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Sample records for ghg marginal abatement

  1. ECN GHG Marginal Abatement Cost curves (NAMAC) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    likely to be large. The curve was also reviewed and updated by regional experts in Latin America, Asia and Africa. * In 2008-2009, the MAC curve was used for two projects for the...

  2. Broadening the Appeal of Marginal Abatement Cost Curves: Capturing Both Carbon Mitigation and Development Benefits of Clean Energy Technologies; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowlin, S.; Cochran, J.; Cox, S.; Davison, C.; van der Gaast, Y.

    2012-08-01

    Low emission development strategies (LEDS) articulate policies and implementation plans that enable countries to advance sustainable, climate-resilient development and private sector growth while significantly reducing the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions traditionally associated with economic growth. In creating a LEDS, policy makers often have access to information on abatement potential and costs for clean energy technologies, but there is a scarcity of economy-wide approaches for evaluating and presenting information on other dimensions of importance to development, such as human welfare, poverty alleviation, and energy security. To address this shortcoming, this paper proposes a new tool for communicating development benefits to policy makers as part of a LEDS process. The purpose of this tool is two-fold: 1. Communicate development benefits associated with each clean energy-related intervention; 2. Facilitate decision-making on which combination of interventions best contributes to development goals. To pilot this tool, the authors created a visual using data on developmental impacts identified through the Technology Needs Assessment (TNA) project in Montenegro. The visual will then be revised to reflect new data established through the TNA that provides information on cost, GHG mitigation, as well as the range and magnitude of developmental impacts.

  3. Potential Cost-Effective Opportunities for Methane Emission Abatement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warner, Ethan; Steinberg, Daniel; Hodson, Elke; Heath, Garvin

    2015-08-01

    The energy sector was responsible for approximately 84% of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the U.S. in 2012 (EPA 2014a). Methane is the second most important GHG, contributing 9% of total U.S. CO2e emissions. A large portion of those methane emissions result from energy production and use; the natural gas, coal, and oil industries produce approximately 39% of anthropogenic methane emissions in the U.S. As a result, fossil-fuel systems have been consistently identified as high priority sectors to contribute to U.S. GHG reduction goals (White House 2015). Only two studies have recently attempted to quantify the abatement potential and cost associated with the breadth of opportunities to reduce GHG emissions within natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains in the United States, namely the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2013a) and ICF (2014). EPA, in its 2013 analysis, estimated the marginal cost of abatement for non-CO2 GHG emissions from the natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains for multiple regions globally, including the United States. Building on this work, ICF International (ICF) (2014) provided an update and re-analysis of the potential opportunities in U.S. natural gas and oil systems. In this report we synthesize these previously published estimates as well as incorporate additional data provided by ICF to provide a comprehensive national analysis of methane abatement opportunities and their associated costs across the natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains. Results are presented as a suite of marginal abatement cost curves (MACCs), which depict the total potential and cost of reducing emissions through different abatement measures. We report results by sector (natural gas, oil, and coal) and by supply chain segment - production, gathering and boosting, processing, transmission and storage, or distribution - to facilitate identification of which sectors and supply chain segments provide the greatest opportunities for low cost abatement.

  4. GHG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Name: GHG Place: Germany Sector: Services Product: General Financial & Legal Services ( Private family-controlled ) References: GHG1 This article...

  5. GHG Management Institute curriculum | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Inventories * 302 GHG Accounting for Forest Projects * 311 GHG Accounting for Landfill Methane Projects (forthcoming) * 312 GHG Accounting for Coalmine Methane Projects * 321 GHG...

  6. GHG Management Institute GHG MRV Curriculum | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    measure and report their carbon footprints. Coursework will cover the basics of GHG accounting and reporting to The Registry as well as GHG verification for inventories,...

  7. Low Carbon Growth: a Potential Path for Mexico - GHG Abatement...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    McKinsey and Company Sector Energy, Land Focus Area Energy Efficiency, Renewable Energy Topics Resource assessment, Background analysis Website http:www.esmap.orgfilezpub...

  8. Low Carbon Growth: a Potential Path for Mexico - GHG Abatement...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    "ESMAP Low Carbon Growth Country Studies Program" Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleLowCarbonGrowth:aPotentialPathforMexico-GHGAbatementCostCurve&...

  9. IGES GHG Emissions Data | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GHG inventory Resource Type: Dataset Website: www.iges.or.jpencdmreportkyoto.html References: IGES GHG Emissions Data1 Summary "IGES GHG Emissions Data is aimed at...

  10. GBTL Workshop GHG Emissions | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    GHG Emissions GBTL Workshop GHG Emissions EERE Presentation of Greenhouse Gas EmissionsResource Potential gbtlworkshopghgemissions.pdf More Documents & Publications GBTL...

  11. GHG Management Institute | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GHG Management Institute Jump to: navigation, search Name: GHG Management Institute Address: Greenhouse Gas Management Institute 9215 View Avenue NW Seattle, WA USA 98117 Place:...

  12. Emission Abatement System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bromberg, Leslie (Sharon, MA); Cohn, Daniel R. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Rabinovich, Alexander (Swampscott, MA)

    2003-05-13

    Emission abatement system. The system includes a source of emissions and a catalyst for receiving the emissions. Suitable catalysts are absorber catalysts and selective catalytic reduction catalysts. A plasma fuel converter generates a reducing gas from a fuel source and is connected to deliver the reducing gas into contact with the absorber catalyst for regenerating the catalyst. A preferred reducing gas is a hydrogen rich gas and a preferred plasma fuel converter is a plasmatron. It is also preferred that the absorber catalyst be adapted for absorbing NO.sub.x.

  13. Attachment C - Summary GHG Emissions Data FINAL | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    - Summary GHG Emissions Data FINAL Attachment C - Summary GHG Emissions Data FINAL File Attachment C - Summary GHG Emissions Data FINAL More Documents & Publications Attachment C

  14. Attachment C Summary GHG Emissions Data FINAL | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Summary GHG Emissions Data FINAL Attachment C Summary GHG Emissions Data FINAL File Attachment-C-Summary-GHG-Emissions-Data-FINAL.xlsx More Documents & Publications Attachment C -

  15. UNFCCC-GHG Inventory Review Training Program | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    UNFCCC-GHG Inventory Review Training Program (Redirected from UNFCCC GHG Inventory Review Training Program) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: UNFCCC GHG...

  16. Marginal Abatement Cost Tool (MACTool) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    also determines which economic sectors would be likely to respond to a given carbon price, thus assessing the effectiveness of a cap-and-trade system. When to Use This Tool...

  17. Tunisia-Capacity Development for GHG inventories and MRV | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tunisia-Capacity Development for GHG inventories and MRV Jump to: navigation, search Name Capacity Development for GHG inventories and MRV in Tunisia AgencyCompany Organization...

  18. Tunisia-Capacity Development for GHG inventories and MRV | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Development for GHG inventories and MRV in Tunisia) Jump to: navigation, search Name Capacity Development for GHG inventories and MRV in Tunisia AgencyCompany Organization...

  19. EPA-GHG Inventory Capacity Building | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EPA-GHG Inventory Capacity Building Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: US EPA GHG inventory Capacity Building AgencyCompany Organization: United States Environmental...

  20. National and Sectoral GHG Mitigation Potential: A Comparison...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Sectoral GHG Mitigation Potential: A Comparison Across Models Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: National and Sectoral GHG Mitigation Potential: A...

  1. UNFCCC Individual Reviews of GHG Inventories | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name UNFCCC Individual Reviews of GHG Inventories AgencyCompany Organization United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Sector Energy, Land Topics GHG...

  2. UNFCCC-GHG Inventory Review Training Program | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Logo: UNFCCC GHG inventory Review Training Program The Basic Course of the updated training programme covers technical aspects of the review of GHG inventories under the...

  3. Building Trust in GHG Inventories from the United States and...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Trust in GHG Inventories from the United States and China Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Counting the Gigatones: Building Trust in GHG Inventories from...

  4. China-GHG Monitoring | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    The project aims to develop capacities for a GHG-Monitoring system and an Emissions Trading scheme at regional level. To this end experiences will be shared at an...

  5. Renewable Energy Sales and Use Tax Abatement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The abatement applies to property used to generate electricity from renewable energy resources including solar, wind, biomass*, fuel cells, geothermal or hydro. Generation facilities must have a...

  6. Harris County- Property Tax Abatement for Green Commercial Buildings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This type of tax abatement may be sought by an applicant of the County’s standard economic development tax abatement, or as a stand-alone tax abatement. When an applicant seeks only a LEED Certif...

  7. Asia Least-Cost Greenhouse Gas Abatement Study | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Gas Abatement Study Jump to: navigation, search Name Asia Least-Cost Greenhouse Gas Abatement Study (ALGAS) AgencyCompany Organization Global Environment Facility,...

  8. Assess technical potential for energy technologies | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Farm Tool Cool Roofs and Heat Islands ECN GHG Marginal Abatement Cost curves (NAMAC) Eco-efficiency Indicators: Measuring Resource-use Efficiency and the Impact of Economic...

  9. EPA-GHG Inventory Targeted Data Collection Strategies and Software...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Protection Agency Sector: Energy, Land Topics: GHG inventory Resource Type: Dataset, Lessons learnedbest practices, Training materials, Softwaremodeling tools User...

  10. EPA Climate Leaders Simplified GHG Emissions Calculator (SGEC...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Simplified GHG Emissions Calculator (SGEC) AgencyCompany Organization: United States Environmental Protection Agency Sector: Energy, Climate Focus Area: Industry, Greenhouse...

  11. EPA-GHG Inventory Capacity Building | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Capacity Building) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: US EPA GHG inventory Capacity Building AgencyCompany Organization: United States Environmental Protection...

  12. Selected GHG Emission Supply Curves | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Selected GHG Emission Supply Curves AgencyCompany Organization: Northwest Power and Conservation Council Sector: Energy Focus Area: Conventional Energy, Energy Efficiency,...

  13. UNFCCC-GHG Inventory Methodological Documents and Training Materials...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Company Organization: United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Sector: Energy, Land Topics: GHG inventory Resource Type: Lessons learnedbest practices, Training...

  14. IGES GHG Calculator For Solid Waste | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Assessment to Protect the Environment (GRAPE) Electricity Markets Analysis (EMA) Model Gold Standard Program Model ... further results The GHG Calculator for Solid Waste is a...

  15. UNFCCC-GHG Inventory Data | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data AgencyCompany Organization: United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Sector: Energy, Land Topics: GHG inventory, Background analysis Resource Type: Dataset...

  16. UNFCCC-GHG Inventory Data | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Background analysis Resource Type: Dataset Website: unfccc.intghgdataghgdataunfcccitems4146.php References: UNFCCC GHG Emission Data1 Data can be sorted by Party,...

  17. Buildings GHG Mitigation Estimator Worksheet, Version 1

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Xcel document describes Version 1 of the the Buildings GHG Mitigation Estimator tool. This tool assists federal agencies in estimating the greenhouse gas mitigation reduction from implementing energy efficiency measures across a portfolio of buildings. It is designed to be applied to groups of office buildings, for example, at a program level (regional or site) that can be summarized at the agency level. While the default savings and cost estimates apply to office buildings, users can define their own efficiency measures, costs, and savings estimates for inclusion in the portfolio assessment. More information on user-defined measures can be found in Step 2 of the buildings emission reduction guidance. The output of this tool is a prioritized set of activities that can help the agency to achieve its greenhouse gas reduction targets most cost-effectively.

  18. Property Tax Abatement for Green Buildings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Program Info Sector Name State Administrator Nevada State Office of Energy Website http:energy.nv.govProgramsGreenBuilding(LEED)TaxAbatements State Nevada Program Type...

  19. Passive Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Passive Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement Numerically evaluated and optimized proposed state-of-the-art passive catalytic technology designed to reduce ...

  20. Program Review, Workplace Inspections, Hazards Analysis And Abatement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document provides guidance information and suggested procedures for performing program review, workplace inspections, hazards analysis, and abatement, successfully at DOE Federal employee worksites.

  1. City of Cincinnati- Property Tax Abatement for Green Buildings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The City of Cincinnati offers property tax abatements for residential and commercial buildings constructed or renovated to meet LEED certification standards. The original green building tax...

  2. Taxes, Permits, and the Adoption of Abatement Technology under...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    adoption. However, in terms of welfare, the ranking of the instruments is not so straightforward: taxes may induce lower emissions damages, while TEPs induce lower abatement,...

  3. Emission abatement system utilizing particulate traps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bromberg, Leslie (Sharon, MA); Cohn, Daniel R. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Rabinovich, Alexander (Swampscott, MA)

    2004-04-13

    Emission abatement system. The system includes a source of emissions and a catalyst for receiving the emissions. Suitable catalysts are absorber catalysts and selective catalytic reduction catalysts. A plasma fuel converter generates a reducing gas from a fuel source and is connected to deliver the reducing gas into contact with the absorber catalyst for regenerating the catalyst. A preferred reducing gas is a hydrogen rich gas and a preferred plasma fuel converter is a plasmatron. It is also preferred that the absorber catalyst be adapted for absorbing NO.sub.x.

  4. Assess and improve the national GHG inventory and other economic...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    public and private sector capacity to support initiatives 2.4. Assess and improve the national GHG inventory and other economic and resource data as needed for LEDS development...

  5. Managing lead-based paint abatement wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steele, N.L.C.

    1994-12-31

    Renovation, remodeling, demolition, and surface preparation for painting, in addition to specified lead abatement, are all activities that have the potential to produce hazardous wastes if a property was painted with lead-based paint. Lead-based paint was used on residential structures until 1978, when most residential uses were banned by the Consumer Products Safety Council. Prior to the 1950s, paints for residential uses may have contained up to 50% lead by weight. Today, commercial and military paints may still contain lead and can be used on non-residential structures. The lead content of residential paints is limited to 0.06% lead (by weight) in the dried film. This paper provides an overview of some of the information needed to properly manage lead-based paint abatement wastes. The issues covered in this paper include waste classification, generator status, treatment, and land disposal restrictions. The author assumes that the reader is familiar with the provision of the Health and Safety Code and the California Code of Regulations that pertain to generation and management of hazardous wastes. Citations provided herein do not constitute an exhaustive list of all the regulations with which a generator of hazardous waste must comply.

  6. Lead paint abatement -- A technological review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Draper, A.C. III; Kapuscik, D.

    1994-12-31

    Abatement of lead from various surfaces proves to be a rapidly developing industry. Removal techniques and effectiveness varies greatly with varying substrates (wood, concrete, steel, etc.) and surface configurations including interior/exterior considerations, habitability and anticipated retrofit. Numerous technologies advances, and/or adaptations of long accepted removal techniques have recently emerged. Some of the more commonly used removal procedures including vacuum blasting, chemical stripping, scarifiers, grinders, sanders, etc. will be reviewed. Specific emphasis will be placed upon mode of application, positive and negative environmental aspects, and varying emissions generated. Personnel sampling data will be discussed with respect to associated personal protective equipment impact to derive the most cost productive environmentally conscious alternatives.

  7. More wind generation means lower GHG emissions, right?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-11-15

    The answer to what will be the net effect of an x percent increase in wind generation on GHG emissions in a given system is not a simple y percent -- but is likely to depend on many variables, assumptions, modeling, and number crunching. But the result is important, and hence there has been a flurry of contradictory studies, confusing policymakers and the general public alike. While one can certainly find exceptions, under most circumstances, more renewable generation can be expected to result in lower GHG emissions.

  8. City of Cleveland- Residential Property Tax Abatement for Green Buildings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The City of Cleveland, in cooperation with the Cuyahoga County Auditor's Office, provides a 10 to 15 year 100% tax abatement for increases in assessed real estate value for eligible residential...

  9. Passive Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement Passive Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement Numerically evaluated and optimized proposed state-of-the-art passive catalytic technology designed to reduce NOx released during vehicle cold start portion of the FTP-75 cycle PDF icon deer11_henry.pdf More Documents & Publications Advanced Technology Light Duty Diesel Aftertreatment System Cummins' Next Generation Tier 2, Bin 2 Light

  10. NOx Abatement Research and Development CRADA with Navistar Incorporated |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Abatement Research and Development CRADA with Navistar Incorporated NOx Abatement Research and Development CRADA with Navistar Incorporated 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon ace_33_toops.pdf More Documents & Publications CLEERS Coordination & Joint Development of Benchmark Kinetics for LNT & SCR CLEERS Coordination & Joint Development of

  11. Fact #879: June 29, 2015 Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costs for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Employer-Subsidized Commuting Options | Department of Energy 9: June 29, 2015 Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costs for Employer-Subsidized Commuting Options Fact #879: June 29, 2015 Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costs for Employer-Subsidized Commuting Options Providing workplace charging is one of the more effective ways for businesses to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions of their employees' daily commute. Offering a bike purchase subsidy can be even more cost effective but may not be suitable for

  12. Summary of Fast Pyrolysis and Upgrading GHG Analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Male, Jonathan L.

    2012-12-07

    The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 established new renewable fuel categories and eligibility requirements (EPA 2010). A significant aspect of the National Renewable Fuel Standard 2 (RFS2) program is the requirement that the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of a qualifying renewable fuel be less than the life cycle GHG emissions of the 2005 baseline average gasoline or diesel fuel that it replaces. Four levels of reduction are required for the four renewable fuel standards. Table 1 lists these life cycle performance improvement thresholds. Table 1. Life Cycle GHG Thresholds Specified in EISA Fuel Type Percent Reduction from 2005 Baseline Renewable fuel 20% Advanced biofuel 50% Biomass-based diesel 50% Cellulosic biofuel 60% Notably, there is a specialized subset of advanced biofuels that are the cellulosic biofuels. The cellulosic biofuels are incentivized by the Cellulosic Biofuel Producer Tax Credit (26 USC 40) to stimulate market adoption of these fuels. EISA defines a cellulosic biofuel as follows (42 USC 7545(o)(1)(E)): The term “cellulosic biofuel” means renewable fuel derived from any cellulose, hemicellulose, or lignin that is derived from renewable biomass and that has lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions, as determined by the Administrator, that are at least 60 percent less than the baseline lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions. As indicated, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has sole responsibility for conducting the life cycle analysis (LCA) and making the final determination of whether a given fuel qualifies under these biofuel definitions. However, there appears to be a need within the LCA community to discuss and eventually reach consensus on discerning a 50–59 % GHG reduction from a ≥ 60% GHG reduction for policy, market, and technology development. The level of specificity and agreement will require additional development of capabilities and time for the sustainability and analysis community, as illustrated by the rich dialogue and convergence around the energy content and GHG reduction of cellulosic ethanol (an example of these discussions can be found in Wang 2011). GHG analyses of fast pyrolysis technology routes are being developed and will require significant work to reach the levels of development and maturity of cellulosic ethanol models. This summary provides some of the first fast pyrolysis analyses and clarifies some of the reasons for differing results in an effort to begin the convergence on assumptions, discussion of quality of models, and harmonization.

  13. EIA: High Oil Prices, GHG Controls Would Help Clean Energy Grow...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EIA: High Oil Prices, GHG Controls Would Help Clean Energy Grow EIA: High Oil Prices, GHG Controls Would Help Clean Energy Grow April 1, 2009 - 11:35am Addthis The growth of...

  14. Pollution-abatement revenue bonds as a source of finance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, J.F.; Christofi, P.

    1980-01-31

    The use of pollution-abatement revenue bonds, or environmental improvement bonds, is a comparatively new development in electric-utility financing. It has proven to be a convenient and relatively low-cost source of funds for certain kinds of required capital investment. The authors conducted a study of the extent to which, and manner in which, these instruments have been utilized by utilities, examining and analyzing the contents of 363 pollution-abatement revenue bond issues that appeared from 1971 to 1978. The report on their findings and on the benefits of this form of financing for utilities is presented.

  15. GE Announces Vic Abate as New Chief Technology Officer | GE Global...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and create next." Abate will become only the 10th leader in GE Global Research's 115-year history. As Chief Technology Officer, Abate will oversee GE's nine global research center...

  16. Reducing GHG emissions in the United States' transportation sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Sujit [ORNL; Andress, David A [ORNL; Nguyen, Tien [U.S. DOE

    2011-01-01

    Reducing GHG emissions in the U.S. transportation sector requires both the use of highly efficient propulsion systems and low carbon fuels. This study compares reduction potentials that might be achieved in 2060 for several advanced options including biofuels, hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), and fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV), assuming that technical and cost reduction targets are met and necessary fueling infrastructures are built. The study quantifies the extent of the reductions that can be achieved through increasing engine efficiency and transitioning to low-carbon fuels separately. Decarbonizing the fuels is essential for achieving large reductions in GHG emissions, and the study quantifies the reductions that can be achieved over a range of fuel carbon intensities. Although renewables will play a vital role, some combination of coal gasification with carbon capture and sequestration, and/or nuclear energy will likely be needed to enable very large reductions in carbon intensities for hydrogen and electricity. Biomass supply constraints do not allow major carbon emission reductions from biofuels alone; the value of biomass is that it can be combined with other solutions to help achieve significant results. Compared with gasoline, natural gas provides 20% reduction in GHG emissions in internal combustion engines and up to 50% reduction when used as a feedstock for producing hydrogen or electricity, making it a good transition fuel for electric propulsion drive trains. The material in this paper can be useful information to many other countries, including developing countries because of a common factor: the difficulty of finding sustainable, low-carbon, cost-competitive substitutes for petroleum fuels.

  17. Mexico-NAMA on Reducing GHG Emissions in the Cement Sector |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    similar analyses of the iron and steel, electric power, and aluminum industries in China, Brazil and Mexico." References "CCAP-Mexico-NAMA on Reducing GHG Emissions in...

  18. Quantitative Analysis of Biofuel Sustainability, Including Land Use Change GHG Emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Plenary V: Biofuels and Sustainability: Acknowledging Challenges and Confronting MisconceptionsQuantitative Analysis of Biofuel Sustainability, Including Land Use Change GHG EmissionsJennifer B....

  19. CEQ Issues Revised Draft NEPA Guidance on GHG Emissions and Climate Change

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    | Department of Energy NEPA Guidance on GHG Emissions and Climate Change CEQ Issues Revised Draft NEPA Guidance on GHG Emissions and Climate Change March 3, 2015 - 10:37am Addthis CEQ Issues Revised Draft NEPA Guidance on GHG Emissions and Climate Change What are the key facts? CEQ issued revised draft guidance in December to "provide Federal agencies direction on when and how to consider the effects of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and climate change" in NEPA reviews. The revised

  20. HUD lead-based-paint abatement demonstration (FHA)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    The toxic effects of lead on human beings, and particularly on young children, have been known for many years. Amendments to the Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act (LPPPA) in 1987 and 1988 required the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) to undertake a lead-based paint abatement demonstration program. The overall objective of the demonstration was to 'utilize a sufficient number of abatement methods in a sufficient number of areas and circumstances to demonstrate their relative cost-effectiveness...' One component of the demonstration was conducted in HUD-owned, vacant, single-family properties and was completed in the fall of 1990. A public housing component is expected to be completed in 1991. The report describes the objectives, research design, experience and findings of the completed component, which is generally known as the FHA demonstration, named after the Federal Housing Administration, which held title to the houses.

  1. 15 Years of Successful H2S Abatement | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to library Journal Article: 15 Years of Successful H2S Abatement Abstract NA Author Gary J. Nagl Published Journal Geothermal Resources Council Bulletin, 2009 DOI Not Provided...

  2. EIA: High Oil Prices, GHG Controls Would Help Clean Energy Grow

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The growth of renewable energy and renewable fuels in the United States will be significantly greater under scenarios involving high oil prices and stricter controls on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, according to DOE's Energy Information Administration (EIA).

  3. Systematic Review and Harmonization of Life Cycle GHG Emission Estimates for Electricity Generation Technologies (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, G.

    2012-06-01

    This powerpoint presentation to be presented at the World Renewable Energy Forum on May 14, 2012, in Denver, CO, discusses systematic review and harmonization of life cycle GHG emission estimates for electricity generation technologies.

  4. U.S. HDV GHG and Fuel Efficiency Final Rule | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HDV GHG and Fuel Efficiency Final Rule U.S. HDV GHG and Fuel Efficiency Final Rule Reviews medium- and heavy-duty truck fuel efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions standards and reducing fuel consumption in a diverse segment of vehicles PDF icon deer11_bunker.pdf More Documents & Publications Roadmap and Technical White Papers for 21st Century Truck Partnership HD Applications of Significantly Downsized SI Engines Using Alcohol DI for Knock Avoidance The Next Regulatory Chapter for

  5. substantially reduced reserve margins

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    reserve margins - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  6. GHG emission factors developed for the recycling and composting of municipal waste in South African municipalities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedrich, Elena Trois, Cristina

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: GHG emission factors for local recycling of municipal waste are presented. GHG emission factors for two composting technologies for garden waste are included. Local GHG emission factors were compared to international ones and discussed. Uncertainties and limitations are presented and areas for new research highlighted. - Abstract: GHG (greenhouse gas) emission factors for waste management are increasingly used, but such factors are very scarce for developing countries. This paper shows how such factors have been developed for the recycling of glass, metals (Al and Fe), plastics and paper from municipal solid waste, as well as for the composting of garden refuse in South Africa. The emission factors developed for the different recyclables in the country show savings varying from ?290 kg CO{sub 2} e (glass) to ?19 111 kg CO{sub 2} e (metals Al) per tonne of recyclable. They also show that there is variability, with energy intensive materials like metals having higher GHG savings in South Africa as compared to other countries. This underlines the interrelation of the waste management system of a country/region with other systems, in particular with energy generation, which in South Africa, is heavily reliant on coal. This study also shows that composting of garden waste is a net GHG emitter, releasing 172 and 186 kg CO{sub 2} e per tonne of wet garden waste for aerated dome composting and turned windrow composting, respectively. The paper concludes that these emission factors are facilitating GHG emissions modelling for waste management in South Africa and enabling local municipalities to identify best practice in this regard.

  7. GE Announces Vic Abate as New Chief Technology Officer | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Names Vic Abate New Chief Technology Officer; Succeeds Mark Little Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) GE Names Vic Abate New Chief Technology Officer; Succeeds Mark Little Vic Abate, President and CEO of GE's Power Generation business, to succeed Mark Little and continue GE's leadership in the Digital

  8. New York City- Property Tax Abatement for Photovoltaic (PV) Equipment Expenditures

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In August 2008 the State of New York enacted legislation allowing a property tax abatement for photovoltaic (PV) system expenditures made on buildings located in cities with a population of 1 mil...

  9. Large Scale Renewable Energy Property Tax Abatement (Nevada State Office of Energy)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    There are several job creation and job quality requirements that must be met in order for a project to receive an abatement. Depending on the population of the county or city where the project...

