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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "giga mega kilo" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Kilo Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Kilo Geothermal Area Kilo Geothermal Area Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermal Resource Area: Kilo Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2 History and Infrastructure 3 Regulatory and Environmental Issues 4 Exploration History 5 Well Field Description 6 Geology of the Area 7 Geofluid Geochemistry 8 NEPA-Related Analyses (0) 9 Exploration Activities (0) 10 References Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"TERRAIN","zoom":6,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"500px","height":"300px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":65.8101865,"lon":-151.2360627,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

2

Prefixes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... giga. jig'a a as in about, G. 10 9. Billion. mega. as in megaphone, M. 10 6. Million. kilo. as in kilowatt, k. 10 3. Thousand. hecto. heck'toe, h. 10 2. Hundred ...

2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

3

MegaPipe: the MegaCam image stacking pipeline  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes the MegaPipe image processing pipeline at the Canadian Astronomical Data Centre (CADC). The pipeline takes multiple images from the MegaCam mosaic camera on CFHT and combines them into a single output image. MegaPipe takes as input detrended MegaCam images and does a careful astrometric and photometric calibration on them. The calibrated images are then resampled and combined into image stacks. MegaPipe is run on PI data by request, data from large surveys (the CFHT Legacy Survey and the Next Generation Virgo Survey) and all non-proprietary MegaCam data in the CFHT archive. The stacked images and catalogs derived from these images are available through the CADC website. Currently, 1500 square degrees have been processed.

Gwyn, Stephen D J

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Mega Nap Kft | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Zip 2837 Sector Solar Product Mega Nap designs solar cells and collectors for households and industrial users. References Mega Nap Kft1 LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase...

5

MegaWatt Solar | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search Name MegaWatt Solar Place North Carolina Sector Renewable Energy, Solar Product North Carolina-based, technology-centric renewable energy company...

6

MEGA  

Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

002444SUPER00 Modular Environment for Graph Research and Analysis with a Persistent http://software.sandia.gov/trac/megraphs

7

GigaCrete Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GigaCrete Inc GigaCrete Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name GigaCrete Inc Place Scottsdale, Arizona Zip 85260 Sector Buildings Product A green buildings materials company, designing concrete, flooring, and wall treatments. Coordinates 33.494°, -111.920694° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":33.494,"lon":-111.920694,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

8

Mega Energy, LP | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

search Name Mega Energy, LP Place Texas Utility Id 56247 Utility Location Yes Ownership R NERC ERCOT Yes ISO Ercot Yes Activity Retail Marketing Yes References EIA Form EIA-861...

9

Development of Ni-Fe Hydrogenation Catalyst from D. Gigas ...  

Development of Ni-Fe Hydrogenation Catalyst from D. Gigas Hydrogenase Note: The technology described above is an early stage opportunity. Licensing rights to this ...

10

MegaPipe: the MegaCam image stacking pipeline at the Canadian Astronomical Data Centre  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes the MegaPipe image processing pipeline at the Canadian Astronomical Data Centre. The pipeline combines multiple images from the MegaCam mosaic camera on CFHT and combines them into a single output image. MegaPipe takes as input detrended MegaCam images and does a careful astrometric and photometric calibration on them. The calibrated images are then resampled and combined into image stacks. The astrometric calibration of the output images is accurate to within 0.15 arcseconds relative to external reference frames and 0.04 arcseconds internally. The photometric calibration is good to within 0.03 magnitudes. The stacked images and catalogues derived from these images are available through the CADC website:

Gwyn, Stephen D J

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

MegaPipe: the MegaCam image stacking pipeline at the Canadian Astronomical Data Centre  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes the MegaPipe image processing pipeline at the Canadian Astronomical Data Centre. The pipeline combines multiple images from the MegaCam mosaic camera on CFHT and combines them into a single output image. MegaPipe takes as input detrended MegaCam images and does a careful astrometric and photometric calibration on them. The calibrated images are then resampled and combined into image stacks. The astrometric calibration of the output images is accurate to within 0.15 arcseconds relative to external reference frames and 0.04 arcseconds internally. The photometric calibration is good to within 0.03 magnitudes. The stacked images and catalogues derived from these images are available through the CADC website:

Stephen. D. J. Gwyn

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Property:PotentialOnshoreWindCapacity | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

PotentialOnshoreWindCapacity PotentialOnshoreWindCapacity Jump to: navigation, search Property Name PotentialOnshoreWindCapacity Property Type Quantity Description The nameplate capacity technical potential from Onshore Wind for a particular place. Use this property to express potential electric energy generation, such as Nameplate Capacity. The default unit is megawatts (MW). For spatial capacity, use property Volume. Acceptable units (and their conversions) are: 1 MW,MWe,megawatt,Megawatt,MegaWatt,MEGAWATT,megawatts,Megawatt,MegaWatts,MEGAWATT,MEGAWATTS 1000 kW,kWe,KW,kilowatt,KiloWatt,KILOWATT,kilowatts,KiloWatts,KILOWATT,KILOWATTS 1000000 W,We,watt,watts,Watt,Watts,WATT,WATTS 1000000000 mW,milliwatt,milliwatts,MILLIWATT,MILLIWATTS 0.001 GW,gigawatt,gigawatts,Gigawatt,Gigawatts,GigaWatt,GigaWatts,GIGAWATT,GIGAWATTS

13

Property:PotentialRooftopPVCapacity | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

PotentialRooftopPVCapacity PotentialRooftopPVCapacity Jump to: navigation, search Property Name PotentialRooftopPVCapacity Property Type Quantity Description The nameplate capacity technical potential from Rooftop PV for a particular place. Use this property to express potential electric energy generation, such as Nameplate Capacity. The default unit is megawatts (MW). For spatial capacity, use property Volume. Acceptable units (and their conversions) are: 1 MW,MWe,megawatt,Megawatt,MegaWatt,MEGAWATT,megawatts,Megawatt,MegaWatts,MEGAWATT,MEGAWATTS 1000 kW,kWe,KW,kilowatt,KiloWatt,KILOWATT,kilowatts,KiloWatts,KILOWATT,KILOWATTS 1000000 W,We,watt,watts,Watt,Watts,WATT,WATTS 1000000000 mW,milliwatt,milliwatts,MILLIWATT,MILLIWATTS 0.001 GW,gigawatt,gigawatts,Gigawatt,Gigawatts,GigaWatt,GigaWatts,GIGAWATT,GIGAWATTS

14

Property:MeanCapacity | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

MeanCapacity MeanCapacity Jump to: navigation, search Property Name MeanCapacity Property Type Quantity Description Mean capacity potential at location based on the USGS 2008 Geothermal Resource Assessment if the United States Use this property to express potential electric energy generation, such as Nameplate Capacity. The default unit is megawatts (MW). For spatial capacity, use property Volume. Acceptable units (and their conversions) are: 1 MW,MWe,megawatt,Megawatt,MegaWatt,MEGAWATT,megawatts,Megawatt,MegaWatts,MEGAWATT,MEGAWATTS 1000 kW,kWe,KW,kilowatt,KiloWatt,KILOWATT,kilowatts,KiloWatts,KILOWATT,KILOWATTS 1000000 W,We,watt,watts,Watt,Watts,WATT,WATTS 1000000000 mW,milliwatt,milliwatts,MILLIWATT,MILLIWATTS 0.001 GW,gigawatt,gigawatts,Gigawatt,Gigawatts,GigaWatt,GigaWatts,GIGAWATT,GIGAWATTS

15

Property:PotentialBiopowerSolidCapacity | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

PotentialBiopowerSolidCapacity PotentialBiopowerSolidCapacity Jump to: navigation, search Property Name PotentialBiopowerSolidCapacity Property Type Quantity Description The nameplate capacity technical potential from solid biopower for a particular place. Use this property to express potential electric energy generation, such as Nameplate Capacity. The default unit is megawatts (MW). For spatial capacity, use property Volume. Acceptable units (and their conversions) are: 1 MW,MWe,megawatt,Megawatt,MegaWatt,MEGAWATT,megawatts,Megawatt,MegaWatts,MEGAWATT,MEGAWATTS 1000 kW,kWe,KW,kilowatt,KiloWatt,KILOWATT,kilowatts,KiloWatts,KILOWATT,KILOWATTS 1000000 W,We,watt,watts,Watt,Watts,WATT,WATTS 1000000000 mW,milliwatt,milliwatts,MILLIWATT,MILLIWATTS 0.001 GW,gigawatt,gigawatts,Gigawatt,Gigawatts,GigaWatt,GigaWatts,GIGAWATT,GIGAWATTS

16

Property:PotentialRuralUtilityScalePVCapacity | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

PotentialRuralUtilityScalePVCapacity PotentialRuralUtilityScalePVCapacity Jump to: navigation, search Property Name PotentialRuralUtilityScalePVCapacity Property Type Quantity Description The nameplate capacity technical potential from rural utility-scale PV for a particular place. Use this property to express potential electric energy generation, such as Nameplate Capacity. The default unit is megawatts (MW). For spatial capacity, use property Volume. Acceptable units (and their conversions) are: 1 MW,MWe,megawatt,Megawatt,MegaWatt,MEGAWATT,megawatts,Megawatt,MegaWatts,MEGAWATT,MEGAWATTS 1000 kW,kWe,KW,kilowatt,KiloWatt,KILOWATT,kilowatts,KiloWatts,KILOWATT,KILOWATTS 1000000 W,We,watt,watts,Watt,Watts,WATT,WATTS 1000000000 mW,milliwatt,milliwatts,MILLIWATT,MILLIWATTS 0.001 GW,gigawatt,gigawatts,Gigawatt,Gigawatts,GigaWatt,GigaWatts,GIGAWATT,GIGAWATTS

17

Property:PotentialUrbanUtilityScalePVCapacity | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

PotentialUrbanUtilityScalePVCapacity PotentialUrbanUtilityScalePVCapacity Jump to: navigation, search Property Name PotentialUrbanUtilityScalePVCapacity Property Type Quantity Description The nameplate capacity technical potential from utility-scale PV in urban areas of a particular place. Use this property to express potential electric energy generation, such as Nameplate Capacity. The default unit is megawatts (MW). For spatial capacity, use property Volume. Acceptable units (and their conversions) are: 1 MW,MWe,megawatt,Megawatt,MegaWatt,MEGAWATT,megawatts,Megawatt,MegaWatts,MEGAWATT,MEGAWATTS 1000 kW,kWe,KW,kilowatt,KiloWatt,KILOWATT,kilowatts,KiloWatts,KILOWATT,KILOWATTS 1000000 W,We,watt,watts,Watt,Watts,WATT,WATTS 1000000000 mW,milliwatt,milliwatts,MILLIWATT,MILLIWATTS 0.001 GW,gigawatt,gigawatts,Gigawatt,Gigawatts,GigaWatt,GigaWatts,GIGAWATT,GIGAWATTS

18

Property:Capacity | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Capacity Capacity Jump to: navigation, search Property Name Capacity Property Type Quantity Description Potential electric energy generation, default units of megawatts. Use this property to express potential electric energy generation, such as Nameplate Capacity. The default unit is megawatts (MW). For spatial capacity, use property Volume. Acceptable units (and their conversions) are: 1 MW,MWe,megawatt,Megawatt,MegaWatt,MEGAWATT,megawatts,Megawatt,MegaWatts,MEGAWATT,MEGAWATTS 1000 kW,kWe,KW,kilowatt,KiloWatt,KILOWATT,kilowatts,KiloWatts,KILOWATT,KILOWATTS 1000000 W,We,watt,watts,Watt,Watts,WATT,WATTS 1000000000 mW,milliwatt,milliwatts,MILLIWATT,MILLIWATTS 0.001 GW,gigawatt,gigawatts,Gigawatt,Gigawatts,GigaWatt,GigaWatts,GIGAWATT,GIGAWATTS 0.000001 TW,terawatt,terawatts,Terawatt,Terawatts,TeraWatt,TeraWatts,TERAWATT,TERAWATTS

19

Property:PotentialEGSGeothermalCapacity | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

PotentialEGSGeothermalCapacity PotentialEGSGeothermalCapacity Jump to: navigation, search Property Name PotentialEGSGeothermalCapacity Property Type Quantity Description The nameplate capacity technical potential from EGS Geothermal for a particular place. Use this property to express potential electric energy generation, such as Nameplate Capacity. The default unit is megawatts (MW). For spatial capacity, use property Volume. Acceptable units (and their conversions) are: 1 MW,MWe,megawatt,Megawatt,MegaWatt,MEGAWATT,megawatts,Megawatt,MegaWatts,MEGAWATT,MEGAWATTS 1000 kW,kWe,KW,kilowatt,KiloWatt,KILOWATT,kilowatts,KiloWatts,KILOWATT,KILOWATTS 1000000 W,We,watt,watts,Watt,Watts,WATT,WATTS 1000000000 mW,milliwatt,milliwatts,MILLIWATT,MILLIWATTS 0.001 GW,gigawatt,gigawatts,Gigawatt,Gigawatts,GigaWatt,GigaWatts,GIGAWATT,GIGAWATTS

20

Property:GeneratingCapacity | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GeneratingCapacity GeneratingCapacity Jump to: navigation, search Property Name GeneratingCapacity Property Type Quantity Use this property to express potential electric energy generation, such as Nameplate Capacity. The default unit is megawatts (MW). For spatial capacity, use property Volume. Acceptable units (and their conversions) are: 1 MW,MWe,megawatt,Megawatt,MegaWatt,MEGAWATT,megawatts,Megawatt,MegaWatts,MEGAWATT,MEGAWATTS 1000 kW,kWe,KW,kilowatt,KiloWatt,KILOWATT,kilowatts,KiloWatts,KILOWATT,KILOWATTS 1000000 W,We,watt,watts,Watt,Watts,WATT,WATTS 1000000000 mW,milliwatt,milliwatts,MILLIWATT,MILLIWATTS 0.001 GW,gigawatt,gigawatts,Gigawatt,Gigawatts,GigaWatt,GigaWatts,GIGAWATT,GIGAWATTS 0.000001 TW,terawatt,terawatts,Terawatt,Terawatts,TeraWatt,TeraWatts,TERAWATT,TERAWATTS

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "giga mega kilo" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Property:PotentialCSPCapacity | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

PotentialCSPCapacity PotentialCSPCapacity Jump to: navigation, search Property Name PotentialCSPCapacity Property Type Quantity Description The nameplate capacity technical potential from CSP for a particular place. Use this property to express potential electric energy generation, such as Nameplate Capacity. The default unit is megawatts (MW). For spatial capacity, use property Volume. Acceptable units (and their conversions) are: 1 MW,MWe,megawatt,Megawatt,MegaWatt,MEGAWATT,megawatts,Megawatt,MegaWatts,MEGAWATT,MEGAWATTS 1000 kW,kWe,KW,kilowatt,KiloWatt,KILOWATT,kilowatts,KiloWatts,KILOWATT,KILOWATTS 1000000 W,We,watt,watts,Watt,Watts,WATT,WATTS 1000000000 mW,milliwatt,milliwatts,MILLIWATT,MILLIWATTS 0.001 GW,gigawatt,gigawatts,Gigawatt,Gigawatts,GigaWatt,GigaWatts,GIGAWATT,GIGAWATTS

22

Property:PlannedCapacity | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

PlannedCapacity PlannedCapacity Jump to: navigation, search Property Name PlannedCapacity Property Type Quantity Description The total planned capacity for a given area, region or project. Use this property to express potential electric energy generation, such as Nameplate Capacity. The default unit is megawatts (MW). For spatial capacity, use property Volume. Acceptable units (and their conversions) are: 1 MW,MWe,megawatt,Megawatt,MegaWatt,MEGAWATT,megawatts,Megawatt,MegaWatts,MEGAWATT,MEGAWATTS 1000 kW,kWe,KW,kilowatt,KiloWatt,KILOWATT,kilowatts,KiloWatts,KILOWATT,KILOWATTS 1000000 W,We,watt,watts,Watt,Watts,WATT,WATTS 1000000000 mW,milliwatt,milliwatts,MILLIWATT,MILLIWATTS 0.001 GW,gigawatt,gigawatts,Gigawatt,Gigawatts,GigaWatt,GigaWatts,GIGAWATT,GIGAWATTS 0.000001 TW,terawatt,terawatts,Terawatt,Terawatts,TeraWatt,TeraWatts,TERAWATT,TERAWATTS

23

Property:PotentialOffshoreWindCapacity | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

PotentialOffshoreWindCapacity PotentialOffshoreWindCapacity Jump to: navigation, search Property Name PotentialOffshoreWindCapacity Property Type Quantity Description The nameplate capacity technical potential from Offshore Wind for a particular place. Use this property to express potential electric energy generation, such as Nameplate Capacity. The default unit is megawatts (MW). For spatial capacity, use property Volume. Acceptable units (and their conversions) are: 1 MW,MWe,megawatt,Megawatt,MegaWatt,MEGAWATT,megawatts,Megawatt,MegaWatts,MEGAWATT,MEGAWATTS 1000 kW,kWe,KW,kilowatt,KiloWatt,KILOWATT,kilowatts,KiloWatts,KILOWATT,KILOWATTS 1000000 W,We,watt,watts,Watt,Watts,WATT,WATTS 1000000000 mW,milliwatt,milliwatts,MILLIWATT,MILLIWATTS 0.001 GW,gigawatt,gigawatts,Gigawatt,Gigawatts,GigaWatt,GigaWatts,GIGAWATT,GIGAWATTS

24

Property:PotentialGeothermalHydrothermalCapacity | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

PotentialGeothermalHydrothermalCapacity PotentialGeothermalHydrothermalCapacity Jump to: navigation, search Property Name PotentialGeothermalHydrothermalCapacity Property Type Quantity Description The nameplate capacity technical potential from Geothermal Hydrothermal for a particular place. Use this property to express potential electric energy generation, such as Nameplate Capacity. The default unit is megawatts (MW). For spatial capacity, use property Volume. Acceptable units (and their conversions) are: 1 MW,MWe,megawatt,Megawatt,MegaWatt,MEGAWATT,megawatts,Megawatt,MegaWatts,MEGAWATT,MEGAWATTS 1000 kW,kWe,KW,kilowatt,KiloWatt,KILOWATT,kilowatts,KiloWatts,KILOWATT,KILOWATTS 1000000 W,We,watt,watts,Watt,Watts,WATT,WATTS 1000000000 mW,milliwatt,milliwatts,MILLIWATT,MILLIWATTS 0.001 GW,gigawatt,gigawatts,Gigawatt,Gigawatts,GigaWatt,GigaWatts,GIGAWATT,GIGAWATTS

25

Property:PotentialHydropowerCapacity | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

PotentialHydropowerCapacity PotentialHydropowerCapacity Jump to: navigation, search Property Name PotentialHydropowerCapacity Property Type Quantity Description The nameplate capacity technical potential from Hydropower for a particular place. Use this property to express potential electric energy generation, such as Nameplate Capacity. The default unit is megawatts (MW). For spatial capacity, use property Volume. Acceptable units (and their conversions) are: 1 MW,MWe,megawatt,Megawatt,MegaWatt,MEGAWATT,megawatts,Megawatt,MegaWatts,MEGAWATT,MEGAWATTS 1000 kW,kWe,KW,kilowatt,KiloWatt,KILOWATT,kilowatts,KiloWatts,KILOWATT,KILOWATTS 1000000 W,We,watt,watts,Watt,Watts,WATT,WATTS 1000000000 mW,milliwatt,milliwatts,MILLIWATT,MILLIWATTS 0.001 GW,gigawatt,gigawatts,Gigawatt,Gigawatts,GigaWatt,GigaWatts,GIGAWATT,GIGAWATTS

26

Property:PotentialBiopowerGaseousCapacity | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

PotentialBiopowerGaseousCapacity PotentialBiopowerGaseousCapacity Jump to: navigation, search Property Name PotentialBiopowerGaseousCapacity Property Type Quantity Description The nameplate capacity technical potential from gaseous biopower for a particular place. Use this property to express potential electric energy generation, such as Nameplate Capacity. The default unit is megawatts (MW). For spatial capacity, use property Volume. Acceptable units (and their conversions) are: 1 MW,MWe,megawatt,Megawatt,MegaWatt,MEGAWATT,megawatts,Megawatt,MegaWatts,MEGAWATT,MEGAWATTS 1000 kW,kWe,KW,kilowatt,KiloWatt,KILOWATT,kilowatts,KiloWatts,KILOWATT,KILOWATTS 1000000 W,We,watt,watts,Watt,Watts,WATT,WATTS 1000000000 mW,milliwatt,milliwatts,MILLIWATT,MILLIWATTS 0.001 GW,gigawatt,gigawatts,Gigawatt,Gigawatts,GigaWatt,GigaWatts,GIGAWATT,GIGAWATTS

27

Property:InstalledCapacity | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

InstalledCapacity InstalledCapacity Jump to: navigation, search Property Name InstalledCapacity Property Type Quantity Description Installed Capacity (MW) or also known as Total Generator Nameplate Capacity (Rated Power) Use this property to express potential electric energy generation, such as Nameplate Capacity. The default unit is megawatts (MW). For spatial capacity, use property Volume. Acceptable units (and their conversions) are: 1 MW,MWe,megawatt,Megawatt,MegaWatt,MEGAWATT,megawatts,Megawatt,MegaWatts,MEGAWATT,MEGAWATTS 1000 kW,kWe,KW,kilowatt,KiloWatt,KILOWATT,kilowatts,KiloWatts,KILOWATT,KILOWATTS 1000000 W,We,watt,watts,Watt,Watts,WATT,WATTS 1000000000 mW,milliwatt,milliwatts,MILLIWATT,MILLIWATTS 0.001 GW,gigawatt,gigawatts,Gigawatt,Gigawatts,GigaWatt,GigaWatts,GIGAWATT,GIGAWATTS

28

INVASION NOTE Crassostrea gigas in natural oyster banks in southern Brazil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

INVASION NOTE Crassostrea gigas in natural oyster banks in southern Brazil Cla´udio M. R. Melo ?.V. 2009 Abstract We report on the invasion of Brazil by the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, and discuss was found amongst the native species in oyster banks up to 100 km south of oyster farms in South Brazil

Solé-Cava, Antonio M.

29

Creating machine readable men: legitimizing the 'Aadhaar' mega e-infrastructure project in India  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mega infrastructure projects require considerable financial and human resources. Their costs are hard to justify, especially in low-income countries, and their sustenance depends to a large extent on their success in gaining political and public legitimacy. ... Keywords: ICTD, digital infrastructure, historical analysis, identification, mega infrastructure

Janaki Srinivasan, Aditya Johri

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

The Java-Sumatra Aerial Mega-Tramway  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A mega-tramway based on the Indonesian islands of Sumatra and Java is proposed to span Sunda Strait. The Java-Sumatra Aerial Mega-Tramway (JSAMT) will be self-elevating and will regularly and cheaply launch passengers and cargoes via two conveyor belt-like facilities using standard winged shipping containers like those currently used by international trucking and ocean shipping industries that are volplaned across the Sunda Strait. The JSAMT will be a self-sustaining toll facility free of any requirement for international loans or funding guarantees for its construction. Its existence will remove any immediate need for an expensive to dig/maintain Nusantara Tunnel. We offer the formative basic technical specifications for the JSAMT and indicate some of the physical and cultural geographical facts underpinning our macro-engineering proposal; offshoots of a perfected and tested JSAMT may be installed at Palk Strait between India and Sri Lanka, the Gibraltar Strait and the Bering Strait by mid-21st Century.

Alexander Bolonkin; Richard Cathcart

2007-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

31

Producing Mega-pixel CMB Maps from Differential Radiometer Data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A major goal of cosmology is to obtain sensitive, high resolution maps of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropy. Such maps, as would be produced by the recently proposed Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP), will contain a wealth of primary information about conditions in the early universe. To mitigate systematic effects when observing the microwave background, it is desirable for the raw data to be collected in differential form: as a set of temperature differences between points in the sky. However, the production of large (mega-pixel) maps from a set of temperature differences is a potentially severe computational challenge. We present a new technique for producing maps from differential radiometer data that has a computational cost that grows in the slowest possible way with increasing angular resolution and number of map pixels. The required central processor (CPU) time is proportional to the number of differential data points and the required random access memory (RAM) is proportional to the number of map pixels. We test our technique, and demonstrate its feasibility, by simulating one year of a space-borne anisotropy mission.

Edward L. Wright; Gary Hinshaw; Charles L. Bennett

1995-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

32

Distributed generation capabilities of the national energy modeling system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy Information Administration Electricity Market Module of NEMS Geographic Information System(s) 10 9 (giga)watt 10 3 (kilo)watt Market Analysis

LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi; Edwards, Jennifer L.; Marnay, Chris

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Northern Hemisphere summer monsoon intensified by mega-El Nio/southern oscillation and Atlantic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Northern Hemisphere summer monsoon intensified by mega-El Niño/southern oscillation and Atlantic, and approved February 26, 2013 (received for review November 7, 2012) Prediction of monsoon changes, the causes of the decadal variability of Northern Hemisphere summer monsoon (NHSM) are largely unknown

Webster, Peter J.

34

Entering the Era of Mega-genomics ( JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Michael Schatz from Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory on "Entering the Era of Mega-genomics" at the 7th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 21, 2012 in Walnut Creek, Calif.

Schatz, Michael C [Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

2012-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

35

Using mega-fuzzification and data trend estimation in small data set learning for early FMS scheduling knowledge  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Provided with plenty of data (experience), data mining techniques are widely used to extract suitable management skills from the data. Nevertheless, in the early stages of a manufacturing system, only rare data can be obtained, and built scheduling knowledge ... Keywords: ANFIS, Data trend, Flexible manufacturing system, Mega-fuzzification, Scheduling, Small data set

Der-Chiang Li; Chih-Sen Wu; Tung-I Tsai; Fengming M. Chang

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Trace Elemental Variation in Dosidicus Gigas Statoliths Using LA-ICP-MS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Range expansion events of the Humboldt squid reveal our inadequate understanding of populations of this species. Despite recent hatching, reproductive, tagging, genetic and dietary studies of Dosidicus gigas, much speculation remains concerning geographic migration, stock assessment and habitat preferences. This study provides evidence that statolith trace elemental variations can be useful in distinguishing among geographic populations. Specimens were collected from the Galapagos Islands, southern California, and Washington State. A dissection method was recorded and published. By using laser ablation methods, discrete measurements of 10 elements were collected at 6 to 7 ablation sites covering embryonic, paralarval, juvenile and adult stages. Analysis of Variance revealed important ontogenic elemental variations among ablation locations. Multivariate Analysis of Variance, ordination techniques and discriminant function analysis with permutation testing were all utilized to compare and characterize the variations found in elemental concentrations. Significant ontogenic variations were found for 8 out of the 10 focus elements; this is the first report for 5 of these elements for this species. The geographic populations were effectively classified as distinct group for the first time using these methods. Elemental fingerprint signatures were found to be significantly different at multiple ontogenic growth regions of the statolith. Seattle and California paralarvae exhibited similar elemental signatures despite significant differences in those found in the embryonic core and juvenile regions of the statolith. These methods are a useful tool in providing stock assessment and can be improved for use in future population dynamics models.

Arbuckle, Nancy 1980-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Narrow linewidth picosecond pulsed laser with mega-watt peak power at UV wavelength  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We demonstrate a master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) burst mode laser system to generate 66 ps/402.5 MHz pulses with mega-watt peak power at 355 nm. The seed laser is based on a direct electro-optic modulation of a fiber laser output. A very high extinction ratio (45 dB) has been achieved by using an adaptive bias control. The multi-stage Nd:YAG amplifier system allows a uniformly temporal shaping of macropulses with tunable pulse duration. The light output form the amplifier is converted to 355 nm and over 1 MW UV peak power is obtained when the laser is operating in a 5- s/10-Hz macropulse mode. The laser output has a transform limited spectrum bandwidth with a very narrow linewidth of individual laser mode. The immediate application of the laser system is the laser assisted hydrogen ion beam stripping for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS).

Liu, Yun [ORNL; Huang, Chunning [ORNL; Deibele, Craig Edmond [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Conversion Tables  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center - Conversion Tables Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center - Conversion Tables Contents taken from Glossary: Carbon Dioxide and Climate, 1990. ORNL/CDIAC-39, Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Third Edition. Edited by: Fred O'Hara Jr. 1 - International System of Units (SI) Prefixes 2 - Useful Quantities in CO2 3 - Common Conversion Factors 4 - Common Energy Unit Conversion Factors 5 - Geologic Time Scales 6 - Factors and Units for Calculating Annual CO2 Emissions Using Global Fuel Production Data Table 1. International System of Units (SI) Prefixes Prefix SI Symbol Multiplication Factor exa E 1018 peta P 1015 tera T 1012 giga G 109 mega M 106 kilo k 103 hecto h 102 deka da 10 deci d 10-1 centi c 10-2

39

Toroidal ripple transport of beam ions in the mega-ampere spherical tokamak  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The transport of injected beam ions due to toroidal magnetic field ripple in the mega-ampere spherical tokamak (MAST) is quantified using a full orbit particle tracking code, with collisional slowing-down and pitch-angle scattering by electrons and bulk ions taken into account. It is shown that the level of ripple losses is generally rather low, although it depends sensitively on the major radius of the outer midplane plasma edge; for typical values of this parameter in MAST plasmas, the reduction in beam heating power due specifically to ripple transport is less than 1%, and the ripple contribution to beam ion diffusivity is of the order of 0.1 m{sup 2} s{sup -1} or less. It is concluded that ripple effects make only a small contribution to anomalous transport rates that have been invoked to account for measured neutron rates and plasma stored energies in some MAST discharges. Delayed (non-prompt) losses are shown to occur close to the outer midplane, suggesting that banana-drift diffusion is the most likely cause of the ripple-induced losses.

McClements, K. G. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Hole, M. J. [Plasma Research Laboratory, Research School of Physical Science and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

40

Detection of atomic and molecular mega-electron-volt projectiles using an x-ray charged coupled device camera  

SciTech Connect

We show that an x-ray charge coupled device (CCD) may be used as a particle detector for atomic and molecular mega-electron-volt (MeV) projectiles of around a few hundred keV per atomic mass unit. For atomic species, spectroscopic properties in kinetic energy measurements (i.e., linearity and energy resolution) are found to be close to those currently obtained with implanted or surface barrier silicon particle detectors. For molecular species, in order to increase the maximum kinetic energy detection limit, we propose to put a thin foil in front of the CCD. This foil breaks up the molecules into atoms and spreads the charges over many CCD pixels and therefore avoiding saturation effects. This opens new perspectives in high velocity molecular dissociation studies with accelerator facilities.

Chabot, M.; Martinet, G.; Bouneau, S.; Genolini, B.; Grave, X.; Nguyen, K.; Le Gailliard, C.; Rosier, P. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire d'Orsay, IN2P3-CNRS, Universite Paris Sud, 91406 Orsay cedex (France); Beroff, K.; Pino, T.; Feraud, G.; Friha, H. [Institut des Sciences Moleculaires d'Orsay, INP-CNRS, Universite Paris Sud, 91406 Orsay cedex (France); Villier, B. [Hamamatsu Photonics (France)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "giga mega kilo" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

unitsmetricrpp.dvi  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

International International system of units (SI) 1 3. INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM OF UNITS (SI) See "The International System of Units (SI)," NIST Special Publication 330, B.N. Taylor, ed. (USGPO, Washington, DC, 1991); and "Guide for the Use of the International System of Units (SI)," NIST Special Publication 811, 1995 edition, B.N. Taylor (USGPO, Washington, DC, 1995). SI prefixes 10 24 yotta (Y) 10 21 zetta (Z) 10 18 exa (E) 10 15 peta (P) 10 12 tera (T) 10 9 giga (G) 10 6 mega (M) 10 3 kilo (k) 10 2 hecto (h) 10 deca (da) 10 -1 deci (d) 10 -2 centi (c) 10 -3 milli (m) 10 -6 micro (µ) 10 -9 nano (n) 10 -12 pico (p) 10 -15 femto (f) 10 -18 atto (a) 10 -21 zepto (z) 10 -24 yocto (y) J. Beringer et al.(PDG), PR D86, 010001 (2012) and 2013 update for the 2014 edition (http://pdg.lbl.gov) December 18, 2013 12:01 2 3. International system of units (SI) Physical quantity Name of unit Symbol Base units length meter

42

Suppression of spurious mode oscillation in mega-watt 77-GHz gyrotron as a high quality probe beam source for the collective Thomson scattering in LHD  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic requires a strong probing beam to diagnose a bulk and fast ion distribution function in fusion plasmas. A mega-watt gyrotron for electron cyclotron resonance heating is used as a probing beam in the large helical device. Spurious mode oscillations are often observed during the turning on/off phase of the modulation. The frequency spectra of the 77-GHz gyrotron output power have been measured, and then one of the spurious modes, which interferes with the CTS receiver system, is identified as the TE{sub 17,6} mode at the frequency of 74.7 GHz. The mode competition calculation indicates that the increase of the magnetic field strength at the gyrotron resonator can avoid such a spurious mode and excite only the main TE{sub 18,6} mode. The spurious radiation at the 74.7 GHz is experimentally demonstrated to be suppressed in the stronger magnetic field than that optimized for the high-power operation.

Ogasawara, S. [Department of Energy Engineering and Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8463 (Japan); Kubo, S. [Department of Energy Engineering and Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8463 (Japan); National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki-shi 509-5292 (Japan); Nishiura, M.; Tanaka, K.; Shimozuma, T.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Takahashi, H.; Ito, S.; Takita, Y.; Kobayashi, S.; Mizuno, Y.; Okada, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki-shi 509-5292 (Japan); Tatematsu, Y.; Saito, T. [Research Center for Development of Far-Infrared Region, University of Fukui, Fukui 910-8507 (Japan); Minami, R.; Kariya, T.; Imai, T. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8577 (Japan)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

43

Giga-Dalton Mass Spectrometry  

Current techniques to study large bio?molecules using mass spectrometer require fragmentation for the mass?to?charge ratios to be within the working range of the mass spectrometer. Analysis of the data is complex and often requires simulation ...

44

Mega Python: Scalable Interlanguage Scripting  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

a new approach based on Swift to integrate high-level languages such as Python, R, Tcl, and the shell with native code developed in C, C++, and Fortran, through the use of...

45

Property:IdentifiedHydrothermalPotential | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

IdentifiedHydrothermalPotential IdentifiedHydrothermalPotential Jump to: navigation, search Property Name IdentifiedHydrothermalPotential Property Type Quantity Description Conventional hydrothermal electricity generation potential from identified hydrothermal sites, as determined by the USGS 2008 Geothermal Resource Assessment (Williams et al, 2008). Use this property to express potential electric energy generation, such as Nameplate Capacity. The default unit is megawatts (MW). For spatial capacity, use property Volume. Acceptable units (and their conversions) are: 1 MW,MWe,megawatt,Megawatt,MegaWatt,MEGAWATT,megawatts,Megawatt,MegaWatts,MEGAWATT,MEGAWATTS 1000 kW,kWe,KW,kilowatt,KiloWatt,KILOWATT,kilowatts,KiloWatts,KILOWATT,KILOWATTS 1000000 W,We,watt,watts,Watt,Watts,WATT,WATTS

46

Property:UndiscoveredHydrothermalPotential | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

UndiscoveredHydrothermalPotential UndiscoveredHydrothermalPotential Jump to: navigation, search Property Name UndiscoveredHydrothermalPotential Property Type Quantity Description Estimated conventional hydrothermal electricity generation potential from undiscovered hydrothermal sites, as determined by the USGS 2008 Geothermal Resource Assessment (Williams et al, 2008). Use this property to express potential electric energy generation, such as Nameplate Capacity. The default unit is megawatts (MW). For spatial capacity, use property Volume. Acceptable units (and their conversions) are: 1 MW,MWe,megawatt,Megawatt,MegaWatt,MEGAWATT,megawatts,Megawatt,MegaWatts,MEGAWATT,MEGAWATTS 1000 kW,kWe,KW,kilowatt,KiloWatt,KILOWATT,kilowatts,KiloWatts,KILOWATT,KILOWATTS 1000000 W,We,watt,watts,Watt,Watts,WATT,WATTS

47

Property:NetProdCapacity | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

NetProdCapacity NetProdCapacity Jump to: navigation, search Property Name NetProdCapacity Property Type Quantity Description Sum of the property SummerPeakNetCpcty for all Energy Generation Facilities with properties: Sector: Geothermal Energy InGeothermalResourceArea: set to the the variable vName of the Geothermal Resource Area Use this property to express potential electric energy generation, such as Nameplate Capacity. The default unit is megawatts (MW). For spatial capacity, use property Volume. Acceptable units (and their conversions) are: 1 MW,MWe,megawatt,Megawatt,MegaWatt,MEGAWATT,megawatts,Megawatt,MegaWatts,MEGAWATT,MEGAWATTS 1000 kW,kWe,KW,kilowatt,KiloWatt,KILOWATT,kilowatts,KiloWatts,KILOWATT,KILOWATTS 1000000 W,We,watt,watts,Watt,Watts,WATT,WATTS 1000000000 mW,milliwatt,milliwatts,MILLIWATT,MILLIWATTS

48

Property:GrossProdCapacity | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GrossProdCapacity GrossProdCapacity Jump to: navigation, search Property Name GrossProdCapacity Property Type Quantity Description Sum of the property AvgAnnlGrossOpCpcty for all Energy Generation Facilities with properties: Sector: Geothermal Energy InGeothermalResourceArea: set to the the variable vName of the Geothermal Resource Area Use this property to express potential electric energy generation, such as Nameplate Capacity. The default unit is megawatts (MW). For spatial capacity, use property Volume. Acceptable units (and their conversions) are: 1 MW,MWe,megawatt,Megawatt,MegaWatt,MEGAWATT,megawatts,Megawatt,MegaWatts,MEGAWATT,MEGAWATTS 1000 kW,kWe,KW,kilowatt,KiloWatt,KILOWATT,kilowatts,KiloWatts,KILOWATT,KILOWATTS 1000000 W,We,watt,watts,Watt,Watts,WATT,WATTS 1000000000 mW,milliwatt,milliwatts,MILLIWATT,MILLIWATTS

49

Mega Python: Scalable Interlanguage Scripting for Scientific...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

a new approach based on Swift to integrate high-level languages such as Python, R, Tcl, and the shell with native code developed in C, C++, and Fortran, through the use of...

50

The Appalachian Trail MEGA-Transect  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and electric power generation facilities, pollution from large cities and along major highways, and relatively use the water for residential uses or power generation. Monitoring water sources on the A.T. will also) Steve Kahl (Center for the Environment) Ken Kimball (Appalachian Mountain Club) Daniel Lambert (Vermont

Wang, Y.Q. "Yeqiao"

51

Table 10. Supply and Disposition of Electricity, 1990 Through 2010 (Million Kilo  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

South Dakota" South Dakota" "Category",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Supply" "Generation" " Electric Utilities",6427,6573,6246,5256,7991,8812,10066,12450,9089,10557,9697,7401,7722,7905,7358,6368,6989,5991,6942,7780,8682 " Independent Power Producers","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-",39,153,152,143,145,140,416,1367 "Electric Power Sector Generation Subtotal",6427,6573,6246,5256,7991,8812,10066,12450,9089,10557,9697,7401,7722,7944,7510,6521,7132,6137,7083,8196,10050 " Combined Heat and Power, Commercial","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","*","*","*"

52

Table 10. Supply and Disposition of Electricity, 1990 Through 2010 (Million Kilo  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Washington" Washington" "Category",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Supply" "Generation" " Electric Utilities",100479,101353,84115,83771,82348,95671,112606,117453,97128,112072,96227,67683,88568,82205,83501,83153,94067,90531,93162,90733,88057 " Independent Power Producers",177,189,312,302,336,365,324,408,350,484,6588,9454,9817,13541,15054,15287,10887,13797,14908,10531,12330 " Combined Heat and Power, Electric",8,257,706,2663,4568,4693,4204,2947,3246,3048,4065,4427,3268,3350,2583,2517,2385,1948,1860,2085,1740 "Electric Power Sector Generation Subtotal",100664,101799,85133,86736,87252,100729,117135,120808,100724,115604,106879,81564,101654,99097,101138,100956,107339,106277,109929,103349,102127

53

Table 10. Supply and Disposition of Electricity, 1990 Through 2010 (Million Kilo  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Nebraska" Nebraska" "Category",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Supply" "Generation" " Electric Utilities",21631,22972,22387,22724,21946,25279,27323,28388,28720,29981,29046,30412,31550,30368,31944,31392,31599,32403,32356,33776,36243 " Independent Power Producers","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-",165,208 " Combined Heat and Power, Electric","-","-","-","-","-","-","-",8,8,9,7,8,8,21,"*",8,4,5,5,5,6

54

Table 10. Supply and Disposition of Electricity, 1990 Through 2010 (Million Kilo  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Carolina" Carolina" "Category",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Supply" "Generation" " Electric Utilities",69260,69838,71479,75588,74194,78440,76326,78374,84397,87347,90421,86735,93689,91544,94407,99104,95873,99997,97921,97337,100611 " Independent Power Producers",60,38,63,58,64,61,52,55,64,40,179,497,633,278,486,735,730,771,753,430,1034 " Combined Heat and Power, Electric","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-",349,627,565,509,416,100,855,595,623,619,506,650,770 "Electric Power Sector Generation Subtotal",69320,69876,71541,75646,74258,78501,76378,78429,84810,88014,91165,87741,94738,91923,95747,100435,97225,101387,99179,98416,102414

55

Table 10. Supply and Disposition of Electricity, 1990 Through 2010 (Million Kilo  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Indiana" Indiana" "Category",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Supply" "Generation" " Electric Utilities",97738,98200,97300,99951,103485,105189,105557,110466,112772,114183,119721,114666,112030,112396,114690,117374,117644,116728,115888,103594,107853 " Independent Power Producers","-","-","-","-","-",46,70,85,788,2828,3794,3665,9879,3417,3268,3659,3488,4518,4839,4228,6464 " Combined Heat and Power, Electric","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-",1,12,22,5474,5630,5650,5526,5915,5301,5984,7525

56

Table 10. Supply and Disposition of Electricity, 1990 Through 2010 (Million Kilo  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Oklahoma" Oklahoma" "Category",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Supply" "Generation" " Electric Utilities",45063,44850,45943,48811,45381,47955,47545,48380,51454,50279,51403,50414,51218,49777,48298,54251,51917,54178,60075,57517,57421 " Independent Power Producers","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-",844,3970,4247,8913,10282,14784,14871,12651,14423,11546 " Combined Heat and Power, Electric",1017,2964,2895,3139,3381,3314,3042,3173,3539,3434,3027,2731,2622,5217,2256,2822,2642,2854,2682,2318,2382 "Electric Power Sector Generation Subtotal",46080,47814,48838,51949,48762,51269,50586,51553,54993,53712,54430,53988,57810,59240,59467,67355,69344,71902,75409,74258,71348

57

Table 10. Supply and Disposition of Electricity, 1990 Through 2010 (Million Kilo  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Florida" Florida" "Category",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Supply" "Generation" " Electric Utilities",123624,130744,133977,140067,141791,147157,145140,147984,169447,166914,169889,170966,182347,188035,193384,196096,200015,200534,196524,195063,206062 " Independent Power Producers",1696,2267,3025,3472,3551,4082,3903,3716,4258,4560,5676,5675,7247,8276,10334,10189,10156,11500,10142,10774,10587 " Combined Heat and Power, Electric",647,549,745,2138,5777,9333,11125,9779,9348,9526,10037,8957,9242,10335,8779,8515,8656,8420,8326,7203,6914 "Electric Power Sector Generation Subtotal",125967,133560,137746,145677,151119,160571,160168,161479,183053,181000,185602,185598,198835,206645,212497,214800,218827,220453,214992,213040,223563

58

Table 10. Supply and Disposition of Electricity, 1990 Through 2010 (Million Kilo  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

West Virginia" West Virginia" "Category",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Supply" "Generation" " Electric Utilities",77364,71254,72334,71078,77703,77322,83978,88284,89605,91678,89709,51609,63342,64057,59084,61242,68164,69348,66667,51709,56720 " Independent Power Producers",250,300,568,1238,1353,936,929,960,946,892,1040,28458,29373,28429,28498,30556,23959,23058,23138,17700,22757 " Combined Heat and Power, Electric","-","*",354,443,414,377,442,456,443,435,451,306,409,446,465,467,470,417,411,413,388 "Electric Power Sector Generation Subtotal",77614,71554,73256,72759,79470,78635,85349,89701,90994,93005,91200,80373,93123,92932,88047,92265,92593,92823,90216,69822,79865

59

Table 10. Supply and Disposition of Electricity, 1990 Through 2010 (Million Kilo  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Rhode Island" Rhode Island" "Category",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Supply" "Generation" " Electric Utilities",592,171,109,54,69,653,3301,3563,2061,9,11,"-",12,12,12,11,11,11,11,11,11 " Independent Power Producers",50,2403,4315,4037,4191,3310,3964,3552,5028,5843,5406,6990,6927,5557,4891,5957,5875,6989,7324,7633,7696 " Combined Heat and Power, Electric",422,292,291,502,400,447,379,539,518,473,506,459,71,9,"-",18,18,"-","-","-","-" "Electric Power Sector Generation Subtotal",1064,2867,4716,4594,4660,4410,7644,7654,7608,6326,5923,7449,7010,5578,4904,5987,5904,7000,7335,7644,7707

60

Table 10. Supply and Disposition of Electricity, 1990 Through 2010 (Million Kilo  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

District of Columbia" District of Columbia" "Category",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Supply" "Generation" " Electric Utilities",361,180,74,188,274,189,110,71,244,230,97,"-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-" " Independent Power Producers","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-",47,123,262,74,36,226,81,75,72,35,200 "Electric Power Sector Generation Subtotal",361,180,74,188,274,189,110,71,244,230,144,123,262,74,36,226,81,75,72,35,200

