide from fuel gas streams is being perfected. The operation, to be used in compliance with high efficiency energy conversion systems, takes advantage of an electrochemical potential gradient instead of typical separation techniques to separate hydrogen sulfide from the fuel gas stream leaving hydrogen to enrich the exiting gases. Vaporous sulfur is the by-product carried downstream by a separate inert sweep gas and condensed. Work continued this quarter to improve experimental conditions (laboratory and equipment enhancement). The oven containing the Electrochemical Membrane Separator (EMS) is the main focus of improvement readjusting spatial requirements conforming to the controlled environmental emissions equipment while creating a controlled atmosphere gauntlet to unfavorable reactions with electrolytic species. Manufacturing of yttria-stabilized zirconia matrices was the primary focus of laboratory experimentation while full-cell testing is not possible.

Winnick, J.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

275

Electrochemical process and production of novel complex hydrides  

SciTech Connect

A process of using an electrochemical cell to generate aluminum hydride (AlH.sub.3) is provided. The electrolytic cell uses a polar solvent to solubilize NaAlH.sub.4. The resulting electrochemical process results in the formation of AlH.sub.3. The AlH.sub.3 can be recovered and used as a source of hydrogen for the automotive industry. The resulting spent aluminum can be regenerated into NaAlH.sub.4 as part of a closed loop process of AlH.sub.3 generation.

Zidan, Ragaiy

2013-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

276

Electrochemical cell for in-situ x-ray characterization  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An electrochemical cell suitable for in-situ XRD analysis is presented. Qualitative information such as phase formation and phase stability can be easily monitored using the in-situ cell design. Quantitative information such as lattice parameters and kinetic behavior is also straightforward. Analysis of the LiMn&sub2;O&sub4; spinel using this cell design shows that the lattice undergoes two major structural shrinkages at approx. 4.0 V and approx. 4.07 V during charging. These shrinkages correlate well with the two electrochemical waves observed and indicate the likelihood of two separate redox processes which charging and discharging.

Doughty, D.H.; Ingersoll, D.; Rodriguez, M.A.

1998-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

277

Electrochemical cell utilizing molten alkali metal electrode-reactant  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved electrochemical cell comprising an additive-modified molten alkali metal electrode-reactant and/or electrolyte is disclosed. Various electrochemical cells employing a molten alkali metal, e.g., sodium, electrode in contact with a cationically conductive ceramic membrane experience a lower resistance and a lower temperature coefficient of resistance whenever small amounts of selenium are present at the interface of the electrolyte and the molten alkali metal. Further, cells having small amounts of selenium present at the electrolyte-molten metal interface exhibit less degradation of the electrolyte under long term cycling conditions.

Virkar, Anil V. (Sandy, UT); Miller, Gerald R. (Salt Lake City, UT)

1983-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

278

Nitrogen-doped Graphene and Its Electrochemical Applications  

SciTech Connect

Nitrogen-doped graphene (N-graphene) is obtained by exposing graphene to nitrogen plasma. N-graphene exhibits much higher electrocatalytic activity toward oxygen reduction and H2O2 reduction than graphene, and much higher durability and selectivity than the widely-used expensive Pt. The excellent electrochemical performance of N-graphene is attributed to nitrogen functional groups and the specific properties of graphene. This indicates that N-graphene is promising for applications in electrochemical energy devices (fuel cells, metal-air batteries) and biosensors.

Shao, Yuyan; Zhang, Sheng; Engelhard, Mark H.; Li, Guosheng; Shao, Guocheng; Wang, Yong; Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Lin, Yuehe

2010-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

279

Interpretation of Self-Potential Anomalies Using Constitutive Relationships for Electrochemical and Thermoelectric Coupling Coefficients  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Constitutive relationships for electrochemical and thermoelectric cross-coupling coefficients are derived using ionic mobilities, applying a general derivative of chemical potential and employing the zero net current condition. The general derivative of chemical potential permits thermal variations which give rise to the thermoelectric effect. It also accounts for nonideal solution behavior. An equation describing electric field strength is similarly derived with the additional assumption of electrical neutrality in the fluid Planck approximation. The Planck approximation implies that self-potential (SP) is caused only by local sources and also that the electric field strength has only first order spatial variations. The derived relationships are applied to the NaCl-KCl concentration cell with predicted and measured voltages agreeing within 0.4 mV. The relationships are also applied to the Long Valley and Yellowstone geothermal systems. There is a high degree of correlation between predicted and measured SP response for both systems, giving supporting evidence for the validity of the approach. Predicted SP amplitude exceeds measured in both cases; this is a possible consequence of the Planck approximation. Electrochemical sources account for more than 90% of the predicted response in both cases while thermoelectric mechanisms account for the remaining 10%; electrokinetic effects are not considered. Predicted electrochemical and thermoelectric voltage coupling coefficients are comparable to values measured in the laboratory. The derived relationships are also applied to arbitrary distributions of temperature and fluid composition to investigate the geometric diversity of observed SP anomalies. Amplitudes predicted for hypothetical saline spring and hot spring environments are less than 40 mV. In contrast, hypothetical near surface steam zones generate very large amplitudes, over 2 V in one case. These results should be viewed with some caution due to the uncertain validity of the Planck approximation for these conditions. All amplitudes are controlled by electrochemical mechanisms. Polarities are controlled by the curvature of the concentration or thermal profile. Concave upward thermal profiles produce positive anomalies, for constant fluid concentrations, whereas concave upward concentration profiles produce negative anomalies. Concave downward concentration profiles are characterized by small negative closures bounding a larger, positive SP anomaly.

Knapp, R. B.; Kasameyer, P. W.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Electrochemical arsenic remediation for rural Bangladesh  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Arsenic in drinking water is a major public health problem threatening the lives of over 140 million people worldwide. In Bangladesh alone, up to 57 million people drink arsenic-laden water from shallow wells. ElectroChemical Arsenic Remediation(ECAR) overcomes many of the obstacles that plague current technologies and can be used affordably and on a small-scale, allowing for rapid dissemination into Bangladesh to address this arsenic crisis. In this work, ECAR was shown to effectively reduce 550 - 580 mu g=L arsenic (including both As[III]and As[V]in a 1:1 ratio) to below the WHO recommended maximum limit of 10 mu g=L in synthetic Bangladesh groundwater containing relevant concentrations of competitive ions such as phosphate, silicate, and bicarbonate. Arsenic removal capacity was found to be approximately constant within certain ranges of current density, but was found to change substantially between ranges. In order of decreasing arsenic removal capacity, the pattern was: 0.02 mA=cm2> 0.07 mA=cm2> 0.30 - 1.1 mA=cm2> 5.0 - 100 mA=cm2. Current processing time was found to effect arsenic removal capacity independent of either charge density or current density. Electrode polarization studies showed no passivation of the electrode in the tested range (up to current density 10 mA=cm2) and ruled out oxygen evolution as the cause of decreasing removal capacity with current density. Simple settling and decantation required approximately 3 days to achieve arsenic removal comparable to filtration with a 0.1 mu m membrane. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) showed that (1) there is no significant difference in the arsenic removal mechanism of ECAR during operation at different current densities and (2) the arsenic removal mechanism in ECAR is consistent with arsenate adsorption onto a homogenous Fe(III)oxyhydroxide similar in structure to 2-line ferrihydrite. ECAR effectively reduced high arsenic concentrations (100 - 500 mu g=L) in real Bangladesh tube well water collected from three regions to below the WHO limit of 10 mu g=L. Prototype fabrication and field testing are currently underway.

Addy, Susan Amrose

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "giner electrochemical systems" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Electrochemical corrosion of iron-magnesium-alumina spinel (FMAS) in molten potassium salts and coal slag  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Iron, magnesium-alumina spinel (FMAS) (0.25 Fe/sub 3/O/sub 4/ . 0.75 MgAl/sub 2/O/sub 4/) has been considered for use as an electrode in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator channels. Predominantly an electronic conductor, FMAS has adequate electrical conductivity (>1 S/m) above 520/sup 0/K. In addition, FMAS can be easily fabricated into a form and sintered in air to >90% theoretical density and has a melting point of 2124 +- 20/sup 0/K. Laboratory tests to measure both the electrochemical and chemical corrosion of FMAS in molten K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, K/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and coal slags were developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to evaluate the relative corrosion of FMAS. Under isothermal conditions, a direct electric current was passed between an anode and a cathode through a molten electrolyte. The molten coal slags were synthetic high-calcium, low-iron Montana Rosebud and low-calcium, high-iron Illinois No. 6. Evaluations of electrochemical corrosion were made as functions of current density, temperature, and slag composition. These results were compared to those of FMAS tested without electric current. The corrosion rates and reaction products were investigated by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Overall, FMAS has too-high an electrochemical corrosion rate to be considered as MHD electrodes in Montana Rosebud coal slag or in systems where only molten potassium salts are present. However, FMAS may be considered for use in high-iron coal slags although the corrosion rates are still quite high even in these slags.

Marchant, D.D.; Griffin, C.W.; Bates, J.L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Final report for contract research on electrochemical capacitors based on conducting polymers, January 15--August 31, 1992  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Conducting polymers (CPs) have attracted attention as potentially useful materials for electrochemical capacitors due to their high energy storage capacity and their comparatively low cost. During the course of this research the authors explored a number of poly(heteroaromatic) systems, in conjunction with several nonaqueous electrolytes, that could be used as active materials in electrochemical capacitors. They identified a new configuration for such capacitors based on p- and n-dopable polymers and prepared a number4r of such materials. A new electrolyte, TMATFMS, which facilitates n-doping in these polymers was also synthesized and tested. A patent disclosure on these discoveries has been filed with Mr. Ray Wilson of LANL.

Ferraris, J.P. [Texas Univ., Dallas, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1992-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

283

Computational, electrochemical and {sup 7}Li NMR studies of lithiated disordered carbons electrodes in lithium ion cells.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Disordered carbons that deliver high reversible capacity in electrochemical cells have been synthesized by using inorganic clays as templates to control the pore size and the surface area. The capacities obtained were much higher than those calculated if the resultant carbon had a graphitic-like structure. Computational chemistry was used to investigate the nature of lithium bonding in a carbon lattice unlike graphite. The lithium intercalated fullerene Li{sub n}-C{sub 60} was used as a model for our (non-graphitic) disordered carbon lattice. A dilithium-C{sub 60} system with a charge and multiplicity of (0,1) and a trilithium-C{sub 60} system with a charge and multiplicity of (0,4) were investigated. The spatial distribution of lithium ions in an electrochemical cell containing this novel disordered carbon material was investigated in situ by Li-7 NMR using an electrochemical cell that was incorporated into a toroid cavity nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imager. The concentration of solvated Li{sup +} ions in the carbon anode appears to be larger than in the bulk electrolyte, is substantially lower near the copper/carbon interface, and does not change with cell charging.

Sandi, G.; Gerald, R., II; Scanlon, L. G.; Carrado, K. A.; Winans, R. E.

1998-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

284

Research & Development Opportunities in Electrosynthesis and Electrochemical Manufacturing Processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This scoping study is a follow-up to the Electrochemical Synthesis Workshop cosponsored by EPRI and the National Science Foundation (NSF) to identify areas of research and development (R&D) that fit EPRI's charter. Participants identified several R&D opportunities. This report discusses some of those opportunities.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

285

Electrode electrolyte interlayers containing cerium oxide for electrochemical fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical cell is made having a porous fuel electrode (16) and a porous air electrode (13), with solid oxide electrolyte (15) therebetween, where the air electrode surface opposing the electrolyte has a separate, attached, dense, continuous layer (14) of a material containing cerium oxide, and where electrolyte (16) contacts the continuous oxide layer (14), without contacting the air electrode (13).

Borglum, Brian P. (Edgewood, PA); Bessette, Norman F. (N. Huntingdon, PA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Morphological, rheological and electrochemical studies of Poly(ethylene  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Morphological, rheological and electrochemical studies of Poly(ethylene Morphological, rheological and electrochemical studies of Poly(ethylene oxide) electrolytes containing fumed silica nanoparticles Title Morphological, rheological and electrochemical studies of Poly(ethylene oxide) electrolytes containing fumed silica nanoparticles Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2004 Authors Xie, Jiangbing, Robert G. Duan, Yong Bong Han, and John B. Kerr Journal Solid State Ionics Volume 175 Pagination 755-758 Keywords composite polymer electrolytes, nanoparticles, poly(ethylene oxide), rheology Abstract In this paper, the rheology and crystallization of composite Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) electrolytes were studied by dynamic mechanical analysis, DSC and polarized light microscopy. The effects of fumed silica nanoparticles on the conductivities of the polymer electrolytes at temperatures above and below their melting points were measured and related to their rheology and crystallization behavior, respectively. The electrolyte/electrode interfacial properties and cycling performances of the composite polymer electrolytes in Li/Li cells are also discussed. The measured electrochemical properties were found to depend heavily on the operational environments and sample processing history.

287

Surface electrochemical control for fine coal and pyrite separation  

SciTech Connect

Ongoing work includes the characterization of coal pyrites, the floatability evaluation of typical US coal samples, the flotation behavior of coal pyrites, the electrochemical measurement of the surface properties of coal pyrites, and the characterization of species produced at pyrite surfaces.

Chen, Wanxiong; Hu, Weibai; Wann, Jyi-Perng; Zhu, Ximeng; Bodily, D.M.; Wadsworth, M.E.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Surface electrochemical control for the fine coal and pyrite separation  

SciTech Connect

Ongoing work includes the characterization of coal pyrites, the floatability evaluation of typical US coal samples, the flotation behavior of coal pyrites, the electrochemical measurement of the surface properties of coal pyrites, and the characterization of species produced at pyrite surfaces.

Hu, Weibai; Huang, Qinping; Zhu, Ximeng; Li, Jun; Bodily, D.M.; Liang, Jun; Zhong, Tingke; Wadsworth, M.E.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Mediated electrochemical oxidation of organic wastes without electrode separators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical cell/electrolyte/mediator combination is described for the efficient destruction of organic contaminants using metal salt mediators in a sulfuric acid electrolyte, wherein the electrodes and mediator are chosen such that hydrogen gas is produced at the cathode and no cell membrane is required. 3 figs.

Farmer, J.C.; Wang, F.T.; Hickman, R.G.; Lewis, P.R.

1996-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

290

Oxide modified air electrode surface for high temperature electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical cell is made having a porous cermet electrode (16) and a porous lanthanum manganite electrode (14), with solid oxide electrolyte (15) between them, where the lanthanum manganite surface next to the electrolyte contains a thin discontinuous layer of high surface area cerium oxide and/or praseodymium oxide, preferably as discrete particles (30) in contact with the air electrode and electrolyte.

Singh, Prabhakar (Export, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, Allegheny County, PA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

The evaluation of Federal Fabrics-Fibers electrochemical capacitors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The electrochemical capacitor devices described in this report were deliverables from the US Department of Energy-Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) as part of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) High Power Energy Storage Program. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has the responsibility for technical management, testing, and evaluation of high-power batteries and electrochemical capacitors under this Program. The DOE is currently developing various electrochemical capacitors as candidate power assist devices for the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) fast response engine requirement. This contract with Federal Fabrics-Fibers was intended to evaluate the use of their novel Z-axis carbon fiber materials as candidate electrodes for electrochemical capacitors. Deliverables were sent to the INEEL`s Energy Storage Technologies (EST) Laboratory for independent testing and evaluation. This report describes performance testing on four selected devices delivered over a 2-year period. Due to the highly experimental nature of the packages, life cycle testing was not conducted.

Wright, R.B.; Murphy, T.C.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Diagnosis of PEMFC Stack Failures via Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Membrane fuel cells (dehydration and flooding) were investigated using electrochemical impedance. A four-cell stack capable of delivering individually conditioned reactants to each cell was designed set of measurements covering these ranges. The failure modes were simulated on individual cells within

Victoria, University of

293

Novel Electrochemical CO2 Removal Technology For Combustion of Fossil-Fuels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electrochemical gas separation concepts are often neglected when discussing options to manage CO2 emissions. Electrochemical approaches are selective and do not require periodic regeneration. This paper will review prior work on electrochemical CO2 separation and compare the parasitic energy penalties of this approach to more conventional approaches of capturing CO2 from flue gas streams. A new concept to reduce the electrochemical parasitic energy penalties will be introduced and a preliminary analysis of the concept will be discussed. Relative to a conventional monoethanolamine (MEA) solvent approach, electrochemical CO2 capture does require less energy on a per-mole-of-CO2 basis. However, there are trade-offs since an electrochemical pumping approach requires electrical energy, instead of lower grade thermal energy. Although there are several issues with electrochemical CO2 capture, efforts to reduce parasitic losses of CO2 separation may need to consider such novel alternatives.

Douglas L. Straub; Maria Salazar-Villalpando

2008-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

294

Electrochemical Membrane for Carbon Dioxide Separation and Power Generation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

uelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) has developed a novel system concept for separation of carbon dioxide (CO2) from greenhouse gas (GHG) emission sources using an electrochemical membrane (ECM). The salient feature of the ECM is its capability to produce electric power while capturing CO2 from flue gas, such as from an existing pulverized coal (PC) plant. Laboratory scale testing of the ECM has verified the feasibility of the technology for CO2 separation from simulated flue gases of PC plants as well as combined cycle power plants and other industrial facilities. Recently, FCE was awarded a contract (DE-FE0007634) from the U.S. Department of Energy to evaluate the use of ECM to efficiently and cost effectively separate CO2 from the emissions of existing coal fired power plants. The overarching objective of the project is to verify that the ECM can achieve at least 90% CO2 capture from flue gas of an existing PC plant with no more than 35% increase in the cost of electricity (COE) produced by the plant. The specific objectives and related activities planned for the project include: 1) conduct bench scale tests of a planar membrane assembly consisting of ten or more cells of about 0.8 m2 area each, 2) develop the detailed design for an ECM-based CO2 capture system applied to an existing PC plant, and 3) evaluate the effects of impurities (pollutants such as SO2, NOx, Hg) present in the coal plant flue gas by conducting laboratory scale performance tests of the membrane. The results of this project are anticipated to demonstrate that the ECM is an advanced technology, fabricated from inexpensive materials, based on proven operational track records, modular, scalable to large sizes, and a viable candidate for >90% carbon capture from existing PC plants. In this paper, the fundamentals of ECM technology including: material of construction, principal mechanisms of operation, carbon capture test results and the benefits of applications to PC plants will be presented.