  10. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Monitoring Plan - 40 CFR 98

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deborah L. Layton; Kimberly Frerichs

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Monitoring Plan is to meet the monitoring plan requirements of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 98.3(g)(5). This GHG Monitoring Plan identifies procedures and methodologies used at the Idaho National Laboratory Site (INL Site) to collect data used for GHG emissions calculations and reporting requirements from stationary combustion and other regulated sources in accordance with 40 CFR 98, Subparts A and other applicable subparts. INL Site Contractors determined subpart applicability through the use of a checklist (Appendix A). Each facility/contractor reviews operations to determine which subparts are applicable and the results are compiled to determine which subparts are applicable to the INL Site. This plan is applicable to the 40 CFR 98-regulated activities managed by the INL Site contractors: Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Cleanup Project (ICP), Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP), and Naval Reactors Facilities (NRF).

  11. Transportation Energy Futures: Combining Strategies for Deep Reductions in Energy Consumption and GHG Emissions (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-03-01

    This fact sheet summarizes actions in the areas of light-duty vehicle, non-light-duty vehicle, fuel, and transportation demand that show promise for deep reductions in energy use. Energy efficient transportation strategies have the potential to simultaneously reduce oil consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project examined how the combination of multiple strategies could achieve deep reductions in GHG emissions and petroleum use on the order of 80%. Led by NREL, in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory, the project's primary goal was to help inform domestic decisions about transportation energy strategies, priorities, and investments, with an emphasis on underexplored opportunities. TEF findings reveal three strategies with the potential to displace most transportation-related petroleum use and GHG emissions: 1) Stabilizing energy use in the transportation sector through efficiency and demand-side approaches. 2) Using additional advanced biofuels. 3) Expanding electric drivetrain technologies.

  12. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Monitoring Plan - 40 CFR 98

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deborah L. Layton; Kimberly Frerichs

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Monitoring Plan is to meet the monitoring plan requirements of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 98.3(g)(5). This GHG Monitoring Plan identifies procedures and methodologies used at the Idaho National Laboratory Site (INL Site) to collect data used for GHG emissions calculations and reporting requirements from stationary combustion and other regulated sources in accordance with 40 CFR 98, Subparts A and other applicable subparts. INL Site Contractors determined subpart applicability through the use of a checklist (Appendix A). Each facility/contractor reviews operations to determine which subparts are applicable and the results are compiled to determine which subparts are applicable to the INL Site. This plan is applicable to the 40 CFR 98-regulated activities managed by the INL Site contractors: Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Cleanup Project (ICP), Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP), and Naval Reactors Facilities (NRF).

  13. HUD lead-based-paint abatement demonstration (FHA). Volume 2. Appendices i-p

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    The document is volume 2 of the two-volume appendices accompanying 'The HUD Lead-Based Paint Abatement Demonstration' report. The document contains paint testing, abatement, cleanup and disposal guidelines; the part NIOSH plays in the project; health and safety training manual; tables from Tractor Technology Resources; list of manufacturers; quality assurance project plan for collection and analysis of air and wipe samples; and release of housing unit from the demonstration.

  14. HUD lead-based-paint abatement demonstration (FHA). Volume 1. Appendices a-h

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    The document is Volume 1 of the two-volume appendices accompanying 'The HUD Lead-Based Paint Abatement Demonstration' report. The document contains contract documents; management and work plan narrative in support of HUD 441.1-baseline plan; research design of the lead based paint abatement demonstration; field detection of lead; quality assurance plan of detection of lead; and different forms used in recording data.

  15. FEMP Assists White House in Setting GHG Reduction Target for Federal

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Government | Department of Energy Assists White House in Setting GHG Reduction Target for Federal Government FEMP Assists White House in Setting GHG Reduction Target for Federal Government July 21, 2015 - 12:02pm Addthis The photovoltaic array on top of the U.S. Department of Energy headquarters. (Photo Credit: U.S. Department of Energy) The photovoltaic array on top of the U.S. Department of Energy headquarters. (Photo Credit: U.S. Department of Energy) Earlier this year, EERE's Federal

  16. New Jersey: EERE-Supported Technology Lowers GHG Emissions 70%, Wins R&D

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    100 Award | Department of Energy EERE-Supported Technology Lowers GHG Emissions 70%, Wins R&D 100 Award New Jersey: EERE-Supported Technology Lowers GHG Emissions 70%, Wins R&D 100 Award August 21, 2013 - 12:52pm Addthis In partnership with Rutgers University and partially funded by EERE, Solidia Technologies®, a cement and concrete technology company, developed a strong and durable concrete that costs less and uses less time, energy, and water than standard concrete, using the same

  17. EERE Success Story-FEMP Assists White House in Setting GHG Reduction

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Target for Federal Government | Department of Energy Assists White House in Setting GHG Reduction Target for Federal Government EERE Success Story-FEMP Assists White House in Setting GHG Reduction Target for Federal Government July 21, 2015 - 12:02pm Addthis The photovoltaic array on top of the U.S. Department of Energy headquarters. (Photo Credit: U.S. Department of Energy) The photovoltaic array on top of the U.S. Department of Energy headquarters. (Photo Credit: U.S. Department of Energy)

  18. EERE Success Story-New Jersey: EERE-Supported Technology Lowers GHG

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Emissions 70%, Wins R&D 100 Award | Department of Energy EERE-Supported Technology Lowers GHG Emissions 70%, Wins R&D 100 Award EERE Success Story-New Jersey: EERE-Supported Technology Lowers GHG Emissions 70%, Wins R&D 100 Award August 21, 2013 - 12:52pm Addthis In partnership with Rutgers University and partially funded by EERE, Solidia Technologies®, a cement and concrete technology company, developed a strong and durable concrete that costs less and uses less time, energy,

  19. Low-cost household paint abatement to reduce children's blood lead levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taha, T.; Kanarek, M.S.; Schultz, B.D.; Murphy, A.

    1999-11-01

    The purpose was to examine the effectiveness of low-cost abatement on children's blood lead levels. Blood lead was analyzed before and after abatement in 37 homes of children under 7 years old with initial blood lead levels of 25--44 {micro}g/dL. Ninety-five percent of homes were built before 1950. Abatement methods used were wet-scraping and repainting deteriorated surfaces and wrapping window wells with aluminum or vinyl. A control group was retrospectively selected. Control children were under 7 years old, had initial blood lead levels of 25--44 {micro}g/dL and a follow-up level at least 28 days afterward, and did not have abatements performed in their homes between blood lead levels. After abatement, statistically significant declines occurred in the intervention children's blood lead levels. The mean decline was 22%, 1 to 6 months after treatment. After adjustment for seasonality and child's age, the mean decline was 6.0 {micro}g/dL, or 18%. The control children's blood levels did not decline significantly. There was a mean decline of 0.25 {micro}g/dL, or 0.39%. After adjustment for seasonality and age, the mean decline for control children was 1.6 {micro}g/dL, or 1.8%. Low-cost abatement and education are effective short-term interim controls.

  20. Estimate of Fuel Consumption and GHG Emission Impact on an Automated Mobility District: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Yuche; Young, Stanley; Gonder, Jeff; Qi, Xuewei

    2015-12-11

    This study estimates the range of fuel and emissions impact of an automated-vehicle (AV) based transit system that services campus-based developments, termed an automated mobility district (AMD). The study develops a framework to quantify the fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission impacts of a transit system comprised of AVs, taking into consideration average vehicle fleet composition, fuel consumption/GHG emission of vehicles within specific speed bins, and the average occupancy of passenger vehicles and transit vehicles. The framework is exercised using a previous mobility analysis of a personal rapid transit (PRT) system, a system which shares many attributes with envisioned AV-based transit systems. Total fuel consumption and GHG emissions with and without an AMD are estimated, providing a range of potential system impacts on sustainability. The results of a previous case study based of a proposed implementation of PRT on the Kansas State University (KSU) campus in Manhattan, Kansas, serves as the basis to estimate personal miles traveled supplanted by an AMD at varying levels of service. The results show that an AMD has the potential to reduce total system fuel consumption and GHG emissions, but the amount is largely dependent on operating and ridership assumptions. The study points to the need to better understand ride-sharing scenarios and calls for future research on sustainability benefits of an AMD system at both vehicle and system levels.

  1. Reducing GHG emissions by co-utilization of coal with natural gas or biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, I.M.

    2004-07-01

    Energy reserves price and security of supply issues are discussed in the context of the prospects for coal and policies to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Coal is projected to remain a major source of energy, with most of the demand growth in developing countries. Currently available power-generating technologies, deploying coal with natural gas or biomass, are examined. Examples of successful, partial substitution of coal by other fuels in power stations are highlighted, including the GHG emissions reductions achieved as well as the costs where available. Among various options, hybrid gasification and parallel cofiring of coal with biomass and natural gas appear to have the greatest potential to reduce GHG emissions. Much may also be achieved by cofiring, reburning, and repowering with gas turbines. The best method differs between different power systems. Co-utilization of biomass with coal is a least-cost option to reduce GHG emissions where the fuel prices are comparable, usually due to subsidies or taxes. The role of biomass is likely to increase due to greater use of subsidies, carbon taxes, and emissions trading within the context of the Kyoto Protocol. This should provide opportunities for clean coal technology transfer and diffusion, including biomass co-utilization. 32 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  2. Greenhouse Gas Abatement with Distributed Generation in California's Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Cardoso, Goncalo; Megel, Olivier; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy

    2009-08-15

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBL) is working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) to determine the role of distributed generation (DG) in greenhouse gas reductions. The impact of DG on large industrial sites is well known, and mostly, the potentials are already harvested. In contrast, little is known about the impact of DG on commercial buildings with peak electric loads ranging from 100 kW to 5 MW. We examine how DG with combined heat and power (CHP) may be implemented within the context of a cost minimizing microgrid that is able to adopt and operate various smart energy technologies, such as thermal and photovoltaic (PV) on-site generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and storage systems. We use a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that has the minimization of a site's annual energy costs as objective. Using 138 representative commercial sites in California (CA) with existing tariff rates and technology data, we find the greenhouse gas reduction potential for California's commercial sector. This paper shows results from the ongoing research project and finished work from a two year U.S. Department of Energy research project. To show the impact of the different technologies on CO2 emissions, several sensitivity runs for different climate zones within CA with different technology performance expectations for 2020 were performed. The considered sites can contribute between 1 Mt/a and 1.8 Mt/a to the California Air Resources Board (CARB) goal of 6.7Mt/a CO2 abatement potential in 2020. Also, with lower PV and storage costs as well as consideration of a CO2 pricing scheme, our results indicate that PV and electric storage adoption can compete rather than supplement each other when the tariff structure and costs of electricity supply have been taken into consideration. To satisfy the site's objective of minimizing energy costs, the batteries will be charged also by CHP systems during off-peak and mid-peak hours and not only by PV during sunny on-peak hours.

  3. Health and environmental outcomes of traditional and modified practices for abatement of residential lead-based paint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farfel, M.R.; Chisolm, J.J. Jr. )

    1990-10-01

    We evaluated traditional and modified practices for abating lead-based paint in homes of children with blood-lead concentrations (PbB) greater than 1.4 mumol/L (greater than 29 micrograms/dl). Traditional abatement resulted in acute increases in: (1) lead contaminated house dust (generally 3 to 6-fold over pre-abatement levels, but at abated sites typically 10 to 100-fold); and (2) the PbBs of nearly half of the occupant children. Modified practices represented modest short-term improvement compared to traditional practices but were also inadequate. By six months, it was clear that neither form of abatement resulted in long-term reductions of PbB or house dust lead levels, leaving children at continued risk of excessive exposure to lead and permanent adverse neurobehavioral effects. Windows were found to be high sources of lead contaminated house dust. Recommendations are made for improved abatement practices including more complete abatement of window units and more effective clean-up to remove lead-bearing dust. Thirteen million US children live in lead-painted dwellings. Research is needed to identify abatement strategies that will be practical and well suited to the current understanding of low-level lead toxicity.

  4. Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2005-09-01

    The Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Analysis (PDF347 KB) identifies opportunities for developing advanced technologies and estimates both the necessary funding and the potential payoff. This analysis determines what portion of the energy bandwidth can be captured through the adoption of state-of-the-art technology and practices. R&D opportunities for addressing the remainder of the bandwidth are characterized and plotted on a marginal opportunity curve.

  5. Voluntary Agreements for Energy Efficiency or GHG EmissionsReduction in Industry: An Assessment of Programs Around the World

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn

    2005-06-01

    Voluntary agreements for energy efficiency improvement and reduction of energy-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been a popular policy instrument for the industrial sector in industrialized countries since the 1990s. A number of these national-level voluntary agreement programs are now being modified and strengthened, while additional countries--including some recently industrialized and developing countries--are adopting these type of agreements in an effort to increase the energy efficiency of their industrial sectors.Voluntary agreement programs can be roughly divided into three broad categories: (1) programs that are completely voluntary, (2) programs that use the threat of future regulations or energy/GHG emissions taxes as a motivation for participation, and (3) programs that are implemented in conjunction with an existing energy/GHG emissions tax policy or with strict regulations. A variety of government-provided incentives as well as penalties are associated with these programs. This paper reviews 23 energy efficiency or GHG emissions reduction voluntary agreement programs in 18 countries, including countries in Europe, the U.S., Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, South Korea, and Chinese Taipei (Taiwan) and discusses preliminary lessons learned regarding program design and effectiveness. The paper notes that such agreement programs, in which companies inventory and manage their energy use and GHG emissions to meet specific reduction targets, are an essential first step towards GHG emissions trading programs.

  6. Marginal Energy Prices - RECS97 Update

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Marginal Energy Prices - RECS97 Update The original estimation of residential marginal energy prices at the individual household level (as reported in the Marginal Energy Prices Report, http://www.eren.doe.gov/buildings/codes_standards/applbrf/pdfs/marginal_ energy_price.pdf) was based on household energy billing data from EIA's 1993 RECS survey. When the 1997 RECS survey data became available, LBNL updated its estimation of residential marginal energy prices at the individual household level

  7. A multi-objective programming model for assessment the GHG emissions in MSW management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mavrotas, George; Skoulaxinou, Sotiria; Gakis, Nikos; Katsouros, Vassilis; Georgopoulou, Elena

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: The multi-objective multi-period optimization model. The solution approach for the generation of the Pareto front with mathematical programming. The very detailed description of the model (decision variables, parameters, equations). The use of IPCC 2006 guidelines for landfill emissions (first order decay model) in the mathematical programming formulation. - Abstract: In this study a multi-objective mathematical programming model is developed for taking into account GHG emissions for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management. Mathematical programming models are often used for structure, design and operational optimization of various systems (energy, supply chain, processes, etc.). The last twenty years they are used all the more often in Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management in order to provide optimal solutions with the cost objective being the usual driver of the optimization. In our work we consider the GHG emissions as an additional criterion, aiming at a multi-objective approach. The Pareto front (Cost vs. GHG emissions) of the system is generated using an appropriate multi-objective method. This information is essential to the decision maker because he can explore the trade-offs in the Pareto curve and select his most preferred among the Pareto optimal solutions. In the present work a detailed multi-objective, multi-period mathematical programming model is developed in order to describe the waste management problem. Apart from the bi-objective approach, the major innovations of the model are (1) the detailed modeling considering 34 materials and 42 technologies, (2) the detailed calculation of the energy content of the various streams based on the detailed material balances, and (3) the incorporation of the IPCC guidelines for the CH{sub 4} generated in the landfills (first order decay model). The equations of the model are described in full detail. Finally, the whole approach is illustrated with a case study referring to the application of the model in a Greek region.

  8. Life Cycle GHG Emissions from Conventional Natural Gas Power Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, G.; O'Donoughue, P.; Whitaker, M.

    2012-12-01

    This research provides a systematic review and harmonization of the life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of electricity generated from conventionally produced natural gas. We focus on estimates of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emitted in the life cycle of electricity generation from conventionally produced natural gas in combustion turbines (NGCT) and combined-cycle (NGCC) systems. A process we term "harmonization" was employed to align several common system performance parameters and assumptions to better allow for cross-study comparisons, with the goal of clarifying central tendency and reducing variability in estimates of life cycle GHG emissions. This presentation summarizes preliminary results.

  9. Review of current research and activities involving characterization, abatement, and disposal of lead-containing paint films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKnight, M.E.

    1990-05-01

    In response to a recent regulation for abating lead-based paint in housing and other environmental regulations, research projects and other activities are being conducted to provide information on procedures for carrying out abatement and maintenance of lead-containing paint films in a safe and cost-effective manner. Relevant Federal regulations, and current research projects and other activities addressing the issues are reviewed.

  10. Abating climate change. What will be done and the consequences for investors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raskin, A.; Mellquist, N.; Shah, S.; Winton, B.

    2008-01-15

    This report is meant for institutional investors. Sections discuss: the science of climate change; global emissions - abatement scenario; coal - the world's dominant fuel for electric generation; CO{sub 2} transport and storage; nuclear energy - the new green solution; renewable energy - harnessing the power of water, wind and sun; regulation; increasing energy efficiency - the lowest cost option; enhancing the efficiency of electric applications; enhancing the efficiency of transportation; macroeconomic implications; and investment implications.

  11. Multimedia-based decision support system for hazards recognition and abatement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Czachowski, John B. (Knoxville, TN); Zoldak, John T. (Alexandria, VA)

    1998-01-01

    A system for monitoring a site includes a portable data collection module used in the field to collect site specific data, and a processor module located at a central location. The data collection module displays choices of categories of findings, and then specific findings within each category. A selected specific finding is then displayed in report form with a citation to the specific code or statutory requirement, as well as a recommended course of action and an abatement date.

  12. On the Margin | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    On the Margin October 19, 2012 The primary component of Jefferson Lab's mission is nuclear physics - to explore the nature of nuclear matter and to explore fundamental symmetries. This dominance is reflected in the budgets we receive, and in what we do on a daily basis. In many ways, the whole laboratory revolves around the operation of the nuclear physics accelerator. However, when we make presentations about the laboratory, we usually talk about our activities in much broader terms. There are

  13. GHG emission factors developed for the collection, transport and landfilling of municipal waste in South African municipalities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedrich, Elena; Trois, Cristina

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ? An average GHG emission factor for the collection and transport of municipal solid waste in South Africa is calculated. ? A range of GHG emission factors for different types of landfills (including dumps) in South Africa are calculated. ? These factors are compared internationally and their implications for South Africa and developing countries are discussed . ? Areas for new research are highlighted. - Abstract: Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission factors are used with increased frequency for the accounting and reporting of GHG from waste management. However, these factors have been calculated for developed countries of the Northern Hemisphere and are lacking for developing countries. This paper shows how such factors have been developed for the collection, transport and landfilling of municipal waste in South Africa. As such it presents a model on how international results and methodology can be adapted and used to calculate country-specific GHG emission factors from waste. For the collection and transport of municipal waste in South Africa, the average diesel consumption is around 5 dm{sup 3} (litres) per tonne of wet waste and the associated GHG emissions are about 15 kg CO{sub 2} equivalents (CO{sub 2} e). Depending on the type of landfill, the GHG emissions from the landfilling of waste have been calculated to range from ?145 to 1016 kg CO{sub 2} e per tonne of wet waste, when taking into account carbon storage, and from 441 to 2532 kg CO{sub 2} e per tonne of wet waste, when carbon storage is left out. The highest emission factor per unit of wet waste is for landfill sites without landfill gas collection and these are the dominant waste disposal facilities in South Africa. However, cash strapped municipalities in Africa and the developing world will not be able to significantly upgrade these sites and reduce their GHG burdens if there is no equivalent replacement of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) resulting from the Kyoto agreement. Other low cost avenues need to be investigated to suit local conditions, in particular landfill covers which enhance methane oxidation.

  14. Transportation Energy Futures- Combining Strategies for Deep Reductions in Energy Consumption and GHG Emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Transportation currently accounts for 71% of total U.S. petroleum use and 33% of the nation's total carbon emissions. The TEF project explores how combining multiple strategies could reduce GHG emissions and petroleum use by 80%. Researchers examined four key areas – lightduty vehicles, non-light-duty vehicles, fuels, and transportation demand – in the context of the marketplace, consumer behavior, industry capabilities, technology and the energy and transportation infrastructure. The TEF reports support DOE long-term planning. The reports provide analysis to inform decisions about transportation energy research investments, as well as the role of advanced transportation energy technologies and systems in the development of new physical, strategic, and policy alternatives.

  15. Logistics, Costs, and GHG Impacts of Utility-Scale Co-Firing with 20% Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichol, Corrie Ian

    2013-06-01

    This study analyzes the possibility that biopower in the U.S. is a cost-competitive option to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In 2009, net greenhouse gas (GHG) emitted in the United States was equivalent to 5,618 million metric tons CO2, up 5.6% from 1990 (EPA 2011). Coal-fired power generation accounted for 1,748 million metric tons of this total. Intuitively, life-cycle CO2 emissions in the power sector could be reduced by substituting renewable biomass for coal. If just 20% of the coal combusted in 2009 had been replaced with biomass, CO2 emissions would have been reduced by 350 million metric tons, or about 6% of net annual GHG emission. This would have required approximately 225 million tons of dry biomass. Such an ambitious fuel substitution would require development of a biomass feedstock production and supply system tantamount to coal. This material would need to meet stringent specifications to ensure reliable conveyance to boiler burners, efficient combustion, and no adverse impact on heat transfer surfaces and flue gas cleanup operations. Therefore, this report addresses the potential cost/benefit tradeoffs of co-firing 20% specification-qualified biomass (on an energy content basis) in large U.S. coal-fired power plants. The dependence and sensitivity of feedstock cost on source of material, location, supply distance, and demand pressure was established. Subsequently, the dependence of levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) on feedstock costs, power plant feed system retrofit, and impact on boiler performance was determined. Overall life-cycle assessment (LCA) of greenhouse gas emissions saving were next evaluated and compared to wind and solar energy to benchmark the leading alternatives for meeting renewable portfolio standards (or RPS).

  16. Cost of lead-based-paint abatement in public housing. Volume 2. Appendix C-F

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-07-01

    This study provides data on lead incidence and the estimated costs of abating lead hazards in public housing at several possible threshold levels of lead concentration in applied paint. The data were collected at a sample of family projects by cooperating Lead Paint Poisoning Prevention Programs using data collection forms designed for the study. National estimates are provided based on the assumption that the construction year of a dwelling or building is the only characteristic related to lead incidence. The estimates are provided for all family dwelling units, defined as those of two-bedrooms or larger; for all buildings in family projects; and for site-wide facilities in family projects.

  17. Cost of lead-based-paint abatement in public housing. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallace, J.E.

    1986-07-01

    This study provides data on lead incidence and the estimated costs of abating lead hazards in public housing at several possible threshold levels of lead concentration in applied paint. The data were collected at a sample of family projects by cooperating Lead Paint Poisoning Prevention Programs using data collection forms designed for the study. National estimates are provided based on the assumption that the construction year of a dwelling or building is the only characteristic related to lead incidence. The estimates are provided for all family dwelling units, defined as those of two-bedrooms or larger; for all buildings in family projects; and for site-wide facilities in family projects.

  18. Lead-based paint: Interim guidelines for hazard identification and abatement in public and Indian housing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    The interim Guidelines provide information on the need for and appropriate methods of identifying and abating lead-based paint (LBP) in the Department of Housing and Urban Development's (HUD's) Public and Indian Housing program. It should be noted that these are interim Guidelines and are subject to change as new information becomes available. All requirements for Public Housing Authorities (PHAs) are considered to apply to Indian Housing Authorities (IHAs), except where specifically excluded by statute. Thus, these Guidelines apply to PHAs and IHAs inclusively. These Guidelines have been prepared by a panel of distinguished experts in the field of LBP and are an outgrowth of the National Institute of Building Sciences (NIBS) effort, which developed the first draft of these guidelines under contract to HUD. These Guidelines represent the first national compilation of technical protocols, practices, and procedures on testing, abatement, worker protection, clean-up, and disposal of LBP in residential structures. These Guidelines should be used in conjunction with the requirements of any State or local codes and regulations which may apply to the specific project under consideration.

  19. Abatement of Xenon and Iodine Emissions from Medical Isotope Production Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doll, Charles G.; Sorensen, Christina M.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Friese, Judah I.; Hayes, James C.; Hoffman, Emma L.; Kephart, Rosara F.

    2014-04-01

    The capability of the International Monitoring System (IMS) to detect xenon from underground nuclear explosions is dependent on the radioactive xenon background. Adding to the background, medical isotope production (MIP) by fission releases several important xenon isotopes including xenon-133 and iodine-133 that decays to xenon-133. The amount of xenon released from these facilities may be equivalent to or exceed that released from an underground nuclear explosion. Thus the release of gaseous fission products within days of irradiation makes it difficult to distinguish MIP emissions from a nuclear explosion. In addition, recent shortages in molybdenum-99 have created interest and investment opportunities to design and build new MIP facilities in the United States and throughout the world. Due to the potential increase in the number of MIP facilities, a discussion of abatement technologies provides insight into how the problem of emission control from MIP facilities can be tackled. A review of practices is provided to delineate methods useful for abatement of medical isotopes.

  20. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 90-070-2181, HUD Lead-Based Paint Abatement Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sussell, A.L.

    1992-02-01

    In response to a request from the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) Officer for Policy Development and Research, an investigation was made into possible hazardous working conditions during the HUD Lead Based Paint Abatement Demonstration (SIC-1521). The demonstration took place in 172 vacant housing units in several different cities. The abatement methods used included abrasive removal, chemical removal, heat gun removal, encapsulation, enclosure, and replacement. Evaluations were made during the demonstrations and it was determined that the workers were exposed to lead (7439921) with the highest exposure levels coming during the heat gun method of removal. Exposures to volatile organic compounds were low. Maximum personal and general area airborne lead concentrations were 916 micrograms/cubic meter and 1296 micrograms/cubic meter, respectively. Soil sampling indicated that lead paint abatement in some cases resulted in increases in soil lead levels 1 to 3 feet from the exterior walls. The author concludes that workers were potentially overexposed to lead during lead abatement. The author recommend specific measures concerning training, work practices, engineering controls, safety programs, risk assessment, respiratory protection programs, medical monitoring and surveillance.

  1. Assessment of Biomass Resources from Marginal Lands in APEC Countries...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biomass Resources from Marginal Lands in APEC Countries Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Assessment of Biomass Resources from Marginal Lands in APEC Countries Name Assessment of...

  2. Comprehensive and workable plan for the abatement of lead-based paint in privately owned housing. Report to the Congress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weitz, S.; Clickner, R.P.; Blackburn, A.; Buches, D.

    1991-01-01

    The report proposes a balanced and comprehensive plan designed to overcome the barriers that have inhibited efforts to address the hazards of lead-based paint in the past, and to support State and local governments and the private sector in the difficult but necessary task of reducing these hazards in American homes. The report focuses on lead paint abatement, as mandated by the Congress.

  3. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Blaylock, B.G.; Boston, H.L.; Huston, M.A.; Kimmel, B.L.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Walton, B.T.; Kitchings, J.T.; Olsen, C.R.