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "giga mega kilo" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Table 10. Supply and Disposition of Electricity, 1990 Through 2010 (Million Kilo  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Delaware" Delaware" "Category",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Supply" "Generation" " Electric Utilities",7100,7604,6267,8306,8501,8324,8122,6579,6318,6239,4137,1872,171,31,24,26,17,48,19,13,30 " Independent Power Producers","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-",1402,4429,5271,6653,6866,7078,6025,7283,5227,3695,4839 " Combined Heat and Power, Electric","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-",109,128,129,102,132,1579,675,758

62

Table 10. Supply and Disposition of Electricity, 1990 Through 2010 (Million Kilo  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Connecticut" Connecticut" "Category",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Supply" "Generation" " Electric Utilities",32156,23552,25154,28715,27201,26932,15774,13228,15123,20484,16993,2817,21,60,45,42,48,37,52,47,66 " Independent Power Producers",673,719,1024,1058,1099,1604,1279,1246,1461,4993,13223,25296,28878,27167,30345,31564,32431,31087,28138,28959,31185 " Combined Heat and Power, Electric",1987,2562,2671,2691,2552,2512,2289,2321,2264,2243,2401,2080,2053,1986,1966,1697,1874,1831,1956,1874,1724 "Electric Power Sector Generation Subtotal",34815,26833,28848,32463,30853,31048,19342,16795,18847,27720,32617,30193,30952,29212,32356,33303,34352,32956,30147,30880,32974

63

Table 10. Supply and Disposition of Electricity, 1990 Through 2010 (Million Kilo  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

North Carolina" North Carolina" "Category",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Supply" "Generation" " Electric Utilities",79845,83520,83007,88754,91455,96110,102787,107371,113112,109882,114433,109807,115598,118433,118329,121675,117797,123216,118778,112961,121251 " Independent Power Producers",104,431,432,429,1175,1773,1638,1793,467,474,693,810,1914,1943,1699,1863,1815,1686,1398,1341,2605 " Combined Heat and Power, Electric",2587,3470,3579,3482,3544,3965,3247,1467,3024,2835,3287,3343,3272,3575,3207,3064,2854,3034,2929,2188,2598 "Electric Power Sector Generation Subtotal",82535,87420,87018,92665,96174,101848,107671,110631,116603,113191,118414,113961,120784,123951,123234,126602,122467,127936,123105,116490,126454

64

Table 10. Supply and Disposition of Electricity, 1990 Through 2010 (Million Kilo  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Mississippi" Mississippi" "Category",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Supply" "Generation" " Electric Utilities",22924,23305,20488,23234,26222,26395,28838,31228,31992,32212,33896,47550,35099,31359,32838,30619,34159,34427,33796,34759,40841 " Independent Power Producers","-","-","-",3,3,3,4,5,4,257,1404,2277,5028,7308,9060,12704,10182,13718,12653,12129,11779 " Combined Heat and Power, Electric","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-",1440,1366,"-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-"

65

Table 10. Supply and Disposition of Electricity, 1990 Through 2010 (Million Kilo  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Jersey" Jersey" "Category",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Supply" "Generation" " Electric Utilities",36489,37029,31167,34285,31932,27088,19791,23761,35911,38868,25254,1630,1569,1910,1649,1249,1043,-191,-206,-187,-186 " Independent Power Producers",253,716,1240,1099,1408,1434,1700,1556,1138,1229,15677,41097,43924,41228,42169,46809,48723,51439,52292,52182,56686 " Combined Heat and Power, Electric",2202,3824,8384,9975,12108,13591,13156,13370,13598,13525,14104,13418,13693,12777,10705,11365,9999,10653,10740,8717,8041 "Electric Power Sector Generation Subtotal",38943,41569,40791,45359,45448,42113,34647,38687,50647,53622,55035,56145,59186,55916,54523,59422,59765,61901,62825,60712,64540

66

Table 10. Supply and Disposition of Electricity, 1990 Through 2010 (Million Kilo  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Alabama" Alabama" "Category",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Supply" "Generation" " Electric Utilities",76232,85051,90792,94124,95171,99589,115093,113684,113394,113909,118037,118744,123739,126846,124555,126304,124365,124273,128055,118782,122766 " Independent Power Producers",28,25,25,11,15,7,6,5,4,49,42,45,2357,4065,6127,4821,7103,9202,10683,15302,20923 " Combined Heat and Power, Electric",666,787,778,788,693,647,671,683,842,747,550,698,1459,1311,1446,2174,4683,5705,2569,4606,4243 "Electric Power Sector Generation Subtotal",76925,85863,91596,94922,95879,100244,115770,114372,114240,114704,118629,119487,127555,132221,132127,133299,136152,139180,141307,138690,147933

67

Table 10. Supply and Disposition of Electricity, 1990 Through 2010 (Million Kilo  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Louisiana" Louisiana" "Category",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Supply" "Generation" " Electric Utilities",58168,57158,55188,59353,60170,65555,58643,61120,66107,64837,57601,50378,54922,43485,47604,44158,40891,43523,43164,43592,51681 " Independent Power Producers",866,749,855,1434,1169,1162,1167,1253,1264,1024,11091,14007,16941,21184,18811,18095,18740,17735,18768,16746,17780 " Combined Heat and Power, Electric",1604,1581,954,1579,1606,1404,1377,1568,1664,1522,1421,1551,1650,1845,5233,8254,4165,4416,4317,4836,5083 "Electric Power Sector Generation Subtotal",60638,59488,56997,62366,62945,68121,61187,63941,69035,67383,70113,65936,73513,66513,71648,70507,63796,65674,66249,65174,74544

68

Table 10. Supply and Disposition of Electricity, 1990 Through 2010 (Million Kilo  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Alaska" Alaska" "Category",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Supply" "Generation" " Electric Utilities",4493,4286,4167,4581,4762,4847,4982,5108,4590,4609,4938,5416,5472,5673,5866,5946,6069,6146,6262,6167,6205 " Independent Power Producers","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-",80,"-","-","-" " Combined Heat and Power, Electric","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-",211,227,224,237,244,162,182,174,187,210,177,209,204

69

Table 10. Supply and Disposition of Electricity, 1990 Through 2010 (Million Kilo  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Texas" Texas" "Category",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Supply" "Generation" " Electric Utilities",234047,238343,239964,248174,255141,261709,272283,277190,293068,292458,297299,265013,149587,86882,92054,95187,94638,97260,94637,90418,95099 " Independent Power Producers",24,24,24,22,21,24,122,151,183,1072,10466,30779,138777,197114,205978,216933,224749,224719,229159,227007,232230 " Combined Heat and Power, Electric",13642,13589,14417,15794,15448,18178,19080,19891,23626,25590,28495,35618,56862,55432,49841,44759,41286,46010,45785,44780,43045 "Electric Power Sector Generation Subtotal",247713,251956,254405,263990,270610,279911,291485,297232,316877,319120,336259,331410,345226,339428,347872,356879,360674,367989,369581,362206,370374

70

Table 10. Supply and Disposition of Electricity, 1990 Through 2010 (Million Kilo  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

New Hampshire" New Hampshire" "Category",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Supply" "Generation" " Electric Utilities",10810,12705,13451,14586,11888,13936,15419,14264,14238,13876,12702,13095,12276,6232,6169,5638,4575,4888,4348,3788,3979 " Independent Power Producers",1135,1168,1209,1216,1130,1099,1180,1164,1360,1818,1861,1574,3385,15014,17315,18438,17297,18237,18471,16314,18163 " Combined Heat and Power, Electric",93,90,87,83,68,85,85,75,92,94,86,80,20,"-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-" "Electric Power Sector Generation Subtotal",12038,13964,14747,15885,13086,15120,16684,15504,15690,15788,14648,14749,15681,21245,23484,24076,21872,23125,22819,20103,22143

71

Table 10. Supply and Disposition of Electricity, 1990 Through 2010 (Million Kilo  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Kansas" Kansas" "Category",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Supply" "Generation" " Electric Utilities",33869,32315,31764,36433,37284,38230,39875,37844,41481,42003,44765,44643,46692,46156,46409,45421,44621,49256,45276,44443,45270 " Independent Power Producers",1,1,10,5,10,11,11,14,11,12,15,65,479,377,368,436,895,857,1354,2234,2654 "Electric Power Sector Generation Subtotal",33870,32316,31774,36438,37294,38242,39886,37858,41492,42015,44780,44708,47171,46532,46778,45857,45516,50114,46630,46677,47924 " Combined Heat and Power, Commercial","-","-","-","-",5,5,1,1,1,2,2,2,1,1,1,"*","-","-","-","-","-"

72

Table 10. Supply and Disposition of Electricity, 1990 Through 2010 (Million Kilo  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Kentucky" Kentucky" "Category",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Supply" "Generation" " Electric Utilities",73807,75505,77351,84998,84097,86162,88438,91558,86151,81658,81350,83678,80162,80697,82921,85680,86816,85259,86012,90030,97472 " Independent Power Producers","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-",4766,11011,11503,11448,11369,10566,11097,11622,11449,11397,11316,119,171 "Electric Power Sector Generation Subtotal",73807,75505,77351,84998,84097,86162,88438,91558,90917,92669,92853,95126,91530,91263,94018,97302,98266,96656,97328,90149,97644 " Combined Heat and Power, Commercial","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-",98,"-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-"

73

Table 10. Supply and Disposition of Electricity, 1990 Through 2010 (Million Kilo  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

North Dakota" North Dakota" "Category",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Supply" "Generation" " Electric Utilities",26824,27535,28592,28500,29004,28842,30770,29720,30519,31260,31123,30136,31147,31075,29527,31513,30328,30403,30853,31375,31344 " Independent Power Producers","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-",52,209,215,363,614,1687,2625,3216 "Electric Power Sector Generation Subtotal",26824,27535,28592,28500,29004,28842,30770,29720,30519,31260,31123,30136,31147,31127,29735,31728,30692,31016,32539,34000,34560

74

Table 10. Supply and Disposition of Electricity, 1990 Through 2010 (Million Kilo  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Missouri" Missouri" "Category",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Supply" "Generation" " Electric Utilities",59011,60121,56627,53202,61519,65400,67827,71073,74894,73505,76284,78991,79797,86102,86420,90159,91118,89926,89179,86705,90177 " Independent Power Producers","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-",226,1039,783,828,319,165,820,1423,1383,1843 " Combined Heat and Power, Electric","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-",46,5,30,45,127,41,55

75

Table 10. Supply and Disposition of Electricity, 1990 Through 2010 (Million Kilo  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Georgia" Georgia" "Category",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Supply" "Generation" " Electric Utilities",97565,90809,91779,95738,98753,102016,98729,101780,108717,110537,116177,110565,111856,115755,117919,126445,127368,132832,126031,115075,120426 " Independent Power Producers",8,7,8,11,53,316,124,219,407,513,1431,1847,4894,3031,3861,4913,5164,6843,5431,9080,12115 " Combined Heat and Power, Electric","-","-","-","-","-","-","-",568,792,716,664,386,388,207,33,141,178,274,114,25,178 "Electric Power Sector Generation Subtotal",97573,90816,91787,95748,98806,102332,98853,102567,109915,111766,118271,112798,117138,118993,121813,131499,132709,139949,131576,124180,132719

76

Table 10. Supply and Disposition of Electricity, 1990 Through 2010 (Million Kilo  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Pennsylvania" Pennsylvania" "Category",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Supply" "Generation" " Electric Utilities",165683,162367,166034,166201,169029,168942,175022,177167,173903,161596,97076,27634,30537,30099,33900,1058,1311,1077,1225,1160,1087 " Independent Power Producers",784,1158,1892,2839,3331,4161,5191,4742,5231,21630,93924,158605,164018,165678,170336,205816,205075,212668,209081,205083,213653 " Combined Heat and Power, Electric",4587,4726,6302,6692,6588,7129,7301,7239,7732,7107,6558,6171,5718,6774,6676,7629,8854,9033,8978,10278,12168 "Electric Power Sector Generation Subtotal",171054,168251,174228,175731,178948,180232,187513,189147,186867,190333,197557,192410,200274,202551,210912,214503,215240,222778,219284,216521,226908

77

Table 10. Supply and Disposition of Electricity, 1990 Through 2010 (Million Kilo  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Oregon" Oregon" "Category",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Supply" "Generation" " Electric Utilities",49172,46298,41220,40743,37490,44031,47884,49068,46352,51698,46060,38060,39732,38578,39093,37407,43069,43203,44591,42703,41143 " Independent Power Producers",370,330,335,427,399,429,457,511,510,583,496,467,718,4003,4801,4493,4055,4269,5801,6621,6953 " Combined Heat and Power, Electric",250,324,300,326,276,276,2032,2166,3686,3916,4464,5675,5842,5358,5891,5947,4831,6181,6952,6386,6421 "Electric Power Sector Generation Subtotal",49792,46952,41855,41496,38165,44736,50373,51746,50549,56196,51020,44201,46292,47939,49785,47847,51955,53653,57344,55710,54516

78

Table 10. Supply and Disposition of Electricity, 1990 Through 2010 (Million Kilo  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Idaho" Idaho" "Category",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Supply" "Generation" " Electric Utilities",8618,8282,6260,9023,7303,10063,12231,13512,11978,12456,10114,6667,8164,7733,7766,8032,10495,8612,8894,9978,8589 " Independent Power Producers",498,464,394,693,613,927,1053,1164,958,1043,855,1696,681,1788,2175,1895,2042,2098,2361,2324,2674 " Combined Heat and Power, Electric",81,81,81,83,81,79,98,205,215,209,194,201,245,245,248,240,214,177,134,192,156 "Electric Power Sector Generation Subtotal",9197,8827,6736,9799,7997,11069,13381,14881,13150,13708,11163,8564,9090,9765,10188,10167,12751,10888,11389,12494,11419

79

Table 10. Supply and Disposition of Electricity, 1990 Through 2010 (Million Kilo  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

California" California" "Category",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Supply" "Generation" " Electric Utilities",114528,104968,119310,125782,126749,121881,114706,112183,114926,87875,85856,70133,74588,81728,75177,89348,100338,87349,83347,85124,96940 " Independent Power Producers",15407,17428,17919,20462,18752,18957,19080,18587,31929,57912,78996,88665,63545,65429,75928,68721,76509,82491,85067,80767,69294 " Combined Heat and Power, Electric",17547,19021,21149,21598,21642,21691,21513,21932,23267,22964,23410,21305,26976,25458,24567,23459,21399,22342,21535,21009,19582 "Electric Power Sector Generation Subtotal",147482,141418,158378,167842,167143,162529,155299,152701,170122,168751,188263,180103,165109,172616,175672,181527,198247,192181,189949,186900,185816

80

Table 10. Supply and Disposition of Electricity, 1990 Through 2010 (Million Kilo  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Colorado" Colorado" "Category",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Supply" "Generation" " Electric Utilities",31313,31038,31899,32687,33324,32674,33972,34376,35471,36167,40108,41958,41510,41226,40436,41015,42056,42353,41177,37468,39584 " Independent Power Producers",226,206,218,231,246,237,267,298,308,178,790,1667,961,2877,5596,6834,7004,9680,10629,11515,9937 " Combined Heat and Power, Electric",930,984,1012,1013,1775,2427,2632,2726,2850,2897,3044,2958,2866,2314,1685,1643,1533,1782,1545,1531,1135 "Electric Power Sector Generation Subtotal",32469,32228,33128,33931,35345,35337,36871,37400,38630,39243,43942,46582,45337,46417,47718,49492,50593,53816,53351,50513,50656

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81

Table 10. Supply and Disposition of Electricity, 1990 Through 2010 (Million Kilo  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Arkansas" Arkansas" "Category",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Supply" "Generation" " Electric Utilities",37053,38365,37370,38049,39548,39527,43678,42790,43199,44131,41486,44728,42873,41637,45055,40545,42068,45523,45880,45423,47108 " Independent Power Producers","-","-","*",2,1,"-","*",4,3,1,"*","*",1247,5030,3204,3997,6966,6311,5940,8786,10732 " Combined Heat and Power, Electric","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-",539,1304,1550,1436,1215,1151,847,1286,1361,1220

82

Table 10. Supply and Disposition of Electricity, 1990 Through 2010 (Million Kilo  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Minnesota" Minnesota" "Category",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Supply" "Generation" " Electric Utilities",41550,40428,37784,41254,40917,42503,41792,40303,43977,44154,46616,44798,48569,49576,47232,46791,46711,47793,46758,44442,45429 " Independent Power Producers",240,174,316,294,330,399,432,445,506,832,1067,1424,1206,2858,2792,3332,4136,3774,5472,5851,5909 " Combined Heat and Power, Electric","-","-","-","-","-","-","-",50,650,606,605,510,552,697,309,938,639,1143,784,628,560 "Electric Power Sector Generation Subtotal",41789,40602,38099,41548,41247,42902,42224,40798,45133,45592,48288,46732,50327,53132,50333,51062,51485,52710,53014,50921,51898

83

Table 10. Supply and Disposition of Electricity, 1990 Through 2010 (Million Kilo  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Maryland" Maryland" "Category",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Supply" "Generation" " Electric Utilities",31497,38215,39587,43488,43766,44659,44381,44553,48514,49324,31783,88,31,52,30,44,12,24,6,2,3 " Independent Power Producers",20,20,20,18,20,167,277,290,305,341,15801,46079,44828,48824,48457,48780,45406,46274,43748,40492,40879 " Combined Heat and Power, Electric",1227,1192,1122,1017,1067,1071,1136,1377,1405,1528,3050,2808,2835,2813,2926,3196,2902,3275,3086,2795,2237 "Electric Power Sector Generation Subtotal",32744,39427,40729,44524,44852,45896,45793,46219,50223,51193,50634,48975,47695,51689,51413,52020,48320,49573,46840,43290,43118

84

Table 10. Supply and Disposition of Electricity, 1990 Through 2010 (Million Kilo  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

New York" New York" "Category",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Supply" "Generation" " Electric Utilities",128655,126077,112229,106315,103763,101161,104360,108099,115840,97009,73188,58569,43466,41579,40956,39963,41599,40248,38170,35771,34633 " Independent Power Producers",2433,2411,2837,2833,3040,3142,3479,3187,3316,24869,40757,62191,76297,77979,81182,90252,86965,91333,89612,86856,89333 " Combined Heat and Power, Electric",1262,2815,6252,9652,13943,23754,22950,25109,21459,21097,21188,20401,17189,15615,13744,14475,11624,12388,10722,8866,11183 "Electric Power Sector Generation Subtotal",132350,131303,121318,118799,120746,128057,130790,136394,140615,142975,135132,141161,136952,135173,135882,144690,140187,143969,138504,131494,135150

85

Table 10. Supply and Disposition of Electricity, 1990 Through 2010 (Million Kilo  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Maine" Maine" "Category",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Supply" "Generation" " Electric Utilities",9064,9519,8335,8076,9016,2668,7800,3223,3549,1189,3,"-",1,1,1,1,"*",1,1,1,2 " Independent Power Producers",1880,1884,1807,1922,1911,1501,1611,1595,1805,5949,7619,12050,13006,11668,12630,13127,11091,10154,10942,10946,11278 " Combined Heat and Power, Electric",473,751,824,801,661,803,815,787,842,829,1691,2924,3212,1691,1400,730,701,702,575,479,603 "Electric Power Sector Generation Subtotal",11417,12154,10967,10799,11588,4972,10226,5605,6195,7967,9313,14975,16219,13361,14031,13858,11792,10857,11517,11426,11883

86

Table 10. Supply and Disposition of Electricity, 1990 Through 2010 (Million Kilo  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Massachusetts" Massachusetts" "Category",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Supply" "Generation" " Electric Utilities",36479,35802,32838,28164,27466,26972,27759,33899,26037,4360,1705,1566,1157,2056,1524,1622,943,494,507,448,803 " Independent Power Producers",1729,1772,1941,2398,2938,3577,3114,3560,12600,29003,30158,30176,34031,40102,41036,42122,41847,43406,39846,35883,38145 " Combined Heat and Power, Electric",751,2573,4422,5619,6648,6241,6139,6647,6296,6333,5981,5769,5852,5378,4053,2896,1938,2400,1444,1918,3192 "Electric Power Sector Generation Subtotal",38958,40148,39201,36180,37052,36790,37012,44105,44933,39695,37844,37511,41040,47536,46614,46640,44728,46300,41797,38249,42139

87

Table 10. Supply and Disposition of Electricity, 1990 Through 2010 (Million Kilo  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Michigan" Michigan" "Category",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Supply" "Generation" " Electric Utilities",89059,94567,82679,92250,83721,92479,95155,89565,85146,87875,89572,97067,100452,96634,99609,104831,97374,96786,94504,82787,89667 " Independent Power Producers",639,694,868,1186,1343,1456,1777,1679,1747,1723,1751,2399,5031,2302,2560,4337,3859,11028,10954,10449,12570 " Combined Heat and Power, Electric",6354,6702,7907,8906,9221,9611,12045,12288,11014,11080,10476,10502,10138,9917,13904,10161,9077,9327,7350,6204,7475 "Electric Power Sector Generation Subtotal",96051,101963,91455,102341,94285,103546,108977,103532,97907,100678,101800,109968,115620,108853,116073,119329,110310,117141,112807,99440,109712

88

Table 10. Supply and Disposition of Electricity, 1990 Through 2010 (Million Kilo  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Ohio" Ohio" "Category",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Supply" "Generation" " Electric Utilities",126510,132694,136297,133735,129021,137860,142900,141249,146448,140912,144358,135484,139904,139086,142305,102751,98159,100536,98397,93940,92198 " Independent Power Producers",9,9,9,7,3,5,5,"-","-","-",3157,5242,6421,6124,4699,52817,55836,53366,53646,40775,49722 " Combined Heat and Power, Electric",32,26,33,26,1305,20,49,44,155,117,275,268,302,382,319,328,322,350,298,472,652 "Electric Power Sector Generation Subtotal",126551,132729,136338,133768,130329,137885,142954,141293,146603,141029,147790,140995,146627,145591,147324,155896,154317,154252,152341,135187,142572

89

Table 10. Supply and Disposition of Electricity, 1990 Through 2010 (Million Kilo  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Utah" Utah" "Category",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Supply" "Generation" " Electric Utilities",32260,30158,32921,33461,34455,32101,32229,33969,35160,36071,35827,35139,36072,37545,37166,36695,39591,43320,44424,40992,39522 " Independent Power Producers",23,23,23,229,384,377,424,402,395,409,440,396,485,447,406,706,829,1096,976,1325,1517 " Combined Heat and Power, Electric","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-",8,9,10,11,9,7,7,11,11,-2,10,9 "Electric Power Sector Generation Subtotal",32283,30181,32943,33690,34839,32478,32653,34371,35556,36488,36276,35544,36568,38002,37579,37408,40430,44427,45398,42327,41048

90

Table 10. Supply and Disposition of Electricity, 1990 Through 2010 (Million Kilo  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Vermont" Vermont" "Category",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Supply" "Generation" " Electric Utilities",4993,5259,4698,4301,5294,4840,5004,5323,4394,4735,5307,4734,2971,626,643,674,803,701,753,712,721 " Independent Power Producers",134,95,132,297,282,280,309,314,508,933,958,711,2465,5396,4800,5013,6256,5121,6046,6546,5874 "Electric Power Sector Generation Subtotal",5126,5353,4830,4598,5576,5120,5313,5637,4902,5668,6265,5445,5437,6022,5444,5687,7059,5822,6799,7257,6595 " Combined Heat and Power, Industrial",38,35,40,46,41,40,37,43,45,36,38,35,20,6,27,30,25,2,21,25,25 "Industrial and Commercial Generation Subtotal",38,35,40,46,41,40,37,43,45,36,38,35,20,6,27,30,25,2,21,25,25

91

Table 10. Supply and Disposition of Electricity, 1990 Through 2010 (Million Kilo  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

United States" United States" "Category",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Supply" "Generation" " Electric Utilities",2808151,2825023,2797219,2882525,2910712,2994529,3077442,3122523,3212171,3173674,3015383,2629946,2549457,2462281,2505231,2474846,2483656,2504131,2475367,2372776,2471632 " Independent Power Producers",31895,38596,45836,53396,54514,58222,60132,58741,91455,200905,457540,780592,955331,1063205,1118870,1246971,1259062,1323856,1332068,1277916,1338712 " Combined Heat and Power, Electric",61275,71942,91319,107976,123500,141480,146567,148111,153790,155404,164606,169515,193670,195674,184259,180375,165359,177356,166915,159146,162042

92

Table 10. Supply and Disposition of Electricity, 1990 Through 2010 (Million Kilo  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Hawaii" Hawaii" "Category",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Supply" "Generation" " Electric Utilities",7996,7333,6861,6084,6055,6191,6420,6213,6301,6452,6535,6383,7513,6493,6982,6915,7040,6928,6701,6510,6416 " Independent Power Producers",386,377,408,512,623,641,606,656,647,603,656,521,400,551,267,280,349,508,901,804,762 " Combined Heat and Power, Electric",542,146,1760,2585,2713,2809,2932,2869,2790,2782,2860,3225,3289,3640,3568,3769,3566,3525,3190,3122,2945 "Electric Power Sector Generation Subtotal",8924,7856,9030,9181,9391,9640,9958,9738,9738,9837,10051,10129,11202,10685,10818,10964,10956,10961,10792,10435,10123

93

Table 10. Supply and Disposition of Electricity, 1990 Through 2010 (Million Kilo  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Nevada" Nevada" "Category",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Supply" "Generation" " Electric Utilities",19286,20922,20963,19820,20519,19997,21362,22870,26553,26486,29342,27896,25009,24635,24246,24112,19686,22377,22979,26095,23711 " Independent Power Producers",764,999,1181,1552,1565,1611,1762,1831,1749,1712,3691,3535,4653,5324,11022,13955,9546,7624,9872,9393,9015 " Combined Heat and Power, Electric","-",144,1203,2130,2433,2356,2456,2331,2312,2335,2453,2445,2428,3236,2399,2146,2282,2257,1900,2013,2157 "Electric Power Sector Generation Subtotal",20051,22065,23348,23502,24518,23964,25580,27031,30614,30532,35485,33876,32089,33195,37667,40214,31515,32257,34751,37500,34883

94

Table 10. Supply and Disposition of Electricity, 1990 Through 2010 (Million Kilo  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Mexico" Mexico" "Category",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Supply" "Generation" " Electric Utilities",28491,25065,27708,28364,30018,29432,29364,30568,31428,31654,32856,32211,29926,31770,32243,33562,35411,34033,33845,34245,30848 " Independent Power Producers","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-",185,370,40,273,589,805,1291,1404,2420,4881,4912 " Combined Heat and Power, Electric",19,19,19,17,18,17,382,507,520,524,520,493,496,504,"-",479,479,472,464,477,417 "Electric Power Sector Generation Subtotal",28510,25084,27726,28382,30036,29449,29747,31075,31948,32179,33560,33074,30462,32548,32831,34846,37181,35909,36729,39603,36178

95

Table 10. Supply and Disposition of Electricity, 1990 Through 2010 (Million Kilo  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Virginia" Virginia" "Category",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Supply" "Generation" " Electric Utilities",47200,48941,48964,52182,52732,52727,56533,58986,63815,65071,65843,62135,62880,61806,65104,65456,61176,64317,59780,59225,58902 " Independent Power Producers",428,813,1670,2298,2313,3341,3017,2510,2285,2408,2858,4697,4828,6058,6263,5279,4636,6538,4970,5627,9303 " Combined Heat and Power, Electric",2162,2318,2886,4068,4062,3856,3952,3746,2827,3234,5344,4593,4074,4368,4509,5251,4409,4638,5020,2608,2545 "Electric Power Sector Generation Subtotal",49790,52072,53520,58547,59107,59925,63502,65242,68927,70713,74045,71426,71783,72232,75876,75986,70221,75493,69770,67461,70750

96

Table 10. Supply and Disposition of Electricity, 1990 Through 2010 (Million Kilo  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Wyoming" Wyoming" "Category",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Supply" "Generation" " Electric Utilities",39378,38667,41852,40155,42337,39684,40852,40765,44699,42951,44586,43764,42532,42261,43060,44032,42905,43144,43909,43182,44739 " Independent Power Producers","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-",2,11,246,349,576,1052,1350,702,1484,1465,1627,1918,2408 "Electric Power Sector Generation Subtotal",39378,38667,41852,40155,42337,39684,40852,40765,44701,42962,44832,44113,43108,43314,44410,44734,44389,44610,45537,45100,47146 " Combined Heat and Power, Industrial",597,631,622,617,665,568,620,644,646,670,663,664,676,313,398,833,1012,1024,964,929,973

97

Table 10. Supply and Disposition of Electricity, 1990 Through 2010 (Million Kilo  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Arizona" Arizona" "Category",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Supply" "Generation" " Electric Utilities",62289,66767,70109,68025,71204,68967,70877,78060,81299,83096,88150,85808,81710,80348,81352,82915,84356,88826,94453,89640,91233 " Independent Power Producers","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-",3290,10954,11851,20891,16390,17617,22209,24217,21713,19954 " Combined Heat and Power, Electric","-","-","-","-",271,399,388,383,410,434,425,459,1153,1823,1874,1689,1959,1853,370,301,188

98

Edge-enhanced imaging obtained with very broad energy band x-rays  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally that edge-enhancement effects are produced when objects, in contact with the x-ray detector, are imaged by using very broad x-ray spectra. Radiographs of thin Al objects have been obtained with a table-top synchrotron source which generates x-rays in the energy range from a few kilo-electron-volts up to 6 MeV. Edge-enhancement effects arise from the combination of x-ray absorption (kilo-electron-volt part of the spectrum) and secondary particle emission (mega-electron-volt part of the spectrum) within the sample. The exact contribution of absorption and emission profiles in the edge-enhanced images has been calculated via Monte Carlo simulation.

Taibi, A.; Cardarelli, P.; Di Domenico, G.; Marziani, M.; Gambaccini, M. [Department of Physics, University of Ferrara, INFN Section of Ferrara, via Saragat 1, 44100 Ferrara (Italy); Hanashima, T. [Photon Production Laboratory Ltd., 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Yamada, H. [Synchrotron Light Life Science Center, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan)

2010-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

99

Comparison with Other Techniques  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 4   Various categories of spectroscopy...lamp Photocell, photographic film Electron volt 1.602 ? 10 -19 X-ray 10 16 ??10 19 30-0.03 μm Electron volt 1.602 ? 10 -19 Electronic transitions Kilo electron volt 1.602 ? 10 -16 γ-ray 10 19 ??10 22 3 ? 10 -9 ?? 3 ? 10 -12 cm Mega electron volt 1.602 ? 10 -13 Discharge tube Photocell Low energy,...

100

10 Gbps, GigaSUNET 2.5 Gbps, NORDUNet  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to information, the World Wide Grid will give us access to computing capacity and data storage in the future.5 Gbps, NORDUNet 155 Mbps, UNINETT 100 km WAN lines: Linköping Stockholm Umeå NorduGrid From World Wide Web to World Wide Grid - creating Nordic Testbed for Wide Area Computing and Data Handling #12;The aim

Eerola, Paula

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "giga mega kilo" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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101

Mechanical Properties and Laminate Structure of Arapaimas Gigas ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fabrication of a Cellulosic Nanocomposite Scaffold with Improved Supermolecular Structure as a Potential Cardiovascular Tissue-Engineered Graft .

102

Dissolution of mega-voids in resin transfer molding  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

exception of Panel 8, the layup used for all panels was [(2 (0/90) w /(45) w . The layup of Panel 8 was [(0/90) w ]and preparation. After layup, the upper mold plate was

Clark, Paul Nordstrom

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Micro-home ownership in a mega-metropolis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As a means to keep pace with today's globally networked society, the home is reconceived as a portable, transformable device that adapts and reconfigures itself to coexist within a range of changing terrains. Ownership ...

MacCarroll, Christian D. (Christian David)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Transportation planning for mega events : a model of urban change  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

My study is about opportunities for revolutionary developments in urban transport. Often, we think of transport and urban development as an evolutionary process, yet there exist a few opportunities for cities to revolutionize ...

Kassens, Eva

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Mega-Pore Nano-Structured Carbon - Energy Innovation Portal  

Current supercapacitor technologies cannot meet the growing demands for high-power energy storage. Meeting this challenge requires the development of new electrode ...

106

Wasting Time : a leisure infrastructure for mega-landfill  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Landfills are consolidating into fewer, taller, and more massive singular objects in the exurban landscape.This thesis looks at one instance in Virginia, the first regional landfill in the state to accept trash from New ...

Nguyen, Elizabeth M. (Elizabeth Margaret)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Feasibility study for mega-electron-volt electron beam tomography  

SciTech Connect

Electron beam tomography is a promising imaging modality for the study of fast technical processes. But for many technical objects of interest x rays of several hundreds of keV energy are required to achieve sufficient material penetration. In this article we report on a feasibility study for fast electron beam computed tomography with a 1 MeV electron beam. The experimental setup comprises an electrostatic accelerator with beam optics, transmission target, and a single x-ray detector. We employed an inverse fan-beam tomography approach with radiographic projections being generated from the linearly moving x-ray source. Angular projections were obtained by rotating the object.

Hampel, U. [Institute of Fluid Dynamics, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstrasse 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); AREVA Endowed Chair of Imaging Techniques in Energy and Process Engineering, Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Baertling, Y.; Hoppe, D. [Institute of Fluid Dynamics, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstrasse 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Kuksanov, N.; Fadeev, S.; Salimov, R. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Science, Lavrentiev av. 11, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

108

Dissolution of mega-voids in resin transfer molding  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

gain measurements for carbon fiber preform .. 53 viinside carbon fiber preform ..test results for dry carbon fiber fabric .

Clark, Paul Nordstrom

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Mega-scale product line engineering at General Motors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

General Motors faces probably the most complex Systems and Software Product Line Engineering (PLE) challenges ever, in terms of product complexity, richness of variation, size of organization, and an unforgiving requirement to support over a dozen simultaneous ... Keywords: bill-of-features, feature modeling, feature profiles, hierarchical product lines, product baselines, product configurator, product line engineering, product portfolio, software product lines, variation points

Rick Flores; Charles Krueger; Paul Clements

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Design and imaging performance of achromatic diffractive/refractive X-ray and Gamma-ray Fresnel lenses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Achromatic combinations of a diffractive Phase Fresnel Lens and a refractive correcting element have been proposed for X-ray and gamma-ray astronomy and for microlithography, but considerations of absorption often dictate that the refractive component be given a stepped profile, resulting in a double Fresnel lens. The imaging performance of corrected Fresnel lenses, with and without `stepping' is investigated and the trade-off between resolution and useful bandwidth in different circumstances is discussed. Provided the focal ratio is large, correction lenses made of low atomic number materials can be used with X-rays in the range approximately 10--100 keV without stepping. The use of stepping extends the possibility of correction to higher aperture systems, to energies as low as a few kilo electron volts and to gamma-rays of $\\sim$ mega electron volt energy.

Gerald K. Skinner

2004-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

111

How to build a 300 bit, 1 Giga-operation quantum computer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Experimental methods for laser-control of trapped ions have reached sufficient maturity that it is possible to set out in detail a design for a large quantum computer based on such methods, without any major omissions or uncertainties. The main features of such a design are given, with a view to identifying areas for study. The machine is based on 13000 ions moved via 20 micron vacuum channels around a chip containing 160000 electrodes and associated classical control circuits; 1000 laser beam pairs are used to manipulate the hyperfine states of the ions and drive fluorescence for readout. The computer could run a quantum algorithm requiring 10^9 logical operations on 300 logical qubits, with a physical gate rate of 1 MHz and a logical gate rate of 8 kHz, using methods for quantum gates that have already been experimentally implemented. Routes for faster operation are discussed.

Andrew M. Steane

2004-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

112

"GiGa": the Billion Galaxy HI Survey -- Tracing Galaxy Assembly from Reionization to the Present  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we review the Billion Galaxy Survey that will be carried out at radio--optical wavelengths to micro--nanoJansky levels with the telescopes of the next decades. These are the Low-Frequency Array, the Square Kilometer Array and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope as survey telescopes, and the Thirty Meter class Telescopes for high spectral resolution+AO, and the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) for high spatial resolution near--mid IR follow-up. With these facilities, we will be addressing fundamental questions like how galaxies assemble with super-massive black-holes inside from the epoch of First Light until the present, how these objects started and finished the reionization of the universe, and how the processes of star-formation, stellar evolution, and metal enrichment of the IGM proceeded over cosmic time. We also summarize the high-resolution science that has been done thus far on high redshift galaxies with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Faint galaxies have steadily decreasing sizes at fainter fluxes and higher redshifts, reflecting the hierarchical formation of galaxies over cosmic time. HST has imaged this process in great structural detail to zsub-clumps. Finally, we summarize how the 6.5 meter James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will measure first light, reionization, and galaxy assembly in the near--mid-IR.

R. A. Windhorst; S. H. Cohen; N. P. Hathi; R. A. Jansen; R. E. Ryan Jr

2008-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

113

Design of Mega-Voltage X-ray Digital Radiography and Computed Tomography Performance Phantoms  

SciTech Connect

A number of fundamental scientific questions have arisen concerning the operation of high-energy DR and CT systems. Some of these questions include: (1) How deeply can such systems penetrate thickly shielded objects? (2) How well can such systems distinguish between dense and relatively high Z materials such as lead, tungsten and depleted uranium and lower Z materials such as steel, copper and tin? (3) How well will such systems operate for a uranium material which is an intermediate case between low density yellowcake and high density depleted uranium metal? These questions have led us to develop a set of phantoms to help answer these questions, but do not have any direct bearing on any smuggling concern. These new phantoms are designed to allow a systemic exploration of these questions by gradually varying their compositions and thicknesses. These phantoms are also good probes of the blurring behavior of radiography and tomography systems. These phantoms are composed of steel ({rho} assumed to be 7.8 g/cc), lead ({rho} assumed to be 11.4 g/cc), tungsten ({rho} assumed to be 19.25 g/cc), uranium oxide (UO{sub 3}) ({rho} assumed to be 4.6 g/cc), and depleted uranium (DU) ({rho} assumed to be 18.9 g/cc). There are five designed phantoms described in this report: (1) Cylindrical shells of Tungsten and Steel; (2) Depleted Uranium Inside Tungsten Hemi-cube Shells; (3) Nested Spherical Shells; (4) UO{sub 3} Cylinder; and (5) Shielded DU Sphere.

Aufderheide, M B; Martz, H E; Curtin, M

2009-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

114

Emerald cities : the emergence of mega developments in the 21st century  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis examines the recent worldwide boom in megacity development. Its basis is a global survey of megacity building that quantifies the amount of current development and qualifies the various city types and themes, ...

Weikal, Steven P

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Mega-Flu Pandemic (not quite the) Worst Case Scenario V.2 INTERNATIONAL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Human-to-Human Transmission Outbreaks Continue in Rural China; "Surveillance Inadequate" Say WHO Shortages and Sharp Price Increases Flu-Related Buying Blamed Drugs, Water, Food, Energy, Health and Safety

116

Making climate adaptation work : strategies for resource constrained South Asian mega-cities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This dissertation compares the responses of Dhaka, Bangladesh and Kolkata, India to the serious challenges posed by climate change, particularly in the water sector. Drawing on the theories of "adaptation as development" ...

Dutta-Koehler, Madhu Chhanda

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Bio-modified nanocrystals with mega-releaseable fluorophores for ultra-sensitive biomolecules detection.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??xxiii, 152 leaves : ill. (some col.) ; 30 cm HKUST Call Number: Thesis CHEM 2008 Sin Advances in nanotechnology have significant impacts in the (more)

Sin, King Keung

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Commissioning and Start Up of a 110 MegaWatt Cogeneration Facility  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

"In December of 1987, Union Carbide successfully brought on line a 110,000 KVA combined cycle cogeneration facility. The construction, commissioning and start up of this complex facility was accomplished in a remarkably short twelve months. As with all projects of any magnitude, there were several technical challenges that developed during the course of the year. These challenges and the Project Team response will be discussed in some detail. Some areas include: 1. Procurement 2. Technical review of specs and drawings 3. Existing manufacturing facility constraints 4. Mechanical problems 5. Electrical problems 6. Control system / instrumentation problems The commissioning and start up had to be coordinated with existing Plant operations. As a result of the Project Team's efforts, the cogeneration facility achieved 100% of design output on December 22, 1987 without any significant impact on the manufacturing facility."

Good, R.

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

MEGA-Event Stadiums as vehicles for urban transformation : an argument for integration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

All cultures across the world engage in significant public events whether religious, traditional or competitive. Many of these celebrations, small or large, are central to their communities and cultures, bringing people ...

Mendez, Soledad (Candace Soledad)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Cosmic Ray Interactions in Shielding Materials  

SciTech Connect

This document provides a detailed study of materials used to shield against the hadronic particles from cosmic ray showers at Earths surface. This work was motivated by the need for a shield that minimizes activation of the enriched germanium during transport for the MAJORANA collaboration. The materials suitable for cosmic-ray shield design are materials such as lead and iron that will stop the primary protons, and materials like polyethylene, borated polyethylene, concrete and water that will stop the induced neutrons. The interaction of the different cosmic-ray components at ground level (protons, neutrons, muons) with their wide energy range (from kilo-electron volts to giga-electron volts) is a complex calculation. Monte Carlo calculations have proven to be a suitable tool for the simulation of nucleon transport, including hadron interactions and radioactive isotope production. The industry standard Monte Carlo simulation tool, Geant4, was used for this study. The result of this study is the assertion that activation at Earths surface is a result of the neutronic and protonic components of the cosmic-ray shower. The best material to shield against these cosmic-ray components is iron, which has the best combination of primary shielding and minimal secondary neutron production.

Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Kouzes, Richard T.; Ankney, Austin S.; Orrell, John L.; Berguson, Timothy J.; Troy, Meredith D.

2011-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "giga mega kilo" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Enhanced immunological and detoxification responses in Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas, exposed1 to chemically dispersed oil2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to chemically dispersed oil2 3 Luna-Acosta, A.a,* , Kanan, R.b , Le Floch, S.b , Huet, V.a , Pineau P;Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of chemically dispersed oil on an20 of the chemical dispersant. After 2 days of exposure to chemically dispersed28 oil, alkylated naphthalenes

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

122

Interconnects are moving from MHz->GHz should you be afraid?: or... "my giga hertz, does yours?"  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chip interfaces, including standards like PCI Express, are increasingly relying on high-speed serial technology. This move from MHz to GHz brings with it a myriad of chip design challenges that many designers have never faced before. This diverse panel ...

Navraj Nandra; Phil Dworsky; Rick Merritt; John F. D'Ambrosia; Adam Healey; Boris Litinsky; John Stonick; Joe Abler

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

NMR relaxometry as a potential non-invasive routine sensor for1 characterization of phenotype in Crassostrea gigas2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 NMR relaxometry as a potential non-invasive routine sensor for1 characterization of phenotype parameters that can be used to monitor the physiological state of oysters. NMR measurements18 were carried cavity volume and dry flesh weight and to determine sex and gonad21 development. The NMR results showed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

124

Table of Contents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Agency g gram K Kelvin temperature scale kg kilogram kJ kiloJoule kPa kiloPascal kW kilowatt LH2 liquid hydrogen LNG liquefied natural gas m ...

2006-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

125

Figures of merit for focusing mega-electron-volt ion beams in biomedical imaging and proton beam writing  

SciTech Connect

A figure of merit (FOM) has been developed for focusing quadrupole multiplet lenses for ion micro- and nanobeam systems. The method which is based on measurement of the central peak of the two-dimensional autocorrelation function of an image provides separate FOM for the horizontal and vertical directions. The approach has been tested by comparison with the edge widths obtained by nonlinear fitting the edge widths of a Ni grid and found to be reliable. The FOM has the important advantage for ion beam imaging of biomedical samples that the fluence needed is considerably lower than for edge fitting.

Ren Minqin; Whitlow, Harry J.; Ananda Sagari, A. R.; Kan, Jeroen A. van; Osipowicz, Thomas; Watt, Frank [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), FIN-40014 (Finland); Centre for Ion Beam Applications, Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Mega-electron-volt proton irradiation on supported and suspended graphene: A Raman spectroscopic layer dependent study  

SciTech Connect

Graphene samples with 1, 2, and 4 layers and 1 + 1 folded bi-layers and graphite have been irradiated with 2 MeV protons at fluences ranging from 1 x 10{sup 15} to 6 x 10{sup 18} ions/cm{sup 2}. The samples were characterized using visible and UV Raman spectroscopy and Raman microscopy. The ion-induced defects were found to decrease with increasing number of layers. Graphene samples suspended over etched holes in SiO{sub 2} have been fabricated and used to investigate the influence of the substrate SiO{sub 2} for defect creation in graphene. While Raman vibrational modes at 1460 cm{sup -1} and 1555 cm{sup -1} have been observed in the visible Raman spectra of substantially damaged graphene samples, these modes were absent in the irradiated-suspended monolayer graphene.