Jolly, Stephen; Ghezel-Ayagh, Hossein; Hunt, Jennifer; Patel, Dilip; Steen, William A.; Richardson, Carl F.; Marina, Olga A.

2012-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

295

The electrochemical performance of ordered mesoporous carbon/nickel compounds composite material for supercapacitor  

SciTech Connect

A series of high performance ordered mesoporous carbon/nickel compounds composites have been synthesized by a combination of incipient wetness impregnation and hydrothermal method for the first time. X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption isotherms and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are used to characterize the composites derived at the hydrothermal temperature of 125, 150, 175, 200, 250, 275 and 300 {sup o}C. The formation of nanosized nickel compounds, fully inside the mesopore system, was confirmed with XRD and TEM. An N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption isotherms measurements still revealed mesoporosity for the host/guest compounds. It is noteworthy that an OMC/nickel nitrate hydroxide hydrate composite (OMCN-150) exhibits more excellent performance. Based on the various hydrothermal temperatures of the composite, the capacitance of an OMCN-150 delivering the best electrochemical performance is about 2.4 (5 mV s{sup -1}) and 1.5 (50 mV s{sup -1}) times of the pristine OMC. The capacitance retention of an OMCN-150 is 96.1%, which indicates that the electrochemical performance of the supercapacitor is improved greatly, and represents novel research and significant advances in the field of electrode composite materials for supercapacitor. -- Graphical abstract: A series of high performance nickel compound/ordered mesoporous carbon composites were synthesized by a combination of incipient wetness impregnation and hydrothermal method for the first time. Display Omitted

Feng, Jicheng; Zhao, Jiachang; Tang, Bohejin; Liu, Ping [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University of Engineering Science, Shanghai 201620 (China); Xu, Jingli, E-mail: jinglixu@sues.edu.c [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University of Engineering Science, Shanghai 201620 (China)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

296

Argonne Chemical Sciences & Engineering -Electrochemical Energy Storage -  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Applied R&D Applied R&D * Members * Contact * Publications * Overview EES Home Electrochemical Energy Storage - Applied R&D Lithium-ion Battery Research Argonne National Laboratory's battery research aims to lower the cost and increase the lifetime and safety of high-power lithium-ion batteries for transportation and other applications. Argonne's Electrochemical Energy Storage (EES) Department leads the applied battery R&D program for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Vehicle Technologies Program in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). This $10 million/year program involves five other DOE laboratories. The program is currently focused on overcoming barriers for lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries for use in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs),

297

Continuous-feed electrochemical cell with nonpacking particulate electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical cell providing full consumption of electrochemically active particles in a nonpacking, electrolyte-permeable bed has a tapered cell cavity bounded by two nonparallel surfaces separated by a distance that promotes bridging of particles across the cavity. The gap/particle size ratio is maintained as the particles are consumed, decrease in size, and travel from the point of entry to the narrower end of the cell. A cell of this configuration supports a bed of low packing density maintained in a dynamic steady state by alternate formation and collapse of particle bridges across the gap and associated voids over the entire active area of the cell. The cell design can be applied to refuelable zinc/air cells and zinc/ferrocyanide storage batteries.

Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Electrochemical behavior of carbon aerogels derived from different precursors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The ability to tailor the structure and properties of porous carbons has led to their increased use as electrodes in energy storage devices. Our research focuses on the synthesis and characterization of carbon aerogels for use in electrochemical double layer capacitors. Carbon aerogels are formed from the sol-gel polymerization of (1) resorcinol-formaldehyde or (2) phenolic-furfural, followed by supercritical drying from carbon dioxide, and subsequent pyrolysis in an inert atmosphere. These materials can be produced as monoliths, composites, thin films, powders, or microspheres. In all cases, the areogels have an open-cell structure with an ultrafine pore size (<100 nm), high surface area (400-1 100 m{sup 2}/g), and a solid matrix composed of interconnected particles, fibers, or platelets with characteristic dimensions of 10 nm. This paper examines the effects of the carbon precursor and processing conditions on electrochemical performance in aqueous and organic electrolytes.

Pekala, R.W.; Alviso, C.T.; Nielson, J.K.; Tran, T.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Reynolds, G.M.; Dresshaus, M.S. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Nanodisperse transition metal electrodes (NTME) for electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are transition metal electrodes for electrochemical cells using gel-state and solid-state polymers. The electrodes are suitable for use in primary and secondary cells. The electrodes (either negative electrode or positive electrode) are characterized by uniform dispersion of the transition metal at the nanoscale in the polymer. The transition metal moiety is structurally amorphous, so no capacity fade should occur due to lattice expansion/contraction mechanisms. The small grain size, amorphous structure and homogeneous distribution provide improved charge/discharge cycling performance, and a higher initial discharge rate capability. The cells can be cycled at high current densities, limited only by the electrolyte conductivity. A method of making the electrodes (positive and negative), and their usage in electrochemical cells are disclosed.

Striebel, Kathryn A.; Wen, Shi-Jie

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Nanodisperse transition metal electrodes (NTME) for electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are transition metal electrodes for electrochemical cells using gel-state and solid-state polymers. The electrodes are suitable for use in primary and secondary cells. The electrodes (either negative electrode or positive electrode) are characterized by uniform dispersion of the transition metal at the nanoscale in the polymer. The transition metal moiety is structurally amorphous, so no capacity fade should occur due to lattice expansion/contraction mechanisms. The small grain size, amorphous structure and homogeneous distribution provide improved charge/discharge cycling performance, and a higher initial discharge rate capability. The cells can be cycled at high current densities, limited only by the electrolyte conductivity. A method of making the electrodes (positive and negative), and their usage in electrochemical cells are disclosed.

Striebel, Kathryn A. (Oakland, CA); Wen, Shi-Jie (Sunnyvale, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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301

Structures And Fabrication Techniques For Solid State Electrochemical Devices  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Provided are low-cost, mechanically strong, highly electronically conductive porous substrates and associated structures for solid-state electrochemical devices, techniques for forming these structures, and devices incorporating the structures. The invention provides solid state electrochemical device substrates of novel composition and techniques for forming thin electrode/membrane/electrolyte coatings on the novel or more conventional substrates. In particular, in one embodiment the invention provides techniques for co-firing of device substrate (often an electrode) with an electrolyte or membrane layer to form densified electrolyte/membrane films 5 to 20 microns thick. In another embodiment, densified electrolyte/membrane films 5 to 20 microns thick may be formed on a pre-sintered substrate by a constrained sintering process. In some cases, the substrate may be a porous metal, alloy, or non-nickel cermet incorporating one or more of the transition metals Cr, Fe, Cu and Ag, or alloys thereof.

Visco, Steven J. (Berkeley, CA); Jacobson, Craig P. (El Cerrito, CA); DeJonghe, Lutgard C. (Lafayette, CA)

2005-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

302

Structures and fabrication techniques for solid state electrochemical devices  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Provided are low-cost, mechanically strong, highly electronically conductive porous substrates and associated structures for solid-state electrochemical devices, techniques for forming these structures, and devices incorporating the structures. The invention provides solid state electrochemical device substrates of novel composition and techniques for forming thin electrode/membrane/electrolyte coatings on the novel or more conventional substrates. In particular, in one embodiment the invention provides techniques for co-firing of device substrate (often an electrode) with an electrolyte or membrane layer to form densified electrolyte/membrane films 5 to 20 microns thick. In another embodiment, densified electrolyte/membrane films 5 to 20 microns thick may be formed on a pre-sintered substrate by a constrained sintering process. In some cases, the substrate may be a porous metal, alloy, or non-nickel cermet incorporating one or more of the transition metals Cr, Fe, Cu and Ag, or alloys thereof.

Visco, Steven J. (Berkeley, CA); Jacobson, Craig P. (El Cerrito, CA); DeJonghe, Lutgard C. (Lafayette, CA)

2003-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

303

Anode for a secondary, high-temperature electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high-temperature, secondary electrochemical cell includes an anode containing lithium, an electrolyte containing lithium ions and a cathode containing a chalcogen material such as sulfur or a metallic sulfide. The anode includes a porous substrate formed of, for instance, a compacted mass of entangled metallic fibers providing interstitial crevices for receiving molten lithium metal. The surfaces of the interstitial crevices are provided with a coating of cobalt metal to enhance the retention of the molten lithium metal within the substrate.

Vissers, Donald R. (Naperville, IL); Tani, Benjamin S. (Chicago, IL)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Surface electrochemical control for fine coal and pyrite separation  

SciTech Connect

This technical progress report, prepared in accordance with the reporting requirements of DOE Project No. DE-AC22-89PC89758, covers the work performed from April 1, 1991 to June 30, 1991. The ongoing work includes the characterization of coal pyrites, the floatability evaluation of three typical US coal samples, the flotation behavior of coal pyrites, the electrochemical measurement of the surface properties of coal pyrites, and the characterization of species produced at pyrite surfaces. 6 refs., 20 figs.

Hu, Weibai; Huang, Qinping; Riley, A.; Zhu, Ximeng; Bodily, D.M.; Liang, Jun; Zhong, Tinghe; Wadsworth, M.E.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Electrochemical power-producing cell. [Li/Se  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical power-producing cell including a molten lithium metal anode, a molten selenium metal cathode, a paste electrolyte separating the anode from the cathode, an anode current collector, and a single layer of niobium expanded metal formed in corrugated shape as cathode current collector is described. In addition, means are provided for sealing the anode and the cathode from loss of lithium and selenium, respectively, and an insulator is provided between the anode housing and the paste electrolyte disk.

Cairns, E.J.; Chilenskas, A.A.; Steunenberg, R.K.; Shimotake, H.

1972-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

306

Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is comprised of an electrically conducting doped or admixed cerium oxide composition with niobium oxide and/or tantalum oxide for electrochemical devices, characterized by the general formula: Nb{sub x}Ta{sub y}Ce{sub 1{minus}x{minus}y}O{sub 2} where x is about 0.0 to 0.05, y is about 0.0 to 0.05, and x+y is about 0.02 to 0.05, and where x is preferably about 0.02 to 0.05 and y is 0, and a method of making the same is also described. This novel composition is particularly applicable in forming a protective interlayer of a high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell, characterized by a first electrode; an electrically conductive interlayer of niobium and/or tantalum doped cerium oxide deposited over at least a first portion of the first electrode; an interconnect deposited over the interlayer; a solid electrolyte deposited over a second portion of the first electrode, the first portion being discontinuous from the second portion; and, a second electrode deposited over the solid electrolyte. The interlayer is characterized as being porous and selected from the group consisting of niobium doped cerium oxide, tantalum doped cerium oxide, and niobium and tantalum doped cerium oxide or admixtures of the same. The first electrode, an air electrode, is a porous layer of doped lanthanum manganite, the solid electrolyte layer is a dense yttria stabilized zirconium oxide, the interconnect layer is a dense, doped lanthanum chromite, and the second electrode, a fuel electrode, is a porous layer of nickel-zirconium oxide cermet. The electrochemical cell can take on a plurality of shapes such as annular, planar, etc. and can be connected to a plurality of electrochemical cells in series and/or in parallel to generate electrical energy. 5 figs.

Singh, P.; Vasilow, T.R.; Richards, V.L.

1996-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

307

Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention comprises of an electrically conducting doped or admixed cerium oxide composition with niobium oxide and/or tantalum oxide for electrochemical devices, characterized by the general formula: Nb.sub.x Ta.sub.y Ce.sub.1-x-y O.sub.2 where x is about 0.0 to 0.05, y is about 0.0 to 0.05, and x+y is about 0.02 to 0.05, and where x is preferably about 0.02 to 0.05 and y is 0, and a method of making the same. This novel composition is particularly applicable in forming a protective interlayer of a high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell (10), characterized by a first electrode (12); an electrically conductive interlayer (14) of niobium and/or tantalum doped cerium oxide deposited over at least a first portion (R) of the first electrode; an interconnect (16) deposited over the interlayer; a solid electrolyte (18) deposited over a second portion of the first electrode, the first portion being discontinuous from the second portion; and, a second electrode (20) deposited over the solid electrolyte. The interlayer (14) is characterized as being porous and selected from the group consisting of niobium doped cerium oxide, tantalum doped cerium oxide, and niobium and tantalum doped cerium oxide or admixtures of the same. The first electrode (12), an air electrode, is a porous layer of doped lanthanum manganite, the solid electrolyte layer (18) is a dense yttria stabilized zirconium oxide, the interconnect layer (16) is a dense, doped lanthanum chromite, and the second electrode (20), a fuel electrode, is a porous layer of nickel-zirconium oxide cermet. The electrochemical cell (10) can take on a plurality of shapes such as annular, planar, etc. and can be connected to a plurality of electrochemical cells in series and/or in parallel to generate electrical energy.

Singh, Prabhakar (Export, PA); Vasilow, Theodore R. (Manor, PA); Richards, Von L. (Angola, IN)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Calcium alloy as active material in secondary electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Calcium alloys such as calcium-aluminum and calcium-silicon, are employed as active material within a rechargeable negative electrode of an electrochemical cell. Such cells can use a molten salt electrolyte including calcium ions and a positive electrode having sulfur, sulfides, or oxides as active material. The calcium alloy is selected to prevent formation of molten calcium alloys resulting from reaction with the selected molten electrolytic salt at the cell operating temperatures.

Roche, Michael F. (Lombard, IL); Preto, Sandra K. (Stickney, IL); Martin, Allan E. (Woodridge, IL)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Structures and fabrication techniques for solid state electrochemical devices  

SciTech Connect

Porous substrates and associated structures for solid-state electrochemical devices, such as solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), are low-cost, mechanically strong and highly electronically conductive. Some preferred structures have a thin layer of an electrocatalytically active material (e.g., Ni--YSZ) coating a porous high-strength alloy support (e.g., SS-430) to form a porous SOFC fuel electrode. Electrode/electrolyte structures can be formed by co-firing or constrained sintering processes.

Visco, Steven J. (Berkeley, CA); Jacobson, Craig P. (El Cerrito, CA); DeJonghe, Lutgard C. (Lafayette, CA)

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Structures and fabrication techniques for solid state electrochemical devices  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Porous substrates and associated structures for solid-state electrochemical devices, such as solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), are low-cost, mechanically strong and highly electronically conductive. Some preferred structures have a thin layer of an electrocatalytically active material (e.g., Ni--YSZ) coating a porous high-strength alloy support (e.g., SS-430) to form a porous SOFC fuel electrode. Electrode/electrolyte structures can be formed by co-firing or constrained sintering processes.

Visco, Steven J.; Jacobson, Craig P.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

311

Electrochemical Investigation on Chlorine and Electrolyte ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Experimental Study on Magnesium Extracted from Ascharite Mineral by Aluminium ... for Weight Saving Applications: First Year Results from the GREEN METALLURGY EU Project ... Interdiffusion and Phase Formation in the Mg-Y System ... K-38: Production of Mg-Ni Alloy by Consumable Cathode Molten Salt Electrolysis.

312

Electrochemical Promotion of the Ammonia Synthesis with Electrically Promoted Catalyst Pellets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the last decade, a new application of solid-electrolyte electrochemistry called non-Faradaic electrochemical modification of catalytic activity (NEMCA), or electrochemical promotion of catalysis, has emerged. The catalytic activity of the gas-exposed electrode surface of metal electrodes in solid electrolyte cells is altered dramatically and reversibly upon polarizing the metal-solid electrolyte interface. Electrochemical promotion of ammonia decomposition was studied in an attempt to identify con...

2001-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

313

Electrochemical Performance of Graphene as Effected by Electrode Porosity and Graphene Functionalization  

SciTech Connect

Graphene-based electrodes have recently gained popularity due to their superior electrochemical properties. However, the exact mechanisms of electrochemical activity are not yet understood. Here, we present data from NADH oxidation and ferri/ferrocyanide redox probe experiments to demonstrate that both (i) the porosity of the graphene electrodes, as effected by the packing morphology, and (ii) the functional group and the lattice defect concentration play a significant role on their electrochemical performance.

Punckt, Christian; Pope, Michael A.; Liu, Jun; Lin, Yuehe; Aksay, Ilhan A.

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Electrochemical cell and separator plate thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell includes a separator plate having first and second flow channels extending therethrough contiguously with an electrode and respectively in flow communication with the cell electrolyte and in flow isolation with respect to such electrolyte. In fuel cell system arrangement, the diverse type channels are suplied in common with process gas for thermal control purposes. The separator plate is readily formed by corrugation of integral sheet material.

Baker, Bernard S. (Brookfield Center, CT); Dharia, Dilip J. (Danbury, CT)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Electrochemical cell and separator plate thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell includes a separator plate having first and second flow channels extending there through contiguously with an electrode and respectively in flow communication with the cell electrolyte and in flow isolation with respect to such electrolyte. In fuel cell system arrangement, the diverse type channels are supplied in common with process gas for thermal control purposes. The separator plate is readily formed by corrugation of integral sheet material. 10 figs.

Baker, B.S.; Dharia, D.J.

1979-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

316

Electrochemical modeling of lithium-ion positive electrodes during hybrid pulse power characterization tests.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An electrochemical model was developed to examine hybrid pulsed power characterization (HPPC) tests on the positive electrode of lithium-ion cells. By utilizing the same fundamental equations as in previous electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies, this investigation serves as an extension of the earlier work and a comparison of the two techniques. The electrochemical model was used to examine performance characteristics and limitations for the positive electrode during HPPC tests. Parametric studies using the electrochemical model and focusing on the positive electrode thickness were employed to examine methods of slowing electrode aging and improving performance.