    1991-09-01

    On April 1, 1986, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) (EPA 1986). As specified in Part 3: Special Conditions (Item H) of the permit, a plan for biological monitoring of the Clinch River, White Oak Creek (WOC), Northwest Tributary (NWT) of WOC, Melton Branch (MB), Fifth Creek, and First Creek shall be submitted for approval to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE) within 90 days of the effective date of the permit. The plan, which is referred to in Part 3 (H) of the permit as the Biological Monitoring Plan and Abatement Program (BMPAP), describes characterization monitoring studies to be conducted for the duration of the permit (5 years). In order to be consistent with the terminology used for the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Programs for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plan and the Oak Ridge K-25 Plant, BMPAP will subsequently be referred to as the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The proposed BMAP outlined in this document is based on preliminary discussions held on December 9, 1985, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (ORNL and Central Management), the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPA, and TDHE. 232 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kszos, L.A.; Adams, S.M.; Ashwood, T.L.; Blaylock, B.G.; Greeley, M.S.; Loar, J.M.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Hinzman, R.L.; Shoemaker, B.A.

    1993-04-01

    A proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site was prepared in December 1992 as required by the renewed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit that was issued on October 1, 1992. The proposed BMAP is based on results of biological monitoring conducted from 1986 to 1992 and discussions held on November 12, 1992, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the K-25 Site), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Department of Energy Oversight Division. The proposed BMAP consists of four tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of K-25 Site effluents on the ecological integrity of Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and the Poplar Creek embayment of the Clinch River. These tasks include (1) ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring, (3) assessment of fish health, and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities. This overall BMAP plan combines established protocols with current biological monitoring techniques to assess environmental compliance and quantify ecological recovery. The BMAP will also determine whether the effluent limits established for the K-25 Site protect the designated use of the receiving streams (Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and Clinch River) for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life. Results obtained from this biological monitoring program will also be used to document the ecological effects (and effectiveness) of remedial actions.

  5. Monitoring Fish Contaminant Responses to Abatement Actions: Factors that Affect Recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Southworth, George R [ORNL; Peterson, Mark J [ORNL; Roy, W Kelly [ORNL; Mathews, Teresa J [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring of contaminant accumulation in fish has been conducted in East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee since 1985. Bioaccumulation trends are examined over a twenty year period coinciding with major pollution abatement actions by a Department of Energy facility at the stream s headwaters. Although EFPC is enriched in many contaminants relative to other local streams, only polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and mercury (Hg) were found to accumulate in the edible portions of fish to levels of human health concern. Mercury concentrations in redbreast sunfish were found to vary with season of collection, sex and size of individual fish. Over the course of the monitoring, waterborne Hg concentrations were reduced[80%; however, this did not translate into a comparable decrease in Hg bioaccumulation at most sites. Mercury bioaccumulation in fish did respond to decreased inputs in the industrialized headwater reach, but paradoxically increased in the lowermost reach of EFPC. As a result, the downstream pattern of Hg concentration in fish changed from one resembling dilution of a headwater point source in the 1980s to a uniform distribution in the 2000s. The reason for this remains unknown, but is hypothesized to involve changes in the chemical form and reactivity of waterborne Hg associated with the removal of residual chlorine and the addition of suspended particulates to the streamflow. PCB concentrations in fish varied greatly from year-to-year, but always exhibited a pronounced downstream decrease, and appeared to respond to management practices that limited episodic inputs from legacy sources within the facility.

  6. First annual report on the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Blaylock, B.G.; Boston, H.L.; Frank, M.L.; Garten, C.T.; Houston, M.A.; Kimmel, B.L.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Walton, B.T.; Berry, J.B.; Talmage, S.S.; Amano, H.; Jimenez, B.D.; Kitchings, J.T.; Meyers-Schoene, L.; Mohrbacher, D.A.; Olsen, C.R.

    1992-08-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. BMAP consists of seven major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota; (3) biological indicator studies; (4) instream ecological monitoring; (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment; (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL); and (7) contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system. This document, the first of a series of annual reports presenting the results of BMAP, describes studies that were conducted from March through December 1986.

  7. A blasting additive that renders wastes non hazardous in lead paint abatement projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, R.; Rapp, D.J.; McGrew, M.

    1994-12-31

    Maintenance of steel structures often produces abrasive wastes that are considered toxic and hazardous due to the lead content of the old paint system present in spent abrasives. Environmental regulations in the US and Canada effectively preclude on-site treatment and disposal of these wastes, thereby forcing them into costly transport and secure disposal options. The authors have developed an abrasive additive that allows dry or wet blasting to remove old paint systems, but the resultant wastes are considered non-hazardous and are eligible for recycling or non-hazardous waste disposal, both at sharply reduced costs. The agent does not ``mask`` environmental test results, but does produce a stable residue suitable for long term disposal or reuse. Surface conditions after application of abrasives appear to be amenable to virtually all paint systems tested. The process is in use on an estimated 10% of all steel based lead paint abatement projects in the US, and is experiencing considerable growth in market acceptance. The technology may allow disposal cost reductions in excess of 50%.

  8. Risk Informed Margins Management as part of Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis Smith

    2014-06-01

    The ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin is important to improved decision making about Light Water Reactor (LWR) design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margin management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. In addition, as research and development in the LWR Sustainability (LWRS) Program and other collaborative efforts yield new data, sensors, and improved scientific understanding of physical processes that govern the aging and degradation of plant SSCs needs and opportunities to better optimize plant safety and performance will become known. To support decision making related to economics, readability, and safety, the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway provides methods and tools that enable mitigation options known as risk informed margins management (RIMM) strategies.

  9. Marginal Energy Price Report - July 1999 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Marginal Energy Price Report - July 1999 Marginal Energy Price Report - July 1999 Estimated Consumer Marginal Energy Prices for the Commercial and Residental Sectors for use in the Life-Cycle Cost Analyses for four of the High-Priority Appliance Rulemakings PDF icon marg_eprice_0799.pdf More Documents & Publications Marginal Energy Prices - RECS97 Update Standby Rates for Customer-Sited Resources - Issues, Considerations, and the Elements of Model Tariffs, 2009 Solar Real-Time Pricing: Is

  10. Marginal Energy Prices - RECS97 Update | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Prices - RECS97 Update Marginal Energy Prices - RECS97 Update An updated estimation of residential marginal energy prices at the individual house level using the 1997 RECS survey data PDF icon marg_eprice_recs97.pdf More Documents & Publications Marginal Energy Price Report - July 1999 Energy Intensity Indicators: Methodology Downloads Response to several FOIA requests - Renewable Energy.

  11. Life-cycle energy and GHG emissions of forest biomass harvest and transport for biofuel production in Michigan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Fengli; Johnson, Dana M.; Wang, Jinjiang

    2015-04-01

    High dependence on imported oil has increased U.S. strategic vulnerability and prompted more research in the area of renewable energy production. Ethanol production from renewable woody biomass, which could be a substitute for gasoline, has seen increased interest. This study analysed energy use and greenhouse gas emission impacts on the forest biomass supply chain activities within the State of Michigan. A life-cycle assessment of harvesting and transportation stages was completed utilizing peer-reviewed literature. Results for forest-delivered ethanol were compared with those for petroleum gasoline using data specific to the U.S. The analysis from a woody biomass feedstock supply perspective uncovered that ethanol production is more environmentally friendly (about 62% less greenhouse gas emissions) compared with petroleum based fossil fuel production. Sensitivity analysis was conducted with key inputs associated with harvesting and transportation operations. The results showed that research focused on improving biomass recovery efficiency and truck fuel economy further reduced GHG emissions and energy consumption.

  12. Life-cycle energy and GHG emissions of forest biomass harvest and transport for biofuel production in Michigan

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Fengli; Johnson, Dana M.; Wang, Jinjiang

    2015-04-01

    High dependence on imported oil has increased U.S. strategic vulnerability and prompted more research in the area of renewable energy production. Ethanol production from renewable woody biomass, which could be a substitute for gasoline, has seen increased interest. This study analysed energy use and greenhouse gas emission impacts on the forest biomass supply chain activities within the State of Michigan. A life-cycle assessment of harvesting and transportation stages was completed utilizing peer-reviewed literature. Results for forest-delivered ethanol were compared with those for petroleum gasoline using data specific to the U.S. The analysis from a woody biomass feedstock supply perspective uncoveredmore » that ethanol production is more environmentally friendly (about 62% less greenhouse gas emissions) compared with petroleum based fossil fuel production. Sensitivity analysis was conducted with key inputs associated with harvesting and transportation operations. The results showed that research focused on improving biomass recovery efficiency and truck fuel economy further reduced GHG emissions and energy consumption.« less

  13. MARGINAL EXPENSE OIL WELL WIRELESS SURVEILLANCE MEOWS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason M. Medizade; John R. Ridgely; Donald G. Nelson

    2004-11-01

    A marginal expense oil well wireless surveillance system to monitor system performance and production from rod-pumped wells in real time from wells operated by Vaquero Energy in the Edison Field, Main Area of Kern County in California has been successfully designed and field tested. The surveillance system includes a proprietary flow sensor, a programmable transmitting unit, a base receiver and receiving antenna, and a base station computer equipped with software to interpret the data. First, the system design is presented. Second, field data obtained from three wells is shown. Results of the study show that an effective, cost competitive, real-time wireless surveillance system can be introduced to oil fields across the United States and the world.

  14. Regnar -- Development of a marginal field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thalund, K.M.; Brodersen, F.P.; Roigaard-Petersen, B.

    1994-12-31

    Regnar is a small marginal field located some 13 km from the main Dan F complex and is the first subsea completion in Danish waters, operated by Maersk Olie og Gas AS. A short lifetime has been predicted for the field which therefore has been developed as a low cost project, using a combination of subsea technology and minimum topside facilities. Regnar consists of a subsea x-mas tree producing through a 6 inch pipeline with a 2 1/2 inch chemical piggyback line to Dan F. The x-mas tree and the subsea choke valve are controlled from a buoy moored nearby the well. The buoy is radio linked to Dan F. The Regnar field was brought on stream on September 26, 1993.

  15. ITP Steel: Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Study September 2005 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Marginal Opportunity Study September 2005 ITP Steel: Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Study September 2005 PDF icon steelmarginalopportunity.pdf More Documents & Publications ITP Steel: Steel Industry Energy Bandwidth Study October 2004 ITP Steel: Energy Use in the U.S. Steel Industry: An Historical Perspective and Future Opportunities, September 2000 ITP Steel: Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Study September 2005 Bandwidth Study U.S. Iron and Steel

  16. Marginal Energy Price Report - July 1999 | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Price Report - July 1999 Marginal Energy Price Report - July 1999 Estimated Consumer Marginal Energy Prices for the Commercial and Residental Sectors for use in the Life-Cycle Cost Analyses for four of the High-Priority Appliance Rulemakings PDF icon marg_eprice_0799.pdf More Documents & Publications Standby Rates for Customer-Sited Resources - Issues, Considerations, and the Elements of Model Tariffs, 2009 Marginal Energy Prices - RECS97 Update Solar Real-Time Pricing: Is Real-Time

  17. Intrusion Margins and Associated Fractures | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rim Margins Lithologically Controlled Fractures caused by igneous activity creates permeability, allowing water to circulate deep beneath the surface thus becoming heated in the...

  18. A risk-informed approach to safety margins analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis Smith; Diego Mandelli

    2013-07-01

    The Risk Informed Safety Margins Characterization (RISMC) Pathway is a systematic approach developed to characterize and quantify safety margins of nuclear power plant structures, systems and components. The model has been tested on the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Lab.

  19. Assessment of Biomass Resources from Marginal Lands in APEC Economies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milbrandt, A.; Overend, R. P.

    2009-08-01

    The goal of this study is to examine the marginal lands in Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) economies and evaluate their biomass productivity potential. Twelve categories of marginal lands are identified using the Global Agro-Ecological Zones system of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization.

  20. ARM - Campaign Instrument - ghg

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentsghg

  1. GBTL Workshop GHG Emissions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... 94 89 83 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 without electricity credit, without CCS with electricity credit, without CCS Diesel without electricity credit, with CCS with electricity credit, ...

  2. ARM - Instrument - ghg

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ken Reichl Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 805-813-1488 KReichl@lbl.gov Annette Koontz Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Developer (509) 375-3609 annette.koontz@pnnl.gov...

  3. Radiotherapy margin design with particular consideration of high curvature CTVs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herschtal, Alan; Kron, Tomas; Fox, Chris [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, St. Andrews Place, E. Melbourne, Victoria 3002 (Australia)

    2009-03-15

    In applying 3D conformal radiation therapy to a tumor clinical target volume (CTV), a margin is added around the CTV to account for any sources of error in the application of treatment which may result in misalignment between the CTV and the dose distribution actually delivered. The volume enclosed within the CTV plus the margin is known as the PTV, or planning target volume. The larger the errors are anticipated to be, the wider the margin will need to be to accommodate those errors. Based on the approach of van Herk et al. [''The probability of correct target dosage: Dose-population histograms for deriving treatment margins in radiotherapy,'' Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol., Phys. 47(4), 1121-1135 (2000)] this paper develops the mathematical theory behind the calculation of the margin width required to ensure that the entire CTV receives sufficiently high dose with sufficiently high probability. The margin recipe developed not only considers the magnitude of the errors but also includes a term to adjust for curved CTV surfaces. In doing so, the accuracy of the margin recipe is enhanced yet remains mathematically concise enough to be readily implemented in the clinical setting. The results are particularly relevant for clinical situations in which the uncertainties in treatment are large relative to the size of the CTV.

  4. Marginal erg facies: A trial approach toward a descriptive classification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caputo, M.V. ); Langford, R.P. )

    1991-03-01

    During the late 1970s and early 1980s, sedimentologists began recognizing the margins of eolian sand seas as separate, components which differed from interior sand seas in geometry, extent, and facies. Stratigraphers have now observed these differences in eolian rocks. Erg margins may be grouped in five ways: (1) by associations with extradunal environments-coastal plain, lacustrine, periglacial, marine (tidal flat, coastal sabkha, beach, and lagoon), and arid alluvial (alluvial fan, fluvial, playa, inland sabkha); (2) by allocyclic controls-eustasy, plate tectonism, and climate; (3) by autocyclic controls-local tectonism, topography, vegetation, hydrology, structure, sediment source and supply, and wind regime; (4) by geographic position-upwind, downwind, and along-wind margins; and (5) by sedimentary facies-texture and architecture. In contrast with erg interiors, erg margins are characterized by smaller, less complex dune-forms related to thinner sand accumulation; elementary dune architecture; more vegetation and bioturbation; high occurrence of sand sheet, zibar, and serir facies; expansive, low-relief interdunes with widely distributed dunes; and a greater proportion of interbedded extradunal deposits. Some of the published studies on ancient eolian systems have identified erg margin facies that have been influences by marine and arid alluvial processes. Few reports have described lacustrine-eolian and periglacial-eolian interactions. This study is an attempt to organize known features of modern and ancient erg margins into a scheme based on erg margin controls.

  5. Practical ways to abate air and water pollution worldwide including a unique way to significantly curb global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snell, J.R.

    1998-07-01

    This paper points out that in the next 50 years it will largely be the developing countries of the world which will continue to industrialize rapidly and hence pollute the water and air of not only their countries but that this pollution is becoming global (80% of the World's population.) From the author's 25 years of consulting experience in the developing countries, their greatest need is to have available to them low cost, innovative processes for pollution abatement will be neglected and the whole world will suffer immensely. The paper discusses in some detail the type of innovative low cost methods which have successfully been used in the categories of wastewater and solid wastes and names 6 other categories where many others exist. All these innovative methods need to be discovered, listed, and tested for quality and dependability, and then made widely available. Large Environmental Engineering Universities and International Consulting Engineering firms need to be organized to undertake these important tasks. The paper also points out the connection between Global Warming and the Solid waste industry and shows how it can be controlled inexpensively by employing a new, unique, and rapid method of converting municipal refuse into methane and then using that to make electricity. Information given in this paper could lead to a vast reduction in future pollution, with the resulting better global health and at the same time save trillions of dollars.

  6. Second report on the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinzman, R.L.; Adams, S.M.; Black, M.C.

    1993-06-01

    As stipulated in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NDPES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant on May 24, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream, East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The objectives of BMAP are (1) to demonstrate that the current effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of EFPC (e.g., the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life), as designated by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) and (2) to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a Water Pollution Control Program that includes construction of several large wastewater treatment facilities. BMAP consists of four major tasks: (1) ambient toxicity testing; (2) bioaccumulation studies; (3) biological indicator studies; and (4) ecological surveys of stream communities, including periphyton (attached algae), benthic (bottom-dwelling) macroinvertebrates, and fish. This document, the second in a series of reports on the results of the Y-12 Plant BMAP, describes studies that were conducted between July 1986 and July 1988, although additional data collected outside this time period are included, as appropriate.

  7. Electricity Prices in a Competitive Environment: Marginal Cost Pricing

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1997-01-01

    Presents the results of an analysis that focuses on two questions: (1) How are prices for competitive generation services likely to differ from regulated prices if competitive prices are based on marginal costs rather than regulated cost-of-service pricing? (2) What impacts will the competitive pricing of generation services (based on marginal costs) have on electricity consumption patterns, production costs, and the financial integrity of electricity suppliers?

  8. Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Advanced Test Reactor

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Demonstration Case Study | Department of Energy (RISMC) Advanced Test Reactor Demonstration Case Study Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Advanced Test Reactor Demonstration Case Study Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about light water reactor design, operation, and plant life extension. A

  9. Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization Case Study: Selection of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Electrical Equipment To Be Subjected to Environmental Qualification | Department of Energy Case Study: Selection of Electrical Equipment To Be Subjected to Environmental Qualification Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization Case Study: Selection of Electrical Equipment To Be Subjected to Environmental Qualification Reference 1 discussed key elements of the process for developing a margins-based "safety case" to support safe and efficient operation for an extended period. The

  10. ITP Steel: Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Study September 2005

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Marginal Opportunity Study Energetics, Inc. for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Industrial Technologies Program September 2005 1 Table of Contents Introduction.....................................................................................................................- 1 - Ore-Based Steelmaking: Bandwidth and Opportunities................................................- 3 - EAF Steelmaking: Bandwidth and

  11. Sustainable bioenergy production from marginal lands in the US Midwest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gelfand, Ilya; Sahajpal, Ritvik; Zhang, Xuesong; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Gross, Katherine L.; Robertson, G. P.

    2013-01-24

    Long-term measurements of global warming impact coupled with spatially explicit modeling suggests that both climate benefits and the production potential of cellulosic crops grown on marginal lands of the US North Central region are substantial but will be insufficient to meet long-term biofuel needs.

  12. H. R. 4299: A bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 in order to provide an incentive for business to invest in pollution abatement property and related assets, introduced in the US House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, Second Session, February 25, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This bill was introduced into the US House of Representatives on February 25, 1992 to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 in order to provide an incentive for business to invest in pollution abatement property and related assets. This relates to a plant or other property in operation before January 1, 1991, to prevent, abate or control pollution.

  13. Structural framework, stratigraphy, and evolution of Brazilian marginal basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ojeda, H.A.O.

    1982-06-01

    The structural framework of the Brazilian continental margin is basically composed of eight structural types: antithetic tilted step-fault blocks, synthetic untilted step-fault blocks, structural inversion axes, hinges with compensation grabens, homoclinal structures, growth faults with rollovers, diapirs, and igneous structures. The antithetic tilted and synthetic untilted step-fault blocks are considered as synchronous, complementary structural systems, separated by an inversion axis. Two evaporitic cycles (Paripueira and Ibura) were differentiated in the Sergipe-Alagoas type basin and tentatively correlated to the evaporitic section of other Brazilian marginal basis. Four phases are considered in the evolution of the Brazilian marginal basins: pre-rift, rift, transitional, and drift. During the pre-rift phase (Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous), continental sediments were deposited in peripheral intracratonic basins. In the rift phase (Early Cretaceous), the breakup of the continental crust of the Gondwana continent gave rise to a central graben and rift valleys where lacustrine sediments were deposited. The transitional phase (Aptian) developed under relative tectonic stability, when evaporitic and clastic lacustrine sequences were being deposited. In the drift phase (Albian to Holocene), a regionl homoclinal structure developed, consisting of two distinct sedimentary sequences, a lower clastic-carbonate and an upper clastic. From the Albian to the Holocene Epoch, structures associated to plastic displacement of salt or shale developed in many Brazilian marginal basins. Two phases of major igneous activity occurred: one in the Early Cretaceous associated with the rift phase of the Gondwana continent, and the other in the Tertiary during the migration phase of the South American and African plates.

  14. NASA Award for Marginal Ice Zone Observations and Process Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (MIZOPEX) Award for Marginal Ice Zone Observations and Process Experiment (MIZOPEX) - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery

  15. LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) of Parabolic Trough CSP: Materials Inventory and Embodied GHG Emissions from Two-Tank Indirect and Thermocline Thermal Storage (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, G.; Burkhardt, J.; Turchi, C.; Decker, T.; Kutscher, C.

    2009-07-20

    In the United States, concentrating solar power (CSP) is one of the most promising renewable energy (RE) technologies for reduction of electric sector greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and for rapid capacity expansion. It is also one of the most price-competitive RE technologies, thanks in large measure to decades of field experience and consistent improvements in design. One of the key design features that makes CSP more attractive than many other RE technologies, like solar photovoltaics and wind, is the potential for including relatively low-cost and efficient thermal energy storage (TES), which can smooth the daily fluctuation of electricity production and extend its duration into the evening peak hours or longer. Because operational environmental burdens are typically small for RE technologies, life cycle assessment (LCA) is recognized as the most appropriate analytical approach for determining their environmental impacts of these technologies, including CSP. An LCA accounts for impacts from all stages in the development, operation, and decommissioning of a CSP plant, including such upstream stages as the extraction of raw materials used in system components, manufacturing of those components, and construction of the plant. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is undertaking an LCA of modern CSP plants, starting with those of parabolic trough design.

  16. Second report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Bailey, R.D.; Blaylock, B.G.; Boston, H.L.; Cox, D.K.; Huston, M.A.; Kimmel, B.L.; Loar, J.M.; Olsen, C.R.; Ryon, M.G.; Shugart, L.R.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Walton, B.T.; Talmage, S.S.; Murphy, J.B.; Valentine, C.K.; Appellanis, S.M.; Jimenez, B.D.; Huq, M.V.; Meyers-Schone, L.J.; Mohrbacher, D.A.; Olsen, C.R.; Stout, J.G.

    1992-12-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. BMAP consists of seven major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota; (3) biological indicator studies; (4) instream ecological monitoring; (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment; (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL); and (7) contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system. This document, the second of a series of annual reports, described the results of BMAP studies conducted in 1987.

  17. SU-E-J-88: Margin Reduction of Level II/III Planning Target Volume...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    88: Margin Reduction of Level IIIII Planning Target Volume for Image-Guided Simultaneous ... Title: SU-E-J-88: Margin Reduction of Level IIIII Planning Target Volume for Image-Guided ...

  18. H. R. 527: A Bill to authorize research and evaluation programs for monitoring, detecting, and abating lead based paint and other lead exposure hazards in housing, and for other purposes, introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, January 14, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Lead poses a significant environmental health problem since adverse effects have been conclusively demonstrated at relatively low exposures. H.R.527 was introduced into the US House of Representatives on January 14 1991 to authorize research and evaluation programs for monitoring, detecting, and abating lead based paint and other lead exposure hazards in housing. Attention is focused on the following: laboratory analysis standardization; detection technologies; research on abatement and in-place management techniques; abatement products; lead exposure in children; public education; and authorization of appropriations.

  19. SU-E-T-573: The Robustness of a Combined Margin Recipe for Uncertainties During Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stroom, J; Vieira, S; Greco, C [Champalimaud Foundation, Lisbon, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the variability of a safety margin recipe that combines CTV and PTV margins quadratically, with several tumor, treatment, and user related factors. Methods: Margin recipes were calculated by monte-carlo simulations in 5 steps. 1. A spherical tumor with or without isotropic microscopic was irradiated with a 5 field dose plan2. PTV: Geometric uncertainties were introduced using systematic (Sgeo) and random (sgeo) standard deviations. CTV: Microscopic disease distribution was modelled by semi-gaussian (Smicro) with varying number of islets (Ni)3. For a specific uncertainty set (Sgeo, sgeo, Smicro(Ni)), margins were varied until pre-defined decrease in TCP or dose coverage was fulfilled. 4. First, margin recipes were calculated for each of the three uncertainties separately. CTV and PTV recipes were then combined quadratically to yield a final recipe M(Sgeo, sgeo, Smicro(Ni)).5. The final M was verified by simultaneous simulations of the uncertainties.Now, M has been calculated for various changing parameters like margin criteria, penumbra steepness, islet radio-sensitivity, dose conformity, and number of fractions. We subsequently investigated A: whether the combined recipe still holds in all these situations, and B: what the margin variation was in all these cases. Results: We found that the accuracy of the combined margin recipes remains on average within 1mm for all situations, confirming the correctness of the quadratic addition. Depending on the specific parameter, margin factors could change such that margins change over 50%. Especially margin recipes based on TCP-criteria are more sensitive to more parameters than those based on purely geometric Dmin-criteria. Interestingly, measures taken to minimize treatment field sizes (by e.g. optimizing dose conformity) are counteracted by the requirement of larger margins to get the same tumor coverage. Conclusion: Margin recipes combining geometric and microscopic uncertainties quadratically are accurate under varying circumstances. However margins can change up to 50% for different situations.

  20. Pattern of Failure After Limited Margin Radiotherapy and Temozolomide for Glioblastoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, Mark W.; Shu, Hui-Kuo G.; Curran, Walter J.; Crocker, Ian R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the pattern of failure after limited margin radiotherapy for glioblastoma. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 62 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma treated between 2006 and 2008 with standard fractionation to a total dose of 60Gy with concurrent temozolomide (97%) or arsenic trioxide (3%). The initial clinical target volume included postoperative T2 abnormality with a median margin of 0.7cm. The boost clinical target volume included residual T1-enhancing tumor and resection cavity with a median margin of 0.5cm. Planning target volumes added a 0.3- or 0.5-cm margin to clinical target volumes. The total boost planning target volume (PTV{sub boost}) margin was 1cm or less in 92% of patients. The volume of recurrent tumor (new T1 enhancement) was categorized by the percent within the 60-Gy isodose line as central (>95%), infield (81-95%), marginal (20-80%), or distant (<20%). For comparison, an initial planning target volume with a 2-cm margin and PTV{sub boost} with a 2.5-cm margin were created for each patient. Results: With a median follow-up of 12 months, radiographic tumor progression developed in 43 of 62 patients. Imaging was available for analysis in 41: 38 (93%) had central or infield failure, 2 (5%) had marginal failure, and 1 (2%) had distant failure relative to the 60-Gy isodose line. The treated PTV{sub boost} (median, 140cm{sup 3}) was, on average, 70% less than the PTV{sub boost} with a 2.5-cm margin (median, 477cm{sup 3}) (p < 0.001). Conclusions: A PTV{sub boost} margin of 1cm or less did not appear to increase the risk of marginal and/or distant tumor failures compared with other published series. With careful radiation planning and delivery, it appears that treatment margins for glioblastoma can be reduced.

