Powered by Deep Web Technologies
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ghz water vapor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

MEASUREMENTS AND RETRIEVALS FROM A NEW 183-GHz WATER VAPOR RADIOMETER IN  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

MEASUREMENTS AND RETRIEVALS FROM A NEW 183-GHz WATER VAPOR RADIOMETER IN MEASUREMENTS AND RETRIEVALS FROM A NEW 183-GHz WATER VAPOR RADIOMETER IN THE ARCTIC Cadeddu, Maria Argonne National Laboratory Category: Instruments A new G-band (183 GHz) vapor radiometer (GVR), developed and built by Prosensing Inc. (http://www.prosensing.com), was deployed in Barrow, Alaska, in April 2005. The radiometer was deployed as part of the ongoing Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's effort to improve water vapor retrievals in the cold, dry Arctic environment. The instrument measures brightness temperatures from four double sideband channels centered at 1, 3, 7, and 14 GHz from the 183.31-GHz water vapor line. Atmospheric emission in this spectral region is primarily due to water vapor, with some influence from liquid water. The GVR will remain in Barrow

2

Tropospheric Water Vapor Profiles Retrieved from Pressure-Broadened Emission Spectra at 22 GHz  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The authors present the analysis and the evaluation of the retrieval of tropospheric water vapor profiles from pressure-broadened emission spectra at 22 GHz measured with a ground-based microwave spectroradiometer. The spectra have a bandwidth of ...

Alexander Haefele; Niklaus Kämpfer

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

ARM Water Vapor IOP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ARM Water Vapor IOP The SGP CART site will host the third ARM water vapor IOP on September 18-October 8, 2000. The CART site is home to a powerful array of instruments capable of...

4

ARM - Water Vapor  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water Vapor Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global...

5

G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) Value-Added Product  

SciTech Connect

The G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) value-added product (VAP) computes precipitable water vapor using neural network techniques from data measured by the GVR. The GVR reports time-series measurements of brightness temperatures for four channels located at 183.3 ± 1, 3, 7, and 14 GHz.

Koontz, A; Cadeddu, M

2012-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

6

ARM - Field Campaign - Water Vapor IOP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsWater Vapor IOP govCampaignsWater Vapor IOP Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Water Vapor IOP 2000.09.18 - 2000.10.08 Lead Scientist : Henry Revercomb Data Availability Yes For data sets, see below. Description Scientific hypothesis: 1. Microwave radiometer (MWR) observations of the 22 GHz water vapor line can accurately constrain the total column amount of water vapor (assuming a calibration accuracy of 0.5 degC or better, which translates into 0.35 mm PWV). 2. Continuous profiling by Raman lidar provides a stable reference for handling sampling problems and observes a fixed column directly above the site only requiring a single height- independent calibration factor. 3. Agreement between the salt-bath calibrated in-situ probes, chilled

7

Ground-Based and Airborne (PMS 2-D Probe Canister-Mounted) 183 GHz Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ground-Based and Airborne (PMS 2-D Probe Canister-Mounted) 183 GHz Water Ground-Based and Airborne (PMS 2-D Probe Canister-Mounted) 183 GHz Water Vapor Radiometer Pazmany, Andrew ProSensing Inc. Category: Instruments ProSensing Inc. has developed a G-band (183 GHz, 1.5 mm wavelength) water vapor radiometer (GVR) for the measurement of low concentrations of atmospheric water vapor and liquid water. The instrument's precipitable water vapor measurement precision is approximately 0.01 mm in dry (<2 mm vapor column) conditions. The ground-based version of the instrument was first deployed at ProSensing's facility in Amherst, MA in February 2005, then at the North Slope of Alaska DOE ARM site in Barrow AK in April 2005, where it has been continuously operating since. An airborne version, designed to operate from a standard PMS 2-D probe canister, is now being

8

Hydrogen Cars and Water Vapor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. This cycle is currently under way with hydrogen fuel cells. As fuel cell cars are suggested as a solutionHydrogen Cars and Water Vapor D.W.KEITHANDA.E.FARRELL'S POLICY FORUM "Rethinking hydrogen cars" (18 misidentified as "zero-emissions vehicles." Fuel cell vehicles emit water vapor. A global fleet could have

Colorado at Boulder, University of

9

The Dust Settles on Water Vapor Feedback  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...To understand water vapor feedback...shifts in the atmospheric circulation...caused a positive water vapor feedback...temperature. Condensation, evaporation...shifts in the atmospheric circulation...caused a positive water vapor feedback...temperature. Condensation, evaporation...

Anthony D. Del Genio

2002-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

10

ARM - Field Campaign - Arctic Winter Water Vapor IOP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsArctic Winter Water Vapor IOP govCampaignsArctic Winter Water Vapor IOP Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Arctic Winter Water Vapor IOP 2004.03.09 - 2004.04.09 Lead Scientist : Ed Westwater Data Availability http://www.etl.noaa.gov/programs/2004/wviop/data will contain quicklooks of all of the data. For data sets, see below. Summary During the IOP, the Ground-based Scanning Radiometer of NOAA/ETL, and the ARM MicroWave Radiometer and Microwave Profiler, yielded excellent data over a range of conditions. In all, angular-scanned and calibrated radiometric data from 22.345 to 380 GHz were taken. The Precipitable Water Vapor varied about an order of magnitude from 1 to 10 mm, and surface temperatures varied from about -10 to -40 deg. Celcius. Vaisala RS90

11

Remote sensing of total integrated water vapor, wind speed, and cloud liquid water over the ocean using the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A modified D-matrix retrieval method is the basis of the refined total integrated water vapor (TIWV), total integrated cloud liquid water (CLW), and surface wind speed (WS) retrieval methods that are developed. The 85 GHZ polarization difference...

Manning, Norman Willis William

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

12

Optical monitor for water vapor concentration  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for measuring and monitoring water vapor concentration in a sample uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to a water vapor absorption line. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split by a magnetic field parallel to the direction of light propagation from the lamp into sets of components of downshifted and upshifted frequencies of approximately 1575 Gauss. The downshifted components are centered on a water vapor absorption line and are thus readily absorbed by water vapor in the sample; the upshifted components are moved away from that absorption line and are minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the upshifted components or downshifted components and passes the selected components to the sample. After transmission through the sample, the transmitted intensity of a component of the argon line varies as a result of absorption by the water vapor. The system then determines the concentration of water vapor in the sample based on differences in the transmitted intensity between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments alternate selection of sets of components is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to the emitting plasma. 5 figs.

Kebabian, P.

1998-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

13

Optical monitor for water vapor concentration  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for measuring and monitoring water vapor concentration in a sample uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to a water vapor absorption line. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split by a magnetic field parallel to the direction of light propagation from the lamp into sets of components of downshifted and upshifted frequencies of approximately 1575 Gauss. The downshifted components are centered on a water vapor absorption line and are thus readily absorbed by water vapor in the sample; the upshifted components are moved away from that absorption line and are minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the upshifted components or downshifted components and passes the selected components to the sample. After transmission through the sample, the transmitted intensity of a component of the argon line varies as a result of absorption by the water vapor. The system then determines the concentration of water vapor in the sample based on differences in the transmitted intensity between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments alternate selection of sets of components is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to the emitting plasma.

Kebabian, Paul (Acton, MA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

ARM - Field Campaign - Water Vapor IOP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsWater Vapor IOP govCampaignsWater Vapor IOP Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Water Vapor IOP 1996.09.10 - 1996.09.30 Lead Scientist : Henry Revercomb For data sets, see below. Summary SCHEDULE This IOP will be conducted from September 10 - 30, 1996 (coincident with the Fall ARM-UAV IOP). Instruments that do not require supervision will be operated continuously during this period. Instruments that do require supervision are presently planned to be operated for 8-hour periods each day. Because it is necessary to cover as broad a range of environmental conditions as possible, the daily 8-hour period will be shifted across the diurnal cycle as deemed appropriate during the IOP (but will be maintained as a contiguous 8-hour block).

15

atmospheric water vapor | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

atmospheric water vapor atmospheric water vapor Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors for Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Islands. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a concentrating collector, such as a dish collector, which tracks the sun continuously. Source NREL Date Released July 31st, 2006 (8 years ago) Date Updated October 30th, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords atmospheric water vapor Carribean Islands Central America DNI GIS Mexico NREL GEF solar SWERA UNEP Data application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 247.8 KiB) text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 370.6 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review

16

atmoshperic water vapor | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

atmoshperic water vapor atmoshperic water vapor Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for flat-plate collectors tilted at latitude for China. Source NREL Date Released April 12th, 2005 (9 years ago) Date Updated October 30th, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords atmoshperic water vapor China GEF GIS NREL solar SWERA TILT UNEP Data application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 625.6 KiB) text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 704.1 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period 01/01/1985 - 12/31/1991 License License Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and Licence (PDDL) Comment Rate this dataset Usefulness of the metadata Average vote Your vote Usefulness of the dataset Average vote Your vote Ease of access

17

Environmental Chemistry at Vapor/Water Interfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Environmental Chemistry at Vapor/Water Interfaces: Insights from Vibrational Sum Frequency Generation Spectroscopy Aaron M. Jubb, Wei Hua, and Heather C. Allen Department of Chemistry, The Ohio State/0505-0107$20.00 Keywords salts, lipids, atmospheric chemistry, ion binding, oxidation Abstract The chemistry that occurs

18

ARM - PI Product - MWR Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water and Water Vapor  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govDataPI Data ProductsMWR Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water and Water govDataPI Data ProductsMWR Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water and Water Vapor Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : MWR Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water and Water Vapor 2005.02.01 - 2011.04.25 Site(s) FKB GRW HFE NIM PYE SBS General Description A new algorithm is being developed for the ARM Program to derive liquid water path (LWP) and precipitable water vapor (PWV) from the 2-channel (23.8 and 31.4 GHz) microwave radiometers (MWRs) deployed at ARM climate research facilities. This algorithm utilizes the "monoRTM" radiative transfer model (http://rtweb.aer.com), a combination of both an advanced statistical and physical-iterative retrieval, and brightness temperature offsets applied before the retrieval is performed. This allows perhaps the

19

183-GHz Radiometer Handbook - November 2006  

SciTech Connect

The G-Band Vapor Radiometer (GVR) provides time-series measurements of brightness temperatures from four double sideband channels centered at ± 1, ± 3, ± 7, and ± 14 GHz around the 183.31-GHz water vapor line. Atmospheric emission in this spectral region is primarily due to water vapor, with some influence from liquid water. The 183.31 ± 14-GHz channel is particularly sensitive to the presence of liquid water. The sensitivity to water vapor of the 183.31-GHz line is approximately 30 times higher than at the frequencies of the two-channel microwave radiometer (MWR) for a precipitable water vapor (PWV) amount of less than 2.5 mm. Measurements from this nstrument are therefore especially useful during low-humidity conditions (PWV < 5 mm).

MP Cadeddu

2006-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

20

Estimating the Atmospheric Water Vapor Content from Sun Photometer Measurements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The differential absorption technique for estimating columnar water vapor values from the analysis of sunphotometric measurements with wide- and narrowband interferential filters centered near 0.94 ?m is discussed and adapted. Water vapor line ...

Artemio Plana-Fattori; Michel Legrand; Didier Tanré; Claude Devaux; Anne Vermeulen; Philippe Dubuisson

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ghz water vapor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

WATER VAPOR IN THE PROTOPLANETARY DISK OF DG Tau  

SciTech Connect

Water is key in the evolution of protoplanetary disks and the formation of comets and icy/water planets. While high-excitation water lines originating in the hot inner disk have been detected in several T Tauri stars (TTSs), water vapor from the outer disk, where most water ice reservoirs are stored, was only reported in the nearby TTS TW Hya. We present spectrally resolved Herschel/HIFI observations of the young TTS DG Tau in the ortho- and para-water ground-state transitions at 557 and 1113 GHz. The lines show a narrow double-peaked profile, consistent with an origin in the outer disk, and are {approx}19-26 times brighter than in TW Hya. In contrast, CO and [C II] lines are dominated by emission from the envelope/outflow, which makes H{sub 2}O lines a unique tracer of the disk of DG Tau. Disk modeling with the thermo-chemical code ProDiMo indicates that the strong UV field, due to the young age and strong accretion of DG Tau, irradiates a disk upper layer at 10-90 AU from the star, heating it up to temperatures of 600 K and producing the observed bright water lines. The models suggest a disk mass of 0.015-0.1 M{sub Sun }, consistent with the estimated minimum mass of the solar nebula before planet formation, and a water reservoir of {approx}10{sup 2}-10{sup 3} Earth oceans in vapor and {approx}100 times larger in the form of ice. Hence, this detection supports the scenario of ocean delivery on terrestrial planets by the impact of icy bodies forming in the outer disk.

Podio, L.; Dougados, C.; Thi, W.-F.; Menard, F.; Pinte, C. [UJF-Grenoble 1/CNRS-INSU, Institut de Planetologie et d'Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG) UMR 5274, F-38041 Grenoble (France); Kamp, I.; Meijerink, R.; Spaans, M.; Aresu, G. [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, Landleven 12, 9747 AD Groningen (Netherlands); Codella, C. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence (Italy); Cabrit, S. [LERMA, UMR 8112 du CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, Ecole Normale Superieure, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Universite de Cergy-Pontoise, 61 Av. de l'Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Nisini, B. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via di Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone (Italy); Sandell, G. [SOFIA-USRA, NASA Ames Research Center, MS 232-12, Building N232, Rm. 146, P.O. Box 1, Moffett Field, CA 94035-0001 (United States); Williams, J. P. [Institute for Astronomy (IfA), University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Dr., Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Testi, L. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Woitke, P. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)

2013-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

22

Apparent Temperature Dependence on Localized Atmospheric Water Vapor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Apparent Temperature Dependence on Localized Atmospheric Water Vapor Matthew Montanaroa, Carl), hence water vapor is the primary constituent of concern. The tower generates a localized water vapor, Office B108, Aiken, SC, USA ABSTRACT The atmosphere is a critical factor in remote sensing. Radiance from

Salvaggio, Carl

23

ARM - Field Campaign - Fall 1997 Water Vapor IOP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water Vapor IOP Water Vapor IOP Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Fall 1997 Water Vapor IOP 1997.09.15 - 1997.10.05 Lead Scientist : Henry Revercomb For data sets, see below. Summary The Water Vapor IOP was conducted as a follow-up to a predecessor IOP on water vapor held in September 1996. This IOP relied heavily on both ground-based guest and CART instrumentation and in-situ aircraft and tethered sonde/kite measurements. Primary operational hours were from 6 p.m. Central until at least midnight, with aircraft support normally from about 9 p.m. until midnight when available. However, many daytime measurements were made to support this IOP. The first Water Vapor IOP primarily concentrated on the atmosphere's lowest

24

Phase effects for electrons in liquid water and water vapor  

SciTech Connect

The objective of these studies is to compare transport, energy loss, and other phenomena for electrons in water in the liquid and vapor phases. Understanding the differences and similarities is an interesting physics problem in its own right. It is also important for applying the relatively large body of experimental data available for the vapor to the liquid, which is of greater relevance in radiobiology. This paper presents a summary of results from a series of collaborative studies carried out by the authors at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung (GSF). 14 figs.

Turner, J.E.; Paretzke, H.G.; Wright, H.A.; Hamm, R.N.; Ritchie, R.H.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Raman Lidar Measurements of Aerosols and Water Vapor During the...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

modifications reduced but could not eliminate these adverse effects. The Raman lidar water vapor (aerosol extinction) measurements produced by these modified algorithms were,...

26

Integration of Global Positioning System and Scanning Water Vapor Radiometers for Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path Estimates  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Integration of Global Positioning System and Scanning Integration of Global Positioning System and Scanning Water Vapor Radiometers for Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path Estimates V. Mattioli and P. Basili Department of Electronic and Information Engineering University of Perugia Perugia, Italy E. R. Westwater Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences University of Colorado National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado Introduction In recent years the Global Positioning System (GPS) has proved to be a reliable instrument for measuring precipitable water vapor (PWV) (Bevis et al. 1992), offering an independent source of information on water vapor when compared with microwave radiometers (MWRs), and/or radiosonde

27

Overview of the ARM/FIRE Water Vapor Experiment (AFWEX)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Overview of the ARM/FIRE Water Vapor Overview of the ARM/FIRE Water Vapor Experiment (AFWEX) D. C. Tobin, H. E. Revercomb, and D. D. Turner University of Wisconsin-Madison Madison, Wisconsin Introduction An overview of the ARM/FIRE Water Vapor Experiment (AFWEX) is given. This field experiment was conducted during November-December 2000 near the central ground-based Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in north central Oklahoma, and was sponsored jointly by the ARM, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE), and the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) programs. Its primary goal was to collect accurate measurements of upper-level (~8 to 12 km) water vapor near the ground-based ARM site. These data are being used to determine the accuracy of measurements that are

28

Photocoupling of Methane in Water Vapor to Saturated Hydrocarbons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Methane can be converted into alkanes (from C2 to C6) continuously by ultraviolet (185 nm) irradiation in the presence of water vapor. The products from this reaction are alkanes, which is different from the comp...

JunePyo Oh; Taketoshi Matsumoto; Junji Nakamura

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

investigating the source, transport, and isotope fractionation of water vapor in the atmospheric boundary layer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

investigating the source, transport, and isotope fractionation of water vapor in the atmospheric cospectral similarity for temperature and water vapor isotope fluxes. mixing ratio generator Routine field use in water vapor isotope research. The unit generates a stable water vapor mixing ratio by measuring

Minnesota, University of

30

Calculating the vapor pressure of water from the second law of thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Calculating the vapor pressure of water from the second law of thermodynamics ... Thermodynamics ...

M. H. Everdell

1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Cloud and Aerosol Properties, Precipitable Water, and Profiles of Temperature and Water Vapor from MODIS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cloud and Aerosol Properties, Precipitable Water, and Profiles of Temperature and Water Vapor from such as cloud mask, atmos- pheric profiles, aerosol properties, total precipitable water, and cloud properties vapor amount, aerosol particles, and the subsequently formed clouds [9]. Barnes et al. [2] provide

Sheridan, Jennifer

32

G-Band Vapor Radiometer Profiler (GVRP) Handbook  

SciTech Connect

The G-Band Vapor Radiometer Profiler (GVRP) provides time-series measurements of brightness temperatures from 15 channels between 170 and 183.310 GHz. Atmospheric emission in this spectral region is primarily due to water vapor, with some influence from liquid water. Channels between 170.0 and 176.0 GHz are particularly sensitive to the presence of liquid water. The sensitivity to water vapor of the 183.31-GHz line is approximately 30 times higher than at the frequencies of the two-channel microwave radiometer (MWR) for a precipitable water vapor (PWV) amount of less than 2.5 mm. Measurements from the GVRP instrument are therefore especially useful during low-humidity conditions (PWV < 5 mm). In addition to integrated water vapor and liquid water, the GVRP can provide low-resolution vertical profiles of water vapor in very dry conditions.

Caddeau, MP

2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

33

Validation of TES Temperature and Water Vapor Retrievals with ARM  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Validation of TES Temperature and Water Vapor Retrievals with ARM Validation of TES Temperature and Water Vapor Retrievals with ARM Observations Cady-Pereira, Karen Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. Shephard, Mark Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. Clough, Shepard Atmospheric and Environmental Research Mlawer, Eli Atmospheric & Environmental Research, Inc. Turner, David University of Wisconsin-Madison Category: Atmospheric State and Surface The primary objective of the TES (Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer) instrument on the Aura spacecraft is the retrieval of trace gases, especially water vapor and ozone. The TES retrievals extremely useful for global monitoring of the atmospheric state, but they must be validated. The ARM sites are well instrumented and provide continuous measurements, which

34

A thermoacoustic oscillator powered by vaporized water and ethanol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We measure the temperature difference required to drive a thermoacoustic oscillator containing air water vapor and liquid water as the working fluids. The oscillator is composed of a large tube containing an array of narrow tubes connected at one end to a tank of liquid water. When the water is heated the temperature difference across the tube array increases until thermoacoustic oscillations occur. The temperature difference at the onset of oscillation is measured to be 56 ? ° C significantly smaller (by ? 200 ? ° C ) than the temperature measured when the tank is filled with dry air instead of water. The temperature difference can be further reduced to 47 ? ° C by using ethanol instead of water.

Daisuke Noda; Yuki Ueda

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Fatigue Resistance of Asphalt Mixtures Affected by Water Vapor Movement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This dissertation has two key objectives: the first objective is to develop a method of predicting and quantifying the amount of water that can enter into a pavement system by vapor transport; the second objective is to identify to which extent...

Tong, Yunwei

2013-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

36

Experimental Study of Water Vapor Adsorption on Geothermal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Geothermal Program under Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG07-90IDI2934,and by the Department of PetroleumSGP-TR-148 Experimental Study of Water Vapor Adsorption on Geothermal Reservoir Rocks Shubo Shang Engineering, Stanford University Stanford Geothermal Program Interdisciplinary Research in Engineering

Stanford University

37

High-resolution terahertz atmospheric water vapor continuum measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High-resolution terahertz atmospheric water vapor continuum measurements David M. Slocum,* Thomas M such as pollution monitoring and the detection of energetic chemicals using remote sensing over long path lengths through the atmosphere. Although there has been much attention to atmospheric effects over narrow

Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

38

Mapping Observations of 6.7GHz Methanol Masers with the Japanese VLBI Network  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......figure 12) is a CO condensation at a distance of...12.2GHz and the water maser at 22GHz...detection rate, flux recovery, and small fringe...compared with that of water masers. Given this...observation, the atmospheric fluctuation is a...Strong absorption by water vapor in the atmosphere......

Koichiro Sugiyama; Kenta Fujisawa; Akihiro Doi; Mareki Honma; Hideyuki Kobayashi; Takeshi Bushimata; Nanako Mochizuki; Yasuhiro Murata

2008-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

39

Tropical Water Vapor and Cloud Feedbacks in Climate Models: A Further Assessment Using Coupled Simulations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

By comparing the response of clouds and water vapor to ENSO forcing in nature with that in Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) simulations by some leading climate models, an earlier evaluation of tropical cloud and water vapor ...

De-Zheng Sun; Yongqiang Yu; Tao Zhang

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Measurements of atmospheric water vapor above Mauna Kea using an infrared radiometer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Measurements of atmospheric water vapor above Mauna Kea using an infrared radiometer David A in atmospheric water vapor that distort the phase coherence of incoming celestial signals. The signal received water vapor, this paper presents results obtained with a second generation IRMA operating at the James

Naylor, David A.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ghz water vapor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Determination of effective water vapor diffusion coefficient in pemfc gas diffusion layers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

route from the cathode catalyst layer to the cathode flow channels. Water can be removed from the cellDetermination of effective water vapor diffusion coefficient in pemfc gas diffusion layers Jacob M: Water vapor diffusion PEMFC Water management GDL Diffusivity MPL a b s t r a c t The primary removal

Kandlikar, Satish

42

Final Report for ARM Project Measuring 4-D Water Vapor Fields with GPS  

SciTech Connect

Water vapor is a primary element in the Earth’s climate system. Atmospheric water vapor is central to cloud processes, radiation transfer, and the hydrological cycle. Using funding from Department of Energy (DOE) grant DE-FG03-02ER63327, the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) developed new observational techniques to measure atmospheric water vapor and applied these techniques to measure four dimensional water vapor fields throughout the United States Southern Great Plains region. This report summarizes the development of a new observation from ground based Global Positioning System (GPS) stations called Slant Water Vapor (SW) and it’s utilization in retrieving four dimensional water vapor fields. The SW observation represents the integrated amount of water vapor between a GPS station and a transmitting satellite. SW observations provide improved temporal and spatial sampling of the atmosphere when compared to column-integrated quantities such as preciptitable water vapor (PW). Under funding from the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program, GPS networks in the Southern Great Plains (SGP) region were deployed to retrieve SW to improve the characterization of water vapor throughout the region. These observations were used to estimate four dimensional water vapor fields using tomographic approaches and through assimilation into the MM5 numerical weather model.

Braun, John

2006-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

43

Homogeneous nucleation rate measurements in supersaturated water vapor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The rate of homogeneous nucleation in supersaturated vapors of water was studied experimentally using a thermal diffusion cloud chamber. Helium was used as a carrier gas. Our study covers a range of nucleation rates from 3 × 10 ? 1 to 3 × 10 2 cm ? 3 s ? 1 at four isotherms: 290 300 310 and 320 K . The molecular content of critical clusters was estimated from the slopes of experimental data. The measured isothermal dependencies of nucleation rate of water on saturation ratio were compared with the prediction of the classical theory of homogeneous nucleation the empirical prediction of Wölk et al. [J. Chem. Phys.117 10 (2002)] the scaled model of Hale [Phys. Rev. A33 4156 (1986)] and the former nucleation onset data.

David Brus; Vladimír Ždímal; Ji?í Smolík

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Retrieval of water vapor profiles over ocean using SSM/I and SSM/T-2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of water vapor profiles, while the SSM/I can be used to retrieve, among other things, the total integrated water vapor (TIWV) in a column of air. It is theoretically possible to use SSM/I data to supplement the SSM/T-2 data, producing more accurate water...

Blankenship, Clay Bruce

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

45

Water, Vapor, and Salt Dynamics in a Hot Repository  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to report the results of a new model study examining the high temperature nuclear waste disposal concept at Yucca Mountain using MULTIFLUX, an integrated in-drift- and mountain-scale thermal-hydrologic model. The results show that a large amount of vapor flow into the drift is expected during the period of above-boiling temperatures. This phenomenon makes the emplacement drift a water/moisture attractor during the above-boiling temperature operation. The evaporation of the percolation water into the drift gives rise to salt accumulation in the rock wall, especially in the crown of the drift for about 1500 years in the example. The deposited salts over the drift footprint, almost entirely present in the fractures, may enter the drift either by rock fall or by water drippage. During the high temperature operation mode, the barometric pressure variation creates fluctuating relative humidity in the emplacement drift with a time period of approximately 10 days. Potentially wet and dry conditions and condensation on salt-laden drift wall sections may adversely affect the storage environment. Salt accumulations during the above-boiling temperature operation must be sufficiently addressed to fully understand the waste package environment during the thermal period. Until the questions are resolved, a below-boiling repository design is favored where the Alloy-22 will be less susceptible to localized corrosion. (authors)

Bahrami, Davood; Danko, George [Department of Mining Engineering, University of Nevada, Reno, 1664 N. Virginia St., Reno, NV, 89557 (United States); Walton, John [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, 500 W. University, El Paso, TX, 79968 (United States)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Chem. Mater. 1995, 7, 2269-2272 2269 Water Vapor Adsorption on Chemically Treated  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chem. Mater. 1995, 7, 2269-2272 2269 Water Vapor Adsorption on Chemically Treated Activated Carbon August 25, 1995@ Water vapor adsorption on activated carbon cloth (ACCBO)which has been oxidized% Cl), and ACCBO (4% N), exhibits sigmoidal isotherms with hysteresis loops of varying magnitudes

Cal, Mark P.

47

Desalination-of water by vapor-phase transport through hydrophobic nanopores  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose a new approach to desalination of water whereby a pressure difference across a vapor-trapping nanopore induces selective transport of water by isothermal evaporation and condensation across the pore. Transport ...

Lee, Jongho

48

Inexpensive Near-IR Sun Photometer for Measuring Total Column Water Vapor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An inexpensive two-channel near-IR sun photometer for measuring total atmospheric column water vapor (precipitable water) has been developed for use by the Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) environmental science ...

David R. Brooks; Forrest M. Mims III; Richard Roettger

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Measurements of water vapor adsorption on the Geysers rocks  

SciTech Connect

The ORNL high temperature isopiestic apparatus was adapted for adsorption measurements. The quantity of water retained by rock samples taken from three different wells of The Geysers was measured at 150 °C and at 200 °C as a function of pressure in the range 0.00 ? p/p0 ? 0.98, where p0 is the saturated water vapor pressure. The rocks were crushed and sieved into three fractions of different grain sizes (with different specific surface areas). Both adsorption (increasing pressure) and desorption (decreasing pressure) runs were made in order to investigate the nature and extent of the hysteresis. Additionally, BET surface area analyses were performed by Porous Materials Inc. on the same rock samples using nitrogen or krypton adsorption measurements at 77 K. Specific surface areas and pore volumes were determined. These parameters are important in estimating water retention capability of a porous material. The same laboratory also determined the densities of the samples by helium pycnometry. Their results were then compared with our own density values obtained by measuring the effect of buoyancy in compressed argon. One of the goals of this project is to determine the dependence of the water retention capacity of the rocks as a function of temperature. The results show a significant dependence of the adsorption and desorption isotherms on the grain size of the sample. The increase in the amount of water retained with temperature observed previously (Shang et al., 1994a, 1994b, 1995) between 90 and 130°C for various reservoir rocks from The Geysers may be due to the contribution of slow chemical adsorption and may be dependent on the time allowed for equilibration. In contrast with the results of Shang et al. (1994a, 1994b, 1995), some closed and nearly closed hysteresis loops on the water adsorption/desorption isotherms (with closing points at p/p0 ? 0.6) were obtained in this study. In these cases the effects of activated processes were not present, and no increase in water adsorption with temperature was observed

Gruszkiewicz, Miroslaw S.; Horita, Juske; Simonson, John M.; Mesmer, Robert E.

1996-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

50

Distribution of binding energies of a water molecule in the water liquid-vapor interface  

SciTech Connect

Distributions of binding energies of a water molecule in the water liquid-vapor interface are obtained on the basis of molecular simulation with the SPC/E model of water. These binding energies together with the observed interfacial density profile are used to test a minimally conditioned Gaussian quasi-chemical statistical thermodynamic theory. Binding energy distributions for water molecules in that interfacial region clearly exhibit a composite structure. A minimally conditioned Gaussian quasi-chemical model that is accurate for the free energy of bulk liquid water breaks down for water molecules in the liquid-vapor interfacial region. This breakdown is associated with the fact that this minimally conditioned Gaussian model would be inaccurate for the statistical thermodynamics of a dilute gas. Aggressive conditioning greatly improves the performance of that Gaussian quasi-chemical model. The analogy between the Gaussian quasi-chemical model and dielectric models of hydration free energies suggests that naive dielectric models without the conditioning features of quasi-chemical theory will be unreliable for these interfacial problems. Multi-Gaussian models that address the composite nature of the binding energy distributions observed in the interfacial region might provide a mechanism for correcting dielectric models for practical applications.

Chempath, Shaji [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pratt, Lawrence R [TULANE UNIV

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Application of two-photon laser-induced fluorescence for visualization of water vapor in combustion environments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Investigations concerning the potential for the visualization of water vapor in combustion processes have been made. The water molecules were excited through a two-photon excitation...

Neij, Hans; Aldén, Marcus

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

GPS Water Vapor Projects Within the ARM Southern Great Plains Region  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

GPS Water Vapor Projects Within the ARM GPS Water Vapor Projects Within the ARM Southern Great Plains Region J. Braun, T. Van Hove, S. Y. Ha, and C. Rocken GPS Science and Technology Program University Corporation for Atmospheric Research Boulder, Colorado Abstract The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has a need for an improved capability to measure and characterize the four-dimensional distribution of water vapor within the atmosphere. Applications for this type of data include their use in radiation transfer studies, cloud-resolving and single-column models, and for the establishment of an extended time series of water vapor observations. The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research's (UCAR) GPS Science and Technology (GST) Program is working with ARM to leverage the substantial investment in

53

Temperature and water vapor pressure effects on the friction coefficient of hydrogenated diamondlike carbon films.  

SciTech Connect

Microtribological measurements of a hydrogenated diamondlike carbon film in controlled gaseous environments show that water vapor plays a significant role in the friction coefficient. These experiments reveal an initial high friction transient behavior that does not reoccur even after extended periods of exposure to low partial pressures of H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2}. Experiments varying both water vapor pressure and sample temperature show trends of a decreasing friction coefficient as a function of both the decreasing water vapor pressure and the increasing substrate temperature. Theses trends are examined with regard to first order gas-surface interactions. Model fits give activation energies on the order of 40 kJ/mol, which is consistent with water vapor desorption.

Dickrell, P. L.; Sawyer, W. G.; Eryilmaz, O. L.; Erdemir, A.; Energy Technology; Univ. of Florida

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Effect of Water Vapor on the Oxidation Mechanisms of a Commercial Stainless Steel for Interconnect Application in High Temperature Water Vapor Electrolysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High temperature water vapor electrolysis is one of the most promising methods...2–5 %H2O) and cathode atmospheres (10 %H2–90 %H2O). In cathode atmosphere, ageing tests performed up to 1,000 h revealed the format...

Maria Rosa Ardigo; Ioana Popa; Sébastien Chevalier; Sylvain Weber…

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

A simple test method for measuring water vapor resistance of porous polymeric materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A simple test method is proposed for measuring water vapor resistance of fabrics. A piece of cotton fabric connected to a container filled with distilled water through a plastic tube was used on a hot plate to generate a saturated water vapor condition on one side of the sample. The temperature of the cotton fabric (approximation of human skin covered with sweat) was measured by a thermocouple. The water vapor resistance of the sample was determined based on the water vapor pressure gradient across the sample and the heat flux. Five types of textile fabric laminated to PU/TPU membranes, plus one type of conventional fabric, were tested by using this simple apparatus as well as the sweating guarded hot plate instrument. The results showed that good agreement was observed between these two test methods. In addition, the surface temperature of the cotton ‘skin’ varied with different fabrics. This is in accordance with the actual intended situation, i.e., the skin temperature of the body is related to the ability of clothing materials to transfer water vapor. Therefore, this simple test apparatus better simulates real-life conditions than the sweating guarded hot plate instrument.

Jianhua Huang; Chang Zhang; Xiaoming Qian

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Raman lidar profiling of water vapor and aerosols over the ARM SGP Site  

SciTech Connect

The authors have developed and implemented automated algorithms to retrieve profiles of water vapor mixing ratio, aerosol backscattering, and aerosol extinction from Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) Raman Lidar data acquired during both daytime and nighttime operations. The Raman lidar sytem is unique in that it is turnkey, automated system designed for unattended, around-the-clock profiling of water vapor and aerosols. These Raman lidar profiles are important for determining the clear-sky radiative flux, as well as for validating the retrieval algorithms associated with satellite sensors. Accurate, high spatial and temporal resolution profiles of water vapor are also required for assimilation into mesoscale models to improve weather forecasts. The authors have also developed and implemented routines to simultaneously retrieve profiles of relative humidity. These routines utilize the water vapor mixing ratio profiles derived from the Raman lidar measurements together with temperature profiles derived from a physical retrieval algorithm that uses data from a collocated Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES). These aerosol and water vapor profiles (Raman lidar) and temperature profiles (AERI+GOES) have been combined into a single product that takes advantage of both active and passive remote sensors to characterize the clear sky atmospheric state above the CART site.

Ferrare, R.A.

2000-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

57

RAMAN LIDAR PROFILING OF WATER VAPOR AND AEROSOLS OVER THE ARM SGP SITE.  

SciTech Connect

We have developed and implemented automated algorithms to retrieve profiles of water vapor mixing ratio, aerosol backscattering, and aerosol extinction from Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) Raman Lidar data acquired during both daytime and nighttime operations. This Raman lidar system is unique in that it is turnkey, automated system designed for unattended, around-the-clock profiling of water vapor and aerosols (Goldsmith et al., 1998). These Raman lidar profiles are important for determining the clear-sky radiative flux, as well as for validating the retrieval algorithms associated with satellite sensors. Accurate, high spatial and temporal resolution profiles of water vapor are also required for assimilation into mesoscale models to improve weather forecasts. We have also developed and implemented routines to simultaneously retrieve profiles of relative humidity. These routines utilize the water vapor mixing ratio profiles derived from the Raman lidar measurements together with temperature profiles derived from a physical retrieval algorithm that uses data from a collocated Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) (Feltz et al., 1998; Turner et al., 1999). These aerosol and water vapor profiles (Raman lidar) and temperature profiles (AERI+GOES) have been combined into a single product that takes advantage of both active and passive remote sensors to characterize the clear sky atmospheric state above the CART site.

FERRARE,R.A.

2000-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

58

The Impact of Thermal Conductivity and Diffusion Rates on Water Vapor Transport through Gas Diffusion Layers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water management in a hydrogen polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell is critical for performance. The impact of thermal conductivity and water vapor diffusion coefficients in a gas diffusion layer (GDL) has been studied by a mathematical model. The fraction of product water that is removed in the vapour phase through the GDL as a function of GDL properties and operating conditions has been calculated and discussed. Furthermore, the current model enables identification of conditions when condensation occurs in each GDL component and calculation of temperature gradient across the interface between different layers, providing insight into the overall mechanism of water transport in a given cell design. Water transport mode and condensation conditions in the GDL components depend on the combination of water vapor diffusion coefficients and thermal conductivities of the GDL components. Different types of GDL and water removal scenarios have been identified and related to experimentally-determined GDL proper...

Burlatsky, S F; Gummallaa, M; Condita, D; Liua, F

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Measurements of the Infrared SpectraLines of Water Vapor at Atmospheric Temperatures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Measurements of the Infrared Spectral Lines Measurements of the Infrared Spectral Lines of Water Vapor at Atmospheric Temperatures P. Varanasi and Q. Zou Institute for Terrestrial and Planetary Atmospheres State University of New York at Stony Brook Stony Brook, New York Introduction Water vapor is undoubtedly the most dominant greenhouse gas in the terrestrial atmosphere. In the two facets of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program research, atmospheric remote sensing (air-borne as well as Cloud and Radiation Testbed [CART] site-based) and modeling of atmospheric radiation, the spectrum of water vapor, ranging from the microwave to the visible wavelengths, plays a significant role. Its spectrum has been the subject of many studies throughout the last century. Therefore, it is natural to presume it should be fairly well established by now. However, the need for a

60

Posters Toward an Operational Water Vapor Remote Sensing System Using the Global Positioning System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 3 Posters Toward an Operational Water Vapor Remote Sensing System Using the Global Positioning System S. I. Gutman, (a) R. B. Chadwick, (b) and D. W. Wolf (c) National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Boulder, Colorado A. Simon Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science Boulder, Colorado T. Van Hove and C. Rocken University Navstar Consortium Boulder, Colorado Background Water vapor is one of the most important constituents of the free atmosphere since it is the principal mechanism by which moisture and latent heat are transported and cause "weather." The measurement of atmospheric water vapor is essential for weather and climate research as well as for operational weather forecasting. An important goal in modern weather prediction is to improve the accuracy of short-term

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ghz water vapor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Vertical Variability of Aerosols and Water Vapor Over the Southern Great Plains  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Vertical Variability of Aerosols and Water Vapor Vertical Variability of Aerosols and Water Vapor Over the Southern Great Plains R. A. Ferrare National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center Hampton, Virginia D. D. Turner Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington M. Clayton and V. Brackett Science Applications International Corporation National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center Hampton, Virginia T. P. Tooman and J. E. M. Goldsmith Sandia National Laboratories Livermore, California J. A. Ogren National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory Boulder, Colorado E. Andrews Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences University of Colorado Boulder, Colorado

62

The exchange rate for tritiated water vapor adsorbed on silica gel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

THE EXCHANGE RATE FOR TRITIATED WATER VAPOR ADSORBED ON SILICA GEL A Thesis by PENNY ALANE SHAMBLIN Submitted to the Cnaduate College of Texas A8cM University in partial fulfihmnt of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1987 Major Subject: Health Physics THE EXCHANGE RATE FOR ~TED WATER VAPOR ADSORBED ON SILICA GEL A Thesis by PENNY ALANE SHAMBUN Approved as to style and content by: Milton E. McLain (Chair of Committee) Gerald A. Schla (Member) Ric ard...

Shamblin, Penny Alane

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

63

Materials, methods and devices to detect and quantify water vapor concentrations in an atmosphere  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

We have demonstrated that a surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor coated with a nanoporous framework material (NFM) film can perform ultrasensitive water vapor detection at concentrations in air from 0.05 to 12,000 ppmv at 1 atmosphere pressure. The method is extendable to other MEMS-based sensors, such as microcantilevers, or to quartz crystal microbalance sensors. We identify a specific NFM that provides high sensitivity and selectivity to water vapor. However, our approach is generalizable to detection of other species using NFM to provide sensitivity and selectivity.

Allendorf, Mark D; Robinson, Alex L

2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

64

A NORMETEX MODEL 15 M3/HR WATER VAPOR PUMPING TEST  

SciTech Connect

Tests were performed using a Model 15 m{sup 3}/hr Normetex vacuum pump to determine if pump performance degraded after pumping a humid gas stream. An air feed stream containing 30% water vapor was introduced into the pump for 365 hours with the outlet pressure of the pump near the condensation conditions of the water. Performance of the pump was tested before and after the water vapor pumping test and indicated no loss in performance of the pump. The pump also appeared to tolerate small amounts of condensed water of short duration without increased noise, vibration, or other adverse indications. The Normetex pump was backed by a dual-head diaphragm pump which was affected by the condensation of water and produced some drift in operating conditions during the test.

Klein, J.; Fowley, M.; Steeper, T.

2010-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

65

Sorption-caused attenuation and delay of water-vapor signals in eddy-covariance sampling tubes and filters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Adsorption and desorption (together sorption) processes in sampling tubes and filters of eddy-covariance stations cause attenuation and delay of water-vapor signals, leading to underestimation of water-vapor fluxes by tens of per cent. The aim of ...