Dees, D.; Gunen, E.; Abraham, D.; Jansen, A.; Prakash, J.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Illinois Inst. of Tech.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Electrochemical kinetics of thin film vanadium pentoxide cathodes for lithium batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electrochemical experiments were performed to investigate the processing-property-performance relations of thin film vanadium pentoxide cathodes used in lithium batteries. Variations in microstructures were achieved via ...

Mui, Simon C., 1976-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Analysis of different methods to calculate electrochemical noise resistance using a three-electrode cell  

SciTech Connect

In a theoretical approach, the noise resistance parameter (R{sub n}) (in time domain) was deduced from an electric equivalent model proposed by Bertocci and coworkers for a cell with three identical electrodes. The voltage and current were measured. The R{sub n} and resistance of spectral noise (R{sub sn} and R{sub snO} [defined elsewhere]) were estimated for mild steel (MS) and stainless steel (SS) Type 304L (UNS S30403) electrodes immersed in four different solutions. The obtained results were converted into corrosion rate and finally compared with data measured with linear polarization resistance (LRP) and mass loss techniques. Electrochemical noise (EN) techniques had better agreement with other techniques in high corrosion rates. Furthermore, dispersed results were measured in low-activity systems.

Brusamarello, V.; Lago, A.; Franco, C.V.

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Thermal and Electrochemical Performance of a High-Temperature Steam Electrolysis Stack  

SciTech Connect

A research program is under way at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to simultaneously address the research and scale-up issues associated with the implementation of solid-oxide electrolysis cell technology for hydrogen production from steam. We are conducting a progression of electrolysis stack testing activities, at increasing scales, along with a continuation of supporting research activities in the areas of materials development, single-cell testing, detailed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and systems modeling. This paper will present recent experimental results obtained from testing of planar solid-oxide stacks operating in the electrolysis mode. The hydrogen-production and electrochemical performance of these stacks will be presented, over a range of operating conditions. In addition, internal stack temperature measurements will be presented, with comparisons to computational fluid dynamic predictions.

J. O' Brien; C. Stoots; G. Hawkes; J. Hartvigsen

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Test report for measurement of performance vs temperature of Whittaker Electrochemical Cell  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This document is the test report that summarizes the results of the tests on the Whittaker cells between the temperatures of -20{degrees}F and +120{degrees}F. These sensors are used on the Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) flammable gas interlock (FGI), to detect and quantify hydrogen gas. The test consisted of operating five Whittaker electrochemical cells in an environmental chamber that was varied in temperature from -20{degrees}F to +120{degrees}F. As the rate rise of the voltage from the cells changed, after exposure to a gas concentration of 1% hydrogen at the different temperatures, the voltage was recorded on a computer controlled data acquisition system. Analysis of the data was made to determine if the cells maximum output voltages and rise times were effected by temperature.

Vargo, G.F., Fluor Daniel Hanford

1997-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "giner electrochemical systems" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

The electrochemical performance of thin-electrolyte solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Several benefits are realized by lowering the operating temperature of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) from 1000C to temperatures in the 600 to 800C range. Among the advantages are decreased reaction between fuel cell components, shorter startup times, and the possibility of using metals in stack construction; however, the achievable power density in conventional SOFCs is too low. A strategy for overcoming this limitation is to decrease the thickness of this layer by approximately an order of magnitude. Thin (5 {mu}m) electrolyte SOFCs have recently been fabricated by Allied-Signal Aerospace Systems and Equipment Company (ASASE). The electrochemical performance of these cells has been studied and is discussed in this paper.

Zurawski, D.; Kueper, T.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Electrochemical Hydrogen Sensor for Safety Monitoring  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A hydrogen safety sensor is presented which provides high sensitivity and fast response time when operated in air. The target application for the sensor is external deployment near systems using or producing high concentrations of hydrogen. The sensor is composed of a catalytically active metal-oxide sensing electrode and a noble metal reference electrode attached to an yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte. The sensing approach is based on the difference in oxidation rate of hydrogen on the different electrode materials. Results will be presented for a sensor using a sensing electrode of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO). Response to H{sub 2}, and cross-sensitivity to hydrocarbon and H{sub 2}O are discussed.

Martin, L P; Pham, A-Q; Glass, R S

2003-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

323

Synthesis and Electrochemical Properties of Monoclinic LiMnBO[subscript 3] as a Li Intercalation Material  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigated the structural stability and electrochemical properties of LiMnBO3 in the hexagonal and monoclinic form with ab initio computations and, for the first time, report electrochemical data on monoclinic ...

Kim, Jae Chul

324

Synthesis and Electrochemical Properties of Monoclinic LiMnBO[subscript 3] as a Li Intercalation Material  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigated the structural stability and electrochemical properties of LiMnBO[subscript 3] in the hexagonal and monoclinic form with ab initio computations and, for the first time, report electrochemical data on ...

Kim, Jae Chul

325

Silicon on insulator achieved using electrochemical etching  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Bulk crystalline silicon wafers are transferred after the completion of circuit fabrication to form thin films of crystalline circuitry on almost any support, such as metal, semiconductor, plastic, polymer, glass, wood, and paper. In particular, this technique is suitable to form silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers, whereby the devices and circuits formed exhibit superior performance after transfer due to the removal of the silicon substrate. The added cost of the transfer process to conventional silicon fabrication is insignificant. No epitaxial, lift-off, release or buried oxide layers are needed to perform the transfer of single or multiple wafers onto support members. The transfer process may be performed at temperatures of 50 C or less, permits transparency around the circuits and does not require post-transfer patterning. Consequently, the technique opens up new avenues for the use of integrated circuit devices in high-brightness, high-resolution video-speed color displays, reduced-thickness increased-flexibility intelligent cards, flexible electronics on ultrathin support members, adhesive electronics, touch screen electronics, items requiring low weight materials, smart cards, intelligent keys for encryption systems, toys, large area circuits, flexible supports, and other applications. The added process flexibility also permits a cheap technique for increasing circuit speed of market driven technologies such as microprocessors at little added expense. 57 figs.

McCarthy, A.M.

1997-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

326

Silicon on insulator achieved using electrochemical etching  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Bulk crystalline silicon wafers are transferred after the completion of circuit fabrication to form thin films of crystalline circuitry on almost any support, such as metal, semiconductor, plastic, polymer, glass, wood, and paper. In particular, this technique is suitable to form silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers, whereby the devices and circuits formed exhibit superior performance after transfer due to the removal of the silicon substrate. The added cost of the transfer process to conventional silicon fabrication is insignificant. No epitaxial, lift-off, release or buried oxide layers are needed to perform the transfer of single or multiple wafers onto support members. The transfer process may be performed at temperatures of 50.degree. C. or less, permits transparency around the circuits and does not require post-transfer patterning. Consequently, the technique opens up new avenues for the use of integrated circuit devices in high-brightness, high-resolution video-speed color displays, reduced-thickness increased-flexibility intelligent cards, flexible electronics on ultrathin support members, adhesive electronics, touch screen electronics, items requiring low weight materials, smart cards, intelligent keys for encryption systems, toys, large area circuits, flexible supports, and other applications. The added process flexibility also permits a cheap technique for increasing circuit speed of market driven technologies such as microprocessors at little added expense.

McCarthy, Anthony M. (Menlo Park, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Aging Studies of Sr-doped LaCrO3/YSZ/Pt Cells for an Electrochemical NOx Sensor  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The stability and NO{sub x} sensing performance of electrochemical cells of the structure Sr-doped LaCrO{sub 3-{delta}} (LSC)/yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ)/Pt are being investigated for use in NO{sub x} aftertreatment systems in diesel vehicles. Among the requirements for NO{sub x} sensor materials in these systems are stability and long lifetime (up to ten years) in the exhaust environment. In this study, cell aging effects were explored following extended exposure to a test environment of 10% O{sub 2} at operating temperatures of 600-700 C. The data show that aging results in changes in particle morphology, chemical composition and interfacial structure, Impedance spectroscopy indicated an initial increase in the cell resistance during the early stages of aging, which is correlated to densification of the Pt electrode. Also, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated formation of SrZrO{sub 2} solid state reaction product in the LSC, a process which is of finite duration. Subsequently, the overall cell resistance decreases with aging time due, in part, to roughening of YSZ-LSC interface, which improves interface adherence and enhances charge transfer kinetics at the O{sub 2}/YSZ/LSC triple phase boundary. This study constitutes a first step in the development of a basic understanding of aging phenomena in solid state electrochemical systems with application not only to sensors, but also to fuel cells, membranes, and electrolyzers.

Song, S; Martin, L P; Glass, R S; Murray, E P; Visser, J H; Soltis, R E; Novak, R F; Kubinski, D J

2005-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

328

Water at an electrochemical interface - a simulation study  

SciTech Connect

The results of molecular dynamics simulations of the properties of water in an aqueous ionic solution close to an interface with a model metallic electrode are described. In the simulations the electrode behaves as an ideally polarizable hydrophilic metal, supporting image charge interactions with charged species, and it is maintained at a constant electrical potential with respect to the solution so that the model is a textbook representation of an electrochemical interface through which no current is passing. We show how water is strongly attracted to and ordered at the electrode surface. This ordering is different to the structure that might be imagined from continuum models of electrode interfaces. Further, this ordering significantly affects the probability of ions reaching the surface. We describe the concomitant motion and configurations of the water and ions as functions of the electrode potential, and we analyze the length scales over which ionic atmospheres fluctuate. The statistics of these fluctuations depend upon surface structure and ionic strength. The fluctuations are large, sufficiently so that the mean ionic atmosphere is a poor descriptor of the aqueous environment near a metal surface. The importance of this finding for a description of electrochemical reactions is examined by calculating, directly from the simulation, Marcus free energy profiles for transfer of charge between the electrode and a redox species in the solution and comparing the results with the predictions of continuum theories. Significant departures from the electrochemical textbook descriptions of the phenomenon are found and their physical origins are characterized from the atomistic perspective of the simulations.

Willard, Adam; Reed, Stewart; Madden, Paul; Chandler, David

2008-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

329

Electrochemical investigation of the gallium nitride-aqueous electrolyte interface  

SciTech Connect

GaN (E{sub g} = {approximately}3.4 eV) was photoelectrochemically characterized and the energetic position of its bandedges determined with respect to SHE. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was employed to analyze the interface, determine the space charge layer capacitance, and, subsequently obtain the flatband potential of GaN in different aqueous electrolytes. The flatband potential of GaN varied at an approximately Nernstian rate in aqueous buffer electrolytes of different pHs indicating acid-base equilibria at the interface.

Kocha, S.S.; Peterson, M.W.; Arent, D.J.; Turner, J.A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States). Photoconversion Branch; Redwing, J.M.; Tischler, M.A. [Advanced Technology Materials, Inc., Danbury, CT (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Improved morphology in electrochemically grown conducting polymer films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A conducting polymer film with an improved space filling is formed on a metal electrode surface. A self-assembling monolayer is formed directly on the metal surface where the monolayer has a first functional group that binds to the metal surface and a second chemical group that forms a chemical bonding site for molecules forming the conducting polymer. The conducting polymer is then conventionally deposited by electrochemical deposition. In one example, a conducting film of polyaniline is formed on a gold electrode surface with an intermediate monolayer of p-aminothiophenol.

Rubinstein, I.; Gottesfeld, S.; Sabatani, E.

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

331

Integrated seal for high-temperature electrochemical device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides electrochemical device structures having integrated seals, and methods of fabricating them. According to various embodiments the structures include a thin, supported electrolyte film with the electrolyte sealed to the support. The perimeter of the support is self-sealed during fabrication. The perimeter can then be independently sealed to a manifold or other device, e.g., via an external seal. According to various embodiments, the external seal does not contact the electrolyte, thereby eliminating the restrictions on the sealing method and materials imposed by sealing against the electrolyte.

Tucker, Michael C; Jacobson, Craig P

2013-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

332

Method of low temperature operation of an electrochemical cell array  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for operating an electrochemical cell generator apparatus containing a generator chamber containing an array of cells having interior and exterior electrodes with solid electrolyte between the electrodes, where a hot gas contacts the outside of the cells and the generating chamber normally operates at over 850 C, where N[sub 2] gas is fed to contact the interior electrode of the cells in any case when the generating chamber temperature drops for whatever reason to within the range of from 550 C to 800 C, to eliminate cracking within the cells. 2 figures.

Singh, P.; Ruka, R.J.; Bratton, R.J.

1994-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

333

Electrochemical devices utilizing molten alkali metal electrode-reactant  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Electrochemical cells are provided with a reactive metal to reduce the oxide of the alkali metal electrode-reactant. Cells employing a molten alkali metal electrode, e.g., sodium, in contact with a ceramic electrolyte, which is a conductor of the ions of the alkali metal forming the electrode, exhibit a lower resistance when a reactive metal, e.g., vanadium, is allowed to react with and reduce the alkali metal oxide. Such cells exhibit less degradation of the electrolyte and of the glass seals often used to joining the electrolyte to the other components of the cell under cycling conditions.

Hitchcock, D.C.; Mailhe, C.C.; De Jonghe, L.C.

1985-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

334

Non-pulsed electrochemical impregnation of flexible metallic battery plaques  

SciTech Connect

A method of loading active battery material into porous, flexible, metallic battery plaques, comprises the following steps: precipitating nickel hydroxide active material within the plaque, by making the plaque cathodic, at a high current density, in an electro-precipitation cell also containing a consumable nickel anode and a solution comprising nickel nitrate, having a pH of between 2.0 and 2.8; electrochemically oxidizing the precipitate in caustic formation solution; and repeating the electro-precipitation step at a low current density.

Maskalick, Nicholas J. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Corner heating in rectangular solid oxide electrochemical cell generators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is an improvement in a solid oxide electrochemical cell generator 1 having a rectangular design with four sides that meet at corners, and containing multiplicity of electrically connected fuel cells 11, where a fuel gas is passed over one side of said cells and an oxygen containing gas is passed into said cells, and said fuel is burned to form heat, electricity, and an exhaust gas. The improvement comprises passing the exhaust gases over the multiplicity of cells 11 in such a way that more of the heat in said exhaust gases flows at the corners of the generator, such as through channels 19.

Reichner, Philip (Plum Boro, PA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Method of low temperature operation of an electrochemical cell array  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In the method of operating an electrochemical cell generator apparatus containing a generator chamber (20) containing an array of cells (12) having interior and exterior electrodes with solid electrolyte between the electrodes, where a hot gas (F) contacts the outside of the cells (12) and the generating chamber normally operates at over 850.degree. C., where N.sub.2 gas is fed to contact the interior electrode of the cells (12) in any case when the generating chamber (20) temperature drops for whatever reason to within the range of from 550.degree. C. to 800.degree. C., to eliminate cracking within the cells (12).

Singh, Prabhakar (Export, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, PA); Bratton, Raymond J. (Delmont, PA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Electrochemical cell with high discharge/charge rate capability  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fully charged positive electrode composition for an electrochemical cell includes FeS/sub 2/ and NiS/sub 2/ in about equal molar amounts along with about 2 to 20 mole % of the reaction product Li/sub 2/S. Through selection of appropriate electrolyte compositions, high power output or low operating temperatures can be obtained. The cell includes a substantially constant electrode impedance through most of its charge and discharge range. Exceptionally high discharge rates and overcharge protection are obtainable through use of the inventive electrode composition.

Redey, L.

1986-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

338

Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of electrochemical capacitors for advanced vehicle applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Electrochemical capacitors are a candidate for traction power assists in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Other advanced automotive applications, while not the primary focus of current development efforts, are also possible. These include load leveling high-energy batteries, power conditioning electronics, electrically hated catalysts, electric power steering, and engine starter power. Higher power and longer cycle life are expected for electrochemical capacitors than for batteries. Evaluation of environmental, health, and safety (EH and S) issues of electrochemical capacitors is an essential part of the development and commercialization of electrochemical capacitors for advanced vehicles. This report provides an initial EH and S assessment. This report presents electrochemical capacitor electrochemistry, materials selection, intrinsic material hazards, mitigation of those hazards, environmental requirements, pollution control options, and shipping requirements. Most of the information available for this assessment pertains to commercial devices intended for application outside the advanced vehicle market and to experiment or prototype devices. Electrochemical capacitors for power assists in HEVs are not produced commercially now. Therefore, materials for advanced vehicle electrochemical capacitors may change, and so would the corresponding EH and S issues. Although changes are possible, this report describes issues for likely electrochemical capacitor designs.

Vimmerstedt, L.J.; Hammel, C.J.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Electrochemical energy storage device based on carbon dioxide as electroactive species  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical energy storage device comprising a primary positive electrode, a negative electrode, and one or more ionic conductors. The ionic conductors ionically connect the primary positive electrode with the negative electrode. The primary positive electrode comprises carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) and a means for electrochemically reducing the CO.sub.2. This means for electrochemically reducing the CO.sub.2 comprises a conductive primary current collector, contacting the CO.sub.2, whereby the CO.sub.2 is reduced upon the primary current collector during discharge. The primary current collector comprises a material to which CO.sub.2 and the ionic conductors are essentially non-corrosive. The electrochemical energy storage device uses CO.sub.2 as an electroactive species in that the CO.sub.2 is electrochemically reduced during discharge to enable the release of electrical energy from the device.