  1. Co-benefits of mitigating global greenhouse gas emissions for future air quality and human health

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, Jason; Smith, Steven J.; Silva, Raquel; Naik, Vaishali; Zhang, Yuqiang; Adelman, Zacariah; Fry, Meridith M.; Anenberg, Susan C.; Horowitz, L.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois

    2013-10-01

    Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions also influences air quality. We simulate the co-benefits of global GHG reductions on air quality and human health via two mechanisms: a) reducing co-emitted air pollutants, and b) slowing climate change and its effect on air quality. Relative to a reference scenario, global GHG mitigation in the RCP4.5 scenario avoids 0.50.2, 1.30.6, and 2.21.6 million premature deaths in 2030, 2050, and 2100, from changes in fine particulate matter and ozone. Global average marginal co-benefits of avoided mortality are $40-400 (ton CO2)-1, exceeding marginal abatement costs in 2030 and 2050, and within the low range of costs in 2100. East Asian co-benefits are 10-80 times the marginal cost in 2030. These results indicate that transitioning to a low-carbon future might be justified by air quality and health co-benefits.

  2. Fluid placement of fixated scrubber sludge to reduce surface subsidence and to abate acid mine drainage in abandoned underground coal mines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meiers, R.J.; Golden, D.; Gray, R.; Yu, W.C.

    1995-12-31

    Indianapolis Power and Light Company (IPL) began researching the use of fluid placement techniques of the fixated scrubber sludge (FSS) to reduce surface subsidence from underground coal mines to develop an economic alternative to low strength concrete grout. Abandoned underground coal mines surround property adjacent to IPL`s coal combustion by-product (CCBP) landfill at the Petersburg Generating Station. Landfill expansion into these areas is in question because of the high potential for sinkhole subsidence to develop. Sinkholes manifesting at the surface would put the integrity of a liner or runoff pond containment structure for a CCBP disposal facility at risk. The fluid placement techniques of the FSS as a subsidence abatement technology was demonstrated during an eight week period in September, October, and November 1994 at the Petersburg Generating Station. The success of this technology will be determined by the percentage of the mine void filled, strength of the FSS placed, and the overall effects on the hydrogeologic environment. The complete report for this project will be finalized in early 1996.

  3. Seismic margin review of the Maine Yankee Atomic Power Station: Fragility analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ravindra, M. K.; Hardy, G. S.; Hashimoto, P. S.; Griffin, M. J.

    1987-03-01

    This Fragility Analysis is the third of three volumes for the Seismic Margin Review of the Maine Yankee Atomic Power Station. Volume 1 is the Summary Report of the first trial seismic margin review. Volume 2, Systems Analysis, documents the results of the systems screening for the review. The three volumes are part of the Seismic Margins Program initiated in 1984 by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to quantify seismic margins at nuclear power plants. The overall objectives of the trial review are to assess the seismic margins of a particular pressurized water reactor, and to test the adequacy of this review approach, quantification techniques, and guidelines for performing the review. Results from the trial review will be used to revise the seismic margin methodology and guidelines so that the NRC and industry can readily apply them to assess the inherent quantitative seismic capacity of nuclear power plants.

  4. Table 8.12b Electric Noncoincident Peak Load and Capacity Margin...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b Electric Noncoincident Peak Load and Capacity Margin: Winter Peak Period, 1986-2011 ... Year Noncoincident Peak Load 1 by North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) 2 ...

  5. Treatment of Passive Component Reliability in Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization FY 2010 Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert W Youngblood

    2010-09-01

    The Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) pathway is a set of activities defined under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. The overarching objective of RISMC is to support plant life-extension decision-making by providing a state-of-knowledge characterization of safety margins in key systems, structures, and components (SSCs). A technical challenge at the core of this effort is to establish the conceptual and technical feasibility of analyzing safety margin in a risk-informed way, which, unlike conventionally defined deterministic margin analysis, is founded on probabilistic characterizations of SSC performance.

  6. Dark halos and elliptical galaxies as marginally stable dynamical systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El Zant, A. A.

    2013-12-10

    The origin of equilibrium gravitational configurations is sought in terms of the stability of their trajectories, as described by the curvature of their Lagrangian configuration manifold of particle positionsa context in which subtle spurious effects originating from the singularity in the two-body potential become particularly clear. We focus on the case of spherical systems, which support only regular orbits in the collisionless limit, despite the persistence of local exponential instability of N-body trajectories in the anomalous case of discrete point particle representation even as N ? ?. When the singularity in the potential is removed, this apparent contradiction disappears. In the absence of fluctuations, equilibrium configurations generally correspond to positive scalar curvature and thus support stable trajectories. A null scalar curvature is associated with an effective, averaged equation of state describing dynamically relaxed equilibria with marginally stable trajectories. The associated configurations are quite similar to those of observed elliptical galaxies and simulated cosmological halos and are necessarily different from the systems dominated by isothermal cores, expected from entropy maximization in the context of the standard theory of violent relaxation. It is suggested that this is the case because a system starting far from equilibrium does not reach a 'most probable state' via violent relaxation, but that this process comes to an end as the system finds and (settles in) a configuration where it can most efficiently wash out perturbations. We explicitly test this interpretation by means of direct simulations.

  7. Produce through coiled tubing to keep marginal wells unloaded

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    The use of coiled tubing as an alternate production tubing string has been attempted or considered by numerous operators in the past. However, its use has been tempered due to several problems known to be inherent with coiled tubing recompletions. Some of the problems encountered are: Killing the well to allow for tubing installation always carries the risk of formation damage; Candidate wells normally are marginal producers and may not produce sufficient revenue to justify the cost of a major workover; Procedures followed to install surface equipment may be hazardous; Previous installation designs required running the coiled tubing to the top of the tree, affecting the functional loss of all existing wellhead equipment; Often substandard modifications were required to reconnect into existing production facilities. However, a prototype spool and tubing hanger that incorporated modifications designed to solve these problems has been developed jointly by Reeled Tubing, Inc., and Well-head Control Systems. The solution is a new concept in the coiled tubing hanger. The design incorporates a floating element, which is a combination slip bowl, seal element and retaining sub. The entire assembly is installed and activated in the bore of a specially designed spool installed between the primary and secondary master valves of the existing wellhead.

  8. Petroleum possibilities in continental margin off central Chile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez, E.

    1986-07-01

    The continental margin off central Chile, from Valparaiso to Valdivia, encompassing an area of 100,000 km/sup 2/, has been the target of exploratory activity by Empresa Nacional del Petroleo since 1970. Exploratory drilling began in 1972. By August 1984, total exploratory efforts had resulted in drilling 14 offshore wells and acquiring 12,130 km of seismic reflection lines. A biogenic gas accumulation was discovered in the F well. Because these attempts to find oil were unsuccessful and because drilling costs have escalated, exploratory activities have been curtailed. Forearc basins off central Chile are characterized by low geothermal gradient and a sedimentary filling of Cretaceous and Tertiary strata. Tertiary sequences are characterized by low organic carbon content, immature humic-type organic matter, and a biogenic gas potential. Cretaceous sequences are characterized by higher organic carbon content, good reservoir rocks, and fair to good source rocks. The organic matter is sapropelic, with vitrinite and liptinites, and is favorable for oil and gas generation. Seismic and well data suggest that Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rock sequences filling the basins (more than 4000 m thick at the shelf edge) extend 40-70 km beyond the present shelf edge. Mesozoic rocks deposited on the slope may generate petroleum and gas that could migrate upslope and accumulate in traps associated with the faulted basement highs and graben-type depressions existing at the shelf edge. This geologic setting favors the development of large petroleum accumulations along the shelf edge and graben on the sedimentary basins off central Chile.

  9. Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization Methods Development Work

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Curtis L; Ma, Zhegang; Tom Riley; Mandelli, Diego; Nielsen, Joseph W; Alfonsi, Andrea; Rabiti, Cristian

    2014-09-01

    This report summarizes the research activity developed during the Fiscal year 2014 within the Risk Informed Safety Margin and Characterization (RISMC) pathway within the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) campaign. This research activity is complementary to the one presented in the INL/EXT-??? report which shows advances Probabilistic Risk Assessment Analysis using RAVEN and RELAP-7 in conjunction to novel flooding simulation tools. Here we present several analyses that prove the values of the RISMC approach in order to assess risk associated to nuclear power plants (NPPs). We focus on simulation based PRA which, in contrast to classical PRA, heavily employs system simulator codes. Firstly we compare, these two types of analyses, classical and RISMC, for a Boiling water reactor (BWR) station black out (SBO) initiating event. Secondly we present an extended BWR SBO analysis using RAVEN and RELAP-5 which address the comments and suggestions received about he original analysis presented in INL/EXT-???. This time we focus more on the stochastic analysis such probability of core damage and on the determination of the most risk-relevant factors. We also show some preliminary results regarding the comparison between RELAP5-3D and the new code RELAP-7 for a simplified Pressurized Water Reactors system. Lastly we present some conceptual ideas regarding the possibility to extended the RISMC capabilities from an off-line tool (i.e., as PRA analysis tool) to an online-tool. In this new configuration, RISMC capabilities can be used to assist and inform reactor operator during real accident scenarios.

  10. ORBITAL MIGRATION OF PROTOPLANETS IN A MARGINALLY GRAVITATIONALLY UNSTABLE DISK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boss, Alan P.

    2013-02-20

    Core accretion and disk instability require giant protoplanets to form in the presence of disk gas. Protoplanet migration models generally assume disk masses low enough that the disk's self-gravity can be neglected. However, disk instability requires a disk massive enough to be marginally gravitationally unstable (MGU). Even for core accretion, an FU Orionis outburst may require a brief MGU disk phase. We present a new set of three-dimensional, gravitational radiation hydrodynamics models of MGU disks with multiple protoplanets, which interact gravitationally with the disk and with each other, including disk gas mass accretion. Initial protoplanet masses are 0.01 to 10 M {sub Circled-Plus} for core accretion models, and 0.1 to 3 M {sub Jup} for Nice scenario models, starting on circular orbits with radii of 6, 8, 10, or 12 AU, inside a 0.091 M {sub Sun} disk extending from 4 to 20 AU around a 1 M {sub Sun} protostar. Evolutions are followed for up to {approx}4000 yr and involve phases of relative stability (e {approx} 0.1) interspersed with chaotic phases (e {approx} 0.4) of orbital interchanges. The 0.01 to 10 M {sub Circled-Plus} cores can orbit stably for {approx}1000 yr: monotonic inward or outward orbital migration of the type seen in low mass disks does not occur. A system with giant planet masses similar to our solar system (1.0, 0.33, 0.1, 0.1 M {sub Jup}) was stable for over 1000 yr, and a Jupiter-Saturn-like system was stable for over 3800 yr, implying that our giant planets might well survive an MGU disk phase.

  11. Anisotropic Margin Expansions in 6 Anatomic Directions for Oropharyngeal Image Guided Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yock, Adam D. [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas (United States); Garden, Adam S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Court, Laurence E. [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas (United States); Beadle, Beth M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Zhang, Lifei [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Dong, Lei, E-mail: dong.lei@scrippshealth.org [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to determine the expansions in 6 anatomic directions that produced optimal margins considering nonrigid setup errors and tissue deformation for patients receiving image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) of the oropharynx. Methods and Materials: For 20 patients who had received IGRT to the head and neck, we deformably registered each patient's daily images acquired with a computed tomography (CT)-on-rails system to his or her planning CT. By use of the resulting vector fields, the positions of volume elements within the clinical target volume (CTV) (target voxels) or within a 1-cm shell surrounding the CTV (normal tissue voxels) on the planning CT were identified on each daily CT. We generated a total of 15,625 margins by dilating the CTV by 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 mm in the posterior, anterior, lateral, medial, inferior, and superior directions. The optimal margins were those that minimized the relative volume of normal tissue voxels positioned within the margin while satisfying 1 of 4 geometric target coverage criteria and 1 of 3 population criteria. Results: Each pair of geometric target coverage and population criteria resulted in a unique, anisotropic, optimal margin. The optimal margin expansions ranged in magnitude from 1 to 5 mm depending on the anatomic direction of the expansion and on the geometric target coverage and population criteria. Typically, the expansions were largest in the medial direction, were smallest in the lateral direction, and increased with the demand of the criteria. The anisotropic margin resulting from the optimal set of expansions always included less normal tissue than did any isotropic margin that satisfied the same pair of criteria. Conclusions: We demonstrated the potential of anisotropic margins to reduce normal tissue exposure without compromising target coverage in IGRT to the head and neck.

  12. Shock margin testing of a one-axis MEMS accelerometer. (Technical Report) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Technical Report: Shock margin testing of a one-axis MEMS accelerometer. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Shock margin testing of a one-axis MEMS accelerometer. Shock testing was performed on a selected commercial-off-the-shelf - MicroElectroMechanical System (COTS-MEMS) accelerometer to determine the margin between the published absolute maximum rating for shock and the 'measured' level where failures are observed. The purpose of this testing is to provide baseline

  13. Experimental validation of the van Herk margin formula for lung radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ecclestone, Gillian; Heath, Emily; Bissonnette, Jean-Pierre

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To validate the van Herk margin formula for lung radiation therapy using realistic dose calculation algorithms and respiratory motion modeling. The robustness of the margin formula against variations in lesion size, peak-to-peak motion amplitude, tissue density, treatment technique, and plan conformity was assessed, along with the margin formula assumption of a homogeneous dose distribution with perfect plan conformity.Methods: 3DCRT and IMRT lung treatment plans were generated within the ORBIT treatment planning platform (RaySearch Laboratories, Sweden) on 4DCT datasets of virtual phantoms. Random and systematic respiratory motion induced errors were simulated using deformable registration and dose accumulation tools available within ORBIT for simulated cases of varying lesion sizes, peak-to-peak motion amplitudes, tissue densities, and plan conformities. A detailed comparison between the margin formula dose profile model, the planned dose profiles, and penumbra widths was also conducted to test the assumptions of the margin formula. Finally, a correction to account for imperfect plan conformity was tested as well as a novel application of the margin formula that accounts for the patient-specific motion trajectory.Results: The van Herk margin formula ensured full clinical target volume coverage for all 3DCRT and IMRT plans of all conformities with the exception of small lesions in soft tissue. No dosimetric trends with respect to plan technique or lesion size were observed for the systematic and random error simulations. However, accumulated plans showed that plan conformity decreased with increasing tumor motion amplitude. When comparing dose profiles assumed in the margin formula model to the treatment plans, discrepancies in the low dose regions were observed for the random and systematic error simulations. However, the margin formula respected, in all experiments, the 95% dose coverage required for planning target volume (PTV) margin derivation, as defined by the ICRU; thus, suitable PTV margins were estimated. The penumbra widths calculated in lung tissue for each plan were found to be very similar to the 6.4 mm value assumed by the margin formula model. The plan conformity correction yielded inconsistent results which were largely affected by image and dose grid resolution while the trajectory modified PTV plans yielded a dosimetric benefit over the standard internal target volumes approach with up to a 5% decrease in the V20 value.Conclusions: The margin formula showed to be robust against variations in tumor size and motion, treatment technique, plan conformity, as well as low tissue density. This was validated by maintaining coverage of all of the derived PTVs by 95% dose level, as required by the formal definition of the PTV. However, the assumption of perfect plan conformity in the margin formula derivation yields conservative margin estimation. Future modifications to the margin formula will require a correction for plan conformity. Plan conformity can also be improved by using the proposed trajectory modified PTV planning approach. This proves especially beneficial for tumors with a large anteriorposterior component of respiratory motion.

  14. Table 5.22 Refiner Sales Prices and Refiner Margins for Selected...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Petroleum Marketing Monthly (April 2012), Tables 1, 2, 4, 6, and 16. 5In this table, refiner margin is the difference between the ...

  15. Tax Abatement for Solar Manufacturers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In May 2009, Washington enacted SB 6170, effective July 1, 2009. This bill reduced the B&O tax rate to 0.275%, effective October 1, 2009. This tax rate is 43% lower than the standard...

  16. Self-organized criticality and the dynamics of near-marginal turbulent

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    transport in magnetically confined fusion plasmas (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Self-organized criticality and the dynamics of near-marginal turbulent transport in magnetically confined fusion plasmas This content will become publicly available on November 24, 2016 « Prev Next » Title: Self-organized criticality and the dynamics of near-marginal turbulent transport in magnetically confined fusion plasmas Authors: Sanchez, R. ; Newman, D. E. Publication Date: 2015-11-20 OSTI Identifier:

  17. Towards a Holographic Marginal Fermi Liquid (Journal Article) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Towards a Holographic Marginal Fermi Liquid Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Towards a Holographic Marginal Fermi Liquid We present an infinite class of 2+1 dimensional field theories which, after coupling to semi-holographic fermions, exhibit strange metallic behavior in a suitable large N limit. These theories describe lattices of hypermultiplet defects interacting with parity-preserving supersymmetric Chern-Simons theories with U(N) x U(N) gauge groups at levels {+-}k.

  18. Towards a holographic marginal Fermi liquid (Journal Article) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Towards a holographic marginal Fermi liquid Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Towards a holographic marginal Fermi liquid Authors: Jensen, Kristan ; Kachru, Shamit ; Karch, Andreas ; Polchinski, Joseph ; Silverstein, Eva Publication Date: 2011-12-02 OSTI Identifier: 1098349 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Physical Review D Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 84; Journal Issue: 12; Journal ID: ISSN 1550-7998 Publisher: American Physical Society

  19. Front and Center: Bringing Marginalized Girls into Focus in STEM and CTE

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Education | Department of Energy Front and Center: Bringing Marginalized Girls into Focus in STEM and CTE Education Front and Center: Bringing Marginalized Girls into Focus in STEM and CTE Education January 16, 2015 - 11:05am Addthis Valerie Jarrett Senior Advisor to President Barack Obama What are the key facts? The Departments of Energy and Education announced the expansion of a mentoring program- the STEM Mentoring Cafe - that connects federal government employees who are STEM

  20. Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization Case Study: Selection of Electrical Equipment To Be Subjected to Environmental Qualification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Blanchard; R. Youngblood

    2012-04-01

    In general, the margins-based safety case helps the decision-maker manage plant margins most effectively. It tells the plant decision-maker such things as what margin is present (at the plant level, at the functional level, at the barrier level, at the component level), and where margin is thin or perhaps just degrading. If the plant is safe, it tells the decision-maker why the plant is safe and where margin needs to be maintained, and perhaps where the plant can afford to relax.

  1. TU-F-17A-07: Real-Time Personalized Margins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rottmann, J; Berbeco, R

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To maximize normal tissue sparing for treatments requiring motion encompassing margins. Motion mitigation techniques including DMLC or couch tracking can freeze tumor motion within the treatment aperture potentially allowing for smaller treatment margins and thus better sparing of normal tissue. To enable for a safe application of this concept in the clinic we propose adapting margins dynamically in real-time during radiotherapy delivery based on personalized tumor localization confidence. To demonstrate technical feasibility we present a phantom study. Methods: We utilize a realistic anthropomorphic dynamic thorax phantom with a lung tumor model embedded close to the spine. The tumor, a 3D-printout of a patient's GTV, is moved 15mm peak-to-peak by diaphragm compression and monitored by continuous EPID imaging in real-time. Two treatment apertures are created for each beam, one representing ITV -based and the other GTV-based margin expansion. A soft tissue localization (STiL) algorithm utilizing the continuous EPID images is employed to freeze tumor motion within the treatment aperture by means of DMLC tracking. Depending on a tracking confidence measure (TCM), the treatment aperture is adjusted between the ITV and the GTV leaf. Results: We successfully demonstrate real-time personalized margin adjustment in a phantom study. We measured a system latency of about 250 ms which we compensated by utilizing a respiratory motion prediction algorithm (ridge regression). With prediction in place we observe tracking accuracies better than 1mm. For TCM=0 (as during startup) an ITV-based treatment aperture is chosen, for TCM=1 a GTV-based aperture and for 0margins during radiotherapy and adapt to tracking confidence in real-time. Normal tissue sparing is maximized. The worst case scenario results in delivering a plan with standard margins used in the clinic today.

  2. Optimization of leaf margins for lung stereotactic body radiotherapy using a flattening filter-free beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wakai, Nobuhide; Sumida, Iori; Otani, Yuki; Suzuki, Osamu; Seo, Yuji; Isohashi, Fumiaki; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Ogawa, Kazuhiko; Hasegawa, Masatoshi

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: The authors sought to determine the optimal collimator leaf margins which minimize normal tissue dose while achieving high conformity and to evaluate differences between the use of a flattening filter-free (FFF) beam and a flattening-filtered (FF) beam. Methods: Sixteen lung cancer patients scheduled for stereotactic body radiotherapy underwent treatment planning for a 7 MV FFF and a 6 MV FF beams to the planning target volume (PTV) with a range of leaf margins (?3 to 3 mm). Forty grays per four fractions were prescribed as a PTV D95. For PTV, the heterogeneity index (HI), conformity index, modified gradient index (GI), defined as the 50% isodose volume divided by target volume, maximum dose (Dmax), and mean dose (Dmean) were calculated. Mean lung dose (MLD), V20 Gy, and V5 Gy for the lung (defined as the volumes of lung receiving at least 20 and 5 Gy), mean heart dose, and Dmax to the spinal cord were measured as doses to organs at risk (OARs). Paired t-tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: HI was inversely related to changes in leaf margin. Conformity index and modified GI initially decreased as leaf margin width increased. After reaching a minimum, the two values then increased as leaf margin increased (V shape). The optimal leaf margins for conformity index and modified GI were ?1.1 0.3 mm (mean 1 SD) and ?0.2 0.9 mm, respectively, for 7 MV FFF compared to ?1.0 0.4 and ?0.3 0.9 mm, respectively, for 6 MV FF. Dmax and Dmean for 7 MV FFF were higher than those for 6 MV FF by 3.6% and 1.7%, respectively. There was a positive correlation between the ratios of HI, Dmax, and Dmean for 7 MV FFF to those for 6 MV FF and PTV size (R = 0.767, 0.809, and 0.643, respectively). The differences in MLD, V20 Gy, and V5 Gy for lung between FFF and FF beams were negligible. The optimal leaf margins for MLD, V20 Gy, and V5 Gy for lung were ?0.9 0.6, ?1.1 0.8, and ?2.1 1.2 mm, respectively, for 7 MV FFF compared to ?0.9 0.6, ?1.1 0.8, and ?2.2 1.3 mm, respectively, for 6 MV FF. With the heart inside the radiation field, the mean heart dose showed a V-shaped relationship with leaf margins. The optimal leaf margins were ?1.0 0.6 mm for both beams. Dmax to the spinal cord showed no clear trend for changes in leaf margin. Conclusions: The differences in doses to OARs between FFF and FF beams were negligible. Conformity index, modified GI, MLD, lung V20 Gy, lung V5 Gy, and mean heart dose showed a V-shaped relationship with leaf margins. There were no significant differences in optimal leaf margins to minimize these parameters between both FFF and FF beams. The authors results suggest that a leaf margin of ?1 mm achieves high conformity and minimizes doses to OARs for both FFF and FF beams.

  3. Quantification of the Variability of Diaphragm Motion and Implications for Treatment Margin Construction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rit, Simon; Herk, Marcel van; Zijp, Lambert [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sonke, Jan-Jakob, E-mail: j.sonke@nki.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To quantify the variability of diaphragm motion during free-breathing radiotherapy of lung patients and its effect on treatment margins to account for geometric uncertainties. Methods and Materials: Thirty-three lung cancer patients were analyzed. Each patient had 5-19 cone-beam scans acquired during different treatment fractions. The craniocaudal position of the diaphragm dome on the same side as the tumor was tracked over 2 min in the projection images, because it is both easily visible and a suitable surrogate to study the variability of the tumor motion and its impact on treatment margins. Intra-acquisition, inter-acquisition, and inter-patient variability of the respiratory cycles were quantified separately, as were the probability density functions (PDFs) of the diaphragm position over each cycle, each acquisition, and each patient. Asymmetric margins were simulated using each patient PDF and compared to symmetric margins computed from a margin recipe. Results: The peak-to-peak amplitude variability (1 SD) was 3.3 mm, 2.4 mm, and 6.1 mm for the intra-acquisition, inter-acquisition, and inter-patient variability, respectively. The average PDF of each cycle was similar to the sin{sup 4} function but the PDF of each acquisition was closer to a skew-normal distribution because of the motion variability. Despite large interfraction baseline variability, the PDF of each patient was generally asymmetric with a longer end-inhale tail because the end-exhale position was more stable than the end-inhale position. The asymmetry of the PDF required asymmetric margins around the time-averaged position to account for the position uncertainty but the average difference was 1.0 mm (range, 0.0-4.4 mm) for a sharp penumbra and an idealized online setup correction protocol. Conclusion: The respiratory motion is more irregular during the fractions than between the fractions. The PDF of the respiratory motion is asymmetrically distributed. Both the intra-acquisition variability and the PDF asymmetry have a limited impact on dose distributions and inferred margins. The use of a margin recipe to account for respiratory motion with an estimate of the average motion amplitude was adequate in almost all patients.

  4. SU-E-J-88: Margin Reduction of Level II/III Planning Target Volume for

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Image-Guided Simultaneous Integrated Boost Head-And-Neck Treatment (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect 88: Margin Reduction of Level II/III Planning Target Volume for Image-Guided Simultaneous Integrated Boost Head-And-Neck Treatment Citation Details In-Document Search Title: SU-E-J-88: Margin Reduction of Level II/III Planning Target Volume for Image-Guided Simultaneous Integrated Boost Head-And-Neck Treatment Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of improved normal tissue sparing for

  5. Impact of Millimeter-Level Margins on Peripheral Normal Brain Sparing for Gamma Knife Radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Lijun; Sahgal, Arjun; Larson, David A.; Pinnaduwage, Dilini; Fogh, Shannon; Barani, Igor; Nakamura, Jean; McDermott, Michael; Sneed, Penny

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate how millimeter-level margins beyond the gross tumor volume (GTV) impact peripheral normal brain tissue sparing for Gamma Knife radiosurgery. Methods and Materials: A mathematical formula was derived to predict the peripheral isodose volume, such as the 12-Gy isodose volume, with increasing margins by millimeters. The empirical parameters of the formula were derived from a cohort of brain tumor and surgical tumor resection cavity cases (n=15) treated with the Gamma Knife Perfexion. This was done by first adding margins from 0.5 to 3.0 mm to each individual target and then creating for each expanded target a series of treatment plans of nearly identical quality as the original plan. Finally, the formula was integrated with a published logistic regression model to estimate the treatment-induced complication rate for stereotactic radiosurgery when millimeter-level margins are added. Results: Confirmatory correlation between the nominal target radius (ie, R{sub T}) and commonly used maximum target size was found for the studied cases, except for a few outliers. The peripheral isodose volume such as the 12-Gy volume was found to increase exponentially with increasing Δ/R{sub T}, where Δ is the margin size. Such a curve fitted the data (logarithmic regression, R{sup 2} >0.99), and the 12-Gy isodose volume was shown to increase steeply with a 0.5- to 3.0-mm margin applied to a target. For example, a 2-mm margin on average resulted in an increase of 55% ± 16% in the 12-Gy volume; this corresponded to an increase in the symptomatic necrosis rate of 6% to 25%, depending on the Δ/R{sub T} values for the target. Conclusions: Millimeter-level margins beyond the GTV significantly impact peripheral normal brain sparing and should be applied with caution. Our model provides a rapid estimate of such an effect, particularly for large and/or irregularly shaped targets.

