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Sample records for ghz microwave radiometer

  1. ARM: G-band (183 GHz) Vapor Radiometer profiler: 15 microwave brightness temperatures from 170.0 to 183.3 GHz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maria Cadeddu

    2008-04-01

    G-band (183 GHz) Vapor Radiometer profiler: 15 microwave brightness temperatures from 170.0 to 183.3 GHz

  2. ARM: Microwave Radiometer: High Frequency, calibration data for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: ARM: Microwave Radiometer: High Frequency, calibration data for 150GHz channel Microwave Radiometer: High Frequency, calibration data for 150GHz channel Authors: Maria ...

  3. ARM: Microwave Radiometer: High Frequency, calibration data for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: ARM: Microwave Radiometer: High Frequency, calibration data for 90GHz channel Microwave Radiometer: High Frequency, calibration data for 90GHz channel Authors: Maria Cadeddu ...

  4. ARM - Field Campaign - Microwave Radiometer Profiler Evaluation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsMicrowave Radiometer Profiler Evaluation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Microwave Radiometer Profiler Evaluation 2000.09.01 - 2001.03.31 Lead Scientist : James Liljegren For data sets, see below. Abstract The microwave radiometer profiler (MWRP) is a new 12-channel radiometer developed by Radiometrics Corporation for measuring vertical profiles of temperature, water vapor, and

  5. ARM - Field Campaign - Microwave Radiometer Profiler Evaluation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsMicrowave Radiometer Profiler Evaluation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Microwave Radiometer Profiler Evaluation 2000.02.25 - 2000.08.22 Lead Scientist : James Liljegren For data sets, see below. Abstract The microwave radiometer profiler (MWRP) is a new 12-channel radiometer developed by Radiometrics Corporation for measuring vertical profiles of temperature, water vapor, and

  6. Microwave Radiometer-High Frequency (MWRHF) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caddedu, MP

    2011-03-17

    The 90/150-GHz Vapor Radiometer provides time-series measurements of brightness temperatures from two channels centered at 90 and 150 GHz. These two channels are sensitive to the presence of liquid water and precipitable water vapor.

  7. Microwave Radiometer – 3 Channel (MWR3C) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cadeddu, MP

    2012-05-04

    The microwave radiometer 3-channel (MWR3C) provides time-series measurements of brightness temperatures from three channels centered at 23.834, 30, and 89 GHz. These three channels are sensitive to the presence of liquid water and precipitable water vapor.

  8. ARM: Microwave Radiometer Retrievals (MWRRET) of Cloud Liquid...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Microwave Radiometer Retrievals (MWRRET) of Cloud Liquid Water and Precipitable Water Vapor Title: ARM: Microwave Radiometer Retrievals (MWRRET) of Cloud Liquid Water and ...

  9. ARM: Microwave Water Radiometer (MWR): water liq. and vapor along...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Microwave Water Radiometer (MWR): water liq. and vapor along line of sight (LOS) path Title: ARM: Microwave Water Radiometer (MWR): water liq. and vapor along line of sight (LOS) ...

  10. Ground-Based Microwave Radiometer Measurements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ground-Based Microwave Radiometer Measurements and Radiosonde Comparisons During the WVIOP2000 Field Experiment D. Cimini University of L'Aquila L'Aquil, Italy E. R. Westwater Cooperative Institute for Research in the Environmental Sciences University of Colorado National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado Y. Han Science System Applications National Aeronautics Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, Maryland S. Keihm

  11. ARM: Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Maria Cadeddu

    2004-02-19

    Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

  12. ARM: Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Maria Cadeddu

    Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

  13. MEASUREMENTS AND RETRIEVALS FROM A NEW 183-GHz WATER VAPOR RADIOMETER IN

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    THE ARCTIC MEASUREMENTS AND RETRIEVALS FROM A NEW 183-GHz WATER VAPOR RADIOMETER IN THE ARCTIC Cadeddu, Maria Argonne National Laboratory Category: Instruments A new G-band (183 GHz) vapor radiometer (GVR), developed and built by Prosensing Inc. (http://www.prosensing.com), was deployed in Barrow, Alaska, in April 2005. The radiometer was deployed as part of the ongoing Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's effort to improve water vapor retrievals in the cold, dry Arctic

  14. ARM - Field Campaign - Long-Term Microwave Radiometer Intercomparison

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsLong-Term Microwave Radiometer Intercomparison ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Long-Term Microwave Radiometer Intercomparison 2001.04.01 - 2001.09.30 Lead Scientist : Richard Cederwall For data sets, see below. Summary Make the spare MWR operational. Ingest data from the spare MWR. Input the output data of the spare MWR and ingest to VAP. Provide data to IOP participants.

  15. Improved Retrievals of Temperature and Water Vapor Profiles Using a Twelve-Channel Microwave Radiometer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Retrievals of Temperature and Water Vapor Profiles Using a Twelve-Channel Microwave Radiometer J. C. Liljegren Environmental Research Division Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, Illinois Introduction Radiometrics Corporation has developed a twelve-channel microwave radiometer capable of providing continuous, real-time vertical profiles of temperature, water vapor, and limited-resolution cloud liquid water from the surface to 10 km in nearly all weather conditions (Solheim et al. 1998a). Since

  16. 140 GHz pulsed Fourier transform microwave spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kolbe, W.F.; Leskovar, B.

    1985-07-29

    A high frequency energy pulsing system suitable for use in a pulsed microwave spectrometer, including means for generating a high frequency carrier signal, and means for generating a low frequency modulating signal. The carrier signal is continuously fed to a modulator and the modulating signal is fed through a pulse switch to the modulator. When the pulse switch is on, the modulator will produce sideband signals above and below the carrier signal frequency. A frequency-responsive device is tuned to one of the sideband signals and sway from the carrier frequency so that the high frequency energization of the frequency-responsive device is controlled by the pulse switch.

  17. 140 GHz pulsed fourier transform microwave spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kolbe, William F.; Leskovar, Branko

    1987-01-01

    A high frequency energy pulsing system suitable for use in a pulsed microwave spectrometer (10), including means (11, 19) for generating a high frequency carrier signal, and means (12) for generating a low frequency modulating signal. The carrier signal is continuously fed to a modulator (20) and the modulating signal is fed through a pulse switch (23) to the modulator. When the pulse switch (23) is on, the modulator (20) will produce sideband signals above and below the carrier signal frequency. A frequency-responsive device (31) is tuned to one of the sideband signals and away from the carrier frequency so that the high frequency energization of the frequency-responsive device (31) is controlled by the pulse switch (23).

  18. 140 GHz pulsed Fourier transform microwave spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kolbe, W.F.; Leskovar, B.

    1987-10-27

    A high frequency energy pulsing system suitable for use in a pulsed microwave spectrometer, including means for generating a high frequency carrier signal, and means for generating a low frequency modulating signal is disclosed. The carrier signal is continuously fed to a modulator and the modulating signal is fed through a pulse switch to the modulator. When the pulse switch is on, the modulator will produce sideband signals above and below the carrier signal frequency. A frequency-responsive device is tuned to one of the sideband signals and away from the carrier frequency so that the high frequency energization of the frequency-responsive device is controlled by the pulse switch. 5 figs.

  19. ARM: Microwave Radiometer, 3 Channel: airmasses, brightness temperatur...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (BER) Country of Publication: United States Availability: ORNL Language: English Subject: 54 Environmental Sciences Microwave narrowband brightness temperature Dataset File size ...

  20. Measurements of the cosmic microwave background temperature at 1.47 GHz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bensadoun, M.J.

    1991-11-01

    A radiofrequency-gain total power radiometer measured the intensity of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at a frequency of 1.47 GHz (20.4 cm wavelength) from White Mountain, California, in September 1988 and from the South Pole, Antarctica, in December 1989. The CMB thermodynamic temperature, TCMB, is 2.27 {plus_minus} 0.25 K (68% C.L.) measured from White Mountain and 2.26 {plus_minus} 0.21 K from the South Pole site. The combined result is 2.27 {plus_minus} 0.19 K. The correction for galactic emission has been derived from scaled low-frequency maps and constitutes the main source, of error. The atmospheric signal is found by extrapolation from zenith scan measurements at higher frequencies. The result is consistent with previous low-frequency measurements, including a measurement at 1.41 GHz (Levin et al. 1988) made with an earlier version of this instrument. The result is {approximately}2.5 {sigma} ({approximately}l% probability) from the 2.74 {plus_minus} 0.02,K global average CMB temperature.

  1. Measurements of the cosmic microwave background temperature at 1. 47 GHz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bensadoun, M.J.

    1991-11-01

    A radiofrequency-gain total power radiometer measured the intensity of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at a frequency of 1.47 GHz (20.4 cm wavelength) from White Mountain, California, in September 1988 and from the South Pole, Antarctica, in December 1989. The CMB thermodynamic temperature, TCMB, is 2.27 {plus minus} 0.25 K (68% C.L.) measured from White Mountain and 2.26 {plus minus} 0.21 K from the South Pole site. The combined result is 2.27 {plus minus} 0.19 K. The correction for galactic emission has been derived from scaled low-frequency maps and constitutes the main source, of error. The atmospheric signal is found by extrapolation from zenith scan measurements at higher frequencies. The result is consistent with previous low-frequency measurements, including a measurement at 1.41 GHz (Levin et al. 1988) made with an earlier version of this instrument. The result is {approximately}2.5 {sigma} ({approximately}l% probability) from the 2.74 {plus minus} 0.02,K global average CMB temperature.

  2. Validation of Satellite-Derived Liquid Water Paths Using ARM SGP Microwave Radiometers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Satellite-Derived Liquid Water Paths Using ARM SGP Microwave Radiometers M. M. Khaiyer and J. Huang Analytical Services & Materials, Inc. Hampton, Virginia P. Minnis, B. Lin, and W. L. Smith, Jr. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center Hampton, Virginia A. Fan Science Applications International Corporation Hampton, Virginia A. Rapp Colorado State University Fort Collins, Colorado Introduction Satellites are useful for monitoring climatological parameters over

  3. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Microwave Radiometer Profiler (jensen-mwr)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jensen, Mike

    2012-02-01

    A major component of the Mid-latitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) field campaign was the deployment of an enhanced radiosonde array designed to capture the vertical profile of atmospheric state variables (pressure, temperature, humidity wind speed and wind direction) for the purpose of deriving the large-scale forcing for use in modeling studies. The radiosonde array included six sites (enhanced Central Facility [CF-1] plus five new sites) launching radiosondes at 3-6 hour sampling intervals. The network will cover an area of approximately (300)2 km2 with five outer sounding launch sites and one central launch location. The five outer sounding launch sites are: S01 Pratt, KS [ 37.7oN, 98.75oW]; S02 Chanute, KS [37.674, 95.488]; S03 Vici, Oklahoma [36.071, -99.204]; S04 Morris, Oklahoma [35.687, -95.856]; and S05 Purcell, Oklahoma [34.985, -97.522]. Soundings from the SGP Central Facility during MC3E can be retrieved from the regular ARM archive. During routine MC3E operations 4 radiosondes were launched from each of these sites (approx. 0130, 0730, 1330 and 1930 UTC). On days that were forecast to be convective up to four additional launches were launched at each site (approx. 0430, 1030, 1630, 2230 UTC). There were a total of approximately 14 of these high frequency launch days over the course of the experiment. These files contain brightness temperatures observed at Purcell during MC3E. The measurements were made with a 5 channel (22.235, 23.035, 23.835, 26.235, 30.000GHz) microwave radiometer at one minute intervals. The results have been separated into daily files and the day of observations is indicated in the file name. All observations were zenith pointing. Included in the files are the time variables base_time and time_offset. These follow the ARM time conventions. Base_time is the number seconds since January 1, 1970 at 00:00:00 for the first data point of the file and time_offset is the offset in seconds from base_time.

  4. Island based radar and microwave radiometer measurements of stratus cloud parameters during the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frisch, A.S.; Fairall, C.W.; Snider, J.B.; Lenshow, D.H.; Mayer, S.D.

    1996-04-01

    During the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) in June 1992, simultaneous measurements were made with a vertically pointing cloud sensing radar and a microwave radiometer. The radar measurements are used to estimate stratus cloud drizzle and turbulence parameters. In addition, with the microwave radiometer measurements of reflectivity, we estimated the profiles of cloud liquid water and effective radius. We used radar data for computation of vertical profiles of various drizzle parameters such as droplet concentration, modal radius, and spread. A sample of these results is shown in Figure 1. In addition, in non-drizzle clouds, with the radar and radiometer we can estimate the verticle profiles of stratus cloud parameters such as liquid water concentration and effective radius. This is accomplished by assuming a droplet distribution with droplet number concentration and width constant with height.

  5. Longevity and food consumption of microwave-treated (2. 45 GHz CW) honeybees in the laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westerdahl, B.B.; Gary, N.E.

    1981-01-01

    Adult honeybees, confined singly or in small clusters, were exposed for 0.5, 6, and 24 hours to 2.45-GHz continuous wave microwave radiation at power densities of 3, 6, 12, 25, and 50 mW/cm2. Following exposure, bees were held in the incubator for 21 days to determine the consumption of sucrose syrup and to observe mortality. No significant differences were found between microwave-treated and sham-treated or control bees.

  6. Flight, orientation, and homing abilities of honeybees following exposure to 2. 45-GHz CW microwaves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary, N.E.; Westerdahl, B.B.

    1981-01-01

    Foraging-experienced honeybees retained normal flight, orientation, and memory functions after 30 minutes' exposure to 2.45-GHz CW microwaves at power densities from 3 to 50 mW/cm2. These experiments were conducted at power densities approximating and exceeding those that would be present above receiving antennas of the proposed solar power satellite (SPS) energy transmission system and for a duration exceeding that which honeybees living outside a rectenna might be expected to spend within the rectenna on individual foraging trips. There was no evidence that airborne invertebrates would be significantly affected during transient passage through microwaves associated with SPS ground-based microwave receiving stations.

  7. Processing aersols and filaments in a TM sub 010 microwave cavity at 2. 45 GHz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vogt, G.J.; Unruh, W.P.

    1992-01-01

    As part of the development of generic microwave processes for spray-drying of homogeneous complex metal oxide powders and for inorganic fiber processing, we have investigated the use of 2.45 GHz microwaves in a high-Q single-mode TM{sub 010} cavity coupled directly to aerosols and fibers. Aqueous and ethanol aerosols of ferric nitrate solutions have been successfully dried at 1.8 kW of cavity power for a loaded Q greater than 6000 in flowing nitrogen gas. Similarly, we have observed extremely rapid heating rates in the TM{sub 010} cavity for small-diameter confined cylinders of water and lossy inorganic fibers. These observations suggest using 2.45 GHz microwave power for drying, calcining, and sintering extruded ceramic filaments. Droplet modeling indicates that the large dielectric shielding for spherical droplets can significantly limit the coupling of 2.45 GHz microwave with spherical aerosols, but not with fibers. Experimental observations on the microwave interactions with ferric nitrate aerosols and with ceramic filaments in the TM{sub 010} cavity are described.

  8. Correlation function analysis of the COBE differential microwave radiometer sky maps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lineweaver, C.H.

    1994-08-01

    The Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) aboard the COBE satellite has detected anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. A two-point correlation function analysis which helped lead to this discovery is presented in detail. The results of a correlation function analysis of the two year DMR data set is presented. The first and second year data sets are compared and found to be reasonably consistent. The positive correlation for separation angles less than {approximately}20{degree} is robust to Galactic latitude cuts and is very stable from year to year. The Galactic latitude cut independence of the correlation function is strong evidence that the signal is not Galactic in origin. The statistical significance of the structure seen in the correlation function of the first, second and two year maps is respectively > 9{sigma}, > 10{sigma} and > 18{sigma} above the noise. The noise in the DMR sky maps is correlated at a low level. The structure of the pixel temperature covariance matrix is given. The noise covariance matrix of a DMR sky map is diagonal to an accuracy of better than 1%. For a given sky pixel, the dominant noise covariance occurs with the ring of pixels at an angular separation of 60{degree} due to the 60{degree} separation of the DMR horns. The mean covariance of 60{degree} is 0.45%{sub {minus}0.14}{sup +0.18} of the mean variance. The noise properties of the DMR maps are thus well approximated by the noise properties of maps made by a single-beam experiment. Previously published DMR results are not significantly affected by correlated noise.

  9. ARM - Measurement - Microwave narrowband brightness temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiometer - ETL MWRP : Microwave Radiometer Profiler MMWR : Millimeter Wave Radiometer MIR : Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer NOAA-P3 : NOAA P-3 Aircraft PARSL : PNNL's...

  10. Development of a simple 2.45 GHz microwave plasma with a repulsive double hexapole configuration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arciaga, Marko; Ulano, April; Lee, Henry Jr.; Lledo, Rumar; Ramos, Henry; Tumlos, Roy

    2008-09-15

    A simple and inexpensive 2.45 GHz microwave plasma source with a repulsive double hexapole configuration is described and characterized. In this work, the operation of the source is shown to be flexible in terms of electron density, electron temperature, and plasma uniformity even at low-pressures (approximately millitorr). It allows for easy control of the electron temperature (2-3.8 eV) and density ({approx}10{sup 9}-10{sup 10} cm{sup -3}) by removing either of the two hexapoles or by varying the separation distance between the two hexapoles. Characterization was done via information gathered from the usual Langmuir probe measurements for electron temperature and density. The source makes a resonant surface with its repulsive double hexapole magnetic configuration providing an additional longitudinal confinement near the walls midway between the two hexapoles. Magnetic field maps are presented for varying double hexapole distances. Power delivery for various settings is also presented.

  11. Processing aersols and filaments in a TM{sub 010} microwave cavity at 2.45 GHz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vogt, G.J.; Unruh, W.P.

    1992-05-01

    As part of the development of generic microwave processes for spray-drying of homogeneous complex metal oxide powders and for inorganic fiber processing, we have investigated the use of 2.45 GHz microwaves in a high-Q single-mode TM{sub 010} cavity coupled directly to aerosols and fibers. Aqueous and ethanol aerosols of ferric nitrate solutions have been successfully dried at 1.8 kW of cavity power for a loaded Q greater than 6000 in flowing nitrogen gas. Similarly, we have observed extremely rapid heating rates in the TM{sub 010} cavity for small-diameter confined cylinders of water and lossy inorganic fibers. These observations suggest using 2.45 GHz microwave power for drying, calcining, and sintering extruded ceramic filaments. Droplet modeling indicates that the large dielectric shielding for spherical droplets can significantly limit the coupling of 2.45 GHz microwave with spherical aerosols, but not with fibers. Experimental observations on the microwave interactions with ferric nitrate aerosols and with ceramic filaments in the TM{sub 010} cavity are described.

  12. G-Band Vapor Radiometer Profiler (GVRP) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caddeau, MP

    2010-06-23

    The G-Band Vapor Radiometer Profiler (GVRP) provides time-series measurements of brightness temperatures from 15 channels between 170 and 183.310 GHz. Atmospheric emission in this spectral region is primarily due to water vapor, with some influence from liquid water. Channels between 170.0 and 176.0 GHz are particularly sensitive to the presence of liquid water. The sensitivity to water vapor of the 183.31-GHz line is approximately 30 times higher than at the frequencies of the two-channel microwave radiometer (MWR) for a precipitable water vapor (PWV) amount of less than 2.5 mm. Measurements from the GVRP instrument are therefore especially useful during low-humidity conditions (PWV < 5 mm). In addition to integrated water vapor and liquid water, the GVRP can provide low-resolution vertical profiles of water vapor in very dry conditions.

  13. On the relationship among cloud turbulence, droplet formation and drizzle as viewed by Doppler radar, microwave radiometer and lidar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feingold, G.; Frisch, A.S.; Cotton, W.R.

    1999-09-01

    Cloud radar, microwave radiometer, and lidar remote sensing data acquired during the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) are analyzed to address the relationship between (1) drop number concentration and cloud turbulence as represented by vertical velocity and vertical velocity variance and (2) drizzle formation and cloud turbulence. Six cases, each of about 12 hours duration, are examined; three of these cases are characteristic of nondrizzling boundary layers and three of drizzling boundary layers. In all cases, microphysical retrievals are only performed when drizzle is negligible (radar reflectivity{lt}{minus}17dBZ). It is shown that for the cases examined, there is, in general, no correlation between drop concentration and cloud base updraft strength, although for two of the nondrizzling cases exhibiting more classical stratocumulus features, these two parameters are correlated. On drizzling days, drop concentration and cloud-base vertical velocity were either not correlated or negatively correlated. There is a significant positive correlation between drop concentration and mean in-cloud vertical velocity variance for both nondrizzling boundary layers (correlation coefficient r=0.45) and boundary layers that have experienced drizzle (r=0.38). In general, there is a high correlation (r{gt}0.5) between radar reflectivity and in-cloud vertical velocity variance, although one of the boundary layers that experienced drizzle exhibited a negative correlation between these parameters. However, in the subcloud region, all boundary layers that experienced drizzle exhibit a negative correlation between radar reflectivity and vertical velocity variance. {copyright} 1999 American Geophysical Union

  14. Empirical Evaluation of Four Microwave Radiative Forward Models Based on Ground-Based Radiometer Data Near 20 and 30 GHz

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Emission Testing of Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) Natural Gas and Diesel Transit Buses M. Melendez, J. Taylor, and J. Zuboy National Renewable Energy Laboratory W.S. Wayne West Virginia University D. Smith U.S. Department of Energy Technical Report NREL/TP-540-36355 December 2005 Emission Testing of Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) Natural Gas and Diesel Transit Buses M. Melendez, J. Taylor, and J. Zuboy National Renewable Energy Laboratory W.S.

  15. Use of a TM sub 010 microwave cavity at 2. 45 GHz for aerosol and filament drying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christiansen, D.E.; Unruh, W.P.

    1991-01-01

    As part of the development of a generic spray-drying process for aerosol preparation of homogeneous powders of complex metal oxide systems, we have investigated the use of 2.45 GHz power in a high-Q single-mode TM{sub 010} cavity coupled directly to aerosols of aqueous solutions. Partial success was attained with a concentrated solution of ferric nitrate. Although all particulates showed drying, only a few percent of the particles were fully dried prior to collection. The cavity operated at a power level just below that sufficient to cause electric field breakdown in the carrier gas (dry nitrogen). The large inherent dielectric shielding of the spherical droplets makes it difficult to couple enough power into an aerosol at 2.45 GHz to overcome the heat loss from individual droplets to the surrounding gas and achieve full particulate drying. The calculated and measured dielectric shielding of a thin cylinder of water aligned with the cavity electric field is very much smaller. We have produced heating rates in water {approximately}600 times more rapid than could be achieved with aerosols. This suggests using 2.45 GHz microwave power for drying extruded filaments and then calcining those dried filaments to ceramic fiber. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  16. MWRRET (Microwave Radiometer Retrievals)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plus Plus Andy Vogelmann, Dave Turner Andy Vogelmann, Dave Turner & Jennifer Comstock & Jennifer Comstock Min Min Susanne Crewell Susanne Crewell Ulrich L Ulrich L ö ö rnard rnard Jim Liljegren Jim Liljegren John Ogre John Ogre . Y. Matrosov . Y. Matrosov Sally McFarlane Sally McFarlane Warren Wiscombe, Christine Chiu, Sasha Marshak, Maria Warren Wiscombe, Christine Chiu, Sasha Marshak, Maria Cadeddu, Qilong Min, Susanne Crewell, Ulrich L Cadeddu, Qilong Min, Susanne Crewell, Ulrich L

  17. A cloud detection algorithm using the downwelling infrared radiance measured by an infrared pyrometer of the ground-based microwave radiometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahn, M. H.; Han, D.; Won, H. Y.; Morris, Victor R.