Nemeth, Karoly; van Veenendaal, Michel Antonius; Srajer, George

2013-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

340

V. Casares-Giner et al. (Eds.): NETWORKING 2011 Workshops, LNCS 6827, pp. 291300, 2011. IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2011  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. among nodes during the transitions from and to a low power consumption state or from a transmission rate intervals with unchanging state so that there are N-1 link rate transitions with changing states; if ti (assume that every transition requires the same time); cj the instantaneous power consumption at link rate

Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "giner electrochemical systems" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Exploratory Technology Research Program for Electrochemical Energy Storage - Annual Report for 1998  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies conducts research and development on advanced rechargeable batteries for application in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid systems. Efforts are focused on advanced batteries that offer the potential for high performance and low life-cycle costs, both of which are necessary to permit significant penetration into commercial markets. DOE battery R and D supports two major programs: the US Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), which develops advanced batteries for EVS, and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), which seeks to develop passenger vehicles with a fuel economy equivalent to 80 mpg of gasoline. This report describes the activities of the Exploratory Technology Research (ETR) Program, managed by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The role of the ETR Program is to perform supporting research on the advanced battery systems under development by the USABC and PNGV Programs, and to evaluate new systems with potentially superior performance, durability and/or cost characteristics. The specific goal of the ETR Program is to identify the most promising electrochemical technologies and transfer them to the USABC, the battery industry and/or other Government agencies for further development and scale-up. This report summarizes the research, financial and management activities relevant to the ETR Program in CY 1998. This is a continuing program, and reports for prior years have been published; they are listed at the end of this Program Summary.

Kinoshita, K. (editor)

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Exploratory Technology Research Program for Electrochemical Energy Storage - Annual Report for 1998  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies conducts research and development on advanced rechargeable batteries for application in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid systems. Efforts are focused on advanced batteries that offer the potential for high performance and low life-cycle costs, both of which are necessary to permit significant penetration into commercial markets. DOE battery R and D supports two major programs: the US Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), which develops advanced batteries for EVS, and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), which seeks to develop passenger vehicles with a fuel economy equivalent to 80 mpg of gasoline. This report describes the activities of the Exploratory Technology Research (ETR) Program, managed by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The role of the ETR Program is to perform supporting research on the advanced battery systems under development by the USABC and PNGV Programs, and to evaluate new systems with potentially superior performance, durability and/or cost characteristics. The specific goal of the ETR Program is to identify the most promising electrochemical technologies and transfer them to the USABC, the battery industry and/or other Government agencies for further development and scale-up. This report summarizes the research, financial and management activities relevant to the ETR Program in CY 1998. This is a continuing program, and reports for prior years have been published; they are listed at the end of this Program Summary.

Kinoshita, K. (editor)

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Electrochemically adsorbed Pb on Ag (111) studied with grazing- incidence x-ray scattering  

SciTech Connect

Grazing-incidence x-ray scattering studies of the evolution of electrochemically deposited layers of lead on silver (111) as a function of applied electrochemical potential are presented. Measurements were made with the adsorbed layers in contact with solution in a specially designed sample cell. The observed lead structures are a function of the applied potential and range from an incommensurate monolayer, resulting from underpotential deposition, to randomly oriented polycrystalline bulk lead, resulting from lower deposition potentials. These early experiments demonstrate the ability of in situ x-ray diffraction measurements to determine structures associated with electrochemical deposition. 6 refs., 4 figs.

Kortright, J.B.; Ross, P.N.; Melroy, O.R.; Toney, M.F.; Borges, G.L.; Samant, M.G.

1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Electrochemical Experiments Used to Study Li-ion Batteries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This is the third of three talks on nanostructures for Li-ion batteries. The talks provide an up-to-date review of the issues and challenges facing Li-ion battery research with special focus on how nanostructures/nanotechnology are being applied to this field. Novel materials reported as prospective candidates for anode, cathode and electrolyte will be summarized. The expected role of nanostructures in improving the performance of Li-ion batteries and the actual pros and cons of using such structures in this device will be addressed. Electrochemical experiments used to study Li-ion batteries will also be discussed. This includes the introduction to the standard experimental set-up and how experimental data (from charge-discharge experiments, cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectroscopy, etc) are interpreted.

Mukaibo, Hitomi (University of Florida, Martin Research Group)

2010-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

345

Battery paste compositions and electrochemical cells for use therewith  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved battery paste composition and a lead-acid electrochemical cell which incorporates the composition are disclosed. The cell includes a positive current collector and a negative current collector which are each coated with a paste containing one or more lead-containing compositions and a paste vehicle to form a positive plate and a negative plate. An absorbent electrolyte-containing separator member may also be positioned between the positive and negative plates. The paste on the positive current collector, the negative current collector, or both further includes a special additive consisting of polyvinyl sulfonic acid or salts thereof which provides many benefits including improved battery cycle life, increased charge capacity, and enhanced overall stability. The additive also makes the pastes smoother and more adhesive, thereby improving the paste application process. The paste compositions of interest may be used in conventional flat-plate cells or in spirally wound batteries with equal effectiveness. 2 figs.

Olson, J.B.

1999-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

346

Argonne Chemical Sciences & Engineering - People - Electrochemical Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Technology Development Technology Development Khalil Amine, Argonne Distinguished Fellow, Senior Materials Scientist, Group Leader phone: 630/252-3838, fax: 630/972-4451, e-mail: amine@anl.gov Ph.D. (Material Science, with high honor): University of Bordeaux 1, France Fluorine chemistry, carbon chemistry, intercalation chemistry, fuel cell polymer chemistry, and advanced electrochemical devices and battery materials Ali Abouimrane, Materials Scientist phone: 630/252-3729, e-mail: abouimrane@anl.gov Ph.D., Physical Chemistry, Hassan II University, Morocco Works on the synthesis, characterization and optimization of electrode and electrolyte materials for high energy/power lithium and sodium batteries to be utilized in PHEV, EV and smart grid applications Ilias Belharouak, Chemist/Materials Scientist

347

Method of preparing an electrochemical cell in uncharged state  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A secondary electrochemical cell is assembled in an uncharged state for the preparation of a lithium alloy-transition metal sulfide cell. The negative electrode includes a material such as aluminum or silicon for alloying with lithium as the cell is charged. The positive electrode is prepared by blending particulate lithium sulfide, transition metal powder and electrolytic salt in solid phase. The mixture is simultaneously heated to a temperature in excess of the melting point of the electrolyte and pressed onto an electrically conductive substrate to form a plaque. The plaque is assembled as a positive electrode within the cell. During the first charge cycle lithium alloy is formed within the negative electrode and transition metal sulfide such as iron sulfide is produced within the positive electrode.

Shimotake, Hiroshi (Hinsdale, IL); Bartholme, Louis G. (Joliet, IL); Arntzen, John D. (Naperville, IL)

1977-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Electrochemical method of producing nano-scaled graphene platelets  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of producing nano-scaled graphene platelets with an average thickness smaller than 30 nm from a layered graphite material. The method comprises (a) forming a carboxylic acid-intercalated graphite compound by an electrochemical reaction; (b) exposing the intercalated graphite compound to a thermal shock to produce exfoliated graphite; and (c) subjecting the exfoliated graphite to a mechanical shearing treatment to produce the nano-scaled graphene platelets. Preferred carboxylic acids are formic acid and acetic acid. The exfoliation step in the instant invention does not involve the evolution of undesirable species, such as NO.sub.x and SO.sub.x, which are common by-products of exfoliating conventional sulfuric or nitric acid-intercalated graphite compounds. The nano-scaled platelets are candidate reinforcement fillers for polymer nanocomposites. Nano-scaled graphene platelets are much lower-cost alternatives to carbon nano-tubes or carbon nano-fibers.

Zhamu, Aruna; Jang, Joan; Jang, Bor Z.

2013-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

349

Method of making an electrolyte for an electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making same having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode. Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between {minus}15 C and 150 C. 9 figs.

Bates, J.B.; Dudney, N.J.

1996-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

350

Electrochemical Deposition of Iron Nanoneedles on Titanium Oxide Nanotubes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Iron as a catalyst has wide applications for hydrogen generation from ammonia, photodecomposition of organics, and carbon nanotube growth. Tuning the size and shape of iron is meaningful for improving the catalysis efficiency. It is the objective of this work to prepare nanostructured iron with high surface area via electrochemical deposition. Iron nanoneedles were successfully electrodeposited on Ti supported TiO2 nanotube arrays in a chlorine-based electrolyte containing 0.15 M FeCl2 {center_dot} 4H2O and 2.0 M HCl. Transmission electron microscopic analysis reveals that the average length of the nanoneedles is about 200 nm and the thickness is about 10 nm. It has been found that a high overpotential at the cathode made of Ti/TiO2 nanotube arrays is necessary for the formation of the nanoneedles. Cyclic voltammetry test indicates that the electrodeposition of iron nanoneedles is a concentration-limited process.

Gan Y. X.; Zhang L.; Gan B.J.

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

DEMONSTRATION OF ELECTROCHEMICAL REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES-INDUCED COMPLEXATION  

SciTech Connect

The Project Team is submitting this Topical Report on the results of its bench-scale demonstration of ElectroChemical Remediation Technologies (ECRTs) and in particular the Induced Complexation (ECRTs-IC) process for remediation of mercury contaminated soils at DOE Complex sites. ECRTs is an innovative, in-situ, geophysically based soil remediation technology with over 50 successful commercial site applications involving remediation of over two million metric tons of contaminated soils. ECRTs-IC has been successfully used to remediate 220 cu m of mercury-contaminated sediments in the Union Canal, Scotland. In that operation, ECRTs-IC reduced sediment total mercury levels from an average of 243 mg/kg to 6 mg/kg in 26 days of operation. The clean up objective was to achieve an average total mercury level in the sediment of 20 mg/kg.

Barry L. Burks

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Electrochemical method of producing eutectic uranium alloy and apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for continuous production of liquid uranium alloys through the electrolytic reduction of uranium chlorides. The apparatus includes an electrochemical cell formed from an anode shaped to form an electrolyte reservoir, a cathode comprising a metal, such as iron, capable of forming a eutectic uranium alloy having a melting point less than the melting point of pure uranium, and molten electrolyte in the reservoir comprising a chlorine or fluorine containing salt and uranium chloride. The method of the invention produces an eutectic uranium alloy by creating an electrolyte reservoir defined by a container comprising an anode, placing an electrolyte in the reservoir, the electrolyte comprising a chlorine or fluorine containing salt and uranium chloride in molten form, positioning a cathode in the reservoir where the cathode comprises a metal capable of forming an uranium alloy having a melting point less than the melting point of pure uranium, and applying a current between the cathode and the anode.

Horton, James A. (Livermore, CA); Hayden, H. Wayne (Oakridge, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Battery paste compositions and electrochemical cells for use therewith  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved battery paste composition and a lead-acid electrochemical cell which incorporates the composition. The cell includes a positive current collector and a negative current collector which are each coated with a paste containing one or more lead-containing compositions and a paste vehicle to form a positive plate and a negative plate. An absorbent electrolyte-containing separator member may also be positioned between the positive and negative plates. The paste on the positive current collector, the negative current collector, or both further includes a special additive consisting of polyvinylsulfonic acid or salts thereof which provides many benefits including improved battery cycle life, increased charge capacity, and enhanced overall stability. The additive also makes the pastes smoother and more adhesive, thereby improving the paste application process. The paste compositions of interest may be used in conventional flat-plate cells or in spirally wound batteries with equal effectiveness.

Olson, John B. (Boulder, CO)

1999-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

354

Battery paste compositions and electrochemical cells for use therewith  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved battery paste composition and a lead-acid electrochemical cell which incorporates the composition. The cell includes a positive current collector and a negative current collector which are each coated with a paste containing one or more lead-containing compositions and a paste vehicle to form a positive plate and a negative plate. An absorbent electrolyte-containing separator member may also be positioned between the positive and negative plates. The paste on the positive current collector, the negative current collector, or both further includes a special additive consisting of polyvinylsulfonic acid or salts thereof which provides many benefits including improved battery cycle life, increased charge capacity, and enhanced overall stability. The additive also makes the pastes smoother and more adhesive, thereby improving the paste application process. The paste compositions of interest may be used in conventional flat-plate cells or in spirally wound batteries with equal effectiveness.

Olson, John B. (Boulder, CO)

1999-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

355

Method of making an electrolyte for an electrochemical cell  

SciTech Connect

Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making same having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between -15.degree. C. and 150.degree. C.

Bates, John B. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dudney, Nancy J. (Knoxville, TN)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (approximately 1100.degree.-1300.degree. C.) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20-50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

Brian, Riley (Willimantic, CT); Szreders, Bernard E. (Oakdale, CT)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (/approximately/1100/degree/ /minus/ 1300/degree/C) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20--50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

Riley, B.; Szreders, B.E.

1988-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

358

Electrochemical processing of nitrate waste solutions. Phase 2, Final report  

SciTech Connect

The second phase of research performed at The Electrosynthesis Co., Inc. has demonstrated the successful removal of nitrite and nitrate from a synthetic effluent stream via a direct electrochemical reduction at a cathode. It was shown that direct reduction occurs at good current efficiencies in 1,000 hour studies. The membrane separation process is not readily achievable for the removal of nitrites and nitrates due to poor current efficiencies and membrane stability problems. A direct reduction process was studied at various cathode materials in a flow cell using the complete synthetic mix. Lead was found to be the cathode material of choice, displaying good current efficiencies and stability in short and long term tests under conditions of high temperature and high current density. Several anode materials were studied in both undivided and divided cell configurations. A divided cell configuration was preferable because it would prevent re-oxidation of nitrite by the anode. The technical objective of eliminating electrode fouling and solids formation was achieved although anode materials which had demonstrated good stability in short term divided cell tests corroded in 1,000 hour experiments. The cause for corrosion is thought to be F{sup {minus}} ions from the synthetic mix migrating across the cation exchange membrane and forming HF in the acid anolyte. Other possibilities for anode materials were explored. A membrane separation process was investigated which employs an anion and cation exchange membrane to remove nitrite and nitrate, recovering caustic and nitric acid. Present research has shown poor current efficiencies for nitrite and nitrate transport across the anion exchange membrane due to co-migration of hydroxide anions. Precipitates form within the anion exchange membranes which would eventually result in the failure of the membranes. Electrochemical processing offers a highly promising and viable method for the treatment of nitrate waste solutions.

Genders, D.; Weinberg, N.; Hartsough, D. [Electrosynthesis Co., Inc., Cheektowaga, NY (US)

1992-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

359

Synthesis and Electrochemical Characterization of M2Mn3O8 (M=Ca,Cu) Compounds and Derivatives  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

M{sub 2}Mn{sub 3}O{sub 8} (M=Ca{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}) compounds were synthesized and characterized in lithium cells. The M{sup 2+} cations, which reside in the van der Waal's gaps between adjacent sheets of Mn{sub 3}O{sub 8}{sup 4-}, may be replaced chemically (by ion-exchange) or electrochemically with Li. More than 7 Li{sup +}/Cu{sub 2}Mn{sub 3}O{sub 8} may be inserted electrochemically, with concomitant reduction of Cu{sup 2+} to Cu metal, but less Li can be inserted into Ca{sub 2}Mn{sub 3}O{sub 8}. In the case of Cu{sup 2+}, this process is partially reversible when the cell is charged above 3.5 V vs. Li, but intercalation of Cu{sup +} rather than Cu{sup 2+} and Li{sup +}/Cu{sup +} exchange occurs during the subsequent discharge. If the cell potential is kept below 3.4 V, the Li in excess of 4Li{sup +}/Cu{sub 2}Mn{sub 3}O{sub 8} can be cycled reversibly. The unusual mobility of +2 cations in a layered structure has important implications both for the design of cathodes for Li batteries and for new systems that could be based on M{sup 2+} intercalation compounds.

Park, Yong Joon; Doeff, Marca M.

2005-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

360

FY 1992 Annual report: Mediated electrochemical oxidation treatment for Rocky Flats combustible low-level mixed waste. Final report to Rocky Flats Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation (MEO) process was studied for destroying low-level combustible mixed wastes at Rocky Flats (RFP). Tests were performed with nonradioactive surrogate materials: Trimsol for the contaminated oils, and reagent-grade cellulose for the cellulosic wastes. Extensive testing was carried out on Trimsol in both small laboratory-scale apparatus and on a large-scale system incorporating an industrial-size electrochemical cell. Preliminary tests were also carried out in the small-scale system with cellulose. The following operating and system parameters were studied: use of a silver-nitric acid versus a cobalt-sulfuric acid system, effect of electrolyte temperature, effect of acid concentration, effect of current density, and use of ultrasonic agitation. Destruction and coulombic efficiencies were calculated using data obtained from continuous carbon dioxide monitors and total organic carbon (TOC) analysis of electrolyte samples. For Trimsol, the best performance was achieved with the silver-nitrate system at high acid concentrations, temperatures, and current densities. Destruction efficiencies of 98% or greater and coulombic efficiencies close to 50% were obtained in both small- and large-scale systems. For the cellulose, high destruction efficiencies and reasonable coulombic efficiencies were obtained for both silver-nitrate and cobalt-sulfate systems.

Chiba, Z.; Lewis, P.R.; Kahle, R.W.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "giner electrochemical systems" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Electrochemical photovoltaic cells CdSe thin film electrodes. Quarterly progress report No. 1, June-August 1979  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall objective of this program is to obtain AM1 efficiencies in the range of 10% with electrochemical cells utilizing thin film electrodes. The system currently being investigated is the CdSe/aqueous sulfide-polysulfide system. This report presents the results to date of the initial CdSe deposition parameter study. The key finding has been that the ratio of Se and Cd in the as deposited film has marked effect on the film's chemical, microstructural, optical, and electrical properties as well as I-V performance. In addition, it has been found that electrolyte concentration and compostion can have a strong effect on the I-V performance of a given electrode.

Russak, M.A.; Creter, C.