  6. Integrating Safety Assessment Methods using the Risk Informed Safety Margins Characterization (RISMC) Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis Smith; Diego Mandelli

    2013-03-01

    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of nuclear power plants (NPPs). As the current light water reactor (LWR) NPPs age beyond 60 years, there are possibilities for increased frequency of systems, structures, and components (SSC) degradations or failures that initiate safety significant events, reduce existing accident mitigation capabilities, or create new failure modes. Plant designers commonly over-design portions of NPPs and provide robustness in the form of redundant and diverse engineered safety features to ensure that, even in the case of well-beyond design basis scenarios, public health and safety will be protected with a very high degree of assurance. This form of defense-in-depth is a reasoned response to uncertainties and is often referred to generically as safety margin. Historically, specific safety margin provisions have been formulated primarily based on engineering judgment backed by a set of conservative engineering calculations. The ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin is important to improved decision making about LWR design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margin management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. In addition, as research and development (R&D) in the LWR Sustainability (LWRS) Program and other collaborative efforts yield new data, sensors, and improved scientific understanding of physical processes that govern the aging and degradation of plant SSCs needs and opportunities to better optimize plant safety and performance will become known. To support decision making related to economics, readability, and safety, the RISMC Pathway provides methods and tools that enable mitigation options known as margins management strategies. The purpose of the RISMC Pathway R&D is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margin management with the aim to improve economics, reliability, and sustain safety of current NPPs. As the lead Department of Energy (DOE) Laboratory for this Pathway, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is tasked with developing and deploying methods and tools that support the quantification and management of safety margin and uncertainty.

  7. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Advanced Test Reactor Demonstration Case Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis Smith; David Schwieder; Cherie Phelan; Anh Bui; Paul Bayless

    2012-08-01

    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about LWR design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margins management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. The purpose of the RISMC Pathway R&D is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margins management with the aim to improve economics, reliability, and sustain safety of current NPPs. Goals of the RISMC Pathway are twofold: (1) Develop and demonstrate a risk-assessment method coupled to safety margin quantification that can be used by NPP decision makers as part of their margin recovery strategies. (2) Create an advanced RISMC toolkit that enables more accurate representation of NPP safety margin. This report describes the RISMC methodology demonstration where the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) was used as a test-bed for purposes of determining safety margins. As part of the demonstration, we describe how both the thermal-hydraulics and probabilistic safety calculations are integrated and used to quantify margin management strategies.

  8. Geologic hazards on the Atlantic continental margin of the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Folger, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    Although 46 exploratory holes have failed to reveal commercial hydrocarbon accumulations on the US Atlantic margin, about twice that number were drilled on the contiguous Canadian margin before large reserves were discovered. Thus, despite the initial results, exploration on the US margin will probably continue and additional information will be needed to augment the extensive environmental data base acquired over the past 10 years. The extent, timing, causes, and importance of sediment instability of the Continental Slopes of Georges Bank, Baltimore Canyon Trough and Carolina Trough--where future exploration will take place--remain controversial. Many question remain to be answered regarding such phenomena as creep on the upper slope, mass wasting in canyons and gullies, and slumping associated with faults and salt diapirs. Along the southeastern margin, the distribution of cavernous porosity below the shelf is only broadly known. Caverns pose a potential threat to drilling operations ranging from collapse of rigs to circulation loss and sheared drill strings. In deeper waters of the Continental Slope (700-2000 m), clathrates or frozen gas hydrates are common. The potential hazard of blow-outs from gas trapped beneath this layer are unknown. Additional information is needed to assess the bottom stresses imposed by tidal, storm, and geostrophically-driven currents on offshore rigs and structures, particularly in such areas as Georges Bank, the Carolina Trough, and the Blake Plateau.

  9. seismic margin

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... distortion, essentially requiring minimal damage to the structure. The no ... displacement across the pad shall be minimal, with differential displacements ...

  10. Workshop on Program for Elimination of Requirements Marginal to Safety: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dey, M. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Safety Issue Resolution; Arsenault, F.; Patterson, M.; Gaal, M. [SCIENTECH, Inc., Rockville, MD (United States)

    1993-09-01

    These are the proceedings of the Public Workshop on the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Program for Elimination of Requirements Marginal to Safety. The workshop was held at the Holiday Inn, Bethesda, on April 27 and 28, 1993. The purpose of the workshop was to provide an opportunity for public and industry input to the program. The workshop addressed the institutionalization of the program to review regulations with the purpose of eliminating those that are marginal. The objective is to avoid the dilution of safety efforts. One session was devoted to discussion of the framework for a performance-based regulatory approach. In addition, panelists and attendees discussed scope, schedules and status of specific regulatory items: containment leakage testing requirements, fire protection requirements, requirements for environmental qualification of electrical equipment, requests for information under 10CFR50.54(f), requirements for combustible gas control systems, and quality assurance requirements.

  11. On the marginal instability threshold condition of the aperiodic ordinary mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlickeiser, R.; Yoon, P. H.

    2014-07-15

    The purely growing ordinary (O) mode instability has recently received renewed attention owing to its potential applicability to the solar wind plasma. Here, an analytical marginal instability condition is derived for counter-streaming bi-Maxwellian plasma particle distribution functions. The derived marginal instability condition as a function of the temperature anisotropy and plasma beta agrees remarkably well with the numerically determined instability condition. The existence of a new instability domain of the O-mode at small plasma beta values is confirmed with the leading A??{sub ?}{sup ?1}-dependence, if the counter-stream parameter P{sub e} exceeds a critical value. At small plasma beta values at large enough counter-stream parameter, the O-mode also operates for temperature anisotropies A?=?T{sub ?}/T{sub ?}?>?1 even larger than unity, as the parallel counter-stream free energy exceeds the perpendicular bi-Maxwellian free energy.

  12. Economic Recovery of Oil Trapped at Fan Margins Using High Angle Wells and Multiple Hydraulic Fractures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike L. Laue

    1997-05-30

    The distal fan margin in the northeast portion of the Yowlumne field contains significant reserves but is not economical to develop using vertical wells. Numerous interbedded shales and deteriorating rock properties limit producibility. In addition, extreme depths (13,000 ft) present a challenging environment for hydraulic fracturing and artificial lift. Lastly, a mature waterflood increases risk because of the uncertainty with size and location of flood fronts. This project attempts to demonstrate the effectiveness of exploiting the distal fan margin of this slope-basin clastic reservoir through the use of a high-angle well completed with multiple hydraulic-fracture treatments. The combination of a high-angle (or horizontal) well and hydraulic fracturing will allow greater pay exposure than can be achieved with conventional vertical wells while maintaining vertical communication between thin interbedded layers and the wellbore. The equivalent production rate and reserves of three vertical wells are anticipated at one-half to two-thirds the cost.

  13. Higher U.S. Crop Prices Trigger Little Area Expansion so Marginal Land for Biofuel Crops Is Limited

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swinton, S.; Babcock, Bruce; James, Laura; Bandaru, Varaprasad

    2011-06-12

    By expanding energy biomass production on marginal lands that are not currently used for crops, food price increases and indirect climate change effects can be mitigated. Studies of the availability of marginal lands for dedicated bioenergy crops have focused on biophysical land traits, ignoring the human role in decisions to convert marginal land to bioenergy crops. Recent history offers insights about farmer willingness to put non-crop land into crop production. The 2006-09 leap in field crop prices and the attendant 64% gain in typical profitability led to only a 2% increase in crop planted area, mostly in the prairie states

  14. China-GHG Monitoring | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Partner on behalf of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) Sector Energy Focus Area Energy Efficiency Topics Low emission...

  15. Economic Recovery of Oil Trapped at Fan Margins Using Hig Angle Wells Multiple Hydraulic Fractures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laue, M.L.

    1997-11-21

    The Yowlumne field is a giant field in the southern San Joaquin basin, Kern County, California. It is a deep (13,000 ft) waterflood operation that produces from the Miocene- aged Stevens Sand. The reservoir is interpreted as a layered, fan-shaped, prograding turbidite complex containing several lobe-shaped sand bodies that represent distinct flow units. A high ultimate recovery factor is expected, yet significant quantities of undrained oil remain at the fan margins. The fan margins are not economic to develop using vertical wells because of thinning pay, deteriorating rock quality, and depth. This project attempts to demonstrate the effectiveness of exploiting the northeast distal fan margin through the use of a high- angle well completed with multiple hydraulic- fracture treatments. A high-angle well offers greater pay exposure than can be achieved with a vertical well. Hydraulic-fracture treatments will establish vertical communication between thin interbedded layers and the wellbore. The equivalent production rate and reserves of three vertical wells are anticipated at a cost of approximately two vertical wells. The near-horizontal well penetrated the Yowlumne sand; a Stevens sand equivalent, in the distal fan margin in the northeast area of the field. The well was drilled in a predominately westerly direction towards the interior of the field, in the direction of improving rock quality. Drilling and completion operations proved to be very challenging, leading to a number of adjustments to original plans. Hole conditions resulted in obtaining less core material than desired and setting intermediate casing 1200 ft too high. The 7 in. production liner stuck 1000 ft off bottom, requiring a 5 in. liner to be run the rest of the way. The cement job on the 5 in. liner resulted in a very poor bond, which precluded one of three hydraulic fracture treatments originally planned for the well. Openhole logs confirmed most expectations going into the project about basic rock properties: the formation was shaly with low porosities, and water saturations were in line with expectations, including the presence of some intervals swept out by the waterflood. High water saturations at the bottom of the well eliminated one of the originally planned hydraulic fracture treatments. Although porosities proved to be low, they were more uniform across the formation than expected. Permeabilities of the various intervals continue to be evaluated, but appear to be better than expected from the porosity log model derived in Budget Period One. The well was perforated in all pay sections behind the 5 in. liner. Production rates and phases agree nicely with log calculations, fractional flow calculations, and an analytical technique used to predict the rate performance of the well.

  16. On the effect of pulsating flow on surge margin of small centrifugal compressors for automotive engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galindo, J.; Climent, H.; Guardiola, C.; Tiseira, A.

    2009-11-15

    Surge is becoming a limiting factor in the design of boosting systems of downsized diesel engines. Although standard compressor flowcharts are used for the selection of those machines for a given application, on-engine conditions widely differ from steady flow conditions, thus affecting compressor behaviour and consequently surge phenomenon. In this paper the effect of pulsating flow is investigated by means of a steady gas-stand that has been modified to produce engine-like pulsating flow. The effect of pressure pulses' amplitude and frequency on the compressor surge line location has been checked. Results show that pulsating flow in the 40-67 Hz range (corresponding to characteristic pulsation when boosting an internal combustion engine) increases surge margin. This increased margin is similar for all the tested frequencies but depends on pulsation amplitude. In a further step, a non-steady compressor model is used for modelling the tests, thus allowing a deeper analysis of the involved phenomena. Model results widely agree with experimental results. (author)

  17. Energy-conserving perennial agriculture for marginal land in southern Appalachia. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, G.

    1982-01-30

    USDA economists predict the end of surplus farm production in the US within this decade. More and more marginal land will be cropped to provide feed for the growing world population and to produce energy. Much of this potential cropland in Southern Appalachia is poorly suited to annual crops, such as corn. Perennial crops are much better suited to steep, rocky, and wet sites. Research was undertaken on the theoretical potentials of perennial species with high predicted yields of protein, carbohydrates, or oils. Several candidate staple perennial crops for marginal land in Southern Appalachia were identified, and estimates were made of their yields, energy input requirements, and general suitabilities. Cropping systems incorporating honeylocust, persimmon, mulberry, jujube, and beech were compared with corn cropping systems. It appears that these candidate staple perennials show distinct advantages for energy conservation and environmental preservation. Detailed economic analyses must await actual demonstration trials, but preliminary indications for ethanol conversion systems with honeylocust are encouraging. It is suggested that short-term loans to farmers undertaking this new type of agriculture would be appropriate to solve cash-flow problems.

  18. Marginal Misses After Postoperative Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Allen M.; Farwell, D. Gregory; Luu, Quang; Chen, Leon M.; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan; Purdy, James A.

    2011-08-01

    Purpose: To describe the spatial distribution of local-regional recurrence (LRR) among patients treated postoperatively with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for head and neck cancer. Methods and Materials: The medical records of 90 consecutive patients treated by gross total resection and postoperative IMRT for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck from January 2003 to July 2009 were reviewed. Sites of disease were the oral cavity (43 patients), oropharynx (20 patients), larynx (15 patients), and hypopharynx (12 patients). Fifty patients (56%) received concurrent chemotherapy. Results: Seventeen of 90 patients treated with postoperative IMRT experienced LRR, yielding a 2-year estimate of local regional control of 80%. Among the LRR patients, 11 patients were classified as in-field recurrences, occurring within the physician-designated clinical target volume, and 6 patients were categorized as marginal recurrences. There were no out-of-field geographical misses. Sites of marginal LRRs included the contralateral neck adjacent to the spared parotid gland (3 patients), the dermal/subcutaneous surface (2 patients), and the retropharyngeal/retrostyloid lymph node region (1 patient). Conclusions: Although the incidence of geographical misses was relatively low, the possibility of this phenomenon should be considered in the design of target volumes among patients treated by postoperative IMRT for head and neck cancer.

  19. Ideas underlying quantification of margins and uncertainties(QMU): a white paper.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helton, Jon Craig; Trucano, Timothy Guy; Pilch, Martin M.

    2006-09-01

    This report describes key ideas underlying the application of Quantification of Margins and Uncertainties (QMU) to nuclear weapons stockpile lifecycle decisions at Sandia National Laboratories. While QMU is a broad process and methodology for generating critical technical information to be used in stockpile management, this paper emphasizes one component, which is information produced by computational modeling and simulation. In particular, we discuss the key principles of developing QMU information in the form of Best Estimate Plus Uncertainty, the need to separate aleatory and epistemic uncertainty in QMU, and the risk-informed decision making that is best suited for decisive application of QMU. The paper is written at a high level, but provides a systematic bibliography of useful papers for the interested reader to deepen their understanding of these ideas.

  20. Handbook of nuclear power plant seismic fragilities, Seismic Safety Margins Research Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cover, L.E.; Bohn, M.P.; Campbell, R.D.; Wesley, D.A.

    1983-12-01

    The Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) has a gola to develop a complete fully coupled analysis procedure (including methods and computer codes) for estimating the risk of an earthquake-induced radioactive release from a commercial nuclear power plant. As part of this program, calculations of the seismic risk from a typical commercial nuclear reactor were made. These calculations required a knowledge of the probability of failure (fragility) of safety-related components in the reactor system which actively participate in the hypothesized accident scenarios. This report describes the development of the required fragility relations and the data sources and data reduction techniques upon which they are based. Both building and component fragilities are covered. The building fragilities are for the Zion Unit 1 reactor which was the specific plant used for development of methodology in the program. Some of the component fragilities are site-specific also, but most would be usable for other sites as well.

  1. Marginal cost of natural gas in developing countries: concepts and applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mashayekhi, A.

    1983-01-01

    Many developing nations are facing complex questions regarding the best strategy for developing their domestic gas reserves. The World Bank has addressed these questions in studies on the cost and prices of gas and its optimal allocation among different markets. Based on the average incremental method, an estimate of the marginal cost of natural gas in 10 developing countries proved to be $0.61-1.79/1000 CF or $3.59-10.54/bbl of oil equivalent, far below the border prices of competing fuels in these nations. Moreover, the cost of gas is not expected to rise in these countries within the next 20 years while the reserves/production ratios remain high. The sample involves a variety of gas compositions and production conditions among the countries of Bangladesh, Cameroon, Egypt, India, Morocco, Nigeria, Pakistan, Tanzania, Thailand, and Tunisia.

  2. Marginal instability threshold condition of the aperiodic ordinary mode in equal-mass plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vafin, S.; Schlickeiser, R.; Yoon, P. H.

    2014-10-15

    The purely growing ordinary (O) mode instability for counter-streaming bi-Maxwellian plasma particle distribution functions has recently received renewed attention due to its importance for the solar wind plasma. Here, the analytical marginal instability condition is derived for magnetized plasmas consisting of equal-mass charged particles, distributed in counter-streams with equal temperatures. The equal-mass composition assumption enormously facilitates the theoretical analysis due to the equality of the values of the electron and positron (positive and negative ion) plasma and gyrofrequencies. The existence of a new instability domain of the O-mode at small plasma beta values is confirmed, when the parallel counter-stream free energy exceeds the perpendicular bi-Maxwellian free energy.

  3. Geometry, lateral variability, and preservation of downlapped regressive shelf deposits, eastern Tyrrhenian Margin, Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Field, M.E. ); Trincardi, F. )

    1990-05-01

    The shelf of the eastern Tyrrhenian margin changes substantially in width, shelf-break depth, and sea-floor steepness over relatively short distances, largely due to marked lateral changes in geologic structure. Remnants of late Pleistocene prograded coastal deposits are locally preserved on the middle and outer parts of this complex shelf. Through the authors studies of these prograded deposits they recognize two major controls on the distribution, lateral extent, thickness, and preservation potential. First, prograded (downlapped) deposits formed only where the physiographic shelf break was deeper than the lowstand shoreline, thus providing accommodation space for the lowstand deposits. Second, the proximity and relative size of sediment sources and the local coastal dispersal system influenced the geometry of the deposit. Mid-shelf and shelf-margin bodies composed of seaward-steepening downlapping reflectors were deposited as thin-to-thick continuous prograding sheets over an irregular eroded shelf surface and onto the shelf edge during the last fall and lowstand of sea level. A dearth of sediment at the end of lowstand conditions led to a switch from deposition to erosion. During sea level rise, shoreface erosion produced a major marine erosional (ravinement) surface landward of the 120-m isobath, and much, and in many places all, of the downlapping deposit was removed. Preservation of downlapping deposits is largely a function of their thickness. Thick continuous deposits are common on the shelf edge, whereas on the mid-shelf only thin remnants are preserved locally where depressions or morphologic steps were present in the shelf surface.

  4. RECONSTRUCTING PALEO-SMT POSITIONS ON THE CASCADIA MARGIN USING MAGNETIC SUSCEPTIBILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Joel; Phillips, Stephen

    2014-09-30

    Magnetic susceptibility (κ) is a mixed signal in marine sediments, representing primary depositional and secondary diagenetic processes. Production of hydrogen sulfide via anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) at the sulfate-methane transition (SMT) and organoclastic sulfate reduction above the SMT can result in the dissolution of iron oxides, altering κ in sediments in methane gas and gas hydrate bearing regions. We investigated records of κ on the Cascadia margin (ODP Sites 1249 and 1252; IODP Site 1325) using a Zr/Rb heavy mineral proxy from XRF core scanning to identify intervals of primary detrital magnetic susceptibility and intervals and predict intervals affected by magnetite dissolutions. We also measured total sulfur content, grain size distributions, total organic carbon (TOC) content, and magnetic mineral assemblage. The upper 100 m of Site 1252 contains a short interval of κ driven by primary magnetite, with multiple intervals (> 90 m total) of decreased κ correlated with elevated sulfur content, consistent with dissolution of magnetite and re-precipitation of pyrite. In the upper 90 m of Site 1249, κ is almost entirely altered by diagenetic processes, with much of the low κ explained by a high degree of pyritization, and some intervals affected by the precipitation of magnetic iron sulfides. At Site 1325, κ between 0-20 and 51-73 mbsf represents primary mineralogy, and in the interval 24-51 mbsf, κ may be reduced due to pyritization. This integrated approach allows for a prediction of primary κ and the amount of κ loss at each site when compared to actual κ measurements. In the case of magnetite dissolution and full pyritization, these drawdowns in κ are supported by sulfur measurements, and the exposure times of magnetite to hydrogen sulfide can be modeled. The presence of methane and methane hydrates at these sites, as well as large variations in TOC content, suggest that the past migration rates of the SMT and variation in sulfate reduction rates may influence κ alteration along the Cascadia margin.

  5. Stereotactic Radiosurgery of the Postoperative Resection Cavity for Brain Metastases: Prospective Evaluation of Target Margin on Tumor Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Clara Y.H.; Chang, Steven D.; Gibbs, Iris C.; Adler, John R.; Harsh, Griffith R.; Lieberson, Robert E.; Soltys, Scott G.

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: Given the neurocognitive toxicity associated with whole-brain irradiation (WBRT), approaches to defer or avoid WBRT after surgical resection of brain metastases are desirable. Our initial experience with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) targeting the resection cavity showed promising results. We examined the outcomes of postoperative resection cavity SRS to determine the effect of adding a 2-mm margin around the resection cavity on local failure (LF) and toxicity. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 120 cavities in 112 patients treated from 1998-2009. Factors associated with LF and distant brain failure (DF) were analyzed using competing risks analysis, with death as a competing risk. The overall survival (OS) rate was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier product-limit method; variables associated with OS were evaluated using the Cox proportional hazards and log rank tests. Results: The 12-month cumulative incidence rates of LF and DF, with death as a competing risk, were 9.5% and 54%, respectively. On univariate analysis, expansion of the cavity with a 2-mm margin was associated with decreased LF; the 12-month cumulative incidence rates of LF with and without margin were 3% and 16%, respectively (P=.042). The 12-month toxicity rates with and without margin were 3% and 8%, respectively (P=.27). On multivariate analysis, melanoma histology (P=.038) and number of brain metastases (P=.0097) were associated with higher DF. The median OS time was 17 months (range, 2-114 months), with a 12-month OS rate of 62%. Overall, WBRT was avoided in 72% of the patients. Conclusion: Adjuvant SRS targeting the resection cavity of brain metastases results in excellent local control and allows WBRT to be avoided in a majority of patients. A 2-mm margin around the resection cavity improved local control without increasing toxicity compared with our prior technique with no margin.

  6. Pending indoor air quality and radon abatement legislation. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Clean Air and Nuclear Regulation of the Committee on Environment and Public Works, United States Senate, One Hundred Third Congress, First Session on S. 656 and S. 657, May 25, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    This hearing on pending indoor air quality and radon abatement legislation includes testimony from individuals and representatives of the following groups: Business Council on Indoor Air; American Lung Association; Consumer Federation of America; Radiation Protection Programs, NJ; School of Hygiene and Public Health, Johns Hopkins University; AFL-CIO; EPA; National Parent Teacher Association. Additional material includes statements from: American Lung Assoc.; Alliance for Radon Reduction; Alliance to Save Energy; American Industrial Hygiene Assoc.; Bowser Morner, Inc.; Building Owners and Managers Assoc. International; Chemical Specialties Manufacturers Assoc.; Council for American Private Education; National Assoc. of Home Builders; National Assoc. of Realtors; National School Boards Assoc.; Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors National Assoc.

  7. Catalysts For Lean Burn Engine Exhaust Abatement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ott, Kevin C. (Los Alamos, NM); Clark, Noline C. (Jemez Springs, NM); Paffett, Mark T. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2004-04-06

    The present invention provides a process for catalytically reducing nitrogen oxides in an exhaust gas stream containing nitrogen oxides and a reductant material by contacting the gas stream under conditions effective to catalytically reduce the nitrogen oxides with a catalyst comprising a aluminum-silicate type material and a minor amount of a metal, the catalyst characterized as having sufficient catalytic activity so as to reduce the nitrogen oxides by at least 60 percent under temperatures within the range of from about 200.degree. C. to about 400.degree. C.

  8. Catalysts for lean burn engine exhaust abatement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ott, Kevin C.; Clark, Noline C.; Paffett, Mark T.

    2006-08-01

    The present invention provides a process for catalytically reducing nitrogen oxides in an exhaust gas stream containing nitrogen oxides and a reductant material by contacting the gas stream under conditions effective to catalytically reduce the nitrogen oxides with a catalyst comprising a aluminum-silicate type material and a minor amount of a metal, the catalyst characterized as having sufficient catalytic activity so as to reduce the nitrogen oxides by at least 60 percent under temperatures within the range of from about 200.degree. C. to about 400.degree. C.

  9. Catalysts for lean burn engine exhaust abatement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ott, Kevin C. (Los Alamos, NM); Clark, Noline C. (Jemez Springs, NM); Paffett, Mark T. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention provides a process for catalytically reducing nitrogen oxides in an exhaust gas stream containing nitrogen oxides and a reductant material by contacting the gas stream under conditions effective to catalytically reduce the nitrogen oxides with a catalyst comprising a aluminum-silicate type material and a minor amount of a metal, the catalyst characterized as having sufficient catalytic activity so as to reduce the nitrogen oxides by at least 60 percent under temperatures within the range of from about 200.degree. C. to about 400.degree. C.

  10. Electrically Driven Technologies for Radioactive Aerosol Abatement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David W. DePaoli; Ofodike A. Ezekoye; Costas Tsouris; Valmor F. de Almeida

    2003-01-28

    The purpose of this research project was to develop an improved understanding of how electriexecy driven processes, including electrocoalescence, acoustic agglomeration, and electric filtration, may be employed to efficiently treat problems caused by the formation of aerosols during DOE waste treatment operations. The production of aerosols during treatment and retrieval operations in radioactive waste tanks and during thermal treatment operations such as calcination presents a significant problem of cost, worker exposure, potential for release, and increased waste volume.

  11. Property Tax Abatement for Solar Electric Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A Memorandum sent to County Commissioners in February 2011 clarified that residential PV systems that are not used to generate income or in connection with a business may be entirely exempt from ...

  12. Nitrogen oxide abatement by distributed fuel addition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendt, J.O.L.; Mereb, J.B.

    1991-09-20

    Reburning is examined as a means of NO{sub x} destruction in a 17 kW down-fired pulverized coal combustor. In reburning, a secondary fuel is introduced downstream of the primary flame to produce a reducing zone, favorable to NO destruction, and air is introduced further downstream to complete the combustion. Emphasis is on natural gas reburning and a bituminous coal primary flame. A parametric examination of reburning employing a statistical experimental design, is conducted, complemented by detailed experiments. Mechanisms governing the inter-conversion of nitrogenous species in the fuel rich reburn zone is explored. The effect of reburning on N{sub 2}O emissions, the effect of primary flame mode (premixed and diffusion) and the effect of distributing the reburning fuel, are also investigated.