    2015-02-03

    For better utilization of the ground-based microwave radiometer, it is important to detect the cloud presence in the measured data. Here, we introduce a simple and fast cloud detection algorithm by using the optical characteristics of the clouds in the infrared atmospheric window region. The new algorithm utilizes the brightness temperature (Tb) measured by an infrared radiometer installed on top of a microwave radiometer. The two-step algorithm consists of a spectral test followed by a temporal test. The measured Tb is first compared with a predicted clear-sky Tb obtained by an empirical formula as a function of surface air temperature and water vapor pressure. For the temporal test, the temporal variability of the measured Tb during one minute compares with a dynamic threshold value, representing the variability of clear-sky conditions. It is designated as cloud-free data only when both the spectral and temporal tests confirm cloud-free data. Overall, most of the thick and uniform clouds are successfully detected by the spectral test, while the broken and fast-varying clouds are detected by the temporal test. The algorithm is validated by comparison with the collocated ceilometer data for six months, from January to June 2013. The overall proportion of correctness is about 88.3% and the probability of detection is 90.8%, which are comparable with or better than those of previous similar approaches. Two thirds of discrepancies occur when the new algorithm detects clouds while the ceilometer does not, resulting in different values of the probability of detection with different cloud-base altitude, 93.8, 90.3, and 82.8% for low, mid, and high clouds, respectively. Finally, due to the characteristics of the spectral range, the new algorithm is found to be insensitive to the presence of inversion layers.

  18. A cloud detection algorithm using the downwelling infrared radiance measured by an infrared pyrometer of the ground-based microwave radiometer

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ahn, M. H.; Han, D.; Won, H. Y.; Morris, Victor R.

    2015-02-03

    For better utilization of the ground-based microwave radiometer, it is important to detect the cloud presence in the measured data. Here, we introduce a simple and fast cloud detection algorithm by using the optical characteristics of the clouds in the infrared atmospheric window region. The new algorithm utilizes the brightness temperature (Tb) measured by an infrared radiometer installed on top of a microwave radiometer. The two-step algorithm consists of a spectral test followed by a temporal test. The measured Tb is first compared with a predicted clear-sky Tb obtained by an empirical formula as a function of surface air temperaturemore » and water vapor pressure. For the temporal test, the temporal variability of the measured Tb during one minute compares with a dynamic threshold value, representing the variability of clear-sky conditions. It is designated as cloud-free data only when both the spectral and temporal tests confirm cloud-free data. Overall, most of the thick and uniform clouds are successfully detected by the spectral test, while the broken and fast-varying clouds are detected by the temporal test. The algorithm is validated by comparison with the collocated ceilometer data for six months, from January to June 2013. The overall proportion of correctness is about 88.3% and the probability of detection is 90.8%, which are comparable with or better than those of previous similar approaches. Two thirds of discrepancies occur when the new algorithm detects clouds while the ceilometer does not, resulting in different values of the probability of detection with different cloud-base altitude, 93.8, 90.3, and 82.8% for low, mid, and high clouds, respectively. Finally, due to the characteristics of the spectral range, the new algorithm is found to be insensitive to the presence of inversion layers.« less

  19. High-Power Plasma Switch for 11.4 GHz Microwave Pulse Compressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2010-03-04

    Results obtained in several experiments on active RF pulse compression at X-band using a magnicon as the high-power RF source are presented. In these experiments, microwave energy was stored in high-Q TE01 and TE02 modes of two parallel-fed resonators, and then discharged using switches activated with rapidly fired plasma discharge tubes. Designs and high-power tests of several versions of the compressor are described. In these experiments, coherent pulse superposition was demonstrated at a 59 MW level of incident power. The compressed pulses observed had powers of 5070 MW and durations of 4070 ns. Peak power gains were measured to be in the range of 7:111:1 with efficiency in the range of 5063%.

  20. Posters Radar/Radiometer Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for retrieving cloud liquid water content and drizzle characteristics using a K -band Doppler radar (Kropfli et al. 1990) and microwave radiometer (Hogg et al. 1983). The...

  1. Influence of microwave driver coupling design on plasma density at Testbench for Ion sources Plasma Studies, a 2.45 GHz Electron Cyclotron Resonance Plasma Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mega-Macas, A.; Vizcano-de-Julin, A.; Cortzar, O. D.

    2014-03-15

    A comparative study of two microwave driver systems (preliminary and optimized) for a 2.45 GHz hydrogen Electron Cyclotron Resonance plasma generator has been conducted. The influence on plasma behavior and parameters of stationary electric field distribution in vacuum, i.e., just before breakdown, along all the microwave excitation system is analyzed. 3D simulations of resonant stationary electric field distributions, 2D simulations of external magnetic field mapping, experimental measurements of incoming and reflected power, and electron temperature and density along the plasma chamber axis have been carried out. By using these tools, an optimized set of plasma chamber and microwave coupler has been designed paying special attention to the optimization of stationary electric field value in the center of the plasma chamber. This system shows a strong stability on plasma behavior allowing a wider range of operational parameters and even sustaining low density plasma formation without external magnetic field. In addition, the optimized system shows the capability to produce values of plasma density four times higher than the preliminary as a consequence of a deeper penetration of the magnetic resonance surface in relative high electric field zone by keeping plasma stability. The increment of the amount of resonance surface embedded in the plasma under high electric field is suggested as a key factor.

  2. Broadband radiometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cannon, Theodore W.

    1994-01-01

    A broadband radiometer including (a) an optical integrating sphere having a enerally spherical integrating chamber and an entry port for receiving light (e.g., having visible and ultraviolet fractions), (b) a first optical radiation detector for receiving light from the sphere and producing an electrical output signal corresponding to broadband radiation, (c) a second optical radiation detector for receiving light from the sphere and producing an electrical output signal corresponding to a predetermined wavelength fraction of the broadband radiation, and (d) an output for producing an electrical signal which is proportional to the difference between the two electrical output signals. The radiometer is very useful, for example, in measuring the absolute amount of ultraviolet light present in a given light sample.

  3. Broadband radiometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cannon, T.W.

    1994-07-26

    A broadband radiometer is disclosed including (a) an optical integrating sphere having generally spherical integrating chamber and an entry port for receiving light (e.g., having visible and ultraviolet fractions), (b) a first optical radiation detector for receiving light from the sphere and producing an electrical output signal corresponding to broadband radiation, (c) a second optical radiation detector for receiving light from the sphere and producing an electrical output signal corresponding to a predetermined wavelength fraction of the broadband radiation, and (d) an output for producing an electrical signal which is proportional to the difference between the two electrical output signals. The radiometer is very useful, for example, in measuring the absolute amount of ultraviolet light present in a given light sample. 8 figs.

  4. DRAFT Microwave Radiometer Profiler Handbook

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Figure 4. Data availability and quality. Most gaps are due to power outages. ...... 18 Figure 5. Monthly mean noise injection temperatures T nd derived from ...

  5. Microwave surface resistance of epitaxial YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 7] thin films at 18. 7 GHz measured by a dielectric resonator technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, N.; Daehne, U.; Poppe, U.; Tellmann, N.; Urban, K. ); Orbach, S.; Hensen, S.; Mueller, G.; Piel, H. )

    1992-04-01

    We used a dielectric resonator technique for highly sensitive measurements of the temperature dependence of the microwave surface resistance R[sub s] of 1 x 1 cm[sup 2] superconducting films at 18.7 GHz. It consists of a sapphire disc positioned on the film under investigation within a copper cavity which is acting as a radiation shield. In the TE[sub 01[delta

  6. Radiometer Calibration and Characterization

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-12-31

    The Radiometer Calibration and Characterization (RCC) software is a data acquisition and data archival system for performing Broadband Outdoor Radiometer Calibrations (BORCAL). RCC provides a unique method of calibrating solar radiometers using techniques that reduce measurement uncertainty and better characterize a radiometer’s response profile. The RCC software automatically monitors and controls many of the components that contribute to uncertainty in an instrument’s responsivity.

  7. ARCADE 2 MEASUREMENT OF THE ABSOLUTE SKY BRIGHTNESS AT 3-90 GHz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fixsen, D. J.; Levin, S.; Seiffert, M.; Limon, M.; Lubin, P.; Mirel, P.; Singal, J.; Villela, T.; Wuensche, C. A.

    2011-06-10

    The ARCADE 2 instrument has measured the absolute temperature of the sky at frequencies 3, 8, 10, 30, and 90 GHz, using an open-aperture cryogenic instrument observing at balloon altitudes with no emissive windows between the beam-forming optics and the sky. An external blackbody calibrator provides an in situ reference. Systematic errors were greatly reduced by using differential radiometers and cooling all critical components to physical temperatures approximating the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature. A linear model is used to compare the output of each radiometer to a set of thermometers on the instrument. Small corrections are made for the residual emission from the flight train, balloon, atmosphere, and foreground Galactic emission. The ARCADE 2 data alone show an excess radio rise of 54 {+-} 6 mK at 3.3 GHz in addition to a CMB temperature of 2.731 {+-} 0.004 K. Combining the ARCADE 2 data with data from the literature shows an excess power-law spectrum of T = 24.1 {+-} 2.1 (K) ({nu}/{nu}{sub 0}){sup -2.599{+-}0.036} from 22 MHz to 10 GHz ({nu}{sub 0} = 310 MHz) in addition to a CMB temperature of 2.725 {+-} 0.001 K.

  8. CW/Pulsed H{sup ?} ion beam generation with PKU Cs-free 2.45 GHz microwave driven ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, S. X. Ren, H. T.; Xu, Y.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, J. F.; Zhao, J.; Guo, Z. Y.; Zhang, A. L.; Chen, J. E.

    2015-04-08

    Circular accelerators used for positron emission tomography (PET, i.e. accelerator used for make radio isotopes) need several mA of CW H- ion beam for their routine operation. Other facilities, like Space Radio-Environment Simulate Assembly (SPRESA), require less than 10?mA pulsed mode H{sup ?} beam. Caesium free negative hydrogen ion source is a good choice for those facilities because of its compact structure, easy operation and low cost. Up to now, there is no H{sup ?} source able to produce very intense H{sup ?} beams with important variation of the duty factor{sup [1]}. Recently, a new version of 2.45?GHz microwave H{sup ?} ion source was designed at PKU, based on lessons learnt from the previous one. This non cesiated source is very compact thanks to its permanent magnet configuration. Special attention was paid on the design of the discharge chamber structure, electron dumping and extraction system. Source test to produce H{sup ?} ion beams in pulsed and CW mode was carried out on PKU ion source test bench. In CW mode, a 10.8?mA/30keV H{sup ?} beam with rms emittance about 0.16 ?mmmrad has been obtained with only 500?W rf power. The power efficiency reaches 21?mA/kW. In pulsed mode with duty factor of 10% (100Hz/1ms), this compact source can easily deliver 20?mA H{sup ?} ion beam at 35 keV with rms emittance about 0.2 ?mmmrad when RF power is set at 2.2 kW (peak power). Several hour successive running operation in both modes and totaling more than 200 hours proves its high quality. The outside dimension of this new H{sup ?} source body is ?116?mm 124?mm, and the entire H{sup ?} source infrastructure, including rf matching section, plasma chamber and extraction system, is ?310 180?mm. The high voltage region is limited with in a ?310?mm 230?mm diagram. Details are given in this paper.

  9. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Microwave Radiometer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of atmospheric state variables (pressure, temperature, humidity wind speed and wind direction) for the purpose of deriving the large-scale forcing for use in modeling studies. ...

  10. Microwave signatures of ice hydrometeors from ground-based observations above Summit, Greenland

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pettersen, Claire; Bennartz, Ralf; Kulie, Mark S.; Merrelli, Aronne J.; Shupe, Matthew D.; Turner, David D.

    2016-04-15

    Multi-instrument, ground-based measurements provide unique and comprehensive data sets of the atmosphere for a specific location over long periods of time and resulting data compliment past and existing global satellite observations. This paper explores the effect of ice hydrometeors on ground-based, high-frequency passive microwave measurements and attempts to isolate an ice signature for summer seasons at Summit, Greenland, from 2010 to 2013. Data from a combination of passive microwave, cloud radar, radiosonde, and ceilometer were examined to isolate the ice signature at microwave wavelengths. By limiting the study to a cloud liquid water path of 40 gm–2 or less, themore » cloud radar can identify cases where the precipitation was dominated by ice. These cases were examined using liquid water and gas microwave absorption models, and brightness temperatures were calculated for the high-frequency microwave channels: 90, 150, and 225 GHz. By comparing the measured brightness temperatures from the microwave radiometers and the calculated brightness temperature using only gas and liquid contributions, any residual brightness temperature difference is due to emission and scattering of microwave radiation from the ice hydrometeors in the column. The ice signature in the 90, 150, and 225 GHz channels for the Summit Station summer months was isolated. As a result, this measured ice signature was then compared to an equivalent brightness temperature difference calculated with a radiative transfer model including microwave single-scattering properties for several ice habits. Initial model results compare well against the 4 years of summer season isolated ice signature in the high-frequency microwave channels.« less

  11. Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Radiometric Studies of Temperature, Water Vapor and Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westwater, Edgeworth

    2011-05-06

    The importance of accurate measurements of column amounts of water vapor and cloud liquid has been well documented by scientists within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. At the North Slope of Alaska (NSA), both microwave radiometers (MWR) and the MWRProfiler (MWRP), been used operationally by ARM for passive retrievals of the quantities: Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) and Liquid Water Path (LWP). However, it has been convincingly shown that these instruments are inadequate to measure low amounts of PWV and LWP. In the case of water vapor, this is especially important during the Arctic winter, when PWV is frequently less than 2 mm. For low amounts of LWP (< 50 g/m{sup 2}), the MWR and MWRP retrievals have an accuracy that is also not acceptable. To address some of these needs, in March-April 2004, NOAA and ARM conducted the NSA Arctic Winter Radiometric Experiment - Water Vapor Intensive Operational Period at the ARM NSA/Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) site. After this experiment, the radiometer group at NOAA moved to the Center for Environmental Technology (CET) of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of the University of Colorado at Boulder. During this 2004 experiment, a total of 220 radiosondes were launched, and radiometric data from 22.235 to 380 GHz were obtained. Primary instruments included the ARM MWR and MWRP, a Global Positioning System (GPS), as well as the CET Ground-based Scanning Radiometer (GSR). We have analyzed data from these instruments to answer several questions of importance to ARM, including: (a) techniques for improved water vapor measurements; (b) improved calibration techniques during cloudy conditions; (c) the spectral response of radiometers to a variety of conditions: clear, liquid, ice, and mixed phase clouds; and (d) forward modeling of microwave and millimeter wave brightness temperatures from 22 to 380 GHz. Many of these results have been published in the open literature. During the third year of

  12. Stable radiometal antibody immunoconjugates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mease, R.C.; Srivastava, S.C.; Gestin, J.F.

    1994-08-02

    The present invention relates to new rigid chelating structures, to methods for preparing these materials, and to their use in preparing radiometal labeled immunoconjugates. These new chelates include cyclohexyl EDTA monohydride, the trans forms of cyclohexyl DTPA and TTHA, and derivatives of these cyclohexyl polyaminocarboxylate materials. No Drawings

  13. Stable radiometal antibody immunoconjugates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mease, Ronnie C.; Srivastava, Suresh C.; Gestin, Jean-Francois

    1994-01-01

    The present invention relates to new rigid chelating structures, to methods for preparing these materials, and to their use in preparing radiometal labeled immunoconjugates. These new chelates include cyclohexyl EDTA monohydride, the trans forms of cyclohexyl DTPA and TTHA, and derivatives of these cyclohexyl polyaminocarboxylate materials.

  14. Ground-Based and Airborne (PMS 2-D Probe Canister-Mounted) 183 GHz Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vapor Radiometer Ground-Based and Airborne (PMS 2-D Probe Canister-Mounted) 183 GHz Water Vapor Radiometer Pazmany, Andrew ProSensing Inc. Category: Instruments ProSensing Inc. has developed a G-band (183 GHz, 1.5 mm wavelength) water vapor radiometer (GVR) for the measurement of low concentrations of atmospheric water vapor and liquid water. The instrument's precipitable water vapor measurement precision is approximately 0.01 mm in dry (<2 mm vapor column) conditions. The ground-based

  15. Characterization and calibration of 8-channel E-band heterodyne radiometer system for SST-1 tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siju, Varsha; Kumar, Dharmendra; Shukla, Praveena; Pathak, S. K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India)] [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India)

    2014-05-15

    An 8-channel E-band heterodyne radiometer system (7486 GHz) is designed, characterized, and calibrated to measure the radial electron temperature profile by measuring Electron Cyclotron Emission spectrum at SST-1 Tokamak. The developed radiometer has a noise equivalent temperature of 1 eV and sensitivity of 5 10{sup 9} V/W. In order to precisely measure the absolute value of electron temperature, a calibration measurement of the radiometer system is performed using hot-cold Dicke switch method, which confirms the system linearity.

  16. High power microwave generation from rotating e-layers in magnetron...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Approximately 10% of the injected electron beam power is converted to microwaves at 12 SUB c (10 GHz), 2% at 20 SUB c (17 GHz), and 1% at 40..omega.. SUB c (34 GHz). The ...

  17. G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koontz, A; Cadeddu, M

    2012-12-05

    The G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) value-added product (VAP) computes precipitable water vapor using neural network techniques from data measured by the GVR. The GVR reports time-series measurements of brightness temperatures for four channels located at 183.3 ± 1, 3, 7, and 14 GHz.

  18. Observations of tropical cirrus properties in the pilot radiation observation experiment using lidar and the CSIRO ARM filter radiometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Platt, C.M.R.; Young, S.A.; Manson, P.J.; Patterson, G.R.

    1995-04-01

    A narrow beam fast filter radiometer has been developed for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. The radiometer is intended to operate alongside a lidar at ARM sites in a lidar/radiometer (LIRAD) configuration. The radiometer detects in three narrow bands at 8.62-, 10.86-, and 12.04-m central wavelengths in the atmospheric window. In addition, it has a variable field aperture that varies the radiance incident on the detector and also allows the field of view to be tailored to that of a lidar used in the LIRAD technique. The radiometer was deployed in the ARM Pilot Radiation Observation Experiment (PROBE) at Kavieng, Papua New Guinea in January-February 1993. The radiometer worked satisfactorily and appeared to be very stable. The radiometer was compared with a previous CSIRO radiometer and the improved performance of the ARM instrument was very evident. The ARM radiometer was also compared with a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Environmental Technology Laboratories (ETL) interferometer and gave closely equivalent radiances. The LIRAD method was used at Kavieng to obtain the optical properties of cirrus clouds. Continuous observations of water vapor path obtained by the NOAA ETL microwave radiometer were employed to allow for the strong tropical water vapor absorption and emission. Cirrus cells that developed on one morning, independent of other clouds, had measured infrared emittances varying from <0.1 to 1.0.

  19. ARM: GRAMS: data from the total solar broadband radiometer (TBBR...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    solar broadband radiometer (TBBR) Title: ARM: GRAMS: data from the total solar broadband radiometer (TBBR) GRAMS: data from the total solar broadband radiometer (TBBR) Authors: ...

  20. ARM: Multi-Filter Radiometer (MFR): upwelling irradiance at 3...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Multi-Filter Radiometer (MFR): upwelling irradiance at 3-meter height Title: ARM: Multi-Filter Radiometer (MFR): upwelling irradiance at 3-meter height Multi-Filter Radiometer ...

  1. ARM: GRAMS: data from the total direct diffuse radiometer (TDDR...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    direct diffuse radiometer (TDDR) Title: ARM: GRAMS: data from the total direct diffuse radiometer (TDDR) GRAMS: data from the total direct diffuse radiometer (TDDR) Authors: ...

  2. Rotating shadowband radiometer development and analysis of spectral shortwave data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michalsky, J.; Harrison, L.; Min, Q.

    1996-04-01

    Our goals in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program are improved measurements of spectral shortwave radiation and improved techniques for the retrieval of climatologically sensitive parameters. The multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) that was developed during the first years of the ARM program has become a workhorse at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site, and it is widely deployed in other climate programs. We have spent most of our effort this year developing techniques to retrieve column aerosol, water vapor, and ozone from direct beam spectral measurements of the MFRSR. Additionally, we have had some success in calculating shortwave surface diffuse spectral irradiance. Using the surface albedo and the global irradiance, we have calculated cloud optical depths. From cloud optical depth and liquid water measured with the microwave radiometer, we have calculated effective liquid cloud particle radii. The rest of the text will provide some detail regarding each of these efforts.

  3. SRRL: Broadband Outdoor Radiometer CALibrations (BORCAL)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Broadband Outdoor Radiometer Calibrations Accurate measurements of solar radiation require regular recalibration of the radiometers used to make the irradiance measurement. NREL has developed the Broadband Outdoor Radiometer Calibration (BORCAL) approach for the annual calibration of pyranometers, pyrheliometers, and pyrgeometers used by the Department of Energy. BORCALs are conducted at the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) and at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program's

  4. FACT SHEET U.S. Department of Energy ARM Mobile Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Alaska (2013-2018) * 95-GHz W-Band ARM Cloud Radar * Balloon-Borne Sounding System * Doppler Lidar, Micropulse Lidar, and Laser Ceilometer * Microwave Radiometer * Microwave...

  5. Radiometer Calibration and Characterization (RCC) User's Manual...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (RCC) User's Manual: Windows Version 4.0 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Radiometer Calibration and Characterization (RCC) User's Manual: Windows Version 4.0 ...

  6. ARM - Evaluation Product - Microwave Radiometer version 2 (MWRRETv2...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    This VAP is an updated version of mwrret1liljclou (documented in Turner et al. 2007) that ... Developed by Laura Riihimaki | Krista Gaustad | David Turner Contact Laura Riihimaki ...