Annika Nordbo; Pekka Kekäläinen; Erkki Siivola; Ivan Mammarella; Jussi Timonen; Timo Vesala

66

Water Vapor Transport and Moisture Budget over Eastern China: Remote Forcing from the Two Types of El Niño  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The water vapor transport and moisture budget over eastern China remotely forced by the cold-tongue (CT) and warm-pool (WP) El Niño show striking differences throughout their lifetime. The water vapor transport response is weak in the developing ...

Xiuzhen Li; Wen Zhou; Deliang Chen; Chongyin Li; Jie Song

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Measurement of Water Vapor Concentration using Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Tunable diode laser spectroscopy and the Beer-Lambert relation has been used to measure the absorption of water vapor both in an absorption cell and in a shock tube. The purpose of this thesis is to develop a laser diagnostic capable of determining...

Barrett, Alexander B.

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

68

Summary Weusedthreemethodstomeasureboundarylayer conductance to heat transfer (gbH) and water vapor transfer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Summary Weusedthreemethodstomeasureboundarylayer conductance to heat transfer (gbH) and water vapor of transpiration). The boundary layer conductance to heat transfer is small enough that leaf temperature can become diffusion, the boundary layer around a leaf also provides resistance to the transfer of heat between a leaf

Martin, Timothy

69

2.1 RAMAN LIDAR PROFILING OF WATER VAPOR AND AEROSOLS OVER THE ARM SGP SITE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with satellite sensors. Accurate, high spatial and temporal resolution profiles of water vapor are also required+GOES) have been combined into a single product that takes advantage of both active and passive remote sensors with the use of narrowband (~0.4 nm bandpass) filters, reduces the background skylight and, therefore

70

Water Vapor and Mechanical Work: A Comparison of Carnot and Steam Cycles OLIVIER PAULUIS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by the corresponding Carnot cycle. The Carnot and steam cycles can be combined into a mixed cycle that is forcedWater Vapor and Mechanical Work: A Comparison of Carnot and Steam Cycles OLIVIER PAULUIS Center in the atmosphere is discussed here by comparing two idealized heat engines: the Carnot cycle and the steam cycle

Pauluis, Olivier M.

71

Water Vapor Radiometry : Outline of Goals and Tasks for the Spring Semester 2001  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that can accu­ rately measure the spectrum of the water vapor emis­ sion. The current receivers follow, as in a conventional re­ ceiver, the correlation receiver splits the rf signal into two with a splitter that follows the feed horn. Both branches are mixed with a carefully controlled ther­ mal load. A 180 ffi phase shift

Backer, Don

72

Interannual Variations of Stratospheric Water Vapor in MLS Observations and Climate Model Simulations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

By analyzing the almost-decade-long record of water vapor measurements from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instrument on the NASA Aura satellite and by detailed diagnostic analysis of the results from state-of-the art climate model simulations, ...

Yoshio Kawatani; Jae N. Lee; Kevin Hamilton

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Time-to-Detect Trends in Precipitable Water Vapor with Varying Measurement Error  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study determined the theoretical time-to-detect (TTD) global climate model (GCM) precipitable water vapor (PWV) 100-yr trends when realistic measurement errors are considered. Global trends ranged from 0.055 to 0.072 mm yr?1 and varied ...

Jacola Roman; Robert Knuteson; Steve Ackerman

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Water Vapor Budget in a Developing Tropical Cyclone and Its Implication for Tropical Cyclone Formation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Evolution of the water vapor budget from the tropical wave stage to the tropical cyclone stage is examined using a high-resolution numerical model simulation. The focus is on a time window from 27 h prior to genesis to 9 h after genesis, and the ...

Cody Fritz; Zhuo Wang

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Models of the atmospheric water vapor budget for the Texas HIPLEX area: by Steven Francis Williams.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

OF CELLS Im ALL CASES zi III 500 LI IL' IL II) LI IZ 550 650 700 750 GOC r 0 r r I V 650 los 106 LOSS (gs ) 106 I09 GAIN Eiq ?13 Local ate-of ? ch, . iioe in the total IIaSS Of Water Vapor in 50-mb layers (q 6 l) over the Texas HTPLL... and vertical tzanspo" 2. of water vapor through boundaries of 50-mb layers in (g s r) over the Texas HIPLEX area averaged ior types of convective activity local r-te-of-change in. the total in-ss of water , ? 1 vaoor in 50-mb 1 yers (g s ) over the Texas...

Williams, Steven Francis

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Sensitive and selective detection of hydrocarbon/water vapor mixtures with a nanoporous silicon microcantilever  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract We have developed a sensitive and selective sensor for hydrocarbon/water vapor mixtures using nanomechanical infrared (IR) spectroscopy with a porous silicon (P-Si) microcantilever. Facile and direct anodization process is utilized to fabricate vertically aligned nanopores of 20–50 nm diameters on a plain silicon microcantilever. The effective Young's modulus and surface area of a P-Si microcantilever can be easily controlled by the thickness of the anodized P-Si layer. Here we demonstrate the detection of 1 wt% naphtha/water vapor mixtures using nanoporous cantilever IR spectroscopy. Nanoporous nature of the cantilever surface enhances its thermomechanical sensitivity. In addition, trapping the volatile hydrocarbon molecules in the nanowells increases the analyte concentration on the surface. Nanomechanical IR spectra of adsorbed vapors were obtained by plotting the deflection amplitudes of the microcantilever as a function of the illuminating IR wavenumber. The mass of the adsorbed vapors was determined from variations in the resonance frequency of the cantilever.

Dongkyu Lee; Omid Zandieh; Seonghwan Kim; Sangmin Jeon; Thomas Thundat

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Water Vapor Adsorption Effect on Silica Surface Electrostatic Patterning  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Even after a few centuries of research by distinguished authors, electrostatic charging of insulators is still poorly known, and it often goes out of control because the identity of charge carriers is not known, in nearly every case in the laboratory or in a practical situation. ... (16-22) Three different mechanisms for contact electrification were recently emphasized by McCarty and Whitesides: electron transfer for contact between metals or semiconductors, ion transfer for contact involving materials that contain mobile ions, and asymmetric partitioning of hydroxide ions between adsorbed layers of water for contact involving nonionic and insulating materials. ... (15, 48, 49) The apparatus was built using two aluminum concentric cylinders (electrically insulated from each other by using polyethylene foam) connected by a coaxial cable to a Keithley instrument model 610C electrometer that was used in the charge measurement mode. ...

Rubia F. Gouveia; Carlos A. R. Costa; Fernando Galembeck

2008-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

78

Effect of water vapor/hydrogen environments on niobium, B-66 niobium alloy, tantalum, and Ta-10W alloy  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the results of an experimental investigation of the effect of water vapor/hydrogen environments on the mechanical properties of niobium, B-66 niobium alloy, tantalum, and Ta-10W alloy are presented. Tensile tests were conducted on specimens of these materials in water vapor/hydrogen mixture ratios of 1 and 3. The water vapor/hydrogen environment caused strength reductions on tantalum and Ta-10W and ductility reductions on all four materials. The degree and causes of embrittlement were a complex function of temperature.

Walter, R.J.; Bentle, G.G.; Chandler, W.T. (Rockwell International Corp., Canoga Park, CA (United States). Rocketdyne Div.)

1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Posters Scanning Raman Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric Water Vapor and Aerosols  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5 5 Posters Scanning Raman Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric Water Vapor and Aerosols R. A. Ferrare and K. D. Evans (a) Hughes STX Corporation Lanham, Maryland S. H. Melfi and D. N. Whiteman NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, Maryland The principal objective of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) is to develop a better understanding of the atmospheric radiative balance in order to improve the parameterization of radiative processes in general circulation models (GCMs) which are used to study climate change. Meeting this objective requires detailed measurements of both water vapor and aerosols since these atmospheric constituents affect the radiation balance directly, through scattering and absorption of solar and

80

Outdoor field evaluation of passive tritiated water vapor samplers at Canadian power reactor sites  

SciTech Connect

Tritium is one of several radioactive nuclides routinely monitored in and around CANDU{reg_sign} (CANada Deuterium Uranium) power reactor facilities. Over the last ten years, passive samplers have replaced active sampling devices for sampling tritiated water vapor in the workplace at many CANDU stations. The potential of passive samplers for outdoor monitoring has also been realized. This paper presents the result of a 1-y field trial carried out at all five Canadian CANDU reactor sites. The results indicate that passive samplers can be used at most sampling locations to measure tritiated water vapor in air concentrations as low as 1 Bq m{sup -3} over a 30-d sampling period. Only in one of the five sampling locations was poor agreement observed between active and passive monitoring data. This location, however, was very windy and it is suspected that the gusty winds were the source of the discrepancies observed. 15 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

Wood, M.J. [Chalk River Lab., Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ghz water vapor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Ice-water and liquid-vapor phase transitions by a Ginzburg–Landau model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A model for the first order phase transitions as ice-water and liquid-vapor is proposed using the Ginzburg–Landau equation for the order parameter ? . In this model the density ? is composed of two quantities ? 0 and ? 1 such that 1 / ? = 1 / ? 0 + 1 / ? 1 where ? 1 is strictly connected to the order parameter ? . By means of this decomposition we are able to represent the Andrew diagram without the use of the heuristic van der Waals equation.

Mauro Fabrizio

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Tensile, water vapor barrier and antimicrobial properties of PLA/nanoclay composite films  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

PLA-based composite films with different types of nanoclays, such as Cloisite Na+, Cloisite 30B and Cloisite 20A, were prepared using a solvent casting method and their tensile, water vapor barrier and antimicrobial properties were tested. Tensile strength (TS), elongation at break (E), and water vapor permeability (WVP) of control PLA film were 50.45 ± 0.75 MPa, 3.0 ± 0.1%, and 1.8 × 10?11 g m/m2 s Pa, respectively. TS and E of nanocomposite films prepared with 5 g of clay/100 g of PLA decreased 10–20% and 11–17%, respectively, depending on the clays used. On the contrary, WVP of the nanocomposite films decreased 6–33% through nanoclay compounding. Among the clay types used, Cloisite 20A was the most effective in improving the water vapor barrier property while sacrificing tensile properties the least. The effect of clay concentration tested using Cloisite 20A showed a significant decrease in TS and WVP, with increases in clay content. Among the PLA/clay composite films tested, only PLA/Cloisite 30B composite film showed a bacteriostatic function against Listeria monocytogenes.

Jong-Whan Rhim; Seok-In Hong; Chang-Sik Ha

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Short-range precipitation forecasts using assimilation of simulated satellite water vapor profiles and column cloud liquid water amounts  

SciTech Connect

These observing system simulation experiments investigate the assimilation of satellite-observed water vapor and cloud liquid water data in the initialization of a limited-area primitive equations model with the goal of improving short-range precipitation forecasts. The assimilation procedure presented includes two aspects: specification of an initial cloud liquid water vertical distribution and diabatic initialization. The satellite data is simulated for the next generation of polar-orbiting satellite instruments, the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) and the High-Resolution Infrared Sounder (HIRS), which are scheduled to be launched on the NOAA-K satellite in the mid-1990s. Based on cloud-top height and total column cloud liquid water amounts simulated for satellite data a diagnostic method is used to specify an initial cloud water vertical distribution and to modify the initial moisture distribution in cloudy areas. Using a diabatic initialization procedure, the associated latent heating profiles are directly assimilated into the numerical model. The initial heating is estimated by time averaging the latent heat release from convective and large-scale condensation during the early forecast stage after insertion of satellite-observed temperature, water vapor, and cloud water formation.

Wu, X.; Diak, G.R.; Hayden, C.M.; Young, J.A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)] [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Multi-reanalysis comparison of variability in column water vapor and its analysis increment associated with Madden–Julian Oscillation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study conducts a multi-reanalysis comparison of variability in column water vapor (CWV) represented in three reanalysis products (JRA-55, JRA-25, and ERA-Interim) associated with Madden–Julian Oscillation (MJO) in boreal winter, with emphasis ...

Satoru Yokoi

85

Tunable structures and properties of electrospun regenerated silk fibroin mats annealed in water vapor at different times and temperatures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Regenerated silk fibroin (SF) mats were fabricated using electrospinning technique, followed by mild water vapor annealing to effectively tune the structures and improve the mechanical properties of the mats at different annealing times and temperatures. ...

Xiangyu Huang, Suna Fan, Alhadi Ibrahim Mohammed Altayp, Yaopeng Zhang, Huili Shao, Xuechao Hu, Minkai Xie, Yuemin Xu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Glacial Cooling in the Tropics: Exploring the Roles of Tropospheric Water Vapor, Surface Wind Speed, and Boundary Layer Processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper is a modeling study of possible roles for tropospheric water vapor, surface wind speed, and boundary layer processes in glacial cooling in the Tropics. The authors divide the Tropics into a region of persistent deep convection and a ...

Richard Seager; Amy C. Clement; Mark A. Cane

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

The Representation of Water Vapor and Its Dependence on Vertical Resolution in the Hadley Centre Climate Model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Simulations of the Hadley Centre Atmospheric Climate Model version 3, HadAM3, are used to investigate the impact of increasing vertical resolution on simulated climates. In particular, improvements in the representation of water vapor and ...

V. D. Pope; J. A. Pamment; D. R. Jackson; A. Slingo

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Transport and sorption of volatile organic compounds and water vapor in porous media  

SciTech Connect

To gain insight on the controlling mechanisms for VOC transport in porous media, the relations among sorbent properties, sorption equilibrium and intraparticle diffusion processes were studied at the level of individual sorbent particles and laboratory columns for soil and activated carbon systems. Transport and sorption of VOCs and water vapor were first elucidated within individual dry soil mineral grains. Soil properties, sorption capacity, and sorption rates were measured for 3 test soils; results suggest that the soil grains are porous, while the sorption isotherms are nonlinear and adsorption-desorption rates are slow and asymmetric. An intragranular pore diffusion model coupled with the nonlinear Freundlich isotherm was developed to describe the sorption kinetic curves. Transport of benzene and water vapor within peat was studied; partitioning and sorption kinetics were determined with an electrobalance. A dual diffusion model was developed. Transport of benzene in dry and moist soil columns was studied, followed by gaseous transport and sorption in activated carbon. The pore diffusion model provides good fits to sorption kinetics for VOCs to soil and VOC to granular activated carbon and activated carbon fibers. Results of this research indicate that: Intraparticle diffusion along with a nonlinea sorption isotherm are responsible for the slow, asymmetric sorption-desorption. Diffusion models are able to describe results for soil and activated carbon systems; when combined with mass transfer equations, they predict column breakthrough curves for several systems. Although the conditions are simplified, the mechanisms should provide insight on complex systems involving transport and sorption of vapors in porous media.

Lin, Tsair-Fuh

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Contribution of water vapor pressure to pressurization of plutonium dioxide storage containers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Pressurization of long-term storage containers filled with materials meeting the US DOE storage standard is of concern.1 2 For example temperatures within storage containers packaged according to the standard and contained in 9975 shipping packages that are stored in full view of the sun can reach internal temperatures of 250?°C.3 Twenty five grams of water (0.5 wt.%) at 250?°C in the storage container with no other material present would result in a pressure of 412 psia which is limited by the amount of water. The pressure due to the water can be substantially reduced due to interactions with the stored material. Studies of the adsorption of water by PuO 2 and surface interactions of water with PuO 2 show that adsorption of 0.5 wt.% of water is feasible under many conditions and probable under high humidity conditions.4 5 6 However no data are available on the vapor pressure of water over plutonium dioxide containing materials that have been exposed to water.

D. Kirk Veirs; John S. Morris; Dane R. Spearing

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Oxidation of zirconium alloys in 2.5 kPa water vapor for tritium readiness.  

SciTech Connect

A more reactive liner material is needed for use as liner and cruciform material in tritium producing burnable absorber rods (TPBAR) in commercial light water nuclear reactors (CLWR). The function of these components is to convert any water that is released from the Li-6 enriched lithium aluminate breeder material to oxide and hydrogen that can be gettered, thus minimizing the permeation of tritium into the reactor coolant. Fourteen zirconium alloys were exposed to 2.5 kPa water vapor in a helium stream at 300 C over a period of up to 35 days. Experimental alloys with aluminum, yttrium, vanadium, titanium, and scandium, some of which also included ternaries with nickel, were included along with a high nitrogen impurity alloy and the commercial alloy Zircaloy-2. They displayed a reactivity range of almost 500, with Zircaloy-2 being the least reactive.

Mills, Bernice E.

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

In-reactor oxidation of zircaloy-4 under low water vapor pressures  

SciTech Connect

Complementary in- and ex-reactor oxidation tests have been performed to evaluate the oxidation and hydrogen absorption performance of Zircaloy-4 (Zr-4) under relatively low partial pressures (300 and 1000 Pa) of water vapor at specified test temperatures (330 and 370 C). Data from these tests will be used to support the fabrication of components intended for isotope-producing targets and provide information regarding the temperature and pressure dependence of oxidation and hydrogen absorption of Zr- 4 over the specified range of test conditions. Comparisons between in- and ex-reactor test results were performed to evaluate the influence of irradiation.

Walter G. Luscher; David J. Senor; Keven K. Clayton; Glen R. Longhurst

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Role of oxygen vacancies in water vapor chemisorption and CO oxidation on titania  

SciTech Connect

Titanium dioxide is widely used as support for various important catalysts. Although nonstoichiometric titania behaves as an n-type semiconductor, the nature of the defect sites is not yet fully understood. In the present investigation the water vapor adsorption and carbon monoxide oxidation on TiO[sub 2] is explained considering oxygen vacancies as the major defect. It is also shown that incorporation of an Al[sup 3+] ion in TiO[sub 2] reduces the concentration of oxygen ion vacancies and inhibits the transformation of anatase to rutile.

Sengupta, G.; Chatterjee, R.N.; Maity, G.C. (Project and Development India Ltd. Sindri, Dhanbad, Bihar (India)); Satyanarayna, C.V.V. (RSIC, Bombay (India). Indian Inst. of Tech. Powai)

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Method of condensing vaporized water in situ to treat tar sands formations  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. Heat may be allowed to transfer from the heaters to at least a first portion of the formation. Conditions may be controlled in the formation so that water vaporized by the heaters in the first portion is selectively condensed in a second portion of the formation. At least some of the fluids may be produced from the formation.

Hsu, Chia-Fu (Rijswijk, NL)

2010-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

94

Climatological aspects of the balance of water-vapor in the atmosphere overlying the Gulf of Mexico  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Water-Vapor in the Atmosphere Overlying the Gulf of Mexico (August 1968) Allen Dean Cummings, B, S. , Baylor EEniversity Directed by: Dr, Guy A, Franceschini Aerological data from ten observing stations around the perimeter of the Gulf of Mexico... for the period, . Tune 1962 through May 1966 were used to study the water balance of the atmosphere ove. - the Gulf. For each of forty-ci ht months, average vector. components of water-vapor transfer at sixteen levels in the atmosphere were computed...

Cummings, Allen Dean

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

95

Development of a Water Based, Critical Flow, Non-Vapor Compression cooling Cycle  

SciTech Connect

Expansion of a high-pressure liquid refrigerant through the use of a thermostatic expansion valve or other device is commonplace in vapor-compression cycles to regulate the quality and flow rate of the refrigerant entering the evaporator. In vapor-compression systems, as the condensed refrigerant undergoes this expansion, its pressure and temperature drop, and part of the liquid evaporates. We (researchers at Kansas State University) are developing a cooling cycle that instead pumps a high-pressure refrigerant through a supersonic converging-diverging nozzle. As the liquid refrigerant passes through the nozzle, its velocity reaches supersonic (or critical-flow) conditions, substantially decreasing the refrigerant’s pressure. This sharp pressure change vaporizes some of the refrigerant and absorbs heat from the surrounding conditions during this phase change. Due to the design of the nozzle, a shockwave trips the supersonic two-phase refrigerant back to the starting conditions, condensing the remaining vapor. The critical-flow refrigeration cycle would provide space cooling, similar to a chiller, by running a secondary fluid such as water or glycol over one or more nozzles. Rather than utilizing a compressor to raise the pressure of the refrigerant, as in a vapor-cycle system, the critical-flow cycle utilizes a high-pressure pump to drive refrigerant liquid through the cooling cycle. Additionally, the design of the nozzle can be tailored for a given refrigerant, such that environmentally benign substances can act as the working fluid. This refrigeration cycle is still in early-stage development with prototype development several years away. The complex multi-phase flow at supersonic conditions presents numerous challenges to fully understanding and modeling the cycle. With the support of DOE and venture-capital investors, initial research was conducted at PAX Streamline, and later, at Caitin. We (researchers at Kansas State University) have continued development of the cycle and have gained an in-depth understanding of the governing fundamental knowledge, based on the laws of physics and thermodynamics and verified with our testing results. Through this research, we are identifying optimal working fluid and operating conditions to eventually demonstrate the core technology for space cooling or other applications.

Hosni, Mohammad H.

2014-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

96

Comparison of Atmospheric Water Vapor in Observational and Model Data Sets  

SciTech Connect

The global water vapor distribution for five observational based data sets and three GCM integrations are compared. The variables considered are the mean and standard deviation values of the precipitable water for the entire atmospheric column and the 500 to 300 hPa layer for January and July. The observationally based sets are the radiosonde data of Ross and Elliott, the ERA and NCEP reanalyses, and the NVAP blend of sonde and satellite data. The three GCM simulations all use the NCAR CCM3 as the atmospheric model. They include: a AMIP type simulation using observed SSTs for the period 1979 to 1993, the NCAR CSM 300 year coupled ocean--atmosphere integration, and a CSM integration with a 1% CO2 increase per year. The observational data exhibit some serious inconsistencies. There are geographical patterns of differences related to interannual variations and national instrument biases. It is clear that the proper characterization of water vapor is somewhat uncertain. Some conclusions about these data appear to be robust even given the discrepancies. The ERA data are too dry especially in the upper levels. The observational data evince much better agreement in the data rich Northern Hemisphere compared to the Southern. Distinct biases are quite pronounced over the Southern Ocean. The mean values and particularly the standard deviations of the three reanalyses are very dependent upon the GCM used as the assimilation vehicle for the analyses. This is made clear by the much enhanced tropical variability in the NCEP/DOE/ AMIP reanalyses compared the initial NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis. The NCAR CCM3 shows consistent evidence of a dry bias. The 1% CO2 experiment shows a very similar pattern of disagreement with the sonde data as the other integrations, once account is taken of the warming trend. No new modes of difference are evident in the 1% CO2 experiment. All the CCM3 runs indicated too much Tropical variability especially in the western Tropical Pacific and Southeast Asia. A EOF analysis of the interannual variations of the zonally averaged precipitable water and the 500 to 300 hPa layer reveals fundamental differences in the structure of the variations. The impact of ENSO and variations of the ITCZ have only a low level of correspondence between the observed data, much less the simulations. It is apparent that an adequate characterization of the climatology of the global water vapor distribution is not yet at hand.

Boyle, J.S.

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

A QSPR Study of the Solubility of Gases and Vapors in Water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

QSPR correlation equations were developed for the prediction of the solubilities of organic gases and vapors in water. ... The Ostwald solubility coefficient (L) is defined as the ratio of the equilibrium concentrations of a gaseous compound in the liquid and in the gas phase (eq 1), where a superscript w (Lw) usually denotes water as a solvent. ... Table 2) are as follows:? the energy gap between HOMO and LUMO (EHOMO ? ELUMO), the numbers of nitrogen atoms and of oxygen atoms in the molecule, and the most negative partial charge weighted topological electronic index43a (PCWTE) defined by eq 7, where qi and qj are the Zefirov partial charges43b of the bonded atoms, rij is the respective bond lengths, and Qmin is the most negative partial charge. ...

Alan R. Katritzky; Lan Mu; Mati Karelson

1996-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

98

Isotope 18O/16O ratio measurements of water vapor by use of the 950-nm wavelength region with cavity ring-down and photoacoustic spectroscopic techniques  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Two optical methods, cavity ring-down spectroscopy and photoacoustic spectroscopy, are applied to the measurement of the isotope ratio 18O/16O in water-vapor...

Samura, Ken; Hashimoto, Satoshi; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Hayashida, Akira; Kagi, Eriko; Ishiwata, Takashi; Matsumi, Yutaka

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Low-level wind maxima over the western Gulf of Mexico and their role in water vapor advection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

pressure gradient favorable for the maintenance of a LLJ over the western Gulf. The LLT along the South Texas coast contributed to large northward fluxes of water vapor. The western coast of the Gulf of Mexico accounted for 12% more water vapor... stations 33 8 As in Figure 7 except the NGM and radiosonde observation from along the eastern Gulf coast are being compared 34 9 As in Figure 7 except the NGM and radiosonde observations from along the western Gulf coast are being compared 36 10...

Engel, Gregory Thomas

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

100

Posters Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer: Status and Water Vapor Continuum Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9 9 Posters Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer: Status and Water Vapor Continuum Results H. E. Revercomb, R. O. Knuteson, W. L. Smith, F. A. Best, and R. G. Dedecker University of Wisconsin Madison, Wisconsin H. B. Howell National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Systems Design and Applications Branch Madison, Wisconsin Introduction Accurate and spectrally detailed observations of the thermal emission from radiatively important atmospheric gases, aerosols, and clouds are now being provided to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) data base by the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) prototype at the Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site. Spectra over the range from 520 to 3000 cm -1 (3 to 19 microns) with a resolution of 0.5 cm

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ghz water vapor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

DOE/SC-ARM/TR-128 Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio Value-Added  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

8 8 Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio Value-Added Product April 2013 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the U.S. Government or any agency thereof. The views and

102

Ten Years of Measurements of Tropical Upper-Tropospheric Water Vapor by MOZAIC. Part I: Climatology, Variability, Transport, and Relation to  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP). 1. Introduction Water vapor is the key atmosphericTen Years of Measurements of Tropical Upper-Tropospheric Water Vapor by MOZAIC. Part I: Climatology, Variability, Transport, and Relation to Deep Convection ZHENGZHAO LUO, DIETER KLEY,* AND RICHARD H. JOHNSON

Lombardi, John R.

103

A Portable Eddy Covariance System for the Measurement of Ecosystem–Atmosphere Exchange of CO2, Water Vapor, and Energy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To facilitate the study of flux heterogeneity within a region, the authors have designed and field-tested a portable eddy covariance system to measure exchange of CO2, water vapor, and energy between the land surface and the atmosphere. The ...

D. P. Billesbach; M. L. Fischer; M. S. Torn; J. A. Berry

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

A three-beam water vapor sensor system for combustion diagnostics using a 1390 nm tunable diode laser  

SciTech Connect

H{sub 2}O(v) is an important species in combustion and hypersonic flow measurements because it is a primary combustion product. Measurements of water vapor can be used to determine performance parameters, such as extent and efficiency of combustion in propulsion and aerodynamics facilities. Water vapor concentration measurement in these high-temperature hypervelocity combustion conditions requires very high sensitivity and fast time response. A three-beam diode laser H{sub 2}O(v) measurement system for nonintrusive combustion diagnostics has been developed at NASA Langley Research Center and successfully tested and installed at GASL NASA HYPULSE facility for routine operation. The system was built using both direct laser absorption spectroscopy and frequency modulation laser spectroscopy. The output beam from a distributed feedback (DFB) InGaAsP diode laser (emitting around 1.39 {micro}m) is split into three equal-powered equal-distanced parallel beams with separation of 9 mm. With three beams, the authors are able to obtain water vapor number densities at three locations. Frequency modulation spectroscopy technique is used to achieve high detection sensitivity. The diode laser is modulated at radio frequency (RF), while the wavelength of the diode laser is tuned to scan over a strong water vapor absorption line. The detected RF signal is then demodulated at the fundamental frequency of the modulation (one-F demodulation). A working model and a computer software code have been developed for data process and data analysis. Water vapor number density measurements are achieved with consideration of temperature dependence. Experimental results and data analysis will be presented.

Wang, L.G. [Coll. of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Vay, S. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA (United States). Langley Research Center

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

105

Charge transfer effects of ions at the liquid water/vapor interface  

SciTech Connect

Charge transfer (CT), the movement of small amounts of electron density between non-bonded pairs, has been suggested as a driving force for a variety of physical processes. Herein, we examine the effect of CT on ion adsorption to the water liquid-vapor interface. Using a CT force field for molecular dynamics, we construct a potential of mean force (PMF) for Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Cl{sup ?}, and I{sup ?}. The PMFs were produced with respect to an average interface and an instantaneous interface. An analysis of the PMF relative to the instantaneous surface reveals that the area in which the anions experience a free energy minimum is quite narrow, and the cations feel a steeply repulsive free energy near the interface. CT is seen to have only minor effects on the overall free energy profiles. However, the long-ranged effects of ions are highlighted by the CT model. Due to CT, the water molecules at the surface become charged, even when the ion is over 15 Å away from the surface.

Soniat, Marielle; Rick, Steven W., E-mail: srick@uno.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, Louisiana 70148 (United States)

2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

106

Tropical Anvil Characteristics and Water Vapor of the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL): Impact of Homogeneous Freezing Parameterizations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Heterogeneous and Homogeneous Freezing Heterogeneous and Homogeneous Freezing Parameterizations on Tropical Anvil Characteristics and Water Vapor Content of the TTL Jiwen Fan Climate Physics, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Contributed by: Jennifer Comstock, Mikhail Ovtchinnikov, Sally McFarlane, and Greg McFarquhar OBJECTIVES Look into the effects of the commonly used heterogeneous and homogeneous freezing parameterizations on anvil properties and water vapor content in the TTL for the deep convective clouds developed in the contrasting environments. Examine the impact of the immersion-freezing on homogeneous freezing process. Homogeneous freezing parameterizations (HFPs) 1) Koop et al. (2000): J r depends on the water activity of the solution and is independent of the nature of solute.

107

Corrosion of aluminum-uranium alloys in water vapor at 200 C  

SciTech Connect

Specimens of aluminum-uranium alloys at 10 and 18 wt.% uranium were exposed to a saturated water vapor condition at 200 C up to about 12 weeks and compared to previous results for aluminum 1100. The aluminum-uranium materials exhibited a range of initial corrosion rates and approached similar rates with the formation of a passive film of boehmite (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}{center{underscore}dot}H{sub 2}O). The initial corrosion rates of the aluminum-uranium materials were one to four times higher than that for aluminum 1100. It is postulated that a micro-galvanic coupling between the large UAl{sub 4} particles and the aluminum matrix has caused this difference. Sectioning the exposed specimens shows different characteristics of the oxide layers. In the oxide on the aluminum-10% uranium alloy (Al-10%U), small uranium aluminide particles can be seen in a boehmite matrix and do not seem to be corroded. The oxide film on the aluminum-18% uranium alloy (Al-18%U) appears to have two distinct oxide layers. The outer layer has mass aggregates in a boehmite matrix, while the inner layer contains UAl{sub 4} particles as in the case of Al-10%U.

Lam, P.S.; Sindelar, R.L.; Barrett, K.Y.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Corrosion of Aluminum-Uranium Alloys in Water Vapor at 200\\260C  

SciTech Connect

Coupons of aluminum-uranium alloys at 10 and 18 weight percent were exposed to a saturated water vapor condition at 200 degrees C up to about 1500 hours and compared to previous results for aluminum 1100. The aluminum-uranium materials exhibited a range of initial corrosion rates and approached similar rates with the formation of a passive film of boehmite (Al2O3oH2O). The cast and extruded 10 percent uranium, having a primary aluminum-eutectic microstructure, was more corrosion resistant than the 18% cast and extruded. The initial corrosion rates of the aluminum-uranium materials were one to four times higher than that for aluminum 1100. It is postulated that a micro-galvanic coupling between the large UAl4 particles and the aluminum matrix has caused the variation. Sectioning the exposed specimens shows different characteristics of the oxide layers. In the case of the cast and extruded Al-10 percent U alloy, small uranium aluminide particles can be seen in the boehmite matrix and do not seem to be corroded. The oxide film of the Al-18 percent U alloy appears to have two distinct oxide layers. The outer layer has mass aggregates formed in the aluminum oxide matrix, while the inner layer contains UAl4 particles as in the case of Al-10 percent U

Lam, P.S.

1998-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

109

3708 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, VOL. 47, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2009 Retrieval of Atmospheric Water Vapor Density With  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

3708 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, VOL. 47, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2009 Retrieval, remote sensing, water vapor. Manuscript received November 1, 2008; revised May 2, 2009 and August 8, 2009 the latent heat of vaporization is a principal mechanism for the transport of energy from the equatorial

Reising, Steven C.

110

Method and apparatus for simulating atomospheric absorption of solar energy due to water vapor and CO.sub.2  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for improving the accuracy of the simulation of sunlight reaching the earth's surface includes a relatively small heated chamber having an optical inlet and an optical outlet, the chamber having a cavity that can be filled with a heated stream of CO.sub.2 and water vapor. A simulated beam comprising infrared and near infrared light can be directed through the chamber cavity containing the CO.sub.2 and water vapor, whereby the spectral characteristics of the beam are altered so that the output beam from the chamber contains wavelength bands that accurately replicate atmospheric absorption of solar energy due to atmospheric CO.sub.2 and moisture.

Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Method and apparatus for simulating atmospheric absorption of solar energy due to water vapor and CO{sub 2}  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for improving the accuracy of the simulation of sunlight reaching the earth`s surface includes a relatively small heated chamber having an optical inlet and an optical outlet, the chamber having a cavity that can be filled with a heated stream of CO{sub 2} and water vapor. A simulated beam comprising infrared and near infrared light can be directed through the chamber cavity containing the CO{sub 2} and water vapor, whereby the spectral characteristics of the beam are altered so that the output beam from the chamber contains wavelength bands that accurately replicate atmospheric absorption of solar energy due to atmospheric CO{sub 2} and moisture. 8 figs.

Sopori, B.L.

1995-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

112

Glass softening, crystallization, and vaporization of nano-aggregates of Amorphous Solid Water: Fast Scanning Calorimetry studies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fast scanning calorimetry (FSC) was employed to investigate glass softening dynamics in amorphous solid water (ASW) nano-aggregates with thicknesses ranging from 2 to 20 nm. ASW nano-aggregates were prepared by vapor-deposition on the surface of a tungsten filament near 141 K and then heated at a rate of 100 kK/s. The resulting thermogram complex endo- and exothermal features were analyzed using a simple model. The results of the analysis show that glass softening of ASW nano-aggregates takes place at 160 K and vaporization of ASW nano-aggregates can take place at temperatures as low as 185 K. The results of these studies are discussed in conjunction with results of past studies of glass softening dynamics in water in various confining geometries.

Deepanjan Bhattacharya; Liam OReilly; Vlad Sadtchenko

2014-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

113

Constraints on the microwave opacity of gaseous methane and water vapor in the Jovian atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

Gaseous NH/sub 3/'s microwave absorption in the Jovian atmosphere appears too great to be due to a solar abundance of this gas. The additional capacity of microwave absorption is presently sought in measurements of the microwave absorption of CH/sub 4/ and H/sub 2/O under simulated Jovian conditions at 2.25 GHz, 8.5 GHz, 21.7 GHz; due to large error bars, measurements represent upper limits on the microwave opacity generated by H/sub 2/O and CH/sub 4/. The results obtained are consistent with theoretical expressions for microwave opacity in a Jovian atmosphere at the specified frequencies. The presence of an NH/sub 3/ abundance exceeding the solar level by a factor of 1.5 is indicated by test results. 16 references.

Jenkins, J.M.; Steffes, P.G.

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

\\{NOx\\} emission characteristics of fluidized bed combustion in atmospheres rich in oxygen and water vapor for high-nitrogen fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The present study examines the influence of water vapor in combustion atmosphere on \\{NOx\\} emission from oxygen-enriched combustion of air-dried distilled spirit lees and its char in a laboratory fluidized bed of 760 mm high and 68 mm in inner diameter. Steam was added into the fluidizing gas to vary the vapor content in the combustion atmosphere. At a combustion temperature of 950 °C and a steam-to-fuel mass ratio (S/F) of 0.5, the presence of water vapor reduced the \\{NOx\\} concentration in the flue gas for low O2 contents (?30 vol.%) in the combustion agent but increased the \\{NOx\\} emission for high O2 contents (?40 vol.%). The possible causes were clarified for this shift from suppression to promotion of fuel-N conversion into \\{NOx\\} with raising O2 concentration in the combustion agent. Varying temperature from 850 °C to 1150 °C resulted in a peak conversion of fuel-N to \\{NOx\\} in the temperature range of 950–1050 °C for all the tested O2 concentrations. Increasing the O2 concentration tended to lower the critical temperature corresponding to such a peak fuel-N conversion. Testing results also suggested that the presence of excessive water vapor in the combustion atmosphere would inhibit the release of fuel-N in the devolatilization stage and promote the formation of some reducing gases. In addition to the anticipated diluting effect, the steam addition also shortened the reaction time for homogeneous and heterogeneous \\{NOx\\} reduction by the reducing gases and char. It is postulated that the formation of OH radicals at high O2 content and high temperature could cause the observed increase in the \\{NOx\\} emission.

Chuanqiang Zhu; Shuyuan Liu; Huan Liu; Juan Yang; Xiaoxing Liu; Guangwen Xu

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Evaluating Water Vapor in the NCAR CAM3 Climate Model with RRTMG/McICA using Modeled and Observed AIRS Spectral Radiances  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water Vapor in the NCAR CAM3 Climate Model with Water Vapor in the NCAR CAM3 Climate Model with RRTMG/McICA using Modeled and Observed AIRS Spectral Radiances Michael J. Iacono, Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., 131 Hartwell Avenue, Lexington, MA 02421 USA 1. Overview Objectives: * Evaluate water vapor and temperature simulation in two versions of CAM3 by comparing modeled and observed cloud-cleared AIRS spectral radiances. * Use spectral differences to verify comparisons between modeled water vapor and temperature and observed fields retrieved from AIRS radiances. Models: OSS: Optimal Spectral Sampling model developed at AER was used to simulate clear sky AIRS radiance spectra in CAM3. RRTMG/McICA: ARM-supported LW and SW radiative transfer model developed at AER for application to GCMs. RRTMG has been fully

116

Monitoring of Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path from Scanning Microwave Radiometers During the 2003 Cloudiness Inter-Comparison Experiment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Monitoring of Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Monitoring of Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path from Scanning Microwave Radiometers During the 2003 Cloudiness Inter-Comparison Experiment V. Mattioli Department of Electronic and Information Engineering University of Perugia Perugia, Italy E. R. Westwater Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences University of Colorado National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado V. Morris Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Introduction Ground-based microwave radiometers (MWR) are widely used to measure atmospheric precipitable water vapor (PWV) and cloud liquid path (CLP). Comparisons of PWV derived from MWRs with water vapor retrievals from instruments like radiosondes, Global Positioning System (GPS) and Raman

117

On the challenges of tomography retrievals of a 2D water vapor field using ground-based microwave radiometers: An observation system simulation experiment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Two-dimensional water vapor fields were retrieved by simulated measurements from multiple ground-based microwave radiometers using a tomographic approach. The goal of this paper was to investigate how the various aspects of the instrument set-up (...

Véronique Meunier; David D. Turner; Pavlos Kollias

118

Atmospheric Water Vapor Pressure over Land Surfaces: A Generic Algorithm with Data Input Limited to Air Temperature, Precipitation and Geographic Location  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A lack of information for surface water vapor pressure (WVP) represents a major impediment to model-assisted ecosystem analysis for understanding plant-environment interactions or for projecting biospheric re...

X. Yin

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Treatment of Produced Waters Using a Surfactant Modified Zeolite/Vapor Phase Bioreactor System  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes work performed on this project from October 2004 through March 2005. In previous work, a surfactant modified zeolite (SMZ) was shown to be an effective system for removing BTEX contaminants from produced water. Additional work on this project demonstrated that a compost-based biofilter could biodegrade the BTEX contaminants found in the SMZ regeneration waste gas stream. However, it was also determined that the BTEX concentrations in the waste gas stream varied significantly during the regeneration period and the initial BTEX concentrations were too high for the biofilter to handle effectively. A series of experiments were conducted to determine the feasibility of using a passive adsorption column placed upstream of the biofilter to attenuate the peak gas-phase VOC concentrations delivered to the biofilter during the SMZ regeneration process. In preparation for the field test of the SMZ/VPB treatment system in New Mexico, a pilot-scale SMZ system was also designed and constructed during this reporting period. Finally, a cost and feasibility analysis was also completed. To investigate the merits of the passive buffering system during SMZ regeneration, two adsorbents, SMZ and granular activated carbon (GAC) were investigated in flow-through laboratory-scale columns to determine their capacity to handle steady and unsteady VOC feed conditions. When subjected to a toluene-contaminated air stream, the column containing SMZ reduced the peak inlet 1000 ppmv toluene concentration to 630 ppmv at a 10 second contact time. This level of buffering was insufficient to ensure complete removal in the downstream biofilter and the contact time was longer than desired. For this reason, using SMZ as a passive buffering system for the gas phase contaminants was not pursued further. In contrast to the SMZ results, GAC was found to be an effective adsorbent to handle the peak contaminant concentrations that occur early during the SMZ regeneration process. At a one second residence time, the GAC bed reduced peak contaminant concentrations by 97%. After the initial peak, the inlet VOC concentration in the SMZ regeneration gas stream drops exponentially with time. During this period, the contaminants on the GAC subsequently desorbed at a nearly steady rate over the next 45 hours resulting in a relatively steady effluent concentration of approximately 25 ppm{sub v}. This lower concentration is readily degradable by a downstream vapor phase biofilter (VPB) and the steady nature of the feed stream will prevent the biomass in the VPB from enduring starvation conditions between SMZ regeneration cycles. Repetitive sorption and desorption cycles that would be expected in the field were also investigated. It was determined that although the GAC initially lost some VOC sorption capacity, the adsorption and desorption profiles stabilized after approximately 6 cycles indicating that a GAC bed should be suitable for continuous operation. In preparation for the pilot field testing of the SMZ/VPB system, design, ''in-house'' construction and testing of the field system were completed during this project period. The design of the SMZ system for the pilot test was based on previous investigations by the PI's in Wyoming, 2002 and on analyses of the produced water at the field site in New Mexico. The field tests are scheduled for summer, 2005. A cost survey, feasibility of application and cost analyses were completed to investigate the long term effectiveness of the SMZ/VPB system as a method of treating produced water for re-use. Several factors were investigated, including: current costs to treat and dispose of produced water, end-use water quality requirements, and state and federal permitting requirements.