Mathew, S.; Thong, John T. L. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Chan, T. K.; Breese, M. B. H. [Center for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Zhan, D.; Shen, Z. X. [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Gopinadhan, K.; Dhar, S.; Venkatesan, T. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); NUSNNI-NanoCore, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Roy Barman, A. [NUSNNI-NanoCore, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

127

An emplacement mechanism for the mega-block zone within the Chicxulub crater, (Yucata n, Mexico) based on chemostratigraphy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and Philippe CLAEYS1 1 Earth System Science, Department of Geology, Vrije Universiteit Brussels, Pleinlaan 2 form by the gravitational collapse of an initial bowl-shaped transient cavity: the crater floor The Meteoritical Society, 2012. 400 Meteoritics & Planetary Science 47, Nr 3, 400­413 (2012) doi: 10.1111/j.1945

Claeys, Philippe

128

thesis abstract: Understanding the evolutionary radiation of the mega-diverse Monkey Beetle fauna (Scarabaeidae: Hopliini) of South Africa  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fynbos and Succulent Karoo Biomes (Diptera, Vermileonidae).Region and Succulent Karoo, biogeographic congruence ofFynbos and Succulent Karoo). Based on slope and intercept

Colville, Jonathan F.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

THE ROLE OF LAND USE IN ENVIRONMENTAL DECISION MAKING AT THREE DOE MEGA-CLEANUP SITES FERNALD & ROCKY FLATS & MOUND  

SciTech Connect

This paper explores the role that future land use decisions have played in the establishment of cost-effective cleanup objectives and the setting of environmental media cleanup levels for the three major U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites for which cleanup has now been successfully completed: the Rocky Flats, Mound, and Fernald Closure Sites. At each site, there are distinct consensus-building histories throughout the following four phases: (1) the facility shut-down and site investigation phase, which took place at the completion of their Cold War nuclear-material production missions; (2) the decision-making phase, whereby stakeholder and regulatory-agency consensus was achieved for the future land-use-based environmental decisions confronting the sites; (3) the remedy selection phase, whereby appropriate remedial actions were identified to achieve the future land-use-based decisions; and (4) the implementation phase, whereby the selected remedial actions for these high-profile sites were implemented and successfully closed out. At each of the three projects, there were strained relationships and distrust between the local community and the DOE as a result of site contamination and potential health effects to the workers and local residents. To engage citizens and interested stakeholder groups - particularly in the role of final land use in the decision-making process, the site management teams at each respective site developed new public-participation strategies to open stakeholder communication channels with site leadership, technical staff, and the regulatory agencies. This action proved invaluable to the success of the projects and reaching consensus on appropriate levels of cleanup. With the implementation of the cleanup remedies now complete, each of the three DOE sites have become models for future environmental-remediation projects and associated decision making.

JEWETT MA

2011-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

130

SPR-8 multi-mega watt space power system (MMW-SPS) concept description and concept refinement plan  

SciTech Connect

The SPR-8 MMW-SPS concept can satisfy both continuous and burst mode power requirements. At 10 MWe continuous mode power for 5 yr and 75 MWe burst mode power for 200 sec, the SPR-8 concept can power radar systems for detecting ballistic missile launchings and for discriminating between warheads and decoys. When enemy action is detected the SPR-8 MMW-SPS can power a rail gun, free electron laser, or particle beam and destroy the missile in the boost phase or warheads in space flight. The SPR-8 concept is based on the SPR-6 system (ref. 1) for providing continuous mode power. The system uses a fast UN-fueled, lithium-cooled reactor. Heat is transferred from the lithium coolant to potassium in a shell and tube heat exchanger-boiler. Potassium vapor is expanded through a turbine in a saturated Rankine cycle. After passing through the turbine the potassium is condensed in a compact heat exchanger by transferring heat to the radiator working fluid. An advanced radiator design is envisioned. Much work will be required in radiator technology to achieve low mass and plan form. For completeness of the SPR-8 system concept, a charged liquid droplet radiator is assumed but other types should be considered. Mechanical pumps are used for simplicity, but other types should be considered. A block diagram of the SPR-8 system is given.

Walter, C.E.

1985-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

131

Pairing mega events and hydrological systems for urban sustainability : strategy framework for Delhi beyond the Commonwealth Games 2010  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(cont.) initiate a process by which the city learns to seize opportunities through benign and sustainable change. Furthermore, this thesis intends to inform decision makers with a checklist of crucial tradeoffs, risks and ...

Cherian, Danny, 1978-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

FERC`s {open_quotes}MegaNOPR{close_quotes} - changes ahead for the natural gas industry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On July 31, 1991 the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) issued a notice of proposed rulemaking (NOPR) that would fundamentally change the current scheme of transportation and sales of natural gas by interstate pipelines. FERC`s proposal will result in disparate impacts on the various segments of the natural gas industry. These impacts and the major policy issues sought for implementation by FERC can be grouped into five major points, discussed in this article: unbundling of service; pregrated abandonment; capacity reallocation; rate design; and transition/implementation costs.

Stosser, M.A. [Arnold & Porter, Washington, DC (United States)

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

133

Replication and stability of the linear plasmid pBSSB2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

acid g gram G guanine hr hour IPTG Isopropyl-?-D-thiogalactopyranoside KmR Kanamycin resistant kb kilo base kDa kilo Daltons kV kilo Volt l litre xx LB Luria Bertani m metre MCS multiple cloning site min minute...

Ahsan, Sunjukta

2012-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

134

Direct Observation of Toughening Mechanism of Nano-Twins in ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Strombus gigas conch shell, which is composed of 99 vol. ... Electric Contact Measurements during Indentation of Compliant Carbon...

135

900 IEEE JOURNAL OF QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, VOL. 40, NO. 7, JULY 2004 A Short Wavelength GigaHertz Clocked Fiber-Optic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hertz Clocked Fiber-Optic Quantum Key Distribution System Karen J. Gordon, Veronica Fernandez, Paul D. Townsend telecommunications optical fiber, which is capable of operating at clock rates of greater than 1 GHz. The QKD system the possibility of free-space [5]­[8] and optical fiber-based QKD systems [9]­[14]. There has been growing

Buller, Gerald S.

136

WCAP-10574  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

more than 6 tonnes of mixed oxide fuel pellets. Fabrication of these rods required handling of nearly ZOO kilo- grams of plutonium of various isotopic analyses. The...

137

Market Mechanisms for Financing Green Real Estate Investments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CEUS ) Electricity Consumption (kWh/sf/yr) Year Builtelectricity consumptions per Kilo Watt Hours (KWh) per square foot per year

Jaffee, Dwight M.; Wallace, Nancy E.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Technology@TMS: Online Article - Materials Technology@TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

According to an announcement posted on the NWO Web site, an electric car comparable to the Toyota Prius would need to carry 317 kilos of lithium batteries to...

139

Microsoft Word - 08101885 DVP.doc  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

resolution. For several samples, the tracer width at half maximum exceeded 100 kilo- electron volts, which is expected for isotopes such as thorium-229 with alpha emissions at...

140

Structure and Mechanical Behavior of Fish Scales - Programmaster ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The scales of two large fish, Arapaima gigas (a large Amazon basin fish) and Atractosteus spatula (the largest North American fresh water fish) are characterized...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "giga mega kilo" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Second Z Plutonium 'Shot' Safely Tests Materials for NNSA | National...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

major refurbishment of the Z machine in 2007, which increased its output of electrical energy from 18 mega amperes to 26 mega amperes. This enables Z researchers to gather data...

142

Data:Aef33206-fa70-4806-80b4-6a12b6f671cb | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

this increased cost is not included in OEC's base rate of .08728 per kilo-watt hour (kWh), we collect those increased costs through the PPA. Source or reference: http:...

143

NNSA National Labs, Y-12 Earn 11 R&D 100 Awards | Y-12 National...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Camera AG, JDS Uniphase and JENOPTIK Optical Systems, LLC. KiloPower - This uses a nuclear fission system as a heat source that transfers heat via a heat pipe to a small...

144

High Energy Density Physics and Exotic Acceleration Schemes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The High Energy Density and Exotic Acceleration working group took as our goal to reach beyond the community of plasma accelerator research with its applications to high energy physics, to promote exchange with other disciplines which are challenged by related and demanding beam physics issues. The scope of the group was to cover particle acceleration and beam transport that, unlike other groups at AAC, are not mediated by plasmas or by electromagnetic structures. At this Workshop, we saw an impressive advancement from years past in the area of Vacuum Acceleration, for example with the LEAP experiment at Stanford. And we saw an influx of exciting new beam physics topics involving particle propagation inside of solid-density plasmas or at extremely high charge density, particularly in the areas of laser acceleration of ions, and extreme beams for fusion energy research, including Heavy-ion Inertial Fusion beam physics. One example of the importance and extreme nature of beam physics in HED research is the requirement in the Fast Ignitor scheme of inertial fusion to heat a compressed DT fusion pellet to keV temperatures by injection of laser-driven electron or ion beams of giga-Amp current. Even in modest experiments presently being performed on the laser-acceleration of ions from solids, mega-amp currents of MeV electrons must be transported through solid foils, requiring almost complete return current neutralization, and giving rise to a wide variety of beam-plasma instabilities. As keynote talks our group promoted Ion Acceleration (plenary talk by A. MacKinnon), which historically has grown out of inertial fusion research, and HIF Accelerator Research (invited talk by A. Friedman), which will require impressive advancements in space-charge-limited ion beam physics and in understanding the generation and transport of neutralized ion beams. A unifying aspect of High Energy Density applications was the physics of particle beams inside of solids, which is proving to be a very important field for diverse applications such as muon cooling, fusion energy research, and ultra-bright particle and radiation generation with high intensity lasers. We had several talks on these and other subjects, and many joint sessions with the Computational group, the EM Structures group, and the Beam Generation group. We summarize our groups' work in the following categories: vacuum acceleration schemes; ion acceleration; particle transport in solids; and applications to high energy density phenomena.

Cowan, T.; /General Atomics, San Diego; Colby, E.; /SLAC

2005-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

145

Neutrino Factory Feasibility Study  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

is approximately 150 meters long and requires more than 75 klystrons. The total installed voltage is approximately 2 GigaVolts. The geometric layout of the klystron gallery for the...

146

Tissue sampling and standards for vertebrate genomics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and standards for vertebrate genomics. GigaScience 2012 1:8.transition to conservation genomics. TIG 2010, 26:177187.Siemens DH: Ecological genomicschanging perspectives on

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

NETL F 451.1/1-1, Categorical Exclusion Designation Form  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mega Transect - Task 8 Perform administrative, planning, analyses in support of prime SOPO Task 8 - Leakage Pathways. MOD to reclassify vendor to subcontract TDI-Brooks. Karen...

148

CX-007493: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Exclusion Determination CX-007493: Categorical Exclusion Determination GoM Miocene Carbon Dioxide Site Characterization Mega Transect: High-Resolution 3-dimensional Seismic...

149

NREL: About NREL - Visiting NREL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of the NREL campus. Golden Laboratories and Offices Photo of several multi-mega watt wind turbines with mountains in the background. National Wind Technology Center Photo of...

150

Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity - Neighborhood Electric Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NEVAmerica Baseline Performance Testing 2010 Electric Vehicles International Neighborhood Electric Vehicle 2010 Electric Vehicles International E-Mega 2009 NEVAmerica Baseline...

151

Analysing International Sports Fan Motivations and Constraints: The Case of Japanese International Sports Fan Tourists and Rugby World Cup Fan Tourists.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The scale of professional sports leagues and mega sports events has expanded recently. Many sports fans travel to foreign countries to watch international events featuring (more)

Nishio, Tatsuru

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY - NETL CATEGORICAL EXCLUSION (CX) DESIGNATIO...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Sequestration Fy10 to FY12 Bruce M. Brown 12082009 - 03312012 Austin, Texas Gulf of Mexico Miocene CO2 Site Characterization Mega Transect Sub-award to the...

153

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY - NETL CATEGORICAL EXCLUSION (CX) DESIGNATIO...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

FE0001941 Sequestration FY10 to FY12 Bruce M. Brown 12082009 - 03312012 Austin, Texas Gulf of Mexico Miocene CO2 Site Characterization Mega Transect Los Alamos National...

154

NETL F 451.1/1-1, Categorical Exclusion Designation Form  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

FE SCCStorage Division FY10-14 1282009 - 9302014 Karen Kluger, px6667 Austin, TX Gulf of Mexico Miocene CO2 Site Characterization Mega Transect Conduct a regional...

155

CX-010792: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-010792: Categorical Exclusion Determination Gulf of Mexico Miocene Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Site Characterization Mega Transect - Task 8 CX(s)...

156

CX-000450: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Exclusion Determination CX-000450: Categorical Exclusion Determination Gulf of Mexico Miocene Carbon Dioxide Site Characterization Mega Transect CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.1...

157

CX-010790: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Exclusion Determination CX-010790: Categorical Exclusion Determination Gulf of Mexico Miocene Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Site Characterization Mega Transect CX(s) Applied: A9,...

158

CX-010792: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Exclusion Determination CX-010792: Categorical Exclusion Determination Gulf of Mexico Miocene Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Site Characterization Mega Transect - Task 8 CX(s)...

159

CX-000442: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Exclusion Determination CX-000442: Categorical Exclusion Determination Gulf of Mexico Miocene Carbon Dioxide Site Characterization Mega Transect CX(s) Applied: A9, A11,...

160

CX-010791: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Exclusion Determination CX-010791: Categorical Exclusion Determination Gulf of Mexico Miocene Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Site Characterization Mega Transect CX(s) Applied: A9,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "giga mega kilo" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

CX-000444: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Exclusion Determination CX-000444: Categorical Exclusion Determination Gulf of Mexico Miocene Carbon Dioxide Site Characterization Mega Transect CX(s) Applied: A11, B3.1...

162

German South African Year of Science Theme -"Enhancing Science Partnerships for Innovation and Sustainable Development"  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Peter von Neumann-Cosel Area: Other: Experimental nuclear physics, nuclear structure, nuclear astrophysics Title: International Workshop on Nuclear Spectroscopy: Frontiers at Magnetic Spectrometers Date German Academic: Uzoegbo Area: Urbanisation/ Mega Cities Title: Year of Science - Advances in Cement

Wagner, Stephan

163

Syllabus_MIT Kanda Studio Spring 2013 SYLLABUS Past / FUTUREs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

followed by a mega-tsunami surge reaching over 20m in height, and a nuclear plant meltdown at Fukushima as architects & planners? We are clearly facing new questions which address "shrinking cities" in general

Entekhabi, Dara

164

Understanding Trends in Wind Turbine Prices Over the Past Decade  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bloomberg NEF). 2011c. Wind Turbine Price Index, Issue V.Hand, A. Laxson. 2006. Wind Turbine Design Cost and Scalingof a Multi-MegaWatt Wind Turbine. Renewable Energy, vol.

Bolinger, Mark

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Project Title  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Site Characterization Mega Transect DE-FE0001941 Ramon Trevino Texas Bureau of Economic Geology U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory Carbon Storage R&D...

166

bonus.cdr  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

later as an integral boiler-superheater. Operation at full power (50 mega- watts of thermal energy) and full temperature (900 F 482 C steam) was achieved in September 1965,...

167

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Characterization Mega Transect CX(s) Applied: A9, A11, B3.1 Date: 11202009 Location(s): Austin, Texas Office(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory http:...

168

Bill -n- (kris'tl) at OSB, Chicago  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Can the individual be implicated in the mega-scale environment by mediating the barriers and marginal zones of the urban landscape? This investigation engages the megalopolis and its full grotesqueness in terms of scale ...

Benson, Robert Anthony

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

China Energy Primer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

natural gas natural gas nuclear power plant private financepower plants into coastal regions and mega cities, depending on the development of domestic natural gaspower plants are planned by 2010 5 ). Promote the utilization of domestic natural gas

Ni, Chun Chun

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

CX-000474: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

CX-000474: Categorical Exclusion Determination Operation and Maintenance of 3-Mega Electron-Volt Van De Graaf Accelerator CX(s) Applied: B3.10 Date: 12162009 Location(s):...

171

Unthinkable Rebellion and the Praxis of the Possible: Ch'orti' Campesin@ Struggles in Guatemala's Eastern Highlands  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

opposition to mining, hydroelectric dams, and other mega-teams for proposed hydroelectric dams and mines in the dryaware of anti-mining, anti-hydroelectric, and protected area

Casolo, Jennifer Jean

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Regulatory Science in a Developing State: Environmental Politics in Chile, 1980-2010  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

M. , & Bauer, C. (2012). Hydroelectric power generation into office. HidroAysn hydroelectric dam EIA submitted ch. 6to build five mega-hydroelectric dams in the Patagonia, that

Barandiaran, Javiera

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Greetings from Kyoto-U AUTUMN 2007 C O N T E N T S  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to take advantage of the hydroelectric power produced by two dams in the region. The Microsoft facility, which consumes up to 27 mega- wattsofenergyatanygiventime,ispow- ered by hydroelectricity. "This way

Takada, Shoji

174

Design against nature : flooding, water supply, and public space in Los Angeles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Starting in the late 19th century, Southern California saw the first of several waves of explosive population growth that have resulted in today's mega-region. While many early settlers were attracted by the city's famous ...

Thelander, Max William

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

State Energy Program Conductor Optimized Rotary Energy Mega-Watt Scale Direct Wind Generator CX(s) Applied: A9, B5.1 Date: 09292010 Location(s): Ronan, Montana...

176

NETL F 451.1/1-1, Categorical Exclusion Designation Form  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

FY10-14 1282009 - 9302014 Karen Kluger, px6667 6731 Theall Rd., Houston, TX 77066 Gulf of Mexico Miocene CO2 Site Characterization Mega Transect Subaward for Sandia...

177

New information technologies in the old political economy : an exploration of community-based GIS for improving basic services for the poor in New Delhi, India  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Rapid urbanization, limited neighborhood-level data, and the multiplicity of overlapping agencies in mega-cities in the developing world are creating a significant gap between citizens, particularly the poor, and government. ...

Canepa, Claudia

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Edens islands rooms : the project of the urban interior  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The privately owned public interior, defined here as an enclosed urban space owned by a private entity, has been a recurrent character of many 20th century liberal cities. It has today found an epitome in the mega-structural ...

Mahindroo, Amrita

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Property:PotentialBiopowerGaseousMass | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

PotentialBiopowerGaseousMass PotentialBiopowerGaseousMass Jump to: navigation, search Property Name PotentialBiopowerGaseousMass Property Type Quantity Description The potential mass of gaseous biopower material for a place. Use this type to express a quantity of magnitude, or an object's resistance to acceleration. The default unit is the kilogram (kg). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kilogram Acceptable units (and their conversions) are: Kilograms - 1 kg, kilo, kilogram, kilograms, Kilogram, kilogramme, kilos Grams - 1000 g, gram, gramme, grams Tonnes - 0.001 tonnes, metric tons, Tonnes, Metric Tonnes Pounds - 2.205 lbs, pounds, pound, Pounds, Lbs Stone - 0.1575 stones, st, stone Ounces - 35.27 ounces, oz, Ounces, ounce BDT - 0.001 BDT, Bone Dry Tonnes, bdt Pages using the property "PotentialBiopowerGaseousMass"

180

Property:PotentialBiopowerSolidMass | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Property Property Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Property:PotentialBiopowerSolidMass Jump to: navigation, search Property Name PotentialBiopowerSolidMass Property Type Quantity Description The potential mass of solid biopower material for a place. Use this type to express a quantity of magnitude, or an object's resistance to acceleration. The default unit is the kilogram (kg). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kilogram Acceptable units (and their conversions) are: Kilograms - 1 kg, kilo, kilogram, kilograms, Kilogram, kilogramme, kilos Grams - 1000 g, gram, gramme, grams Tonnes - 0.001 tonnes, metric tons, Tonnes, Metric Tonnes Pounds - 2.205 lbs, pounds, pound, Pounds, Lbs Stone - 0.1575 stones, st, stone Ounces - 35.27 ounces, oz, Ounces, ounce

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "giga mega kilo" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Large-storage mobile phones: new devices offering a new application domain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is projected that mobile phones with a large storage (at least a few Giga bytes) will be widely available in the market in a few years. This kind of phone has its own characteristics and hence creates a new application domain. This article reviews ... Keywords: large storage, mobile application, mobile devices

Angus K. Y. Wong

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Exploring Astrophysical Phenomena in the Laboratory with Lasers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High-Mach number plasma jets Collisionless shocks Proton radiography at the NIF Outline #12-Taylor induced B fields High-Mach number plasma jets Collisionless shocks Proton radiography at the NIF in the solar core OMEGA NIF Solar Core: T = 15 million K = 160 g/cm3 P = 40 GigaBar NIF capsule: T = 100

183

CX-004022: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

22: Categorical Exclusion Determination 22: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-004022: Categorical Exclusion Determination MegaWatt Ventures CX(s) Applied: A9, A11, B5.1 Date: 09/09/2010 Location(s): Orlando, Florida Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy The University of Central Florida is dedicated to creating innovative programs that accelerate the commercialization of energy-related technologies developed within universities and national laboratories. The over-riding objective of the proposed MegaWatt Ventures Program is to connect promising research in energy efficiency with experienced entrepreneurs, etc. The scope of work includes the planning and implementation of three annual MegaWatt Ventures events. The first two years will be a pilot program focusing mainly on Florida universities. Year

184

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: A11 | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

20, 2009 20, 2009 CX-000444: Categorical Exclusion Determination Gulf of Mexico Miocene Carbon Dioxide Site Characterization Mega Transect CX(s) Applied: A11, B3.1 Date: 11/20/2009 Location(s): Austin, Texas Office(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory November 20, 2009 CX-000443: Categorical Exclusion Determination Gulf of Mexico Miocene Carbon Dioxide Site Characterization Mega Transect CX(s) Applied: A11, B3.1 Date: 11/20/2009 Location(s): Austin, Texas Office(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory November 20, 2009 CX-000442: Categorical Exclusion Determination Gulf of Mexico Miocene Carbon Dioxide Site Characterization Mega Transect CX(s) Applied: A9, A11, B3.1 Date: 11/20/2009 Location(s): Austin, Texas Office(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

185

O:ELECTRICEA-187.PDF  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Merchant Energy Group of the Americas, Inc. Merchant Energy Group of the Americas, Inc. Order No. EA-187 I. BACKGROUND Exports of electricity from the United States to a foreign country are regulated and require authorization under section 202(e) of the Federal Power Act (FPA) (16 U.S.C. §824a(e)). On June 25, 1998, Merchant Energy Group of the Americas, Inc., (MEGA) applied to the Office of Fossil Energy (FE) of the Department of Energy (DOE) for authorization to transmit electric energy to Canada as a power marketer. MEGA does not own or control any electric generating or transmission facilities, nor does it have a franchised service area. MEGA proposes to purchase surplus electric energy from electric utilities and other suppliers within the United States and to export this energy on its own behalf to Canada. The

186

NETL: Low-Pressure Membrane Contactors for CO2 Capture  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Low-Pressure Membrane Contactors for CO2 Capture Low-Pressure Membrane Contactors for CO2 Capture Project No.: DE-FE0007553 Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) is developing a new type of membrane contactor (or mega-module) to separate carbon dioxide (CO2) from power plant flue gas. This module's membrane area is 500 square meters, 20 to 25 times larger than that of current modules used for CO2 capture. A 500-MWe coal power plant requires 0.5 to 1 million square meters of membrane to achieve 90 percent CO2 capture. The new mega-modules can drastically reduce the cost, complexity, and footprint of commercial-scale membrane module integration. Energy savings due to low-pressure drops for gases circulated through the modules, as well as improved countercurrent flow, are additional benefits. The feasibility of using mega-modules in several different hybrid process designs is being evaluated for future development potential.

187

Energetic Science and Piranha-Proof Armor  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Energetic Energetic Science and Piranha-Proof Armor News Featured Articles 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 Science Headlines Presentations & Testimony News Archives Contact Information Office of Science U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (202) 586-5430 12.12.13 Energetic Science and Piranha-Proof Armor Unique structure of incredible, adaptable armor revealed through Berkeley Lab's Advanced Light Source. Print Text Size: A A A Subscribe FeedbackShare Page Click to enlarge photo. Enlarge Photo Arapaima gigas is an air-breathing fresh water fish in the Amazon Basin that swims with impunity through piranha-infested waters. Photo courtesy of Jeff Kubina, National Geographic Arapaima gigas is an air-breathing fresh water fish in the Amazon Basin

188

Energetic Science and Piranha-Proof Armor | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Energetic Science and Piranha-Proof Armor Energetic Science and Piranha-Proof Armor Energetic Science and Piranha-Proof Armor December 16, 2013 - 4:51pm Addthis Arapaima gigas is an air-breathing fresh water fish in the Amazon Basin that swims with impunity through piranha-infested waters. | Photo courtesy of Jeff Kubina, National Geographic. Arapaima gigas is an air-breathing fresh water fish in the Amazon Basin that swims with impunity through piranha-infested waters. | Photo courtesy of Jeff Kubina, National Geographic. Charles Rousseaux Charles Rousseaux Senior Writer, Office of Science How does it work? Arapaima is one of the world's largest freshwater fish, growing up to nine feet long and weighing more than 400 pounds. Arapaima can shrug off such predators thanks to its incredible, adaptable armor. Understanding the unique structure of this armor may help

189

A 500 MHz phase generator for synthetic aperture radar waveform synthesizers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A GaAs Phase Generator ASIC has been developed using GigaBit's SC10000 standard cell library which produces the quadratic phase necessary to generate a linear-FM chirp waveform. Fully functional chips have been fabricated using a 3-layer metal, 0.9 {mu}m gate E/D-MESFET process. Measured maximum accumulation rates vary from 450 MHz to 590 MHz. The chip is fully ECL and TTL compatible and is packaged in GigaBit's standard 132-pin ceramic package. The phase generator has been successfully tested in a prototype synthetic aperture radar at Sandia National Laboratories. Sample rates as high as 800 Msamples/sec have been synthesized using two phase generator/sine ROM combinations in parallel driving a TriQuint TQ6112 DAC. 5 refs., 5 figs.

Remund, B.L. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Srivatsa, C.R. (GigaBit Logic, Newbury Park, CA (United States))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Experimentation at the Frontiers of Reality in Schubert Calculus  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We describe the setup, design, and execution of a computational experiment utilizing a supercomputer that is helping to formulate and test conjectures in the real Schubert calculus. Largely using machines in instructional computer labs during off-hours and University breaks, it consumed in excess of 350 GigaHertz-years of computing in its first six months of operation, solving over 1.1 billion polynomial systems. This experiment can serve as a model for other large scale mathematical investigations.

Hillar, Christopher; del Campo, Abraham Martin; Ruffo, James; Teitler, Zach; Johnson, Stephen L; Sottile, Frank

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Note: A portable, light-emitting diode-based ruby fluorescence spectrometer for high-pressure calibration  

SciTech Connect

Ruby (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, with {approx}0.5 wt. % Cr doping) is one of the most widely used manometers at the giga-Pascal scale. Traditionally, its fluorescence is excited with intense laser sources. Here, I present a simple, robust, and portable design that employs light-emitting diodes (LEDs) instead. This LED-based system is safer in comparison with laser-based ones.

Feng Yejun [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

192

Temperature Relaxation in Hot Dense Hydrogen  

SciTech Connect

Temperature equilibration of hydrogen is studied for conditions relevant to inertial confinement fusion. New molecular-dynamics simulations and results from quantum many-body theory are compared with Landau-Spitzer predictions for temperatures T with 50kilo-electron-volt range, but converge to agreement in the high-T limit.

Murillo, Michael S. [Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Dharma-wardana, M. W. C. [National Research Council, Ottawa, K1A 0R6 (Canada)

2008-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

193

An active-optic x-ray fluorescence analyzer with high energy resolution, large solid angle coverage, and a large tuning range  

SciTech Connect

A crystal-optic x-ray fluorescence energy analyzer has been designed and tested, which combines the features of electron-volt energy resolution, large solid angle coverage, and tunability over several kilo-electron-volts. The design is based upon the principle of active optics, with ten actuators available to optimally adjust the shape of a silicon crystal used in the Bragg geometry. In most applications the shape is that of a logarithmic spiral for high energy resolution with a spatially nonresolving detector, but a wide range of other shapes is also possible for applications such as imaging or single-shot spectroscopy in a spectral range of the operator's choosing.

Adams, Bernhard W.; Attenkofer, Klaus [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

194

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Whole Building Life Cycle Assessment: Neville Scarfe Building  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

primary energy required for the construction of the building was 192.6 Mega Joules per square foot undergone a series of upgrades and renovations; however, the original cost of the building was $1,103,877. The gross area of the original version of the Scarfe building totaled 70,127 square feet, including

195

Megacities Globalisation Global change Latin America DIE ERDE 140 2009 (4) Special Issue "Megacities" pp. 1-20  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. If you count cities of more than five million inhabitants, then the "developing" and "emerging" countries of megacities in these countries is expected to have risen to 40, i.e. to have nearly doubled, with more than environmental change. Pollution of water, air and soil is particu- larly high in mega-urban agglomerations

Borsdorf, Axel

196

Potential for Coal-to-Liquids Conversion in the United States--FischerTropsch Synthesis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Potential for Coal-to-Liquids Conversion in the United States--Fischer­Tropsch Synthesis Tad W The United States has the world?s largest coal reserves and Montana the highest potential for mega-mine development. Consequently, a large-scale effort to convert coal to liquids (CTL) has been proposed to create

Patzek, Tadeusz W.

197

Choices and benefits : alternative access and venue sites for İstanbul Olympics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis is based on the idea that the Olympics, a global mega-project that interrupts and re-channels the forces of urban evolution in its host city, can be planned in ways that bring long-term benefits to that city. ...

Alkan, zgr, BaŸ ak, 1977-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Joseph M. Sussman, Professor JR East Professor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.C.E. 1961, City College of New York Areas of Specialization · Transportation systems and institutions Working Paper Series, MIT, Cambridge, #12;MA. 2006, April. "Mega-Cities in Developing Countries--A Major, Washington, DC. 2006. Contributor. "Going the Distance? The Safe Transport of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High

Polz, Martin

199

Three possible futures for persuasive technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

I will share three possible paths that persuasive technologies might take in the coming years: MixMasters, Swishers, and MegaMonkeys. These speculative futures may help us reevaluate our methods for research and design. Even if my three scenarios never ...

BJ Fogg

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Status of the US National Inertial Fusion ProgramSNL Z Facility UR/LLE OMEGA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for inertial fusion and high energy density physics · NIF 81% complete, first ignition experiments planned Ignition Facility is 85 % complete NIF concentrates 1.8 Mega Joules of energy into a mm3 size target -- it needs to be flush left -- keep horizontal within Title/Logo limits at the top #12;7 NIF has executed

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "giga mega kilo" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Summary talk to 21st IAEA FEC, Chendu, 2006 Inertial fusion advance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DT) will be demonstrated by using National Ignition Facility (NIF) in USA and Mega Joule Laser (LMJ is expected in the indirect-driver implosion on the NIF with the conventional scheme based on a central hot for inertial fusion Except for laser drivers such as NIF and LMJ etc., the Z- pinch drivers and the heavy ion

202

Nuclear photonics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the planned new ?-beam facilities like MEGa-ray at LLNL (USA) or ELI-NP at Bucharest (Romania) with 1013 ?/s and a band width of ?E?/E??10 ?3 a new era of ? beams with energies up to 20MeV comes into operation

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Rochester Institute of Technology Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

now be varied both vertically and horizontally. Task Status: Trona, CA has been selected as the location for MegaScene 2. Trona is located in Death Valley. It offers the desert vegetation and climate environment. #12;27 Oblique aerial photograph of Trona, CA courtesy of Pictometry Simple rendering

Zanibbi, Richard

204

Rochester Institute of Technology Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. The atmosphere can now be varied both vertically and horizontally. Task Status: Trona, CA has been selected as the location for MegaScene 2. Trona is located in Death Valley. It offers the desert vegetation and climate environment. Figure 3.5.1-1: Oblique aerial photograph of Trona, CA courtesy of Pictometry #12;20 Figure 3

Zanibbi, Richard

205

Future Urban Transport, Berkeley, 19-21 May 2008 International Comparative Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Future Urban Transport, Berkeley, 19-21 May 2008 International Comparative Study of Mega Transport Director of OMEGA Centre University College London Conference on Future Urban Transport Berkeley Center for Future Urban Transport May 19-21, 2008 #12;Future Urban Transport, Berkeley, 19-21 May 2008 Overall

California at Berkeley, University of

206

Government of Gujarat has selected Dr.Harinarayana as an independent Director on the board of Directors of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

­ Gujarat State Petroleum Corporation Limited (GSPC). GSPC is a Rs. 5000 crore oil and gas exploration. Harinarayana selection is based on his significant contributions to the oil exploration upstream sector-disciplinary mega-projects related to oil industry. Based on his recommendations, a few blocks have been carved out

Harinarayana, T.

207

Low-Cost High-Concentration Photovoltaic Systems for Utility Power Generation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Under DOE's Technology Pathway Partnership (TPP) program, Amonix, Inc. developed a new generation of high-concentration photovoltaic systems using multijunction technology and established the manufacturing capacity needed to supply multi-megawatt power plants buing using the new Amonix 7700-series solar energy systems. For this effort, Amonix Collaborated with a variety of suppliers and partners to complete project tasks. Subcontractors included: Evonik/Cyro; Hitek; the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Raytech; Spectrolab; UL; University of Nevada, Las Vegas; and TUV Rheinland PTL. The Amonix TPP tasks included: Task 1: Multijunction Cell Optimization for Field Operation, Task 2: Fresnel Lens R&D, Task 3: Cell Package Design & Production, Task 4: Standards Compliance and Reliability Testing, Task 5: Receiver Plate Production, Task 6: MegaModule Performance, Task 7: MegaModule Cost Reduction, Task 8: Factory Setup and MegaModule Production, Task 9: Tracker and Tracking Controller, Task 10: Installation and Balance of System (BOS), Task 11: Field Testing, and Task 12: Solar Advisor Modeling and Market Analysis. Amonix's TPP addressed nearly the complete PV value chain from epitaxial layer design and wafer processing through system design, manufacturing, deployment and O&M. Amonix has made progress toward achieving these reduced costs through the development of its 28%+ efficient MegaModule, reduced manufacturing and installation cost through design for manufacturing and assembly, automated manufacturing processes, and reduced O&M costs. Program highlights include: (1) Optimized multijunction cell and cell package design to improve performance by > 10%; (2) Updated lens design provided 7% increased performance and higher concentration; (3) 28.7% DC STC MegaModule efficiency achieved in Phase II exceeded Phase III performance goal; (4) New 16' focal length MegaModule achieved target materials and manufacturing cost reduction; (5) Designed and placed into production 25 MW/yr manufacturing capacity for complete MegaModules, including cell packages, receiver plates, and structures with lenses; (6) Designed and deployed Amonix 7700 series systems rated at 63 kW PTC ac and higher. Based on an LCOE assessment using NREL's Solar Advisor Model, Amonix met DOE's LCOE targets: Amonix 2011 LCOE 12.8 cents/kWh (2010 DOE goal 10-15); 2015 LCOE 6.4 cents/kWh (2015 goal 5-7) Amonix and TPP participants would like to thank the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technology Program for funding received under this program through Agreement No. DE-FC36-07GO17042.

McConnell, R.; Garboushian, V.; Gordon, R.; Dutra, D.; Kinsey, G.; Geer, S.; Gomez, H.; Cameron, C.

2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

208

Testing and Evaluation of a Power Factor Correction for Power-Savings Potential  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Power factor correction (PFC) is an important technology that can be used to enhance power quality. It was noted that the power factor was low for packaged air-conditioning (PAC) units utilized in residential buildings in Kuwait. To study the impact of PFC units, a PAC unit was selected, a PFC unit was installed,and three cases were developed to assess their energy-saving potential. It was found that the PFC unit was able to correct the power factor from 0.61 to 0.96. The reactive power was then reduced from 13.9 to 3.0 kVAR (kilo volts amps reactive), the apparent power was decreased from 17.5 to 11.0 kVA (kilo volts amps). and the current was reduced from 23.4 to 14.5 amps. The Ministry of Electricity & Water (MEW) in Kuwait is expected to be the major beneficiary of installing PFC units since MEW does not charge consumers for the cost of reactive power.. Key words: PFC unit, power factor, reactive power, active power and apparent power.

Alotaibi, A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Add new comment | Data.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Powerball Energy Powerball Submitted by Peter Tseronis on Tue, 07/17/2012 - 3:26pm Log in to vote 7 We love the lottery. By some estimates, ticket sales are close to $50 billion per year in the US alone. That means the average American spends over $150 per year on lottery tickets. Earlier this year, when the Mega Millions lottery became the world's largest jackpot of all time, its 1-in-176,000,000 chances of winning were slightly worse than the chances of becoming the President of the United States (1 in 150,000,000). No matter how low the odds, the thrill of potentially using a small investment to nab a huge payday is infectious. The record-setting Mega Millions jackpot was already huge at $350 million on March 27th. Then the buzz really caught on and by the next day, it was

210

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Fossil Energy | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

November 20, 2009 November 20, 2009 CX-000372: Categorical Exclusion Determination Analysis of Microbial Activity Under a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Atmosphere CX(s) Applied: A1, A9, B3.1, B3.6 Date: 11/20/2009 Location(s): Cambridge, Massachusetts Office(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory November 20, 2009 CX-000444: Categorical Exclusion Determination Gulf of Mexico Miocene Carbon Dioxide Site Characterization Mega Transect CX(s) Applied: A11, B3.1 Date: 11/20/2009 Location(s): Austin, Texas Office(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory November 20, 2009 CX-000443: Categorical Exclusion Determination Gulf of Mexico Miocene Carbon Dioxide Site Characterization Mega Transect CX(s) Applied: A11, B3.1 Date: 11/20/2009 Location(s): Austin, Texas

211

ARM - Events Article  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

23, 2012 [Education, Events] 23, 2012 [Education, Events] Mega Science Festival Draws Mega Crowds Bookmark and Share Two attendees pose for a picture with Professor Polar Bear. Two attendees pose for a picture with Professor Polar Bear. How do you interest kids in science, technology, engineering, and math? Hold the country's largest science fair. Drawing the second biggest crowd in Washington Convention Center history, the second USA Science & Engineering Festival was held in Washington D.C. from April 27-29. ARM Education and Outreach exhibited at all three days of the Festival, including Sneak Peak Friday, which included nearly 28,000 students, teachers, military families, government officials, and members of the media. In total, over 150,000 people visited the Festival over the three

212

MDM Tech Day Presentation  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Mega Project Mega Project Risk Analysis Model Oak Ridge Tennessee November 5, 2009 2 Content - Objectives - Risk Assessment Approach - Nuclear Risk Assessment Model Overview - Lessons Learned 3 Objectives ■ Present a new approach to analyzing risks of large and complex projects that may be directly applied to DOE ■ Discuss an example of how this methodology was recently used in a nuclear project, and how this can fit DOE's unique challenges ■ Present the benefits of using a risk assessment for protecting the government's interests and reduce risk exposure 4 Content - Objectives - Risk Assessment Approach - Nuclear Risk Assessment Model Overview - Lessons Learned 5 Approach to risk assessment follows a logical progression of risk identification, impact, and mitigation analysis Risk

213

FE Categorical Exclusions | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

20, 2009 20, 2009 CX-000372: Categorical Exclusion Determination Analysis of Microbial Activity Under a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Atmosphere CX(s) Applied: A1, A9, B3.1, B3.6 Date: 11/20/2009 Location(s): Cambridge, Massachusetts Office(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory November 20, 2009 CX-000444: Categorical Exclusion Determination Gulf of Mexico Miocene Carbon Dioxide Site Characterization Mega Transect CX(s) Applied: A11, B3.1 Date: 11/20/2009 Location(s): Austin, Texas Office(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory November 20, 2009 CX-000443: Categorical Exclusion Determination Gulf of Mexico Miocene Carbon Dioxide Site Characterization Mega Transect CX(s) Applied: A11, B3.1 Date: 11/20/2009 Location(s): Austin, Texas Office(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

214

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

21 - 21730 of 31,917 results. 21 - 21730 of 31,917 results. Download CX-010790: Categorical Exclusion Determination Gulf of Mexico Miocene Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Site Characterization Mega Transect CX(s) Applied: A9, A11 Date: 08/14/2013 Location(s): Texas Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-010790-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-010792: Categorical Exclusion Determination Gulf of Mexico Miocene Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Site Characterization Mega Transect - Task 8 CX(s) Applied: A1, A9, A11 Date: 08/14/2013 Location(s): Texas Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-010792-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-010797: Categorical Exclusion Determination Serration Behavior of High Entropy Alloys

215

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: National Energy Technology Laboratory  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

August 14, 2013 August 14, 2013 CX-010787: Categorical Exclusion Determination Fire Loop Soil Excavation CX(s) Applied: B3.1, B6.1 Date: 08/14/2013 Location(s): Oregon Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory August 14, 2013 CX-010786: Categorical Exclusion Determination North Central Texas Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Investments CX(s) Applied: B5.23 Date: 08/14/2013 Location(s): Texas Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory August 14, 2013 CX-010791: Categorical Exclusion Determination Gulf of Mexico Miocene Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Site Characterization Mega Transect CX(s) Applied: A9, A11 Date: 08/14/2013 Location(s): Texas Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory August 14, 2013 CX-010792: Categorical Exclusion Determination Gulf of Mexico Miocene Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Site Characterization Mega

216

CX-002450: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

50: Categorical Exclusion Determination 50: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-002450: Categorical Exclusion Determination State of Arizona State Energy Program American Recovery and Reinvestment Act EE0000106 - Manufacturers' Energy-Efficiency Grant Assistance (MEGA) Program CX(s) Applied: B5.1 Date: 06/01/2010 Location(s): Arizona Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office The State of Arizona has set aside $2,700,000 of Recovery Act funds within its Manufacturers' Energy-Efficiency Grant Assistance (MEGA) program for eligible applicants who propose projects that purchase new energy-efficient manufacturing equipment. The State anticipates funding three types of projects, two of which are the subject of this National Environmental Policy Act Determination: 1. Upgrade of Manufacturing Equipment; 2. New

217

Energy Powerball | Data.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Powerball Energy Powerball Energy Data Apps Maps Challenges Resources Blogs Let's Talk Energy Beta You are here Data.gov » Communities » Energy » Blogs Energy Powerball Submitted by Peter Tseronis on Tue, 07/17/2012 - 3:26pm Log in to vote 7 We love the lottery. By some estimates, ticket sales are close to $50 billion per year in the US alone. That means the average American spends over $150 per year on lottery tickets. Earlier this year, when the Mega Millions lottery became the world's largest jackpot of all time, its 1-in-176,000,000 chances of winning were slightly worse than the chances of becoming the President of the United States (1 in 150,000,000). No matter how low the odds, the thrill of potentially using a small investment to nab a huge payday is infectious. The record-setting Mega Millions jackpot was already huge at $350 million

218

Innovation Ecosystem Development Initiative  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

U.S. Department of Energy Categorical Exclusion Determination Form Program or Field Office: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy: Innovation Ecosystem Development Initiative Funding Opportunity Number DE-FOA-0000356 Applicant (Legal Name) University of Central Florida Location: Orlando, FL Project Title MegaWatt Ventures Proposed Action or Project Description The University of Central Florida is dedicated to creating innovative programs that accelerate the

219

Strategic Analysis of Railroad Rate, Cost, and Service Prospects: Conflict or Cooperation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The railroad industry has consolidated into a handful of recently merged mega-carriers, facing mountains of debt, intense pressure to improve financial returns, and wary shippers stung by episodes of poor service. Power generators, too, have been consolidating and are operating under heightened cost pressures. How might these conflicting cost, service, and profit pressures play out over the next five years? This study analyzes these factors for representative movements of eastern and western coal by all ...

1999-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

220

PARADISE SOLD What are you buying when you buy organic?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, in 1996. In 2004, Whole Foods opened a fifty-eight-thousand- square-foot mega-mart in the new Time Warner would have cost you $2.92 when the company opened on Nasdaq, in January of 1992, so it has done in the US, with same-store sales rising 17.1 per cent quarter-on-quarter." Having opened in 1978

Shapin, Steven

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "giga mega kilo" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Railroad Consolidation and Market Power: Challenges to a Deregulating Electric Utility Industry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The railroad industry is shrinking into a handful of mega-carriers, a development of great importance to the electric utility industry, which depends on railroads for most shipments of coal. As the electric utilities face deregulation, the impact of railroad market power on the delivered price of coal is a critical competitive issue. This report examines the motivations for railroad consolidation and assesses the likely business strategies of the five major coal hauling railroads.

1997-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

222

AMEGIC++ 1.0: A Matrix element generator in C++.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

indispensable. These two problems necessitate the usage of computer programs. Examples are CompHep [4], FeynArts/FeynCalc [5], Grace [6], MADGRAPH [7], and OMega/WHIZARD [8]. The new program AMEGIC++ which will be presented in this publication, proposes a... the direct recursive construction of matrix elements without taking the detour of Feynman amplitudes. These approaches are currently under further investigation and discussion. Nevertheless, we are convinced that in the light of the need for efficient...