  7. Novel Cyclotron-Based Radiometal Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeGrado, Timothy R.

    2013-10-31

    Accomplishments: (1) Construction of prototype solution target for radiometal production; (2) Testing of prototype target for production of following isotopes: a. Zr-89. Investigation of Zr-89 production from Y-89 nitrate solution. i. Defined problems of gas evolution and salt precipitation. ii. Solved problem of precipitation by addition of nitric acid. iii. Solved gas evolution problem with addition of backpressure regulator and constant degassing of target during irradiations. iv. Investigated effects of Y-89 nitrate concentration and beam current. v. Published abstracts at SNM and ISRS meetings; (3) Design of 2nd generation radiometal solution target. a. Included reflux chamber and smaller target volume to conserve precious target materials. b. Included aluminum for prototype and tantalum for working model. c. Included greater varicosities for improved heat transfer; and, (4) Construction of 2nd generation radiometal solution target started.

  8. G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) Value...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) Value-Added Product Citation Details In-Document Search Title: G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) ...

  9. NREL: MIDC/ARM Radiometer Characterization System (36.606 N, 97.486 W, 320

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    m, GMT-6) ARM Radiometer Characterization System

  10. Lightning control system using high power microwave FEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiho, M.; Watanbe, A.; Kawasaki, S.

    1995-12-31

    A research project for developing a thunder lightning control system using an induction linac based high power microwave free electron laser (FEL) started at JAERI The system will produce weakly ionized plasma rod in the atmosphere by high power microwaves and control a lightning path, away from , e. g., nuclear power stations and rocket launchers. It has been known that about MW/cm{sup 2} power density is enough for the atmospheric breakdown in the microwave region, and which means high power microwave FEL with GW level output power is feasible for atmospheric breakdown, and accordingly is feasible for thunder lightning control tool with making a conductive plasma channel in the atmosphere. From the microwave attenuation consideration in the atmosphere, FEL of 35GHz(0.13dB/km), 90GHz(0.35dB/km), 140GHz(1.7dB/km), and of 270 GHz(4.5dB/km) are the best candidates for the system. Comparing with other proposed lightning control system using visible or ultraviolet laser, the system using microwave has an advantage that microwave suffers smaller attenuation by rain or snow which always exist in the real atmospheric circumstances when lightning occurs.

  11. Failure and Redemption of Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (MFRSR)/Normal Incidence Multifilter Radiometer (NIMFR) Cloud Screening: Contrasting Algorithm Performance at Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) North Slope of Alaska (NSA) and Southern Great Plains (SGP) Sites (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Failure and Redemption of Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR)/Normal Incidence Multifilter Radiometer (NIMFR) Cloud Screening: Contrasting Algorithm Performance at Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) North

  12. A 1-V series-array Josephson voltage standard operated at 35 GHz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, F.; Koehler, H.; Weber, P.; Bluethner, K.; Meyer, H. )

    1990-11-01

    Josephson voltage standards utilize microwave-induced constant voltage steps in the dc characteristic of Josephson tunnel junctions. This paper describes the design and operation of array circuits with 108 and 2000 junctions connected in series. In contrast with similar realizations, simple {ital Q}-band equipment is used for the microwave supply. The microwave attenuation of 1000 junctions was about 1 dB. The version with 2000 junctions generated Josephson voltages up to 1.2 V when operated at 35 GHz. The stability times of the quantized levels were, under normal laboratory conditions (unshielded room), better than 10 min.

  13. Microwave detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meldner, H.W.; Cusson, R.Y.; Johnson, R.M.

    1985-02-08

    A microwave detector is provided for measuring the envelope shape of a microwave pulse comprised of high-frequency oscillations. A biased ferrite produces a magnetization field flux that links a B-dot loop. The magnetic field of the microwave pulse participates in the formation of the magnetization field flux. High-frequency insensitive means are provided for measuring electric voltage or current induced in the B-dot loop. The recorded output of the detector is proportional to the time derivative of the square of the envelope shape of the microwave pulse.

  14. Microwave detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meldner, Heiner W.; Cusson, Ronald Y.; Johnson, Ray M.

    1986-01-01

    A microwave detector (10) is provided for measuring the envelope shape of a microwave pulse comprised of high-frequency oscillations. A biased ferrite (26, 28) produces a magnetization field flux that links a B-dot loop (16, 20). The magnetic field of the microwave pulse participates in the formation of the magnetization field flux. High-frequency insensitive means (18, 22) are provided for measuring electric voltage or current induced in the B-dot loop. The recorded output of the detector is proportional to the time derivative of the square of the envelope shape of the microwave pulse.

  15. Mobile system for microwave removal of concrete surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, T.L.; Bigelow, T.S.; Schaich, C.R.; Foster, D. Jr.

    1997-06-03

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for the microwave removal of contaminated concrete surfaces. The apparatus comprises a housing adapted to pass over a support surface. The housing includes a waveguide for directing microwave energy to the surface at an angle maximizing absorption of microwave energy by the surface. The apparatus is further provided with a source of microwave energy operably associated with the waveguide, wherein the microwave energy has a frequency of between about 10.6 GHz and about 24 GHz and acts to remove the uppermost layer from the surface. The apparatus further includes a debris containment assembly comprising a vacuum assembly operably associated with the housing. The vacuum assembly is adapted to remove debris from the area adjacent the surface. 7 figs.

  16. Mobile system for microwave removal of concrete surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, Terry L.; Bigelow, Timothy S.; Schaich, Charles R.; Foster, Jr., Don

    1997-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the microwave removal of contaminated concrete surfaces. The apparatus comprises a housing adapted to pass over a support surface. The housing includes a waveguide for directing microwave energy to the surface at an angle maximizing absorption of microwave energy by the surface. The apparatus is further provided with a source of microwave energy operably associated with the waveguide, wherein the microwave energy has a frequency of between about 10.6 GHz and about 24 GHz and acts to remove the uppermost layer from the surface. The apparatus further includes a debris containment assembly comprising a vacuum assembly operably associated with the housing. The vacuum assembly is adapted to remove debris from the area adjacent the surface.

  17. 60 GHz gyrotron development program. Quarterly report No. 5, July-September 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shively, J.F.; Grant, T.J.; Nordquist, A.L.; Stone, D.S.; Wendell, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of this program is to develop a microwave oscillator capable of producing 200 kW of CW output power at 60 GHz. The use of cyclotron resonance interaction is being pursued. The design, procurement and early construction phases of this program are discussed.

  18. Microsoft PowerPoint - turner_mwr_150_ghz_continuum_adjustment.ppt [Kompatibilitätsmodus]

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Vapor Continuum in Modifications to the Water Vapor Continuum in the Microwave Suggested by Ground-based 150 GHz Observations 150 GHz Observations D T 1 M i C d dd 2 Dave Turner 1 , Maria Cadeddu 2 , Ulrich Löhnert 3 , Susanne Crewell 3 , Andy Vogelmann 4 Andy Vogelmann 1 Space Science and Engineering Center, University of Wisconsin - Madison 2 Argonne National Laboratory 2 Argonne National Laboratory 3 Institute for Geophysics and Meteorology, University of Cologne 4 Brookhaven National

  19. A compact high-gradient 25 MeV 17 GHz RF linac for free-electron laser research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danly, B.G.; Chen, S.C.; Kreischer, K.E.

    1995-12-31

    A new compact high-gradient (60 MeV/m) high-frequency (17.136 GHz) RF linac is presently under construction by Haimson Research Corp. (HRC) for installation at the MIT Plasma Fusion Center in the High-Gradient Accelerator and High Power Microwave Laboratory. This accelerator will utilize an existing traveling-wave relativistic klystron (TWRK) which is now operation at MIT with 25 MW power, 67 dB gain, and 52% efficiency at 17.136 GHz.

  20. A large scanning radiometer for characterizing fenestration systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papamichael, K.; Klems, J.; Selkowitz, S.

    1987-11-01

    A large scanning radiometer for measuring the bidirectional transmittance and reflectance of fenestration systems and components is described. Examples of measured data obtained for simple non-specular samples using the radiometer are presented. A method of obtaining the overall bidirectional properties of systems by calculation from scanning radiometer measurements of components is suggested. Advantages and limitations of the method are discussed. The method appears promising.

  1. A new radiometer for earth radiation budget studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, P.G.

    1992-05-01

    A critical need for the US Global Change Research Program is to provide continuous, well-calibrated radiometric data for radiation balance studies. This paper describes a new, compact, relatively light-weight, adaptable radiometer which will provide both spectrally integrated measurements and data in selected spectral bands. The radiometer design is suitable for use on (small) satellites, aircraft, or Unmanned Aerospace Vehicles (UAVs). Some considerations for the implementation of this radiometer on a small satellite are given. 17 refs.

  2. A new radiometer for earth radiation budget studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, P.G.

    1992-01-01

    A critical need for the US Global Change Research Program is to provide continuous, well-calibrated radiometric data for radiation balance studies. This paper describes a new, compact, relatively light-weight, adaptable radiometer which will provide both spectrally integrated measurements and data in selected spectral bands. The radiometer design is suitable for use on (small) satellites, aircraft, or Unmanned Aerospace Vehicles (UAVs). Some considerations for the implementation of this radiometer on a small satellite are given. 17 refs.

  3. Cosmic Microwave Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cosmic Microwave Background Cosmic Microwave Background CMB.jpg The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) is relic radiation from a very early stage in the universe -- essentially a...

  4. Microwave generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kwan, T.J.T.; Snell, C.M.

    1987-03-31

    A microwave generator is provided for generating microwaves substantially from virtual cathode oscillation. Electrons are emitted from a cathode and accelerated to an anode which is spaced apart from the cathode. The anode has an annular slit there through effective to form the virtual cathode. The anode is at least one range thickness relative to electrons reflecting from the virtual cathode. A magnet is provided to produce an optimum magnetic field having the field strength effective to form an annular beam from the emitted electrons in substantial alignment with the annular anode slit. The magnetic field, however, does permit the reflected electrons to axially diverge from the annular beam. The reflected electrons are absorbed by the anode in returning to the real cathode, such that substantially no reflexing electrons occur. The resulting microwaves are produced with a single dominant mode and are substantially monochromatic relative to conventional virtual cathode microwave generators. 6 figs.

  5. Maturation and Hardening of the Stabilized Radiometer Platforms...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Maturation and Hardening of the Stabilized Radiometer Platforms (STRAPS) Field Campaign Report Measurements of solar and infrared irradiance by instruments rigidly mounted ...

  6. ARM: Portable Radiation Package: Broadband Radiometers, 1 second...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Portable Radiation Package: Broadband Radiometers, 1 second resolution Authors: Annette Koontz ; R. Reynolds Publication Date: 2012-11-02 OSTI Identifier: 1095574 DOE Contract ...

  7. ARM: Portable Radiation Package: Fast Rotating Shadowband Radiometer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Portable Radiation Package: Fast Rotating Shadowband Radiometer full resolution 6-s sampling Authors: Annette Koontz ; R. Reynolds Publication Date: 2012-11-02 OSTI Identifier: ...

  8. Cloud Optical Properties from the Multifilter Shadowband Radiometer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Min and Harrison (1996) developed an inversion method to infer the optical depth of liquid ... Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) measurements (Harrison et al. 1994). ...

  9. Clamshell microwave cavities having a superconductive coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooke, D. Wayne; Arendt, Paul N.; Piel, Helmut

    1994-01-01

    A microwave cavity including a pair of opposing clamshell halves, such halves comprised of a metal selected from the group consisting of silver, copper, or a silver-based alloy, wherein the cavity is further characterized as exhibiting a dominant TE.sub.011 mode is provided together with an embodiment wherein the interior concave surfaces of the clamshell halves are coated with a superconductive material. In the case of copper clamshell halves, the microwave cavity has a Q-value of about 1.2.times.10.sup.5 as measured at a temperature of 10K and a frequency of 10 GHz.

  10. Microfluidic Radiometal Labeling Systems for Biomolecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reichert, D E; Kenis, P J. A.

    2011-12-29

    In a typical labeling procedure with radiometals, such as Cu-64 and Ga-68; a very large (~ 100-fold) excess of the non-radioactive reactant (precursor) is used to promote rapid and efficient incorporation of the radioisotope into the PET imaging agent. In order to achieve high specific activities, careful control of reaction conditions and extensive chromatographic purifications are required in order to separate the labeled compounds from the cold precursors. Here we propose a microfluidic approach to overcome these problems, and achieve high specific activities in a more convenient, semi-automated fashion and faster time frame. Microfluidic reactors, consisting of a network of micron-sized channels (typical dimensions in the range 10 â?? 300 ?¼m), filters, separation columns, electrodes and reaction loops/chambers etched onto a solid substrate, are now emerging as an extremely useful technology for the intensification and miniaturization of chemical processes. The ability to manipulate, process and analyze reagent concentrations and reaction interfaces in both space and time within the channel network of a microreactor provides the fine level of reaction control that is desirable in PET radiochemistry practice. These factors can bring radiometal labeling, specifically the preparation of radio-labeled biomolecules such as antibodies, much closer to their theoretical maximum specific activities.

  11. Microwave furnace having microwave compatible dilatometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kimrey, H.D. Jr.; Janney, M.A.; Ferber, M.K.

    1992-03-24

    An apparatus for measuring and monitoring a change in the dimension of a sample being heated by microwave energy is described. The apparatus comprises a microwave heating device for heating a sample by microwave energy, a microwave compatible dilatometer for measuring and monitoring a change in the dimension of the sample being heated by microwave energy without leaking microwaves out of the microwave heating device, and a temperature determination device for measuring and monitoring the temperature of the sample being heated by microwave energy. 2 figs.

  12. Microwave furnace having microwave compatible dilatometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kimrey, Jr., Harold D.; Janney, Mark A.; Ferber, Mattison K.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring and monitoring a change in the dimension of a sample being heated by microwave energy is described. The apparatus comprises a microwave heating device for heating a sample by microwave energy, a microwave compatible dilatometer for measuring and monitoring a change in the dimension of the sample being heated by microwave energy without leaking microwaves out of the microwave heating device, and a temperature determination device for measuring and monitoring the temperature of the sample being heated by microwave energy.

  13. Using indium tin oxide material to implement the imaging of microwave plasma ignition process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Qiang; Hou, Lingyun; Zhang, Guixin Zhang, Boya; Liu, Cheng; Wang, Zhi; Huang, Jian

    2014-02-17

    In this paper, a method is introduced to get global observation of microwave plasma ignition process at high pressure. A microwave resonator was designed with an indium tin oxide coated glass at bottom. Microwave plasma ignition was implemented in methane and air mixture at 10 bars by a 2?ms-3?kW-2.45?GHz microwave pulse, and the high speed images of the ignition process were obtained. The images visually proved that microwave plasma ignition could lead to a multi-point ignition. The system may also be applied to obtain Schlieren images, which is commonly used to observe the development of flame kernel in an ignition process.

  14. Cloud Optical Properties from the Multifilter Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSRCLDOD). An ARM Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, D. D.; McFarlane, S. A.; Riihimaki, L.; Shi, Y.; Lo, C.; Min, Q.

    2014-02-01

    The microphysical properties of clouds play an important role in studies of global climate change. Observations from satellites and surface-based systems have been used to infer cloud optical depth and effective radius. Min and Harrison (1996) developed an inversion method to infer the optical depth of liquid water clouds from narrow band spectral Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) measurements (Harrison et al. 1994). Their retrieval also uses the total liquid water path (LWP) measured by a microwave radiometer (MWR) to obtain the effective radius of the warm cloud droplets. Their results were compared with Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) retrieved values at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site (Min and Harrison 1996). Min et al. (2003) also validated the retrieved cloud optical properties against in situ observations, showing that the retrieved cloud effective radius agreed well with the in situ forward scattering spectrometer probe observations. The retrieved cloud optical properties from Min et al. (2003) were used also as inputs to an atmospheric shortwave model, and the computed fluxes were compared with surface pyranometer observations.

  15. ARM: Broadband Radiometer Station (BRS) broadband shortwave and longwave 1-min radiation data with Dutton correction

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Laura Riihimaki

    1993-09-01

    Broadband Radiometer Station (BRS) broadband shortwave and longwave 1-min radiation data with Dutton correction

  16. ARM: Broadband Radiometer Station (BRS) broadband shortwave and longwave 1-min radiation data with Dutton correction

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Laura Riihimaki

    Broadband Radiometer Station (BRS) broadband shortwave and longwave 1-min radiation data with Dutton correction

  17. ARM - Field Campaign - Thin Cloud Rotating Shadowband Radiometer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thin Cloud Rotating Shadowband Radiometer 2008.01.08 - 2008.07.18 Lead Scientist : Mary Jane Bartholomew For data sets, see below. Abstract The Thin-Cloud Rotating Shadowband...

  18. Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodges, GB; Michalsky, JJ

    2011-02-07

    The visible Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) is a passive instrument that measures global and diffuse components of solar irradiance at six narrowband channels and one open, or broadband, channel (Harrison et al. 1994). Direct irradiance is not a primary measurement, but is calculated using the diffuse and global measurements. To collect one data record, the MFRSR takes measurements at four different shadowband positions. The first measurement is taken with the shadowband in the nadir (home) position. The next three measurements are, in order, the first side-band, sun-blocked, and second side-band. The side-band measurements are used to correct for the portion of the sky obscured by the shadowband. The nominal wavelengths of the narrowband channels are 415, 500, 615, 673, 870, and 940 nm. From such measurements, one may infer the atmosphere's aerosol optical depth at each wavelength. In turn, these optical depths may be used to derive information about the column abundances of ozone and water vapor (Michalsky et al. 1995), as well as aerosol (Harrison and Michalsky 1994) and other atmospheric constituents.

  19. Broadband Outdoor Radiometer Calibration Process for the Atmospheric

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Radiation Measurement Program (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Broadband Outdoor Radiometer Calibration Process for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Broadband Outdoor Radiometer Calibration Process for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program (ARM) maintains a fleet of monitoring stations to aid in the improved scientific understanding of the basic physics related

  20. A device for microwave sintering large ceramic articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kimrey, H.D. Jr.

    1987-07-24

    A microwave sintering system is provided for uniform sintering of large and/or irregular shapes ceramic articles at microwave frequencies of at least 28 GHz in the hundreds of kilowatts power range in an untuned cavity. A 28 GHz, 200 kw gyrotron with variable power output is used as the microwave source connected to an untuned microwave cavity formed of an electrically conductive housing. The part to be sintered is placed in the cavity and supported on a removable high temperature table in a central location within the cavity. The part is surrounded by a microwave transparent bulk insulating material to reduce thermal heat loss at the part surfaces and maintain more uniform temperature. The cavity may be operated at a high vacuum to aid in preventing arcing. The system allows controlled increased heating rates of greater than 200/degree/C/min to provide rapid heating of a ceramic part to a selected sintering temperature where it is maintained by regulating the microwave power applied to the part. As a result of rapid heating, the extent on non-isothermal processes such as segregation of impurities to the grain boundaries are minimized and exaggerated grain growth is reduced, thereby strengthening the mechanical properties of the ceramic part being sintered. 1 fig.

  1. Microwave energy for post-calcination treatment of high-level nuclear wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gombert, D.; Priebe, S.J.; Berreth, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    High-level radioactive wastes generated from nuclear fuel reprocessing require treatment for effective long-term storage. Heating by microwave energy is explored in processing of two possible waste forms: (1) drying of a pelleted form of calcined waste; and (2) vitrification of calcined waste. It is shown that residence times for these processes can be greatly reduced when using microwave energy rather than conventional heating sources, without affecting product properties. Compounds in the waste and in the glass frit additives couple very well with the 2.45 GHz microwave field so that no special microwave absorbers are necessary.

  2. Cloud Properties Working Group Low Clouds Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cloud Properties Working Group Low Clouds Update Low Clouds Update Jennifer Comstock Jennifer Comstock Dave Turner Dave Turner Andy Andy Vogelmann Vogelmann Instruments Instruments 90/150 GHz microwave radiometer 90/150 GHz microwave radiometer Deployed during COPS AMF Deployed during COPS AMF Exploring calibration w/ DPR ( Exploring calibration w/ DPR ( Crewell Crewell & & L L ö ö hnert hnert ) ) See COPS Breakout, Wednesday evening See COPS Breakout, Wednesday evening 183 GHz (GVR)

  3. Experimental characterization of edge force on the Crookes radiometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ventura, Austin L.; Ketsdever, Andrew D.; Gimelshein, Natalia E.; Gimelshein, Sergey F.

    2014-12-09

    The contribution of edge force on the Crookes radiometer is experimentally investigated with three vane geometries. This work examines increasing the force per unit weight of a radiometer vane for applications such as near-space propulsion by increasing the vanes perimeter while decreasing the total surface area of the vane by means of machined holes in the vanes. Experimental results are given for three vane geometries. These results indicate that although force to vane weight ratios can be improved, the maximum force is achieved by a vane geometry that contains no hole features.

  4. Active radiometer for self-calibrated furnace temperature measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woskov, Paul P.; Cohn, Daniel R.; Titus, Charles H.; Wittle, J. Kenneth; Surma, Jeffrey E.

    1996-01-01

    Radiometer with a probe beam superimposed on its field-of-view for furnace temperature measurements. The radiometer includes a heterodyne millimeter/submillimeter-wave receiver including a millimeter/submillimeter-wave source for probing. The receiver is adapted to receive radiation from a surface whose temperature is to be measured. The radiation includes a surface emission portion and a surface reflection portion which includes the probe beam energy reflected from the surface. The surface emission portion is related to the surface temperature and the surface reflection portion is related to the emissivity of the surface. The simultaneous measurement of surface emissivity serves as a real time calibration of the temperature measurement.

  5. VUV emission spectroscopy diagnostics of a 14 GHz ECR negative hydrogen ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tamura, R. Ichikawa, T.; Kasuya, T.; Wada, M.; Nishiura, M.; Shimozuma, T.

    2015-04-08

    Vacuum Ultra Violet(VUV) emission from a 4 cm diameter 2 cm long compact ion source excited by 14 GHz microwave has been investigated. Intensity ratio of band spectrum emission near Ly-α to Ly-α line spectrum is determined from the measured spectrum. which shows preferential excitation of molecules near the entrance of microwave input power. The ratio does not depend strongly upon pressure nor the input microwave power when the intensity is integrated over the volume of the plasma. The spatial distribution of the spectrum intensity ratio exhibits concentrations near microwave inlet and the opposite side where the microwave matching structure is located. The ratio at these peripheral regions is about two times as high as that of the central region. The ratio increased in proportion to the ion source pressure up to about 3.0 Pa, indicating efficient production of high energy electrons by ECR up to this pressure.