Soondong Kwon; Elaine B. Darby; Li-Jung Chen; Lynn E. Katz; Kerry A. Kinney; R. S. Bowman; E. J. Sullivan

2005-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

120

A logical extension of the ASTM Standard E96 to determine the dependence of water vapor transmission on relative humidity  

SciTech Connect

It is well known that the water vapor transmission properties of hygroscopic building materials depend on the local relative humidities(rh). Traditionally, the ASTM Standard E96 specifies only two conditions of rh. The dry cup method in the standard corresponds to a mean rh of 25% and the wet cup to 75%. This information is not enough to describe the behavior of the material through the entire range of rh. European Standards have already proposed an extension of the existing standard to address this issue. ASTM standard should follow this change. A logical extension of the E96 standard to include the effect of rh on water vapor transmission properties has been proposed and is being discussed by one of the C16 Committee Task Groups. This paper presents the application of the proposed extension to several common building materials. The details include the operating principles of a constant temperature-rh chamber and the effects on the test results, of the vapor resistance offered by still air inside the cup, the surface resistances and buoyancy. The experimental data were used to critically assess the above effects. The data as well as the analyses of the data are expected to provide guidance to refine the existing ASTM Standard.

Lackey, J.C.; Marchand, R.G.; Kumaran, M.K. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Inst. for Research in Construction

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ghz water vapor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Numerical Simulation of Hydrodynamics of a Heavy Liquid Drop Covered by Vapor Film in a Water Pool  

SciTech Connect

A numerical study on the hydrodynamics of a droplet covered by vapor film in water pool is carried out. Two level set functions are used as to implicitly capture the interfaces among three immiscible fluids (melt-drop, vapor and coolant). This approach leaves only one set of conservation equations for the three phases. A high-order Navier-Stokes solver, called Cubic-Interpolated Pseudo-Particle (CIP) algorithm, is employed in combination with level set approach, which allows large density ratios (up to 1000), surface tension and jump in viscosity. By this calculation, the hydrodynamic behavior of a melt droplet falling into a volatile coolant is simulated, which is of great significance to reveal the mechanism of steam explosion during a hypothetical severe reactor accident. (authors)

Ma, W.M.; Yang, Z.L.; Giri, A.; Sehgal, B.R. [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Drottning Kristinas vaeg 33 A, 100 44, Stockholm (Sweden)

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Vapor spill monitoring method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method for continuous sampling of liquified natural gas effluent from a spill pipe, vaporizing the cold liquified natural gas, and feeding the vaporized gas into an infrared detector to measure the gas composition. The apparatus utilizes a probe having an inner channel for receiving samples of liquified natural gas and a surrounding water jacket through which warm water is flowed to flash vaporize the liquified natural gas.

Bianchini, Gregory M. (Livermore, CA); McRae, Thomas G. (Livermore, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Collaborative Research: The Influence of Cloud Microphysics and Radiation on the Response of Water Vapor and Clouds to Climate Change  

SciTech Connect

Uncertainties in representing the atmospheric water cycle are major obstacles to an accurate prediction of future climate. This project focused on addressing some of these uncertainties by implementing new physics for convection and radiation into the NCAR climate model. To better understand and eventually better represent these processes, we modified CAM3.5 to use the convection and cloud schemes developed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the RRTMG rapid radiation code for global models developed by Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER). The impact of the new physics on the CAM3.5 simulation of convection on diurnal and intra-seasonal scales, intra-seasonal oscillations and the distribution of water vapor has been investigated. The effect of the MIT and AER physics also has been tested in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) regional forecast model. It has been found that the application of the AER radiation and MIT convection produces significant improvements in the modeled diurnal cycle of convection, especially over land, in the NCAR climate model. However, both the standard CAM3.5 (hereinafter STD) and the modified CAM3.5 with the new physics (hereinafter MOD) are still unable to capture the proper spectrum and propagating characteristics of the intra-seasonal oscillations (ISOs). The new physics methods modify, but do not substantially improve, the distribution of upper tropospheric water vapor relative to satellite measurements.

Dr. Kerry Emanuel; Michael J. Iacono

2011-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

124

The Influence of Cloud Microphysics and Radiation on the Response of Water Vapor and Clouds to Climate Change  

SciTech Connect

Uncertainties in representing the atmospheric water cycle are major obstacles to the accurate prediction of future climate. This project focused on addressing some of these uncertainties by implementing new physics for convection and radiation into the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). To better understand and eventually better represent these processes in this major national climate model, we modified CAM3.5 to use the convection and cloud schemes developed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the RRTMG rapid radiation code for global climate models developed by Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER). The impact of the new physics on the CAM3.5 simulation of convection on diurnal and intra-seasonal scales, on intra-seasonal oscillations and on the distribution of water vapor has been investigated. In addition, the MIT and AER physics packages have been incorporated and tested in combination within the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) regional forecast model for the purpose of evaluating and improving convective and radiative processes on time scales appropriate to weather simulations. It has been found that the application of the AER radiation and MIT convection produces significant improvements in the modeled diurnal cycle of convection, especially over land, in the NCAR climate model. However, both the standard CAM3.5 and the modified CAM3.5 with the new physics are unable to capture the proper spectrum and propagating characteristics of dynamical intra-seasonal oscillations such as the Madden-Julian Oscillation. In addition, it has been shown that the new physics methods modify, but do not substantially improve, the distribution of upper tropospheric water vapor in CAM as established through the comparison of modeled and observed satellite radiances. This suggests that continuing regional discrepancies in water vapor amounts in the climate model may not be solely related to convective or radiative processes. The major results of this project have been described in more detail in a journal article titled â??The Impacts of AER Radiation and MIT Convection on the Water Cycle Simulated by CAM3.5â? that will be submitted for publication during Fall 2010.

Emanuel, Kerry; Iacono, Michael J.

2010-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

125

Oxidation of Slurry Aluminide Coatings on Cast Stainless Steel Alloy CF8C-Plus at 800oC in Water Vapor  

SciTech Connect

A new, cast austenitic stainless steel, CF8C-Plus, has been developed for a wide range of high temperature applications, including diesel exhaust components, turbine casings and turbocharger housings. CF8C-Plus offers significant improvements in creep rupture life and creep rupture strength over standard CF8C steel. However, at higher temperatures and in more aggressive environments, such as those containing significant water vapor, an oxidation-resistant protective coating will be necessary. The oxidation behavior of alloys CF8C and CF8C-Plus with various aluminide coatings were compared at 800oC in air plus 10 vol% water vapor. Due to their affordability, slurry aluminides were the primary coating system of interest, although chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and pack cementation coatings were also compared. Additionally, a preliminary study of the low cycle fatigue behavior of aluminized CF8C-Plus was conducted at 800oC. Each type of coating provided substantial improvements in oxidation behavior, with simple slurry aluminides showing very good oxidation resistance after 4,000 h testing in water vapor. Preliminary low cycle fatigue results indicated that thicker aluminide coatings degraded high temperature fatigue properties of CF8C-Plus, whereas thinner coatings did not. Results suggest that appropriately designed slurry aluminide coatings are a viable option for economical, long-term oxidation protection of austenitic stainless steels in water vapor.

Haynes, James A [ORNL; Armstrong, Beth L [ORNL; Dryepondt, Sebastien N [ORNL; Kumar, Deepak [ORNL; Zhang, Ying [Tennessee Technological University

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Using radiative transfer models to study the atmospheric water vapor content and to eliminate telluric lines from high-resolution optical spectra  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Radiative Transfer Model (RTM) and the retrieval algorithm, incorporated in the SCIATRAN 2.2 software package developed at the Institute of Remote Sensing/Institute of Enviromental Physics of Bremen University (Germany), allows to simulate, among other things, radiance/irradiance spectra in the 2400-24 000 {\\AA} range. In this work we present applications of RTM to two case studies. In the first case the RTM was used to simulate direct solar irradiance spectra, with different water vapor amounts, for the study of the water vapor content in the atmosphere above Sierra Nevada Observatory. Simulated spectra were compared with those measured with a spectrometer operating in the 8000-10 000 {\\AA} range. In the second case the RTM was used to generate telluric model spectra to subtract the atmospheric contribution and correct high-resolution stellar spectra from atmospheric water vapor and oxygen lines. The results of both studies are discussed.

Gardini, A; Pérez, E; Quesada, J A; Funke, B

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Assessment of precipitable water vapor derived from ground-based BeiDou observations with Precise Point Positioning approach  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Precipitable water vapor (PWV) estimation from Global Positioning System (GPS) has been extensively studied and used for meteorological applications. However PWV estimation using the emerging BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) is very limited. In this paper the PWV estimation strategy and the evaluation of the results inferred from ground-based BDS observations using Precise Point Positioning (PPP) method are presented. BDS and GPS data from 10 stations distributed in the Asia–Pacific and West Indian Ocean regions during the year 2013 are processed using the PANDA (Position and Navigation Data Analyst) software package. The BDS-PWV and GPS-PWV are derived from the BDS-only and GPS-only observations, respectively. The PPP positioning differences between BDS-only and GPS-only show a standard deviation (STD) Indian Ocean regions and that BDS alone can be used for PWV estimation with an accuracy comparable to GPS.

Min Li; Wenwen Li; Chuang Shi; Qile Zhao; Xing Su; Lizhong Qu; Zhizhao Liu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Analysis and forecast improvements from simulated satellite water vapor profiles and rainfall using a global data assimilation system  

SciTech Connect

The potential improvements of analyses and forecasts from the use of satellite-observed rainfall and water vapor measurements from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Sensor Microwave (SSM) T-1 and T-2 instruments are investigated in a series of observing system simulation experiments using the Air Force Phillips Laboratory (formerly Air Force Geophysics Laboratory) data assimilation system. Simulated SSM radiances are used directly in a radiance retrieval step following the conventional optimum interpolation analysis. Simulated rainfall rates in the tropics are used in a moist initialization procedure to improve the initial specification of divergence, moisture, and temperature. Results show improved analyses and forecasts of relative humidity and winds compared to the control experiment in the tropics and the Southern Hemisphere. Forecast improvements are generally restricted to the first 1-3 days of the forecast. 27 refs., 11 figs.

Nehrkorn, T.; Hoffman, R.N.; Louis, J.F.; Isaacs, R.G.; Moncet, J.L. (Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States))

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 102, NO. D24, PAGES 29,737-29,745, DECEMBER 26, 1997 Atmospheric aerosol and water vapor characteristics over north  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Atmospheric aerosol and water vapor characteristics over north central Canada during BOREAS B. L. Markham, J typically0.09 and 0.34 cm, respectively.Size distributionsderivedfrom solar almucantarmeasurementsshowtheHughesSTXCorporation,Greenbelt,Maryland. 2Formerlyat HSTX/GSFC-NASA,Greenbelt,Maryland. Copyright1997by the American

130

Ocean Water Vapor and Cloud Burden Trends Derived from the Topex Microwave Radiometer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. TMR OBSERVATIONS The TMR flew in a 10-day non-sun-synchronous exact repeat orbit with an inclination algorithm is a log-linear regression algorithm with coefficients that are stratified by wind speed and water

Ruf, Christopher

131

Oxygen isotope anomaly observed in water vapor from Alert, Canada and the implication for the stratosphere  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...stratospheric input of anomalous water, injections of stratospheric tritium (mainly produced by atmospheric detonations of thermonuclear devices during 1954?1963) to various sites in Greenland and Antarctica were recorded in snow pits (e.g., ref...

Ying Lin; Robert N. Clayton; Lin Huang; Noboru Nakamura; James R. Lyons

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

ARM - Evaluation Product - MWR Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water and Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ProductsMWR Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water and ProductsMWR Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water and Water Vapor Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Evaluation Product : MWR Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water and Water Vapor 2005.02.01 - 2011.04.25 Site(s) FKB GRW HFE NIM PYE SBS General Description A new algorithm is being developed for the ARM Program to derive liquid water path (LWP) and precipitable water vapor (PWV) from the 2-channel (23.8 and 31.4 GHz) microwave radiometers (MWRs) deployed at ARM climate research facilities. This algorithm utilizes the "monoRTM" radiative transfer model (http://rtweb.aer.com), a combination of both an advanced statistical and physical-iterative retrieval, and brightness temperature offsets applied before the retrieval is performed. This allows perhaps the

133

Intraparticle heat and mass transfer characteristics of silica-gel/water vapor adsorption  

SciTech Connect

Recently, highly efficient energy utilization systems which extensively employ adsorption phenomena such as pressure swing adsorption, heat storage, adsorption heat pump, etc. are being regarded as one of the countermeasures for environmental issues such as green house effect and ozone layer destruction. An Adsorption Heat Pump (AHP) has been investigated as one of the important techniques via which cold heat energy is obtained from waste thermal energy below 373K without using electricity and CFCs. An AHP normally consists of an adsorber and an evaporator/condenser and cold heat energy is generated by latent heat of evaporation during adsorption process. For realizing the AHP technology, it has been pointed out that the development of an adsorber with optimum heat and mass transfer characteristics is essentially important. In this study, experimental studies were carried out which was based on the data of temperature inside the adsorbent particle and adsorptivity profiles at the adsorption/desorption process by volumetric method. To clarify adsorption mechanism relatively large silica-gel particle (7 mm f) was used. Temperature distribution in the particle is determined at the center, at one half radius in the radial direction and at the surface by using very thin (30 mm f) thermocouples. The temperatures at these points simultaneously increase/decrease as soon as the adsorption/desorption started, reached their respective maximum/minimum values and then return to initial temperature. The temperature profiles for the adsorption process show that the temperature at the surface is initially slightly higher than the other two points. All three points reached their respective maximum temperature at the same time with the temperature at the center point the highest and at the surface the lowest. The temperature profiles during the desorptive process are almost exactly the opposite to that of the adsorption process. This shows that the adsorption phenomena can take place not only at the surface but inside the adsorbent particle, implying that intraparticle vapor diffusion has a great influence on adsorptivity.

Yamamoto, Eri; Watanabe, Fujio; Hasatani, Masanobu

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Hydrogen Ingress in Steels During High-Temperature Oxidation in Water Vapor  

SciTech Connect

It is well established that hydrogen derived from water vapour can penetrate oxidizing alloys with detrimental effect. However, the complexities of tracking hydrogen in these materials have prevented the direct profiling of hydrogen ingress needed to understand these phenomena. Here we report hydrogen profiles in industrially-relevant alumina- and chromia- forming steels correlated with the local oxide-metal nano/microstructure by use of SIMS D2O tracer studies and experimental protocols to optimize D retention. The D profiles unexpectedly varied markedly among the alloys examined, which indicates mechanistic complexity but also the potential to mitigate detrimental water vapour effects by manipulation of alloy chemistry.

Brady, Michael P [ORNL; Fayek, Mostafa [ORNL; Keiser, James R [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M [ORNL; Wesolowski, David J [ORNL; Cole, David R [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Wavelength-modulation laser hygrometer for ultrasensitive detection of water vapor in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- bines wavelength-modulation absorption spectros- copy WMS 12­16 that uses near-infrared InGaAsP diode is measured by use of a near-infrared diode laser and wavelength-modulation absorption spectroscopy. Humidity in the spectral regions of strongest water absorption. Sensitive single-mode cavity ring-down techniques based

136

Designing Turbine Endwalls for Deposition Resistance with 1,400 °C Combustor Exit Temperatures and Syngas Water Vapor Levels„The Ohio State University  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Designing Turbine Endwalls for Designing Turbine Endwalls for Deposition Resistance with 1,400 °C Combustor Exit Temperatures and Syngas Water Vapor Levels-The Ohio State University Background This University Turbine Systems Research (UTSR) project will explore a critical need for innovative turbine endwall designs that could increase turbine durability and mitigate the adverse effects of residue deposition from coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas). The Ohio State University (OSU), in cooperation with Brigham Young University (BYU),

137

Water Vapor Electrolysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrogen plays an important role in the so-called hydrogen economy (technology). The term expresses an energy concept in which hydrogen serves as energy storage and fuel for combustion in engines or fuel cells. H...

Ulrich Guth

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Water Vapor Experiment Concludes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

(Holger Voemel, NOAA and University of Colorado). November 2003 2 first North American launch of the new Vaisala RS92 radiosonde on November 5, 2003. NASA also deployed a...

139

Angular and energy dependence of cross sections for ejection of electrons from water vapor. III. 20–150-keV neutral-hydrogen impact  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Absolute values of cross sections for electron production in collisions of neutral hydrogen atoms of 20–150 keV energy with water vapor molecules have been measured as a function of the ejection energy and angle. The range of angles was 10° to 160° and the electron energy range was 1–300 eV. The doubly differential cross sections were integrated over angle and/or energy to obtain singly differential cross sections, total electron production cross sections, and average energies of ejection. The angular distribution of the electron loss peak was found to have some features in common with the cross section for elastic scattering of electrons.

M. A. Bolorizadeh and M. E. Rudd

1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Methodology for Predicting Water Content in Supercritical Gas Vapor and Gas Solubility in Aqueous Phase for Natural Gas Process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The streams in the natural gas process contain light hydrocarbons, mainly methane and ethane, associated with non-hydrocarbon supercritical gases (nitrogen, hydrogen, argon, etc.). ... For system that contains supercritical gases, the gas solubility in water can be related to the Henry's law constant. ...

Chorng H. Twu; Suphat Watanasiri; Vince Tassone

2007-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ghz water vapor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Long Term Field Development of a Surfactant Modified Zeolite/Vapor Phase Bioreactor System for Treatment of Produced Waters for Power Generation  

SciTech Connect

The main goal of this research was to investigate the feasibility of using a combined physicochemical/biological treatment system to remove the organic constituents present in saline produced water. In order to meet this objective, a physical/chemical adsorption process was developed and two separate biological treatment techniques were investigated. Two previous research projects focused on the development of the surfactant modified zeolite adsorption process (DE-AC26-99BC15221) and development of a vapor phase biofilter (VPB) to treat the regeneration off-gas from the surfactant modified zeolite (SMZ) adsorption system (DE-FC26-02NT15461). In this research, the SMZ/VPB was modified to more effectively attenuate peak loads and to maintain stable biodegradation of the BTEX constituents from the produced water. Specifically, a load equalization system was incorporated into the regeneration flow stream. In addition, a membrane bioreactor (MBR) system was tested for its ability to simultaneously remove the aromatic hydrocarbon and carboxylate components from produced water. The specific objectives related to these efforts included the following: (1) Optimize the performance VPBs treating the transient loading expected during SMZ regeneration: (a) Evaluate the impact of biofilter operating parameters on process performance under stable operating conditions. (b) Investigate how transient loads affect biofilter performance, and identify an appropriate technology to improve biological treatment performance during the transient regeneration period of an SMZ adsorption system. (c) Examine the merits of a load equalization technology to attenuate peak VOC loads prior to a VPB system. (d) Evaluate the capability of an SMZ/VPB to remove BTEX from produced water in a field trial. (2) Investigate the feasibility of MBR treatment of produced water: (a) Evaluate the biodegradation of carboxylates and BTEX constituents from synthetic produced water in a laboratory-scale MBR. (b) Evaluate the capability of an SMZ/MBR system to remove carboxylates and BTEX from produced water in a field trial. Laboratory experiments were conducted to provide a better understanding of each component of the SMZ/VPB and SMZ/MBR process. Laboratory VPB studies were designed to address the issue of influent variability and periodic operation (see DE-FC26-02NT15461). These experiments examined multiple influent loading cycles and variable concentration loadings that simulate air sparging as the regeneration option for the SMZ system. Two pilot studies were conducted at a produced water processing facility near Farmington, New Mexico. The first field test evaluated SMZ adsorption, SMZ regeneration, VPB buffering, and VPB performance, and the second test focused on MBR and SMZ/MBR operation. The design of the field studies were based on the results from the previous field tests and laboratory studies. Both of the biological treatment systems were capable of removing the BTEX constituents in the laboratory and in the field over a range of operating conditions. For the VPB, separation of the BTEX constituents from the saline aqueous phase yielded high removal efficiencies. However, carboxylates remained in the aqueous phase and were not removed in the combined VPB/SMZ system. In contrast, the MBR was capable of directly treating the saline produced water and simultaneously removing the BTEX and carboxylate constituents. The major limitation of the MBR system is the potential for membrane fouling, particularly when the system is treating produced water under field conditions. The combined process was able to effectively pretreat water for reverse osmosis treatment and subsequent downstream reuse options including utilization in power generation facilities. The specific conclusions that can be drawn from this study are summarized.

Lynn Katz; Kerry Kinney; Robert Bowman; Enid Sullivan; Soondong Kwon; Elaine Darby; Li-Jung Chen; Craig Altare

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

142

Vapor spill pipe monitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a method and apparatus for continually monitoring the composition of liquefied natural gas flowing from a spill pipe during a spill test by continually removing a sample of the LNG by means of a probe, gasifying the LNG in the probe, and sending the vaporized LNG to a remote ir gas detector for analysis. The probe comprises three spaced concentric tubes surrounded by a water jacket which communicates with a flow channel defined between the inner and middle, and middle and outer tubes. The inner tube is connected to a pump for providing suction, and the probe is positioned in the LNG flow below the spill pipe with the tip oriented partly downward so that LNG is continuously drawn into the inner tube through a small orifice. The probe is made of a high thermal conductivity metal. Hot water is flowed through the water jacket and through the flow channel between the three tubes to provide the necessary heat transfer to flash vaporize the LNG passing through the inner channel of the probe. The gasified LNG is transported through a connected hose or tubing extending from the probe to a remote ir sensor which measures the gas composition.

Bianchini, G.M.; McRae, T.G.

1983-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

143

Comparison of Short-Term Oxidation Behavior of Model and Commercial Chromia-Forming Ferritic Stainless Steels in Air with Water Vapor  

SciTech Connect

A high-purity Fe-20Cr and commercial type 430 ferritic stainless steel were exposed at 700 and 800 C in dry air and air with 10% water vapor (wet air) and characterized by SEM, XRD, STEM, SIMS, and EPMA. The Fe-20Cr alloy formed a fast growing Fe-rich oxide scale at 700 C in wet air after 24 h exposure, but formed a thin chromia scale at 700 C in dry air and at 800 C in both dry air and wet air. In contrast, thin spinel + chromia base scales with a discontinuous silica subscale were formed on 430 stainless steel under all conditions studied. Extensive void formation was observed at the alloy-oxide interface for the Fe-20Cr in both dry and wet conditions, but not for the 430 stainless steel. The Fe-20Cr alloy was found to exhibit a greater relative extent of subsurface Cr depletion than the 430 stainless steel, despite the former's higher Cr content. Depletion of Cr in the Fe-20Cr after 24 h exposure was also greater at 700 C than 800 C. The relative differences in oxidation behavior are discussed in terms of the coarse alloy grain size of the high-purity Fe-20Cr material, and the effects of Mn, Si, and C on the oxide scale formed on the 430 stainless steel.

Brady, Michael P [ORNL; Keiser, James R [ORNL; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL; Fayek, Mostafa [University of Manitoba, Canada; Walker, Larry R [ORNL; Meisner, Roberta Ann [ORNL; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M [ORNL; Wesolowski, David J [ORNL; Cole, David R [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

New High Performance Water Vapor Membranes to Improve Fuel Cell Balance of Plant Efficiency and Lower Costs (SBIR Phase I) - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

0 0 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report Earl H. Wagener (Primary Contact), Brad P. Morgan, Jeffrey R. DiMaio Tetramer Technologies L.L.C. 657 S. Mechanic St. Pendleton, SC 29670 Phone: (864) 646-6282 Email: earl.wagener@tetramertechnologies.com DOE Manager HQ: Nancy Garland Phone: (202) 586-5673 Email: Nancy.Garland@ee.doe.gov Contract Number: DE-SC0006172 Project Start Date: June 17, 2011 Project End Date: March 16, 2012 Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives Demonstrate water vapor transport membrane with * >18,000 gas permeation units (GPU) Water vapor membrane with less than 20% loss in * performance after stress tests Crossover leak rate: <150 GPU * Temperature Durability of 90°C with excursions to * 100°C Cost of <$10/m

145

The effect of water vapor on the release of fission gas from the fuel elements of high temperature, gas-cooled reactors: A preliminary assessment of experiments HRB-17, HFR-B1, HFR-K6 and KORA  

SciTech Connect

The effect of water vapor on the release of fission gas from the fuel elements of high temperature, gas-cooled reactors has been measured in different laboratories under both irradiation and post irradiation conditions. The data from experiments HRB-17, HFR-B1, HFR-K6, and in the KORA facility are compared to assess their consistency and complimentarily. The experiments are consistent under comparable experimental conditions and reveal two general mechanisms involving exposed fuel kernels embedded in carbonaceous materials. One is manifest as a strong dependence of fission gas release on the partial pressure of water vapor below 1 kPa and the other, as a weak dependence above 1 kPa.

Myers, B.F.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Calibrated vapor generator source  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet. 10 figs.

Davies, J.P.; Larson, R.A.; Goodrich, L.D.; Hall, H.J.; Stoddard, B.D.; Davis, S.G.; Kaser, T.G.; Conrad, F.J.

1995-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

147

Chemical vapor detection using nanomechanical platform  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For high sensitive and multiplexed chemical analysis, an opto-mechanical detection platform has been built. To check the performance of the platform, we performed water vapor response measurements for ... sensors...

S. H. Lim

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

On the Diurnal Cycle of Deep Convection, High-Level Cloud, and Upper Troposphere Water Vapor in the Multiscale Modeling Framework  

SciTech Connect

The Multiscale Modeling Framework (MMF), also called ‘‘superparameterization’’, embeds a cloud-resolving model (CRM) at each grid column of a general circulation model to replace traditional parameterizations of moist convection and large-scale condensation. This study evaluates the diurnal cycle of deep convection, high-level clouds, and upper troposphere water vapor by applying an infrared (IR) brightness temperature (Tb) and a precipitation radar (PR) simulator to the CRM column data. Simulator results are then compared with IR radiances from geostationary satellites and PR reflectivities from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). While the actual surface precipitation rate in the MMF has a reasonable diurnal phase and amplitude when compared with TRMM observations, the IR simulator results indicate an inconsistency in the diurnal anomalies of high-level clouds between the model and the geostationary satellite data. Primarily because of its excessive high-level clouds, the MMF overestimates the simulated precipitation index (PI) and fails to reproduce the observed diurnal cycle phase relationships among PI, high-level clouds, and upper troposphere relative humidity. The PR simulator results show that over the tropical oceans, the occurrence fraction of reflectivity in excess of 20 dBZ is almost 1 order of magnitude larger than the TRMM data especially at altitudes above 6 km. Both results suggest that the MMF oceanic convection is overactive and possible reasons for this bias are discussed. However, the joint distribution of simulated IR Tb and PR reflectivity indicates that the most intense deep convection is found more often over tropical land than ocean, in agreement with previous observational studies.

Zhang, Yunyan; Klein, Stephen A.; Liu, Chuntao; Tian, Baijun; Marchand, Roger T.; Haynes, J. M.; McCoy, Renata; Zhang, Yuying; Ackerman, Thomas P.

2008-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

149

Pressure Broadening of H2O Absorption Lines in the 1.3 ?m Region Measured by Continuous Wave-Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy: Application in the Trace Detection of Water Vapor in N2, SiH4, CF4, and PH3  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A continuous wave cavity ring-down (cw-CRD) spectrometer has been developed for the measurement of trace levels of water vapor by absorption spectroscopy at wavelengths in the...

Fiadzomor, Phyllis A Y; Baker, Derek M; Keen, Anthony M; Grant, Robert B; Orr-Ewing, Andrew J

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Sample Vapor Introduction Techniques for Use with Cryofocusing GC Inlet Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......the vapor generator was operated at atmospheric pressure for...condensed water. Other studies...Because the water vapor was...tail of the water peak. Thus...obtained from an atmospheric pressure source...the vapor generator over a 1......

Christine L. Rankin; Richard D. Sacks

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

LNG fire and vapor control system technologies  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a review of fire and vapor control practices used in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry. Specific objectives of this effort were to summarize the state-of-the-art of LNG fire and vapor control; define representative LNG facilities and their associated fire and vapor control systems; and develop an approach for a quantitative effectiveness evaluation of LNG fire and vapor control systems. In this report a brief summary of LNG physical properties is given. This is followed by a discussion of basic fire and vapor control design philosophy and detailed reviews of fire and vapor control practices. The operating characteristics and typical applications and application limitations of leak detectors, fire detectors, dikes, coatings, closed circuit television, communication systems, dry chemicals, water, high expansion foam, carbon dioxide and halogenated hydrocarbons are described. Summary descriptions of a representative LNG peakshaving facility and import terminal are included in this report together with typical fire and vapor control systems and their locations in these types of facilities. This state-of-the-art review identifies large differences in the application of fire and vapor control systems throughout the LNG industry.

Konzek, G.J.; Yasutake, K.M.; Franklin, A.L.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Vapor Power Systems MAE 4263 Final Exam  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Vapor Power Systems MAE 4263 Final Exam Wednesday, May 5, 2004 Prof. P.M. Moretti Key Instructions, then think, then write! 1. What is the dewpoint of the exhaust of your car, if the gasoline consists2 so that the mole fraction of water vapor is yH2 O = 9 9 + 8 + 47 = 0:14063 pH2 O = 0:14063 14

153

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid vapor pressures Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sciences and Ecology 22 3b. Thermodynamics of moist air Water phase, water latent heat of vaporization Lv Summary: 3b. Thermodynamics of moist air Water phase, water latent...

154

Wick for metal vapor laser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved wick for a metal vapor laser is made of a refractory metal cylinder, preferably molybdenum or tungsten for a copper laser, which provides the wicking surface. Alternately, the inside surface of the ceramic laser tube can be metalized to form the wicking surface. Capillary action is enhanced by using wire screen, porous foam metal, or grooved surfaces. Graphite or carbon, in the form of chunks, strips, fibers or particles, is placed on the inside surface of the wick to reduce water, reduce metal oxides and form metal carbides.

Duncan, David B. (Livermore, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Interaction of Ozone and Water Vapor with Spark Discharge Soot Aerosol Particles Coated with Benzo[a]pyrene:? O3 and H2O Adsorption, Benzo[a]pyrene Degradation, and Atmospheric Implications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Besides their relevance as toxic air pollutants, polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC = PAH + derivatives) at the surface of combustion aerosol particles can influence these particles' interaction with reactive trace gases and water vapor, their activity as condensation nuclei, their atmospheric residence times, and consequently their direct and indirect climatic effects. ... Assuming equal relative losses of triphenylene and BaP during the clean up process, the triphenylene recovery, which was generally on the order of 70%, was used to correct the BaP peak area to 100% recovery. ... Thus, the potential influence of liquid organic or aqueous layers on atmospheric particles has to be kept in mind when using the kinetic parameters presented in this work for extrapolations to the atmosphere. ...

Ulrich Pöschl; Thomas Letzel; Christian Schauer; Reinhard Niessner

2001-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

156

Copper vapor laser modular packaging assembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A modularized packaging arrangement for one or more copper vapor lasers and associated equipment is disclosed herein. This arrangement includes a single housing which contains the laser or lasers and all their associated equipment except power, water and neon, and means for bringing power, water, and neon which are necessary to the operation of the lasers into the container for use by the laser or lasers and their associated equipment.

Alger, Terry W. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Dublin, CA); Moses, Edward I. (Castro Valley, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Quantitative Analysis of Ternary Vapor Mixtures Using a Microcantilever-Based Electronic Nose  

SciTech Connect

The authors report the identification and quantification of the components of a ternary vapor mixture using a microcantilever-based electronic nose. An artificial neural network was used for pattern recognition. Dimethyl methyl phosphonate vapor in ppb concentrations and water and ethanol vapors in ppm concentrations were quantitatively identified either individually or in binary and ternary mixtures at varying concentrations.

Pinnaduwage, Lal A [ORNL; Zhao, Weichang [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL; Allman, Steve L [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Gasoline vapor recovery  

SciTech Connect

In a gasoline distribution network wherein gasoline is drawn from a gasoline storage tank and pumped into individual vehicles and wherein the gasoline storage tank is refilled periodically from a gasoline tanker truck, a method of recovering liquid gasoline from gasoline vapor that collects in the headspace of the gasoline storage tank as the liquid gasoline is drawn therefrom, said method comprising the steps of: (a) providing a source of inert gas; (b) introducing inert gas into the gasoline storage tank as liquid gasoline is drawn therefrom so that liquid gasoline drawn from the tank is displaced by inert gas and gasoline vapor mixes with the inert gas in the headspace of the tank; (c) collecting the inert gas/gasoline vapor mixture from the headspace of the gasoline storage tank as the tank is refilled from a gasoline tanker truck; (d) cooling the inert gas/gasoline vapor mixture to a temperature sufficient to condense the gasoline vapor in the mixture to liquid gasoline but not sufficient to liquify the inert gas in the mixture; (e) separating the condensed liquid gasoline from the inert gas; and delivering the condensed liquid gasoline to a remote location for subsequent use.

Lievens, G.; Tiberi, T.P.

1993-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

159

Economic and Technical Tradeoffs Between Open and Closed Cycle Vapor Compression Evaporators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and solute. Evaporation tends to be a very energy intensive process. Approximately 1000 BTUs of energy are required to vaporize one pound of water. Many techniques have been developed to reuse energy Within an evaporation system so as to vaporize... Recompression A schematic of an open cycle vapor recompression evaporator is shown in Figure 2. This method uses the vapor in an open cycle for both heating and cooling. Rather than being condensed after the last effect, steam is compressed to a slightly...

Timm, M. L.

160

Electrolyte vapor condenser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system is disclosed for removing electrolyte from a fuel cell gas stream. The gas stream containing electrolyte vapor is supercooled utilizing conventional heat exchangers and the thus supercooled gas stream is passed over high surface area passive condensers. The condensed electrolyte is then drained from the condenser and the remainder of the gas stream passed on. The system is particularly useful for electrolytes such as phosphoric acid and molten carbonate, but can be used for other electrolyte cells and simple vapor separation as well. 3 figs.

Sederquist, R.A.; Szydlowski, D.F.; Sawyer, R.D.

1983-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ghz water vapor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Electrolyte vapor condenser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system is disclosed for removing electrolyte from a fuel cell gas stream. The gas stream containing electrolyte vapor is supercooled utilizing conventional heat exchangers and the thus supercooled gas stream is passed over high surface area passive condensers. The condensed electrolyte is then drained from the condenser and the remainder of the gas stream passed on. The system is particularly useful for electrolytes such as phosphoric acid and molten carbonate, but can be used for other electrolyte cells and simple vapor separation as well.

Sederquist, Richard A. (Newington, CT); Szydlowski, Donald F. (East Hartford, CT); Sawyer, Richard D. (Canton, CT)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Water-vapor effect on the electrical conductivity of a single-walled carbon nanotube mat A. Zahab,* L. Spina, and P. Poncharal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of physico-chemical adsorption of gases in nanotubes have been reported.11­14 One of the most excit- ing was then carefully out- gassed by heating the sample up to 220 °C at a constant rate of about 3 °C/mn. The sample lower than 0.1 °C during water injection and pumping cycle was negli- gible when compared

Demouchy, Sylvie

163

Organic vapor jet printing system  

SciTech Connect

An organic vapor jet printing system includes a pump for increasing the pressure of an organic flux.

Forrest, Stephen R

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

164

Production of elemental sulfur and ammonium thiosulfate by the oxidation of H2S containing water vapor and ammonia over V/Zr-PILC catalysts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The catalytic oxidation of hydrogen sulfide in the presence of water and ammonia was studied over V2O5 supported on Zr-pillared clay catalysts (V/Zr-PILCs). The synthesized catalysts were examined using a variety of characterization techniques. A catalytic performance study using V/Zr-PILC catalysts showed that H2S was successfully converted to elemental sulfur and ammonium thiosulfate (ATS) without considerable emission of sulfur dioxide. The H2S conversion over V/Zr-PILCs increased with increasing the content of vanadia up to 6 wt.%. This superior catalytic performance might be related to the uniform dispersion of vanadia species on the Zr-PILC support.

Kanattukara Vijayan Bineesh; Moon-il Kim; Goo-Hwa Lee; Manickam Selvaraj; Kyu Hyun; Dae-Won Park

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Mercury Vapor | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mercury Vapor Mercury Vapor Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Mercury Vapor Details Activities (23) Areas (23) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Lab Analysis Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Fluid Lab Analysis Parent Exploration Technique: Fluid Lab Analysis Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Stratigraphic/Structural: Anomalously high concentrations can indicate high permeability or conduit for fluid flow Hydrological: Field wide soil sampling can generate a geometrical approximation of fluid circulation Thermal: High concentration in soils can be indicative of active hydrothermal activity Dictionary.png Mercury Vapor: Mercury is discharged as a highly volatile vapor during hydrothermal

166

High Field W-Band (95 GHz) EPR | EMSL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Field W-Band (95 GHz) EPR High Field W-Band (95 GHz) EPR The W-band pulsed EPR spectrometer, introduced in 2011, is one of only two of its design worldwide. It uses a Quasi-optical...

167

Stratified vapor generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A stratified vapor generator (110) comprises a first heating section (H.sub.1) and a second heating section (H.sub.2). The first and second heating sections (H.sub.1, H.sub.2) are arranged so that the inlet of the second heating section (H.sub.2) is operatively associated with the outlet of the first heating section (H.sub.1). A moisture separator (126) having a vapor outlet (164) and a liquid outlet (144) is operatively associated with the outlet (124) of the second heating section (H.sub.2). A cooling section (C.sub.1) is operatively associated with the liquid outlet (144) of the moisture separator (126) and includes an outlet that is operatively associated with the inlet of the second heating section (H.sub.2).

Bharathan, Desikan (Lakewood, CO); Hassani, Vahab (Golden, CO)

2008-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

168

THE COMPACT STEEP SPECTRUM AND GHZ PEAKED SPECTRUM RADIO SOURCES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

THE COMPACT STEEP SPECTRUM AND GHZ PEAKED SPECTRUM RADIO SOURCES Christopher P. O'Dea Space@stsci.edu ABSTRACT I review the radio to X­ray properties of GHz Peaked Spectrum (GPS) and Compact Steep Spectrum The GHz Peaked Spectrum (GPS) and Compact Steep Spectrum (CSS) radio sources make up significant fractions

169

Ignition and combustion drive by powerful laser radiation acting on a water surface  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The ignition and combustion effects in water vapor generated...2-laser radiation on a water surface are investigated...

G. I. Kozlov; V. A. Kuznetsov

170

Vapor Barriers or Vapor Diffusion Retarders | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Home Air Sealing for New Home Construction Insulation Types of Insulation Insulation and Air Sealing Products and Services External Resources Find a Local AirVapor Barrier...

171

A New 60-cm Radio Survey Telescope with the Sideband-Separating SIS Receiver for the 200 GHz Band  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......independently by four signal-generators (SG). The LO frequencies...corrected by a fomula with atmospheric temperature, pressure, and water vapor content used for the...the formula replacing the atmospheric the refractive index given......

Taku Nakajima; Masahiro Kaiden; Jun Korogi; Kimihiro Kimura; Yoshinori Yonekura; Hideo Ogawa; Shingo Nishiura; Kazuhito Dobashi; Toshihiro Handa; Kotaro Kohno; Jun-Ichi Morino; Shin?ichiro Asayama; Takashi Noguchi

2007-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

172

Microwave Radiometer-High Frequency (MWRHF) Handbook  

SciTech Connect

The 90/150-GHz Vapor Radiometer provides time-series measurements of brightness temperatures from two channels centered at 90 and 150 GHz. These two channels are sensitive to the presence of liquid water and precipitable water vapor.

Caddedu, MP

2011-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

173

Classification of GHZ-type, W-type and GHZ-W-type multiqubit entanglements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose the concept of SLOCC-equivalent basis (SEB) in the multiqubit space. In particular, two special SEBs, the GHZ-type and the W-type basis are introduced. They can make up a more general family of multiqubit states, the GHZ-W-type states, which is a useful kind of entanglement for quantum teleporatation and error correction. We completely characterize the property of this type of states, and mainly classify the GHZ-type states and the W-type states in a regular way, which is related to the enumerative combinatorics. Many concrete examples are given to exhibit how our method is used for the classification of these entangled states.

