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Sample records for ghz vapor radiometer

  1. ARM: G-band (183 GHz) Vapor Radiometer profiler: 15 microwave brightness temperatures from 170.0 to 183.3 GHz

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Maria Cadeddu

    G-band (183 GHz) Vapor Radiometer profiler: 15 microwave brightness temperatures from 170.0 to 183.3 GHz

  2. G-Band Vapor Radiometer Profiler (GVRP) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caddeau, MP

    2010-06-23

    The G-Band Vapor Radiometer Profiler (GVRP) provides time-series measurements of brightness temperatures from 15 channels between 170 and 183.310 GHz. Atmospheric emission in this spectral region is primarily due to water vapor, with some influence from liquid water. Channels between 170.0 and 176.0 GHz are particularly sensitive to the presence of liquid water. The sensitivity to water vapor of the 183.31-GHz line is approximately 30 times higher than at the frequencies of the two-channel microwave radiometer (MWR) for a precipitable water vapor (PWV) amount of less than 2.5 mm. Measurements from the GVRP instrument are therefore especially useful during low-humidity conditions (PWV < 5 mm). In addition to integrated water vapor and liquid water, the GVRP can provide low-resolution vertical profiles of water vapor in very dry conditions.

  3. G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koontz, A; Cadeddu, M

    2012-12-05

    The G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) value-added product (VAP) computes precipitable water vapor using neural network techniques from data measured by the GVR. The GVR reports time-series measurements of brightness temperatures for four channels located at 183.3 ± 1, 3, 7, and 14 GHz.

  4. ARM: Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Maria Cadeddu

    2004-02-19

    Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

  5. ARM: Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Maria Cadeddu

    Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

  6. Microwave Radiometer-High Frequency (MWRHF) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caddedu, MP

    2011-03-17

    The 90/150-GHz Vapor Radiometer provides time-series measurements of brightness temperatures from two channels centered at 90 and 150 GHz. These two channels are sensitive to the presence of liquid water and precipitable water vapor.

  7. Microwave Radiometer – 3 Channel (MWR3C) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cadeddu, MP

    2012-05-04

    The microwave radiometer 3-channel (MWR3C) provides time-series measurements of brightness temperatures from three channels centered at 23.834, 30, and 89 GHz. These three channels are sensitive to the presence of liquid water and precipitable water vapor.

  8. MEASUREMENTS AND RETRIEVALS FROM A NEW 183-GHz WATER VAPOR RADIOMETER IN

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  9. Microwave Radiometer (MWR) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, VR

    2006-08-01

    The Microwave Radiometer (MWR) provides time-series measurements of column-integrated amounts of water vapor and liquid water. The instrument itself is essentially a sensitive microwave receiver. That is, it is tuned to measure the microwave emissions of the vapor and liquid water molecules in the atmosphere at specific frequencies.

  10. NRAO 225 GHz Tipping Radiometer Computer Operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Groppi, Christopher

    Area Network) . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.1.5 Chajnantor Computer Hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.csh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 6.6.3 time.csh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 6.6.4 Cdb

  11. Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Radiometric Studies of Temperature, Water Vapor and Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westwater, Edgeworth

    2011-05-06

    The importance of accurate measurements of column amounts of water vapor and cloud liquid has been well documented by scientists within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. At the North Slope of Alaska (NSA), both microwave radiometers (MWR) and the MWRProfiler (MWRP), been used operationally by ARM for passive retrievals of the quantities: Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) and Liquid Water Path (LWP). However, it has been convincingly shown that these instruments are inadequate to measure low amounts of PWV and LWP. In the case of water vapor, this is especially important during the Arctic winter, when PWV is frequently less than 2 mm. For low amounts of LWP (< 50 g/m{sup 2}), the MWR and MWRP retrievals have an accuracy that is also not acceptable. To address some of these needs, in March-April 2004, NOAA and ARM conducted the NSA Arctic Winter Radiometric Experiment - Water Vapor Intensive Operational Period at the ARM NSA/Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) site. After this experiment, the radiometer group at NOAA moved to the Center for Environmental Technology (CET) of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of the University of Colorado at Boulder. During this 2004 experiment, a total of 220 radiosondes were launched, and radiometric data from 22.235 to 380 GHz were obtained. Primary instruments included the ARM MWR and MWRP, a Global Positioning System (GPS), as well as the CET Ground-based Scanning Radiometer (GSR). We have analyzed data from these instruments to answer several questions of importance to ARM, including: (a) techniques for improved water vapor measurements; (b) improved calibration techniques during cloudy conditions; (c) the spectral response of radiometers to a variety of conditions: clear, liquid, ice, and mixed phase clouds; and (d) forward modeling of microwave and millimeter wave brightness temperatures from 22 to 380 GHz. Many of these results have been published in the open literature. During the third year of this contract, we participated in another ARM-sponsored experiment at the NSA during February-March 2007. This experiment is called the Radiative Heating in Underexplored Bands Campaign (RHUBC) and the GSR was operated successfully for the duration of the campaign. One of the principal goals of the experiment was to provide retrievals of water vapor during PWV amounts less than 2 mm and to compare GSR data with ARM radiometers and radiosondes. A secondary goal was to compare the radiometric response of the microwave and millimeter wavelength radiometers to water and ice clouds. In this final report, we will include the separate progress reports for each of the three years of the project and follow with a section on major accomplishments of the project.

  12. A HBAR-oscillator-based 4.596~GHz frequency source: Application to a coherent population trapping Cs vapor cell atomic clock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daugey, Thomas; Martin, Gilles; Boudot, Rodolphe

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on the design and characterization of a high-overtone bulk acoustic wave resonator (HBAR)-oscillator-based 4.596~GHz frequency source. A 2.298~GHz signal, generated by an oscillator constructed around a thermally-controlled two-port AlN-sapphire HBAR resonator with a Q-factor of 24000 at 68$^{\\circ}$C, is frequency multiplied by 2 to 4.596~GHz, half of the Cs atom clock frequency. The temperature coefficient of frequency (TCF) of the HBAR is measured to be $-23$~ppm/$^{\\circ}$C at 2.298~GHz. The measured phase noise of the 4.596~GHz source is $-105$~dBrad$^2$/Hz at 1~kHz offset and $-150$~dBrad$^2$/Hz at 100~kHz offset. The 4.596~GHz output signal is used as a local oscillator (LO) in a laboratory-prototype Cs microcell-based coherent population trapping (CPT) atomic clock. The signal is stabilized onto the atomic transition frequency by tuning finely a voltage-controlled phase shifter (VCPS) implemented in the 2.298~GHz HBAR-oscillator loop, preventing the need for a high-power-consuming...

  13. Stable radiometal antibody immunoconjugates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mease, Ronnie C. (Coram, NY); Srivastava, Suresh C. (Setauket, NY); Gestin, Jean-Francois (Oudon, FR)

    1994-01-01

    The present invention relates to new rigid chelating structures, to methods for preparing these materials, and to their use in preparing radiometal labeled immunoconjugates. These new chelates include cyclohexyl EDTA monohydride, the trans forms of cyclohexyl DTPA and TTHA, and derivatives of these cyclohexyl polyaminocarboxylate materials.

  14. Stable radiometal antibody immunoconjugates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mease, R.C.; Srivastava, S.C.; Gestin, J.F.

    1994-08-02

    The present invention relates to new rigid chelating structures, to methods for preparing these materials, and to their use in preparing radiometal labeled immunoconjugates. These new chelates include cyclohexyl EDTA monohydride, the trans forms of cyclohexyl DTPA and TTHA, and derivatives of these cyclohexyl polyaminocarboxylate materials. No Drawings

  15. Characterization and calibration of 8-channel E-band heterodyne radiometer system for SST-1 tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siju, Varsha; Kumar, Dharmendra; Shukla, Praveena; Pathak, S. K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India)] [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India)

    2014-05-15

    An 8-channel E-band heterodyne radiometer system (74–86 GHz) is designed, characterized, and calibrated to measure the radial electron temperature profile by measuring Electron Cyclotron Emission spectrum at SST-1 Tokamak. The developed radiometer has a noise equivalent temperature of 1 eV and sensitivity of 5 × 10{sup 9} V/W. In order to precisely measure the absolute value of electron temperature, a calibration measurement of the radiometer system is performed using hot-cold Dicke switch method, which confirms the system linearity.

  16. Radiometer Characterization System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  17. Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodges, GB; Michalsky, JJ

    2011-02-07

    The visible Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) is a passive instrument that measures global and diffuse components of solar irradiance at six narrowband channels and one open, or broadband, channel (Harrison et al. 1994). Direct irradiance is not a primary measurement, but is calculated using the diffuse and global measurements. To collect one data record, the MFRSR takes measurements at four different shadowband positions. The first measurement is taken with the shadowband in the nadir (home) position. The next three measurements are, in order, the first side-band, sun-blocked, and second side-band. The side-band measurements are used to correct for the portion of the sky obscured by the shadowband. The nominal wavelengths of the narrowband channels are 415, 500, 615, 673, 870, and 940 nm. From such measurements, one may infer the atmosphere's aerosol optical depth at each wavelength. In turn, these optical depths may be used to derive information about the column abundances of ozone and water vapor (Michalsky et al. 1995), as well as aerosol (Harrison and Michalsky 1994) and other atmospheric constituents.

  18. ARM Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR): irradiances

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Hodges, Gary

    1993-07-04

    The multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) takes spectral measurements of direct normal, diffuse horizontal and total horizontal solar irradiances. These measurements are at nominal wavelengths of 415, 500, 615, 673, 870, and 940 nm. The measurements are made at a user-specified time interval, usually about one minute or less. The sampling rate for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility MFRSRs is 20 seconds. From such measurements, one may infer the atmosphere's optical depth at the wavelengths mentioned above. In turn, these optical depths may be used to derive information about the column abundances of ozone and water vapor (Michalsky et al. 1995), as well as aerosol (Michalsky et al. 1994) and other atmospheric constituents. A silicon detector is also part of the MFRSR. This detector provides a measure of the broadband direct normal, diffuse horizontal and total horizontal solar irradiances. A MFRSR head that is mounted to look vertically downward can measure upwelling spectral irradiances. In the ARM system, this instrument is called a multifilter radiometer (MFR). At the Southern Great Plains (SGP) there are two MFRs; one mounted at the 10-m height and the other at 25 m. At the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites, the MFRs are mounted at 10 m. MFRSR heads are also used to measure normal incidence radiation by mounting on a solar tracking device. These are referred to as normal incidence multi-filter radiometers (NIMFRs) and are located at the SGP and NSA sites. Another specialized use for the MFRSR is the narrow field of view (NFOV) instrument located at SGP. The NFOV is a ground-based radiometer (MFRSR head) that looks straight up.

  19. ARM Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR): irradiances

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Hodges, Gary

    The multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) takes spectral measurements of direct normal, diffuse horizontal and total horizontal solar irradiances. These measurements are at nominal wavelengths of 415, 500, 615, 673, 870, and 940 nm. The measurements are made at a user-specified time interval, usually about one minute or less. The sampling rate for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility MFRSRs is 20 seconds. From such measurements, one may infer the atmosphere's optical depth at the wavelengths mentioned above. In turn, these optical depths may be used to derive information about the column abundances of ozone and water vapor (Michalsky et al. 1995), as well as aerosol (Michalsky et al. 1994) and other atmospheric constituents. A silicon detector is also part of the MFRSR. This detector provides a measure of the broadband direct normal, diffuse horizontal and total horizontal solar irradiances. A MFRSR head that is mounted to look vertically downward can measure upwelling spectral irradiances. In the ARM system, this instrument is called a multifilter radiometer (MFR). At the Southern Great Plains (SGP) there are two MFRs; one mounted at the 10-m height and the other at 25 m. At the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites, the MFRs are mounted at 10 m. MFRSR heads are also used to measure normal incidence radiation by mounting on a solar tracking device. These are referred to as normal incidence multi-filter radiometers (NIMFRs) and are located at the SGP and NSA sites. Another specialized use for the MFRSR is the narrow field of view (NFOV) instrument located at SGP. The NFOV is a ground-based radiometer (MFRSR head) that looks straight up.

  20. Water Vapour Radiometers for the Australia Telescope Compact Array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Indermuehle, Balthasar T; Crofts, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    We have developed Water Vapour Radiometers (WVRs) for the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) that are capable of determining path fluctuations by virtue of measuring small temperature fluctuations in the atmosphere using the 22.2 GHz water vapour line for each of the six antennae. By measuring the line of sight variations of the water vapour, the induced path excess and thus the phase delay can be estimated and corrections can then be applied during data reduction. This reduces decorrelation of the source signal. We demonstrate how this recovers the telescope's efficiency and image quality as well as how this improves the telescope's ability to use longer baselines at higher frequencies, thereby resulting in higher spatial resolution. A description of the WVR hardware design, their calibration and water vapour retrieval mechanism is given.

  1. High spatial resolution upgrade of the electron cyclotron emission radiometer for the DIII-D tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truong, D. D., E-mail: dtruong@wisc.edu [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Austin, M. E. [Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas, Austin, Texas, 78712 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    The 40-channel DIII-D electron cyclotron emission (ECE) radiometer provides measurements of T{sub e}(r,t) at the tokamak midplane from optically thick, second harmonic X-mode emission over a frequency range of 83–130 GHz. The frequency spacing of the radiometer's channels results in a spatial resolution of ?1–3 cm, depending on local magnetic field and electron temperature. A new high resolution subsystem has been added to the DIII-D ECE radiometer to make sub-centimeter (0.6–0.8 cm) resolution T{sub e} measurements. The high resolution subsystem branches off from the regular channels’ IF bands and consists of a microwave switch to toggle between IF bands, a switched filter bank for frequency selectivity, an adjustable local oscillator and mixer for further frequency down-conversion, and a set of eight microwave filters in the 2–4 GHz range. Higher spatial resolution is achieved through the use of a narrower (200 MHz) filter bandwidth and closer spacing between the filters’ center frequencies (250 MHz). This configuration allows for full coverage of the 83–130 GHz frequency range in 2 GHz bands. Depending on the local magnetic field, this translates into a “zoomed-in” analysis of a ?2–4 cm radial region. Expected uses of these channels include mapping the spatial dependence of Alfven eigenmodes, geodesic acoustic modes, and externally applied magnetic perturbations. Initial T{sub e} measurements, which demonstrate that the desired resolution is achieved, are presented.

  2. MICROWAVE RADIOMETER INTER-CALIBRATION: ALGORITHM DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruf, Christopher

    MICROWAVE RADIOMETER INTER-CALIBRATION: ALGORITHM DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION by Rachael Ann 1.2.2 Microwave Remote Sensing............................................................................... 8 1.2.4 Spaceborne Microwave Radiometers: Roadmap to TRMM and GPM ...... 10 1.2.5 The Tropical

  3. Preliminary Validation and Performance of the Jason Microwave Radiometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruf, Christopher

    Preliminary Validation and Performance of the Jason Microwave Radiometer Shannon Brown and Chris Pasadena, CA Abstract ­ The Jason Microwave Radiometer is calibrated using hot and cold on-located Topex Microwave Radiometer and radiosonde values. The calibrated path delay values are demonstrated

  4. Fun with a Radiometer Use a radiometer to demonstrate how the sun sets the atmosphere in motion.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Cari

    Fun with a Radiometer Use a radiometer to demonstrate how the sun sets the atmosphere in motion Happened? The heat lamp or flashlight represents the sun. The radiometer started spinning in response motions. Basic Concepts Learned: · The sun heats different spots on the earth different amounts

  5. Estimating 13.8-GHz path-integrated attenuation from 10.7-GHz brightness temperatures for the TRMM combined PR-TMI precipitation algorithm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, E.A.; Farrar, M.R.; Xiang, X. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)] [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Turk, F.J. [Naval Research Lab., Monterey, CA (United States)] [Naval Research Lab., Monterey, CA (United States); Mugnai, A. [Instituto di Fisica dell`Atmosfera-CNR, Frascati (Italy)] [Instituto di Fisica dell`Atmosfera-CNR, Frascati (Italy)

    1997-04-01

    This study presents research in support of the design and implementation of a combined radar-radiometer algorithm to be used for precipitation retrieval during the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). The combined algorithm approach is expected to overcome various difficulties that arise with a radar-only approach, particularly related to estimates of path-integrated attenuation (PIA)along the TRMM radar beam. A technique is described for estimating PIA at the 13.8-GHz frequency of the TRMM precipitation radar (PR) from 10.7-GHz brightness temperature T{sub B} measurements obtained from the TRMM microwave imager. Through the use of variational or probabilistic techniques, the independent PIA calculations provide a means to adjust for errors that accumulate in estimates of range-dependent rain rates at progressively increasing range positions from radar reflectivity vectors. The accepted radar approach for obtaining PIA from ocean-viewing radar reflectivity measurements is called the surface reference technique, a scheme based on the difference in ocean surface cross sections between cloud-free and raining radar pixels. This technique has encountered problems, which are discussed and analyzed with the aid of coordinated aircraft radar (Airborne Rain Mapping Radar) and radiometer (Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer) measurements obtained during the west Pacific Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment in 1993. 97 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. A new radiometer for earth radiation budget studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, P.G.

    1992-05-01

    A critical need for the US Global Change Research Program is to provide continuous, well-calibrated radiometric data for radiation balance studies. This paper describes a new, compact, relatively light-weight, adaptable radiometer which will provide both spectrally integrated measurements and data in selected spectral bands. The radiometer design is suitable for use on (small) satellites, aircraft, or Unmanned Aerospace Vehicles (UAVs). Some considerations for the implementation of this radiometer on a small satellite are given. 17 refs.

  7. A new radiometer for earth radiation budget studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, P.G.

    1992-01-01

    A critical need for the US Global Change Research Program is to provide continuous, well-calibrated radiometric data for radiation balance studies. This paper describes a new, compact, relatively light-weight, adaptable radiometer which will provide both spectrally integrated measurements and data in selected spectral bands. The radiometer design is suitable for use on (small) satellites, aircraft, or Unmanned Aerospace Vehicles (UAVs). Some considerations for the implementation of this radiometer on a small satellite are given. 17 refs.

  8. PROGRESS REPORT OF FY 2004 ACTIVITIES: IMPROVED WATER VAPOR AND CLOUD RETRIEVALS AT THE NSA/AAO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. R. Westwater; V. V. Leuskiy; M. Klein; A. J. Gasiewski; and J. A. Shaw

    2004-11-01

    The basic goals of the research are to develop and test algorithms and deploy instruments that improve measurements of water vapor, cloud liquid, and cloud coverage, with a focus on the Arctic conditions of cold temperatures and low concentrations of water vapor. The importance of accurate measurements of column amounts of water vapor and cloud liquid has been well documented by scientists within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program. Although several technologies have been investigated to measure these column amounts, microwave radiometers (MWR) have been used operationally by the ARM program for passive retrievals of these quantities: precipitable water vapor (PWV) and integrated water liquid (IWL). The technology of PWV and IWL retrievals has advanced steadily since the basic 2-channel MWR was first deployed at ARM CART sites Important advances are the development and refinement of the tipcal calibration method [1,2], and improvement of forward model radiative transfer algorithms [3,4]. However, the concern still remains that current instruments deployed by ARM may be inadequate to measure low amounts of PWV and IWL. In the case of water vapor, this is especially important because of the possibility of scaling and/or quality control of radiosondes by the water amount. Extremely dry conditions, with PWV less than 3 mm, commonly occur in Polar Regions during the winter months. Accurate measurements of the PWV during such dry conditions are needed to improve our understanding of the regional radiation energy budgets. The results of a 1999 experiment conducted at the ARM North Slope of Alaska/Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) site during March of 1999 [5] have shown that the strength associated with the 183 GHz water vapor absorption line makes radiometry in this frequency regime suitable for measuring low amounts of PWV. As a portion of our research, we conducted another millimeter wave radiometric experiment at the NSA/AAO in March-April 2004. This experiment relied heavily on our experiences of the 1999 experiment. Particular attention was paid to issues of radiometric calibration and radiosonde intercomparisons. Our theoretical and experimental work also supplements efforts by industry (F. Solheim, Private Communication) to develop sub-millimeter radiometers for ARM deployment. In addition to quantitative improvement of water vapor measurements at cold temperature, the impact of adding millimeter-wave window channels to improve the sensitivity to arctic clouds was studied. We also deployed an Infrared Cloud Imager (ICI) during this experiment, both for measuring continuous day-night statistics of the study of cloud coverage and identifying conditions suitable for tipcal analysis. This system provided the first capability of determining spatial cloud statistics continuously in both day and night at the NSA site and has been used to demonstrate that biases exist in inferring cloud statistics from either zenith-pointing active sensors (lidars or radars) or sky imagers that rely on scattered sunlight in daytime and star maps at night [6].

  9. Microfluidic Radiometal Labeling Systems for Biomolecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reichert, D E; Kenis, P J. A.

    2011-12-29

    In a typical labeling procedure with radiometals, such as Cu-64 and Ga-68; a very large (~ 100-fold) excess of the non-radioactive reactant (precursor) is used to promote rapid and efficient incorporation of the radioisotope into the PET imaging agent. In order to achieve high specific activities, careful control of reaction conditions and extensive chromatographic purifications are required in order to separate the labeled compounds from the cold precursors. Here we propose a microfluidic approach to overcome these problems, and achieve high specific activities in a more convenient, semi-automated fashion and faster time frame. Microfluidic reactors, consisting of a network of micron-sized channels (typical dimensions in the range 10 â�� 300 �¼m), filters, separation columns, electrodes and reaction loops/chambers etched onto a solid substrate, are now emerging as an extremely useful technology for the intensification and miniaturization of chemical processes. The ability to manipulate, process and analyze reagent concentrations and reaction interfaces in both space and time within the channel network of a microreactor provides the fine level of reaction control that is desirable in PET radiochemistry practice. These factors can bring radiometal labeling, specifically the preparation of radio-labeled biomolecules such as antibodies, much closer to their theoretical maximum specific activities.

  10. Constraints on the polarization purity of a Stokes microwave radiometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruf, Christopher

    Constraints on the polarization purity of a Stokes microwave radiometer Christopher S. Ruf of the third and fourth Stokes parameters of microwave thermal emission can be degraded by nonideal radiometer of microwave emission by the ocean surface identified wind direc- tion as the cause [Bespalova et al., 1982

  11. VICARIOUS CALIBRATION OF GLOBAL PRECIPITATION MEASUREMENT MICROWAVE RADIOMETERS1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruf, Christopher

    VICARIOUS CALIBRATION OF GLOBAL PRECIPITATION MEASUREMENT MICROWAVE RADIOMETERS1 Darren Mc of the TMI, WindSat, SSM/I F13 and SSM/I F14 microwave radiometers using data from the GPM Inter Terms-- Microwave radiometry, Calibration 1. INTRODUCTION The primary goal of NASA's Global

  12. ARM: Broadband Radiometer Station (BRS) broadband shortwave and longwave 1-min radiation data with Dutton correction

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Laura Riihimaki

    1993-09-01

    Broadband Radiometer Station (BRS) broadband shortwave and longwave 1-min radiation data with Dutton correction

  13. ARM: Broadband Radiometer Station (BRS) broadband shortwave and longwave 1-min radiation data with Dutton correction

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Laura Riihimaki

    Broadband Radiometer Station (BRS) broadband shortwave and longwave 1-min radiation data with Dutton correction

  14. Calibrated vapor generator source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davies, J.P.; Larson, R.A.; Goodrich, L.D.; Hall, H.J.; Stoddard, B.D.; Davis, S.G.; Kaser, T.G.; Conrad, F.J.

    1995-09-26

    A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet. 10 figs.

  15. Calibrated vapor generator source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davies, John P. (Idaho Falls, ID); Larson, Ronald A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Goodrich, Lorenzo D. (Shelley, ID); Hall, Harold J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Stoddard, Billy D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Davis, Sean G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kaser, Timothy G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Conrad, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01

    A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet.

  16. Airborne Sun photometer measurements of aerosol optical depth and columnar water vapor during the Puerto Rico Dust Experiment and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher, Sundar A.

    Airborne Sun photometer measurements of aerosol optical depth and columnar water vapor during to within 0.004­0.030 with coincident data obtained with an AERONET Sun/ sky radiometer located on Cabras Dynamics: Remote sensing; KEYWORDS: PRIDE, airborne Sun photometer, aerosol optical depth, columnar water

  17. Integration of Global Positioning System and Scanning Water Vapor Radiometers for Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path Estimates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACT EVALUATION PLANIs gravity aOverviewISM IntegratedIntegratingIntegration

  18. DOE/SC-ARM/TR-122 G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit theCovalent Bonding Low-Cost2 DOE HQSiteo n n e v i2 ARM Climate16233752502

  19. Ocean Water Vapor and Cloud Burden Trends Derived from the Topex Microwave Radiometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruf, Christopher

    algorithm is a log-linear regression algorithm with coefficients that are stratified by wind speed and water. TMR OBSERVATIONS The TMR flew in a 10-day non-sun-synchronous exact repeat orbit with an inclination

  20. Improved Retrievals of Temperature and Water Vapor Profiles Using a Twelve-Channel Microwave Radiometer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACT EVALUATION PLAN FOR THE SITE-218 58 84 168Organic

  1. Active radiometer for self-calibrated furnace temperature measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woskov, Paul P. (Bedford, MA); Cohn, Daniel R. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Titus, Charles H. (Newtown Square, PA); Wittle, J. Kenneth (Chester Springs, PA); Surma, Jeffrey E. (Kennewick, WA)

    1996-01-01

    Radiometer with a probe beam superimposed on its field-of-view for furnace temperature measurements. The radiometer includes a heterodyne millimeter/submillimeter-wave receiver including a millimeter/submillimeter-wave source for probing. The receiver is adapted to receive radiation from a surface whose temperature is to be measured. The radiation includes a surface emission portion and a surface reflection portion which includes the probe beam energy reflected from the surface. The surface emission portion is related to the surface temperature and the surface reflection portion is related to the emissivity of the surface. The simultaneous measurement of surface emissivity serves as a real time calibration of the temperature measurement.

  2. Characterization of the Aquarius and Juno Radiometers Using a Programmable Digital Noise Source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruf, Christopher

    Characterization of the Aquarius and Juno Radiometers Using a Programmable Digital Noise Source of a programmable digital noise source has been developed to aid in the characterization of microwave radiometers fully characterized. Keywords- Microwave Radiometry, Calibration, Polarimetric Radiometry, noise source

  3. Remote sensing of total integrated water vapor, wind speed, and cloud liquid water over the ocean using the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manning, Norman Willis William

    1997-01-01

    A modified D-matrix retrieval method is the basis of the refined total integrated water vapor (TIWV), total integrated cloud liquid water (CLW), and surface wind speed (WS) retrieval methods that are developed. The 85 GHZ ...

  4. Evaluation of Radiometers Deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habte, A.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.

    2014-02-01

    This study analyzes the performance of various commercially available radiometers used for measuring global horizontal irradiances and direct normal irradiances. These include pyranometers, pyrheliometers, rotating shadowband radiometers, and a pyranometer with fixed internal shading and are all deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. Data from 32 global horizontal irradiance and 19 direct normal irradiance radiometers are presented. The radiometers in this study were deployed for one year (from April 1, 2011, through March 31, 2012) and compared to measurements from radiometers with the lowest values of estimated measurement uncertainties for producing reference global horizontal irradiances and direct normal irradiances.

  5. Empirical Evaluation of Four Microwave Radiative Forward Models Based on Ground-Based Radiometer Data Near 20 and 30 GHz

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansas NuclearElectronic StructureEly M.Emilio Segrè About theEmpirical

  6. VAPORIZATION THERMODYNAMICS OF KCl. COMBINING VAPOR PRESSURE AND GRAVIMETRIC DATA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rudnyi, Evgenii B.

    1 VAPORIZATION THERMODYNAMICS OF KCl. COMBINING VAPOR PRESSURE AND GRAVIMETRIC DATA Rudnyi E of thermodynamic properties of the vapor and the vaporization process, coupling pressure measurements. INTRODUCTION The vapor pressure of a substance is an important system property in many applications. Its value

  7. Vapor spill monitoring method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bianchini, Gregory M. (Livermore, CA); McRae, Thomas G. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01

    Method for continuous sampling of liquified natural gas effluent from a spill pipe, vaporizing the cold liquified natural gas, and feeding the vaporized gas into an infrared detector to measure the gas composition. The apparatus utilizes a probe having an inner channel for receiving samples of liquified natural gas and a surrounding water jacket through which warm water is flowed to flash vaporize the liquified natural gas.

  8. Monolithic RTD Array Oscillators at 100 GHz and 200 GHz with On-Wafer Bias Stabilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodwell, Mark J. W.

    .E. Muller and R.P. Smith Jet Propulsion Labs, Pasadena, CA 90265 We report 100 GHz and 200 GHz monolithic measurements of these are currently in progress. 712 GHz wave guide RTD oscillators have been demonstrated [1]. Power levels however are low due to constraints imposed on device area for suppressing parasitic bias

  9. Quantitative Analysis of Spectral Impacts on Silicon Photodiode Radiometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D. R.

    2011-01-01

    Inexpensive broadband pyranometers with silicon photodiode detectors have a non-uniform spectral response over the spectral range of 300-1100 nm. The response region includes only about 70% to 75% of the total energy in the terrestrial solar spectral distribution from 300 nm to 4000 nm. The solar spectrum constantly changes with solar position and atmospheric conditions. Relative spectral distributions of diffuse hemispherical irradiance sky radiation and total global hemispherical irradiance are drastically different. This analysis convolves a typical photodiode response with SMARTS 2.9.5 spectral model spectra for different sites and atmospheric conditions. Differences in solar component spectra lead to differences on the order of 2% in global hemispherical and 5% or more in diffuse hemispherical irradiances from silicon radiometers. The result is that errors of more than 7% can occur in the computation of direct normal irradiance from global hemispherical irradiance and diffuse hemispherical irradiance using these radiometers.

  10. Quantitative Analysis of Spectral Impacts on Silicon Photodiode Radiometers: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D. R.

    2011-04-01

    Inexpensive broadband pyranometers with silicon photodiode detectors have a non-uniform spectral response over the spectral range of 300-1100 nm. The response region includes only about 70% to 75% of the total energy in the terrestrial solar spectral distribution from 300 nm to 4000 nm. The solar spectrum constantly changes with solar position and atmospheric conditions. Relative spectral distributions of diffuse hemispherical irradiance sky radiation and total global hemispherical irradiance are drastically different. This analysis convolves a typical photodiode response with SMARTS 2.9.5 spectral model spectra for different sites and atmospheric conditions. Differences in solar component spectra lead to differences on the order of 2% in global hemispherical and 5% or more in diffuse hemispherical irradiances from silicon radiometers. The result is that errors of more than 7% can occur in the computation of direct normal irradiance from global hemispherical irradiance and diffuse hemispherical irradiance using these radiometers.

  11. Active radiometer for self-calibrated furnace temperature measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woskov, P.P.; Cohn, D.R.; Titus, C.H.; Wittle, J.K.; Surma, J.E.

    1996-11-12

    A radiometer is described with a probe beam superimposed on its field-of-view for furnace temperature measurements. The radiometer includes a heterodyne millimeter/submillimeter-wave receiver including a millimeter/submillimeter-wave source for probing. The receiver is adapted to receive radiation from a surface whose temperature is to be measured. The radiation includes a surface emission portion and a surface reflection portion which includes the probe beam energy reflected from the surface. The surface emission portion is related to the surface temperature and the surface reflection portion is related to the emissivity of the surface. The simultaneous measurement of surface emissivity serves as a real time calibration of the temperature measurement. 5 figs.

  12. High resolution 20 GHz wideband delay generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodwell, Mark J. W.

    High resolution 20 GHz wideband delay generator S.L. Morton, K. Elliott and M. Rodwell A digitally resolution beamsteering applications, a delay generator is required to have a resolution better than 0.25 ps for a signal of 1.8 GHz. In 1989, Otsuji and Narumi [3] fabricated delay lines for delay generation, using

  13. Vapor Barriers or Vapor Diffusion Retarders | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    vapor retarders: Class I vapor retarders (0.1 perms or less): Glass Sheet metal Polyethylene sheet Rubber membrane Class II vapor retarders (greater than 0.1 perms and less...

  14. Experimental measurements and noise analysis of a cryogenic radiometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carr, S. M.; Woods, S. I.; Jung, T. M.; Carter, A. C.; Datla, R. U.

    2014-07-15

    A cryogenic radiometer device, intended for use as part of an electrical-substitution radiometer, was measured at low temperature. The device consists of a receiver cavity mechanically and thermally connected to a temperature-controlled stage through a thin-walled polyimide tube which serves as a weak thermal link. With the temperature difference between the receiver and the stage measured in millikelvin and the electrical power measured in picowatts, the measured responsivity was 4700 K/mW and the measured thermal time constant was 14 s at a stage temperature of 1.885 K. Noise analysis in terms of Noise Equivalent Power (NEP) was used to quantify the various fundamental and technical noise contributions, including phonon noise and Johnson-Nyquist noise. The noise analysis clarifies the path toward a cryogenic radiometer with a noise floor limited by fundamental phonon noise, where the magnitude of the phonon NEP is 6.5 fW/?(Hz) for the measured experimental parameters.

  15. Enthalpies of Vaporization and Vapor Pressures of Some Deuterated Hydrocarbons. Liquid-Vapor Pressure Isotope Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chickos, James S.

    Enthalpies of Vaporization and Vapor Pressures of Some Deuterated Hydrocarbons. Liquid-Vapor pressures as a function of temperature and enthalpies of vaporization of a series of both liquid and solid. The applicability of this technique is first demonstrated by reproducing the vapor pressure isotope effect

  16. Vapor Barriers or Vapor Diffusion Retarders | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    retarders. Materials such as rigid foam insulation, reinforced plastics, aluminum, and stainless steel are relatively resistant to water vapor diffusion. These types of vapor...

  17. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stern, R.C.; Paisner, J.A.

    1986-08-15

    The atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) process for the enrichment of uranium is evaluated. (AIP)

  18. Atomic Faraday filter with equivalent noise bandwidth less than 1 GHz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zentile, Mark A; Keaveney, James; Adams, Charles S; Hughes, Ifan G

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate an atomic bandpass optical filter with an equivalent noise bandwidth less than 1 GHz using the D$_1$ line in a cesium vapor. We use the ElecSus computer program to find optimal experimental parameters, and find that for important quantities the cesium D$_1$ line clearly outperforms other alkali metals on either D-lines. The filter simultaneously achieves a peak transmission of 77%, a passband of 310 MHz and an equivalent noise bandwidth of 0.96 GHz, for a magnetic field of 45.3 gauss and a temperature of 68.0$\\,^\\circ$C. Experimentally, the prediction from the model is verified. The experiment and theoretical predictions show excellent agreement.

  19. Design of a differential radiometer for atmospheric radiative flux measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaDelfe, P.C.; Weber, P.G.; Rodriguez, C.W.

    1994-11-01

    The Hemispherical Optimized NEt Radiometer (HONER) is an instrument under development at the Los Alamos National Laboratory for deployment on an unmanned aerospace vehicle as part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM/UAV) program. HONER is a differential radiometer which will measure the difference between the total upwelling and downwelling fluxes and is intended to provide a means of measuring the atmospheric radiative flux divergence. Unlike existing instruments which measure the upwelling and downwelling fluxes separately, HONER will achieve an optical difference by chopping the two fluxes alternately onto a common pyroelectric detector. HONER will provide data resolved into two spectral bands; one covering the solar dominated region from less than 0.4 micrometer to approximately 4.5 micrometers and the other covering the region from approximately 4.5 micrometers to greater than 50 micrometers, dominated by thermal radiation. The means of separating the spectral regions guarantees seamless summation to calculate the total flux. The fields-of-view are near-hemispherical, upward and downward. The instrument can be converted, in flight, from the differential mode to absolute mode, measuring the upwelling and downwelling fluxes separately and simultaneously. The instrument also features continuous calibration from on-board sources. We will describe the design and operation of the sensor head and the on-board reference sources as well as the means of deployment.

  20. TOMOGRAPHIC RETRIEVAL OF CLOUD WATER DISTRIBUTIONS USING AN AIR-BORNE SCANNING MICROWAVE RADIOMETER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    TOMOGRAPHIC RETRIEVAL OF CLOUD WATER DISTRIBUTIONS USING AN AIR-BORNE SCANNING MICROWAVE RADIOMETER, for United States Government purposes. BNL-79834-2008-AB #12;ABSTRACT Microwave radiometers have been used, but neither the microwave technology nor the cloud models were mature enough for practical application

  1. Low Actuation Voltage RF MEMS SwitchesWith Signal Frequencies From 0.25GHz to 40GHz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Shyh-Chiang

    Low Actuation Voltage RF MEMS SwitchesWith Signal Frequencies From 0.25GHz to 40GHz Shyh-voltage radio-frequency micro- electromechanical system (RF MEMS) switch is reported. The device switching of better than 27 dB over the frequency band from 0.25GHz to 40GHz was achieved. The RF MEMS switch

  2. High power pulsed magnicon at 34-GHz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nezhevenko, O.A.; Yakovlev, V.P.; Ganguly, A.K.; Hirshfield, J.L. [Omega-P Inc., 202008 Yale Station, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)

    1999-05-01

    A high efficiency, high power magnicon amplifier at 34.272 GHz has been designed as a radiation source to drive multi-TeV electron-positron linear colliders. Simulations show peak output power of 45 MW in a 1.5 microsecond wide pulse with an efficiency of 45{percent} and gain of 55 dB. The repetition rate is 10 Hz. The amplifier is a frequency tripler, or third harmonic amplifier, in that the output frequency of 34.272 GHz is three times the input drive frequency of 11.424 GHz. Thus the rotating TM{sub 110} modes in the drive cavity, 3 gain cavities and double decoupled penultimate cavities are resonant near 11.424 GHz; and the rotating TM{sub 310} mode in the output cavity is resonant at 34.272 GHz. A 500 kV, 200 A high area compression electron gun will provide a low emittance electron beam with a diameter of about 0.8 mm. A superconducting solenoid magnet will provide a magnetic field of 13 kG in the deflection system and 22 kG in the output cavity. A collector for the spent beam has also been designed. Detailed simulation results for the operation of the entire magnicon amplifier (gun, magnetic system, rf system and collector) will be given. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Electrolyte vapor condenser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sederquist, Richard A. (Newington, CT); Szydlowski, Donald F. (East Hartford, CT); Sawyer, Richard D. (Canton, CT)

    1983-01-01

    A system is disclosed for removing electrolyte from a fuel cell gas stream. The gas stream containing electrolyte vapor is supercooled utilizing conventional heat exchangers and the thus supercooled gas stream is passed over high surface area passive condensers. The condensed electrolyte is then drained from the condenser and the remainder of the gas stream passed on. The system is particularly useful for electrolytes such as phosphoric acid and molten carbonate, but can be used for other electrolyte cells and simple vapor separation as well.

  4. Electrolyte vapor condenser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sederquist, R.A.; Szydlowski, D.F.; Sawyer, R.D.

    1983-02-08

    A system is disclosed for removing electrolyte from a fuel cell gas stream. The gas stream containing electrolyte vapor is supercooled utilizing conventional heat exchangers and the thus supercooled gas stream is passed over high surface area passive condensers. The condensed electrolyte is then drained from the condenser and the remainder of the gas stream passed on. The system is particularly useful for electrolytes such as phosphoric acid and molten carbonate, but can be used for other electrolyte cells and simple vapor separation as well. 3 figs.

  5. 17 GHz High Gradient Accelerator Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Temkin, Richard J.; Shapiro, Michael A.

    2013-07-10

    This is a report on the MIT High Gradient Accelerator Research program which has included: Operation of the 17 GHz, 25 MeV MIT/Haimson Research Corp. electron accelerator at MIT, the highest frequency, stand-alone accelerator in the world; collaboration with members of the US High Gradient Collaboration, including the design and test of novel structures at SLAC at 11.4 GHz; the design, construction and testing of photonic bandgap structures, including metallic and dielectric structures; the investigation of the wakefields in novel structures; and the training of the next generation of graduate students and postdoctoral associates in accelerator physics.

  6. Organic vapor jet printing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R

    2012-10-23

    An organic vapor jet printing system includes a pump for increasing the pressure of an organic flux.

  7. A cloud detection algorithm using the downwelling infrared radiance measured by an infrared pyrometer of the ground-based microwave radiometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahn, M.-H.; Han, D.; Won, H. Y.; Morris, V.