Krauss, F; Kuhn, R; Soff, G

223

CX-009705: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

705: Categorical Exclusion Determination 705: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-009705: Categorical Exclusion Determination Lane Substation 500/230-kV Transformer Phase Separation Project CX(s) Applied: B4.6 Date: 12/06/2012 Location(s): Oregon Offices(s): Bonneville Power Administration Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to increase the physical distance that separates each phase of the 500/230-kiloVolt transformer banks at BPA's Lane Substation. The reason for the increased distance is to minimize the effects of a transformer fire or explosion as outlined in the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, Inc. guidelines for substation fire suppression. CX-009705.pdf More Documents & Publications CX-008705: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-009708: Categorical Exclusion Determination

224

Dr. Yuan Ping Lawrence Livermore National Lab  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Creating, diagnosing and Creating, diagnosing and controlling high-energy- density matter with lasers Dr. Yuan Ping Lawrence Livermore National Lab Tuesday, Oct 22, 2013 - 3:00PM MBG AUDITORIUM Refreshments at 2:45PM The PrinceTon Plasma Physics laboraTory is a U.s. DeParTmenT of energy faciliTy Since their invention in 1960's, lasers with power spanning from Kilo- Watt to PetaWatt have been widely used in almost every branch of sci- ence, leading to numerous discoveries and novel techniques. At present, lasers are capable of creating extreme states of matter in a laboratory, at conditions resembling those most extreme in the Universe: they heat matter up to the temperatures inside stars, they create electric field and

225

Data:561a47f4-71ac-4163-acc1-f26728c3bded | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

f4-71ac-4163-acc1-f26728c3bded f4-71ac-4163-acc1-f26728c3bded No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Tell City, Indiana (Utility Company) Effective date: 2009/09/01 End date if known: Rate name: Tariff OPL: Single Phase Off Peak Lighting Sector: Lighting Description: "This rate applies to kilo-watt hours use for Street and Private Dusk to Dawn lighting. The purpose of this rate is for the Tell City Electric Department to bill the Electric Department for the KWH used for off peak lighting." Source or reference: Rates Binder 1, Illinois State University Source Parent:

226

Creating Market Change from the Inside Out: Applying the Collaborative  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

These industrial applications have These industrial applications have been largely overlooked, yet represent a major energy savings opportunity- for industrial electric motor systems alone, USDOE Motor Challenge estimates savings of 9 billion kiloWatt-hours per year by 2010. Because the savings are typically found in system-based instead of component-based solutions, persuasive actions (education, incentives) are usually more effective than directed actions (regulations) in these applications. To be successful and persistent, persuasive actions require lasting behavioral change, which is often difficult to accomplish. This talk focuses on a process model that has emerged from work on industrial motor system efficiency in the Washington DC project office. The model seeks to effect institutional and behavioral change by using government in the role of a

227

STATEMENT OF CONSIDERATIONS REQUEST BY MARTIN MARIETTA CORPORATION (MMC) FORMERLY  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

MARTIN MARIETTA CORPORATION (MMC) FORMERLY MARTIN MARIETTA CORPORATION (MMC) FORMERLY KNOWN AS GENERAL DYNAMICS - SPACE SYSTEMS DIVISION (GD- SSD) FOR AN ADVANCE WAIVER OF DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN PATENT RIGHTS UNDER DOE CONTRACT NO: DE-FC36- 93CH10554; W(A)-94-012; CH-0831 Martin Marietta Corporation (MMC) has recently acquired the Space Systems Division of the General Dynamics Corporation (GD- SSD) which had earlier requested a waiver of domestic and foreign patent rights for all subject inventions under a cooperative agreement for the development of a 1 kilo-Joule current limiter under DOE Contract No. DE-FC36-93CH10554. MMC, by accepting the Advance Waiver Patent Rights and certain amendments to the Data Rights, has indicated that they wish to proceed with the waiver petition. This agreement was awarded under DOE's

228

Microsoft Word - CX-LanePhaseSeparationProjects_FY13_WEB.docx  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

6, 2012 6, 2012 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEP-4 SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Michael Marleau - TEP-TPP-1 Project Manager Proposed Action: Lane Substation 500/230-kV Transformer Phase Separation Project Project Work Order Number: 00298187 Categorical Exclusion Applied (from Subpart D, 10 C.F.R. Part 1021): B4.6 Additions or modifications to electric power transmission facilities Location: Lane Substation, Lane County, Oregon Township 17 South, Range 5 East, Section 36 Proposed by: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Description of the Proposed Action: BPA proposes to increase the physical distance that separates each phase of the 500/230-kiloVolt transformer banks at BPA's Lane Substation. The reason for the increased distance is to minimize the effects of a transformer fire or explosion as

229

Batteries - Materials Engineering Facility: Scale-Up R&D Bridges Gap  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Argonne's Advanced Battery Materials Synthesis and Manufacturing R&D program Argonne's Advanced Battery Materials Synthesis and Manufacturing R&D program Initial discovery amounts of battery materials are small compared to the kilo-scale amounts needed for validation of new battery technologies. Argonne researcher Sabine Gallagher Argonne researcher Sabine Gallagher loads a sample mount of battery cathode materials for X-ray diffraction, an analysis tool for obtaining information on the crystallographic structure and composition of materials. Materials Engineering Research Facility (MERF) Argonne's new Materials Engineering Research Facility (MERF) supports the laboratory's Advanced Battery Materials Synthesis and Manufacturing R&D Program. The MERF is enabling the development of manufacturing processes for producing advanced battery materials in sufficient quantity for

230

CX-002196: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2196: Categorical Exclusion Determination 2196: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-002196: Categorical Exclusion Determination STS-100 Test Stand Experiment CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 05/04/2010 Location(s): Princeton, New Jersey Office(s): Princeton Site Office, Science The proposed action would consist of operation of a 100 kilovolt (kV) test stand, the STS-I00, acquired from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in which advanced plasma sources will be developed and ion-ion plasmas will be studied at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The STS-100 would be used to generate 100 kilo-electron volt ion beams, as well as a general purpose vacuum chamber with excellent diagnostic access. DOCUMENT(S) AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD CX-002196.pdf More Documents & Publications EA-0813: Final Environmental Assessment

231

Acceleration Modules in Linear Induction Accelerators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Linear Induction Accelerator (LIA) is a unique type of accelerator, which is capable to accelerate kiloAmpere charged particle current to tens of MeV energy. The present development of LIA in MHz busting mode and successful application into synchrotron broaden LIAs usage scope. Although transformer model is widely used to explain the acceleration mechanism of LIAs, it is not appropriate to consider the induction electric field as the field which accelerates charged particles for many modern LIAs. Authors examined the transition of the magnetic cores functions during LIA acceleration modules evolution, distinguished transformer type and transmission line type LIA acceleration modules, and reconsidered several related issues based on transmission line type LIA acceleration module. The clarified understanding should be helpful in the further development and design of the LIA acceleration modules.

Wang, Shaoheng

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

A high-dispersion molecular gas component in nearby galaxies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a comprehensive study of the velocity dispersion of the atomic (HI) and molecular (H2) gas components in the disks (R gas) and HERACLES (molecular gas) surveys. To obtain reliable measurements of the velocity dispersion, we stack regions several kilo-parsecs in size, after accounting for intrinsic velocity shifts due to galactic rotation and large-scale motions. We stack using various parameters: the galacto-centric distance, star formation rate surface density, HI surface density, H2 surface density, and total gas surface density. We fit single Gaussian components to the stacked spectra and measure median velocity dispersions for HI of 11.9 +/- 3.1 km/s and for H2 of 12.0 +/- 3.9 km/s. The CO velocity dispersions are thus, surprisingly, very similar to the corresponding ones of HI, with an average ratio of sigma(HI)/sigma(CO) = 1.0 +/- 0.2 i...

Caldu-Primo, Anahi; Walter, Fabian; Leroy, Adam; Sandstrom, Karin; de Blok, W J G; Ianjamasimanana, Roger; Mogotsi, K M

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Simulation of High-Harmonic Fast-Wave Heating on the National Spherical Tokamak Experiment  

SciTech Connect

Images associated with radio-frequency heating of low-confinement mode plasmas in the National Spherical Tokamak Experiment, as calculated by computer simulation, are presented. The AORSA code has been extended to simulate the whole antenna-to-plasma heating system by including both the kinetic physics of the well-confined core plasma and a poorly confined scrape-off plasma and vacuum vessel structure. The images presented show the 3-D electric wave field amplitude for various antenna phasings. Visualization of the simulation results in 3-D makes clear that -30 degrees phasing excites kilo-volt per meter coaxial standing modes in the scrape-off plasma and shows magnetic-field-aligned whispering-gallery type modes localized to the plasma edge.

Green, David L [ORNL; Jaeger, Erwin Frederick [ORNL; Chen, Guangye [ORNL; Berry, Lee A [ORNL; Pugmire, Dave [ORNL; Canik, John [ORNL; Ryan, Philip Michael [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

 

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

International Energy Statistics - Units Close Window Energy Equivalent Conversions Million Btu (British thermal units) Giga (10^9) Joules TOE (Metric Tons of Oil Equivalent) TCE (Metric Tons of Coal Equivalent) Million Btu (British thermal units) 1.00000 0.94782 39.68320 27.77824 Giga (10^9) Joules 1.05506 1.00000 41.86800 29.30760 TOE (Metric Tons of Oil Equivalent) 0.02520 0.02388 1.00000 0.70000 TCE (Metric Tons of Coal Equivalent) 0.03600 0.03412 1.42857 1.00000 Mass Equivalent Conversions Short Tons Kilograms Metric Tons Long Tons Pounds Short Tons 1.00000 0.00110 1.10231 1.12000 0.00050 Kilograms 907.18470 1.00000 1000.00000 1016.04700 0.45359 Metric Tons 0.90718 0.00100 1.00000 1.01605 0.00045 Long Tons 0.89286 0.00098 0.98421 1.00000

235

TERAPIXEL IMAGING OF COSMOLOGICAL SIMULATIONS  

SciTech Connect

The increasing size of cosmological simulations has led to the need for new visualization techniques. We focus on smoothed particle hydrodynamic (SPH) simulations run with the GADGET code and describe methods for visually accessing the entire simulation at full resolution. The simulation snapshots are rastered and processed on supercomputers into images that are ready to be accessed through a Web interface (GigaPan). This allows any scientist with a Web browser to interactively explore simulation data sets in both spatial and temporal dimensions and data sets which in their native format can be hundreds of terabytes in size or more. We present two examples, the first a static terapixel image of the MassiveBlack simulation, a P-GADGET SPH simulation with 65 billion particles, and the second an interactively zoomable animation of a different simulation with more than 1000 frames, each a gigapixel in size. Both are available for public access through the GigaPan Web interface. We also make our imaging software publicly available.

Feng Yu; Croft, Rupert A. C.; Di Matteo, Tiziana; Khandai, Nishikanta [Bruce and Astrid McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Sargent, Randy; Nourbakhsh, Illah; Dille, Paul; Bartley, Chris [Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Springel, Volker [Heidelberger Institut fuer Theoretische Studien, Schloss-Wolfsbrunnenweg 35, 69118 Heidelberg (Germany); Jana, Anirban [Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Gardner, Jeffrey, E-mail: yfeng1@andrew.cmu.edu [Physics Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Polyamide 66 as a Cryogenic Dielectric  

SciTech Connect

Improvements in superconductor and cryogenic technologies enable novel power apparatus, \\eg, cables, transformers, fault current limiters, generators, \\etc, with better device characteristics than their conventional counterparts. In these applications electrical insulation materials play an important role in system weight, footprint (size), and voltage level. The trend in the electrical insulation material selection has been to adapt or to employ conventional insulation materials to these new systems. However, at low temperatures, thermal contraction and loss of mechanical strength in many materials make them unsuitable for superconducting power applications. In this paper, a widely used commercial material was characterized as a potential cryogenic dielectric. The material is used in ``oven bag'' a heat-resistant polyamide (nylon) used in cooking (produced by Reynolds\\textregistered, Richmond, VA, USA). It is first characterized by Fourier transform infrared and x-ray diffraction techniques and determined to be composed of polyamide 66 (PA66) polymer. Secondly the complex dielectric permittivity and dielectric breakdown strength of the PA66 films are investigated. The dielectric data are then compared with data reported in the literature. A comparison of dielectric strength with a widely used high-temperature superconductor electrical insulation material, polypropylene-laminated paper (PPLP\\texttrademark\\ a product of Sumitomo Electric Industries, Japan), is provided. It is observed that the statistical analysis of the PA66 films yields 1\\% failure probability at $127\\ \\kilo\\volt\\milli\\meter^{-1}$; this value is approximately $46\\ \\kilo\\volt\\milli\\meter^{-1}$ higher than PPLP\\texttrademark. It is concluded that PA66 may be a good candidate for cryogenic applications. Finally, a summary of dielectric properties of some of the commercial tape insulation materials and various polymers is also provided.

Tuncer, Enis [ORNL; Polyzos, Georgios [ORNL; Sauers, Isidor [ORNL; James, David Randy [ORNL; Ellis, Alvin R [ORNL; Messman, Jamie M [ORNL; Aytug, Tolga [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Recent News from the National Labs | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

December 16, 2013 December 16, 2013 Arapaima gigas is an air-breathing fresh water fish in the Amazon Basin that swims with impunity through piranha-infested waters. | Photo courtesy of Jeff Kubina, National Geographic. Energetic Science and Piranha-Proof Armor Learn how Berkeley Lab's Advanced Light Source is revealing the unique structure of incredible, adaptable fish armor. December 13, 2013 Los Alamos National Laboratory scientist Roger Wiens removes the laser safety plug on the ChemCam Mast Unit, selected for the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity. Wiens removes the plug (left), while scientist Bruce Barraclough sits at the command console (right). | Photo courtesy of LeRoy Sanchez, Los Alamos National Laboratory. Top 10 Things You Didn't Know About Los Alamos National Laboratory

238

30 GHz flux density measurements of the Caltech-Jodrell flat-spectrum sources with OCRA-p  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To measure the 30-GHz flux densities of the 293 sources in the Caltech-Jodrell Bank flat-spectrum (CJF) sample. The measurements are part of an ongoing programme to measure the spectral energy distributions of flat spectrum radio sources and to correlate them with the milliarcsecond structures from VLBI and other measured astrophysical properties. The 30-GHz data were obtained with a twin-beam differencing radiometer system mounted on the Torun 32-m telescope. The system has an angular resolution of 1.2 arcmin. Together with radio spectral data obtained from the literature, the 30-GHz data have enabled us to identify 42 of the CJF sources as Giga-hertz Peaked Spectrum (GPS) sources. Seventeen percent of the sources have rising spectra (alpha > 0) between 5 and 30 GHz.

S. R. Lowe; M. P. Gawro?ski; P. N. Wilkinson; A. J. Kus; I. W. A. Browne; E. Pazderski; R. Feiler; D. Kettle

2007-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

239

30 GHz flux density measurements of the Caltech-Jodrell flat-spectrum sources with OCRA-p  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To measure the 30-GHz flux densities of the 293 sources in the Caltech-Jodrell Bank flat-spectrum (CJF) sample. The measurements are part of an ongoing programme to measure the spectral energy distributions of flat spectrum radio sources and to correlate them with the milliarcsecond structures from VLBI and other measured astrophysical properties. The 30-GHz data were obtained with a twin-beam differencing radiometer system mounted on the Torun 32-m telescope. The system has an angular resolution of 1.2 arcmin. Together with radio spectral data obtained from the literature, the 30-GHz data have enabled us to identify 42 of the CJF sources as Giga-hertz Peaked Spectrum (GPS) sources. Seventeen percent of the sources have rising spectra (alpha > 0) between 5 and 30 GHz.

Lowe, S R; Wilkinson, P N; Kus, A J; Browne, I W A; Pazderski, E; Feiler, R; Kettle, D

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Scientists examine proton radiography of brain mockup  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Proton Radiography Of Brain Mockup Proton Radiography Of Brain Mockup Scientists examine proton radiography of brain mockup The use of such a high-energy proton beam is ideal for imaging small tumors within patients for targeted proton therapy. March 25, 2013 Proton radiograph of a high-fidelity mockup of a human head Proton radiograph of a high-fidelity mockup of a human head. Proton radiography, which was invented at Los Alamos, employs a high-energy proton beam to image the properties and behavior of materials. Los Alamos researchers and German collaborators have investigated the application of giga-electron volt (GeV, or billion electron volts) energy proton beams for medical imaging in combination with proton radiation treatment for cancer. The use of such a high-energy proton beam is ideal

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241

Sequoia tops Graph 500 list of 'big data' supercomputers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ATL062113_graph ATL062113_graph 06/21/2013 The Livermore Lab's Sequoia supercomputer topped the biannual Graph 500 list of the world's fastest systems for "big data" this week. The Graph 500 benchmark measures the speed with which a supercomputer can "connect the dots" within a massive set of data. Sequoia traversed 15,363 connections per second. Sequoia tops Graph 500 list of 'big data' supercomputers Donald B Johnston, LLNL, (925) 423-4902, johnston19@llnl.gov LLNL's 20 petaflops Sequoia supercomputer has retained its No. 1 ranking on the Graph 500 list, a measure of a system's ability to conduct analytic calculations -- finding the proverbial needle in the haystack. An IBM Blue Gene Q system, Sequoia was able to traverse 15,363 giga edges per second on a scale of 40 graph (a graph with 2^40 vertices). The new

242

Sequoia retains top ranking on Graph 500 for third year running  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

12113_sequoia 12113_sequoia 11/21/2013 High Resolution Image Lawrence Livermore's Sequoia supercomputer again retained its No. 1 ranking on the Graph 500 list. Sequoia retains top ranking on Graph 500 for third year running Donald B Johnston, LLNL, (925) 423-4902, johnston19@llnl.gov High Resolution Image From left: LLNL's Adam Bertsch, Dona Crawford and Scott Futral with the certificate for No. 1 on the Graph 500 in the SC13 DOE booth. LLNL's 20 petaflops Sequoia supercomputer again retained its No. 1 ranking on the Graph 500 list, a measure of a system's ability to conduct analytic calculations -- finding the proverbial needle in the haystack. An IBM Blue Gene Q system, Sequoia was able to traverse 15,363 giga edges per second on a scale of 40 graph (a graph with 2^40 vertices). The new

243

CX-002672: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2672: Categorical Exclusion Determination 2672: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-002672: Categorical Exclusion Determination Drell-Yan SeaQuest Project CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 05/19/2010 Location(s): Illinois Office(s): Fermi Site Office, Science The Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) Experiment (E906) is part of a series of fixed target Drell-Yan experiments designed with the purpose of measuring the quark and antiquark structure of the nucleon and the modifications to that structure which occur when the nucleon is embedded in a nucleus. Fermilab proposes to build and operate a spectrometer in the New Muon 4 (NM4) Hall and renovate the 120 giga-electron volt (GeV) beam line from enclosure B to NM4. The 120 GeV beam is necessary for the experiment and Fermilab is uniquely capable of

244

CX-001226: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

6: Categorical Exclusion Determination 6: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-001226: Categorical Exclusion Determination End Station Test Beam CX(s) Applied: B3.10 Date: 03/13/2010 Location(s): California Office(s): Science, Stanford Linear Accelerator Site Office The End Station Test Beam (ESTB) is a new experimental facility that will use 5 hertz (Hz) of the 120 Hz 13.6-giga electron-volt electron beam from the existing Linac Coherent Light Source to restore test beam capabilities in End Station A (ESA), an existing building at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). ESTB beams will provide electrons and pions over a broad range of momenta and intensities, suitable for particle physics and astrophysics detector development and calibration activities in ESA. The ESTB project is a modification of an existing experimental facility located

245

CX-002675: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

75: Categorical Exclusion Determination 75: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-002675: Categorical Exclusion Determination Main Injector Neutrino Experiment v-A Test (MINERvA) Beam Detector Calibration Experiment CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 05/27/2010 Location(s): Illinois Office(s): Fermi Site Office, Science The proposed Main Injector Neutrino ExperRiment v-A (MINERvA) is to make detailed neutrino nucleus cross section measurements over a range of energies (one to tens of giga-electron volts) and target nuclei (helium, hydrocarbon, carbon, iron, lead). A MINERvA Test Beam Detector would be constructed and receive a test beam at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) Test Beam Facility. The detector would be approximately 1.1 meters square and roughly two meters long and the frame

246

Scientists examine proton radiography of brain mockup  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Proton Radiography Of Brain Mockup Proton Radiography Of Brain Mockup Scientists examine proton radiography of brain mockup The use of such a high-energy proton beam is ideal for imaging small tumors within patients for targeted proton therapy. March 25, 2013 Proton radiograph of a high-fidelity mockup of a human head Proton radiograph of a high-fidelity mockup of a human head. Proton radiography, which was invented at Los Alamos, employs a high-energy proton beam to image the properties and behavior of materials. Los Alamos researchers and German collaborators have investigated the application of giga-electron volt (GeV, or billion electron volts) energy proton beams for medical imaging in combination with proton radiation treatment for cancer. The use of such a high-energy proton beam is ideal

247

 

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey - Final Results WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey - Final Results Tamara Davis (Queensland) Abstract: Observations are now complete for the WiggleZ dark energy survey and we have mapped the positions of 219,682 bright blue galaxies out to a redshift of about z=1, over a cubic giga-parsec of space. I will present the full complement of cosmological results coming out of this data set. With the addition of WiggleZ data, baryon acoustic oscillations are now able to confirm the acceleration of the expansion of the universe, independent of any supernova data, and this has since been further strengthened by the addition of Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) data. Arguably the most exciting results are our measurements of the growth of structure out to z~0.8, and measurements of the Alcock-Paczynski

248

Fermilab Today  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5, 2010 5, 2010 Subscribe | Contact Us | Archive | Classifieds | Guidelines | Help Search GO Calendar Have a safe day! Monday, Jan. 25 THERE WILL BE NO ASTROPHYSICS SEMINAR TODAY 3:30 p.m. DIRECTOR'S COFFEE BREAK - 2nd Flr X-Over 4 p.m. All Experimenters' Meeting - Curia II Special Topics: TD Designs for mu2e Solenoid Magnets; CDF GigaFitter Operational; MINERvA: Antineutrino Run and Neutrino Analysis Tuesday, Jan. 26 11 a.m. Computing Techniques Seminar - FCC2A/2B Speaker: Jack Lange, Northwestern University Title: Architecting a Symbiotic Virtual Machine Monitor for Scalable High Performance Computing 2:30 p.m. Particle Astrophysics Seminar - One West Speaker: Amanda Weltman, University of Cape Town Title: Dark Energy - And Where To Find It 3:30 p.m.

249

1  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

examine proton radiography examine proton radiography of brain mockup March 25, 2013 Los Alamos researchers and German collaborators have investigated the application of giga-electron volt (GeV, or billion electron volts) energy proton beams for medical imaging in combination with proton radiation treatment for cancer. The use of such a high-energy proton beam is ideal for imaging small tumors within patients for targeted proton therapy. Proton radiography, which was invented at Los Alamos, employs a high- energy proton beam to image the properties and behavior of materials. Significance of the research Proton beams for cancer treatment use the dramatic increase in energy deposition as the proton stops in tissue to kill the tumors. The incident proton beam must have relatively low energy (approximately 200 MeV) to stop within the human body. However,

250

A digital ASIC implementation of a video filter for synthetic aperture radar  

SciTech Connect

Two GaAs ASICs have been designed and implemented for a synthetic aperture radar which eliminate the dc bias in the sampled video data and increase the signal to noise ratio by summing the data across consecutive bursts. The High Pass Filter and Presummer ASICs process data at a maximum sample rate of 170 MHz and 125 MHz respectively. The chips are fully ECL and TTL compatible. The high pass filter is packaged in GigaBit's standard 132-pin ceramic package, while the presummer is packaged in TriQuint's standard 196-pin ceramic package. The presummer has been successfully tested in a prototype synthetic aperture radar at Sandia National Laboratories. The high pass filter has been successfully tested in a high speed test fixture. These ASICs provide flexibility and low power consumption at data rates previously unattainable with comparable hardware. 1 refs., 4 figs.

Remund, B.L. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Chow, J.; Salinas, J. (GigaBit Logic, Newbury Park, CA (United States))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Designing a Multi-Petabyte Database for LSST  

SciTech Connect

The 3.2 giga-pixel LSST camera will produce approximately half a petabyte of archive images every month. These data need to be reduced in under a minute to produce real-time transient alerts, and then added to the cumulative catalog for further analysis. The catalog is expected to grow about three hundred terabytes per year. The data volume, the real-time transient alerting requirements of the LSST, and its spatio-temporal aspects require innovative techniques to build an efficient data access system at reasonable cost. As currently envisioned, the system will rely on a database for catalogs and metadata. Several database systems are being evaluated to understand how they perform at these data rates, data volumes, and access patterns. This paper describes the LSST requirements, the challenges they impose, the data access philosophy, results to date from evaluating available database technologies against LSST requirements, and the proposed database architecture to meet the data challenges.

Becla, Jacek; Hanushevsky, Andrew; Nikolaev, Sergei; Abdulla, Ghaleb; Szalay, Alex; Nieto-Santisteban, Maria; Thakar, Ani; Gray, Jim; /SLAC

2007-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

252

Electron acceleration by a tightly focused Hermite-Gaussian beam: higher-order corrections  

SciTech Connect

Taking the TEM{sub 1,0}-mode Hermite-Gaussian (H-G) beam as a numerical calculation example, and based on the method of the perturbation series expansion, the higher-order field corrections of H-G beams are derived and used to study the electron acceleration by a tightly focused H-G beam in vacuum. For the case of the off-axis injection the field corrections to the terms of order f{sup 3} (f=1/kw{sub 0}, k and w{sub 0} being the wavenumber and waist width, respectively) are considered, and for the case of the on-axis injection the contributions of the terms of higher orders are negligible. By a suitable optimization of injection parameters the energy gain in the giga-electron-volt regime can be achieved.

Zhao Zhiguo [Department of Physics, Luoyang Normal College, Luoyang 471022 (China); Institute of Laser Physics and Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Yang Dangxiao; Lue Baida [Institute of Laser Physics and Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

253

Formation of electrostatic structures by wakefield acceleration in ultrarelativistic plasma flows: Electron acceleration to cosmic ray energies  

SciTech Connect

The ever increasing performance of supercomputers is now enabling kinetic simulations of extreme astrophysical and laser produced plasmas. Three-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of relativistic shocks have revealed highly filamented spatial structures and their ability to accelerate particles to ultrarelativistic speeds. However, these PIC simulations have not yet revealed mechanisms that could produce particles with tera-electron volt energies and beyond. In this work, PIC simulations in one dimension (1D) of the foreshock region of an internal shock in a gamma ray burst are performed to address this issue. The large spatiotemporal range accessible to a 1D simulation enables the self-consistent evolution of proton phase space structures that can accelerate particles to giga-electron volt energies in the jet frame of reference, and to tens of tera-electron volt in the Earth's frame of reference. One potential source of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays may thus be the thermalization of relativistically moving plasma.

Dieckmann, M.E.; Shukla, P.K.; Eliasson, B. [Institute of Theoretical Physics IV, Ruhr-University Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

254

Influence of radiation damage on ruby as a pressure gauge  

SciTech Connect

This study tackles the question if ruby crystals, irradiated with energetic heavy ions, can still be used as reliable pressure sensors. The problem is linked to novel irradiation experiments, exposing pressurized samples to swift heavy-ion beams. In order to test and quantify a possible influence of radiation damage on the laser-induced fluorescence lines of ruby (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Cr{sup 3+}), small crystals were exposed to different heavy ions (Xe, Au, and U) with kinetic energies of several giga-electron volt at ambient as well as high-pressure conditions. With increasing fluence (ions/cm{sup 2}), the R{sub 1} and R{sub 2} lines shift both to lower wavelengths which leads to an underestimation of the pressure. An empirical correction term {epsilon} is proposed to include the irradiation damage effect into the commonly employed ruby calibration scale.

Schuster, B. [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Hochschulstrasse 6, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Weikusat, C.; Miletich, R. [Universitaet Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 234-236, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Trautmann, C.; Neumann, R. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Fujara, F. [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Hochschulstrasse 6, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

A New Quadruple Gravitational Lens System: CLASS B0128+437  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High resolution MERLIN observations of a newly-discovered four-image gravitational lens system, B0128+437, are presented. The system was found after a careful re-analysis of the entire CLASS dataset. The MERLIN observations resolve four components in a characteristic quadruple-image configuration; the maximum image separation is 542 mas and the total flux density is 48 mJy at 5 GHz. A best-fit lens model with a singular isothermal ellipsoid results in large errors in the image positions. A significantly improved fit is obtained after the addition of a shear component, suggesting that the lensing system is more complex and may consist of multiple deflectors. The integrated radio spectrum of the background source indicates that it is a GigaHertz-Peaked Spectrum (GPS) source. It may therefore be possible to resolve structure within the radio images with deep VLBI observations and thus better constrain the lensing mass distribution.

P. M. Phillips; M. A. Norbury; L. V. E. Koopmans; I. W. A. Browne; N. J. Jackson; P. N. Wilkinson; A. D. Biggs; R. D. Blandford; A. G. de Bruyn; C. D. Fassnacht; P. Helbig; S. Mao; D. R. Marlow; S. T. Myers; T. J. Pearson; A. C. S. Readhead; D. Rusin; E. Xanthopoulos

2000-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

256

Vessel Design and Fabrication Technology for Stationary High-Pressure Hydrogen Storage - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

7 7 FY 2012 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Zhili Feng (Primary Contact), Wei Zhang, John Wang and Fei Ren Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) 1 Bethel Valley Rd, PO Box 2008, MS 6095 Oak Ridge, TN 37831 Phone: (865) 576-3797 Email: fengz@ornl.gov DOE Manager HQ: Sara Dillich Phone: (202) 586-7925 Email: Sara.Dillich@ee.doe.gov Subcontractors: * Global Engineering and Technology LLC, Camas, WA * Ben C. Gerwick Inc., Oakland, CA * MegaStir Technologies LLC, Provo, UT * University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI Project Start Date: October 1, 2010 Project End Date: Project continuation and direction

257

Theoretical and Experimental Studies of Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor Instabilities  

SciTech Connect

Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability (MRT) is important to magnetized target fusion, wire-array z-pinches, and equation-of-state studies using flyer plates or isentropic compression. It is also important to the study of the crab nebula. The investigators performed MRT experiments on thin foils, driven by the mega-ampere linear transformer driver (LTD) facility completed in their laboratory. This is the first 1-MA LTD in the USA. Initial experiments on the seeding of MRT were performed. Also completed was an analytic study of MRT for a finite plasma slab with arbitrary magnetic fields tangential to the interfaces. The effects of magnetic shear and feedthrough were analyzed.

Lau, Yue Ying [University of Michigan] [University of Michigan; Gilgenbach, Ronald [University of Michigan] [University of Michigan

2013-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

258

Solar America Initiative  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Amonix, Inc. Amonix, Inc. Low Cost High Concentration PV Systems for Utility Power Generation Project Description: The principal objective of the project is to transition Amonix's concentrating photovoltaic (PV) systems from low-volume to high-volume production. Significance: Utility scale mainstream power generation will be achieved using concentrating MegaModules. Amonix will take advantage of high-volume production (previously non-existent in the concentrating PV sector) to significantly reduce costs associated with the current low-volume concentrating PV market. Location: Leadership of the project will be based out of Torrance California. The following Amonix team members will perform additional work in the following states: New Jersey - CYRO

259

Slide 1  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CO 2 Site Characterization Mega Transect Tip Meckel & Ramon Trevino + Geology & Geophysics: Carr, Ditkof, Nicholson, Miller, Wallace Geochemistry: Romanak, Lu, Yang, Zhang BEG Associate Director: Michael H. Young Texas Bureau of Economic Geology Gulf Coast Carbon Center Jackson School of Geosciences The University of Texas at Austin In collaboration with: LANL, EDF, Sandia Tech. Importance Foundational study in an optimal area A. Unambiguous Pore Space Ownership. B. Reduced risks from existing wells and to USDW. C. Favorable Geologic Storage 1. Gulf of Mexico Basin is one of most studied basins globally and is adjacent to numerous anthropogenic CO 2 point sources. 2. Extremely thick, stacked sandstone reservoirs with outstanding capacity for CO

260

High speed, low power 100 MS/s front end track-and-hold amplifier for ten-bit pipelined ADC  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The work focuses on the design of a high speed, low power track-and-hold amplifier (THA) for ten-bit 100 MS/s pipelined analogue-to-digital converter (ADC). A wide bandwidth and high gain two-stage ... Keywords: #, 47, CMFB, HPSA, MDAC, MHz, MS&, amplifier design, common-mode feedback, digital to analogue converters, high-performance systems architecture, hold amplifiers, mega samples per second, megahertz, multiplying DAC, nanometres, nm, operational transconductance amplifiers, peak, peak-to-, s, switched capacitors, track-and-

D. Meganathan; Raja Paul Perinbam; R. Deepalakshmi

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "giga mega kilo" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Quantization of Atomic and Nuclear Rest Masses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We were able to quantize phenomenologically the first time the atomic and nuclear rest masses. Note that this quantization rule is justified for atoms and nuclei with different A, N and Z and the nuclei and atoms represent a coherent synchronized systems - a complex of coupled oscillators (resonators). The cooperative resonance synchronization mechanisms are responsible for explanation of how the electron volt world can influence the nuclear mega electron volt world. It means that we created new possibilities for inducing and controlling nuclear reactions by atomic processes.

F. A. Gareev; G. F. Gareeva; I. E. Zhidkova

2007-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

262

Experimental demonstration of high quality MeV ultrafast electron diffraction  

SciTech Connect

The simulation optimization and an experimental demonstration of improved performances of mega-electron-volt ultrafast electron diffraction (MeV UED) are reported in this paper. Using ultrashort high quality electron pulses from an S-band photocathode rf gun and a polycrystalline aluminum foil as the sample, we experimentally demonstrated an improved spatial resolution of MeV UED, in which the Debye-Scherrer rings of the (111) and (200) planes were clearly resolved. This result showed that MeV UED is capable to achieve an atomic level spatial resolution and a -100 fs temporal resolution simultaneously, and will be a unique tool for ultrafast structural dynamics studies.

Li, R.; Tang, C., Du, Y., Huang, W., Du, Q., Shi, J., Yan, L., Wang, X.

2009-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

263

Equation-of-State Measurement of Dense Plasmas Heated With Fast Protons  

SciTech Connect

Using an ultrafast pulse of mega-electron-volt energy protons accelerated from a laser-irradiated foil, we have heated solid density aluminum plasmas to temperatures in excess of 15 eV. By measuring the temperature and the expansion rate of the heated Al plasma simultaneously and with picosecond time resolution we have found the predictions of the SESAME Livermore equation-of-state (LEOS) tables to be accurate to within 18%, in this dense plasma regime, where there have been few previous experimental measurements.

Dyer, G. M.; Bernstein, A. C.; Cho, B. I.; Osterholz, J.; Grigsby, W.; Dalton, A.; Ditmire, T. [Texas Center for High Intensity Laser Science, Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Shepherd, R.; Ping, Y.; Chen, H.; Widmann, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

2008-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

264

Using Bayesian Analysis and Gaussian Processes to Infer Electron Temperature and Density Profiles on the MAST Experiment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A unified, Bayesian inference of midplane electron temperature and density profiles using both Thompson scattering (TS) and interferometric data is presented. Beyond the Bayesian nature of the analysis, novel features of the inference are the use of a Gaussian process prior to infer a mollification length-scale of inferred profiles and the use of Gauss-Laguerre quadratures to directly calculate the depolarisation term associated with the TS forward model. Results are presented from an application of the method to data from the high resolution TS system on the Mega-Ampere Spherical Tokamak, along with a comparison to profiles coming from the standard analysis carried out on that system.

von Nessi, G T

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

SOLVING THE STAND-OFF PROBLEM FOR MAGNETIZED TARGET FUSION: PLASMA STREAMS AS DISPOSABLE ELECTRODES, PLUS A LOCAL SPHERICAL BLANKET  

SciTech Connect

In a fusion reactor based on the Magnetized Target Fusion approach, the permanent power supply has to deliver currents up to a few mega-amperes to the target dropped into the reaction chamber. All the structures situated around the target will be destroyed after every pulse and have to be replaced at a frequency of 1 to 10 Hz. In this paper, an approach based on the use of spherical blanket surrounding the target, and pulsed plasma electrodes connecting the target to the power supply, is discussed. A brief physic analysis of the processes associated with creation of plasma electrodes is discussed.

Ryutov, D D; Thio, Y F

2006-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

266

Protease activated receptors 1 and 4 sensitize TRPV1 in nociceptive neurones  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

/streptomycin solution and 1% L-gluta- mine, GIBCO), 10 ?M cytosine arabinoside (Sigma) and, where appropriate, 50 ng/ml nerve growth factor (Pro- mega) or 100 ng/ml neurturin or GDNF (Peprotech). Neu- rones were plated onto glass coverslips (BDH, UK), coated with 10 ?g... Superfrost/Plus slides (BDH, UK). Sections were dewaxed in xylene, incubated in 0.3% hydrogen peroxide in methanol to quench endo- genous peroxidase activity and hydrated through an ethanol series. Sections were then blocked in 5% normal goat serum in 0.01 M...

Vellani, Vittorio; Kinsey, Anna M; Prandini, Massimiliano; Hechtfischer, Sabine C; Reeh, Peter; Magherini, Pier C; Giacomoni, Chiara; McNaughton, Peter A

2010-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

267

Systematic measurements of whole-body imaging dose distributions in image-guided radiation therapy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: The full benefit of the increased precision of contemporary treatment techniques can only be exploited if the accuracy of the patient positioning is guaranteed. Therefore, more and more imaging modalities are used in the process of the patient setup in clinical routine of radiation therapy. The improved accuracy in patient positioning, however, results in additional dose contributions to the integral patient dose. To quantify this, absorbed dose measurements from typical imaging procedures involved in an image-guided radiation therapy treatment were measured in an anthropomorphic phantom for a complete course of treatment. The experimental setup, including the measurement positions in the phantom, was exactly the same as in a preceding study of radiotherapy stray dose measurements. This allows a direct combination of imaging dose distributions with the therapy dose distribution. Methods: Individually calibrated thermoluminescent dosimeters were used to measure absorbed dose in an anthropomorphic phantom at 184 locations. The dose distributions from imaging devices used with treatment machines from the manufacturers Accuray, Elekta, Siemens, and Varian and from computed tomography scanners from GE Healthcare were determined and the resulting effective dose was calculated. The list of investigated imaging techniques consisted of cone beam computed tomography (kilo- and megavoltage), megavoltage fan beam computed tomography, kilo- and megavoltage planar imaging, planning computed tomography with and without gating methods and planar scout views. Results: A conventional 3D planning CT resulted in an effective dose additional to the treatment stray dose of less than 1 mSv outside of the treated volume, whereas a 4D planning CT resulted in a 10 times larger dose. For a daily setup of the patient with two planar kilovoltage images or with a fan beam CT at the TomoTherapy unit, an additional effective dose outside of the treated volume of less than 0.4 mSv and 1.4 mSv was measured, respectively. Using kilovoltage or megavoltage radiation to obtain cone beam computed tomography scans led to an additional dose of 8-46 mSv. For treatment verification images performed once per week using double exposure technique, an additional effective dose of up to 18 mSv was measured. Conclusions: Daily setup imaging using kilovoltage planar images or TomoTherapy megavoltage fan beam CT imaging can be used as a standard procedure in clinical routine. Daily kilovoltage and megavoltage cone beam computed tomography setup imaging should be applied on an individual or indication based protocol. Depending on the imaging scheme applied, image-guided radiation therapy can be administered without increasing the dose outside of the treated volume compared to therapies without image guidance.

Haelg, Roger A.; Besserer, Juergen; Schneider, Uwe [Radiotherapie Hirslanden AG, Institute for Radiotherapy, Aarau 5000 (Switzerland); Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Zurich 8057 (Switzerland) and Radiotherapie Hirslanden AG, Institute for Radiotherapy, Aarau 5000 (Switzerland)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

268

Ferroelectric opening switches for large-scale pulsed power drivers.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fast electrical energy storage or Voltage-Driven Technology (VDT) has dominated fast, high-voltage pulsed power systems for the past six decades. Fast magnetic energy storage or Current-Driven Technology (CDT) is characterized by 10,000 X higher energy density than VDT and has a great number of other substantial advantages, but it has all but been neglected for all of these decades. The uniform explanation for neglect of CDT technology is invariably that the industry has never been able to make an effective opening switch, which is essential for the use of CDT. Most approaches to opening switches have involved plasma of one sort or another. On a large scale, gaseous plasmas have been used as a conductor to bridge the switch electrodes that provides an opening function when the current wave front propagates through to the output end of the plasma and fully magnetizes the plasma - this is called a Plasma Opening Switch (POS). Opening can be triggered in a POS using a magnetic field to push the plasma out of the A-K gap - this is called a Magnetically Controlled Plasma Opening Switch (MCPOS). On a small scale, depletion of electron plasmas in semiconductor devices is used to affect opening switch behavior, but these devices are relatively low voltage and low current compared to the hundreds of kilo-volts and tens of kilo-amperes of interest to pulsed power. This work is an investigation into an entirely new approach to opening switch technology that utilizes new materials in new ways. The new materials are Ferroelectrics and using them as an opening switch is a stark contrast to their traditional applications in optics and transducer applications. Emphasis is on use of high performance ferroelectrics with the objective of developing an opening switch that would be suitable for large scale pulsed power applications. Over the course of exploring this new ground, we have discovered new behaviors and properties of these materials that were here to fore unknown. Some of these unexpected discoveries have lead to new research directions to address challenges.

Brennecka, Geoffrey L.; Rudys, Joseph Matthew; Reed, Kim Warren; Pena, Gary Edward; Tuttle, Bruce Andrew; Glover, Steven Frank

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Obligate Biotrophy Features Unraveled by the Genomic Analysis of the Rust Fungi, Melampsora larici-populina and Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici  

SciTech Connect

Rust fungi are some of the most devastating pathogens of crop plants. They are obligate biotrophs, which extract nutrients only from living plant tissues and cannot grow apart from their hosts. Their lifestyle has slowed the dissection of molecular mechanisms underlying host invasion and avoidance or suppression of plant innate immunity. We sequenced the 101 mega base pair genome of Melampsora larici-populina, the causal agent of poplar leaf rust, and the 89 mega base pair genome of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, the causal agent of wheat and barley stem rust. We then compared the 16,841 predicted proteins of M. larici-populina to the 18,241 predicted proteins of P. graminis f. sp tritici. Genomic features related to their obligate biotrophic life-style include expanded lineage-specific gene families, a large repertoire of effector-like small secreted proteins (SSPs), impaired nitrogen and sulfur assimilation pathways, and expanded families of amino-acid, oligopeptide and hexose membrane transporters. The dramatic upregulation of transcripts coding for SSPs, secreted hydrolytic enzymes, and transporters in planta suggests that they play a role in host infection and nutrient acquisition. Some of these genomic hallmarks are mirrored in the genomes of other microbial eukaryotes that have independently evolved to infect plants, indicating convergent adaptation to a biotrophic existence inside plant cells

Duplessis, Sebastien; Cuomo, Christina A.; Lin, Yao-Cheng; Aerts, Andrea; Tisserant, Emilie; Veneault-Fourrey, Claire; Joly, David L.; Hacquard, Stephane; Amselem, Joelle; Cantarel, Brandi; Chiu, Readman; Couthinho, Pedro; Feau, Nicolas; Field, Matthew; Frey, Pascal; Gelhaye, Eric; Goldberg, Jonathan; Grabherr, Manfred; Kodira, Chinnappa; Kohler, Annegret; Kues, Ursula; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Mago, Rohit; Mauceli, Evan; Morin, Emmanuelle; Murat, Claude; Pangilinan, Jasmyn L.; Park, Robert; Pearson, Matthew; Quesneville, Hadi; Rouhier, Nicolas; Sakthikumar, Sharadha; Salamov, Asaf A.; Schmutz, Jeremy; Selles, Benjamin; Shapiro, Harris; Tangay, Philippe; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Peer, Yves Van de; Henrissat, Bernard; Rouze, Pierre; Ellis, Jeffrey G.; Dodds, Peter N.; Schein, Jacqueline E.; Zhong, Shaobin; Hamelin, Richard C.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Szabo, Les J.; Martin1, Francis

2011-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

270

Data:Be67027f-f923-4a18-afc1-fbf56b41265b | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

7027f-f923-4a18-afc1-fbf56b41265b 7027f-f923-4a18-afc1-fbf56b41265b No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Otsego Electric Coop, Inc Effective date: End date if known: Rate name: Single Phase in Excess of 25 kVa Sector: Description: *PPA Charges apply to all rates Your monthly bill may include an item called "PPA" (Purchased Power Adjustment). The PPA charge is the "Fuels Charge" that other utilities pass along as the cost of fuel increases. The wholesale cost for power and energy, as well as the cost for delivering that power and energy over NYSEG's transmission lines, varies from month to month-even from hour to hour. Since this increased cost is not included in OEC's base rate of $.08728 per kilo-watt hour (kWh), we collect those increased costs through the PPA.

271

STATEMENT OF CONSIDERATIONS REQUEST BY OSRAM OPTO SEMICONDUCTORS  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

5 14:37 FR IPL DOE CH 630 252 2779 TO RGCP-HQ P.02/04 5 14:37 FR IPL DOE CH 630 252 2779 TO RGCP-HQ P.02/04 * * STATEMENT OF CONSIDERATIONS REQUEST BY OSRAM OPTO SEMICONDUCTORS FOR AN ADVANCE WAIVER OF DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN INVENTION RIGHTS UNDER DOE CONTRACT NO. DE-FC26-05NT42341, SUBCONTRACT QZ001; W(A)-05-017, CH-1280 The Petitioner, OSRAM Opto Semiconductor (Osram) was awarded a subcontract under this cooperative agreement for the performance of work entitled, "Scaling Up KiloLumen Solid- State Lighting Exceeding 100 LPW via Remote Phosphor." The cooperative agreement was awarded to Light Prescriptions Innovators, LLC (LPI). The purpose of the cooperative agreement is to develop a new white light emitting diode (LED) light source that emits 1000 lumens with an efficacy exceeding 100 lumens per watt (LPW). The new white LED light source will use multiple

272

FY07 LDRD Final Report Precision, Split Beam, Chirped-Pulse, Seed Laser Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The goal of this LDRD ER was to develop a robust and reliable technology to seed high-energy laser systems with chirped pulses that can be amplified to kilo-Joule energies and recompressed to sub-picosecond pulse widths creating extremely high peak powers suitable for petawatt class physics experiments. This LDRD project focused on the development of optical fiber laser technologies compatible with the current long pulse National Ignition Facility (NIF) seed laser. New technologies developed under this project include, high stability mode-locked fiber lasers, fiber based techniques for reduction of compressed pulse pedestals and prepulses, new compact stretchers based on chirped fiber Bragg gratings (CFBGs), new techniques for manipulation of chirped pulses prior to amplification and new high-energy fiber amplifiers. This project was highly successful and met virtually all of its goals. The National Ignition Campaign has found the results of this work to be very helpful. The LDRD developed system is being employed in experiments to engineer the Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC) front end and the fully engineered version of the ARC Front End will employ much of the technology and techniques developed here.