Lin Chen; Yi-Xin Chen

2006-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

174

Gasification of Charcoal: Influence of Water Vapor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Direct use of biomass as a fuel offers a limited field of applications. Conversion of biomass to gases and liquids is of great importance to make transport of energy cheaper, gases and liquids being more easil...

J. R. Richard; M. Cathonnet; J. P. Rouan

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Fuel vapor control device  

SciTech Connect

A fuel vapor control device is described having a valve opening and closing a passage connecting a carburetor and a charcoal canister according to a predetermined temperature. A first coil spring formed by a ''shape memory effect'' alloy is provided to urge the valve to open the passage when the temperature is high. A second coil spring urges the valve to close the passage. A solenoid is provided to urge an armature against the valve to close the passage against the force of the first coil spring when the engine is running. The solenoid heats the first coil spring to generate a spring force therein when the engine is running. When the engine is turned off, the solenoid is deactivated, and the force of the first spring overcomes the force of the second spring to open the passage until such time as the temperature of the first spring drops below the predetermined temperature.

Ota, I.; Nishimura, Y.; Nishio, S.; Yogo, K.

1987-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

176

Category:Mercury Vapor | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Mercury Vapor page? For detailed information on Mercury Vapor as exploration techniques,...

177

SYNCHROTRON SPECTRAL CURVATURE FROM 22 MHz TO 23 GHz  

SciTech Connect

We combine surveys of the radio sky at frequencies 22 MHz to 1.4 GHz with data from the ARCADE-2 instrument at frequencies 3 GHz to 10 GHz to characterize the frequency spectrum of diffuse synchrotron emission in the Galaxy. The radio spectrum steepens with frequency from 22 MHz to 10 GHz. The projected spectral index at 23 GHz derived from the low-frequency data agrees well with independent measurements using only data at frequencies 23 GHz and above. Comparing the spectral index at 23 GHz to the value from previously published analyses allows extension of the model to higher frequencies. The combined data are consistent with a power-law index {beta} = -2.64 {+-} 0.03 at 0.31 GHz, steepening by an amount of {Delta}{beta} = 0.07 every octave in frequency. Comparison of the radio data to models including the cosmic-ray energy spectrum suggests that any break in the synchrotron spectrum must occur at frequencies above 23 GHz.

Kogut, A., E-mail: Alan.J.Kogut@nasa.gov [Code 665, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

178

Investigation of Pool Spreading and Vaporization Behavior in Medium-Scale LNG Tests  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A failure of a Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) tanker can occur due to collision or loading/unloading operation resulting in spillage of LNG on water. Upon release, a spreading liquid can form a pool with rapid vaporization leading to the formation of a flammable vapor cloud. Safety analysis for the protection of public and property involves the determination of consequences of such accidental releases. To address this complex pool spreading and vaporization phenomenon of LNG, an investigation is performed based on the experimental tests that were conducted by the Mary Kay O’Connor Process Safety Center (MKOPSC) in 2007. The 2007 tests are a part of medium-scale experiments carried out at the Brayton Fire Training Field (BFTF), College Station. The dataset represents a semi-continuous spill on water, where LNG is released on a confined area of water for a specified duration of time. The pool spreading and vaporization behavior are validated using empirical models, which involved determination of pool spreading parameters and vaporization rates with respect to time. Knowledge of the pool diameter, pool height and spreading rate are found to be important in calculating the vaporization rates of the liquid pool. The paper also presents a method to determine the vaporization mass flux of LNG using water temperature data that is recorded in the experiment. The vaporization rates are observed to be high initially and tend to decrease once the pool stopped spreading. The results of the analysis indicated that a vaporization mass flux that is varying with time is required for accurate determination of the vaporization rate. Based on the data analysis, sources of uncertainties in the experimental data were identified to arise from ice formation and vapor blocking.

Nirupama Gopalaswami; R. Mentzer; M. Sam Mannan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

GHz Resonant Cavity Enhanced Schottky Photodiodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Resonant Cavity Enhanced (RCE) photodiodes are promising candidates for applications in optical communications and interconnects where ultrafast high-efficiency detection is desirable. We have designed and fabricated RCE Schottky photodiodes in the (Al,In)GaAs material system for 900nm wavelength. The observed temporal response with 10 ps pulse width was limited by the measurement setup and a conservative estimation of the bandwidth corresponds to more than 100 GHz. A direct comparison of RCE versus conventional detector performance was performed by high speed measurements under optical excitation at resonant wavelength (895 nm) and at 840 nm where the device functions as a single pass conventional photodiode. A more than two-fold bandwidth enhancement with the RCE detection scheme was demonstrated. Index Terms--- Resonant cavity enhancement, high-speed, photodetector, Schottky photodiode. 1 I. INTRODUCTION High speed photodetectors for today's high performance optical co...

Onat Gokkavas Ozbay; B. M. Onat; M. Gokkavas; E. P. Ata; E. Towe; M. S

180

Vapor deposition of hardened niobium  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of coating ceramic nuclear fuel particles containing a major amount of an actinide ceramic in which the particles are placed in a fluidized bed maintained at ca. 800.degree. to ca. 900.degree. C., and niobium pentachloride vapor and carbon tetrachloride vapor are led into the bed, whereby niobium metal is deposited on the particles and carbon is deposited interstitially within the niobium. Coating apparatus used in the method is also disclosed.

Blocher, Jr., John M. (Columbus, OH); Veigel, Neil D. (Columbus, OH); Landrigan, Richard B. (Columbus, OH)

1983-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ghz water vapor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Chemical vapor deposition sciences  

SciTech Connect

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a widely used method for depositing thin films of a variety of materials. Applications of CVD range from the fabrication of microelectronic devices to the deposition of protective coatings. New CVD processes are increasingly complex, with stringent requirements that make it more difficult to commercialize them in a timely fashion. However, a clear understanding of the fundamental science underlying a CVD process, as expressed through computer models, can substantially shorten the time required for reactor and process development. Research scientists at Sandia use a wide range of experimental and theoretical techniques for investigating the science of CVD. Experimental tools include optical probes for gas-phase and surface processes, a range of surface analytic techniques, molecular beam methods for gas/surface kinetics, flow visualization techniques and state-of-the-art crystal growth reactors. The theoretical strategy uses a structured approach to describe the coupled gas-phase and gas-surface chemistry, fluid dynamics, heat and mass transfer of a CVD process. The software used to describe chemical reaction mechanisms is easily adapted to codes that model a variety of reactor geometries. Carefully chosen experiments provide critical information on the chemical species, gas temperatures and flows that are necessary for model development and validation. This brochure provides basic information on Sandia`s capabilities in the physical and chemical sciences of CVD and related materials processing technologies. It contains a brief description of the major scientific and technical capabilities of the CVD staff and facilities, and a brief discussion of the approach that the staff uses to advance the scientific understanding of CVD processes.

NONE

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

182

Optimization of multi-pressure himidification-dehumidification desalination using thermal vapor compression and hybridization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Humidification-dehumidification (HD or HDH) desalination, and specifically HD driven by a thermal vapor compressor (TVC), is a thermal desalination method that has the potential to produce potable water efficiently in order ...

Mistry, Karan Hemant

183

A continuous-wave second harmonic gyrotron oscillator at 460 GHz  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the short pulse and CW operation of a 460 GHz gyrotron oscillator both at the fundamental (near 230 GHz) and second harmonic (near 460 GHz) of electron cyclotron resonance. During operation in a complete CW regime ...

Hornstein, Melissa K. (Melissa Kristen), 1977-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Production of higher quality bio-oils by in-line esterification of pyrolysis vapor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The disclosure encompasses in-line reactive condensation processes via vapor phase esterification of bio-oil to decease reactive species concentration and water content in the oily phase of a two-phase oil, thereby increasing storage stability and heating value. Esterification of the bio-oil vapor occurs via the vapor phase contact and subsequent reaction of organic acids with ethanol during condensation results in the production of water and esters. The pyrolysis oil product can have an increased ester content and an increased stability when compared to a condensed pyrolysis oil product not treated with an atomized alcohol.

Hilten, Roger Norris; Das, Keshav; Kastner, James R; Bibens, Brian P

2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

185

The Vaporization Enthalpies and Vapor Pressures of Some Primary Amines of Pharmaceutical Importance by Correlation Gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by Correlation Gas Chromatography Chase Gobble, Nigam Rath, and James Chickos* Department of Chemistry Information ABSTRACT: Vapor pressures, vaporization, and sublimation enthalpies of several pharmaceuticals and boiling temperatures when available. Sublimation enthalpies and vapor pressures are also evaluated for 1

Chickos, James S.

186

Three-Phase Vapor?Liquid?Liquid Equilibria for Methane + n-Octane + Monoethylene Glycol + Water at Pressures from (3.1 to 15.0) MPa and Temperatures from (281 to 363) K  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

There are several commercial processes available for the dehydration of gas, such as the use of liquid or solid desiccants and expansion refrigeration. ... The gaseous part of the liquid samples, and the gas phase samples direct from the equilibrium cell, were expanded into a series of evacuated vessels of known volume from which the total amount of substance was determined from the perfect gas equation using the measured low-pressure PVT data. ... To predict the losses of MEG in processes for the dehydration of natural gas, the concentrations of MEG in the vapor phase are of interest to the gas industry. ...

Stanley J. Ashcroft; Gerd Brunner; Hansjörg Vollmer; Christopher W. Sweeney

2009-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

187

VAPORIZATION THERMODYNAMICS OF KCl. COMBINING VAPOR PRESSURE AND GRAVIMETRIC DATA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.B. Department of Chemistry, Moscow State University, Moscow, 119899, Russia Bonnell D.W., Hastie J.W. National temperature chemistry situations, vapor pressures are typically less than 100 kPa. The molar volume is p = 101325 Pa). The subscript trs denotes that the changeisfor a transition, typically sublimation

Rudnyi, Evgenii B.

188

EPR, Bell, GHZ, and Hardy theorems, and quantum mechanics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We review the theorems of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR), Bell, Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ), and Hardy, and present arguments supporting the idea that quantum mechanics is a complete, causal, non local, and non separable theory.

Miguel Socolovsky

2005-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

189

Water Management in A PEMFC: Water Transport Mechanism and Material  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water Management in A PEMFC: Water Transport Mechanism and Material Degradation in Gas Diffusion on the water management of the PEMFC, namely the transport of product water (both liquid and vapor its water management performance and func- tion as indicators of the degradation of GDL material

Kandlikar, Satish

190

Conduction-electron spin resonance in aluminum at 79 GHz  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Conduction-electron spin resonance in aluminum has been studied by the microwave transmission technique at 79 GHz over the temperature range 4-80 K. At low temperatures the g value and linewidth show the same type of anomalous temperature dependence as reported earlier at 35 GHz. At high temperatures, where the linewidth reflects the spin-flip scattering rate from thermal phonons, a strong and unexpected frequency dependence is observed with the linewidth being proportional to the applied frequency.

G. L. Dunifer and M. R. Pattison

1976-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Vacuum vapor deposition gun assembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A vapor deposition gun assembly includes a hollow body having a cylindrical outer surface and an end plate for holding an adjustable heat sink, a hot hollow cathode gun, two magnets for steering the plasma from the gun into a crucible on the heat sink, and a shutter for selectively covering and uncovering the crucible.

Zeren, Joseph D. (Boulder, CO)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

LNG Vaporizer Utilizing Vacuum Steam Condensing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This report concerns the field test results of a new type of peak-shaving LNG vaporizer (VSV) whose heat source is ... heat of vacuum steam to vaporize and superheat LNG within heat transfer tubes. Prior to the.....

Y. Miyata; M. Hanamure; H. Kujirai; Y. Sato…

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Running-Film Vaporizer for LNG  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Advances in welding technology and steel fabrication techniques have permitted the development of a new concept in cryogenic vaporizers—the running-film plate vaporizer. Although similar in heat transfer philosop...

H. H. West; G. L. Puckett

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Vapor Retarder Classification- Building America Top Innovation  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This Building America Innovations profile describes research in vapor retarders. Since 2006 the IRC has permitted Class III vapor retarders like latex paint (see list above) in all climate zones under certain conditions thanks to research by Building America teams.

195

Vapor phase modifiers for oxidative coupling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Volatilized metal compounds retard vapor phase alkane conversion reactions in oxidative coupling processes that convert lower alkanes to higher hydrocarbons.

Warren, Barbara K. (Charleston, WV)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Development of Nb{sub 3}Sn Cavity Vapor Diffusion Deposition System  

SciTech Connect

Nb{sub 3}Sn is a BCS superconductors with the superconducting critical temperature higher than that of niobium, so theoretically it surpasses the limitations of niobium in RF fields. The feasibility of technology has been demonstrated at 1.5 GHz with Nb{sub 3}Sn vapor deposition technique at Wuppertal University. The benefit at these frequencies is more pronounced at 4.2 K, where Nb{sub 3}Sn coated cavities show RF resistances an order of magnitude lower than that of niobium. At Jefferson Lab we started the development of Nb{sub 3}Sn vapor diffusion deposition system within an R\\&D development program towards compact light sources. Here we present the current progress of the system development.

Eremeev, Grigory V.; Macha, Kurt M.; Clemens, William A.; Park, HyeKyoung; Williams, R. Scott

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Vapor Pressures and Heats of Vaporization of Primary Coal Tars  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

/ PC92544-18 / PC92544-18 VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS FINAL REPORT Grant Dates: August, 1992 - November, 1996 Principal Authors: Eric M. Suuberg (PI) and Vahur Oja Report Submitted: April, 1997 Revised: July, 1997 Grant Number: DE-FG22-92PC92544 Report Submitted by: ERIC M. SUUBERG DIVISION OF ENGINEERING BROWN UNIVERSITY PROVIDENCE, RI 02912 TEL. (401) 863-1420 Prepared For: U. S. DEPT. OF ENERGY FEDERAL ENERGY TECHNOLOGY CENTER P.O. BOX 10940 PITTSBURGH, PA 15236 DR. KAMALENDU DAS, FETC, MORGANTOWN , WV TECHNICAL PROJECT OFFICER "US/DOE Patent Clearance is not required prior to the publication of this document" ii United States Government Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any

198

Drinking Water Problems: Benzene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

their water. Activated charcoal or granular activated carbon Cellulose fibers Unfiltered water inlet Filtered water outlet Carbon granules Cellulose fibers Cellulose fibers Figure 2: Granular activated carbon (GAC) filter (adapted from Parrott et al...). filters used to improve the taste or remove odor of the water also can remove some contaminants in water supplies. These filters are effective in removing vola- tile organic compounds which easily vaporize into the atmosphere under normal conditions...

Dozier, Monty; Lesikar, Bruce J.

2009-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

199

Vapor deposition of tantalum and tantalum compounds  

SciTech Connect

Tantalum, and many of its compounds, can be deposited as coatings with techniques ranging from pure, thermal chemical vapor deposition to pure physical vapor deposition. This review concentrates on chemical vapor deposition techniques. The paper takes a historical approach. The authors review classical, metal halide-based techniques and current techniques for tantalum chemical vapor deposition. The advantages and limitations of the techniques will be compared. The need for new lower temperature processes and hence new precursor chemicals will be examined and explained. In the last section, they add some speculation as to possible new, low-temperature precursors for tantalum chemical vapor deposition.

Trkula, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Div.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Means and method for vapor generation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid, in heat transfer contact with a surface heated to a temperature well above the vaporization temperature of the liquid, will undergo a multiphase (liquid-vapor) transformation from 0% vapor to 100% vapor. During this transition, the temperature driving force or heat flux and the coefficients of heat transfer across the fluid-solid interface, and the vapor percentage influence the type of heating of the fluid--starting as "feedwater" heating where no vapors are present, progressing to "nucleate" heating where vaporization begins and some vapors are present, and concluding with "film" heating where only vapors are present. Unstable heating between nucleate and film heating can occur, accompanied by possibly large and rapid temperature shifts in the structures. This invention provides for injecting into the region of potential unstable heating and proximate the heated surface superheated vapors in sufficient quantities operable to rapidly increase the vapor percentage of the multiphase mixture by perhaps 10-30% and thereby effectively shift the multiphase mixture beyond the unstable heating region and up to the stable film heating region.

Carlson, Larry W. (Oswego, IL)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ghz water vapor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

This project dealt with use of condensing heat exchangers to recover water vapor from flue gas at coal-fired power plants. Pilot-scale heat transfer tests were performed to determine the relationship between flue gas moisture concentration, heat exchanger design and operating conditions, and water vapor condensation rate. The tests also determined the extent to which the condensation processes for water and acid vapors in flue gas can be made to occur separately in different heat transfer sections. The results showed flue gas water vapor condensed in the low temperature region of the heat exchanger system, with water capture efficiencies depending strongly on flue gas moisture content, cooling water inlet temperature, heat exchanger design and flue gas and cooling water flow rates. Sulfuric acid vapor condensed in both the high temperature and low temperature regions of the heat transfer apparatus, while hydrochloric and nitric acid vapors condensed with the water vapor in the low temperature region. Measurements made of flue gas mercury concentrations upstream and downstream of the heat exchangers showed a significant reduction in flue gas mercury concentration within the heat exchangers. A theoretical heat and mass transfer model was developed for predicting rates of heat transfer and water vapor condensation and comparisons were made with pilot scale measurements. Analyses were also carried out to estimate how much flue gas moisture it would be practical to recover from boiler flue gas and the magnitude of the heat rate improvements which could be made by recovering sensible and latent heat from flue gas.

Edward Levy; Harun Bilirgen; Kwangkook Jeong; Michael Kessen; Christopher Samuelson; Christopher Whitcombe

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

202

Microwave interferometer using 94-GHz solid-state sources  

SciTech Connect

A 94-GHz microwave interferometer has been designed for the Tandem Mirror Experiment Upgrade and the Mirror Fusion Test Facility to replace the 140-GHz system. The new system is smaller and has modular single-channel units designed for high reliability. It is magnetically shielded and can be mounted close to the machine, which allows the use of lower power solid-state sources. Test results of the 94-GHz prototype indicate that the phase resolution is better than 1/sup 0/, the Impatt FM noise is 5 MHz wide, and the Gunn FM noise is 6 kHz wide. This paper presents the antenna designs along with the test results and discusses the unique problems associated with diagnosing a high electron temperature plasma in the presence of electron cyclotron resonant heating.

Coffield, F.E.; Thomas, S.R.; Lang, D.D.; Stever, R.D.

1983-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

203

Towards hard x-ray imaging at GHz frame rate  

SciTech Connect

Gigahertz (GHz) imaging using hard x-rays ( Greater-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 10 keV) can be useful to high-temperature plasma experiments, as well as research and applications using coherent photons from synchrotron radiation and x-ray free electron lasers. GHz framing rate can be achieved by using multiple cameras through multiplexing. The advantages and trade-offs of single-photon detection mode, when no more than one x-ray photon is detected per pixel, are given. Two possible paths towards x-ray imaging at GHz frame rates using a single camera are: (a) avalanche photodiode arrays of high-Z materials and (b) microchannel plate photomultipliers in conjunction with materials with large indices of refraction.

Wang Zhehui; Morris, C. L.; Kapustinsky, J. S.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Luo, S.-N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

204

Towards hard X-ray imaging at GHz frame rate  

SciTech Connect

Gigahertz (GHz) imaging using hard X-rays ({approx}> 10 keV) can be useful to high-temperature plasma experiments, as well as research using coherent photons from synchrotron radiation and X-ray free electron lasers. GHz framing rate can be achieved by using multiple cameras through multiplexing. The advantages and trade-offs of single-photon detection mode, when no more than one X-ray photon is detected per pixel, are given. Two possible paths towards X-ray imaging at GHz frame rates using a single camera are (a) Avalanche photodiode arrays of high-Z materials and (b) Microchannel plate photomultipliers in conjunction with materials with large indices of refraction.

Wang, Zhehui [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morris, Christopher [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Luo, Shengnian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kwiatkowski, Kris K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kapustinsky, Jon S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

205

Sustaining dry surfaces under water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Rough surfaces immersed under water remain practically dry if the liquid-solid contact is on roughness peaks, while the roughness valleys are filled with gas. Mechanisms that prevent water from invading the valleys are well studied. However, to remain practically dry under water, additional mechanisms need consideration. This is because trapped gas (e.g. air) in the roughness valleys can dissolve into the water pool, leading to invasion. Additionally, water vapor can also occupy the roughness valleys of immersed surfaces. If water vapor condenses, that too leads to invasion. These effects have not been investigated, and are critically important to maintain surfaces dry under water. In this work, we identify the critical roughness scale below which it is possible to sustain the vapor phase of water and/or trapped gases in roughness valleys - thus keeping the immersed surface dry. Theoretical predictions are consistent with molecular dynamics simulations and experiments.

Paul R. Jones; Xiuqing Hao; Eduardo R. Cruz-Chu; Konrad Rykaczewski; Krishanu Nandy; Thomas M. Schutzius; Kripa K. Varanasi; Constantine M. Megaridis; Jens H. Walther; Petros Koumoutsakos; Horacio D. Espinosa; Neelesh A. Patankar

2014-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

206

Non-Vapor Compression HVAC Technologies Report  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

While vapor-compression technologies have served heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) needs very effectively, and have been the dominant HVAC technology for close to 100 years, the conventional refrigerants used in vapor-compression equipment contribute to global climate change when released to the atmosphere. The Building Technologies Office is evaluating low-global warming potential (GWP) alternatives to vapor-compression technologies.

207

Carbon Nanotube GHz Nano-Resonator Shengdong Li1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon Nanotube GHz Nano-Resonator Shengdong Li1 , Zhen Yu1 , Sheng-Feng Yen1 , Peter J. Burke1 walled carbon nanotube. Both semiconducting and metallic nanotubes are measured. Using a semiconducting signal processing components based on carbon nanotubes. Index Terms -- Nanotechnology, Resonators, Tuning

Tang, William C

208

Mercury Vapor (Kooten, 1987) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mercury Vapor (Kooten, 1987) Mercury Vapor (Kooten, 1987) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor (Kooten, 1987) Exploration Activity Details Location Unspecified Exploration Technique Mercury Vapor Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Surface soil-mercury surveys are an inexpensive and useful exploration tool for geothermal resources. ---- Surface geochemical surveys for mercury were conducted in 16 areas in 1979-1981 by ARCO Oil and Gas Company as part of its geothermal evaluation program. Three techniques used together have proved satisfactory in evaluating surface mercury data. These are contouring, histograms and cumulative frequency plots of the data. Contouring geochemical data and constructing histograms are standard

209

Vapor phase modifiers for oxidative coupling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Volatilized metal compounds are described which are capable of retarding vapor phase alkane conversion reactions in oxidative coupling processes that convert lower alkanes to higher hydrocarbons.

Warren, B.K.

1991-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

210

Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (approximately 1100.degree.-1300.degree. C.) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20-50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

Brian, Riley (Willimantic, CT); Szreders, Bernard E. (Oakdale, CT)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (/approximately/1100/degree/ /minus/ 1300/degree/C) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20--50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

Riley, B.; Szreders, B.E.

1988-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

212

A simple grand canonical approach to compute the vapor pressure of bulk and finite size systems  

SciTech Connect

In this article we introduce a simple grand canonical screening (GCS) approach to accurately compute vapor pressures from molecular dynamics or Monte Carlo simulations. This procedure entails a screening of chemical potentials using a conventional grand canonical scheme, and therefore it is straightforward to implement for any kind of interface. The scheme is validated against data obtained from Gibbs ensemble simulations for water and argon. Then, it is applied to obtain the vapor pressure of the coarse-grained mW water model, and it is shown that the computed value is in excellent accord with the one formally deduced using statistical thermodynamics arguments. Finally, this methodology is used to calculate the vapor pressure of a water nanodroplet of 94 molecules. Interestingly, the result is in perfect agreement with the one predicted by the Kelvin equation for a homogeneous droplet of that size.

Factorovich, Matías H.; Scherlis, Damián A. [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Analítica y Química Física/INQUIMAE, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab. II, Buenos Aires C1428EHA (Argentina)] [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Analítica y Química Física/INQUIMAE, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab. II, Buenos Aires C1428EHA (Argentina); Molinero, Valeria [Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, 315 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112-0850 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, 315 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112-0850 (United States)

2014-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

213

Moisture Durability of Vapor Permeable Insulating Sheathing (Fact Sheet), Building America Case Study: Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Building Technologies Office (BTO)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES OFFICE BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES OFFICE Building America Case Study Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes Moisture Durability of Vapor Permeable Insulating Sheathing PROJECT INFORMATION Construction: Existing homes with vapor open wall assemblies Type: Residential Climate Zones: All PERFORMANCE DATA Insulation Ratio The R-value ratio of exterior to interior insulation (e.g., R-15 exterior insulation on R-11 cavity insulation has a ratio of 0.58). This variable controls sheathing temperature. Vapor Permeable Insulation An insulation with vapor permeance greater than five U.S. perms (e.g., rigid mineral fiber insulations). This variable controls water vapor flow and sheathing temperatures. Water Resisting Barrier A membrane that resists liquid water transfer. Permeable WRBs allow water

214

Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption  

SciTech Connect

A vapor sample detection method where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample.

Novick, Vincent J.; Johnson, Stanley A.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A vapor sample detection method is described where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample. 13 figs.

Novick, V.J.; Johnson, S.A.

1999-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

216

Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A vapor sample detection method where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample.

Novick, Vincent J. (Downers Grove, IL); Johnson, Stanley A. (Countryside, IL)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Making Maps from Planck LFI 30GHz Data with Asymmetric Beams and Cooler Noise  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

J. Ashdown et al. : Making Maps from Planck LFI 30GHz DataJ. Ashdown et al. : Making Maps from Planck LFI 30GHz Datain this study. The hit map is shown in the ecliptic (left)

Ashdown, M.A.J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Fault tolerant deterministic quantum communications using GHZ states over collective-noise channels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study proposes two new coding functions for a GHZ state and a GHZ-like state, respectively. Based on these coding functions, two fault tolerant deterministic quantum communication (DQC) protocols are proposed. Each of the new DQC's is robust under ... Keywords: Collective noise, Deterministic quantum communication, GHZ state, Quantum cryptography

Chun-Wei Yang; Chia-Wei Tsai; Tzonelih Hwang

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Quantitative organic vapor-particle sampler  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A quantitative organic vapor-particle sampler for sampling semi-volatile organic gases and particulate components. A semi-volatile organic reversible gas sorbent macroreticular resin agglomerates of randomly packed microspheres with the continuous porous structure of particles ranging in size between 0.05-10 .mu.m for use in an integrated diffusion vapor-particle sampler.

Gundel, Lara (Berkeley, CA); Daisey, Joan M. (Walnut Creek, CA); Stevens, Robert K. (Cary, NC)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Biomass Gasification in Supercritical Water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Biomass Gasification in Supercritical Water† ... A packed bed of carbon within the reactor catalyzed the gasification of these organic vapors in the water; consequently, the water effluent of the reactor was clean. ... A method for removing plugs from the reactor was developed and employed during an 8-h gasification run involving potato wastes. ...

Michael Jerry Antal, Jr.; Stephen Glen Allen; Deborah Schulman; Xiaodong Xu; Robert J. Divilio

2000-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ghz water vapor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Materials for freeform fabrication of GHz tunable dielectric photonic crystals.  

SciTech Connect

Photonic crystals are of interest for GHz transmission applications, including rapid switching, GHz filters, and phased-array technology. 3D fabrication by Robocasting enables moldless printing of high solid loading slurries into structures such as the ''woodpile'' structures used to fabricate dielectric photonic band gap crystals. In this work, tunable dielectric materials were developed and printed into woodpile structures via solid freeform fabrication (SFF) toward demonstration of tunable photonic crystals. Barium strontium titanate ceramics possess interesting electrical properties including high permittivity, low loss, and high tunability. This paper discusses the processing route and dielectric characterization of (BaxSr1-XTiO3):MgO ceramic composites, toward fabrication of tunable dielectric photonic band gap crystals.

Niehaus, Michael Keith; Lewis, Jennifer A. (University of Illinois, Urbana, IL); Smay, James Earl; Clem, Paul Gilbert; Lin, Shawn-Yu; Cesarano, Joseph, III (,; ); Carroll, James F.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Energy balance in laser-irradiated vaporizing droplets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The interactions of vaporizing aerosols with a high energy laser beam are analyzed in the diffusive vaporization regime. This is the regime in which diffusive mass transport and...

Zardecki, Andrew; Armstrong, Robert L

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Ground Gravity Survey At Cove Fort Area - Vapor (Warpinski, Et...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Vapor (Warpinski, Et Al., 2004) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Ground Gravity Survey At Cove Fort Area - Vapor (Warpinski, Et...

224

Hydrogen-Bond Acidic Polymers for Chemical Vapor Sensing. | EMSL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Acidic Polymers for Chemical Vapor Sensing. Hydrogen-Bond Acidic Polymers for Chemical Vapor Sensing. Abstract: A review with 171 references. Hydrogen-bond acidic polymers for...

225

Making Maps from Planck LFI 30GHz Data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper is one of a series describing the performance and accuracy of map-making codes as assessed by the Planck CTP working group. We compare the performance of multiple codes written by different groups for making polarized maps from Planck-sized, all-sky cosmic microwave background (CMB) data. Three of the codes are based on destriping algorithm, whereas the other three are implementations of a maximum-likelihood algorithm. Previous papers in the series described simulations at 100 GHz (Poutanen et al. 2006) and 217 GHz (Ashdown et al. 2006). In this paper we make maps (temperature and polarisation) from the simulated one-year observations of four 30 GHz detectors of Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI). We used Planck Level S simulation pipeline to produce the observed time-ordered-data streams (TOD). Our previous studies considered polarisation observations for the CMB only. For this paper we increased the realism of the simulations and included polarized galactic foregrounds to our sky model. Our simulated TODs comprised of dipole, CMB, diffuse galactic emissions, extragalactic radio sources, and detector noise. The strong subpixel signal gradients arising from the foreground signals couple to the output map through the map-making and cause an error (signal error) in the maps. Destriping codes have smaller signal error than the maximum-likelihood codes. We examined a number of schemes to reduce this error. On the other hand, the maximum-likelihood map-making codes can produce maps with lower residual noise than destriping codes.

M. A. J. Ashdown; C. Baccigalupi; A. Balbi; J. G. Bartlett; J. Borrill; C. Cantalupo; G. de Gasperis; K. M. Gorski; V. Heikkila; E. Hivon; E. Keihanen; H. Kurki-Suonio; C. R. Lawrence; P. Natoli; T. Poutanen; S. Prunet; M. Reinecke; R. Stompor; B. Wandelt

2007-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

226

Recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing vapors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Values are recovered from a hydrocarbon-containing vapor by contacting the vapor with quench liquid consisting essentially of hydrocarbons to form a condensate and a vapor residue, the condensate and quench fluid forming a combined liquid stream. The combined liquid stream is mixed with a viscosity-lowering liquid to form a mixed liquid having a viscosity lower than the viscosity of the combined liquid stream to permit easy handling of the combined liquid stream. The quench liquid is a cooled portion of the mixed liquid. Viscosity-lowering liquid is separated from a portion of the mixed liquid and cycled to form additional mixed liquid.

Mirza, Zia I. (La Verne, CA); Knell, Everett W. (Los Alamitos, CA); Winter, Bruce L. (Danville, CA)

1980-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

227

28 GHz Gyrotron and 4.6 GHz Klystron Heating Options for LDX P. P. Woskov1, A. C. Boxer1, J. L. Ellsworth1, D. T. Garnier2, J. Kesner1, M. E. Mauel2, P. C. Michael1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

magnetic configuration. Adding 28 GHz gyrotron and 4.6 GHz klystron electron cyclotron heating using cyclotron fundamental and harmonics. 28 GHz Gyrotron Heating 4.6 GHz Klystron Heating 100 mA B AB 10 cm i to the magnetic field. The heating beam would be directed at the fundamental and 2nd harmonic electron cyclotron

228

Cobalt Ultrathin Film Catalyzed Ethanol Chemical Vapor Deposition of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cobalt Ultrathin Film Catalyzed Ethanol Chemical Vapor Deposition of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWNTs) using a cobalt ultrathin film (1 nm) as the catalyst and ethanol as carbon feedstock flow during the growth. The trace amount of self-contained water (0.2-5 wt %) in ethanol may act

Hone, James

229

VAPOR COMPRESSION HEAT PUMP SYSTEM FIELD TESTS AT THE TECH COMPLEX  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

323 CHAPTER 17 VAPOR COMPRESSION HEAT PUMP SYSTEM FIELD TESTS AT THE TECH COMPLEX \\B E Van D for several novel and conventional heat pump systems for space conditioning and water heating. Systems tested include the Annual Cycle Energy System (ACES), solar assisted heat pumps (SAHP) both parallel and series

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

230

Aerogel composites using chemical vapor infiltration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Aerogel composites using chemical vapor infiltration Aerogel composites using chemical vapor infiltration Title Aerogel composites using chemical vapor infiltration Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 1995 Authors Hunt, Arlon J., Michael R. Ayers, and Wanqing Cao Journal Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids Volume 185 Pagination 227-232 Abstract A new method to produce novel composite materials based on the use of aerogels as a starting material is described. Using chemical vapor infiltration, a variety of solid materials were thermally deposited into the open pore structure of aerogel. The resulting materials possess new and unusual properties including photoluminescence, magnetism and altered optical properties. An important characteristic of this preparation process is the very small size of the deposits that gives rise to new behaviors. Silicon deposits exhibit photoluminescence, indicating quantum confinement. Two or more phases may be deposited simultaneously and one or both chemically or thermally reacted to produce new structures.

231

Chemical vapor deposition of functionalized isobenzofuran polymers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis develops a platform for deposition of polymer thin films that can be further tailored by chemical surface modification. First, we explore chemical vapor deposition of functionalized isobenzofuran films using ...

Olsson, Ylva Kristina

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Water mist injection in oil shale retorting  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Water mist is utilized to control the maximum temperature in an oil shale retort during processing. A mist of water droplets is generated and entrained in the combustion supporting gas flowing into the retort in order to distribute the liquid water droplets throughout the retort. The water droplets are vaporized in the retort in order to provide an efficient coolant for temperature control.

Galloway, T.R.; Lyczkowski, R.W.; Burnham, A.K.

1980-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

233

ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: Millimeter-wave (183  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Millimeter-wave (183 GHz) Radiometer for High Sensitivity Water Vapor Millimeter-wave (183 GHz) Radiometer for High Sensitivity Water Vapor Measurements at the North Slope of Alaska ARM Site Pazmany, Andrew ProSensing Inc. Funded by a Phase II DOE SBIR contract, ProSensing Inc. is developing a turn-key 183 GHz water vapor radiometer for measuring low concentrations of atmospheric water vapor and liquid water at the North Slope of Alaska ARM site during the dry winter months. The first prototype instrument measures brightness temperature at four double sideband channels centered 1, 3, 7 and 14 GHz from the 183.31 GHz water vapor resonance line. The combination of 0.1 K delta T measurement precision and less than 1 K accuracy integrated hot (~350 K) and warm (~300 K) calibration targets, is expected to result an absolute water vapor measurement accuracy of less than 0.1 mm

234

Viscosity of the Aqueous Liquid/Vapor Interfacial Region: 2D Electrochemical Measurements with a Piperidine Nitroxy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Viscosity of the Aqueous Liquid/Vapor Interfacial Region: 2D Electrochemical Measurements, and that it is coupled to the interfacial water via hydrogen bonding with H2O. In view of this postulate, the viscosity into the dynamic characteristics of aqueous interfaces. Thus, parameters such as the viscosity of water

Majda, Marcin

235

Analysis and design of the internal mass transfer in oxygen-hydrogen fuel cell with a capillary membrane and with convective drainage of vaporous reaction products  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The mechanism of mass transfer is analyzed by which water vapor drains convectively from an electrode-condenser system in a fuel cell with a capillary membrane. The problem of optimizing the mass-transfer para...

V. N. Serebryakov; M. V. Mel'nikov; V. S. Ovchinnikov…

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

30 GHz Zeno-based Graphene Electro-optic Modulator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Graphene has generated exceptional interest as an optoelectronic material because its high carrier mobility and broadband absorption promise to make extremely fast and broadband electro-optic devices possible. Electro-optic graphene modulators reported to date, however, have been limited in bandwidth to a few GHz because of the large capacitance required to achieve reasonable voltage swings. Here we demonstrate a graphene electro-optic modulator based on the classical Zeno effect that shows drastically increased speed and efficiency. Our device operates with a 30 GHz bandwidth, over an order of magnitude faster than prior work, and a state-of-the-art modulation efficiency of 1.5 dB/V. We also show the first high-speed large-signal operation in a graphene modulator, paving the way for fast digital communications using this platform. The modulator uniquely uses silicon nitride waveguides, an otherwise completely passive material platform, with promising applications for ultra-low-loss broadband structures and n...

Phare, Christopher T; Cardenas, Jaime; Lipson, Michal

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Modeling Results for Proposed NSTX 28 GHz and EBWH System  

SciTech Connect

A 28 GHz electron cyclotron heating (ECH) and electron Bernstein wave heating (EBWH) system has been proposed for installation on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). A 350 kW gyrotron connected to a fixed horn antenna is proposed for ECH-assisted solenoid-free plasma startup. Modeling predicts strong first pass on-axis EC absorption, even for low electron temperature, Te ~ 20 eV, Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI) startup plasmas. ECH will heat the CHI plasma to Te ~ 300 eV, providing a suitable target plasma for 30 MHz high-harmonic fast wave heating. A second gyrotron and steered O-X-B mirror launcher is proposed for EBWH experiments. Radiometric measurements of thermal EBW emission detected via B-X-O coupling on NSTX support implementation of the proposed system. 80% B-X-O coupling efficiency was measured in L-mode plasmas and 60% B-X-O coupling efficiency was recently measured in H-mode plasmas conditioned with evaporated lithium. Modeling predicts local on-axis EBW heating and current drive using 28 GHz power in ? ~ 20% NSTX plasmas should be possible, with current drive efficiencies ~ 40 kA/MW.

Taylor, G; Ellis, R A; Fredd, E; Greenough, N; Hosea, J C; Wilgen, J B; Harvey, R W; Smirnov, A P; Preinhaelter, J; Urban, J

2008-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

238

Vapor Pressures and Vaporization, Sublimation, and Fusion Enthalpies of Some Fatty Acids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Vapor Pressures and Vaporization, Sublimation, and Fusion Enthalpies of Some Fatty Acids Joe A. Wilson and James S. Chickos* Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of MissouriSt. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri 63121, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Sublimation enthalpies

Chickos, James S.

239

Vapor Pressures and Vaporization Enthalpies of a Series of Dialkyl Phthalates by Correlation Gas Chromatography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chromatography Chase Gobble and James Chickos* Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry University of Missouri-St. Louis, St. Louis Missouri 63121, United States Sergey P. Verevkin Department of Physical Chemistry: Experimental vapor pressures, vaporization, fusion and sublimation enthalpies of a number of dialkyl

Chickos, James S.

240

EXAMINING THE SPECTROSCOPY OF WATER VAPOR IN THE ATMOSPHERE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Compare to relative humidity probe Describes VCSEL accuracy #12;FLOW DILUTION SYSTEM Critical Orifice

Petta, Jason

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ghz water vapor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Adsorption Equilibrium and Kinetics of Water Vapor on Different Adsorbents  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The zeolite sample presented the highest capacity at low relative pressures, while at pressures near saturation the higher amount adsorbed was obtained on the alumina sample. ... adsorption on nonporous and porous adsorbents, considering: (1) selection of equations relating in a general way the thermodynamic characteristics of a system taking into account the adsorbate-adsorbent and adsorbate-adsorbate interactions; (2) the use of these equations in deriving from the exptl. ...

Ana M. Ribeiro; Ticiane P. Sauer; Carlos A. Grande; Regina F. P. M. Moreira; José M. Loureiro; Alírio E. Rodrigues

2008-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

242

Desalination of water by vapor transport through hydrophobic nanopores  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Although Reverse osmosis (RO) is the state-of-the-art desalination technology, it still suffers from persistent drawbacks including low permeate flux, low selectivity for non-ionic species, and lack of resistance to chlorine. ...

Lee, Jongho, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Moisture burst structure in satellite water vapor imagery  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-season satellite data over the eastern Pacific Ocean, Schroeder (1983) found that about 78% of the local severe weather outbreaks over North America were related to the interaction of a moisture burst with an extratropical weather system. He hypothesized... that the severe weather outbreak was due to the broad zone of upper tropospheric divergence between the polar jet and STJ, and the large momentum t ansport by the STJ which altered the midlatitude circulation. 12 CHAPTER III DATA A. Satellite Imagery...

Ulsh, David Joel

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

244

Balance of atmospheric water vapor over the Gulf of Mexico  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

082 130 I. ake Charles, Louisiana II, III 396 171 Burrwood, Louisiana 550 250 Merida, Mexico 640 305 Burrwood, Louisiana 320 177 17 f = 10. 2 qV n n' (20a) and f = 10. 2 qV t t (20b) The units are gm/sec-m-mb, and the constant value... expressions:1 n t. f = 10. 2 q V n n' (2la) and f =102qV (21b) As can be seen, these values were dep ndent upon the monthly-averaged specific humidi ty, q, and the monthly-averaged wind components, V n and V as determined previously. 1 ~11 t. ~d fl...