  13. Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization Case Study: Selection of Electrical Equipment to Be Subjected to Environmental Qualification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. P. Blanchard; R. W. Youngblood

    2014-06-01

    The Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) pathway of the DOEs Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program focuses on advancing the state of the art in safety analysis and risk assessment to support decision-making on nuclear power plant operation well beyond the originally designed lifetime of the plants (i.e., beyond 60 years). Among the issues being addressed in RISMC is the significance of SSC aging and how confident we are about our understanding of its impact on the margin between the loads SSCs are expected to see during normal operation and accident conditions, and the SSC capacities (their ability to resist those loads) as the SSCs age. In this paper, a summary is provided of a case study that examines SSC aging from an environmental qualification (EQ) perspective. The case study illustrates how the state of knowledge regarding SSC margin can be characterized given the overall integrated plant design, and was developed to demonstrate a method for deciding on which cables to focus, which cables are not so important from an environmental qualification margin standpoint, and what plant design features or operating characteristics determine the role that environmental qualification plays in establishing a safety case on which decisions regarding margin can be made. The selection of cables for which demonstration of margin with respect to aging and environmental challenges uses a technique known as Prevention Analysis. Prevention Analysis is a Boolean method for optimal selection of SSCs (that is, those combinations of SSCs both necessary and sufficient to meet a predetermined selection criterion) in a manner that allows demonstration that plant-level safety can be demonstrated by the collection of selected SSCs alone. Choosing the set of SSCs that is necessary and sufficient to satisfy the safety objectives, and demonstrating that the safety objectives can be met effectively, determines where resources are best allocated to assure SSC performance margin. The paper describes the resulting component types that were selected by Prevention Analysis and identifies the accident sequence characteristics that cause these component types to be important from an EQ and aging perspective (and, hence, worthwhile evaluating the extent of safety margin). In addition, component types not selected as needing significant margin from an EQ and aging perspective are discussed and an engineering rationale is developed justifying the lack of need to apply resources to demonstrating margin for these component types. This rationale is in terms of design features of the plant and operating characteristics that make these component types less important from an EQ and aging perspective. While the case study focuses on EQ and aging of equipment and cables located inside the containment of this PWR, the prevention analysis method is demonstrated to be an effective technique for identification of minimal collections of components that would be effective in managing safety for a variety of issues associated with aging and long-term operation of the fleet of plants.

  14. Margin of Safety Definition and Examples Used in Safety Basis Documents and the USQ Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beaulieu, R. A.

    2013-10-03

    The Nuclear Safety Management final rule, 10 CFR 830, provides an undefined term, margin of safety (MOS). Safe harbors listed in 10 CFR 830, Table 2, such as DOE?STD?3009 use but do not define the term. This lack of definition has created the need for the definition. This paper provides a definition of MOS and documents examples of MOS as applied in a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) approved safety basis for an existing nuclear facility. If we understand what MOS looks like regarding Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) parameters, then it helps us compare against other parameters that do not involve a MOS. This paper also documents parameters that are not MOS. These criteria could be used to determine if an MOS exists in safety basis documents. This paper helps DOE, including the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and its contractors responsible for the safety basis improve safety basis documents and the unreviewed safety question (USQ) process with respect to MOS.

  15. Subsets of Women With Close or Positive Margins After Breast-Conserving Surgery With High Local Recurrence Risk Despite Breast Plus Boost Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lupe, Krystine; Truong, Pauline T.; Alexander, Cheryl; Lesperance, Mary; Speers, Caroline; Tyldesley, Scott

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: (1) To examine the effect of surgical margin status on local recurrence (LR) and survival following breast-conserving therapy; (2) To identify subsets with close or positive margins with high LR risk despite whole breast radiotherapy (RT) plus boost. Methods and Materials: Subjects were 2,264 women with pT1-3, any N, M0 invasive breast cancer, treated with breast-conserving surgery and whole breast {+-} boost RT. Five-year Kaplan-Meier (KM) LR, breast cancer-specific and overall survival (BCSS and OS) were compared between cohorts with negative (n = 1,980), close (n = 222), and positive (n = 62) margins. LR rates were analyzed according to clinicopathologic characteristics. Multivariable Cox regression modeling and matched analysis of close/positive margin cases and negative margin controls were performed. Results: Median follow-up was 5.2 years. Boost RT was used in 92% of patients with close or positive margins. Five-year KM LR rates in the negative, close and positive margin cohorts were 1.3%, 4.0%, and 5.2%, respectively (p = 0.001). BCSS and OS were similar in the three margin subgroups. In the close/positive margin cohort, LR rates were 10.2% with age <45 years, 11.8% with Grade III, 11.3% with lymphovascular invasion (LVI), and 26.3% with {>=}4 positive nodes. Corresponding rates in the negative margin cohort were 2.3%, 2.4%, 1.0%, and 2.4%, respectively. On Cox regression analysis of the entire cohort, close or positive margin, Grade III histology, {>=}4 positive nodes, and lack of systemic therapy were significantly associated with higher LR risk. When close/positive margin cases were matched to negative margin controls, the difference in 5-year LR remained significant (4.25% vs. 0.7%, p < 0.001). Conclusions: On univariable analysis, subsets with close or positive margins, in combination with age <45 years, Grade III, LVI, and {>=}4 positive nodes, have 5-year LR >10% despite whole breast plus boost RT. These patients should be considered for more definitive surgery.

  16. SU-E-J-30: Benchmark Image-Based TCP Calculation for Evaluation of PTV Margins for Lung SBRT Patients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, M; Chetty, I; Zhong, H

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Tumor control probability (TCP) calculated with accumulated radiation doses may help design appropriate treatment margins. Image registration errors, however, may compromise the calculated TCP. The purpose of this study is to develop benchmark CT images to quantify registration-induced errors in the accumulated doses and their corresponding TCP. Methods: 4DCT images were registered from end-inhale (EI) to end-exhale (EE) using a demons algorithm. The demons DVFs were corrected by an FEM model to get realistic deformation fields. The FEM DVFs were used to warp the EI images to create the FEM-simulated images. The two images combined with the FEM DVF formed a benchmark model. Maximum intensity projection (MIP) images, created from the EI and simulated images, were used to develop IMRT plans. Two plans with 3 and 5 mm margins were developed for each patient. With these plans, radiation doses were recalculated on the simulated images and warped back to the EI images using the FEM DVFs to get the accumulated doses. The Elastix software was used to register the FEM-simulated images to the EI images. TCPs calculated with the Elastix-accumulated doses were compared with those generated by the FEM to get the TCP error of the Elastix registrations. Results: For six lung patients, the mean Elastix registration error ranged from 0.93 to 1.98 mm. Their relative dose errors in PTV were between 0.28% and 6.8% for 3mm margin plans, and between 0.29% and 6.3% for 5mm-margin plans. As the PTV margin reduced from 5 to 3 mm, the mean TCP error of the Elastix-reconstructed doses increased from 2.0% to 2.9%, and the mean NTCP errors decreased from 1.2% to 1.1%. Conclusion: Patient-specific benchmark images can be used to evaluate the impact of registration errors on the computed TCPs, and may help select appropriate PTV margins for lung SBRT patients.

  17. Quantification of margins and uncertainty for risk-informed decision analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvin, Kenneth Fredrick

    2010-09-01

    QMU stands for 'Quantification of Margins and Uncertainties'. QMU is a basic framework for consistency in integrating simulation, data, and/or subject matter expertise to provide input into a risk-informed decision-making process. QMU is being applied to a wide range of NNSA stockpile issues, from performance to safety. The implementation of QMU varies with lab and application focus. The Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Program develops validated computational simulation tools to be applied in the context of QMU. QMU provides input into a risk-informed decision making process. The completeness aspect of QMU can benefit from the structured methodology and discipline of quantitative risk assessment (QRA)/probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). In characterizing uncertainties it is important to pay attention to the distinction between those arising from incomplete knowledge ('epistemic' or systematic), and those arising from device-to-device variation ('aleatory' or random). The national security labs should investigate the utility of a probability of frequency (PoF) approach in presenting uncertainties in the stockpile. A QMU methodology is connected if the interactions between failure modes are included. The design labs should continue to focus attention on quantifying uncertainties that arise from epistemic uncertainties such as poorly-modeled phenomena, numerical errors, coding errors, and systematic uncertainties in experiment. The NNSA and design labs should ensure that the certification plan for any RRW is supported by strong, timely peer review and by an ongoing, transparent QMU-based documentation and analysis in order to permit a confidence level necessary for eventual certification.

  18. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Risk-Informed Safety Margins Characterization (RISMC) PathwayTechnical Program Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis Smith; Cristian Rabiti; Richard Martineau

    2012-11-01

    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). As the current Light Water Reactor (LWR) NPPs age beyond 60 years, there are possibilities for increased frequency of Systems, Structures, and Components (SSCs) degradations or failures that initiate safety-significant events, reduce existing accident mitigation capabilities, or create new failure modes. Plant designers commonly over-design portions of NPPs and provide robustness in the form of redundant and diverse engineered safety features to ensure that, even in the case of well-beyond design basis scenarios, public health and safety will be protected with a very high degree of assurance. This form of defense-in-depth is a reasoned response to uncertainties and is often referred to generically as safety margin. Historically, specific safety margin provisions have been formulated, primarily based on engineering judgment.

  19. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Technical Basis Guide Describing How to Perform Safety Margin Configuration Risk Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis Smith; James Knudsen; Bentley Harwood

    2013-08-01

    The INL has carried out a demonstration of the RISMC approach for the purpose of configuration risk management. We have shown how improved accuracy and realism can be achieved by simulating changes in risk as a function of different configurations in order to determine safety margins as the plant is modified. We described the various technical issues that play a role in these configuration-based calculations with the intent that future applications can take advantage of the analysis benefits while avoiding some of the technical pitfalls that are found for these types of calculations. Specific recommendations have been provided on a variety of topics aimed at improving the safety margin analysis and strengthening the technical basis behind the analysis process.

  20. Soil Carbon Change and Net Energy Associated with Biofuel Production on Marginal Lands: A Regional Modeling Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandaru, Varaprasad; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Manowitz, David H.; Link, Robert P.; Zhang, Xuesong; Post, W. M.

    2013-12-01

    The use of marginal lands (MLs) for biofuel production has been contemplated as a promising solution for meeting biofuel demands. However, there have been concerns with spatial location of MLs, their inherent biofuel potential, and possible environmental consequences with the cultivation of energy crops. Here, we developed a new quantitative approach that integrates high-resolution land cover and land productivity maps and uses conditional probability density functions for analyzing land use patterns as a function of land productivity to classify the agricultural lands. We subsequently applied this method to determine available productive croplands (P-CLs) and non-crop marginal lands (NC-MLs) in a nine-county Southern Michigan. Furthermore, Spatially Explicit Integrated Modeling Framework (SEIMF) using EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) was used to understand the net energy (NE) and soil organic carbon (SOC) implications of cultivating different annual and perennial production systems.

  1. Marginally trapped submanifolds in Lorentzian space forms and in the Lorentzian product of a space form by the real line

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anciaux, Henri; Godoy, Yamile

    2015-02-15

    We give local, explicit representation formulas for n-dimensional spacelike submanifolds which are marginally trapped in the Minkowski space ?{sub 1}{sup n+2}, the de Sitter space dS{sup n+2}, the anti-de Sitter space AdS{sup n+2} and the Lorentzian products S{sup n+1} ? and ?{sup n+1} ? of the sphere and the hyperbolic space by the real line.

  2. A model of the methane cycle, permafrost, and hydrology of the Siberian continental margin

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Archer, D.

    2014-06-03

    A two-dimensional model of a passive continental margin was adapted to the simulation of the methane cycle on Siberian continental shelf and slope, attempting to account for the impacts of glacial/interglacial cycles in sea level, alternately exposing the continental shelf to freezing conditions with deep permafrost formation during glacial times, and immersion in the ocean in interglacial times. The model is used to gauge the impact of the glacial cycles, and potential anthropogenic warming in the deep future, on the atmospheric methane emission flux, and the sensitivities of that flux to processes such as permafrost formation and terrestrial organic carbonmore » (Yedoma) deposition. Hydrological forcing drives a freshening and ventilation of pore waters in areas exposed to the atmosphere, which is not quickly reversed by invasion of seawater upon submergence, since there is no analogous saltwater pump. This hydrological pump changes the salinity enough to affect the stability of permafrost and methane hydrates on the shelf. Permafrost formation inhibits bubble transport through the sediment column, by construction in the model. The impact of permafrost on the methane budget is to replace the bubble flux by offshore groundwater flow containing dissolved methane, rather than accumulating methane for catastrophic release when the permafrost seal fails during warming. By far the largest impact of the glacial/interglacial cycles on the atmospheric methane flux is attenuation by dissolution of bubbles in the ocean when sea level is high. Methane emissions are highest during the regression (soil freezing) part of the cycle, rather than during transgression (thawing). The model-predicted methane flux to the atmosphere in response to a warming climate is small, relative to the global methane production rate, because of the ongoing flooding of the continental shelf. A slight increase due to warming could be completely counteracted by sea level rise on geologic time scales, decreasing the efficiency of bubble transit through the water column. The methane cycle on the shelf responds to climate change on a long time constant of thousands of years, because hydrate is excluded thermodynamically from the permafrost zone by water limitation, leaving the hydrate stability zone at least 300 m below the sediment surface.« less

  3. SU-E-J-88: Margin Reduction of Level II/III Planning Target Volume for Image-Guided Simultaneous Integrated Boost Head-And-Neck Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Can, S; Neylon, J; Qi, S; Santhanam, A; Low, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of improved normal tissue sparing for head-and-neck (H'N) image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) by employing tighter CTV-to-PTV margins for target level II/III though a GPU-based deformable image registration and dose accumulation framework. Methods: Ten H'N simultaneous integrated boost cases treated on TomoTherapy were retrospectively analyzed. Weekly kVCT scans in addition to daily MVCT scans were acquired for each patient. Reduced margin plans were generated with 0- mm margin for level II and III PTV (while 3-5 mm margin for PTV1) and compared with the standard margin plan using 3-5mm margin to all CTV1-3 (reference plan). An in-house developed GPU-based 3D image deformation tool was used to register and deform the weekly KVCTs with the planning CT and determine the delivered mean/minimum/maximum dose, dose volume histograms (DVHs), etc. Results: Compared with the reference plans, the averaged cord maximum, the right and left parotid doses reduced by 22.7 %, 16.5 %, and 9 % respectively in the reduced margin plans. The V95 for PTV2 and PTV3 were found within 2 and 5% between the reference and tighter margin plans. For the reduced margin plans, the averaged cumulative mean doses were consistent with the planned dose for PTV1, PTV2 and PTV3 within 1.5%, 1.7% and 1.4%. Similar dose variations of the delivered dose were seen for the reference and tighter margin plans. The delivered maximum and mean doses for the cord were 3.55 % and 2.37% higher than the planned doses; a 5 % higher cumulative mean dose for the parotids was also observed for the delivered dose than the planned doses in both plans. Conclusion: By imposing tighter CTV-to-PTV margins for level II and III targets for H'N irradiation, acceptable cumulative doses were achievable when coupled with weekly kVCT guidance while improving normal structure sparing.

  4. Evaluation of overall setup accuracy and adequate setup margins in pelvic image-guided radiotherapy: Comparison of the male and female patients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laaksomaa, Marko; Kapanen, Mika; Tulijoki, Tapio; Peltola, Seppo; Hydynmaa, Simo; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Pirkko-Liisa

    2014-04-01

    We evaluated adequate setup margins for the radiotherapy (RT) of pelvic tumors based on overall position errors of bony landmarks. We also estimated the difference in setup accuracy between the male and female patients. Finally, we compared the patient rotation for 2 immobilization devices. The study cohort included consecutive 64 male and 64 female patients. Altogether, 1794 orthogonal setup images were analyzed. Observer-related deviation in image matching and the effect of patient rotation were explicitly determined. Overall systematic and random errors were calculated in 3 orthogonal directions. Anisotropic setup margins were evaluated based on residual errors after weekly image guidance. The van Herk formula was used to calculate the margins. Overall, 100 patients were immobilized with a house-made device. The patient rotation was compared against 28 patients immobilized with CIVCO's Kneefix and Feetfix. We found that the usually applied isotropic setup margin of 8 mm covered all the uncertainties related to patient setup for most RT treatments of the pelvis. However, margins of even 10.3 mm were needed for the female patients with very large pelvic target volumes centered either in the symphysis or in the sacrum containing both of these structures. This was because the effect of rotation (p ? 0.02) and the observer variation in image matching (p ? 0.04) were significantly larger for the female patients than for the male patients. Even with daily image guidance, the required margins remained larger for the women. Patient rotations were largest about the lateral axes. The difference between the required margins was only 1 mm for the 2 immobilization devices. The largest component of overall systematic position error came from patient rotation. This emphasizes the need for rotation correction. Overall, larger position errors and setup margins were observed for the female patients with pelvic cancer than for the male patients.

  5. SU-F-BRD-09: Is It Sufficient to Use Only Low Density Tissue-Margin to Compensate Inter-Fractionation Setup Uncertainties in Lung Treatment?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nie, K; Yue, N; Chen, T; Millevoi, R; Qin, S; Guo, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: In lung radiation treatment, PTV is formed with a margin around GTV (or CTV/ITV). Although GTV is most likely of water equivalent density, the PTV margin may be formed with the surrounding low-density tissues, which may lead to unreal dosimetric plan. This study is to evaluate whether the concern of dose calculation inside the PTV with only low density margin could be justified in lung treatment. Methods: Three SBRT cases were analyzed. The PTV from the original plan (Plan-O) was created with a 510 mm margin outside the ITV to incorporate setup errors and all mobility from 10 respiratory phases. Test plans were generated with the GTV shifted to the PTV edge to simulate the extreme situations with maximum setup uncertainties. Two representative positions as the very posterior-superior (Plan-PS) and anterior-inferior (Plan-AI) edge were considered. The virtual GTV was assigned a density of 1.0 g.cm?3 and surrounding lung, including the PTV margin, was defined as 0.25 g.cm?3. Also, additional plan with a 1mm tissue-margin instead of full lung-margin was created to evaluate whether a composite-margin (Plan-Comp) has a better approximation for dose calculation. All plans were generated on the average CT using Analytical Anisotropic Algorithm with heterogeneity correction on and all planning parameters/monitor unites remained unchanged. DVH analyses were performed for comparisons. Results: Despite the non-static dose distribution, the high-dose region synchronized with tumor positions. This might due to scatter conditions as greater doses were absorbed in the solid-tumor than in the surrounding low-density lungtissue. However, it still showed missing target coverage in general. Certain level of composite-margin might give better approximation for the dosecalculation. Conclusion: Our exploratory results suggest that with the lungmargin only, the planning dose of PTV might overestimate the coverage of the target during treatment. The significance of this overestimation might warrant further investigation.

  6. Seismic safety margins research program. Phase I. Final report: plant/site selection and data collection (Project I)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chuang, T. Y.

    1981-05-01

    Project I of Phase I of the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) comprised two parts: the selection of a representative nuclear power plant/site for study in Phase I and the collection of data needed by the other SSMRP projects. Unit 1 of the Zion Nuclear Power Plant in Zion, Illinois, was selected for the SSMRP Phase I studies. The Zion plant and its site were found to be reasonably representative of operating and future plants with regard to its nuclear steam supply system; the type of containment structure (prestressed concrete); its electrical capacity (1100 MWe); its location (the Midwest); the peak seismic accelaration used for design (0.17g); and the properties of the underlying soil (the low-strain shear-wave velocity is 1650 ft/s in a 50- to 100-ft-thick layer of soil overlying sedimentary bedrock).

  7. Response model and activity analysis of the revenue reconciliation problem in the marginal cost pricing of electricity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassig, N.L.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of the research was to determine if feasible reconciliation procedures exist that meet the multiple (and sometimes competing) goals of the electricity pricing problem while staying within the constraints of the problem. The answer was that such procedures do exist. Selection among the alternative, feasible procedures depends on the weighting factors placed on the goals. One procedure did not universally satisfy all the goals; the various procedures satisfied the alternative goals to varying degrees. The selection process was sensitive to the initial conditions of the model and to the band width of the constraint boundary conditions. Discriminate analysis was used to identify the variables that contribute the most to the optimal selection process. The results of the research indicated that the variables that are the most effective in selecting among the various procedures were the following: the ratio of peak to off-peak prices, the amount of revenue adjustment required, the constraint on equity, the constraint on peak price stability, and the constraint on meeting the revenue requirement. The poicy recommendations that can be derived from this research are very relevant in light of today's energy problems. Time-of-use pricing of electricity is needed in order to signal to the consumer the true cost of electricity by season and by time of day. Marginal costs capture such costs and rates should be based on such costs. Revenue reconciliation procedures make marginal cost-based rates feasible from a regulatory requirement perspective. This research showed that such procedures are available and selection among alternative procedures depends on the preference rankings placed on the multiple, and sometimes competing goals of electricity pricing.

  8. Fuel switching in the electricity sector under the EU ETS: Review and prospective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delarue, E.; Voorspools, K.; D'haeseleer, W.

    2008-06-15

    The European Union has implemented the European Union emission trading scheme (EU ETS) as an instrument to facilitate greenhouse gas (GHG) emission abatement stipulated in the Kyoto protocol. Empirical data show that in the early stages of the EU ETS, the value of a ton of CO{sub 2} has already led to emission abatement through switching from coal to gas in the European electric power sector. In the second part of this paper, an electricity generation simulation model is used to perform simulations on the switching behavior in both the first and the second trading periods of the EU ETS. In 2005, the reduction in GHG emissions in the electric power sector due to EU ETS is estimated close to 88 Mton. For the second trading period, a European Union allowance (EUA) price dependent GHG reduction curve has been determined. The obtained switching potential turns out to be significant, up to 300 Mton/year, at sufficiently high EUA prices.

  9. Nuclear power plant cable materials : review of qualification and currently available aging data for margin assessments in cable performance.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Celina, Mathias Christopher; Gillen, Kenneth Todd; Lindgren, Eric Richard

    2013-05-01

    A selective literature review was conducted to assess whether currently available accelerated aging and original qualification data could be used to establish operational margins for the continued use of cable insulation and jacketing materials in nuclear power plant environments. The materials are subject to chemical and physical degradation under extended radiationthermal- oxidative conditions. Of particular interest were the circumstances under which existing aging data could be used to predict whether aged materials should pass loss of coolant accident (LOCA) performance requirements. Original LOCA qualification testing usually involved accelerated aging simulations of the 40-year expected ambient aging conditions followed by a LOCA simulation. The accelerated aging simulations were conducted under rapid accelerated aging conditions that did not account for many of the known limitations in accelerated polymer aging and therefore did not correctly simulate actual aging conditions. These highly accelerated aging conditions resulted in insulation materials with mostlyinert' aging processes as well as jacket materials where oxidative damage dropped quickly away from the air-exposed outside jacket surface. Therefore, for most LOCA performance predictions, testing appears to have relied upon heterogeneous aging behavior with oxidation often limited to the exterior of the cable cross-section - a situation which is not comparable with the nearly homogenous oxidative aging that will occur over decades under low dose rate and low temperature plant conditions. The historical aging conditions are therefore insufficient to determine with reasonable confidence the remaining operational margins for these materials. This does not necessarily imply that the existing 40-year-old materials would fail if LOCA conditions occurred, but rather that unambiguous statements about the current aging state and anticipated LOCA performance cannot be provided based on original qualification testing data alone. The non-availability of conclusive predictions for the aging conditions of 40-year-old cables implies that the same levels of uncertainty will remain for any re-qualification or extended operation of these cables. The highly variable aging behavior of the range of materials employed also implies that simple, standardized aging tests are not sufficient to provide the required aging data and performance predictions for all materials. It is recommended that focused studies be conducted that would yield the material aging parameters needed to predict aging behaviors under low dose, low temperature plant equivalent conditions and that appropriately aged specimens be prepared that would mimic oxidatively-aged 40- to 60- year-old materials for confirmatory LOCA performance testing. This study concludes that it is not sufficient to expose materials to rapid, high radiation and high temperature levels with subsequent LOCA qualification testing in order to predictively quantify safety margins of existing infrastructure with regard to LOCA performance. We need to better understand how cable jacketing and insulation materials have degraded over decades of power plant operation and how this aging history relates to service life prediction and the performance of existing equipment to withstand a LOCA situation.

  10. Kenya-Reducing the GHG Impacts of Sustainable Intensification...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    can benefit poor farmers and to understand trade-offs among different dimensions of poverty and different groups of the poor (including between men and women). Special attention...

  11. Ghana-Reducing the GHG Impacts of Sustainable Intensification...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    can benefit poor farmers and to understand trade-offs among different dimensions of poverty and different groups of the poor (including between men and women). Special attention...

  12. Ethiopia-Reducing the GHG Impacts of Sustainable Intensification...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    can benefit poor farmers and to understand trade-offs among different dimensions of poverty and different groups of the poor (including between men and women). Special attention...

  13. Burkina Faso-Reducing the GHG Impacts of Sustainable Intensification...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    can benefit poor farmers and to understand trade-offs among different dimensions of poverty and different groups of the poor (including between men and women). Special attention...

  14. Uganda-Reducing the GHG Impacts of Sustainable Intensification...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    can benefit poor farmers and to understand trade-offs among different dimensions of poverty and different groups of the poor (including between men and women). Special attention...

  15. Mali-Reducing the GHG Impacts of Sustainable Intensification...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    can benefit poor farmers and to understand trade-offs among different dimensions of poverty and different groups of the poor (including between men and women). Special attention...

  16. Tanzania-Reducing the GHG Impacts of Sustainable Intensification...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    can benefit poor farmers and to understand trade-offs among different dimensions of poverty and different groups of the poor (including between men and women). Special attention...

  17. Bangladesh-Reducing the GHG Impacts of Sustainable Intensification...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    can benefit poor farmers and to understand trade-offs among different dimensions of poverty and different groups of the poor (including between men and women). Special attention...

  18. EPA-GHG Inventory Targeted Data Collection Strategies and Software...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    inventorycapacitybuildingswtoo Country: Nicaragua, Panama, Guatemala, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Honduras, Belize Cost: Free Central America, Central America, Central America,...

  19. UNEP-Risoe-Economics of GHG Limitations: Country Study Series...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Econo References Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations1 Country study series: Argentina, Ecuador, Estonia, Hungary, Indonesia, Mauritius, Senegal, Vietnam Parallel country...

  20. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Purchased...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Outputs include: The tool outputs greenhouse gas emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and carbon dioxide equivalent) for each facility as well as total...

  1. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Transport...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Outputs include: The tool outputs greenhouse gas emissions (including carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide equivalent, and biogenic carbon dioxide) for each...

  2. FEMP Assists White House in Setting GHG Reduction Target for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Government Leading by Example on Climate Change: Our New Federal Sustainability Plan White House Announces New Executive Order To Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the ...

  3. New Jersey: EERE-Supported Technology Lowers GHG Emissions 70...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    company, developed a strong and durable concrete that costs less and uses less time, energy, and water than standard concrete, using the same raw materials and equipment. ...

  4. UNEP-Risoe-Economics of GHG Limitations: Country Study Series...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Gas Limitations1 Country study series: Argentina, Ecuador, Estonia, Hungary, Indonesia, Mauritius, Senegal, Vietnam Parallel country studies: Botswana, Tanzania, Zambia...

  5. Methodology for Estimating Reductions of GHG Emissions from Mosaic...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    accessible to deforestation agents. Baseline activities that may be displaced by the RED project activity include fuelwood collection, charcoal production, agricultural and...