Dawson, J W; Messerly, M J; Phan, H H; Crane, J K; Beach, R J; Siders, C W; Barty, C J

2009-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

273

The eect of fast food restaurants on obesity and weight gain  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate how changes in the supply of fast food restaurants affect weight outcomes of 3 million children and 3 million pregnant women. Among ninth graders, a fast food restaurant within 0.1 miles of a school results in a 5.2 percent increase in obesity rates. Among pregnant women, a fast-food restaurant within 0.5 miles of residence results in a 1.6 percent increase in the probability of gaining over 20 kilos. The implied effects on caloric intake are one order of magnitude larger for children than for mothers, consistent with smaller travel cost for adults. Non-fast food restaurants and future fast-food restaurants are uncorrelated with weight outcomes. (JEL I12, J13, J16, L83) In the public debate over obesity it is often assumed the widespread availability of fast food restaurants is an important determinant of obesity rates. Policy makers in several cities have responded by restricting the availability or content of fast food, or by requiring posting of the caloric content of the meals (Julie Samia Mair, Matthew

Janet Currie; Stefano Dellavigna; Enrico Moretti; Vikram Pathania

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

The Effect of Fast Food Restaurants on Obesity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. We investigate the health consequences of changes in the supply of fast food using the exact geographical location of fast food restaurants. Specifically, we ask how the supply of fast food affects the obesity rates of 3 million school children and the weight gain of over 1 million pregnant women. We find that among 9 th grade children, a fast food restaurant within a tenth of a mile of a school is associated with at least a 5.2 percent increase in obesity rates. There is no discernable effect at.25 miles and at.5 miles. Among pregnant women, models with mother fixed effects indicate that a fast food restaurant within a half mile of her residence results in a 2.5 percent increase in the probability of gaining over 20 kilos. The effect is larger, but less precisely estimated at.1 miles. In contrast, the presence of non-fast food restaurants is uncorrelated with obesity and weight gain. Moreover, proximity to future fast food restaurants is uncorrelated with current obesity and weight gain, conditional on current proximity to fast food. The implied effects of fast-food on caloric intake are at least one order of magnitude smaller for mothers, which suggests that they are less constrained by travel costs than school children. Our results imply that policies restricting access to fast food near schools could

Janet Currie

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

The Sensitivity of SNO+ to $?m_{12}^{2}$ Using Reactor Anti-neutrino Data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Insofar as the detection of anti-neutrinos from nuclear reactors is concerned, the SNO+ detector -- a 1 kilo-tonne liquid scintillator detector that inherits the experimental infrastructure from the recently finished SNO experiment -- is expected to perform just as well as the KamLAND experiment. The most important difference between these experiments is the distribution of nuclear reactors: whereas KamLAND has 9 nuclear reactor sites within 300 km with a flux-averaged baseline of about 180 km, SNO+ has only 1 within 300 km, with an average baseline of $\\approx 750$ km. As a result, the reactor anti-neutrino flux at SNO+ is only about 1/5 that at KamLAND, and the ability of SNO+ to constrain the solar neutrino oscillation parameter is diminished by a factor of about $\\sqrt{1/5} = 1/2.2$ relative to KamLAND. In spite of this, SNO+ has comparable sensitivity to $\\Delta m^{2}_{12}$ as KamLAND because the rate of change of the spectral distortion as a function of this parameter is much greater than for KamLAND. In this report, this advantage is examined quantitatively using a geometric approximation that makes clear how the shape from SNO+ has more statistical power than that from KamLAND. This result then is confirmed by determining the sensitivity to $\\Delta m^{2}_{12}$ using an ensemble experiment technique.

Eugene Guillian

2008-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

276

Generation of Coherent X-Ray Radiation through Modulation Compression  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we propose a scheme to generate tunable coherent X-ray radiation for future light source applications. This scheme uses an energy chirped electron beam, a laser modulator, a laser chirper and two bunch compressors to generate a prebunched kilo-Ampere current electron beam from a few tens Ampere electron beam out of a linac. The initial modulation energy wavelength can be compressed by a factor of 1 + h{sub b}R{sub 56}{sup a} in phase space, where h{sub b} is the energy bunch length chirp introduced by the laser chirper, R{sub 56}{sup a} is the momentum compaction factor of the first bunch compressor. As an illustration, we present an example to generate more than 400 MW, 170 attoseconds pulse, 1 nm coherent X-ray radiation using a 60 A electron beam out of the linac and 200 nm laser seed. Both the final wavelength and the radiation pulse length in the proposed scheme are tunable by adjusting the compression factor and the laser parameters.

Qiang, Ji; /LBL, Berkeley; Wu, Juhao; /SLAC

2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

277

FE Categorical Exclusions | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

4, 2009 4, 2009 CX-000451: Categorical Exclusion Determination The Potential Risks of Freshwater Aquifer Contamination with Geosequestration CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.1, B3.6 Date: 11/24/2009 Location(s): Durham, North Carolina Office(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory November 24, 2009 CX-000450: Categorical Exclusion Determination Gulf of Mexico Miocene Carbon Dioxide Site Characterization Mega Transect CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.1 Date: 11/24/2009 Location(s): Austin, Texas Office(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory November 24, 2009 CX-000449: Categorical Exclusion Determination Geologic Sequestration Training and Research CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.1, B3.6 Date: 11/24/2009 Location(s): Tuscaloosa, Alabama Office(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

278

NETL F 451.1-1/1 Categorical Exclusion (CX) Designation Form  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

OE0000233 OE0000233 City of Painesville OE PMC - EDTD 2011 Ron Staubly 2/1/2010 - 1/31/2014 Painesville, OH The Painesville Municipal Power Vanadium Redox Battery Demonstration Program Project will construct a prefab metal building, and then install and operate a vanadium redox battery electricity storage system at a 32 mega-watt coal fired plant in Painesville, OH - Phase 2&3 of SOPO. 07 06 2011 Digitally signed by Ron Staubly DN: cn=Ron Staubly, o=National Energy Technology Laboratory, ou=DOE-NETL, email=ronald.staubly@netl.doe.gov, c=US Date: 2011.07.06 16:55:24 -04'00' 07 14 2011 Fred E. Pozzuto Digitally signed by Fred E. Pozzuto DN: cn=Fred E. Pozzuto, o=USDOE, ou=NETL-Office of Project Facilitation and Compliance, email=fred.pozzuto@netl.doe.gov, c=US Reason: I am approving this document

279

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

51 - 7560 of 31,917 results. 51 - 7560 of 31,917 results. Article Geek-Up[09.24.10]-- Magical BEANs, Combating Bacteria's Resistance to Antibiotics and the ChemCam's Journey to Mars Magical BEANs that mean mega-sized data storage, a new camera that will detect elements on Mars and new treatments to stop antibiotic resistance. http://energy.gov/articles/geek-up092410-magical-beans-combating-bacterias-resistance-antibiotics-and-chemcams-journey Article 10 Questions for a Signature Scientist: Nathan Baker Find out how he's working to advance the innovative application of data analytics and algorithms to real-world challenges, ranging from smart grids and bioforensics to nuclear non-proliferation and medical treatments. http://energy.gov/articles/10-questions-signature-scientist-nathan-baker

280

Nevada Plant Adds Jobs, Moves America Forward in Solar Production |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Plant Adds Jobs, Moves America Forward in Solar Production Plant Adds Jobs, Moves America Forward in Solar Production Nevada Plant Adds Jobs, Moves America Forward in Solar Production June 23, 2011 - 4:37pm Addthis Lindsey Geisler Lindsey Geisler Public Affairs Specialist, Office of Public Affairs It's always exciting when efforts to move new energy technology forward also lead to new job creation. Earlier today, Secretary Chu was invited to tour the new Amonix solar power system manufacturing plant in North Las Vegas, Nevada. Construction of the facility, which was completed in May, generated 135 construction jobs and more than 300 permanent jobs! The company was able to take advantage of a $5.9 million clean energy manufacturing tax credit to build the $18 million facility. The 214,000 sq. ft. plant manufacturers Amonix MegaModules®, part of the company's

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "giga mega kilo" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

u.s. DEPARThlENT OF ENERGY EERE PROJECT MANAGEMENT CENTER NEPA DETERMINATION  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

MANAGEMENT CENTER MANAGEMENT CENTER NEPA DETERMINATION RlCIPJENT:City of Bakersfield· EECBG PROJECT TITLE: City of Bakersfield 1 mega-watt solar energy facility at wastewater plant 3 Page 1 on STATE: CA Funding Opportunity Announc:trntnt Nurnbfor Procun~mcnt Instrument Number NEPA Control Number em Number EECBGIDE·FOA.QOOOO13 DE-EE0000862 G010337 Based on my nview oftbe inCormation (oDeeming the proposed action, as NEPA Compliance Officer (authorized under DOE Order 451.1A), I have made the (ollowing determination: ex, EA, EIS APPENDlX AND NUMBER: Description: 85.1 Actions to conserve energy, demonstrate potential energy conservation, and promote energy-efficiency thai do not increase the indoor concentrations of potentially harmful substances. These actions may involve financial and technical

282

A Structure-Controlled Model For Hot Spring Exploration In Taiwan By Remote  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Structure-Controlled Model For Hot Spring Exploration In Taiwan By Remote Structure-Controlled Model For Hot Spring Exploration In Taiwan By Remote Sensing Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: A Structure-Controlled Model For Hot Spring Exploration In Taiwan By Remote Sensing Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) Abstract: Hot Spring Law of Taiwan was passed in legislative assembly on 3 June 2003. Hot springs would become one of the most important natural resources for recreation purposes. Both public and private sectors will invest large amount of capital in this area in the near future. The value of remote sensing technology is to give a critical tool for observing the landscape to find out mega-scaled geological structures, which may not be able to be found by conventional approaches. The occurrences of the hot

283

Secretary Chu's Remarks at the Harvard University Commencement - As  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Secretary Chu's Remarks at the Harvard University Commencement - As Secretary Chu's Remarks at the Harvard University Commencement - As Prepared for Delivery Secretary Chu's Remarks at the Harvard University Commencement - As Prepared for Delivery June 4, 2009 - 12:00am Addthis Remarks of US Secretary Steven Chu Harvard Commencement Address Thursday, June 4, 2009 Madame President Faust, members of the Harvard Corporation and the Board of Overseers, faculty, family, friends, and, most importantly, today's graduates, thank you for letting me share this wonderful day with you. I am not sure I can live up to the high standards of Harvard Commencement speakers. Last year, JK Rowling, the billionaire novelist, who started as a classics student, graced this podium. The year before, Bill Gates, the mega-billionaire philanthropist and computer nerd, stood here. Today,

284

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

91 - 4800 of 29,416 results. 91 - 4800 of 29,416 results. Page Categorical Exclusion Determinations: B1.15 B1.15: Support buildingsSiting, construction or modification, and operation of support buildings and support structures (including, but not limited to, trailers and prefabricated and modular... http://energy.gov/nepa/categorical-exclusion-determinations-b115 Download CX-000474: Categorical Exclusion Determination Operation and Maintenance of 3-Mega Electron-Volt Van De Graaf Accelerator CX(s) Applied: B3.10 Date: 12/16/2009 Location(s): Illinois Office(s): Science, Argonne Site Office http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-000474-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-001509: Categorical Exclusion Determination East Campus Parking Structure at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

285

CX-001047: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

047: Categorical Exclusion Determination 047: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-001047: Categorical Exclusion Determination Interconnection of Snohomish County Public Utility District Number 1 Young?s Creek Hydro Small Generation CX(s) Applied: B4.6 Date: 02/18/2010 Location(s): Snohomish County, Washington Office(s): Bonneville Power Administration Snohomish County Public Utility District Number 1 (SNOPUD) has requested interconnection of 7.5 mega watt of hydro generation from the existing Young?s Creek Hydro Project in Monroe, Washington. In order to accommodate this request, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) will integrate the hydro power into BPA?s balancing authority area using existing BPA facilities and infrastructure. SNOPUD will be responsible for providing Young?s Creek Hydro data to BPA?s Dittmer Control Center via an Electric

286

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

41 - 13650 of 26,764 results. 41 - 13650 of 26,764 results. Download CX-010798: Categorical Exclusion Determination Serration Behavior of High Entropy Alloys CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 08/14/2013 Location(s): Tennessee Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-010798-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-010799: Categorical Exclusion Determination Building 4 Lead Paint Abatement & Repainting CX(s) Applied: B2.1, B2.5 Date: 08/13/2013 Location(s): Oregon Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-010799-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-010791: Categorical Exclusion Determination Gulf of Mexico Miocene Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Site Characterization Mega Transect CX(s) Applied: A9, A11

287

SNS/BNL Accelerator Physics Group page  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SNS/BNL Accelerator Systems group SNS/BNL Accelerator Systems group CA-Department Bldg 817 Upton, NY 11973, USA The Spallation Neutron Source project is a collaboration between six national laboratories of the United states to build a MegaWatt neutrons source driven by a proton accelerator. The complex is going to be build in Oak Ridge (Tennessee) and consists of a full energy (1GeV) linac, an accumulator ring and a mercury target with several instruments for neutron scattering. All the information in the project can be found here. At Brookhaven national laboratory we work mainly in the accumulator ring and transfer lines. Our group is part or the Collider Accelerator Division also in charge of RHIC and the AGS complex. If you are looking for information in a particular topic you can contact the persons working on

288

The SECIS instrument on the Lomnicky Peak Observatory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Heating mechanisms of the solar corona will be investigated at the high-altitude solar observatory Lomnicky Peak of the Astronomical Institute of SAS (Slovakia) using its mid-size Lyot coronagraph and post-focal instrument SECIS provided by Astronomical Institute of the University of Wroclaw (Poland). The data will be studied with respect to the energy transport and release responsible for heating the solar corona to temperatures of mega-Kelvins. In particular investigations will be focused on detection of possible high-frequency MHD waves in the solar corona. The scientific background of the project, technical details of the SECIS system modified specially for the Lomnicky Peak coronagraph, and inspection of the test data are described in the paper.

Ambroz, J; Rudawy, P; Rybak, J; Phillips, K J H

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Transient induced MHD oscillations : A tool to probe the solar active regions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solar transients and eruptive phenomena which are ubiquitous in the solar atmosphere, can shed new light to the understanding of the outstanding problems like coronal heating and the solar wind acceleration. Observations in the entire electromagnetic spectrum of such dynamical processes of large and small-scale transient/eruptive events, with highly dynamic magnetic field configuration, and energetic particles, provide crucial information about the plasma processes at mega-Kelvin temperature embedded in a complex magnetic field, and also energy build-up/energy-release processes, taking place in such events. One of the most important phenomenological aspects of solar eruptive phenomena is the induced magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves generated during these energetic processes, which carry a potential signature to probing the solar active regions. In this paper, we briefly review the recent trends of the transient (e.g., flares) induced quasi-periodic oscillations in the solar atmosphere and discuss their implica...

Srivastava, Abhishek K; Dwivedi, B N; Kumar, Pankaj

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Texas | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

November 20, 2009 November 20, 2009 CX-000442: Categorical Exclusion Determination Gulf of Mexico Miocene Carbon Dioxide Site Characterization Mega Transect CX(s) Applied: A9, A11, B3.1 Date: 11/20/2009 Location(s): Austin, Texas Office(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory November 13, 2009 CX-000391: Categorical Exclusion Determination University of Texas - Austin CX(s) Applied: A1, A9 Date: 11/13/2009 Location(s): Austin, Texas Office(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory November 13, 2009 CX-000389: Categorical Exclusion Determination Shell Office Locations Houston CX(s) Applied: A1, A9 Date: 11/13/2009 Location(s): Houston, Texas Office(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory November 13, 2009 CX-000388: Categorical Exclusion Determination

291

BSU Geophysics Field Camp Report 2012 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

BSU Geophysics Field Camp Report 2012 BSU Geophysics Field Camp Report 2012 Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: BSU Geophysics Field Camp Report 2012 Abstract Neal Hot Springs (NHS) is an active geothermal site and home to a new binary power plant built by U.S. Geothermal and funded through the Department of Energy. Power production is scheduled to begin in late 2012 and is proposed to generate 25 mega-watts of power to its customer Idaho Power. The project has also served Boise State University as an ideal location for geophysical exploration and research. Research began in spring of 2011 during BSU's annual geophysics field camp. Students and faculty conducted various geophysical surveys to gain insight into the controlling geological structure of the area. Studies of the site continued into 2012

292

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

51 - 7260 of 28,560 results. 51 - 7260 of 28,560 results. Download CX-010629: Categorical Exclusion Determination Characterization of Sites for Near Miscible Carbon Dioxide Applications to Improve Oil Recovery in Arbuckle Reser CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.1, B3.6 Date: 07/09/2013 Location(s): Kansas Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-010629-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-010790: Categorical Exclusion Determination Gulf of Mexico Miocene Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Site Characterization Mega Transect CX(s) Applied: A9, A11 Date: 08/14/2013 Location(s): Texas Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-010790-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-010791: Categorical Exclusion Determination

293

Secretary Chu's Remarks at the Harvard University Commencement - As  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

at the Harvard University Commencement - As at the Harvard University Commencement - As Prepared for Delivery Secretary Chu's Remarks at the Harvard University Commencement - As Prepared for Delivery June 4, 2009 - 12:00am Addthis Remarks of US Secretary Steven Chu Harvard Commencement Address Thursday, June 4, 2009 Madame President Faust, members of the Harvard Corporation and the Board of Overseers, faculty, family, friends, and, most importantly, today's graduates, thank you for letting me share this wonderful day with you. I am not sure I can live up to the high standards of Harvard Commencement speakers. Last year, JK Rowling, the billionaire novelist, who started as a classics student, graced this podium. The year before, Bill Gates, the mega-billionaire philanthropist and computer nerd, stood here. Today,

294

Control Group Variation in the Janus Studies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Group Variation in the Janus Studies Group Variation in the Janus Studies Benjamin Haley 1 , William Liu 1 , Mary J. Kwasny 2 , Tatjana Paunesku 1 , Gayle Woloschak 1 1. Department of Radiation Oncology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois 60611 2. Department of Preventative Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois 60611 Data from historical radiobiological mega-studies is being migrated online to enable open access to the results of these studies. The availability of these large data sets offers the possibility of merging the results of multiple studies for meta-analysis. However, researchers must overcome several hurdles in order to analyze data from disparate radiobiology studies. Variations in animal treatment, autopsy methods, and nomenclature must be accounted for before developing

295

Slide 1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

A New Americas? A New Americas? 2013 EIA Energy Conference Ivan Sandrea Partner, Global Oil and Gas Emerging Markets June 17-18, JW Marriott, Washington DC A New Americas? Page 2 The New Americas (excluding USA, Canada) Points for Discussion Latin America post Chavez? Can Mexico deliver on reforms? Can state NOCs in Brazil, Venezuela and Mexico deliver on mega projects? Can emergent energy trends, such as rising LNG imports, petroleum product demand growth and deteriorating refining sector, be reversed? What is the supply outlook of the region and future industry structure? A New Americas? Page 3 Oil & gas business risks 2013 Global risks are relevant for the New Americas Cost competitiveness Stakeholder confidence Customer reach Operational agility

296

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

61 - 18570 of 26,764 results. 61 - 18570 of 26,764 results. Download CX-002450: Categorical Exclusion Determination State of Arizona State Energy Program American Recovery and Reinvestment Act EE0000106 - Manufacturers' Energy-Efficiency Grant Assistance (MEGA) Program CX(s) Applied: B5.1 Date: 06/01/2010 Location(s): Arizona Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-002450-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-002454: Categorical Exclusion Determination Brad Foote Gear Works Grant Project CX(s) Applied: B5.1 Date: 06/01/2010 Location(s): Cicero, Illinois Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-002454-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-002765: Categorical Exclusion Determination

297

CX-008170: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

0: Categorical Exclusion Determination 0: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-008170: Categorical Exclusion Determination Proof-of-principle Coherent Electron Cooling (CeC) Experiment CX(s) Applied: B3.10 Date: 03/13/2012 Location(s): New York Offices(s): Brookhaven Site Office The proposed action covers a proof-of-principle Coherent Electron Cooling (CeC) experiment which will be located within the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) tunnel at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Electrons will be accelerated to a maximum energy of 21.8 mega electron volt. The goal of the experiment is to demonstrate longitudinal cooling which is a decrease in energy spread in CeC mode. CX-008170.pdf More Documents & Publications CX-008171: Categorical Exclusion Determination DOE Designated User Facilities

298

Control Group Variation in the Janus Studies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Control Group Variation in the Janus Studies Control Group Variation in the Janus Studies Benjamin Haley Northwestern University Abstract Data from historical radiobiological mega-studies is being migrated online to enable open access to the results of these studies. The availability of these large data sets offers the possibility of merging the results of multiple studies for meta-analysis. However, researchers must overcome several hurdles in order to analyze data from disparate radiobiology studies. Variations in animal treatment, autopsy methods, and nomenclature must be accounted for before developing new conclusions from merged studies. This work focuses on differences in animal treatment between studies in the Janus radiobiology experiments. The Janus Studies data sets include coded necropsy results for more than 40,000 mice divided between 12 studies. We

299

CX-000475: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

5: Categorical Exclusion Determination 5: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-000475: Categorical Exclusion Determination Operation and Maintenance of the Building 211 Linac Accelerator CX(s) Applied: B3.10 Date: 12/16/2009 Location(s): Illinois Office(s): Science, Argonne Site Office This review covers the operation and maintenance of the 20-mega electron-volt (MeV) linac electron accelerator as it is currently authorized. In addition, the review will cover a planed upgrade program to increase the power to 50-MeV. The accelerator will be operated within approved and authorized limits as detailed in the governing Safety Assessment Document, Work Control Permit, Radioactive Work Permit or other applicable documents. DOCUMENT(S) AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD CX-000475.pdf More Documents & Publications

300

Bremen Electric Light & Power Co | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Bremen Electric Light & Power Co Bremen Electric Light & Power Co Jump to: navigation, search Name Bremen Electric Light & Power Co Place Indiana Utility Id 2192 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location RFC NERC RFC Yes ISO MISO Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Commercial: Single Phase Commercial Commercial: Three Phase Commercial Industrial: Single Phase Industrial Industrial: Three Phase Industrial Large Power Industrial Mega Industrial Power Industrial Municipal: Single Phase Commercial Municipal: Three Phase Commercial Residential Residential

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "giga mega kilo" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: American Recovery and Reinvestment  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

9, 2010 9, 2010 CX-004104: Categorical Exclusion Determination State Energy Program Conductor Optimized Rotary Energy Mega-Watt Scale Direct Wind Generator CX(s) Applied: A9, B5.1 Date: 09/29/2010 Location(s): Ronan, Montana Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office September 28, 2010 CX-004168: Categorical Exclusion Determination Modeling Variable Refrigerant Flow Heat Pump and Heat Recovery Equipment in EnergyPlus CX(s) Applied: A1, A9, B2.2, B3.6, B5.1 Date: 09/28/2010 Location(s): Brevard County, Florida Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory September 27, 2010 CX-004077: Categorical Exclusion Determination Replacement of a Relay/Transfer Trip Rack at Redmond Substation and a Transfer Trip Panel at LaPine Substation

302

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: National Energy Technology Laboratory  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

August 14, 2013 August 14, 2013 CX-010791: Categorical Exclusion Determination Gulf of Mexico Miocene Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Site Characterization Mega Transect CX(s) Applied: A9, A11 Date: 08/14/2013 Location(s): Texas Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory August 13, 2013 CX-010799: Categorical Exclusion Determination Building 4 Lead Paint Abatement & Repainting CX(s) Applied: B2.1, B2.5 Date: 08/13/2013 Location(s): Oregon Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory August 13, 2013 CX-010800: Categorical Exclusion Determination Hybrid Membrane/Absorption Process for Post-Combustion Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture CX(s) Applied: A1, A9, A11, B3.6 Date: 08/13/2013 Location(s): Illinois Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory August 12, 2013 CX-010802: Categorical Exclusion Determination

303

Trever Nightingale  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Trever Trever Nightingale Trever Nightingale tnightingale.jpg Trever Christian Nightingale Server Team, Networking, Security and Servers Group, TCNightingale@lbl.gov Phone: (510) 486-7552 , Fax: (510) 486-4316 1 Cyclotron Road Mail Stop 943-256 Berkeley, CA 94720 US Biographical Sketch Trever Nightingale has been doing UNIX administration full time for over 10 years for a very wide variety of organizations, from higher education and scientific research environments, to fortune 50 corporations, to mega volume web startups, to defense. His IT career started at Minnesota Public Radio, where he did (among other things) the live webcast for Garrison Keillor's "Prairie Home Companion," including traveling with the show to stream it from Town Hall in NYC. Most recently Trever worked for over three

304

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

61 - 13870 of 26,764 results. 61 - 13870 of 26,764 results. Download CX-007493: Categorical Exclusion Determination GoM Miocene Carbon Dioxide Site Characterization Mega Transect: High-Resolution 3-dimensional Seismic Acquisition Survey CX(s) Applied: B3.1 Date: 12/06/2011 Location(s): Texas Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-007493-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-007498: Categorical Exclusion Determination Subtask 6.1 - Strategic Studies CX(s) Applied: A9 Date: 12/06/2011 Location(s): North Dakota Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-007498-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-007499: Categorical Exclusion Determination City of Las Vegas Electric Vehicle Program

305

Recent News from the National Labs | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

27, 2010 27, 2010 Are You Ready to Make a Difference? In the video below Secretary Chu reflects on how his high school physics teacher, Mr. Miner, aided his intellectual development and pushed him to embrace the learning process - lessons he's kept with him ever since. September 24, 2010 Geek-Up[09.24.10] -- Magical BEANs, Combating Bacteria's Resistance to Antibiotics and the ChemCam's Journey to Mars Magical BEANs that mean mega-sized data storage, a new camera that will detect elements on Mars and new treatments to stop antibiotic resistance. September 23, 2010 ARPA-E Director Dr. Arun Majumdar and MSU Project Lead Dr. Norbert Mueller test the wave disk engine. On the Road with ARPA-E I traveled to Michigan to get an up close look at several innovative transportation-related energy advancements.

306

CX-004104: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

4: Categorical Exclusion Determination 4: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-004104: Categorical Exclusion Determination State Energy Program Conductor Optimized Rotary Energy Mega-Watt Scale Direct Wind Generator CX(s) Applied: A9, B5.1 Date: 09/29/2010 Location(s): Ronan, Montana Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office The Montana Department of Environmental Quality proposes to provide $500,000 of State Energy Program funds to Core Wind Power in Ronan, Montana to design, fabricate and test a new 3 megawatt, 8-meter wind turbine generator using existing printed circuit board manufacturing techniques and facilities. The Conductor Optimized Rotary Energy (CORE) technology uses a direct drive repeated multiplayer printed circuit board process to replace the old geared drive-train of the generator. This process will allow for

307

Nevada Plant Adds Jobs, Moves America Forward in Solar Production |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Nevada Plant Adds Jobs, Moves America Forward in Solar Production Nevada Plant Adds Jobs, Moves America Forward in Solar Production Nevada Plant Adds Jobs, Moves America Forward in Solar Production June 23, 2011 - 4:37pm Addthis Lindsey Geisler Lindsey Geisler Public Affairs Specialist, Office of Public Affairs It's always exciting when efforts to move new energy technology forward also lead to new job creation. Earlier today, Secretary Chu was invited to tour the new Amonix solar power system manufacturing plant in North Las Vegas, Nevada. Construction of the facility, which was completed in May, generated 135 construction jobs and more than 300 permanent jobs! The company was able to take advantage of a $5.9 million clean energy manufacturing tax credit to build the $18 million facility. The 214,000 sq. ft. plant manufacturers Amonix MegaModules®, part of the company's

308

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: A9 | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

August 15, 2013 August 15, 2013 CX-010757: Categorical Exclusion Determination The New England Solar cost-Reduction Challenge Partnership CX(s) Applied: A9, A11 Date: 08/15/2013 Location(s): Vermont, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Connecticut Offices(s): Golden Field Office August 14, 2013 CX-010790: Categorical Exclusion Determination Gulf of Mexico Miocene Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Site Characterization Mega Transect CX(s) Applied: A9, A11 Date: 08/14/2013 Location(s): Texas Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory August 14, 2013 CX-010797: Categorical Exclusion Determination Serration Behavior of High Entropy Alloys CX(s) Applied: A9 Date: 08/14/2013 Location(s): Illinois Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory August 14, 2013 CX-010796: Categorical Exclusion Determination

309

Microsoft Word - Tab 2d - Project Descriptions Press Format - SAI TPPs - Final.doc  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Low Cost High Concentration PV Systems for Utility Power Generation Low Cost High Concentration PV Systems for Utility Power Generation Amonix, Inc. * Funding: DOE Year 1 Total Cost DOE Cost Recipient Cost $3,200,000 $29,600,000 $14,800,000 $14,800,000 * Project Description: The principal objective of the project is to transition Amonix's concentrating photovoltaic (PV) systems from low-volume to high-volume production. * Significance: Utility scale mainstream power generation will be achieved using concentrating MegaModules. Amonix will take advantage of high-volume production (previously non- existent in the concentrating PV sector) to significantly reduce costs associated with the current low-volume concentrating PV market. * Location: Leadership of the project will be based out of Torrance California. The following

310

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: B5.1 | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

1, 2010 1, 2010 CX-002509: Categorical Exclusion Determination Energy Retrofits for State Correctional Facilities CX(s) Applied: B1.23, B1.24, B1.28, B1.31, B2.2, A9, A11, B1.7, B5.1 Date: 06/01/2010 Location(s): Alabama Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory June 1, 2010 CX-002450: Categorical Exclusion Determination State of Arizona State Energy Program American Recovery and Reinvestment Act EE0000106 - Manufacturers' Energy-Efficiency Grant Assistance (MEGA) Program CX(s) Applied: B5.1 Date: 06/01/2010 Location(s): Arizona Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office June 1, 2010 CX-002449: Categorical Exclusion Determination Arizona Balance of Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant

311

HANFORD SITE ASSETS AND ATTRIBUTES  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

HANFORD SITE ASSETS AND ATTRIBUTES HANFORD SITE ASSETS AND ATTRIBUTES The Hanford Site provides the opportunity for long-term sustainable energy and industry development. The area boasts a specialized workforce that is highly educated and well-established; is rich in resources including land, infrastructure, low-cost energy, and available workforce; more scientists and engineers per capita than any other area in the Pacific Northwest; and is an optimum location for the development of sustainable energy solutions. Land The Hanford Site is one of the largest remaining land mega-sites available in the United States. * The 586-square-mile Hanford Site includes 39,000 acres designated for industrial use (9,000 acres for R&D). * The Comprehensive Land-Use Plan Environmental Impact Statement allows for a planning process

312

Albany, OR * Anchorage, AK * Morgantown, WV * Pittsburgh, PA * Sugar Land, TX  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gulf of Mexico Miocene CO Gulf of Mexico Miocene CO 2 Site Characterization Mega Transect Background Carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies offer the potential for reducing CO 2 emissions without adversely influencing energy use or hindering economic growth. Deploying these technologies in commercial-scale applications requires adequate geologic formations capable of (1) storing large volumes of CO 2 , (2) receiving injected CO 2 at efficient and economic rates, and (3) retaining CO 2 safely over extended periods. Research efforts are currently focused on conventional and unconventional storage formations within depositional environments such as: deltaic, fluvial, alluvial, strandplain, turbidite, eolian, lacustrine, clastic shelf, carbonate shallow shelf, and reef. Conventional storage types are porous permeable clastic or carbonate rocks that have

313

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: A9 | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

4, 2009 4, 2009 CX-000446: Categorical Exclusion Determination Coupled Hydro-Chemo-Thermo-Mechanical Phenomena for Pore Scale Processes to Macro Scale Implications CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.1, B3.6 Date: 11/24/2009 Location(s): Atlanta, Georgia Office(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory November 24, 2009 CX-000451: Categorical Exclusion Determination The Potential Risks of Freshwater Aquifer Contamination with Geosequestration CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.1, B3.6 Date: 11/24/2009 Location(s): Durham, North Carolina Office(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory November 24, 2009 CX-000450: Categorical Exclusion Determination Gulf of Mexico Miocene Carbon Dioxide Site Characterization Mega Transect CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.1 Date: 11/24/2009 Location(s): Austin, Texas

314

Saving Energy in Data Centers - Applying Best Practices  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Saving Energy in Data Centers Saving Energy in Data Centers Applying Best Practices Dale Sartor, PE Building Technologies Applications Team Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) Data Center Energy * Data centers are energy intensive facilities - 10 to 100+ times more energy intensive than other commercial space - Server racks now designed for more than 25+ kW - Surging demand for data storage - Typical facility ~ 1MW, can be > 20 MW - 1.5% of US Electricity consumption in 2006 - Projected to double in next 5 years * Significant data center building boom - Power and cooling constraints in existing facilities - Utility distribution constraints World Data Center Electricity Use - 2000 and 2005 Source: Koomey 2008 Source: Koomey 2008 LBNL Feels the Pain! 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 MegaWatts

315

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

11 - 16420 of 31,917 results. 11 - 16420 of 31,917 results. Download CX-000444: Categorical Exclusion Determination Gulf of Mexico Miocene Carbon Dioxide Site Characterization Mega Transect CX(s) Applied: A11, B3.1 Date: 11/20/2009 Location(s): Austin, Texas Office(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-000444-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-000372: Categorical Exclusion Determination Analysis of Microbial Activity Under a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Atmosphere CX(s) Applied: A1, A9, B3.1, B3.6 Date: 11/20/2009 Location(s): Cambridge, Massachusetts Office(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-000372-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-000373: Categorical Exclusion Determination

316

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

291 - 20300 of 31,917 results. 291 - 20300 of 31,917 results. Download CX-010796: Categorical Exclusion Determination Research and Development of Advanced Electrochemical Energy Storage Devices Enabling a Spectrum of Electrified Vehicles CX(s) Applied: A1, A9, A11 Date: 08/14/2013 Location(s): Michigan Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-010796-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-010791: Categorical Exclusion Determination Gulf of Mexico Miocene Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Site Characterization Mega Transect CX(s) Applied: A9, A11 Date: 08/14/2013 Location(s): Texas Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-010791-categorical-exclusion-determination-0 Download CX-010805: Categorical Exclusion Determination

317

The Dawn of Nuclear Photonics with Laser-based Gamma-rays  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A renaissance in nuclear physics is occurring around the world because of a new kind of incredibly bright, gamma-ray light source that can be created with short pulse lasers and energetic electron beams. These highly Mono-Energetic Gamma-ray (MEGa-ray) sources produce narrow, laser-like beams of incoherent, tunable gamma-rays and are enabling access and manipulation of the nucleus of the atom with photons or so called 'Nuclear Photonics'. Just as in the early days of the laser when photon manipulation of the valence electron structure of the atom became possible and enabling to new applications and science, nuclear photonics with laser-based gamma-ray sources promises both to open up wide areas of practical isotope-related, materials applications and to enable new discovery-class nuclear science. In the United States, the development of high brightness and high flux MEGa-ray sources is being actively pursued at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore (LLNL), California near San Francisco. The LLNL work aims to create by 2013 a machine that will advance the state of the art with respect to source the peak brightness by 6 orders of magnitude. This machine will create beams of 1 to 2.3 MeV photons with color purity matching that of common lasers. In Europe a similar but higher photon energy gamma source has been included as part of the core capability that will be established at the Extreme Light Infrastructure Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) facility in Magurele, Romania outside of Bucharest. This machine is expected to have an end point gamma energy in the range of 13 MeV. The machine will be co-located with two world-class, 10 Petawatt laser systems thus allowing combined intense-laser and gamma-ray interaction experiments. Such capability will be unique in the world. In this talk, Dr. Chris Barty from LLNL will review the state of the art with respect to MEGa-ray source design, construction and experiments and will describe both the ongoing projects around the world as well some of the exciting applications that these machines will enable. The optimized interaction of short-duration, pulsed lasers with relativistic electron beams (inverse laser-Compton scattering) is the key to unrivaled MeV-scale photon source monochromaticity, pulse brightness and flux. In the MeV spectral range, such Mono-Energetic Gamma-ray (MEGa-ray) sources can have many orders of magnitude higher peak brilliance than even the world's largest synchrotrons. They can efficiently perturb and excite the isotope-specific resonant structure of the nucleus in a manner similar to resonant laser excitation of the valence electron structure of the atom.

Barty, C J

2011-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

318

Rut  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract In this review, primary attention is given to the antioxidant (and prooxidant) activity of polyphenols arising from their interactions with iron both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, an overview of oxidative stress and the Fenton reaction is provided, as well as a discussion of the chemistry of iron binding by catecholate, gallate, and semiquinone ligands along with their stability constants, UVvis spectra, stoichiometries in solution as a function of pH, rates of iron oxidation by O2 upon polyphenol binding, and the published crystal structures for ironpolyphenol complexes. Radical scavenging mechanisms of polyphenols unrelated to iron binding, their interactions with copper, and the prooxidant activity of ironpolyphenol complexes are briefly discussed. Q MEGA

Nathan R. Perron; Julia; L. Brumaghim; Catecholate Gallate; Flavonoids Catechins Tannins

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Feasibility design study. Land-based OTEC plants. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this study has been to determine the feasibility of installing 10 MWe (MegaWatt-electric) and 40 MWe land-based OTEC demonstration power plants at two specific sites: Keahole Point on the western shore of the island of Hawaii; and Punta Tuna, on the southeast coast of the main island of Puerto Rico. In addition, the study has included development of design parameters, schedules and budgets for the design, construction and operation of these plants. Seawater systems (intake and discharge pipes) were to be sized so that flow losses were equivalent to those expected with a platform-based OTEC power plant. The power module (components and general arrangement was established based on the TRW design. Results are presented in detail. (WHK)

Brewer, J. H.; Minor, J.; Jacobs, R.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

SSOS: A Moving Object Image Search Tool for Asteroid Precovery at the CADC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

While regular archive searches can find images at a fixed location, they cannot find images of moving targets such as asteroids. The Solar System Object Search (SSOS) at the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre allows users to search for images of moving objects. SSOS accepts as input either a list of observations, an object designation, a set of orbital elements, or a user-generated ephemeris for an object. It then searches for observations of that object over a range of dates. The user is then presented with a list of images containing that object from a variety of archives. Initially created to search the CFHT MegaCam archive, SSOS has been extended to other telescope archives including Gemini, Subaru/SuprimeCam, HST, and several ESO instruments for a total of 1.6 million images. The SSOS tool is located on the web at: http://www.cadc.hia.nrc.gc.ca/ssos

Gwyn, Stephen D J; Kavelaars, J J

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "giga mega kilo" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Science and Technology Review April/May 2011  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the focus is on science and technology research to ensure the nation's security. That expertise is also applied to solve other important national problems in energy, bioscience, and the environment. Science & Technology Review is published eight time a year to communicate, to a broad audience, the Laboratory's scientific and technological accomplishments in fulfilling its primary missions. The publication's goal is to help readers understand these accomplishments and appreciate their value to the individual citizen, the nation, and the world. In this issue for April/May 2011, the features are 'Dealing with the Nonlinear Battlefield' and 'From Video to Knowledge.' Research highlights are 'Kinetic Models Predict Biofuel Efficiency,' Going Deep with MEGa-Rays' and 'Energy on Demand.'

Nikolic, R J

2011-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

322

Electron energy boosting in laser-wake-field acceleration with external magnetic field Bapprox1 T and laser prepulses  

SciTech Connect

Hundred-mega-electron-volt electron beams with quasi-monoenergetic distribution, and a transverse geometrical emittance as small as approx0.02 pi mm mrad are generated by low power (7 TW, 45 fs) laser pulses tightly focused in helium gas jets in an external static magnetic field, Bapprox1 T. Generation of monoenergetic beams strongly correlates with appearance of a straight, at least 2 mm length plasma channel in a short time before the main laser pulse and with the energy of copropagating picosecond pedestal pulses (PPP). For a moderate energy PPP, the multiple or staged electron self-injection in the channel gives several narrow peaks in the electron energy distribution.

Hosokai, Tomonao [Photon Pioneers Center, Osaka University, 2-1, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan and Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), CREST, 2-1, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Zhidkov, Alexei [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, 2-6-1 Nagasaka, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 240-0196 (Japan); Yamazaki, Atsushi [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, 464-8603 (Japan); Mizuta, Yoshio [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Uesaka, Mitsuru [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 22-2 Shirane-shirakata, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Kodama, Ryosuke [Photon Pioneers Center, Osaka University, 2-1, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan) and Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), CREST, 2-1, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

2010-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

323

Ab-initio Determination of Light Hadron Masses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

More than 99% of the mass of the visible universe is made up of protons and neutrons. Both particles are much heavier than their quark and gluon constituents, and the Standard Model of particle physics should explain this difference. We present a full ab-initio calculation of the masses of protons, neutrons and other light hadrons, using lattice quantum chromodynamics. Pion masses down to 190 mega electronvolts are used to extrapolate to the physical point with lattice sizes of approximately four times the inverse pion mass. Three lattice spacings are used for a continuum extrapolation. Our results completely agree with experimental observations and represent a quantitative confirmation of this aspect of the Standard Model with fully controlled uncertainties.

S. Durr; Z. Fodor; J. Frison; C. Hoelbling; R. Hoffmann; S. D. Katz; S. Krieg; T. Kurth; L. Lellouch; T. Lippert; K. K. Szabo; G. Vulvert

2009-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

324

Refurbishment and Testing of the 1970's Era LASS Solenoid Coils for JLab's Hall D  

SciTech Connect

JLab refurbished the LASS1, 1.85 m bore Solenoid, consisting of four superconducting coils to act as the principal analysis magnet for nuclear physics in the newly constructed, Hall D at Jefferson Lab. The coils, built in 1971 at Stanford Linier Accelerator Center and used a second time at the MEGA Experiment at Los Alamos, had electrical shorts and leaks to the insulating vacuum along with deteriorated superinsulation & instrumentation. Root cause diagnosis of the problems and the repair methods are described along with the measures used to qualify the vessels and piping within the Laboratory's Pressure Safety Program (mandated by 10CFR851). The extraordinary refrigerator operational methods used to utilize the obsolete cryogenic apparatus gathered for the off-line, single coil tests are described.

Anumagalla, Ravi; Biallas, George; Brindza, Paul; Carstens, Thomas; Creel, Jonathan; Egiyan, Hovanes; Martin, Floyd; Qiang, Yi; Spiegel, Scot; Stevens, Mark; Wissmann, Mark

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Scientific applications for high-energy lasers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The convergence of numerous factors makes the time ripe for the development of a community of researchers to use the high-energy laser for scientific investigations. This document attempts to outline the steps necessary to access high-energy laser systems and create a realistic plan to implement usage. Since an academic/scientific user community does not exist in the USA to any viable extent, we include information on present capabilities at the Nova laser. This will briefly cover laser performance and diagnostics and a sampling of some current experimental projects. Further, to make the future possibilities clearer, we will describe the proposed next- generation high-energy laser, named for its inertial fusion confinement (ICF) goal, the multi-megaJoule, 500-teraWatt National Facility, or NIF.

Lee, R.W. [comp.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Homogeneous pinhole free 1 nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} tunnel barriers on graphene  

SciTech Connect

We report on the topographical and electrical characterisations of 1 nm thick Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} dielectric films on graphene. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is grown by sputtering a 0.6 nm Al layer on graphene and subsequentially oxidizing it in an O{sub 2} atmosphere. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer presents no pinholes and is homogeneous enough to act as a tunnel barrier. A resistance-area product in the mega-ohm micrometer-square range is found. Comparatively, the growth of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} by evaporation does not lead to well-wetted films on graphene. Application of this high quality sputtered tunnel barrier to efficient spin injection in graphene is discussed.

Dlubak, B.; Martin, M.-B.; Deranlot, C.; Bouzehouane, K.; Fusil, S.; Mattana, R.; Petroff, F.; Anane, A.; Seneor, P.; Fert, A. [Unite Mixte de Physique CNRS/Thales, 91767 Palaiseau (France) and University of Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France)

2012-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

327

Standards of performance for new stationary sources gas turbines  

SciTech Connect

In order to implement the Clean Air Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency establishes standards of performance which limit emissions of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide from new, modified, and reconstructed stationary gas turbines. The intended effect of this regulation is to require new, modified, and reconstructed stationary gas turbines to use the best demonstrated system of continuous emission reduction. There are no emission limits for gas turbines below 10.7 gigaj/hr. For all gas turbines 10.7 gigaj/hr and larger, the sulfur dioxide emission limit is 150 ppm; alternatively, a fuel with less than 0.8Vertical Bar3< sulfur can be fired. For gas turbines between 10.7 and 107.2 giga8/hr used for gas and oil transportation or production not located in a Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), the nitrogen oxides emission limit is 150 ppm. For gas turbines larger than 107.2 gigaj/hr used for gas and oil transportation or production located in an MSA, and for all other uses, the nitrogen oxides emission limit is 75 ppm. These regulations are effective as of 9/10/79.

1979-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

328

Fatigue of Composite Materials and Substructures for Wind Turbine Blades  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents the major findings of the Montana State University Composite Materials Fatigue Program from 1997 to 2001, and is intended to be used in conjunction with the DOE/MSU Composite Materials Fatigue Database. Additions of greatest interest to the database in this time period include environmental and time under load effects for various resin systems; large tow carbon fiber laminates and glass/carbon hybrids; new reinforcement architectures varying from large strands to prepreg with well-dispersed fibers; spectrum loading and cumulative damage laws; giga-cycle testing of strands; tough resins for improved structural integrity; static and fatigue data for interply delamination; and design knockdown factors due to flaws and structural details as well as time under load and environmental conditions. The origins of a transition to increased tensile fatigue sensitivity with increasing fiber content are explored in detail for typical stranded reinforcing fabrics. The second focus of the report is on structural details which are prone to delamination failure, including ply terminations, skin-stiffener intersections, and sandwich panel terminations. Finite element based methodologies for predicting delamination initiation and growth in structural details are developed and validated, and simplified design recommendations are presented.