1979-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Electrochemical and spectroscopic investigations of the K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-V{sub 2}O{sub 5} molten electrolyte  

SciTech Connect

The molten K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/V{sub 2}O{sub 5} system has recently attracted interest due to its possible use as an electrolyte in an electrolytic SO{sub x} flue gas desulfurization process. A 60 mol % K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/40 mol % V{sub 2}O{sub 5} molten salt mixture was tested for electrochemical activity to determine its propensity for sulfate transport. Results of cyclic voltammetry showed a high electrochemical activity due likely to the reduction and oxidation of bulk, as opposed to minor, species. Most reductions and oxidations did not conform to diffusion-limited theory, and indicated the presence of stripping reactions. By Raman spectroscopy V(V) polymers were identified in the melt consisting predominantly of VO{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}{sup 3{minus}} and VO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} units, while VO{sub 2}SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} units were also detected. By reduction of the eutectic mixture with SO{sub 2} a V(IV) and a V(III) compound, most probably K{sub 4}(VO){sub 3}(SO{sub 4}){sub 5} and K{sub 3}V(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}, were isolated, as evidenced from infrared and electron spin resonance spectroscopy. These compounds might be involved in the electrochemically observed plating and stripping reactions.

Schmidt, D.; Winnick, J. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Chemical Engineering; Boghosian, S. [Univ. of Patras (Greece). Dept. of Chemical Engineering]|[Inst. of Chemical Engineering and High Temperature Chemical Processes, Patras (Greece); Fehrmann, R. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Chemistry

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Synthesis and Electrochemical Performance of a Lithium Titanium Phosphate Anode for Aqueous Lithium-Ion Batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Synthesis and Electrochemical Performance of a Lithium Titanium Phosphate Anode for Aqueous Lithium** Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA Lithium cells that use organic electrolytes. The equilibrium reaction potential of lithium titanium phosphate

Cui, Yi

364

A multiscale study of atomic interactions in the electrochemical double layer applied to electrocatalysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This work is an integrated study of chemical and electrostatic interactions in the electrochemical double layer, and their significance for accurate prediction of reaction kinetics in electrocatalysis. First, a kinetic ...

Bonnet, Nicphore

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Modeling integrated photovoltaic-electrochemical devices using steady-state equivalent circuits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We describe a framework for efficiently coupling the power output of a series-connected string of single-band-gap solar cells to an electrochemical process that produces storable fuels. We identify the fundamental efficiency ...

Winkler, Mark Thomas

366

Methanol electrochemical conversion to formaldehyde over bulk metal and supported catalysts.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The electrochemical oxidation of 1.0 M CH3OH in 0.1 M H2SO4 over different types of platinum-ruthenium (PtRu) materials was investigated. Focus was on the determination (more)

Islam, Mohsina

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Electrochemical Windows of Sulfone-Based Electrolytes for High-Voltage Li-Ion Batteries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Further development of high-voltage lithium-ion batteries requires electrolytes with electrochemical windows greater than 5 V. Sulfone-based electrolytes are promising for such a purpose. Here we compute the electrochemical windows for experimentally tested sulfone electrolytes by different levels of theory in combination with various solvation models. The MP2 method combined with the polarizable continuum model is shown to be the most accurate method to predict oxidation potentials of sulfone-based electrolytes with mean deviation less than 0.29 V. Mulliken charge analysis shows that the oxidation happens on the sulfone group for ethylmethyl sulfone and tetramethylene sulfone, and on the ether group for ether functionalized sulfones. Large electrochemical windows of sulfone-based electrolytes are mainly contributed by the sulfone group in the molecules which helps lower the HOMO level. This study can help understand the voltage limits imposed by the sulfone-based electrolytes and aid in designing new electrolytes with greater electrochemical windows.

Shao, Nan [ORNL; Sun, Xiao-Guang [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Jiang, Deen [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Electrochemical Synthesis of AB5-type RE-Ni Based Alloys Via FFC ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cathodic Behavior of Silicon (?) in BaF2-CaF2 SiO2 Melts ... Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy of Uranium Chloride in Molten LiCl-KCl Eutectic.

369

On the Preparation of Mg2Ni Alloy by a New Electrochemical Method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cathodic Behavior of Silicon (?) in BaF2-CaF2 SiO2 Melts ... Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy of Uranium Chloride in Molten LiCl-KCl Eutectic.

370

Electrochemical Preparation of Ti2AlC in Molten Chloride Bath  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cathodic Behavior of Silicon (?) in BaF2-CaF2 SiO2 Melts ... Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy of Uranium Chloride in Molten LiCl-KCl Eutectic.

371

Electrochemical in-situ reaction cell for X-ray scattering, diffraction and spectroscopy  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An electrochemical in-situ reaction cell for hard X-ray experiments with battery electrodes is described. Applications include the small angle scattering, diffraction, and near-edge spectroscopy of lithium manganese oxide electrodes.

Braun, Artur; Granlund, Eric; Cairns, Elton J.

2003-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

372

Method for transferring thermal energy and electrical current in thin-film electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved electrochemical generator is disclosed. The electrochemical generator includes a thin-film electrochemical cell which is maintained in a state of compression through use of an internal or an external pressure apparatus. A thermal conductor, which is connected to at least one of the positive or negative contacts of the cell, conducts current into and out of the cell and also conducts thermal energy between the cell and thermally conductive, electrically resistive material disposed on a vessel wall adjacent the conductor. The thermally conductive, electrically resistive material may include an anodized coating or a thin sheet of a plastic, mineral-based material or conductive polymer material. The thermal conductor is fabricated to include a resilient portion which expands and contracts to maintain mechanical contact between the cell and the thermally conductive material in the presence of relative movement between the cell and the wall structure. The electrochemical generator may be disposed in a hermetically sealed housing.

Rouillard, Roger (Beloeil, CA); Domroese, Michael K. (South St. Paul, MN); Hoffman, Joseph A. (Minneapolis, MN); Lindeman, David D. (Hudson, WI); Noel, Joseph-Robert-Gaetan (St-Hubert, CA); Radewald, Vern E. (Austin, TX); Ranger, Michel (Lachine, CA); Sudano, Anthony (Laval, CA); Trice, Jennifer L. (Eagan, MN); Turgeon, Thomas A. (Fridley, MN)

2003-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

373

Electrochemical Behavior of Disposable Electrodes Prepared by Ion Beam Based Surface Modification for Biomolecular Recognition  

SciTech Connect

Many important technological advances have been made in the development of technologies to monitor interactions and recognition events of biomolecules in solution and on solid substrates. The development of advanced biosensors could impact significantly the areas of genomics, proteomics, biomedical diagnostics and drug discovery. In the literature, there have recently appeared an impressive number of intensive designs for electrochemical monitoring of biomolecular recognition. Herein, the influence of ion implanted disposable graphite electrodes on biomolecular recognition and their electrochemical behaviour was investigated.

Erdem, A.; Karadeniz, H.; Caliskan, A. [Analytical Chemistry Department, Ege University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Bornova, Izmir 35100 (Turkey); Urkac, E. Sokullu; Oztarhan, A. [Bioengineering Department, Ege University, Bornova, Izmir 35100 (Turkey); Oks, E.; Nikolayev, A. [High Current Electronics, Institute, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

374

Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract Developing usable and robust mixed reality systems requires unique humancomputer interaction techniques and customized hardware systems. The design of the hardware is directed by the requirements of the rich 3D interactions that can be performed using immersive mobile MR systems. Geometry modeling and capture, navigational annotations, visualizations, and training simulations are all enhanced using augmented computer graphics. We present the design guidelines that have led us through 10 years of evolving mobile outdoor MR hardware systems.

Benjamin Avery; Ross T. Smith; Wayne Piekarski; Bruce H. Thomas

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Hydrogen/halogen energy storage system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The hydrogen/chlorine energy storage system has been considered at BNL for large scale energy storage. In FY1978 work included an assessment of system safety and cost, investigations of cell performance under conditions elevated pressure and temperature, determination of the transport properties of Nafion membranes and electrochemical engineering studies. Results are summarized.

Spaziante, P M; Sioli, G C; Trotta, R; Perego, A; McBreen, J

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Sulfuric acid thermoelectrochemical system and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermoelectrochemical system in which an electrical current is generated between a cathode immersed in a concentrated sulfuric acid solution and an anode immersed in an aqueous buffer solution of sodium bisulfate and sodium sulfate. Reactants consumed at the electrodes during the electrochemical reaction are thermochemically regenerated and recycled to the electrodes to provide continuous operation of the system.

Ludwig, Frank A. (Rancho Palos Verdes, CA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

System and method for detecting gas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system to detect a presence of a specific gas in a mixture of gaseous byproducts comprising moisture vapor is disclosed. The system includes an electrochemical cell, a transport to deliver the mixture of gaseous byproducts from the electrochemical cell, a gas sensor in fluid communication with the transport, the sensor responsive to a presence of the specific gas to generate a signal corresponding to a concentration of the specific gas, and a membrane to prevent transmission of liquid moisture, the membrane disposed between the transport and the gas sensor.

Chow, Oscar Ken (Simsbury, CT); Moulthrop, Lawrence Clinton (Windsor, CT); Dreier, Ken Wayne (Madison, CT); Miller, Jacob Andrew (Dexter, MI)

2010-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

378

Development of Advanced Electrochemical Emission Spectroscopy for Monitoring Corrosion in Simulated DOE Liquid Waste  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fracture of AISI 4340 steel in concentrated sodium hydroxide solution has been monitored by measuring the coupling current that flows between the crack and the external surfaces. The results clearly demonstrate that positive current flows from the crack to the external cathodes (through the solution) during crack growth of AISI 4340 steel in concentrated (6 to12 M) sodium hydroxide solution at 70 C. The (electron) coupling current contains periodic noise that is attributed to fracture events occurring at the crack front, with the amplitude of the noise and the mean current increasing with crack growth rate. The characteristic shape of the individual transients in the noise at lower SCC crack growth rate is a rapid drop followed by slow recovery. The form of the noise in the coupling current during SCC at high NaOH concentration (8 M and 12 M) is attributed to overlap of many cracks propagating simultaneously through micro fracture events along grain boundaries. The discrete events, which have a dimension of about 49 {micro}m, are postulated to be hydrogen induced, and the mechanism of caustic cracking of AISI 4340 steel is considered to be hydrogen embrittlement along grain boundaries. Measurement of the electrochemical noise is shown to be capable of detecting and distinguishing between uniform corrosion and stress corrosion cracking in the steel/NaOH system. The coupling current data are consistent with a hydrogen embrittlement mechanism for crack advance.

Macdonald, Digby D.; Liu, Sue; Sikora, Elizbieta; Liu, Jun

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Exploratory cell research and fundamental processes study in solid state electrochemical cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Last year this program demonstrated that alternative to lithium had some merit on which to base new polymer electrolyte batteries and other electrochemical devices. We reported that Na, Zn, and Cu electrolytes have modest conductivities at 100{degree}C. Some preliminary cell cycling data were reported with V{sub 6}O{sub 13} insertion cathodes, and the successful cell cycling suggested that N{sup +}, Zn{sup +2} could be inserted and removed reversibly in the cathode material. Also, thin-film polymer cathodes were shown by impedance measurements to have three characteristic regions of behavior. Each region had different controlling processes with relaxation time constants that could be separated with careful manipulation of film thickness, morphology, and charging level. The present report gives results of the continuation of these studies. In particular, the sodium system was studied more intensively with conductivity measurements on sodium triflate in poly(ethyleneoxide)(PEO), and cell studies with V{sub 6}O{sub 13} and poly(pyrrole)(PPY) cathodes. The impedance work was concluded and several directions of new work in that area were identified. The insertion studies with single crystal V{sub 6}O{sub 13} were concluded on this program and transferred to NSF funding. 29 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

Smyrl, W.H.; Owens, B.B.; White, H.S. (Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis, MN (USA). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science)

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Adapting the polycarbonate dosimeter and electrochemical etching to the microdosimetry of /sup 239/Pu in bone  

SciTech Connect

The problem of setting the maximum permissible body burden, MPBB, for /sup 239/Pu is a complex one. Recent papers have been published which favor lowering the MPBB by varying factors depending on the assumptions used. /sup 239/Pu has been shown quite clearly, on detailed autoradiograph, to concentrate on the trabecular surfaces of the endosteal face of osseous tissue. This realization led the ICRP to propose the alteration of the MPBB for /sup 239/Pu in a manner based upon microdosimetry of /sup 239/Pu in bone, i.e., determine the dose out to 10..mu..m from the bone surfaces. Unfortunately, microdosimetry fulfilling this requirement has not been available. We are working toward this objective utilizing the Lexan polycarbonate detector and our optimized electrochemical etching procedure to amplify plutonium alpha tracks. As a prerequisite to this work, we are studying three problems inherently present in the Lexan detector. They involve achieving a very low background of tracks on the foils and a high degree of reproducibility between etching batches at this background level. Thirdly, we are determining the factor by which to multiply the number of induced tracks/cm/sup 2/ (..cap alpha.. and recoil) to obtain dose equivalent (rem). In this calibration we are using a standard /sup 239/Pu source and a surface barrier detection system. The plutonium bearing bones used in the microdosimetry phase of this research are rat, dog, and human.

Stillwagon, G.B.; Su, S.J.; Morgan, K.Z.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "giner electrochemical systems" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Electrochemical and neutron diffraction measurements of PdD{sub x} cathodes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Potentiometric and in-situ neutron diffraction measurements have been carried out on PdD{sub x} cathodes in LiOD-saturated D{sub 2}O solution. Open-circuit potentials of the PdD{sub x} electrode after interruption of high-intensity cathodic currents (300--500 mA/cm{sup 2}) showed a more negative potential ({epsilon} = 1010 mV, measured against a Hg/HgO reference electrode) than that expected from the literature. The anomalous potentials were observed for about 10--20 min after current interruption at x > 0.7 concentrations of deuterium. This phenomenon may indicate a metastable phase of the Pd-D system, which may be detected by neutron diffraction. In-situ neutron diffraction measurements, so far, have indicated only the evolution of the known {alpha} and {beta} phases of PdD{sub x}. Successful neutron diffraction measurements in electrochemical cells suggest the viability of this technique for in-situ investigations of metal-hydride battery electrodes in experiments when heavy-water electrolyte is used to model the MH{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O electrode.

Redey, L.; Myles, K.M.; Rotella, F.J.; Richardson, J.W. Jr.; Felcher, G.P.; Hitterman, R.L.; Kleb, R.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

382

Corrosion Rate, Effect of Soil Properties: Development of a Sensor System to Calculate Corrosion Rates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report addresses corrosion of substation ground grids and the development of a corrosion sensor system and supporting algorithms that can be used in the field to quickly estimate the corrosion rate of a metal in soils of low resistivity.The system is based on the linear polarization resistance (LPR) technique, an electrochemical method of calculating corrosion rates by measuring the relationship between electrochemical potential and the electric current between electrodes. ...

2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

383

Electrochemical Decontamination of Painted and Heavily Corroded Metals  

SciTech Connect

The radioactive metal wastes that are generated from nuclear fuel plants and radiochemical laboratories are mainly contaminated by the surface deposition of radioactive isotopes. There are presently several techniques used in removing surface contamination involving physical and chemical processes. However, there has been very little research done in the area of soiled, heavily oxidized, and painted metals. Researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory have been developing electrochemical procedures for the decontamination of bare and painted metal objects. These methods have been found to be effective on highly corroded as well as relatively new metals. This study has been successful in decontaminating projectiles and shrapnel excavated during environmental restoration projects after 40+ years of exposure to the elements. Heavily corroded augers used in sampling activities throughout the area were also successfully decontaminated. This process has demonstrated its effectiveness and offers several advantages over the present metal decontamination practices of media blasting and chemical solvents. These advantages include the addition of no toxic or hazardous chemicals, low operating temperature and pressure, and easily scaleable equipment. It is in their future plans to use this process in the decontamination of gloveboxes destined for disposal as TRU waste.

Marczak, S.; Anderson, J.; Dziewinski, J.

1998-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

384

An electrochemical approach to predicting corrosion performance of container materials  

SciTech Connect

As part of the effort in determining the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site in Southern Nevada for emplacement of high-level nuclear waste in a repository, possible failure modes of candidate waste package container metallic materials are being investigated. Localized forms of corrosion such as pitting attack on the metal surface or attack in creviced areas are particularly pernicious failure modes that may shorten the container lifetime. The pitting potential of nickel-rich Alloy 825 are measured in chloride-containing solutions at different temperatures and adjusted to different pH values. The pitting potentials were determined by potentiodynamic polarization of Alloy 825 test specimens from the corrosion potential until a sharp increase in the electrochemical current indicated a breakdown of the protective passive film on the metal surface. Results show that Alloy 825 is susceptible to pitting attack in aggressive electrolytes containing more than 10,000 ppm chloride at 90{degree}C and acicified to a pH value less than 2.5. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

McCright, R.D.; Farmer, J.C.; Fleming, D.L.

1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Night storage and backup generation with electrochemical engines  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Li/I/sub 2/ electrochemical engines both store and generate electric power. These dual capabilities complement solar photovoltaic generation in critical areas: Photovoltaics need backup storage at least for nights and, if possible, for two or three days' needs. Such storage must be relatively cheap and compact--aqueous batteries would have trouble filling these requirements. Likewise, photovoltaics need backup generation based on combustion of fossil fuels for periods of bad weather--solar residences or communities will probably have to supply their own backup generation because central generating stations cannot be expected to keep large amounts of equipment on standby for solar users. Li/I/sub 2/ engine designs are described which could be developed to fill these needs of solar users, i.e., storing electricity generated by photovoltaics and generating additional electricity from fossil fuels as needed. Calculations based on laboratory performance indicate that the devices could be simple to manufacture, economically competitive, and efficient both in storage and generation. These engines also could directly use solar energy from focused and tracking solar collectors, or they could indirectly use solar energy through the combustion of biomass materials.