    2015-01-01

    For better utilization of the ground-based microwave radiometer, it is important to detect the cloud presence in the measured data. Here, we introduce a simple and fast cloud detection algorithm by using the optical characteristics of the clouds in the infrared atmospheric window region. The new algorithm utilizes the brightness temperature (Tb) measured by an infrared radiometer installed on top of a microwave radiometer. The two-step algorithm consists of a spectral test followed by a temporal test. The measured Tb is first compared with a predicted clear-sky Tb obtained by an empirical formula as a function of surface air temperature and water vapor pressure. For the temporal test, the temporal variability of the measured Tb during one minute compares with a dynamic threshold value, representing the variability of clear-sky conditions. It is designated as cloud-free data only when both the spectral and temporal tests confirm cloud-free data. Overall, most of the thick and uniform clouds are successfully detected by the spectral test, while the broken and fast-varying clouds are detected by the temporal test. The algorithm is validated by comparison with the collocated ceilometer data for six months, from January to June 2013. The overall proportion of correctness is about 88.3% and the probability of detection is 90.8%, which are comparable with or better than those of previous similar approaches. Two thirds of discrepancies occur when the new algorithm detects clouds while the ceilometer does not, resulting in different values of the probability of detection with different cloud-base altitude, 93.8, 90.3, and 82.8% for low, mid, and high clouds, respectively. Finally, due to the characteristics of the spectral range, the new algorithm is found to be insensitive to the presence of inversion layers.

  8. A cloud detection algorithm using the downwelling infrared radiance measured by an infrared pyrometer of the ground-based microwave radiometer

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ahn, M. H.; Han, D.; Won, H. Y.; Morris, Victor R.

    2015-02-03

    For better utilization of the ground-based microwave radiometer, it is important to detect the cloud presence in the measured data. Here, we introduce a simple and fast cloud detection algorithm by using the optical characteristics of the clouds in the infrared atmospheric window region. The new algorithm utilizes the brightness temperature (Tb) measured by an infrared radiometer installed on top of a microwave radiometer. The two-step algorithm consists of a spectral test followed by a temporal test. The measured Tb is first compared with a predicted clear-sky Tb obtained by an empirical formula as a function of surface air temperaturemore »and water vapor pressure. For the temporal test, the temporal variability of the measured Tb during one minute compares with a dynamic threshold value, representing the variability of clear-sky conditions. It is designated as cloud-free data only when both the spectral and temporal tests confirm cloud-free data. Overall, most of the thick and uniform clouds are successfully detected by the spectral test, while the broken and fast-varying clouds are detected by the temporal test. The algorithm is validated by comparison with the collocated ceilometer data for six months, from January to June 2013. The overall proportion of correctness is about 88.3% and the probability of detection is 90.8%, which are comparable with or better than those of previous similar approaches. Two thirds of discrepancies occur when the new algorithm detects clouds while the ceilometer does not, resulting in different values of the probability of detection with different cloud-base altitude, 93.8, 90.3, and 82.8% for low, mid, and high clouds, respectively. Finally, due to the characteristics of the spectral range, the new algorithm is found to be insensitive to the presence of inversion layers.« less

  9. A novel wideband 140 GHz gyrotron amplifier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joye, Colin D., 1980-

    2008-01-01

    The theory, design and experimental results of a wideband 140 GHz, 1 kW pulsed gyro-traveling wave amplifier are presented. The gyro- TWA operates in the HE(0,6) mode of a novel cylindrical confocal waveguide using a ...

  10. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Microwave Radiometer Profiler (jensen-mwr)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jensen, Mike

    A major component of the Mid-latitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) field campaign was the deployment of an enhanced radiosonde array designed to capture the vertical profile of atmospheric state variables (pressure, temperature, humidity wind speed and wind direction) for the purpose of deriving the large-scale forcing for use in modeling studies. The radiosonde array included six sites (enhanced Central Facility [CF-1] plus five new sites) launching radiosondes at 3-6 hour sampling intervals. The network will cover an area of approximately (300)2 km2 with five outer sounding launch sites and one central launch location. The five outer sounding launch sites are: S01 Pratt, KS [ 37.7oN, 98.75oW]; S02 Chanute, KS [37.674, 95.488]; S03 Vici, Oklahoma [36.071, -99.204]; S04 Morris, Oklahoma [35.687, -95.856]; and S05 Purcell, Oklahoma [34.985, -97.522]. Soundings from the SGP Central Facility during MC3E can be retrieved from the regular ARM archive. During routine MC3E operations 4 radiosondes were launched from each of these sites (approx. 0130, 0730, 1330 and 1930 UTC). On days that were forecast to be convective up to four additional launches were launched at each site (approx. 0430, 1030, 1630, 2230 UTC). There were a total of approximately 14 of these high frequency launch days over the course of the experiment. These files contain brightness temperatures observed at Purcell during MC3E. The measurements were made with a 5 channel (22.235, 23.035, 23.835, 26.235, 30.000GHz) microwave radiometer at one minute intervals. The results have been separated into daily files and the day of observations is indicated in the file name. All observations were zenith pointing. Included in the files are the time variables base_time and time_offset. These follow the ARM time conventions. Base_time is the number seconds since January 1, 1970 at 00:00:00 for the first data point of the file and time_offset is the offset in seconds from base_time.

  11. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Microwave Radiometer Profiler (jensen-mwr)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jensen, Mike

    2012-02-01

    A major component of the Mid-latitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) field campaign was the deployment of an enhanced radiosonde array designed to capture the vertical profile of atmospheric state variables (pressure, temperature, humidity wind speed and wind direction) for the purpose of deriving the large-scale forcing for use in modeling studies. The radiosonde array included six sites (enhanced Central Facility [CF-1] plus five new sites) launching radiosondes at 3-6 hour sampling intervals. The network will cover an area of approximately (300)2 km2 with five outer sounding launch sites and one central launch location. The five outer sounding launch sites are: S01 Pratt, KS [ 37.7oN, 98.75oW]; S02 Chanute, KS [37.674, 95.488]; S03 Vici, Oklahoma [36.071, -99.204]; S04 Morris, Oklahoma [35.687, -95.856]; and S05 Purcell, Oklahoma [34.985, -97.522]. Soundings from the SGP Central Facility during MC3E can be retrieved from the regular ARM archive. During routine MC3E operations 4 radiosondes were launched from each of these sites (approx. 0130, 0730, 1330 and 1930 UTC). On days that were forecast to be convective up to four additional launches were launched at each site (approx. 0430, 1030, 1630, 2230 UTC). There were a total of approximately 14 of these high frequency launch days over the course of the experiment. These files contain brightness temperatures observed at Purcell during MC3E. The measurements were made with a 5 channel (22.235, 23.035, 23.835, 26.235, 30.000GHz) microwave radiometer at one minute intervals. The results have been separated into daily files and the day of observations is indicated in the file name. All observations were zenith pointing. Included in the files are the time variables base_time and time_offset. These follow the ARM time conventions. Base_time is the number seconds since January 1, 1970 at 00:00:00 for the first data point of the file and time_offset is the offset in seconds from base_time.

  12. Stratified vapor generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bharathan, Desikan (Lakewood, CO); Hassani, Vahab (Golden, CO)

    2008-05-20

    A stratified vapor generator (110) comprises a first heating section (H.sub.1) and a second heating section (H.sub.2). The first and second heating sections (H.sub.1, H.sub.2) are arranged so that the inlet of the second heating section (H.sub.2) is operatively associated with the outlet of the first heating section (H.sub.1). A moisture separator (126) having a vapor outlet (164) and a liquid outlet (144) is operatively associated with the outlet (124) of the second heating section (H.sub.2). A cooling section (C.sub.1) is operatively associated with the liquid outlet (144) of the moisture separator (126) and includes an outlet that is operatively associated with the inlet of the second heating section (H.sub.2).

  13. The vapor pressures of explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ewing, Robert G.; Waltman, Melanie J.; Atkinson, David A.; Grate, Jay W.; Hotchkiss, Peter

    2013-01-05

    The vapor pressures of many explosive compounds are extremely low and thus determining accurate values proves difficult. Many researchers, using a variety of methods, have measured and reported the vapor pressures of explosives compounds at single temperatures, or as a function of temperature using vapor pressure equations. There are large variations in reported vapor pressures for many of these compounds, and some errors exist within individual papers. This article provides a review of explosive vapor pressures and describes the methods used to determine them. We have compiled primary vapor pressure relationships traceable to the original citations and include the temperature ranges for which they have been determined. Corrected values are reported as needed and described in the text. In addition, after critically examining the available data, we calculate and tabulate vapor pressures at 25 °C.

  14. Evaluating Solar Resource Data Obtained from Multiple Radiometers Deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habte, A.; Sengupta, M.; Andreas, A.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.

    2014-09-01

    Solar radiation resource measurements from radiometers are used to predict and evaluate the performance of photovoltaic and concentrating solar power systems, validate satellite-based models for estimating solar resources, and advance research in solar forecasting and climate change. This study analyzes the performance of various commercially available radiometers used for measuring global horizontal irradiances (GHI) and direct normal irradiances (DNI). These include pyranometers, pyrheliometers, rotating shadowband irradiometers, and a pyranometer with a shading ring deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL). The radiometers in this study were deployed for one year (from April 1, 2011, through March 31, 2012) and compared to measurements from radiometers with the lowest values of estimated measurement uncertainties for producing reference GHI and DNI.

  15. Sea surface temperature for climate from the along-track scanning radiometers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Embury, Owen

    2014-06-30

    This thesis describes the construction of a sea surface temperature (SST) dataset from Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) observations suitable for climate applications. The algorithms presented here are now used at ...

  16. Retrievals of cloud optical depth and effective radius from Thin-Cloud Rotating Shadowband Radiometer measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Retrievals of cloud optical depth and effective radius from Thin-Cloud Rotating Shadowband December 2011. [1] A Thin-Cloud Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (TCRSR) was developed and deployed) through an optically thin cloud (optical depth

  17. VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric M. Suuberg; Vahur Oja

    1997-07-01

    This project had as its main focus the determination of vapor pressures of coal pyrolysis tars. It involved performing measurements of these vapor pressures and from them, developing vapor pressure correlations suitable for use in advanced pyrolysis models (those models which explicitly account for mass transport limitations). This report is divided into five main chapters. Each chapter is a relatively stand-alone section. Chapter A reviews the general nature of coal tars and gives a summary of existing vapor pressure correlations for coal tars and model compounds. Chapter B summarizes the main experimental approaches for coal tar preparation and characterization which have been used throughout the project. Chapter C is concerned with the selection of the model compounds for coal pyrolysis tars and reviews the data available to us on the vapor pressures of high boiling point aromatic compounds. This chapter also deals with the question of identifying factors that govern the vapor pressures of coal tar model materials and their mixtures. Chapter D covers the vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of primary cellulose tars. Chapter E discusses the results of the main focus of this study. In summary, this work provides improved understanding of the volatility of coal and cellulose pyrolysis tars. It has resulted in new experimentally verified vapor pressure correlations for use in pyrolysis models. Further research on this topic should aim at developing general vapor pressure correlations for all coal tars, based on their molecular weight together with certain specific chemical characteristics i.e. hydroxyl group content.

  18. Design and implementation of a digitally controlled multi-frequency microwave radiometer 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Warren, Gary Lynn

    1985-01-01

    . 110 . 122 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Simplified Radiometer Block Diagram. 2. System Block Diagram . . . 3. Elevation Angle Definition. . . . . . . . . 4. Polarization Angle Definition. 5. Component Nounting in the Radiometer Box . 6. AC Power... in 1978, and the system was used in field experiments in Kansas during the summer of 1978. Nhile in Kansas, the magnetic tape drive controller boards failed and prevented any further data collection. For about one year, the computer manu- facturer...

  19. GVR (G-Band Vapor Radiometer) M.P. Cadeddu and J.C. Liljegren Argonne Natl. Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (Journal Article)ForthcomingGENERAL ASSIGNMENT KNOW09-001.doc CraneMWR status

  20. GVR (G-Band Vapor Radiometer) M.P. Cadeddu and J.C. Liljegren Argonne Natl. Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (Journal Article)ForthcomingGENERAL ASSIGNMENT KNOW09-001.doc CraneMWR

  1. SEVENTH HARMONIC 20 GHz CO-GENERATOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirshfield, Jay L

    2014-04-08

    To satisfy the need for multi-MW rf sources in frequency ranges where commercial sources do not exist, a study was undertaken on a class of devices based on gyro-harmonic frequency multiplication. This mechanism relies upon adding energy in gyrating motion to a linear electron beam that traverses a rotating-mode TE111-mode drive cavity in a dc magnetic field. The beam then drifts along the magnetic field into a second cavity, operating in the TEn11-mode tuned to the nth harmonic of the drive cavity. Studies of this configuration have been carried out for 2 < n < 7. Results are given for multi-MW, efficient operation of a 7th harmonic device operating at 20 GHz, and a 2nd harmonic device operating at 22.4 GHz.

  2. 30 GHz Power Production in CTF3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wuensch, Walter; Braun, Hans Heinrich; Carron, Georges; Corsini, Roberto; Grudiev, Alexei; Heikkinen, Samuli Tapio; Schulte, Daniel; Sladen, Jonathan P H; Syratchev, Igor V; Tecker, Frank A; Wilson, Ian H

    2005-01-01

    One of the major objectives of CTF3 (CLIC Test Facility) is the production of 30 GHz power for the high-gradient testing of CLIC accelerating structures. To this end a dedicated beam line, power generating structure and power transfer line have been designed, installed and commissioned. 52 MW of 30 GHz power with a pulse length of 74 ns and a repetition rate of 16 Hz were delivered to the high-gradient test area. This will allow operation of test accelerating structures in the first CTF3 run of 2005 up to the nominal CLIC accelerating gradient of 150 MV/m and beyond the nominal pulse length. The system is described and the performances of the CTF3 linac, beam line and the rf components are reviewed.

  3. Vaporization of zinc from scrap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozturk, B.; Fruehan, R.J. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The rate of zinc vaporization from galvanized scrap was measured using a thermogravimetric apparatus along with chemical analysis. It is found that the rate of zinc vaporization is very fast in nitrogen and carbon monoxide atmospheres at temperatures higher than 950 C. At lower temperature rate decreases with decreasing temperature and is controlled by the gas phase mass transport. The simultaneous oxidation and vaporization of zinc occurs when the samples were heated in carbon dioxide and air. The current experimental results indicate that almost all of the zinc from scrap vaporizes during the heating process in a very short period of time after the temperature reaches above 850 C.

  4. Vapor Transport in Dry Soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, Glendon W.; Ward, Anderson L.

    2001-11-16

    Water-vapor movement in soils is a complex process, controlled by both diffusion and advection and influenced by pressure and thermal gradients acting across tortuous flow paths. Wide-ranging interest in water-vapor transport includes both theoretical and practical aspects. Just how pressure and thermal gradients enhance water-vapor flow is still not completely understood and subject to ongoing research. Practical aspects include dryland farming (surface mulching), water harvesting (aerial wells), fertilizer placement, and migration of contaminants at waste-sites. The following article describes the processes and practical applications of water-vapor transport, with emphasis on unsaturated (dry) soil systems.

  5. Vapor spill pipe monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bianchini, G.M.; McRae, T.G.

    1983-06-23

    The invention is a method and apparatus for continually monitoring the composition of liquefied natural gas flowing from a spill pipe during a spill test by continually removing a sample of the LNG by means of a probe, gasifying the LNG in the probe, and sending the vaporized LNG to a remote ir gas detector for analysis. The probe comprises three spaced concentric tubes surrounded by a water jacket which communicates with a flow channel defined between the inner and middle, and middle and outer tubes. The inner tube is connected to a pump for providing suction, and the probe is positioned in the LNG flow below the spill pipe with the tip oriented partly downward so that LNG is continuously drawn into the inner tube through a small orifice. The probe is made of a high thermal conductivity metal. Hot water is flowed through the water jacket and through the flow channel between the three tubes to provide the necessary heat transfer to flash vaporize the LNG passing through the inner channel of the probe. The gasified LNG is transported through a connected hose or tubing extending from the probe to a remote ir sensor which measures the gas composition.

  6. VLBI Observations of the Galactic Center Source Sgr A* at 86 GHz and 215 GHz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. P. Krichbaum; A. Witzel; J. A. Zensus

    1998-12-02

    We summarize previous VLBI observations of Sgr A* at millimeter wavelengths and present new results from VLBI observations at 86 and at 215 GHz. At 86 GHz the measured closure phase is close to zero, consistent with a point-like or symmetric structure of 190 +/- 30 micro-arcsec size. At 215 GHz we have detected Sgr A* with a signal-to-noise ratio of 6. This yields a tentative size estimate of 50 < theta < 190 micro-arcsec, which is larger than the scattering size of 20 micro-arcsec at this frequency. The intrinsic size of Sgr A* thus appears to be a few up to a few ten Schwarzschild radii.

  7. Water Vapor around Sgr B2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Cernicharo; J. R. Goicoechea; J. R. Pardo; A. Asensio Ramos

    2006-01-16

    We have conducted a study combining H2O lines in two spectral regions. First, Infrared Space Observatory observations of several H2O thermal lines seen in absorption toward Sgr B2(M) at a spectral resolution of 35 kms^-1 have been analyzed. Second, an IRAM-30m telescope map of the para-H2O 3_13-2_20 line at 183.31 GHz, seen in emission, has also been obtained and analyzed. The H2O lines seen in absorption are optically thick and are formed in the outermost gas of the condensations in front of the far-IR continuum sources. They probe a maximum visual extinction of ~5 to 10 mag. Radiative transfer models indicate that these lines are quite insensitive to temperature and gas density, and that IR photons from the dust play a dominant role in the excitation of the involved H2O rotational levels. The water vapor abundance in the region is (1-2)x10^-5. The relatively low H2O/OH abundance ratio in the region, 2-4, is a signature of UV photon dominated surface layers traced by far-IR observations.

  8. Vapor Pressures and Vaporization Enthalpies of a Series of Dialkyl Phthalates by Correlation Gas Chromatography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chickos, James S.

    Vapor Pressures and Vaporization Enthalpies of a Series of Dialkyl Phthalates by Correlation Gas: Experimental vapor pressures, vaporization, fusion and sublimation enthalpies of a number of dialkyl, dibutyl phthalate, and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. New vaporization enthalpies and liquid vapor pressure

  9. The Vaporization Enthalpies and Vapor Pressures of Some Primary Amines of Pharmaceutical Importance by Correlation Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chickos, James S.

    The Vaporization Enthalpies and Vapor Pressures of Some Primary Amines of Pharmaceutical Importance Information ABSTRACT: Vapor pressures, vaporization, and sublimation enthalpies of several pharmaceuticals.5 ± 2.1); p(cr)/Pa = 0.12 ± 0.04]. Vapor pressure equations also derived from vapor pressureretention

  10. A global 86 GHz VLBI survey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Lee; A. P. Lobanov; T. P. Krichbaum; A. Witzel; J. A. Zensus; M. Bremer; A. Greve; M. Grewing

    2007-09-27

    We present results from a large global VLBI(Very Long Baseline Interferometry) survey of compact radio sources at 86 GHz which started in October 2001. The main goal of the survey is to increase the total number of objects accessible for future 3mm-VLBI imaging by factors of 3-5. The survey data reach the baseline sensitivity of 0.1 Jy, and image sensitivity of better than 10 mJy/beam. To date, a total of 127 compact radio sources have been observed. The observations have yielded images for 109 sources, and only 6 sources have not been detected. Flux densities and sizes of core and jet components of all detected sources have been measured using Gaussian model fitting. From these measurements, brightness temperatures have been estimated, taking into account resolution limits of the data. Here, we compare the brightness temperatures of the cores and secondary jet components with similar estimates obtained from surveys at longer wavelengths (e.g. 15 GHz). This approach can be used to study questions related to mechanisms of initial jet acceleration (accelerating or decelerating sub-pc jets?) and jet composition (electron-positron or electron-proton plasma?).

  11. Land Contamination Correction for Passive Microwave Radiometer Data: Demonstration of Wind Retrieval in the Great Lakes Using SSM/I

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruf, Christopher

    Land Contamination Correction for Passive Microwave Radiometer Data: Demonstration of Wind, are typically unavailable within about 100km of any coastline. This paper presents methods of cor- recting land-contaminated radiometer data in order to extract the coastal information. The land contamination signals are estimated

  12. Validation of the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) sea surface temperature in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sprintall, Janet

    Validation of the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System (AMSR; published 5 April 2006. [1] Satellite sea surface temperature (SST) measurements from Advanced Microwave. Sprintall, and C. Gentemann (2006), Validation of the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth

  13. 30 GHz High Power Production for CLIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Syratchev, I V

    2006-01-01

    The CLIC Power Extraction and Transfer Structure (PETS) is a passive microwave device in which bunches of the drive beam interact with the impedance of the periodically loaded waveguide and excite preferentially the synchronous TM01 mode at 30 GHz. The RF power produced (several hundred MW) is collected at the downstream end of the structure by means of the Power Extractor and conveyed to the main linac structure. The PETS geometry is a result of multiple compromises between beam stability along a single decelerator sector (600 m) and the active length of the structure to match the main linac RF power needs and layout. Surface electric and magnetic fields, power extraction method, HOM damping, ON/OFF capability and fabrication technology were all evaluated to provide a reliable design.

  14. Portable vapor diffusion coefficient meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ho, Clifford K. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-06-12

    An apparatus for measuring the effective vapor diffusion coefficient of a test vapor diffusing through a sample of porous media contained within a test chamber. A chemical sensor measures the time-varying concentration of vapor that has diffused a known distance through the porous media. A data processor contained within the apparatus compares the measured sensor data with analytical predictions of the response curve based on the transient diffusion equation using Fick's Law, iterating on the choice of an effective vapor diffusion coefficient until the difference between the predicted and measured curves is minimized. Optionally, a purge fluid can forced through the porous media, permitting the apparatus to also measure a gas-phase permeability. The apparatus can be made lightweight, self-powered, and portable for use in the field.

  15. 1006 IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN APPLIED EARTH OBSERVATIONS AND REMOTE SENSING, VOL. 5, NO. 3, JUNE 2012 Inter-Calibration of Microwave Radiometers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruf, Christopher

    . 3, JUNE 2012 Inter-Calibration of Microwave Radiometers Using the Vicarious Cold Calibration Double microwave radiometers is combined with the vicarious cold calibration method for calibrating an individual for conical scanning microwave radiometers and quantifies the improvement this method provides compared

  16. 0.5 -1.0 GHZ-3 1.25-1.75GHZ

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . NOTES ALFA MONITOR ALFA 6A ALFA "7A" PWR SPLITTER FIBER RECEIVER RACK 5 Ortel 10450 .01-6 GHz 1,2,...11d -20 -20 -20 -20 GPIB READ- OUT -10 HP4412 PWR HEAD -10 HP4412 PWR HEAD FROM POL B IF AMP (RACK 6) DUAL CHANNEL POWER METER #1 HP E4419A RACK 5 LEFT HAND PWR METER TRANSFER (REVERSING) SWITCH: EXAMPLE: if2 "if2

  17. Outgassing, Temperature Gradients and the Radiometer Effect in LISA: A Torsion Pendulum Investigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott E Pollack; Stephan Schlamminger; Jens H Gundlach

    2007-02-08

    Thermal modeling of the LISA gravitational reference sensor (GRS) includes such effects as outgassing from the proof mass and its housing and the radiometer effect. Experimental data in conditions emulating the LISA GRS are required to confidently predict the GRS performance. Outgassing and the radiometer effect are similar in characteristics and are difficult to decouple experimentally. The design of our torsion balance allows us to investigate differential radiation pressure, the radiometer effect, and outgassing on closely separated conducting surfaces with high sensitivity. A thermally controlled split copper plate is brought near a freely hanging plate-torsion pendulum.We have varied the temperature on each half of the copper plate and have measured the resulting forces on the pendulum. We have determined that to first order the current GRS model for the radiometer effect, outgassing, and radiation pressure are mostly consistent with our torsion balance measurements and therefore these thermal effects do not appear to be a large hindrance to the LISA noise budget. However, there remain discrepancies between the predicted dependence of these effects on the temperature of our apparatus.

  18. THE HURRICANE IMAGING RADIOMETER WIDE SWATH SIMULATION AND WIND SPEED RETRIEVALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruf, Christopher

    THE HURRICANE IMAGING RADIOMETER WIDE SWATH SIMULATION AND WIND SPEED RETRIEVALS Ruba A. Amarin1 Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama 4 NOAA/AOML/Hurricane Research Division, Miami, Florida, USA ABSTRACT The knowledge of peak winds in hurricanes is critical to classification of hurricane intensity

  19. HURRICANE IMAGING RADIOMETER WIND SPEED AND RAIN RATE RETRIEVAL: [PART-1] DEVELOPMENT OF AN IMPROVED OCEAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruf, Christopher

    HURRICANE IMAGING RADIOMETER WIND SPEED AND RAIN RATE RETRIEVAL: [PART-1] DEVELOPMENT U.S.A * selnimri@mail.ucf.edu 2 NOAA/AOML/Hurricane Research Division, Miami, Florida, USA 3 Space model has been developed to support the analysis and design of the new airborne Hurricane Imaging

  20. Hypothetical Thermodynamic Properties. Subcooled Vaporization Enthalpies and Vapor Pressures of Polyaromatic Heterocycles and Related Compounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chickos, James S.

    Hypothetical Thermodynamic Properties. Subcooled Vaporization Enthalpies and Vapor Pressures The vaporization enthalpies and vapor pressures of the liqiud phase from T ) 298.15 K to T ) 500 K of a series in the literature was measured on a hydrated form. Vapor pressures and normal boiling temperatures for the liquid

  1. Vaporization Enthalpy and Vapor Pressure of Valproic Acid by Correlation Gas Chromatography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chickos, James S.

    Vaporization Enthalpy and Vapor Pressure of Valproic Acid by Correlation Gas Chromatography Joe A-propylpentanoic acid) is reported, and the vapor pressures of a series on aliphatic carboxylic acids are used to evaluate its vapor pressure as a function of temperature. The vaporization enthalpy was derived

  2. A continuous-wave second harmonic gyrotron oscillator at 460 GHz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hornstein, Melissa K. (Melissa Kristen), 1977-

    2005-01-01

    We report the short pulse and CW operation of a 460 GHz gyrotron oscillator both at the fundamental (near 230 GHz) and second harmonic (near 460 GHz) of electron cyclotron resonance. During operation in a complete CW regime ...

  3. Standing-wave enhanced electroabsorption modulator for 40-GHz optical pulse generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chou, H F; Chiu, Y J; Bowers, J E

    2003-01-01

    pulse generation, simulation, traveling-wave devices. I. IWAVE ENHANCED EAM FOR 40-GHz OPTICAL PULSE GENERATION (a) (Wave Enhanced Electroabsorption Modulator for 40-GHz Optical Pulse Generation

  4. Vaporization Enthalpies and Vapor Pressures of Two Insecticide Components, Muscalure and Empenthrin, by Correlation Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chickos, James S.

    Vaporization Enthalpies and Vapor Pressures of Two Insecticide Components, Muscalure and Empenthrin: The vaporization enthalpies at T/K = 298.15 and vapor pressures from T/K = (298.15 to Tnb (normal boiling. Vaporization enthalpies of [(114.4 ± 1.0) and (114.5 ± 1.0)] kJ·mol-1 and vapor pressures, p/Pa = [(1.2 ± 0

  5. The 17 GHz active region number

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Selhorst, C. L.; Pacini, A. A.; Costa, J. E. R.; Giménez de Castro, C. G.; Valio, A.; Shibasaki, K.

    2014-08-01

    We report the statistics of the number of active regions (NAR) observed at 17 GHz with the Nobeyama Radioheliograph between 1992, near the maximum of cycle 22, and 2013, which also includes the maximum of cycle 24, and we compare with other activity indexes. We find that NAR minima are shorter than those of the sunspot number (SSN) and radio flux at 10.7 cm (F10.7). This shorter NAR minima could reflect the presence of active regions generated by faint magnetic fields or spotless regions, which were a considerable fraction of the counted active regions. The ratio between the solar radio indexes F10.7/NAR shows a similar reduction during the two minima analyzed, which contrasts with the increase of the ratio of both radio indexes in relation to the SSN during the minimum of cycle 23-24. These results indicate that the radio indexes are more sensitive to weaker magnetic fields than those necessary to form sunspots, of the order of 1500 G. The analysis of the monthly averages of the active region brightness temperatures shows that its long-term variation mimics the solar cycle; however, due to the gyro-resonance emission, a great number of intense spikes are observed in the maximum temperature study. The decrease in the number of these spikes is also evident during the current cycle 24, a consequence of the sunspot magnetic field weakening in the last few years.

  6. Vapor deposition of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, David C. (Los Alamos, NM); Pattillo, Stevan G. (Los Alamos, NM); Laia, Jr., Joseph R. (Los Alamos, NM); Sattelberger, Alfred P. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01

    A highly pure thin metal film having a nanocrystalline structure and a process of preparing such highly pure thin metal films of, e.g., rhodium, iridium, molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium, platinum, or palladium by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition of, e.g., rhodium(allyl).sub.3, iridium(allyl).sub.3, molybdenum(allyl).sub.4, tungsten(allyl).sub.4, rhenium(allyl).sub.4, platinum(allyl).sub.2, or palladium(allyl).sub.2 are disclosed. Additionally, a general process of reducing the carbon content of a metallic film prepared from one or more organometallic precursor compounds by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition is disclosed.

  7. Image Storage in Hot Vapors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Zhao; T. Wang; Y. Xiao; S. F. Yelin

    2007-10-22

    We theoretically investigate image propagation and storage in hot atomic vapor. A $4f$ system is adopted for imaging and an atomic vapor cell is placed over the transform plane. The Fraunhofer diffraction pattern of an object in the object plane can thus be transformed into atomic Raman coherence according to the idea of ``light storage''. We investigate how the stored diffraction pattern evolves under diffusion. Our result indicates, under appropriate conditions, that an image can be reconstructed with high fidelity. The main reason for this procedure to work is the fact that diffusion of opposite-phase components of the diffraction pattern interfere destructively.

  8. Vapor deposition of thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D.C.; Pattillo, S.G.; Laia, J.R. Jr.; Sattelberger, A.P.

    1990-10-05

    A highly pure thin metal film having a nanocrystalline structure and a process of preparing such highly pure thin metal films of, e.g., rhodium, iridium, molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium, platinum, or palladium by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition of, e.g., rhodium(allyl){sub 3}, iridium(allyl){sub 3}, molybdenum(allyl){sub 4}, tungsten(allyl){sub 4}, rhenium (allyl){sub 4}, platinum(allyl){sub 2}, or palladium(allyl){sub 2} are disclosed. Additionally, a general process of reducing the carbon content of a metallic film prepared from one or more organometallic precursor compounds by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition is disclosed.

  9. 1.3 GHz superconducting RF cavity program at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ginsburg, C.M.; Arkan, T.; Barbanotti, S.; Carter, H.; Champion, M.; Cooley, L.; Cooper, C.; Foley, M.; Ge, M.; Grimm, C.; Harms, E.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    At Fermilab, 9-cell 1.3 GHz superconducting RF (SRF) cavities are prepared, qualified, and assembled into cryomodules (CMs) for Project X, an International Linear Collider (ILC), or other future projects. The 1.3 GHz SRF cavity program includes targeted R&D on 1-cell 1.3 GHz cavities for cavity performance improvement. Production cavity qualification includes cavity inspection, surface processing, clean assembly, and one or more cryogenic low-power CW qualification tests which typically include performance diagnostics. Qualified cavities are welded into helium vessels and are cryogenically tested with pulsed high-power. Well performing cavities are assembled into cryomodules for pulsed high-power testing in a cryomodule test facility, and possible installation into a beamline. The overall goals of the 1.3 GHz SRF cavity program, supporting facilities, and accomplishments are described.

  10. A 250 GHz photonic band gap gyrotron amplifier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nanni, Emilio A. (Emilio Alessandro)

    2013-01-01

    This thesis reports the theoretical and experimental investigation of a novel gyrotron traveling-wave-tube (TWT) amplifier at 250 GHz. The gyrotron amplifier designed and tested in this thesis has achieved a peak small ...

  11. Vapor generation methods for explosives detection research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grate, Jay W.; Ewing, Robert G.; Atkinson, David A.

    2012-12-01

    The generation of calibrated vapor samples of explosives compounds remains a challenge due to the low vapor pressures of the explosives, adsorption of explosives on container and tubing walls, and the requirement to manage (typically) multiple temperature zones as the vapor is generated, diluted, and delivered. Methods that have been described to generate vapors can be classified as continuous or pulsed flow vapor generators. Vapor sources for continuous flow generators are typically explosives compounds supported on a solid support, or compounds contained in a permeation or diffusion device. Sources are held at elevated isothermal temperatures. Similar sources can be used for pulsed vapor generators; however, pulsed systems may also use injection of solutions onto heated surfaces with generation of both solvent and explosives vapors, transient peaks from a gas chromatograph, or vapors generated by s programmed thermal desorption. This article reviews vapor generator approaches with emphasis on the method of generating the vapors and on practical aspects of vapor dilution and handling. In addition, a gas chromatographic system with two ovens that is configurable with up to four heating ropes is proposed that could serve as a single integrated platform for explosives vapor generation and device testing. Issues related to standards, calibration, and safety are also discussed.

  12. 100GHz Integrated All-Optical Switch Enabled by ALD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moille, Gregory; Morgenroth, Laurence; Lehoucq, Gaëlle; Neuilly, François; Hu, Bowen; Decoster, Didier; de Rossi, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    The carrier lifetime of a photonic crystal all-optical switch is optimized by controlling the surface of GaAs by Atomic Layer Deposition. We demonstrate an all optical modulation capability up to 100GHz at Telecom wavelengths, with a contrast as high as 7dB. Wavelength conversion has also been demonstrated at a repetition rate of 2.5GHz with average pump power of about 0.5mW

  13. Vacuum vapor deposition gun assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zeren, Joseph D. (Boulder, CO)

    1985-01-01

    A vapor deposition gun assembly includes a hollow body having a cylindrical outer surface and an end plate for holding an adjustable heat sink, a hot hollow cathode gun, two magnets for steering the plasma from the gun into a crucible on the heat sink, and a shutter for selectively covering and uncovering the crucible.

  14. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wyeth, R.W.; Paisner, J.A.; Story, T.

    1990-08-21

    A laser spectroscopy system is utilized in an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. The system determines spectral components of an atomic vapor utilizing a laser heterodyne technique. 23 figs.

  15. Absolute intensity calibration of the 32-channel heterodyne radiometer on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, X.; Zhao, H. L.; Liu, Y. Li, E. Z.; Han, X.; Ti, A.; Hu, L. Q.; Zhang, X. D.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C.

    2014-09-15

    This paper presents the results of the in situ absolute intensity calibration for the 32-channel heterodyne radiometer on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak. The hot/cold load method is adopted, and the coherent averaging technique is employed to improve the signal to noise ratio. Measured spectra and electron temperature profiles are compared with those from an independent calibrated Michelson interferometer, and there is a relatively good agreement between the results from the two different systems.

  16. Development of Nb{sub 3}Sn Cavity Vapor Diffusion Deposition System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eremeev, Grigory V.; Macha, Kurt M.; Clemens, William A.; Park, HyeKyoung; Williams, R. Scott

    2014-02-01

    Nb{sub 3}Sn is a BCS superconductors with the superconducting critical temperature higher than that of niobium, so theoretically it surpasses the limitations of niobium in RF fields. The feasibility of technology has been demonstrated at 1.5 GHz with Nb{sub 3}Sn vapor deposition technique at Wuppertal University. The benefit at these frequencies is more pronounced at 4.2 K, where Nb{sub 3}Sn coated cavities show RF resistances an order of magnitude lower than that of niobium. At Jefferson Lab we started the development of Nb{sub 3}Sn vapor diffusion deposition system within an R\\&D development program towards compact light sources. Here we present the current progress of the system development.

  17. Low Loss LTCC Cavity Filters Using System-on-Package Technology at 60 GHz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tentzeris, Manos

    1 Low Loss LTCC Cavity Filters Using System-on- Package Technology at 60 GHz Jong-Hoon Lee, Student-on-package (SOP) compact solution for RF front-end modules at 60 GHz using the low- temperature cofired ceramic-dimensional (3-D) low loss 3- pole band pass filter for 60 GHz WLAN narrowband (~ 1GHz) applications

  18. Vapor phase modifiers for oxidative coupling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, Barbara K. (Charleston, WV)

    1991-01-01

    Volatilized metal compounds retard vapor phase alkane conversion reactions in oxidative coupling processes that convert lower alkanes to higher hydrocarbons.

  19. Vapor Pressures and Vaporization, Sublimation, and Fusion Enthalpies of Some Fatty Acids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chickos, James S.

    Vapor Pressures and Vaporization, Sublimation, and Fusion Enthalpies of Some Fatty Acids Joe A vapor pressures of both the subcooled liquid and solid state for those materials that are solids at T/K = 298.15. Equations for the prediction of vapor pressure from T/K = 298.15 to the boiling temperature

  20. STATISTICAL PROPERTIES OF 12.2 GHz METHANOL MASERS ASSOCIATED WITH A COMPLETE SAMPLE OF 6.7 GHz METHANOL MASERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breen, S. L.; Caswell, J. L.; Green, J. A.; Voronkov, M. A. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Ellingsen, S. P. [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 37, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia); Fuller, G. A.; Quinn, L. J.; Avison, A., E-mail: Shari.Breen@csiro.au [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-01

    We present definitive detection statistics for 12.2 GHz methanol masers toward a complete sample of 6.7 GHz methanol masers detected in the Methanol Multibeam survey south of declination -20{sup 0}. In total, we detect 250 12.2 GHz methanol masers toward 580 6.7 GHz methanol masers. This equates to a detection rate of 43.1%, which is lower than that of previous significant searches of comparable sensitivity. Both the velocity ranges and the flux densities of the target 6.7 GHz sources surpass that of their 12.2 GHz companion in almost all cases. Eighty percent of the detected 12.2 GHz methanol maser peaks are coincident in velocity with the 6.7 GHz maser peak. Our data support an evolutionary scenario whereby the 12.2 GHz sources are associated with a somewhat later evolutionary stage than the 6.7 GHz sources devoid of this transition. Furthermore, we find that the 6.7 GHz and 12.2 GHz methanol sources increase in luminosity as they evolve. In addition to this, evidence for an increase in velocity range with evolution is presented. This implies that it is not only the luminosity but also the volume of gas conducive to the different maser transitions that increases as the sources evolve. Comparison with GLIMPSE mid-infrared sources has revealed a coincidence rate between the locations of the 6.7 GHz methanol masers and GLIMPSE point sources similar to that achieved in previous studies. Overall, the properties of the GLIMPSE sources with and without 12.2 GHz counterparts are similar. There is a higher 12.2 GHz detection rate toward those 6.7 GHz methanol masers that are coincident with extended green objects.

  1. Means and method for vapor generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Larry W. (Oswego, IL)

    1984-01-01

    A liquid, in heat transfer contact with a surface heated to a temperature well above the vaporization temperature of the liquid, will undergo a multiphase (liquid-vapor) transformation from 0% vapor to 100% vapor. During this transition, the temperature driving force or heat flux and the coefficients of heat transfer across the fluid-solid interface, and the vapor percentage influence the type of heating of the fluid--starting as "feedwater" heating where no vapors are present, progressing to "nucleate" heating where vaporization begins and some vapors are present, and concluding with "film" heating where only vapors are present. Unstable heating between nucleate and film heating can occur, accompanied by possibly large and rapid temperature shifts in the structures. This invention provides for injecting into the region of potential unstable heating and proximate the heated surface superheated vapors in sufficient quantities operable to rapidly increase the vapor percentage of the multiphase mixture by perhaps 10-30% and thereby effectively shift the multiphase mixture beyond the unstable heating region and up to the stable film heating region.

  2. Multi-Gigabit Wireless data transfer at 60 GHz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. K. Soltveit; R. Brenner. A. Schöning; D. Wiedner

    2012-06-11

    In this paper we describe the status of the first prototype of the 60 GHz wireless Multi-gigabit data transfer topology currently under development at University of Heidelberg using IBM 130 nm SiGe HBT BiCMOS technology. The 60 GHz band is very suitable for high data rate and short distance applications as for example needed in the HEP experments. The wireless transceiver consist of a transmitter and a receiver. The transmitter includes an On-Off Keying (OOK) modulator, an Local Oscillator (LO), a Power Amplifier (PA) and a BandPass Filter (BPF). The receiver part is composed of a BandPass- Filter (BPF), a Low Noise Amplifier (LNA), a double balanced down-convert Gilbert mixer, a Local Oscillator (LO), then a BPF to remove the mixer introduced noise, an Intermediate Amplifier (IF), an On-Off Keying demodulator and a limiting amplifier. The first prototype would be able to handle a data-rate of about 3.5 Gbps over a link distance of 1 m. The first simulations of the LNA show that a Noise Figure (NF) of 5 dB, a power gain of 21 dB at 60 GHz with a 3 dB bandwidth of more than 20 GHz with a power consumption 11 mW are achieved. Simulations of the PA show an output referred compression point P1dB of 19.7 dB at 60 GHz.

  3. Relative Accuracy of 1-Minute and Daily Total Solar Radiation Data for 12 Global and 4 Direct Beam Solar Radiometers: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D. R.; Wilcox, S. M.