MANDELL, JOHN F.; SAMBORSKY, DANIEL D.; CAIRNS, DOUGLAS

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Integrated Laser-Target Interaction Experiments on the RAL Petawatt Laser  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Since the construction of the first Petawatt laser on the Nova laser facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory we are witnessing the emergence of similar Petawatt-class laser systems at laboratories all around the world. This new generation of lasers, able to deliver several hundred joules of energy in a sub-picosecond pulse, has enabled a host of new discoveries to be made and continues to provide a valuable tool to explore new regimes in relativistic laser-plasma physics--encompassing high energy X-rays and -rays, relativistic electrons, intense ion beams, and superstrong magnetic fields. The coupling in the near-future of multi-kiloJoule Petawatt-class lasers with large-scale fusion lasers.including the NIF and Omega EP (US), LIL (France), and FIREX (Japan)--will further expand opportunities in fast ignition, high energy X-ray radiography, and high energy density physics research. The 500 J Petawatt laser at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory is currently the highest energy short-pulse laser in the world. In this paper we describe a recent experimental campaign carried out on the facility. The campaign, performed by a large collaborative team from eight different laboratories, was designed to study a variety of relativistic laser-interaction phenomena including laser absorption, fast electron transport, proton heating, and high-brightness x-ray generation. The wide scope of the experiment necessitated the deployment of a very large set of diagnostics--in total twenty-five separate instruments. In order to obtain the most comprehensive set of measurements all twenty-five diagnostics were fielded simultaneously on every shot.

Patel, P K; Key, M H; Mackinnon, A J; Berry, R; Borghesi, M; Chambers, D M; Chen, H; Clarke, R; Damian, C; Eagleton, R; Freeman, R; Glenzer, S; Gregori, G; Heathcote, R; Hey, D; Izumi, N; Kar, S; King, J; Nikroo, A; Niles, A; Park, H S; Pasley, J; Patel, N; Shepherd, R; Snavely, R A; Steinman, D; Stoeckl, C; Storm, M; Town, R; Van Maren, R; Theobald, W; Wilks, S C; Zhang, B

2006-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

330

Assessment of Proton Deflectometry for Exploding Wire Experiments  

SciTech Connect

This project provides the first demonstration of the application of proton deflectometry for the diagnosis of electromagnetic field topology and current-carrying regions in Z-pinch plasma experiments. Over the course of this project several milestones were achieved. High-energy proton beam generation was demonstrated on the short-pulse high-intensity Leopard laser, (10 Joules in ~350 femtoseconds, and the proton beam generation was shown to be reproducible. Next, protons were used to probe the electromagnetic field structure of short circuit loads in order to benchmark the two numerical codes, the resistive-magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) code, Gorgon, and the hybrid particle-in-cell code, LSP for the interpretation of results. Lastly, the proton deflectometry technique was used to map the magnetic field structure of pulsed-power-driven plasma loads including wires and supersonic jets formed with metallic foils. Good agreement between the modeling and experiments has been obtained. The demonstrated technique holds great promise to significantly improve the understanding of current flow and electromagnetic field topology in pulsed power driven high energy density plasmas. Proton probing with a high intensity laser was for the first time implemented in the presence of the harsh debris and x-ray producing z-pinch environment driven by a mega-ampere-scale pulsed-power machine. The intellectual merit of the program was that it investigated strongly driven MHD systems and the influence of magnetic field topology on plasma evolution in pulsed power driven plasmas. The experimental program involved intense field-matter interaction in the generation of the proton probe, as well as the generation of plasma subjected to 1 MegaGauss scale magnetic fields. The computational aspect included two well-documented codes, in combination for the first time to provide accurate interpretation of the experimental results. The broader impact included the support of 2 graduate students, one at UCSD and one at NTF, who were exposed to both the experimental physics work, the MHD and PIC modeling of the system. A first generation college undergraduate student was employed to assist in experiments and data analysis throughout the project. Data resulting from the research program were broadly disseminated by publication in scientific journals, and presentation at international and national conferences and workshops.

Beg, Farhat Nadeem [University of California San Diego] [University of California San Diego

2013-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

331

Scaling to Ultra-High Intensities by High-Energy Petawatt Beam Combining  

SciTech Connect

The output pulse energy from a single-aperture high-energy laser amplifier (e.g. fusion lasers such as NIF and LMJ) are critically limited by a number of factors including optical damage, which places an upper bound on the operating fluence; parasitic gain, which limits together with manufacturing costs the maximum aperture size to {approx} 40-cm; and non-linear phase effects which limits the peak intensity. For 20-ns narrow band pulses down to transform-limited sub-picosecond pulses, these limiters combine to yield 10-kJ to 1-kJ maximum pulse energies with up to petawatt peak power. For example, the Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC) project at NIF is designed to provide kilo-Joule pulses from 0.75-ps to 50-ps, with peak focused intensity above 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}. Using such a high-energy petawatt (HEPW) beamline as a modular unit, they discuss large-scale architectures for coherently combining multiple HEPW pulses from independent apertures, called CAPE (Coherent Addition of Pulses for Energy), to significantly increase the peak achievable focused intensity. Importantly, the maximum intensity achievable with CAPE increases non-linearly. Clearly, the total integrated energy grows linearly with the number of apertures N used. However, as CAPE combines beams in the focal plane by increasing the angular convergence to focus (i.e. the f-number decreases), the foal spot diameter scales inversely with N. Hence the peak intensity scales as N{sup 2}. Using design estimates for the focal spot size and output pulse energy (limited by damage fluence on the final compressor gratings) versus compressed pulse duration in the ARC system, Figure 2 shows the scaled focal spot intensity and total energy for various CAPE configurations from 1,2,4, ..., up to 192 total beams. They see from the fixture that the peak intensity for event modest 8 to 16 beam combinations reaches the 10{sup 21} to 10{sup 22} W/cm{sup 2} regime. With greater number of apertures, or with improvements to the focusability of the individual beams, the maximum peak intensity can be increased further to {approx} 10{sup 24} W/cm{sup 2}. Lastly, an important feature of the CAPE architecture is the ability to coherently combine beams to produce complex spatio-temporal intensity distributions for laser-based accelerators (e.g. all-optical electron injection and acceleration) and high energy density science applications such as fast ignition.

Siders, C W; Jovanovic, I; Crane, J; Rushford, M; Lucianetti, A; Barty, C J

2006-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

332

Comparison of LaBr3:Ce and NaI(Tl) Scintillators for Radio-Isotope Identification Devices  

SciTech Connect

Lanthanum halide (LaBr3:Ce) scintillators offer significantly better resolution (<3 percent at 662 kilo-electron volt [keV]) relative to sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) and have recently become commercially available in sizes large enough for the hand-held radio-isotope identification device (RIID) market. There are drawbacks to lanthanum halide detectors, however. These include internal radioactivity that contributes to spectral counts and a low-energy response that can cause detector resolution to be lower than that of NaI(Tl) below 100 keV. To study the potential of this new material for RIIDs, we performed a series of measurements comparing a 1.5?1.5 inch LaBr?3:Ce detector with an Exploranium GR 135 RIID, which contains a 1.5-2.2 inch NaI(Tl) detector. Measurements were taken for short time frames, as typifies RIID usage. Measurements included examples of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), typically found in cargo, and special nuclear materials. Some measurements were noncontact, involving short distances or cargo shielding scenarios. To facilitate direct comparison, spectra from the different detectors were analyzed with the same isotope identification software (ORTEC ScintiVision TM). In general, the LaBr3:Ce detector was able to find more peaks and find them faster than the NaI(Tl) detector. To the same level of significance, the LaBr3:Ce detector was usually two to three times faster. The notable exception was for 40K containing NORM where interfering internal contamination in the LaBr3:Ce detector exist. NaI(Tl) consistently outperformed LaBr3:Ce for this important isotope. LaBr3:Ce currently costs much more than NaI(Tl), though this cost-difference is expected to diminish (but not completely) with time. As is true of all detectors, LaBr3:Ce will need to be gain-stabilized for RIID applications. This could possibly be done using the internal contaminants themselves. It is the experience of the authors that peak finding software in RIIDs needs to be improved, regardless of the detector material.

Milbrath, Brian D.; Choate, Bethany J.; Fast, Jim E.; Hensley, Walter K.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Schweppe, John E.

2006-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

333

Stability and support issues in the construction of large span caverns for physics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

New physics experiments, proposed to study neutrinos and protons, call for the use of large underground particle detectors. In the United States, such detectors would be housed in the US Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL), sited within the footprint of the defunct Homestake Mine, South Dakota. Although the experimental proposals differ in detail, all rely heavily upon the ability of the mined and reinforced rock mass to serve as a stable host for the detector facilities. Experimental proposals, based on the use of Water Cherenkov detector technology, specify rock caverns with excavated volumes in excess of half a million cubic meters, spans of at least 50 m, sited at depths of approximately one to 1.5 kilometers. Although perhaps sited at shallower depth, proposals based on the use of Liquid Argon (LAr) detector technology are no less challenging. LAr proposals not only call for the excavation of large span caverns, but have an additional need for the safe management of large quantities (kilo-tonnes) of cryogenic liquid, including critical provisions for the fail-safe egress of underground personnel and the reliable exhaust of Argon gas in the event of a catastrophic release. These multi-year, high value physics experiments will provide the key experimental data needed to support the research of a new generation of physicists as they probe the behavior of basic particles and the fundamental laws of nature. The rock engineer must deliver caverns that will reliably meet operational requirements and remain stable for periods conservatively estimated to be in excess of twenty years. This paper provides an overview of the DUSEL site conditions and discusses key end-user requirements and design criteria likely to dominate in determining the viability of experimental options. The paper stresses the paramount importance of collecting adequate site-specific data to inform early siting, dimensioning and layout decisions. Given the large-scale of the excavation and likely timeline to construction, the paper also strongly suggests that there are exciting opportunities for the rock mechanics and engineering community to identify and efficiently integrate research components into the design and construction process.

Laughton, C.; /Fermilab

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

81 - 2990 of 28,905 results. 81 - 2990 of 28,905 results. Download CX-004336: Categorical Exclusion Determination Oklahoma-Tribe-Muscogee (Creek) Nation CX(s) Applied: A9, A11, B2.5, B5.1 Date: 10/26/2010 Location(s): Oklahoma Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-004336-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-004133: Categorical Exclusion Determination North Dakota-Tribe-Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa CX(s) Applied: A9, A11, B2.5, B5.1 Date: 10/01/2010 Location(s): North Dakota Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-004133-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-004022: Categorical Exclusion Determination MegaWatt Ventures CX(s) Applied: A9, A11, B5.1 Date: 09/09/2010 Location(s): Orlando, Florida

335

Zettawatt-Exawatt Lasers and Their Applications in Ultrastrong-Field Physics High Energy Front  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Since its birth, the laser has been extraordinarily effective in the study and applications of laser-matter interaction at the atomic and molecular level and in the nonlinear optics of the bound electron. In its early life, the laser was associated with the physics of electron volts and of the chemical bond. Over the past fifteen years, however, we have seen a surge in our ability to produce high intensities, five to six orders of magnitude higher than was possible before. At these intensities, particles, electrons and protons, acquire kinetic energy in the mega-electron-volt range through interaction with intense laser fields. This opens a new age for the laser, the age of nonlinear relativistic optics coupling even with nuclear physics. We suggest a path to reach an extremely high-intensity level $10^{26-28} $W/cm$^2$ in the coming decade, much beyond the current and near future intensity regime $10^{23} $W/cm$^2$, taking advantage of the megajoule laser facilities. Such a laser at extreme high intensity co...

Tajima, T

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

The Lisbon new international airport: The story of a decision-making process and the role of Strategic Environmental Assessment  

SciTech Connect

This is the brief story of a decision process and the role of Strategic Environmental Assessment in government political decision-making. Following a prolonged, and agitated, decision process, initiated in the 1960s, the Government of Portugal in 2005 took the final decision to build the new international airport of Lisbon at the controversial location of Ota, 40 km north of Lisbon. The detailed project design and EIA were started. However this decision would change in 2007 due to the challenge raised by a private sponsored study that identified an alternative location for the airport at Campo de Tiro de Alcochete (CTA). This new site, which had never been considered as an option before, appeared to avoid many of the problems that caused public controversy at the Ota site. The Government, pressured by this challenge, promoted a strategic comparative assessment between the two sites. The result of this study was the choice of CTA as the preferred location. This paper discusses this radical change in the decision from a socio-political perspective. It will highlight the relevance of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA), and the strategic and constructive approach it enables in mega-project decision-making.

Partidario, Maria R., E-mail: mrp@civil.ist.utl.p [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Departamento de Engenharia Civil e Arquitectura, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 LISBOA (Portugal); Coutinho, Miguel, E-mail: miguel.coutinho@ua.p [IDAD-Instituto do Ambiente e Desenvolvimento, Campus Universitario, 3810-193 AVEIRO (Portugal)

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

337

500 MW X-Band RF System of a 0.25 GeV Electron LINAC for Advanced Compton Scattering Source Application  

SciTech Connect

A Mono-Energetic Gamma-Ray (MEGa-Ray) Compton scattering light source is being developed at LLNL in collaboration with the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The electron beam for the Compton scattering interaction will be generated by a X-band RF gun and a X-band LINAC at the frequency of 11.424 GHz. High power RF in excess of 500 MW is needed to accelerate the electrons to energy of 250 MeV or greater for the interaction. Two high power klystron amplifiers, each capable of generating 50 MW, 1.5 msec pulses, will be the main high power RF sources for the system. These klystrons will be powered by state of the art solid-state high voltage modulators. A RF pulse compressor, similar to the SLED II pulse compressor, will compress the klystron output pulse with a power gain factor of five. For compactness consideration, we are looking at a folded waveguide setup. This will give us 500 MW at output of the compressor. The compressed pulse will then be distributed to the RF gun and to six traveling wave accelerator sections. Phase and amplitude control are located at the RF gun input and additional control points along the LINAC to allow for parameter control during operation. This high power RF system is being designed and constructed. In this paper, we will present the design, layout, and status of this RF system.

Chu, Tak Sum; /LLNL, Livermore; Anderson, Scott; /LLNL, Livermore; Barty, Christopher; /LLNL, Livermore; Gibson, David; /LLNL, Livermore; Hartemann, Fred; /LLNL, Livermore; Marsh, Roark; /LLNL, Livermore; Siders, Craig; /LLNL, Livermore; Adolphsen, Chris; /SLAC; Jongewaard, Erik; /SLAC; Raubenheimer, Tor; /SLAC; Tantawi, Sami; /SLAC; Vlieks, Arnold; /SLAC; Wang, Juwen; /SLAC

2012-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

338

500 MW X-BAND RF SYSTEM OF A 0.25 GEV ELECTRON LINAC FOR ADVANCED COMPTON SCATTERING SOURCE APPLICATION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Mono-Energetic Gamma-Ray (MEGa-Ray) Compton scattering light source is being developed at LLNL in collaboration with SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The electron beam for the Compton scattering interaction will be generated by a X-band RF gun and a X-band LINAC at the frequency of 11.424 GHz. High power RF in excess of 500 MW is needed to accelerate the electrons to energy of 250 MeV or greater for the interaction. Two high power klystron amplifiers, each capable of generating 50 MW, 1.5 msec pulses, will be the main high power RF sources for the system. These klystrons will be powered by state of the art solid-state high voltage modulators. A RF pulse compressor, similar to the SLED II pulse compressor, will compress the klystron output pulse with a power gain factor of five. For compactness consideration, we are looking at a folded waveguide setup. This will give us 500 MW at output of the compressor. The compressed pulse will then be distributed to the RF gun and to six traveling wave accelerator sections. Phase and amplitude control are located at the RF gun input and additional control points along the LINAC to allow for parameter control during operation. This high power RF system is being designed and constructed. In this paper, we will present the design, layout, and status of this RF system.

Chu, T S; Anderson, S G; Gibson, D J; Hartemann, F V; Marsh, R A; Siders, C; Barty, C P; Adolphsen, C; Jongewaard, E; Tantawi, S; Vlieks, A; Wang, J W; Raubenheimer, T

2010-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

339

An Overview of the MILAGRO 2006 Campaign: Mexico City Emissions and their Transport and Transformation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The worlds population is projected to increase 33% during the next three decades, to 8.1 billion. Nearly all of the projected growth is expected to be concentrated in urban centers. These rapidly expanding urban regions and surrounding suburban areas are leading to the phenomenon of megacities (metropolitan areas with populations exceeding 10 million inhabitants). Well governed, densely populated settlements can reduce the need for land conversion and provide proximity to infrastructure and services. However, many urban areas experience uncontrolled sprawl and their activities are the leading cause of environmental problems. These mega-centers of human population are tied directly to increasing demands for energy and associated industrial activities and motorization that lead to more emission of pollutants into the atmosphere. Air pollution is one of the most important environmental challenges of this century. This challenge is particularly acute in the developing world where the rapid growth of megacities is producing atmospheric pollution of unprecedented severity and extent. MILAGRO (Megacity Initiative: Local And Global Research Observations) is the first international collaborative project to examine the behavior and the export of atmospheric pollutants generated in megacities. The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) - one of the worlds largest megacities and North Americas most populous city -- was selected as the initial case study to characterize the sources and processes of emissions from the urban center and to evaluate the regional and global impacts of the Mexico City air pollution plume

Molina, Luisa T.; Madronich, Sasha; Gaffney, Jeffrey; Apel, Eric; de Foy, B.; Fast, Jerome D.; Ferrare, R.; Herndon, Scott C.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Lamb, Brian K.; Orsonio-Vargas, A. R.; Russell, P. B.; Schauer, James J.; Stevens, P. S.; Volkamer, Rainer M.; Zavala, Miguel A.

2010-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

340

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: A11 | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

9, 2010 9, 2010 CX-004022: Categorical Exclusion Determination MegaWatt Ventures CX(s) Applied: A9, A11, B5.1 Date: 09/09/2010 Location(s): Orlando, Florida Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy September 9, 2010 CX-004013: Categorical Exclusion Determination Regional Energy Innovation and Commercialization CX(s) Applied: A9, A11, B5.1 Date: 09/09/2010 Location(s): La Jolla, California Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy September 9, 2010 CX-003776: Categorical Exclusion Determination New York-City-Greece CX(s) Applied: A1, A9, A11, B2.5, B5.1 Date: 09/09/2010 Location(s): Greece, New York Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy September 9, 2010 CX-003770: Categorical Exclusion Determination Maine-County-York CX(s) Applied: A1, A9, A11, B2.5, B5.1

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "giga mega kilo" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

NETL F 451.1/1-1, Categorical Exclusion Designation Form  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

FE0001941 FE0001941 Univ. of Texas, BEG (for sub.) FE TDI-Brooks Int'l Inc. SCC/Storage Division FY13-14/ 8/1/13 - 9/30/14 Karen Kluger, px6667 1200 E Brazos Bl., Freeport, TX Gulf of Mexico Miocene CO2 Site Characterization Mega Transect - Task 8 Perform administrative, planning, analyses in support of prime SOPO Task 8 - Leakage Pathways. MOD to reclassify vendor to subcontract TDI-Brooks. Karen Kluger Digitally signed by Karen Kluger DN: cn=Karen Kluger, o=Sequestration Division, ou=DOE, email=karen.kluger@netl.doe.gov, c=US Date: 2013.08.07 16:20:50 -04'00' 08 07 2013 John Ganz Digitally signed by John Ganz DN: cn=John Ganz, o=NETL, ou=ECD, email=john.ganz@netl.doe.gov, c=US Date: 2013.08.14 10:08:30 -04'00' 8 14 2013 No field work; CX approval is for CX(-A) activities only.

342

SNS/BNL Diagnostics System Group, Spallation Neutron Source, SNS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SNS/BNL Diagnostics System Group SNS/BNL Diagnostics System Group Homepage The Spallation Neutron Source project is a collaboration between six national laboratories of the United states to build a Mega Watt neutrons source driven by a proton accelerator. The complex is going to be build in Oak Ridge (Tennessee) and consists of a full energy (1 Gev) linac, an accumulator ring and a mercury target with several instruments for neutron scattering. Information on the project can be found at http://www.sns.gov. At Brookhaven National Laboratory we work mainly on the accumulator ring and transfer lines diagnostics (HEBT, Ring, RTBT). Some of the systems are SNS-wide ie: the Beam Loss Monitor system and Beam Current Monitor system. In addition our group provides parts of other systems to our partner laboratories. Our group is part or the Collider Accelerator Division that is also in charge of RHIC and the AGS complex. If you are looking for information on a particular topic you can contact the persons working on it.

343

EIA - AEO2010 - Updated State air emissions regulations  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Updated State air emissions regulations Updated State air emissions regulations Annual Energy Outlook 2010 with Projections to 2035 Updated State air emissions regulations Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative The Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) is a program that includes 10 Northeast States that have agreed to curtail and reverse growth in their CO2 emissions. The RGGI program includes all electricity generating units with a capacity of at least 25 mega-watts and requires an allowance for each ton of CO2 emitted [30]. The first year of mandatory compliance was in 2009. Each participating State was provided a CO2 budget consisting of a history-based baseline with a cushion for emissions growth, so that meeting the cap is expected to be relatively easy initially and become more stringent in subsequent years. The requirements are expected to cover 95 percent of CO2 emissions from the region's electric power sector. Overall, the RGGI States as a whole must maintain covered emissions at a level of 188 million tons CO2 for the next 4 years, after which a mandatory 2.5-percent annual decrease in CO2 emissions through 2018 is expected to reduce the total for covered CO2 emissions in the RGGI States to 10 percent below the initial calculated bud-get. Although each State was given its own emissions budget, allowances are auctioned at a uniform price across the entire region.

344

THE DISCOVERY OF AN ULTRA-FAINT STAR CLUSTER IN THE CONSTELLATION OF URSA MINOR  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report the discovery of a new ultra-faint globular cluster in the constellation of Ursa Minor, based on stellar photometry from the MegaCam imager at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. We find that this cluster, Munoz 1, is located at a distance of 45 {+-} 5 kpc and at a projected distance of only 45' from the center of the Ursa Minor dwarf spheroidal galaxy. Using a maximum-likelihood technique we measure a half-light radius of 0.'5, or equivalently 7 pc, and an ellipticity consistent with being zero. We estimate its absolute magnitude to be M{sub V} -0.4 {+-} 0.9, which corresponds to L{sub V} = 120{sup +160}{sub -65} L{sub Sun} and we measure a heliocentric radial velocity of -137 {+-} 4 km s{sup -1} based on Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy. This new satellite is separate from Ursa Minor by {approx}30 kpc and 110 km s{sup -1} suggesting the cluster is not obviously associated with the dSph, despite the very close angular separation. Based on its photometric properties and structural parameters we conclude that Munoz 1 is a new ultra-faint stellar cluster. Along with Segue 3 this is one of the faintest stellar clusters known to date.

Munoz, R. R.; Geha, M.; Vargas, L. C. [Astronomy Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Cote, P.; Stetson, P. [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Santana, F. A. [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Camino El Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Simon, J. D. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Djorgovski, S. G., E-mail: rmunoz@das.uchile.cl [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

FY06 LDRD Final Report "The Creation of a Neutron Star Atmosphere"  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have taken the initiative to examine whether experiments on HED facilities, present and future, could achieve the extreme scaled conditions relevant to accreting neutron star atmospheres and accretion disks around black holes. The preliminary conclusion from this detailed scaling assessment is that if an exact scaled version of the photon bubble instability physics is desired, this will require experiments with (simultaneously) spatial scales of order {approx}1 mm, temperatures of order {approx}5 keV, magnetic fields of order a hundred megaGauss, and time scales of order several hundred psec. Aspects (subsets) of this physics can be studied under less demanding conditions. To achieve the temperatures required in targets of order several optical depths, we come to the preliminary conclusion that we would require an energy source that delivers of order of a megajoule of energy into a high Z target. A conceptual design for such an experiment could be to use the energy from a high gain ignition NIF capsule as our principle source of heating and acceleration whereby the target is in close proximity to the ignition capsule and then use external petawatt lasers to develop the magnetic fields required.

Klein, R I; Remington, B; Moon, S; MacKinnon, A; Patel, P; Ruytov, D; Wilks, S; Pape, S L

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Configuration and performance of fuel cell-combined cycle options  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The natural gas, indirect-fired, carbonate fuel-cell-bottomed, combined cycle (NG-IFCFC) and the topping natural-gas/solid-oxide fuel-cell combined cycle (NG-SOFCCC) are introduced as novel power-plant systems for the distributed power and on-site markets in the 20-200 mega-watt (MW) size range. The novel NG-IFCFC power-plant system configures the ambient pressure molten-carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) with a gas turbine, air compressor, combustor, and ceramic heat exchanger: The topping solid-oxide fuel-cell (SOFC) combined cycle is not new. The purpose of combining a gas turbine with a fuel cell was to inject pressurized air into a high-pressure fuel cell and to reduce the size, and thereby, to reduce the cost of the fuel cell. Today, the SOFC remains pressurized, but excess chemical energy is combusted and the thermal energy is utilized by the Carnot cycle heat engine to complete the system. ASPEN performance results indicate efficiencies and heat rates for the NG-IFCFC or NG-SOFCCC are better than conventional fuel cell or gas turbine steam-bottomed cycles, but with smaller and less expensive components. Fuel cell and gas turbine systems should not be viewed as competitors, but as an opportunity to expand to markets where neither gas turbines nor fuel cells alone would be commercially viable. Non-attainment areas are the most likely markets.

Rath, L.K.; Le, P.H.; Sudhoff, F.A.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

347

Tests of the Hardware and Software for the Reconstruction of Trajectories in the Experiment MINERvA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

MINERvA experiment has a highly segmented and high precision neutrino detector able to record events with high statistic (over 13 millions in a four year run). MINERvA uses FERMILAB NuMI beamline. The detector will allow a detailed study of neutrino-nucleon interactions. Moreover, the detector has a target with different materials allowing, for the first time, the study of nuclear effects in neutrino interactions. We present here the work done with the MINERvA reconstruction group that has resulted in: (a) development of new codes to be added to the RecPack package so it can be adapted to the MINERvA detector structure; (b) finding optimum values for two of the MegaTracker reconstruction package variables: PEcut = 4 (minimum number of photo electrons for a signal to be accepted) and Chi2Cut = 200 (maximum value of {chi}{sup 2} for a track to be accepted); (c) testing of the multi anode photomultiplier tubes used at MINERvA in order to determine the correlation between different channels and for checking the device's dark counts.

Palomino Gallo, Jose Luis; /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Subaru weak-lensing study of A2163: bimodal mass structure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a weak-lensing analysis of the merging cluster A2163 using Subaru/Suprime-Cam and CHFT/Mega-Cam data and discuss the dynamics of this cluster merger, based on complementary weak-lensing, X-ray, and optical spectroscopic datasets. From two dimensional multi-component weak-lensing analysis, we reveal that the cluster mass distribution is well described by three main components: a two component main cluster A2163-A with mass ratio 1:8, and its cluster satellite A2163-B. The bimodal mass distribution in A2163-A is similar to the galaxy density distribution, but appears as spatially segregated from the brightest X-ray emitting gas region. We discuss the possible origins of this gas-dark matter offset, and suggest the gas core of the A2163-A subcluster to have been stripped away by ram pressure from its dark matter component. The survival of this gas core to the tidal forces exerted by the main cluster let us infer a subcluster accretion with non-zero impact parameter. Dominated by the most massive compo...

Okabe, Nobuhiro; Mazzotta, Pasquale; Maurogordato, Sophie

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Electromagnetic interference of GSM mobile phones with the implantable deep brain stimulator, ITREL-III  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2003 Kainz et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article: verbatim copying and redistribution of this article are permitted in all media for any purpose, provided this notice is preserved along with the article's original URL. Background: The purpose was to investigate mobile phone interference with implantable deep brain stimulators by means of 10 different 900 Mega Hertz (MHz) and 10 different 1800 MHz GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) mobile phones. Methods: All tests were performed in vitro using a phantom especially developed for testing with deep brain stimulators. The phantom was filled with liquid phantom materials simulating brain and muscle tissue. All examinations were carried out inside an anechoic chamber on two implants of the same type of deep brain stimulator: ITREL-III from Medtronic Inc., USA. Results: Despite a maximum transmitted peak power of mobile phones of 1 Watt (W) at 1800 MHz and 2 W at 900 MHz respectively, no influence on the ITREL-III was found. Neither the shape of the pulse form changed nor did single pulses fail. Tests with increased transmitted power using CW signals and broadband dipoles have shown that inhibition of the ITREL-III occurs at frequency dependent power levels which are below the emissions of GSM mobile phones. The ITREL-III is

Wolfgang Kainz; Franois Alesch; Dulciana Dias; Chan Open Access

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Analysis Efforts Supporting NSTX Upgrades  

SciTech Connect

The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a low aspect ratio, spherical torus (ST) configuration device which is located at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) This device is presently being updated to enhance its physics by doubling the TF field to 1 Tesla and increasing the plasma current to 2 Mega-amperes. The upgrades include a replacement of the centerstack and addition of a second neutral beam. The upgrade analyses have two missions. The first is to support design of new components, principally the centerstack, the second is to qualify existing NSTX components for higher loads, which will increase by a factor of four. Cost efficiency was a design goal for new equipment qualification, and reanalysis of the existing components. Showing that older components can sustain the increased loads has been a challenging effort in which designs had to be developed that would limit loading on weaker components, and would minimize the extent of modifications needed. Two areas representing this effort have been chosen to describe in more details: analysis of the current distribution in the new TF inner legs, and, second, analysis of the out-of-plane support of the existing TF outer legs.

H.Zhang, P. Titus, P. Rogoff, A.Zolfaghari, D. Mangra, M. Smith

2010-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

351

A Novel MagPipe Pipeline transportation system using linear motor drives  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel capsule pipeline transportation system using linear motor drives, called Magplane MagPipe, is under development with the intention to replace trucks and railways for hauling materials from the mine to the rail head, power plant, or processing plant with reduced operating cost and energy consumption. The initial demonstration of a MagPipe line in Inner Mongolia will be a 500-m-long double-pipe coal transport system with the design transportation capacity of 3 Mega-Mg per year. The pipeline consists of 6-m-long plastic pipe modules with an I-beam suspension system inside the pipe to carry sets of five coupled capsules. The pipe will also contain noncontinuous motor winding modules spaced at 50-m intervals. A set of Halbach-arrayed permanent magnets on the bottom of the capsules interact with the linear motor windings to provide propulsion. The motor is driven by variable frequency drives outside the pipe to control the speed. This paper briefly describes the overall MagPipe pipeline transportation system, including the preliminary conclusions of the linear synchronous motor analysis.

Fang, J.R.; Montgomery, D.B.; Roderick, L. [Magplane Technology Inc., Littleton, MA (United States)

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

352

A new Milky Way halo star cluster in the Southern Galactic Sky  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on the discovery of a new Milky Way companion stellar system located at (RA, Dec) = (22h10m43s, +14:56:30). The discovery was made using the eighth data release of SDSS after applying an automated method to search for overdensities in the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey footprint. Follow-up observations were performed using CFHT-MegaCam, which reveal that this system is comprised of an old stellar population, located at a distance of 31.9+1.0-1.6 kpc, with a half-light radius of r_h = 9.27 +/- 0.88 pc and a concentration parameter of c = 0.82. A systematic isochrone fit to its color-magnitude diagram resulted in log(age) = 10.07+0.05-0.03 and [Fe/H] = -1.58+0.08-0.13 . These quantities are typical of globular clusters in the MW halo. The newly found object is of low stellar mass, whose observed excess relative to the background is caused by 96 +/- 3 stars. The direct integration of its background decontaminated luminosity function leads to an absolute magnitude of MV = -1.21 +/- 0.66. The re...

Balbinot, Eduardo; da Costa, L; Maia, M A G; Majewski, S R; Nidever, D; Rocha-Pinto, H J; Thomas, D; Wechsler, R H; Yanny, B

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Potential for Coal-to-Liquids Conversion in the United States-Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The United States has the world's largest coal reserves and Montana the highest potential for mega-mine development. Consequently, a large-scale effort to convert coal to liquids (CTL) has been proposed to create a major source of domestic transportation fuels from coal, and some prominent Montanans want to be at the center of that effort. We calculate that the energy efficiency of the best existing Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process applied to average coal in Montana is less than 1/2 of the corresponding efficiency of an average crude oil refining process. The resulting CO{sub 2} emissions are 20 times (2000%) higher for CTL than for conventional petroleum products. One barrel of the FT fuel requires roughly 800 kg of coal and 800 kg of water. The minimum energy cost of subsurface CO{sub 2} sequestration would be at least 40% of the FT fuel energy, essentially halving energy efficiency of the process. We argue therefore that CTL conversion is not the most valuable use for the coal, nor will it ever be, as long as it is economical to use natural gas for electric power generation. This finding results from the low efficiency inherent in FT synthesis, and is independent of the monumental FT plant construction costs, mine construction costs, acute lack of water, and the associated environmental impacts for Montana.

Patzek, Tad W. [University of Texas, Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (United States)], E-mail: patzek@mail.utexas.edu; Croft, Gregory D. [University of California, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (United States)

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

354

Primordial Stellar Feedback and the Origin of Hyper Metal-Poor Stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The apparent absence of stars in the Milky Way halo with -5 ~gas out of which the halo stars were born experienced a period of low or delayed star formation after the local universe was lit up by the first, metal-free generation of stars (Pop III). Negative feedback owed to the Pop III stars could initially have prevented the pre-Galactic halo from cooling, which thereby delayed the collapse and inhibited further star formation. During this period, however, the nucleosynthesis products of the first supernovae (SNe) had time to mix with the halo gas. As a result, the initially primordial gas was already weakly enriched in heavy elements, in particular iron, at the time of formation of the Galactic halo. The very high, observed C/Fe ratios in the two recently discovered hyper metal-poor stars ([Fe/H]naturally explained by a combination of pre-enrichment by Pop III stars and local enrichment by subsequent generations of massive, rotating stars, for which the most massive ones end their lives as black hole-forming SNe, only ejecting their outer (carbon-rich) layers. The possible existence of populations of mega metal-poor/iron-free stars ([Fe/H]<-6) is also discussed.

Torgny Karlsson

2006-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

355

Magnetic reconnection in high-energy-density laser-produced plasmas  

SciTech Connect

Recently, novel experiments on magnetic reconnection have been conducted in laser-produced plasmas in a high-energy-density regime. Individual plasma bubbles self-generate toroidal, mega-gauss-scale magnetic fields through the Biermann battery effect. When multiple bubbles are created at small separation, they expand into one another, driving reconnection of this field. Reconnection in the experiments was reported to be much faster than allowed by both Sweet-Parker, and even Hall-MHD theories, when normalized to the nominal magnetic fields self-generated by single bubbles. Through particle-in-cell simulations (both with and without a binary collision operator), we model the bubble interaction at parameters and geometry relevant to the experiments. This paper discusses in detail the reconnection regime of the laser-driven experiments and reports the qualitative features of simulations. We find substantial flux-pileup effects, which boost the relevant magnetic field for reconnection in the current sheet. When this is accounted for, the normalized reconnection rates are much more in line with standard two-fluid theory of reconnection. At the largest system sizes, we additionally find that the current sheet is prone to breakup into plasmoids.

Fox, W.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Germaschewski, K. [Center for Integrated Computation and Analysis of Reconnection and Turbulence, and Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire 03824 (United States)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

356

Magnetic properties of graphite irradiated with MeV ions  

SciTech Connect

We have studied the change in the magnetic properties produced on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite samples by irradiation of H, C, and N ions in the mega-electron-volt energy range. The use of specially made sample holders for the magnetic measurements provided high reproducibility allowing us to obtain directly the irradiation effects without any corrections or subtractions. Our results show that three magnetic phenomena are triggered by the defects produced by the irradiation, namely, Curie-type paramagnetism, ferromagnetism and an anomalous paramagnetic state that appears as precursor of the magnetic ordered state. Using SRIM simulations to estimate the amount of vacancies produced by the irradiation, the Curie-type paramagnetic response indicates an effective Bohr magneton number per nominally produced vacancy p=0.27+-0.02mu{sub B}. Direct measurements of the surface sample temperature during irradiation and the decrease in the (as-received) paramagnetic as well as ferromagnetic contributions after irradiation indicate that self-heating is one of the causes for small yield of ferromagnetism. Taking into account the hydrogen distribution in the virgin samples, the obtained results indicate that the induced ferromagnetism appears when the average vacancy distance is {approx}2 nm in the near surface region.

Ramos, M. A.; Munoz-Martin, A.; Climent-Font, A. [CMAM and Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales 'Nicolas Cabrera', Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Barzola-Quiquia, J.; Esquinazi, P. [Division of Superconductivity and Magnetism, Institut fuer Experimentelle Physik II, Universitaet Leipzig, Linnestrasse 5, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Garcia-Hernandez, M. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Ion sources for the varying needs of ion implantation  

SciTech Connect

A joint research and development effort whose ultimate goal is to develop steady-state intense ion sources to meet the needs of the two energy extremes of ion implanters (mega-electron-volt and of hundreds of electron-volt) has been in progress for the past two years. Present day high-energy ion implanters utilize low charge state (usually single charge) ion sources in combination with rf accelerators. Usually, a MeV linear accelerator is used for acceleration of a few milliamperes. It is desirable to have instead an intense, high charge state ion source on a relatively low-energy platform (dc acceleration) to generate high-energy ion beams for implantation. This endeavor has already resulted in very high steady-state output currents of higher charge states antimony and phosphorous ions. Low-energy ion implantation is performed presently by decelerating high-energy extracted ions. Consequently, output currents are low due to space charge problems. Contamination is also a problem due to gases and plasmas employed to mitigate the space charge issues. Our efforts involve molecular ions and a plasmaless/gasless deceleration method. A program overview is presented in this article. Although source specifics are described in accompanying papers, only this article contains our most recent results.

Hershcovitch, A.; Batalin, V.A.; Bugaev, A.S. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)] (and others)

2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

358

Negative Decaborane Ion Beam from ITEP Bernas Ion Source  

SciTech Connect

A joint research and development effort focusing on the design of steady state, intense ion sources has been in progress for the past two and a half years with a couple of Russian institutions. The ultimate goal of the effort is to meet the two, energy extreme range needs of mega-electron-volt and 100's of electron-volt ion implanters. This endeavor has already resulted in record steady state output currents of higher charge state antimony and phosphorous ions to meet high-energy implantation requirements. For low energy ion implantation, R and D efforts have involved molecular ions and a novel plasmaless/gasless deceleration method. To date, 1 emA of positive decaborane ions were extracted at 10 keV and a smaller current of negative decaborane ions were also extracted. Though of scientific interest, negative decaborane ions did not attract interest from industry, since the semiconductor ion implant industry seems to have solved the wafer-charging problem. This paper describes conditions under which negative decaborane ions are formed and extracted from a Bernas ion source.

Petrenko, S. V.; Kuibeda, R. P.; Kulevoy, T. V.; Batalin, V. A.; Pershin, V. I.; Koslov, A. V.; Stasevich, Yu. B.; Koshelev, V. A. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow, (Russian Federation); Hershcovitch, A.; Johnson, B. M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Oks, E. M.; Gushenets, V. I. [High Current Electronics Institute Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); Poole, H. J. [PVI, Oxnard, California 93031-5023 (United States)

2007-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

359

Quantization of Differences Between Atomic and Nuclear Rest Masses and Selforganization of Atoms and Nuclei  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We come to the conclusion that all atomic models based on either the Newton equation and the Kepler laws, or the Maxwell equations, or the Schrodinger and Dirac equations are in reasonable agreement with experimental data. We can only suspect that these equations are grounded on the same fundamental principle(s) which is (are) not known or these equations can be transformed into each other. We proposed a new mechanism of LENR: cooperative processes in the whole system - nuclei+atoms+condensed matter - nuclear reactions in plasma - can occur at smaller threshold energies than the corresponding ones on free constituents. We were able to quantize phenomenologically the first time the differences between atomic and nuclear rest masses by the formula (in MeV/$c^{2}$) $\\Delta M=\\frac{n_{1}}{n_{2}}*0.0076294, n_{i}=1,2,3,...$ Note that this quantization rule is justified for atoms and nuclei with different $A, N$ and $Z$ and the nuclei and atoms represent a coherent synchronized systems - a complex of coupled oscillators (resonators). The cooperative resonance synchronization mechanisms are responsible for explanation of how the electron volt world can influence the nuclear mega electron volt world. It means that we created new possibilities for inducing and controlling nuclear reactions by atomic processes.

F. A. Gareev; I. E. Zhidkova

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

360

Sources and transport systems for low energy extreme of ion implantation  

SciTech Connect

For the past seven years a joint research and development effort focusing on the design of steady state, intense ion sources has been in progress with the ultimate goal being to meet the two, energy extreme range needs of mega-electron-volt and 100's of electron-volt ion implanters. However, since the last Fortier is low energy ion implantation, focus of the endeavor has shifted to low energy ion implantation. For boron cluster source development, we started with molecular ions of decaborane (B{sub 10}H{sub 14}), octadecaborane (B{sub 18}H{sub 22}), and presently our focus is on carborane (C{sub 2}B{sub 10}H{sub 12}) ions developing methods for mitigating graphite deposition. Simultaneously, we are developing a pure boron ion source (without a working gas) that can form the basis for a novel, more efficient, plasma immersion source. Our Calutron-Berna ion source was converted into a universal source capable of switching between generating molecular phosphorous P{sub 4}{sup +}, high charge state ions, as well as other types of ions. Additionally, we have developed transport systems capable of transporting a very large variety of ion species, and simulations of a novel gasless/plasmaless ion beam deceleration method were also performed.

Hershcovitch, A.; Batalin, V.A.; Bugaev, A.S.; Gushenets, V.I.; Alexeyenko, O.; Gurkova, E.; Johnson, B.M.; Kolomiets, A.A.; Kropachev, G.N.; Kuibeda, R.P.; Kulevoy, T.V.; Masunov, E.S.; Oks, E.M.; Pershin, V.I.; Polozov, S.M.; Poole, H.J.; Seleznev, D.N.; Storozhenko, P.A.; Vizir, A.; Svarovski, A.Ya.; Yakushin, P.; Yushkov, G.Yu.

2010-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

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361

Sources for Low Energy Extreme of Ion Implantation  

SciTech Connect

A joint research and development effort focusing on the design of steady state, intense ion sources has been in progress for the past four and a half years. The ultimate goal is to meet the two, energy extreme range needs of mega-electron-volt and 100's of electron-volt ion implanters. This endeavor has resulted in record steady state output currents of higher charge state Antimony and Phosphorous ions: P{sup 2+}(8.6 pmA), P{sup 3+}(1.9 pmA), and P{sup 4+}(0.12 pmA) and 16.2, 7.6, 3.3, and 2.2 pmA of Sb{sup 3+} Sb{sup 4+}, Sb{sup 5+}, and Sb{sup 6+} respectively. During the past year the effort was channeled towards low energy implantation, for which the effort involved molecular ions and a novel plasmaless/gasless deceleration method. To date, 3 emA of positive Decaborane ions were extracted at 14 keV and a smaller current of negative Decaborane ions were also extracted. Additionally, a Boron fraction of over 70% was extracted from a Bernas-Calutron ion source.

Hershcovitch, A.; Johnson, B. M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Batalin, V. A.; Kolomiets, A. A.; Kropachev, G. N.; Kuibeda, R. P.; Kulevoy, T. V.; Pershin, V. I.; Petrenko, S. V.; Rudskoy, I.; Seleznev, D. N. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bugaev, A. S.; Gushenets, V. I.; Oks, E. M.; Yushkov, G. Yu. [High Current Electronics Institute Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); Masunov, E. S.; Polozov, S. M. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Kashirskoe sh. 31, Moscow, 115409 (Russian Federation); Poole, H. J. [PVI, Oxnard, California 93031-5023 (United States); Storozhenko, P. A. [State Research Institute for Chemistry and Technology of Organoelement Compounds 38, sh. Entuziastov, Moscow, 111123 (Russian Federation); Svarovski, A. Ya. [Siberian Divisions of Russian National Research Center 'A.A. Bochvara Scientific Research Institute for Inorganic Materials', Seversk, 636070 (Russian Federation)

2008-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

362

ION SOURCES FOR ENERGY EXTREMES OF ION IMPLANTATION.  

SciTech Connect

For the past four years a joint research and development effort designed to develop steady state, intense ion sources has been in progress with the ultimate goal to develop ion sources and techniques, which meet the two energy extreme range needs of mega-electron-volt and 100's of electron-volt ion implanters. This endeavor has already resulted in record steady state output currents of high charge state of Antimony and Phosphorous ions: P{sup 2+} (8.6 pmA), P{sup 3+} (1.9 pmA), and P{sup 4+} (0.12 pmA) and 16.2, 7.6, 3.3, and 2.2 pmA of Sb{sup 3+} Sb{sup 4+}, Sb{sup 5+}, and Sb{sup 6+} respectively. For low energy ion implantation our efforts involve molecular ions and a novel plasmaless/gasless deceleration method. To date, 1 emA of positive Decaborane ions were extracted at 10 keV and smaller currents of negative Decaborane ions were also extracted. Additionally, Boron current fraction of over 70% was extracted from a Bemas-Calutron ion source, which represents a factor of 3.5 improvement over currently employed ion sources.

HERSCHCOVITCH,A.; JOHNSON, B.M.; BATALIN, V.A.; KROPACHEV, G.N.; KUIBEDA, R.P.; KULEVOY, T.V.; KOLOMIETS, A.A.; PERSHIN, V.I.; PETRENKO, S.V.; RUDSKOY, I.; SELEZNEV, D.N.; BUGAEV, A.S.; GUSHENETS, V.I.; LITOVKO, I.V.; OKS, E.M.; YUSHKOV, G. YU.; MASEUNOV, E.S.; POLOZOV, S.M.; POOLE, H.J.; STOROZHENKO, P.A.; SVAROVSKI, YA.

2007-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

363

Automatic Quenching of High Energy gamma-ray Sources by Synchrotron Photons  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Here we investigate evolution of a magnetized system, in which continuously produced high energy emission undergoes annihilation on a soft photon field, such that the synchrotron radiation of the created electron-positron pairs increases number density of the soft photons. This situation is important in high energy astrophysics, because, for an extremely wide range of magnetic field strengths (nano to mega Gauss), it involves {gamma}-ray photons with energies between 0.3GeV and 30TeV. We derive and analyze the conditions for which the system is unstable to runaway production of soft photons and ultrarelativistic electrons, and for which it can reach a steady state with an optical depth to photon-photon annihilation larger than unity, as well those for which efficient pair loading of the emitting volume takes place. We also discuss the application of our analysis to a realistic situation involving astrophysical sources of a broad-band {gamma}-ray emission and briefly consider the particular case of sources close to active supermassive black holes.