  6. Capturing Fugitives to Reduce DOE’s GHG Emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Experts are hunting down fugitive carbon emissions from across 20 Energy Department laboratories, sites and program offices — and they’ve already prevented the release of more than 600,000 metric tons of CO2 equivalent since 2009 -- equal to taking 140,000 cars off the road for a year.

  7. Health Benefits of GHG Reduction | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In a 1997 study, the World Resources Institute (WRI), the World Health Organization (WHO), and others estimated that eight million avoidable air pollution-related deaths will occur ...

  8. National Planning for GHG Mitigation in Agriculture: A Guidance...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ease of Use: Simple Website: www.fao.orgdocrep018i3324ei3324e.pdf Language: English A significant proportion of developing countries have expressed an interest in...

  9. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Stationary...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Interface: Spreadsheet Website: www.ghgprotocol.orgcalculation-toolsall-tools Cost: Free References: Stationary Combustion Guidance1 The Greenhouse Gas Protocol tool for...

  10. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Refrigerati...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Interface: Spreadsheet Website: www.ghgprotocol.orgcalculation-toolsall-tools Cost: Free References: Refrigerant Guide1 The Greenhouse Gas Protocol tool for refrigeration is...

  11. Review of the margins for ASME code fatigue design curve - effects of surface roughness and material variability.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chopra, O. K.; Shack, W. J.; Energy Technology

    2003-10-03

    The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code provides rules for the construction of nuclear power plant components. The Code specifies fatigue design curves for structural materials. However, the effects of light water reactor (LWR) coolant environments are not explicitly addressed by the Code design curves. Existing fatigue strain-vs.-life ({var_epsilon}-N) data illustrate potentially significant effects of LWR coolant environments on the fatigue resistance of pressure vessel and piping steels. This report provides an overview of the existing fatigue {var_epsilon}-N data for carbon and low-alloy steels and wrought and cast austenitic SSs to define the effects of key material, loading, and environmental parameters on the fatigue lives of the steels. Experimental data are presented on the effects of surface roughness on the fatigue life of these steels in air and LWR environments. Statistical models are presented for estimating the fatigue {var_epsilon}-N curves as a function of the material, loading, and environmental parameters. Two methods for incorporating environmental effects into the ASME Code fatigue evaluations are discussed. Data available in the literature have been reviewed to evaluate the conservatism in the existing ASME Code fatigue evaluations. A critical review of the margins for ASME Code fatigue design curves is presented.

  12. Secondary Malignancies From Prostate Cancer Radiation Treatment: A Risk Analysis of the Influence of Target Margins and Fractionation Patterns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dasu, Alexandru; Toma-Dasu, Iuliana; Franzen, Lars; Widmark, Anders; Nilsson, Per

    2011-03-01

    Purpose: This study explores the implications for cancer induction of treatment details such as fractionation, planning target volume (PTV) definition, and interpatient variations, which are relevant for the radiation treatment of prostate carcinomas. Methods and Materials: Treatment planning data from 100 patients have been analyzed with a risk model based on the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation competition model. The risk model can account for dose heterogeneity and fractionation effects characteristic for modern radiotherapy. Biologically relevant parameters from clinical and experimental data have been used with the model. Results: The results suggested that changes in prescribed dose could lead to a modification of the risks for individual organs surrounding the clinical target volume (CTV) but that the total risk appears to be less affected by changes in the target dose. Larger differences are observed for modifications of the margins between the CTV and the PTV because these have direct impact onto the dose level and dose heterogeneity in the healthy tissues surrounding the CTV. Interpatient anatomic variations also have to be taken into consideration for studies of the risk for cancer induction from radiotherapy. Conclusions: The results have shown the complex interplay between the risk for secondary malignancies, the details of the treatment delivery, and the patient heterogeneity that may influence comparisons between the long-term effects of various treatment techniques. Nevertheless, absolute risk levels seem very small and comparable to mortality risks from surgical interventions, thus supporting the robustness of radiation therapy as a successful treatment modality for prostate carcinomas.

  13. Electricity prices in a competitive environment: Marginal cost pricing of generation services and financial status of electric utilities. A preliminary analysis through 2015

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-08-01

    The emergence of competitive markets for electricity generation services is changing the way that electricity is and will be priced in the United States. This report presents the results of an analysis that focuses on two questions: (1) How are prices for competitive generation services likely to differ from regulated prices if competitive prices are based on marginal costs rather than regulated {open_quotes}cost-of-service{close_quotes} pricing? (2) What impacts will the competitive pricing of generation services (based on marginal costs) have on electricity consumption patterns, production costs, and the financial integrity patterns, production costs, and the financial integrity of electricity suppliers? This study is not intended to be a cost-benefit analysis of wholesale or retail competition, nor does this report include an analysis of the macroeconomic impacts of competitive electricity prices.

  14. Economic recovery of oil trapped at fan margins using high angle wells and multiple hydraulic fractures. Annual report, September 28, 1995--September 27, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niemeyer, B.L.

    1997-09-01

    The digital fan margin in the northeast portion of the Yowlumne field contains significant reserves but is not economic to develop using verticle wells. Numerous interbedded shales and deteriorating rock properties limit producibility. In addition, extreme depths (13,000 ft) present a challenging environment for hydraulic fracturing and artificial lift. Lastly, a mature waterflood increases risk because of the uncertainty with size and location of flood fronts. This project attempts to demonstrate the effectiveness of exploiting the distal fan margin of this slope-basin clastic reservoir through the use of a high-angle well completed with multiple hydraulic-fracture treatments. The combination of a high-angle (or horizontal) well and hydraulic fracturing will allow greater pay exposure than can be achieved with conventional verticle wells while maintaining verticle communication between thin interbedded layers and the wellbore. The equivalent production rate and reserves of three verticle wells are anticipated at one-half to two-thirds the cost.

  15. Stromatolites, ooid dunes, hardgrounds, and crusted mud beds, all products of marine cementation and microbial mats in subtidal oceanic mixing zone on eastern margin of Great Bahama Bank

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dill, R.F.; Kendall, C.S.C.G.; Steinen, R.P.

    1989-03-01

    The interisland channels along the eastern margin of the Great Bahamas Bank contain lithified structures that owe their origin to recent marine cementation. This cementation appears to be commonly associated with a complex microbial community of plants and microorganisms living within a bank-margin oceanographic mixing zone. In this region, reversing tidal and wind-driven currents flow up to 3 knots (150 cm/sec) three hours out of each six-hour tidal period. Here, marine-cement crusted, carbonate mud beds are found interbedded within migrating ooid sand bars and dunes and are associated with growing, lithified stromatolites up to 2 m in height. These laminated mud beds are found with thicknesses of up to 1 m in subtidal depths of 4 to 8 m (12 to 25 ft). The muds appear to be homogeneous, but closer examination by SEM and under a microscope reveals they are composed of pelletoid aggregates of needle-shaped aragonite crystals with diameters of up to 50 ..mu... The size of these soft pellets is similar to the smaller grains of ooid sands that are abundant in the area. This size similarity could explain why both the mud beds are found in similar high-energy hydraulic regimes as the ooid sands, but does not suggest how or why the aggregates of pure aragonite needles form. A high production of ooid sand within this bank margin environment permits the formation of natural levees along the margins of tidal channels. The back sides of these levees are being lithified by marine cements to form hardgrounds. Skeletal and ooid sand dunes stabilized by Thallasia in channel bottoms also are becoming lithified. Grapestones form at the distributaries of flood tidal deltas of ooid sand. All of these features have a common attribute: they are continually in contact with the turbulent mixing-zone waters.

  16. SU-E-CAMPUS-T-02: Can Pre-Treatment 4DCT-Based Motion Margins Estimates Be Trusted for Proton Radiotherapy?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seco, J; Koybasi, O; Mishra, P; James, S St.; Lewis, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Radiotherapy motion margins are generated using pre-treatment 4DCT data. The purpose of this study is to assess if pre-treatment 4DCT is sufficient in proton therapy to provide accurate estimate of motion margins. A dosimetric assessment is performed comparing pre-treatment margins with daily-customized margins. Methods: Gold fiducial markers implanted in lung tumors of patients were used to track the tumor. A spherical tumor of diameter 20 mm is inserted into a realistic digital respiratory phantom, where the tumor motion is based on real patient lung tumor trajectories recorded over multiple days. Using Day 1 patient data, 100 ITVs were generated with 1 s interval between consecutive scan start times. Each ITV was made up by the union of 10 tumor positions obtained from 6 s scan time. Two ITV volumes were chosen for treatment planning: ITVmean-? and ITVmean+?. The delivered dose was computed on i) 10 phases forming the planning ITV (10-phase - simulating dose calculation based on 4DCT) and ii) 50 phantoms produced from 100 s of data from any other day with tumor positions sampled every 2 s (dynamic - simulating the dose that would actually be delivered). Results: For similar breathing patterns between Day 1 and any other Day N(>1), the 95% volume coverage (D95) for dynamic case was 8.13% lower than the 10-phase case for ITVmean+?. For breathing patterns that were very different between Day 1 and any other Day N(>1), this difference was as high as 24.5% for ITVmean-?. Conclusion: Proton treatment planning based on pre-treatment 4DCT can lead to under-dosage of the tumor and over-dosage of the surrounding tissues, because of inadequate estimate of the range of motion of the tumor. This is due to the shift of the Bragg peak compared to photon therapy in which the tumor is surrounded by an electron bath.

  17. Heat Flow and Gas Hydrates on the Continental Margin of India: Building on Results from NGHP Expedition 01

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trehu, Anne; Kannberg, Peter

    2011-06-30

    The Indian National Gas Hydrate Program (NGHP) Expedition 01 presented the unique opportunity to constrain regional heat flow derived from seismic observations by using drilling data in three regions on the continental margin of India. The seismic bottom simulating reflection (BSR) is a well-documented feature in hydrate bearing sediments, and can serve as a proxy for apparent heat flow if data are available to estimate acoustic velocity and density in water and sediments, thermal conductivity, and seafloor temperature. Direct observations of temperature at depth and physical properties of the sediment obtained from drilling can be used to calibrate the seismic observations, decreasing the uncertainty of the seismically-derived estimates. Anomalies in apparent heat flow can result from a variety of sources, including sedimentation, erosion, topographic refraction and fluid flow. We constructed apparent heat flow maps for portions of the Krishna-Godavari (K-G) basin, the Mahanadi basin, and the Andaman basin and modeled anomalies using 1-D conductive thermal models. Apparent heat flow values in the Krishna-Godavari (K-G) basin and Mahanadi basin are generally 0.035 to 0.055 watts per square meter (W/m2). The borehole data show an increase in apparent heat flow as water depth increases from 900 to 1500 m. In the SW part of the seismic grid, 1D modeling of the effect of sedimentation on heat flow shows that ~50% of the observed increase in apparent heat flow with increasing water depth can be attributed to trapping of sediments behind a "toe-thrust" ridge that is forming along the seaward edge of a thick, rapidly accumulating deltaic sediment pile. The remainder of the anomaly can be explained either by a decrease in thermal conductivity of the sediments filling the slope basin or by lateral advection of heat through fluid flow along stratigraphic horizons within the basin and through flexural faults in the crest of the anticline. Such flow probably plays a role in bringing methane into the ridge formed by the toe-thrust. Because of the small anomaly due to this process and the uncertainty in thermal conductivity, we did not model this process explicitly. In the NE part of the K-G basin seismic grid, a number of local heat flow lows and highs are observed, which can be attributed to topographic refraction and to local fluid flow along faults, respectively. No regional anomaly can be resolved. Because of lack of continuity between the K-G basin sites within the seismic grid and those ~70 km to the NE in water depths of 1200 to 1500 m, we do not speculate on the reason for higher heat flow at these depths. The Mahanadi basin results, while limited in geographic extent, are similar to those for the KG basin. The Andaman basin exhibits much lower apparent heat flow values, ranging from 0.015 to 0.025 W/m2. Heat flow here also appears to increase with increasing water depth. The very low heat flow here is among the lowest heat flow observed anywhere and gives rise to a very thick hydrate stability zone in the sediments. Through 1D models of sedimentation (with extremely high sedimentation rates as a proxy for tectonic thickening), we concluded that the very low heat flow can probably be attributed to the combined effects of high sedimentation rate, low thermal conductivity, tectonic thickening of sediments and the cooling effect of a subducting plate in a subduction zone forearc. Like for the K-G basin, much of the local variability can be attributed to topography. The regional increase in heat flow with water depth remains unexplained because the seismic grid available to us did not extend far enough to define the local tectonic setting of the slope basin controlling this observational pattern. The results are compared to results from other margins, both active and passive. While an increase in apparent heat flow with increasing water depth is widely observed, it is likely a result of different processes in different places. The very low heat flow due to sedimentation and tectonics in the Andaman basin is at the low end of glob

  18. Heat Flow and Gas Hydrates on the Continental Margin of India: Building on Results from NGHP Expedition 01

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anne Trehu; Peter Kannberg

    2011-06-30

    The Indian National Gas Hydrate Program (NGHP) Expedition 01 presented the unique opportunity to constrain regional heat flow derived from seismic observations by using drilling data in three regions on the continental margin of India. The seismic bottom simulating reflection (BSR) is a well-documented feature in hydrate bearing sediments, and can serve as a proxy for apparent heat flow if data are available to estimate acoustic velocity and density in water and sediments, thermal conductivity, and seafloor temperature. Direct observations of temperature at depth and physical properties of the sediment obtained from drilling can be used to calibrate the seismic observations, decreasing the uncertainty of the seismically-derived estimates. Anomalies in apparent heat flow can result from a variety of sources, including sedimentation, erosion, topographic refraction and fluid flow. We constructed apparent heat flow maps for portions of the Krishna-Godavari (K-G) basin, the Mahanadi basin, and the Andaman basin and modeled anomalies using 1-D conductive thermal models. Apparent heat flow values in the Krishna-Godavari (K-G) basin and Mahanadi basin are generally 0.035 to 0.055 watts per square meter (W/m{sup 2}). The borehole data show an increase in apparent heat flow as water depth increases from 900 to 1500 m. In the SW part of the seismic grid, 1D modeling of the effect of sedimentation on heat flow shows that {approx}50% of the observed increase in apparent heat flow with increasing water depth can be attributed to trapping of sediments behind a 'toe-thrust' ridge that is forming along the seaward edge of a thick, rapidly accumulating deltaic sediment pile. The remainder of the anomaly can be explained either by a decrease in thermal conductivity of the sediments filling the slope basin or by lateral advection of heat through fluid flow along stratigraphic horizons within the basin and through flexural faults in the crest of the anticline. Such flow probably plays a role in bringing methane into the ridge formed by the toe-thrust. Because of the small anomaly due to this process and the uncertainty in thermal conductivity, we did not model this process explicitly. In the NE part of the K-G basin seismic grid, a number of local heat flow lows and highs are observed, which can be attributed to topographic refraction and to local fluid flow along faults, respectively. No regional anomaly can be resolved. Because of lack of continuity between the K-G basin sites within the seismic grid and those {approx}70 km to the NE in water depths of 1200 to 1500 m, we do not speculate on the reason for higher heat flow at these depths. The Mahanadi basin results, while limited in geographic extent, are similar to those for the K-G basin. The Andaman basin exhibits much lower apparent heat flow values, ranging from 0.015 to 0.025 W/m{sup 2}. Heat flow here also appears to increase with increasing water depth. The very low heat flow here is among the lowest heat flow observed anywhere and gives rise to a very thick hydrate stability zone in the sediments. Through 1D models of sedimentation (with extremely high sedimentation rates as a proxy for tectonic thickening), we concluded that the very low heat flow can probably be attributed to the combined effects of high sedimentation rate, low thermal conductivity, tectonic thickening of sediments and the cooling effect of a subducting plate in a subduction zone forearc. Like for the K-G basin, much of the local variability can be attributed to topography. The regional increase in heat flow with water depth remains unexplained because the seismic grid available to us did not extend far enough to define the local tectonic setting of the slope basin controlling this observational pattern. The results are compared to results from other margins, both active and passive. While an increase in apparent heat flow with increasing water depth is widely observed, it is likely a result of different processes in different places. The very low heat flow due to sedimentation and tectonics in the Andaman basi

  19. Evaluation of the Planning Target Volume in the Treatment of Head and Neck Cancer With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy: What Is the Appropriate Expansion Margin in the Setting of Daily Image Guidance?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Allen M.; Farwell, D. Gregory; Luu, Quang; Donald, Paul J.; Perks, Julian; Purdy, James A.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To compare patterns of disease failure among patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in conjunction with daily image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) for head and neck cancer, according to the margins used to expand the clinical target volume (CTV) to create a planning target volume (PTV). Methods and Materials: Two-hundred and twenty-five patients were treated with IMRT for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Daily IGRT scans were acquired using either kilovoltage or megavoltage volumetric imaging prior to each delivered fraction. The first 95 patients were treated with IMRT with 5-mm CTV-to-PTV margins. The subsequent 130 patients were treated using 3-mm PTV expansion margins. Results: Two-year estimates of overall survival, local-regional control, and distant metastasis-free survival were 76%, 78%, and 81%, respectively. There were no differences with respect to any of these endpoints among patients treated with 5-mm and 3-mm PTV expansion margins (p > 0.05, all). The 2-year local-regional control rate for patients treated with IMRT with 5-mm and 3-mm PTV margins was 78% and 78%, respectively (p = 0.96). Spatial evaluation revealed no differences in the incidences of marginal failures among those treated with 5-mm and 3-mm PTV margins. Conclusions: The use of 3-mm PTV expansion margins appears adequate and did not increase local-regional failures among patients treated with IMRT for head and neck cancer. These data demonstrate the safety of PTV reduction of less than 5 mm and support current protocols recommending this approach in the setting of daily IGRT.

  20. Greenhouse Gas Abatement with Distributed Generation in California's Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael; Lipman, Tim; Lai, Judy; Cardoso, Goncalo; Megel, Olivier

    2009-09-01

    The motivation and objective of this research is to determine the role of distributed generation (DG) in greenhouse gas reductions by: (1) applying the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM); (2) using the California Commercial End-Use Survey (CEUS) database for commercial buildings; (3) selecting buildings with electric peak loads between 100 kW and 5 MW; (4) considering fuel cells, micro-turbines, internal combustion engines, gas turbines with waste heat utilization, solar thermal, and PV; (5) testing of different policy instruments, e.g. feed-in tariff or investment subsidies.

  1. Property Tax Abatement for Production and Manufacturing Facilities

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Qualifying renewable energy manufacturing facilities are those that (1) produce materials, components or systems to convert solar, wind, geothermal, biomass, biogas or waste heat resources into...

  2. Advanced Battery Technologies Inc ABAT | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Product: China-based developer, manufacturer and distributer of rechargeable polymer lithium-ion (PLI) batteries. Coordinates: 45.363708, 126.314621 Show Map Loading map......

  3. City of Friendswood- Property Tax Abatement for Green Commercial Buildings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In order to qualify, the applicant must invest at least $100,000 towards achieving LEED certification.  In addition, a minimum investment in the building is required and depends on the certificat...

  4. Large Scale Renewable Energy Property Tax Abatement (Nevada State...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Solar Photovoltaics Wind (All) Biomass Hydroelectric Municipal Solid Waste Fuel Cells using Non-Renewable Fuels Landfill Gas Wind (Small) Anaerobic Digestion Fuel Cells...

  5. Indonesia Greenhouse Gas Abatement Cost Curve | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and uniform set of data that will support Indonesia's decision-making process, as we work together with relevant ministries, regional governments, and others to reduce...

  6. NOx Abatement Research and Development CRADA with Navistar Incorporate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications CLEERS Coordination & Joint Development of Benchmark Kinetics for LNT & SCR CLEERS Coordination & Joint Development of Benchmark Kinetics...

  7. Potential Cost-Effective Opportunities for Methane Emission Abatement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and 165,000t CO 2 e, respectively (EPA 2013a). The primary policy drivers for cast iron and bare steel pipeline replacement programs include safety, reliability, economic...

  8. Nitrogen oxide abatement by distributed fuel addition. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendt, J.O.L.; Mereb, J.B.

    1991-09-20

    Reburning is examined as a means of NO{sub x} destruction in a 17 kW down-fired pulverized coal combustor. In reburning, a secondary fuel is introduced downstream of the primary flame to produce a reducing zone, favorable to NO destruction, and air is introduced further downstream to complete the combustion. Emphasis is on natural gas reburning and a bituminous coal primary flame. A parametric examination of reburning employing a statistical experimental design, is conducted, complemented by detailed experiments. Mechanisms governing the inter-conversion of nitrogenous species in the fuel rich reburn zone is explored. The effect of reburning on N{sub 2}O emissions, the effect of primary flame mode (premixed and diffusion) and the effect of distributing the reburning fuel, are also investigated.

  9. EMSP Final Report: Electrically Driven Technologies for Radioactive Aerosol Abatement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DePaoli, D.W.

    2003-01-22

    The purpose of this research project was to develop an improved understanding of how electrically driven processes, including electrocoalescence, acoustic agglomeration, and electric filtration, may be employed to efficiently treat problems caused by the formation of aerosols during DOE waste treatment operations. The production of aerosols during treatment and retrieval operations in radioactive waste tanks and during thermal treatment operations such as calcination presents a significant problem of cost, worker exposure, potential for release, and increased waste volume. There was anecdotal evidence in the literature that acoustic agglomeration and electrical coalescence could be used together to change the size distribution of aerosol particles in such a way as to promote easier filtration and less frequent maintenance of filtration systems. As such, those electrically driven technologies could potentially be used as remote technologies for improved treatment; however, existing theoretical models are not suitable for prediction and design. To investigate the physics of such systems, and also to prototype a system for such processes, a collaborative project was undertaken between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the University of Texas at Austin (UT). ORNL was responsible for the larger-scale prototyping portion of the project, while UT was primarily responsible for the detailed physics in smaller scale unit reactors. It was found that both electrical coalescence and acoustic agglomeration do in fact increase the rate of aggregation of aerosols. Electrical coalescence requires significantly less input power than acoustic agglomeration, but it is much less effective in its ability to aggregate/coalesce aerosols. The larger-scale prototype showed qualitatively similar results as the unit reactor tests, but presented more difficulty in interpretation of the results because of the complex multi-physics coupling that necessarily occur in all larger-scale system tests. An additional finding from this work is that low-amplitude oscillation may provide an alternative, non-invasive, non-contact means of controlling settling and/or suspension of solids. Further investigation would be necessary to evaluate its utility for radioactive waste treatment applications. This project did not uncover a new technology for radioactive waste treatment. While it may be possible that an efficient electrically driven technology for aerosol treatment could be developed, it appears that other technologies, such as steel and ceramic HEPA filters, can suitably solve this problem. If further studies are to be undertaken, additional fundamental experimentation and modeling is necessary to fully capture the physics; in addition, larger-scale tests are needed to demonstrate the treatment of flowing gas streams through the coupling of acoustic agglomeration with electrocoalescence.

  10. Rapid Aging Protocols for Diesel Aftertreatment Devices: NOx Abatement Catalysts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT).

  11. Economic recovery of oil trapped at fan margins using high angle wells and multiple hydraulic fractures. Quarterly report, Apr 1--June 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laue, M.L.

    1997-08-31

    This project attempts to demonstrate the effectiveness of exploiting thin-layered, low-energy deposits at the distal margin of a prograding turbidite complex through the use of hydraulically-fractured horizontal or high-angle wells. The combination of a horizontal or high-angle well and hydraulic fracturing will allow greater pay exposure than can be achieved with conventional vertical wells while maintaining vertical communication between thin interbedded layers and the wellbore. A high-angle well will be drilled in the fan-margin portion of a slope-basin clastic reservoir and will be completed with multiple hydraulic-fracture treatments. Geologic modeling, reservoir characterization, and fine-grid reservoir simulation will be used to select the well location and orientation. Design parameters for the hydraulic-fracture treatments will be determined, in part, by fracturing an existing test well. Fracture azimuth will be predicted by passive seismic monitoring of a fracture-stimulation treatment in the test well using logging tools in an offset well. The long radius, near-horizontal well has been drilled and completion operations are in progress. Upon initial review of log data, two hydraulic fracture treatments were planned. However, the probability of the lower frac growing into thick sands previously swept by waterflood has called for additional information to be obtained prior to proceeding with hydraulic fracture treatments. Should permeabilities prove to be as favorable as some data indicate, produced water volumes could be excessively high. Prior to pumping the first frac, the well will be perforated and produced from lower pay intervals. These perfs will not impact future frac work. Rate data and pressure transient analysis will dictate the need for the lower frac.

  12. Deep structure of the Texas Gulf passive margin and its Ouachita-Precambrian basement: Results of the COCORP San Marcos arch survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Culotta, R.; Latham, T.; Oliver, J.; Brown, L.; Kaufman, S. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)); Sydow, M. (Pennzoil, Houston, TX (United States))

    1992-02-01

    This COCORP deep seismic survey provides a comprehensive image of the southeast-Texas part of the Gulf passive margin and its accreted Ouachita arc foundation. Beneath the updip limit of the Cenozoic sediment wedge, a prominent antiformal structure is imaged within the interior zone of the buried late Paleozoic Ouachita orogen. The structure appears to involve Precambrian Grenville basement. The crest of the antiform is coincident with the Cretaceous-Tertiary Luling-Mexia-Talco fault zone. Some of these faults dip to the northwest, counter to the general regional pattern of down-to-the-basin faulting, and appear to sole into the top of the antiform, suggesting that the Ouachita structure has been reactivated as a hingeline to the subsiding passive margin. The antiform may be tied via this fault system and the Ouachita gravity gradient to the similar Devils River, Waco, and Benton uplifts, interpreted as Precambrian basement-cored massifs. Above the Paleozoic sequence, a possible rift-related graben is imaged near the updip limit of Jurassic salt. Paleoshelf edges of the major Tertiary depositional sequences are marked by expanded sections disrupted by growth faults and shale diapirs. Within the Wilcox Formation, the transect crosses the mouth of the 900-m-deep Yoakum Canyon, a principal pathway of sediment delivery from the Laramide belt to the Gulf. Beneath the Wilcox, the Comanchean (Lower Cretaceous) shelf edge, capped by the Stuart City reef, is imaged as a pronounced topographic break onlapped by several moundy sediment packages. Because this segment of the line parallels strike, the topographic break may be interpreted as a 2,000-m-deep embayment in the Cretaceous shelf-edge, and possibly a major submarine canyon older and deeper than the Yoakum Canyon.

  13. National Geo-Database for Biofuel Simulations and Regional Analysis of Biorefinery Siting Based on Cellulosic Feedstock Grown on Marginal Lands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Zhang, Xuesong; Sahajpal, Ritvik; Manowitz, David H.