    2009-03-01

    This report evaluates the relative performance of 12 global and four direct beam solar radiometers deployed at a single site over a 12-month period. Test radiometer irradiances were compared with a reference irradiance consisting of either an absolute cavity radiometer (during calibrations) or a low uncertainty thermopile pyrheliometer (during the evaluation period) for pyrheliometers; and for pyranometers a reference global irradiance computed from the reference pyrheliometer and diffuse irradiance from a shaded pyranometer.

  4. Process for recovering organic vapors from air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Richard W. (Mountain View, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A process for recovering and concentrating organic vapor from a feed stream of air having an organic vapor content of no more than 20,000 ppm by volume. A thin semipermeable membrane is provided which has a feed side and a permeate side, a selectivity for organic vapor over air of at least 50, as measured by the ratio of organic vapor permeability to nitrogen permeability, and a permeability of organic vapor of at least 3.times.10.sup.-7 cm.sup.3 (STP) cm/cm.sup.2 sec.cm Hg. The feed stream is passed across the feed side of the thin semipermeable membrane while providing a pressure on the permeate side which is lower than the feed side by creating a partial vacuum on the permeate side so that organic vapor passes preferentially through the membrane to form an organic vapor depleted air stream on the feed side and an organic vapor enriched stream on the permeate side. The organic vapor which has passed through the membrane is compressed and condensed to recover the vapor as a liquid.

  5. Vapor Barriers or Vapor Diffusion Retarders | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment of EnergyResearchers at theAugust 1, 2013theEnergyThe1984 StartVapor

  6. Macrocyclic polyaminocarboxylates for stable radiometal antibody conjugates for therapy, SPECT and PET imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mease, R.C.; Mausner, L.F.; Srivastava, S.C.

    1997-06-17

    A simple method for the synthesis of 1,4,7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane N,N{prime}N{double_prime},N{prime}{double_prime}-tetraacetic acid and 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane N,N{prime},N{double_prime},N{prime}{double_prime}-tetraacetic acid involves cyanomethylating 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane or 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane to form a tetranitrile and hydrolyzing the tetranitrile. These macrocyclic compounds are functionalized through one of the carboxylates and then conjugated to various biological molecules including monoclonal antibodies. The resulting conjugated molecules are labeled with radiometals for SPECT and PET imaging and for radiotherapy. 4 figs.

  7. Control of flow through a vapor generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radcliff, Thomas D.

    2005-11-08

    In a Rankine cycle system wherein a vapor generator receives heat from exhaust gases, provision is made to avoid overheating of the refrigerant during ORC system shut down while at the same time preventing condensation of those gases within the vapor generator when its temperature drops below a threshold temperature by diverting the flow of hot gases to ambient and to thereby draw ambient air through the vapor generator in the process. In one embodiment, a bistable ejector is adjustable between one position, in which the hot gases flow through the vapor generator, to another position wherein the gases are diverted away from the vapor generator. Another embodiment provides for a fixed valve ejector with a bias towards discharging to ambient, but with a fan on the downstream side of said vapor generator for overcoming this bias.

  8. Recent development of RIKEN 28 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higurashi, Y. Ohnishi, J.; Ozeki, K.; Kidera, M.; Nakagawa, T.

    2014-02-15

    Over the past two years, we have tried to improve the performance of the RIKEN superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source using several methods. For the production of U vapor, we chose the sputtering method because it is possible to install a large amount of material inside the plasma chamber and thus achieve long-term operation without a break, although it is assumed that the beam intensity is weaker than in the oven technique. We also used an aluminum chamber instead of a stainless steel one. Using these methods, we successfully produced ?180 e?A of U{sup 35+} and ?230 e?A of U{sup 33+} at the injected radio frequency (RF) power of ?4 kW (28 GHz). Very recently, to further increase the beam intensity of U{sup 35+}, we have started to develop a high temperature oven and have successfully produced a highly charged U ion beam. In this contribution, we report on the beam intensity of highly charged U ions as a function of various parameters (RF power and sputtering voltage) and discuss the effects of these parameters on the beam stability in detail.

  9. Mercury Vapor | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource HistoryScenariosMarysville MtMedical Area Total Egy PltMercuriusVapor Jump to:

  10. Coupling apparatus for a metal vapor laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ball, D.G.; Miller, J.L.

    1993-02-23

    Coupling apparatus for a large bore metal vapor laser is disclosed. The coupling apparatus provides for coupling high voltage pulses (approximately 40 KV) to a metal vapor laser with a high repetition rate (approximately 5 KHz). The coupling apparatus utilizes existing thyratron circuits and provides suitable power input to a large bore metal vapor laser while maintaining satisfactory operating lifetimes for the existing thyratron circuits.

  11. A 76GHz PLL for mm-wave imaging applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Khoa M.

    A 76 GHz phase-locked loop (PLL) was designed in 0.13 ?m IBM BiCMOS8HP technology with the intended application of millimeter-wave imaging. The PLL has a type II second order loop filter. The voltage-controlled oscillator ...

  12. Vapor phase modifiers for oxidative coupling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, B.K.

    1991-12-17

    Volatilized metal compounds are described which are capable of retarding vapor phase alkane conversion reactions in oxidative coupling processes that convert lower alkanes to higher hydrocarbons.

  13. FLAMMABILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF COMBUSTIBLE GASES AND VAPORS

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    give a higher lower limit value than the completely vaporized sample. Conversely, the heavy fractions or residue give a smaller lower limit value. For this reason, there is...

  14. Air temperature profile and air/sea temperature difference measurements by infrared and microwave scanning radiometers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Joseph A.

    emission from a uniformly mixed atmospheric gas: oxygen for MW (60 GHz) and carbon dioxide for IR (14.2 mm Dynamics: Boundary layer processes; 3360 Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Remote sensing; KEYWORDS, 8045, doi:10.1029/2002RS002632, 2003 1 Centre of Excellence for the Integration of Remote Sensing

  15. Multi Spectral Pushbroom Imaging Radiometer (MPIR) for remote sensing cloud studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phipps, G.S.; Grotbeck, C.L.

    1995-10-01

    A Multi Spectral Pushbroom Imaging Radiometer (MPIR) has been developed as are relatively inexpensive ({approximately}$IM/copy), well-calibrated,imaging radiometer for aircraft studies of cloud properties. The instrument is designed to fly on an Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle (UAV) platform at altitudes from the surface up to 20 km. MPIR is being developed to support the Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle portion of the Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurements program (ARM/UAV). Radiation-cloud interactions are the dominant uncertainty in the current General Circulation Models used for atmospheric climate studies. Reduction of this uncertainty is a top scientific priority of the US Global Change Research Program and the ARM program. While the DOE`s ARM program measures a num-ber of parameters from the ground-based Clouds and Radiation Testbed sites, it was recognized from the outset that other key parameters are best measured by sustained airborne data taking. These measurements are critical in our understanding of global change issues as well as for improved atmospheric and near space weather forecasting applications.

  16. Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novick, V.J.; Johnson, S.A.

    1999-08-03

    A vapor sample detection method is described where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample. 13 figs.

  17. Retrieval of Optical And Size Parameters of Aerosols Utilizing a Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer and Inter-Comparison with CIMEL Sun Photometer and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radiometer and Inter-Comparison with CIMEL Sun Photometer and MICROTOPS Sun Photometer Antonio Aguirre Radiometer (MFRSR) and comparing with data from a CIMEL Sun Photometer and a MICROTOPS Sun Photometer. Using the inverse cosine of the angle between the sun and the vertical. A Langley plot provides a linear regression

  18. Design of a Shadowband Spectral Radiometer for the Retrieval of Thin Cloud Optical Depth, Liquid Water Path, and the Effective Radius

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shadowband Radiometer (TCRSR) described here was used to measure the radiative intensity of the solar aureole accuracies that strain the capabilities of traditional detectors (e.g., microwave receivers) and theoretical for LWP , 100 g m22 (Turner et al. 2007b). For example, micropulse lidars (MPLs) and microwave radiometers

  19. COLD WATER VAPOR IN THE BARNARD 5 MOLECULAR CLOUD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wirström, E. S.; Persson, C. M.; Charnley, S. B.; Cordiner, M. A.; Buckle, J. V.; Takakuwa, S.

    2014-06-20

    After more than 30 yr of investigations, the nature of gas-grain interactions at low temperatures remains an unresolved issue in astrochemistry. Water ice is the dominant ice found in cold molecular clouds; however, there is only one region where cold (?10 K) water vapor has been detected—L1544. This study aims to shed light on ice desorption mechanisms under cold cloud conditions by expanding the sample. The clumpy distribution of methanol in dark clouds testifies to transient desorption processes at work—likely to also disrupt water ice mantles. Therefore, the Herschel HIFI instrument was used to search for cold water in a small sample of prominent methanol emission peaks. We report detections of the ground-state transition of o-H{sub 2}O (J = 1{sub 10}-1{sub 01}) at 556.9360 GHz toward two positions in the cold molecular cloud, Barnard 5. The relative abundances of methanol and water gas support a desorption mechanism which disrupts the outer ice mantle layers, rather than causing complete mantle removal.

  20. A 300-GHz Fundamental Oscillator in 65-nm CMOS Technology1 Behzad Razavi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Razavi, Behzad

    mixers operate at 205 GHz, 240 GHz, and 300 GHz while drawing a power of 3.5 mW. A common approach such as amplifiers, mixers, and dividers; (b) they provide differential and even quadrature outputs, greatly the Q of the tank to well below that of the inductor(s). For example, in the conventional cross

  1. Reductive Dehalogenation of Trichloroethene Vapors in an

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to treat trichloroethene (TCE) from waste gases generated by soil vapor extraction or dual-phase extraction and groundwater include soil vapor extraction (SVE) in combination with air sparging and dual-phase extraction methods such as incineration, catalytic oxidation, and adsorption onto activated carbon are currently

  2. LNG fire and vapor control system technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konzek, G.J.; Yasutake, K.M.; Franklin, A.L.

    1982-06-01

    This report provides a review of fire and vapor control practices used in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry. Specific objectives of this effort were to summarize the state-of-the-art of LNG fire and vapor control; define representative LNG facilities and their associated fire and vapor control systems; and develop an approach for a quantitative effectiveness evaluation of LNG fire and vapor control systems. In this report a brief summary of LNG physical properties is given. This is followed by a discussion of basic fire and vapor control design philosophy and detailed reviews of fire and vapor control practices. The operating characteristics and typical applications and application limitations of leak detectors, fire detectors, dikes, coatings, closed circuit television, communication systems, dry chemicals, water, high expansion foam, carbon dioxide and halogenated hydrocarbons are described. Summary descriptions of a representative LNG peakshaving facility and import terminal are included in this report together with typical fire and vapor control systems and their locations in these types of facilities. This state-of-the-art review identifies large differences in the application of fire and vapor control systems throughout the LNG industry.

  3. Environmental Chemistry at Vapor/Water Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Environmental Chemistry at Vapor/Water Interfaces: Insights from Vibrational Sum Frequency for manyyearsowingtoitscomplexityandimportanceindescribingawiderange of physical phenomena. The vapor/water interface is particularly interesting from an environmental for these systems is highlighted. A future perspective toward the application of VSFG to the study of environmental

  4. Quantitative organic vapor-particle sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gundel, Lara (Berkeley, CA); Daisey, Joan M. (Walnut Creek, CA); Stevens, Robert K. (Cary, NC)

    1998-01-01

    A quantitative organic vapor-particle sampler for sampling semi-volatile organic gases and particulate components. A semi-volatile organic reversible gas sorbent macroreticular resin agglomerates of randomly packed microspheres with the continuous porous structure of particles ranging in size between 0.05-10 .mu.m for use in an integrated diffusion vapor-particle sampler.

  5. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stern, R.C.; Paisner, J.A.

    1985-11-08

    Atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) is a general and powerful technique. A major present application to the enrichment of uranium for light-water power reactor fuel has been under development for over 10 years. In June 1985 the Department of Energy announced the selection of AVLIS as the technology to meet the nation's future need for the internationally competitive production of uranium separative work. The economic basis for this decision is considered, with an indicated of the constraints placed on the process figures of merit and the process laser system. We then trace an atom through a generic AVLIS separator and give examples of the physical steps encountered, the models used to describe the process physics, the fundamental parameters involved, and the role of diagnostic laser measurements.

  6. Relative Accuracy of 1-Minute and Daily Total Solar Radiation Data for 12 Global and 4 Direct Beam Solar Radiometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D.; Wilcox, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the relative performance of 12 global and four direct beam solar radiometers deployed at a single site over a 12-month period. Test radiometer irradiances were compared with a reference irradiance consisting of either an absolute cavity radiometer (during calibrations) or a low uncertainty thermopile pyrheliometer (during the evaluation period) for pyrheliometers; and for pyranometers a reference global irradiance computed from the reference pyrheliometer and diffuse irradiance from a shaded pyranometer. One minute averages of 3-second data for 12 months from the test instrument measurements were compared with the computed reference data set. Combined uncertainty in the computed reference irradiance is 1.8% {+-} 0.5%. Total uncertainty in the pyranometer comparisons is {+-}2.5%. We show mean percent difference between reference global irradiance and test pyranometer 1 minute data as a function of zenith angle, and percent differences between daily totals for the reference and test irradiances as a function of day number. We offer no explicit conclusion about the performance of instrument models, as a general array of applications with a wide range of instrumentation and accuracy requirements could be addressed with any of the radiometers.

  7. IMPROVED MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING OF HURRICANE WIND SPEED AND RAIN RATES USING THE HURRICANE IMAGING RADIOMETER (HIRAD)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruf, Christopher

    IMPROVED MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING OF HURRICANE WIND SPEED AND RAIN RATES USING THE HURRICANE@mail.ucf.edu ABSTRACT The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is a new imaging technology microwave remote sensor for hurricane observations that is currently under development by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center

  8. Monitoring of Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path from Scanning Microwave Radiometers During the 2003 Cloudiness Inter-Comparison Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on77 PAGEMissionStress New Webpage We have a newJulMonitoring of

  9. Glenwood Springs Vapor Caves Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Vapor Caves Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Glenwood Springs Vapor Caves Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  10. After More Than 20 Years Operating, Hanford's Soil Vapor Extraction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    After More Than 20 Years Operating, Hanford's Soil Vapor Extraction Project Nears Completion After More Than 20 Years Operating, Hanford's Soil Vapor Extraction Project Nears...

  11. VAPOR PRESSURES OF THE RUBIDIUM FLUORIDE-ZIRCONIUM FLUORIDE AND...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    VAPOR PRESSURES OF THE RUBIDIUM FLUORIDE-ZIRCONIUM FLUORIDE AND LITHIUM FLUORIDE-ZIRCONIUM FLUORIDE SYSTEMS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: VAPOR PRESSURES OF THE...

  12. The role of polymer formation during vapor phase lubrication...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The role of polymer formation during vapor phase lubrication of silicon. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The role of polymer formation during vapor phase lubrication of...

  13. A 12 GHz RF Power Source for the CLIC Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schirm, Karl; /CERN; Curt, Stephane; /CERN; Dobert, Steffen; /CERN; McMonagle, Gerard; /CERN; Rossat, Ghislain; /CERN; Syratchev, Igor; /CERN; Timeo, Luca; /CERN; Haase, Andrew /SLAC; Jensen, Aaron; /SLAC; Jongewaard, Erik; /SLAC; Nantista, Christopher; /SLAC; Sprehn, Daryl; /SLAC; Vlieks, Arnold; /SLAC; Hamdi, Abdallah; /Saclay; Peauger, Franck; /Saclay; Kuzikov, Sergey; /Nizhnii Novgorod, IAP; Vikharev, Alexandr; /Nizhnii Novgorod, IAP

    2012-07-03

    The CLIC RF frequency has been changed in 2008 from the initial 30 GHz to the European X-band 11.9942 GHz permitting beam independent power production using klystrons for CLIC accelerating structure testing. A design and fabrication contract for five klystrons at that frequency has been signed by different parties with SLAC. France (IRFU, CEA Saclay) is contributing a solid state modulator purchased in industry and specific 12 GHz RF network components to the CLIC study. RF pulses over 120 MW peak at 230 ns length will be obtained by using a novel SLED-I type pulse compression scheme designed and fabricated by IAP, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia. The X-band power test stand is being installed in the CLIC Test Facility CTF3 for independent structure and component testing in a bunker, but allowing, in a later stage, for powering RF components in the CTF3 beam lines. The design of the facility, results from commissioning of the RF power source and the expected performance of the Test Facility are reported.

  14. Solar Irradiances Measured using SPN1 Radiometers: Uncertainties and Clues for Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badosa, Jordi; Wood, John; Blanc, Philippe; Long, Charles N.; Vuilleumier, Laurent; Demengel, Dominique; Haeffelin, Martial

    2014-12-08

    The fast development of solar radiation and energy applications, such as photovoltaic and solar thermodynamic systems, has increased the need for solar radiation measurement and monitoring, not only for the global component but also the diffuse and direct. End users look for the best compromise between getting close to state-of-the-art measurements and keeping capital, maintenance and operating costs to a minimum. Among the existing commercial options, SPN1 is a relatively low cost solar radiometer that estimates global and diffuse solar irradiances from seven thermopile sensors under a shading mask and without moving parts. This work presents a comprehensive study of SPN1 accuracy and sources of uncertainty, which results from laboratory experiments, numerical modeling and comparison studies between measurements from this sensor and state-of-the art instruments for six diverse sites. Several clues are provided for improving the SPN1 accuracy and agreement with state-of-the-art measurements.

  15. Informal Preliminary Report on Comparisons of Prototype SPN-1 Radiometer to PARSL Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, Charles N.

    2014-06-17

    The prototype SPN-1 has been taking measurements for several months collocated with our PNNL Atmospheric Remote Sensing Laboratory (PARSL) solar tracker mounted instruments at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) located in Richland, Washington, USA. The PARSL radiometers used in the following comparisons consist of an Eppley Normal Incident Pyrheliometer (NIP) and a shaded Eppley model 8-48 “Black and White” pyrgeometer (B&W) to measure the direct and diffuse shortwave irradiance (SW), respectively. These instruments were calibrated in mid-September by comparison to an absolute cavity radiometer directly traceable to the world standard group in Davos, Switzerland. The NIP calibration was determined by direct comparison, while the B&W was calibrated using the shade/unshade technique. All PARSL data prior to mid-September have been reprocessed using the new calibration factors. The PARSL data are logged as 1-minute averages from 1-second samples. Data used in this report span the time period from June 22 through December 1, 2006. All data have been processed through the QCRad code (Long and Shi, 2006), which itself is a more elaborately developed methodology along the lines of that applied by the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) Archive (Long and Dutton, 2004), for quality control. The SPN-1 data are the standard total and diffuse SW values obtained from the analog data port of the instrument. The comparisons use only times when both the PARSL and SPN-1 data passed all QC testing. The data were further processed and analyzed by application of the SW Flux Analysis methodology (Long and Ackerman, 2000; Long and Gaustad, 2004, Long et al., 2006) to detect periods of clear skies, calculate continuous estimates of clear-sky SW irradiance and the effect of clouds on the downwelling SW, and estimate fractional sky cover.

  16. Recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing vapors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mirza, Zia I. (La Verne, CA); Knell, Everett W. (Los Alamitos, CA); Winter, Bruce L. (Danville, CA)

    1980-09-30

    Values are recovered from a hydrocarbon-containing vapor by contacting the vapor with quench liquid consisting essentially of hydrocarbons to form a condensate and a vapor residue, the condensate and quench fluid forming a combined liquid stream. The combined liquid stream is mixed with a viscosity-lowering liquid to form a mixed liquid having a viscosity lower than the viscosity of the combined liquid stream to permit easy handling of the combined liquid stream. The quench liquid is a cooled portion of the mixed liquid. Viscosity-lowering liquid is separated from a portion of the mixed liquid and cycled to form additional mixed liquid.

  17. A MERLIN Study of 6 GHz Excited-state OH & 6.7 GHz Methanol Masers in ON1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. A. Green; A. M. S. Richards; W. H. T. Vlemmings; P. Diamond; R. J. Cohen

    2007-09-05

    MERLIN observations of 6.668-GHz methanol and both 6.031- and 6.035-GHz hydroxyl (OH) emission from the massive star-formation region ON1 are presented. These are the first methanol observations made in full polarization using 5 antennas of MERLIN, giving high resolution and sensitivity to extended emission. Maser features are found to lie at the southern edge of the ultra-compact HII region, following the known distribution of ground-state OH masers. The masers cover a region ~1 arcsec in extent, lying perpendicular to the H13CO+ bipolar outflow. Excited-state OH emission demonstrates consistent polarization angles across the strongest linearly polarized features which are parallel to the overall distribution. The linear polarizations vary between 10.0 and 18.5 per cent, with an average polarization angle of -60 deg +/- 28 deg. The strongest 6.668-GHz methanol features provide an upper limit to linear polarization of ~1 per cent. Zeeman splitting of OH shows magnetic fields between -1.1 to -5.8 mG, and a tentative methanol magnetic field strength of -18 mG is measured.

  18. Design of a 3.1-4.8 GHZ RF front-end for an ultra wideband receiver 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharma, Pushkar

    2006-08-16

    frequency band of 3.168 GHz ? 10.6 GHz is an emerging solution to this with data rates of 110, 200 and 480 Mbps. Initially, UWB mode I devices using only 3.168 GHz ? 4.752 GHz have been proposed. Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) and I-Q mixers are key components...

  19. Chemical vapor deposition of antimicrobial polymer coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Tyler Philip, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    There is large and growing interest in making a wide variety of materials and surfaces antimicrobial. Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD), a solventless low-temperature process, is used to form thin films of polymers ...

  20. Chemical vapor infiltration using microwave energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Devlin, David J. (Los Alamos, NM); Currier, Robert P. (Los Alamos, NM); Laia, Jr., Joseph R. (Los Alamos, NM); Barbero, Robert S. (Santa Cruz, NM)

    1993-01-01

    A method for producing reinforced ceramic composite articles by means of chemical vapor infiltration and deposition in which an inverted temperature gradient is utilized. Microwave energy is the source of heat for the process.

  1. Modeling of LNG Pool Spreading and Vaporization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Basha, Omar 1988-

    2012-11-20

    In this work, a source term model for estimating the rate of spreading and vaporization of LNG on land and sea is introduced. The model takes into account the composition changes of the boiling mixture, the varying thermodynamic properties due...

  2. An advanced vapor-compression desalination system 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lara Ruiz, Jorge Horacio Juan

    2006-04-12

    Currently, the two dominant desalination methods are reverse osmosis (RO) and multi-stage flash (MSF). RO requires large capital investment and maintenance, whereas MSF is too energy intensive. An innovative vapor-compression desalination system...

  3. Vapor Retarder Classification - Building America Top Innovation...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    vapor retarder classification. Air-tight and well-insulated homes have little or no tolerance for drying if they get wet; moisture control is critical. This Top Innovation profile...

  4. Chemical vapor deposition of functionalized isobenzofuran polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olsson, Ylva Kristina

    2007-01-01

    This thesis develops a platform for deposition of polymer thin films that can be further tailored by chemical surface modification. First, we explore chemical vapor deposition of functionalized isobenzofuran films using ...

  5. Water vapor distribution in protoplanetary disks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Fujun; Bergin, Edwin A.

    2014-09-01

    Water vapor has been detected in protoplanetary disks. In this work, we model the distribution of water vapor in protoplanetary disks with a thermo-chemical code. For a set of parameterized disk models, we calculate the distribution of dust temperature and radiation field of the disk with a Monte Carlo method, and then solve the gas temperature distribution and chemical composition. The radiative transfer includes detailed treatment of scattering by atomic hydrogen and absorption by water of Ly? photons, since the Ly? line dominates the UV spectrum of accreting young stars. In a fiducial model, we find that warm water vapor with temperature around 300 K is mainly distributed in a small and well-confined region in the inner disk. The inner boundary of the warm water region is where the shielding of UV field due to dust and water itself become significant. The outer boundary is where the dust temperature drops below the water condensation temperature. A more luminous central star leads to a more extended distribution of warm water vapor, while dust growth and settling tends to reduce the amount of warm water vapor. Based on typical assumptions regarding the elemental oxygen abundance and the water chemistry, the column density of warm water vapor can be as high as 10{sup 22} cm{sup –2}. A small amount of hot water vapor with temperature higher than ?300 K exists in a more extended region in the upper atmosphere of the disk. Cold water vapor with temperature lower than 100 K is distributed over the entire disk, produced by photodesorption of the water ice.

  6. Optical monitor for water vapor concentration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kebabian, Paul (Acton, MA)

    1998-01-01

    A system for measuring and monitoring water vapor concentration in a sample uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to a water vapor absorption line. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split by a magnetic field parallel to the direction of light propagation from the lamp into sets of components of downshifted and upshifted frequencies of approximately 1575 Gauss. The downshifted components are centered on a water vapor absorption line and are thus readily absorbed by water vapor in the sample; the upshifted components are moved away from that absorption line and are minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the upshifted components or downshifted components and passes the selected components to the sample. After transmission through the sample, the transmitted intensity of a component of the argon line varies as a result of absorption by the water vapor. The system then determines the concentration of water vapor in the sample based on differences in the transmitted intensity between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments alternate selection of sets of components is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to the emitting plasma.

  7. Optical monitor for water vapor concentration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kebabian, P.

    1998-06-02

    A system for measuring and monitoring water vapor concentration in a sample uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to a water vapor absorption line. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split by a magnetic field parallel to the direction of light propagation from the lamp into sets of components of downshifted and upshifted frequencies of approximately 1575 Gauss. The downshifted components are centered on a water vapor absorption line and are thus readily absorbed by water vapor in the sample; the upshifted components are moved away from that absorption line and are minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the upshifted components or downshifted components and passes the selected components to the sample. After transmission through the sample, the transmitted intensity of a component of the argon line varies as a result of absorption by the water vapor. The system then determines the concentration of water vapor in the sample based on differences in the transmitted intensity between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments alternate selection of sets of components is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to the emitting plasma. 5 figs.

  8. Commissioning results of Nb3Sn cavity vapor diffusion deposition system at Jlab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eremeev, Grigory; Clemens, William A.; Macha, Kurt M.; Park, HyeKyoung; Williams, R.

    2015-09-01

    Nb3Sn as a BCS superconductor with a superconducting critical temperature higher than that of niobium offers potential benefit for SRF cavities via a lower-than-niobium surface resistance at the same temperature and frequency. A Nb3Sn vapor diffusion deposition system designed for coating of 1.5 and 1.3 GHz single-cell cavities was built and commissioned at JLab. As the part of the commissioning, RF performance at 2.0 K of a single-cell 1.5 GHz CEBAF-shaped cavity was measured before and after coating in the system. Before Nb3Sn coating the cavity had a Q0 of about 10E10 and was limited by the high field Q-slope at Eacc about 27 MV/m. Coated cavity exhibited the superconducting transition at about 17.9 K. The low-field quality factor was about 5 10E9 at 4.3 K and 7 10E9 at 2.0 K decreasing with field to about 1 10E9 at Eacc about 8 MV/m at both temperatures. The highest field was limited by the available RF power.

  9. M. Bahrami ENSC 461 (S 11) Gas Vapor Mixtures and HVAC 1 Gas Vapor Mixtures and HVAC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    to the vapor pressure: Tdp = Tsat@ Pv Sling Psychrometer: a rotating set of thermometers one of which measuresM. Bahrami ENSC 461 (S 11) Gas Vapor Mixtures and HVAC 1 Gas Vapor Mixtures and HVAC Atmospheric air normally contains some water vapor (moisture). The dry-air contains no water. Although the amount

  10. 65-GHz Receiver in SiGe BiCMOS Using Monolithic Inductors and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Voinigescu, Sorin Petre

    of monolithic inductors in mm-wave circuits #12;5 65-GHz Receiver Overview 62-68 GHz LO LNA Buffer Gilbert Mixer = 10.5 dB Input P1dB = -12.8 dBm Consumes 45 mW from 3.3V #12;11 Building Blocks: Mixer Gilbert Cell on 59 GHz VCO from [C. Lee, CSICS 2004] LC-varactor tank Need high output power and low phase noise

  11. Comparison of Historical Satellite-Based Estimates of Solar Radiation Resources with Recent Rotating Shadowband Radiometer Measurements: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D. R.

    2009-03-01

    The availability of rotating shadow band radiometer measurement data at several new stations provides an opportunity to compare historical satellite-based estimates of solar resources with measurements. We compare mean monthly daily total (MMDT) solar radiation data from eight years of NSRDB and 22 years of NASA hourly global horizontal and direct beam solar estimates with measured data from three stations, collected after the end of the available resource estimates.

  12. Hypothetical Thermodynamic Properties. Subcooled Vaporization Enthalpies and Vapor Pressures of Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chickos, James S.

    of a thermochemical cycle, and agreement is within the combined experimental uncertainties. Vapor pressures pressures. Vaporization enthalpies of crystalline materials are also quite useful. Combined with fusion combined with fusion enthalpies have been used to provide independent confirmation of the magnitude

  13. Multi-Gigabit Wireless data transfer at 60 GHz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soltveit, H K; Wiedner, D

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe the status of the first prototype of the 60 GHz wireless Multi-gigabit data transfer topology currently under development at University of Heidelberg using IBM 130 nm SiGe HBT BiCMOS technology. The 60 GHz band is very suitable for high data rate and short distance applications as for example needed in the HEP experments. The wireless transceiver consist of a transmitter and a receiver. The transmitter includes an On-Off Keying (OOK) modulator, an Local Oscillator (LO), a Power Amplifier (PA) and a BandPass Filter (BPF). The receiver part is composed of a BandPass- Filter (BPF), a Low Noise Amplifier (LNA), a double balanced down-convert Gilbert mixer, a Local Oscillator (LO), then a BPF to remove the mixer introduced noise, an Intermediate Amplifier (IF), an On-Off Keying demodulator and a limiting amplifier. The first prototype would be able to handle a data-rate of about 3.5 Gbps over a link distance of 1 m. The first simulations of the LNA show that a Noise Figure (NF) of 5 dB, a...

  14. Method to Calculate Uncertainty Estimate of Measuring Shortwave Solar Irradiance using Thermopile and Semiconductor Solar Radiometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reda, I.

    2011-07-01

    The uncertainty of measuring solar irradiance is fundamentally important for solar energy and atmospheric science applications. Without an uncertainty statement, the quality of a result, model, or testing method cannot be quantified, the chain of traceability is broken, and confidence cannot be maintained in the measurement. Measurement results are incomplete and meaningless without a statement of the estimated uncertainty with traceability to the International System of Units (SI) or to another internationally recognized standard. This report explains how to use International Guidelines of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) to calculate such uncertainty. The report also shows that without appropriate corrections to solar measuring instruments (solar radiometers), the uncertainty of measuring shortwave solar irradiance can exceed 4% using present state-of-the-art pyranometers and 2.7% using present state-of-the-art pyrheliometers. Finally, the report demonstrates that by applying the appropriate corrections, uncertainties may be reduced by at least 50%. The uncertainties, with or without the appropriate corrections might not be compatible with the needs of solar energy and atmospheric science applications; yet, this report may shed some light on the sources of uncertainties and the means to reduce overall uncertainty in measuring solar irradiance.

  15. A reactionless, bearingless linear shutter mechanism for the multispectral pushbroom imaging radiometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krumel, L.J.

    1996-12-31

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program is a multi-laboratory, interagency program as part of DOE`s principal entry into the US Global Change Research Program. Two issues addressed are the radiation budget and its spectral dependence, and radiative and other properties of clouds. Measures of solar flux divergence and energy exchanges between clouds, the earth, its oceans, and the atmosphere through various altitudes are sought. Additionally, the program seeks to provide measurements to calibrate satellite radiance products and validate their associated flux retrieval algorithms. Unmanned Aerospace Vehicles fly long, extended missions. MPIR is one of the primary instruments on the ARM-UAV campaigns. A shutter mechanism has been developed and flown as part of an airborne imaging radiometer having application to spacecraft or other applications requiring low vibration, high reliability, and long life. The device could be employed in other cases where a reciprocating platform is needed. Typical shutters and choppers utilize a spinning disc, or in very small instruments, a vibrating vane to continually interrupt incident light or radiation that enters the system. A spinning disk requires some sort of bearings that usually have limited life, and at a minimum introduce issues of reliability. Friction, lubrication and contamination always remain critical areas of concern, as well as the need for power to operate. Dual vibrating vanes may be dynamically well balanced as a set and are frictionless. However, these are limited by size in a practical sense. In addition, multiples of these devices are difficult to synchronize.

  16. Broadband Outdoor Radiometer Calibration Process for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooraghi, Michael

    2015-09-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program (ARM) maintains a fleet of monitoring stations to aid in the improved scientific understanding of the basic physics related to radiative feedback processes in the atmosphere, particularly the interactions among clouds and aerosols. ARM obtains continuous measurements and conducts field campaigns to provide data products that aid in the improvement and further development of climate models. All of the measurement campaigns include a suite of solar measurements. The Solar Radiation Research Laboratory at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory supports ARM's full suite of stations in a number of ways, including troubleshooting issues that arise as part of the data-quality reviews; managing engineering changes to the standard setup; and providing calibration services and assistance to the full fleet of solar-related instruments, including pyranometers, pyrgeometers, pyrheliometers, as well as the temperature/relative humidity probes, multimeters, and data acquisition systems that are used in the calibrations performed at the Southern Great Plains Radiometer Calibration Facility. This paper discusses all aspects related to the support provided to the calibration of the instruments in the solar monitoring fleet.

  17. Narrowband filter radiometer for ground-based measurements of global ultraviolet solar irradiance and total ozone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petkov, Boyan; Vitale, Vito; Tomasi, Claudio; Bonafe, Ubaldo; Scaglione, Salvatore; Flori, Daniele; Santaguida, Riccardo; Gausa, Michael; Hansen, Georg; Colombo, Tiziano

    2006-06-20

    The ultraviolet narrowband filter radiometer (UV-RAD) designed by the authors to take ground-based measurements of UV solar irradiance, total ozone, and biological dose rate is described, together with the main characteristics of the seven blocked filters mounted on it, all of which have full widths at half maxima that range 0.67 to 0.98 nm. We have analyzed the causes of cosine response and calibration errors carefully to define the corresponding correction terms, paying particular attention to those that are due to the spectral displacements of the filter transmittance peaks from the integer wavelength values. The influence of the ozone profile on the retrieved ozone at large solar zenith angles has also been examined by means of field measurements. The opportunity of carrying out nearly monochromatic irradiance measurements offered by the UV-RAD allowed us to improve the procedure usually followed to reconstruct the solar spectrum at the surface by fitting the computed results, using radiative transfer models with field measurements of irradiance. Two long-term comparison campaigns took place, showing that a mean discrepancy of+0.3% exists between the UV-RAD total ozone values and those given by the Brewer no. 63 spectroradiometer and that mean differences of+0.3% and-0.9% exist between the erythemal dose rates determined with the UV-RAD and those obtained with the Brewer no. 63 and the Brewer no. 104 spectroradiometers, respectively.

  18. Hypothetical Thermodynamic Properties: Vapor Pressures and Vaporization Enthalpies of the Even n-Alkanes from C40 to C76 at T ) 298.15 K by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chickos, James S.

    Hypothetical Thermodynamic Properties: Vapor Pressures and Vaporization Enthalpies of the Even n in combination with earlier work to evaluate the vaporization enthalpies and vapor pressures of these n-alkanes from T ) (298.15 to 540) K. The vapor pressure and vaporization enthalpy results obtained are compared

  19. Vapor Pressures and Vaporization Enthalpies of the n-Alkanes from C31 to C38 at T ) 298.15 K by Correlation Gas Chromatography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chickos, James S.

    Vapor Pressures and Vaporization Enthalpies of the n-Alkanes from C31 to C38 at T ) 298.15 K with other literature values to evaluate the vaporization enthalpies and vapor pressures of these n-alkanes from T ) 298.15 to 575 K. The vapor pressure and vaporization enthalpy results obtained are compared

  20. Vapor Pressures and Vaporization Enthalpies of the n-Alkanes from C21 to C30 at T ) 298.15 K by Correlation Gas Chromatography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chickos, James S.

    Vapor Pressures and Vaporization Enthalpies of the n-Alkanes from C21 to C30 at T ) 298.15 K pressures of these n-alkanes from T ) 298.15 to 575 K. The vapor pressure and vaporization enthalpy results-alkanes exhibit very low vapor pressures at ambient temperatures, vapor pressure measurement for most

  1. Method and Apparatus for Concentrating Vapors for Analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grate, Jay W. (West Richland, WA); Baldwin, David L. (Kennewick, WA); Anheier, Jr., Norman C. (Richland, WA)

    2008-10-07

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for pre-concentrating gaseous vapors for analysis. The invention finds application in conjunction with, e.g., analytical instruments where low detection limits for gaseous vapors are desirable. Vapors sorbed and concentrated within the bed of the apparatus can be thermally desorbed achieving at least partial separation of vapor mixtures. The apparatus is suitable, e.g., for preconcentration and sample injection, and provides greater resolution of peaks for vapors within vapor mixtures, yielding detection levels that are 10-10,000 times better than for direct sampling and analysis systems. Features are particularly useful for continuous unattended monitoring applications.

  2. Diode pumped alkali vapor fiber laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA); Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA); Dawson, Jay W. (Livermore, CA); Krupke, William F. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2006-07-26

    A method and apparatus is provided for producing near-diffraction-limited laser light, or amplifying near-diffraction-limited light, in diode pumped alkali vapor photonic-band-gap fiber lasers or amplifiers. Laser light is both substantially generated and propagated in an alkali gas instead of a solid, allowing the nonlinear and damage limitations of conventional solid core fibers to be circumvented. Alkali vapor is introduced into the center hole of a photonic-band-gap fiber, which can then be pumped with light from a pump laser and operated as an oscillator with a seed beam, or can be configured as an amplifier.

  3. Diode pumped alkali vapor fiber laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA); Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA); Dawson, Jay W. (Livermore, CA); Krupke, William F. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2007-10-23

    A method and apparatus is provided for producing near-diffraction-limited laser light, or amplifying near-diffraction-limited light, in diode pumped alkali vapor photonic-band-gap fiber lasers or amplifiers. Laser light is both substantially generated and propagated in an alkali gas instead of a solid, allowing the nonlinear and damage limitations of conventional solid core fibers to be circumvented. Alkali vapor is introduced into the center hole of a photonic-band-gap fiber, which can then be pumped with light from a pump laser and operated as an oscillator with a seed beam, or can be configured as an amplifier.

  4. Thermal electric vapor trap arrangement and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, T.

    1988-03-15

    A technique for trapping vapor within a section of a tube is disclosed herein. This technique utilizes a conventional, readily providable thermal electric device having a hot side and a cold side and means for powering the device to accomplish this. The cold side of this device is positioned sufficiently close to a predetermined section of the tube and is made sufficiently cold so that any condensable vapor passing through the predetermined tube section is condensed and trapped, preferably within the predetermined tube section itself. 4 figs.

  5. Advanced Organic Vapor Cycles for Improving Thermal Conversion Efficiency in Renewable Energy Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Tony

    2012-01-01

    pressure and entropy, pressure and vapor quality, andfluid at the high pressure vapor turbine exit. In the nexthigh pressure and low pressure vapor turbines. The increase

  6. THE KINETICS OF LASER PULSE VAPORIZATION OF URANIUM DIOXIDE BY MASS SPECTROMETRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsai, Chuen-horng

    2012-01-01

    resulting low vapor pressure and low heat of vaporizationresulting low vapor pressure and low heat of vaporizationyields the partial vapor pressure and the composition in the

  7. Quasi-Optical 34-GHz Rf Pulse Compressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirshfield, Jay L

    2007-06-19

    Designs have been carried out on non-high-vacuum, low-power versions of three- and four-mirror quasi-optical passive and active Ka-band pulse compressors, and prototypes built and tested based on these designs. The active element is a quasi-optical grating employing gas discharge tubes in the gratings. Power gains of about 3:1 were observed experimentally for the passive designs, and about 7:1 with the active designs. High-power, high-vacuum versions of the three-and four-mirror quasi-optical pulse compressors were built and tested at low power. These now await installation and testing using multi-MW power from the 34-GHz magnicon.

  8. Hanbury BrownTwiss Correlations to Probe the Population Statistics of GHz Photons Emitted by Conductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plaçais, Bernard

    Hanbury Brown­Twiss Correlations to Probe the Population Statistics of GHz Photons Emitted of GHz photons in quantum circuits, using Hanbury Brown and Twiss correlations. The super The seminal experiment of Hanbury Brown and Twiss (HBT) [1], consisted in two detectors correlating the power

  9. 37 GHz METHANOL MASERS : HORSEMEN OF THE APOCALYPSE FOR THE CLASS II METHANOL MASER PHASE?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellingsen, S. P.; Breen, S. L. [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 37, Hobart, TAS 7001 (Australia); Sobolev, A. M. [Astronomical Observatory, Ural Federal University, Lenin avenue 51, 620000 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Voronkov, M. A.; Caswell, J. L. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Australia Telescope National Facility, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Lo, N., E-mail: Simon.Ellingsen@utas.edu.au [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Camino El Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago, Casilla 36-D (Chile)

    2011-12-01

    We report the results of a search for class II methanol masers at 37.7, 38.3, and 38.5 GHz toward a sample of 70 high-mass star formation regions. We primarily searched toward regions known to show emission either from the 107 GHz class II methanol maser transition, or from the 6.035 GHz excited OH transition. We detected maser emission from 13 sources in the 37.7 GHz transition, eight of these being new detections. We detected maser emission from three sources in the 38 GHz transitions, one of which is a new detection. We find that 37.7 GHz methanol masers are only associated with the most luminous 6.7 and 12.2 GHz methanol maser sources, which in turn are hypothesized to be the oldest class II methanol sources. We suggest that the 37.7 GHz methanol masers are associated with a brief evolutionary phase (of 1000-4000 years) prior to the cessation of class II methanol maser activity in the associated high-mass star formation region.