  6. Investigation of a metallic photonic crystal high power microwave mode converter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Dong Qin, Fen; Xu, Sha; Yu, Aimin; Wu, Yong

    2015-02-15

    It is demonstrated that an L band metallic photonic crystal TEM-TE{sub 11} mode converter is suitable for narrow band high power microwave application. The proposed mode converter is realized by partially filling metallic photonic crystals along azimuthal direction in a coaxial transmission line for phase-shifting. A three rows structure is designed and simulated by commercial software CST Microwave Studio. Simulation results show that its conversion efficiency is 99% at the center frequency 1.58 GHz. Over the frequency range of 1.56-1.625 GHz, the conversion efficiency exceeds 90 %, with a corresponding bandwidth of 4.1 %. This mode converter has a gigawatt level power handling capability which is suitable for narrow band high power microwave application. Using magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator(MILO) as a high power microwave source, particle-in-cell simulation is carried out to test the performance of the mode converter. The expected TE{sub 11} mode microwave output is obtained and the MILO works well. Mode conversion performance of the converter is tested by far-field measurement method. And the experimental result confirms the validity of our design. Then, high power microwave experiment is carried out on a Marx-driven Blumlein water line pulsed power accelerator. Microwave frequency, radiated pattern and power are measured in the far-field region and the results agree well with simulation results. The experiment also reveals that no microwave breakdown or pulse shortening took place in the experimental setup.

  7. Measurement of Boundary-Layer Temperature Profiles by a Scanning 5-MM Radiometer During the 1999 Winter NSA/AAO Radiometer Exp

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Boundary-Layer Temperature Profiles by a Scanning 5-MM Radiometer During the 1999 Winter NSA/AAO Radiometer Experiment and WVIOP 2000 V. Y. Leuski and E. R. Westwater Cooperative Institute for Research in the Environmental Sciences National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory University of Colorado Boulder, Colorado Introduction A scanning 5-mm-wavelength radiometer was deployed during two Intensive Operational Periods (IOPs) at the Atmospheric Radiation

  8. Improvement of microwave feeding on a large bore ECRIS with permanent magnets by using coaxial semi-dipole antenna

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurisu, Yosuke; Sakamoto, Naoki; Kiriyama, Ryutaro; Takenaka, Tomoya; Nozaki, Dai; Yano, Keisuke; Sato, Fuminobu; Kato, Yushi; Iida, Toshiyuki

    2012-11-06

    We are constructing a tandem type electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source (ECRIS). The first stage of this ECRIS has a large-bore with cylindrically comb-shaped permanent magnets. 2.45GHz and 11-13GHz microwaves can be supplied individually and simultaneously to the plasma chamber. For 2.45GHz, a coaxial semi-dipole antenna is used to feed the microwaves. In previous experiments, there were two problems encountered when running the 2.45GHz microwaves. High incident power was necessary to keep ECR discharge at low operating pressure because of high reflected microwave power. The surface of a support insulator between the inner and the outer electrodes of coaxial semi-dipole antenna was easily metalized by sputtering of the metal wall inside the chamber. The purpose of this study was to solve these problems. Performing several simulation experiments supports the hypothesis that the position of the support insulator is significant for microwave power efficiency. The end result was the ability to sustain ECR discharges at extremely low incident microwave power, several tens of watts, by optimized matching of the position and shape of the insulator.

  9. Status report on the 11.424{endash}GHz magnicon amplifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gold, S.H.; Fliflet, A.W. [Beam Physics Branch, Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, District of Columbia 20375-5346 (United States); Yakovlev, V.P.; Hirshfield, J.L. [Omega-P, Inc., 202008 Yale Station, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)] Kinkead, A.K. [Sachs/Freeman Associates, Inc., Landover, Maryland 20785 (United States)] Kozyrev, E.V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk, (Russia) 630090; Hansen, R.J. [Litton Systems, Inc., Electron Devices Division, San Carlos, California 94070 (United States)

    1999-05-01

    Progress is reported on the development of an 11.424{endash}GHz magnicon amplifier. The magnicon electron gun has been characterized, a new set of microwave cavities designed and engineered, and simulations of magnicon operation carried out based on the predicted properties of the electron beam. The tube will be assembled for initial operation in December 1998, following the completion of a set of measurements of the electron beam. The predicted power is {approximately}60 MW at 60{percent} efficiency. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Status report on the 11. 424[endash]GHz magnicon amplifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gold, S.H.; Fliflet, A.W. (Beam Physics Branch, Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, District of Columbia 20375-5346 (United States)); Yakovlev, V.P.; Hirshfield, J.L. (Omega-P, Inc., 202008 Yale Station, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)) Kinkead, A.K. (Sachs/Freeman Associates, Inc., Landover, Maryland 20785 (United States)) Kozyrev, E.V. (Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk, (Russia) 630090); Hansen, R.J. (Litton Systems, Inc., Electron Devices Division, San Carlos, California 94070 (United States))

    1999-05-01

    Progress is reported on the development of an 11.424[endash]GHz magnicon amplifier. The magnicon electron gun has been characterized, a new set of microwave cavities designed and engineered, and simulations of magnicon operation carried out based on the predicted properties of the electron beam. The tube will be assembled for initial operation in December 1998, following the completion of a set of measurements of the electron beam. The predicted power is [approximately]60 MW at 60[percent] efficiency. [copyright] [ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.

  11. High power pulsed magnicon at 34-GHz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nezhevenko, O.A.; Yakovlev, V.P.; Ganguly, A.K.; Hirshfield, J.L. [Omega-P Inc., 202008 Yale Station, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)

    1999-05-01

    A high efficiency, high power magnicon amplifier at 34.272 GHz has been designed as a radiation source to drive multi-TeV electron-positron linear colliders. Simulations show peak output power of 45 MW in a 1.5 microsecond wide pulse with an efficiency of 45{percent} and gain of 55 dB. The repetition rate is 10 Hz. The amplifier is a frequency tripler, or third harmonic amplifier, in that the output frequency of 34.272 GHz is three times the input drive frequency of 11.424 GHz. Thus the rotating TM{sub 110} modes in the drive cavity, 3 gain cavities and double decoupled penultimate cavities are resonant near 11.424 GHz; and the rotating TM{sub 310} mode in the output cavity is resonant at 34.272 GHz. A 500 kV, 200 A high area compression electron gun will provide a low emittance electron beam with a diameter of about 0.8 mm. A superconducting solenoid magnet will provide a magnetic field of 13 kG in the deflection system and 22 kG in the output cavity. A collector for the spent beam has also been designed. Detailed simulation results for the operation of the entire magnicon amplifier (gun, magnetic system, rf system and collector) will be given. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. Evaluation of Radiometers Deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habte, A.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.

    2014-02-01

    This study analyzes the performance of various commercially available radiometers used for measuring global horizontal irradiances and direct normal irradiances. These include pyranometers, pyrheliometers, rotating shadowband radiometers, and a pyranometer with fixed internal shading and are all deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. Data from 32 global horizontal irradiance and 19 direct normal irradiance radiometers are presented. The radiometers in this study were deployed for one year (from April 1, 2011, through March 31, 2012) and compared to measurements from radiometers with the lowest values of estimated measurement uncertainties for producing reference global horizontal irradiances and direct normal irradiances.

  13. 17 GHz High Gradient Accelerator Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Temkin, Richard J.; Shapiro, Michael A.

    2013-07-10

    This is a report on the MIT High Gradient Accelerator Research program which has included: Operation of the 17 GHz, 25 MeV MIT/Haimson Research Corp. electron accelerator at MIT, the highest frequency, stand-alone accelerator in the world; collaboration with members of the US High Gradient Collaboration, including the design and test of novel structures at SLAC at 11.4 GHz; the design, construction and testing of photonic bandgap structures, including metallic and dielectric structures; the investigation of the wakefields in novel structures; and the training of the next generation of graduate students and postdoctoral associates in accelerator physics.

  14. High brightness microwave lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirkpatrick, Douglas A.; Dolan, James T.; MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.; Simpson, James E.

    2003-09-09

    An electrodeless microwave discharge lamp includes a source of microwave energy, a microwave cavity, a structure configured to transmit the microwave energy from the source to the microwave cavity, a bulb disposed within the microwave cavity, the bulb including a discharge forming fill which emits light when excited by the microwave energy, and a reflector disposed within the microwave cavity, wherein the reflector defines a reflective cavity which encompasses the bulb within its volume and has an inside surface area which is sufficiently less than an inside surface area of the microwave cavity. A portion of the reflector may define a light emitting aperture which extends from a position closely spaced to the bulb to a light transmissive end of the microwave cavity. Preferably, at least a portion of the reflector is spaced from a wall of the microwave cavity. The lamp may be substantially sealed from environmental contamination. The cavity may include a dielectric material is a sufficient amount to require a reduction in the size of the cavity to support the desired resonant mode.

  15. Microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haddad, Waleed S.; Trebes, James E.

    2007-06-05

    The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector includes a low power pulsed microwave transmitter with a broad-band antenna for producing a directional beam of microwaves, an index of refraction matching cap placed over the patients head, and an array of broad-band microwave receivers with collection antennae. The system of microwave transmitter and receivers are scanned around, and can also be positioned up and down the axis of the patients head. The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector is a completely non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots or to measure blood flow within the head or body. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with specialized antennas and tomographic methods. The system can be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of blood pooling such as occurs with hemorrhagic stoke in human or animal patients as well as for the detection of hemorrhage within a patient's body.

  16. Microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haddad, Waleed S.; Trebes, James E.

    2002-01-01

    The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector includes a low power pulsed microwave transmitter with a broad-band antenna for producing a directional beam of microwaves, an index of refraction matching cap placed over the patients head, and an array of broad-band microwave receivers with collection antennae. The system of microwave transmitter and receivers are scanned around, and can also be positioned up and down the axis of the patients head. The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector is a completely non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots or to measure blood flow within the head or body. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with specialized antennas and tomographic methods. The system can be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of blood pooling such as occurs with hemorrhagic stroke in human or animal patients as well as for the detection of hemorrhage within a patient's body.

  17. Active radiometer for self-calibrated furnace temperature measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woskov, P.P.; Cohn, D.R.; Titus, C.H.; Wittle, J.K.; Surma, J.E.

    1996-11-12

    A radiometer is described with a probe beam superimposed on its field-of-view for furnace temperature measurements. The radiometer includes a heterodyne millimeter/submillimeter-wave receiver including a millimeter/submillimeter-wave source for probing. The receiver is adapted to receive radiation from a surface whose temperature is to be measured. The radiation includes a surface emission portion and a surface reflection portion which includes the probe beam energy reflected from the surface. The surface emission portion is related to the surface temperature and the surface reflection portion is related to the emissivity of the surface. The simultaneous measurement of surface emissivity serves as a real time calibration of the temperature measurement. 5 figs.

  18. Narrow Field of View Zenith Radiometer (NFOV) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiu, C; Marshak, A; Hodges, G; Barnard, JC; Schmelzer, J

    2008-11-01

    The two-channel narrow field-of-view radiometer (NFOV2) is a ground-based radiometer that looks straight up and measures radiance directly above the instrument at wavelengths of 673 and 870 nm. The field-of-view of the instrument is 1.2 degrees, and the sampling time resolution is one second. Measurements of the NFOV2 have been used to retrieve optical properties for overhead clouds that range from patchy to overcast. With a one-second sampling rate of the NFOV2, faster than almost any other ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF) instrument, we are able, for the first time, to capture changes in cloud optical properties at the natural time scale of cloud evolution.

  19. Quantitative Analysis of Spectral Impacts on Silicon Photodiode Radiometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D. R.

    2011-01-01

    Inexpensive broadband pyranometers with silicon photodiode detectors have a non-uniform spectral response over the spectral range of 300-1100 nm. The response region includes only about 70% to 75% of the total energy in the terrestrial solar spectral distribution from 300 nm to 4000 nm. The solar spectrum constantly changes with solar position and atmospheric conditions. Relative spectral distributions of diffuse hemispherical irradiance sky radiation and total global hemispherical irradiance are drastically different. This analysis convolves a typical photodiode response with SMARTS 2.9.5 spectral model spectra for different sites and atmospheric conditions. Differences in solar component spectra lead to differences on the order of 2% in global hemispherical and 5% or more in diffuse hemispherical irradiances from silicon radiometers. The result is that errors of more than 7% can occur in the computation of direct normal irradiance from global hemispherical irradiance and diffuse hemispherical irradiance using these radiometers.

  20. Quantitative Analysis of Spectral Impacts on Silicon Photodiode Radiometers: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D. R.

    2011-04-01

    Inexpensive broadband pyranometers with silicon photodiode detectors have a non-uniform spectral response over the spectral range of 300-1100 nm. The response region includes only about 70% to 75% of the total energy in the terrestrial solar spectral distribution from 300 nm to 4000 nm. The solar spectrum constantly changes with solar position and atmospheric conditions. Relative spectral distributions of diffuse hemispherical irradiance sky radiation and total global hemispherical irradiance are drastically different. This analysis convolves a typical photodiode response with SMARTS 2.9.5 spectral model spectra for different sites and atmospheric conditions. Differences in solar component spectra lead to differences on the order of 2% in global hemispherical and 5% or more in diffuse hemispherical irradiances from silicon radiometers. The result is that errors of more than 7% can occur in the computation of direct normal irradiance from global hemispherical irradiance and diffuse hemispherical irradiance using these radiometers.

  1. ARM Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR): irradiances

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Hodges, Gary

    The multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) takes spectral measurements of direct normal, diffuse horizontal and total horizontal solar irradiances. These measurements are at nominal wavelengths of 415, 500, 615, 673, 870, and 940 nm. The measurements are made at a user-specified time interval, usually about one minute or less. The sampling rate for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility MFRSRs is 20 seconds. From such measurements, one may infer the atmosphere's optical depth at the wavelengths mentioned above. In turn, these optical depths may be used to derive information about the column abundances of ozone and water vapor (Michalsky et al. 1995), as well as aerosol (Michalsky et al. 1994) and other atmospheric constituents. A silicon detector is also part of the MFRSR. This detector provides a measure of the broadband direct normal, diffuse horizontal and total horizontal solar irradiances. A MFRSR head that is mounted to look vertically downward can measure upwelling spectral irradiances. In the ARM system, this instrument is called a multifilter radiometer (MFR). At the Southern Great Plains (SGP) there are two MFRs; one mounted at the 10-m height and the other at 25 m. At the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites, the MFRs are mounted at 10 m. MFRSR heads are also used to measure normal incidence radiation by mounting on a solar tracking device. These are referred to as normal incidence multi-filter radiometers (NIMFRs) and are located at the SGP and NSA sites. Another specialized use for the MFRSR is the narrow field of view (NFOV) instrument located at SGP. The NFOV is a ground-based radiometer (MFRSR head) that looks straight up.

  2. ARM Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR): irradiances

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Hodges, Gary

    1993-07-04

    The multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) takes spectral measurements of direct normal, diffuse horizontal and total horizontal solar irradiances. These measurements are at nominal wavelengths of 415, 500, 615, 673, 870, and 940 nm. The measurements are made at a user-specified time interval, usually about one minute or less. The sampling rate for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility MFRSRs is 20 seconds. From such measurements, one may infer the atmosphere's optical depth at the wavelengths mentioned above. In turn, these optical depths may be used to derive information about the column abundances of ozone and water vapor (Michalsky et al. 1995), as well as aerosol (Michalsky et al. 1994) and other atmospheric constituents. A silicon detector is also part of the MFRSR. This detector provides a measure of the broadband direct normal, diffuse horizontal and total horizontal solar irradiances. A MFRSR head that is mounted to look vertically downward can measure upwelling spectral irradiances. In the ARM system, this instrument is called a multifilter radiometer (MFR). At the Southern Great Plains (SGP) there are two MFRs; one mounted at the 10-m height and the other at 25 m. At the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites, the MFRs are mounted at 10 m. MFRSR heads are also used to measure normal incidence radiation by mounting on a solar tracking device. These are referred to as normal incidence multi-filter radiometers (NIMFRs) and are located at the SGP and NSA sites. Another specialized use for the MFRSR is the narrow field of view (NFOV) instrument located at SGP. The NFOV is a ground-based radiometer (MFRSR head) that looks straight up.

  3. Experimental measurements and noise analysis of a cryogenic radiometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carr, S. M.; Woods, S. I.; Jung, T. M.; Carter, A. C.; Datla, R. U.

    2014-07-15

    A cryogenic radiometer device, intended for use as part of an electrical-substitution radiometer, was measured at low temperature. The device consists of a receiver cavity mechanically and thermally connected to a temperature-controlled stage through a thin-walled polyimide tube which serves as a weak thermal link. With the temperature difference between the receiver and the stage measured in millikelvin and the electrical power measured in picowatts, the measured responsivity was 4700 K/mW and the measured thermal time constant was 14 s at a stage temperature of 1.885 K. Noise analysis in terms of Noise Equivalent Power (NEP) was used to quantify the various fundamental and technical noise contributions, including phonon noise and Johnson-Nyquist noise. The noise analysis clarifies the path toward a cryogenic radiometer with a noise floor limited by fundamental phonon noise, where the magnitude of the phonon NEP is 6.5 fW/?(Hz) for the measured experimental parameters.

  4. Stable microwave coaxial cavity plasma system at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Colorado, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80918 (United States); Hong, J. M.; Lee, K. H. [Plasma Systems and Materials (PSM) Inc., Sungnam-Si, Gyonggi-Do 190-1 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, J. J. [Department of Radio Science and Engineering, Kwangwoon University, Nowon-Gu, Seoul 447-1 (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    We present a systematic study of the development of a novel atmospheric microwave plasma system for material processing in the pressure range up to 760 torr and the microwave input power up to 6 kW. Atmospheric microwave plasma was reliably produced and sustained by using a cylindrical resonator with the TM{sub 011} cavity mode. The applicator and the microwave cavity, which is a cylindrical resonator, are carefully designed and optimized with the time dependent finite element Maxwell equation solver. The azimuthal apertures are placed at the maximum magnetic field positions between the cavity and the applicator to maximize the coupling efficiency into the microwave plasma at a resonant frequency of 2.45 GHz. The system consists of a magnetron power supply, a circulator, a directional coupler, a three-stub tuner, a dummy load, a coaxial cavity, and a central cavity. Design and construction of the resonant structures and diagnostics of atmospheric plasma using optical experiments are discussed in various ranges of pressure and microwave input power for different types of gases.

  5. The multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) - precision infrared radiometer (PIR) platform in Fairbanks: Scientific objectives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stamnes, K.; Leontieva, E.

    1996-04-01

    The multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) and precision infrared radiometer (PIR) have been employed at the Geophysical Institute in Fairbanks to check their performance under arctic conditions. Drawing on the experience of the previous measurements in the Arctic, the PIR was equipped with a ventilator to prevent frost and moisture build-up. We adopted the Solar Infrared Observing Sytem (SIROS) concept from the Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) to allow implementation of the same data processing software for a set of radiation and meteorological instruments. To validate the level of performance of the whole SIROS prior to its incorporation into the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) Cloud and Radiation Testbed Site instrumental suite for flux radiatin measurements, the comparison between measurements and model predictions will be undertaken to assess the MFRSR-PIR Arctic data quality.

  6. A Comparison of Direct Heating During Radiofrequency and Microwave Ablation in Ex Vivo Liver

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andreano, Anita; Brace, Christopher L.

    2013-04-15

    This study was designed to determine the magnitude and spatial distribution of temperature elevations when using 480 kHz RF and 2.45 GHz microwave energy in ex vivo liver models. A total of 60 heating cycles (20 s at 90 W) were performed in normal, RF-ablated, and microwave-ablated liver tissues (n = 10 RF and n = 10 microwave in each tissue type). Heating cycles were performed using a 480-kHz generator and 3-cm cooled-tip electrode (RF) or a 2.45-GHz generator and 14-gauge monopole (microwave) and were designed to isolate direct heating from each energy type. Tissue temperatures were measured by using fiberoptic thermosensors 5, 10, and 15 mm radially from the ablation applicator at the depth of maximal heating. Power delivered, sensor location, heating rates, and maximal temperatures were compared using mixed effects regression models. No significant differences were noted in mean power delivered or thermosensor locations between RF and microwave heating groups (P > 0.05). Microwaves produced significantly more rapid heating than RF at 5, 10, and 15 mm in normal tissue (3.0 vs. 0.73, 0.85 vs. 0.21, and 0.17 vs. 0.09 Degree-Sign C/s; P < 0.05); and at 5 and 10 mm in ablated tissues (2.3 {+-} 1.4 vs. 0.7 {+-} 0.3, 0.5 {+-} 0.3 vs. 0.2 {+-} 0 Degree-Sign C/s, P < 0.05). The radial depth of heating was {approx}5 mm greater for microwaves than RF. Direct heating obtained with 2.45-GHz microwave energy using a single needle-like applicator is faster and covers a larger volume of tissue than 480-kHz RF energy.

  7. SEVENTH HARMONIC 20 GHz CO-GENERATOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirshfield, Jay L

    2014-04-08

    To satisfy the need for multi-MW rf sources in frequency ranges where commercial sources do not exist, a study was undertaken on a class of devices based on gyro-harmonic frequency multiplication. This mechanism relies upon adding energy in gyrating motion to a linear electron beam that traverses a rotating-mode TE111-mode drive cavity in a dc magnetic field. The beam then drifts along the magnetic field into a second cavity, operating in the TEn11-mode tuned to the nth harmonic of the drive cavity. Studies of this configuration have been carried out for 2 < n < 7. Results are given for multi-MW, efficient operation of a 7th harmonic device operating at 20 GHz, and a 2nd harmonic device operating at 22.4 GHz.

  8. New shortwave solar radiometer with information-based sparse sampling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, M.L.; Carnal, C.L.; Ericson, M.N.; Falter, D.D.; Falter, K.G.; Jellison, G.E. Jr.; Kryter, R.C.; Maddox, S.R.; Munro, J.K.; Rochelle, J.M.; Spratlin, T.L.

    1991-01-01

    A new concept for a real-time shortwave solar radiometer is presented, based on the premise that high resolution measurements of the shortwave solar spectrum are needed only in wavelength regions where the atmospheric physics are changing rapidly with respect to {Lambda}. The design features holographic optical elements (HOEs) for nonuniform sampling of the spectrum, customized photocells, and temperature-compensated monolithic wide dynamic range amplifiers. Preliminary results show full spectrum reconstruction accuracies to < 3% with a 10:1 reduction in the number of photocells required. 9 refs.

  9. Working Group Reports A Short-Wave Radiometer Array Across

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Working Group Reports A Short-Wave Radiometer Array Across the Tropical Pacific Ocean as a Component of the TOGA-TAO Buoy Array R. M. Reynolds Brookhaven National Laboratory Upton, New York Introduction The purpose of this document is to bring together pertinent information concerning the NOAA TOGA-TAO buoy array so that a decision can be made for the following questions: 1. Are the scientific gains from an array of short-wave radiation sensors in the equatorial Pacific Ocean sufficiently

  10. Variable frequency microwave heating apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bible, Don W.; Lauf, Robert J.; Johnson, Arvid C.; Thigpen, Larry T.