Elliott, G.R.B.; Vanderborgh, N.E.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Electrochemical polishing of hydrogen sulfide from coal synthesis gas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An advanced process has been developed for the separation of H{sub 2}S from coal gasification product streams through an electrochemical membrane. This technology is developed for use in coal gasification facilities providing fuel for cogeneration coal fired electrical power facilities and Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell electrical power facilities. H{sub 2}S is removed from the syn-gas by reduction to the sulfide ion and H at the cathode. The sulfide ion migrates to the anode through a molten salt electrolyte suspended in an inert ceramic matrix. Once at the anode it is oxidized to elemental sulfur and swept away for condensation in an inert gas stream. The syn-gas is enriched with the H{sub 2}. Order-of-magnitude reductions in H{sub 2}S have been repeatably recorded (100 ppm to 10 ppm H{sub 2}S) on a single pass through the cell. This process allows removal of H{sub 2}S without cooling the gas stream and with negligible pressure loss through the separator. Since there are no absorbents used, there is no absorption/regeneration step as with conventional technology. Elemental sulfur is produced as a by-product directly, so there is no need for a Claus process for sulfur recovery. This makes the process economically attractive since it is much less equipment intensive than conventional technology.

Gleason, E.F.; Winnick, J.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Status of the DOE Battery and Electrochemical Technology Program V  

SciTech Connect

The program consists of two activities, Technology Base Research (TBR) managed by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and Exploratory Technology Development and Testing (EDT) managed by the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The status of the Battery Energy Storage Test (BEST) Facility is presented, including the status of the batteries to be tested. ECS program contributions to the advancement of the lead-acid battery and specific examples of technology transfer from this program are given. The advances during the period December 1982 to June 1984 in the characterization and performance of the lead-acid, iron/nickel-oxide, iron/air, aluminum/air, zinc/bromide, zinc/ferricyanide, and sodium/sulfur batteries and in fuel cells for transport are summarized. Novel techniques and the application of established techniques to the study of electrode processes, especially the electrode/electrolyte interface, are described. Research with the potential of leading to improved ceramic electrolytes and positive electrode container and current-collectors for the sodium/sulfur battery is presented. Advances in the electrocatalysis of the oxygen (air) electrode and the relationship of these advances to the iron/air and aluminum/air batteries and to the fuel cell are noted. The quest for new battery couples and battery materials is reviewed. New developments in the modeling of electrochemical cell and electrode performance with the approaches to test these models are reported.

Roberts, R.

1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Air electrode material for high temperature electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a solid solution with a perovskite-like crystal structure having the general formula La.sub.1-x-w (M.sub.L).sub.x (Ce).sub.w (M.sub.S1).sub.1-y (M.sub.S2).sub.y O.sub.3 where M.sub.L is Ca, Sr, Ba, or mixtures thereof, M.sub.S1 is Mn, Cr, or mixtures thereof and M.sub.S2 is Ni, Fe, Co, Ti, Al, In, Sn, Mg, Y, Nb, Ta, or mixtures thereof, w is about 0.05 to about 0.25, x+w is about 0.1 to about 0.7, and y is 0 to about 0.5. In the formula, M.sub.L is preferably Ca, w is preferably 0.1 to 0.2, x+w is preferably 0.4 to 0.7, and y is preferably 0. The solid solution can be used in an electrochemical cell where it more closely matches the thermal expansion characteristics of the support tube and electrolyte of the cell.

Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Carbon Nanotubes as Binder in Electrochemical Supercapacitor Malinda Caudle, Iowa State University Georgia Tech SURF 2011 Fellow  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon Nanotubes as Binder in Electrochemical Supercapacitor Malinda Caudle, Iowa State University. Introduction The development of supercapacitors would allow the electronics market to produce portable power

Li, Mo

390

Electrochemical Processes for In-Situ Treatment of Contaminated Soils - Final Report - 09/15/1996 - 01/31/2001  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project will study electrochemical processes for the in situ treatment of soils contaminated by mixed wastes, i.e., organic and inorganic. Soil samples collected form selected DOE waste sites will be characterized for specific organic and metal contaminants and hydraulic permeability. The soil samples are then subject to desorption experiments under various physical-chemical conditions such as pH and the presence of surfactants. Batch electro-osmosis experiments will be conducted to study the transport of contaminants in the soil-water systems. Organic contaminants that are released from the soil substrate will be treated by an advanced oxidation process, i.e., electron-Fantan. Finally, laboratory reactor integrating the elector-osmosis and elector-Fantan processes will be used to study the treatment of contaminated soil in situ.

Huang, Chin-Pao

2001-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

391

Enhanced molten salt purification by electrochemical methods: feasibility experiments with flibe  

SciTech Connect

Molten salts are considered within the Very High Temperature Reactor program as heat transfer media because of their intrinsically favorable thermo-physical properties at temperatures starting from 300 C and extending up to 1200 C. In this context two main applications of molten salt are considered, both involving fluoride-based materials: as primary coolants for a heterogeneous fuel reactor core and as secondary heat transport medium to a helium power cycle for electricity generation or other processing plants, such as hydrogen production. The reference design concept here considered is the Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR), which is a large passively safe reactor that uses solid graphite-matrix coated-particle fuel (similar to that used in gas-cooled reactors) and a molten salt primary and secondary coolant with peak temperatures between 700 and 1000 C, depending upon the application. However, the considerations included in this report apply to any high temperature system employing fluoride salts as heat transfer fluid, including intermediate heat exchangers for gas-cooled reactor concepts and homogenous molten salt concepts, and extending also to fast reactors, accelerator-driven systems and fusion energy systems. The most important initial requirement for heat transfer test of molten salt systems is the establishment of reference coolant materials to use in the experiments. An earlier report produced within the same project (INL/EXT-10-18297) highlighted how thermo-physical properties of the materials that directly impact the heat transfer behavior are strongly correlated to the of composition and impurities concentration of the melt. It is therefore essential to establish laboratory techniques that can measure the melt composition, and to develop purification methods that would allow the production of large quantities of coolant with the desired purity. A companion report titled An experimental test plan for the characterization of molten salt thermo-chemistry properties in heat transport systems describes the options available to reach such objectives and contains extended references to published work. The report highlights how electrochemical methods are the most promising techniques for the development of instrumentation aimed at the measurement of melts composition and for enhanced purification systems. The purpose of this work is to summarize preliminary experimental activities performed at the INL Safety and Tritium Applied Research facility in support of the development of electrochemistry based instrumentation and purification systems. The experiments have been focused on the LiF-BeF2 eutectic (67 and 33 mol%, respectively), also known as flibe.

Alan K Wertsching; Brandon S Grover; Pattrick Calderoni

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Combined electrochemical/surface science investigations of Pt/Cr alloy electrodes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Chromium addition improves the performance of carbon-supported Pt electrodes for oxygen reduction in phosphoric acid fuel cells. To clarify the role of chromium and its chemical nature at the electrode surface, we have performed a combined electrochemical/surface science investigation of a series of bulk Pt/sub x/Cr/sub (1-x)/ alloys (0 less than or equal to x less than or equal to 1). In this paper we report the surface characterization of the starting electrodes by XPS, electrochemical results from cyclic voltammetry in 85% phosphoric acid, and post-electrochemical surface characterization. For Cr contents less than 40%, the electrodes were quite stable up to +1.6 V vs DHE. The surface Cr was largely oxidized to Cr/sup +3/ for surfaces at open circuit ad those exposed at potentials < +1.4 V. For intermediate Cr levels, Cr was leached from the surface region by +1.5 V, leaving a porous Pt electrode with increased electrochemical hydrogen adsorption capacity. For Pt/sub 0.2//Cr/sub 0.8/, treatments at +1.4 V and above led to the appearance of Pt/sup 4 +/ and Cr/sup 6 +/ species, apparently stabilized in a porous phosphate overlayer up to 50 A thick. The Pt electrochemical hydrogen adsorption capacity was simultaneously increased by a factor of 15. 18 refs., 4 figs.

Daube, K.A.; Paffett, M.T.; Gottesfeld, S.; Campbell, C.T.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Advanced materials and electrochemical processes in high-temperature solid electrolytes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fuel cells for the direct conversion of fossil fuels to electric energy necessitates the use of high-temperature solid electrodes. This study has included: (1) determination of electrical transport, thermal and electrical properties to illucidate the effects of microstructure, phase equilibria, oxygen partial pressure, additives, synthesis and fabrication on these properties; (2) investigation of synthesis and fabrication of advanced oxide materials, such as La{sub 0.9}Sn{sub 0.1}MnO{sub 3}; and (3) application of new analytical techniques using complex impedance coupled with conventional electrochemical methods to study the electrochemical processes and behavior of materials for solid oxide fuel cells and other high-temperature electrolyte electrochemical process. 15 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs. (BM)

Bates, J.L.; Chick, L.A.; Youngblood, G.E.; Weber, W.J.

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Nanostructures and Lithium Electrochemical Reactivity of Lithium Titanites and Titanium Oxides: A Review  

SciTech Connect

Being inherently safe and chemically compatible with the electrolyte, titanium oxidebased materials, including both Li-titanites and various TiO2-polymorphs, are considered alternatives to carbonaceous anodes in Li-ion batteries. Given the commercial success of the spinel lithium titanites, TiO2-polymorphs, in particular in nanostructured forms, have been fabricated and investigated for the applications. Nanostructuring leads to increased reaction areas, shortened Li+ diffusion and potentially enhanced solubility/capacity. Integration with an electron conductive second phase into the TiO2-based nanostructures eases the electron transport, resulting in further improved lithium electrochemical activity and the overall electrochemical performance. This paper reviews structural characteristics and Li-electrochemical reactivity, along with synthetic approaches, of nanostructures and nano-composites based on lithium titanites and TiO2-polymorphs that include rutile, anatase, bronze and brookite.

Yang, Zhenguo; Choi, Daiwon; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Wang, Donghai; Zhang, Jiguang; Graff, Gordon L.; Liu, J.

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

395

Surface electrochemical control for fine coal and pyrite separation. Technical progress report, October 1, 1991--December 31, 1991  

SciTech Connect

The ongoing work includes the characterization of coal pyrites, the floatability evaluation of three typical US coal samples, the flotation behavior of coal pyrites, the electrochemical measurement of the surface properties of coal pyrites, and the characterization of species produced at pyrite surfaces. This report contains three sections, ``Transpassive Oxidation of Pyrite,`` ``Flotation and Electrochemical Pretreatment,`` and ``Flotation Kinetics of Coal and Coal Pyrite.``

Hu, Weibai; Huang, Qinping; Li, Jun; Zhu, Ximeng; Bodily, D.M.; Liang, Jun; Zhong, Tingke; Wadsworth, M.E.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

396

Anodic dissolution characteristics and electrochemical migration lifetimes of Sn solder in NaCl and Na2SO4 solutions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In situ water drop tests and anodic polarization tests of pure Sn solder were carried out in deaerated 0.001% NaCl and Na"2SO"4 solutions to determine the correlation between anodic dissolution characteristics and the electrochemical migration lifetime. ... Keywords: Anodic dissolution, Electrochemical migration, Life time, Na2SO4, NaCl, Sn solder

Ja-Young Jung; Shin-Bok Lee; Young-Chang Joo; Ho-Young Lee; Young-Bae Park

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Aluminum bulk micromachining through an anodic oxide mask by electrochemical etching in an acetic acid/perchloric acid solution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A well-defined microstructure with microchannels and a microchamber was fabricated on an aluminum plate by four steps of a new aluminum bulk micromachining process: anodizing, laser irradiation, electrochemical etching, and ultrasonication. An aluminum ... Keywords: Aluminum, Anodizing, Bulk micromachining, Electrochemical etching, Laser irradiation

Tatsuya Kikuchi, Yuhta Wachi, Masatoshi Sakairi, Ryosuke O. Suzuki

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Reduction of Perchlorate and Nitrate by Aluminum Activated by pH Change and Electrochemically Induced Pitting Corrosion.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Highly oxidized species like perchlorate and nitrate that are released into the environment by anthropogenic activities are a source of concern as they have been known to contaminate groundwater. These species are extremely soluble in water and can migrate through aquifer systems, travelling substantial distances from the original site of contamination. Due to their high solubility, these oxy-anions cannot be treated using conventional treatment processes like filtration and sedimentation. Several treatment technologies are currently available to abate the human health risk due to exposure to perchlorate and nitrate. However, most of the existing treatment processes are expensive or have limitations, like generation of brines with high concentrations of perchlorate or nitrate. Aluminum can effectively reduce perchlorate and nitrate, if the protective oxide film that separates the thermodynamically reactive Al0 from most environments is removed. Aluminum was activated by pH change and electrochemically induced, pitting corrosion to remove the passivating oxide layer and expose the underlying, thermodynamically reactive, zero-valent aluminum. A partially oxidized species of aluminum, like monovalent aluminum, is believed to bring about the reduction of perchlorate and nitrate. This research studied the reduction of perchlorate and nitrate by aluminum that was activated by these two mechanisms. Results indicated that aluminum activated by pH change resulted in an instantaneous decrease in perchlorate concentration without any increase in chlorate or chloride concentrations, which suggests that the perchlorate might be adsorbed on the aluminum oxide surface. However, aluminum activated by electrochemically induced pitting corrosion can effectively reduce perchlorate to chlorate. Nitrate, on the other hand, was reduced completely to ammonia by both treatment mechanisms. The studies conducted in this dissertation suggest that aluminum can be effectively used as a reducing agent to develop a treatment process to reduce perchlorate and nitrate.

Raut Desai, Aditya B.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Surface working of 304L stainless steel: Impact on microstructure, electrochemical behavior and SCC resistance  

SciTech Connect

The effect of surface working operations on the microstructure, electrochemical behavior and stress corrosion cracking resistance of 304L stainless steel (SS) was investigated in this study. The material was subjected to (a) solution annealing (b) machining and (c) grinding operations. Microstructural characterization was done using stereo microscopy and electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) technique. The electrochemical nature of the surfaces in machined, ground and solution annealed condition were studied using potentiodynamic polarization and scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) in borate buffer solution. The stress corrosion cracking resistance of 304L SS in different conditions was studied by exposing the samples to boiling MgCl{sub 2} environment. Results revealed that the heavy plastic deformation and residual stresses present near the surface due to machining and grinding operations make 304L SS electrochemically more active and susceptible to stress corrosion cracking. Ground sample showed highest magnitude of current density in the passive potential range followed by machined and solution annealed 304L SS. Micro-electrochemical studies established that surface working promotes localized corrosion along the surface asperities which could lead to crack initiation. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Machining/grinding produce extensive grain fragmentation near the surface of 304L SS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Machining/grinding result in martensitic transformation near the surface of 304L SS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Machining/grinding drastically reduce the SCC resistance of 304L SS in chloride. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Machining/grinding make the surface of 304L SS electrochemically much more active. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SECM study reveal that preferential dissolution takes place along surface asperities.

Acharyya, S.G., E-mail: swati364@gmail.com [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai (India); Khandelwal, A. [Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, Nagpur (India)] [Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, Nagpur (India); Kain, V. [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai (India)] [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai (India); Kumar, A.; Samajdar, I. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, IIT Bombay, Mumbai (India)] [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, IIT Bombay, Mumbai (India)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

400

The electrochemical characteristics of blue copper protein monolayers on gold  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Photonics Applications Systems Technologies (PhAST), 2008, San Jose, California, USA, Technical Digest

Tuscia, Università Degli Studi Della

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401

Fuel cell system with coolant flow reversal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method and apparatus for cooling electrochemical fuel cell system components. Periodic reversal of the direction of flow of cooling fluid through a fuel cell stack provides greater uniformity and cell operational temperatures. Flow direction through a recirculating coolant fluid circuit is reversed through a two position valve, without requiring modulation of the pumping component.

Kothmann, Richard E. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Formaldehyde yields from methanol electrochemical oxidation on carbon-supported platinum catalysts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The formation of formaldehyde during methanol electrochemical oxidation on supported Pt and Pt-Ru catalysts was investigated. While on solid platinum electrodes, the formaldehyde yields from methanol oxidation are near 30% at low potentials; the yields fall below 2% for methanol electrochemical oxidation on carbon-supported catalysts in Nafion. The lower formaldehyde yields, which result from more complete methanol oxidation, are believed to arise from the ability of partial oxidation products to be transported to an array of active catalyst sites dispersed within the three-dimensional network of the Nafion film.

Childers, C.L.; Huang, H.; Korzeniewski, C. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry

1999-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

403

Synthesis of Ru/multiwalled carbon nanotubes by microemulsion for electrochemical supercapacitor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An efficient way to decorate multiwalled carbon nanotubes with Ru had been developed. In this method, Ru nanoparticles were prepared by water-in-oil reverse microemulsion, and the produced Ru anchored on MWCNTs. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) result showed that RuO{sub 2} nanoparticles had the uniform size distribution after electrochemical oxidation. Energy dispersive X-rays (EDX) spectra elucidated the presence of ruthenium oxide in the as-prepared composites after electrochemical oxidation. Cyclic voltammetry result demonstrated that a specific capacitance of deposited ruthenium oxide electrode was significantly greater than that of the pristine MWCNTs electrode in the same medium.

Yan Shancheng; Qu Peng; Wang Haitao; Tian Tian [State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Si Pai Lou 2, Nanjing 210096 (China); Xiao Zhongdang [State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Si Pai Lou 2, Nanjing 210096 (China)], E-mail: zdxiao@seu.edu.cn

2008-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

404

Non-Kinetic Losses Caused by Electrochemical Carbon Corrosion in PEM Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

This paper presented non-kinetic losses in PEM fuel cells under an accelerated stress test of catalyst support. The cathode with carbon-supported Pt catalyst was prepared and characterized with potential hold at 1.2 V vs. SHE in PEM fuel cells. Irreversible losses caused by carbon corrosion were evaluated using a variety of electrochemical characterizations including cyclic voltammetry, linear sweep voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and polarization technique. Ohmic losses at the cathode with potential hold were determined using its capacitive responses. Concentration losses in PEM fuel cells were analyzed in terms of Tafel behavior and thin film/flooded-agglomerate dynamics.