  10. 6.7 GHZ METHANOL MASERS: PROPERTIES, ASSOCIATIONS AND TRACERS OF GALACTIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson Jr., James E.

    6.7 GHZ METHANOL MASERS: PROPERTIES, ASSOCIATIONS AND TRACERS OF GALACTIC STRUCTURE A Dissertation Jagadheep Dhanasekara Pandian ALL RIGHTS RESERVED #12;6.7 GHZ METHANOL MASERS: PROPERTIES, ASSOCIATIONS transition of methanol is the strongest of methanol masers, and is the second strongest maser transition ever

  11. Abstract We present a 30 GHz s platform that includes low-loss passi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergman, Keren

    are from cross-wafer testing. A. Passive Devices High performance passive essential for building large in recent y integrated photonics on a silicon platfo the investments made in CMOS fa possible to build low of passive elements su grating couplers and waveguides as elements including 58 GHz ga photodetectors, 45 GHz

  12. Sub-GHz UWB Biomedical Communication Mark Stoopman and Wouter A. Serdijn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Serdijn, Wouter A.

    Sub-GHz UWB Biomedical Communication Mark Stoopman and Wouter A. Serdijn Biomedical Electronics and lower power consuming wireless link compared to other biomedical communications today. An operating to the conventional 50 interface. Index Terms--Sub-GHz, UWB, biomedical, wireless commu- nication, implantable

  13. Advancing Explosives Detection Capabilities: Vapor Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atkinson, David

    2012-10-15

    A new, PNNL-developed method provides direct, real-time detection of trace amounts of explosives such as RDX, PETN and C-4. The method selectively ionizes a sample before passing the sample through a mass spectrometer to detect explosive vapors. The method could be used at airports to improve aviation security.

  14. Chemical vapor deposition of mullite coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sarin, Vinod (Lexington, MA); Mulpuri, Rao (Boston, MA)

    1998-01-01

    This invention is directed to the creation of crystalline mullite coatings having uniform microstructure by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The process comprises the steps of establishing a flow of reactants which will yield mullite in a CVD reactor, and depositing a crystalline coating from the reactant flow. The process will yield crystalline coatings which are dense and of uniform thickness.

  15. Advancing Explosives Detection Capabilities: Vapor Detection

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Atkinson, David

    2014-07-24

    A new, PNNL-developed method provides direct, real-time detection of trace amounts of explosives such as RDX, PETN and C-4. The method selectively ionizes a sample before passing the sample through a mass spectrometer to detect explosive vapors. The method could be used at airports to improve aviation security.

  16. The Effect of vapor subcooling on film condensation of metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fedorovich, Eugene D.

    1968-01-01

    This work presents an analysis of the interfacial "vapor-condensate" temperature distribution, which includes the effect of subcooling (supersaturation) in the vapor. Experimental data from previous investigators for ...

  17. Vapor intrusion modeling : limitations, improvements, and value of information analyses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friscia, Jessica M. (Jessica Marie)

    2014-01-01

    Vapor intrusion is the migration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a subsurface source into the indoor air of an overlying building. Vapor intrusion models, including the Johnson and Ettinger (J&E) model, can be ...

  18. Type B Accident Investigation of the Acid Vapor Inhalation on...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    of the Acid Vapor Inhalation on June 7, 2005, in TA-48, Building RC-1 Room 402 at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Type B Accident Investigation of the Acid Vapor Inhalation on...

  19. Moisture Durability of Vapor Permeable Insulating Sheathing (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-10-01

    In this project, Building America team Building Science Corporation researched some of the ramifications of using exterior, vapor permeable insulation on retrofit walls with vapor permeable cavity insulation. Retrofit strategies are a key factor in reducing exterior building stock consumption.

  20. MULTIPLY STRIPPED ION GENERATION IN THE METAL VAPOR VACUUM ARC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, I.G.

    2010-01-01

    the metal vapor vacuum arc plasma discharge. A new kind offrom a metal vapor vacuum arc plasma has been used to obtaindrives the vacuum arc plasma is created. The fundamental

  1. A Multiscale Simulator for Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Multiscale Simulator for Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition Matthias K. Gobbert Institute-6206 ABSTRACT An integrated simulator for chemical vapor deposition is introduced. In addition to a reactor

  2. OPTIMIZATION OF INJECTION INTO VAPOR-DOMINATED GEOTHERMAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    OPTIMIZATION OF INJECTION INTO VAPOR-DOMINATED GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIRS CONSIDERING ADSORPTION governing the behavior of vapor- dominated geothermal reservoirs. These mechanisms affect both was to determine the most effective injection strategy once these two effects are considered. Geothermal reservoir

  3. Heat Recovery in Distillation by Mechanical Vapor Recompression 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Becker, F. E.; Zakak, A. I.

    1986-01-01

    IN DISTILLATION BY MECHANICAL VAPOR RECOMPRESSION Frederick E. Becker and Alexandra I. Zakak Tecogen, Inc., A Subsidiary of Thermo Electron Corporation Waltham, Massachusetts ABSTRACT A significant reduction in distillation tower energy requirements can..., and then recompressing the low-pressure bottom vapors and injecting them directly into the column bottom. The choice of either scheme is a function of the physical properties of the vapors; i.e., the specific volume of the top or bottom vapors may dictate the most...

  4. MODELLING AND SIMULATION OF LIQUID-VAPOR PHASE TRANSITION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faccanoni, Gloria

    . (,) P pressure law. G. Faccanoni DNS OF LIQUIDE-VAPOR PHASE TRANSITION 6 / 23 #12;Model Numerical Method. (,) P pressure law. G. Faccanoni DNS OF LIQUIDE-VAPOR PHASE TRANSITION 6 / 23 #12;Model Numerical Method Vapor = 0 x = 0 = 1Fictive fluid 0 pressure law

  5. Modeling engine oil vaporization and transport of the oil vapor in the piston ring pack on internal combustion engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Yeunwoo, 1973-

    2004-01-01

    A model was developed to study engine oil vaporization and oil vapor transport in the piston ring pack of internal combustion engines. With the assumption that the multi-grade oil can be modeled as a compound of several ...

  6. Study of the effects of noisy data on the determination of the enthalpy of vaporization from a vapor pressure equation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Casserly, Thomas Bryan

    2013-02-22

    Chemical engineers use software tools everyday to aid them in solving complex problems. Software packages simulate virtually every aspect of a chemical process, including the use of source vapor pressure data to fit empirical constants of a vapor...

  7. THE KINETICS OF LASER PULSE VAPORIZATION OF URANIUM DIOXIDE BY MASS SPECTROMETRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsai, C-h.

    2010-01-01

    The results of the vapor pressure and the vapor compositionyielded the partial vapor pressure of each species and therecommer.ded limits of total vapor pressure This work fitted

  8. Results of First Outdoor Comparison Between Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer (ACP) and Infrared Integrating Sphere (IRIS) Radiometer at PMOD (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reda, I.; Grobner, J.; Wacker, S.; Stoffel, T.

    2013-03-01

    The ACP and IRIS are developed to establish a world reference for calibrating pyrgeometers with traceability to SI units. The two radiometers are unwindowed with negligible spectral dependence, and traceable to SI units through the temperature scale (ITS-90). The first outdoor comparison between the two designs was held from January 28 to February 8, 2013 at the Physikalisch-Metorologisches Observatorium Davos (PMOD). The difference between the irradiance measured by ACP and that of IRIS was within 1 W/m2. A difference of 5 W/m2 was observed between the irradiance measured by ACP&IRIS and that of the interim World Infrared Standard Group (WISG).

  9. Advanced Membrane Systems: Recovering Wasteful and Hazardous Fuel Vapors at the Gasoline Tank

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Case study covering Compact Membrane Systems, Inc. and its membrane vapor processor that recovers fuel vapors from gasoline refueling.

  10. Failure and Redemption of Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR)/Normal Incidence Multifilter Radiometer (NIMFR) Cloud Screening: Contrasting Algorithm Performance at Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) North Slope of Alaska (NSA) and Southern Great Plains (SGP) Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Flynn, Connor J.; Koontz, Annette S.; Sivaraman, Chitra; Barnard, James C.

    2013-09-11

    Well-known cloud-screening algorithms, which are designed to remove cloud-contaminated aerosol optical depths (AOD) from AOD measurements, have shown great performance at many middle-to-low latitude sites around the world. However, they may occasionally fail under challenging observational conditions, such as when the sun is low (near the horizon) or when optically thin clouds with small spatial inhomogeneity occur. Such conditions have been observed quite frequently at the high-latitude Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites. A slightly modified cloud-screening version of the standard algorithm is proposed here with a focus on the ARM-supported Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) and Normal Incidence Multifilter Radiometer (NIMFR) data. The modified version uses approximately the same techniques as the standard algorithm, but it additionally examines the magnitude of the slant-path line of sight transmittance and eliminates points when the observed magnitude is below a specified threshold. Substantial improvement of the multi-year (1999-2012) aerosol product (AOD and its Angstrom exponent) is shown for the NSA sites when the modified version is applied. Moreover, this version reproduces the AOD product at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site, which was originally generated by the standard cloud-screening algorithms. The proposed minor modification is easy to implement and its application to existing and future cloud-screening algorithms can be particularly beneficial for challenging observational conditions.

  11. Transport of DESY 1.3 GHZ Cryomodule at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGee, M.W.; Arkan, T.; Borissov, E.; Leibfritz, J.; Schappert, W.; /Fermilab; Barbanotti, S.; /LASA, Segrate /INFN, Milan

    2009-05-01

    In an exchange of technology agreement, Deutsches Elektron-Synchrotron (DESY) Laboratory in Hamburg Germany has provided a 1.3 GHz cryomodule 'kit' to Fermilab. The cryomodule components (qualified dressed cavities, cold mass parts, vacuum vessel, etc.) sent from Germany in pieces were assembled at Fermilab's Cryomodule Assembly Facility (CAF). The cavity string was assembled at CAF-MP9 Class 10 cleanroom and then transported to CAF-ICB cold mass assembly area via a flatbed air ride truck. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) studies were implemented to define location of instrumentation for initial cold mass transport, providing modal frequencies and shapes. Subsequently, the fully assembled cryomodule was transported to the SRF Accelerator Test Facility at New Muon Lab (NML). Internal geophones (velocity sensors) were attached during the coldmass assembly for transport (warm) and operational (cold) measurements. A description of the isolation system that maintained alignment during transport and protected fragile components is provided. Shock and vibration measurement results of each transport and modal analysis are discussed.

  12. Molecular Bremsstrahlung Radiation at GHz Frequencies in Air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samarai, I Al; Deligny, O; Letessier-Selvon, A; Montanet, F; Settimo, M; Stassi, P

    2016-01-01

    A detection technique for ultra-high energy cosmic rays, complementary to the fluorescence technique, would be the use of the molecular Bremsstrahlung radiation emitted by low-energy ionization electrons left after the passage of the showers in the atmosphere. In this article, a detailed estimate of the spectral intensity of photons at ground level originating from this radiation is presented. The spectral intensity expected from the passage of the high-energy electrons of the cascade is also estimated. The absorption of the photons in the plasma of electrons/neutral molecules is shown to be negligible. The obtained spectral intensity is shown to be $2\\times10^{-21} $W cm$^{-2}$ GHz$^{-1}$ at 10 km from the shower core for a vertical shower induced by a proton of $10^{17.5}$ eV. In addition, a recent measurement of Bremsstrahlung radiation in air at gigahertz frequencies from a beam of electrons produced at 95 keV by an electron gun is also discussed and reasonably reproduced by the model.

  13. Development of a 50 MW 30 GHz Gyroklystron Amplifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Read; Wesely Lawson, Lawrence Ives, Jeff Neilson

    2009-05-20

    DOE requires sources for testing of high gradient accelerator structures. A power of 50 MW is required at K and Ka band. The pulse length must be ~ 1 microsecond and the pulse repetition frequency at least 100 Hz. At least some applications may require phase stability not offered by a free running oscillator. CCR proposed to build a 50 MW 30 GHz gyrklystron amplifier. This approach would give the required phase stability. The frequency was at the second harmonic of the cycltron frequency and used the TE02 mode. This makes it possible to design a device without an inner conductor, and with a conventional (non-inverted) MIG. This minimizes cost and the risk due to mechanical alignment issues. A detailed design of the gyroklystron was produced. The design was based on simulations of the cavity(ies), electron gun, output coupler and output window. Two designs were produced. One was at the fundamental of the cyclotron frequency. Simulations predicted an output power of 72 MW with an efficiency of 48%. The other was at the second harmonic, producing 37 MW with an efficiency of 37%.

  14. Progress toward a MEMS fabricated 100 GHz oscillator.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loubriel, Guillermo Manuel; Lemp, Thomas; Weyn, Mark L.; Coleman, Phillip Dale; Rowley, James E. (SAIC, Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-02-01

    This report summarizes an LDRD effort which looked at the feasibility of building a MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) fabricated 100 GHz micro vacuum tube. PIC Simulations proved to be a very useful tool in investigating various device designs. Scaling parameters were identified. This in turn allowed predictions of oscillator growth based on beam parameters, cavity geometry, and cavity loading. The electron beam source was identified as a critical element of the design. FEA's (Field Emission Arrays) were purchased to be built into the micro device. Laboratory testing of the FEA's was also performed which pointed out care and handling issues along with maximum current capabilities. Progress was made toward MEMS fabrication of the device. Techniques were developed and successfully employed to build up several of the subassemblies of the device. However, the lower wall fabrication proved to be difficult and a successful build was not completed. Alternative approaches to building this structure have been identified. Although these alternatives look like good solutions for building the device, it was not possible to complete a redesign and build during the timeframe of this effort.

  15. Hypothetical Thermodynamic Properties: Vapor Pressures and Vaporization Enthalpies of the Even n-Alkanes from C78 to C92 at T ) 298.15 K by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chickos, James S.

    Hypothetical Thermodynamic Properties: Vapor Pressures and Vaporization Enthalpies of the Even n and vapor pressures of the n-alkanes from T ) (298.15 to 540) K for heneicosane to dononacontane. The vapor pressure and vaporization enthalpy results obtained are compared with estimated data from Morgan's "PERT2

  16. Copper vapor laser modular packaging assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, Terry W. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Dublin, CA); Moses, Edward I. (Castro Valley, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A modularized packaging arrangement for one or more copper vapor lasers and associated equipment is disclosed herein. This arrangement includes a single housing which contains the laser or lasers and all their associated equipment except power, water and neon, and means for bringing power, water, and neon which are necessary to the operation of the lasers into the container for use by the laser or lasers and their associated equipment.

  17. Copper vapor laser modular packaging assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, T.W.; Ault, E.R.; Moses, E.I.

    1992-12-01

    A modularized packaging arrangement for one or more copper vapor lasers and associated equipment is disclosed herein. This arrangement includes a single housing which contains the laser or lasers and all their associated equipment except power, water and neon, and means for bringing power, water, and neon which are necessary to the operation of the lasers into the container for use by the laser or lasers and their associated equipment. 2 figs.

  18. Apparatus and method for photochemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackson, Scott C. (Wilmington, DE); Rocheleau, Richard E. (Wilmington, DE)

    1987-03-31

    A photochemical vapor deposition apparatus includes a reactor housing having a window in one wall above a reaction chamber in the housing. A transparent curtain divides the reaction chamber into a reaction zone and a flush zone. At least one substrate is mounted in the reaction zone in light communication with the window so that ultraviolet radiation may penetrate through the window into the reaction zone. The window is kept clear by a gas flowing through the flush zone.

  19. Results of Second Outdoor Comparison Between Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer (ACP) and Infrared Integrating Sphere (IRIS) Radiometer at PMOD (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reda, I.; Grobner, J.; Wacker, S.

    2014-01-01

    The Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer (ACP) and InfraRed Integrating Sphere radiometer (IRIS) are developed to establish a world reference for calibrating pyrgeometers with traceability to SI units. The two radiometers are un-windowed with negligible spectral dependence, and traceable to SI units through the temperature scale (ITS-90). The second outdoor comparison between the two designs was held from September 30 to October 11, 2013 at the Physikalisch-Metorologisches Observatorium Davos (PMOD). The difference between the irradiance measured by ACP and that of the IRIS was within 1 W/m2 (3 IRISs: PMOD + Australia + Germany). From the first and second comparisons, a difference of 4-6 W/m2 was observed between the irradiance measured by ACP&IRIS and that of the interim World Infrared Standard Group (WISG). This presentation includes results from the first and second comparison in an effort to establish the world reference for pyrgeometer calibrations, a key deliverable for the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), and the DOE-ASR.

  20. Water vapor distribution in protoplanetary disks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Du, Fujun

    2014-01-01

    Water vapor has been detected in protoplanetary disks. In this work we model the distribution of water vapor in protoplanetary disks with a thermo-chemical code. For a set of parameterized disk models, we calculate the distribution of dust temperature and radiation field of the disk with a Monte Carlo method, and then solve the gas temperature distribution and chemical composition. The radiative transfer includes detailed treatment of scattering by atomic hydrogen and absorption by water of Lyman alpha photons, since the Lyman alpha line dominates the UV spectrum of accreting young stars. In a fiducial model, we find that warm water vapor with temperature around 300 K is mainly distributed in a small and well-confined region in the inner disk. The inner boundary of the warm water region is where the shielding of UV field due to dust and water itself become significant. The outer boundary is where the dust temperature drops below the water condensation temperature. A more luminous central star leads to a more ...

  1. High volume fuel vapor release valve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gimby, D.R.

    1991-09-03

    This patent describes a fuel vapor release valve for use in a vehicle fuel system. It comprises a valve housing 10 placed in a specific longitudinal orientation, the valve housing 10 defining an interior cavity 22 having an inlet 20 for admitting fuel vapor and an outlet 14 for discharging such fuel vapor; a valve member 24 positioned in the cavity 22 for movement between an outlet 14 opening position and an outlet 14 closing position, the valve member 24 including a cap member 34 having a seat surface 36 for mating with the outlet 14 and an orifice 42 extending through the cap member 34 providing a passageway from the outlet 14 to the cavity 22, the orifice 42 extending through the cap member 34 providing a passageway from the outlet 14 to the cavity 22, the orifice 42 having a lesser radius than the outlet 14; the valve member 24 further including a plug member 30 engaged with the cap member 34 for movement between an orifice 42 opening position and an orifice 42 closing position; and, a valve housing tilt responsive means for moving the valve member 24 to an outlet 14 and orifice 42 closing position in response to tilting of the valve 10 about its longitudinal axis whereby, upon the return of the valve 10 to its specified longitudinal orientation, the plug member 30 first moves to an orifice 42 opening position and the cap member 34 subsequently moves to an outlet 14 opening position.

  2. Combined rankine and vapor compression cycles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radcliff, Thomas D.; Biederman, Bruce P.; Brasz, Joost J.

    2005-04-19

    An organic rankine cycle system is combined with a vapor compression cycle system with the turbine generator of the organic rankine cycle generating the power necessary to operate the motor of the refrigerant compressor. The vapor compression cycle is applied with its evaporator cooling the inlet air into a gas turbine, and the organic rankine cycle is applied to receive heat from a gas turbine exhaust to heat its boiler within one embodiment, a common condenser is used for the organic rankine cycle and the vapor compression cycle, with a common refrigerant, R-245a being circulated within both systems. In another embodiment, the turbine driven generator has a common shaft connected to the compressor to thereby eliminate the need for a separate motor to drive the compressor. In another embodiment, an organic rankine cycle system is applied to an internal combustion engine to cool the fluids thereof, and the turbo charged air is cooled first by the organic rankine cycle system and then by an air conditioner prior to passing into the intake of the engine.

  3. Demonstration of two-beam acceleration and 30 GHz power production in the CLIC Test Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bossart, R.; Braun, H. H.; Carron, G.; Chanudet, M.; Chautard, F.; Delahaye, J. P.; Godot, J. C.; Hutchins, S.; Martinez, C.; Suberlucq, G.; Tenenbaum, P.; Thorndahl, L.; Trautner, H.; Valentini, M.; Wilson, I.; Wuensch, W. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    1999-05-07

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) Test Facility (CTF II) at CERN has recently demonstrated Two-Beam power production and acceleration at 30 GHz. With 41 MW of 30 GHz power produced in 14 ns pulses at a repetition rate of 5 Hz, the main beam has been accelerated by 28 MeV. The 30 GHz RF power is extracted in low impedance decelerating structures from a low-energy, high-current 'drive beam' which runs parallel to the main beam. The average current in the drive-beam train is 25 A, while the peak current exceeds 2 kA. Crosschecks between measured drive-beam charge, 30 GHz power and main-beam energy gain are in good agreement. In this paper, some relevant experimental and technical issues on drive-beam generation, two-beam power production and acceleration are presented.

  4. Calculation of wakefields in a 17 GHz beam-driven photonic band-gap accelerator structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Min

    We present the theoretical analysis and computer simulation of the wakefields in a 17 GHz photonic band-gap (PBG) structure for accelerator applications. Using the commercial code CST Particle Studio, the fundamental ...

  5. Design and implementation of frequency synthesizers for 3-10 ghz mulitband ofdm uwb communication 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mishra, Chinmaya

    2009-05-15

    The allocation of frequency spectrum by the FCC for Ultra Wideband (UWB) communications in the 3.1-10.6 GHz has paved the path for very high data rate Gb/s wireless communications. Frequency synthesis in these communication ...

  6. Rare Earth ? N = N* fs fGHZ fp nH fl

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, Frederick M.

    Rare Earth ? #12;N to date N = N* fs fGHZ fp nH fl ·N* = 4 x 1011 ·fs = 0.2 ·fGHZ = 0.1 ·fp = 0.8 ·nH = 2 ·fl = 1.0 N = 1.3 x 1010 #12;The Goldilocks Effect Earth is "Just Right" Yes, life on Earth has adapted to Earth, but ... Earth has just the right mass to be ·Tectonically-active ·Retain

  7. A low phase noise microwave frequency synthesis for a high-performance cesium vapor cell atomic clock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    François, B.; Boudot, R.; Calosso, C. E.; Danet, J. M.

    2014-09-15

    We report the development, absolute phase noise, and residual phase noise characterization of a 9.192?GHz microwave frequency synthesis chain devoted to be used as a local oscillator in a high-performance cesium vapor cell atomic clock based on coherent population trapping (CPT). It is based on frequency multiplication of an ultra-low phase noise 100 MHz oven-controlled quartz crystal oscillator using a nonlinear transmission line-based chain. Absolute phase noise performances of the 9.192?GHz output signal are measured to be ?42, ?100, ?117 dB?rad{sup 2}/Hz and ?129 dB?rad{sup 2}/Hz at 1 Hz, 100 Hz, 1 kHz, and 10 kHz offset frequencies, respectively. Compared to current results obtained in a state-of-the-art CPT-based frequency standard developed at LNE-SYRTE, this represents an improvement of 8 dB and 10 dB at f = 166 Hz and f = 10 kHz, respectively. With such performances, the expected Dick effect contribution to the atomic clock short term frequency stability is reported at a level of 6.2 × 10{sup ?14} at 1 s integration time, that is a factor 3 higher than the atomic clock shot noise limit. Main limitations are pointed out.

  8. Method and apparatus for concentrating vapors for analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grate, Jay W. (West Richland, WA); Baldwin, David L. (Kennewick, WA); Anheier, Jr., Norman C. (Richland, WA)

    2012-06-05

    A pre-concentration device and a method are disclosed for concentrating gaseous vapors for analysis. Vapors sorbed and concentrated within the bed of the pre-concentration device are thermally desorbed, achieving at least partial separation of the vapor mixtures. The pre-concentration device is suitable, e.g., for pre-concentration and sample injection, and provides greater resolution of peaks for vapors within vapor mixtures, yielding detection levels that are 10-10,000 times better than direct sampling and analysis systems. Features are particularly useful for continuous unattended monitoring applications. The invention finds application in conjunction with, e.g., analytical instruments where low detection limits for gaseous vapors are desirable.

  9. Chemical vapor deposition of epitaxial silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berkman, Samuel (Florham Park, NJ)

    1984-01-01

    A single chamber continuous chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactor is described for depositing continuously on flat substrates, for example, epitaxial layers of semiconductor materials. The single chamber reactor is formed into three separate zones by baffles or tubes carrying chemical source material and a carrier gas in one gas stream and hydrogen gas in the other stream without interaction while the wafers are heated to deposition temperature. Diffusion of the two gas streams on heated wafers effects the epitaxial deposition in the intermediate zone and the wafers are cooled in the final zone by coolant gases. A CVD reactor for batch processing is also described embodying the deposition principles of the continuous reactor.

  10. Vapor port and groundwater sampling well

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, J.M.; Wylie, A.H.

    1996-01-09

    A method and apparatus have been developed for combining groundwater monitoring wells with unsaturated-zone vapor sampling ports. The apparatus allows concurrent monitoring of both the unsaturated and the saturated zone from the same well at contaminated areas. The innovative well design allows for concurrent sampling of groundwater and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the vadose (unsaturated) zone from a single well, saving considerable time and money. The sample tubes are banded to the outer well casing during installation of the well casing. 10 figs.

  11. Vapor port and groundwater sampling well

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, Joel M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wylie, Allan H. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1996-01-01

    A method and apparatus has been developed for combining groundwater monitoring wells with unsaturated-zone vapor sampling ports. The apparatus allows concurrent monitoring of both the unsaturated and the saturated zone from the same well at contaminated areas. The innovative well design allows for concurrent sampling of groundwater and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the vadose (unsaturated) zone from a single well, saving considerable time and money. The sample tubes are banded to the outer well casing during installation of the well casing.

  12. Copper vapor laser acoustic thermometry system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galkowski, Joseph J. (Livermore, CA)

    1987-01-01

    A copper vapor laser (CVL) acoustic thermometry system is disclosed. The invention couples an acoustic pulse a predetermined distance into a laser tube by means of a transducer and an alumina rod such that an echo pulse is returned along the alumina rod to the point of entry. The time differential between the point of entry of the acoustic pulse into the laser tube and the exit of the echo pulse is related to the temperature at the predetermined distance within the laser tube. This information is processed and can provide an accurate indication of the average temperature within the laser tube.

  13. Category:Mercury Vapor | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmentalBowerbank,CammackFLIR Jump to: navigation,Ground GravityListsMercury Vapor Jump to:

  14. Method for controlling corrosion in thermal vapor injection gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sperry, John S. (Houston, TX); Krajicek, Richard W. (Houston, TX)

    1981-01-01

    An improvement in the method for producing high pressure thermal vapor streams from combustion gases for injection into subterranean oil producing formations to stimulate the production of viscous minerals is described. The improvement involves controlling corrosion in such thermal vapor gases by injecting water near the flame in the combustion zone and injecting ammonia into a vapor producing vessel to contact the combustion gases exiting the combustion chamber.

  15. Advanced Chemical Heat Pumps Using Liquid-Vapor Reactions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirol, L.

    1987-01-01

    HEAT PUMPS USING LIQUID-VAPOR REACTIONS LANCE KIROL Senior Program Specialist Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Idaho Falls, Idaho . ABSTRACT Chemical heat pumps utilizing liquid-vapor reactions can be configured in forms analogous... to electric drive vapor-compression heat pumps and heat activated absorption heat pumps. Basic thermodynamic considerations eliminate some heat pumps and place restrictive working fluid requirements on others, but two thermodynam ically feasible systems...

  16. Review of enhanced vapor diffusion in porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, S.W.; Ho, C.K.

    1998-08-01

    Vapor diffusion in porous media in the presence of its own liquid has often been treated similar to gas diffusion. The gas diffusion rate in porous media is much lower than in free space due to the presence of the porous medium and any liquid present. However, enhanced vapor diffusion has also been postulated such that the diffusion rate may approach free-space values. Existing data and models for enhanced vapor diffusion, including those in TOUGH2, are reviewed in this paper.

  17. M. Bahrami ENSC 461 (S 11) Vapor Power Cycles 1 Vapor Power Cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    is not a suitable model for steam power cycle since: The turbine has to handle steam with low quality which will cause erosion and wear in turbine blades. It is impractical to design a compressor that handles two vapor expands isentropically in turbine and produces work. 4-1: Const P heat rejection High quality

  18. Micromechanical Resonators with Nanoporous Materials for Enhanced Vapor Sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hwang, Yong Ha

    2012-01-01

    organic compounds," Analytical Chemistry, vol. 74, pp. 3084-Gas Sensor Array," Analytical Chemistry, vol. 81, pp. 595-Chemical Vapors," Analytical Chemistry, vol. 83, pp. 3448-

  19. Thermodynamic and transport properties of sodium liquid and vapor...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    sodium liquid and vapor. Recently published Russian recommendations and results of equation of state calculations on thermophysical properties of sodium have been included in...

  20. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Cove Fort Area - Vapor ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Cove Fort Area - Vapor (Warpinski, Et Al., 2004) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity:...

  1. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Cove Fort Area - Vapor ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Cove Fort Area - Vapor (Warpinski, Et Al., 2002)...

  2. Vapor and gas sampling of Single-Shell Tank 241-A-101 using the Vapor Sampling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caprio, G.S.

    1995-11-01

    This document presents sampling data resulting from the June 8, 1995, sampling of SST 241-A-101 using the Vapor Sampling System.

  3. Laboratory test plan in-well vapor stripping system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koegler, K.J

    1994-07-01

    This test plan describes the activities that will be conducted as a part of the laboratory testing of a full-scale mockup of the Stanford in-well vapor stripping system. These tests will be conducted to delineate design parameters for the in-well vapor stripping unit and to identify and quantify variables that are sensitive to the dynamic hydraulic effects induced by operation of the system. No radioactive materials are involved in this test. In-well vapor stripping has been used successfully as an alternative to conventional pump-and-treat technology for remediation of volatile organic compound (VOC) contaminated groundwater in Europe and more recently in the United States. In-well vapor stripping permits in situ remediation of VOC-contaminated groundwater by combining an in-well vapor stripping system with a treatment well is used to extract and discharge groundwater simultaneously, resulting in the establishment of a vertical circulation groundwater flow cell in the aquifer. Groundwater extracted from the aquifer via the lower screened interval is treated for VOCs by in-well vapor stripping within the treatment well. This stripping causes aqueous phase VOCs to partition preferentially into a vapor phase. Treated groundwater is discharged back to the aquifer via the upper screened interval of the treatment well, while the vapor phase VOCs are simultaneously removed from the well bore and contained at the surface with a vacuum extraction system. Groundwater entrained into the vertical circulation flow cell becomes sequentially cleaned of VOC contamination in an efficient manner without the need for surface treatment and handling of contaminated groundwater. An added benefit of in-well vapor stripping is the ability to perform vadose zone vapor extraction concurrently with groundwater remediation. This uses the vacuum extraction capabilities of the in-well vapor stripping configured with the upper screened interval placed into the vadose zone above the water table.

  4. The Linear Polarization of Sagittarius A* II. VLA and BIMA Polarimetry at 22, 43 and 86 GHz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geoffrey C. Bower; Melvyn C. H. Wright; Donald C. Backer; Heino Falcke

    1999-07-21

    We present a search for linear polarization at 22 GHz, 43 GHz and 86 GHz from the nearest super massive black hole candidate, Sagittarius A*. We find upper limits to the linear polarization of 0.2%, 0.4% and 1%, respectively. These results strongly support the conclusion of our centimeter wavelength spectro-polarimetry that Sgr A* is not depolarized by the interstellar medium but is in fact intrinsically depolarized.

  5. 12.2-GHz methanol maser MMB follow-up catalogue - III. Longitude range 10 to 20 degrees

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Breen, Shari; Caswell, James; Green, James; Voronkov, Maxim; Avison, Adam; Fuller, Gary; Quinn, Lyshia; Titmarsh, Anita

    2013-01-01

    We present the third instalment of a series of catalogues presenting 12.2-GHz methanol maser observations made towards each of the 6.7-GHz methanol masers detected in the Methanol Multibeam (MMB) Survey. The current portion of the catalogue includes the Galactic longitude region 10 to 20 degrees, where we detect 47 12.2-GHz methanol masers towards 99 6.7-GHz targets. We compare the occurrence of 12.2-GHz methanol masers with water maser emission, for which all 6.7-GHz methanol masers in the 6 to 20 degrees longitude range have now been searched. We suggest that the water masers follow a more complicated evolutionary scenario than has been found for the methanol and OH masers, likely due to their different pumping mechanisms. Comparisons of the 6.7-GHz methanol to OH maser peak flux density ratio and the luminosity of the associated 12.2-GHz sources suggests that the 12.2-GHz maser luminosity begins to decline around the time that an OH maser becomes detectable.

  6. UNCORRECTEDPROOF Please cite this article in press as: D. Lipkind et al., The vaporization enthalpies and vapor pressures of a series of unsaturated fatty acids methyl

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chickos, James S.

    enthalpies and vapor pressures of a series of unsaturated fatty acids methyl esters by correlation gas­8 Thermochimica Acta xxx (2007) xxx­xxx The vaporization enthalpies and vapor pressures of a series of unsaturated- vonate (methyl Z 15-tetracosenoate) are evaluated at T = 298.15 and vapor pressures are evaluated over

  7. 1-Dimensional Numerical Model of Thermal Conduction and Vapor Diffusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schörghofer, Norbert

    developed by Samar Khatiwala, 2001 extended to variable thermal properties and irregular grid by Norbert Sch for c. Upper boundary condition: a) Radiation Q + k T z z=0 = T4 z=0 Q is the incoming solar flux of Water Vapor with Phase Transitions developed by Norbert Sch¨orghofer, 2003­2004 3 phases: vapor, free

  8. Chemical vapor detection with a multispectral thermal imager

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Chein-I

    Chemical vapor detection with a multispectral thermal imager Mark 1. G. Aithouse, MEMBER SPIE U.S. Army Chemical Research Development and Engineering Center SMCCR-DDT Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland algorithm 7. Conclusions 8. Acknowledgments 9. References 1. INTRODUCTION Detection of chemical vapor clouds

  9. Recuperative Vapor Recompression Heat Pumps for Cryogenic Air Separation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahrendt, Wolfgang

    Air N2 CW MAC MHE LP HP CW N2 O2 Recuperative Vapor Recompression Heat Pumps for Cryogenic Air · The compression of O2 in the air feed is avoided by applying recuperative vapor recompression heat pumps) heat pump The compression of B can be avoided 77 79 81 83 85 87 89 91 93 -5000 5000 15000 25000 35000

  10. ADHESION FORCES BETWEEN MICA SURFACES IN UNDERSATURATED VAPORS OF HYDROCARBONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matsuoka, Hiroshige

    ADHESION FORCES BETWEEN MICA SURFACES IN UNDERSATURATED VAPORS OF HYDROCARBONS H. MATSUOKA1 , T] or meniscus force [3], which have been neglected in the conventional and relatively large mechani- cal systems forces between mica surfaces in under- saturated vapors of several kind of hydrocarbon liquids are mea

  11. RESONANT FARADAY ROTATION IN A HOT LITHIUM VAPOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cronin, Alex D.

    RESONANT FARADAY ROTATION IN A HOT LITHIUM VAPOR By SCOTT RUSSELL WAITUKAITIS A Thesis Submitted: #12;Abstract I describe a study of Faraday rotation in a hot lithium vapor. I begin by dis- cussing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.3 The Lithium Oven and Solenoid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3 Theoretical Framework

  12. Kinetics of wet sodium vapor complex plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishra, S. K., E-mail: nishfeb@rediffmail.com [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Sodha, M. S. [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)] [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2014-04-15

    In this paper, we have investigated the kinetics of wet (partially condensed) Sodium vapor, which comprises of electrons, ions, neutral atoms, and Sodium droplets (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated by light. The formulation includes the balance of charge over the droplets, number balance of the plasma constituents, and energy balance of the electrons. In order to evaluate the droplet charge, a phenomenon for de-charging of the droplets, viz., evaporation of positive Sodium ions from the surface has been considered in addition to electron emission and electron/ion accretion. The analysis has been utilized to evaluate the steady state parameters of such complex plasmas (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated; the results have been graphically illustrated. As a significant outcome irradiated, Sodium droplets are seen to acquire large positive potential, with consequent enhancement in the electron density.

  13. Chemical vapor deposition of group IIIB metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erbil, A.

    1989-11-21

    Coatings of Group IIIB metals and compounds thereof are formed by chemical vapor deposition, in which a heat decomposable organometallic compound of the formula given in the patent where M is a Group IIIB metal, such as lanthanum or yttrium and R is a lower alkyl or alkenyl radical containing from 2 to about 6 carbon atoms, with a heated substrate which is above the decomposition temperature of the organometallic compound. The pure metal is obtained when the compound of the formula 1 is the sole heat decomposable compound present and deposition is carried out under nonoxidizing conditions. Intermetallic compounds such as lanthanum telluride can be deposited from a lanthanum compound of formula 1 and a heat decomposable tellurium compound under nonoxidizing conditions.

  14. Monitoring of vapor phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Hajaligol, Mohammad R.

    2004-06-01

    An apparatus for monitoring vapor phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a high-temperature environment has an excitation source producing electromagnetic radiation, an optical path having an optical probe optically communicating the electromagnetic radiation received at a proximal end to a distal end, a spectrometer or polychromator, a detector, and a positioner coupled to the first optical path. The positioner can slidably move the distal end of the optical probe to maintain the distal end position with respect to an area of a material undergoing combustion. The emitted wavelength can be directed to a detector in a single optical probe 180.degree. backscattered configuration, in a dual optical probe 180.degree. backscattered configuration or in a dual optical probe 90.degree. side scattered configuration. The apparatus can be used to monitor an emitted wavelength of energy from a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon as it fluoresces in a high temperature environment.

  15. Digital-photonic synthesis of ultra-low noise tunable signals from RF to 100 GHz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortier, T M; Quinlan, F; Baynes, F N; Metcalf, A J; Hati, A; Ludlow, A; Hinkley, N; Shimizu, M; Ishibashi, T; Campbell, J C; Diddams, S A

    2015-01-01

    The demand for higher data rates and better synchronization in communication and navigation systems necessitates the development of new wideband and tunable sources with noise performance exceeding that provided by traditional oscillators and synthesizers. Precision synthesis is paramount for providing frequency references and timing in a broad range of applications including next-generation telecommunications, high precision measurement, and radar and sensing. Here we describe a digital-photonic synthesizer (DPS) based on optical frequency division that enables the generation of widely tunable signals from near DC to 100 GHz with a fractional frequency instability of 1 part in 10^15. The spectral purity of the DPS derived signals represents an improvement in close-to-carrier noise performance over the current state-of-the-art of nearly 7 orders of magnitude in the W-band (100 GHz), and up to 5 orders of magnitude in the X-band (10 GHz).

  16. Discovery of 6.035GHz Hydroxyl Maser Flares in IRAS18566+0408

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Marzouk, A A; Hofner, P; Kurtz, S; Linz, H; Olmi, L

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery of 6.035GHz hydroxyl (OH) maser flares toward the massive star forming region IRAS18566+0408 (G37.55+0.20), which is the only region known to show periodic formaldehyde (4.8 GHz H2CO) and methanol (6.7 GHz CH3OH) maser flares. The observations were conducted between October 2008 and January 2010 with the 305m Arecibo Telescope in Puerto Rico. We detected two flare events, one in March 2009, and one in September to November 2009. The OH maser flares are not simultaneous with the H2CO flares, but may be correlated with CH3OH flares from a component at corresponding velocities. A possible correlated variability of OH and CH3OH masers in IRAS18566+0408 is consistent with a common excitation mechanism (IR pumping) as predicted by theory.

  17. DISCOVERY OF 6.035 GHz HYDROXYL MASER FLARES IN IRAS 18566+0408

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Marzouk, A. A.; Araya, E. D.; Hofner, P.; Kurtz, S.; Linz, H.; Olmi, L.

    2012-05-10

    We report the discovery of 6.035 GHz hydroxyl (OH) maser flares toward the massive star-forming region IRAS 18566+0408 (G37.55+0.20), which is the only region known to show periodic formaldehyde (4.8 GHz H{sub 2}CO) and methanol (6.7 GHz CH{sub 3}OH) maser flares. The observations were conducted between 2008 October and 2010 January with the 305 m Arecibo Telescope in Puerto Rico. We detected two flare events, one in 2009 March and one in 2009 September to November. The OH maser flares are not simultaneous with the H{sub 2}CO flares, but may be correlated with CH{sub 3}OH flares from a component at corresponding velocities. A possible correlated variability of OH and CH{sub 3}OH masers in IRAS 18566+0408 is consistent with a common excitation mechanism (IR pumping) as predicted by theory.