    1999-01-01

    A variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a multi-mode microwave cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) and a high-power microwave amplifier (20) or a high-power microwave oscillator (14). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the high-power microwave oscillator (14) or microwave amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction and amplitude of signals incident upon and reflected from the microwave cavity (34). A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

  11. Recent Progress in Retrieving Air Temperature Profiles and Air-Sea Temperature Differences from Infrared and Microwave Scan...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Recent Progress in Retrieving Air Temperature Profiles and Air-Sea Temperature Differences from Infrared and Microwave Scanning Radiometer Data D. Cimini University of L'Aquila L'Aquila, Italy J. A. Shaw Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Montana State University Bozeman, Montana E. R. Westwater Cooperative Institute for Research in the Environmental Sciences University of Colorado National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder,

  12. Preliminary analysis of ground-based microwave and infrared radiance observations during the Pilot Radiation OBservation Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westwater, E.R.; Han, Y.; Churnside, J.H.; Snider, J.B.

    1995-04-01

    During Phase Two of the Pilot Radiation OBservation Experiment (PROBE) held in Kavieng, Papua New Guinea, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration`s Environmental Technology Laboratory (ETL) operated both microwave and infrared radiometers. Phase Two lasted from January 6 to February 28, 1993. The dramatic differences in the water vapor environment between the tropics and mid-latitudes were illustrated by Westwater et al. (1994) who presented PROBE data as well as additional data that were taken during the 1991 First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) 11 experiment in Coffeyville, Kansas. We present an analysis of microwave data and a preliminary analysis of infrared data obtained during PROBE.

  13. Microwave ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani; Thomae, Rainer W.

    2005-07-26

    A compact microwave ion source has a permanent magnet dipole field, a microwave launcher, and an extractor parallel to the source axis. The dipole field is in the form of a ring. The microwaves are launched from the middle of the dipole ring using a coaxial waveguide. Electrons are heated using ECR in the magnetic field. The ions are extracted from the side of the source from the middle of the dipole perpendicular to the source axis. The plasma density can be increased by boosting the microwave ion source by the addition of an RF antenna. Higher charge states can be achieved by increasing the microwave frequency. A xenon source with a magnetic pinch can be used to produce intense EUV radiation.

  14. Preliminary experimental investigation of a complex dual-band high power microwave source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Xiaoping Li, Yangmei; Li, Zhiqiang; Zhong, Huihuang; Qian, Baoliang

    2015-10-15

    In order to promote the power conversion efficiency of a magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) and obtain microwaves in dual bands, an axially extracted C-band virtual cathode oscillator (VCO) with multiple resonant cavities is introduced to partially utilize the load current of an S-band MILO. The formed novel dual-band high power microwave source called MILO and VCO is investigated with simulation and experimentally. A dual-band radiation antenna is designed to effectively radiate microwaves generated by the MILO and the VCO, respectively, while avoiding them being influenced by the microwave reflection and diffraction. The preliminary experimental results measured by the dual-band diagnostic system show that both the MILO and the VCO operate normally under repeated shots. A microwave of 2.1 GHz, 1.70 GW is generated from the MILO and a 0.37 GW microwave at frequencies of 4.1 GHz and 3.8 GHz is generated from the VCO under the condition of about 440 kV and 35 kA. Compared with a single MILO (10.6%), a MILO and VCO achieves higher total power and efficiency (13.4%) in both S and C bands, indicating that the load current of the MILO partially couples into the beam-wave interaction in the VCO and then contributes to the output microwaves. However, more works are needed regarding the spectrum purification of the VCO and promotion of the output power of both the MILO and the VCO.

  15. Two-gigawatt burst-mode operation of the intense microwave prototype (IMP) free-electron laser (FEL) for the microwave tokamak experiment (MTX)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felker, B.; Allen, S.; Bell, H.

    1993-10-06

    The MTX explored the plasma heating effects of 140 GHz microwaves from both Gyrotrons and from the IMP FEL wiggler. The Gyrotron was long pulse length (0.5 seconds maximum) and the FEL produced short-pulse length, high-peak power, single and burst modes of 140 GHZ microwaves. Full-power operations of the IMP FEL wiggler were commenced in April of 1992 and continued into October of 1992. The Experimental Test Accelerator H (ETA-II) provided a 50-nanosecond, 6-MeV, 2--3 kAmp electron beam that was introduced co-linear into the IMP FEL with a 140 GHz Gyrotron master oscillator (MO). The FEL was able to amplify the MO signal from approximately 7 kW to peaks consistently in the range of 1--2 GW. This microwave pulse was transmitted into the MTX and allowed the exploration of the linear and non-linear effects of short pulse, intense power in the MTX plasma. Single pulses were used to explore and gain operating experience in the parameter space of the IMP FEL, and finally evaluate transmission and absorption in the MTX. Single-pulse operations were repeatable. After the MTX was shut down burst-mode operations were successful at 2 kHz. This paper will describe the IMP FEL, Microwave Transmission System to MTX, the diagnostics used for calorimetric measurements, and the operations of the entire Microwave system. A discussion of correlated and uncorrelated errors that affect FEL performance will be made Linear and non-linear absorption data of the microwaves in the MTX plasma will be presented.

  16. Design of a differential radiometer for atmospheric radiative flux measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaDelfe, P.C.; Weber, P.G.; Rodriguez, C.W.

    1994-11-01

    The Hemispherical Optimized NEt Radiometer (HONER) is an instrument under development at the Los Alamos National Laboratory for deployment on an unmanned aerospace vehicle as part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM/UAV) program. HONER is a differential radiometer which will measure the difference between the total upwelling and downwelling fluxes and is intended to provide a means of measuring the atmospheric radiative flux divergence. Unlike existing instruments which measure the upwelling and downwelling fluxes separately, HONER will achieve an optical difference by chopping the two fluxes alternately onto a common pyroelectric detector. HONER will provide data resolved into two spectral bands; one covering the solar dominated region from less than 0.4 micrometer to approximately 4.5 micrometers and the other covering the region from approximately 4.5 micrometers to greater than 50 micrometers, dominated by thermal radiation. The means of separating the spectral regions guarantees seamless summation to calculate the total flux. The fields-of-view are near-hemispherical, upward and downward. The instrument can be converted, in flight, from the differential mode to absolute mode, measuring the upwelling and downwelling fluxes separately and simultaneously. The instrument also features continuous calibration from on-board sources. We will describe the design and operation of the sensor head and the on-board reference sources as well as the means of deployment.

  17. Feasibility study of microwave electron heating on the C-2 field-reversed configuration device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Xiaokang Ceccherini, Francesco; Dettrick, Sean; Binderbauer, Michl; Koehn, Alf; Petrov, Yuri

    2015-12-10

    Different microwave heating scenarios for the C-2 plasmas have been investigated recently with use of both the Genray ray-racing code and the IPF-FDMC full-wave code, and the study was focused on the excitation of the electron Bernstein wave (EBW) with O-mode launch. For a given antenna position on C-2 and the fixed 2D plasma density and equilibrium field profiles, simulations have been done for six selected frequencies (2.45 GHz, 5 GHz, 8 GHz, 18 GHz, 28 GHz, and 50 GHz). Launch angles have been optimized for each case in order to achieve high coupling efficiencies to the EBW by the O-X-B mode conversion process and high power deposition. Results show that among those six frequencies, the case of 8 GHz is the most promising scenario, which has both high mode conversion efficiency (90%) and the relatively deeper power deposition.

  18. Research on calorimeter for high-power microwave measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye, Hu; Ning, Hui; Yang, Wensen; Tian, Yanmin; Xiong, Zhengfeng; Yang, Meng; Yan, Feng; Cui, Xinhong

    2015-12-15

    Based on measurement of the volume increment of polar liquid that is a result of heating by absorbed microwave energy, two types of calorimeters with coaxial capacitive probes for measurement of high-power microwave energy are designed in this paper. The first is an “inline” calorimeter, which is placed as an absorbing load at the end of the output waveguide, and the second is an “offline” calorimeter that is placed 20 cm away from the radiation horn of the high-power microwave generator. Ethanol and high density polyethylene are used as the absorbing and housing materials, respectively. Results from both simulations and a “cold test” on a 9.3 GHz klystron show that the “inline” calorimeter has a measurement range of more than 100 J and an energy absorption coefficient of 93%, while the experimental results on a 9.3 GHz relativistic backward-wave oscillator show that the device’s power capacity is approximately 0.9 GW. The same experiments were also carried out for the “offline” calorimeter, and the results indicate that it can be used to eliminate the effects of the shock of the solenoid on the measurement curves and that the device has a higher power capacity of 2.5 GW. The results of the numerical simulations, the “cold tests,” and the experiments show good agreement.

  19. Compact microwave ion source for industrial applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Yong-Sub; Kim, Dae-Il; Kim, Han-Sung; Seol, Kyung-Tae; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Hong, In-Seok

    2012-02-15

    A 2.45 GHz microwave ion source for ion implanters has many good properties for industrial application, such as easy maintenance and long lifetime, and it should be compact for budget and space. But, it has a dc current supply for the solenoid and a rf generator for plasma generation. Usually, they are located on high voltage platform because they are electrically connected with beam extraction power supply. Using permanent magnet solenoid and multi-layer dc break, high voltage deck and high voltage isolation transformer can be eliminated, and the dose rate on targets can be controlled by pulse duty control with semiconductor high voltage switch. Because the beam optics does not change, beam transfer components, such as focusing elements and beam shutter, can be eliminated. It has shown the good performances in budget and space for industrial applications of ion beams.

  20. Microwave coupler and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, C.E.

    1984-11-29

    The present invention is directed to a microwave coupler for enhancing the heating or metallurgical treatment of materials within a cold-wall, rapidly heated cavity as provided by a microwave furnace. The coupling material of the present invention is an alpha-rhombohedral-boron-derivative-structure material such as boron carbide or boron silicide which can be appropriately positioned as a susceptor within the furnace to heat other material or be in powder particulate form so that composites and structures of boron carbide such as cutting tools, grinding wheels and the like can be rapidly and efficiently formed within microwave furnaces.

  1. Microwave thawing apparatus and method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fathi, Zakaryae; Lauf, Robert J.; McMillan, April D.

    2004-06-01

    An apparatus for thawing a frozen material includes: a microwave energy source; a microwave applicator which defines a cavity for applying microwave energy from the microwave source to a material to be thawed; and a shielded region which is shielded from the microwave source, the shielded region in fluid communication with the cavity so that thawed material may flow from the cavity into the shielded region.

  2. Satellite remote sensing of global rainfall using passive microwave radiometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferriday, J.G.

    1994-12-31

    Global rainfall over land and ocean is estimated using measurements of upwelling microwaves by a satellite passive microwave radiometer. Radiative transfer calculations through a cloud model are used to parameterize an inversion technique for retrieving rain rates from brightness temperatures measured by the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I). The rainfall retrieval technique is based on the interaction between multi-spectral microwave radiances and millimeter sized liquid and frozen hydrometeors distributed in the satellite`s field of view. The rain rate algorithm is sensitive to both hydrometeor emission and scattering while being relatively insensitive to extraneous atmospheric and surface effects. Separate formulations are used over ocean and land to account for different background microwave characteristics and the algorithm corrects for inhomogeneous distributions of rain rates within the satellite`s field of view. Estimates of instantaneous and climate scale rainfall are validated through comparisons with modeled clouds, surface radars, rain gauges and alternative satellite estimates. The accuracy of the rainfall estimates is determined from a combination of validation comparisons, theoretical sampling error calculations, and modeled sensitivity to variations in atmospheric and surface radiative properties. An error budget is constructed for both instantaneous rain rates and climate scale global estimates. At a one degree resolution, the root mean square errors in instantaneous rain rate estimates are 13% over ocean and 20% over land. The root mean square errors in global rainfall totals over a four month period are found to be 46% over ocean and 63% over land. Global rainfall totals are computed on a monthly scale for a three year period from 1987 to 1990. The time series is analyzed for climate scale rainfall distribution and variability.

  3. Microwave fluid flow meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Billeter, Thomas R.; Philipp, Lee D.; Schemmel, Richard R.

    1976-01-01

    A microwave fluid flow meter is described utilizing two spaced microwave sensors positioned along a fluid flow path. Each sensor includes a microwave cavity having a frequency of resonance dependent upon the static pressure of the fluid at the sensor locations. The resonant response of each cavity with respect to a variation in pressure of the monitored fluid is represented by a corresponding electrical output which can be calibrated into a direct pressure reading. The pressure drop between sensor locations is then correlated as a measure of fluid velocity. In the preferred embodiment the individual sensor cavities are strategically positioned outside the path of fluid flow and are designed to resonate in two distinct frequency modes yielding a measure of temperature as well as pressure. The temperature response can then be used in correcting for pressure responses of the microwave cavity encountered due to temperature fluctuations.

  4. Emitron: microwave diode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Craig, G.D.; Pettibone, J.S.; Drobot, A.T.

    1982-05-06

    The invention comprises a new class of device, driven by electron or other charged particle flow, for producing coherent microwaves by utilizing the interaction of electromagnetic waves with electron flow in diodes not requiring an external magnetic field. Anode and cathode surfaces are electrically charged with respect to one another by electron flow, for example caused by a Marx bank voltage source or by other charged particle flow, for example by a high energy charged particle beam. This produces an electric field which stimulates an emitted electron beam to flow in the anode-cathode region. The emitted electrons are accelerated by the electric field and coherent microwaves are produced by the three dimensional spatial and temporal interaction of the accelerated electrons with geometrically allowed microwave modes which results in the bunching of the electrons and the pumping of at least one dominant microwave mode.

  5. High power microwave generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekdahl, Carl A.

    1986-01-01

    A microwave generator efficiently converts the energy of an intense relativistic electron beam (REB) into a high-power microwave emission using the Smith-Purcell effect which is related to Cerenkov radiation. Feedback for efficient beam bunching and high gain is obtained by placing a cylindrical Smith-Purcell transmission grating on the axis of a toroidal resonator. High efficiency results from the use of a thin cold annular highly-magnetized REB that is closely coupled to the resonant structure.

  6. High power microwave generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekdahl, C.A.

    1983-12-29

    A microwave generator efficiently converts the energy of an intense relativistic electron beam (REB) into a high-power microwave emission using the Smith-Purcell effect which is related to Cerenkov radiation. Feedback for efficient beam bunching and high gain is obtained by placing a cylindrical Smith-Purcell transmission grating on the axis of a toroidal resonator. High efficiency results from the use of a thin cold annular highly-magnetized REB that is closely coupled to the resonant structure.

  7. Observations of the frequency tuning effect in the 14 GHz CAPRICE ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Celona, L.; Ciavola, G.; Consoli, F.; Gammino, S.; Maimone, F.; Mascali, D.; Spaedtke, P.; Tinschert, K.; Lang, R.; Maeder, J.; Rossbach, J.; Barbarino, S.; Catalano, R. S.

    2008-02-15

    A set of measurements with the CAPRICE ion source at the GSI test bench has been carried out to investigate its behavior in terms of intensity and shape of the extracted beam when the microwaves generating the plasma sweep in a narrow range of frequency ({+-}40 MHz) around the klystron center frequency (14.5 GHz). Remarkable variations have been observed depending on the source and the beamline operating parameters, confirming that a frequency dependent electromagnetic distribution is preserved even in the presence of plasma inside the source. Moreover, these observations confirm that the frequency tuning is a powerful method to optimize the electron cyclotron resonance ion source performances. A description of the experimental setup and of the obtained results is given in the following.

  8. Predicted performance of an Induction Linac Driven FEL amplifier designed for radar applications at 94 GHz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caplan, M.

    1991-08-01

    The saturated performance of an Induction Linac Driven FEL operating at 94 GHz with peak microwave powers in excess of 2 GW is evaluated using a self-consistent 3D waveguide mode-particle interaction code. The code includes the effect of AC longitudinal space charge and DC transverse space charge with the resulting prediction that operation is not possible below 2.5 MeV with a 2 kA beam and 10 cm wiggler. A design based around a 4 MeV beam predicts peak power in excess of 2.4 GW over a 10% bandwidth with output phase varying linear with frequency. 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. A tunable microwave slot antenna based on graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dragoman, Mircea; Aldrigo, Martino; Vasilache, D.; Dinescu, A.; Neculoiu, Dan; Bunea, Alina-Cristina; Deligeorgis, George; Konstantinidis, George; Mencarelli, Davide; Pierantoni, Luca; Modreanu, M.

    2015-04-13

    The paper presents the experimental and modeling results of a microwave slot antenna in a coplanar configuration based on graphene. The antennas are fabricated on a 4 in. high-resistivity Si wafer, with a ∼300 nm SiO{sub 2} layer grown through thermal oxidation. A CVD grown graphene layer is transferred on the SiO{sub 2}. The paper shows that the reflection parameter of the antenna can be tuned by a DC voltage. 2D radiation patterns at various frequencies in the X band (8–12 GHz) are then presented using as antenna backside a microwave absorbent and a metalized surface. Although the radiation efficiency is lower than a metallic antenna, the graphene antenna is a wideband antenna while the metal antennas with the same geometry and working at the same frequencies are narrowband.

  10. Microwaves and particle accelerators: a fundamental link

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chattopadhyay, Swapan

    2011-07-01

    John Cockcroft's splitting of the atom and Ernest Lawrence's invention of the cyclotron in the first half of the twentieth century ushered in the grand era of ever higher energy particle accelerators to probe deeper into matter. It also forged a link, bonding scientific discovery with technological innovation that continues today in the twenty first century. The development of radar and high power vacuum electronics, especially microwave power tubes like the magnetrons and the klystrons in the pre-second world war era, was instrumental in the rapid development of circular and linear charged particle accelerators in the second half of the twentieth century. We had harnessed the powerful microwave radio-frequency sources from few tens of MHz to up to 90 GHz spanning L-band to W-band frequencies. Simultaneously in the second half of the twentieth century, lasers began to offer very first opportunities of controlling charged particles at smaller resolutions on the scale of wavelengths of visible light. We also witnessed in this period the emergence of the photon and neutron sciences driven by accelerators built-by-design producing tailored and ultra-bright pulses of bright photons and neutrons to probe structure and function of matter from aggregate to individual molecular and atomic scales in unexplored territories in material and life sciences. As we enter the twenty first century, the race for ever higher energies, brightness and luminosity to probe atto-metric and atto-second domains of the ultra-small structures and ultra-fast processes continues. These developments depend crucially on yet further advancements in the production and control of high power and high frequency microwaves and light sources, often intricately coupled in their operation to the high energy beams themselves. We give a glimpse of the recent developments and innovations in the electromagnetic production and control of charged particle beams in the service of science and society. (author)

  11. Experimental study of an FEM with a microwave system of a new type

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bratman, V.L.; Denisov, G.G.; Ginzburg, N.S.; Kol`chugin, B.D.; Peskov, N. Yu.; Samsonov, S.V.; Volkov, A.B.

    1996-06-01

    Operability of the wide-band reflector based on the effect of microwave beams multiplication was tested in the hot experiment. A microwave system of the new type including such a reflector was used in a free electron maser (FEM)-oscillator with a guide magnetic field. The high-current accelerator Sinus-6 forming a 500 keV/120 A electron beam was used as the FEM driver. The double-resonance regime, when both the undulator and the cyclotron resonance conditions were fulfilled simultaneously, provided maximum output power 7 MW and electron efficiency 12% at the designed frequency 45 GHz.

  12. Electrode-plasma-driven radiation cutoff in long-pulse, high-power microwave devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, D. V.; Miller, C. L.; Welch, D. R.; Portillo, S.

    2013-03-15

    The impact of electrode plasma dynamics on the radiation production in a high power microwave device is examined using particle-in-cell simulations. Using the design of a compact 2.4 GHz magnetically insulated line oscillator (MILO) as the basis for numerical simulations, we characterize the time-dependent device power and radiation output over a range of cathode plasma formation rates. These numerical simulations can self-consistently produce radiation characteristics that are similar to measured signals in long pulse duration MILOs. This modeling capability should result in improved assessment of existing high-power microwave devices and lead to new designs for increased radiation pulse durations.

  13. Ultra-low power microwave CHFET integrated circuit development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baca, A.G.; Hietala, V.M.; Greenway, D.; Sloan, L.R.; Shul, R.J.; Muyshondt, G.P.; Dubbert, D.F.

    1998-04-01

    This report summarizes work on the development of ultra-low power microwave CHFET integrated circuit development. Power consumption of microwave circuits has been reduced by factors of 50--1,000 over commercially available circuits. Positive threshold field effect transistors (nJFETs and PHEMTs) have been used to design and fabricate microwave circuits with power levels of 1 milliwatt or less. 0.7 {micro}m gate nJFETs are suitable for both digital CHFET integrated circuits as well as low power microwave circuits. Both hybrid amplifiers and MMICs were demonstrated at the 1 mW level at 2.4 GHz. Advanced devices were also developed and characterized for even lower power levels. Amplifiers with 0.3 {micro}m JFETs were simulated with 8--10 dB gain down to power levels of 250 microwatts ({mu}W). However 0.25 {micro}m PHEMTs proved superior to the JFETs with amplifier gain of 8 dB at 217 MHz and 50 {mu}W power levels but they are not integrable with the digital CHFET technology.

  14. Microwave and Radio Frequency Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    At the Microwave and Radio Frequency Workshop (held in Long Beach, CA, on July 25, 2012), academic and industry experts discussed the existing and emerging electrotechnologies such as microwave ...

  15. Evaluating Solar Resource Data Obtained from Multiple Radiometers Deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habte, A.; Sengupta, M.; Andreas, A.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.

    2014-09-01

    Solar radiation resource measurements from radiometers are used to predict and evaluate the performance of photovoltaic and concentrating solar power systems, validate satellite-based models for estimating solar resources, and advance research in solar forecasting and climate change. This study analyzes the performance of various commercially available radiometers used for measuring global horizontal irradiances (GHI) and direct normal irradiances (DNI). These include pyranometers, pyrheliometers, rotating shadowband irradiometers, and a pyranometer with a shading ring deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL). The radiometers in this study were deployed for one year (from April 1, 2011, through March 31, 2012) and compared to measurements from radiometers with the lowest values of estimated measurement uncertainties for producing reference GHI and DNI.

  16. High power microwave generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Minich, Roger W.

    1988-01-01

    A device (10) for producing high-powered and coherent microwaves is described. The device comprises an evacuated, cylindrical, and hollow real cathode (20) that is driven to inwardly field emit relativistic electrons. The electrons pass through an internally disposed cylindrical and substantially electron-transparent cylindrical anode (24), proceed toward a cylindrical electron collector electrode (26), and form a cylindrical virtual cathode (32). Microwaves are produced by spatial and temporal oscillations of the cylindrical virtual cathode (32), and by electrons that reflex back and forth between the cylindrical virtual cathode (32) and the cylindrical real cathode (20).