Park, Seh Kyu; Shao, Yuyan; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Liu, Jun; Wang, Yong

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Electrochemical and in situ neutron diffraction investigations of La-Ni-Al-H alloys  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Li/metal hydride batteries are a strong contender to replace Ni/Cd batteries. Since the role of alloying components is not yet understood, a combination of electrochemical and neutron diffraction techniques has been designed to investigate metal hydrides. In this work, several Al-substituted LaNi{sub 5} alloys were investigated for their specific capacity (measured by mAh/La and symbolized by x in LaNi{sub 5-y}Al{sub y}H{sub x}), impedance, and cycling stability. Neutron diffraction was used to study the electrochemically induced phase transformation and structure change during charge/discharge.

Peng, W. [Illinois Institute of Technology (United States); Redey, L.; Vissers, D.R.; Myles, K.M.; Carpenter, J.; Richardson; Burr, G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Development of Advanced Electrochemical Emission Spectroscopy for Monitoring Corrosion in Simulated DOE Liquid Waste  

SciTech Connect

Various forms of general and localized corrosion represent principal threats to the integrity of DOE liquid waste storage tanks. These tanks, which are of a single wall or double wall design, depending upon their age, are fabricated from welded carbon steel and contain a complex waste-form comprised of NaOH and NaNO{sub 3}, along with trace amounts of phosphate, sulfate, carbonate, and chloride. Because waste leakage can have a profound environmental impact, considerable interest exists in predicting the accumulation of corrosion damage, so as to more effectively schedule maintenance and repair. The different tasks that are being carried out under the current program are as follows: (1) Theoretical and experimental assessment of general corrosion of iron/steel in borate buffer solutions by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), ellipsometry and XPS techniques; (2) Development of a damage function analysis (DFA) which would help in predicting the accumulation of damage due to pitting corrosion in an environment prototypical of DOE liquid waste systems; (3) Experimental measurement of crack growth rate, acoustic emission signals and coupling currents for fracture in carbon and low alloy steels as functions of mechanical (stress intensity), chemical (conductivity), electrochemical (corrosion potential, ECP), and microstructural (grain size, precipitate size, etc) variables in a systematic manner, with particular attention being focused on the structure of the noise in the current and its correlation with the acoustic emissions; (4) Development of fracture mechanisms for carbon and low alloy steels that are consistent with the crack growth rate, coupling current data and acoustic emissions; (5) Inserting advanced crack growth rate models for SCC into existing deterministic codes for predicting the evolution of corrosion damage in DOE liquid waste storage tanks; (6) Computer simulation of the anodic and cathodic activity on the surface of the steel samples in order to exactly predict the corrosion mechanisms; (7) Wavelet analysis of EC noise data from steel samples undergoing corrosion in an environment similar to that of the high level waste storage containers, to extract data pertaining to general, pitting and stress corrosion processes, from the overall data. The Point Defect Model (PDM) is directly applied as the theoretical assessment method for describing the passive film formed on iron/steels. The PDM is used to describe general corrosion in the passive region of iron. In addition, previous work suggests that pit formation is due to the coalescence of cation vacancies at the metal/film interface which would make it possible to use the PDM parameters to predict the onset of pitting. This previous work suggests that once the critical vacancy density is reached, the film ruptures to form a pit. Based upon the kinetic parameters derived for the general corrosion case, two parameters relating to the cation vacancy formation and annihilation can be calculated. These two parameters can then be applied to predict the transition from general to pitting corrosion for iron/mild steels. If cation vacancy coalescence is shown to lead to pitting, it can have a profound effect on the direction of future studies involving the onset of pitting corrosion. The work has yielded a number of important findings, including an unequivocal demonstration of the role of chloride ion in passivity breakdown on nickel in terms of cation vacancy generation within the passive film, the first detection and characterization of individual micro fracture events in stress corrosion cracking, and the determination of kinetic parameters for the generation and annihilation of point defects in the passive film on iron. The existence of coupling between the internal crack environment and the external cathodic environment, as predicted by the coupled environment fracture model (CEFM), has also been indisputably established for the AISI 4340/NaOH system. It is evident from the studies that analysis of coupling current noise is a very sensitive tool f

Digby D. Macdonald; Brian M. Marx; Sejin Ahn; Julio de Ruiz; Balaji Soundararaja; Morgan Smith; and Wendy Coulson

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

407

Overview of electrochemical power sources for electric and hybrid-electric vehicles.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Electric and hybrid-electric vehicles are being developed and commercialized around the world at a rate never before seen. These efforts are driven by the prospect of vehicles with lower emissions and higher fuel efficiencies. The widespread adaptation of such vehicles promises a cleaner environment and a reduction in the rate of accumulation of greenhouse gases, Critical to the success of this technology is the use of electrochemical power sources such as batteries and fuel cells, which can convert chemical energy to electrical energy more efficiently and quietly than internal combustion engines. This overview will concentrate on the work being conducted in the US to develop advanced propulsion systems for the electric and hybrid vehicles, This work is spearheaded by the US Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) for electric vehicles and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicle (PNGV) for hybrid-electric vehicles, both of which can be read about on the world wide web (www.uscar.tom). As is commonly known, electric vehicles rely strictly on batteries as their source of power. Hybrid-electric vehicles, however, have a dual source of power. An internal combustion engine or eventually a fuel cell supplies the vehicle with power at a relatively constant rate. A battery pack (much smaller than a typical electric-vehicle battery pack) provides the vehicle with its fast transient power requirements such as during acceleration. This hybrid arrangement maximizes vehicle fuel efficiency. Electric and hybrid-electric vehicles will also be able to convert the vehicle's change in momentum during braking into electrical energy and store it in its battery pack (instead of lose the energy as heat). This process, known as regenerative braking, will add to the vehicle's fuel efficiency in an urban environment.

Dees, D. W.

1999-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

408

3-D Tin-Carbon Fiber Paper Electrodes for Electrochemically ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2012. Symposium, Energy Storage: Materials, Systems and Applications. Presentation Title, 3-D...

409

ElectroChemical Arsenic Removal (ECAR) for Rural Bangladesh-Merging  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ElectroChemical Arsenic Removal (ECAR) for Rural Bangladesh-Merging ElectroChemical Arsenic Removal (ECAR) for Rural Bangladesh-Merging Technology with Sustainable Implementation Title ElectroChemical Arsenic Removal (ECAR) for Rural Bangladesh-Merging Technology with Sustainable Implementation Publication Type Report Year of Publication 2009 Authors Addy, Susan E., Ashok J. Gadgil, Kristin Kowolik, and Robert Kostecki Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory City Berkeley Abstract Today, 35-77 million Bangladeshis drink arsenic-contaminated groundwater from shallow tube wells. Arsenic remediation efforts have focused on the development and dissemination of household filters that frequently fall into disuse due to the amount of attention and maintenance that they require. A community scale clean water center has many advantages over household filters and allows for both chemical and electricity-based technologies to be beneficial to rural areas. Full cost recovery would enable the treatment center to be sustainable over time. ElectroChemical Arsenic Remediation (ECAR) is compatible with community scale water treatment for rural Bangladesh. We demonstrate the ability of ECAR to reduce arsenic levels > 500 ppb to less than 10 ppb in synthetic and real Bangladesh groundwater samples and examine the influence of several operating parameters on arsenic removal effectiveness. Operating cost and waste estimates are provided. Policy implication recommendations that encourage sustainable community treatment centers are discussed.

410

Alternative Electrochemical Salt Waste Forms, Summary of FY/CY2011 Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes the 2011 fiscal+calendar year efforts for developing waste forms for a spent salt generated in reprocessing nuclear fuel with an electrochemical separations process. The two waste forms are tellurite (TeO2-based) glasses and sol-gel-derived high-halide mineral analogs to stable minerals found in nature.

Riley, Brian J.; McCloy, John S.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Windisch, Charles F.; Lepry, William C.; Matyas, Josef; Westman, Matthew P.; Rieck, Bennett T.; Lang, Jesse B.; Pierce, David A.

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Green synthesis of graphene nanosheets/ZnO composites and electrochemical properties  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A green and facile approach was demonstrated to prepare graphene nanosheets/ZnO (GNS/ZnO) composites for supercapacitor materials. Glucose, as a reducing agent, and exfoliated graphite oxide (GO), as precursor, were used to synthesize GNS, then ZnO directly grew onto conducting graphene nanosheets as electrode materials. The small ZnO particles successfully anchored onto graphene sheets as spacers to keep the neighboring sheets separate. The electrochemical performances of these electrodes were analyzed by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectrometry and chronopotentiometry. Results showed that the GNS/ZnO composites displayed superior capacitive performance with large capacitance (62.2 F/g), excellent cyclic performance, and maximum power density (8.1 kW/kg) as compared with pure graphene electrodes. Our investigation highlight the importance of anchoring of small ZnO particles on graphene sheets for maximum utilization of electrochemically active ZnO and graphene for energy storage application in supercapacitors. - Graphical abstract: Glucose was used to synthesize GNS, then ZnO directly grew onto conducting graphene nanosheets as electrode materials for supercapacitor. Results showed that the composites have superior capacitive performance. Highlights: > Graphene nanosheets were synthesized via using glucose as a reducing agent. > The reductant and the oxidized product are environmentally friendly. > ZnO grew onto conducting graphene sheets keeping neighboring sheets separate. > The structure improves the contact between the electrode and the electrolyte. > Results showed that these composites have good electrochemical property.

Wang Jun, E-mail: zhqw1888@sohu.com [College of Material Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin 150001 (China); Gao Zan [College of Material Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin 150001 (China); Li Zhanshuang; Wang Bin; Yan Yanxia; Liu Qi [College of Material Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Mann, Tom [Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhang Milin [College of Material Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin 150001 (China); Jiang Zhaohua [College of Chemical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

412

Synthesis and characterization of a nanocomposite of goethite nanorods and reduced graphene oxide for electrochemical capacitors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report a one-step synthesis of a nanocomposite of goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH) nanorods and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) using a solution method in which ferrous cations serve as a reducing agent of graphite oxide (GO) to graphene and a precursor to grow goethite nanorods. As-prepared goethite nanorods have an average length of 200 nm and a diameter of 30 nm and are densely attached on both sides of the RGO sheets. The electrochemical properties of the nanocomposite were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronopotentiometry (CP) charge-discharge tests. The results showed that goethite/RGO composites have a high electrochemical capacitance of 165.5 F g{sup -1} with an excellent recycling capability making the material promising for electrochemical capacitors. - Graphical abstract: The reduced graphene oxide sheets are decorated with goethite nanorods. The as-prepared composite exhibits a high electrochemical capacitance with good recycling capability, which is promising for supercapacitor applications. Higlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ferrous ions act as reductant of graphite oxide and precursor of goethite nanorods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Goethite nanorods are attached on both sides of the reduced graphene oxide sheets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Composite exhibits a high specific capacitance and a good recycling capability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Composite is promising for supercapacitor applications.

Shou Qingliang [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Cheng Jipeng, E-mail: chengjp@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Zhang Li, E-mail: lizhang@ethz.ch [Institute of Robotics and Intelligent Systems, ETH Zurich, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Nelson, Bradley J. [Institute of Robotics and Intelligent Systems, ETH Zurich, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Zhang Xiaobin [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

413

Numerical modeling of electrochemical-mechanical interactions in lithium polymer batteries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a multi-scale finite element approach for lithium batteries to study electrochemical-mechanical interaction phenomena at macro- and micro-scales. The battery model consists of a lithium foil anode, a separator, and a porous cathode ... Keywords: Finite element method, Homogenization, Multi-scale modeling, Porous electrode theory

Stephanie Golmon; Kurt Maute; Martin L. Dunn

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Electrochem icalStim ulation of M icrobialPerchlorate Reduction  

Electrochem icalStim ulation of M icrobialPerchlorate Reduction J . C A M E R O N T H R A S H , J . I A N V A N T R U M P , K A R R I E A . W E B E R ,

415

In Situ Electrochemical X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysis with High Oxygen Flux  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(CE) and carbon paper/Pt working electrode (WE) were added to the pouch. (B) The PDMS pouch was very of Pt established a potential dependence of d-band vacancies.12 Later, a similar increase in white in the electrochemical environment could not investigate the effect of added O2 on the Pt structure because of the design

Frenkel, Anatoly

416

Palladium deuteride formation in the cathode of an electrochemical cell: An in situ neutron diffraction study  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this report, neutron diffraction of palladium cathodes is utilized to reveal palladium deuteride formation within the crystal structure of the metal. The experiment described in this report demonstrates the efficacy of neutron powder diffraction as a tool for structural studies of metal deuterides/hydrides and the feasibility of in situ diffraction measurements from a working electrochemical cell. (JL)

Rotella, F.J.; Richardson, J.W. Jr.; Redey, L.; Felcher, G.P.; Hitterman, R.L.; Kleb, R.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

417

Electrochemical detection of single molecules using abiotic nanopores having electrically tunable dimensions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A barrier structure for use in an electrochemical stochastic membrane sensor for single molecule detection. The sensor is based upon inorganic nanopores having electrically tunable dimensions. The inorganic nanopores are formed from inorganic materials and an electrically conductive polymer. Methods of making the barrier structure and sensing single molecules using the barrier structure are also described.

Sansinena, Jose-Maria (Los Alamos, NM); Redondo, Antonio (Los Alamos, NM); Olazabal, Virginia (Los Alamos, NM); Hoffbauer, Mark A. (Los Alamos, NM); Akhadov, Elshan A. (Los Alamos, NM)

2009-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

418

A round robin evaluation of the corrosiveness of wet residential insulation by electrochemical measurements  

SciTech Connect

The results of a round cabin evaluation of the use of an electrochemical method of calculating the corrosion rate of low carbon steel in environments related to cellulosic building insulations are reported. Environments included the leachate from a wet cellulosic insulation and solutions based on pure and commercial grades of borax, ammonium sulfate and aluminum sulfate. The pH values of these environments were in the range of 2.5 to 9.5. Electrochemical measurements were made using a direct reading corrosion rate instrument. The calculated corrosion rates were compared with those determined directly by weight loss measurements. Electrochemical measurements were made over a period of 48 hours and weight loss exposures were for two weeks. Poor agreement was observed for the corrosion rates determined electrochemically and the values were consistently larger than those based on weight loss. Reasons proposed for these results included the complex nature of the corrosion product deposits and the control these deposits have on oxygen diffusion to the metal interface. Both factors influence the validity of the calculation of the corrosion rate by the direct reading instrument. It was concluded that development of a viable electrochemical method of general applicability to the evaluation of the corrosiveness of wet residential building thermal insulations were doubtful. Because of the controlling influence of dissolved oxygen on the corrosion rate in the insulation leachate, an alternate evaluation method is proposed in which a thin steel specimen is partially immersed in wet insulation for three weeks. The corrosiveness of the wet insulation is evaluated in terms of the severity of attack near the metal-air-wet insulation interface. With thin metal specimens, complete penetration along the interface is proposed as a pass/fail criterion. An environment of sterile cotton wet with distilled water is proposed as a comparative standard. 9 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Stansbury, E.E. (Stansbury (E.E.), Knoxville, TN (United States))

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

A Preliminary Finite Element Electrochemical Model for Modelling ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Retrofit of a Combined Breaker Feeder with a Chisel Bath Contact Detection System to Reduce Anode Effect Frequency in a Potroom Simulating Traffic in a...

420

Water at an electrochemical interface - a simulation study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

simulations of redox active molten salts [18]. We begin withthe ?ndings in the molten salt simulations [16]. Thefor a redox-active molten salt system [18], where the

Willard, Adam

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "giner electrochemical systems" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Fail-Safe, Inexpensive Electrochemical Device Stack Design ...  

Other systems require several additional steps. Co-firing the tubes themselves is less costly because no interconnect element is involved.

422

First-principles calculation of atomic structure and electrochemical potential of Li{sub 1+x}V{sub 3}O{sub 8}.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Interest in the {gamma}-bronze, Li{sub 1+x}V{sub 3}O{sub g}, as a possible electrode material in rechargeable Li batteries has stimulated several experimental studies on this system. Detailed interpretation of the electrochemical and physical-property measurements is complicated by uncertainties regarding the structural arrangement of Li atoms as a function of x and by a phase transition between two monoclinic structures ({gamma}{sub a}, {gamma}{sub b}) during intercalation. To elucidate the atomic structures and the phase transition, first-principles calculations are performed with the local-density-functional-theory (LDFT) planewave pseudopotential method for both {gamma}{sub a} and {gamma}{sub b}, as a function of lithiation. Calculations for the compositions 1 + x = 1.5 and 1 + x = 4 confirm that the Li configuration determined in the existing x-ray diffraction structure refinements (at 1 + x = 1.2 and 1 + x = 4 respectively), coincide with the predicted low-energy configurations. Structure predictions were made at intermediate compositions, for which no experimental structure measurement is available. The order in which the tetrahedrally coordinated Li sites are filled at equilibrium as a function of x in {gamma}{sub a}, was predicted. Calculated electrochemical potentials as a function of composition agree well with experimental data.

Benedek, R.

1998-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

423

Electrochemical lithium insertion in the solid solution Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}-Sb{sub 2}WO{sub 6} with Aurivillius framework  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Following the structural evolution of the Aurivillius crystalline framework in the solid solution Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}-Sb{sub 2}WO{sub 6} we have carried out an electrochemical lithium insertion study in this system. A slight loss of the specific capacity of the electrochemical cell was observed as amount of Sb was increased. In general, the different compositions within solid solution Bi{sub 2-x}Sb{sub x}WO{sub 6} (0.25 {<=} x {<=} 0.75) exhibited a similar behaviour featured mainly by two semiconstant potential regions located at 1.7 and 0.8 V versus Li{sup +}/Li{sup o}. The oxide Sb{sub 2}WO{sub 6} with Autivillius structure but without Bi was tested as cathode too. The maximum amount of lithium inserted, 13.5 lithium atoms per formula, is the same amount inserted in its homologous bismuth oxide Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}.