  18. Controlled VLS Growth of Indium, Gallium and Tin Oxide Nanowires via Chemical Vapor Transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, M.C.; Aloni, S.; McCready, D.E.; Bourret-Courchesne, E.D.

    2006-01-01

    6 Growth Rate (um/hr) Vapor Pressure (Torr) In2O3 Ga2O3 SnO2Rate (µm/hr) Metal Vapor Pressure (Torr) Crystalline phaseto the source metal vapor pressure. Initial experiments show

  19. Numerical modeling of water injection into vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pruess, Karsten

    2008-01-01

    s equation, which expresses vapor pressure as a function ofT+ 273.15 ) ( is the vapor pressure lowering (VPL) factor.P sat is the saturated vapor pressure of bulk aqueous phase,

  20. Gas Separation Using Organic-Vapor-Resistent Membranes In Conjunctin With Organic-Vapor-Selective Membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA); Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA); He, Zhenjie (Fremont, CA); Da Costa, Andre R. (Menlo Park, CA); Daniels, Ramin (San Jose, CA); Amo, Karl D. (Mountain View, CA); Wijmans, Johannes G. (Menlo Park, CA)

    2003-06-03

    A process for treating a gas mixture containing at least an organic compound gas or vapor and a second gas, such as natural gas, refinery off-gas or air. The process uses two sequential membrane separation steps, one using membrane selective for the organic compound over the second gas, the other selective for the second gas over the organic vapor. The second-gas-selective membranes use a selective layer made from a polymer having repeating units of a fluorinated polymer, and demonstrate good resistance to plasticization by the organic components in the gas mixture under treatment, and good recovery after exposure to liquid aromatic hydrocarbons. The membrane steps can be combined in either order.

  1. Hybrid Vapor Compression Adsorption System: Thermal Storage Using Hybrid Vapor Compression Adsorption System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-04

    HEATS Project: UTRC is developing a new climate-control system for EVs that uses a hybrid vapor compression adsorption system with thermal energy storage. The targeted, closed system will use energy during the battery-charging step to recharge the thermal storage, and it will use minimal power to provide cooling or heating to the cabin during a drive cycle. The team will use a unique approach of absorbing a refrigerant on a metal salt, which will create a lightweight, high-energy-density refrigerant. This unique working pair can operate indefinitely as a traditional vapor compression heat pump using electrical energy, if desired. The project will deliver a hot-and-cold battery that provides comfort to the passengers using minimal power, substantially extending the driving range of EVs.

  2. Chemical vapor deposition coating for micromachines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MANI,SEETHAMBAL S.; FLEMING,JAMES G.; SNIEGOWSKI,JEFFRY J.; DE BOER,MAARTEN P.; IRWIN,LAWRENCE W.; WALRAVEN,JEREMY A.; TANNER,DANELLE M.; DUGGER,MICHAEL T.

    2000-04-21

    Two major problems associated with Si-based MEMS devices are stiction and wear. Surface modifications are needed to reduce both adhesion and friction in micromechanical structures to solve these problems. In this paper, the authors will present a process used to selectively coat MEMS devices with tungsten using a CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition) process. The selective W deposition process results in a very conformal coating and can potentially solve both stiction and wear problems confronting MEMS processing. The selective deposition of tungsten is accomplished through silicon reduction of WF{sub 6}, which results in a self-limiting reaction. The selective deposition of W only on polysilicon surfaces prevents electrical shorts. Further, the self-limiting nature of this selective W deposition process ensures the consistency necessary for process control. Selective tungsten is deposited after the removal of the sacrificial oxides to minimize process integration problems. This tungsten coating adheres well and is hard and conducting, requirements for device performance. Furthermore, since the deposited tungsten infiltrates under adhered silicon parts and the volume of W deposited is less than the amount of Si consumed, it appears to be possible to release stuck parts that are contacted over small areas such as dimples. Results from tungsten deposition on MEMS structures with dimples will be presented. The effect of wet and vapor phase cleanings prior to the deposition will be discussed along with other process details. The W coating improved wear by orders of magnitude compared to uncoated parts. Tungsten CVD is used in the integrated-circuit industry, which makes this approach manufacturable.

  3. Detection of 6.7 GHz methanol absorption towards hot corinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. D. Pandian; S. Leurini; K. M. Menten; A. Belloche; P. F. Goldsmith

    2008-08-14

    Methanol masers at 6.7 GHz have been found exclusively towards high-mass star forming regions. Recently, some Class 0 protostars have been found to display conditions similar to what are found in hot cores that are associated with massive star formation. These hot corino sources have densities, gas temperatures, and methanol abundances that are adequate for exciting strong 6.7 GHz maser emission. This raises the question of whether 6.7 GHz methanol masers can be found in both hot corinos and massive star forming regions, and if not, whether thermal methanol emission can be detected. We searched for the 6.7 GHz methanol line towards five hot corino sources in the Perseus region using the Arecibo radio telescope. To constrain the excitation conditions of methanol, we observed thermal submillimeter lines of methanol in the NGC1333-IRAS 4 region with the APEX telescope. We did not detect 6.7 GHz emission in any of the sources, but found absorption against the cosmic microwave background in NGC1333-IRAS 4A and NGC1333-IRAS 4B. Using a large velocity gradient analysis, we modeled the excitation of methanol over a wide range of physical parameters, and verify that the 6.7 GHz line is indeed strongly anti-inverted for densities lower than 10^6 cm^-3. We used the submillimeter observations of methanol to verify the predictions of our model for IRAS 4A by comparison with other CH3OH transitions. Our results indicate that the methanol observations from the APEX and Arecibo telescopes are consistent with dense (n ~ 10^6 cm^-3), cold (T ~ 15-30 K) gas. The lack of maser emission in hot corinos and low-mass protostellar objects in general may be due to densities that are much higher than the quenching density in the region where the radiation field is conducive to maser pumping.

  4. VLBI detections of a source weaker than 100 mJy at 86 GHz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Middelberg; A. L. Roy; R. C. Walker; H. Falcke

    2004-09-27

    We use a new phase-calibration strategy to calibrate the phase of 86 GHz VLBI observations of the FR I radio galaxy NGC 4261. Instead of switching between a calibrator source and the target source, the target was observed while rapidly switching between the target frequency and a lower reference frequency. Self-calibration at the reference frequency yielded phase corrections which were multiplied with the frequency ratio and applied to the target frequency visibilities. The resulting detection of NGC 4261 is, to our knowledge, the first of NGC 4261 with 86 GHz VLBI, and it is also the weakest source so far detected with VLBI at that frequency.

  5. 28 GHz Gyrotron and 4.6 GHz Klystron Heating Options for LDX P. P. Woskov1, A. C. Boxer1, J. L. Ellsworth1, D. T. Garnier2, J. Kesner1, M. E. Mauel2, P. C. Michael1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University ABSTRACT - The success of fully levitated LDX plasma operations is now motivating magnetic configuration. Adding 28 GHz gyrotron and 4.6 GHz klystron electron cyclotron heating using to the magnetic field. The heating beam would be directed at the fundamental and 2nd harmonic electron cyclotron

  6. Common Base Amplifier with 7-dB gain at 176 GHz in InP mesa DHBT Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodwell, Mark J. W.

    power gain at 150.2 GHz. Index Terms -- InP heterojunction bipolar transistor, millimeter-wave amplifier Barbara, CA 93106, USA A. Fung, L. Samoska California Institute of Technology Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA Abstract -- We report common base power amplifiers designed for 140-220-GHz

  7. IEEE MICROWAVE AND GUIDED WAVE LETTERS, VOL. 9, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 1999 467 A 530-GHz Balanced Mixer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IEEE MICROWAVE AND GUIDED WAVE LETTERS, VOL. 9, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 1999 467 A 530-GHz Balanced Mixer Goutam Chattopadhyay, Student Member, IEEE, Frank Rice, David Miller, Henry G. LeDuc, and Jonas Zmuidzinas, Member, IEEE Abstract-- We report on the design and performance of a 530-GHz balanced SIS mixer

  8. 75 GHz ECL Static Frequency Divider in InAlAs/InGaAs Transferred Substrate HBT Technology.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodwell, Mark J. W.

    75 GHz ECL Static Frequency Divider in InAlAs/InGaAs Transferred Substrate HBT Technology. T.: (805) 893-8044 / Fax: (805) 893-3262, E-mail: thomas@goodness.ece.ucsb.edu We report 75 GHz static frequency of operation for a static frequency divider. The circuit has 60 transistors, and dissipates 800 m

  9. SiGe BiCMOS for Analog, High-Speed Digital and Millimetre-Wave Applications Beyond 50 GHz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan Carusone, Tony

    . Automotive radar and imaging applications in the 80-100 GHz range are also briefly discussed. I. INTRODUCTION 77/94GHz automotive, mm-wave imaging, and 100-Gb/s Ethernet applications. This paper addressesT of a scaled device simulated using Silvaco's T-CAD platform. The scaled transistor has 100-nm emitter width

  10. High-Frequency (140-GHz) Time Domain EPR and ENDOR Spectroscopy: The Tyrosyl Radical-Diiron Cofactor in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffin, Robert G.

    High-Frequency (140-GHz) Time Domain EPR and ENDOR Spectroscopy: The Tyrosyl Radical-4307 ReceiVed August 21, 2000. ReVised Manuscript ReceiVed NoVember 28, 2000 Abstract: High-frequency pulsed at conventional frequencies (9 GHz, 0.35 T) often lead to complex, unresolved spectra. The development of high-frequency

  11. Design and Analysis of Highway Safety Communication Protocol in 5.9 GHz Dedicated Short Range Communication Spectrum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sengupta, Raja

    Design and Analysis of Highway Safety Communication Protocol in 5.9 GHz Dedicated Short Range among high- way vehicles in the newly-assigned 5.9 GHz Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC parameters are found for certain requirements on protocol performance. I. INTRODUCTION DSRC (Dedicated Short

  12. 10 GHz Colliding Pulse Mode Locked Laser with Electrical and Optical Injection Synchronization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolner, Brian H.

    past the 1.15Q waveguiding layer with a methane- hydrogen based reactive ion etching (RIE) process Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) SiO2 layer patterned to mask the 2000 µm x 20 µm active

  13. Monitoring PVD metal vapors using laser absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braun, D.G.; Anklam, T.M.; Berzins, L.V.; Hagans, K.G.

    1994-04-01

    Laser absorption spectroscopy (LAS) has been used by the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) program for over 10 years to monitor the co-vaporization of uranium and iron in its separators. During that time, LAS has proven to be an accurate and reliable method to monitor both the density and composition of the vapor. It has distinct advantages over other rate monitors, in that it is completely non-obtrusive to the vaporization process and its accuracy is unaffected by the duration of the run. Additionally, the LAS diagnostic has been incorporated into a very successful process control system. LAS requires only a line of sight through the vacuum chamber, as all hardware is external to the vessel. The laser is swept in frequency through an absorption line of interest. In the process a baseline is established, and the line integrated density is determined from the absorption profile. The measurement requires no hardware calibration. Through a proper choice of the atomic transition, a wide range of elements and densities have been monitored (e.g. nickel, iron, cerium and gadolinium). A great deal of information about the vapor plume can be obtained from the measured absorption profiles. By monitoring different species at the same location, the composition of the vapor is measured in real time. By measuring the same density at different locations, the spatial profile of the vapor plume is determined. The shape of the absorption profile is used to obtain the flow speed of the vapor. Finally, all of the above information is used evaluate the total vaporization rate.

  14. Enhanced Attenuation Technologies: Passive Soil Vapor Extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vangelas, K.; Looney, B.; Kamath, R.; Adamson, D.; Newell, C.

    2010-03-15

    Passive soil vapor extraction (PSVE) is an enhanced attenuation (EA) approach that removes volatile contaminants from soil. The extraction is driven by natural pressure gradients between the subsurface and atmosphere (Barometric Pumping), or by renewable sources of energy such as wind or solar power (Assisted PSVE). The technology is applicable for remediating sites with low levels of contamination and for transitioning sites from active source technologies such as active soil vapor extraction (ASVE) to natural attenuation. PSVE systems are simple to design and operate and are more cost effective than active systems in many scenarios. Thus, PSVE is often appropriate as an interim-remedial or polishing strategy. Over the past decade, PSVE has been demonstrated in the U.S. and in Europe. These demonstrations provide practical information to assist in selecting, designing and implementing the technology. These demonstrations indicate that the technology can be effective in achieving remedial objectives in a timely fashion. The keys to success include: (1) Application at sites where the residual source quantities, and associated fluxes to groundwater, are relatively low; (2) Selection of the appropriate passive energy source - barometric pumping in cases with a deep vadose zone and barrier (e.g., clay) layers that separate the subsurface from the atmosphere and renewable energy assisted PSVE in other settings and where higher flow rates are required. (3) Provision of sufficient access to the contaminated vadose zones through the spacing and number of extraction wells. This PSVE technology report provides a summary of the relevant technical background, real-world case study performance, key design and cost considerations, and a scenario-based cost evaluation. The key design and cost considerations are organized into a flowchart that dovetails with the Enhanced Attenuation: Chlorinated Organics Guidance of the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC). The PSVE flowchart provides a structured process to determine if the technology is, or is not, reasonable and defensible for a particular site. The central basis for that decision is the expected performance of PSVE under the site specific conditions. Will PSVE have sufficient mass removal rates to reduce the release, or flux, of contamination into the underlying groundwater so that the site can meet it overall remedial objectives? The summary technical information, case study experiences, and structured decision process provided in this 'user guide' should assist environmental decision-makers, regulators, and engineers in selecting and successfully implementing PSVE at appropriate sites.

  15. Controlling the vapor pressure of a mercury lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); George, William A. (Rockport, MA)

    1988-01-01

    The invention described herein discloses a method and apparatus for controlling the Hg vapor pressure within a lamp. This is done by establishing and controlling two temperature zones within the lamp. One zone is colder than the other zone. The first zone is called the cold spot. By controlling the temperature of the cold spot, the Hg vapor pressure within the lamp is controlled. Likewise, by controlling the Hg vapor pressure of the lamp, the intensity and linewidth of the radiation emitted from the lamp is controlled.

  16. Controlling the vapor pressure of a mercury lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

    1988-05-24

    The invention described herein discloses a method and apparatus for controlling the Hg vapor pressure within a lamp. This is done by establishing and controlling two temperature zones within the lamp. One zone is colder than the other zone. The first zone is called the cold spot. By controlling the temperature of the cold spot, the Hg vapor pressure within the lamp is controlled. Likewise, by controlling the Hg vapor pressure of the lamp, the intensity and linewidth of the radiation emitted from the lamp is controlled. 2 figs.

  17. In-well vapor stripping drilling and characterization work plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koegler, K.J.

    1994-03-13

    This work plan provides the information necessary for drilling, sampling, and hydrologic testing of wells to be completed in support of a demonstration of the in-well vapor stripping system. The in-well vapor stripping system is a remediation technology designed to preferentially extract volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from contaminated groundwater by converting them to a vapor phase. Air-lift pumping is used to lift and aerate groundwater within the well. The volatiles escaping the aerated water are drawn off by a slight vacuum and treated at the surface while the water is allowed to infiltrate the vadose zone back to the watertable.

  18. Superconducting quantum interference device as a near-quantum-limited amplifier at 0.5 GHz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Le Roy, Robert J.

    Superconducting quantum interference device as a near-quantum-limited amplifier at 0.5 GHz Michael 94720 Received 10 October 2000; accepted for publication 14 December 2000 A dc superconducting quantum, for example, superconducting transition-edge sensors for infrared, optical, and ultraviolet wavelengths,2

  19. Multi-channel 180pJ/b 2.4GHz FBAR-based receiver

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nadeau, Phillip

    A three-channel 2.4GHz OOK receiver is designed in 65nm CMOS and leverages MEMS to enable multiple sub-channels of operation within a band at a very low energy per received bit. The receive chain features an LNA/mixer ...

  20. 1.3 GHz Cavity Weld to Helium Vessel A. Schmidt, A. Matheisen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    room conditions which are classified as ASTM class 10 (ISO 4) quality. All processes for He tank of completion of helium tank and module assembly techniques as well. An overview on the sequences and processes for tank installation for the DESY 1.3 GHz resonators will be given. Introduction Improvements

  1. 658 GHz Vibrationally-Excited Water Masers with the Submillimeter Array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. R. Hunter; K. H. Young; R. D. Christensen; M. A. Gurwell

    2007-04-20

    Discovered in 1995 at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO), the vibrationally-excited water maser line at 658 GHz (455 micron) is seen in oxygen-rich giant and supergiant stars. Because this maser can be so strong (up to thousands of Janskys), it was very helpful during the commissioning phase of the highest frequency band (620-700 GHz) of the Submillimeter Array (SMA) interferometer. From late 2002 to early 2006, brief attempts were made to search for emission from additional sources beyond the original CSO survey. These efforts have expanded the source count from 10 to 16. The maser emission appears to be quite compact spatially, as expected from theoretical considerations; thus these objects can potentially be used as atmospheric phase calibrators. Many of these objects also exhibit maser emission in the vibrationally-excited SiO maser at 215 GHz. Because both maser lines likely originate from a similar physical region, these objects can be used to test techniques of phase transfer calibration between millimeter and submillimeter bands. The 658 GHz masers will be important beacons to assess the performance of the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) in this challenging high-frequency band.

  2. Sensors and Actuators A 127 (2006) 270275 Plastic 95-GHz rectangular waveguides by micro molding technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Liwei

    2006-01-01

    Sensors and Actuators A 127 (2006) 270­275 Plastic 95-GHz rectangular waveguides by micro molding technologies Firas Sammouraa,, Yu-Chuan Sua, Ying Caib, Chen-Yu Chic, Bala Elamaranc, Liwei Lina, Jung at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019-0016, USA c Agilent Technologies, 1400 Fountain Grove Pky, San Rosa, CA 95403

  3. A Full Waveguide Band MMIC Tripler for 75-110 GHz Matthew Morgan1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutledge, David B.

    of Electrical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA. 91125 2 Jet Propulsion Laboratory between ­3.7 dBm and +2.0 dBm from 75 to 110 GHz. When tuned for power flatness, the output is between ­4]-[10], citing improved conversion loss. However, diode multipliers are more common in the millimeter-wave range

  4. Hybrid mode-locking in a 40 GHz monolithic quantum dot laser G. Fiol,1,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vladimirov, Andrei G.

    Hybrid mode-locking in a 40 GHz monolithic quantum dot laser G. Fiol,1,a D. Arsenijevi,1 D. Bimberg; accepted 30 November 2009; published online 5 January 2010 Hybrid mode-locking in monolithic quantum dot QD of hybrid mode-locking ML , a commonly used technique for improving quality of mode- locked pulses

  5. A 12 GHZ 50 MW Klystron for Support of Accelerator Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sprehn, Daryl; /SLAC; Haase, Andrew; /SLAC; Jensen, Aaron; /SLAC; Jongewaard, Erik; /SLAC; Nantista, Christopher; /SLAC; Vlieks, Arnold; /SLAC

    2011-05-31

    A 12 GHz 50MW X-band klystron is under development at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory Klystron Department. The klystron will be fabricated to support programs currently underway at three European Labs; CERN, PSI, and INFN Trieste. The choice of frequency selection was due to the CLIC RF frequency changing from 30 GHz to the European X-band frequency of 11.99 GHz in 2008. Since the Klystron Department currently builds 50MW klystrons at 11.424 GHz known collectively as the XL4 klystrons, it was deemed cost-effective to utilize many XL4 components by leaving the gun, electron beam transport, solenoid magnet and collector unchanged. To realize the rf parameters required, the rf cavities and rf output hardware were necessarily altered. Some improvements to the rf design have been made to reduce operating gradients and increase reliability. Changes in the multi-cell output structure, waveguide components, and the window will be discussed along with testing of the devices. Five klystrons known as XL5 klystrons are scheduled for production over the next two years.

  6. Measurements of the complex dielectric constant of volcanic ash from 4 to 19 GHz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perger, Warren F.

    Measurements of the complex dielectric constant of volcanic ash from 4 to 19 GHz R. J. Adams,1 W. F. Perger,2 W. I. Rose,3 and A. Kostinski4 Abstract Dielectric data in volcanic ash at weather radar wavelengths (centimeter range) are extremely sparse and are crucial for radar sensing of ash clouds

  7. Formaldehyde and H110a observations towards 6.7 GHz methanol maser sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Okoh, Daniel; Zhou, Jian Jun; Tang, Xin Di; Chukwude, Augustine; Urama, Johnson; Okeke, Pius

    2014-01-01

    Intriguing work on observations of 4.83 GHz formaldehyde (H2CO) absorptions and 4.87 GHz H110a radio recombination lines (RRLs) towards 6.7 GHz methanol (CH3OH) maser sources is presented. Methanol masers provide ideal sites to probe the earliest stages of massive star formation, while 4.8 GHz formaldehyde absorptions are accurate probes of physical conditions in dense $(10^{3} - 10^{5} cm^{-3})$ and low temperature molecular clouds towards massive star forming regions. The work is aimed at studying feature similarities between the formaldehyde absorptions and the methanol masers so as to expand knowledge of events and physical conditions in massive star forming regions. A total of 176 methanol maser sources were observed for formaldehyde absorptions, and formaldehyde absorptions were detected 138 of them. 53 of the formaldehyde absorptions were newly detected. We noted a poor correlation between the methanol and formaldehyde intensities, an indication that the signals (though arise from about the same region...

  8. MEMS-based tunable terahertz wire-laser over 330?GHz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Qi

    We demonstrate continuous tuning of a terahertz quantum cascade wire laser over a broad range of ~ 330?GHz ( ~ 8.6% of the 3.85?THz center frequency) with single-mode operation. Tuning is achieved with a narrow laser ridge ...

  9. Demonstration of a 140-GHz 1-kW Confocal Gyro-Traveling-Wave Amplifier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Temkin, Richard J.

    The theory, design, and experimental results of a wideband 140-GHz 1-kW pulsed gyro-traveling-wave amplifier (gyro-TWA) are presented. The gyro-TWA operates in the HE [subscript 06] mode of an overmoded quasi-optical ...

  10. GHZ ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF CARBON NANOTUBES ON SILICON DIOXIDE MICRO BRIDGES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, William C

    1 GHZ ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF CARBON NANOTUBES ON SILICON DIOXIDE MICRO BRIDGES SHENG F. YEN1 of an approach to reduce the high-frequency capacitive feedthrough and dielectric leakages of carbon nanotubes grown on silicon dioxide micro bridges suspended over silicon substrates. The microwave reflection

  11. AFLEXIBLE APPROACH TO 5GHz U-NII BAND WLAN RADIO DEVELOPMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapelle¼, Paul Schwab¼, Bill Griffin¼, Finbarr McGrath¼, Graham Wells¼, Brian English¼, Neil Weste*, Tony Parker-end in GaAs and the integration of the IF, filters, ADCs and DACs in CMOS. As a result of our efforts we units). Accordingly, we have a dual approach to the problem. Using specially designed 5 GHz Ga

  12. Catalytic Reactor For Oxidizing Mercury Vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Helfritch, Dennis J. (Baltimore, MD)

    1998-07-28

    A catalytic reactor (10) for oxidizing elemental mercury contained in flue gas is provided. The catalyst reactor (10) comprises within a flue gas conduit a perforated corona discharge plate (30a, b) having a plurality of through openings (33) and a plurality of projecting corona discharge electrodes (31); a perforated electrode plate (40a, b, c) having a plurality of through openings (43) axially aligned with the through openings (33) of the perforated corona discharge plate (30a, b) displaced from and opposing the tips of the corona discharge electrodes (31); and a catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) overlaying that face of the perforated electrode plate (40a, b, c) opposing the tips of the corona discharge electrodes (31). A uniformly distributed corona discharge plasma (1000) is intermittently generated between the plurality of corona discharge electrode tips (31) and the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) when a stream of flue gas is passed through the conduit. During those periods when corona discharge (1000) is not being generated, the catalyst molecules of the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) adsorb mercury vapor contained in the passing flue gas. During those periods when corona discharge (1000) is being generated, ions and active radicals contained in the generated corona discharge plasma (1000) desorb the mercury from the catalyst molecules of the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d), oxidizing the mercury in virtually simultaneous manner. The desorption process regenerates and activates the catalyst member molecules.

  13. Optimization of Xenon Difluoride Vapor Delivery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sweeney, Joseph; Marganski, Paul; Kaim, Robert; Wodjenski, Mike; Gregg, John; Yedave, Sharad; Sergi, Steve; Bishop, Steve; Eldridge, David; Zou Peng [ATMI, Inc., Danbury, Connecticut 06810 (United States)

    2008-11-03

    Xenon difluoride (XeF{sub 2}) has been shown to provide many process benefits when used as a daily maintenance recipe for ion implant. Regularly flowing XeF{sub 2} into the ion source cleans the deposits generated by ion source operation. As a result, significant increases in productivity have been demonstrated. However, XeF{sub 2} is a toxic oxidizer that must be handled appropriately. Furthermore, it is a low vapor pressure solid under standard conditions ({approx}4.5 torr at 25 deg. C). These aspects present unique challenges for designing a package for delivering the chemistry to an ion implanter. To address these challenges, ATMI designed a high-performance, re-usable cylinder for dispensing XeF{sub 2} in an efficient and reliable manner. Data are presented showing specific attributes of the cylinder, such as the importance of internal heat transfer media and the cylinder valve size. The impact of mass flow controller (MFC) selection and ion source tube design on the flow rate of XeF{sub 2} are also discussed. Finally, cylinder release rate data are provided.

  14. The Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-11-09

    This report provides the finding and recommendations on the audit of the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) program. The status of the program was assessed to determine whether the Department was achieving objectives stated in its January 1990 Plan for the Demonstration, Transition and Deployment of AVLIS Technology. Through Fiscal Year 1991, the Department had spent about $1.1 billion to develop AVLIS technology. The January 1990 plan provided for AVLIS to be far enough along by September to enable the Department to make a determination of the technical and economic feasibility of deployment. However, the milestones needed to support that determination were not met. An estimated $550 million would be needed to complete AVLIS engineering development and related testing prior to deployment. The earliest possible deployment date has slipped to beyond the year 2000. It is recommended that the Department reassess the requirement for AVLIS in light of program delays and changes that have taken place in the enrichment market since January 1990. Following the reassessment, a decision should be made to either fully support and promote the actions needed to complete AVLIS development or discontinue support for the program entirely. Management`s position is that the Department will successfully complete the AVLIS technology demonstration and that the program should continue until it can be transferred to a Government corporation. Although the auditors recognize that AVLIS may be transferred, there are enough technical and financial uncertainties that a thorough assessment is warranted.

  15. University of Oregon: GPS-based Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Vignola, F.; Andreas, A.

    2013-08-22

    A partnership with the University of Oregon and U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) data to compliment existing resource assessment data collection by the university.

  16. Enabling integration of vapor-deposited polymer thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petruczok, Christy D. (Christy Danielle)

    2014-01-01

    Initiated Chemical Vapor Deposition (iCVD) is a versatile, one-step process for synthesizing conformal and functional polymer thin films on a variety of substrates. This thesis emphasizes the development of tools to further ...

  17. Heat transfer during film condensation of potassium vapor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kroger, Detlev Gustav

    1966-01-01

    The object of this work is to investigate theoretically and experimentally the following two phases of heat transfer during condensation of potassium vapore, a. Heat transfer during film condensation of pure saturated ...

  18. Initiated chemical vapor deposition of functional polyacrylic thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mao, Yu, 1975-

    2005-01-01

    Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) was explored as a novel method for synthesis of functional polyacrylic thin films. The process introduces a peroxide initiator, which can be decomposed at low temperatures (<200?C) ...

  19. Chemical vapor deposition of organosilicon and sacrificial polymer thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Casserly, Thomas Bryan

    2005-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) produced films for a wide array of applications from a variety of organosilicon and organic precursors. The structure and properties of thin films were controlled by varying processing ...

  20. Photoinitiated chemical vapor depostion [sic] : mechanism and applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baxamusa, Salmaan Husain

    2009-01-01

    Photoinitiated chemical vapor deposition (piCVD) is developed as a simple, solventless, and rapid method for the deposition of swellable hydrogels and functional hydrogel copolymers. Mechanistic experiments show that piCVD ...

  1. Systems and methods for generation of hydrogen peroxide vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Love, Adam H; Eckels, Joel Del; Vu, Alexander K; Alcaraz, Armando; Reynolds, John G

    2014-12-02

    A system according to one embodiment includes a moisture trap for drying air; at least one of a first container and a second container; and a mechanism for at least one of: bubbling dried air from the moisture trap through a hydrogen peroxide solution in the first container for producing a hydrogen peroxide vapor, and passing dried air from the moisture trap into a headspace above a hydrogen peroxide solution in the second container for producing a hydrogen peroxide vapor. A method according one embodiment includes at least one of bubbling dried air through a hydrogen peroxide solution in a container for producing a first hydrogen peroxide vapor, and passing dried air from the moisture trap into a headspace above the hydrogen peroxide solution in a container for producing a second hydrogen peroxide vapor. Additional systems and methods are also presented.

  2. Water vapor and the dynamics of climate changes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schneider, Tapio

    Water vapor is not only Earth's dominant greenhouse gas. Through the release of latent heat when it condenses, it also plays an active role in dynamic processes that shape the global circulation of the atmosphere and thus ...

  3. Fatigue Resistance of Asphalt Mixtures Affected by Water Vapor Movement 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tong, Yunwei

    2013-11-08

    This dissertation has two key objectives: the first objective is to develop a method of predicting and quantifying the amount of water that can enter into a pavement system by vapor transport; the second objective is to ...

  4. All graphene electromechanical switch fabricated by chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milaninia, Kaveh M.

    We demonstrate an electromechanical switch comprising two polycrystalline graphene films; each deposited using ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition. The top film is pulled into electrical contact with the bottom film ...

  5. Low Level Heat Recovery Through Heat Pumps and Vapor Recompression 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, J.

    1980-01-01

    The intent of this paper is to examine the methods and economics of recovering low level heat through heat pumps and vapor recompression. Actual commercially available equipment is considered to determine the near-term and future economic viability...

  6. University of Oregon: GPS-based Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Vignola, F.; Andreas, A.

    A partnership with the University of Oregon and U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) data to compliment existing resource assessment data collection by the university.

  7. Use Vapor Recompression to Recover Low-Pressure Waste Steam,...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    that it can be reused. Vapor recompression relies upon a mechanical compressor or steam jet ejector to increase the temperature of the latent heat in steam to render it usable for...

  8. Effect of furnace operating conditions on alkali vaporization...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    on alkali vaporization, batch carryover, and the formation of SO2 and NO in an oxy-fuel fired container glass furnace. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effect of...

  9. Numerical analysis of vapor flow in a micro heat pipe 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Xiaoqin

    1996-01-01

    The vapor flow in a flat plate micro heat pipe with both uniform and linear heat flux boundary conditions has been numerically analyzed. For both types of boundary conditions, the Navier-Stokes equations with steady incompressible two...

  10. Screw Type Steam Compressors for Mechanical Vapor Recompression (MVR) Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kawamura, K.; Apaloo, Thomas-L.

    1986-01-01

    hand, is not affected by such problem. No special mist separator is required and, at the same time, the wet or saturated vapor compression is possible, and does not affect the efficiency of the SSHP. (3) Stability of performance for a wide... COMPRESSORS FOR MECHANICAL VAPOR RECOMPRESSION (MVR) SYSTEMS K. KAWAMURA AND THOMAS-L. APALOO MYCOM CORPORATION, LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA MATSUDA, MAYEKAWA MFG. CO., TOKYO, JAPAN ABSTRACT In processes of evaporation, distillation or drying, steam...

  11. Injection locked oscillator system for pulsed metal vapor lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, Bruce E. (Livermore, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Dublin, CA)

    1988-01-01

    An injection locked oscillator system for pulsed metal vapor lasers is disclosed. The invention includes the combination of a seeding oscillator with an injection locked oscillator (ILO) for improving the quality, particularly the intensity, of an output laser beam pulse. The present invention includes means for matching the first seeder laser pulses from the seeding oscillator to second laser pulses of a metal vapor laser to improve the quality, and particularly the intensity, of the output laser beam pulse.

  12. PROJECT PROFILE: Stable Perovskite Solar Cells via Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This project is focused on novel approaches to remove risk related to the development of hybrid perovskite solar cells (HPSCs). Researchers will synthesize a new and chemically stable hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite that eliminates decomposition of the absorber layer upon exposure to water vapor, which is a chief obstacle to widespread use of HPSC technology. They will also demonstrate a unique and industrially-scalable chemical vapor deposition method without halides or iodine, which are the main contributors to perovskite degradation.

  13. Fluid Phase Equilibria 243 (2006) 198205 Comment on "prediction of vapor pressures of solid organic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chickos, James S.

    2006-01-01

    of vapor pressures of solid organic compounds with a group contribution method" William E. Acree Jr gave satisfactory vapor pressure predictions for many organic compounds having vapor pressures well only for substituting into their predictive vapor pressure expression. The intent of this short

  14. Gas phase reaction of sulfur trioxide with water vapor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolb, C.E.; Molina, M.J.; Jayne, J.T.; Meads, R.F.; Worsnop, D.R.

    1994-12-31

    Sulfur trioxide (SO3) has long been known to react with water to produce sulfuric acid (H2S04). It has been commonly assumed that the gas phase reaction in the Earth`s atmosphere between SO3 and water vapor to produce sulfuric acid vapor is an important step in the production of sulfuric acid aerosol particles. The kinetics of the gas phase reaction of SO3 with water vapor have previously been studied by Castleman and co-workers, Wang et al and Reiner and Arnold. Each of these studies was carried out in a flow reactor, with the first two studies performed at low pressure (1-10 Torr) and the latter from approx. 30 to 260 Torr. Each of these studies measured SO3 decays over a range of H2O vapor levels, obtaining data consistent with interpreting the reaction of gaseous SO3 and H2O as a bimolecular process. It is not clear why previous experimental studies failed to observe a nonlinear dependence of SO3 consumption on water vapor concentration. It is probable that sufficient water dimer exists in much of the Earth`s atmosphere to allow dimer reactions to participate in sulfuric acid vapor formation.

  15. EXPANDED VERY LARGE ARRAY DETECTION OF 36.2 GHz CLASS I METHANOL MASERS IN SAGITTARIUS A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sjouwerman, Lorant O. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Pihlstroem, Ylva M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, 800 Yale Boulevard NE, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Fish, Vincent L. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Haystack Observatory, Route 40, Westford, MA 01886 (United States)], E-mail: lsjouwerman@nrao.edu, E-mail: ylva@unm.edu, E-mail: vfish@haystack.mit.edu

    2010-02-20

    We report on the interferometric detection of 36.2 GHz Class I methanol emission with the new 27-40 GHz Ka-band receivers available on the Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA). The brightness temperatures of the interferometric 36 GHz detections unambiguously indicate for the first time that the emission is maser emission. The 36 GHz methanol masers are not co-spatial with 1720 MHz OH masers, indicating that the two species trace different shocks. The 36 GHz and 44 GHz methanol masers, which are collisionally pumped, do not necessarily co-exist and may trace different methanol gas. The methanol masers seem correlated with NH{sub 3}(3,3) density peaks. We favor an explanation in which the 36 GHz Class I methanol masers outline regions of cloud-cloud collisions, perhaps just before the onset of the formation of individual massive stars. The transition of the Very Large Array (VLA) to the EVLA is well under way, and these detections demonstrate the bright future of this completely renewed instrument.

  16. Preliminary performance of the MKII 17 GHz traveling wave relativistic klystron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haimson, J.; Mecklenburg, B.; Stowell, G.; Kreischer, K. E.; Mastovsky, I. [Haimson Research Corporation, 3350 Scott Blvd., Building 60, Santa Clara, California 95054-3104 (United States); Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139-4294 (United States)

    1999-05-07

    Initial test results are presented of an upgraded RF source developed for high peak power 17 GHz linear accelerator applications. The objectives of this upgrade program were (a) to increase the output capability of the existing vacuum demountable prototype tube so that RF power could also be supplied to a future 2 MeV photoinjector system without appreciable loss of input power to the 17 GHz linac and (b) to investigate the performance of a new design traveling wave output circuit incorporating a racetrack shaped dual output coupler with 5% bandwidth high peak power ceramic RF windows. These recently installed devices are presently being conditioned and tested at the MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center.

  17. Preliminary performance of the MKII 17 GHz traveling wave relativistic klystron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haimson, J.; Mecklenburg, B.; Stowell, G. [Haimson Research Corporation, 3350 Scott Blvd., Building 60, Santa Clara, California 95054-3104 (United States); Kreischer, K.E.; Mastovsky, I. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139-4294 (United States)

    1999-05-01

    Initial test results are presented of an upgraded RF source developed for high peak power 17 GHz linear accelerator applications. The objectives of this upgrade program were (a) to increase the output capability of the existing vacuum demountable prototype tube so that RF power could also be supplied to a future 2 MeV photoinjector system without appreciable loss of input power to the 17 GHz linac and (b) to investigate the performance of a new design traveling wave output circuit incorporating a racetrack shaped dual output coupler with 5{percent} bandwidth high peak power ceramic RF windows. These recently installed devices are presently being conditioned and tested at the MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. Radio observations of the first three-month Fermi-AGN at 4.8 GHz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiang Liu; Hua-Gang Song; Jun Liu; Zhen Ding; Nicola Marchili; Thomas P. Krichbaum; Lars Fuhrmann; Anton Zensus; Tao An

    2011-10-09

    Using the Urumqi 25m radio telescope, sources from the first three-month Fermi-LAT detected AGN catalog with declination >0 were observed in 2009 at 4.8 GHz. The radio flux density appears to correlate with the gamma-ray intensity. Intra-day variability (IDV) observations were performed in March, April and May in 2009 for selected 42 gamma-ray bright blazars, and 60% of them show evident flux variability at 4.8 GHz during the IDV observations, the IDV detection rate is higher than that in previous flat-spectrum AGN samples. The IDV appears more often in the VLBI-core dominant blazars, and the non-IDV blazars show relatively `steeper' spectral indices than the IDV blazars. Pronounced inter-month variability has been found in two BL Lac objects: J0112+2244 and J0238+1636.

  19. PHYSICAL CONDITIONS AROUND 6.7 GHz METHANOL MASERS. I. AMMONIA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pandian, J. D. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Dr., Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Wyrowski, F.; Menten, K. M., E-mail: jagadheep@iist.ac.in [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, 53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Methanol masers at 6.7 GHz are known to be tracers of high-mass star formation in our Galaxy. In this paper, we study the large-scale physical conditions in the star-forming clumps/cores associated with 6.7 GHz methanol masers using observations of the (1, 1), (2, 2), and (3, 3) inversion transitions of ammonia with the Effelsberg telescope. The gas kinetic temperature is found to be higher than in infrared dark clouds, highlighting the relatively evolved nature of the maser sources. Other than a weak correlation between maser luminosity and the ammonia line width, we do not find any differences between low- and high-luminosity methanol masers.

  20. A high-sensitivity 6.7 GHz methanol maser survey toward H2O sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. Xu; J. J. Li; K. Hachisuka; J. D. Pandian; K. M. Menten; C. Henkel

    2008-03-16

    We present the results of a high sensitivity survey for 6.7 GHz methanol masers towards 22 GHz water maser using the 100 m Efflesberg telescope. A total of 89 sources were observed and 10 new methanol masers were detected. The new detections are relatively faint with peak flux densities between 0.5 and 4.0 Jy. A nil detection rate from low-mass star forming regions enhances the conclusion that the masers are only associated with massive star formation. Even the faintest methanol maser in our survey, with a luminosity of 1.1 $10^{-9} L_\\odot$ is associated with massive stars as inferred from its infrared luminosity.

  1. Evaluation of the Vaporization, Fusion, and Sublimation Enthalpies of the 1-Alkanols: The Vaporization Enthalpy of 1-, 6-, 7-, and 9-Heptadecanol,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chickos, James S.

    thermochemical cycles involving sublimation, fusion, and vaporization enthalpies.5 The technique is also capableEvaluation of the Vaporization, Fusion, and Sublimation Enthalpies of the 1-Alkanols: The Vaporization Enthalpy of 1-, 6-, 7-, and 9-Heptadecanol, 1-Octadecanol, 1-Eicosanol, 1-Docosanol, 1-Hexacosanol

  2. A. E. K. Ris Ris-M-GHZ Title and authors)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. E. K. Risø Risø-M-GHZ r» I Gto Title and authors) Users Manual for the PWR-PLASIM Model by P. la of the PWR power plant model PWR-PLASIM described in Risø Report No. 318. It should serve as a users guide Reactor Technology Group's own registration numbers) PWR-1-7 5 Copies to Abstract to #12;ISBN 87 550 0302

  3. Processing aersols and filaments in a TM sub 010 microwave cavity at 2. 45 GHz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vogt, G.J.; Unruh, W.P.