Hughes, Ralph Morgan

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

245

Vapor characterization of Tank 241-C-103  

SciTech Connect

The Westinghouse Hanford Company Tank Vapor Issue Resolution Program has developed, in cooperation with Northwest Instrument Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratory, the equipment and expertise to characterize gases and vapors in the high-level radioactive waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site in south central Washington State. This capability has been demonstrated by the characterization of the tank 241-C-103 headspace. This tank headspace is the first, and for many reasons is expected to be the most problematic, that will be characterized (Osborne 1992). Results from the most recent and comprehensive sampling event, sample job 7B, are presented for the purpose of providing scientific bases for resolution of vapor issues associated with tank 241-C-103. This report is based on the work of Clauss et al. 1994, Jenkins et al. 1994, Ligotke et al. 1994, Mahon et al. 1994, and Rasmussen and Einfeld 1994. No attempt has been made in this report to evaluate the implications of the data presented, such as the potential impact of headspace gases and vapors to tank farm workers health. That and other issues will be addressed elsewhere. Key to the resolution of worker health issues is the quantitation of compounds of toxicological concern. The Toxicology Review Panel, a panel of Pacific Northwest Laboratory experts in various areas, of toxicology, has chosen 19 previously identified compounds as being of potential toxicological concern. During sample job 7B, the sampling and analytical methodology was validated for this preliminary list of compounds of toxicological concern. Validation was performed according to guidance provided by the Tank Vapor Conference Committee, a group of analytical chemists from academic institutions and national laboratories assembled and commissioned by the Tank Vapor Issue Resolution Program.

Huckaby, J.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Story, M.S. [Northwest Instrument Systems, Inc. Richland, WA (United States)

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Thermal electric vapor trap arrangement and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A technique for trapping vapor within a section of a tube is disclosed herein. This technique utilizes a conventional, readily providable thermal electric device having a hot side and a cold side and means for powering the device to accomplish this. The cold side of this device is positioned sufficiently close to a predetermined section of the tube and is made sufficiently cold so that any condensable vapor passing through the predetermined tube section is condensed and trapped, preferably within the predetermined tube section itself. 4 figs.

Alger, T.

1988-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

247

Diode pumped alkali vapor fiber laser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus is provided for producing near-diffraction-limited laser light, or amplifying near-diffraction-limited light, in diode pumped alkali vapor photonic-band-gap fiber lasers or amplifiers. Laser light is both substantially generated and propagated in an alkali gas instead of a solid, allowing the nonlinear and damage limitations of conventional solid core fibers to be circumvented. Alkali vapor is introduced into the center hole of a photonic-band-gap fiber, which can then be pumped with light from a pump laser and operated as an oscillator with a seed beam, or can be configured as an amplifier.

Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA); Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA); Dawson, Jay W. (Livermore, CA); Krupke, William F. (Pleasanton, CA)

2006-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

248

Diode pumped alkali vapor fiber laser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus is provided for producing near-diffraction-limited laser light, or amplifying near-diffraction-limited light, in diode pumped alkali vapor photonic-band-gap fiber lasers or amplifiers. Laser light is both substantially generated and propagated in an alkali gas instead of a solid, allowing the nonlinear and damage limitations of conventional solid core fibers to be circumvented. Alkali vapor is introduced into the center hole of a photonic-band-gap fiber, which can then be pumped with light from a pump laser and operated as an oscillator with a seed beam, or can be configured as an amplifier.

Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA); Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA); Dawson, Jay W. (Livermore, CA); Krupke, William F. (Pleasanton, CA)

2007-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

249

Method of physical vapor deposition of metal oxides on semiconductors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for growing a metal oxide thin film upon a semiconductor surface with a physical vapor deposition technique in a high-vacuum environment and a structure formed with the process involves the steps of heating the semiconductor surface and introducing hydrogen gas into the high-vacuum environment to develop conditions at the semiconductor surface which are favorable for growing the desired metal oxide upon the semiconductor surface yet is unfavorable for the formation of any native oxides upon the semiconductor. More specifically, the temperature of the semiconductor surface and the ratio of hydrogen partial pressure to water pressure within the vacuum environment are high enough to render the formation of native oxides on the semiconductor surface thermodynamically unstable yet are not so high that the formation of the desired metal oxide on the semiconductor surface is thermodynamically unstable. Having established these conditions, constituent atoms of the metal oxide to be deposited upon the semiconductor surface are directed toward the surface of the semiconductor by a physical vapor deposition technique so that the atoms come to rest upon the semiconductor surface as a thin film of metal oxide with no native oxide at the semiconductor surface/thin film interface. An example of a structure formed by this method includes an epitaxial thin film of (001)-oriented CeO.sub.2 overlying a substrate of (001) Ge.

Norton, David P. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Optoelectronic Oscillators and Their Applications to 60-GHz Fiber-Fed  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optoelectronic Oscillators and Their Applications to 60-GHz Fiber-Fed Wireless Systems Kwang;Optoelectronic Oscillators and Their Applications to 60-GHz Fiber-Fed Wireless Systems by Kwang-Hyun Lee-1-2. Oscillator phase noise limited by resonator's Q.............................4 1-2. Optoelectronic oscillators

Choi, Woo-Young

251

Sub-GHz UWB Biomedical Communication Mark Stoopman and Wouter A. Serdijn  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sub-GHz UWB Biomedical Communication Mark Stoopman and Wouter A. Serdijn Biomedical Electronics and lower power consuming wireless link compared to other biomedical communications today. An operating to the conventional 50 interface. Index Terms--Sub-GHz, UWB, biomedical, wireless commu- nication, implantable

Serdijn, Wouter A.

252

Final report on the project entitled "The Effects of Disturbance & Climate on Carbon Storage & the Exchanges of CO2 Water Vapor & Energy Exchange of Evergreen Coniferous Forests in the Pacific Northwest: Integration of Eddy Flux, Plant and Soil Measurements at a Cluster of Supersites"  

SciTech Connect

This is the final technical report containing a summary of all findings with regard to the following objectives of the project: (1) To quantify and understand the effects of wildfire on carbon storage and the exchanges of energy, CO2, and water vapor in a chronosequence of ponderosa pine (disturbance gradient); (2) To investigate the effects of seasonal and interannual variation in climate on carbon storage and the exchanges of energy, CO2, and water vapor in mature conifer forests in two climate zones: mesic 40-yr old Douglas-fir and semi-arid 60-yr old ponderosa pine (climate gradient); (3) To reduce uncertainty in estimates of CO2 feedbacks to the atmosphere by providing an improved model formulation for existing biosphere-atmosphere models; and (4) To provide high quality data for AmeriFlux and the NACP on micrometeorology, meteorology, and biology of these systems. Objective (1): A study integrating satellite remote sensing, AmeriFlux data, and field surveys in a simulation modeling framework estimated that the pyrogenic carbon emissions, tree mortality, and net carbon exchange associated with four large wildfires that burned ~50,000 hectares in 2002-2003 were equivalent to 2.4% of Oregon statewide anthropogenic carbon emissions over the same two-year period. Most emissions were from the combustion of the forest floor and understory vegetation, and only about 1% of live tree mass was combusted on average. Objective (2): A study of multi-year flux records across a chronosequence of ponderosa pine forests yielded that the net carbon uptake is over three times greater at a mature pine forest compared with young pine. The larger leaf area and wetter and cooler soils of the mature forest mainly caused this effect. A study analyzing seven years of carbon and water dynamics showed that interannual and seasonal variability of net carbon exchange was primarily related to variability in growing season length, which was a linear function of plant-available soil moisture in spring and early summer. A multi-year drought (2001-2003) led to a significant reduction of net ecosystem exchange due to carry-over effects in soil moisture and carbohydrate reserves in plant-tissue. In the same forest, the interannual variability in the rate carbon is lost from the soil and forest floor is considerable and related to the variability in tree growth as much as it is to variability in soil climatic conditions. Objective (3): Flux data from the mature ponderosa pine site support a physical basis for filtering nighttime data with friction velocity above the canopy. An analysis of wind fields and heat transport in the subcanopy at the mesic 40-year old Douglas site yielded that the non-linear structure and behavior of spatial temperature gradients and the flow field require enhanced sensor networks to estimate advective fluxes in the subcanopy of forest to close the surface energy balance in forests. Reliable estimates for flux uncertainties are needed to improve model validation and data assimilation in process-based carbon models, inverse modeling studies and model-data synthesis, where the uncertainties may be as important as the fluxes themselves. An analysis of the time scale dependence of the random and flux sampling error yielded that the additional flux obtained by increasing the perturbation timescale beyond about 10 minutes is dominated by random sampling error, and therefore little confidence can be placed in its value. Artificial correlation between gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) and ecosystem respiration (Re) is a consequence of flux partitioning of eddy covariance flux data when GEP is computed as the difference between NEE and computed daytime Re (e.g. using nighttime Re extrapolated into daytime using soil or air temperatures). Tower-data must be adequately spatially averaged before comparison to gridded model output as the time variability of both is inherently different. The eddy-covariance data collected at the mature ponderosa pine site and the mesic Douglas fir site were used to develop and evaluate a new method to extra

Beverly E. Law (PI), Christoph K. Thomas (CoI)

2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

253

Advancing Explosives Detection Capabilities: Vapor Detection  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

A new, PNNL-developed method provides direct, real-time detection of trace amounts of explosives such as RDX, PETN and C-4. The method selectively ionizes a sample before passing the sample through a mass spectrometer to detect explosive vapors. The method could be used at airports to improve aviation security.

Atkinson, David

2014-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

254

Program performs vapor-liquid equilibrium calculations  

SciTech Connect

A program designed for the Hewlett-Packard HP-41CV or 41C calculators solves basic vapor-liquid equilibrium problems, including figuring the dewpoint, bubblepoint, and equilibrium flash. The algorithm uses W.C. Edmister's method for predicting ideal-solution K values.

Rice, V.L.

1982-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

255

Synchroton X-Ray Studies of Liquid-Vapor Interfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The variation of density across the liquid-vapor interface from essentially zero density far out in the vapor phase to a homogeneous density deep in the liquid phase can be determined by X-ray reflectivity mea...

J. Als-Nielsen

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Vapor intrusion modeling : limitations, improvements, and value of information analyses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Vapor intrusion is the migration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a subsurface source into the indoor air of an overlying building. Vapor intrusion models, including the Johnson and Ettinger (J&E) model, can be ...

Friscia, Jessica M. (Jessica Marie)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

OPTIMIZATION OF INJECTION INTO VAPOR-DOMINATED GEOTHERMAL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

given by U.S. Department of Energy, Geothermal Division. #12;vii Table of Contents ABSTRACTOPTIMIZATION OF INJECTION INTO VAPOR-DOMINATED GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIRS CONSIDERING ADSORPTION governing the behavior of vapor- dominated geothermal reservoirs. These mechanisms affect both

Stanford University

258

ASHRAE Transactions: Research 3 A steady-state simulation model for a water-to-water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ASHRAE Transactions: Research 3 ABSTRACT A steady-state simulation model for a water Reciprocating vapor compression heat pumps and chill- ers have been the target of a number of simulation models

259

Water Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cooling: Cooling: Water cooling is commonly defined as a method of using water as a heat conduction to remove heat from an object, machine, or other substance by passing cold water over or through it. In energy generation, water cooling is typically used to cool steam back into water so it can be used again in the generation process. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Water Cooling Typical water cooled condenser used for condensing steam Water or liquid cooling is the most efficient cooling method and requires the smallest footprint when cold water is readily available. When used in power generation the steam/vapor that exits the turbine is condensed back into water and reused by means of a heat exchanger. Water cooling requires a water resource that is cold enough to bring steam, typically

260

Advanced Membrane Systems: Recovering Wasteful and Hazardous Fuel Vapors at the Gasoline Tank  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Case study covering Compact Membrane Systems, Inc. and its membrane vapor processor that recovers fuel vapors from gasoline refueling.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ghz water vapor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Testing maser-based evolutionary schemes: A new search for 37.7-GHz methanol masers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have used the Australia Telescope National Facility Mopra 22-m antenna to search for 37.7-GHz (7(-2) - 8(-1}E) methanol masers towards a sample of thirty six class II methanol masers. The target sources are the most luminous class II methanol masers not previously searched for this transition, with isotropic peak 12.2-GHz maser luminosity greater than 250 Jy/kpc^2 and isotropic peak 6.7-GHz maser luminosity greater than 800 Jy/kpc^2. Seven new 37.7-GHz methanol masers were detected as a result of the search. The detection rate for 37.7-GHz methanol masers towards a complete sample of all such class II methanol maser sites south of declination -20 deg is at least 30 percent. The relatively high detection rate for this rare methanol transition is in line with previous predictions that the 37.7-GHz transition is associated with a late stage of the class II methanol maser phase of high-mass star formation. We find that there is a modest correlation between the ratio of the 6.7- and 37.7-GHz maser peak intensit...

Ellingsen, S P; Voronkov, M A; Dawson, J R

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Precision micro drilling with copper vapor lasers  

SciTech Connect

The authors have developed a copper vapor laser based micro machining system using advanced beam quality control and precision wavefront tilting technologies. Micro drilling has been demonstrated through percussion drilling and trepanning using this system. With a 30 W copper vapor laser running at multi-kHz pulse repetition frequency, straight parallel holes with size varying from 500 microns to less than 25 microns and with aspect ratio up to 1:40 have been consistently drilled on a variety of metals with good quality. For precision trepanned holes, the hole-to-hole size variation is typically within 1% of its diameter. Hole entrance and exit are both well defined with dimension error less than a few microns. Materialography of sectioned holes shows little (sub-micron scale) recast layer and heat affected zone with surface roughness within 1--2 microns.

Chang, J.J.; Martinez, M.W.; Warner, B.E.; Dragon, E.P.; Huete, G.; Solarski, M.E.

1994-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

263

Identification and quantification of components in ternary vapor mixtures using a microcantilever sensor array and a neural network  

SciTech Connect

We report the experimental details on the successful application of the electronic nose approach to identify and quantify components in ternary vapor mixtures. Preliminary results have recently been presented [L. A. Pinnaduwage et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 044105 (2007)]. Our microelectromechanical-system-based electronic nose is composed of a microcantilever sensor array with seven individual sensors used for vapor detection and an artificial neural network for pattern recognition. A set of custom vapor generators generated reproducible vapor mixtures in different compositions for training and testing of the neural network. The sensor array was selected to be capable of generating different response patterns to mixtures with different component proportions. Therefore, once the electronic nose was trained by using the response patterns to various compositions of the mixture, it was able to predict the composition of 'unknown' mixtures. We have studied two vapor systems: one included the nerve gas simulant dimethylmethyl phosphonate at ppb concentrations and water and ethanol at ppm concentrations; the other system included acetone, water, and ethanol all of which were at ppm concentrations. In both systems, individual, binary, and ternary mixtures were analyzed with good reproducibility.

Zhao, W [Triton Systems, Inc.; Pinnaduwage, Lal A [ORNL; Leis, J. W. [University of Southern Queensland; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL; Allman, Steve L [ORNL; Shepp, A. [Triton Systems, Inc.; Mahmud, K. [Triton Systems, Inc.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Desalination Using Vapor-Compression Distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The ability to produce potable water economically is the primary purpose of seawater desalination research. Reverse osmosis (RO) and multi-stage flash (MSF) cost more than potable water produced from fresh water resources. As an alternative to RO...

Lubis, Mirna R.

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

265

The Strongest 100 Point Radio Sources in the LMC at 1.4 GHz  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the 100 strongest 1.4 GHz point sources from a new mosaic image in the direction of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). The observations making up the mosaic were made over a ten year period and were combined with Parkes single dish data at 1.4 GHz to complete the image for short spacing. An initial list of co-identifications within 10" at 0.843, 4.8 and 8.6 GHz consisted of 2682 sources. Elimination of extended objects and artifact noise allowed the creation of a refined list containing 1988 point sources. Most of these are presumed to be background objects seen through the LMC; a small portion may represent compact H II regions, young SNRs and radio planetary nebulae. We find an average spectral index of -0.53 and present a 1.4 GHz image showing source location in the direction of the LMC.

Payne, J L; Filipovic, M D; Crawford, E J; De Horta, A Y

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Theoretical and experimental study of 2.45 GHz rectifying antennas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis presents a study on 2.45 GHz rectifying antennas (rectennas). The rectenna is a major component in a microwave power transmission system. The main feature is the conversion efficiency from microwave power to direct current (DC) power...

McSpadden, James Oliver

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

267

A Novel Technique Enabling the Realisation of 60 GHz Body Area Networks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents a novel technique to enable over-body propagation at 60 GHz. A flexible material has been created that enables the propagation of surface waves around the body without the need of repeaters, high powers or high gain antennas. The ... Keywords: Surface wave, metamaterial, propagation, Zenneck wave, on-body propagation, personal area network, body area network, wireless technologies, mHealth, mobile health, 60 GHz

Janice E. Turner; Michael S. Jessup; Kin-Fai Tong

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

CONDENSATION As noted previously, heat energy imparted to water as it  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CONDENSATION As noted previously, heat energy imparted to water as it evaporates is returned to liquid water as vapor condenses. During low tide, the rate of evaporation typically exceeds the rate

Brody, James P.

269

ARM - Instrument - gvr  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govInstrumentsgvr govInstrumentsgvr Documentation GVR : Handbook GVR : Instrument Mentor Monthly Summary (IMMS) reports GVR : Data Quality Assessment (DQA) reports ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Instrument : G-band (183 GHz) Vapor Radiometer (GVR) Instrument Categories Radiometric Picture of the G-band (183 GHz) Vapor Radiometer (GVR) Picture of the G-band (183 GHz) Vapor Radiometer (GVR) General Overview The G-Band Vapor Radiometer (GVR) provides time-series measurements of brightness temperatures from four double sideband channels centered at ±1, ±3, ±7, and ±14 GHz around the 183.31-GHz water vapor line. Atmospheric emission in this spectral region is primarily due to water vapor, with some

270

Vapor port and groundwater sampling well  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus has been developed for combining groundwater monitoring wells with unsaturated-zone vapor sampling ports. The apparatus allows concurrent monitoring of both the unsaturated and the saturated zone from the same well at contaminated areas. The innovative well design allows for concurrent sampling of groundwater and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the vadose (unsaturated) zone from a single well, saving considerable time and money. The sample tubes are banded to the outer well casing during installation of the well casing.

Hubbell, Joel M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wylie, Allan H. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Chemical vapor deposition of epitaxial silicon  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A single chamber continuous chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactor is described for depositing continuously on flat substrates, for example, epitaxial layers of semiconductor materials. The single chamber reactor is formed into three separate zones by baffles or tubes carrying chemical source material and a carrier gas in one gas stream and hydrogen gas in the other stream without interaction while the wafers are heated to deposition temperature. Diffusion of the two gas streams on heated wafers effects the epitaxial deposition in the intermediate zone and the wafers are cooled in the final zone by coolant gases. A CVD reactor for batch processing is also described embodying the deposition principles of the continuous reactor.

Berkman, Samuel (Florham Park, NJ)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Storing images in warm atomic vapor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reversible and coherent storage of light in atomic medium is a key-stone of future quantum information applications. In this work, arbitrary two-dimensional images are slowed and stored in warm atomic vapor for up to 30 $\\mu$s, utilizing electromagnetically induced transparency. Both the intensity and the phase patterns of the optical field are maintained. The main limitation on the storage resolution and duration is found to be the diffusion of atoms. A techniqueanalogous to phase-shift lithography is employed to diminish the effect of diffusion on the visibility of the reconstructed image.

M. Shuker; O. Firstenberg; R. Pugatch; A. Ron; N. Davidson

2008-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

273

Reading Comprehension - The Water Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Water Cycle The Water Cycle Evaporation, Condensation and Precipitation The _________ moon sun water clouds evaporates _________ fish oceans rain water from lakes and oceans. As the air rises, it cools. The water vapor condenses into tiny droplets of _________ evaporation clouds water sunshine . The droplets crowd together and form a _________ cloud lake storm precipitation . Wind blows the _________ rain sun droplet cloud towards the land. The tiny droplets join together and fall as precipitation to the _________ river lake ground cloud . The water soaks into the ground and collects in _________ rivers and lakes oceans and clouds jars and cups plants and animals . The _________ storm cycle river house that never ends has started again! A water cycle diagram. Use the diagram to identify the different parts of the water cycle:

274

Recovery of benzene in an organic vapor monitor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

solid adsorbents available (silica gel, activated alumina, etc. ), activated charcoal is most frequently utilized. Activated charcoal has retentivity for sorbed vapors several times that of silica gel and it displays a selectivity for organic vapors... (diffusion rate) of the vapor molecules to the sur- face of the adsorbent. The adsorption process determine how effective the adsorbent collects and holds the contam- inant on the surface of the activated charcoal. Recovery of the contaminant from...

Krenek, Gregory Joel

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

275

Mercury Vapor At Haleakala Volcano Area (Thomas, 1986) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mercury Vapor At Haleakala Volcano Area (Thomas, 1986) Mercury Vapor At Haleakala Volcano Area (Thomas, 1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Haleakala Volcano Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity Details Location Haleakala Volcano Area Exploration Technique Mercury Vapor Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes The field survey program on the northwest rift zone consisted of soil mercury and radon emanometry surveys, groundwater temperature and chemistry studies, Schlumberger resistivity soundings and self-potential profiles. Geophysical and geochemical surveys along this rift (southwest) were limited by difficult field conditions and access limitations. The geophysical program consisted of one Schlumberger sounding, one

276

Mercury Vapor At Vale Hot Springs Area (Varekamp & Buseck, 1983...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Vale Hot Springs Area (Varekamp & Buseck, 1983) Exploration Activity Details...

277

Mercury Vapor At Breitenbush Hot Springs Area (Varekamp & Buseck...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Breitenbush Hot Springs Area (Varekamp & Buseck, 1983) Exploration Activity...

278

Mercury Vapor At Mickey Hot Springs Area (Varekamp & Buseck,...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Mickey Hot Springs Area (Varekamp & Buseck, 1983) Exploration Activity...

279

Mercury Vapor At Desert Peak Area (Varekamp & Buseck, 1983) ...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Desert Peak Area (Varekamp & Buseck, 1983) Exploration Activity Details...

280

Mercury Vapor At Socorro Mountain Area (Kooten, 1987) | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Socorro Mountain Area (Kooten, 1987) Exploration Activity Details Location...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ghz water vapor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Mercury Vapor At Lassen Volcanic National Park Area (Varekamp...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Lassen Volcanic National Park Area (Varekamp & Buseck, 1983) Exploration...

282

Thermal Performance of a Double-Tube Type Lng Vaporizer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This report concerns the confirmed test results and method of analysis of the thermal performance of a double-tube type LNG vaporizer (DTV). The DTV is a...

Y. Miyata; T. Miura; S. Kasahara; H. Shohtani…

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Optimal Control of Vapor Extraction of Heavy Oil.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Vapor extraction (Vapex) process is an emerging technology for viscous oil recovery that has gained much attention in the oil industry. However, the oil production… (more)

Muhamad, Hameed (Author)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Geographic Information System At Cove Fort Area - Vapor (Nash...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geographic Information System At Cove Fort Area - Vapor (Nash, Et Al., 2002) Exploration Activity Details...

285

Thermal Gradient Holes At Cove Fort Area - Vapor (Warpinski,...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Warpinski, Et Al., 2004) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Cove Fort Area - Vapor (Warpinski, Et Al.,...

286

Ground Magnetics At Cove Fort Area - Vapor (Warpinski, Et Al...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Vapor (Warpinski, Et Al., 2004) Exploration Activity Details Location Cove Fort Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Ground Magnetics Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding...

287

Spray structures and vaporizing characteristics of a GDI fuel spray  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The spray structures and distribution characteristics of liquid and vapor phases in non-evaporating and evaporating Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) fuel sprays were investigated using Laser Induced...

Dong-Seok Choi; Gyung-Min Choi; Duck-Jool Kim

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

The influence of ice nucleation mode and ice vapor growth on simulation of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The influence of ice nucleation mode and ice vapor growth on simulation of The influence of ice nucleation mode and ice vapor growth on simulation of arctic mixed-phase clouds Avramov, Alexander The Pennsylvania State University Category: Modeling Mixed-phase arctic stratus clouds are the predominant cloud type in the Arctic . Perhaps one of the most intriguing of their features is that they tend to have liquid tops that precipitate ice. Despite the fact that this situation is colloidally unstable, these cloud systems are quite long lived - from a few days to over a couple of weeks. Previous studies have suggested that this longevity may be due to a paucity of ice nucleating aerosols (ice nuclei, or IN) in the Arctic. Such studies have shown that small changes in IN concentrations can cause large changes in the amount of liquid water within a mixed-phase stratus deck. We use the Regional

289

Salinity Gradient Power: Utilizing Vapor Pressure Differences  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...for re-verse electrodialysis (6). The difficulties...desalination, salt water is evaporated in...for their reverse electrodialysis model, in which...dissolved in the water: power is needed...chamber. Chemical treatment for sus-pended...reversing the fresh water and the brine in...

MARK OLSSON; GERALD L. WICK; JOHN D. ISAACS

1979-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

290

Vapor and gas sampling of Single-Shell Tank 241-T-111 using the vapor sampling system  

SciTech Connect

This document presents sampling data resulting from the January 20, 1995, sampling of SST 241-T-111 using the vapor sampling system.

Caprio, G.S.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Vapor and gas sampling of single-shell tank 241-BY-112 using the vapor sampling system  

SciTech Connect

This document presents sampling data from the November 18, 1994, sampling of SST 241-BY-112 using the vapor sampling system.

Caprio, G.S.

1995-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

292

A 250 GHz Survey of High Redshift QSOs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present observations at 250 GHz (1.2 mm), 43 GHz, and 1.4 GHz of a sample of 41 QSOs at z > 3.7 found in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We detect 16 sources with a 250 GHz flux density greater than 1.4 mJy. The combination of centimeter and millimeter wavelength observations indicates that the 250 GHz emission is most likely thermal dust emission. Assuming a dust temperature of 50 K, the implied dust masses for the 16 detected sources are in the range 1.5e8 to 5.9e8 Msun, and the dust emitting regions are likely to be larger than 1 kpc in extent. The radio-through-optical spectral energy distributions for these sources are within the broad range defined by lower redshift, lower optical luminosity QSOs. We consider possible dust heating mechanisms, including UV emission from the active nucleus (AGN) and a starburst concurrent with the AGN, with implied star formation rates between 500 and 2000 Msun/year.

Carilli, C L; Rupen, M P; Fan, X; Strauss, M A; Menten, K M; Kreysa, E; Schneider, D P; Bertarini, A; Yun, M S; Zylka, R; Fan, Xiaohui; Strauss, Michael A.; Schneider, Donald P.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Water quality Water quantity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

01-1 · Water quality · Water quantity · Remediation strategies MinE 422: Water Resources: Younger, Banwart and Hedin. 2002. Mine Water. Hydrology, Pollution, Remediation. Impacts of mining on water mining ­ Often the largest long term issue ­ Water quality affected, surface/ground water pollution

Boisvert, Jeff

294

Water quality Water quantity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

· Water quality · Water quantity · Remediation strategies MinE 422: Water Resources: Younger, Banwart and Hedin. 2002. Mine Water. Hydrology, Pollution, Remediation. Impacts of mining on water mining ­ Often the largest long term issue ­ Water quality affected, surface/ground water pollution

Boisvert, Jeff

295

Informal Report . VAPOR DETECTION OF TRAFFICKING OF CONTRABAND MONEY-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I BNL- 62834 Informal Report . VAPOR DETECTION OF TRAFFICKING OF CONTRABAND MONEY-· [D VAPOR DETECTION OF TRAFFICKING OF CONTRABAND MONEY- A DISCUSSION OF TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY Concept MONEY --A DISCUSSION OF TECHNICAL FEASffiILITY Russell N. Dietz, Head Tracer Technology Center

296

RESONANT FARADAY ROTATION IN A HOT LITHIUM VAPOR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

RESONANT FARADAY ROTATION IN A HOT LITHIUM VAPOR By SCOTT RUSSELL WAITUKAITIS A Thesis Submitted: #12;Abstract I describe a study of Faraday rotation in a hot lithium vapor. I begin by dis- cussing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.3 The Lithium Oven and Solenoid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3 Theoretical Framework

Cronin, Alex D.

297

Treating process wastewater employing vacuum distillation using mechanical vapor recompression  

SciTech Connect

Process wastewater has been successfully treated using an enhanced variable vacuum distillation system (VVDS). The removal of contaminants is achieved initially by degassing the liquid under an intense vacuum which removes the volatile organic compounds. The resulting liquid is then distilled under a vacuum using mechanical vapor recompression. The system was invented by Derald McCabe. This innovative treatment system removes virtually all of the contaminants, such as TSS, TDS, BOD{sub 5}, COD, heavy metals and mineral compounds. The resultant aqueous portion normally returns to a neutral pH. Due to the unique system operation, scaling problems (often encountered in conventional distillation) have not been detected in this system. The VVDS is extremely energy efficiency because the heat for distillation is generated and recycled mechanically. Using electricity as the energy source, the approximate operating cost, based on $0.05 KWH, may vary from $0.005 to $0.01 per gallon depending on the size and capacity of the equipment. Based on applications in waste streams performed to-date, the VVDS process has yielded a distilled water stream and the concentrated solids have been used as a byproduct or as a concentrated non-dischargeable waste for disposal.

McCabe, D.L. [Brandt, Houston, TX (United States)] [Brandt, Houston, TX (United States); Vivona, M.A. [ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., Houston, TX (United States). Water and Wastewater Dept.] [ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., Houston, TX (United States). Water and Wastewater Dept.

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Results of a new OCTOPUS'' ECR ion source at 6. 4 GHz  

SciTech Connect

The first OCTOPUS electron cyclstron resonance (ECR) multicharged heavy ion source was built in 1985 at the Centre de Recherches du Cyclotron of the University of Louvain (Belgium). This first source used an ECR frequency of 14.3 GHz in the injector stage and 8.5 GHz in the main confinement stage. A new OCTOPUS source has now been built for a new cyclotron to be installed at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). The design of this new OCTOPUS source is identical to the first OCTOPUS source, but uses an ECR frequency of 6.4 GHz in the main confinement stage. The experimental results are described, and a comparison is made between the two sources. However, the available data does not allow any clear conclusion to be drawn on frequency scaling.

Dupont, C.; Jongen, Y. (IBA, Chemin du Cyclotron,2, B-1348 Louvain 1a Neuve, Belgium (BE)); Arakawa, K.; Yokota, W. (JAERI, Takasaki, (Japan)); Satoh, T.; Tachikawa, T. (Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Tokyo, (Japan))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

FLAMMABILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF COMBUSTIBLE GASES AND VAPORS  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Bulletin 627 Bulletin 627 BUREAU o b MINES FLAMMABILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF COMBUSTIBLE GASES AND VAPORS By Michael G. Zabetakis DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency Thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement,

300

New Regenerative Cycle for Vapor Compression Refrigeration  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

SCIENTIFIC REPORT SCIENTIFIC REPORT Title Page Project Title: New Regenerative Cycle for Vapor Compression Refrigeration DOE Award Number: DE-FG36-04GO14327 Document Title: Final Scientific Report Period Covered by Report: September 30, 2004 to September 30, 2005 Name and Address of Recipient Organization: Magnetic Development, Inc., 68 Winterhill Road, Madison, CT 06443, phone: 203-214-7247, fax: 203-421-7948, e-mail: mjb1000@aol.com Contact Information: Mark J. Bergander, Ph.D., P.E., Principal Investigator, phone: 203-214-7247, fax: 203-421-7948, e-mail: mjb1000@aol.com Project Objective (as stated in the proposal): The main objective of this project is to confirm on a well-instrumented prototype the theoretically derived claims of higher efficiency and coefficient

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ghz water vapor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Chemical vapor deposition of group IIIB metals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Coatings of Group IIIB metals and compounds thereof are formed by chemical vapor deposition, in which a heat decomposable organometallic compound of the formula given in the patent where M is a Group IIIB metal, such as lanthanum or yttrium and R is a lower alkyl or alkenyl radical containing from 2 to about 6 carbon atoms, with a heated substrate which is above the decomposition temperature of the organometallic compound. The pure metal is obtained when the compound of the formula 1 is the sole heat decomposable compound present and deposition is carried out under nonoxidizing conditions. Intermetallic compounds such as lanthanum telluride can be deposited from a lanthanum compound of formula 1 and a heat decomposable tellurium compound under nonoxidizing conditions.

Erbil, A.

1989-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

302

Kinetics of wet sodium vapor complex plasma  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we have investigated the kinetics of wet (partially condensed) Sodium vapor, which comprises of electrons, ions, neutral atoms, and Sodium droplets (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated by light. The formulation includes the balance of charge over the droplets, number balance of the plasma constituents, and energy balance of the electrons. In order to evaluate the droplet charge, a phenomenon for de-charging of the droplets, viz., evaporation of positive Sodium ions from the surface has been considered in addition to electron emission and electron/ion accretion. The analysis has been utilized to evaluate the steady state parameters of such complex plasmas (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated; the results have been graphically illustrated. As a significant outcome irradiated, Sodium droplets are seen to acquire large positive potential, with consequent enhancement in the electron density.

Mishra, S. K., E-mail: nishfeb@rediffmail.com [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Sodha, M. S. [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)] [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

303

Photo-Electric Ionization of Caesium Vapor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Measurement of photo-electric ionization in gases.—The current from a filament, normally limited by space change, is increased by the presence of positive ions. As shown by Kingdon this effect may be greatly magnified if a small cathode is practically enclosed by the anode so that the ions are imprisoned. This method was used for the detection of photo-electric ionization. Besides possessing extreme sensitivity it is unaffected by photo-electric emission from the electrodes.Photo-electric effect in caesium vapor.—The change in thermionic current with the unresolved radiation from a mercury arc was measured as functions of the applied voltage, filament temperature, and vapor pressure. Then the photo-electric effect as a function of wave-length was studied using a monochromatic illuminator to disperse light from the arc or a Mazda lamp. The ionization per unit flux was found to increase with increasing wave-length to a sharp maximum at the limit 1s=3184A of the principal series, as is required by the Bohr theory. For longer wave-lengths the ionization decreased to about 10 percent at 3400A. Photo-excitation. The simple theory does not admit of ionization by wave-lengths greater than 3184A but the data are in qualitative agreement with the hypothesis that such radiation produces excited atoms which upon collision with other atoms acquire sufficient additional energy to become ionized. Hence, unlike an x-ray limit, the photo-ionization effect for a valence electron is not sharply discontinuous at the true threshold for direct ionization.Photo-ionization photometer and intensitometer. A tube of the type described, with suitable gases for the range of wave-length involved, may be used as a photometer or may be calibrated to measure intensity of radiation directly.

Paul D. Foote and F. L. Mohler

1925-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Gas Separation Using Organic-Vapor-Resistent Membranes In Conjunctin With Organic-Vapor-Selective Membranes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for treating a gas mixture containing at least an organic compound gas or vapor and a second gas, such as natural gas, refinery off-gas or air. The process uses two sequential membrane separation steps, one using membrane selective for the organic compound over the second gas, the other selective for the second gas over the organic vapor. The second-gas-selective membranes use a selective layer made from a polymer having repeating units of a fluorinated polymer, and demonstrate good resistance to plasticization by the organic components in the gas mixture under treatment, and good recovery after exposure to liquid aromatic hydrocarbons. The membrane steps can be combined in either order.

Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA); Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA); He, Zhenjie (Fremont, CA); Da Costa, Andre R. (Menlo Park, CA); Daniels, Ramin (San Jose, CA); Amo, Karl D. (Mountain View, CA); Wijmans, Johannes G. (Menlo Park, CA)

2003-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

305

Hybrid Vapor Compression Adsorption System: Thermal Storage Using Hybrid Vapor Compression Adsorption System  

SciTech Connect

HEATS Project: UTRC is developing a new climate-control system for EVs that uses a hybrid vapor compression adsorption system with thermal energy storage. The targeted, closed system will use energy during the battery-charging step to recharge the thermal storage, and it will use minimal power to provide cooling or heating to the cabin during a drive cycle. The team will use a unique approach of absorbing a refrigerant on a metal salt, which will create a lightweight, high-energy-density refrigerant. This unique working pair can operate indefinitely as a traditional vapor compression heat pump using electrical energy, if desired. The project will deliver a hot-and-cold battery that provides comfort to the passengers using minimal power, substantially extending the driving range of EVs.

None

2012-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

306

Measurement of Total Water with a Tunable Diode Laser Hygrometer: Inlet Analysis, Calibration Procedure, and Ice Water Content Determination  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The University of Colorado closed-path tunable diode laser hygrometer (CLH), a new instrument for the in situ measurement of enhanced total water (eTW, the sum of water vapor and condensed water enhanced by a subisokinetic inlet), has recently ...

Sean M. Davis; A. Gannet Hallar; Linnea M. Avallone; William Engblom

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

E-Print Network 3.0 - atomic vapor laser Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

with the exception of pagination. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE 1 Summary: vapor, atomic physics and vapor ionization, absorption reflection in a heated plasma layer, and...

308

E-Print Network 3.0 - atom vapor cells Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

rotation in the vapor cell due to inten- sity-induced birefringence in the rubidium atomic vapor. While... Super efficient absorption filter for quantum memory using atomic...

309

HYDROGEN ISOTOPE RECOVERY USING PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE ELECTROLYSIS OF WATER  

SciTech Connect

A critical component of tritium glovebox operations is the recovery of high value tritium from the water vapor in the glove box atmosphere. One proposed method to improve existing tritium recovery systems is to replace the disposable hot magnesium beds used to separate the hydrogen and oxygen in water with continuous use Proton Exchange Membrane Electrolyzers (PEMEs). This study examines radiation exposure to the membrane of a PEME and examines the sizing difference that would be needed if the electrolyzer were operated with a cathode water vapor feed instead of an anode liquid water feed.

Fox, E; Scott Greenway, S; Amy Ekechukwu, A

2007-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

310

Improving the Thermal Output Availability of Reciprocating Engine Cogeneration Systems by Mechanical Vapor Compression  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LOW?PRESSURE I WASTE STEAM r ... IMPROVING THE THERMAL OUTPUT AVAILABILITY OF RECIPROCATING ENGINE COGENERATION SYSTEMS BY MECHANICAL VAPOR COMPRESSION F.E. Becker and F.A. DiBella Tecogen, Inc., a Subsidiary of Thermo El~ctron Corporation...-user with electric power and process heat that is totally in the form of high-pressure steam. Current recipro cating engine systems can now provide only low pressure steam or hot water from the engine jacket, and this often is not needed or not the most appro...

Becker, F. E.; DiBella, F. A.; Lamphere, F.

311

Density Profiles of Liquid/Vapor Interfaces Away from Their Critical Point  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We examine the applicability of various model profiles for the liquid/vapor interface by X-ray reflectivities on water and ethanol and their mixtures at room temperature. Analysis of the X-ray reflecivities using various density profiles shows an error-function like profile is the most adequate within experimental error. Our finding, together with recent observations from simulation studies on liquid surfaces, strongly suggest that the capillary-wave dynamics shapes the interfacial density profile in terms of the error function.

Wei Bu; Doseok Kim; David Vaknin

2014-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

312

Superheated water drops in hot oil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Drops of water at room temperature were released in hot oil, which had a temperature higher than that of the boiling point of water. Initially, the drop temperature increases slowly mainly due to heat transfer diffusion; convective heat transfer is small because the motion takes place at a small Reynolds number. Once the drop reaches the bottom of the container, it sticks to the surface with a certain contact angle. Then, a part of the drop vaporizes: the nucleation point may appear at the wall, the interface or the bulk of the drop. The vapor expands inside the drop and deforms its interface. The way in which the vapor expands, either smooth or violent, depends on the location of the nucleation point and oil temperature. Furthermore, for temperatures close to the boiling point of water, the drops are stable (overheated); the vaporization does not occur spontaneously but it may be triggered with an external perturbation. In this case the growth of the vapor bubble is rather violent. Many visualization for dif...

Soto, Enrique; Belmonte, Andrew

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Analysis of cloud layer structure in Shouxian, China using RS92 radiosonde aided by 95 GHz cloud radar  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Analysis of cloud layer structure in Shouxian, China using RS92 radiosonde aided by 95 GHz cloud to analyze cloud vertical structure over this area by taking advantage of the first direct measurements of cloud vertical layers from the 95 GHz radar. Singlelayer, twolayer, and threelayer clouds account for 28

Li, Zhanqing

314

High-Frequency (140-GHz) Time Domain EPR and ENDOR Spectroscopy: The Tyrosyl Radical-Diiron Cofactor in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High-Frequency (140-GHz) Time Domain EPR and ENDOR Spectroscopy: The Tyrosyl Radical EPR and ENDOR have been employed to characterize the tyrosyl radical (Y·)-diiron cofactor in the Y2 of 140-GHz time domain EPR and ENDOR to examine this system and demonstrates the capabilities

Griffin, Robert G.