Martinez-de la Cruz, A. [Division de Estudios de Posgrado, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 66451, San Nicolas de los Garza, NL (Mexico)], E-mail: azmartin@gama.fime.uanl.mx; Longoria Rodriguez, F.E. [Departamento de Quimica, Campus Universitario Los Guaritos, Universidad de Oriente, Av. Universidad, CP 6203 Monagas (Venezuela)

2007-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

424

Electrochemical Behavior and Li Diffusion Study of LiCoO? Thin Film Electrodes Prepared by PLD  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Preferred c-axis oriented LiCoO? thin films were prepared on the SiO?/Si (SOS) substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Thin film electrodes without carbon and binder are ideal samples to study the electrochemical ...

Xia, H.

425

Electrochemical degradation characteristics of refractory organic pollutants in coking wastewater on multiwall carbon nanotube-modified electrode  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The multiwall carbon nanotube-mollified electrode (MWCNT-ME) was fabricated and its electrocatalytic activity of refractory organic pollutants of coking wastewater was investigated. The surface morphology, absorption properties, and the electrochemical ...

Yan Wang; Shujing Sun; Guifu Ding; Hong Wang

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

An Estimate of the Vertical Ozone Profile Discrepancy between the Australian BrewerMast and Electrochemical Concentration Cell Ozonesondes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An analysis is described that provides an additive correction for referencing the vertical ozone profiles of the Australian BrewerMast (BM; October 1984December 1990) ozonesonde to those of the electrochemical concentration cell (ECC; January ...

Paul Lehmann

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesonde pump efficiency measurements and tests on the sensitivity to ozone of buffered and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesonde pump efficiency measurements and tests of new, direct measurements of the ozonesonde pump flow rate efficiency made in an environmental chamber using an oil bubble flowmeter developed at National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

Vömel, Holger

428

Three-Dimensional Thermal-Electrochemical Coupled Model for Spirally Wound Large-Format Lithium-Ion Batteries (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This presentation discusses the behavior of spirally wound large-format Li-ion batteries with respect to their design. The objectives of the study include developing thermal and electrochemical models resolving 3-dimensional spirally wound structures of cylindrical cells, understanding the mechanisms and interactions between local electrochemical reactions and macroscopic heat and electron transfers, and developing a tool and methodology to support macroscopic designs of cylindrical Li-ion battery cells.

Lee, K. J.; Smith K.; Kim, G. H.

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Recursive Proportional Feedback and its Use to Control Chaos in an Electrochemical System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The recursive proportional feedback (RPF) algorithm for controlling chaos is described and applied to control chemical chaos observed during the electrodissolution of a rotating copper disk in a sodium acetate/acetic acid buffer. Experimental evidence is presented to indicate why the RPF method was used and the theoretical robustness of the algorithm is discussed. (This paper appears in the "Proceedings of the 2nd Conference on EXPERIMENTAL CHAOS," World Scientific Press, River Ridge, NJ, 1995)

R. W. Rollins; P. Parmananda; P. Sherard; H. D. Dewald

1995-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

430

The Ural Electrochemical Integrated Plant Sustainability Program of Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting System Upgrades  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

UEIP has been working on a comprehensive sustainability program that includes establishing a site sustainability working group, information gathering, planning, organizing, developing schedule and estimated costs, trhough joint UEIP-US DOE/NNSA National Laboratory sustainability contracts. Considerable efforts have been necessary in the sustainability planning, monitoring, and control of the scope of work using tools such as Microsoft Excel, Microsoft Project and SAP R/3. While information interchanges within the sustainability program provides adequate US assurances that US funds are well spent through its quarterly reporting methodology, proper information security and protection measures are taken throughout the process. Decommissioning of outdated equipment has also become part of determining sustainability requirements and processes. The sites sustainability program has facilitated the development of a transition plan toward eventual full Russian funding of sustaining nuclear security upgrades.

Vakhonin, Alexander; Yuldashev, Rashid; Dabbs, Richard D.; Carroll, Michael F.; Garrett, Albert G.; Patrick, Scott W.; Ku, Eshter M.

2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

431

Design of a Safeguards Instrument for Plutonium Quantification in an Electrochemical Refining System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There has been a strong international interest in using pyroprocessing to close the fast nuclear reactor fuel cycle and reprocess spent fuel efficiently. To commercialize pyroprocessing, safeguards technologies are required to be developed. In this research, the use of Self-Interrogation Neutron Resonance Densitometry (SINRD) has been investigated as a method to safeguard the process and more precisely quantify the 239Pu content of pyroprocessing materials. This method uses a detector array with different filters to isolate the low-energy resonance in 239Pu neutron fission cross section. The relative response of the different detectors allows for the quantification of the amount of 239Pu in the pyroprocessing materials. The Monte-Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code was used to design a prototype SINRD instrument. This instrument is composed of a neutron source pod and a SINRD detector pod. Experimental measurements were also performed to validate the MCNP model of the instrument. Based on the results from simulations and experiments, it has been concluded that the MCNP model accurately represents the physics of the experiment. In addition, different SINRD signatures were compared to identify which of them are usable to determine the fissile isotope content. Comparison of different signatures allowed for reduction in the uncertainty of the 239Pu mass estimate. Using these signatures, the SINRD instrument was shown to be able to quantify the 239Pu content of unknown pyroprocessing materials suitable for safeguards usage.

Le Coq, Annabelle G

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Electrochemical Reversible Formation of Alane - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5 5 FY 2012 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Ragaiy Zidan 1 (Primary Contact), Douglas A. Knight 1 , Scott Greenway 2 1 Savannah River National Laboratory 999-2W Room 121 Savannah River Site Aiken, SC 29808 Phone: (803) 646-8876 Email: ragaiy.zidan@srnl.doe.gov 2 Greenway Energy DOE Manager HQ: Ned Stetson Phone: (202) 586-9995 Email: Ned.Stetson@ee.doe.gov Project Start Date: October 1, 2006 Project End Date: October 1, 2012 Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives Identify means for achieving energy efficiency * improvements of over 50%. Perform electrochemical production of alane and alane * adducts in a pressurized electrochemical cell and demonstrate production of α-alane. Demonstrate the formation of alane and the regeneration *

433

Direct electrochemical conversion of carbon anode fuels in molton salt media  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We are conducting research into the direct electrochemical conversion of reactive carbons into electricity--with experimental evidence of total efficiencies exceeding 80% of the heat of combustion of carbon. Together with technologies for extraction of reactive carbons from broad based fossil fuels, direct carbon conversion addresses the objectives of DOE's ''21st Century Fuel Cell'' with exceptionally high efficiency (>70% based on standard heat of reaction, {Delta}H{sub std}), as well as broader objectives of managing CO{sub 2} emissions. We are exploring the reactivity of a wide range of carbons derived from diverse sources, including pyrolyzed hydrocarbons, petroleum cokes, purified coals and biochars, and relating their electrochemical reactivity to nano/microstructural characteristics.

Cherepy, N; Krueger, R; Cooper, J F

2001-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

434

Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies of lithium diffusion in doped manganese oxide  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Cathode performance is critical to lithium ion rechargeable battery performance; effects of doping lithium manganese oxide cathode materials on cathode performance are being investigated. In this paper, Li diffusion in Al-doped LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} was studied and found to be controlled by the quantity of Al dopant. Electrochemical cycling was conducted at 0.5mA/cm{sub 2}; electrochemical impedance spectra were taken at open circuit potential, with impedance being measured at 65 kHz-0.01 Hz. As the Al dopant level was increased, the Li diffusion rate decreased; this was attributed to the decreased lattice parameter of the doped oxide.

Johnson, B.J.; Doughty, D.H.; Voigt, J.A.; Boyle, T.J.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Towards standardizing the measurement of electrochemical properties of solid state electrolytes in lithium batteries.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this paper is to stimulate thought and discussion in the technical community on standardization of the experimental determination of the pertinent electrochemical properties of solid electrolytes in lithium batteries. This standardization is needed for comparison and modeling of solid electrolytes in a practical lithium battery. The appropriate electrochemical properties include transport, thermodynamic, and physical parameters that generally depend on concentration and temperature. While it is beyond the scope of this work to put forward definitive measurement techniques for all types of solid electrolytes, it is hoped that comparisons between various techniques to examine a dissolved binary lithium salt in a dry polymer solvent will lead to improved understanding and methodology for examining solid electrolytes.

Dees, D. W.; Henriksen, G. L.

1999-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

436

Method of enhancing the wettability of boron nitride for use as an electrochemical cell separator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A felt or other fabric of boron nitride suitable for use as an interelectrode separator within an electrochemical cell is wetted with a solution containing a thermally decomposable organic salt of an alkaline earth metal. An aqueous solution of magnesium acetate is the preferred solution for this purpose. After wetting the boron nitride, the solution is dried by heating at a sufficiently low temperature to prevent rapid boiling and the creation of voids within the separator. The dried material is then calcined at an elevated temperature in excess of 400/sup 0/C to provide a coating of an oxide of magnesium on the surface of the boron nitride fibers. A fabric or felt of boron nitride treated in this manner is easily wetted by molten electrolytic salts, such as the alkali metal halides or alkaline earth metal halides, that are used in high temperature, secondary electrochemical cells.

McCoy, L.R.

1981-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

437

Current Collection Through The Ends Of A Spirally Wound Electrochemical Cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical cell, including a jelly-roll type electrode stack, and a method for making such cell. The electrochemical cell includes folded electrode portions which form a plane recessed from the end of the electrode stack. The folded electrode portions are preferably formed by making pairs of slits in the electrode end and bending over the electrode portions between each pair of slits. The recessed plane forms a large area to which a current collection tab is subsequently connected. A coating may be applied to the folded portions of the electrode to further increase the contact area with the current collection tab by eliminating the slight variations in the recessed plane which are due to the overlap of the folded electrode portions.

Oweis, Salah (Ellicott City, MD); Chagnon, Guy (Columbia, MD); Alunans, Peter (Baltimore, MD); Romero, Antonio (Parkton, MD)

1999-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

438

A comparison of the electrochemical behavior of carbon aerogels and activated carbon fiber cloths  

SciTech Connect

Electrochemical capacitative behavior of carbon aerogels and commercial carbon fiber cloths was studied in 5M KOH, 3M sulfuric acid, and 0.5M tetrethylammonium tetrafluoroborate/propylene carbonate electrolytes. The resorcinol-formaldehyde based carbon aerogels with a range of denisty (0.2-0.85 g/cc) have open-cell structures with ultrafine pore sizes (5-50 nm), high surface area (400-700 m{sup 2}/g), and a solid matrix composed of interconnected particles or fibers with characteristic diameters of 10 nm. The commercial fiber cloths in the density range 0.2-04g/cc have high surface areas (1000-2500 m{sup 2}/g). The volumetric capacitances of high-density aerogels are shown to be comparable to or exceeding those from activated carbon fibers. Electrochemical behavior of these materials in various electrolytes is compared and related to their physical properties.

Tran, T.D.; Alviso, C.T.; Hulsey, S.S.; Nielsen, J.K.; Pekala, R.W.

1996-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

439

Electrochemical cell apparatus having an integrated reformer-mixer nozzle-mixer diffuser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical apparatus is made having a generator section containing electrochemical cells, a fresh gaseous feed fuel inlet, a gaseous feed oxidant inlet, and at least one hot gaseous spent fuel recirculation channel, where the spent fuel recirculation channel, passes from the generator chamber to combine with the fresh feed fuel inlet to form a reformable mixture, where a reforming chamber contains an outer portion containing reforming material, an inner portion preferably containing a mixer nozzle and a mixer-diffuser, and a middle portion for receiving spent fuel, where the mixer nozzle and mixer-diffuser are preferably both within the reforming chamber and substantially exterior to the main portion of the apparatus, where the reformable mixture flows up and then backward before contacting the reforming material, and the mixer nozzle can operate below 400 C. 1 figure.

Shockling, L.A.

1991-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

440

Activation of catalyst for gas-phase combustion by electrochemical pretreatment  

SciTech Connect

The catalytic activity of an IrO{sub 2} catalyst used as an electrode on a YSZ solid electrolyte cell for the gas-phase combustion of ethylene can be increased by electrochemical pretreatment. Thus, the polarization of the IrO{sub 2} electrode during 90 min at 300 {micro}A, relative to a gold electrode, both deposited on YSZ, increases the activity of the IrO{sub 2} catalyst after current interruption by a factor of 3. In situ catalyst work function measurements showed that after the electrochemical pretreatment the IrO{sub 2} catalyst obtains higher work function. The activation of the catalyst is explained through the formation of a higher oxide, IrO{sub 2+{delta}}.

Nicole, J.; Wodiunig, S.; Comninellis, C. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech., Lausanne (Switzerland). Inst. of Chemical Engineering; Tsiplakides, D. [Univ. of Patras (Greece). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "giner electrochemical systems" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Mediated electrochemical oxidation of organic wastes using a Co(III) mediator in a neutral electrolyte  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical cell with a Co(III) mediator and neutral pH anolyte provides efficient destruction of organic and mixed wastes. The organic waste is concentrated in the anolyte reservoir, where the cobalt mediator oxidizes the organics and insoluble radioactive species and is regenerated at the anode until all organics are converted to carbon dioxide and destroyed. The neutral electrolyte is non-corrosive, and thus extends the lifetime of the cell and its components.

Balazs, G. Bryan (Livermore, CA); Lewis, Patricia R. (Livermore, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Mediated electrochemical oxidation of organic wastes using a Co(III) mediator in a neutral electrolyte  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical cell with a Co(III) mediator and neutral pH anolyte provides efficient destruction of organic and mixed wastes. The organic waste is concentrated in the anolyte reservoir, where the cobalt mediator oxidizes the organics and insoluble radioactive species and is regenerated at the anode until all organics are converted to carbon dioxide and destroyed. The neutral electrolyte is non-corrosive, and thus extends the lifetime of the cell and its components. 2 figs.

Balazs, G.B.; Lewis, P.R.

1999-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

443

Simulated Boiler Corrosion Studies Using Electrochemical Techniques: AVT(R) Contaminant Limits  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Boiler water-side corrosion in fossil plants represents a key cause of availability and performance loss. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) cycle chemistry guidelines provide control curves based on cation conductivity and steam quality limits. Electrochemical techniques developed to simulate boiler corrosion can be used to determine actual contaminant limits, based on corrosion, in boiler water. This report provides the results of an electrochemistry study to determine the limits and control ...

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

444

Electrochemical studies of the film formation on lithium in propylene carbonate solutions under open circuit conditions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The nature of protective surface layers formed on lithium in propylene carbonate solutions of LiClO/sub 4/ and LiAsF/sub 6/ at open circuit has been investigated by electrochemical pulse measurements and other techniques. The results are consistent with the fast formation of a compact thin layer of Li/sub 2/O by reaction with residual water. This layer acts as a solid ionic conductor. Slow corrosion processes produce a thicker porous overlayer.

Geronov, Y.; Schwager, F.; Muller, R.H.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

BWRVIP-268: BWR Vessel and Internals Project: Electrochemical Corrosion Potential Sourcebook  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) monitoring gained critical attention in the early 1980s with the recognition of elevated ECP as an important parameter that enhances the susceptibility of structural materials to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in operating boiling water reactor (BWR) environments. Since then, many BWRs have performed hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) mini-tests to confirm the effectiveness of HWC in lowering the ECP of reactor internals below -230 mV against the ...

2012-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

446

Hydrogen Sensor Based on Pd/GeO{sub 2} Using a Low Cost Electrochemical Deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work reports on a synthesis of sub micron germanium dioxide (GeO{sub 2}) on porous silicon (PS) by electrochemical deposition. n-type Si (100) wafer was used to fabricate (PS) using conventional method of electrochemical etching in HF based solution. A GeCl{sub 4} was directly hydrolyzed by hydrogen peroxide to produce pure GeO{sub 2}, and then electrochemically deposited on PS. Followed by palladium (Pd) contact on GeO{sub 2} /PS was achieved by using RF sputtering technique. The grown GeO{sub 2} crystals were characterized using SEM and EDX. I-V characteristics of Pd/ GeO{sub 2} were recorded before and after hydrogen gas exposure as well as with different H{sub 2} concentrations and different applied temperatures. The sensitivity of Pd/ GeO{sub 2} also has been investigated it could be seen to increase significantly with increased hydrogen concentration while it decreased with increase temperature.

Jawad, M. J.; Hashim, M. R. [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800-Penang (Malaysia); Ali, N. K. [Material Innovations and Nanoelectronics Research Group, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Department of electronic engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia)

2011-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

447

Study of Electrochemical Reactions Using Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The combination of electrochemistry (EC) and mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful analytical tool for studying mechanisms of redox reactions, identification of products and intermediates, and online derivatization/recognition of analytes. This work reports a new coupling interface for EC/MS by employing nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI), a recently developed ambient ionization method. We demonstrate online coupling of nano-DESI-MS with a traditional electrochemical flow cell, in which the electrolyzed solution emanating from the cell is ionized by nano-DESI for MS analysis. Furthermore, we show first coupling of nano-DESI-MS with an interdigitated array (IDA) electrode enabling chemical analysis of electrolyzed samples directly from electrode surfaces. Because of its inherent sensitivity, nano-DESI enables chemical analysis of small volumes and concentrations of sample solution. Specifically, good-quality signal of dopamine and its oxidized form, dopamine ortho-quinone, was obtained using 10 {mu}L of 1 {mu}M solution of dopamine on the IDA. Oxidation of dopamine, reduction of benzodiazepines, and electrochemical derivatization of thiol groups were used to demonstrate the performance of the technique. Our results show the potential of nano-DESI as a novel interface for electrochemical mass spectrometry research.

Liu, Pengyuan; Lanekoff, Ingela T.; Laskin, Julia; Dewald, Howard D.; Chen, Hao

2012-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

448

Work function control of hole-selective polymer/ITO anode contacts: an electrochemical doping study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a novel method for electrodeposition of ultra-thin films of poly-3-hexylthiophene (e-P3HT) on chemically modified indium-tin oxide (ITO) electrodes, to produce a hole-selective contact with an eas