  17. Floating data acquisition system for microwave calorimeter measurements on MTX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sewall, N.R.; Meassick, S. )

    1989-09-13

    A microwave calorimeter has been designed for making 140-GHz absorption measurements on the MTX. Measurement of the intensity and spatial distribution of the FEL-generated microwave beam on the inner wall will indicate the absorption characteristics of the plasma when heated with a 140 GHz FEL pulse. The calorimeter works by monitoring changes of temperature in silicon carbide tiles located on the inner wall of the tokamak. Thermistors are used to measure the temperature of each tile. The tiles are located inside the tokamak about 1 cm outside of the limiter radius at machine potential. The success of this measurement depends on our ability to float the data acquisition system near machine potential and isolate it from the rest of the vault ground system. Our data acquisition system has 48 channels of thermistor signal conditioning, a multiplexer and digitizer section, a serial data formatter, and a fiber-optic transmitter to send the data out. Additionally, we bring timing signals to the interface through optical fibers to tell it when to begin measurement, while maintaining isolation. The receiver is an HP 200 series computer with a serial data interface; the computer provides storage and local display for the shot temperature profile. Additionally, the computer provides temporary storage of the data until it can be passed to a shared resource management system for archiving. 2 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Development of two-band infrared radiometer for irradiance calibration of target simulators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Sen; Li, Chengwei

    2015-07-15

    A detector-based spectral radiometer has been developed for the calibration of target simulator. Unlike the conventional spectral irradiance calibration method based on radiance and irradiance, the new radiometer is calibrated using image-space temperature based method. The image-space temperature based method improves the reproducibility in the calibration of radiometer and reduces the uncertainties existing in the conventional calibration methods. The calibrated radiometer is then used to establish the irradiance transfer standard for the target simulator. With the designed radiometer in this paper, a highly accurate irradiance calibration for target simulators of wavelength from 2.05 to 2.55 μm and from 3.7 to 4.8 μm can be performed with an expanded uncertainty (k = 2) of calibration of 2.18%. Last but not least, the infrared radiation of the target simulator was measured by the infrared radiometer, the effectiveness and capability of which are verified through measurement of temperature and irradiance and a comparison with the thermal imaging camera.

  19. The 17 GHz active region number

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Selhorst, C. L.; Pacini, A. A.; Costa, J. E. R.; Gimnez de Castro, C. G.; Valio, A.; Shibasaki, K.

    2014-08-01

    We report the statistics of the number of active regions (NAR) observed at 17 GHz with the Nobeyama Radioheliograph between 1992, near the maximum of cycle 22, and 2013, which also includes the maximum of cycle 24, and we compare with other activity indexes. We find that NAR minima are shorter than those of the sunspot number (SSN) and radio flux at 10.7 cm (F10.7). This shorter NAR minima could reflect the presence of active regions generated by faint magnetic fields or spotless regions, which were a considerable fraction of the counted active regions. The ratio between the solar radio indexes F10.7/NAR shows a similar reduction during the two minima analyzed, which contrasts with the increase of the ratio of both radio indexes in relation to the SSN during the minimum of cycle 23-24. These results indicate that the radio indexes are more sensitive to weaker magnetic fields than those necessary to form sunspots, of the order of 1500 G. The analysis of the monthly averages of the active region brightness temperatures shows that its long-term variation mimics the solar cycle; however, due to the gyro-resonance emission, a great number of intense spikes are observed in the maximum temperature study. The decrease in the number of these spikes is also evident during the current cycle 24, a consequence of the sunspot magnetic field weakening in the last few years.

  20. Variable frequency microwave furnace system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bible, D.W.; Lauf, R.J.

    1994-06-14

    A variable frequency microwave furnace system designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system includes a microwave signal generator or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator. A second amplifier is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier. The second amplifier outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity. In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply is provided for operation of the second amplifier. A directional coupler is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace. A second power meter detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load. 5 figs.

  1. Variable frequency microwave furnace system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bible, Don W.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1994-01-01

    A variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14) for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier (18) may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator (12) or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14). A second amplifier (20) is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier (18). The second amplifier (20) outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity (34). In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier (20) is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the second amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

  2. MAXIMA-1: A Measurement of the Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropy on Angular Scales of 10' to 5 degrees

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Ade, P.; Balbi, A.; Bock, J.; Borrill, J.; Boscaleri, A.; de Bernardis, P.; Ferreira, P. G.; Hanany, S.; Hristov, V. V.; Jaffe, A. H.; Lange, A. E.; Lee, A. T.; Mauskopf, P. D.; Netterfield, C. B.; Oh, S.; Pascale, E.; Rabii, B.; Richards, P. L.; Smoot, G. F.; Stompor, R.; Winant,C. D.; Wu, J. H. P.

    2005-06-04

    We present a map and an angular power spectrum of the anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) from the first flight of MAXIMA. MAXIMA is a balloon-borne experiment with an array of 16 bolometric photometers operated at 100 mK. MAXIMA observed a 124 deg{sup 2} region of the sky with 10' resolution at frequencies of 150, 240 and 410 GHz. The data were calibrated using in-flight measurements of the CMB dipole anisotropy. A map of the CMB anisotropy was produced from three 150 and one 240 GHz photometer without need for foreground subtractions.

  3. Highly conducting SrMoO{sub 3} thin films for microwave applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radetinac, Aldin Mani, Arzhang; Ziegler, Jürgen; Alff, Lambert; Komissinskiy, Philipp; Melnyk, Sergiy; Nikfalazar, Mohammad; Zheng, Yuliang; Jakoby, Rolf

    2014-09-15

    We have measured the microwave resistance of highly conducting perovskite oxide SrMoO{sub 3} thin film coplanar waveguides. The epitaxial SrMoO{sub 3} thin films were grown by pulsed laser deposition and showed low mosaicity and smooth surfaces with a root mean square roughness below 0.3 nm. Layer-by-layer growth could be achieved for film thicknesses up to 400 nm as monitored by reflection high-energy electron diffraction and confirmed by X-ray diffraction. We obtained a constant microwave resistivity of 29 μΩ·cm between 0.1 and 20 GHz by refining the frequency dependence of the transmission coefficients. Our result shows that SrMoO{sub 3} is a viable candidate as a highly conducting electrode material for all-oxide microwave electronic devices.

  4. Evaluation the microwave heating of spinel crystals in high-level waste glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christian, J. H.; Washington, A. L.

    2015-08-18

    In this report, the microwave heating of a crystal-free and a partially (24 wt%) trevorite-crystallized waste glass simulant were evaluated. The results show that a 500 mg piece of partially crystallized waste glass can be heated from room-temperature to above 1600 °C (as measured by infrared radiometry) within 2 minutes using a single mode, highly focused, 2.45 GHz microwave, operating at 300 W. X-ray diffraction measurements show that the partially crystallized glass experiences an 87 % reduction in trevorite following irradiation and thermal quenching. When a crystal-free analogue of the same waste glass simulant composition is exposed to the same microwave radiation it could not be heated above 450 °C regardless of the heating time.

  5. Innovative Microwave Technology - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Return to Search Innovative Microwave Technology Hybrid microwave technology capable of performing functions that traditional microwave systems could not achieve. Savannah River National Laboratory New Hybrid Microwave Technology New Hybrid Microwave Technology Success Story Details Partner Location Agreement Type Publication Date Hadron Technologies, Inc. Offices in Tennessee and Colorado License October 22, 2013 Summary Hadron Technologies, Inc. has signed

  6. Determining the microwave coupling and operational efficiencies of a microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition reactor under high pressure diamond synthesis operating conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nad, Shreya; Gu, Yajun; Asmussen, Jes

    2015-07-15

    The microwave coupling efficiency of the 2.45 GHz, microwave plasma assisted diamond synthesis process is investigated by experimentally measuring the performance of a specific single mode excited, internally tuned microwave plasma reactor. Plasma reactor coupling efficiencies (η) > 90% are achieved over the entire 100–260 Torr pressure range and 1.5–2.4 kW input power diamond synthesis regime. When operating at a specific experimental operating condition, small additional internal tuning adjustments can be made to achieve η > 98%. When the plasma reactor has low empty cavity losses, i.e., the empty cavity quality factor is >1500, then overall microwave discharge coupling efficiencies (η{sub coup}) of >94% can be achieved. A large, safe, and efficient experimental operating regime is identified. Both substrate hot spots and the formation of microwave plasmoids are eliminated when operating within this regime. This investigation suggests that both the reactor design and the reactor process operation must be considered when attempting to lower diamond synthesis electrical energy costs while still enabling a very versatile and flexible operation performance.

  7. Microwave solidification project overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sprenger, G.

    1993-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant Microwave Solidification Project has application potential to the Mixed Waste Treatment Project and the The Mixed Waste Integrated Program. The technical areas being addressed include (1) waste destruction and stabilization; (2) final waste form; and (3) front-end waste handling and feed preparation. This document covers need for such a program; technology description; significance; regulatory requirements; and accomplishments to date. A list of significant reports published under this project is included.

  8. High Energy Density Microwaves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, R.M. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States)

    1999-04-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the RF98 Workshop entitled `High Energy Density Microwaves` held in California in October, 1998. The topics discussed were predominantly accelerator{minus}related. The Workshop dealt, for the most part, with the generation and control of electron beams, the amplification of RF signals, the design of mode converters, and the effect of very high RF field gradients. This Workshop was designed to address the concerns of the microwave tube industry worldwide, the plasma physicists who deal with very high beam currents and gigawatts of RF power, and researchers in accelerator centers around the world. Papers were presented on multibeam klystrons, gyrotron development, plasmas in microwave tubes, RF breakdown, and alternatives to conventional linear coliders at 1 TeV and above. The Workshop was partially sponsored by the US Department of Energy. There were 46 papers presented at the conference,out of which 19 have been abstracted for the Energy,Science and Technology database.(AIP)

  9. ARM - Datastreams - mwrhfcal150

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Datastreamsmwrhfcal150 Documentation Data Quality Plots Citation DOI: 10.5439/1150245 [ What is this? ] Generate Citation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Datastream : MWRHFCAL150 Microwave Radiometer: High Frequency, calibration data for 150GHz channel Active Dates 2008.09.15 - 2016.08.30 Originating Instrument Microwave Radiometer - High Frequency (MWRHF) Measurements Only measurements considered

  10. ARM - Datastreams - mwrhfcal90

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Datastreamsmwrhfcal90 Documentation Data Quality Plots Citation DOI: 10.5439/1150246 [ What is this? ] Generate Citation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Datastream : MWRHFCAL90 Microwave Radiometer: High Frequency, calibration data for 90GHz channel Active Dates 2008.09.15 - 2016.09.02 Originating Instrument Microwave Radiometer - High Frequency (MWRHF) Measurements Only measurements considered

  11. Slide 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Illinois, Champaign, IL October 14-16, 2008 ARM AVP Workshop The Profiling Radiometer for Atmospheric and Cloud Observation PRACO Marian Klein, Vladimir Irisov, Vladimir Leuski University of Illinois, Champaign, IL October 14-16, 2008 ARM AVP Workshop BEST * Established in 2006 * Passive microwave remote sensing * Long experience with airborne, ship-borne, ground based microwave radiometers University of Illinois, Champaign, IL October 14-16, 2008 ARM AVP Workshop 60 GHz Boundary Layer

  12. GVR (G-Band Vapor Radiometer) M.P. Cadeddu and J.C. Liljegren...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mod-meas (K) Number of tip cal What level of measurement uncertainty can we afford? LWP (gm 2 ) TB(cloudy) - TB(clear), K 90 GHz: DTb 1K DLWP 5 gm 2 150 GHz: DTb 1K DLWP ...

  13. STATISTICAL PROPERTIES OF 12.2 GHz METHANOL MASERS ASSOCIATED WITH A COMPLETE SAMPLE OF 6.7 GHz METHANOL MASERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breen, S. L.; Caswell, J. L.; Green, J. A.; Voronkov, M. A.; Ellingsen, S. P.; Fuller, G. A.; Quinn, L. J.; Avison, A.

    2011-06-01

    We present definitive detection statistics for 12.2 GHz methanol masers toward a complete sample of 6.7 GHz methanol masers detected in the Methanol Multibeam survey south of declination -20{sup 0}. In total, we detect 250 12.2 GHz methanol masers toward 580 6.7 GHz methanol masers. This equates to a detection rate of 43.1%, which is lower than that of previous significant searches of comparable sensitivity. Both the velocity ranges and the flux densities of the target 6.7 GHz sources surpass that of their 12.2 GHz companion in almost all cases. Eighty percent of the detected 12.2 GHz methanol maser peaks are coincident in velocity with the 6.7 GHz maser peak. Our data support an evolutionary scenario whereby the 12.2 GHz sources are associated with a somewhat later evolutionary stage than the 6.7 GHz sources devoid of this transition. Furthermore, we find that the 6.7 GHz and 12.2 GHz methanol sources increase in luminosity as they evolve. In addition to this, evidence for an increase in velocity range with evolution is presented. This implies that it is not only the luminosity but also the volume of gas conducive to the different maser transitions that increases as the sources evolve. Comparison with GLIMPSE mid-infrared sources has revealed a coincidence rate between the locations of the 6.7 GHz methanol masers and GLIMPSE point sources similar to that achieved in previous studies. Overall, the properties of the GLIMPSE sources with and without 12.2 GHz counterparts are similar. There is a higher 12.2 GHz detection rate toward those 6.7 GHz methanol masers that are coincident with extended green objects.

  14. Second Season QUIET Observations: Measurements of the CMB Polarization Power Spectrum at 95 GHz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Araujo, D.; Bischoff, C.; Brizius, A.; Buder, I.; Chinone, Y.; Cleary, K.; Dumoulin, R.N.; Kusaka, A.; Monsalve, R.; ss, S.K.N\\ae; Newburgh, L.B.; /Columbia U., CBA /Princeton U. /Caltech

    2012-07-01

    The Q/U Imaging ExperimenT (QUIET) has observed the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at 43 and 95GHz. The 43-GHz results have been published in QUIET Collaboration et al. (2011), and here we report the measurement of CMB polarization power spectra using the 95-GHz data. This data set comprises 5337 hours of observations recorded by an array of 84 polarized coherent receivers with a total array sensitivity of 87 {mu}K{radical}s. Four low-foreground fields were observed, covering a total of {approx} 1000 square degrees with an effective angular resolution of 12'.8, allowing for constraints on primordial gravitational waves and high-signal-to-noise measurements of the E-modes across three acoustic peaks. The data reduction was performed using two independent analysis pipelines, one based on a pseudo-C{ell} (PCL) cross-correlation approach, and the other on a maximum-likelihood (ML) approach. All data selection criteria and filters were modified until a predefined set of null tests had been satisfied before inspecting any non-null power spectrum. The results derived by the two pipelines are in good agreement. We characterize the EE, EB and BB power spectra between {ell} = 25 and 975 and find that the EE spectrum is consistent with {Lambda}CDM, while the BB power spectrum is consistent with zero. Based on these measurements, we constrain the tensor-to-scalar ratio to r = 1.1{sup +0.9}{sub -0.8} (r < 2.8 at 95% C.L.) as derived by the ML pipeline, and r = {sup +0.9}{sub -0.8} (r < 2.7 at 95% C.L.) as derived by the PCL pipeline. In one of the fields, we find a correlation with the dust component of the Planck Sky Model, though the corresponding excess power is small compared to statistical errors. Finally, we derive limits on all known systematic errors, and demonstrate that these correspond to a tensor-to-scalar ratio smaller than r = 0.01, the lowest level yet reported in the literature.

  15. Microwave sintering of multiple articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blake, Rodger D.; Katz, Joel D.

    1993-01-01

    Apparatus and method for producing articles of alumina and of alumina and silicon carbide in which the articles are sintered at high temperatures using microwave radiation. The articles are placed in a sintering container which is placed in a microwave cavity for heating. The rates at which heating and cooling take place is controlled.

  16. Measurement of the dielectric properties of high-purity sapphire at 1.865 GHZ from 2-10 Kelvin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N. Pogue, P. McIntyre, Akhdiyor Sattarov, Charles Reece

    2012-06-01

    A dielectric test cavity was designed and tested to measure the microwave dielectric properties of ultrapure sapphire at cryogenic temperatures. Measurements were performed by placing a large cylindrical crystal of sapphire in a Nb superconducting cavity operating in the TE01 mode at 1.865 GHz. The dielectric constant, heat capacity, and loss tangent were all calculated using experimental data and RF modeling software. The motivation for these measurements was to determine if such a sapphire could be used as a dielectric lens to focus the magnetic field onto a sample wafer in a high field wafer test cavity. The measured properties have been used to finalize the design of the wafer test cavity.

  17. A Permanent-Magnet Microwave Ion Source for a Compact High-Yield Neutron Generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waldmann, Ole; Ludewigt, Bernhard

    2010-10-11

    We present recent work on the development of a microwave ion source that will be used in a high-yield compact neutron generator for active interrogation applications. The sealed tube generator will be capable of producing high neutron yields, 5x1011 n/s for D-T and ~;;1x1010 n/s for D-D reactions, while remaining transportable. We constructed a microwave ion source (2.45 GHz) with permanent magnets to provide the magnetic field strength of 87.5 mT necessary for satisfying the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) condition. Microwave ion sources can produce high extracted beam currents at the low gas pressures required for sealed tube operation and at lower power levels than previously used RF-driven ion sources. A 100 mA deuterium/tritium beam will be extracted through a large slit (60x6 mm2) to spread the beam power over a larger target area. This paper describes the design of the permanent-magnet microwave ion source and discusses the impact of the magnetic field design on the source performance. The required equivalent proton beam current density of 40 mA/cm2 was extracted at a moderate microwave power of 400 W with an optimized magnetic field.

  18. Microwave hematoma detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haddad, Waleed S.; Trebes, James E.; Matthews, Dennis L.

    2001-01-01

    The Microwave Hematoma Detector is a non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots near the outer surface of the body. While being geared towards finding sub-dural and epi-dural hematomas, the device can be used to detect blood pooling anywhere near the surface of the body. Modified versions of the device can also detect pneumothorax, organ hemorrhage, atherosclerotic plaque in the carotid arteries, evaluate perfusion (blood flow) at or near the body surface, body tissue damage at or near the surface (especially for burn assessment) and be used in a number of NDE applications. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with a specialized antenna, signal processing/recognition algorithms and a disposable cap worn by the patient which will facilitate accurate mapping of the brain and proper function of the instrument. The invention may be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of sub-dural or epi-dural hematoma in human or animal patients, detection of hemorrhage within approximately 5 cm of the outer surface anywhere on a patient's body.

  19. Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometers Mentor Report and Baseline Surface Radiation Network Submission Status

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodges, G.

    2005-03-18

    There are currently twenty-four Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometers (MFRSR) operating within Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM). Eighteen are located within the Southern Great Plains (SGP) region, there is one at each of the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) and Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites, and one is part of the instrumentation of the ARM Mobile Facility. At this time there are four sites, all extended facilities within the SGP, that are equipped for a MFRSR but do not have one due to instrument failure and a lack of spare instruments. In addition to the MFRSRs, there are three other MFRSR derived instruments that ARM operates. They are the Multi-Filter Radiometer (MFR), the Normal Incidence Multi-Filter Radiometer (NIMFR) and the Narrow Field of View (NFOV) radiometer. All are essentially just the head of a MFRSR used in innovative ways. The MFR is mounted on a tower and pointed at the surface. At the SGP Central Facility there is one at ten meters and one at twenty-five meters. The NSA has a MFR at each station, both at the ten meter level. ARM operates three NIMFRs; one is at the SGP Central Facility and one at each of the NSA stations. There are two NFOVs, both at the SGP Central Facility. One is a single channel (870) and the other utilizes two channels (673 and 870).

  20. Multichannel microwave interferometer for the levitated dipole experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boxer, Alexander C.; Garnier, Darren T.; Mauel, Michael E.

    2009-04-15

    A four-channel microwave interferometer (center frequency: 60 GHz) has been constructed to measure plasma density profiles in the levitated dipole experiment (LDX). The LDX interferometer has a unique design owing to the unique geometry of LDX. The main design features of the interferometer are: (1) the transmitted beam traverses the plasma entirely in O-mode; (2) the interferometer is a heterodyne system employing two free-running oscillators; (3) four signals of data are received from just on transmitted beam; (4) phase shifts are detected in quadrature. Calibration tests demonstrate that the interferometer measures phase shifts with an uncertainty of approximately 5 deg. Plasma densities in LDX corresponding to phase shifts of up to 5{pi} are routinely and successfully measured.

  1. Microwave-driven ultraviolet light sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manos, Dennis M.; Diggs, Jessie; Ametepe, Joseph D.

    2002-01-29

    A microwave-driven ultraviolet (UV) light source is provided. The light source comprises an over-moded microwave cavity having at least one discharge bulb disposed within the microwave cavity. At least one magnetron probe is coupled directly to the microwave cavity.

  2. han-99.PDF

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tip Cal Methods for Ground-Based Microwave Radiometric Sensing of Water Vapor and Clouds Y. Han and E. R. Westwater CIRES, University of Colorado National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado Introduction Ground-based Microwave Radiometers (MWRs) have been widely used to measure atmospheric water vapor and cloud liquid water. Frequencies on the 22.235-GHz water vapor absorption band and in the 31-GHz absorption window region are commonly

  3. Power combination of two phase-locked high power microwave beams from a new coaxial microwave source based on dual beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yangmei; Zhang, Xiaoping Zhang, Jiande; Dang, Fangchao; Yan, Xiaolu

    2014-10-15

    The new coaxial high power microwave source based on dual beams has demonstrated two phase-locked output microwave beams generated by its two sub-sources. In order to achieve a single higher output power, we present a three-port waveguide-based power combiner to combine the two microwave beams. Particle-in-cell simulation results show that when the diode voltage is 675?kV and the guiding magnetic field is 0.8?T, a combined microwave with an average power of about 4.0?GW and a frequency of 9.74 GHz is generated; the corresponding power conversion efficiency is 29%. The combination effect of the combiner is further validated in the diode voltage range from 675?kV to 755?kV as well as in the pulse regime. The simulations indicate that the maximum surface axial electric field strength of the electrodynamic structure is 720?kV/cm, which is relatively low corresponding to an output power of 4.0?GW. The stable combined output suggests the probability of long-pulse operation for the combined source.

  4. 60-GHz gyrotron development program alternate frequency study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, S.J.; Nordquist, A.L.; Wendell, G.E.

    1981-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to take a preliminary look at what the considerations are when scaling the frequency of a gyrotron oscillator a few percent from an existing design. To minimize construction costs, it would be most advantageous to keep all parts the same and operate only with slightly different voltages and magnetic fields. There are two tube parts that must be changed for any frequency modification: the tube output window and the oscillation cavity. This study assumed that the output window and the cavity would be scaled in dimensions for best operation at the new frequency. The main thrust of the study was to examine the feasibility of using the 60 GHz gun (K-8060) and magnet (VYW-8060) for operation at 56 and 52 GHz, and the 28 GHz gun (K-8000) and magnet (VYW-8000) for operation at 26 and 30 GHz. All work was done using Varian computer gun codes and hand calculations. It must be mentioned that these results are only a guideline and that a final design would need some further fine tuning.