    1992-01-01

    As part of the development of generic microwave processes for spray-drying of homogeneous complex metal oxide powders and for inorganic fiber processing, we have investigated the use of 2.45 GHz microwaves in a high-Q single-mode TM{sub 010} cavity coupled directly to aerosols and fibers. Aqueous and ethanol aerosols of ferric nitrate solutions have been successfully dried at 1.8 kW of cavity power for a loaded Q greater than 6000 in flowing nitrogen gas. Similarly, we have observed extremely rapid heating rates in the TM{sub 010} cavity for small-diameter confined cylinders of water and lossy inorganic fibers. These observations suggest using 2.45 GHz microwave power for drying, calcining, and sintering extruded ceramic filaments. Droplet modeling indicates that the large dielectric shielding for spherical droplets can significantly limit the coupling of 2.45 GHz microwave with spherical aerosols, but not with fibers. Experimental observations on the microwave interactions with ferric nitrate aerosols and with ceramic filaments in the TM{sub 010} cavity are described.

  4. Drying of pulverized material with heated condensible vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Larry W. (Oswego, IL)

    1986-01-01

    Apparatus for drying pulverized material utilizes a high enthalpy condensable vapor such as steam for removing moisture from the individual particles of the pulverized material. The initially wet particulate material is tangentially delivered by a carrier vapor flow to an upper portion of a generally vertical cylindrical separation drum. The lateral wall of the separation drum is provided with a plurality of flow guides for directing the vapor tangentially therein in the direction of particulate material flow. Positioned concentrically within the separation drum and along the longitudinal axis thereof is a water-cooled condensation cylinder which is provided with a plurality of collection plates, or fins, on the outer lateral surface thereof. The cooled collection fins are aligned counter to the flow of the pulverized material and high enthalpy vapor mixture to maximize water vapor condensation thereon. The condensed liquid which includes moisture removed from the pulverized material then flows downward along the outer surface of the coolant cylinder and is collected and removed. The particles travel in a shallow helix due to respective centrifugal and vertical acceleration forces applied thereto. The individual particles of the pulverized material are directed outwardly by the vortex flow where they contact the inner cylindrical surface of the separation drum and are then deposited at the bottom thereof for easy collection and removal. The pulverized material drying apparatus is particularly adapted for drying coal fines and facilitates the recovery of the pulverized coal.

  5. Drying of pulverized material with heated condensible vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, L.W.

    1984-08-16

    Apparatus for drying pulverized material utilizes a high enthalpy condensable vapor such as steam for removing moisture from the individual particles of the pulverized material. The initially wet particulate material is tangentially delivered by a carrier vapor flow to an upper portion of a generally vertical cylindrical separation drum. The lateral wall of the separation drum is provided with a plurality of flow guides for directing the vapor tangentially therein in the direction of particulate material flow. Positioned concentrically within the separation drum and along the longitudinal axis thereof is a water-cooled condensation cylinder which is provided with a plurality of collection plates, or fines, on the outer lateral surface thereof. The cooled collection fines are aligned counter to the flow of the pulverized material and high enthalpy vapor mixture to maximize water vapor condensation thereon. The condensed liquid which includes moisture removed from the pulverized materials then flows downward along the outer surface of the coolant cylinder and is collected and removed. The particles travel in a shallow helix due to respective centrifugal and vertical acceleration forces applied thereto. The individual particles of the pulverized material are directed outwardly by the vortex flow where they contact the inner cylindrical surface of the separation drum and are then deposited at the bottom thereof for easy collection and removal. The pulverized material drying apparatus is particularly adapted for drying coal fines and facilitates the recovery of the pulverized coal. 2 figs.

  6. Direct Real-Time Detection of Vapors from Explosive Compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ewing, Robert G.; Clowers, Brian H.; Atkinson, David A.

    2013-10-03

    The real-time detection of vapors from low volatility explosives including PETN, tetryl, RDX and nitroglycerine along with various compositions containing these substances is demonstrated. This was accomplished with an atmospheric flow tube (AFT) using a non-radioactive ionization source and coupled to a mass spectrometer. Direct vapor detection was demonstrated in less than 5 seconds at ambient temperature without sample pre-concentration. The several seconds of residence time of analytes in the AFT provides a significant opportunity for reactant ions to interact with analyte vapors to achieve ionization. This extended reaction time, combined with the selective ionization using the nitrate reactant ions (NO3- and NO3-•HNO3), enables highly sensitive explosives detection. Observed signals from diluted explosive vapors indicate detection limits below 10 ppqv using selected ion monitoring (SIM) of the explosive-nitrate adduct at m/z 349, 378, 284 and 289 for tetryl, PETN, RDX and NG respectively. Also provided is a demonstration of the vapor detection from 10 different energetic formulations, including double base propellants, plastic explosives and commercial blasting explosives using SIM for the NG, PETN and RDX product ions.

  7. Adsorption of radon and water vapor on commercial activated carbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassan, N.M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Ghosh, T.K.; Hines, A.L.; Loyalka, S.K. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Equilibrium adsorption isotherms are reported for radon and water vapor on two commercial activated carbons: coconut shell Type PCB and hardwood Type BD. The isotherms of the water vapor were measured gravimetrically at 298 K. The isotherms of radon from dry nitrogen were obtained at 293, 298, and 308 K while the data for the mixture of radon and water vapor were measured at 298 K. The concentrations of radon in the gas and solid phases were measured simultaneously, once the adsorption equilibrium and the radioactive equilibrium between the radon and its daughter products were established. The shape of the isotherms was of Type III for the radon and Type V for the water vapor, according to Brunauer`s classification. The adsorption mechanism was similar for both the radon and the water vapor, being physical adsorption on the macropore surface area in the low pressure region and micropore filling near saturation pressure. The uptake capacity of radon decreased both with increasing temperature and relative humidity. The heat of adsorption data indicated that the PCB- and the BD-activated carbons provided a heterogeneous surface for radon adsorption. The equilibrium data for radon were correlated with a modified Freundlich equation.

  8. Vapor etching of nuclear tracks in dielectric materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Musket, Ronald G. (Danville, CA); Porter, John D. (Berkeley, CA); Yoshiyama, James M. (Fremont, CA); Contolini, Robert J. (Lake Oswego, OR)

    2000-01-01

    A process involving vapor etching of nuclear tracks in dielectric materials for creating high aspect ratio (i.e., length much greater than diameter), isolated cylindrical holes in dielectric materials that have been exposed to high-energy atomic particles. The process includes cleaning the surface of the tracked material and exposing the cleaned surface to a vapor of a suitable etchant. Independent control of the temperatures of the vapor and the tracked materials provide the means to vary separately the etch rates for the latent track region and the non-tracked material. As a rule, the tracked regions etch at a greater rate than the non-tracked regions. In addition, the vapor-etched holes can be enlarged and smoothed by subsequent dipping in a liquid etchant. The 20-1000 nm diameter holes resulting from the vapor etching process can be useful as molds for electroplating nanometer-sized filaments, etching gate cavities for deposition of nano-cones, developing high-aspect ratio holes in trackable resists, and as filters for a variety of molecular-sized particles in virtually any liquid or gas by selecting the dielectric material that is compatible with the liquid or gas of interest.

  9. Laser absorption spectroscopy system for vaporization process characterization and control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galkowski, J.; Hagans, K.

    1993-09-07

    In support of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) Program, a laser atomic absorption spectroscopy (LAS) system has been developed. This multi-laser system is capable of simultaneously measuring the line densities of {sup 238}U ground and metastable states, {sup 235}U ground and metastable states, iron, and ions at up to nine locations within the separator vessel. Supporting enrichment experiments that last over one hundred hours, this laser spectroscopy system is employed to diagnose and optimize separator system performance, control the electron beam vaporizer and metal feed systems, and provide physics data for the validation of computer models. As a tool for spectroscopic research, vapor plume characterization, vapor deposition monitoring, and vaporizer development, LLNL`s LAS laboratory with its six argon-ion-pumped ring dye lasers and recently added Ti:Sapphire and external-cavity diode-lasers has capabilities far beyond the requirements of its primary mission.

  10. Seasonal and Diurnal Variations of Ozone near the Mesopause from Observations of the 11.072-GHz Line

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pratap, P.

    Ground-based observations of the 11.072-GHz line of ozone were made from January 2008 through January 2009. These observations provide an estimate of the diurnal and seasonal variations of ozone in the mesopause region. ...

  11. IEEE MICROWAVE AND WIRELESS COMPONENTS LETTERS, VOL. 12, NO. 4, APRIL 2002 117 A Broadband 800 GHz Schottky Balanced Doubler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IEEE MICROWAVE AND WIRELESS COMPONENTS LETTERS, VOL. 12, NO. 4, APRIL 2002 117 A Broadband 800 GHz Wireless Technologies, West Covina, CA 91791 USA. Publisher Item Identifier S 1531-1309(02)03962-4. Fig. 1

  12. Continuous-wave operation of a frequency-tunable 460-GHz second-harmonic gyrotron for enhanced nuclear magnetic resonance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torrezan de Sousa, Antonio Carlos

    The design, operation, and characterization of a continuous-wave (CW) tunable second-harmonic 460-GHz gyrotron are reported. The gyrotron is intended to be used as a submillimeter-wave source for 700-MHz nuclear magnetic ...

  13. Low temperature photochemical vapor deposition of alloy and mixed metal oxide films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, David K. (San Pablo, CA)

    1992-01-01

    Method and apparatus for formation of an alloy thin film, or a mixed metal oxide thin film, on a substrate at relatively low temperatures. Precursor vapor(s) containing the desired thin film constituents is positioned adjacent to the substrate and irradiated by light having wavelengths in a selected wavelength range, to dissociate the gas(es) and provide atoms or molecules containing only the desired constituents. These gases then deposit at relatively low temperatures as a thin film on the substrate. The precursor vapor(s) is formed by vaporization of one or more precursor materials, where the vaporization temperature(s) is selected to control the ratio of concentration of metals present in the precursor vapor(s) and/or the total precursor vapor pressure.

  14. Plasma relativistic microwave amplifier with smooth frequency tuning from 2.4 to 3.2 GHz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strelkov, P. S.; Ivanov, I. E.; Shumeiko, D. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

    2012-06-15

    Earlier, it was shown that the plasma relativistic microwave amplifier can operate at two frequencies, 2 and 3.2 GHz. In the present work, it is shown that, by varying the plasma density from one microwave pulse to another, it is possible to amplify the input signals to a power of 50-80 MW at any frequency in the range 2.4-3.2 GHz.

  15. Removal of Sarin Aerosol and Vapor by Water Sprays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brockmann, John E.

    1998-09-01

    Falling water drops can collect particles and soluble or reactive vapor from the gas through which they fall. Rain is known to remove particles and vapors by the process of rainout. Water sprays can be used to remove radioactive aerosol from the atmosphere of a nuclear reactor containment building. There is a potential for water sprays to be used as a mitigation technique to remove chemical or bio- logical agents from the air. This paper is a quick-look at water spray removal. It is not definitive but rather provides a reasonable basic model for particle and gas removal and presents an example calcu- lation of sarin removal from a BART station. This work ~ a starting point and the results indicate that further modeling and exploration of additional mechanisms for particle and vapor removal may prove beneficial.

  16. Liquid-phase compositions from vapor-phase analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, W. Jr. ); Cochran, H.D. )

    1990-02-01

    Arsenic normally is not considered to be a contaminant. However, because arsenic was found in many cylinders of UF{sub 6}, including in corrosion products, a study was performed of the distribution of the two arsenic fluorides, AsF{sub 3} and AsF{sub 5}, between liquid and vapor phases. The results of the study pertain to condensation or vaporization of liquid UF{sub 6}. This study includes use of various experimental data plus many extrapolations necessitated by the meagerness of the experimental data. The results of this study provide additional support for the vapor-liquid equilibrium model of J.M. Prausnitz and his coworkers as a means of describing the distribution of various impurities between vapor and liquid phases of UF{sub 6}. Thus, it is concluded that AsF{sub 3} will tend to concentrate in the liquid phase but that the concentration of AsF{sub 5} in the vapor phase will exceed its liquid-phase concentration by a factor of about 7.5, which is in agreement with experimental data. Because the weight of the liquid phase in a condensation operation may be in the range of thousands of times that of the vapor phase, most of any AsF{sub 5} will be in the liquid phase in spite of this separation factor of 7.5. It may also be concluded that any arsenic fluorides fed into a uranium isotope separation plant will either travel with other low-molecular-weight gases or react with materials present in the plant. 25 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. The effects of heat conduction on the vaporization of liquid invading superheated permeable rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woods, Andrew, W.; Fitzgerald, Shaun D.

    1996-01-24

    We examine the role of conductive and convective heat transfer in the vaporization of liquid as it slowly invades a superheated permeable rock. For very slow migration, virtually all of the liquid vaporizes. As the liquid supply rate increases beyond the rate of heat transfer by thermal conduction, a decreasing fraction of the liquid can vaporize. Indeed, for sufficiently high flow rates, the fraction vaporizing depends solely on the superheat of the rock, and any heat transfer from the superheated region is negligible. These results complement earlier studies of vaporization under very high injection rates, in which case the dynamic vapour pressure reduces the mass fraction vaporizing to very small values.

  18. Radiometer Calibration Trends

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMassR&D100 Winners * Impacts on GlobalRachel

  19. MWRRET (Microwave Radiometer Retrievals)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACTThousandReport) | SciTechAdministrationMTBE ProductionMULTILEVELPlus

  20. Effect of higher water vapor content on TBC performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pint, Bruce A; Haynes, James A

    2012-01-01

    Coal gasification, or IGCC (integrated gasification combined cycle), is one pathway toward cleaner use of coal for power generation with lower emissions. However, when coal-derived synthesis gas (i.e., syngas) is burned in turbines designed for natural gas, turbine manufacturers recommend 'derating,' or lowering the maximum temperature, which lowers the efficiency of the turbine, making electricity from IGCC more expensive. One possible reason for the derating is the higher water vapor contents in the exhaust gas. Water vapor has a detrimental effect on many oxidation-resistant high-temperature materials. In a turbine hot section, Ni-base superalloys are coated with a thermal barrier coating (TBC) allowing the gas temperature to be higher than the superalloy solidus temperature. TBCs have a low thermal conductivity ceramic top coating (typically Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized ZrO{sub 2}, or YSZ) and an oxidation-resistant metallic bond coating. For land-based gas turbines, the industry standard is air plasma sprayed (APS) YSZ and high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) sprayed NiCoCrAlY bond coatings. To investigate the role of higher water vapor content on TBC performance and possible mitigation strategies, furnace cycling experiments were conducted in dry O{sub 2} and air with 10% (typical with natural gas or jet fuel) or 50 vol% water vapor. Cycle frequency and temperature were accelerated to one hour at 1100 C (with 10 minute cooling to {approx}30 C between each thermal cycle) to induce early failures in coatings that are expected to operate for several years with a metal temperature of {approx}900 C. Coupons (16 mm diameter x 2 mm thick) of commercial second-generation single crystal superalloy CMSX4 were HVOF coated on both sides with {approx}125 {micro}m of Ni-22wt%Co-17Cr-12Al either with 0.7Y or 0.7Y-0.3Hf-0.4Si. One side was then coated with 190-240 {micro}m of APS YSZ. Coatings were cycled until the YSZ top coating spalled. Figure 2 shows the results of the initial phase of experiments. Compared to dry O{sub 2}, the addition of 10% water vapor decreased the lifetime of MCrAlY by {approx}30% for the conventional CMSX4 substrates. Higher average lifetimes were observed with Hf in the bond coating, but a similar decrease in lifetime was observed when water vapor was added. The addition of Y and La to the superalloy substrate did not change the YSZ lifetime with 10% water vapor. However, increasing water vapor content from 10 to 50% did not further decrease the lifetime of either bond coating with the doped superalloy substrate. Thus, these results suggest that higher water vapor contents cannot explain the derating of syngas-fired turbines, and other factors such as sulfur and ash from imperfect syngas cleanup (or upset conditions) need to be explored. Researchers continue to study effects of water vapor on thermally grown alumina scale adhesion and growth rate, and are looking for bond coating compositions more resistant to oxidation in the presence of water vapor.

  1. A combined droplet train and ambient pressure photoemission spectrometer for the investigation of liquid/vapor interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Starr, David E.

    2008-01-01

    ambient conditions the vapor pressure of water or aqueousrange (e.g. , the equilibrium vapor pressure of water at itsUHV conditions due to the vapor pressure of the liquids, but

  2. The Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation Program. [Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-11-09

    This report provides the finding and recommendations on the audit of the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) program. The status of the program was assessed to determine whether the Department was achieving objectives stated in its January 1990 Plan for the Demonstration, Transition and Deployment of AVLIS Technology. Through Fiscal Year 1991, the Department had spent about $1.1 billion to develop AVLIS technology. The January 1990 plan provided for AVLIS to be far enough along by September to enable the Department to make a determination of the technical and economic feasibility of deployment. However, the milestones needed to support that determination were not met. An estimated $550 million would be needed to complete AVLIS engineering development and related testing prior to deployment. The earliest possible deployment date has slipped to beyond the year 2000. It is recommended that the Department reassess the requirement for AVLIS in light of program delays and changes that have taken place in the enrichment market since January 1990. Following the reassessment, a decision should be made to either fully support and promote the actions needed to complete AVLIS development or discontinue support for the program entirely. Management's position is that the Department will successfully complete the AVLIS technology demonstration and that the program should continue until it can be transferred to a Government corporation. Although the auditors recognize that AVLIS may be transferred, there are enough technical and financial uncertainties that a thorough assessment is warranted.

  3. Slow light in paraffin-coated Rb vapor cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Klein; I. Novikova; D. F. Phillips; R. L. Walsworth

    2006-02-15

    We present preliminary results from an experimental study of slow light in anti-relaxation-coated Rb vapor cells, and describe the construction and testing of such cells. The slow ground state decoherence rate allowed by coated cell walls leads to a dual-structured electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) spectrum with a very narrow (cell systems.

  4. Compositional Variations in Vapor Deposited Samarium Zirconate Coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    Compositional Variations in Vapor Deposited Samarium Zirconate Coatings A Thesis Presented temperatures instead have relied on the development of thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems. The thermal barrier coating systems applied to superalloys consist of three layers: (i) an aluminum rich metallic bond

  5. Method for removing metal vapor from gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahluwalia, R.K.; Im, K.H.

    1996-04-02

    A process for cleaning an inert gas contaminated with a metallic vapor, such as cadmium, involves withdrawing gas containing the metallic contaminant from a gas atmosphere of high purity argon; passing the gas containing the metallic contaminant to a mass transfer unit having a plurality of hot gas channels separated by a plurality of coolant gas channels; cooling the contaminated gas as it flows upward through the mass transfer unit to cause contaminated gas vapor to condense on the gas channel walls; regenerating the gas channels of the mass transfer unit; and, returning the cleaned gas to the gas atmosphere of high purity argon. The condensing of the contaminant-containing vapor occurs while suppressing contaminant particulate formation, and is promoted by providing a sufficient amount of surface area in the mass transfer unit to cause the vapor to condense and relieve supersaturation buildup such that contaminant particulates are not formed. Condensation of the contaminant is prevented on supply and return lines in which the contaminant containing gas is withdrawn and returned from and to the electrorefiner and mass transfer unit by heating and insulating the supply and return lines. 13 figs.

  6. Chemical vapor deposition of fluorine-doped zinc oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, Roy G. (Cambridge, MA); Kramer, Keith (Avon Lake, OH); Liang, Haifan (Santa Clara, CA)

    2000-06-06

    Fims of fluorine-doped zinc oxide are deposited from vaporized precursor compounds comprising a chelate of a dialkylzinc, such as an amine chelate, an oxygen source, and a fluorine source. The coatings are highly electrically conductive, transparent to visible light, reflective to infrared radiation, absorbing to ultraviolet light, and free of carbon impurity.

  7. AN IMPROVED METHOD FOR TRANSFERRING GRAPHENE GROWN BY CHEMICAL VAPOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AN IMPROVED METHOD FOR TRANSFERRING GRAPHENE GROWN BY CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION YUJIE REN Key Laboratory of Semiconductor Materials and Applications Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, P. R In this paper, we report an improved transfer of graphene by directly picking up the graphene with target

  8. Vapor Phase Synthesis and Characterization of -FeSi Nanowires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walsworth, Ronald L.

    Vapor Phase Synthesis and Characterization of - FeSi Nanowires Lian Ouyang, Elizabeth S. Thrall, Mandar M. Deshmukh, and Hongkun Park Over the past decade, one-dimensional inorganic nanostructures have emerged as promising materials for fundamental studies and possible technological applications.[1

  9. Vapor deposited samarium zirconate thermal barrier coatings Hengbei Zhao a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    by Elsevier B.V. 1. Introduction Thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems have become an enabling materials technology for the gas turbine engines used for propulsion and power generation [1]. Through their abilityVapor deposited samarium zirconate thermal barrier coatings Hengbei Zhao a, , Carlos G. Levi b

  10. On the physical adsorption of vapors by microporous carbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, R.H. (Univ. of Technology, Loughborough (United Kingdom). Inst. of Surface Science and Technology); Rand, B. (Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom). Division of Ceramics)

    1995-01-01

    The physical adsorption of nonpolar and polar vapors by active carbons is discussed in relation to pore structure and pore wall chemistry. For nonpolar vapors the Dubinin-Radushkevich equation is used to derive micropore volumes (W[sub 0]), average adsorption energies (E[sub 0]), and micropore widths (L) for a number of systems. These parameters are used to interpret the adsorption behavior of nitrogen which, because it is a relatively small molecule, is frequently used at 77 K to probe porosity and surface area. Results are presented for three carbons from differing precursors, namely, coal, coconut shells, and polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC) to illustrate the applicability of the technique. For the latter carbon increases in micropore size, induced by activation in carbon dioxide, and reductions in accessible pore volume caused by heat treatment in argon are also characterized and related to structural changes. The approach is then extended to the adsorption of larger hydrogen vapors, where the resulting W[sub 0] values may require correction for molecular packing effects which occur in the lower relative pressure regions of the isotherms, i.e., during the filling of ultramicropores. These packing effects are shown to limit the use of the Polanyi characteristic curve for correlating isotherm data for several vapors, of differing molecular size, by one adsorbent. Data for the adsorption of water, which is a strongly polar liquid, have been interpreted using the Dubinin-Serpinsky equation.

  11. Sorption and Diffusion of Organic Vapors in Two Fluoroelastomers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Ping

    ; fluoroelastomers; self-diffusion coefficient; in- teraction parameters; barrier properties INTRODUCTION FluorelSorption and Diffusion of Organic Vapors in Two Fluoroelastomers PING WANG,* NATHANIEL S. SCHNEIDER and Aflas are two fluoroelastomers designed to provide superior solvent resistance and, in the case

  12. Experimental Study of Water Vapor Adsorption on Geothermal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    SGP-TR-148 Experimental Study of Water Vapor Adsorption on Geothermal Reservoir Rocks Shubo Shang Geothermal Program under Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG07-90IDI2934,and by the Department of Petroleum Engineering, Stanford University Stanford Geothermal Program Interdisciplinary Research in Engineering

  13. 86, 43, and 22 GHz VLBI Observations of 3C120

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jose-Luis Gomez; Alan P. Marscher; Antonio Alberdi

    1999-06-11

    We present the first 86 GHz VLBI observations of the radio galaxy 3C~120, together with contemporaneous 43 and 22 GHz polarimetric VLBA observations. The very high angular resolution obtained at 86 GHz provides an upper limit to the size of the core of 54 $\\mu$as (0.025 $h^{-1}$pc). This represents a direct determination of the base of the jet which is independent of variability arguments (which depend on uncertain estimates of the Doppler factor), and places it below approximately one light-month. Comparison with previous VLBA observations after a one-year interval shows pronounced changes in the structure and polarization of the jet. Most of the components are found to follow a curved path while undergoing a steepening of their spectra accompanied by a decrease in total and polarized emission. However, at least one component is observed to follow a quasi-ballistic motion, accompanied by a flattening of its spectrum, as well as an increase in total and polarized flux. This may be explained by its interaction with the external medium, resulting in a shock that enhances the emission and aligns the magnetic field perpendicular to the component motion, thereby producing an increase of the degree of polarization from undetected values to as high as 15%. A second strong component, with the highest degree of polarization (23%), is found to have experienced a displacement from the ridge line of the structural position angle of the jet as it moved downstream. We have found a mean swing to the south of the position angle of the innermost components of $\\sim 6^{\\circ}$ between late 1996 and 1997, which may be responsible for the jet curvature observed at parsec and kiloparsec scales.

  14. A SEARCH FOR 95 GHz CLASS I METHANOL MASERS IN MOLECULAR OUTFLOWS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gan, Cong-Gui; Chen, Xi; Shen, Zhi-Qiang [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan RD, Shanghai 200030 (China)] [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan RD, Shanghai 200030 (China); Xu, Ye; Ju, Bing-Gang, E-mail: cggan@shao.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Radio Astronomy, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China)] [Key Laboratory of Radio Astronomy, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China)

    2013-01-20

    We have observed a sample of 288 molecular outflow sources including 123 high-mass and 165 low-mass sources in order to search for class I methanol masers at the 95 GHz transition and to investigate the relationship between outflow characteristics and class I methanol maser emission with the Purple Mountain Observatory 13.7 m radio telescope. Our survey detected 62 sources with 95 GHz methanol masers above a 3{sigma} detection limit, which includes 47 high-mass sources and 15 low-mass sources. Therefore, the detection rate is 38% for high-mass outflow sources and 9% for low-mass outflow sources, suggesting that class I methanol masers are relatively easily excited in high-mass sources. There are 37 newly detected 95 GHz methanol masers (including 27 high-mass and 10 low-mass sources), 19 of which are newly identified (i.e., first identification) class I methanol masers (including 13 high-mass and 6 low-mass sources). A statistical analysis of the distributions of maser detections with the outflow parameters reveals that the maser detection efficiency increases with the outflow properties (e.g., mass, momentum, kinetic energy, mechanical luminosity of outflows, etc.). Systematic investigations of the relationships between the intrinsic luminosity of methanol masers and the outflow properties (including mass, momentum, kinetic energy, bolometric luminosity, and mass-loss rate of the central stellar sources) indicate a positive correlation. This further supports the theory that class I methanol masers are collisionally pumped and associated with shocks when outflows interact with the surrounding ambient medium.

  15. Amine functionalization by initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) for interfacial adhesion and film cohesion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Jingjing, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    Amine functional polymer thin films provide a versatile platform for subsequent functionalization because of their diverse reactivity. Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) is a polymer chemical vapor deposition ...

  16. M. Bahrami ENSC 461 (S 11) Assignment 8 1 Assignment #8 (Vapor Power Cycles)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    M. Bahrami ENSC 461 (S 11) Assignment 8 1 ENSC 461 Assignment #8 (Vapor Power Cycles) Assignment date: Due date: Consider a reheat-regenerative vapor power cycle with two feedwater heaters, a closed

  17. Simulation and Validation of Vapor Compression System Faults and Start-up/Shut-down Transients 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ayyagari, Balakrishna

    2012-10-19

    as vapor compression system faults. This thesis addresses these concerns and enhances the existing modeling library to capture the transients related to the above mentioned conditions. In this thesis, the various faults occurring in a vapor compressor...

  18. Technology Solutions Case Study: Moisture Durability of Vapor Permeable Insulating Sheathing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-10-01

    In this project, Building America team Building Science Corporation researched some of the ramifications of using exterior, vapor permeable insulation on retrofit walls with vapor permeable cavity insulation. Retrofit strategies are a key factor in reducing exterior building stock consumption.

  19. Water Vapor Variability Across Spatial Scales: Insights for Theory, Parameterization, and Model Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pressel, Kyle Gregory

    2012-01-01

    11 2 Scaling of Water Vapor Structure Functions as 2.1cloud model. q is the total water mixing-ratio and q ? isAIRS Exponents from AIRS Data Water Vapor Time Series from a

  20. Method and apparatus to measure vapor pressure in a flow system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); Biblarz, Oscar (Swampscott, MA)

    1991-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for determining, by a condensation method, the vapor pressure of a material with a known vapor pressure versus temperature characteristic, in a flow system particularly in a mercury isotope enrichment process.

  1. A 1-V series-array Josephson voltage standard operated at 35 GHz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, F.; Koehler, H.; Weber, P.; Bluethner, K.; Meyer, H. )

    1990-11-01

    Josephson voltage standards utilize microwave-induced constant voltage steps in the dc characteristic of Josephson tunnel junctions. This paper describes the design and operation of array circuits with 108 and 2000 junctions connected in series. In contrast with similar realizations, simple {ital Q}-band equipment is used for the microwave supply. The microwave attenuation of 1000 junctions was about 1 dB. The version with 2000 junctions generated Josephson voltages up to 1.2 V when operated at 35 GHz. The stability times of the quantized levels were, under normal laboratory conditions (unshielded room), better than 10 min.

  2. Vertical and horizontal test results of 3.9-GHz accelerating cavities at FNAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khabiboulline, T.; Edwards, H.; Foley, M.; Harms, E.; Hocker, James Andrew; Mitchell, D.; Rowe, A.; Solyak, N.; /Fermilab

    2008-06-01

    The 3rd harmonic 3.9GHz accelerating cavity was proposed to improve the beam performance of the VUV FEL, FLASH. In the frame of a collaborative agreement, Fermilab will provide DESY with a cryomodule containing a string of four cavities. Seven 9-cell Nb cavities were tested and six of them did reach accelerating gradient up to 24 MV/m almost twice more than design value of 14 MV/m. Two of these cavities are with new HOM couplers with improved design. In this paper we present all results of the vertical and horizontal tests.

  3. Status report on the 11.424{endash}GHz magnicon amplifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gold, S.H.; Fliflet, A.W. [Beam Physics Branch, Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, District of Columbia 20375-5346 (United States); Yakovlev, V.P.; Hirshfield, J.L. [Omega-P, Inc., 202008 Yale Station, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)] Kinkead, A.K. [Sachs/Freeman Associates, Inc., Landover, Maryland 20785 (United States)] Kozyrev, E.V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk, (Russia) 630090; Hansen, R.J. [Litton Systems, Inc., Electron Devices Division, San Carlos, California 94070 (United States)

    1999-05-01

    Progress is reported on the development of an 11.424{endash}GHz magnicon amplifier. The magnicon electron gun has been characterized, a new set of microwave cavities designed and engineered, and simulations of magnicon operation carried out based on the predicted properties of the electron beam. The tube will be assembled for initial operation in December 1998, following the completion of a set of measurements of the electron beam. The predicted power is {approximately}60 MW at 60{percent} efficiency. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. Status report on the 11. 424[endash]GHz magnicon amplifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gold, S.H.; Fliflet, A.W. (Beam Physics Branch, Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, District of Columbia 20375-5346 (United States)); Yakovlev, V.P.; Hirshfield, J.L. (Omega-P, Inc., 202008 Yale Station, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)) Kinkead, A.K. (Sachs/Freeman Associates, Inc., Landover, Maryland 20785 (United States)) Kozyrev, E.V. (Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk, (Russia) 630090); Hansen, R.J. (Litton Systems, Inc., Electron Devices Division, San Carlos, California 94070 (United States))

    1999-05-01

    Progress is reported on the development of an 11.424[endash]GHz magnicon amplifier. The magnicon electron gun has been characterized, a new set of microwave cavities designed and engineered, and simulations of magnicon operation carried out based on the predicted properties of the electron beam. The tube will be assembled for initial operation in December 1998, following the completion of a set of measurements of the electron beam. The predicted power is [approximately]60 MW at 60[percent] efficiency. [copyright] [ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.

  5. Ring shaped 6.7 GHz methanol maser emission around a young high-mass star

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Bartkiewicz; M. Szymczak; H. J. van Langevelde

    2005-09-21

    We report on EVN imaging of the 6.7 GHz methanol maser emission from the candidate high-mass protostar G23.657-0.127. The masers originate in a nearly circular ring of 127 mas radius and 12 mas width. The ring structure points at a central exciting object which characteristics are typical for a young massive star; its bolometric luminosity is estimated to be methanol masers originate in a spherical bubble or in a rotating disc seen nearly face-on.

  6. Development of high power CW 3.7 GHz klystrons for fusion experiments on Tore Supra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magne, R.; Armitano, A.; Berger-By, G.; Bouquey, F.; Corbel, E.; Delpech, L.; Mollard, P.; Prou, M.; Samaille, F.; Volpe, D., E-mail: roland.magne@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Beunas, A. [Thales Electron Devices, 2 rue M. Dassault, F-78414 Veelizy-Villacoublay (France); Kazarian, F. [ITER Organization, F-i 3115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2011-07-01

    In the frame of the CIMES project, a collaborative effort between Association Euratom-CEA and Thales Electron Devices (TED) has led to the development of a high power CW klystron TH 2103 C, working at 3.7 GHz, for plasma heating and current drive for the Tokamak Tore Supra. A prototype has been manufactured and thoroughly tested on water load in December 2007 to verify that all the parameters met the specifications. The paper will present in detail the process and results of the test of the klystrons.

  7. Note: Efficient generation of optical sidebands at GHz with a high-power tapered amplifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zappala, J. C.; Lu, Z.-T. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States) [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Department of Physics and Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Bailey, K.; O’Connor, T. P.; Jiang, W., E-mail: wjiang@phy.anl.gov [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Two methods using a laser-diode tapered amplifier to produce high-power, high-efficiency optical frequency sidebands over a wide tunable frequency range are studied and compared. For a total output of 500 mW at 811 nm, 20% of the power can be placed in each of the first-order sidebands. Functionality and characterization are presented within the sideband frequency region of 0.8–2.3 GHz, and it is shown that both methods can be applied beyond this frequency range. These methods provide a versatile and effective tool for atomic physics experiments.

  8. Influence of process variables on electron beam chemical vapor deposition of platinum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    Influence of process variables on electron beam chemical vapor deposition of platinum D. Beaulieu; accepted 8 August 2005; published 22 September 2005 Electron beam chemical vapor deposition was performed. DOI: 10.1116/1.2050672 I. INTRODUCTION Electron beam chemical vapor deposition EBCVD is a technology

  9. Optical characterization of InN layers grown by high-pressure chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dietz, Nikolaus

    Optical characterization of InN layers grown by high-pressure chemical vapor deposition M. Alevli properties of InN layers grown by high-pressure chemical vapor deposition have been studied. Raman, infrared at elevated temperatures, a high-pressure chemical vapor deposition HPCVD system has been established at GSU.6

  10. Correlation Between Opacity and Surface Water Vapor Pressure Measurements at Rio Frio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Groppi, Christopher

    Correlation Between Opacity and Surface Water Vapor Pressure Measurements at Rio Frio M.A. Holdaway 1, 1996 Abstract We use the surface water vapor pressure measured by weather stations at 4060 m opacity. The surface water vapor pressure is inverted some 20% of the time at night and some 35

  11. Surface structure, composition, and polarity of indium nitride grown by high-pressure chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dietz, Nikolaus

    grown by high-pressure chemical vapor deposition have been studied. Atomic hydrogen cleaning produced and heterostructures--which can be accomplished by low- pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition MOCVD --the- rium vapor pressure of nitrogen during growth. This requires different approaches in growing structures

  12. A HOMOGENIZATION TECHNIQUE FOR THE BOLTZMANN EQUATION FOR LOW PRESSURE CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Markowich, Peter A.

    A HOMOGENIZATION TECHNIQUE FOR THE BOLTZMANN EQUATION FOR LOW PRESSURE CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION 1 the approach. The setup models low pressure chemical vapor deposition processes in the manufacturing. Low pressure chemical vapor deposition is used in the manufactur- ing of integrated circuits

  13. Effect of Substrate Roughness on D Spacing Supports Theoretical Resolution of Vapor Pressure Paradox

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagle, John F.

    Effect of Substrate Roughness on D Spacing Supports Theoretical Resolution of Vapor Pressure with and provides experimental support for a recently proposed theoretical resolution of the vapor pressure paradox has been called the vapor pressure paradox (Rand and Parsegian, 1989). Resolving this paradox

  14. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TRANSPIRATION AND NITROGEN UPTAKE BY PEPPER (CAPSICUM ANNUUM) AS MEDIATED BY VAPOR PRESSURE DEFICIT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teskey, Robert O.

    BY VAPOR PRESSURE DEFICIT by KATHERINE E. BOWER (Under the Direction of Robert O. Teskey) ABSTRACT) were grown in growth chambers with differing vapor pressure deficits (VPD, 1.20 kPa and 1.98 k and growth even under low nutrient conditions. INDEX WORDS: nitrogen, pepper, transpiration, vapor pressure

  15. Measurements of the Vapor Pressure of Supercooled Water Using Infrared Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kostinski, Alex

    Measurements of the Vapor Pressure of Supercooled Water Using Infrared Spectroscopy WILL CANTRELL 14 May 2007, in final form 6 December 2007) ABSTRACT Measurements are presented of the vapor pressure' data correspond to the vapor pressure of liquid water, not a mixture of liquid water and ice. Values

  16. Wavelength-modulation laser hygrometer for ultrasensitive detection of water vapor in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wavelength-modulation laser hygrometer for ultrasensitive detection of water vapor in semiconductor.5 mol mol of water vapor in air. The pressure- broadening coefficients for water broadened by helium 0- eter WMLH for the ultrasensitive detection of water vapor.11 For detecting H2O this instrument com

  17. Vaporization and Sublimation Enthalpies of Acetanilide and Several Derivatives by Correlation Gas Chromatography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chickos, James S.

    of their sublimation enthalpies by completing thermochemical cycles as summarized by eq 1. The vaporization enthalpiesVaporization and Sublimation Enthalpies of Acetanilide and Several Derivatives by Correlation Gas: The vaporization and fusion enthalpies of acetanilide and several of its derivatives have been measured

  18. Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth of 5 mm Hexagonal Single-Crystal Graphene from Ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth of 5 mm Hexagonal Single-Crystal Graphene from Ethanol Xiao Chen1 as large as 5 mm can be synthesized from ethanol via chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Key conditions for the successful reduction in nucleation density are extremely low partial pressure of ethanol vapor and pre

  19. BICEP2 / Keck Array VI: Improved Constraints On Cosmology and Foregrounds When Adding 95 GHz Data From Keck Array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Array, Keck; Ade, P A R; Ahmed, Z; Aikin, R W; Alexander, K D; Barkats, D; Benton, S J; Bischoff, C A; Bock, J J; Bowens-Rubin, R; Brevik, J A; Buder, I; Bullock, E; Buza, V; Connors, J; Crill, B P; Duband, L; Dvorkin, C; Filippini, J P; Fliescher, S; Grayson, J; Halpern, M; Harrison, S; Hilton, G C; Hui, H; Irwin, K D; Karkare, K S; Karpel, E; Kaufman, J P; Keating, B G; Kefeli, S; Kernasovskiy, S A; Kovac, J M; Kuo, C L; Leitch, E M; Lueker, M; Megerian, K G; Netterfield, C B; Nguyen, H T; O'Brient, R; Ogburn, R W; Orlando, A; Pryke, C; Richter, S; Schwarz, R; Sheehy, C D; Staniszewski, Z K; Steinbach, B; Sudiwala, R V; Teply, G P; Thompson, K L; Tolan, J E; Tucker, C; Turner, A D; Vieregg, A G; Weber, A C; Wiebe, D V; Willmert, J; Wong, C L; Wu, W L K; Yoon, K W

    2015-01-01

    We present results from an analysis of all data taken by the BICEP2 & Keck Array CMB polarization experiments up to and including that taken during the 2014 observing season. This includes the first Keck Array observations at 95 GHz. The maps reach a depth of 50 nK deg in Stokes $Q$ and $U$ in the 150 GHz band and 127 nK deg in the 95 GHz band. We take auto- and cross-spectra between these maps and publicly available maps from WMAP and Planck at frequencies from 23 GHz to 353 GHz. An excess over lensed-LCDM is detected at modest significance in the 95x150 $BB$ spectrum, and is consistent with the dust contribution expected from our previous work. No significant evidence for synchrotron emission is found in spectra such as 23x95, or for dust/sync correlation in spectra such as 23x353. We take the likelihood of all the spectra for a multi-component model including lensed-LCDM, dust, synchrotron and a possible contribution from inflationary gravitational waves (as parametrized by the tensor-to-scalar ratio $...

  20. A 77 GHz Transceiver for Automotive Radar System Using a120nm In AlAs/In GaAs Metamorphic HEMTs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kwon, Youngwoo

    A 77 GHz Transceiver for Automotive Radar System Using a120nm 0.4 0.35 In AlAs/In GaAs Metamorphic-mail:ykwon@snu.ac.kr) Abstract -- In this work, we demonstrate a compact 77GHz single-chip transceiver for an automotive radar at the transmitter and a 5dB conversion gain at the receiver. Index Terms -- Automotive radar, 77GHz, MHEMT, MMIC

  1. Retrieval of water vapor profiles over ocean using SSM/I and SSM/T-2 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blankenship, Clay Bruce

    1997-01-01

    The SSM/T-2 (Special Sensor Microwave Temperature-2) and SSM/I (Special Sensor Microwave Imager) are two microwave radiometers aboard the DMSP (Defense Meteorological Space Program) series of satellites. The SSM/T-2 was designed for retrieval...