315

Preliminary assessment of halogenated alkanes as vapor-phase tracers  

SciTech Connect

New tracers are needed to evaluate the efficiency of injection strategies in vapor-dominated environments. One group of compounds that seems to meet the requirements for vapor-phase tracing are the halogenated alkanes (HCFCs). HCFCs are generally nontoxic, and extrapolation of tabulated thermodynamic data indicate that they will be thermally stable and nonreactive in a geothermal environment. The solubilities and stabilities of these compounds, which form several homologous series, vary according to the substituent ratios of fluorine, chlorine, and hydrogen. Laboratory and field tests that will further define the suitability of HCFCs as vapor-phase tracers are under way.

Adams, Michael C.; Moore, Joseph N.; Hirtz, Paul

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Mercury Vapor At Medicine Lake Area (Kooten, 1987) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Kooten, 1987) Kooten, 1987) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Medicine Lake Area (Kooten, 1987) Exploration Activity Details Location Medicine Lake Area Exploration Technique Mercury Vapor Activity Date Usefulness could be useful with more improvements DOE-funding Unknown References Gerald K. Van Kooten (1987) Geothermal Exploration Using Surface Mercury Geochemistry Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Mercury_Vapor_At_Medicine_Lake_Area_(Kooten,_1987)&oldid=386431" Category: Exploration Activities What links here Related changes Special pages Printable version Permanent link Browse properties 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load) Throttled (bot load) Guru Meditation:

317

Generation of 20 GHz, sub-40 fs pulses at 960 nm via repetition-rate multiplication  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Generation of 20 GHz, sub-40 fs pulses at 960 nm via repetition-rate multiplication M. S. Kirchner of Physics, University of Colorado, 2000 Colorado Avenue, Boulder, Colorado 80309, USA 2 National Institute­Pérot cavity in a double-pass configuration provides a broad cavity coupling bandwidth / 10% and large

Purdue University

318

Planning of Low-Cost 77-GHz Radar Transceivers for Automotive Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Moghavvemi University ofMalaya INTRODUCTION The use of electronics in the automotive industry will reach (orPlanning of Low-Cost 77-GHz Radar Transceivers for Automotive Applications H. Ameri, A. Attaran & M the position and speed as with other components used in the automotive industry, radars will find widespread

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

319

BEHAVIOUR OF A HIGHLY PRESSURISED TANK OF GHz, SUBMITTED TO A THERMAL OR MECHANICAL IMPACT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2000-41 BEHAVIOUR OF A HIGHLY PRESSURISED TANK OF GHz, SUBMITTED TO A THERMAL OR MECHANICAL IMPACT will significantly reduce the volume of the necessary tank(s). Whatever this pressure and whatever the volume of the tank(s), the storage System must be designed in such a way that the consequences of an accident

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

320

Physics design of a 28 GHz electron heating system for the National Spherical Torus experiment upgrade  

SciTech Connect

A megawatt-level, 28 GHz electron heating system is being designed to support non-inductive (NI) plasma current (I{sub p}) start-up and local heating and current drive (CD) in H-mode discharges in the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U). The development of fully NI I{sub p} start-up and ramp-up is an important goal of the NSTXU research program. 28 GHz electron cyclotron (EC) heating is predicted to rapidly increase the central electron temperature (T{sub e}(0)) of low density NI plasmas generated by Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI). The increased T{sub e}(0) will significantly reduce the I{sub p} decay rate of CHI plasmas, allowing the coupling of fast wave heating and neutral beam injection. Also 28 GHz electron Bernstein wave (EBW) heating and CD can be used during the I{sub p} flat top in NSTX-U discharges when the plasma is overdense. Ray tracing and Fokker-Planck numerical simulation codes have been used to model EC and EBW heating and CD in NSTX-U. This paper presents a pre-conceptual design for the 28 GHz heating system and some of the results from the numerical simulations.

Taylor, G.; Bertelli, N.; Ellis, R. A.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Hosea, J. C.; Poli, F. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Harvey, R. W. [CompX, Del Mar, California 92014 (United States); Raman, R. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Smirnov, A. P. [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2014-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ghz water vapor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Status of KSTAR 170 GHz, 1 MW Electron Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive System  

SciTech Connect

A 170 GHz Electron Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (ECH/CD) system on KSTAR is designed to launch total 2.4 MW of power for up to 300 sec into the plasma. At present the first 1 MW ECH/CD system is under installation and commissioning for 2011 KSTAR campaign. The 170 GHz, 1 MW, 300 sec gyrotron and the matching optics unit (MOU) will be provided from JAEA under collaboration between NFRI and JAEA. The transmission line consists of MOU and 70 m long 63.5 mm ID corrugated waveguides with the eight miter bends. The 1 MW, 10 sec launcher is developed based on the existing two-mirror front-end launcher in collaboration with Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory and Pohang University of Science and Technology, and is installed on the low field side in the KSTAR equatorial plane. The mirror pivot is located at 30 cm below from the equatorial plane. 3.6 MVA power supply system is manufactured and now is under commissioning to meet the triode gun operation of JAEA gyrotron. The power supply consists of 66 kV/55 A cathode power supply, mode-anode system, and 50 kV/160 mA body power supply. In this paper, the current status of KSTAR 170 GHz, 1 MW ECH/CD system will be presented as well as the experimental plan utilizing 170 GHz new ECH/CD system.

Joung, M.; Bae, Y. S.; Jeong, J. H.; Park, S.; Kim, H. J.; Yang, H. L. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, H.; Cho, M. H.; Namkung, W. [Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Hosea, J.; Ellis, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton (United States); Sakamoto, K.; Kajiwara, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki (Japan); Doane, J. [General Atomics, San Diego (United States)

2011-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

322

Physics Design of a 28 GHz Electron Heating System for the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade  

SciTech Connect

A megawatt-level, 28 GHz electron heating system is being designed to support non-inductive (NI) plasma current (I{sub p}) start-up and local heating and current drive (CD) in H-mode discharges in the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U). The development of fully NI I{sub p} start-up and ramp-up is an important goal of the NSTX-U research program. 28 GHz electron cyclotron (EC) heating is predicted to rapidly increase the central electron temperature (T{sub e}(0)) of low density NI plasmas generated by Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI). The increased T{sub e}(0) will significantly reduce the Ip decay rate of CHI plasmas, allowing the coupling of fast wave heating and neutral beam injection. Also 28 GHz electron Bernstein wave (EBW) heating and CD can be used during the I{sub p} flat top in NSTX-U discharges when the plasma is overdense. Ray tracing and Fokker-Planck numerical simulation codes have been used to model EC and EBW heating and CD in NSTX-U. This paper presents a pre-conceptual design for the 28 GHz heating system and some of the results from the numerical simulations.

none,

2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

323

A 5-WATT, 37-GHz MONOLITHIC GRID AMPLIFIER Blythe Deckman1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the fabricated active grid. Thermal Management Previous grid amplifiers lacked a heat spreader, so Figure 1A 5-WATT, 37-GHz MONOLITHIC GRID AMPLIFIER Blythe Deckman1 , Donald S. Deakin, Jr.2 , Emilio Sovero has been demonstrated. The area of the grid am- plifier is 1 cm2, and there are 512 transistors

324

Catalytic Reactor For Oxidizing Mercury Vapor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A catalytic reactor (10) for oxidizing elemental mercury contained in flue gas is provided. The catalyst reactor (10) comprises within a flue gas conduit a perforated corona discharge plate (30a, b) having a plurality of through openings (33) and a plurality of projecting corona discharge electrodes (31); a perforated electrode plate (40a, b, c) having a plurality of through openings (43) axially aligned with the through openings (33) of the perforated corona discharge plate (30a, b) displaced from and opposing the tips of the corona discharge electrodes (31); and a catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) overlaying that face of the perforated electrode plate (40a, b, c) opposing the tips of the corona discharge electrodes (31). A uniformly distributed corona discharge plasma (1000) is intermittently generated between the plurality of corona discharge electrode tips (31) and the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) when a stream of flue gas is passed through the conduit. During those periods when corona discharge (1000) is not being generated, the catalyst molecules of the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) adsorb mercury vapor contained in the passing flue gas. During those periods when corona discharge (1000) is being generated, ions and active radicals contained in the generated corona discharge plasma (1000) desorb the mercury from the catalyst molecules of the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d), oxidizing the mercury in virtually simultaneous manner. The desorption process regenerates and activates the catalyst member molecules.

Helfritch, Dennis J. (Baltimore, MD)

1998-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

325

Laser techniques for studying chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is widely used to produce thin films for microelectronics, protective coatings and other materials processing applications. Despite the large number of applications, however, little is known about the fundamental chemistry and physics of most CVD processes. CVD recipes have generally been determined empirically, but as process requirements become more stringent, a more basic understanding will be needed to improve reactor design and speed process optimization. In situ measurements of the reacting gas are important steps toward gaining such an understanding, both from the standpoint of characterizing the reactor and testing models of a CVD process. Our work, a coordinated program of experimental and theoretical research in the fundamental mechanisms of CVD, illustrates the application of laser techniques to the understanding of a CVD system. We have used a number of laser-based techniques to probe CVD systems and have compared our measurements with predictions from computer models, primarily for the silane CVD system. The silane CVD model solves the two-dimensional, steady-state boundary layer equations of fluid flow coupled to 26 elementary chemical reactions describing the thermal decomposition of silane and the subsequent reactions of intermediate species that result in the deposition of a silicon film.

Ho, P.; Breiland, W.G.; Coltrin, M.E.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Water, water everywhere  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... available water resources, either locally or globally, are by no means exhausted. At present desalination -- the removal of salt from sea water or brackish water -- is very ... or brackish water -- is very expensive, mainly because it consumes so much energy. Desalination provides less than 0.2 per cent of all the water used in the world ...

Philip Ball

2000-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

327

Thermodynamic formalism of water uptakes on solid porous adsorbents for adsorption cooling applications  

SciTech Connect

This Letter presents a thermodynamic formulation to calculate the amount of water vapor uptakes on various adsorbents such as zeolites, metal organic frameworks, and silica gel for the development of an advanced adsorption chiller. This formalism is developed from the rigor of the partition distribution function of each water vapor adsorptive site on adsorbents and the condensation approximation of adsorptive water molecules and is validated with experimental data. An interesting and useful finding has been established that the proposed model is thermodynamically connected with the pore structures of adsorbent materials, and the water vapor uptake highly depends on the isosteric heat of adsorption at zero surface coverage and the adsorptive sites of the adsorbent materials. Employing the proposed model, the thermodynamic trends of water vapor uptakes on various adsorbents can be estimated.

Sun, Baichuan; Chakraborty, Anutosh, E-mail: AChakraborty@ntu.edu.sg [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

2014-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

328

Initiated chemical vapor deposition of functional polyacrylic thin films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) was explored as a novel method for synthesis of functional polyacrylic thin films. The process introduces a peroxide initiator, which can be decomposed at low temperatures (<200?C) ...

Mao, Yu, 1975-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Low Level Heat Recovery Through Heat Pumps and Vapor Recompression  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The intent of this paper is to examine the methods and economics of recovering low level heat through heat pumps and vapor recompression. Actual commercially available equipment is considered to determine the near-term and future economic viability...

Gilbert, J.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Applications of Mechanical Vapor Recompression to Evaporation and Crystallization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

there is no boiler plant available or when electrical power is priced competitively in comparison to steam. Vapor recompression is accomplished using centrifugal, axial-flow, or positive displacement compressors and these compressors can be powered by electricity...

Outland, J. S.

331

Enabling integration of vapor-deposited polymer thin films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Initiated Chemical Vapor Deposition (iCVD) is a versatile, one-step process for synthesizing conformal and functional polymer thin films on a variety of substrates. This thesis emphasizes the development of tools to further ...

Petruczok, Christy D. (Christy Danielle)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Hyperfine Studies of Lithium Vapor using Saturated Absorption Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the frequency of a laser with respect to an atomic spectral feature.[20] As such, saturated absorptionHyperfine Studies of Lithium Vapor using Saturated Absorption Spectroscopy? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 3.3 Broadening Mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 3.4 Saturated Absorption

Cronin, Alex D.

333

All graphene electromechanical switch fabricated by chemical vapor deposition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We demonstrate an electromechanical switch comprising two polycrystalline graphene films; each deposited using ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition. The top film is pulled into electrical contact with the bottom film ...

Milaninia, Kaveh M.

334

Systems and methods for generation of hydrogen peroxide vapor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system according to one embodiment includes a moisture trap for drying air; at least one of a first container and a second container; and a mechanism for at least one of: bubbling dried air from the moisture trap through a hydrogen peroxide solution in the first container for producing a hydrogen peroxide vapor, and passing dried air from the moisture trap into a headspace above a hydrogen peroxide solution in the second container for producing a hydrogen peroxide vapor. A method according one embodiment includes at least one of bubbling dried air through a hydrogen peroxide solution in a container for producing a first hydrogen peroxide vapor, and passing dried air from the moisture trap into a headspace above the hydrogen peroxide solution in a container for producing a second hydrogen peroxide vapor. Additional systems and methods are also presented.

Love, Adam H; Eckels, Joel Del; Vu, Alexander K; Alcaraz, Armando; Reynolds, John G

2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

335

Optical Precursors in Rubidium Vapor and Their Relation to Superradiance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optical precursor is the sharp optical pulse front that does not show delay in absorptive media. In this thesis, optical precursor behavior in rubidium (Rb) vapor was investigated in the picoseconds regime. An amplified femtosecond laser was shaped...

Yang, Wenlong

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

336

Mercury Vapor At Kawaihae Area (Thomas, 1986) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mercury Vapor At Kawaihae Area (Thomas, 1986) Mercury Vapor At Kawaihae Area (Thomas, 1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Kawaihae Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity Details Location Kawaihae Area Exploration Technique Mercury Vapor Activity Date Usefulness not useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes The soil geochemistry yielded quite complex patterns of mercury concentrations and radonemanation rates within the survey area (Cox and Cuff, 1981c). Mercury concentrations (Fig. 38) showed a general minimum along the Kawaihae-Waimea roads and a broad trend of increasing mercury concentrations toward both the north and south. There is no correlation apparent between the mercury patterns and either the resistivity sounding data or the surface geology in the area. The radon emanometry data (Fig.

337

Mercury Vapor At Lualualei Valley Area (Thomas, 1986) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mercury Vapor At Lualualei Valley Area (Thomas, 1986) Mercury Vapor At Lualualei Valley Area (Thomas, 1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Lualualei Valley Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity Details Location Lualualei Valley Area Exploration Technique Mercury Vapor Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Soil mercury and radon emanation surveys were performed over much of the accessible surface of Lualualei Valley (Cox and Thomas, 1979). The results of these surveys (Figs 7 and 8) delineated several areas in which soil mercury concentrations or radon emanation rates were substantially above normal background values. Some of these areas were apparently coincident with the mapped fracture systems associated with the caldera boundaries.

338

Advanced Chemical Heat Pumps Using Liquid-Vapor Reactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ically feasible systems have significant potential advantage over conventional tech nology. An electric drive reactive heat pump can use smaller heat exchangers and compressor than a vapor-compression machine, and have more flexible operating... are discussed, and performance is bounded. A discussion on liquid-vapor equilibria is included as introduction to the systems I- considered. The electric drive heat pump and TA are promising systems; the TA has potential for higher COP than absorption...

Kirol, L.

339

D/sup -/ production by charge transfer in metal vapors  

SciTech Connect

Fast D/sup -/ ions can be produced from D/sup +/ by multiple charge-transfer collisions in a metal-vapor target. Experimental cross sections and thick-target D/sup -/ yields are presented and discussed. The high D/sup -/ yield experimentally observed from charge transfer in cesium vapor is consistent with recent low-energy cross-section calculations and measurements.

Schlachter, A.S.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Injection locked oscillator system for pulsed metal vapor lasers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An injection locked oscillator system for pulsed metal vapor lasers is disclosed. The invention includes the combination of a seeding oscillator with an injection locked oscillator (ILO) for improving the quality, particularly the intensity, of an output laser beam pulse. The present invention includes means for matching the first seeder laser pulses from the seeding oscillator to second laser pulses of a metal vapor laser to improve the quality, and particularly the intensity, of the output laser beam pulse.

Warner, Bruce E. (Livermore, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Dublin, CA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ghz water vapor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Water Resources Water Quality and Water Treatment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water Resources TD 603 Lecture 1: Water Quality and Water Treatment CTARA Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay 2nd November, 2011 #12;OVERVIEW Water Quality WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TRE OVERVIEW OF THE LECTURE 1. Water Distribution Schemes Hand Pump

Sohoni, Milind

342

Tank 241-S-102 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in March 1995  

SciTech Connect

Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

Huckaby, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bratzel, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

343

The growth of vapor bubble and relaxation between two-phase bubble flow  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents the behavior of the bubble growth and relaxation between vapor and superheated...

S. Mohammadein; Rama Subba Reddy Gorla

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Geothermal/Water Use | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Water Use Water Use < Geothermal(Redirected from Water Use) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Land Use Leasing Exploration Well Field Power Plant Transmission Environment Water Use Print PDF Geothermal Water Use General Regulatory Roadmap The Geysers in northern California is the world's largest producer of geothermal power. The dry-steam field has successfully produced power since the early 1960s when Pacific Gas & Electric installed the first 11-megawatt plant. The dry steam plant consumes water by emitting water vapor into the atmosphere. Geothermal power production utilizes water in two major ways: The first method, which is inevitable in geothermal production, uses hot water from an underground reservoir to power the facility. The second is using water for cooling (for some plants only).

345

Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Annual status report for FY 1996  

SciTech Connect

In Fiscal Year 1996, staff at the Vapor Analytical Laboratory at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory performed work in support of characterizing the vapor composition of the headspaces of radioactive waste tanks at the Hanford Site. Work performed included support for technical issues and sampling methodologies, upgrades for analytical equipment, analytical method development, preparation of unexposed samples, analyses of tank headspaces samples, preparation of data reports, and operation of the tank vapor database. Progress made in FY 1996 included completion and issuance of 50 analytical data reports. A sampling system comparison study was initiated and completed during the fiscal year. The comparison study involved the vapor sampling system (VSS), a truck-based system, and the in situ vapor sampling system (ISVS), a cart-based system. Samples collected during the study were characterized for inorganic, permanent gases, total non-methane organic compounds and organic speciation by SUMMA{trademark} and TST methods. The study showed comparable sampling results between the systems resulting in the program switching from the VSS to the less expensive ISVS methodology in late May 1996. A temporal study was initiated in January 1996 in order to understand the influences seasonal temperatures changes have on the vapors in the headspace of Hanford waste tanks. A holding time study was initiated in the fourth quarter of FY 1996. Samples were collected from tank S-102 and rushed to the laboratory for time zero analysis. Additional samples will be analyzed at 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 weeks.

Silvers, K.L.; Fruchter, J.S.; Huckaby, J.L.; Almeida, T.L.; Evans, J.C. Jr.; Pool, K.H.; Simonen, C.A.; Thornton, B.M.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Cycle simulation of the low-temperature triple-effect absorption chiller with vapor compression unit  

SciTech Connect

The construction of a triple-effect absorption chiller machine using the lithium bromide-water solution as a working fluid is strongly limited by corrosion problems caused by the high generator temperature. In this work, three new cycles having the additional vapor compression units were suggested in order to lower the generator temperature of a triple-effect absorption chiller. Each new cycle has one compressor located at the different position which was used to elevate the pressure of the refrigerant vapor. Computer simulations were carried out in order to examine both the basic triple-effect cycle and three new cycles. All types of triple-effect absorption chiller cycles were found to be able to lower the temperature of high-temperature generator to the more favorable operation range. The COPs of three cycles calculated by considering the additional compressor works showed a small level of decrease or increase compared with that of the basic triple-effect cycle. Consequently, a low-temperature triple-effect absorption chiller can be possibly constructed by adapting one of three new cycles. A great advantage of these new cycles over the basic one is that the conventionally used lithium bromide-water solution can be successfully used as a working fluid without the danger of corrosion.

Kim, J.S.; Lee, H.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

60 GHz Harmonic Optoelectronic Up-Conversion Using an InAlAs/InGaAs Metamorphic High-Electron-Mobility Transistor on a GaAs Substrate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

60 GHz Harmonic Optoelectronic Up-Conversion Using an InAlAs/InGaAs Metamorphic High optoelectronic up-conversion using an InAlAs/InGaAs metamorphic high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) on a Ga 1 GHz signals into a 60 GHz band. After investigating the dependences of optoelectronic mixing

Choi, Woo-Young

348

Unsaturated drip tests on sludge based SRL glass : the effects of prior vapor hydration.  

SciTech Connect

The behavior of a sludge-based Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) waste glasses exposed to as much as 7 years of unsaturated test conditions is reported. This test series included both as-cast glass and glass that had been pre-altered by exposure to 200 C water vapor. Actinides (except neptunium) are retained in alteration products and released primarily as solution-borne colloids and particulate when fresh glass is reacted. Pre-altered glass, however, rapidly releases most elements (including actinides) in a nearly congruent manner when first exposed to dripping water. Normalized boron release from the aged glass is more rapid than that of any other element by an order of magnitude. The response of pre-altered glass, as determined by cumulative boron release, follows a power-law behavior with time, corresponding roughly to t{sup 1/4}. This is consistent with a diffusion transport through clay alteration phases on the glass surface.

Fortner, J. A.

1998-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

349

2, 10971130, 2002 Retrieval of water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ACPD 2, 1097­1130, 2002 Retrieval of water vapor columns R. Lang et al. Title Page Abstract, Amsterdam, The Netherlands 2 SRON National Institute for Space Research, Utrecht, The Netherlands 3 Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Received: 20 June 2002

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

350

Organic vapor separation: Process design with regards to high-flux membranes and the dependence on real gas behavior at high pressure applications  

SciTech Connect

High-flux membranes are well-suited for separating organic vapor from air. There are many applications for organic vapor recovery at tank farms. Here, the membrane technology is already considered as state of the art. However, new applications operating at higher pressures, e.g., water and hydrocarbon dewpointing of natural gas, real gas behavior, and the so-called concentration polarization effect have to be taken into account. Experimental investigations have been carried out and the results are presented. The performance of a membrane module is calculated considering real gas behavior.

Alpers, A.; Keil, B.; Luedtke, O.; Ohlrogge, K.

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Modeling of LNG Pool Spreading and Vaporization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.............................................................................. 20 CHAPTER III PREVIOUS EXPERIMENTS ON LNG POOL SPREADING .............. 22 3.1. Summary of Experiments on liquefied gases ................................................... 22 CHAPTER IV CURRENT STATE OF THE ART... of liquefied gases into bunds .................................................................... 23 Table 7: Experimental setup for bund experiments.......................................................... 23 Table 8: Spills of liquefied gases onto water...

Basha, Omar 1988-

2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

352

Gantmakher-Kaner oscillations at 79 GHz in single-crystal copper plates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thin plates of high-purity, single-crystal copper have been investigated with the microwave transmission technique at 79 GHz with the utilization of a magnetic field perpendicular to the sample surfaces and parallel to the ?100?, ?110?, and ?111? crystal axes. The observed Gantmakher-Kaner oscillations are compared with a theoretical model first proposed by Phillips, Baraff, and Schmidt to explain their data in copper at 35 GHz for a ?100? orientation. With the aid of their model we find two classes of signals: (a) those arising from a sharp cutoff of the topological effectiveness, and (b) those due to an extremal helical trajectory. The generally excellent agreement between observation and the predictions of the model for all three crystal orientations confirms the physical significance of the model, although it is lacking a rigorous mathematical derivation.

T. M. Hsu and G. L. Dunifer

1983-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

353

System analysis of membrane facilitated water generation from air humidity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The use of water vapor selective membranes can reduce the energy requirement for extracting water out of humid air by more than 50%. We performed a system analysis of a proposed unit, that uses membranes to separate water vapor from other atmospheric gases. This concentrated vapor can then be condensed specifically, rather than cooling the whole body of air. The driving force for the membrane permeation is maintained with a condenser and a vacuum pump. The pump regulates the total permeate side pressure by removing non-condensable gases that leak into the system. We show that by introducing a low-pressure, recirculated, sweep stream, the total permeate side pressure can be increased without impairing the water vapor permeation. This measure allows energy efficiency even in the presence of leakages, as it significantly lowers the power requirements of the vacuum pump. Such a constructed atmospheric water generator with a power of 62 kW could produce 9.19 m3/day of water (583 MJ/m3) as compared to 4.45 m3/day (1202 MJ/m3) that can be condensed without membranes. Due to the physical barrier the membrane imposes, fresh water generated in this manner is also cleaner and of higher quality than water condensed directly out of the air.

D. Bergmair; S.J. Metz; H.C. de Lange; A.A. van Steenhoven

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Making Maps from Planck LFI 30GHz Data with Asymmetric Beams and Cooler Noise  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Planck satellite will observe the full sky at nine frequencies from 30 to 857 GHz. The goal of this paper is to examine the effects of four realistic instrument systematics in the 30 GHz frequency maps: non-axially-symmetric beams, sample integration, sorption cooler noise, and pointing errors. We simulated one year long observations of four 30 GHz detectors. The simulated timestreams contained CMB, foreground components (both galactic and extra-galactic), instrument noise (correlated and white), and the four instrument systematic effects. We made maps from the timelines and examined the magnitudes of the systematics effects in the maps and their angular power spectra. We also compared the maps of different mapmaking codes to see how they performed. We used five mapmaking codes (two destripers and three optimal codes). None of our mapmaking codes makes an attempt to deconvolve the beam from its output map. Therefore all our maps had similar smoothing due to beams and sample integration. Temperature to polarization cross-coupling due to beam mismatch causes a detectable bias in the TE spectrum of the CMB map. The effects of cooler noise and pointing errors did not appear to be major concerns for the 30 GHz channel. The only essential difference found so far between mapmaking codes that affects accuracy (in terms of residual RMS) is baseline length. All optimal codes give essentially indistinguishable results. A destriper gives the same result as the optimal codes when the baseline is set short enough. For longer baselines destripers require less computing resources but deliver a noisier map.

M. A. J. Ashdown; C. Baccigalupi; J. G. Bartlett; J. Borrill; C. Cantalupo; G. de Gasperis; G. de Troia; K. M. Gorski; E. Hivon; K. Huffenberger; E. Keihanen; R. Keskitalo; T. Kisner; H. Kurki-Suonio; C. R. Lawrence; P. Natoli; T. Poutanen; G. Prezeau; M. Reinecke; G. Rocha; M. Sandri; R. Stompor; F. Villa; B. Wandelt

2009-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

355

Making Maps from Planck LFI 30GHz Data with Asymmetric Beams and Cooler Noise  

SciTech Connect

The Planck satellite will observe the full sky at nine frequencies from 30 to 857 GHz. Temperature and polarization frequency maps made from these observations are prime deliverables of the Planck mission. The goal of this paper is to examine the effects of four realistic instrument systematics in the 30 GHz frequency maps: non-axially-symmetric beams, sample integration, sorption cooler noise, and pointing errors. They simulated one year long observations of four 30 GHz detectors. The simulated timestreams contained CMB, foreground component (both galactic and extra-galactic), instrument nolise (correlated and white), and the four instrument systematic effects. They made maps from the timelines and examined the magnitudes of the systematics effects in the maps and their angular power spectra. They also compared the maps of different mapmaking codes to see how they performed. They used five mapmaking codes (two destripers and three optimal codes). None of their mapmaking codes makes an attempt to deconvolve the beam from its output map. Therefore all our maps had similar smoothing due to beams and sample integration. This is a complicated smoothing, because every map pixel has its own effective beam. Temperature to polarization cross-coupling due to beam mismatch causes a detectable bias in the TE spectrum of the CMB map. The effects of cooler noise and pointing errors did not appear to be major concerns for the 30 GHz channel. The only essential difference found so far between mapmaking codes that affects accuracy (in terms of residual RMS) is baseline length. All optimal codes give essentially indistiguishable results. A destriper gives the same result as the optimal codes when the baseline is set short enough (Madam). For longer baselines destripers (Springtide and Madam) require less computing resources but deliver a noisier map.

The Planck CTP Working Group; Ashdown, M.A.J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Bartlett, J.G.; Borrill, J.; Cantalupo, C.; de Gasperis, G.; Gorski, K.M.; Hivon, E.; Huffenberger, K.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.; Hurki-Suonio, H.; Lawrence, C.R.; Natoli, P.; Poutanen, T.; Prezeau, G.; Reinecke, M.; Rocha, G.; Sandri, M.; Stompor, R..; Villa, F.; Wandelt, B.; de Troia, G.

2008-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

356

Geothermal/Water Use | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Geothermal/Water Use Geothermal/Water Use < Geothermal Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Land Use Leasing Exploration Well Field Power Plant Transmission Environment Water Use Print PDF Geothermal Water Use General Regulatory Roadmap The Geysers in northern California is the world's largest producer of geothermal power. The dry-steam field has successfully produced power since the early 1960s when Pacific Gas & Electric installed the first 11-megawatt plant. The dry steam plant consumes water by emitting water vapor into the atmosphere. Geothermal power production utilizes water in two major ways: The first method, which is inevitable in geothermal production, uses hot water from an underground reservoir to power the facility. The second is using water for cooling (for some plants only).

357

Electric equipment providing space conditioning, water heating, and refrigeration consumes 12.5% of the nation's  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electric equipment providing space conditioning, water heating, and refrigeration consumes 12 are the heart of air conditioners, heat pumps, chillers, supermarket refrigeration systems, and more. Global use of vapor compression system configurations including multi-functional integrated heat pumps, multi

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

358

The Q/U Imaging Experiment: Polarization Measurements of Radio Sources at 43 and 95 GHz  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present polarization measurements of extragalactic radio sources observed during the Cosmic Microwave Background polarization survey of the Q/U Imaging Experiment (QUIET), operating at 43 GHz (Q-band) and 95 GHz (W-band). We examine sources selected at 20 GHz from the public, $>$40 mJy catalog of the Australia Telescope (AT20G) survey. There are $\\sim$480 such sources within QUIET's four low-foreground survey patches, including the nearby radio galaxies Centaurus A and Pictor A. The median error on our polarized flux density measurements is 30--40 mJy per Stokes parameter. At S/N $> 3$ significance, we detect linear polarization for seven sources in Q-band and six in W-band; only $1.3 \\pm 1.1$ detections per frequency band are expected by chance. For sources without a detection of polarized emission, we find that half of the sources have polarization amplitudes below 90 mJy (Q-band) and 106 mJy (W-band), at 95% confidence. Finally, we compare our polarization measurements to intensity and polarization meas...

Huffenberger, K M; Bischoff, C; Buder, I; Chinone, Y; Cleary, K; Kusaka, A; Monsalve, R; Næss, S K; Newburgh, L B; Reeves, R; Ruud, T M; Wehus, I K; Zwart, J T L; Dickinson, C; Eriksen, H K; Gaier, T; Gundersen, J O; Hasegawa, M; Hazumi, M; Miller, A D; Radford, S J E; Readhead, A C S; Staggs, S T; Tajima, O; Thompson, K L

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Mercury Source Zone Identification using Soil Vapor Sampling and Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Development and demonstration of reliable measurement techniqes that can detect and help quantify the nature and extent of elemental mercury (Hg(0)) in the subsurface are needed to reduce certainties in the decision making process and increase the effectiveness of remedial actions. We conducted field tests at the Y-12 National Security Complex (NSC) in Oak Ridge, TN, to determine if sampling and analysis of Hg(0) vapors in the shallow subsurface (<0.3 m depth) can be used to as an indicator of the location and extent of Hg(0) releases in the subsurface. We constructed a rigid PVC pushprobe assembly, which was driven into the ground. Soil gas samples were collected through a sealed inner tube of the assembly and analyzed immediately in the field with a Lumex and/or Jerome Hg(0) analyzer. Time-series sampling showed that Hg vapor concentrations were fairly stable over time suggesting that the vapor phase Hg(0) was not being depleted and that sampling results were not dependent on the soil gas purge volume. Hg(0) vapor data collected at over 200 pushprobe locations at 3 different release sites correlated well to areas of known Hg(0) contamination. Vertical profiling of Hg(0) vapor concentrations conducted at 2 locations provided information on the vertical distribution of Hg(0) contamination in the subsurface. We concluded from our studies that soil gas sampling and analysis can be conducted rapidly and inexpensively at a large scale to help identify areas contaminated with Hg(0).

Watson, David B [ORNL] [ORNL; Miller, Carrie L [ORNL] [ORNL; Lester, Brian P [ORNL] [ORNL; Lowe, Kenneth Alan [ORNL] [ORNL; Southworth, George R [ORNL] [ORNL; Bogle, Mary Anna [ORNL] [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL] [ORNL; Pierce, Eric M [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Vapor etching of nuclear tracks in dielectric materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process involving vapor etching of nuclear tracks in dielectric materials for creating high aspect ratio (i.e., length much greater than diameter), isolated cylindrical holes in dielectric materials that have been exposed to high-energy atomic particles. The process includes cleaning the surface of the tracked material and exposing the cleaned surface to a vapor of a suitable etchant. Independent control of the temperatures of the vapor and the tracked materials provide the means to vary separately the etch rates for the latent track region and the non-tracked material. As a rule, the tracked regions etch at a greater rate than the non-tracked regions. In addition, the vapor-etched holes can be enlarged and smoothed by subsequent dipping in a liquid etchant. The 20-1000 nm diameter holes resulting from the vapor etching process can be useful as molds for electroplating nanometer-sized filaments, etching gate cavities for deposition of nano-cones, developing high-aspect ratio holes in trackable resists, and as filters for a variety of molecular-sized particles in virtually any liquid or gas by selecting the dielectric material that is compatible with the liquid or gas of interest.

Musket, Ronald G. (Danville, CA); Porter, John D. (Berkeley, CA); Yoshiyama, James M. (Fremont, CA); Contolini, Robert J. (Lake Oswego, OR)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ghz water vapor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

A 10 GHz electron-cyclotron-resonance (ECR) ion source for ion-electron and ion-atom collision studies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In order to extend our investigations in the field of electronion collision studies involving ions in high charge states, we decided to build a newly designed 10 GHz Electron-Cyclotron-Resonance Ion Source. The n...

M. Liehr; M. Schlapp; E. Salzborn

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Influence of annual windbreak on the water relations, growth and yield of cotton and peanuts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in monitoring of microclimate. Instrument Parameter and Units Manufacturer and Model Anemometer windspeed (ms ~) R. M. Young Gi11 3-cup anemom- eter Model 12102 Pyranometer Temperature Sensor Humidity Sensor Datalogger solar radiation ! Langleys... in turbulence or vertical air movement . Water vapor tr ansfer, heat and gaseous exchanges are affected by both the horizontal and vertical movement of the air. Since wi ndbreaks reduce wi ndspeed and turbulence, the rate of removal of water vapor and heat...

Waweru, Francis Mbote

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

363

ARM - PI Product - Large Scale Ice Water Path and 3-D Ice Water Content  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ProductsLarge Scale Ice Water Path and 3-D Ice Water ProductsLarge Scale Ice Water Path and 3-D Ice Water Content Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : Large Scale Ice Water Path and 3-D Ice Water Content Site(s) SGP TWP General Description Cloud ice water concentration is one of the most important, yet poorly observed, cloud properties. Developing physical parameterizations used in general circulation models through single-column modeling is one of the key foci of the ARM program. In addition to the vertical profiles of temperature, water vapor and condensed water at the model grids, large-scale horizontal advective tendencies of these variables are also required as forcing terms in the single-column models. Observed horizontal advection of condensed water has not been available because the

364

Water Efficiency  

Energy Savers (EERE)

Wheeler - Water Savers, LLC * fwheeler@watersaversllc.com Topics * Performance contracting analysis * Water industry terms * Federal reduction goals * Water balance * Water...

365

VAPORIZATION OF TUNGSTEN-METAL IN STEAM AT HIGH TEMPERATURES.  

SciTech Connect

The vaporization of tungsten from the APT spallation target dominates the radiological source term for unmitigated target overheating accidents. Chemical reactions of tungsten with steam which persist to tungsten temperatures as low as 800 C result in the formation of a hydrated tungsten-oxide which has a high vapor pressure and is readily convected in a flowing atmosphere. This low-temperature vaporization reaction essentially removes the oxide film that forms on the tungsten-metal surface as soon as it forms, leaving behind a fresh metallic surface for continued oxidation and vaporization. Experiments were conducted to measure the oxidative vaporization rates of tungsten in steam as part of the effort to quantify the MT radiological source term for severe target accidents. Tests were conducted with tungsten rods (1/8 inch diameter, six inches long) heated to temperatures from approximately 700 C to 1350 C in flowing steam which was superheated to 140 C. A total of 19 experiments was conducted. Fifteen tests were conducted by RF induction heating of single tungsten rods held vertical in a quartz glass retort. Four tests were conducted in a vertically-mounted tube furnace for the low temperature range of the test series. The aerosol which was generated and transported downstream from the tungsten rods was collected by passing the discharged steam through a condenser. This procedure insured total collection of the steam along with the aerosol from the vaporization of the rods. The results of these experiments revealed a threshold temperature for tungsten vaporization in steam. For the two tests at the lowest temperatures which were tested, approximately 700 C, the tungsten rods were observed to oxidize without vaporization. The remainder of the tests was conducted over the temperature range of 800 C to 1350 C. In these tests, the rods were found to have lost weight due to vaporization of the tungsten and the missing weight was collected in the downstream condensate system. The aerosol formed a fine white smoke of tungsten-oxide which was visible to the eye as it condensed in the laminar boundary layer of steam which flowed along the surface of the rod. The aerosol continued to flow as a smoke tube downstream of the rod, flowing coaxially along the centerline axis of the quartz glass tube and depositing by impaction along the outside of a bend and at sudden area contractions in the piping. The vaporization rate data from the 17 experiments which exceeded the vaporization threshold temperature are shown in Figure 5 in the form of vaporization rates (g/cm{sup 2} s) vs. inverse temperature (K{sup {minus}1}). Two correlations to the present data are presented and compared to a published correlation by Kilpatrick and Lott. The differences are discussed.

GREENE,G.A.; FINFROCK,C.C.

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

The effects of post-condensation exchange on the isotopic composition of water in1 the atmosphere2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-condensation exchange (PCE) on the isotopic3 composition of water in the atmosphere. PCE was found to universally of precipitation.5 At low latitudes, local PCE with fresh vapor at the surface enriches precipitation in heavy6 isotopes, particularly during light rainfall. When rainfall is heavy, PCE tends to deplete7 vapor

Field, Robert

367

POLYMER ELECTROLYTE MEMBRANE ELECTROLYZER OPERATION WITH VARYING INLET WATER FEED CONFIGURATIONS  

SciTech Connect

Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) electrolysis is a potential alternative technology to crack water in specialty applications where a dry gas stream is needed, such as isotope production. One design proposal is to feed the cathode of the electrolyzer with vapor phase water. This feed configuration would allow isotopic water to be isolated on the cathode side of the electrolyzer and the isotope recovery system could be operated in a closed loop. Tests were performed to characterize the difference in the current-voltage behavior between a PEM electrolyzer operated with a cathode water vapor feed and with an anode liquid water feed. The cathode water vapor feed cell had a maximum limiting current density of 100 mA/cm2 at 70 C compared to a current density of 800 mA/cm2 for the anode liquid feed cell at 70 C. The limiting current densities for the cathode water vapor feed cell were approximately 3 times lower than predicted by a water mass transfer model. It is estimated that a cathode water vapor feed electrolyzer system will need to be between 8-14 times larger in active area or number of cells than an anode liquid feed system.

Fox, E

2008-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

368

Apparatus for isotopic alteration of mercury vapor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for enriching the isotopic Hg content of mercury is provided. The apparatus includes a reactor, a low pressure electric discharge lamp containing a fill including mercury and an inert gas. A filter is arranged concentrically around the lamp. In a preferred embodiment, constant mercury pressure is maintained in the filter by means of a water-cooled tube that depends from it, the tube having a drop of mercury disposed in it. The reactor is arranged around the filter, whereby radiation from said lamp passes through the filter and into said reactor. The lamp, the filter and the reactor are formed of a material which is transparent to ultraviolet light.

Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); George, William A. (Gloucester, MA); Marcucci, Rudolph V. (Danvers, MA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Growth of manganese filled carbon nanofibers in the vapor phase  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report the vapor phase growth of partially filled graphitic fibers, 20-30 nm in diameter and up to a micron in length, during a manganese catalyzed carbon electric arc discharge. The fiber morphology resembles that of catalytic chemical vapor deposited carbon filaments but the inside hollow contains intermittent precipitates and continuous filling of Mn that at times occupy >50% of fiber lengths. Transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss line spectra show that the fillings form as solid cores and may correspond to pure metal.

P. M. Ajayan; C. Colliex; J. M. Lambert; P. Bernier; L. Barbedette; M. Tence; O. Stephan

1994-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

370

The development of a passive dosimeter for airborne aniline vapors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

passive sampl1ng dosimeter was designed to measure concen- trat1ons of aniline vapor in air. Diffus1on tubes of 1. 5, 3. 0 and 4. 5 cm lengths were tested under controlled conditions of relative humid1ty, air temperature and vapor concentrations. A... of Measured vs Calculated Concentrations APPENDIX D-Student-t Test on Slopes of Measured vs Calculated Data . APPENDIX E-Statistical Analysis of Four Hour Time- Weighted Average Study on 3. 0 cm Dosimeter VITA ~pa e 42 45 48 59 62 63 65 70 73...