  5. Gigatron microwave amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McIntyre, P.M.

    1993-07-13

    An electron tube for achieving high power at high frequency with high efficiency is described, including an input coupler, a ribbon-shaped electron beam and a traveling wave output coupler. The input coupler is a lumped constant resonant circuit that modulates a field emitter array cathode at microwave frequency. A bunched ribbon electron beam is emitted from the cathode in periodic bursts at the desired frequency. The beam has a ribbon configuration to eliminate limitations inherent in round beam devices. The traveling wave coupler efficiently extracts energy from the electron beam, and includes a waveguide with a slot there through for receiving the electron beam. The ribbon beam is tilted at an angle with respect to the traveling wave coupler so that the electron beam couples in-phase with the traveling wave in the waveguide. The traveling wave coupler thus extracts energy from the electron beam over the entire width of the beam.

  6. Gigatron microwave amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McIntyre, Peter M.

    1993-01-01

    An electron tube for achieving high power at high frequency with high efficiency, including an input coupler, a ribbon-shaped electron beam and a traveling wave output coupler. The input coupler is a lumped constant resonant circuit that modulates a field emitter array cathode at microwave frequency. A bunched ribbon electron beam is emitted from the cathode in periodic bursts at the desired frequency. The beam has a ribbon configuration to eliminate limitations inherent in round beam devices. The traveling wave coupler efficiently extracts energy from the electron beam, and includes a waveguide with a slot therethrough for receiving the electron beam. The ribbon beam is tilted at an angle with respect to the traveling wave coupler so that the electron beam couples in-phase with the traveling wave in the waveguide. The traveling wave coupler thus extracts energy from the electron beam over the entire width of the beam.

  7. NO MICROWAVE FLARE OF SAGITTARIUS A* AROUND THE G2 PERIASTRON PASSING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsuboi, Masato; Asaki, Yoshiharu; Kameya, Osamu; Yonekura, Yoshinori; Miyamoto, Yusuke; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Seta, Masumichi; Nakai, Naomasa; Takaba, Hiroshi; Wakamatsu, Ken-ichi; Miyoshi, Makoto; Fukuzaki, Yoshihiro; Uehara, Kenta; Sekido, Mamoru

    2015-01-01

    In order to explore any change caused by the G2 cloud approaching, we have monitored the flux density of Sgr A* at 22 GHz from 2013 February to 2014 August with a sub-array of the Japanese Very Long Baseline Interferometry Network. The observation period included the expected periastron dates. The number of observation epochs was 283 days. We have observed no significant microwave enhancement of Sgr A* in the whole observation period. The average flux density in the period is S {sub ν} = 1.23 ± 0.33 Jy. The average is consistent with the usually observed flux density range of Sgr A* at 22 GHz.

  8. Spectral shape deformation in inverse spin Hall voltage in Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}|Pt bilayers at high microwave power levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lustikova, J. Shiomi, Y.; Handa, Y.; Saitoh, E.

    2015-02-21

    We report on the deformation of microwave absorption spectra and of the inverse spin Hall voltage signals in thin film bilayers of yttrium iron garnet (YIG) and platinum at high microwave power levels in a 9.45-GHz TE{sub 011} cavity. As the microwave power increases from 0.15 to 200 mW, the resonance field shifts to higher values, and the initially Lorentzian spectra of the microwave absorption intensity as well as the inverse spin Hall voltage signals become asymmetric. The contributions from opening of the magnetization precession cone and heating of YIG cannot well reproduce the data. Control measurements of inverse spin Hall voltages on thin-film YIG|Pt systems with a range of line widths underscore the role of spin-wave excitations in spectral deformation.

  9. Power and magnetic field-induced microwave absorption in Tl-based high T sub c superconducting films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Portis, A.M. ); Cooke, D.W.; Gray, E.R.; Arendt, P.N. ); Bohn, C.L.; Delayen, J.R.; Roche, C.T. ); Hein, M.; Klein, N.; Mueller, G.; Orbach, S.; Piel, H. )

    1991-01-21

    The increase in the microwave surface resistance {ital R}{sub {ital s}} of high {ital T}{sub {ital c}} superconductors at elevated microwave power levels is reported for both oriented and unoriented Tl-based films as a function of rf magnetic field at 820 MHz and 18 GHz. The application of dc magnetic fields produces qualitatively similar increases in {ital R}{sub {ital s}} and in the surface reactance {ital X}{sub {ital s}}. The increase in {ital R}{sub {ital s}} with dc field is shown to arise from simple decoupling of grains by intergranular magnetic flux. The increase in {ital R}{sub {ital s}} with microwave power, on the other hand, is a consequence of hysteretic intergranular processes.

  10. Microwave Regenerated DPF for Auxiliary Power Units and Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Microwave Regenerated DPF for Auxiliary Power Units and Diesel Hybrid Vehicles Microwave Regenerated DPF for Auxiliary Power Units and Diesel Hybrid Vehicles Microwave regeneration ...

  11. ARM: Marine W-band (95 GHz) ARM Cloud Radar (Dataset) | Data...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Radar Title: ARM: Marine W-band (95 GHz) ARM Cloud Radar Marine W-band (95 GHz) ARM Cloud Radar Authors: Joseph Hardin ; Bradley Isom ; Alyssa Matthews ; Karen Johnson ; Nitin ...

  12. ARM: Marine W-band (95 GHz) ARM Cloud Radar, filtered spectral...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Radar, filtered spectral data, co-polarized mode Title: ARM: Marine W-band (95 GHz) ARM Cloud Radar, filtered spectral data, co-polarized mode Marine W-band (95 GHz) ARM Cloud ...

  13. Design of pulsed guiding magnetic field for high power microwave generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ju, J.-C. Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Shu, T.; Zhong, H.-H.

    2014-09-15

    In this paper, we present a comprehensive study on designing solenoid together with the corresponding power supply system to excite pulsed magnetic field required for high power microwave generators. Particularly, a solenoid is designed and the excited magnetic field is applied to a Ku-band overmoded Cerenkov generator. It is found in experiment that the electron beam is properly guided by the magnetic field and a 1.1 GW high power microwave is achieved at a central frequency of 13.76 GHz. Pulsed solenoid system has the advantages of compactness and low energy consumption, which are of great interest for repetitive operation. The reported studies and results can be generalized to other applications which require magnetic fields.

  14. Dielectric properties in microwave remote plasma sustained in argon: Expanding plasma conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jauberteau, J. L.; Jauberteau, I.

    2012-11-15

    This work is devoted to the study of the relative permittivity in argon expanding plasma produced below a microwave discharge sustained in a quartz tube and working at 2.45 GHz. We discuss results and explain the microwave propagation within the reactor, outside the quartz tube. It is shown that at low pressures (133 Pa) and at powers ranging from 100 W to 400 W, the wave frequency remains lower than the plasma frequency anywhere in the expanding plasma. Under these conditions, the real part of the relative permittivity is negative and the wave is reflected. Surprisingly, in these conditions, the plasma is produced inside and outside the quartz tube, below the wave launcher. This effect can be explained considering a surface wave propagating at the surface of the quartz tube then into the reactor, on the external surface of the expanding plasma below the quartz tube.

  15. A precise narrow-beam filter infrared radiometer and its use with lidar in the ARM Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Platt, C.M.R.

    1992-05-01

    The first six months of the grant (December 1991--May 1992) have been taken up with the design and specification for the new narrow-beam radiometer. The radiometer will be built and tested at the Division of Atmospheric Research over the next three months. Improved algorithms for obtaining cloud extinction have also been developed. It is proposed during 1993 to use the radiometer in conjunction with a new CSIRO 3-wavelength lidar in the ARM PROBE experiment at Kavieng, New Guinea, which is a test mission under tropical conditions for the ARM CART Tropical West Pacific site, and is part of the TOGA COARE experiment. During the latter part of 1992, the radiometer will be tested thoroughly and tested at the Division of Atmospheric Research, Aspendale.

  16. DOE/SC-ARM/TR-122 G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) Value-Added Product A Koontz M Cadeddu December 2012 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that

  17. Absolute intensity calibration of the 32-channel heterodyne radiometer on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, X.; Zhao, H. L.; Liu, Y. Li, E. Z.; Han, X.; Ti, A.; Hu, L. Q.; Zhang, X. D.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C.

    2014-09-15

    This paper presents the results of the in situ absolute intensity calibration for the 32-channel heterodyne radiometer on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak. The hot/cold load method is adopted, and the coherent averaging technique is employed to improve the signal to noise ratio. Measured spectra and electron temperature profiles are compared with those from an independent calibrated Michelson interferometer, and there is a relatively good agreement between the results from the two different systems.

  18. Using a cold radiometer to measure heat loads and survey heat leaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiPirro, M.; Tuttle, J.; Hait, T.; Shirron, P.

    2014-01-29

    We have developed an inexpensive cold radiometer for use in thermal/vacuum chambers to measure heat loads, characterize emissivity and specularity of surfaces and to survey areas to evaluate stray heat loads. We report here the results of two such tests for the James Webb Space Telescope to measure heat loads and effective emissivities of 2 major pieces of optical ground support equipment that will be used in upcoming thermal vacuum testing of the Telescope.

  19. GVR (G-Band Vapor Radiometer) M.P. Cadeddu and J.C. Liljegren Argonne Natl. Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MWR status M.P. Cadeddu New radiometers New radiometers ECO-00664 (MWR procurement) open Specifications have been written and submitted Draft of specifications sent to vendors last month A few changes were incorporated after vendors feedback. Final specification document will be sent next week. ECO-00664 (MWR procurement) open Specifications have been written and submitted Draft of specifications sent to vendors last month A few changes were incorporated after vendors feedback. Final

  20. Development of a Permanent-Magnet Microwave Ion Source for a Sealed-Tube Neutron Generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waldmann, Ole; Ludewigt, Bernhard

    2011-03-31

    A microwave ion source has been designed and constructed for use with a sealed-tube, high-yield neutron generator. When operated with a tritium-deuterium gas mixture the generator will be capable of producing 5*1011 n/s in non-proliferation applications. Microwave ion sources are well suited for such a device because they can produce high extracted beam currents with a high atomic fraction at low gas pressures of 0.2-0.3 Pa required for sealed tube operation. The magnetic field strength for achieving electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) condition, 87.5 mT at 2.45 GHz microwave frequency, was generated and shaped with permanent magnets surrounding the plasma chamber and a ferromagnetic plasma electrode. This approach resulted in a compact ion source that matches the neutron generator requirements. The needed proton-equivalent extracted beam current density of 40 mA/cm^2 was obtained at moderate microwave power levels of 400 W. Results on magnetic field design, pressure dependency and atomic fraction measured for different wall materials are presented.

  1. A 12 GHz RF Power Source for the CLIC Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schirm, Karl; Curt, Stephane; Dobert, Steffen; McMonagle, Gerard; Rossat, Ghislain; Syratchev, Igor; Timeo, Luca; Haase, Andrew Jensen, Aaron; Jongewaard, Erik; Nantista, Christopher; Sprehn, Daryl; Vlieks, Arnold; Hamdi, Abdallah; Peauger, Franck; Kuzikov, Sergey; Vikharev, Alexandr; /Nizhnii Novgorod, IAP

    2012-07-03

    The CLIC RF frequency has been changed in 2008 from the initial 30 GHz to the European X-band 11.9942 GHz permitting beam independent power production using klystrons for CLIC accelerating structure testing. A design and fabrication contract for five klystrons at that frequency has been signed by different parties with SLAC. France (IRFU, CEA Saclay) is contributing a solid state modulator purchased in industry and specific 12 GHz RF network components to the CLIC study. RF pulses over 120 MW peak at 230 ns length will be obtained by using a novel SLED-I type pulse compression scheme designed and fabricated by IAP, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia. The X-band power test stand is being installed in the CLIC Test Facility CTF3 for independent structure and component testing in a bunker, but allowing, in a later stage, for powering RF components in the CTF3 beam lines. The design of the facility, results from commissioning of the RF power source and the expected performance of the Test Facility are reported.

  2. Microwave heating apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Andrew J.; Petersen, Robert D.; Swanson, Stephen D.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus is provided for heating and melting materials using microwave energy, and for permitting them to solidify. The apparatus includes a microwave energy source, a resonant cavity having an opening in its floor, a microwave energy choke encompassing the opening in the floor of the cavity, a metal container to hold the materials to be heated and melted, a turntable, and a lift-table. During operation, the combined action of the turntable and the lift-table position the metal container so that the top of the container is level with the floor of the cavity, is in substantial registration with the floor opening, and is encompassed by the microwave energy choke; thus, during operation, the interior of the container defines part of the resonant cavity. Additionally, a screw feeder, extending into the cavity and sheltered from microwave energy by a conveyor choke, may convey the materials to be heated to the container. Also, preferably, the floor of the resonant cavity may include perforatins, so that the offgases and dust generated in the apparatus may be removed from the resonant cavity by pulling outside air between the container choke and the exterior wall of the container into the resonant cavity and out from the cavity through the perforations.

  3. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technique for Retrieving Liquid Water Path over Land using Satellite Microwave Observations M.N. Deeter and J. Vivekanandan Research Applications Library National Center for Atmospheric Research Boulder, Colorado Abstract We present a new methodology for retrieving liquid water path over land using satellite microwave observations. As input, the technique exploits the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for earth observing plan (EOS) (AMSR-E) polarization-difference signals at 37 and 89 GHz.

  4. SLAC All Access: Vacuum Microwave Device Department

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Haase, Andy

    2014-06-13

    The Vacuum Microwave Device Department (VMDD) builds the devices that make SLAC's particle accelerators go. These devices, called klystrons, generate intense waves of microwave energy that rocket subatomic particles up to nearly the speed of light.

  5. Ignition methods and apparatus using microwave energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeFreitas, Dennis M.; Darling, Timothy W.; Migliori, Albert; Rees, Daniel E.

    1997-01-01

    An ignition apparatus for a combustor includes a microwave energy source that emits microwave energy into the combustor at a frequency within a resonant response of the combustor, the combustor functioning as a resonant cavity for the microwave energy so that a plasma is produced that ignites a combustible mixture therein. The plasma preferably is a non-contact plasma produced in free space within the resonant cavity spaced away from with the cavity wall structure and spaced from the microwave emitter.

  6. Microwavable thermal energy storage material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, I.O.

    1998-09-08

    A microwavable thermal energy storage material is provided which includes a mixture of a phase change material and silica, and a carbon black additive in the form of a conformable dry powder of phase change material/silica/carbon black, or solid pellets, films, fibers, moldings or strands of phase change material/high density polyethylene/ethylene vinyl acetate/silica/carbon black which allows the phase change material to be rapidly heated in a microwave oven. The carbon black additive, which is preferably an electrically conductive carbon black, may be added in low concentrations of from 0.5 to 15% by weight, and may be used to tailor the heating times of the phase change material as desired. The microwavable thermal energy storage material can be used in food serving applications such as tableware items or pizza warmers, and in medical wraps and garments. 3 figs.

  7. Microwavable thermal energy storage material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O.

    1998-09-08

    A microwavable thermal energy storage material is provided which includes a mixture of a phase change material and silica, and a carbon black additive in the form of a conformable dry powder of phase change material/silica/carbon black, or solid pellets, films, fibers, moldings or strands of phase change material/high density polyethylene/ethylene-vinyl acetate/silica/carbon black which allows the phase change material to be rapidly heated in a microwave oven. The carbon black additive, which is preferably an electrically conductive carbon black, may be added in low concentrations of from 0.5 to 15% by weight, and may be used to tailor the heating times of the phase change material as desired. The microwavable thermal energy storage material can be used in food serving applications such as tableware items or pizza warmers, and in medical wraps and garments.

  8. Microwave assisted centrifuge and related methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meikrantz, David H. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-08-17

    Centrifuge samples may be exposed to microwave energy to heat the samples during centrifugation and to promote separation of the different components or constituents of the samples using a centrifuge device configured for generating microwave energy and directing the microwave energy at a sample located in the centrifuge.

  9. Microwave treatment of vulcanized rubber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wicks, George G.; Schulz, Rebecca L.; Clark, David E.; Folz, Diane C.

    2002-07-16

    A process and resulting product is provided in which a vulcanized solid particulate, such as vulcanized crumb rubber, has select chemical bonds broken by microwave radiation. The direct application of microwaves in combination with uniform heating of the crumb rubber renders the treated crumb rubber more suitable for use in new rubber formulations. As a result, larger particle sizes and/or loading levels of the treated crumb rubber can be used in new rubber mixtures to produce recycled composite products with good properties.

  10. Relative Accuracy of 1-Minute and Daily Total Solar Radiation Data for 12 Global and 4 Direct Beam Solar Radiometers: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D. R.; Wilcox, S. M.

    2009-03-01

    This report evaluates the relative performance of 12 global and four direct beam solar radiometers deployed at a single site over a 12-month period. Test radiometer irradiances were compared with a reference irradiance consisting of either an absolute cavity radiometer (during calibrations) or a low uncertainty thermopile pyrheliometer (during the evaluation period) for pyrheliometers; and for pyranometers a reference global irradiance computed from the reference pyrheliometer and diffuse irradiance from a shaded pyranometer.

  11. Adhesive bonding using variable frequency microwave energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.; Fathi, Z.; Wei, J.

    1998-08-25

    Methods of facilitating the adhesive bonding of various components with variable frequency microwave energy are disclosed. The time required to cure a polymeric adhesive is decreased by placing components to be bonded via the adhesive in a microwave heating apparatus having a multimode cavity and irradiated with microwaves of varying frequencies. Methods of uniformly heating various articles having conductive fibers disposed therein are provided. Microwave energy may be selectively oriented to enter an edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein. An edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein may be selectively shielded from microwave energy. 26 figs.

  12. Adhesive bonding using variable frequency microwave energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.; Fathi, Z.; Wei, J.

    1998-09-08

    Methods of facilitating the adhesive bonding of various components with variable frequency microwave energy are disclosed. The time required to cure a polymeric adhesive is decreased by placing components to be bonded via the adhesive in a microwave heating apparatus having a multimode cavity and irradiated with microwaves of varying frequencies. Methods of uniformly heating various articles having conductive fibers disposed therein are provided. Microwave energy may be selectively oriented to enter an edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein. An edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein may be selectively shielded from microwave energy. 26 figs.

  13. Scanning tip microwave near field microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xiang, Xiao-Dong; Schultz, Peter G.; Wei, Tao

    1998-01-01

    A microwave near field microscope has a novel microwave probe structure wherein the probing field of evanescent radiation is emitted from a sharpened metal tip instead of an aperture or gap. This sharpened tip, which is electrically and mechanically connected to a central electrode, extends through and beyond an aperture in an endwall of a microwave resonating device such as a microwave cavity resonator or a microwave stripline resonator. Since the field intensity at the tip increases as the tip sharpens, the total energy which is radiated from the tip and absorbed by the sample increases as the tip sharpens. The result is improved spatial resolution without sacrificing sensitivity.

  14. Scanning tip microwave near field microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xiang, X.D.; Schultz, P.G.; Wei, T.

    1998-10-13

    A microwave near field microscope has a novel microwave probe structure wherein the probing field of evanescent radiation is emitted from a sharpened metal tip instead of an aperture or gap. This sharpened tip, which is electrically and mechanically connected to a central electrode, extends through and beyond an aperture in an end wall of a microwave resonating device such as a microwave cavity resonator or a microwave stripline resonator. Since the field intensity at the tip increases as the tip sharpens, the total energy which is radiated from the tip and absorbed by the sample increases as the tip sharpens. The result is improved spatial resolution without sacrificing sensitivity. 17 figs.

  15. Adhesive bonding using variable frequency microwave energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J.; McMillan, April D.; Paulauskas, Felix L.; Fathi, Zakaryae; Wei, Jianghua

    1998-01-01

    Methods of facilitating the adhesive bonding of various components with variable frequency microwave energy are disclosed. The time required to cure a polymeric adhesive is decreased by placing components to be bonded via the adhesive in a microwave heating apparatus having a multimode cavity and irradiated with microwaves of varying frequencies. Methods of uniformly heating various articles having conductive fibers disposed therein are provided. Microwave energy may be selectively oriented to enter an edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein. An edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein may be selectively shielded from microwave energy.

  16. Controlled zone microwave plasma system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ripley, Edward B; Seals, Roland D; Morrell, Jonathan S

    2009-10-20

    An apparatus and method for initiating a process gas plasma. A conductive plate having a plurality of conductive fingers is positioned in a microwave applicator. An arc forms between the conductive fingers to initiate the formation of a plasma. A transport mechanism may convey process materials through the plasma. A spray port may be provided to expel processed materials.

  17. Microwave sintering of boron carbide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blake, R.D.; Katz, J.D.; Petrovic, J.J.; Sheinberg, H.

    1988-06-10

    A method for forming boron carbide into a particular shape and densifying the green boron carbide shape. Boron carbide in powder form is pressed into a green shape and then sintered, using a microwave oven, to obtain a dense boron carbide body. Densities of greater than 95% of theoretical density have been obtained. 1 tab.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED DRILL COMPONENTS FOR BHA USING MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGY INCORPORATING CARBIDE, DIAMOND COMPOSITES AND FUNCTIONALLY GRADED MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dinesh Agrawal; Rustum Roy

    2000-11-01

    The main objective of this program was to develop an efficient and economically viable microwave processing technique to process cobalt cemented tungsten carbide with improved properties for drill-bits for advanced drilling operations for oil, gas, geothermal and excavation industries. The program was completed in three years and successfully accomplished all the states goals in the original proposal. In three years of the program, we designed and built several laboratory scale microwave sintering systems for conducting experiments on Tungsten carbide (WC) based composites in controlled atmosphere. The processing conditions were optimized and various properties were measured. The design of the system was then modified to enable it to process large commercial parts of WC/Co and in large quantities. Two high power (3-6 kW) microwave systems of 2.45 GHz were built for multi samples runs in a batch process. Once the process was optimized for best results, the technology was successfully transferred to our industrial partner, Dennis Tool Co. We helped them to built couple of prototype microwave sintering systems for carbide tool manufacturing. It was found that the microwave processed WC/Co tools are not only cost effective but also exhibited much better overall performance than the standard tools. The results of the field tests performed by Dennis Tool Co. showed remarkable advantage and improvement in their overall performance. For example: wear test shows an increase of 20-30%, corrosion test showed much higher resistance to the acid attack, erosion test exhibited about 15% better resistance than standard sinter-HIP parts. This proves the success of microwave technology for WC/Co based drilling tools. While we have successfully transferred the technology to our industrial partner Dennis Tool Co., they have signed an agreement with Valenite, a world leading WC producer of cutting and drilling tools and wear parts, to push aggressively the new microwave technology in

  19. Macrocyclic polyaminocarboxylates for stable radiometal antibody conjugates for therapy, spect and pet imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mease, Ronnie C.; Mausner, Leonard F.; Srivastava, Suresh C.