  2. THE 5 GHz ARECIBO SEARCH FOR RADIO FLARES FROM ULTRACOOL DWARFS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Route, Matthew; Wolszczan, Alexander E-mail: alex@astro.psu.edu

    2013-08-10

    We present the results of a 4.75 GHz survey of 33 brown dwarfs and one young exoplanetary system for flaring radio emission, conducted with the 305 m Arecibo radio telescope. The goal of this program was to detect and characterize the magnetic fields of objects cooler than spectral type L3.5, the coolest brown dwarf detected prior to our survey. We have also attempted to detect flaring radio emission from the HR 8799 planetary system, guided by theoretical work indicating that hot, massive exoplanets may have strong magnetic fields capable of generating radio emission at GHz frequencies. We have detected and confirmed radio flares from the T6.5 dwarf 2MASS J10475385+2124234. This detection dramatically extends the temperature range over which brown dwarfs appear to be at least sporadic radio-emitters, from 1900 K (L3.5) down to 900 K (T6.5). It also demonstrates that the utility of radio detection as a unique tool to study the magnetic fields of substellar objects extends to the coolest dwarfs, and, plausibly to hot, massive exoplanets. We have also identified a single, 3.6{sigma} flare from the L1 dwarf, 2MASS J1439284+192915. This detection is tentative and requires confirmation by additional monitoring observations.

  3. 6.7GHz Methanol Maser Associated Outflows: An evolutionary sequence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Villiers, H M; Thompson, M A; Urquhart, J S; Breen, S L; Burton, M G; Ellingsen, S P; Fuller, G A; Pestalozzi, M; Voronkov, M A; Ward-Thompson, D

    2015-01-01

    We present a continuing study of a sample 44 molecular outflows, observed in 13CO lines, closely associated with 6.7GHz methanol masers, hence called Methanol Maser Associated Outflows (MMAOs). We compare MMAO properties with those of outflows from other surveys in the literature. In general, MMAOs follow similar trends, but show a deficit in number at low masses and momenta, with a corresponding higher fraction at the high end of the distributions. A similar trend is seen for the dynamical timescales of MMAOs. We argue that the lack of relatively low mass and young flows in MMAOs is due to the inherent selection-bias in the sample, i.e. its direct association with 6.7GHz methanol masers. This implies that methanol masers must switch on after the onset of outflows (hence accretion), and not before a sufficient abundance of methanol is liberated from icy dust mantles. Consequently the average dynamical age of MMAOs is older than for the general population of molecular outflows. We propose an adjusted evolution...

  4. A Megawatt-level 28z GHz Heating System For The National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, Gary

    2014-04-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) will operate at axial toroidal fields of < 1 T and plasma currents, Ip < 2 MA. The development of non-inductive (NI) plasmas is a major long-term research goal for NSTX-U. Time dependent numerical simulations of 28 GHz electron cyclotron (EC) heating of low density NI start-up plasmas generated by Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI) in NSTX-U predict a significant and rapid increase of the central electron temperature (Te(0)) before the plasma becomes overdense. The increased Te(0) will significantly reduce the Ip decay rate of CHI plasmas, allowing the coupling of fast wave heating and neutral beam injection. A megawatt-level, 28 GHz electron heating system is planned for heating NI start-up plasmas in NSTX-U. In addition to EC heating of CHI start-up discharges, this system will be used for electron Bernstein wave (EBW) plasma start-up, and eventually for EBW heating and current drive during the Ip flattop.

  5. The Phoenix Deep Survey: The 1.4 GHz microJansky catalogue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. M. Hopkins; J. Afonso; B. Chan; L. E. Cram; A. Georgakakis; B. Mobasher

    2002-11-04

    The initial Phoenix Deep Survey (PDS) observations with the Australia Telescope Compact Array have been supplemented by additional 1.4 GHz observations over the past few years. Here we present details of the construction of a new mosaic image covering an area of 4.56 square degrees, an investigation of the reliability of the source measurements, and the 1.4 GHz source counts for the compiled radio catalogue. The mosaic achieves a 1-sigma rms noise of 12 microJy at its most sensitive, and a homogeneous radio-selected catalogue of over 2000 sources reaching flux densities as faint as 60 microJy has been compiled. The source parameter measurements are found to be consistent with the expected uncertainties from the image noise levels and the Gaussian source fitting procedure. A radio-selected sample avoids the complications of obscuration associated with optically-selected samples, and by utilising complementary PDS observations including multicolour optical, near-infrared and spectroscopic data, this radio catalogue will be used in a detailed investigation of the evolution in star-formation spanning the redshift range 0 phoenix/ or from the authors by request.

  6. 86 GHz Very Long Baseline Polarimetry of 3C273 and 3C279 with the Coordinated Millimeter VLBI Array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joanne M. Attridge

    2001-04-18

    86 GHz Very Long Baseline Polarimetry probes magnetic field structures within the cores of Active Galactic Nuclei at higher angular resolutions and a spectral octave higher than previously achievable. Observations of 3C273 and 3C279 taken in April 2000 with the Coordinated Millimeter VLBI Array have resulted in the first total intensity (Stokes I) and linear polarization VLBI images reported of any source at 86 GHz. These results reveal the 86 GHz electric vector position angles within the jets of 3C273 and 3C279 to be orthogonal to each other, and the core of 3C273 to be unpolarized. If this lack of polarization is due to Faraday depolarization alone, the dispersion in rotation measure is >=90000 rad/m^2 for the core of 3C273.

  7. Applying Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) spectral indices for geological mapping and mineral identification on the Tibetan Plateau

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corrie, Robert; Aitchison, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    The Tibetan Plateau holds clues to understanding the dynamics and mechanisms associated with continental growth. Part of the region is characterized by zones of ophiolitic melange believed to represent the remnants of ancient oceanic crust and underlying upper mantle emplaced during oceanic closures. However, due to the remoteness of the region and the inhospitable terrain many areas have not received detailed investigation. Increased spatial and spectral resolution of satellite sensors have made it possible to map in greater detail the mineralogy and lithology than in the past. Recent work by Yoshiki Ninomiya of the Geological Survey of Japan has pioneered the use of several spectral indices for the mapping of quartzose, carbonate, and silicate rocks using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) thermal infrared (TIR) data. In this study, ASTER TIR indices have been applied to a region in western-central Tibet for the purposes of assessing their effectiveness for differentiatin...

  8. Electromagnetically induced transparency in paraffin-coated vapor cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, M.; Hohensee, M.; Walsworth, R. L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Phillips, D. F. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Antirelaxation coatings in atomic vapor cells allow ground-state coherent spin states to survive many collisions with the cell walls. This reduction in the ground-state decoherence rate gives rise to ultranarrow-bandwidth features in electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) spectra, which can form the basis of, for example, long-time scale slow and stored light, sensitive magnetometers, and precise frequency standards. Here we study, both experimentally and theoretically, how Zeeman EIT contrast and width in paraffin-coated rubidium vapor cells are determined by cell and laser-beam geometry, laser intensity, and atomic density. Using a picture of Ramsey pulse sequences, where atoms alternately spend ''bright'' and ''dark'' time intervals inside and outside the laser beam, we explain the behavior of EIT features in coated cells, highlighting their unique characteristics and potential applications.

  9. Tank vapor mitigation requirements for Hanford Tank Farms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rakestraw, L.D.

    1994-11-15

    Westinghouse Hanford Company has contracted Los Alamos Technical Associates to listing of vapors and aerosols that are or may be emitted from the High Level Waste (HLW) tanks at Hanford. Mitigation requirements under Federal and State law, as well as DOE Orders, are included in the listing. The lists will be used to support permitting activities relative to tank farm ventilation system up-grades. This task is designated Task 108 under MJB-SWV-312057 and is an extension of efforts begun under Task 53 of Purchase Order MPB-SVV-03291 5 for Mechanical Engineering Support. The results of that task, which covered only thirty-nine tanks, are repeated here to provide a single source document for vapor mitigation requirements for all 177 HLW tanks.

  10. Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brian, Riley (Willimantic, CT); Szreders, Bernard E. (Oakdale, CT)

    1989-01-01

    In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (approximately 1100.degree.-1300.degree. C.) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20-50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

  11. Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Riley, B.; Szreders, B.E.

    1988-04-26

    In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (/approximately/1100/degree/ /minus/ 1300/degree/C) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20--50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

  12. Evaporation monitoring and composition control of alloy systems with widely differing vapor pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anklam, T.M.; Berzins, L.V.; Braun, D.G.; Haynam, C.; McClelland, M.A.; Meier, T.

    1994-10-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is developing sensors and controls to improve and extend electron beam materials processing technology to alloy systems with constituents of widely varying vapor pressure. The approach under development involves using tunable lasers to measure the density and composition of the vapor plume. A laser based vaporizer control system for vaporization of a uranium-iron alloy has been previously demonstrated in multi-hundred hour, high rate vaporization experiments at LLNL. This paper reviews the design and performance of the uranium vaporization sensor and control system and discusses the extension of the technology to monitoring of uranium vaporization. Data is presented from an experiment in which titanium wire was fed into a molten niobium pool. Laser data is compared to deposited film composition and film cross sections. Finally, the potential for using this technique for composition control in melting applications is discussed.

  13. Specific Mass Estimates for A Vapor Core Reactor With MHD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knight, Travis; Smith, Blair; Anghaie, Samim [Innovative Nuclear Space Power and Propulsion Institute (INSPI), PO Box 116502, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6502 (United States)

    2002-07-01

    This study investigated the development of a system concept for space power generation and nuclear electric propulsion based on a vapor core reactor (VCR) with magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power conversion system, coupled to a magnetoplasma-dynamic (MPD) thruster. The VCR is a liquid-vapor core reactor concept operating with metallic uranium or uranium tetrafluoride (UF{sub 4}) vapor as the fissioning fuel and alkali metals or their fluorides as working fluid in a closed Rankine cycle with MHD energy conversion. Gaseous and liquid-vapor core reactors can potentially provide the highest reactor and cycle temperature among all existing or proposed fission reactor designs. This unique feature makes this reactor concept a very natural and attractive candidate for very high power (10 to 1000 MWe) and low specific mass (0.4 to 5 kg/kWe) nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) applications since the MHD output could be coupled with minimal power conditioning to MPD thrusters or other types of thruster for producing thrust at very high specific impulse (I{sub sp} 1500 to 10,000 s). The exceptional specific mass performance of an optimized VCRMHD- NEP system could lead to a dramatic reduction in the cost and duration of manned or robotic interplanetary as well as interstellar missions. The VCR-MHD-NEP system could enable very efficient Mars cargo transfers or short (<8 month) Mars round trips with less initial mass in low Earth orbit (IMLEO). The system could also enable highly efficient lunar cargo transfer and rapid missions to other destinations throughout the solar system. (authors)

  14. Narrowband fluorescent nanodiamonds produced from chemical vapor deposition films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neu, Elke; Gross, Elke; Hepp, Christian; Steinmetz, David; Zscherpel, Elisabeth; Ghodbane, Slimane; Sternschulte, Hadwig; Steinmueller-Nethl, Doris; Liang, Yuejiang; Krueger, Anke; Becher, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    We report on the production of nanodiamonds (NDs) with 70-80 nm size via bead assisted sonic disintegration (BASD) of a polycrystalline chemical vapor deposition (CVD) film. The NDs display high crystalline quality as well as intense narrowband (7 nm) room temperature luminescence at 738 nm due to in situ incorporated silicon vacancy (SiV) centers. The fluorescence properties at room and cryogenic temperatures indicate that the NDs are, depending on preparation, applicable as single photon sources or as fluorescence labels.

  15. Narrowband fluorescent nanodiamonds produced from chemical vapor deposition films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elke Neu; Carsten Arend; Felix Guldner; Elke Gross; Christian Hepp; David Steinmetz; Elisabeth Zscherpel; Slimane Ghodbane; Hadwig Sternschulte; Doris Steinmueller-Nethl; Yuejiang Liang; Anke Krueger; Christoph Becher

    2011-05-24

    We report on the production of nanodiamonds (NDs) with 70-80 nm size via bead assisted sonic disintegration (BASD) of a polycrystalline chemical vapor deposition (CVD) film. The NDs display high crystalline quality as well as intense narrowband (7 nm) room temperature luminescence at 738 nm due to in situ incorporated silicon vacancy (SiV) centers. The fluorescence properties at room and cryogenic temperatures indicate that the NDs are, depending on preparation, applicable as single photon sources or as fluorescence labels.

  16. Fixation of nitrogen in the presence of water vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harteck, Paul (Santa Barbara, CA)

    1984-01-01

    A process for the fixation of nitrogen is disclosed which comprises combining a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, metal oxide and water vapor, initially heating the combination to initiate a reaction which forms nitrate, but at a temperature and pressure range below the dissociation pressure of the nitrate. With or without the water component, the yield of fixed nitrogen is increased by the use of a Linde Molecular Sieve Catalyst.

  17. System for the removal of contaminant soil-gas vapors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weidner, Jerry R. (Iona, ID); Downs, Wayne C. (Sugar City, ID); Kaser, Timothy G. (Ammon, ID); Hall, H. James (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1997-01-01

    A system extracts contaminated vapors from soil or other subsurface regions by using changes in barometric pressure to operate sensitive check valves that control air entry and removal from wells in the ground. The system creates an efficient subterranean flow of air through a contaminated soil plume and causes final extraction of the contaminants from the soil to ambient air above ground without any external energy sources.

  18. System for the removal of contaminant soil-gas vapors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weidner, J.R.; Downs, W.C.; Kaser, T.G.; Hall, H.J.

    1997-12-16

    A system extracts contaminated vapors from soil or other subsurface regions by using changes in barometric pressure to operate sensitive check valves that control air entry and removal from wells in the ground. The system creates an efficient subterranean flow of air through a contaminated soil plume and causes final extraction of the contaminants from the soil to ambient air above ground without any external energy sources. 4 figs.

  19. Nonlinear magneto-optic effects in optically dense Rb vapor 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Novikova, Irina Borisovna

    2004-09-30

    D1 line . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 3. Self-rotation on the Rb D2 line . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 4. Self-rotation in cells with buffer gas . . . . . . . . . . 152 D. Application of self-rotation to generation of squeezed vacuum154 1. Squeezing... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 1. Factors limiting the sensitivity of the magnetic field detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 2. Estimation of the sensitivity for Rb vapor . . . . . . . 167 3. Experiments with buffered cells...

  20. Jan 26, 2005 MAE 4263 Vapor Power Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jan 26, 2005 MAE 4263 Vapor Power Systems Problem 1-4: Draw a symbolic turbine and indicate the integral Equation 1-18 Wout = m Z T2 T1 cpdT where cp for air is obtained from Equation 1-19 Wout = m Z T2 at the correct temperature (neglecting compressibility of liquid water) from page 779 wideal = 0:0010171 m3 kg (1

  1. Nonlinear optical properties of atomic vapor and semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, D [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-06-01

    This thesis contains the study of highly forbidden resonant second harmonic generation (SHG) in atomic potassium vapor using tunable picosecond pulses. Various output characteristics of vapor SHG have been investigated including the input intensity dependence, potassium vapor density dependence, buffer gas pressure dependence, and spatial profile. Recently, the discovery of new nonlinear optical crystals such as barium borate ({beta}-BaB{sub 2}O{sub 4}, BBO) and lithium borate (LiB{sub 3}O{sub 5}, LBO) has greatly improved the performance of a tunable coherent optical devices based on optical parametric generation and amplification. In the second part of this thesis, a homebuilt picosecond optical parametric generator/amplifier (OPG/OPA) system is described in detail, including its construction details and output characteristics. This laser device has found many useful applications in spectroscopic studies including surface nonlinear optical spectroscopy via sum-frequency generation (SFG). The last part of this thesis reports studies on multiphoton-excited photoluminescence from porous silicon and GaN. Multiphoton excitation and photoluminescence can give numerous complementary information about semiconductors not obtainable with one-photon, above-bandgap excitation.

  2. Program plan for the resolution of tank vapor issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osborne, J.W.; Huckaby, J.L.

    1994-05-01

    Since 1987, workers at the Hanford Site waste tank farms in Richland, Washington, have reported strong odors emanating from the large, underground high-level radioactive waste storage tanks. Some of these workers have complained of symptoms (e.g., headaches, nausea) related to the odors. In 1992, the U.S. Department of Energy, which manages the Hanford Site, and Westinghouse Hanford Company determined that the vapor emissions coming from the tanks had not been adequately characterized and represented a potential health risk to workers in the immediate vicinity of the tanks. At that time, workers in certain areas of the tank farms were required to use full-face, supplied-breathing-air masks to reduce their exposure to the fugitive emissions. While use of supplied breathing air reduced the health risks associated with the fugitive emissions, it introduced other health and safety risks (e.g., reduced field of vision, air-line tripping hazards, and heat stress). In 1992, an aggressive program was established to assure proper worker protection while reducing the use of supplied breathing air. This program focuses on characterization of vapors inside the tanks and industrial hygiene monitoring in the tank farms. If chemical filtration systems for mitigation of fugitive emissions are deemed necessary, the program will also oversee their design and installation. This document presents the plans for and approach to resolving the Hanford Site high-level waste tank vapor concerns. It is sponsored by the Department of Energy Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management.

  3. Method of and apparatus for measuring vapor density

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, L.D.; Cerni, T.A.

    1989-10-17

    Apparatus and method are disclosed which determine the concentration of an individual component, such as water vapor, of a multi-component mixture, such as a gaseous mixture for cooling a nuclear reactor. A hygrometer apparatus includes an infrared source for producing a broadband infrared energy beam that includes a strong water vapor absorption band and a weak water vapor absorption region. The beam is chopped to select infrared pulses. A temporally first pulse has a wavelength in the weakly absorbing region, a temporally second pulse has a wavelength in the strong band and a temporally third pulse has a wavelength in the weakly absorbing region. A fourth reference pulse representing background radiation is interposed in such chopped pulses. An indium arsenide infrared sensor is responsive to the pulses for generating an output signal in proportion to an equation given in the patent where N1 is proportional to the transmission through the sample of the first signal, N4 is related to the background radiation, and [K2 (N2-N4) + K3 (N3-N4)] is the time-weighted average of the transmission through the sample of the second and third pulses applicable at the time of the second pulse, with the reference pulse N4 being subtracted in each case to render the ratio independent of variations in the background radiation. 11 figs.

  4. Method of and apparatus for measuring vapor density

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Loren D. (Morrison, CO); Cerni, Todd A. (Littleton, CO)

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method determine the concentration of an individual component, such as water vapor, of a multi-component mixture, such as a gaseous mixture for cooling a nuclear reactor. A hygrometer apparatus includes an infrared source for producing a broadband infrared energy beam that includes a strong water vapor absorption band and a weak water vapor absorption region. The beam is chopped to select infrared pulses. A temporally first pulse has a wavelength in the weakly absorbing region, a temporally second pulse has a wavelength in the strong band and a temporally third pulse has a wavlength in the weakly absorbing region. A fourth reference pulse representing background radiation is interposed in such chopped pulses. An indium arsenide infrared sensor is responsive to the pulses for generating an output signal in proportion to: ##EQU1## where N1 is proportional to the transmission through the sample of the first signal, N4 is related to the background radiation, and [K2 (N2-N4)+K3 (N3-N4)] is the time-weighted average of the transmission through the sample of the second and third pulses applicable at the time of the second pulse, with the reference pulse N4 being subtracted in each case to render the ratio independent of variations in the background radiation.

  5. SECOND SEASON QUIET OBSERVATIONS: MEASUREMENTS OF THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND POLARIZATION POWER SPECTRUM AT 95 GHz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Araujo, D.; Dumoulin, R. N.; Newburgh, L. B.; Zwart, J. T. L. [Department of Physics and Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Bischoff, C.; Brizius, A.; Buder, I.; Kusaka, A. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, Department of Physics, Enrico Fermi Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Chinone, Y. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Cleary, K.; Reeves, R. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd M/C 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Monsalve, R.; Bustos, R. [Department of Physics, University of Miami, 1320 Campo Sano Drive, Coral Gables, FL 33146 (United States); Naess, S. K.; Eriksen, H. K. [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Wehus, I. K. [Department of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Bronfman, L. [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Church, S. E. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology and Department of Physics, Stanford University, Varian Physics Building, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Dickinson, C. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Gaier, T., E-mail: ibuder@uchicago.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Collaboration: QUIET Collaboration; and others

    2012-12-01

    The Q/U Imaging ExperimenT (QUIET) has observed the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at 43 and 95 GHz. The 43 GHz results have been published in a previous paper, and here we report the measurement of CMB polarization power spectra using the 95 GHz data. This data set comprises 5337 hr of observations recorded by an array of 84 polarized coherent receivers with a total array sensitivity of 87 {mu}K{radical}s. Four low-foreground fields were observed, covering a total of {approx}1000 deg{sup 2} with an effective angular resolution of 12.'8, allowing for constraints on primordial gravitational waves and high signal-to-noise measurements of the E-modes across three acoustic peaks. The data reduction was performed using two independent analysis pipelines, one based on a pseudo-C {sub l} (PCL) cross-correlation approach, and the other on a maximum-likelihood (ML) approach. All data selection criteria and filters were modified until a predefined set of null tests had been satisfied before inspecting any non-null power spectrum. The results derived by the two pipelines are in good agreement. We characterize the EE, EB, and BB power spectra between l = 25 and 975 and find that the EE spectrum is consistent with {Lambda}CDM, while the BB power spectrum is consistent with zero. Based on these measurements, we constrain the tensor-to-scalar ratio to r = 1.1{sup +0.9} {sub -0.8} (r < 2.8 at 95% C.L.) as derived by the ML pipeline, and r = 1.2{sup +0.9} {sub -0.8} (r < 2.7 at 95% C.L.) as derived by the PCL pipeline. In one of the fields, we find a correlation with the dust component of the Planck Sky Model, though the corresponding excess power is small compared to statistical errors. Finally, we derive limits on all known systematic errors, and demonstrate that these correspond to a tensor-to-scalar ratio smaller than r = 0.01, the lowest level yet reported in the literature.

  6. Second Season QUIET Observations: Measurements of the CMB Polarization Power Spectrum at 95 GHz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Araujo, D.; Bischoff, C.; Brizius, A.; Buder, I.; Chinone, Y.; Cleary, K.; Dumoulin, R.N.; Kusaka, A.; Monsalve, R.; ss, S.K.N\\ae; Newburgh, L.B.; /Columbia U., CBA /Princeton U. /Caltech

    2012-07-01

    The Q/U Imaging ExperimenT (QUIET) has observed the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at 43 and 95GHz. The 43-GHz results have been published in QUIET Collaboration et al. (2011), and here we report the measurement of CMB polarization power spectra using the 95-GHz data. This data set comprises 5337 hours of observations recorded by an array of 84 polarized coherent receivers with a total array sensitivity of 87 {mu}K{radical}s. Four low-foreground fields were observed, covering a total of {approx} 1000 square degrees with an effective angular resolution of 12'.8, allowing for constraints on primordial gravitational waves and high-signal-to-noise measurements of the E-modes across three acoustic peaks. The data reduction was performed using two independent analysis pipelines, one based on a pseudo-C{ell} (PCL) cross-correlation approach, and the other on a maximum-likelihood (ML) approach. All data selection criteria and filters were modified until a predefined set of null tests had been satisfied before inspecting any non-null power spectrum. The results derived by the two pipelines are in good agreement. We characterize the EE, EB and BB power spectra between {ell} = 25 and 975 and find that the EE spectrum is consistent with {Lambda}CDM, while the BB power spectrum is consistent with zero. Based on these measurements, we constrain the tensor-to-scalar ratio to r = 1.1{sup +0.9}{sub -0.8} (r < 2.8 at 95% C.L.) as derived by the ML pipeline, and r = {sup +0.9}{sub -0.8} (r < 2.7 at 95% C.L.) as derived by the PCL pipeline. In one of the fields, we find a correlation with the dust component of the Planck Sky Model, though the corresponding excess power is small compared to statistical errors. Finally, we derive limits on all known systematic errors, and demonstrate that these correspond to a tensor-to-scalar ratio smaller than r = 0.01, the lowest level yet reported in the literature.

  7. Non-canonical mass laws in equilibrium isotopic fractionations: Evidence from the vapor pressure isotope effect of SF6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cartigny, Pierre

    Non-canonical mass laws in equilibrium isotopic fractionations: Evidence from the vapor pressure report experimental observations of the vapor pressure isotope effect, including 33 S/32 S and 34 S/32. That equilibrium involves a reversed vapor pressure isotope effect; i.e., vapor is between 2& and 3& higher in 34 S

  8. Potential energy of atmospheric water vapor and the air motions induced by water vapor condensation on different spatial scales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anastassia M. Makarieva; Victor G. Gorshkov

    2010-03-29

    Basic physical principles are considered that are responsible for the origin of dynamic air flow upon condensation of water vapor, the partial pressure of which represents a store of potential energy in the atmosphere of Earth. Quantitative characteristics of such flow are presented for several spatial scales. It is shown that maximum condensation-induced velocities reach 160 m/s and are realized in compact circulation patterns like tornadoes.

  9. MAJOR STRUCTURES OF THE INNER GALAXY DELINEATED BY 6.7 GHz METHANOL MASERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, J. A.; Caswell, J. L.; McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Breen, S. L.; Voronkov, M. A. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Australia Telescope National Facility, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Avison, A.; Fuller, G. A.; Gray, M. D. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Burton, M. G. [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Ellingsen, S. P. [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 37, Hobart, TAS 7001 (Australia); Pestalozzi, M. [INAF/IFSI, via del Fosso del Cabaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Thompson, M. A. [Centre for Astrophysics Research, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield, AL10 9AB (United Kingdom)

    2011-05-20

    We explore the longitude-velocity distribution of 6.7 GHz methanol masers in the context of the inner structure of our Galaxy. We analyze the correlation in velocities within this distribution and identify density enhancements indicating large-scale regions of enhanced star formation. These are interpreted as the starting points of the spiral arms and the interaction of the Galactic bar with the 3 kpc arms. The methanol masers support the presence of a long thin bar with a 45{sup 0} orientation. Signatures of the full 3 kpc arm structure are seen, including a prominent tangent at approximately -22{sup 0} Galactic longitude. We compare this distribution with existing models of the gas dynamics of our Galaxy. The 3 kpc arm structure appears likely to correspond to the radius of corotation resonance of the bar, with the bar on its inner surface and the starting points of the spiral arms on its outer surface.

  10. Formation of a laminar electron flow for 300 GHz high-power pulsed gyrotron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamaguchi, Yuusuke; Tatematsu, Yoshinori; Saito, Teruo; Ikeda, Ryosuke; Mudiganti, Jagadish C.; Ogawa, Isamu; Idehara, Toshitaka [Research Center for Development of Far-Infrared Region, University of Fukui, 3-9-1 Bunkyo, Fukui-shi 910-8507 (Japan)

    2012-11-15

    This paper describes the design of a triode magnetron injection gun for use in a 200 kW, 300 GHz gyrotron. As power and frequency increase, the performance of the gyrotron becomes quite sensitive to the quality of the electron beam. Formation of a laminar electron flow is essential for the realization of a high quality beam with a small velocity spread. In this study, a new method is developed for a quantitative evaluation of the laminarity and is applied to optimize the electrode design. The laminarity depends not only on conventional design parameters such as the cathode slant angle but also on the spatial distribution of the electric field along the beam trajectory. In the optimized design, the velocity pitch factors, {alpha}, larger than 1.2 are obtained at 65 kV, 10 A with spreads, {Delta}{alpha}, less than 5%.

  11. Observations of the frequency tuning effect in the 14 GHz CAPRICE ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Celona, L.; Ciavola, G.; Consoli, F.; Gammino, S.; Maimone, F.; Mascali, D.; Spaedtke, P.; Tinschert, K.; Lang, R.; Maeder, J.; Rossbach, J.; Barbarino, S.; Catalano, R. S.

    2008-02-15

    A set of measurements with the CAPRICE ion source at the GSI test bench has been carried out to investigate its behavior in terms of intensity and shape of the extracted beam when the microwaves generating the plasma sweep in a narrow range of frequency ({+-}40 MHz) around the klystron center frequency (14.5 GHz). Remarkable variations have been observed depending on the source and the beamline operating parameters, confirming that a frequency dependent electromagnetic distribution is preserved even in the presence of plasma inside the source. Moreover, these observations confirm that the frequency tuning is a powerful method to optimize the electron cyclotron resonance ion source performances. A description of the experimental setup and of the obtained results is given in the following.

  12. Concurrent 43 and 86 GHz Very Long Baseline Polarimetry of 3C273

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joanne M. Attridge; John F. C. Wardle; Daniel C. Homan

    2005-06-10

    We present sub-milliarcsecond resolution total intensity and linear polarization VLBI images of 3C273, using concurrent 43 and 86 GHz data taken with the Very Long Baseline Array in May 2002. The structure seen in the innermost jet suggest that we have fortuitously caught the jet in the act of changing direction. The polarization images confirm that the core is unpolarized (fractional polarization m 5.2 x 10^{4} rad m^{-2} must be present in or in front of that region. These are among the highest rotation measures reported so far in the nucleus of any active galaxy or quasar, and must occur outside (but probably close to) the radio emitting region. The transverse rotation measure gradient is in the same sense as that observed by Asada et al and by Zavala and Taylor at greater core distances. The magnitude of the transverse gradient decreases rapidly with distance down the jet, and appears to be variable.

  13. Development of a simple 2.45 GHz microwave plasma with a repulsive double hexapole configuration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arciaga, Marko; Ulano, April; Lee, Henry Jr.; Lledo, Rumar; Ramos, Henry; Tumlos, Roy

    2008-09-15

    A simple and inexpensive 2.45 GHz microwave plasma source with a repulsive double hexapole configuration is described and characterized. In this work, the operation of the source is shown to be flexible in terms of electron density, electron temperature, and plasma uniformity even at low-pressures (approximately millitorr). It allows for easy control of the electron temperature (2-3.8 eV) and density ({approx}10{sup 9}-10{sup 10} cm{sup -3}) by removing either of the two hexapoles or by varying the separation distance between the two hexapoles. Characterization was done via information gathered from the usual Langmuir probe measurements for electron temperature and density. The source makes a resonant surface with its repulsive double hexapole magnetic configuration providing an additional longitudinal confinement near the walls midway between the two hexapoles. Magnetic field maps are presented for varying double hexapole distances. Power delivery for various settings is also presented.

  14. Development of a 10 kW, 2.815 GHz Klystron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ives, Robert Lawrence; Read, Michael; Patrick, Ferguson

    2015-05-15

    Development of a Periodic Permanent Magnet (PPM) focused klystron is described. The klystron was designed to produce 10 kW CW at 2.815 GHz. The program developed an innovative PPM circuit that provided extremely uniform magnetic fields at the electron beam location while providing unprecedented access to the RF circuit for tuners and water cooling. Simulations indicated the klystron would produce more than 11 kW with an efficiency exceeding 65%. Problems with the mechanical design prevented successful testing of the initial prototype; however, a new design was successfully developed and implemented in a 6 MW klystron developed in a follow-on program. Funding is being pursued to rebuild the 10 kW RF circuit and complete the klystron development.

  15. VUV irradiance measurement of a 2.45 GHz microwave-driven hydrogen discharge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Komppula, J; Kalvas, T; Koivisto, H; Kronholm, R; Laulainen, J; Myllyperkiö, P

    2015-01-01

    Absolute values of VUV-emission of a 2.45 GHz microwave-driven hydrogen discharge are reported. The measurements were performed with a robust and straightforward method based on a photodiode and optical filters. It was found that the volumetric photon emission rate in the VUV-range (80-250 nm) is $10^{16}$-$10^{17}$ 1/cm$^3$s, which corresponds to approximately 8% dissipation of injected microwave power by VUV photon emission. The volumetric emission of characteristic emission bands was utilized to diagnostics of molecular plasma processes including volumetric rates of ionization, dissociation and excitation to high vibrational levels and metastable states. The estimated reaction rates imply that each injected molecule experiences several inelastic electron impact collisions. The upper limit for the total density of metastable neutrals ($2S$ atoms and $c^3\\Pi_u$ molecules) was estimated to be approximately 0.5% of the neutral gas density.

  16. A Search for 6.7 GHz Methanol Masers in M33

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. F. Goldsmith; J. D. Pandian; A. A. Deshpande

    2007-10-09

    We report the negative results from a search for 6.7 GHz methanol masers in the nearby spiral galaxy M33. We observed 14 GMCs in the central 4 kpc of the Galaxy, and found 3 sigma upper limits to the flux density of ~9 mJy in spectral channels having a velocity width of 0.069 km/s. By velocity shifting and combining the spectra from the positions observed, we obtain an effective 3sigma upper limit on the average emission of ~1mJy in a 0.25 km/s channel. These limits lie significantly below what we would expect based on our estimates of the methanol maser luminosity function in the Milky Way. The most likely explanation for the absence of detectable methanol masers appears to be the metallicity of M33, which is modestly less than that of the Milky Way.

  17. Mechanical 144?GHz beam steering with all-metallic epsilon-near-zero lens antenna

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pacheco-Peña, V. Torres, V. Orazbayev, B. Beruete, M. Sorolla, M.; Navarro-Cía, M.; Engheta, N.

    2014-12-15

    An all-metallic steerable beam antenna composed of an ?-near-zero (ENZ) metamaterial lens is experimentally demonstrated at 144?GHz (?{sub 0}?=?2.083?mm). The ENZ lens is realized by an array of narrow hollow rectangular waveguides working just near and above the cut-off of the TE{sub 10} mode. The lens focal arc on the xz-plane is initially estimated analytically as well as numerically and compared with experimental results demonstrating good agreement. Next, a flange-ended WR-6.5 waveguide is placed along the lens focal arc to evaluate the ENZ-lens antenna steerability. A gain scan loss below 3?dB is achieved for angles up to ±15°.

  18. A 95 GHz CLASS I METHANOL MASER SURVEY TOWARD GLIMPSE EXTENDED GREEN OBJECTS (EGOs)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Xi; Shen Zhiqiang; Gan Conggui [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200030 (China); Ellingsen, Simon P.; Titmarsh, Anita, E-mail: chenxi@shao.ac.cn [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania (Australia)

    2011-09-01

    We report the results of a systematic survey for 95 GHz class I methanol masers toward a new sample of 192 massive young stellar object candidates associated with ongoing outflows (known as extended green objects or EGOs) identified from the Spitzer Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire (GLIMPSE) survey. The observations were made with the Australia Telescope National Facility (ATNF) Mopra 22 m radio telescope and resulted in the detection of 105 new 95 GHz class I methanol masers. For 92 of the sources our observations provide the first identification of a class I maser transition associated with these objects (i.e., they are new class I methanol maser sources). Our survey proves that there is indeed a high detection rate (55%) of class I methanol masers toward EGOs. Comparison of the GLIMPSE point sources associated with EGOs with and without class I methanol maser detections shows that they have similar mid-IR colors, with the majority meeting the color selection criteria -0.6 < [5.8]-[8.0] < 1.4 and 0.5 < [3.6]-[4.5] < 4.0. Investigations of the Infrared Array Camera and Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer 24 {mu}m colors and the associated millimeter dust clump properties (mass and density) of the EGOs for the sub-samples based on the class of methanol masers they are associated with suggest that the stellar mass range associated with class I methanol masers extends to lower masses than for class II methanol masers, or alternatively class I methanol masers may be associated with more than one evolutionary phase during the formation of a high-mass star.

  19. Design ad Modeling of a 17 GHz Photcxxthode RF Gun C. L. Lin, S. C. Chen, J. S. U'urtele, H. Temkin, 13. Danly *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wurtele, Jonathan

    Design ad Modeling of a 17 GHz Photcxxthode RF Gun C. L. Lin, S. C. Chen, J. S. U'urtele, H. Temkin of a high-frequencv(l7GHz), high accel- erating gradirnt(250hlv/rrl) photocathode RF gun is stud- ied in conventional DC guns followed by RF bunchers have reached their intrin- sic limitations and do not meet

  20. IEEE MTT-S 2001 International Microwave Symposium Digest, Vol. 3 pp. 1713-1716 185 GHz Monolithic Amplifier in InGaAs/InAlAs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodwell, Mark J. W.

    , and automotive radar. Monolithic amplifiers in this frequency range have previously been demonstrated in In in these technologies have exhibited large small signal gains. Weinreb et al [1] have reported a six-stage amplifier]. Larger ICs include 66 GHz master-slave flip flops [9] and 18 GHz delta-sigma ADCs [10]. Here, we report

  1. Abstract--Design of a fully differential sixth order GHz range gm-C lowpass filter for DS-CDMA UWB (ultra wideband)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ha, Dong S.

    Abstract--Design of a fully differential sixth order GHz range gm-C lowpass filter for DS-CDMA UWB voltage of 1.8 V. Index Terms--DS-CDMA, UWB, gm-C filter, negative resistance load, lowpass filter I-amps with bandwidth in the range of tens of GHz. Transconductor capacitor (gm-C) filters are well suited

  2. Car-to-car radio channel measurements at 5 GHz: Pathloss, power-delay profile, and delay-Doppler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zemen, Thomas

    Car-to-car radio channel measurements at 5 GHz: Pathloss, power-delay profile, and delay Contact: apaier@nt.tuwien.ac.at Abstract-- We carried out a car­to­infrastructure (C2I) and car­to­car (C2­Doppler spectra in a C2C highway scenario, where both cars were traveling in opposite directions. A pathloss

  3. 18.6 A 2GHz CMOS Image-RejectReceiver with Sign-Sign LMS Calibration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Razavi, Behzad

    18.6 A 2GHz CMOS Image-RejectReceiver with Sign- Sign LMS Calibration Lawrence Der. Behzad Razavl. In this Weaver receiver, gain and phase mismatches are calibrat- ed simultaneously by a least-mean-square(LMS(tj is measured. and the coefficients W I and w ? are updated accordingto the LMS algo- rithm, in discretesteps

  4. A 1 Gbps 105.4 GHz Link with a Directly Modulated Photonic Integrated Dual Laser Source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Z.; Fice, M. J.; Balakier, K.; Wonfor, A.; Renaud, C.; Carpintero, G.; Kervella, G.; van Dijk, F.; Seeds, A. J.; Penty, R. V.; White, I. H.

    2014-12-16

    , “Monolithic dual wavelength DFB lasers for narrow linewidth heterodyne beat-note generation”, 2011 MWP, pp. 73–76, Oct. 2011. [5] M. Fice et al, “146-GHz Millimeter-wave Radio-over-fiber Photonic Wireless Transmission System”, Optics Express, vol.20, no. 2...

  5. Concurrent Circuit-Level/System-Level Optimization of a 24 GHz Mixer for Automotive Applications Using a Hybrid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tentzeris, Manos

    of automotive industry in developing a number of active and passive systems to enhance road safety. A DopplerConcurrent Circuit-Level/System-Level Optimization of a 24 GHz Mixer for Automotive Applications reported so far for this frequency range and in these operating conditions. Index Terms - Automotive radar

  6. A 600 GHz InP HBT Amplifier Using Cross-Coupled Feedback Stabilization and Dual-Differential Power Combining

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodwell, Mark J. W.

    , amplifiers, cross-coupled feedback, power combining. I. INTRODUCTION Sub-millimeter-wave and lower terahertzA 600 GHz InP HBT Amplifier Using Cross-Coupled Feedback Stabilization and Dual-Differential Power , Mark Rodwell3 1 Teledyne Scientific Company, Thousand Oaks, CA, USA, 2 Jet Propulsion Laboratory

  7. Repeatability of the Seasonal Variations of Ozone near the Mesopause from Observations of the 11.072-GHz Line

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, Alan E. E.

    Ground-based observations of the 11.072-GHz line of ozone were made from January 2008 through the middle of September 2011 to estimate the maximum in the nighttime ozone in the upper mesosphere at an altitude of about 95 ...

  8. 60GHz Wireless Nano-Sensors Network for Structure Health Monitoring as Enabler for Safer, Greener Aircrafts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    60GHz Wireless Nano-Sensors Network for Structure Health Monitoring as Enabler for Safer, Greener-objects for Structure Health Monitoring in the aircrafts and the improvements bring by the nanotechnologies. The main the cabin of an aircraft and the choice of the network architecture. Keywords: Structure Health Monitoring

  9. Octave-spanning supercontinuum generation for an er-doped fiber laser frequency comb at a 1 ghz repetition rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chao, David

    We developed a 1 GHz Er-doped femtosecond fiber laser system providing 2nJ pulses at [equivalence relation symbol]100fs durations and demonstrated octave-spanning supercontinuum generation from 1µm - 2.4µm that is suitable ...