Stawarz, Lukasz; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ.; Kirk, John; /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst.

2007-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

364

Laser System for Livermore's Mono Energetic Gamma-Ray Source  

SciTech Connect

A Mono-energetic Gamma-ray (MEGa-ray) source, based on Compton scattering of a high-intensity laser beam off a highly relativistic electron beam, requires highly specialized laser systems. To minimize the bandwidth of the {gamma}-ray beam, the scattering laser must have minimal bandwidth, but also match the electron beam depth of focus in length. This requires a {approx}1 J, 10 ps, fourier-transform-limited laser system. Also required is a high-brightness electron beam, best provided by a photoinjector. This electron source requires a second laser system with stringent requirements on the beam including flat transverse and longitudinal profiles and fast rise times. Furthermore, these systems must be synchronized to each other with ps-scale accuracy. Using a novel hyper-dispersion compressor configuration and advanced fiber amplifiers and diode-pumped Nd:YAG amplifiers, we have designed laser systems that meet these challenges for the X-band photoinjector and Compton-scattering source being built at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

Gibson, D; Albert, F; Bayramian, A; Marsh, R; Messerly, M; Ebbers, C; Hartemann, F

2011-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

365

Precision Magnet Measurements for X-Band Accelerator Quadrupole Triplets  

SciTech Connect

An X-band test station is being developed at LLNL to investigate accelerator optimization for future upgrades to mono-energetic gamma-ray (MEGa-Ray) technology at LLNL. Beamline magnets will include an emittance compensation solenoid, windowpane steering dipoles, and quadrupole magnets. Demanding tolerances have been placed on the alignment of these magnets, which directly affects the electron bunch beam quality. A magnet mapping system has been established at LLNL in order to ensure the delivered magnets match their field specification, and the mountings are aligned and capable of reaching the specified alignment tolerances. The magnet measurement system will be described which uses a 3-axis Lakeshore gauss probe mounted on a 3-axis translation stage. Alignment accuracy and precision will be discussed, as well as centering measurements and analysis. The dependence on data analysis over direct multi-pole measurement allows a significant improvement in useful alignment information. Detailed analysis of measurements on the beamline quadrupoles will be discussed, including multi-pole content both from alignment of the magnets, and the intrinsic level of multi-pole magnetic field.

Marsh, R A; Anderson, S G; Armstrong, J P

2012-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

366

Gas marketing: Does size equal survival?  

SciTech Connect

The thought is enough to make many homeowners cringe: competing natural gas marketers calling them at home in the evening, pushing their brands and services much like AT and T, MCI and Sprint hawk long-distance telephone service today. Another thought is enough to make many gas marketers cringe: a half-dozen or fewer giant mega-marketers selling virtually all the natural gas in the US, and they and their company are not among them. Yet both thoughts are likely to become realities, say many in the natural gas industry. If so, each would represent an intriguing turn of events for the newest segment of the industry, one that barely existed 10 or 15 years ago. The paper discusses the recent history of the gas marketing sector, the changes taking place in the industry, and the biggest problem--the lack of a uniform electronic standard or bulletin board system for dispatching, nominating, and monitoring gas purchase as they move across the country.

Katz, M.G.

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

THE CANADA-FRANCE-HAWAII TELESCOPE LEGACY SURVEY: STACKED IMAGES AND CATALOGS  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the image stacks and catalogs of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey produced using the MegaPipe data pipeline at the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre. The Legacy Survey is divided into two parts. The Deep Survey consists of four fields each of 1 deg{sup 2}, with magnitude limits (50% completeness for point sources) of u = 27.5, g = 27.9, r = 27.7, i = 27.4, and z = 26.2. It contains 1.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} sources. The Wide Survey consists of 150 deg{sup 2} split over four fields, with magnitude limits of u = 26.0, g = 26.5, r = 25.9, i = 25.7, and z = 24.6. It contains 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} sources. This paper describes the calibration, image stacking, and catalog generation process. The images and catalogs are available on the web through several interfaces: normal image and text file catalog downloads, a 'Google Sky' interface, an image cutout service, and a catalog database query service.

Gwyn, Stephen D. J., E-mail: Stephen.Gwyn@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [Canadian Astronomy Data Centre, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, British Columbia, V9E 2E7 (Canada)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

368

Possible hydrocarbon habitat of the bulge, Alaska and Yukon Territory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bedrock geology of the northernmost Bulge of the Rocky Mountain Cordillera consists of units ranging in age from the Proterozoic to the Recent. Concerted LANDSAT imagery, field mapping, and CDP seismic interpretation indicates that there are several thick, unconformity-bounded and areally distinct depositional mega-sequences in northern Alaska and Yukon Territory. Analyses of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), 1002 area, subsurface suggest the presence of several large structures. However, seismic resolution is insufficient to determine the stratigraphy with a high degree of confidence. The oldest sediments in the Bulge are the northerly derived Katakturuk dolomite and the southerly derived, predominantly clastic Neruokpuk Formation. Tests of these units immediately outside ANWR produced oil, gas, and water from vugs and fractures. Both the Katakturuk and Neruokpuk are overlain by dissimilar but thick and areally limited Cambrian-Devonian sediments with undetermined reservoir potential. Middle and Upper Ellesmerian crop out around the periphery of the coastal plain and are found in the subsurface. Their presence and reservoir development in the structures of the 1002 area depend upon the extent of Lower Cretaceous truncation. Two dissimilar locally derived breakup megasequence sandstones having limited lateral extends overlie older units. They have increasing regional importance as commercial oil and gas reservoirs. Very thick, southerly derived, Brookian clastics overstep this area. They contain the largest endowment of the in-place hydrocarbons in Alaska and the Yukon. Their commercial development is incipient.

Banet, A.C. Jr. (Bureau of Land Management, Anchorage, AK (United States))

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

1 DISTILLERS BY-PRODUCTS AND CORN STOVER AS FUELS FOR ETHANOL PLANTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. Dry-grind ethanol plants have the potential to reduce their operating costs and improve their net energy balances by using biomass as the source of process heat and electricity. We utilized ASPEN PLUS software to model various technology bundles of equipment, fuels and operating activities that are capable of supplying energy and satisfying emissions requirements for dry-grind ethanol plants of 50 and 100 million gallons per year capacity using corn stover, distillers dried grains and solubles (DDGS), or a mixture of corn stover and syrup (the solubles portion of DDGS). In addition to their own requirements, plants producing 50 and 100 million gallons of ethanol are capable of supplying 5-7 or 10-14 MegaWatts of electricity to the grid, respectively. Economic analysis showed favorable rates of return for biomass alternatives compared to conventional plants using natural gas and purchased electricity over a range of conditions. The mixture of corn stover and syrup provided the highest rates of return in general. Factors favoring biomass included a higher premium for low carbon footprint ethanol, higher natural gas prices, lower DDGS prices, lower ethanol

Douglas G. Tiffany; R. Vance Morey; Matt De Kam; Douglas G. Tiffany; R. Vance Morey; Matt De Kam

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Super-giant oil fields and future prospects in the Middle East  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Upper Jurassic carbonates, Lower Cretaceous sands, Lower Cretaceous carbonates and Tertiary carbonates of the Middle East contain more than 50% of the worlds oil. Our area of interest covers SE Turkey and Syria in the north to the borders of Yemen and Oman in the south, and from the Red Sea across Saudi Arabia, the Emirates and the Arabian/Persian Gulf to Iran in the East. There are over 80 fields in this region with over 1 billion barrels of recoverable reserves. Yet only around 30,000 wells have been drilled in this territory. Regional structure and stratigraphy are discussed within the context of three major plays in the region as well as a new play in the Permo-Carboniferous. Numerous opportunities are available and countries such as Iraq and Iran may one day open their doors more to the industry than is presently the case. The dramatic petroleum geology of the region will stamp its influence on the nature of business and opportunities for years to come. While fiscal systems here already offer some of the toughest terms in the world, future deals in the more prolific areas will be even tougher. But, the economies of Middle Eastern scale will provide some of the great mega-opportunities of future international exploration.

Christian, L. [Consultant, Dallas, TX (United States); Johnston, D. [Daniel Johnston & Co., Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Microwave Power Beaming Infrastructure for Manned Lightcraft Operations: Part 2  

SciTech Connect

In the past {approx}7 years, microwave gyrotron technology has rapidly evolved to a critical threshold wherein ultra-energetic space launch missions based on beamed energy propulsion (BEP) now appear eminently feasible. Over the next 20 years, hundred megawatt-class microwave power-beaming stations could be prototyped on high deserts and 3- to 4 km mountain peaks before migrating into low Earth orbit, along with their passive microwave relay satellites. Described herein is a 20 GW rechargeable nuclear power satellite and microwave power-beaming infrastructure designed for manned space launch operations in the year 2025. The technological readiness of 2500 GJ superconducting magnetic energy storage 'batteries', 433-m ultralight space structures, 100 MW liquid droplet radiators, 1-6+ MW gyrotron sources, and mega-scale arrays (e.g., 3000 phase-locked units) is addressed. Microwave BEP is 'breakthrough' technology with the very real potential to radically reduce space access costs by factors of 100 to 1000 in the forseeable future.

Myrabo, Leik N. [Lightcraft Technologies, Inc., Bennington, VT (United States)

2008-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

372

TARGET: A multi-channel digitizer chip for very-high-energy gamma-ray telescopes  

SciTech Connect

The next-generation very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray observatory, the Cherenkov Telescope Array, will feature dozens of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs), each with thousands of pixels of photosensors. To be affordable and reliable, reading out such a mega-channel array requires event recording technology that is highly integrated and modular, with a low cost per channel. We present the design and performance of a chip targeted to this application: the TeV Array Readout with GSa/s sampling and Event Trigger (TARGET). This application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) has 16 parallel input channels, a 4096-sample buffer for each channel, adjustable input termination, self-trigger functionality, and tight window-selected readout. We report the performance of TARGET in terms of sampling frequency, power consumption, dynamic range, current-mode gain, analog bandwidth, and cross talk. The large number of channels per chip allows a low cost per channel ($10 to $20 including front-end and back-end electronics but not including photosensors) to be achieved with a TARGET-based IACT readout system. In addition to basic performance parameters of the TARGET chip itself, we present a camera module prototype as well as a second-generation chip (TARGET 2), both of which have been produced.

Bechtol, K.; Funk, S.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Okumura, A.; /JAXA, Sagamihara /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Ruckman, L.; /Hawaii U.; Simons, A.; Tajima, H.; Vandenbroucke, J.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Varner, G.; /Hawaii U.

2011-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

373

Large-Scale PV Module Manufacturing Using Ultra-Thin Polycrystalline Silicon Solar Cells: Final Subcontract Report, 1 April 2002--28 February 2006  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The major objectives of this program were to continue advances of BP Solar polycrystalline silicon manufacturing technology. The Program included work in the following areas. (1) Efforts in the casting area to increase ingot size, improve ingot material quality, and improve handling of silicon feedstock as it is loaded into the casting stations. (2) Developing wire saws to slice 100-..mu..m-thick silicon wafers on 290-..mu..m-centers. (3) Developing equipment for demounting and subsequent handling of very thin silicon wafers. (4) Developing cell processes using 100-..mu..m-thick silicon wafers that produce encapsulated cells with efficiencies of at least 15.4% at an overall yield exceeding 95%. (5) Expanding existing in-line manufacturing data reporting systems to provide active process control. (6) Establishing a 50-MW (annual nominal capacity) green-field Mega-plant factory model template based on this new thin polycrystalline silicon technology. (7) Facilitating an increase in the silicon feedstock industry's production capacity for lower-cost solar-grade silicon feedstock..

Wohlgemuth, J.; Narayanan, M.

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Report on the Depth Requirements for a Massive Detector at Homestake  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This report provides the technical justification for locating a large detector underground in a US based Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory. A large detector with a fiducial mass in the mega-ton scale will most likely be a multipurpose facility. The main physics justification for such a device is detection of accelerator generated neutrinos, nucleon decay, and natural sources of neutrinos such as solar, atmospheric and supernova neutrinos. In addition to the physics justification there are practical issues regarding the existing infrastructure at Homestake, and the stress characteristics of the Homestake rock formations. The depth requirements associated with the various physics processes are reported for water Cherenkov and liquid argon detector technologies. While some of these physics processes can be adequately studied at shallower depths, none of them require a depth greater than 4300 mwe which corresponds to the 4850 ft level at Homestake. It is very important to note that the scale of the planned detector is such that even for accelerator neutrino detection (which allows one to use the accelerator duty factor to eliminate cosmics) a minimum depth is needed to reduce risk of contamination from cosmic rays. After consideration of the science and the practical issues regarding the Homestake site, we strongly recommend that the geotechnical studies be commenced at the 4850ft level in a timely manner.

Adam Bernstein; Mary Bishai; Edward Blucher; David B. Cline; Milind V. Diwan; Bonnie Fleming; Maury Goodman; Zbigniew J. Hladysz; Richard Kadel; Edward Kearns; Joshua Klein; Kenneth Lande; Francesco Lanni; David Lissauer; Steve Marks; Robert McKeown; William Morse; Regina Rameika; William M. Roggenthen; Kate Scholberg; Michael Smy; Henry Sobel; James Stewart; Gregory Sullivan; Robert Svoboda; Mark Vagins; Brett Viren; Christopher Walter; Robert Zwaska

2009-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

375

The All-wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey (AEGIS) Data Sets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this the first of a series of Letters, we present a description of the panchromatic data sets that have been acquired in the Extended Groth Strip region of the sky. Our survey, the All-wavelength Extended Groth strip International Survey (AEGIS), is intended to study the physical properties and evolutionary processes of galaxies at z ~ 1. It includes the following deep, wide-field imaging data sets: Chandra/ACIS X-ray (0.5 - 10 keV), GALEX ultraviolet (1200 - 2500 Angstrom), CFHT/MegaCam Legacy Survey optical (3600 - 9000 Angstroms), CFHT/CFH12K optical (4500 - 9000 Angstroms), Hubble Space Telescope/ACS optical (4400 - 8500 Angstroms), Palomar/WIRC near-infrared (1.2 - 2.2 microns), Spitzer/IRAC mid-infrared (3.6 - 8.0 microns), Spitzer/MIPS far-infrared (24 - 70 microns), and VLA radio continuum (6 - 20 cm). In addition, this region of the sky has been targeted for extensive spectroscopy using the DEIMOS spectrograph on the Keck II 10 m telescope. Our survey is compared to other large multiwavelength surveys in terms of depth and sky coverage.

M. Davis; P. Guhathakurta; N. Konidaris; J. A. Newman; M. L. N. Ashby; A. D. Biggs; P. Barmby; K. Bundy; S. Chapman; A. L. Coil; C. Conselice; M. Cooper; D. Croton; P. Eisenhardt; R. Ellis; S. Faber; T. Fang; G. G. Fazio; A. Georgakakis; B. Gerke; W. M. Goss; S. Gwyn; J. Harker; A. Hopkins; J. -S. Huang; R. J. Ivison; S. A. Kassin; E. Kirby; A. Koekemoer; D. C. Koo; E. Laird; E. Le Floc'h; L. Lin; J. Lotz; P. J. Marshall; D. C. Martin; A. Metevier; L. A. Moustakas; K. Nandra; K. Noeske; C. Papovich; A. C. Phillips; R. M. Rich; G. H. Rieke; D. Rigopoulou; S. Salim; D. Schiminovich; L. Simard; I. Smail; T. A. Small; B. Weiner; C. N. A. Willmer; S. P. Willner; G. Wilson; E. Wright; R. Yan

2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

376

The All-wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey (AEGIS) Data Sets  

SciTech Connect

In this the first of a series of ''Letters'', we present a description of the panchromatic data sets that have been acquired in the Extended Groth Strip region of the sky. Our survey, the All-wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey (AEGIS), is intended to study the physical properties and evolutionary processes of galaxies at z {approx} 1. It includes the following deep, wide-field imaging data sets: Chandra/ACIS{sup 30} X-ray (0.5-10 keV), GALEX{sup 31} ultraviolet (1200-2500 A), CFHT/MegaCam Legacy Survey{sup 32} optical (3600-9000 {angstrom}), CFHT/CFH12K optical (4500-9000 {angstrom}), Hubble Space Telescope/ACS{sup 33} optical (4400-8500 {angstrom}), Palomar/WIRC{sup 34} near-infrared (1.2-2.2 {micro}m), Spitzer/IRAC{sup 35} mid-infrared (3.6-8.0 {micro}m), Spitzer/MIPS far-infrared (24-70 {micro}m), and VLA{sup 36} radio continuum (6-20 cm). In addition, this region of the sky has been targeted for extensive spectroscopy using the DEIMOS spectrograph on the Keck II 10 m telescope{sup 37}. Our survey is compared to other large multiwavelength surveys in terms of depth and sky coverage.

Davis, M.; Guhathakurta, P.; Konidaris, N.; Newman, J.A.; Ashby, M.L.N.; Biggs, A.D.; Barmby, P.; Bundy, K.; Chapman, S.; Coil, A.L.; Conselice, C.; Cooper, M.; Croton, D.; Eisenhardt, P.; Ellis, R.; Faber, S.; Fang, T.; Fazio, G.G.; Georgakakis, A.; Gerke, B.; Goss, W.M.; /UC, Berkeley, Astron. Dept. /Lick Observ. /LBL, Berkeley /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Royal Observ., Edinburgh /Caltech /Arizona U., Astron. Dept. - Steward Observ. /Nottingham U. /Caltech, JPL /Imperial Coll., London /UC, Berkeley /NRAO, Socorro /Victoria U. /Sydney U. /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci. /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /NOAO, Tucson /KIPAC, Menlo Park /UCLA /Oxford U. /Columbia U., Astron. Astrophys.

2006-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

377

The All-Wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey(AEGIS) Data Sets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this the first of a series of Letters, we present a description of the panchromatic data sets that have been acquired in the Extended Groth Strip region of the sky. Our survey, the All-wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey (AEGIS), is intended to study the physical properties and evolutionary processes of galaxies at z{approx}1. It includes the following deep, wide-field imaging data sets: Chandra/ACIS X-ray (0.5-10 keV), GALEX ultraviolet (1200-2500 Angstroms), CFHT/MegaCam Legacy Survey optical (3600-9000 Angstroms), CFHT/CFH12K optical (4500-9000 Angstroms), Hubble Space Telescope/ACS optical (4400-8500 Angstroms), Palomar/WIRC near-infrared (1.2-2.2 {micro}m), Spitzer/IRAC mid-infrared (3.6-8.0 {micro}m), Spitzer/MIPS far-infrared (24-70 {micro}m), and VLA radio continuum (6-20 cm). In addition, this region of the sky has been targeted for extensive spectroscopy using the DEIMOS spectrograph on the Keck II 10 m telescope. Our survey is compared to other large multiwavelength surveys in terms of depth and sky coverage.

Davis, M.; Guhathakurta, P.; Konidaris, N.P.; Newman, J.A.; Ashby, M.L.N.; Biggs, A.D.; Barmby, P.; Bundy, K.; Chapman, S.C.; Coil,A.L.; Conselice, C.J.; Cooper, M.C.; Croton, D.J.; Eisenhardt, P.R.M.; Ellis, R.S.; Faber, S.M.; Fang, T.; Fazio, G.G.; Georgakakis, A.; Gerke,B.F.; Goss, W.M.; Gwyn, S.; Harker, J.; Hopkins, A.M.; Huang, J.-S.; Ivison, R.J.; Kassin, S.A.; Kirby, E.N.; Koekemoer, A.M.; Koo, D.C.; Laird, E.S.; Le Floc'h, E.; Lin, L.; Lotz, J.M.; Marshall, P.J.; Martin,D.C.; Metevier, A.J.; Moustakas, L.A.; Nandra, K.; Noeske, K.G.; Papovich, C.; Phillips, A.C.; Rich,R. M.; Rieke, G.H.; Rigopoulou, D.; Salim, S.; Schiminovich, D.; Simard, L.; Smail, I.; Small,T.A.; Weiner,B.J.; Willmer, C.N.A.; Willner, S.P.; Wilson, G.; Wright, E.L.; Yan, R.

2006-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

378

Compressor & Steam Turbine Efficiency Improvements & Revamping Opportunities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fossil fuels remain the dominant source for primary energy production worldwide. In relation to this trend, energy consumption in turbomachinery has been increasing due to the scale up of both the machinery itself as well as the processing plants in which they operate. This energy growth requires high efficiency improvements for machine design and operation to minimize life cycle cost. This paper will focus on the mechanical drive steam turbines which power the main process equipment in the heart of the plant and introduce the history of efficiency improvements for compressors and steam turbines in the Petrochemical Industry. Since heat balance configurations affect the plant's steam consumption, the authors will explain several cases of heat balance configurations and applications / selections of steam turbines. According to the change in output demand, in some cases the original plants are modified by increasing capacity and consequently the turbines and compressors are revamped internally or replaced totally. The authors will introduce several case studies on revamping to increase efficiency and reliability as per the following cases: a) Replacement of High Pressure Section Internals b) Replacement of Low Pressure Section Internals c) Replacement of All Internals d) Internals and Casing Replacement e) Efficiency Recovery Technique Modification Finally, life cycle cost (LCC) evaluation and sensitivity due to turbomachinery performance are explained as a case study of a mega ethylene plant.

Hata, S.; Horiba, J.; Sicker, M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Range gated strip proximity sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A range gated strip proximity sensor uses one set of sensor electronics and a distributed antenna or strip which extends along the perimeter to be sensed. A micro-power RF transmitter is coupled to the first end of the strip and transmits a sequence of RF pulses on the strip to produce a sensor field along the strip. A receiver is coupled to the second end of the strip, and generates a field reference signal in response to the sequence of pulse on the line combined with received electromagnetic energy from reflections in the field. The sensor signals comprise pulses of radio frequency signals having a duration of less than 10 nanoseconds, and a pulse repetition rate on the order of 1 to 10 MegaHertz or less. The duration of the radio frequency pulses is adjusted to control the range of the sensor. An RF detector feeds a filter capacitor in response to received pulses on the strip line to produce a field reference signal representing the average amplitude of the received pulses. When a received pulse is mixed with a received echo, the mixing causes a fluctuation in the amplitude of the field reference signal, providing a range-limited Doppler type signature of a field disturbance. 6 figs.

McEwan, T.E.

1996-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

380

Range gated strip proximity sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A range gated strip proximity sensor uses one set of sensor electronics and a distributed antenna or strip which extends along the perimeter to be sensed. A micro-power RF transmitter is coupled to the first end of the strip and transmits a sequence of RF pulses on the strip to produce a sensor field along the strip. A receiver is coupled to the second end of the strip, and generates a field reference signal in response to the sequence of pulse on the line combined with received electromagnetic energy from reflections in the field. The sensor signals comprise pulses of radio frequency signals having a duration of less than 10 nanoseconds, and a pulse repetition rate on the order of 1 to 10 MegaHertz or less. The duration of the radio frequency pulses is adjusted to control the range of the sensor. An RF detector feeds a filter capacitor in response to received pulses on the strip line to produce a field reference signal representing the average amplitude of the received pulses. When a received pulse is mixed with a received echo, the mixing causes a fluctuation in the amplitude of the field reference signal, providing a range-limited Doppler type signature of a field disturbance.

McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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381

Geothermal reservoir at Tatapani Geothermal field, Surguja district, Madhya Pradesh, IN  

SciTech Connect

The Tatapani Geothermal field, located on the Son-Narmada mega lineament is one of the most intense geothermal manifestation, with hot spring temperature of 98c. in Central India. 21 Exploratory and thermal gradient boreholes followed by 5 production wells for proposed 300 KWe binary cycle power plant, have revealed specific reservoir parameters of shallow geothermal reservoir of 110c in upper 350 m of geothermal system and their possible continuation to deeper reservoir of anticipated temperature of 160 10c. Testing of five production wells done by Oil and Natural Gas Corporation concurrently with drilling at different depths and also on completion of drilling, have established feeder zones of thermal water at depth of 175-200 m, 280-300 m, maximum temperature of 112.5c and bottom hole pressure of 42 kg/cm. Further interpretation of temperature and pressure profiles, injection test, well head discharges and chemical analysis data has revealed thermal characteristics of individual production wells and overall configuration of .thermal production zones with their permeability, temperature, and discharge characteristics in the shallow thermal reservoir area. Well testing data and interpretation of reservoir parameters therefrom, for upper 350 m part of geothermal system and possible model of deeper geothermal reservoir at Tatapani have been presented in the paper.

Pitale, U.L.; Sarolkar, P.B.; Rawat, H.S.; Shukia, S.N.

1996-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

382

Opportunities for Saving Energy and Improving Air Quality in Urban Heat Islands  

SciTech Connect

World energy use is the main contributor to atmospheric CO2. In 2002, about 7.0 giga metric tons of carbon (GtC) were emitted internationally by combustion of gas, liquid, and solid fuels (CDIAC, 2006), 2 to 5 times the amount contributed by deforestation (Brown et al., 1988). The share of atmospheric carbon emissions for the United States from fossil fuel combustion was 1.6 GtC. Increasing use of fossil fuel and deforestation together have raised atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration some 25% over the last 150 years. According to global climate models and preliminary measurements, these changes in the composition of the atmosphere have already begun raising the Earth's average temperature. If current energy trends continue, these changes could drastically alter the Earth's temperature, with unknown but potentially catastrophic physical and political consequences. During the last three decades, increased energy awareness has led to conservation efforts and leveling of energy consumption in the industrialized countries. An important byproduct of this reduced energy use is the lowering of CO{sub 2} emissions. Of all electricity generated in the United States, about one-sixth is used to air-condition buildings. The air-conditioning use is about 400 tera-watt-hours (TWh), equivalent to about 80 million metric tons of carbon (MtC) emissions, and translating to about $40 billion (B) per year. Of this $40 B/year, about half is used in cities that have pronounced 'heat islands'. The contribution of the urban heat island to the air-conditioning demand has increased over the last 40 years and it is currently at about 10%. Metropolitan areas in the United States (e.g., Los Angeles, Phoenix, Houston, Atlanta, and New York City) have typically pronounced heat islands that warrant special attention by anyone concerned with broad-scale energy efficiency (HIG, 2006). The ambient air is primarily heated through three processes: direct absorption of solar radiation, convection of heat from hot surfaces, and man-made heat (exhaust from cars, buildings, etc.). Air is fairly transparent to light--the direct absorption of solar radiation in atmospheric air only raises the air temperature by a small amount. Typically about 90% of solar radiation reaches the Earth's surface and then is either absorbed or reflected. The absorbed radiation on the surface increases the surface temperature. And in turn the hot surfaces heat the air. This convective heating is responsible for the majority of the diurnal temperature range. The contribution of man-made heat (e.g., air conditioning, cars) is very small, compared to the heating of air by hot surfaces, except for the downtown high-rise areas.

Akbari, Hashem

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

New MCNPX developments  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos National Laboratory Monte Carlo N-Particle extended (MCNPX) radiation transport code has been upgraded significantly to Version MCNPX2.4.0. It is now based on the latest MCNP4C3 and MCNPX2.3.0 releases to the Radiation Safety Information Computational Center (RSICC). In addition to all of the advances from earlier versions of MCNP and MCNPX, important new capabilities have been developed. The Monte Carlo method was developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory during the Manhattan Project in the early 1940s. MCNP and MCNPX are heirs to those early efforts. Over 400 person-years have been invested in the research, development, programming, documentation, and databases for these codes. MCNP is a general-purpose neutron (0-MeV to 20-MeV), photon (1-keV to 1-GeV), and electron (1-keV to 1-GeV) transport code for calculating *MCNPX, MCNP, LAHET, and LCS are trademarks of the Regents of the University of California, Los Alamos National Laboratory. the time-dependent, continuous-energy transport of these particles in three-dimensional geometries. MCNP is perhaps the most widely used and well-known physics simulation code in the world today. MCNPX extends MCNP to track nearly all particles at all energies. MCNPX combined MCNP and the LAHET Code System (LCS). LCS is based on the Oak Ridge High Energy Transport Code. LCS uses models for particles in physics regimes where there are no tabulated data, including the Bertini and ISABEL models. MCNPX has additional models to LCS, such as the CEM model. MCNPX2.3.0 was released to RSICC in December 2001 and is based on MCNP4B. The principal features of MCNPX2.3.0 are (1) Physics for 34 particle types; (2) High-energy physics above the giga-electron volt range; (3) Neutron, proton, and photonuclear 150-MeV libraries: (4) Photonuclear physics; (5) Mesh tallies; (6) Radiography tallies; (7) Secondary particle production biasing; (8) VAVILOV energy straggling for charged particles; and (9) Automatic configuration for compilation. The focus of this work is MCNPX2.4.0, which is due for imminent release. MCNPX2.4.0 merges MCNPX2.3.0 with MCNP4C3 and adds important new features.

Hendricks, J. S. (John S.); McKinney, G. W. (Gregg W.); Waters, L. S. (Laurie S.); Hughes, H. G. (Henry Grady); Snow, E. C. (Edward Clark)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

The Disk and Extraplanar Regions of NGC 2403  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wide field images obtained with WIRCam and MegaCam on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope are used to probe the spatial distribution of young stars in the Sc galaxy NGC 2403. Bright main sequence stars and blue supergiants are detected out to projected galactocentric distances of ~14 kpc (~7 disk scale lengths) along the major axis. The star formation rate (SFR) in the disk of NGC 2403 during the past 10 Myr has been 1 solar masses per year based on the number of bright main sequence stars. The radially-averaged number density of red supergiants (RSGs) per unit r-band surface brightness is constant throughout the disk, indicating that (1) RSGs follow the integrated r-band light, and (2) the SFR per unit mass has been constant with radius when averaged over time scales of a few tens of millions of years. The mean color of RSGs varies with galactocentric distance, suggesting that there is a metallicity gradient among recently formed stars. A comparison of the radially-averaged number density of bright main sequence stars also indicates that the SFR per unit stellar mass in NGC 2403 has been ~3 times higher than in NGC 247 during recent epochs, and this is in rough agreement with what would be predicted from the far infrared fluxes of these galaxies. Finally, the data are used to investigate the extraplanar regions of NGC 2403. A population of M giants with peak brightness M_K = -8 is detected at projected distances between 12 and 14 kpc above the disk plane, and six new globular cluster candidates are identified.

T. J. Davidge

2007-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

385

THE NEXT GENERATION VIRGO CLUSTER SURVEY (NGVS). I. INTRODUCTION TO THE SURVEY  

SciTech Connect

The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS) is a program that uses the 1 deg{sup 2} MegaCam instrument on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope to carry out a comprehensive optical imaging survey of the Virgo cluster, from its core to its virial radius-covering a total area of 104 deg{sup 2}-in the u*griz bandpasses. Thanks to a dedicated data acquisition strategy and processing pipeline, the NGVS reaches a point-source depth of g Almost-Equal-To 25.9 mag (10{sigma}) and a surface brightness limit of {mu}{sub g} {approx} 29 mag arcsec{sup -2} (2{sigma} above the mean sky level), thus superseding all previous optical studies of this benchmark galaxy cluster. In this paper, we give an overview of the technical aspects of the survey, such as areal coverage, field placement, choice of filters, limiting magnitudes, observing strategies, data processing and calibration pipelines, survey timeline, and data products. We also describe the primary scientific topics of the NGVS, which include: the galaxy luminosity and mass functions; the color-magnitude relation; galaxy scaling relations; compact stellar systems; galactic nuclei; the extragalactic distance scale; the large-scale environment of the cluster and its relationship to the Local Supercluster; diffuse light and the intracluster medium; galaxy interactions and evolutionary processes; and extragalactic star clusters. In addition, we describe a number of ancillary programs dealing with 'foreground' and 'background' science topics, including the study of high-inclination trans-Neptunian objects; the structure of the Galactic halo in the direction of the Virgo Overdensity and Sagittarius Stream; the measurement of cosmic shear, galaxy-galaxy, and cluster lensing; and the identification of distant galaxy clusters, and strong-lensing events.

Ferrarese, Laura; Cote, Patrick; Gwyn, S. D. J.; MacArthur, Lauren A.; McConnachie, Alan W.; Blakeslee, John P. [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Cuillandre, Jean-Charles [Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Corporation, Kamuela, HI 96743 (United States); Peng, Eric W. [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Duc, Pierre-Alain [AIM Paris Saclay, CNRS/INSU, CEA/Irfu, Universite Paris Diderot, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette cedex (France); Boselli, A. [Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, UMR 6110 CNRS, 38 rue F. Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille (France); Mei, Simona [GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, 5 Place Jules Jannssen, F-92195 Meudon (France); Erben, Thomas [Argelander-Institut fuer Astronomie, University of Bonn, Auf dem Huegel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Durrell, Patrick R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Youngstown State University, Youngstown, OH (United States); Christopher Mihos, J. [Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States); Jordan, Andres; Puzia, Thomas H. [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, 7820436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Lancon, Ariane [Observatoire Astronomique, Universite de Strasbourg and CNRS UMR 7550, 11 rue de l'Universite, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Emsellem, Eric [Universite de Lyon 1, CRAL, Observatoire de Lyon, 9 av. Charles Andre, F-69230 Saint-Genis Laval (France); CNRS, UMR 5574, ENS de Lyon (France); Balogh, Michael L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Van Waerbeke, Ludovic [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, B.C., V6T 1Z1 (Canada); and others

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Study of electron-positron interactions  

SciTech Connect

For the past seven years, this group has been interested in the study of tests of the Standard Model of Electroweak interactions. The program has centered about the AMY experiment which examines the nature of the final state products in electron-positron collisions in the center of mass energy range near 60 GeV. Results of these measurements have shown a remarkable consistency with the predictions of the minimal model of 3 quark and lepton generations and single charged and neutral intermediate bosons. No new particles or excited states have been observed nor has any evidence for departures in cross sections or angular asymmetries from expectations been observed. These conclusions have been even more firmly established by the higher energy results from the LEP and SLC colliders at center of mass energies of about 90 GeV. Our focus is shifting to the neutrino as a probe to electroweak interactions. The relative merit of attempting to observe neutrinos from point sources versus observing neutrinos generally is not easy to predict. The improved ability to interpret is offset by the probably episodic nature of the emission and irreproducibility of the results. In this phase of development, it is best to be sensitive to both sources of neutrinos. As a second phase of our program at Virginia Tech, we are studying the feasibility of detecting cosmic ray neutrinos in a proposed experiment which we have called NOVA. the results of the test setup will be instrumental in developing an optimum design. A third program we are involved in is the MEGA experiment at Los Alamos, an experiment to place a limit on the rate of muon decay to electron plus photon which is forbidden by the Standard Model.

Abashian, A.; Gotow, K.; Philonen, L.

1990-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

387

Development of an Enhanced GenVARR (Generator Volt Ampere Reactive Reserve) System  

SciTech Connect

Transmission system operators require near real time knowledge of reactive power capability to reliably operate large electric power transmission systems. Reactive power produced by, or capable of being produced by, a power generator is often estimated based on a series of mega volt amperes (MVA) capability curves for the generator. These curves indicate the ability of the generator to produce real and reactive power under a variety of conditions. In transmission planning and operating studies, it is often assumed, based on estimates for these capability curves, that the generator can provide its rated MVA capability output when needed for system stability However, generators may not always operate at levels depicted by the maximum MVA capability curve due to present constraints. Transmission system operators utilizing the generators capability curves for operation decisions regarding transmission system stability or for planning horizons may overestimate the capability of the generators to supply reactive power when required. Southern Company has enhanced GenVARR(TM), the system of plant data query, retrieval, and analysis and calculates the actual not estimated -- remaining reactive power output capability. The remaining reactive output is considered spinning reserve and is displayed graphically to transmission control center and generating plant operators to identify real time VAR limits. GenVARR is capable of aggregating generators from a defined region, or other user selectable combinations, to represent the available reserves that the operators are specifically interested in. GenVARR(TM) has been put into live production operation and is expected to significantly improve the overall visibility of the reactive reserve capability of the system. This new version of GenVARR(TM) significantly enhances the products structure and performance, and enables links to other key transmission system operation tools.

Schatz, Joe E.

2009-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

388

Structural characterization of the Emperor and Halley fields, Winkler County, West Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Halley and Emperor fields, Winkler County, West Texas, are located along the western margin of the Central Basin Platform (CBP), a late Paleozoic fault-bounded structural high in the Permian Basin. Well data, regional 2D seismic lines, and a 3D seismic data set were used to develop a detailed structural and stratigraphic interpretation for the area. Variance volume attributes were derived from the 3D seismic data, which improved imaging of subsurface features. The Halley and Emperor fields are situated over asymmetric anticlines with short steeper limbs that are faulted by steeply dipping reverse faults with a component of right-lateral strike-slip displacement. The orientation of the fold axes and faults is NNW-SSE, which is parallel to the overall trend of the CBP's western margin. Deformation occurred during late Mississippian to early Leonardian (Early Permian) time. The CBP can be subdivided into two major blocks or tectonic domains: the Andector Block to the north and the Fort Stockton Block to the south. These blocks were located between an inferred right-lateral mega-shear, which forced the Andector and Fort Stockton blocks to undergo clockwise rotation. A left-lateral shear zone must have existed along the E-W fault boundary between the Fort Stockton and Andector blocks, in order to accommodate clockwise rotation of the blocks. The Halley structure is situated at the southwestern corner of the Andector Block and shows evidence of younger middle Pennsylvanian to middle Leonardian left-lateral strike-slip deformation. In contrast, deformation along the Emperor structure to the north had ceased by late Pennsylvanian time, as indicated by the age of strata that onlap the structure and fault penetration patterns.

Leone, John Vincent

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Distribution of Prostate Sentinel Nodes: A SPECT-Derived Anatomic Atlas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: The randomized Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 94-13 trial revealed that coverage of the pelvic lymph nodes in high-risk prostate cancer confers an advantage (progression-free survival and biochemical failure) in patients with {>=}15% risk of lymph node involvement. To facilitate an improved definition of the adjuvant target volume, precise knowledge regarding the location of the relevant lymph nodes is necessary. Therefore, we generated a three-dimensional sentinel lymph node atlas. Methods and Materials: In 61 patients with high-risk prostate cancer, a three-dimensional visualization of sentinel lymph nodes was performed using a single photon emission computed tomography system after transrectal intraprostatic injection of 150 to 362 (median 295) mega becquerel (MBq) {sup 99m}Technetium-nanocolloid (1.5-3h after injection) followed by an anatomic functional image fusion. Results: In all, 324 sentinel nodes in 59 of 61 patients (96.7%) were detected, with 0 to 13 nodes per patient (median 5, mean 5.3). The anatomic distribution of the sentinel nodes was as follows: external iliac 34.3%, internal iliac 17.9%, common iliac 12.7%, sacral 8.6%, perirectal 6.2%, left paraaortic 5.3%, right paraaortic 5.3%, seminal vesicle lymphatic plexus 3.1%, deep inguinal 1.5%, superior rectal 1.2%, internal pudendal 1.2%, perivesical 0.9%, inferior rectal 0.9%, retroaortic 0.3%, superficial inguinal 0.3%, and periprostatic 0.3%. Conclusions: The distribution of sentinel nodes as detected by single photon emission computed tomography imaging correlates well with the distribution determined by intraoperative gamma probe detection. A lower detection rate of sentinels in close proximity to the bladder and seminal vesicles is probably caused by the radionuclide accumulation in the bladder. In regard to intensity-modulated radiotherapy techniques, the presented anatomic atlas may allow optimized target volume definitions.

Ganswindt, Ute, E-mail: ute.ganswindt@med.uni-muenchen.d [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich (Germany); Schilling, David [Department of Urology, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Mueller, Arndt-Christian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Bares, Roland [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Bartenstein, Peter [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich (Germany); Belka, Claus [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich (Germany)

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Advanced Power Plant Development and Analyses Methodologies  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory, a multi-disciplinary team led by the Advanced Power and Energy Program of the University of California at Irvine is defining the system engineering issues associated with the integration of key components and subsystems into advanced power plant systems with goals of achieving high efficiency and minimized environmental impact while using fossil fuels. These power plant concepts include ''Zero Emission'' power plants and the ''FutureGen'' H{sub 2} co-production facilities. The study is broken down into three phases. Phase 1 of this study consisted of utilizing advanced technologies that are expected to be available in the ''Vision 21'' time frame such as mega scale fuel cell based hybrids. Phase 2 includes current state-of-the-art technologies and those expected to be deployed in the nearer term such as advanced gas turbines and high temperature membranes for separating gas species and advanced gasifier concepts. Phase 3 includes identification of gas turbine based cycles and engine configurations suitable to coal-based gasification applications and the conceptualization of the balance of plant technology, heat integration, and the bottoming cycle for analysis in a future study. Also included in Phase 3 is the task of acquiring/providing turbo-machinery in order to gather turbo-charger performance data that may be used to verify simulation models as well as establishing system design constraints. The results of these various investigations will serve as a guide for the U. S. Department of Energy in identifying the research areas and technologies that warrant further support.

G.S. Samuelsen; A.D. Rao

2006-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

391

Advanced Power Plant Development and Analysis Methodologies  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory, a multi-disciplinary team led by the Advanced Power and Energy Program of the University of California at Irvine is defining the system engineering issues associated with the integration of key components and subsystems into advanced power plant systems with goals of achieving high efficiency and minimized environmental impact while using fossil fuels. These power plant concepts include 'Zero Emission' power plants and the 'FutureGen' H2 co-production facilities. The study is broken down into three phases. Phase 1 of this study consisted of utilizing advanced technologies that are expected to be available in the 'Vision 21' time frame such as mega scale fuel cell based hybrids. Phase 2 includes current state-of-the-art technologies and those expected to be deployed in the nearer term such as advanced gas turbines and high temperature membranes for separating gas species and advanced gasifier concepts. Phase 3 includes identification of gas turbine based cycles and engine configurations suitable to coal-based gasification applications and the conceptualization of the balance of plant technology, heat integration, and the bottoming cycle for analysis in a future study. Also included in Phase 3 is the task of acquiring/providing turbo-machinery in order to gather turbo-charger performance data that may be used to verify simulation models as well as establishing system design constraints. The results of these various investigations will serve as a guide for the U. S. Department of Energy in identifying the research areas and technologies that warrant further support.

A.D. Rao; G.S. Samuelsen; F.L. Robson; B. Washom; S.G. Berenyi

2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

392

Variation and Trends of Landscape Dynamics, Land Surface Phenology and Net Primary Production of the Appalachian Mountains  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The gradients of the Appalachian Mountains in elevations and latitudes provide a unique regional perspective of landscape variations in the eastern United States and a section of the southeastern Canada. This study reveals patterns and trends of landscape dynamics, land surface phenology and ecosystem production along the Appalachian Mountains using time series data from Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) and AVHRR Global Production Efficiency Model (GloPEM) datasets. We analyzed the spatial and temporal patterns of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), length of growing season (LOS) and net primary production (NPP) of selected ecoregions along the Appalachian Mountains regions. We compared the results out of the Appalachian Mountains regions in different spatial contexts including the North America and the Appalachian Trail corridor area. To reveal latitudinal variations we analyzed data and compared the results between 30N-40N and 40N-50N latitudes. The result revealed significant decreases in annual peak NDVI in the Appalachian Mountains regions. The trend for the Appalachian Mountains regions was -0.0018 (R2=0.55, P<0.0001) NDVI unit decrease per year during 25 years between 1982 and 2006. The LOS had prolonged 0.3 day yr-1 during 25 years over the Appalachian Mountains regions. The NPP increased by 2.68 gC m-2yr-2 in Appalachian Mountains regions from 1981 to 2000. The comparison with the North America reveals the effects of topography and ecosystem compositions of the Appalachian Mountains. The comparison with the Appalachian Trail corridor area provides a regional mega-transect view of the measured variables.

Wang, Yeqiao; Zhao, Jianjun; Zhou, Yuyu; Zhang, Hongyan

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

393

Building State-of-the-Art Wind Technology Testing Facilities (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The new Wind Technology Test Center is the only facility in the nation capable of testing wind turbine blades up to 90 meters in length. A critical factor to wind turbine design and development is the ability to test new designs, components, and materials. In addition, wind turbine blade manufacturers are required to test their blades as part of the turbine certification process. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Wind Program and the Massachusetts Clean Energy Center (MassCEC) to design, construct, and operate the Wind Technology Center (WTTC) in Boston, Massachusetts. The WTTC offers a full suite of certification tests for turbine blades up to 90 meters in length. NREL worked closely with MTS Systems Corporation to develop the novel large-scale test systems needed to conduct the static and fatigue tests required for certification. Static tests pull wind turbine blades horizontally and vertically to measure blade deflection and strains. Fatigue tests cycle the blades millions of times to simulate what a blade goes through in its lifetime on a wind turbine. For static testing, the WTTC is equipped with servo-hydraulic winches and cylinders that are connected to the blade through cables to apply up to an 84-mega Newton meter maximum static bending moment. For fatigue testing, MTS developed a commercial version of NREL's patented resonant excitation system with hydraulic cylinders that actuate linear moving masses on the blade at one or more locations. This system applies up to a 21-meter tip-to-tip fatigue test tip displacement to generate 20-plus years of cyclic field loads in a matter of months. NREL also developed and supplied the WTTC with an advanced data acquisition system capable of measuring and recording hundreds of data channels at very fast sampling rates while communicating with test control systems.