Campbell, James Evan

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Solid–Liquid–Vapor Equilibrium Models for Cryogenic Biogas Upgrading  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In cryogenic upgrading processes involving dry ice formation, accurate predictions of solid–liquid, solid–vapor, and solid–liquid–vapor equilibria are fundamental for a correct design of the heat exchanger surface in order to achieve the desired biomethane purity. ... Moreover, the liquefied biogas production process, particularly interesting for cryogenic upgrading processes due to the low temperature of the obtained biomethane, requires an accurate knowledge of carbon dioxide solubility in liquid methane to avoid solid deposition. ... For some applications demanding a high energy content gas, namely vehicle fuels and injection in the natural gas grid, the biogas has to be upgraded into biomethane. ...

Mauro Riva; Marco Campestrini; Joseph Toubassy; Denis Clodic; Paolo Stringari

2014-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

372

Effects of water addition on OH radical generation and plasma properties in an atmospheric argon microwave plasma jet  

SciTech Connect

Water vapor was added to the feeding gas of a continuous atmospheric argon (Ar) microwave plasma jet to study its influence on plasma shape, plasma gas temperature, and OH radical concentrations. The plasma jet was created by a 2.45 GHz microwave plasma source operating at constant power of 104 W with H{sub 2}O-Ar mixture flow rate of 1.7 standard liter per minute (slm). With an increase in the H{sub 2}O/Ar ratio from 0.0 to 1.9%, the plasma jet column length decreased from 11 mm to 4 mm, and the plasma jet became unstable when the ratio was higher than 1.9%; elevation of plasma gas temperature up to 330 K was observed in the plasma temperature range of 420-910 K. Optical emission spectroscopy showed that the dominant plasma emissions changed from N{sub 2} in the pure Ar plasma jet to OH with the addition of water vapor, and simulations of emission spectra suggested non-Boltzmann distribution of the rotational levels in the OH A-state (v'=0). Spatially resolved absolute OH number densities along the plasma jet axis were measured using UV cavity ringdown spectroscopy of the OH (A-X) (0-0) band in the H{sub 2}O/Ar ratio range of 0.0-1.9%. The highest OH number density is consistently located in the vicinity of the plasma jet tip, regardless of the H{sub 2}O/Ar ratio. OH number density in the post-tip region follows approximately an exponential decay along the jet axis with the fastest decay constant of 3.0 mm in the H{sub 2}O/Ar ratio of 1.5%. Given the low gas temperature of 420-910 K and low electron temperature of 0.5-5 eV along the jet axis, formation of the OH radical is predominantly due to electron impact induced dissociation of H{sub 2}O and dissociative recombination of H{sub 2}O{sup +} resulting from the Penning ionization process.

Srivastava, Nimisha; Wang Chuji [Department of Physics and Astronomy and the Energy Institute, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Mississippi 39762 (United States)

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

The Chromatographic and GC/MS Analysis of Organic Priority Pollutants in Water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......preferentially enter the gas phase and be...of the high solubility of these compounds in water and the poor...small amount of water vapor actually...analyst may use a nitrogen- phosphorus...liter levels by gas chromatog- raphy. J. Am. Water Works Assoc......

Q.V. Thomas; J.R. Stork; S.L. Lammert

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

UNCORRECTEDPROOF 2 Vaporization, fusion and sublimation enthalpies of the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

UNCORRECTEDPROOF 2 Vaporization, fusion and sublimation enthalpies of the 3 dicarboxylic acids from of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Missouri-St. Louis, 8001 Natural Bridge, St. Louis, MO 63121, USA observed previously in the sublimation enthalpies of these compounds. The results are dis- 16 cussed

Chickos, James S.

375

Vapor-side corrosion in thermal desalination plants  

SciTech Connect

This article reports the results of vapor-size corrosion monitoring studies carried out in multistage flash (MSF) desal unit No. 100 of Al-Khafji power and Desalination Plant in Saudi Arabia. Corrosion behavior of 70/30 Cu-Ni alloy, carbon steel (CS), and type 316L stainless steel (SS) was studied in vents and in the vapor size of distillers for 2,000, 4,000, and 9,000 h. Analyses of the experimental data indicated that in addition to O{sub 2}, S-containing compounds evolved during flashing of seawater reacted more with Cu-Ni alloy than with CS and type 316L SS. Explanations for comparatively higher corrosion of alloys exposed to the vapors of the first three (1 to 3) and middle (11 to 13) stages of the MSF plant are given with experimental results. Type 316L SS was found to be the alloy most resistant to vapor-side corrosion in all stages of distillers.

Asrar, N.; Malik, A.U.; Ahmed, S. [Saline Water Conversion Corp. (Saudi Arabia); Al-Khalidi, M.; Al-Moaili, K. [Al-Khafji Desalination Plant (Saudi Arabia)

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

The chemical vapor deposition of zirconium carbide onto ceramic substrates  

SciTech Connect

Zirconium carbide is an attractive ceramic material due to its unique properties such as high melting point, good thermal conductivity, and chemical resistance. The controlled preparation of zirconium carbide films of superstoichiometric, stoichiometric, and substoichiometric compositions has been achieved utilizing zirconium tetrachloride and methane precursor gases in an atmospheric pressure high temperature chemical vapor deposition system.

Glass, John A, Jr.; Palmisiano, Nick, Jr.; Welsh, R. Edward

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

A transient model for a cesium vapor thermionic converter. [Cs  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an analytical model for simulating the transient and steady-state operation of cesium vapor thermionic converters. A parametric analysis is performed to assess the transient response of the converter to changes in fission power and width of interelectrode gap. The model optimizes the converter performance for maximum electric power to the load.(AIP)

El-Genk, M.S.; Murray, C.S.; Chaudhuri, S. (Institute for Space Nuclear Power Studies, Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, The University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico (USA))

1991-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

378

CVD CNT CNT (Vapor-grown carbon fiber, VGCF)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CNT CNT CVD CNT CNT (Vapor-grown carbon fiber, VGCF) 10001300 CNT CVD Smalley CO 24 CCVD 1 #12; 27 mm 3% 200 sccm 800 10 10 Torr 300 sccm Ethanol tank Hot bath boat Ar/H2 Ar or Ethanol tank Hot bath Ethanol tank Hot bath Pressure gauge Maindraintube Subdraintube

Maruyama, Shigeo

379

Method for removing metal vapor from gas streams  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for cleaning an inert gas contaminated with a metallic vapor, such as cadmium, involves withdrawing gas containing the metallic contaminant from a gas atmosphere of high purity argon; passing the gas containing the metallic contaminant to a mass transfer unit having a plurality of hot gas channels separated by a plurality of coolant gas channels; cooling the contaminated gas as it flows upward through the mass transfer unit to cause contaminated gas vapor to condense on the gas channel walls; regenerating the gas channels of the mass transfer unit; and, returning the cleaned gas to the gas atmosphere of high purity argon. The condensing of the contaminant-containing vapor occurs while suppressing contaminant particulate formation, and is promoted by providing a sufficient amount of surface area in the mass transfer unit to cause the vapor to condense and relieve supersaturation buildup such that contaminant particulates are not formed. Condensation of the contaminant is prevented on supply and return lines in which the contaminant containing gas is withdrawn and returned from and to the electrorefiner and mass transfer unit by heating and insulating the supply and return lines.

Ahluwalia, R. K. (6440 Hillcrest Dr., Burr Ridge, IL 60521); Im, K. H. (925 Lehigh Cir., Naperville, IL 60565)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Sorption and Diffusion of Organic Vapors in Two Fluoroelastomers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sorption and Diffusion of Organic Vapors in Two Fluoroelastomers PING WANG,* NATHANIEL S. SCHNEIDER of II in polar liquids: over 100% (wt/wt) in two ketones and a phosphate ester. Sorption isotherms deter determined from sorption kinetics, corrected for nonisothermal effects, and converted to solvent self

Wang, Ping

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ghz water vapor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Method and apparatus to measure vapor pressure in a flow system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a method for determining, by a condensation method, the vapor pressure of a material with a known vapor pressure versus temperature characteristic, in a flow system particularly in a mercury isotope enrichment process.

Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); Biblarz, Oscar (Swampscott, MA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of carbon-free ZnO using...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of carbon-free ZnO using the bis(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionato)zinc precursor. Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of carbon-free...

383

Standoff concealed weapon detection using a 350 GHz radar imaging system  

SciTech Connect

The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is currently developing a 350 GHz, active, wideband, three-dimensional, radar imaging system to evaluate the feasibility of active sub-mm imaging for standoff concealed weapon detection. The prototype radar imaging system is based on a wideband, heterodyne, frequency-multiplier-based transceiver system coupled to a quasi-optical focusing system and high-speed rotating conical scanner. The wideband operation of this system provides accurate ranging information, and the images obtained are fully three-dimensional. Recent improvements to the system include increased imaging speed using improved balancing techniques, wider bandwidth, and image display techniques.

Sheen, David M.; Hall, Thomas E.; Severtsen, Ronald H.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Valdez, Patrick LJ

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Photon-pair generation in photonic crystal fibrebre with a 1.5GHz modelocked VECSEL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Four-wave mixing (FWM) in optical fibre is a leading technique for generating high-quality photon pairs. We report the generation of photon pairs by spontaneous FWM in photonic crystal fibre pumped by a 1.5 GHz repetition-rate vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser (VECSEL). The photon pairs exhibit high count rates and a coincidence-to-accidental ratio of over 80. The VECSEL's high repetition-rate, high average power, tunability, and small footprint make this an attractive source for quantum key distribution and photonic quantum-state engineering.

Oliver J. Morris; Robert J. A. Francis-Jones; Keith G. Wilcox; Anne C. Tropper; Peter J. Mosley

2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

385

Note: Efficient generation of optical sidebands at GHz with a high-power tapered amplifier  

SciTech Connect

Two methods using a laser-diode tapered amplifier to produce high-power, high-efficiency optical frequency sidebands over a wide tunable frequency range are studied and compared. For a total output of 500 mW at 811 nm, 20% of the power can be placed in each of the first-order sidebands. Functionality and characterization are presented within the sideband frequency region of 0.8–2.3 GHz, and it is shown that both methods can be applied beyond this frequency range. These methods provide a versatile and effective tool for atomic physics experiments.

Zappala, J. C.; Lu, Z.-T. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States) [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Department of Physics and Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Bailey, K.; O’Connor, T. P.; Jiang, W., E-mail: wjiang@phy.anl.gov [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

386

VLBI observations at 147 GHz: first detection of transatlantic fringes in bright AGN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

At 147 GHz (2mm wavelength), we detected three prominent AGN (NRAO150, 3C279, 1633+382) with Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) with an angular resolution of only 18 micro-arcseconds on the baseline between two antennas in Arizona (10m HHT and 12m KittPeak) and the IRAM 30m antenna on Pico Veleta in Spain. This is a new world record in radio interferometry and astronomical imaging and opens fascinating future possibilities to directly image and study the innermost regions in Quasars and other Active Galactic Nuclei.

T. P. Krichbaum; D. A. Graham; W. Alef; A. Polatidis; U. Bach; A. Witzel; J. A. Zensus; A. Greve; M. Grewing; S. Doeleman; R. Phillips; A. E. E. Rogers; M. Titus; H. Fagg; P. Strittmatter; T. L. Wilson; L. Ziurys; R. Freund; P. K"on"onen; J. Peltonen; S. Urpo; F. Rantakyro; J. Conway; R. S. Booth

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

VLBI observations at 147 GHz first detection of transatlantic fringes in bright AGN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

At 147 GHz (2mm wavelength), we detected three prominent AGN (NRAO150, 3C279, 1633+382) with Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) with an angular resolution of only 18 micro-arcseconds on the baseline between two antennas in Arizona (10m HHT and 12m KittPeak) and the IRAM 30m antenna on Pico Veleta in Spain. This is a new world record in radio interferometry and astronomical imaging and opens fascinating future possibilities to directly image and study the innermost regions in Quasars and other Active Galactic Nuclei.

Krichbaum, T P; Alef, W; Polatidis, A; Bach, U; Witzel, A; Zensus, J A; Greve, A; Grewing, M; Doeleman, S; Phillips, R; Rogers, A E E; Titus, M; Fagg, H; Strittmatter, P A; Wilson, T L; Ziurys, L M; Freund, R W; Könönen, P; Peltonen, J; Urpo, S; Rantakyro, F; Conway, J; Booth, R S

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Transatlantic Transport of Fermilab 3.9 GHZ Cryomodule to DESY  

SciTech Connect

In an exchange of technology agreement, Fermilab has built and delivered a 3.9 GHz (3rd harmonic) cryomodule to Deutsches Elektron-Synchrotron (DESY) Laboratory to be installed in the TTF/FLASH beamline. Transport to Hamburg, Germany was completed via a combination of flatbed air ride truck and commercial aircraft, while minimizing transition or handling points. Initially, destructive testing of fragile components, transport and corresponding alignment stability studies were performed in order to assess the risk associated with transatlantic travel of a fully assembled cryomodule. Data logged triaxial acceleration results of the transport with a comparison to the transport study predicted values are presented.

McGee, M.W.; Grimm, C.; Olis, D.; Schappert, Warren; /Fermilab

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

A three-phase K-value study for pure hydrocarbons/water and crude oil/water systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Steam distillation, or vaporization of crude oil in porous media is on of the major mechanisms responsible for high oil recovery by steamflooding from heavy oil as well as light oil reservoir systems. Several authors have reported steam dsitillation...-phase equilibrium data for hydrocarbon/water systems ranging from light to heavy crude oil fractions. ! Experimental data describing the phase behavior and the hydrocarbon/water separation process for multi-component hydrocarbon/water and crude oil...

Lanclos, Ritchie Paul

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Study of CERC using newly installed 77 GHz Gyrotron in LHD  

SciTech Connect

We have investigated the transition to Core Electron-Root Confinement (CERC) using the 77 GHz ECRH system, which was newly installed in the Large Helical Device (LHD). The focal point scan of the ECRH was carried out shot by shot in the same poloidal surface along the magnetic field of 2.75 T, which is the fundamental resonance surface for 77 GHz ECRH. The formation of the steep gradient in the electron temperature and the change of the radial electric field from negative to positive value in the plasma core region were observed by the ECRH injection to {rho}<0.5. The foot point of the peaked profile of the electron temperature appeared near the m/n = 2/1 rational surface, which was located at {rho}{approx}0.5. These results imply that localized ECRH in the inner region within the lower order rational surface and/or the electron heat flux across the rational surface play important roles for the transition to CERC. We also confirmed that the calculated radial electric field from a neoclassical theory qualitatively agreed with the experimental results.

Takahashi, H.; Shimozuma, T.; Yokoyama, M.; Ido, T.; Kubo, S.; Shimizu, A.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Mutoh, T. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)

2009-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

391

Experimental Study Of A 1.5-mw, 110-ghz Gyrotron Oscillator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis reports the design, construction and testing of a 1.5 MW, 110 GHz gyrotron oscillator. This high power microwave tube has been proposed as the next evolutionary step for gyrotrons used to provide electron cyclotron heating required in fusion devices. A short pulse gyrotron based on the industrial tube design was built at MIT for experimental studies. The experiments are the first demonstration of such high powers at 110 GHz. Using a 96 kV, 40 A electron beam, over 1.4 MW was axially extracted in the design (TE22,6) mode in 3 ?s pulses, corresponding to a microwave efficiency of 37%. The beam alpha, the ratio of transverse to axial velocity in the electron beam, was measured with a probe. At the high efficiency operating point the beam alpha was measured as 1.33. This value of alpha is less than the design value of 1.4, possibly accounting for the slightly reduced experimental efficiency. The output power and efficiency, as a function of magnetic field, beam voltage, and beam current, are in...

Anderson, J P

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

THE 5 GHz ARECIBO SEARCH FOR RADIO FLARES FROM ULTRACOOL DWARFS  

SciTech Connect

We present the results of a 4.75 GHz survey of 33 brown dwarfs and one young exoplanetary system for flaring radio emission, conducted with the 305 m Arecibo radio telescope. The goal of this program was to detect and characterize the magnetic fields of objects cooler than spectral type L3.5, the coolest brown dwarf detected prior to our survey. We have also attempted to detect flaring radio emission from the HR 8799 planetary system, guided by theoretical work indicating that hot, massive exoplanets may have strong magnetic fields capable of generating radio emission at GHz frequencies. We have detected and confirmed radio flares from the T6.5 dwarf 2MASS J10475385+2124234. This detection dramatically extends the temperature range over which brown dwarfs appear to be at least sporadic radio-emitters, from 1900 K (L3.5) down to 900 K (T6.5). It also demonstrates that the utility of radio detection as a unique tool to study the magnetic fields of substellar objects extends to the coolest dwarfs, and, plausibly to hot, massive exoplanets. We have also identified a single, 3.6{sigma} flare from the L1 dwarf, 2MASS J1439284+192915. This detection is tentative and requires confirmation by additional monitoring observations.

Route, Matthew; Wolszczan, Alexander, E-mail: mroute@astro.psu.edu, E-mail: alex@astro.psu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

2013-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

393

A Megawatt-level 28z GHz Heating System For The National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) will operate at axial toroidal fields of < 1 T and plasma currents, Ip < 2 MA. The development of non-inductive (NI) plasmas is a major long-term research goal for NSTX-U. Time dependent numerical simulations of 28 GHz electron cyclotron (EC) heating of low density NI start-up plasmas generated by Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI) in NSTX-U predict a significant and rapid increase of the central electron temperature (Te(0)) before the plasma becomes overdense. The increased Te(0) will significantly reduce the Ip decay rate of CHI plasmas, allowing the coupling of fast wave heating and neutral beam injection. A megawatt-level, 28 GHz electron heating system is planned for heating NI start-up plasmas in NSTX-U. In addition to EC heating of CHI start-up discharges, this system will be used for electron Bernstein wave (EBW) plasma start-up, and eventually for EBW heating and current drive during the Ip flattop.

Taylor, Gary [PPPL

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Measurements of the cosmic microwave background temperature at 1. 47 GHz  

SciTech Connect

A radiofrequency-gain total power radiometer measured the intensity of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at a frequency of 1.47 GHz (20.4 cm wavelength) from White Mountain, California, in September 1988 and from the South Pole, Antarctica, in December 1989. The CMB thermodynamic temperature, TCMB, is 2.27 {plus minus} 0.25 K (68% C.L.) measured from White Mountain and 2.26 {plus minus} 0.21 K from the South Pole site. The combined result is 2.27 {plus minus} 0.19 K. The correction for galactic emission has been derived from scaled low-frequency maps and constitutes the main source, of error. The atmospheric signal is found by extrapolation from zenith scan measurements at higher frequencies. The result is consistent with previous low-frequency measurements, including a measurement at 1.41 GHz (Levin et al. 1988) made with an earlier version of this instrument. The result is {approximately}2.5 {sigma} ({approximately}l% probability) from the 2.74 {plus minus} 0.02,K global average CMB temperature.

Bensadoun, M.J.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Measurements of the cosmic microwave background temperature at 1.47 GHz  

SciTech Connect

A radiofrequency-gain total power radiometer measured the intensity of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at a frequency of 1.47 GHz (20.4 cm wavelength) from White Mountain, California, in September 1988 and from the South Pole, Antarctica, in December 1989. The CMB thermodynamic temperature, TCMB, is 2.27 {plus_minus} 0.25 K (68% C.L.) measured from White Mountain and 2.26 {plus_minus} 0.21 K from the South Pole site. The combined result is 2.27 {plus_minus} 0.19 K. The correction for galactic emission has been derived from scaled low-frequency maps and constitutes the main source, of error. The atmospheric signal is found by extrapolation from zenith scan measurements at higher frequencies. The result is consistent with previous low-frequency measurements, including a measurement at 1.41 GHz (Levin et al. 1988) made with an earlier version of this instrument. The result is {approximately}2.5 {sigma} ({approximately}l% probability) from the 2.74 {plus_minus} 0.02,K global average CMB temperature.

Bensadoun, M.J.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

han-99.PDF  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tip Cal Methods for Ground-Based Microwave Tip Cal Methods for Ground-Based Microwave Radiometric Sensing of Water Vapor and Clouds Y. Han and E. R. Westwater CIRES, University of Colorado National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado Introduction Ground-based Microwave Radiometers (MWRs) have been widely used to measure atmospheric water vapor and cloud liquid water. Frequencies on the 22.235-GHz water vapor absorption band and in the 31-GHz absorption window region are commonly used in these systems. These frequency channels differ in their response to water vapor and cloud liquid water and provide brightness temperature measurements from which precipitable water vapor (PWV) and integrated cloud liquid water are derived. Absolute calibration of the radiometer is fundamental in determining the accuracies of these

397

Method for the generation of variable density metal vapors which bypasses the liquidus phase  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides a method for producing a metal vapor that includes the steps of combining a metal and graphite in a vessel to form a mixture; heating the mixture to a first temperature in an argon gas atmosphere to form a metal carbide; maintaining the first temperature for a period of time; heating the metal carbide to a second temperature to form a metal vapor; withdrawing the metal vapor and the argon gas from the vessel; and separating the metal vapor from the argon gas. Metal vapors made using this method can be used to produce uniform powders of the metal oxide that have narrow size distribution and high purity.

Kunnmann, Walter (Stony Brook, NY); Larese, John Z. (Rocky Point, NY)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

MODELLING AND SIMULATION OF LIQUID-VAPOR PHASE TRANSITION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Generator Turbine Generator Cooling Tower Condenser Cooling Water Pump Reactor Core Reactor Vessel Control and Steam (secondary loop) Water (cooling loop) Pump Steam Generator Turbine Generator Cooling Tower Water pressurized (primary loop) Water and Steam (secondary loop) Water (cooling loop) Pump Steam

Faccanoni, Gloria

399

FOREGROUND PREDICTIONS FOR THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND POWER SPECTRUM FROM MEASUREMENTS OF FAINT INVERTED RADIO SOURCES AT 5 GHz  

SciTech Connect

We present measurements of a population of matched radio sources at 1.4 and 5 GHz down to a flux limit of 1.5 mJy in 7 deg{sup 2} of the NOAO Deep Field South. We find a significant fraction of sources with inverted spectral indices that all have 1.4 GHz fluxes less than 10 mJy and are therefore too faint to have been detected and included in previous radio source count models that are matched at multiple frequencies. Combined with the matched source population at 1.4 and 5 GHz in 1 deg{sup -2} in the ATESP survey, we update models for the 5 GHz differential number counts and distributions of spectral indices in 5 GHz flux bins that can be used to estimate the unresolved point source contribution to the cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropies. We find a shallower logarithmic slope in the 5 GHz differential counts than in previously published models for fluxes {approx}< 100 mJy as well as larger fractions of inverted spectral indices at these fluxes. Because the Planck flux limit for resolved sources is larger than 100 mJy in all channels, our modified number counts yield at most a 10% change in the predicted Poisson contribution to the Planck temperature power spectrum. For a flux cut of 5 mJy with the South Pole Telescope and a flux cut of 20 mJy with the Atacama Cosmology Telescope, we predict a {approx}30% and {approx}10% increase, respectively, in the radio source Poisson power in the lowest frequency channels of each experiment relative to that predicted by previous models.

Schneider, Michael D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808 L-210, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Becker, Robert H. [Department of Physics, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 08991 (United States); De Vries, Willem [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808 L-211, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); White, Richard L., E-mail: schneider42@llnl.gov [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

2012-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

400

THE STAR FORMATION IN RADIO SURVEY: GBT 33 GHz OBSERVATIONS OF NEARBY GALAXY NUCLEI AND EXTRANUCLEAR STAR-FORMING REGIONS  

SciTech Connect

We present 33 GHz photometry of 103 galaxy nuclei and extranuclear star-forming complexes taken with the Green Bank Telescope as part of the Star Formation in Radio Survey. Among the sources without evidence for an active galactic nucleus, and also having lower frequency radio data, we find a median thermal fraction at 33 GHz of Almost-Equal-To 76% with a dispersion of Almost-Equal-To 24%. For all sources resolved on scales {approx}<0.5 kpc, the thermal fraction is even larger, being {approx}>90%. This suggests that the rest-frame 33 GHz emission provides a sensitive measure of the ionizing photon rate from young star-forming regions, thus making it a robust star formation rate (SFR) indicator. Taking the 33 GHz SFRs as a reference, we investigate other empirical calibrations relying on different combinations of warm 24 {mu}m dust, total infrared (IR; 8-1000 {mu}m), H{alpha} line, and far-UV continuum emission. The recipes derived here generally agree with others found in the literature, albeit with a large dispersion that most likely stems from a combination of effects. Comparing the 33 GHz to total IR flux ratios as a function of the radio spectral index, measured between 1.7 and 33 GHz, we find that the ratio increases as the radio spectral index flattens which does not appear to be a distance effect. Consequently, the ratio of non-thermal to total IR emission appears relatively constant, suggesting only moderate variations in the cosmic-ray electron injection spectrum and ratio of synchrotron to total cooling processes among star-forming complexes. Assuming that this trend solely arises from an increase in the thermal fraction sets a maximum on the scatter of the non-thermal spectral indices among the star-forming regions of {sigma}{sub {alpha}{sup N}{sup T}}{approx}<0.13.

Murphy, E. J. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Bremseth, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pomona College, Claremont, CA 91711 (United States); Mason, B. S.; Condon, J. J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Schinnerer, E. [Max Planck Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Aniano, G. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Armus, L. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MC 314-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Helou, G. [California Institute of Technology, MC 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Turner, J. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Jarrett, T. H., E-mail: emurphy@obs.carnegiescience.edu [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, MC 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ghz water vapor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Mercury Vapor At Mokapu Penninsula Area (Thomas, 1986) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mokapu Penninsula Area (Thomas, 1986) Mokapu Penninsula Area (Thomas, 1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Mokapu Penninsula Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity Details Location Mokapu Penninsula Area Exploration Technique Mercury Vapor Activity Date Usefulness not useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes The high degree of cultural activity (e.g. residential areas, streets, jet runways, etc.) on Mokapu both limited the extent of the soil geochemical surveys performed and rendered their interpretation much more difficult. Soil mercury concentrations and radon emanometry data on the peninsula showed a few localized high values (Figs 13, 14), but no consistent correlation between the anomalous zones and geologic features could be

402

Detonation wave driven by condensation of supersaturated carbon vapor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An experimental observation of a detonation wave driven by the energy of condensation of supersaturated carbon vapor is reported. The carbon vapor was formed by the thermal decay of unstable carbon suboxide C3O2 behind shock waves in mixtures containing 10–30% C3O2 in Ar. In the mixture 10% C3O2+Ar the insufficient heat release resulted in a regime of overdriven detonation. In the mixture 20% C3O2+Ar measured values of the pressure and wave velocity coincident with calculated Chapman-Jouguet parameters were attained. In the richest mixture 30% C3O2+Ar an excess heat release caused the slowing down of the condensation rate and the regime of underdriven detonation was observed.

A. Emelianov; A. Eremin; V. Fortov; H. Jander; A. Makeich; H. Gg. Wagner

2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

403

Specific Mass Estimates for A Vapor Core Reactor With MHD  

SciTech Connect

This study investigated the development of a system concept for space power generation and nuclear electric propulsion based on a vapor core reactor (VCR) with magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power conversion system, coupled to a magnetoplasma-dynamic (MPD) thruster. The VCR is a liquid-vapor core reactor concept operating with metallic uranium or uranium tetrafluoride (UF{sub 4}) vapor as the fissioning fuel and alkali metals or their fluorides as working fluid in a closed Rankine cycle with MHD energy conversion. Gaseous and liquid-vapor core reactors can potentially provide the highest reactor and cycle temperature among all existing or proposed fission reactor designs. This unique feature makes this reactor concept a very natural and attractive candidate for very high power (10 to 1000 MWe) and low specific mass (0.4 to 5 kg/kWe) nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) applications since the MHD output could be coupled with minimal power conditioning to MPD thrusters or other types of thruster for producing thrust at very high specific impulse (I{sub sp} 1500 to 10,000 s). The exceptional specific mass performance of an optimized VCRMHD- NEP system could lead to a dramatic reduction in the cost and duration of manned or robotic interplanetary as well as interstellar missions. The VCR-MHD-NEP system could enable very efficient Mars cargo transfers or short (<8 month) Mars round trips with less initial mass in low Earth orbit (IMLEO). The system could also enable highly efficient lunar cargo transfer and rapid missions to other destinations throughout the solar system. (authors)

Knight, Travis; Smith, Blair; Anghaie, Samim [Innovative Nuclear Space Power and Propulsion Institute (INSPI), PO Box 116502, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6502 (United States)

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Heat Recovery in Distillation by Mechanical Vapor Recompression  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

be classified generally into two types,.aerodynamic and positive displacement (Figure 5). Among the various types of compressors, centrifugal, reciprocating, lobe and screw have been used for vapor recompression. I AXIAL AERODYNAMIC I I CENTRIFUGAL I... speeds of centri fugal compressors make them highly susceptible to erosion from entrained liquid droplets. This ero sion can reduce the efficiency and cause dynamic instability from rotor imbalance and mechanical failure. Next, it is important...

Becker, F. E.; Zakak, A. I.

405

High average power magnetic modulator for metal vapor lasers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A three-stage magnetic modulator utilizing magnetic pulse compression designed to provide a 60 kV pulse to a copper vapor laser at a 4.5 kHz repetition rate is disclosed. This modulator operates at 34 kW input power. The circuit includes a step up auto transformer and utilizes a rod and plate stack construction technique to achieve a high packing factor.

Ball, Don G. (Livermore, CA); Birx, Daniel L. (Oakley, CA); Cook, Edward G. (Livermore, CA); Miller, John L. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Methanol vaporization and injection system for internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

An engine equipped with an alcohol vaporization injection system operates as a four stroke cycle diesel engine that transfers the heat of exiting exhaust gases and cylinder head walls to the fuel. The engine runs on alcohol. The alcohol becomes vaporized and its pressure is high enough so that when a valve is opened between the high pressure fuel line and the combustion chamber (when it is at the peak of its compression ratio) enough alcohol will enter the combustion chamber to allow proper combustion. The overall advantages to this type of alcohol vaporization injection system is that it adds relatively few new mechanisms to the spark ignition four cycle internal combustion engine to enable it to operate as a diesel engine with a high thermal efficiency. This alcohol injection system exploits the engine's need for greater volumes of alcohol caused by the alcohol's relatively low heat of combustion (When compared to gasoline) by using this greater volume of fuel to return greater quantities of heat back to the engine to a much greater degree than other fuels can.

Bayley, R.I.

1980-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

407

Program plan for the resolution of tank vapor issues  

SciTech Connect

Since 1987, workers at the Hanford Site waste tank farms in Richland, Washington, have reported strong odors emanating from the large, underground high-level radioactive waste storage tanks. Some of these workers have complained of symptoms (e.g., headaches, nausea) related to the odors. In 1992, the U.S. Department of Energy, which manages the Hanford Site, and Westinghouse Hanford Company determined that the vapor emissions coming from the tanks had not been adequately characterized and represented a potential health risk to workers in the immediate vicinity of the tanks. At that time, workers in certain areas of the tank farms were required to use full-face, supplied-breathing-air masks to reduce their exposure to the fugitive emissions. While use of supplied breathing air reduced the health risks associated with the fugitive emissions, it introduced other health and safety risks (e.g., reduced field of vision, air-line tripping hazards, and heat stress). In 1992, an aggressive program was established to assure proper worker protection while reducing the use of supplied breathing air. This program focuses on characterization of vapors inside the tanks and industrial hygiene monitoring in the tank farms. If chemical filtration systems for mitigation of fugitive emissions are deemed necessary, the program will also oversee their design and installation. This document presents the plans for and approach to resolving the Hanford Site high-level waste tank vapor concerns. It is sponsored by the Department of Energy Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management.

Osborne, J.W.; Huckaby, J.L.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Assessing the Risk of Mercury in Drinking Water after UV Lamp Breaks Page 1 Assessing the Risk of Mercury in Drinking Water after UV Lamp Breaks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Assessing the Risk of Mercury in Drinking Water after UV Lamp Breaks Page 1 Assessing the Risk of Mercury in Drinking Water after UV Lamp Breaks Heidi Borchers University of New Hampshire, Environmental Ultraviolet (UV) lamps generate ultraviolet light through the vaporization of elemental mercury, by using

409

The influence of prestrained metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial gallium-nitride templates on hydride vapor phase epitaxial growth  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have varied the strain situation in metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial (MOVPE) grown gallium-nitride (GaN) by exchanging the nucleation layer and by inserting a submono-Si x N y -interlayer in the first few hundred nanometers of growth on sapphire substrates. The influence on the MOVPE template and subsequent hydride vapor phase epitaxial (HVPE) growth could be shown by in-situ measurements of the sample curvature. Using the results of these investigations we have established a procedure to confine the curvature development in MOVPE and HVPE growth to a minimum. By increasing the layer thickness in HVPE we could create self-separated freestanding GaN layers with small remaining curvature.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Tank 241-TX-118 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in September 1994 and December 1994  

SciTech Connect

Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

Huckaby, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bratzel, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

411

EVN observations of 6.7 GHz methanol masers from Medicina survey  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report VLBI observations of methanol masers in the brightest 5(1)-6(0) A+ transition at 6.7 GHz in NGC 281W, 18151-1208 and 19388+2357. Using the fringe rate method absolute positions were obtained for all observed sources. A linear ordered structure with a velocity gradient was revealed in NGC 281W. Under assumption that such structure is an edge-on Keplerian disk around the central object with a mass of 30Msun located at a distance of 3.5 kpc from the Sun, we estimated that methanol masers are situated at the distance about 400 a.u. from the center of the disk. A second epoch of observations was reported for L1206, GL2789 and 20062+3550. The upper limits on the relative motions of maser spots are estimated to be 4.7 km/s and 28 km/s for L1206 and GL2789 respectively.

Voronkov, M A; Palagi, F; Tofani, G

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

EVN observations of 6.7 GHz methanol masers from Medicina survey  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report VLBI observations of methanol masers in the brightest 5(1)-6(0) A+ transition at 6.7 GHz in NGC 281W, 18151-1208 and 19388+2357. Using the fringe rate method absolute positions were obtained for all observed sources. A linear ordered structure with a velocity gradient was revealed in NGC 281W. Under assumption that such structure is an edge-on Keplerian disk around the central object with a mass of 30Msun located at a distance of 3.5 kpc from the Sun, we estimated that methanol masers are situated at the distance about 400 a.u. from the center of the disk. A second epoch of observations was reported for L1206, GL2789 and 20062+3550. The upper limits on the relative motions of maser spots are estimated to be 4.7 km/s and 28 km/s for L1206 and GL2789 respectively.

M. A. Voronkov; V. I. Slysh; F. Palagi; G. Tofani

2002-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

413

Development of a simple 2.45 GHz microwave plasma with a repulsive double hexapole configuration  

SciTech Connect

A simple and inexpensive 2.45 GHz microwave plasma source with a repulsive double hexapole configuration is described and characterized. In this work, the operation of the source is shown to be flexible in terms of electron density, electron temperature, and plasma uniformity even at low-pressures (approximately millitorr). It allows for easy control of the electron temperature (2-3.8 eV) and density ({approx}10{sup 9}-10{sup 10} cm{sup -3}) by removing either of the two hexapoles or by varying the separation distance between the two hexapoles. Characterization was done via information gathered from the usual Langmuir probe measurements for electron temperature and density. The source makes a resonant surface with its repulsive double hexapole magnetic configuration providing an additional longitudinal confinement near the walls midway between the two hexapoles. Magnetic field maps are presented for varying double hexapole distances. Power delivery for various settings is also presented.

Arciaga, Marko; Ulano, April; Lee, Henry Jr.; Lledo, Rumar; Ramos, Henry [National Institute of Physics, College of Science, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City 1101 (Philippines); Tumlos, Roy [Department of Physical Science and Mathematics, College of Arts and Sciences, University of the Philippines, Manila 1000 (Philippines)

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

414

Spectroscopic temperature measurements of air breakdown plasma using a 110 GHz megawatt gyrotron beam  

SciTech Connect

Temperature measurements are presented of a non-equilibrium air breakdown plasma using optical emission spectroscopy. A plasma is created with a focused 110 GHz 3 {mu}s pulse gyrotron beam in air that produces power fluxes exceeding 1 MW/cm{sup 2}. Rotational and vibrational temperatures are spectroscopically measured over a pressure range of 1-100 Torr as the gyrotron power is varied above threshold. The temperature dependence on microwave field as well as pressure is examined. Rotational temperature measurements of the plasma reveal gas temperatures in the range of 300-500 K and vibrational temperatures in the range of 4200-6200 K. The vibrational and rotational temperatures increase slowly with increasing applied microwave field over the range of microwave fields investigated.

Hummelt, J. S.; Shapiro, M. A.; Temkin, R. J. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

415

Millimeter wave scattering and diffraction in 110 GHz air breakdown plasma  

SciTech Connect

We present measurements of the scattering, reflection, absorption, and transmission of a 1.5 MW, 110 GHz quasioptical gyrotron beam by a self-induced air breakdown plasma. The breakdown forms a periodic array of plasma filaments, oriented parallel to the incident electric field polarization that propagates toward the microwave source. For incident intensity of 3 MW/cm{sup 2}, calorimetric measurements show that as much as 45% of the full beam power is absorbed by the plasma, averaged over the pulse, 1% is reflected backward, and the remainder is transmitted and also scattered into a wide angular spread. We observe that approximately 10 times more power is scattered in the direction perpendicular to the filaments than parallel. The far-field angular distribution of transmitted power exhibits a diffraction pattern that changes throughout the 2-{mu}s life of the plasma.

Cook, Alan M.; Hummelt, Jason S.; Shapiro, Michael A.; Temkin, Richard J. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

416

Observation of plasma array dynamics in 110 GHz millimeter-wave air breakdown  

SciTech Connect

We present dynamical measurements of self-organizing arrays of plasma structures in air induced by a 110 GHz millimeter-wave beam with linear or circular polarization. The formation of the individual plasmas and the growth of the array pattern are studied using a fast-gated (5-10 ns) intensified camera. We measure the time-dependent speed at which the array pattern propagates in discrete steps toward the millimeter-wave source, observing a peak speed greater than 100 km/s. We observe the expansion of an initially spherical plasma into a disk or an elongated filament, depending on the polarization of the incident beam. The results show good agreement with one-dimensional ionization-diffusion theory and two-dimensional simulations.

Cook, Alan M.; Hummelt, Jason S.; Shapiro, Michael A.; Temkin, Richard J. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 167 Albany St., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

417

The generation of shared cryptographic keys through channel impulse response estimation at 60 GHz.  

SciTech Connect

Methods to generate private keys based on wireless channel characteristics have been proposed as an alternative to standard key-management schemes. In this work, we discuss past work in the field and offer a generalized scheme for the generation of private keys using uncorrelated channels in multiple domains. Proposed cognitive enhancements measure channel characteristics, to dynamically change transmission and reception parameters as well as estimate private key randomness and expiration times. Finally, results are presented on the implementation of a system for the generation of private keys for cryptographic communications using channel impulse-response estimation at 60 GHz. The testbed is composed of commercial millimeter-wave VubIQ transceivers, laboratory equipment, and software implemented in MATLAB. Novel cognitive enhancements are demonstrated, using channel estimation to dynamically change system parameters and estimate cryptographic key strength. We show for a complex channel that secret key generation can be accomplished on the order of 100 kb/s.

Young, Derek P.; Forman, Michael A.; Dowdle, Donald Ryan

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

A 250 GHz microwave interferometer for divertor experiments on DIII-D  

SciTech Connect

A new 250 GHz, two-frequency microwave interferometer system has been developed to diagnose divertor plasmas on DIII-D. This diagnostic will measure the line-averaged density across both the inner and outer, lower divertor legs. With a cut-off density of over 7 {times} 10{sup 14} cm{sup {minus}3}, temporal measurements of ELMs, MARFs and plasma detachment are expected. The outer leg system will use a double pass method while the inner leg system will be single pass. Two special 3D carbon composite tiles are used, one to protect the microwave antennas mounted directly under the strike point and the other as the outer leg reflecting surface. Performance, design constraints, and the thermalmechanical design of the 3D carbon composite tiles are discussed.

James, R.A.; Nilson, D.G.; Stever, R.D.; Hill, D.N.; Casper, T.A.

1994-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

419

VERY LARGE ARRAY DETECTION OF THE 36 GHz ZEEMAN EFFECT IN DR21W REVISITED  

SciTech Connect

We report on the observation of the 36 GHz methanol maser line in the star-forming region DR21W to accurately measure the Zeeman effect. The Zeeman signature reported by Fish et al. became suspicious after an instrumental effect was discovered in the early days of the commissioning of the Very Large Array Wide-band Digital Architecture correlator. We conclude that the previously reported magnetic field strength of 58 mG (1.7 Hz mG{sup -1}/z) is instrumental in nature and thus incorrect. With the improved performance of the array, we now deduce a 3{sigma} limit of -4.7 to +0.4 mG (1.7 Hz mG{sup -1}/z) for the line-of-sight component of the magnetic field strength in DR21W.