  10. The SST Fully-Synchronous Multi-GHz Analog Waveform Recorder with Nyquist-Rate Bandwidth and Flexible Trigger Capabilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kleinfelder, Stuart A; Prakash, Tarun

    2015-01-01

    The design and performance of a fully-synchronous multi-GHz analog transient waveform recorder I.C. ("SST") with fast and flexible trigger capabilities is presented. The SST's objective is to provide multi-GHz sample rates with intrinsically-stable timing, Nyquist-rate sampling and high trigger bandwidth, wide dynamic range and simple operation. Containing 4 channels of 256 samples per channel, the SST is fabricated in an inexpensive 0.25 micrometer CMOS process and uses a high-performance package that is 8 mm on a side. It has a 1.9V input range on a 2.5V supply, exceeds 12 bits of dynamic range, and uses ~128 mW while operating at 2 G-samples/s and full trigger rates. With a standard 50 Ohm input source, the SST exceeds ~1.5 GHz -3 dB bandwidth. The SST's internal sample clocks are generated synchronously via a shift register driven by an external LVDS oscillator running at half the sample rate (e.g., a 1 GHz oscillator yields 2 G-samples/s). Because of its purely-digital synchronous nature, the SST has ps-...

  11. Hard-molded 51 cm long waveguide array with a 150 GHz bandwidth for board-level optical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Wei

    Hard-molded 51 cm long waveguide array with a 150 GHz bandwidth for board-level optical fabricated by silicon hard-molding technology. To reduce the silicon sidewall roughness, a wet-producible, and high-quality optical layers. We previously demonstrated a soft-molded waveguide layer with 45° coupling

  12. Observation and Study of Low-Frequency Oscillations in a 1.5-MW 110-GHz Gyrotron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cerfon, Antoine J.

    We report the observation of low-frequency oscillations (LFOs) in the range 165-180 MHz in a 1.5-MW 110-GHz gyrotron operating in 3-mus pulses. The oscillations have been measured by a capacitive probe located just before ...

  13. A 19-GHz Broadband Amplifier Using a gm-Boosted Cascode in 0.18-m CMOS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan Carusone, Tony

    A 19-GHz Broadband Amplifier Using a gm-Boosted Cascode in 0.18-µm CMOS Masum Hossain and Anthony passive gm-boosting in the input cascode stage. This results in a greater than 30% increase in bandwidth-gate devices in a differential MOS cascode results in a greater than 30% improvement in bandwidth. The gm

  14. An optical water vapor sensor for unmanned aerial vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timothy A. Berkoff; Paul L. Kebabian; Robert A. McClatchy; Charles E. Kolb; Andrew Freedman

    1998-12-01

    The water vapor sensor developed by Aerodyne Research, based on the optical absorption of light at {approximately}935 nm, has been successfully demonstrated on board the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Gulfstream-1 research aircraft during the Department of Energy's ARM Intensive Operations Period in August 1998. Data taken during this field campaign show excellent agreement with a chilled mirror and Lyman-alpha hygrometers and measurements confirm the ability to measure rapid, absolute water vapor fluctuations with a high degree of instrument stability and accuracy, with a noise level as low 10 ppmv (1 Hz measurement bandwidth). The construction of this small, lightweight sensor contains several unique elements which result in several significant advantages when compared to other techniques. First, the low power consumption Argon discharge lamp provides an optical beam at a fixed wavelength without a need for temperature or precision current control. The multi-pass absorption cell developed for this instrument provides a compact, low cost method that can survive deployment in the field. Fiber-optic cables, which are used to convey to light between the absorption cell, light source, and detection modules enable remote placement of the absorption cell from the opto-electronics module. Finally, the sensor does not use any moving parts which removes a significant source of potential malfunction. The result is an instrument which maintained its calibration throughout the field measurement campaign, and was not affected by high vibration and large uncontrolled temperature excursions. We believe that the development of an accurate, fast response water vapor monitor described in this report will open up new avenues of aerial-vehicle-based atmospheric research which have been relatively unexplored due to the lack of suitable low-cost, light-weight instrumentation.

  15. Recirculating wedges for metal-vapor plasma tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, J.P.; Sawvel, R.M.; Draggoo, V.G.

    1994-06-28

    A metal vapor laser is disclosed that recycles condensed metal located at the terminal ends of a plasma tube back toward the center of the tube. A pair of arcuate wedges are incorporated on the bottom of the plasma tube near the terminal ends. The wedges slope downward toward the center so that condensed metal may be transported under the force of gravity away from the terminal ends. The wedges are curved to fit the plasma tube to thereby avoid forming any gaps within the tube interior. 8 figures.

  16. Recirculating wedges for metal-vapor plasma tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, Jerome P. (Livermore, CA); Sawvel, Robert M. (Modesto, CA); Draggoo, Vaughn G. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A metal vapor laser is disclosed that recycles condensed metal located at the terminal ends of a plasma tube back toward the center of the tube. A pair of arcuate wedges are incorporated on the bottom of the plasma tube near the terminal ends. The wedges slope downward toward the center so that condensed metal may be transported under the force of gravity away from the terminal ends. The wedges are curved to fit the plasma tube to thereby avoid forming any gaps within the tube interior.

  17. Nonlinear transmission through a tapered fiber in rubidium vapor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. M. Hendrickson; T. B. Pittman; J. D. Franson

    2008-12-01

    Sub-wavelength diameter tapered optical fibers surrounded by rubidium vapor can undergo a substantial decrease in transmission at high atomic densities due to the accumulation of rubidium atoms on the surface of the fiber. Here we demonstrate the ability to control these changes in transmission using light guided within the taper. We observe transmission through a tapered fiber that is a nonlinear function of the incident power. This effect can also allow a strong control beam to change the transmission of a weak probe beam.

  18. Applications of Mechanical Vapor Recompression to Evaporation and Crystallization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Outland, J. S.

    1995-01-01

    is accomplished using centrifugal, axial-flow, or positive displacement compressors and these compressors can be powered by electricity, steam turbine or a gas turbine. The use of an MVR Evapo rator/Crystallizer provides a comparatively low cost means... Process Equipment Harvey,IL Here it can be seen that the economy or the pounds of water evaporated per pound of heating element is slightly less than 1.0. The vapors leaving the evapo rator flow to a condenser when their latent heat is absorbed...

  19. Dosimeter for monitoring vapors and aerosols of organic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vo-Dinh, T.

    1987-07-14

    A dosimeter is provided for collecting and detecting vapors and aerosols of organic compounds. The dosimeter comprises a lightweight, passive device that can be conveniently worn by a person as a badge or placed at a stationary location. The dosimeter includes a sample collector comprising a porous web treated with a chemical for inducing molecular displacement and enhancing phosphorescence. Compounds are collected onto the web by molecular diffusion. The web also serves as the sample medium for detecting the compounds by a room temperature phosphorescence technique. 7 figs.

  20. Multi-cathode metal vapor arc ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Ian G. (1088 Woodside Rd., Berkeley, CA 94708); MacGill, Robert A. (645 Kern St., Richmond, CA 94805)

    1988-01-01

    An ion generating apparatus utilizing a vacuum chamber, a cathode and an anode in the chamber. A source of electrical power produces an arc or discharge between the cathode and anode. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma is directed to an extractor which separates the electrons from the plasma, and accelerates the ions to produce an ion beam. One embodiment of the appaatus utilizes a multi-cathode arrangement for interaction with the anode.

  1. Unusual thermopower of inhomogeneous graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nam, Youngwoo, E-mail: youngwoo.nam@chalmers.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Sun, Jie; Lindvall, Niclas; Yurgens, August [Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Jae Yang, Seung; Rae Park, Chong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Woo Park, Yung [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-13

    We report on thermopower (TEP) and resistance measurements of inhomogeneous graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Unlike the conventional resistance of pristine graphene, the gate-dependent TEP shows a large electron-hole asymmetry. This can be accounted for by inhomogeneity of the CVD-graphene where individual graphene regions contribute with different TEPs. At the high magnetic field and low temperature, the TEP has large fluctuations near the Dirac point associated with the disorder in the CVD-graphene. TEP measurements reveal additional characteristics of CVD-graphene, which are difficult to obtain from the measurement of resistance alone.

  2. Dosimeter for monitoring vapors and aerosols of organic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan (625 Gulfwood Rd., Knoxville, TN 37923)

    1987-01-01

    A dosimeter is provided for collecting and detecting vapors and aerosols of organic compounds. The dosimeter comprises a lightweight, passive device that can be conveniently worn by a person as a badge or placed at a stationary location. The dosimeter includes a sample collector comprising a porous web treated with a chemical for inducing molecular displacement and enhancing phosphorescence. Compounds are collected onto the web by molecular diffusion. The web also serves as the sample medium for detecting the compounds by a room temperature phosphorescence technique.

  3. Simple and Compact Nozzle Design for Laser Vaporization Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kokish, M G; Odom, B C

    2015-01-01

    We have developed and implemented a compact transparent nozzle for use in laser vaporization sources. This nozzle eliminates the need for an ablation aperture, allowing for a more intense molecular beam. We use this nozzle to prepare a molecular beam of aluminum monohydride (AlH) suitable for ion trap loading of AlH$^+$ via photoionization in ultra-high vacuum. We demonstrate stable AlH production over hour time scales using a liquid ablation target. The long-term stability, low heat load and fast ion production rate of this source are well-suited to molecular ion experiments employing destructive state readout schemes requiring frequent trap reloading.

  4. The effect of composition on equilibrium vaporization ratios 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiesepape, Cordell Floyd

    1964-01-01

    F and 350 F and at pressures ranging from 1662 to 3715 psia. The experimental K-values were compared with the K-values of the Natural Gasoline Association of America and at pressures below 100 psia wi, th K-values calculated using the vapor... and found that his data at low pressures com- pared satisfactorily with work done by Katz and Hackmuth 2 but that at b. igh pressures the agreement was poor. Roland, Smith and Kaveler presented data from a gas distillate 3 system which disagreed widely...

  5. Intermediate Vapor Expansion Distillation and Nested Enrichment Cascade Distillation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erickson, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    shaft power is being substituted for heat which in many cases may be extremely low valued. Th~ next section describes how to avoid that problem, and even turn it to advantage. 136 ESL-IE-86-06-25 Proceedings from the Eighth Annual Industrial... will improve column efficiency by 15 to 100%, there has been little use of this technique to date." Intermediate vapor compression heat pumping was recently introduced as one practical means of achieving this benefit. Introduced in this paper are two new...

  6. The development of a passive dosimeter for airborne aniline vapors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Campbell, James Evan

    1977-01-01

    and Gunnison applied the laws of passive diffusion in 3 the development of a quantitative personal monitoring device for SO and stated that this principle should be applicable to other gases and vapors in the industrial as well as the community environment... The purpose of this investigation was to determine the most effective tube length of a passive diffusion dosimeter for aniline, similar to that developed by Palmes for SO 3 In order to calibrate any air sampling device a reliable and known concentration...

  7. Uranium atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVL1S)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beeler, R.G.; Heestand, G.M.

    1992-12-01

    The high cost associated with gaseous diffusion technology has fostered world-wide competition in the uranium enrichment market. Enrichment costs based on AVLIS technology are projected to be a factor of about three to five times lower. Full scale AVLIS equipment has been built and its performance is being demonstrated now at LLNL. An overview of the AVLIS process will be discussed and key process paramenters will be identified. Application of AVLIS technologies to non-uranium systems will also be highlighted. Finally, the vaporization process along with some key parameters will be discussed.

  8. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation using resonance ionization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Comaskey, B.; Crane, J.; Erbert, G.; Haynam, C.; Johnson, M.; Morris, J.; Paisner, J.; Solarz, R.; Worden, E.

    1986-09-01

    Atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) is a general and powerful technique. A major present application to the enrichment of uranium for light-water power-reactor fuel has been under development for over 10 years. In June 1985, the Department of Energy announced the selection of AVLIS as the technology to meet the nation's future need for enriched uranium. Resonance photoionization is the heart of the AVLIS process. We discuss those fundamental atomic parameters that are necessary for describing isotope-selective resonant multistep photoionization along with the measurement techniques that we use. We illustrate the methodology adopted with examples of other elements that are under study in our program.

  9. ARM - Field Campaign - ARM-FIRE Water Vapor Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better Anode Design to Improve4AJ01) (See22, 2012III ARM DatagovCampaignsARM-FIRE Water Vapor

  10. ARM - Field Campaign - Fall 1997 Water Vapor IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better Anode Design to Improve4AJ01)govCampaignsFIRE-Arctic CloudShortwave IOP ARM DataWater Vapor

  11. COMPOSITION OF VAPORS FROM BOILING NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS B A

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report: Achievements ofCOMPOSITION OF VAPORS FROM BOILING NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS B A

  12. Non-Vapor Compression HVAC Technologies Report | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested Parties -DepartmentAvailable forSite |n t e g r i t y - S e r v iNon-Vapor

  13. Economic and Technical Tradeoffs Between Open and Closed Cycle Vapor Compression Evaporators 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Timm, M. L.

    1986-01-01

    AND TECHNICAL TRADEOFFS BETWEEN OPEN AND CLOSED CYCLE VAPOR COM~RESSION EVAPORATORS Martin L. Timm, P.E. Bassett Inc. Appleton, WI ABSTRACT Evaporators are used extensively in the chemical, pulp Bnd paper, food and beverage, and related industries.... Mechanical vapor recompression (MVR) evaporators are a type using an open heat pump cycle with steam as the working fluid. The tech nology is widely used and time-proven. Closed cycle vapor compression is an emerging technology. A secondary working fluid...

  14. The Prospects of Alternatives to Vapor Compression Technology for Space Cooling and Food Refrigeration Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Daryl R.; Dirks, James A.; Fernandez, Nicholas; Stout, Tyson E.

    2010-03-31

    Five alternatives to vapor compression technology were qualitatively evaluated to determine their prospects for being better than vapor compression for space cooling and food refrigeration applications. The results of the assessment are summarized in the report. Overall, thermoacoustic and magnetic technologies were judged to have the best prospects for competing with vapor compression technology, with thermotunneling, thermoelectric, and thermionic technologies trailing behind in that order.

  15. Vapor pressure dependence of spectral width of EIT in Lambda-level cesium molecular system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hui Chen; Hebin Li; Yuri V. Rostovtsev; Mikhail A. Gubin; Vladimir A. Sautenkov; Marlan O. Scully

    2009-02-16

    We have studied electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in diatomic cesium molecules in a vapor cell by using tunable diode lasers. We have observed a sub-natural Lambda-resonance in an absorption molecular band at different cesium vapor pressures. The width of the EIT resonance shows a linear dependence on cesium vapor pressure. Narrow Lambda-resonances in molecules can be used as frequency references for femtosecond laser frequency combs.

  16. A MICROSCALE VAPOR-FED FORMIC ACID FUEL CELL , R. S. Jayashree[2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenis, Paul J. A.

    A MICROSCALE VAPOR-FED FORMIC ACID FUEL CELL J. Yeom[1] , R. S. Jayashree[2] , G. Z. Mozsgai[1] , A-based microfabricated fuel cell running on formic acid vapor as a fuel has been developed to provide on-chip power was packaged in a plastic package to test the vapor-fed fuel cell concept. Initial results (0.4 V of the open

  17. Numerical modeling of water injection into vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pruess, Karsten

    2008-01-01

    Renewable Energy, Office of Geothermal Technologies, of theTransport in Fractured Geothermal Reservoirs, Geothermics,Depletion of Vapor-Dominated Geothermal Reservoirs, Lawrence

  18. Ion Partitioning at the liquid/vapor interface of a multi-component...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    vapor interface of a multi-component alkali halidesolution: A model for aqueous sea salt aerosols Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ion Partitioning at the liquid...

  19. Improved sensor selectivity for chemical vapors using organic thin-film transistors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Royer, James Edward

    2012-01-01

    2012, American Chemical Society 3.1 Abstract Air-stablethe American Chemical Society 4.1 Abstract Direct selectiveChemical Vapor Detection Abstract

  20. Removal of hydrogen sulfide as ammonium sulfate from hydropyrolysis product vapors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marker, Terry L; Felix, Larry G; Linck, Martin B; Roberts, Michael J

    2014-10-14

    A system and method for processing biomass into hydrocarbon fuels that includes processing a biomass in a hydropyrolysis reactor resulting in hydrocarbon fuels and a process vapor stream and cooling the process vapor stream to a condensation temperature resulting in an aqueous stream. The aqueous stream is sent to a catalytic reactor where it is oxidized to obtain a product stream containing ammonia and ammonium sulfate. A resulting cooled product vapor stream includes non-condensable process vapors comprising H.sub.2, CH.sub.4, CO, CO.sub.2, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide.

  1. PRODUCTION AND DESTRUCTION OF D- BY CHARGE TRANSFER IN METAL VAPORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlachter, A.S.

    2010-01-01

    alkali-vapor target of the heat- pipe type. The beam leavingthe incident beam. The heat-pipe target and the collimation

  2. Using the Noninteracting Cluster Theory to Predict the Properties of Real Vapor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New York at Stoney Brook, State University of

    in equilibrium: z j m 1 . The equation of state of a vapor in equilibrium is given by Dalton's law for an ideal

  3. Advanced Organic Vapor Cycles for Improving Thermal Conversion Efficiency in Renewable Energy Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Tony

    2012-01-01

    such as nuclear, Concentrated Solar Power (CSP), and coal,energies, such as concentrated solar power (CSP) [165]. CSPand non- concentrated solar thermal, vapor power cycles

  4. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Integrated Development of Vapor Deposition for Non-line-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 1 Integrated Development of Vapor Deposition, Materials Science & Engineering, 395 McCormick Rd, nonmember I #12;American Institute of Aeronautics

  5. Liquid fuel vaporizer and combustion chamber having an adjustable thermal conductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Powell, Michael R; Whyatt, Greg A; Howe, Daniel T; Fountain, Matthew S

    2014-03-04

    The efficiency and effectiveness of apparatuses for vaporizing and combusting liquid fuel can be improved using thermal conductors. For example, an apparatus having a liquid fuel vaporizer and a combustion chamber can be characterized by a thermal conductor that conducts heat from the combustion chamber to the vaporizer. The thermal conductor can be a movable member positioned at an insertion depth within the combustion chamber that corresponds to a rate of heat conduction from the combustion chamber to the vaporizer. The rate of heat conduction can, therefore, be adjusted by positioning the movable member at a different insertion depth.

  6. Method of physical vapor deposition of metal oxides on semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norton, David P. (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01

    A process for growing a metal oxide thin film upon a semiconductor surface with a physical vapor deposition technique in a high-vacuum environment and a structure formed with the process involves the steps of heating the semiconductor surface and introducing hydrogen gas into the high-vacuum environment to develop conditions at the semiconductor surface which are favorable for growing the desired metal oxide upon the semiconductor surface yet is unfavorable for the formation of any native oxides upon the semiconductor. More specifically, the temperature of the semiconductor surface and the ratio of hydrogen partial pressure to water pressure within the vacuum environment are high enough to render the formation of native oxides on the semiconductor surface thermodynamically unstable yet are not so high that the formation of the desired metal oxide on the semiconductor surface is thermodynamically unstable. Having established these conditions, constituent atoms of the metal oxide to be deposited upon the semiconductor surface are directed toward the surface of the semiconductor by a physical vapor deposition technique so that the atoms come to rest upon the semiconductor surface as a thin film of metal oxide with no native oxide at the semiconductor surface/thin film interface. An example of a structure formed by this method includes an epitaxial thin film of (001)-oriented CeO.sub.2 overlying a substrate of (001) Ge.

  7. Structure of Sagittarius A* at 86 GHz using VLBI Closure Quantities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. S. Doeleman; Z. -Q. Shen; A. E. E. Rogers; G. C. Bower; M. C. H. Wright; J. -H. Zhao; D. C. Backer; J. W. Crowley; R. W. Freund; P. T. P. Ho; K. Y. Lo; D. P. Woody

    2001-02-13

    At radio wavelengths, images of the compact radio source Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*) in the Galactic Center are scatter broadened with a lambda^2 dependence due to an intervening ionized medium. We present VLBI observations of Sgr A* at 86 GHz using a six station array including the VLBA antennas at Pie Town, Fort Davis and Los Alamos, the 12m antenna at Kitt Peak and the millimeter arrays at Hat Creek and Owens Valley. To avoid systematic errors due to imperfect antenna calibration, the data were modeled using interferometric closure information. The data are best modeled by a circular Gaussian brightness distribution of FWHM 0.18 +- 0.02 mas. The data are also shown to be consistent with an elliptical model corresponding to the scattering of a point source. The source structure in the N-S direction, which is less well determined than in the E-W direction due to the limited N-S (u,v) coverage of the array, is constrained to be less than 0.27 mas by these measurements. These results are consistent with extrapolations of intrinsic structure estimates obtained with VLBI at 7mm wavelength assuming the intrinsic size of Sgr A* has a greater dependence than lambda^0.9 with wavelength.

  8. The faint radio source population at 15.7 GHz - II. Multi-wavelength properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whittam, I H; Green, D A; Jarvis, M J; Vaccari, M

    2015-01-01

    A complete, flux density limited sample of 96 faint ($> 0.5$ mJy) radio sources is selected from the 10C survey at 15.7 GHz in the Lockman Hole. We have matched this sample to a range of multi-wavelength catalogues, including SERVS, SWIRE, UKIDSS and optical data; multi-wavelength counterparts are found for 80 of the 96 sources and spectroscopic redshifts are available for 24 sources. Photometric reshifts are estimated for the sources with multi-wavelength data available; the median redshift of the sample is 0.91 with an interquartile range of 0.84. Radio-to-optical ratios show that at least 94 per cent of the sample are radio loud, indicating that the 10C sample is dominated by radio galaxies. This is in contrast to samples selected at lower frequencies, where radio-quiet AGN and starforming galaxies are present in significant numbers at these flux density levels. All six radio-quiet sources have rising radio spectra, suggesting that they are dominated by AGN emission. These results confirm the conclusions o...

  9. THE 110 GHz MICROWAVE HEATING SYSTEM ON THE DIII-D TOKAMAK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LOHR,J; CALLIS,RW; DOANE,JL; ELLIS,RA; GORELOV,YA; KAJIWARA,K; PONCE,D; PRATER,R

    2003-07-01

    OAK-B135 Six 110 GHz gyrotrons in the 1 MW class are operational on DIII-D. Source power is > 4.0 MW for pulse lengths {le} 2.1 s and {approx} 2.8 MW for 5.0 s. The rf beams can be steered poloidally across the tokamak upper half plane at off-perpendicular injection angles in the toroidal direction up to {+-} 20{sup o}. measured transmission line loss is about -1 dB for the longest line, which is 92 m long with 11 miter bends. Coupling efficiency into the waveguide is {approx} 93% for the Gaussian rf beams. The transmission lines are evacuated and windowless except for the gyrotron output window and include flexible control of the elliptical polarization of the injected rf beam with remote controlled grooved mirrors in two of the miter bends on each line. The injected power can be modulated according to a predetermined program or controlled by the DIII-D plasma control system using real time feedback based on diagnostic signals obtained during the plasma pulse. Three gyrotrons have operated at 1.0 MW output power for 5.0 s. Peak central temperatures of the artificially grown diamond gyrotron output windows are < 180 C at equilibrium.

  10. Global VLBI Observations of the 6.0 GHz Hydroxyl Masers in Onsala 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fish, Vincent L

    2010-01-01

    We present global VLBI observations of the first-excited state OH masers in the massive star-forming region Onsala 1 (ON 1). The 29 masers detected are nearly all from the 6035 MHz transition, and nearly all are identifiable as Zeeman pair components. The 6030 and 6035 MHz masers are coincident with previously published positions of ground-state masers to within a few milliarcseconds, and the magnetic fields deduced from Zeeman splitting are comparable. The 6.0 GHz masers in ON 1 are always found in close spatial association with 1665 MHz OH masers, in contrast to the situation in the massive star-forming region W3(OH), suggesting that extreme high density OH maser sites (excited-state masers with no accompanying ground-state maser, as seen in W3(OH)) are absent from ON 1. The large magnetic field strength among the northern, blueshifted masers is confirmed. The northern masers may trace an outflow or be associated with an exciting source separate from the other masers, or the relative velocities of the north...

  11. Design of 95 GHz gyrotron based on continuous operation copper solenoid with water cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borodin, Dmitri; Ben-Moshe, Roey; Einat, Moshe

    2014-07-15

    The design work for 2nd harmonic 95 GHz, 50 kW gyrotron based on continuous operation copper solenoid is presented. Thermionic magnetron injection gun specifications were calculated according to the linear trade off equation, and simulated with CST program. Numerical code is used for cavity design using the non-uniform string equation as well as particle motion in the “cold” cavity field. The mode TE02 with low Ohmic losses in the cavity walls was chosen as the operating mode. The Solenoid is designed to induce magnetic field of 1.8 T over a length of 40 mm in the interaction region with homogeneity of ±0.34%. The solenoid has six concentric cylindrical segments (and two correction segments) of copper foil windings separated by water channels for cooling. The predicted temperature in continuous operation is below 93?°C. The parameters of the design together with simulation results of the electromagnetic cavity field, magnetic field, electron trajectories, and thermal analyses are presented.

  12. From three-photon GHZ states to ballistic universal quantum computation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mercedes Gimeno-Segovia; Pete Shadbolt; Dan E. Browne; Terry Rudolph

    2015-07-16

    Single photons, manipulated using integrated linear optics, constitute a promising platform for universal quantum computation. A series of increasingly efficient proposals have shown linear-optical quantum computing to be formally scalable. However, existing schemes typically require extensive adaptive switching, which is experimentally challenging and noisy, thousands of photon sources per renormalized qubit, and/or large quantum memories for repeat-until-success strategies. Our work overcomes all these problems. We present a scheme to construct a cluster state universal for quantum computation, which uses no adaptive switching, no large memories, and which is at least an order of magnitude more resource-efficient than previous passive schemes. Unlike previous proposals, it is constructed entirely from loss-detecting gates and offers a robustness to photon loss. Even without the use of an active loss-tolerant encoding, our scheme naturally tolerates a total loss rate of $\\sim 1.6\\%$ in the photons detected in the gates. This scheme uses only 3-GHZ states as a resource, together with a passive linear-optical network. We fully describe and model the iterative process of cluster generation, including photon loss and gate failure. This demonstrates that building a linear optical quantum computer need be less challenging than previously thought.

  13. Transatlantic transport of Fermilab 3.9 GHz cryomodule for TTF/FLASH to DESY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGee, M.W.; Vocean, V.; Grimm, C.; Schappert, W.; /Fermilab

    2008-06-01

    In an exchange of technology agreement, Fermilab built and will deliver a 3.9 GHz (3rd harmonic) cryomodule to DESY to be installed in the TTF/FLASH beamline. This cryomodule delivery will involve a combination of flatbed air ride truck and commercial aircraft transport to Hamburg Germany. A description of the isolation and damping systems that maintain alignment during transport and protect fragile components is provided. Initially, transport and corresponding alignment stability studies were performed in order to assess the risk associated with transatlantic travel of a fully assembled cryomodule. Shock loads were applied to the cryomodule by using a coldmass mockup to prevent subjecting actual critical components (such as the cavities and input couplers) to excessive forces. Accumulative and peak shock loads were applied through over-the-road testing and using a pendulum hammer apparatus, respectively. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) studies were implemented to define location of instrumentation for transport studies and provide modal frequencies and shapes. Shock and vibration measurement results of transport studies and stabilization techniques are discussed.

  14. Beam-wave interaction behavior of a 35?GHz metal PBG cavity gyrotron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Ashutosh; Jain, P. K.

    2014-09-15

    The RF behavior of a 35?GHz photonic band gap (PBG) cavity gyrotron operating in TE{sub 041}-like mode has been presented to demonstrate its single mode operation capability. In this PBG cavity gyrotron, the conventional tapered cylindrical cavity is replaced by a metal PBG cavity as its RF interaction structure. The beam-wave interaction behavior has been explored using time dependent multimode nonlinear analysis as well as through 3D PIC simulation. Metal PBG cavity is treated here similar to that of a conventional cylindrical cavity for the desired mode confinement. The applied DC magnetic field profile has been considered uniform along the PBG cavity length both in analysis as well as in simulation. Electrons energy and phase along the interaction length of the PBG cavity facilitates bunching mechanism as well as energy transfer phenomena from the electron beam to the RF field. The RF output power for the TE{sub 041}-like design mode as well as nearby competing modes have been estimated and found above to 100?kW in TE{sub 041}-like mode with ?15% efficiency. Results obtained from the analysis and the PIC simulation are found in agreement within 8% variation, and also it supports the single mode operation, as the PBG cavity does not switch into other parasitic modes in considerably large range of varying DC magnetic field, contrary to the conventional cylindrical cavity interaction structure.

  15. Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition of Carbon Coatings on LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 for Li-Ion Battery Composite Cathodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition of Carbonanthracene, by a one-step microwave plasma chemical vaporFigure 1. A diagram of the microwave plasma chemical vapor

  16. The Relative Spatial Distribution of SiO Masers in AGB Stars at 43 and 86 GHz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. -F. Desmurs; R. Soria-Ruiz; F. Colomer; K. B. Marvel; V. Bujarrabal; J. Alcolea; P. J. Diamond; D. Boboltz; A. Kemball

    2002-06-19

    We present the first VLBI images of SiO masers in the circumstellar envelope of an S-type star obtained with the newly developed capabilities of the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) at 86 GHz. We combine these data with those obtained quasy simultaneously at 43 GHz. These observations provide information on the structure and dynamics of the innermost circumstellar shells, where the return of large quantities of stellar material to the interstellar medium starts. Despite of the fact that these are prelimininary results, we report that the maser emission of the $v$=1 J=1--0 and J=2--1 present a very different emission distribution, being not coincident in most case.

  17. STRUCTURE OF THE INNER JET OF OJ287 FROM VLBA DATA AT 15 GHz IN SUPER-RESOLUTION MODE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tateyama, Claudio E.

    2013-04-01

    In this work we show the results obtained from the Very Long Baseline Array data at 15 GHz of OJ287 in super-resolution mode. The data showed a jet configuration in the form of a 'fork' where superluminal components emerge via stationary components at the northwest and the southeast close to the core to form parallel trajectories along the southwest direction in the plane of sky. This agrees with a source structure of an extended, broad morphology of OJ287.

  18. Effect of the plasma instability on the beam intensity from RIKEN 18 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higurashi, Y.; Nakagawa, T.; Kidera, M.; Aihara, T.; Kobayashi, K.; Kase, M.; Goto, A.; Yano, Y. [RIKEN, Hirosawa 2-1, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); SAS Ltd., Kita-shinagawa 5-9-11, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo (Japan); RIKEN, Hirosawa 2-1, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2006-03-15

    We measured the beam oscillation of RIKEN 18 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source for various conditions. In this experiment, the frequency of the beam oscillation increases with increasing the gas pressure and decreases with increasing rf power. The oscillation frequency is strongly dependent on the negative voltage of biased disk, i.e., the frequency increases with increasing the negative voltage. We observed that the frequency is strongly dependent on the mass of ionized gas.

  19. EFFECT OF FILTER TEMPERATURE ON TRAPPING ZINC VAPOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korinko, P.

    2011-03-25

    To address the {sup 65}Zn contamination issue in the TEF, a multi-task experimental program was initiated. The first experimental task was completed and is reported in Ref. 1. The results of the second experimental task are reported here. This task examined the effect of filter temperature on trapping efficiency and deposit morphology. Based on the first experimental tasks that examined filter pore size and trapping efficiency, stainless steel filter media with a 20 {micro}m pore size was selected. A series of experiments using these filters was conducted during this second task to determine the effect of filter temperature on zinc vapor trapping efficiency, adhesion and morphology. The tests were conducted with the filters heated to 60, 120, and 200 C; the zinc source material was heated to 400 C for all the experiments to provide a consistent zinc source. The samples were evaluated for mass change, deposit adhesion and morphology. As expected from the physical vapor deposition literature, a difference in deposit morphology and appearance was observed between the three filter temperatures. The filter held at 60 C had the largest average mass gain while the 120 and 200 C filters exhibited similar but lower weight gains. The standard deviations were large and suggest that all three temperatures exhibited comparable gains. No zinc was detected on the backside surface of the filters indicating high efficiency for front and internal trapping. A zinc rich deposit was formed on the surface of the 60 C filter. Based on a simple tape adhesion test, the surface zinc was readily removed from the 60 C filter while less zinc deposit was removed from the 120 and 200 C filter samples. It is surmised that the higher temperatures enable the zinc to deposit within the filter media rather than on the surface. Based on the findings that all three statistically trapped the same quantity of zinc vapor and that the higher temperatures resulted in a more adherent/better trapped product, operating the filters at 120 to 200 C is recommended.

  20. Profiling the atmospheric water vapor content using a GPS-Meteorology network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mountziaris, T. J.

    Profiling the atmospheric water vapor content using a GPS-Meteorology network Jayson Maldonado-Meteorological stations. Research Objectives · Develop the hardware necessary for the collection atmospheric water content gives the real Water Vapor Content (WVC) in 3D instead of the Zenith Delay. Future Work · Testing

  1. Electronic Properties of Large-scale Graphene Films Chemical Vapor Synthesized on Nickel and on Copper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yong P.

    transport properties of graphene films grown on Ni and Cu. Sample Preparation The synthesis of graphene film1 Electronic Properties of Large-scale Graphene Films Chemical Vapor Synthesized on Nickel of large scale graphene films grown by chemical vapor synthesis on Ni and Cu, and then transferred to SiO2

  2. Wide-Bandwidth, Tunable, Multiple-Pulse-Width Optical Delays Using Slow Light in Cesium Vapor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyd, Robert W.

    Wide-Bandwidth, Tunable, Multiple-Pulse-Width Optical Delays Using Slow Light in Cesium Vapor Ryan) We demonstrate an all-optical delay line in hot cesium vapor that tunably delays 275 ps input pulses to 80 pulse widths by making use of a double absorption reso- nance in cesium. Furthermore, we show

  3. Chemically vapor deposited diamond-tipped one-dimensional nanostructures and nanodiamondsilicananotube composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilamowski, Bogdan Maciej

    Chemically vapor deposited diamond-tipped one-dimensional nanostructures and nanodiamond vapor deposition Composite thin films of nanodiamond and silica nanotubes were synthesized by means with nanodiamond particles. SEM, Raman spectroscopy, and EDX were used to analyze the composite. Wet chemical

  4. Biochemical Engineering Journal 36 (2007) 239249 Dynamic simulation of benzene vapor treatment by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daugulis, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    Biochemical Engineering Journal 36 (2007) 239­249 Dynamic simulation of benzene vapor treatment microorganisms. The system being considered involves the treatment of benzene vapors by Achro- mobacter biotechnology developed to treat waste gases that has shown promise for removing toxic VOCs, such as benzene

  5. VAPOR + LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM OF WATER, CARBON DIOXIDE, AND THE BINARY SYSTEM WATER + CARBON DIOXIDE FROM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    VAPOR + LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM OF WATER, CARBON DIOXIDE, AND THE BINARY SYSTEM WATER + CARBON DIOXIDE the vapor-liquid equilibrium of water (between 323 and 573 K), carbon dioxide (between 230 and 290 K) and their binary mixtures (between 348 and 393 K). The properties of supercritical carbon dioxide were determined

  6. Laser vaporization clusters from metal loaded graphite used for SWNT generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    Laser vaporization clusters from metal loaded graphite used for SWNT generation Toshikazu Mukaea, The Univ. of Tokyo In order to study the generation mechanism of SWNTs, we have studied metal-carbon binary clusters generated by the laser vaporization of Ni/Co and Ni/Y doped graphite materials used

  7. Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposited silicon coatings on Mg alloy for biomedical application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Yufeng

    Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposited silicon coatings on Mg alloy for biomedical application M was prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) of SiH4 on WE43 alloy for biomedical [6], magnetron sputtering [7], alkaline heat treatment [8], micro-arc oxidation [9

  8. Polymer electrolyte fuel cell electrodes grown by vapor deposition techniques Pascal Brault*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Polymer electrolyte fuel cell electrodes grown by vapor deposition techniques Pascal Brault Abstract: Polymer fuel cell electrode growth using vapor deposition techniques is reviewed. The supports process: sputtering, CVD, PECVD, MOCVD. In each case, up-to-date fuel cell performances are highlighted

  9. Apparatus and method for removing mercury vapor from a gas stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ganesan, Kumar (Butte, MT)

    2008-01-01

    A metallic filter effectively removes mercury vapor from gas streams. The filter captures the mercury which then can be released and collected as product. The metallic filter is a copper mesh sponge plated with a six micrometer thickness of gold. The filter removes up to 90% of mercury vapor from a mercury contaminated gas stream.

  10. Method and apparatus to measure vapor pressure in a flow system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; Biblarz, O.

    1991-10-15

    The present invention is directed to a method for determining, by a condensation method, the vapor pressure of a material with a known vapor pressure versus temperature characteristic, in a flow system particularly in a mercury isotope enrichment process. 2 figures.

  11. OPTIMAL DESIGN OF A HIGH PRESSURE ORGANOMETALLIC CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION REACTOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OPTIMAL DESIGN OF A HIGH PRESSURE ORGANOMETALLIC CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION REACTOR K.J. BACHMANN simulations as a fundamental design tool in developing a new prototype high pressure organometallic chemical vapor deposition (HPOMCVD) reactor for use in thin film crystal growth. The advantages of such a reactor

  12. Selective Growth of Straight Carbon Nanotubes by Low-Pressure Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasegawa, Shuji

    Selective Growth of Straight Carbon Nanotubes by Low-Pressure Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition) were grown by low-pressure thermal chemical vapor deposition using pure ethylene. It was found preferentially bridged between Fe nanoparticles under a low pressure of 100 Pa. Moreover, utilizing this method

  13. Observational evidence of changes in water vapor, clouds, and radiation at the ARM SGP site

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Xiquan

    Observational evidence of changes in water vapor, clouds, and radiation at the ARM SGP site Xiquan then increased until the present. Using 8 years of data collected at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) surface evidence of changes in water vapor, clouds, and radiation at the ARM SGP site, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L

  14. Alcohol chemical vapor deposition growth of millimeter-sized single-crystal of graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    Alcohol chemical vapor deposition growth of millimeter-sized single-crystal of graphene Sungjin Kim@photon,t,u-tokyo.ac.jp Abstract: The growth of large-sized single crystalline graphene with mono layer is necessary for large-scale integration of graphene devices. Ethanol as a precursor has proven effective in the chemical vapor deposition

  15. Tunneling characteristics in chemical vapor deposited graphene hexagonal boron nitride graphene junctions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feenstra, Randall

    1 Tunneling characteristics in chemical vapor deposited graphene ­ hexagonal boron nitride ­ graphene junctions T. Roy1 , L. Liu2 , S. de la Barrera,3 B. Chakrabarti1,4 , Z. R. Hesabi1 , C. A. Joiner1 Abstract: Large area chemical vapor deposited graphene and hexagonal boron nitride was used to fabricate

  16. Laser vaporization/ionization interface for coupling microscale separation techniques with mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeung, E.S.; Chang, Y.C.

    1999-06-29

    The present invention provides a laser-induced vaporization and ionization interface for directly coupling microscale separation processes to a mass spectrometer. Vaporization and ionization of the separated analytes are facilitated by the addition of a light-absorbing component to the separation buffer or solvent. 8 figs.

  17. Vapor phase elemental sulfur amendment for sequestering mercury in contaminated soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Looney, Brian B.; Denham, Miles E.; Jackson, Dennis G.

    2014-07-08

    The process of treating elemental mercury within the soil is provided by introducing into the soil a heated vapor phase of elemental sulfur. As the vapor phase of elemental sulfur cools, sulfur is precipitated within the soil and then reacts with any elemental mercury thereby producing a reaction product that is less hazardous than elemental mercury.

  18. Lithium phosphorous oxynitride films synthesized by a plasma-assisted directed vapor deposition approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    Lithium phosphorous oxynitride films synthesized by a plasma-assisted directed vapor deposition vapor deposition approach has been explored for the synthesis of lithium phosphorous oxynitride Lipon the ionic transport properties of these films. This enabled the synthesis of electrolyte films with lithium

  19. An Examination of the Thermodynamics of Fusion, Vaporization, and Sublimation of Several Parabens by Correlation Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chickos, James S.

    on their thermochemical properties. A number of studies have reported measurements of their phase change enthalpies.com). DOI 10.1002/jps.22423 ABSTRACT: The vaporization, fusion, and sublimation enthalpies of methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl paraben are reported and compared with literature values. The vaporization enthalpies

  20. A Two-Dimensional Model of Chemical Vapor Infiltration With Radio Frequency Heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Economou, Demetre J.

    by a finite element method to study carbon chemical vapor infiltration in a cylindrical carbon preformA Two-Dimensional Model of Chemical Vapor Infiltration With Radio Frequency Heating Vikas Midha studied. The power density distribution in the pre- form evolves in a complex manner as densified regions