Not Available

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Evidence cross-validation and Bayesian inference of MAST plasma equilibria  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, current profiles for plasma discharges on the mega-ampere spherical tokamak are directly calculated from pickup coil, flux loop, and motional-Stark effect observations via methods based in the statistical theory of Bayesian analysis. By representing toroidal plasma current as a series of axisymmetric current beams with rectangular cross-section and inferring the current for each one of these beams, flux-surface geometry and q-profiles are subsequently calculated by elementary application of Biot-Savart's law. The use of this plasma model in the context of Bayesian analysis was pioneered by Svensson and Werner on the joint-European tokamak [Svensson and Werner,Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 50(8), 085002 (2008)]. In this framework, linear forward models are used to generate diagnostic predictions, and the probability distribution for the currents in the collection of plasma beams was subsequently calculated directly via application of Bayes' formula. In this work, we introduce a new diagnostic technique to identify and remove outlier observations associated with diagnostics falling out of calibration or suffering from an unidentified malfunction. These modifications enable a good agreement between Bayesian inference of the last-closed flux-surface with other corroborating data, such as that from force balance considerations using EFIT++[Appel et al., ''A unified approach to equilibrium reconstruction'' Proceedings of the 33rd EPS Conference on Plasma Physics (Rome, Italy, 2006)]. In addition, this analysis also yields errors on the plasma current profile and flux-surface geometry as well as directly predicting the Shafranov shift of the plasma core.

Nessi, G. T. von; Hole, M. J. [Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Svensson, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Appel, L. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

395

Fernald closure project - Lessons learned in the execution of this successful project, completed October 2006  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: This paper explores the history and lessons learned on the United States' Department of Energy's (DoE's) Fernald Closure Project - from the completion of the uranium-production mission to the implementation of the Records of Decision defining the cleanup standards and the remedies that were achieved. Cleaning up Fernald and returning it to the people of Ohio was a $4.4 billion dollar mega environmental-remediation project that was completed in October 2006. During a period of nearly 37 years, Fernald produced 250,000 tons of high-purity, low-enriched uranium for the U.S. defense program, generating more than six million tons of liquid and solid waste as it carried out its Cold War mission. The facility was shut down in 1989 and clean up began in 1992, when Fluor won the contract to clean up the site. The project comprised four phases: 1. Determining the extent of damage to the environment and groundwater at, and adjacent to, the production facilities 2. Selecting cleanup criteria - final end states that had to be met to protect human health and the environment 3. Selecting and implementing the remedial actions that would meet the cleanup goals 4. Doing the work safely, compliantly and cost-effectively. In the project's early stages, there were strained relationships and total distrust between the local community and the DOE as a result of aquifer contamination and potential health effects to the workers and local residents. (authors)

Murphy, Cornelius [Fluor Hanford Inc. P.O. Box 1000, Richland WA 99352 (United States); Reising, Johnny [Department of Energy - DOE (United States)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

System Modeling of kJ-class Petawatt Lasers at LLNL  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC) project at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is designed to produce energetic, ultrafast x-rays in the range of 70-100 keV for backlighting NIF targets. The chirped pulse amplification (CPA) laser system will deliver kilo-Joule pulses at an adjustable pulse duration from 1 ps to 50 ps. System complexity requires sophisticated simulation and modeling tools for design, performance prediction, and comprehension of experimental results. We provide a brief overview of ARC, present our main modeling tools, and describe important performance predictions. The laser system (Fig. 1) consists of an all-fiber front end, including chirped-fiber Bragg grating (CFBG) stretchers. The beam after the final fiber amplifier is split into two apertures and spatially shaped. The split beam first seeds a regenerative amplifier and is then amplified in a multi-pass Nd:glass amplifier. Next, the preamplified chirped pulse is split in time into four identical replicas and injected into one NIF Quad. At the output of the NIF beamline, each of the eight amplified pulses is compressed in an individual, folded, four-grating compressor. Compressor grating pairs have slightly different groove densities to enable compact folding geometry and eliminate adjacent beam cross-talk. Pulse duration is adjustable with a small, rack-mounted compressor in the front-end. We use non-sequential ray-tracing software, FRED for design and layout of the optical system. Currently, our FRED model includes all of the optical components from the output of the fiber front end to the target center (Fig. 2). CAD designed opto-mechanical components are imported into our FRED model to provide a complete system description. In addition to incoherent ray tracing and scattering analysis, FRED uses Gaussian beam decomposition to model coherent beam propagation. Neglecting nonlinear effects, we can obtain a nearly complete frequency domain description of the ARC beam at different stages in the system. We employ 3D Fourier based propagation codes: MIRO, Virtual Beamline (VBL), and PROP for time-domain pulse analysis. These codes simulate nonlinear effects, calculate near and far field beam profiles, and account for amplifier gain. Verification of correct system set-up is a major difficulty to using these codes. VBL and PROP predictions have been extensively benchmarked to NIF experiments, and the verified descriptions of specific NIF beamlines are used for ARC. MIRO has the added capability of treating bandwidth specific effects of CPA. A sample MIRO model of the NIF beamline is shown in Fig. 3. MIRO models are benchmarked to VBL and PROP in the narrow bandwidth mode. Developing a variety of simulation tools allows us to cross-check predictions of different models and gain confidence in their fidelity. Preliminary experiments, currently in progress, are allowing us to validate and refine our models, and help guide future experimental campaigns.

Shverdin, M Y; Rushford, M; Henesian, M A; Boley, C; Haefner, C; Heebner, J E; Crane, J K; Siders, C W; Barty, C P

2010-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

397

Building opportunities for photovoltaics in the U.S. Final report [PV BONUS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of the North Carolina's PV Bonus Team was to develop and demonstrate a commercially viable, building-integrated, photovoltaic system that, in addition to providing electricity, would capture and effectively utilize the thermal energy produced by the photovoltaic array. This project objective was successfully achieved by designing, testing, constructing, and monitoring two roof integrated photovoltaic systems--one on a Applebee's Restaurant in Salisbury, North Carolina and the second on a Central Carolina Bank in Bessemer City, North Carolina. The goal of Innovative Design is to now use these successful demonstrations to facilitate entry of building integrated, pv/thermal systems into the marketplace. The strategy was to develop the two systems that could be utilized in future applications. Both systems were designed and then constructed at the North Carolina Solar Center at North Carolina State University. After extensive testing at the North Carolina Solar Center, the systems were moved to the actual construction sites and implemented. The Applebee's Restaurant system was designed to substitute for the roof assembly of a low sloping, south-facing sunspace roof that typically incorporated clay tile. After monitoring the installed system for one year it was determined that the 1.2 kilowatt (peak) system produces an average peak reduction of 1 kilowatt (rated peak is 1.7 kiloWatts), saves 1,529 kilowatt-hours of electricity, and offsets 11,776 kilowatt-hours of thermal energy savings used to pre-heat water. A DC fan connected directly to eight of the thirty-two amorphous modules moves air through air passages mounted on the backside of the modules and into a closed loop duct system to a heat exchanger. This heat exchanger is, in turn, connected to a pre-heat hot water tank that is used to heat the water for the restaurant. The Central Carolina Bank system was designed to substitute for the roof assembly of the drive-in window area of the bank. The design featured a triangulated truss that incorporated ten crystalline photovoltaic modules on one side of the truss and a reflective panel on the opposite side. The system used a utility interactive, programmable inverter and a 18.9 kilowatt-hour battery bank. The system is designed so that a DC fan, connected to one of the modules, forces ambient air across the back side of the modules. In the summer this heat is vented to the outside but in the winter this heated, fresh air is introduced into the building as ventilation air. Like the Applebee's system, the design allowed the entire roof assembly to be constructed off-site, tested, and then shipped to the site in pie-assembled, large components. During the first full year of operation, the 2.2 kilowatt (rated peak is 2.7 kilowatts) system contributed to an average peak reduction of .9 kilowatts. The system, as designed, saves 2,576 kilowatt-hours of electricity and offsets 3,473 kilowatt hours (of a potential thermal benefit of 10,172 collected kWhs) of thermal energy savings that is used as fresh air make-up in the colder months. This report is a summary of their conclusions.

Michael Nicklas

1999-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

398

Final Status Survey for the Largest Decommissioning Project on Earth  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To assist the United States Department of Energy's (US DOE's) re-industrialization efforts at its gaseous diffusion site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, known as the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), the US DOE awarded a 6-year Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) contract to BNG America (formerly BNFL Inc.) in 1997. The ETTP 3-Building D and D Project included the removal and disposition of the materials and equipment from the K-33, K-31, and K-29 Gaseous Diffusion Plant buildings. The three buildings comprise more than 4.8 million square feet (446,000 square meters) of floor surface area and more than 350 million pounds (148 million kilograms) of hazardous and radioactively contaminated material, making it the largest nuclear D and D project in progress anywhere in the world. The logistical hurdles involved in a project of this scope and magnitude required an extensive amount of Engineering and Health Physics professionals. In order to accomplish the Final Status Survey (FSS) for a project of this scope, the speed and efficiency of automated survey equipment was essential. Surveys of floors, structural steel and ceilings up to 60 feet (18 meters) were required. The FSS had to be expanded to include additional remediation and surveys due to characterization surveys and assumptions regarding the nature and extent of contamination provided by the US DOE. Survey design and technical bases had to consider highly variable constituents; including uranium from depleted to low enrichment, variable levels of Technetium-99 and transuranic nuclides, which were introduced into the cascade during the 1960's when recycled uranium (RU) from Savannah River was re-enriched at the facility. The RU was transported to unexpected locations from leaks in the cascade by complex building ventilation patterns. The primary survey tool used for the post remediation and FSS was the Surface Contamination Monitor (SCM) and the associated Survey Information Management System (SIMS), developed by Shonka Research Associates, Inc. (SRA). Final Status Radiological surveys have been performed over the last year on a 24-hour per day and seven day per week basis. As many as eight SCMs have been in use at any one time. Each SCM can perform over 250,000 measurements per hour, simultaneously collecting both scan and static measurement requirements to meet FSS regulatory requirements. Thus, efficient management and quality control of giga-bytes of data was needed. In addition, some surveys were accomplished with traditional instrumentation and with some using other automated systems such as smear counters. The FSS Reports required integration of all of the data in a format that permitted undemanding verification by DOE using the ORISE/ESSAP IVT contractor. A project of this scope and magnitude could not have been accomplished without the use of the SCM and SIMS. This paper reports on the survey and logistical issues that required ingenuity of the entire 1,700-person workforce to resolve. In particular, this paper summarizes the issues addressed and resolved by the integrated team of survey technicians, subject matter experts (SMEs), radiological engineers, data processing staff and BNG America management. (authors)

Dubiel, R.W. [Millennium Services, Inc., 222 Creekstone Ridge, Woodstock, GA 30188 (United States); Miller, J. [BNG America, 804 S. Illinois Avenue, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States); Quayle, D. [Shonka Research Associates, Inc., 704 S. Illinois Avenue, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

The mediation of environmental assessment's influence: What role for power?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Considerable empirical research has been conducted on why policy tools such as environmental assessment (EA) often appear to have 'little effect' (after Weiss) on policy decisions. This article revisits this debate but looks at a mediating factor that has received limited attention to-date in the context of EA - political power. Using a tripartite analytical framework, a comparative analysis of the influence and significance of power in mediating environmental policy integration is undertaken. Power is analysed, albeit partially, through an exploration of institutions that underpin social order. Empirically, the research examines the case of a new approach to policy-level EA (essentially a form of Strategic Environmental Assessment) developed by the World Bank and its trial application to urban environmental governance and planning in Dhaka mega-city, Bangladesh. The research results demonstrate that power was intimately involved in mediating the influence of the policy EA approach, in both positive (enabling) and negative (constraining) ways. It is suggested that the policy EA approach was ultimately a manifestation of a corporate strategy to maintain the powerful position of the World Bank as a leading authority on international development which focuses on knowledge generation. Furthermore, as constitutive of an institution and reflecting the worldviews of its proponents, the development of a new approach to EA also represents a significant power play. This leads us to, firstly, emphasise the concepts of strategy and intentionality in theorising how and why EA tools are employed, succeed and fail; and secondly, reflect on the reasons why power has received such limited attention to-date in EA scholarship. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conducts empirical research on the neglected issue of power. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Employs an interpretation of power in which it is viewed as a productive phenomenon. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analyses the influence of power in the trial application of a new approach to policy environmental assessment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Demonstrates the importance of power dynamics in understanding the successes and failures of environmental assessment.

Cashmore, Matthew, E-mail: cashmore@plan.aau.dk [Danish Centre for Environmental Assessment, Department of Development and Planning, Aalborg University Copenhagen, A.C. Meyers Vaenge 15, DK-2450 Copenhagen SV (Denmark); Axelsson, Anna [Naturskyddsforeningen, Box 4625, 116 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

400

STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS OF THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER PALOMAR 13  

SciTech Connect

We present Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy and Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope/MegaCam photometry for the Milky Way globular cluster Palomar 13. We triple the number of spectroscopically confirmed members, including many repeat velocity measurements. Palomar 13 is the only known globular cluster with possible evidence for dark matter, based on a Keck/High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer 21 star velocity dispersion of {sigma} = 2.2 {+-} 0.4 km s{sup -1}. We reproduce this measurement, but demonstrate that it is inflated by unresolved binary stars. For our sample of 61 stars, the velocity dispersion is {sigma} = 0.7{sup +0.6}{sub -0.5} km s{sup -1}. Combining our DEIMOS data with literature values, our final velocity dispersion is {sigma} = 0.4{sup +0.4}{sub -0.3} km s{sup -1}. We determine a spectroscopic metallicity of [Fe/H] = -1.6 {+-} 0.1 dex, placing a 1{sigma} upper limit of {sigma}{sub [Fe/H]} {approx} 0.2 dex on any internal metallicity spread. We determine Palomar 13's total luminosity to be M{sub V} = -2.8 {+-} 0.4, making it among the least luminous known globular clusters. The photometric isophotes are regular out to the half-light radius and mildly irregular outside this radius. The outer surface brightness profile slope is shallower than typical globular clusters ({Sigma}{proportional_to}r{sup {eta}}, {eta} = -2.8 {+-} 0.3). Thus at large radius, tidal debris is likely affecting the appearance of Palomar 13. Combining our luminosity with the intrinsic velocity dispersion, we find a dynamical mass of M{sub 1/2} = 1.3{sup +2:7}{sub -1.3} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} M{sub Sun} and a mass-to-light ratio of M/L{sub V} = 2.4{sup +5.0}{sub -2.4} M{sub Sun }/L{sub Sun }. Within our measurement errors, the mass-to-light ratio agrees with the theoretical predictions for a single stellar population. We conclude that, while there is some evidence for tidal stripping at large radius, the dynamical mass of Palomar 13 is consistent with its stellar mass and neither significant dark matter, nor extreme tidal heating, is required to explain the cluster dynamics.

Bradford, J. D. [Department of Physics, Central Connecticut State University, 1615 Stanley Street, New Britain, CT 06050 (United States); Geha, M.; Munoz, R. R.; Santana, F. A. [Astronomy Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Simon, J. D. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Cote, P.; Stetson, P. B. [National Research Council of Canada, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Kirby, E.; Djorgovski, S. G., E-mail: jeremydbradford@gmail.com, E-mail: marla.geha@yale.edu [California Institute of Technology, Department of Astronomy, MS 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91106 (United States)

2011-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "giga mega kilo" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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401

SUBARU WEAK-LENSING STUDY OF A2163: BIMODAL MASS STRUCTURE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a weak-lensing analysis of the merging cluster A2163 using Subaru/Suprime-Cam and CFHT/Mega-Cam data and discuss the dynamics of this cluster merger, based on complementary weak-lensing, X-ray, and optical spectroscopic data sets. From two-dimensional multi-component weak-lensing analysis, we reveal that the cluster mass distribution is well described by three main components including the two-component main cluster A2163-A with mass ratio 1:8, and its cluster satellite A2163-B. The bimodal mass distribution in A2163-A is similar to the galaxy density distribution, but appears as spatially segregated from the brightest X-ray emitting gas region. We discuss the possible origins of this gas-dark-matter offset and suggest the gas core of the A2163-A subcluster has been stripped away by ram pressure from its dark matter component. The survival of this gas core from the tidal forces exerted by the main cluster lets us infer a subcluster accretion with a non-zero impact parameter. Dominated by the most massive component of A2163-A, the mass distribution of A2163 is well described by a universal Navarro-Frenk-White profile as shown by a one-dimensional tangential shear analysis, while the singular-isothermal sphere profile is strongly ruled out. Comparing this cluster mass profile with profiles derived assuming intracluster medium hydrostatic equilibrium (H.E.) in two opposite regions of the cluster atmosphere has allowed us to confirm the prediction of a departure from H.E. in the eastern cluster side, presumably due to shock heating. Yielding a cluster mass estimate of M{sub 500} = 11.18{sup +1.64}{sub -1.46} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} h {sup -1} M{sub Sun }, our mass profile confirms the exceptionally high mass of A2163, consistent with previous analyses relying on the cluster dynamical analysis and Y{sub X} mass proxy.

Okabe, N. [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics (ASIAA), P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Bourdin, H.; Mazzotta, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Roma 'Tor Vergata', via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Maurogordato, S., E-mail: okabe@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Universite de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, Laboratoire Cassiopee, CNRS, UMR 6202, Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur, BP4229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France)

2011-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

402

MULTI - TRACER CONTROL ROOM AIR INLEAKAGE PROTOCOL AND SIMULATED PRIMARY AND EXTENDED MULTI - ZONE RESULTS.  

SciTech Connect

The perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) technology can be applied simultaneously to the wide range in zonal flowrates (from tens of cfms in some Control Rooms to almost 1,000,000 cfm in Turbine Buildings), to achieve the necessary uniform tagging for subsequent determination of the desired air inleakage and outleakage from all zones surrounding a plant's Control Room (CR). New types of PFT sources (Mega sources) were devised and tested to handle the unusually large flowrates in a number of HVAC zones in power stations. A review of the plans of a particular nuclear power plant and subsequent simulations of the tagging and sampling results confirm that the technology can provide the necessary concentration measurement data to allow the important ventilation pathways involving the Control Room and its air flow communications with all adjacent zones to be quantitatively determined with minimal uncertainty. Depending on need, a simple single or 3-zone scheme (involving the Control Room alone or along with the Aux. Bldg. and Turbine Bldg.) or a more complex test involving up to 7 zones simultaneously can be accommodated with the current revisions to the technology; to test all the possible flow pathways, several different combinations of up to 7 zones would need to be run. The potential exists that for an appropriate investment, in about 2 years, it would be possible to completely evaluate an entire power plant in a single extended multizone test with up to 12 to 13 separate HVAC zones. With multiple samplers in the Control Room near each of the contiguous zones, not only will the prevalent inleakage or outleakage zones be documented, but the particular location of the pathway's room of ingress can be identified. The suggested protocol is to perform a 3-zone test involving the Control Room, Aux. Bldg., and Turbine Bldg. to (1) verify CR total inleakage and (2) proportion that inleakage to distinguish that from the other 2 major buildings and any remaining untagged locations. These results would then direct the next subsequent tests. Final results would point to where mitigation steps should be initiated. Protocols for repeat testing as well as long term continual testing are suggested.

DIETZ,R.N.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Nuclear Photonics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

With new gamma-beam facilities like MEGa-ray at LLNL (USA) or ELI-NP at Bucharest with 10^13 g/s and a bandwidth of Delta E_g/E_g ~10^-3, a new era of g-beams with energies Duke Univ., USA) with 10^8 g/s and Delta E_g/E_g~0.03. Even a seeded quantum FEL for g-beams may become possible, with much higher brilliance and spectral flux. At the same time new exciting possibilities open up for focused g-beams. We describe a new experiment at the g-beam of the ILL reactor (Grenoble), where we observed for the first time that the index of refraction for g-beams is determined by virtual pair creation. Using a combination of refractive and reflective optics, efficient monochromators for g-beams are being developed. Thus we have to optimize the system of the g-beam facility, the g-beam optics and g-detectors. We can trade g-intensity for band width, going down to Delta E_g/E_g ~ 10^-6 and address individual nuclear levels. 'Nuclear photonics' stresses the importance of nuclear applications. We can address with g-beams individual nuclear isotopes and not just elements like with X-ray beams. Compared to X rays, g-beams can penetrate much deeper into big samples like radioactive waste barrels, motors or batteries. We can perform tomography and microscopy studies by focusing down to micron resolution using Nucl. Reson. Fluorescence for detection with eV resolution and high spatial resolution. We discuss the dominating M1 and E1 excitations like scissors mode, two-phonon quadrupole octupole excitations, pygmy dipole excitations or giant dipole excitations under the new facet of applications. We find many new applications in biomedicine, green energy, radioactive waste management or homeland security. Also more brilliant secondary beams of neutrons and positrons can be produced.

D. Habs; M. M. Guenther; M. Jentschel; P. G. Thirolf

2012-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

404

Conceptual Models for Migration of Key Groundwater Contaminants Through the Vadose Zone and Into the Upper Unconfined Aquifer Below the B-Complex  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The B-Complex contains 3 major crib and trench disposal sites and 3 SST farms that have released nearly 346 mega-liters of waste liquids containing the following high groundwater risk drivers: ~14,000 kg of CN, 29,000 kg of Cr, 12,000 kg of U and 145 Ci of Tc-99. After a thorough review of available vadose zone sediment and pore water, groundwater plume, field gamma logging, field electrical resistivity studies, we developed conceptual models for which facilities have been the significant sources of the contaminants in the groundwater and estimated the masses of these contaminants remaining in the vadose zone and currently present in the groundwater in comparison to the totals released. This allowed us to make mass balance calculations on how consistent our knowledge is on the current deep vadose zone and groundwater distribution of contaminants. Strengths and weaknesses of the conceptual models are discussed as well as implications on future groundwater and deep vadose zone remediation alternatives. Our hypothesized conceptual models attribute the source of all of the cyanide and most of the Tc-99 currently in the groundwater to the BY cribs. The source of the uranium is the BX-102 tank overfill event and the source of most of the chromium is the B-7-A&B and B-8 cribs. Our mass balance estimates suggest that there are much larger masses of U, CN, and Tc remaining in the deep vadose zone within ~20 ft of the water table than is currently in the groundwater plumes below the B-Complex. This hypothesis needs to be carefully considered before future remediation efforts are chosen. The masses of these groundwater risk drivers in the the groundwater plumes have been increasing over the last decade and the groundwater plumes are migrating to the northwest towards the Gable Gap. The groundwater flow rate appears to flucuate in response to seasonal changes in hydraulic gradient. The flux of contaminants out of the deep vadose zone from the three proposed sources also appears to be transient such that the evolution of the contaminant plumes is transient.

Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Keller, Jason M.; Thorne, Paul D.; Lanigan, David C.; Christensen, J. N.; Thomas, Gregory S.

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

"Defense-in-Depth" Laser Safety and the National Ignition Facility  

SciTech Connect

The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is the largest and most energetic laser in the world contained in a complex the size of a football stadium. From the initial laser pulse, provided by telecommunication style infrared nanoJoule pulsed lasers, to the final 192 laser beams (1.8 Mega Joules total energy in the ultraviolet) converging on a target the size of a pencil eraser, laser safety is of paramount concern. In addition to this, there are numerous high-powered (Class 3B and 4) diagnostic lasers in use that can potentially send their laser radiation travelling throughout the facility. With individual beam paths of up to 1500 meters and a workforce of more than one thousand, the potential for exposure is significant. Simple laser safety practices utilized in typical laser labs just don't apply. To mitigate these hazards, NIF incorporates a multi layered approach to laser safety or 'Defense in Depth.' Most typical high-powered laser operations are contained and controlled within a single room using relatively simplistic controls to protect both the worker and the public. Laser workers are trained, use a standard operating procedure, and are required to wear Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) such as Laser Protective Eyewear (LPE) if the system is not fully enclosed. Non-workers are protected by means of posting the room with a warning sign and a flashing light. In the best of cases, a Safety Interlock System (SIS) will be employed which will 'safe' the laser in the case of unauthorized access. This type of laser operation is relatively easy to employ and manage. As the operation becomes more complex, higher levels of control are required to ensure personnel safety. Examples requiring enhanced controls are outdoor and multi-room laser operations. At the NIF there are 192 beam lines and numerous other Class 4 diagnostic lasers that can potentially deliver their hazardous energy to locations far from the laser source. This presents a serious and complex potential hazard to personnel. Because of this, a multilayered approach to safety is taken. This paper presents the philosophy and approach taken at the NIF in the multi-layered 'defense-in-depth' approach to laser safety.

King, J J

2010-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

406

X-ray imaging with grazing-incidence microscopes developed for the LIL program  

SciTech Connect

This article describes x-ray imaging with grazing-incidence microscopes, developed for the experimental program carried out on the Ligne d'Integration Laser (LIL) facility [J. P. Le Breton et al., Inertial Fusion Sciences and Applications 2001 (Elsevier, Paris, 2002), pp. 856-862] (24 kJ, UV--0.35 nm). The design includes a large target-to-microscope (400-700 mm) distance required by the x-ray ablation issues anticipated on the Laser MegaJoule facility [P. A. Holstein et al., Laser Part. Beams 17, 403 (1999)] (1.8 MJ) which is under construction. Two eight-image Kirkpatrick-Baez microscopes [P. Kirkpatrick and A. V. Baez J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 766 (1948)] with different spectral wavelength ranges and with a 400 mm source-to-mirror distance image the target on a custom-built framing camera (time resolution of {approx}80 ps). The soft x-ray version microscope is sensitive below 1 keV and its spatial resolution is better than 30 {mu}m over a 2-mm-diam region. The hard x-ray version microscope has a 10 {mu}m resolution over an 800-{mu}m-diam region and is sensitive in the 1-5 keV energy range. Two other x-ray microscopes based on an association of toroidal/spherical surfaces (T/S microscopes) produce an image on a streak camera with a spatial resolution better than 30 {mu}m over a 3 mm field of view in the direction of the camera slit. Both microscopes have been designed to have, respectively, a maximum sensitivity in the 0.1-1 and 1-5 keV energy range. We present the original design of these four microscopes and their test on a dc x-ray tube in the laboratory. The diagnostics were successfully used on LIL first experiments early in 2005. Results of soft x-ray imaging of a radiative jet during conical shaped laser interaction are shown.

Rosch, R.; Boutin, J. Y.; Le Breton, J. P.; Gontier, D.; Jadaud, J. P.; Reverdin, C.; Soullie, G.; Lidove, G.; Maroni, R. [CEA/DIF, BP 12, 91680 Bruyeres-Le-Chatel (France)

2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

407

Estimation of Radiation Doses in the Marshall Islands Based on Whole Body Counting of Cesium-137 (137Cs) and Plutonium Urinalysis  

SciTech Connect

Under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE), researchers from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have recently implemented a series of initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former nuclear test sites in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). The aim of this radiological surveillance monitoring program (RSMP) is to provide timely radiation protection for individuals in the Marshall Islands with respect to two of the most important internally deposited fallout radionuclides-cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) and long-lived isotopes 239 and 240 of plutonium ({sup 239+240}Pu) (Robison et al., 1997 and references therein). Therefore, whole-body counting for {sup 137}Cs and a sensitive bioassay for the presence of {sup 239+240}Pu excreted in urine were adopted as the two most applicable in vivo analytical methods to assess radiation doses for individuals in the RMI from internally deposited fallout radionuclides (see Hamilton et al., 2006a-c; Bell et al., 2002). Through 2005, the USDOE has established three permanent whole-body counting facilities in the Marshall Islands: the Enewetak Radiological Laboratory on Enewetak Atoll, the Utrok Whole-Body Counting Facility on Majuro Atoll, and the Rongelap Whole-Body Counting Facility on Rongelap Atoll. These whole-body counting facilities are operated and maintained by trained Marshallese technicians. Scientists from LLNL provide the technical support and training necessary for maintaining quality assurance for data acquisition and dose reporting. This technical basis document summarizes the methodologies used to calculate the annual total effective dose equivalent (TEDE; or dose for the calendar year of measurement) based on whole-body counting of internally deposited {sup 137}Cs and the measurement of {sup 239+240}Pu excreted in urine. Whole-body counting provides a direct measure of the total amount (or burden) of {sup 137}Cs present in the human body at the time of measurement. The amount of {sup 137}Cs detected is often reported in activity units of kilo-Becquerel (kBq), where 1 kBq equals 1000 Bq and 1 Bq = 1 nuclear transformation per second (t s{sup -1}). [However, in the United States the Curie (Ci) continues to be used as the unit of radioactivity; where 1 Ci = 3.7 x 10{sup 10} Bq.] The detection of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu in bioassay (urine) samples indicates the presence of internally deposited (systemic) plutonium in the body. Urine samples that are collected in the Marshall Islands from volunteers participating in the RSMP are transported to LLNL, where measurements for {sup 239+240}Pu are performed using a state-of-the-art technology based on Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) (Hamilton et al., 2004, 2007; Brown et al., 2004). The urinary excretion of plutonium by RSMP volunteers is usually described in activity units, expressed as micro-Becquerel ({micro}Bq) of {sup 239+240}Pu (i.e., representing the sum of the {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu activity) excreted (lost) per day (d{sup -1}), where 1 {micro}Bq d{sup -1} = 10{sup -6} Bq d{sup -1} and 1 Bq = 1 t s{sup -1}. The systemic burden of plutonium is then estimated from biokinetic relationships as described by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (e.g., see ICRP, 1990). In general, nuclear transformations are accompanied by the emission of energy and/or particles in the form of gamma rays ({gamma}), beta particles ({beta}), and/or alpha particles ({alpha}). Tissues in the human body may adsorb these emissions, where there is a potential for any deposited energy to cause biological damage. The general term used to quantify the extent of any radiation exposure is referred to as the dose. The equivalent dose is defined by the average absorbed dose in an organ or tissue weighted by the average quality factor for the type and energy of the emission causing the dose. The effective dose equivalent (EDE; as applied to the whole body), is the sum of the average dose equivalent for each tissue weighted by each applicable tissue-specific weighing factor

Daniels, J; Hickman, D; Kehl, S; Hamilton, T

2007-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

408

Scaling Up: Kilolumen Solid-State Lighting Exceeding 100 LPW via Remote Phosphor  

SciTech Connect

This thirty-month project was successful in attaining its ambitious objectives of demonstrating a radically novel 'remote-phosphor' LED light source that can out-perform conventional conformal coated phosphor LED sources. Numerous technical challenges were met with innovative techniques and optical configurations. This product development program for a new generation of solid-state light sources has attained unprecedented luminosity (over 1 kilo-lumen) and efficacy (based on the criterion lumens per 100mw radiant blue). LPI has successfully demonstrated its proprietary technology for optical synthesis of large uniform sources out of the light output of an array of separated LEDs. Numerous multiple blue LEDs illuminate single a phosphor patch. By separating the LEDs from the phosphor, the phosphor and LEDs operate cooler and with higher efficiency over a wide range of operating conditions (from startup to steady state). Other benefits of the system include: better source uniformity, more types of phosphor can be used (chemical interaction and high temperatures are no longer an issue), and the phosphor can be made up from a pre-manufactured sheet (thereby lowering cost and complexity of phosphor deposition). Several laboratory prototypes were built and operated at the expected high performance level. The project fully explored two types of remote phosphor system: transmissive and reflective. The first was found to be well suited for a replacement for A19 type incandescent bulbs, as it was able to replicate the beam pattern of a traditional filament bulb. The second type has the advantages that it is pre-collimate source that has an adjustable color temperature. The project was divided in two phases: Phase I explored a transmissive design and Phase II of the project developed reflective architectures. Additionally, in Phase II the design of a spherical emitting transmissive remote phosphor bulb was developed that is suitable for replacement of A19 and similar light bulbs. In Phase II several new reflective remote phosphor systems were developed and patents applied for. This research included the development of reflective systems in which the short-pass filter operated at a nominal incidence angle of 15{sup o}, a major advancement of this technology. Another goal of the project was to show that it is possible to align multiple optics to multiple LEDs (spaced apart for better thermal management) to within an accuracy in the z-direction of 10 microns or less. This goal was achieved. A further goal was to show it is possible to combine and homogenize the output from multiple LEDs without any flux loss or significant increase in etendue. This goal also was achieved. The following color-coded computer drawing of the Phase 2 reflective remote phosphor prototype gives an idea of the accuracy challenges encountered in such an assembly. The actual setup has less functional clarity due to the numerous items of auxiliary equipment involved. Not only did 10 degrees of freedoms alignment have to be supplied to the LEDs and component prisms as well, but there were also micro-titrating glue dispensers and vacuum hoses. The project also utilized a recently introduced high-index glass, available in small customized prisms. This prototype also embodies a significant advance in thin-film design, by which an unprecedented 98% single-pass efficiency was attained over a 30 degree range of incidence angle (Patents Pending). Such high efficiency is especially important since it applies to the blue light going to the phosphor and then again to the phosphor's light, so that the 'system' efficiency associated with short-pass filter was 95.5%. Other losses have to be kept equally small, towards which a new type of ultra-clear injection-moldable acrylic was discovered and used to make ultra-transparent CPC optics. Several transmissive remote phosphor prototypes were manufactured that could replace screw-in type incandescent bulbs. The CRI of the white light from these prototypes varied from 55 to 93. The system efficiency achieved was between 27 to 29.5

Waqidi Falicoff

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

409

SECA Coal-Based Systems - LGFCS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

LGFCS is developing an integrated planar (IP) SOFC technology for mega-watt scale power generation including the potential for use in highly efficient, economically competitive central generation power plant facilities fuel by coal synthesis gas. This Department of Energy Solid-State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program is aimed at achieving further cell and stack technical advancements and assessing the readiness of the LGFCS SOFC stack technology to be scaled to larger-scale demonstrations in subsequent phases. LGFCS is currently in Phase 2 of the program with the Phase 1 test carrying over for completion during Phase 2. Major technical results covering the initial Phase 2 budget period include: Metric Stack Testing: 1. The Phase I metric test is a ~7.6 kW block test (2 strips) in Canton that started in March 2012 and logged 2135 hours of testing prior to an event that required the test to be shutdown. The degradation rate through 2135 hours was 0.4%/1000 hours, well below the Phase I target of 2%/1000 hours and the Phase 2 target of 1.5%/1000 hours. 2. The initial Phase II metric test consisting of 5 strips (~19 kW) was started in May 2012. At the start of the test OCV was low and stack temperatures were out of range. Shutdown and inspection revealed localized structural damage to the strips. The strips were repaired and the test restarted October 11, 2012. 3. Root cause analysis of the Phase 1 and initial Phase 2 start-up failures concluded a localized short circuit across adjacent tubes/bundles caused localized heating and thermal stress fracture of substrates. Pre-reduction of strips rather than in-situ reduction within block test rigs now provides a critical quality check prior to block testing. The strip interconnect design has been modified to avoid short circuits. Stack Design: 1. Dense ceramic strip components were redesigned to achieve common components and a uniform design for all 12 bundles of a strip while meeting a flow uniformity of greater than 95% of the mean flow for all bundles. The prior design required unique bundle components and pressure drops specifications to achieve overall strip fuel flow uniformity. 2. Slow crack growth measurements in simulated fuel environments of the MgO-MgAl2O4 substrate by ORNL reveal favorable tolerance against slow crack growth. Evidence as well of a high stress intensity threshold below which crack growth would be avoided. These findings can have very positive implications on long-term structural reliability. More testing is required, including under actual reformate fuels, to gain a deeper understanding of such time dependent reliability mechanisms. 3. A next generation (Gen2) substrate from the LGFCS supplier has been qualified. The substrate incorporates cost reductions and quality improvements. Cell Developments: 1. Subscale testing of the epsilon technology under system relevant conditions surpassed 16,000 hours with a power degradation rate of <1%/1000 hours. Key degradation mechanisms have been identified: (1) MnOx accumulation near the cathode-electrolyte interface and cathode densification (2) metals migration across the anode-ACC bilayer and general microstructure coarsening at high temperatures and peak fuel utilizations and (3) metal migration into primary interconnect (lesser mechanism) 5 2. Alternate LSM cathodes show slightly lower ASR and lesser free MnOx and chromium contamination. Long-term durability screening of three alternate cathodes is being performed. 3. Single layer anodes show very significant improvement in microstructure stability after 5000 hours testing at aggressive conditions of 925C and bundle outlet, high utilization fuel. 4. New primary interconnect designs are being tested that achieve lower ASR. Modeling performed to further balance ASR and cost through optimized designs.

Goettler, Richard

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

DNA Sequencing Using capillary Electrophoresis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The overall goal of this program was to develop capillary electrophoresis as the tool to be used to sequence for the first time the Human Genome. Our program was part of the Human Genome Project. In this work, we were highly successful and the replaceable polymer we developed, linear polyacrylamide, was used by the DOE sequencing lab in California to sequence a significant portion of the human genome using the MegaBase multiple capillary array electrophoresis instrument. In this final report, we summarize our efforts and success. We began our work by separating by capillary electrophoresis double strand oligonucleotides using cross-linked polyacrylamide gels in fused silica capillaries. This work showed the potential of the methodology. However, preparation of such cross-linked gel capillaries was difficult with poor reproducibility, and even more important, the columns were not very stable. We improved stability by using non-cross linked linear polyacrylamide. Here, the entangled linear chains could move when osmotic pressure (e.g. sample injection) was imposed on the polymer matrix. This relaxation of the polymer dissipated the stress in the column. Our next advance was to use significantly lower concentrations of the linear polyacrylamide that the polymer could be automatically blown out after each run and replaced with fresh linear polymer solution. In this way, a new column was available for each analytical run. Finally, while testing many linear polymers, we selected linear polyacrylamide as the best matrix as it was the most hydrophilic polymer available. Under our DOE program, we demonstrated initially the success of the linear polyacrylamide to separate double strand DNA. We note that the method is used even today to assay purity of double stranded DNA fragments. Our focus, of course, was on the separation of single stranded DNA for sequencing purposes. In one paper, we demonstrated the success of our approach in sequencing up to 500 bases. Other application papers of sequencing up to this level were also published in the mid 1990's. A major interest of the sequencing community has always been read length. The longer the sequence read per run the more efficient the process as well as the ability to read repeat sequences. We therefore devoted a great deal of time to studying the factors influencing read length in capillary electrophoresis, including polymer type and molecule weight, capillary column temperature, applied electric field, etc. In our initial optimization, we were able to demonstrate, for the first time, the sequencing of over 1000 bases with 90% accuracy. The run required 80 minutes for separation. Sequencing of 1000 bases per column was next demonstrated on a multiple capillary instrument. Our studies revealed that linear polyacrylamide produced the longest read lengths because the hydrophilic single strand DNA had minimal interaction with the very hydrophilic linear polyacrylamide. Any interaction of the DNA with the polymer would lead to broader peaks and lower read length. Another important parameter was the molecular weight of the linear chains. High molecular weight (> 1 MDA) was important to allow the long single strand DNA to reptate through the entangled polymer matrix. In an important paper, we showed an inverse emulsion method to prepare reproducibility linear polyacrylamide polymer with an average MWT of 9MDa. This approach was used in the polymer for sequencing the human genome. Another critical factor in the successful use of capillary electrophoresis for sequencing was the sample preparation method. In the Sanger sequencing reaction, high concentration of salts and dideoxynucleotide remained. Since the sample was introduced to the capillary column by electrokinetic injection, these salt ions would be favorably injected into the column over the sequencing fragments, thus reducing the signal for longer fragments and hence reading read length. In two papers, we examined the role of individual components from the sequencing reaction and then developed a protocol to reduce the deleterio

Dr. Barry Karger

2011-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

411

Wind Generation Feasibility Study for Sac & Fox Tribe of the Mississippi in Iowa (Meskwaki Nation)  

SciTech Connect

1.2 Overview The Meskwaki Nation will obtain an anemometer tower. Install the tower at the site that has been pre-qualified as the site most likely to produce maximum electric power from the wind. It will collect meteorological data from the towerâ??s sensors for a one year period, as required for due diligence to identify the site as appropriate for the installation of a wind turbine to provide electric power for the community. Have the collected data analyzed by a meteorologist and a professionally certified wind engineer to produce the reports of expected power generation at the site, for the specific wind turbine(s) under consideration for installation. 1.2.1 Goals of the Tribe The feasibility study reports, including technical and business analyses will be used to obtain contracts and financing required to develop and implement a wind turbine project on the Meskwaki Settlement. Our goal is to produce two (2) mega watts of power and to reduce the cost for electricity currently being paid by the Meskwaki Casino. 1.2.2 Project Objectives Meet the energy needs of the community with clean energy. Bring renewable energy to the settlement in a responsible, affordable manner. Maximize both the economic and the spiritual benefits to the tribe from energy independence. Integrate the Tribeâ??s energy policies with its economic development goals. Contribute to achieving the Tribeâ??s long-term goals of self-determination and sovereignty. 1.2.3 Project Location The precise location proposed for the tower is at the following coordinates: 92 Degrees, 38 Minutes, 46.008 Seconds West Longitude 41 Degrees, 59 Minutes, 45.311 Seconds North Latitude. A circle of radius 50.64 meters, enclosing and area of 1.98 acres in PLSS Township T83N, Range R15W, in Iowa. In relative directions, the site is 1,650 feet due west of the intersection of Highway 30 and 305th Street in Tama, Iowa, as approached from the direction of Toledo, Iowa. It is bounded on the north by Highway 30 and on the south by 305th Street, a street which runs along a meandering west-south-west heading from this intersection with Highway 30. In relation to Settlement landmarks, it is 300 meters west of the Meskwaki water tower found in front of the Meskwaki Public Works Department, and is due north of the athletic playing fields of the Meskwaki Settlement School. The accompanying maps (in the Site Resource Maps File) use a red pushpin marker to indicate the exact location, both in the overview frames and in the close-up frame. 1.2.4 Long Term Energy Vision The Meskwaki Tribe is committed to becoming energy self-sufficient, improving the economic condition of the tribe, and maintaining Tribal Values of closeness with Grandmother Earth. The details of the Tribeâ??s long-term vision continues to evolve. A long term vision exists of: 1) a successful assessment program; 2) a successful first wind turbine project reducing the Tribeâ??s cost of electricity; 3) creation of a Meskwaki Tribal Power Utility/Coop under the auspices of the new tribal Corporation, as we implement a master plan for economic and business development; 4), and opening the doors for additional wind turbines/renewable energy sources on the community. The additional turbines could lead directly to energy self-sufficiency, or might be the one leg of a multi-leg approach using multiple forms of renewable energy to achieve self-sufficiency. We envision current and future assessment projects providing the data needed to qualify enough renewable energy projects to provide complete coverage for the entire Meskwaki Settlement, including meeting future economic development projectsâ?? energy needs. While choosing not to engage in excessive optimism, we can imagine that in the future the Iowa rate-setting bodies will mandate that grid operators pay fair rates (tariffs) to renewable suppliers. We will be ready to expand renewable production of electricity for export, when that time comes. The final report includes the Wind

Lasley, Larry C. [Sac & Fox Tribe of the Mississippi in Iowa

2013-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

412

Evaluation of Gas, Oil and Wood Pellet Fueled Residential Heating System Emissions Characteristics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study has measured the emissions from a wide range of heating equipment burning different fuels including several liquid fuel options, utility supplied natural gas and wood pellet resources. The major effort was placed on generating a database for the mass emission rate of fine particulates (PM 2.5) for the various fuel types studied. The fine particulates or PM 2.5 (less than 2.5 microns in size) were measured using a dilution tunnel technique following the method described in US EPA CTM-039. The PM 2.5 emission results are expressed in several units for the benefit of scientists, engineers and administrators. The measurements of gaseous emissions of O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} were made using a combustion analyzer based on electrochemical cells These measurements are presented for each of the residential heating systems tested. This analyzer also provides a steady state efficiency based on stack gas and temperature measurements and these values are included in the report. The gaseous results are within the ranges expected from prior emission studies with the enhancement of expanding these measurements to fuels not available to earlier researchers. Based on measured excess air levels and ultimate analysis of the fuel's chemical composition the gaseous emission results are as expected and fall within the range provided for emission factors contained in the US-EPA AP 42, Emission Factors Volume I, Fifth Edition. Since there were no unexpected findings in these gaseous measurements, the bulk of the report is centered on the emissions of fine particulates, or PM 2.5. The fine particulate (PM 2.5) results for the liquid fuel fired heating systems indicate a very strong linear relationship between the fine particulate emissions and the sulfur content of the liquid fuels being studied. This is illustrated by the plot contained in the first figure on the next page which clearly illustrates the linear relationship between the measured mass of fine particulate per unit of energy, expressed as milligrams per Mega-Joule (mg/MJ) versus the different sulfur contents of four different heating fuels. These were tested in a conventional cast iron boiler equipped with a flame retention head burner. The fuels included a typical ASTM No. 2 fuel oil with sulfur below 0.5 percent (1520 average ppm S), an ASTM No. 2 fuel oil with very high sulfur content (5780 ppm S), low sulfur heating oil (322 ppm S) and an ultra low sulfur diesel fuel (11 ppm S). Three additional oil-fired heating system types were also tested with normal heating fuel, low sulfur and ultralow sulfur fuel. They included an oil-fired warm air furnace of conventional design, a high efficiency condensing warm air furnace, a condensing hydronic boiler and the conventional hydronic boiler as discussed above. The linearity in the results was observed with all of the different oil-fired equipment types (as shown in the second figure on the next page). A linear regression of the data resulted in an Rsquared value of 0.99 indicating that a very good linear relationship exits. This means that as sulfur decreases the PM 2.5 emissions are reduced in a linear manner within the sulfur content range tested. At the ultra low sulfur level (15 ppm S) the amount of PM 2.5 had been reduced dramatically to an average of 0.043 mg/MJ. Three different gas-fired heating systems were tested. These included a conventional in-shot induced draft warm air furnace, an atmospheric fired hydronic boiler and a high efficiency hydronic boiler. The particulate (PM 2.5) measured ranged from 0.011 to 0.036 mg/MJ. depending on the raw material source used in their manufacture. All three stoves tested were fueled with premium (low ash) wood pellets obtained in a single batch to provide for uniformity in the test fuel. Unlike the oil and gas fired systems, the wood pellet stoves had measurable amounts of particulates sized above the 2.5-micron size that defines fine particulates (less than 2.5 microns). The fine particulate emissions rates ranged from 22 to 30 mg/ MJ with an average value

McDonald, R.

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z