Momjian, Emmanuel; Sjouwerman, Lorant O. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Fish, Vincent L., E-mail: emomjian@nrao.edu [MIT Haystack Observatory, Route 40, Westford, MA 01886 (United States)

2012-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

420

LARP LHC 4.8 GHZ Schottky System Initial Commissioning with Beam  

SciTech Connect

The LHC Schottky system consists for four independent 4.8 GHz triple down conversion receivers with associated data acquisition systems. Each system is capable of measuring tune, chromaticity, momentum spread in either horizontal or vertical planes; two systems per beam. The hardware commissioning has taken place from spring through fall of 2010. With nominal bunch beam currents of 10{sup 11} protons, the first incoherent Schottky signals were detected and analyzed. This paper will report on these initial commissioning results. A companion paper will report on the data analysis curve fitting and remote control user interface of the system. The Schottky system for the LHC was proposed in 2004 under the auspices of the LARP collaboration. Similar systems were commissioned in 2003 in the Fermilab Tevatron and Recycler accelerators as a means of measuring tunes noninvasively. The Schottky detector is based on the stochastic cooling pickups that were developed for the Fermilab Antiproton Source Debuncher cooling upgrade completed in 2002. These slotted line waveguide pickups have the advantage of large aperture coupled with high beam coupling characteristics. For stochastic cooling, wide bandwidths are integral to cooling performance. The bandwidth of slotted waveguide pickups can be tailored by choosing the length of the pickup and slot spacing. The Debuncher project covered the 4-8 GHz band with eight bands of pickups, each with approximately 500 MHz of bandwidth. For use as a Schottky detector, bandwidths of 100-200 MHz are required for gating, resulting in higher transfer impedance than those used for stochastic cooling. Details of hardware functionality are reported previously.

Pasquinelli, Ralph J.; /Fermilab; Jansson, Andreas; /ESS, Lund; Jones, O.Rhodri; Caspers, Fritz; /CERN

2011-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ghz water vapor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Design ad Modeling of a 17 GHz Photcxxthode RF Gun C. L. Lin, S. C. Chen, J. S. U'urtele, H. Temkin, 13. Danly *  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Design ad Modeling of a 17 GHz Photcxxthode RF Gun C. L. Lin, S. C. Chen, J. S. U'urtele, H. Temkin of a high-frequencv(l7GHz), high accel- erating gradirnt(250hlv/rrl) photocathode RF gun is stud- ied in conventional DC guns followed by RF bunchers have reached their intrin- sic limitations and do not meet

Wurtele, Jonathan

422

IEEE MICROWAVE AND WIRELESS COMPONENTS LETTERS, VOL. 19, NO. 6, JUNE 2009 407 A 0.15 GHz Cryogenic SiGe MMIC LNA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

IEEE MICROWAVE AND WIRELESS COMPONENTS LETTERS, VOL. 19, NO. 6, JUNE 2009 407 A 0.1­5 GHz Cryogenic for operation at cryogenic temperatures is presented. At room temperature, the cir- cuit provides greater than and the first matched wideband cryogenic integrated circuit LNA that covers frequencies as low as 0.1 GHz. Index

Weinreb, Sander

423

Isotope Fractionation of Water during Evaporation without Condensation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Specifially, isotope fractionation factors associated with free evaporation (?evap) have been measured as a function of the isotopic composition and temperature of the liquid. ... Liquid-vapor fractionation of oxygen and hydrogen isotopes of water from the freezing to the critical temperature ...

Christopher D. Cappa; Walter S. Drisdell; Jared D. Smith; Richard J. Saykally; Ronald C. Cohen

2005-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

424

Tapping Sun-Warmed Ocean Water for Power  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...consumers of natural gas, are eager to move to...vapor expands through a turbine and is then condensed...In Mini-OTEC, the turbine drives a 50-kilowatt...years, the projected life of a plant. Chemical...unirrigated ground. The remaining water returns to the...

BEVERLY KARPLUS HARTLINE

1980-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

425

Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-T-110: Results from samples collected on August 31, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-T-110 (Tank T-110) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was {open_quotes}Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan{close_quotes}, and the sample job was designated S5056. Samples were collected by WHC on August 31, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace.

McVeety, B.D.; Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C. [and others

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Impacts of Mobile Radar and Telecommunications Sys-tems on Earth Remote Sensing in the 22-27 GHz Range  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) vehicular radar systems operating in the 22-27 GHz fre- quency range a technical assessment on the potential (GRSS) Technical Committee on Frequency Alloca- tion in Remote Sensing (FARS) is charged with providing suggests that inter- ference to the passive services at power levels several or- ders of magnitude above

Ruf, Christopher

427

A 75 GHz silicon metal-semiconductor-metal Schottky photodiode Sotiris Alexandrou, Chia-Chi Wang, and Thomas Y. Hsiang  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A 75 GHz silicon metal-semiconductor-metal Schottky photodiode Sotiris Alexandrou, Chia-Chi Wang-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodiodes with 300 nm finger width and spacing were measured with a subpicosecond electro of silicon MSM photodiodes. A configuration is suggested to improve the speed of these detectors at long

428

Characteristics of InP HEMT Harmonic Optoelectronic Mixers and Their Application to 60GHz Radio-on-Fiber Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. #12;Characteristics of InP HEMT Harmonic Optoelectronic Mixers and Their Application to 60GHz device characteristics of InP HEMT as a harmonic optoelectronic mixer. A single InP HEMT device performs is successfully demonstrated using InP HEMT harmonic optoelectronic mixer. Index Terms -- millimeter-wave, radio

Choi, Woo-Young

429

SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF A PHASE LOCKED LASER AT 891 GHz, AN APPLICATION OF JOSEPHSON JUNCTIONS IN THE FAR INFRARED  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

285 SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF A PHASE LOCKED LASER AT 891 GHz, AN APPLICATION OF JOSEPHSON JUNCTIONS. Abstract. 2014 We have used a Josephson junction to investigate the spectral purity of an HCN laser which take advantage of the unique properties of the Josephson junction as a frequency multiplier and mixer

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

430

X-Band EPR Spectrometer with Customizable Arbitrary Waveform Generator based on a 1 GHz DAC Board  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

X-Band EPR Spectrometer with Customizable Arbitrary Waveform Generator based on a 1 GHz DAC Board-4120 , Email: songi@chem.ucsb.edu Abstract We present an EPR spectrometer featuring an arbitrary waveform of pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and enable new experiments. It generates shaped X

Martinis, John M.

431

Low Power Body Sensor Network for Wireless ECG Based on Relaying of Creeping Waves at 2.4GHz1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Low Power Body Sensor Network for Wireless ECG Based on Relaying of Creeping Waves at 2.4GHz1 Engineering Rochester Institute of Technology Abstract- A wireless communication platform for ECG operating applications that demand higher data rates than ECG.1 I. INTRODUCTION The Electrocardiogram (ECG) [1

Tsouri, Gill

432

Moving zone Marangoni drying of wet objects using naturally evaporated solvent vapor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A surface tension gradient driven flow (a Marangoni flow) is used to remove the thin film of water remaining on the surface of an object following rinsing. The process passively introduces by natural evaporation and diffusion of minute amounts of alcohol (or other suitable material) vapor in the immediate vicinity of a continuously refreshed meniscus of deionized water or another aqueous-based, nonsurfactant rinsing agent. Used in conjunction with cleaning, developing or wet etching application, rinsing coupled with Marangoni drying provides a single-step process for 1) cleaning, developing or etching, 2) rinsing, and 3) drying objects such as flat substrates or coatings on flat substrates without necessarily using heat, forced air flow, contact wiping, centrifugation or large amounts of flammable solvents. This process is useful in one-step cleaning and drying of large flat optical substrates, one-step developing/rinsing and drying or etching/rinsing/drying of large flat patterned substrates and flat panel displays during lithographic processing, and room-temperature rinsing/drying of other large parts, sheets or continuous rolls of material.

Britten, Jerald A. (Oakley, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Moving zone Marangoni drying of wet objects using naturally evaporated solvent vapor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A surface tension gradient driven flow (a Marangoni flow) is used to remove the thin film of water remaining on the surface of an object following rinsing. The process passively introduces by natural evaporation and diffusion of minute amounts of alcohol (or other suitable material) vapor in the immediate vicinity of a continuously refreshed meniscus of deionized water or another aqueous-based, nonsurfactant rinsing agent. Used in conjunction with cleaning, developing or wet etching application, rinsing coupled with Marangoni drying provides a single-step process for (1) cleaning, developing or etching, (2) rinsing, and (3) drying objects such as flat substrates or coatings on flat substrates without necessarily using heat, forced air flow, contact wiping, centrifugation or large amounts of flammable solvents. This process is useful in one-step cleaning and drying of large flat optical substrates, one-step developing/rinsing and drying or etching/rinsing/drying of large flat patterned substrates and flat panel displays during lithographic processing, and room-temperature rinsing/drying of other large parts, sheets or continuous rolls of material. 5 figs.

Britten, J.A.

1997-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

434

The water vapour self- and water–nitrogen continuum absorption in the 1000 and 2500?cm?1 atmospheric windows  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...measurements with a multi-pass cell, shown in figure-2 by...would like to thank the NIST Physics Laboratory Management for the...atmospheric fluxes and cooling rates: application to water vapor...base-length White-type multi-pass cell coupled with a BOMEM DA3-002...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Water Uptake in PEMFC Catalyst Layers  

SciTech Connect

Water uptake profiles of proton-exchange-membrane fuel-cell catalyst layers are characterized in the form of capillary-pressure saturation (Pc-S) curves. The curves indicate that the catalyst layers tested are highly hydrophilic and require capillary pressures as low as -80 kPa to eject imbibed water. Comparison of materials made with and without Pt indicates a difference in water ejection and uptake phenomena due to the presence of Pt. The addition of Pt increases the tendency of the catalyst layer to retain water. Dynamic vapor sorption (DVS) is used to characterize the water-vapor sorption onto Nafion, Pt/C, and C surfaces. The DVS results align with the trends found from the Pc-S curves and show an increased propensity for water uptake in the presence of Pt. The effect of the ion in Nafion, sodium or protonated form, is also compared and demonstrates that although the protonation of the Nafion in the catalyst layer also increases hydrophilicity, the effect is not as great as that caused by Pt.

Gunterman, Haluna P.; Kwong, Anthony H.; Gostick, Jeffrey T.; Kusoglu, Ahmet; Weber, Adam Z.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

An Evaluation of MWR Retrievals of Liquid Water Path  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Evaluation of MWR Retrievals Evaluation of MWR Retrievals of Liquid Water Path and Precipitable Water Vapor R. T. Marchand and T. P. Ackerman Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Introduction This paper offers some observations on the quality of Microwave Radiometer (MWR) retrievals of precipitable water vapor (PWV) and liquid water path (LWP). The paper shows case study comparisons between the standard "statistical" approach and those obtained using an iterative solution of the microwave radiative transfer equations. These examples show how improvements in the retrieval of LWP can be obtained by using an iterative approach, but that possible improvements are limited by the accuracy of the forward model absorption coefficients and errors in the brightness temperature measurements. Each of these effects limits the

437

Modeling the Exchanges of Energy, Water, and Carbon Between Continents and the Atmosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modeling the Exchanges of Energy, Water, and Carbon Between Continents and the Atmosphere P. J, water vapor, and momentum across the land-atmosphere interface to be specified. These fluxes and the climate system to global change, for example, in- creasing atmospheric CO2 (1�3). Three generations

Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

438

Heat transfer through a water spray curtain under the effect of a strong radiative source  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Heat transfer through a water spray curtain under the effect of a strong radiative source P. Boulet - mail Pascal.Boulet@lemta.uhp-nancy.fr Keywords : heat transfer, radiative transfer, vaporization, convection, water spray Abstract Heat transfer inside a participating medium, made of droplets flowing in gas

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

439

DYNAMIC MODEL OF AN INDUSTRIAL HEAT PUMP USING WATER AS REFRIGERANT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 DYNAMIC MODEL OF AN INDUSTRIAL HEAT PUMP USING WATER AS REFRIGERANT CHAMOUN MARWAN to improve industrial energy efficiency, the development of a high temperature heat pump using water vapor as refrigerant is investigated. Technical problems restraining the feasibility of this industrial heat pump

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

440

Mercury Vapor At Salt Wells Area (Henkle, Et Al., 2005) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mercury Vapor At Salt Wells Area (Henkle, Et Al., 2005) Mercury Vapor At Salt Wells Area (Henkle, Et Al., 2005) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Salt Wells Area (Henkle, Et Al., 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Salt Wells Area Exploration Technique Mercury Vapor Activity Date - 2005 Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis Adsorbed mercury soil geochemical surveys and radiometric geophysical surveys were carried out in conjunction with geologic mapping to test the application of these ground-based techniques to geothermal exploration at three prospects in Nevada by Henkle Jr. et al. in 2005. Mercury soil vapor surveys were not widely used in geothermal exploration in the western US at the time, although the association of mercury vapors with geothermal

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ghz water vapor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Water Electrolysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this chapter, water electrolysis technology and its applications for nuclear hydrogen ... of the chapter, a general classification of water electrolysis systems is given, the fundamentals of water electrolysis

Greg F. Naterer; Ibrahim Dincer…

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Water Intoxication  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2008, May 14). Too much water raises seizure risk in babies.id=4844 9. Schoenly, Lorry. “Water Intoxication and Inmates:article/246650- overview>. 13. Water intoxication alert. (

Lingampalli, Nithya

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Chemical vapor deposition of amorphous semiconductor films. Final subcontract report  

SciTech Connect

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from higher order silanes has been studied for fabricating amorphous hydrogenated silicon thin-film solar cells. Intrinsic and doped a-Si:H films were deposited in a reduced-pressure, tubular-flow reactor, using disilane feed-gas. Conditions for depositing intrinsic films at growth rates up to 10 A/s were identified. Electrical and optical properties, including dark conductivity, photoconductivity, activation energy, optical absorption, band-gap and sub-band-gap absorption properties of CVD intrinsic material were characterized. Parameter space for depositing intrinsic and doped films, suitable for device analysis, was identified.

Rocheleau, R.E.

1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Io - Are vapor explosions responsible for the 5-micron outbursts  

SciTech Connect

It is proposed that a vapor explosion of a submerged pool of liquid sulfur will remove the crust overlying an area of about 50-km diam. Thermal radiation from the exposed liquid sulfur pool with a surface temperature of 600 K is then presumed to be responsible for the 5-micron outbursts that have been observed. The explosive volcanoes are expected to leave black sulfur calderas, which are, indeed, found on the surface. The 5-micron outburst observed by Sinton (1980), on June 11, 1979 (UT), is identified with a new caldera found on Voyager 2 photographs but which had not been present on Voyager 1 pictures.

Sinton, W.M.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Optical waveguides in SBN by zinc vapor diffusion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

at 600'C for a 12. 5 i1m Wide 1000'C Zinc Vapor Diffused SBN:60 Waveguide Measured at X = 0. 81 pm. IV. SBN:60 Amplitude Modulator Results . . . . . V. SBN:60 Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Results. . . . VI. Voltage-Length Product Comparison...: (a) extraordinary (TM), (b) 1. 5 x ordinary (TE). 12. Surface damage on SBN:60 diffused at 1000'C with an SiOz diffusion mask. 13. Zinc in-diffusion in SBN:60 25 . . . . . 26 . . . . . 27 . . . . . 28 29 14. Barium out-diffuison in SBN:60...

Quinn, Jeffrey Dale

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Combustion chemical vapor deposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems  

SciTech Connect

The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings. In this report, the evaluation of alumina and ceria coatings on a nickel-chromium alloy is described.

Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Engineering

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

447

Unusual thermopower of inhomogeneous graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect

We report on thermopower (TEP) and resistance measurements of inhomogeneous graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Unlike the conventional resistance of pristine graphene, the gate-dependent TEP shows a large electron-hole asymmetry. This can be accounted for by inhomogeneity of the CVD-graphene where individual graphene regions contribute with different TEPs. At the high magnetic field and low temperature, the TEP has large fluctuations near the Dirac point associated with the disorder in the CVD-graphene. TEP measurements reveal additional characteristics of CVD-graphene, which are difficult to obtain from the measurement of resistance alone.

Nam, Youngwoo, E-mail: youngwoo.nam@chalmers.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Sun, Jie; Lindvall, Niclas; Yurgens, August [Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Jae Yang, Seung; Rae Park, Chong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Woo Park, Yung [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

448

Dosimeter for monitoring vapors and aerosols of organic compounds  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A dosimeter is provided for collecting and detecting vapors and aerosols of organic compounds. The dosimeter comprises a lightweight, passive device that can be conveniently worn by a person as a badge or placed at a stationary location. The dosimeter includes a sample collector comprising a porous web treated with a chemical for inducing molecular displacement and enhancing phosphorescence. Compounds are collected onto the web by molecular diffusion. The web also serves as the sample medium for detecting the compounds by a room temperature phosphorescence technique. 7 figs.

Vo-Dinh, T.

1987-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

449

The Prospects of Alternatives to Vapor Compression Technology for Space Cooling and Food Refrigeration Applications  

SciTech Connect

Five alternatives to vapor compression technology were qualitatively evaluated to determine their prospects for being better than vapor compression for space cooling and food refrigeration applications. The results of the assessment are summarized in the report. Overall, thermoacoustic and magnetic technologies were judged to have the best prospects for competing with vapor compression technology, with thermotunneling, thermoelectric, and thermionic technologies trailing behind in that order.

Brown, Daryl R.; Dirks, James A.; Fernandez, Nicholas; Stout, Tyson E.

2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

450

Tritiated Water Interaction with Stainless Steel  

SciTech Connect

Experiments conducted to study tritium permeation of stainless steel at ambient and elevated temperatures revealed that HT converts relatively quickly to HTO. Further, the HTO partial pressure contributes essentially equally with elemental tritium gas in driving permeation through the stainless steel. Such permeation appears to be due to dissociation of the water molecule on the hot stainless steel surface. There is an equilibrium concentration of HTO vapor above adsorbed gas on the walls of the experimental apparatus evident from freezing transients. The uptake process of tritium from the carrier gas involves both surface adsorption and isotopic exchange with surface bound water.

Glen R. Longhurst

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

A refrigerator-heat-pump desalination scheme for fresh-water and salt recovery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study concerns a refrigerator-heat-pump desalination scheme (RHPDS), which allows energy-efficient recovery of fresh water and salt from the sea. In this scheme, a salt-water chamber is continuously refilled with sea water via atmospheric pressure. Sea water is evaporated into a vacuum chamber and the water vapor is condensed on top of a fresh-water chamber. A refrigerator-heat-pump circuit maintains the two water chambers at suitably different operating temperatures and allows efficient recovery of the latent heat of condensation. The scheme is analyzed with special consideration to potential exploitation of renewable energy sources such as solar and wind energy.

M. Reali

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

A thermodynamics based analysis of exergy destruction in vapor compression cycle systems.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In the last few decades, vapor-compression cycle systems (VCSs) have undergone many advances in actuation, allowing for variable aperture valves, variable speed compressors, and variable… (more)

Kania, Megan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Synthesis and Characterization of Magnetic Nanowires Prepared by Chemical Vapor Deposition.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Various metal silicide and germanide magnetic nanowires were synthesized using a home-built CVD [chemical vapor deposition] system. The morphology, composition, and magnetic properties of the… (more)

Tang, Siwei

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Liquid fuel vaporizer and combustion chamber having an adjustable thermal conductor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The efficiency and effectiveness of apparatuses for vaporizing and combusting liquid fuel can be improved using thermal conductors. For example, an apparatus having a liquid fuel vaporizer and a combustion chamber can be characterized by a thermal conductor that conducts heat from the combustion chamber to the vaporizer. The thermal conductor can be a movable member positioned at an insertion depth within the combustion chamber that corresponds to a rate of heat conduction from the combustion chamber to the vaporizer. The rate of heat conduction can, therefore, be adjusted by positioning the movable member at a different insertion depth.

Powell, Michael R; Whyatt, Greg A; Howe, Daniel T; Fountain, Matthew S

2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

455

Stable-Isotope Studies Of Rocks And Secondary Minerals In A Vapor...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Stable-Isotope Studies Of Rocks And Secondary Minerals In A Vapor-Dominated Hydrothermal System At The Geysers, Sonoma County, California Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL...

456

The Patuha geothermal system: a numerical model of a vapor-dominated system.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The Patuha geothermal system is a vapor-dominated reservoir located about 40 kilometers southwest of Bandung on western Java, Indonesia. The geothermal system consists of a… (more)

Schotanus, M.R.J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali atom vapor Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

a vapor cell magneto-optical trap. 1999 American... to the vacuum pumps or due to adsorption of the ... Source: Jin, Deborah - JILA, University of Colorado at Boulder...

458

Removal of hydrogen sulfide as ammonium sulfate from hydropyrolysis product vapors  

SciTech Connect

A system and method for processing biomass into hydrocarbon fuels that includes processing a biomass in a hydropyrolysis reactor resulting in hydrocarbon fuels and a process vapor stream and cooling the process vapor stream to a condensation temperature resulting in an aqueous stream. The aqueous stream is sent to a catalytic reactor where it is oxidized to obtain a product stream containing ammonia and ammonium sulfate. A resulting cooled product vapor stream includes non-condensable process vapors comprising H.sub.2, CH.sub.4, CO, CO.sub.2, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide.

Marker, Terry L; Felix, Larry G; Linck, Martin B; Roberts, Michael J

2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

459

Response of passive organic vapor dosimeters to a mixed gas exposure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Advisory Comm1ttee: Dr. Richard B. Konzen The effects of the sampling order of two chemicals adsorbed onto a DuPont Pro-Tek Organic Vapor Dosimeters were investigated. The dosimeters were exposed to varying known concentrations of methyl methacrylate...-powered pump to draw a known volume of air through a charcoal packed tube. The charcoal adsorbs the organic vapors and separates the small amount of vapor from a large amount of air. The organic vapors are then desorbed and analyzed by means of gas...

Anderson, Scott Merritt

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

460

Low-Cost, Modular Electrothermal Vaporization System for Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this investigation, commercially available tungsten filaments were employed to electrothermally vaporize liquid samples prior to their introduction into an inductively coupled...

Levine, Keith; Wagner, Karl A; Jones, Bradley T

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ghz water vapor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

E-Print Network 3.0 - atomic vapor deposited Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Articles Surfactant-Catalyzed Chemical Vapor Deposition of Copper Thin Films Eui Seong Hwang... and demonstrated for deposition of copper thin films from ... Source:...

462

E-Print Network 3.0 - acoustic wave vapor Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

(6). While previous systems have demonstrated success in chemical... striking visual identification of a range of ligating vapors (including alcohols, amines, ethers... ,...

463

Advanced Organic Vapor Cycles for Improving Thermal Conversion Efficiency in Renewable Energy Systems.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The Organic Flash Cycle (OFC) is proposed as a vapor power cycle that could potentially increase power generation and improve the utilization efficiency of renewable… (more)

Ho, Tony

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Towards improved spinnability of chemical vapor deposition generated multi-walled carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

P. J. F. 1999 Carbon nanotubes and related structures: newof vapor grown carbon nanotubes and single wall nanotubes, Eto Carbon Materials in Carbon Nanotubes: Preparation and

McKee, Gregg Sturdivant Burke

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Opals infiltrated with a stimuli-responsive hydrogel for ethanol vapor sensing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report on a novel class of optical materials for ethanol vapor sensing, based on polystyrene opals infiltrated with an innovative stimuli-responsive hydrogel. We describe the...

Pernice, Riccardo; Adamo, Gabriele; Stivala, Salvatore; Parisi, Antonino; Busacca, Alessandro C; Spigolon, Dario; Sabatino, Maria Antonietta; D’Acquisto, Leonardo; Dispenza, Clelia

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric characterization of an oil aerosol-vapor microbial disinfectant .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??"This thesis focuses on chemical characterization studies of disinfectant vapors generated from thermal oxidation of mineral oil and biogenic oil esters. The disinfection technique holds… (more)

Wadhwa, Prakash, 1980-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

A Normetex Model 15 m3/Hr Water Vapor Pumping Test  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Tritium Storage / Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Tritium Science and Technology

M. D. Fowley; T. J. Steeper; J. E. Klein

468

Changes in Stratospheric Water Vapor Associated with the Mount St. Helens Eruption  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...designed for aircraft operation was included in the...designed for aircraft operation was included...has an electrical heater attached to it...conduction to the cold reservoir. The...designedfor aircraft operation was included in...picture of global weather depends on (i...

DAVID G. MURCRAY; FRANK J. MURCRAY; D. BOYD BARKER; H. JOHN MASTENBROOK

1981-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

469

PREBIOTIC PORPHYRIN GENESIS: PORPHYRINS FROM ELECTRIC DISCHARGE IN METHANE, AMMONIA, AND WATER VAPOR  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...1967, Mexico City, Mexico. "I Blumer, M., and W. D. Snyder, "Porphyrins of high molecular weight in a Triassic oil shale: evidence by gel permation chromatography," Chem. Geol., 2, 35-45 (1967). 20 Falk, J. E., Porphyrins and...

G. W. Hodgson; Cyril Ponnamperuma

1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Numerical modeling of water injection into vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

demonstrate fluid flow and heat transfer mechanisms that areinterplay between fluid flow and heat transfer, accompaniedlinear coupled fluid flow and heat transfer processes during

Pruess, Karsten

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Satellite Measurement of Upper Tropospheric Water Vapor: Development and Applications and Applications for the ARM Program  

SciTech Connect

Upper tropospheric humidity (UTH) measurements from the 6.7 micron channel on GOES (8, 9, 12) and GMS-5 satellites were employed to develop a near real-time UTH product that is now available from the ARM External Data Center (XDC). The UTH product is available in either gridded format (2.0 x 2.0 lat-lon resolution), full-disk pixel resolution, or individual pixel resolution for both the SGP and TWP sites. This product provides the basis for the instrument intercomparison and validation activities (Section 0.2), diurnal analysis and model evaluation (0.3), and cloud lifecycle studies (0.5); and is also an important component of the research proposed here. Full details regarding the retrieval algorithm for the ARM sites can be found in Soden et al. (2004a) and references therein.

Brian J. Soden

2005-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

472

Field Testing of Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy Analyzers Measuring Carbon Dioxide and Water Vapor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Prevalent methods for making high-accuracy tower-based measurements of the CO2 mixing ratio, notably nondispersive infrared spectroscopy (NDIR), require frequent system calibration and sample drying. Wavelength-scanned cavity ring-down ...

Scott J. Richardson; Natasha L. Miles; Kenneth J. Davis; Eric R. Crosson; Chris W. Rella; Arlyn E. Andrews

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Water Vapor Transport and the Production of Precipitation in the Eastern Fertile Crescent  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the Persian Gulf, etc.) may have a relatively strong affect on the total precipitation falling in the Fertile is the Mediterranean, and to the south is the Persian Gulf. While it has been generally accepted that the area sensitivity to changes in the condition of the Persian Gulf relative to the Mediterranean Sea. This may have

Evans, Jason

474

X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy from ions at charged vapor/water interfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

X-ray fluorescence spectra from monovalent ions (Cs+) that accumulate from dilute solutions to form an ion-rich layer near a charged Langmuir monolayer are presented. For the salt solution without the monolayer, the fluorescence signals below the critical angle are significantly lower than the detection sensitivity and only above the critical angle signals from the bulk are observed. In the presence of a monolayer that provides surface charges, strong fluorescence signals below the critical angle are observed. Ion density accumulated at the interface are determined from the fluorescence. The fluorescent spectra collected as a function of incident x-ray energy near the LIII edge yield the extended absorption spectra from the ions, and are compared to recent independent results. The fluorescence data from divalent Ba2+ with and without monolayer are also presented.

Wei Bu; David Vaknin

2009-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

475

Autocatalytic water dissociation on Cu(110) at near ambient conditions  

SciTech Connect

Autocatalytic dissociation of water on the Cu(110) metal surface is demonstrated based on X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies carried out in-situ under near ambient conditions of water vapor pressure (1 Torr) and temperature (275-520 K). The autocatalytic reaction is explained as the result of the strong hydrogen-bond in the H{sub 2}O-OH complex of the dissociated final state, which lowers the water dissociation barrier according to the Broensted-Evans-Polanyi relations. A simple chemical bonding picture is presented which predicts autocatalytic water dissociation to be a general phenomenon on metal surfaces.

Mulleregan, Alice; Andersson, Klas; Ketteler, Guido; Bluhm, Hendrik; Yamamoto, Susumu; Ogasawara, Hirohito; Pettersson, Lars G.M.; Salmeron, Miquel; Nilsson, Anders

2007-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

476

Prediction of blast damage from vapor cloud explosions  

SciTech Connect

The process industries handle a wide range of different materials and use them in different types of chemical reaction. Of particular concern is the prospect of damage and injury affecting the general public outside the boundary wall of the chemical plant. It is not wise to permit the construction of homes, schools or hospitals so close to chemical plants that they, and the people within, might be damaged or injured should there be an accidental explosion in the plant. The major hazard outside the plant is over-pressure, a consequence of an accidental explosion in a cloud of flammable gas or vapor (Vapor Cloud Explosion or VCE). It is the responsibility of plant management to ensure that any such accidental explosion is not so large as to endanger the public, and of the local planning authorities to ensure that homes, schools or hospitals are not sited so close to chemical plants that they may be endangered by accidental explosion. A vital tool for such authorities is a simple method of assessing the possible consequences of an accidental VCE. In this paper those methods of assessing the consequences are examined.

Phillips, H. [Phillips (H.), Buxton (United Kingdom)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

477

ARM - VAP Process - gvrpwv  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Productsgvrpwv Productsgvrpwv Documentation & Plots Technical Report Data Management Facility Plots (Quick Looks) ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send VAP : G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) Instrument Categories Radiometric The G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) value-added product (VAP) computes precipitable water vapor using neural network techniques from data measured by the GVR. The GVR reports time-series measurements of brightness temperatures for four channels located at 183.3 ± 1, 3, 7, and 14 GHz. For more details, see the technical report. Output Products gvr : G-band (183 GHz) Vapor Radiometer Primary Measurements The following measurements are those considered scientifically relevant.

478

Simulation Study of Current Drive Efficiency for KSTAR 5 GHz LHCD  

SciTech Connect

Theoretical 5 GHz lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) efficiency using power spectrum given by 0-D Brambilla code and Lower Hybrid Simulation Code (LSC) have been studied for KSTAR. In LSC simulation, RF-driven current and current drive efficiency has been found to be deeply dependent on the profiles of the plasma density and temperature as well as on current profile in order to obtain hollow current profile favorable for advance tokamak operation mode and steady state operation. The peaked density and broad temperature profile control has been found to be efficient in current drive with maximum RF-driven current larger than 400 kA/MW with very high efficiency when the peak plasma density is ranged from 0.2 to 2.0x1020 m-3, and the peak electron temperature range of 2-20 keV together with toroidal field 2-3.5 T and Ip = 0.5-2 MA. The on-/off-axis current profile controllability is also investigated through parametric scan, and small negative magnetic shear is seen at the narrow region of the off-axis for very high temperature regime and for high BT and I{sub p}. In order to achieve the same for lower temperature regime Ip has to be lower and also for higher LH-power compromising with CD efficiency in this case.

Aria, A. K.; Bae, Y. S.; Yang, H. L.; Kwon, M. [National Fusion Research Institute, Gwahangno 113, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Do, H. J.; Namkung, W.; Cho, M. H.; Park, H. [Pohang University of Science and Technology, San 31, Hyoja-dong, Nam-gu, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

479

Marketing water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

management, water conservation programs Story by Kathy Wythe tx H2O | pg. 17 public information programs and materials that increase awareness about regional water issues. The company recently opened the TecH2O, a water resource learning center...tx H2O | pg. 16 W ith rapid population growth and the memory of the worst drought in 50 years, cities and groups are promoting programs that educate their constituents about water quality, water conservation, and landscape management. Many...

Wythe, Kathy

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Evaluation of the Vaporization, Fusion, and Sublimation Enthalpies of the 1-Alkanols: The Vaporization Enthalpy of 1-, 6-, 7-, and 9-Heptadecanol,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Evaluation of the Vaporization, Fusion, and Sublimation Enthalpies of the 1-Alkanols* Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of MissourisSt. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri 63121 sublimation enthalpies. The sublimation enthalpies were compared to existing literature values. Agreement

Chickos, James S.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ghz water vapor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

STRUCTURE OF THE INNER JET OF OJ287 FROM VLBA DATA AT 15 GHz IN SUPER-RESOLUTION MODE  

SciTech Connect

In this work we show the results obtained from the Very Long Baseline Array data at 15 GHz of OJ287 in super-resolution mode. The data showed a jet configuration in the form of a 'fork' where superluminal components emerge via stationary components at the northwest and the southeast close to the core to form parallel trajectories along the southwest direction in the plane of sky. This agrees with a source structure of an extended, broad morphology of OJ287.

Tateyama, Claudio E. [CEA-Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Av. dos Astronautas 1758, 12201-970 Sao Jose dos Campos, SP, Brazil. (Brazil)] [CEA-Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Av. dos Astronautas 1758, 12201-970 Sao Jose dos Campos, SP, Brazil. (Brazil)

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Beam Shaping for Short-Range Wireless Sensor Application at 2.4GHz using 0.18 Micrometer Technology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Beam Shaping for Short-Range Wireless Sensor Application at 2.4GHz using 0.18 ?m Technology Utkarshkrishna Unnikrishna, Sudipta Saha, Priyam Khanna, and Talal Al-Attar Department of Electrical Engineering, Center for Analog Design... SHAPING USING AMPLITUDE TAPERING In order to control the directivity of the array beam, we adjust the amplitude of each array element by scaling it. Thus for a 5x5 array, we would have 25 coefficients, one for each element and all scaled...

Saha, S.; Unnikrishna, U.; Khanna, P.; Al-Attar, T.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Mapping the Central Region of the PPN CRL 618 at Sub-arcsecond Resolution at 350 GHz  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CRL 618 is a well-studied pre-planetary nebula. We have mapped its central region in continuum and molecular lines with the Submillimeter Array at 350 GHz at ~ 0.3" to 0.5" resolutions. Two components are seen in 350 GHz continuum: (1) a compact emission at the center tracing the dense inner part of the H II region previously detected in 23 GHz continuum and it may trace a fast ionized wind at the base, and (2) an extended thermal dust emission surrounding the H II region, tracing the dense core previously detected in HC3N at the center of the circumstellar envelope. The dense core is dusty and may contain mm-sized dust grains. It may have a density enhancement in the equatorial plane. It is also detected in carbon chain molecules HC3N and HCN, and their isotopologues, with higher excitation lines tracing closer to the central star. It is also detected in C2H3CN toward the innermost part. Most of the emission detected here arises within ~ 630 AU (~0.7") from the central star. A simple radiative transfer model...

Lee, Chin-Fei; Sahai, Raghvendra; Contreras, Carmen Sanchez

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Advanced Membrane Systems: Recovering Wasteful and Hazardous Fuel Vapors at the Gasoline Tank  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

CMS to develop a membrane CMS to develop a membrane vapor processor that recovers fuel vapors from gasoline refueling with 99 percent efficiency. This membrane system enables gasoline stations to surpass environmental regulations while reducing fuel losses. Compact Membrane Systems, Inc. (CMS) was founded in 1993 in Wilmington, DE, with the acquisition of rights to certain DuPont polymer membrane patents. CMS focuses

485

An Examination of the Thermodynamics of Fusion, Vaporization, and Sublimation of Several Parabens by Correlation Gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An Examination of the Thermodynamics of Fusion, Vaporization, and Sublimation of Several Parabens, Kasetsart University, Bangkane, Bangkok 10900, Thailand 2 Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry.com). DOI 10.1002/jps.22423 ABSTRACT: The vaporization, fusion, and sublimation enthalpies of methyl, ethyl

Chickos, James S.

486

Method and apparatus to measure vapor pressure in a flow system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a method for determining, by a condensation method, the vapor pressure of a material with a known vapor pressure versus temperature characteristic, in a flow system particularly in a mercury isotope enrichment process. 2 figures.

Grossman, M.W.; Biblarz, O.

1991-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

487

Apparatus and method for removing mercury vapor from a gas stream  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A metallic filter effectively removes mercury vapor from gas streams. The filter captures the mercury which then can be released and collected as product. The metallic filter is a copper mesh sponge plated with a six micrometer thickness of gold. The filter removes up to 90% of mercury vapor from a mercury contaminated gas stream.

Ganesan, Kumar (Butte, MT)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Optofluidic ring resonator sensors for rapid DNT vapor detection Greg Frye-Mason,b  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(OFRR) chemical vapor sensor as a promising platform for explosive detection with the capability and chemical sensing platform.23­27 As illustrated in Fig. 1(A), the OFRR is a thin-walled fused silica shows that the OFRR vapor sensor is a promising platform for the development of a rapid, low

Fan, Xudong "Sherman"

489

Researchers develop electrodeposition process to deposit coatings on substrates, eliminate the expensive physical vapor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the expensive physical vapor deposition step, and improve device quality. CuIn1-xGaxSe2 (CIGS) solar cells have composition was adjusted by physical vapor deposition method. At present, we are fabricating CIGS-based solar). 2 R. N. Bhattacharya, W. Batchelor, J. F. Hiltner, and J. R. Sites, Appl. Phys. Lett., 75, 1431

490

Indium and tellurium doping of CdS crystals in cadmium vapor and their luminescent properties  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A technique is devised for vapor-phase doping of CdS in the quaternary system Cd-In-Te-S. CdS crystals are doped with In and Te via four-zone ... InTe vapors. The luminescence spectra of the CdS?In,Te?[Cd] crysta...

I. N. Odin; M. V. Chukichev; M. E. Rubina

491

Indium and tellurium doping of CdS crystals in cadmium vapor and their luminescent properties  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

—A technique is devised for vapor-phase doping of CdS in the quaternary system Cd—In—Te—S. CdS crystals are doped with In and Te via four-zone ... InTe vapors. The luminescence spectra of the CdS?In,Te?[Cd] cryst...

I. N. Odin; M. V. Chukichev; M. E. Rubina

492

Vapor phase elemental sulfur amendment for sequestering mercury in contaminated soil  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The process of treating elemental mercury within the soil is provided by introducing into the soil a heated vapor phase of elemental sulfur. As the vapor phase of elemental sulfur cools, sulfur is precipitated within the soil and then reacts with any elemental mercury thereby producing a reaction product that is less hazardous than elemental mercury.

Looney, Brian B.; Denham, Miles E.; Jackson, Dennis G.

2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

493

Nickel catalyst faceting in plasma-enhanced direct current chemical vapor deposition of carbon nanofibers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Nickel catalyst faceting in plasma-enhanced direct current chemical vapor deposition of carbon vapor deposition with Ni catalysts on the top of nanofibers. Transmission electron microscopy was used to study the morphology and crystallography of Ni catalysts, which are essential for the nucleation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

494

Neural modeling of vapor compression refrigeration cycle with extreme learning machine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, a single-hidden layer feed-forward neural network (SLFN) is used to model the dynamics of the vapor compression cycle in refrigeration and air-conditioning systems, based on the extreme learning machine (ELM). It is shown that the assignment ... Keywords: Back propagation, Extreme learning machine, Modeling, Radial basis function, Support vector regression, Vapor compression refrigeration cycle

Lei Zhao; Wen-Jian Cai; Zhi-Hong Man

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

Tunneling characteristics in chemical vapor deposited graphene hexagonal boron nitride graphene junctions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Tunneling characteristics in chemical vapor deposited graphene ­ hexagonal boron nitride ­ graphene junctions T. Roy1 , L. Liu2 , S. de la Barrera,3 B. Chakrabarti1,4 , Z. R. Hesabi1 , C. A. Joiner1 Abstract: Large area chemical vapor deposited graphene and hexagonal boron nitride was used to fabricate

Feenstra, Randall

496

Computational Analysis and Optimization of a Chemical Vapor Deposition Reactor with  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Computational Analysis and Optimization of a Chemical Vapor Deposition Reactor with Large and optimization of a three- dimensional model of a horizontal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactor used National Laboratories February 9, 2004 Abstract A computational analysis and optimization is presented

497

Optimization of the chemical vapor deposition process for carbon nanotubes fabrication  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimization of the chemical vapor deposition process for carbon nanotubes fabrication M. Grujicica-phase chemistry and surface chemistry model is developed to analyze, at the reactor length scale, chemical vapor (carrier gas) in the presence of cobalt catalytic particles in a cylindrical reactor. The model allows

Grujicic, Mica

498

OPTIMAL DESIGN OF A HIGH PRESSURE ORGANOMETALLIC CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION REACTOR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

OPTIMAL DESIGN OF A HIGH PRESSURE ORGANOMETALLIC CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION REACTOR K.J. BACHMANN of computer simulations as an optimal design tool which lessens the costs in time and effort in experimental vapor deposition (HPOMCVD) reactor for use in thin film crystal growth. The advantages of such a reactor

499

On the optimization of a dc arcjet diamond chemical vapor deposition reactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

On the optimization of a dc arcjet diamond chemical vapor deposition reactor S. W. Reevea) and W. A precursor in our dc arcjet reactor.1 Based on conclusions drawn from that work, an optimization strategy diamond film growth in a dc arcjet chemical vapor deposition reactor has been developed. Introducing

Dandy, David

500

Fundamental process and system design issues in CO2 vapor compression systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fundamental process and system design issues in CO2 vapor compression systems Man-Hoe Kima; CO2 (R-744); Transcritical cycle; Vapor compression system; COP; Air-conditioning; Heat pump recent developments and state of the art for transcritical CO2 cycle technology in various refrigeration

Bahrami, Majid