    1997-06-17

    A simple method for the synthesis of 1,4,7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane N,N'N",N'"-tetraacetic acid and 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane N,N',N",N'"-tetraacetic acid involves cyanomethylating 1,4,7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane or 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane to form a tetranitrile and hydrolyzing the tetranitrile. These macrocyclic compounds are functionalized through one of the carboxylates and then conjugated to various biological molecules including monoclonal antibodies. The resulting conjugated molecules are labeled with radiometals for SPECT and PET imaging and for radiotherapy.

  20. Macrocyclic polyaminocarboxylates for stable radiometal antibody conjugates for therapy, SPECT and PET imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mease, R.C.; Mausner, L.F.; Srivastava, S.C.

    1997-06-17

    A simple method for the synthesis of 1,4,7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane N,N{prime}N{double_prime},N{prime}{double_prime}-tetraacetic acid and 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane N,N{prime},N{double_prime},N{prime}{double_prime}-tetraacetic acid involves cyanomethylating 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane or 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane to form a tetranitrile and hydrolyzing the tetranitrile. These macrocyclic compounds are functionalized through one of the carboxylates and then conjugated to various biological molecules including monoclonal antibodies. The resulting conjugated molecules are labeled with radiometals for SPECT and PET imaging and for radiotherapy. 4 figs.

  1. MONITORING POWER PLANT EFFICIENCY USING THE MICROWAVE-EXCITED PHOTOACOUSTIC EFFECT TO MEASURE UNBURNED CARBON

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert C. Brown; Robert J. Weber; Andrew A. Suby

    2003-01-01

    Three test instruments are being evaluated to determine the feasibility of using photoacoustic technology for measuring unburned carbon in fly ash. The first test instrument is a single microwave frequency system previously constructed to measure photo-acoustic signals in an off-line configuration. This system was assembled and used to test parameters thought important to photo-acoustic signal output. A standard modulation frequency was chosen based upon signal to noise data gained from experimentation. Sample heterogeneity was tested and found not to be influential. Further testing showed that sample compression and photo-acoustic volume do affect photo-acoustic signal with photoacoustic volume being the most influential. Testing in the fifth quarter focused on microwave power stability. Simultaneously, a second instrument is being constructed based in part on lessons learned with the first instrument, but also expands the capabilities of the first instrument by allowing a spectrum of microwave frequencies to be tested up to 10 GHz. The power amplifiers for this second instrument were completed and tested. Improvements were made to the current leveling loop, which will stabilize the microwave power. This loop is currently in operation with the single frequency cell. Discriminatory measurements are continuing in an attempt to differentiate between magnetic contaminants such as iron and non-magnetic contaminants such as carbon. A short coaxial test fixture was fabricated and tested showing the promise of another microwave based test method for determining carbon content in fly ash. Preliminary design iterations for the third on-line instrument (based on the experiences of the first two instruments) have begun.

  2. MAXIMA-1: A Measurement of the Cosmic Microwave BackgroundAnisotropy on angular scales of 10' to 5 degrees

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ade, P.; Balbi, A.; Bock, J.; Borrill, J.; Boscaleri, A.; deBernardis, P.; Ferreira, P.G.; Hanany, S.; Hristov, V.V.; Jaffe, A.H.; Lange, A.E.; Lee, A.T.; Mauskopf, P.D.; Netterfield, C.B.; Oh, S.; Pascale, E.; Rabii, B.; Richards, P.L.; Smoot, G.F.; Stompor, R.; Winant,C.D.; Wu, J.H.P.

    2000-10-02

    We present a map and an angular power spectrum of the anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) from the first flight of MAXIMA. MAXIMA is a balloon-borne experiment with an array of 16 bolometric photometers operated at 100 mK. MAXIMA observed a 124 deg region of the sky with 10' resolution at frequencies of 150, 240 and 410 GHz. The data were calibrated using in-flight measurements of the CMB dipole anisotropy. A map of the CMB anisotropy was produced from three 150 and one 240 GHz photometer without need for foreground subtractions. Analysis of this CMB map yields a power spectrum for the CMB anisotropy over the range 36 {le} {ell} {le} 785. The spectrum shows a peak with an amplitude of 78 {+-} 6 {mu}K at {ell} {approx_equal} 220 and an amplitude varying between {approx} 40 {mu}K and {approx} 50 {mu}K for 400 {approx}< {ell} {approx}< 785.

  3. Validation and analysis of microwave-derived rainfall over the tropics. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleishauer, R.P.

    1993-01-01

    A recently developed single channel microwave rain rate retrieval algorithm exists to measure global precipitation over the data-sparse tropical oceans. The objective of this study is to retrieve and validate rainfall using this algorithm, followed by an analysis of the derived rainfall fields. Retrieval consists of applying the algorithm technique to the extraction of four years worth of achieved data from the Electrically Scanning Microwave Radiometer (ESMR) instrument flown aboard the NIMBUS 5 satellite. The Pacific Atoll Raingage Data Set is chosen as a ground truth measure to validate the ESMR-Derived rainfall data against, comparing slope, intercept and correlation between 5 deg x 5 deg area average. Despite limitations imposed by the comparison of point measurements to area-averaged rainfall, results show a 0.80 correlation. Monthly and quarterly climatological mean rainfall estimates are produced, with a consequent analysis of prominent signals, especially in the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) and the Indian monsoon. Latent heat flux is computed, using the ESMR-derived rainfall, and plotted to show qualitatively where seasonal latent thermodynamic energy sources and sinks exist in the atmosphere. A comparison of the summer and winter quarterly composites of the above products with previously compiled climatologies and Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) showed only minor discrepancies in location and intensity, which are discussed in some detail.

  4. Multi Spectral Pushbroom Imaging Radiometer (MPIR) for remote sensing cloud studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phipps, G.S.; Grotbeck, C.L.

    1995-10-01

    A Multi Spectral Pushbroom Imaging Radiometer (MPIR) has been developed as are relatively inexpensive ({approximately}$IM/copy), well-calibrated,imaging radiometer for aircraft studies of cloud properties. The instrument is designed to fly on an Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle (UAV) platform at altitudes from the surface up to 20 km. MPIR is being developed to support the Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle portion of the Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurements program (ARM/UAV). Radiation-cloud interactions are the dominant uncertainty in the current General Circulation Models used for atmospheric climate studies. Reduction of this uncertainty is a top scientific priority of the US Global Change Research Program and the ARM program. While the DOE`s ARM program measures a num-ber of parameters from the ground-based Clouds and Radiation Testbed sites, it was recognized from the outset that other key parameters are best measured by sustained airborne data taking. These measurements are critical in our understanding of global change issues as well as for improved atmospheric and near space weather forecasting applications.

  5. Microwave-enhanced chemical processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Varma, Ravi

    1990-01-01

    A process for disposal of toxic wastes including chlorinated hydrocarbons, comprising, establishing a bed of non-metallic particulates having a high dielectric loss factor. Effecting intimate contact of the particulates and the toxic wastes at a temperature in excess of about 400.degree. C. in the presence of microwave radiation for a time sufficient to break the hydrocarbon chlorine bonds and provide detoxification values in excess of 80 and further detoxifying the bed followed by additional disposal of toxic wastes.

  6. Microwave assisted hard rock cutting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lindroth, David P.; Morrell, Roger J.; Blair, James R.

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus for the sequential fracturing and cutting of subsurface volume of hard rock (102) in the strata (101) of a mining environment (100) by subjecting the volume of rock to a beam (25) of microwave energy to fracture the subsurface volume of rock by differential expansion; and , then bringing the cutting edge (52) of a piece of conventional mining machinery (50) into contact with the fractured rock (102).

  7. Quasi-Optical 34-GHz Rf Pulse Compressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirshfield, Jay L

    2007-06-19

    Designs have been carried out on non-high-vacuum, low-power versions of three- and four-mirror quasi-optical passive and active Ka-band pulse compressors, and prototypes built and tested based on these designs. The active element is a quasi-optical grating employing gas discharge tubes in the gratings. Power gains of about 3:1 were observed experimentally for the passive designs, and about 7:1 with the active designs. High-power, high-vacuum versions of the three-and four-mirror quasi-optical pulse compressors were built and tested at low power. These now await installation and testing using multi-MW power from the 34-GHz magnicon.

  8. Microwave solidification development for Rocky Flats waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, D.; Erle, R.; Eschen, V.

    1994-04-01

    The Microwave Engineering Team at the Rocky Flats Plant has developed a production-scale system for the treatment of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes using microwave energy. The system produces a vitreous final form which meets the acceptance criteria for shipment and disposal. The technology also has potential for application on various other waste streams from the public and private sectors. Technology transfer opportunities are being identified and pursued for commercialization of the microwave solidification technology.

  9. Cosmic Microwave Background | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Microwave Background Cosmic Microwave Background Remarkable progress has been made in the characterization of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) over the last several years. It was nearly 30 years after the initial discovery of the CMB by Penzias and Wilson in 1965 before small differences in its intensity were measured by COBE and its spectrum was shown to be a blackbody to high precision. The finding helped motivate the inflation theory for the origin of the universe. In the past

  10. Process for microwave sintering boron carbide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, C.E.; Morrow, M.S.

    1993-10-12

    A method of microwave sintering boron carbide comprises leaching boron carbide powder with an aqueous solution of nitric acid to form a leached boron carbide powder. The leached boron carbide powder is coated with a glassy carbon precursor to form a coated boron carbide powder. The coated boron carbide powder is consolidated in an enclosure of boron nitride particles coated with a layer of glassy carbon within a container for microwave heating to form an enclosed coated boron carbide powder. The enclosed coated boron carbide powder is sintered within the container for microwave heating with microwave energy.

  11. Process for microwave sintering boron carbide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Morrow, Marvin S.

    1993-01-01

    A method of microwave sintering boron carbide comprises leaching boron carbide powder with an aqueous solution of nitric acid to form a leached boron carbide powder. The leached boron carbide powder is coated with a glassy carbon precursor to form a coated boron carbide powder. The coated boron carbide powder is consolidated in an enclosure of boron nitride particles coated with a layer of glassy carbon within a container for microwave heating to form an enclosed coated boron carbide powder. The enclosed coated boron carbide powder is sintered within the container for microwave heating with microwave energy.

  12. Hybrid Microwave Energy - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    undesirable environmental consequences.Description The hybrid microwave system provides a simple processing method for the reduction of waste volume, immobilization of hazardous...

  13. Understanding the scabbling of concrete using microwave energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buttress, A.J.; Jones, D.A.; Dodds, C.; Dimitrakis, G.; Campbell, C.J.; Dawson, A.; Kingman, S.W.

    2015-09-15

    Concrete blocks supplied by the UK Sellafield nuclear site were treated with microwave energy using a 15 kW system operating at 2.45 GHz. The effect of aggregate type (Whinstone, Gravel and Limestone); standoff distance; and effect of surface coating were studied to determine their influence on the systems performance in terms of mass and area removal rates and evaluate the controllability of the process. All blocks were scabbled successfully, with mass and area removal rates averaging 11.3 g s{sup −} {sup 1} and 3 cm s{sup −} {sup 1} respectively on treating large areas to a depth of 25 mm. The use of a Kevlar barrier between the block and applicator was found to significantly reduce the generation of dust as only 1.6% of the scabbled mass was in the < 106 μm — that generally considered to be airborne. Importantly Brazilian disc testing of the scabbled block showed that the process did not adversely affect structural properties of the test blocks after treatment.

  14. 37 GHz METHANOL MASERS : HORSEMEN OF THE APOCALYPSE FOR THE CLASS II METHANOL MASER PHASE?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellingsen, S. P.; Breen, S. L.; Sobolev, A. M.; Voronkov, M. A.; Caswell, J. L.; Lo, N.

    2011-12-01

    We report the results of a search for class II methanol masers at 37.7, 38.3, and 38.5 GHz toward a sample of 70 high-mass star formation regions. We primarily searched toward regions known to show emission either from the 107 GHz class II methanol maser transition, or from the 6.035 GHz excited OH transition. We detected maser emission from 13 sources in the 37.7 GHz transition, eight of these being new detections. We detected maser emission from three sources in the 38 GHz transitions, one of which is a new detection. We find that 37.7 GHz methanol masers are only associated with the most luminous 6.7 and 12.2 GHz methanol maser sources, which in turn are hypothesized to be the oldest class II methanol sources. We suggest that the 37.7 GHz methanol masers are associated with a brief evolutionary phase (of 1000-4000 years) prior to the cessation of class II methanol maser activity in the associated high-mass star formation region.

  15. Relative Accuracy of 1-Minute and Daily Total Solar Radiation Data for 12 Global and 4 Direct Beam Solar Radiometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D.; Wilcox, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the relative performance of 12 global and four direct beam solar radiometers deployed at a single site over a 12-month period. Test radiometer irradiances were compared with a reference irradiance consisting of either an absolute cavity radiometer (during calibrations) or a low uncertainty thermopile pyrheliometer (during the evaluation period) for pyrheliometers; and for pyranometers a reference global irradiance computed from the reference pyrheliometer and diffuse irradiance from a shaded pyranometer. One minute averages of 3-second data for 12 months from the test instrument measurements were compared with the computed reference data set. Combined uncertainty in the computed reference irradiance is 1.8% {+-} 0.5%. Total uncertainty in the pyranometer comparisons is {+-}2.5%. We show mean percent difference between reference global irradiance and test pyranometer 1 minute data as a function of zenith angle, and percent differences between daily totals for the reference and test irradiances as a function of day number. We offer no explicit conclusion about the performance of instrument models, as a general array of applications with a wide range of instrumentation and accuracy requirements could be addressed with any of the radiometers.

  16. Solar Irradiances Measured using SPN1 Radiometers: Uncertainties and Clues for Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badosa, Jordi; Wood, John; Blanc, Philippe; Long, Charles N.; Vuilleumier, Laurent; Demengel, Dominique; Haeffelin, Martial

    2014-12-08

    The fast development of solar radiation and energy applications, such as photovoltaic and solar thermodynamic systems, has increased the need for solar radiation measurement and monitoring, not only for the global component but also the diffuse and direct. End users look for the best compromise between getting close to state-of-the-art measurements and keeping capital, maintenance and operating costs to a minimum. Among the existing commercial options, SPN1 is a relatively low cost solar radiometer that estimates global and diffuse solar irradiances from seven thermopile sensors under a shading mask and without moving parts. This work presents a comprehensive study of SPN1 accuracy and sources of uncertainty, which results from laboratory experiments, numerical modeling and comparison studies between measurements from this sensor and state-of-the art instruments for six diverse sites. Several clues are provided for improving the SPN1 accuracy and agreement with state-of-the-art measurements.

  17. A Linear Theory of Microwave Instability in Electron Storage...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: A Linear Theory of Microwave Instability in Electron Storage Rings Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Linear Theory of Microwave Instability in Electron...

  18. George Smoot, Blackbody, and Anisotropy of the Cosmic Microwave...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    George Smoot, Blackbody, and Anisotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation ... of the cosmic microwave background radiation." '1 Smoot previously won the Ernest ...

  19. Seeing through walls at the nanoscale: Microwave microscopy of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Seeing through walls at the nanoscale: Microwave microscopy of enclosed objects and ... Title: Seeing through walls at the nanoscale: Microwave microscopy of enclosed objects and ...

  20. TM01-mode microwave propagation property analysis for plasmas...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Then electromagnetic fields of the TM01-mode microwave concentrate at the center surfaces ... EVALUATIONS; ELECTRIC FIELDS; ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS; ELECTRON DENSITY; MICROWAVE ...

  1. Microwave (MW) and Radio Frequency (RF) as Enabling Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Microwave (MW) and Radio Frequency (RF) as Enabling Technologies for Advanced Manufacturing Microwave (MW) and Radio Frequency (RF) as Enabling Technologies for Advanced ...

  2. Modulated microwave microscopy and probes used therewith (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Modulated microwave microscopy and probes used therewith A microwave microscope including a probe tip electrode vertically positionable ...

  3. Product Standards for Microwaves (Japan) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Microwaves (Japan) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Product Standards for Microwaves (Japan) Focus Area: Appliances & Equipment Topics: Policy Impacts...

  4. A Microwave Thruster for Spacecraft Propulsion (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: A Microwave Thruster for Spacecraft Propulsion Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Microwave Thruster for Spacecraft Propulsion This presentation ...

  5. Environmental assessment for the Satellite Power System (SPS): studies of honey bees exposed to 2. 45 GHz continuous-wave electromagnetic energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary, N E; Westerdahl, B B

    1980-12-01

    A system for small animal exposure was developed for treating honey bees, Apis mellifera L., in brood and adult stages, with 2.45 GHz continuous wave microwaves at selected power densities and exposure times. Post-treatment brood development was normal and teratological effects were not detected at exposures of 3 to 50 mw/cm/sup 2/ for 30 minutes. Post-treatment survival, longevity, orientation, navigation, and memory of adult bees were also normal after exposures of 3 to 50 mw/cm/sup 2/ for 30 minutes. Post-treatment longevity of confined bees in the laboratory was normal after exposures of 3 to 50 mw/cm/sup 2/ for 24 hours. Thermoregulation of brood nest, foraging activity, brood rearing, and social interaction were not affected by chronic exposure to 1 mw/cm/sup 2/ during 28 days. In dynamic behavioral bioassays the frequency of entry and duration of activity of unrestrained, foraging adult bees was identical in microwave-exposed (5 to 40 mw/cm/sup 2/) areas versus control areas.

  6. Microwave-excited microplasma thruster with helium and hydrogen propellants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takahashi, Takeshi; Takao, Yoshinori; Ichida, Yugo; Eriguchi, Koji; Ono, Kouichi

    2011-06-15

    Microplasma thruster of electrothermal type has been investigated with feed or propellant gases of He and H{sub 2}. The thruster consisted of an azimuthally symmetric microwave-excited microplasma source 1.5 mm in diameter and 10 mm long with a rod antenna on axis, and a converging-diverging micronozzle 1 mm long with a throat 0.2 mm in diameter. Surface wave-excited plasmas were established by 4.0-GHz microwaves at powers of {<=} 6 W, with the source pressure in the range 0.5-12 kPa at flow rates of 2-70 sccm. The microplasma generation, micronozzle flow, and thrust performance with He were numerically analyzed by using a two-dimensional fluid model, coupled with an electromagnetic model for microwaves interacting with plasmas in the source region. In experiments, the plasma electron density and gas temperature in the microplasma source were measured at around the top of the microwave antenna, or just upstream of the micronozzle inlet, by optical emission spectroscopy with a small amount of additive gases of H{sub 2} and N{sub 2}. In the case of He propellant, the Stark broadening of H Balmer-{beta} line and the vibronic spectrum of N{sub 2} 2nd positive (0, 2) band indicated that the electron density was in the range (2-5)x10{sup 19}m{sup -3} and the gas or rotational temperature was in the range 600-700 K. The thrust performance was also measured by using a target-type microthrust stand, giving a thrust in the range 0.04-0.51 mN, a specific impulse in the range 150-270 s, and a thrust efficiency in the range 2%-12%. These experimental results were consistent with those of numerical analysis, depending on microwave power and gas flow rate. Similar plasma characteristics and thrust performance were obtained with H{sub 2} propellant, where the specific impulse of {<=} 450 s was more than 1.5 times higher than that with He, owing to a difference in mass between He and H{sub 2}. A comparison with previous studies with Ar propellant [T. Takahashi et al., Phys. Plasmas

  7. Informal Preliminary Report on Comparisons of Prototype SPN-1 Radiometer to PARSL Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, Charles N.

    2014-06-17

    The prototype SPN-1 has been taking measurements for several months collocated with our PNNL Atmospheric Remote Sensing Laboratory (PARSL) solar tracker mounted instruments at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) located in Richland, Washington, USA. The PARSL radiometers used in the following comparisons consist of an Eppley Normal Incident Pyrheliometer (NIP) and a shaded Eppley model 8-48 “Black and White” pyrgeometer (B&W) to measure the direct and diffuse shortwave irradiance (SW), respectively. These instruments were calibrated in mid-September by comparison to an absolute cavity radiometer directly traceable to the world standard group in Davos, Switzerland. The NIP calibration was determined by direct comparison, while the B&W was calibrated using the shade/unshade technique. All PARSL data prior to mid-September have been reprocessed using the new calibration factors. The PARSL data are logged as 1-minute averages from 1-second samples. Data used in this report span the time period from June 22 through December 1, 2006. All data have been processed through the QCRad code (Long and Shi, 2006), which itself is a more elaborately developed methodology along the lines of that applied by the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) Archive (Long and Dutton, 2004), for quality control. The SPN-1 data are the standard total and diffuse SW values obtained from the analog data port of the instrument. The comparisons use only times when both the PARSL and SPN-1 data passed all QC testing. The data were further processed and analyzed by application of the SW Flux Analysis methodology (Long and Ackerman, 2000; Long and Gaustad, 2004, Long et al., 2006) to detect periods of clear skies, calculate continuous estimates of clear-sky SW irradiance and the effect of clouds on the downwelling SW, and estimate fractional sky cover.

  8. Microwave-enhanced chemical processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Varma, R.

    1990-06-19

    A process is disclosed for the disposal of toxic wastes including chlorinated hydrocarbons, comprising, establishing a bed of non-metallic particulates having a high dielectric loss factor. Intimate contact of the particulates and the toxic wastes at a temperature in excess of about 400 C in the presence of microwave radiation for a time sufficient breaks the hydrocarbon chlorine bonds. Detoxification values in excess of 80 are provided and further detoxification of the bed is followed by additional disposal of toxic wastes. 1 figure.

  9. Microwave-triggered laser switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piltch, Martin S.

    1984-01-01

    A high-repetition rate switch for delivering short duration, high-power electrical pulses from a pulsed-charged dc power supply. The present invention utilizes a microwave-generating device such as a magnetron that is capable of producing high-power pulses at high-pulse repetition rates and fast-pulse risetimes for long periods with high reliability. The rail-gap electrodes provide a large surface area that reduces induction effects and minimizes electrode erosion. Additionally, breakdown is initiated in a continuous geometric fashion that also increases operating lifetime of the device.

  10. Microwave-triggered laser switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piltch, M.S.

    1982-05-19

    A high-repetition rate switch is described for delivering short duration, high-powered electrical pulses from a pulsed-charged dc power supply. The present invention utilizes a microwave-generating device such as a magnetron that is capable of producing high-power pulses at high-pulse repetition rates and fast-pulse risetimes for long periods with high reliability. The rail-gap electrodes provide a large surface area that reduces induction effects and minimizes electrode erosion. Additionally, breakdown is initiated in a continuous geometric fashion that also increases operating lifetime of the device.