    2012-04-01

    The goal of this project undertaken by GLBRC (Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center) Area 4 (Sustainability) modelers is to develop a national capability to model feedstock supply, ethanol production, and biogeochemical impacts of cellulosic biofuels. The results of this project contribute to sustainability goals of the GLBRC; i.e. to contribute to developing a sustainable bioenergy economy: one that is profitable to farmers and refiners, acceptable to society, and environmentally sound. A sustainable bioenergy economy will also contribute, in a fundamental way, to meeting national objectives on energy security and climate mitigation. The specific objectives of this study are to: (1) develop a spatially explicit national geodatabase for conducting biofuel simulation studies and (4) locate possible sites for the establishment of cellulosic ethanol biorefineries. To address the first objective, we developed SENGBEM (Spatially Explicit National Geodatabase for Biofuel and Environmental Modeling), a 60-m resolution geodatabase of the conterminous USA containing data on: (1) climate, (2) soils, (3) topography, (4) hydrography, (5) land cover/ land use (LCLU), and (6) ancillary data (e.g., road networks, federal and state lands, national and state parks, etc.). A unique feature of SENGBEM is its 2008-2010 crop rotation data, a crucially important component for simulating productivity and biogeochemical cycles as well as land-use changes associated with biofuel cropping. ARRA support for this project and to the PNNL Joint Global Change Research Institute enabled us to create an advanced computing infrastructure to execute millions of simulations, conduct post-processing calculations, store input and output data, and visualize results. These computing resources included two components installed at the Research Data Center of the University of Maryland. The first resource was 'deltac': an 8-core Linux server, dedicated to county-level and state-level simulations and PostgreSQL database hosting. The second resource was the DOE-JGCRI 'Evergreen' cluster, capable of executing millions of simulations in relatively short periods. ARRA funding also supported a PhD student from UMD who worked on creating the geodatabases and executing some of the simulations in this study. Using a physically based classification of marginal lands, we simulated production of cellulosic feedstocks from perennial mixtures grown on these lands in the US Midwest. Marginal lands in the western states of the US Midwest appear to have significant potential to supply feedstocks to a cellulosic biofuel industry. Similar results were obtained with simulations of N-fertilized perennial mixtures. A detailed spatial analysis allowed for the identification of possible locations for the establishment of 34 cellulosic ethanol biorefineries with an annual production capacity of 5.6 billion gallons. In summary, we have reported on the development of a spatially explicit national geodatabase to conduct biofuel simulation studies and provided simulation results on the potential of perennial cropping systems to serve as feedstocks for the production of cellulosic ethanol. To accomplish this, we have employed sophisticated spatial analysis methods in combination with the process-based biogeochemical model EPIC. The results of this study will be submitted to the USDOE Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework as a way to contribute to the development of a sustainable bioenergy industry. This work provided the opportunity to test the hypothesis that marginal lands can serve as sources of cellulosic feedstocks and thus contribute to avoid potential conflicts between bioenergy and food production systems. This work, we believe, opens the door for further analysis on the characteristics of cellulosic feedstocks as major contributors to the development of a sustainable bioenergy economy.

  14. Robustness of RISMC Insights under Alternative Aleatory/Epistemic Uncertainty Classifications: Draft Report under the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway of the DOE Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unwin, Stephen D.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Johnson, Kenneth I.

    2012-09-20

    The Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) pathway is a set of activities defined under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. The overarching objective of RISMC is to support plant life-extension decision-making by providing a state-of-knowledge characterization of safety margins in key systems, structures, and components (SSCs). A technical challenge at the core of this effort is to establish the conceptual and technical feasibility of analyzing safety margin in a risk-informed way, which, unlike conventionally defined deterministic margin analysis, would be founded on probabilistic characterizations of uncertainty in SSC performance. In the context of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) technology, there has arisen a general consensus about the distinctive roles of two types of uncertainty: aleatory and epistemic, where the former represents irreducible, random variability inherent in a system, whereas the latter represents a state of knowledge uncertainty on the part of the analyst about the system which is, in principle, reducible through further research. While there is often some ambiguity about how any one contributing uncertainty in an analysis should be classified, there has nevertheless emerged a broad consensus on the meanings of these uncertainty types in the PRA setting. However, while RISMC methodology shares some features with conventional PRA, it will nevertheless be a distinctive methodology set. Therefore, the paradigms for classification of uncertainty in the PRA setting may not fully port to the RISMC environment. Yet the notion of risk-informed margin is based on the characterization of uncertainty, and it is therefore critical to establish a common understanding of uncertainty in the RISMC setting.

  15. Cosmological constraints from galaxy clustering and the mass-to-number ratio of galaxy clusters: marginalizing over the physics of galaxy formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reddick, Rachel M.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Lu, Yu; Tinker, Jeremy L. E-mail: rwechsler@stanford.edu

    2014-03-10

    Many approaches to obtaining cosmological constraints rely on the connection between galaxies and dark matter. However, the distribution of galaxies is dependent on their formation and evolution as well as on the cosmological model, and galaxy formation is still not a well-constrained process. Thus, methods that probe cosmology using galaxies as tracers for dark matter must be able to accurately estimate the cosmological parameters. This can be done without knowing details of galaxy formation a priori as long as the galaxies are well represented by a halo occupation distribution (HOD). We apply this reasoning to the method of obtaining ? {sub m} and ?{sub 8} from galaxy clustering combined with the mass-to-number ratio of galaxy clusters. To test the sensitivity of this method to variations due to galaxy formation, we consider several different models applied to the same cosmological dark matter simulation. The cosmological parameters are then estimated using the observables in each model, marginalizing over the parameters of the HOD. We find that for models where the galaxies can be well represented by a parameterized HOD, this method can successfully extract the desired cosmological parameters for a wide range of galaxy formation prescriptions.

  16. USING 3D COMPUTER MODELING, BOREHOLE GEOPHYSICS, AND HIGH CAPACITY PUMPS TO RESTORE PRODUCTION TO MARGINAL WELLS IN THE EAST TEXAS FIELD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.L. Bassett

    2003-06-09

    Methods for extending the productive life of marginal wells in the East Texas Field were investigated using advanced computer imaging technology, geophysical tools, and selective perforation of existing wells. Funding was provided by the Department of Energy, TENECO Energy and Schlumberger Wireline and Testing. Drillers' logs for more than 100 wells in proximity to the project lease were acquired, converted to digital format using a numerical scheme, and the data were used to create a 3 Dimensional geological image of the project site. Using the descriptive drillers' logs in numerical format yielded useful cross sections identifying the Woodbine Austin Chalk contact and continuity of sand zones between wells. The geological data provided information about reservoir continuity, but not the amount of remaining oil, this was obtained using selective modern logs. Schlumberger logged the wells through 2 3/8 inch tubing with a new slimhole Reservoir Saturation Tool (RST) which can measure the oil and water content of the existing porosity, using neutron scattering and a gamma ray spectrometer (GST). The tool provided direct measurements of elemental content yielding interpretations of porosity, lithology, and oil and water content, confirming that significant oil saturation still exists, up to 50% in the upper Woodbine sand. Well testing was then begun and at the end of the project new oil was being produced from zones abandoned or bypassed more than 25 years ago.

  17. Core disruptive accident margin seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garin, John (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus for sealing the annulus defined between a substantially cylindrical rotatable first riser assembly and plug combination disposed in a substantially cylindrical second riser assembly and plug combination of a nuclear reactor system. The apparatus comprises a flexible metal member having a first side attached to one of the riser components and a second side extending toward the other riser component and an actuating mechanism attached to the flexible metal member while extending to an accessible location. When the actuating mechanism is not activated, the flexible metal member does not contact the other riser component thus allowing the free rotation of the riser assembly and plug combination. When desired, the actuating mechanism causes the second side of the flexible metal member to contact the other riser component thereby sealing the annulus between the components.

  18. Prospective Study Evaluating Postoperative Radiotherapy Plus 2-Year Androgen Suppression for Post-Radical Prostatectomy Patients With Pathologic T3 Disease and/or Positive Surgical Margins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choo, Richard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)], E-mail: choo.c@mayo.edu; Danjoux, Cyril; Gardner, Sandra; Morton, Gerard; Szumacher, Ewa; Loblaw, D. Andrew; Cheung, Patrick [Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Pearse, Maria [Department of Radiation Oncology, Auckland Hospital, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2009-10-01

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy of a combined approach of postoperative radiotherapy (RT) plus 2-year androgen suppression (AS) for patients with pathologic T3 disease (pT3) and/or positive surgical margins (PSM) after radical prostatectomy (RP). Methods and Materials: A total of 78 patients with pT3 and/or PSM after RP were treated with RT plus 2-year AS, as per a pilot, prospective study. Androgen suppression started within 1 month after the completion of RT and consisted of nilutamide for 4 weeks and buserelin acetate depot subcutaneously every 2 months for 2 years. Relapse-free rate, including freedom from prostate-specific antigen (PSA) relapse, was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. A Cox regression analysis was performed to evaluate prognostic factors for relapse. Prostate-specific antigen relapse was defined as a PSA rise above 0.2 ng/mL, with two consecutive increases over a minimum of 3 months. Results: The median age was 61 years at the time of RP. The median interval between RP and postoperative RT was 4.2 months. Forty-nine patients had undetectable PSA (<0.2 ng/mL), and 29 had persistently detectable postoperative PSA at the time of the protocol treatment. Median follow-up from RT was 6.4 years. Relapse-free rates at 5 and 7 years were 94.4% and 86.3%, respectively. Survival rates were 96% at 5 years and 93.1% at 7 years. On Cox regression analysis, persistently detectable postoperative PSA and pT3b-T4 were significant predictors for relapse. Conclusion: The combined treatment of postoperative RT plus 2-year AS yielded encouraging results for patients with pT3 and/or PSM and warrants a confirmatory study.

  19. SU-E-J-39: Comparison of PTV Margins Determined by In-Room Stereoscopic Image Guidance and by On-Board Cone Beam Computed Tomography Technique for Brain Radiotherapy Patients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganesh, T; Paul, S; Munshi, A; Sarkar, B; Krishnankutty, S; Sathya, J; George, S; Jassal, K; Roy, S; Mohanti, B

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Stereoscopic in room kV image guidance is a faster tool in daily monitoring of patient positioning. Our centre, for the first time in the world, has integrated such a solution from BrainLAB (ExacTrac) with Elekta's volumetric cone beam computed tomography (XVI). Using van Herk's formula, we compared the planning target volume (PTV) margins calculated by both these systems for patients treated with brain radiotherapy. Methods: For a total of 24 patients who received partial or whole brain radiotherapy, verification images were acquired for 524 treatment sessions by XVI and for 334 sessions by ExacTrac out of the total 547 sessions. Systematic and random errors were calculated in cranio-caudal, lateral and antero-posterior directions for both techniques. PTV margins were then determined using van Herk formula. Results: In the cranio-caudal direction, systematic error, random error and the calculated PTV margin were found to be 0.13 cm, 0.12 cm and 0.41 cm with XVI and 0.14 cm, 0.13 cm and 0.44 cm with ExacTrac. The corresponding values in lateral direction were 0.13 cm 0.1 cm and 0.4 cm with XVI and 0.13 cm, 0.12 cm and 0.42 cm with ExacTrac imaging. The same parameters for antero-posterior were for 0.1 cm, 0.11 cm and 0.34 cm with XVI and 0.13 cm, 0.16 cm and 0.43 cm with ExacTrac imaging. The margins estimated with the two imaging modalities were comparable within ± 1 mm limit. Conclusion: Verification of setup errors in the major axes by two independent imaging systems showed the results are comparable and within ± 1 mm. This implies that planar imaging based ExacTrac can yield equal accuracy in setup error determination as the time consuming volumetric imaging which is considered as the gold standard. Accordingly PTV margins estimated by this faster imaging technique can be confidently used in clinical setup.

  20. H.R.3688: A bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to provide a tax credit for marginal oil and natural gas well production, introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Fifth Congress, Second Session, April 1, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-12-31

    This bill proposes a new section to be added to the Internal Revenue Code of 1986. The credit proposed is $3 per barrel of qualified crude oil production and 50 cents per 1,000 cubic feet of qualified natural gas production. In this case qualified production means domestic crude oil or natural gas which is produced from a marginal well. Marginal production is defined within the Internal Revenue Code Section 613A(c)(6).

  1. Microsoft PowerPoint - FNC NEPA GHG Climate Slides -- 16Jan2015...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... tools and input data when deciding ... the analysis of potential effects that would best inform the decision-making process and the ... document, or Excel file containing ...

  2. Development and Update of Long-Term Energy and GHG Emission Macroecono...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Approach: Create a Long Term Base Case Major Inputs 9 Light Vehicles (Car and Light Truck) Heavy Vehicles (GVW Class 3-8) Medium: Class 3-6 Truck Heavy:...

  3. Technical Potential of Solar Energy to Address Energy Poverty and Avoid GHG Emissions in Africa (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowlin, S.; Heimiller, D.; Bilello, D.; Renne, D.

    2008-10-01

    Approximately 1.6 billion people worldwide do not have access to electricity, and roughly 2.4 billion people rely on traditional biomass fuels to meet their heating and cooking needs. Lack of access to and use of energy - or energy poverty - has been recognized as a barrier to reaching the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and other targeted efforts to improve health and quality of life. Reducing reliance on traditional biomass can substantially reduce indoor air pollution-related morbidity and mortality; increasing access to lighting and refrigeration can improve educational and economic opportunities. Though targeted electrification efforts have had success within Latin America and East Asia (reaching electrification rates above 85%), sub-Saharan Africa has maintained electrification rates below 25% (IEA 2004).

  4. GHG Mitigation Potential, Costs and Benefits in Global Forests: ADynamic Partial Equilibrium Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sathaye, Jayant; Makundi, Willy; Dale, Larry; Chan, Peter; Andrasko, Kenneth

    2005-03-22

    This paper reports on the global potential for carbonsequestration in forest plantations, and the reduction of carbonemissions from deforestation, in response to six carbon price scenariosfrom 2000 to 2100. These carbon price scenarios cover a range typicallyseen in global integrated assessment models. The world forest sector wasdisaggregated into tenregions, four largely temperate, developedregions: the European Union, Oceania, Russia, and the United States; andsix developing, mostly tropical, regions: Africa, Central America, China,India, Rest of Asia, and South America. Three mitigation options -- long-and short-rotation forestry, and the reduction of deforestation -- wereanalyzed using a global dynamic partial equilibrium model (GCOMAP). Keyfindings of this work are that cumulative carbon gain ranges from 50.9 to113.2 Gt C by 2100, higher carbon prices early lead to earlier carbongain and vice versa, and avoided deforestation accounts for 51 to 78percent of modeled carbon gains by 2100. The estimated present value ofcumulative welfare change in the sector ranges from a decline of $158billion to a gain of $81 billion by 2100. The decline is associated witha decrease in deforestation.

  5. Logistics, Costs, and GHG Impacts of Utility Scale Cofiring with 20% Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boardman, Richard D.; Cafferty, Kara G.; Nichol, Corrie; Searcy, Erin M.; Westover, Tyler; Wood, Richard; Bearden, Mark D.; Cabe, James E.; Drennan, Corinne; Jones, Susanne B.; Male, Jonathan L.; Muntean, George G.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Widder, Sarah H.

    2014-07-22

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of utility-scale biomass cofiring in large pulverized coal power plants. The purpose of this evaluation is to assess the cost and greenhouse gas reduction benefits of substituting relatively high volumes of biomass in coal. Two scenarios for cofiring up to 20% biomass with coal (on a lower heating value basis) are presented; (1) woody biomass in central Alabama where Southern Pine is currently produced for the wood products and paper industries, and (2) purpose-grown switchgrass in the Ohio River Valley. These examples are representative of regions where renewable biomass growth rates are high in correspondence with major U.S. heartland power production. While these scenarios may provide a realistic reference for comparing the relative benefits of using a high volume of biomass for power production, this evaluation is not intended to be an analysis of policies concerning renewable portfolio standards or the optimal use of biomass for energy production in the U.S.

  6. TRANSPORTATION ENERGY FUTURES - Combining Strategies for Deep Reductions in Energy Consumption and GHG Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anya Breitenbach

    2013-03-15

    This fact sheet summarizes actions in the areas of light-duty vehicle, non-light-duty vehicle, fuel, and transportation demand that show promise for deep reductions in energy use.

  7. CEQ Issues Revised Draft NEPA Guidance on GHG Emissions and Climate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The revised draft guidance states that consideration of climate change "falls squarely ... that consideration of climate change "falls squarely within NEPA's focus" and ...

  8. Strategies for the Commercialization & Deployment of GHG Intensity-Reducing Technologies & Practices

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report looks at the best methods of commercializing and deploying energy technologies that reduce greenhouse gas intensity.

  9. Estimate of Fuel Consumption and GHG Emission Impact on an Automated...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at the 4th International Conference on Connected Vehicles & Expo (ICCVE 2015) Shenzhen, China October 19-23, 2015 Conference Paper NRELCP-5400-65257 December 2015 NOTICE The...

  10. Development and Update of Models for Long-Term Energy and GHG Impact Evaluation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  11. Petroleum Refining Sector (NAICS 324110) Energy and GHG Combustion Emissions Profile, November 2012

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    69 2.4 PETROLEUM REFINING SECTOR (NAICS 324110) 2.4.1. Overview of the Petroleum Refining Manufacturing Sector Petroleum refining is a complex industry that generates a diverse slate of fuel products and petrochemicals, from gasoline to asphalt. Refining requires a range of processing steps, including distillation, cracking, reforming, and treating. Most of these processes are highly reliant on process heating and steam energy. Petroleum refineries are an essential part of the U.S. economy.

  12. Forest Products Sector (NAICS 321 and 322) Energy and GHG Combustion Emissions Profile, November 2012

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    U.S. Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis 2.3 FOREST PRODUCTS SECTOR (NAICS 321 AND 322) 2.3.1. Overview of the Forest Products Manufacturing Sector The forest products sector produces thousands of products from renewable raw materials (wood) that are essential for communication, packaging, consumer goods, and construction. The sector is divided into two major categories: Wood Product Manufacturing (NAICS 321) and Paper Manufacturing (NAICS 322). These industries are

  13. International Energy Agency (IEA) Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Weyburn-Midale CO₂ Monitoring and Storage Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sacuta, Norm; Young, Aleana; Worth, Kyle

    2015-12-22

    The IEAGHG Weyburn-Midale CO₂ Monitoring and Storage Project (WMP) began in 2000 with the first four years of research that confirmed the suitability of the containment complex of the Weyburn oil field in southeastern Saskatchewan as a storage location for CO₂ injected as part of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations. The first half of this report covers research conducted from 2010 to 2012, under the funding of the United States Department of Energy (contract DEFE0002697), the Government of Canada, and various other governmental and industry sponsors. The work includes more in-depth analysis of various components of a measurement, monitoring and verification (MMV) program through investigation of data on site characterization and geological integrity, wellbore integrity, storage monitoring (geophysical and geochemical), and performance/risk assessment. These results then led to the development of a Best Practices Manual (BPM) providing oilfield and project operators with guidance on CO₂ storage and CO₂-EOR. In 2013, the USDOE and Government of Saskatchewan exercised an optional phase of the same project to further develop and deploy applied research tools, technologies, and methodologies to the data and research at Weyburn with the aim of assisting regulators and operators in transitioning CO₂-EOR operations into permanent storage. This work, detailed in the second half of this report, involves seven targeted research projects – evaluating the minimum dataset for confirming secure storage; additional overburden monitoring; passive seismic monitoring; history-matched modelling; developing proper wellbore design; casing corrosion evaluation; and assessment of post CO₂-injected core samples. The results from the final and optional phases of the Weyburn-Midale Project confirm the suitability of CO₂-EOR fields for the injection of CO₂, and further, highlight the necessary MMV and follow-up monitoring required for these operations to be considered permanent storage.

  14. Iron and Steel Sector (NAICS 3311 and 3312) Energy and GHG Combustion Emissions Profile, November 2012

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    99 2.6 IRON AND STEEL SECTOR (NAICS 3311, 3312) 2.6.1. Overview of the Iron and Steel Manufacturing Sector The iron and steel sector is an essential part of the U.S. manufacturing sector, providing the necessary raw material for the extensive industrial supply chain. U.S. infrastructure is heavily reliant on the U.S. iron and steel sector, as it provides the foundation for construction (bridges, buildings), transportation systems (railroads, cars, trucks), utility systems (municipal water

  15. Lifecycle Cost and GHG Implications of a Hydrogen Energy Storage Scenario (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steward, D. M.

    2010-05-01

    Overview of life cycle cost and green house gas implications of a hydrogen energy storage scenario presented at the National Hydrogen Association Conference & Expo, Long Beach, CA, May 3-6, 2010

  16. Chemicals Sector (NAICS 325) Energy and GHG Combustion Emissions Profile, November 2012

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    39 2.2 CHEMICALS SECTOR (NAICS 325) 2.2.1. Overview of the Chemicals Manufacturing Sector The chemicals manufacturing sector is an integral component of the U.S. economy, converting raw materials such as petroleum, natural gas, minerals, coal, air, and water into more than 70,000 diverse products. Chemical products are critical components of consumer goods and are found in everything from automobiles to plastics to electronics. This sector creates its diverse output from raw materials of two

  17. Built Environment Energy Analysis Tool Overview (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter, C.

    2013-04-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the Built Environment Energy Analysis Tool, which is designed to assess impacts of future land use/built environment patterns on transportation-related energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The tool can be used to evaluate a range of population distribution and urban design scenarios for 2030 and 2050. This tool was produced as part of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  18. Calculating CO2 Emissions from Mobile Sources | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AgencyCompany Organization: GHG Protocol Initiative Sector: Energy Focus Area: GHG Inventory Development, Industry, Transportation Topics: GHG inventory, Potentials &...

  19. GHGMI-Training Courses | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GHG Accounting for Forest and Other Land Use Projects 311 GHG Accounting for Landfill Methane Projects 312 GHG Accounting for Coalmine Methane Projects 321 GHG Accounting for...

  20. Greenhouse Gas Management Institute (GHGMI) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Inventories * 302 GHG Accounting for Forest Projects * 311 GHG Accounting for Landfill Methane Projects (forthcoming) * 312 GHG Accounting for Coalmine Methane Projects * 321 GHG...

  1. H.R. 577: A Bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to provide a tax credit for the production of oil and gas from existing marginal oil and gas wells and from new oil and gas wells. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First session

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-31

    This document contains H.R. 577, A Bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to provide a tax credit for the production of oil and gas from existing marginal oil and gas wells and from new oil and gas wells. This Bill was introduced in the House of Representatives, 104th Congress, First Session, January 19, 1995.

  2. S.32: A Bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to provide a tax credit for the production of oil and gas from existing marginal oil and gas wells and from new oil and gas wells. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First session

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-31

    This bill would establish tax credits for the production of oil and natural gas from existing marginal oil or gas wells, and from new oil and gas wells. It does so by adding a section to the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 which spells out the rules, the credit amounts, the scope of the terms used to define such facilities, and other rules.

  3. Long-Term Benthic Macroinvertebrate Community Monitoring to Assess Pollution Abatement Effectiveness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, John G; Brandt, Craig C; Christensen, Sigurd W

    2011-01-01

    The benthic macroinvertebrate community of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in East Tennessee was monitored for 18 years to evaluate the effectiveness of a water pollution control program implemented at a major United States (U.S.) Department of Energy facility. Several actions were implemented to reduce and control releases of pollutants into the headwaters of the stream. Four of the most significant actions were implemented during different time periods, which allowed assessment of each action. Macroinvertebrate samples were collected annually in April from three locations in EFPC (EFK24, EFK23, and EFK14) and two nearby reference streams from 1986 through 2003. Significant improvements occurred in the macroinvertebrate community at the headwater sites (EFK24 and EFK23) after implementation of each action, while changes detected 9 km further downstream (EFK14) could not be clearly attributed to any of the actions. Because the stream was impacted at its origin, invertebrate recolonization was primarily limited to aerial immigration, thus, recovery has been slow. As recovery progressed, abundances of small pollution-tolerant taxa (e.g., Orthocladiinae chironomids) decreased and longer lived taxa colonized (e.g., hydropsychid caddisflies, riffle beetles, Baetis). While assessments lasting three to four years may be long enough to detect a response to new pollution controls at highly impacted locations, more time may be needed to understand the full effects. Studies on the effectiveness of pollution controls can be improved if impacted and reference sites are selected to maximize spatial and temporal trending, and if a multidisciplinary approach is used to broadly assess environmental responses (e.g., water quality trends, invertebrate and fish community assessments, toxicity testing, etc.).

  4. GIZ Sourcebook Module 5c: Noise and its Abatement | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    productivity. This module discusses the aspects of noise, sources of road noise, the nature and scale of impacts, and remedial measures to mitigate noise pollution. LEDSGP green...

  5. Fact #879: June 29, 2015 Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costs forEmployer...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    as L2 EVSE, L1 EVSE, Transit subsidy, vanpool subsidy, and bike purchase subsidy. Notes: L1 EVSE - Level 1 Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment which supplies 120 volts. L2 EVSE - ...

  6. Marginal Expense Oil Well Wireless Surveillance (MEOWWS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Donald G.

    2002-03-11

    The objective of this study was to identify and field test a new, low cost, wireless oil well surveillance system. A variety of suppliers and technologies were considered. One supplier and system was chosen that was low cost, new to the oil field, and successfully field tested.

  7. Marginal Energy Price Report - July 1999

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... They appear as line item charges on consumers' actual bills. Therefore, determining what ... "Adding statutory taxes to pre-tax prices is a tedious, error-prone process. ... Because ...

  8. Do diminishing marginal returns apply to DSM?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sioshansi, F.P.

    1994-05-01

    The U.S. electric power industry is currently spending approximately $2 billion annually on demand-side management (DSM) programs, a substantial increase over just a few years ago. The level of DSM spending is expected to continue to grow in the foreseeable future, according to various industry surveys. Environmental benefits are among the chief assumed - and expected - benefits of DSM. In fact, the answer to how much cost-effective and achievable DSM is available depends, to some extent, on whether the value of environmental benefits of DSM is considered explicitly or implicitly. Several states now specifically require the environmental effect of alternative supply or demand options to be considered in utility resource-planning decisions. On the surface, it seems plausible that, assuming the current level of DSM is `good` for the environment, an even more aggressive level of DSM would be even better. Carrying this line of argument a step further would suggest that a highly aggressive DSM strategy, coupled with a heavy dose of nonpolluting renewable energy technologies, would eliminate the need for all new supply-side resources and be the closest thing to achieving nirvana - low-cost, environmentally benign electricity service - in utility resource planning. Those advocating such a strategy argue that is is not only justified from an environmental point of view, but also from an economic perspective, because it is the cheapest course of action to follow.

  9. [Cover page, Margins: Left 1 in

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States ... or the public in various ways including job creation in the private sector, energy ...

  10. [Cover page, Margins: Left 1 in

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    can be requested by telephone by dialing 9-911 from any Nortel telephone or 911 from a cell phone. Assembly points, where personnel evacuating US ITER office must congregate in an...

  11. Caldera Rim Margins | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tectonics Mississippian-Pennsylvanian; Pleistocene, 1.6 to 1.25 Ma Limestone-Madera Formation "MIPu"; Rhyolitic tuff-Intracaldera Bandelier Tuff (upper Tshirege "Qbt" and...

  12. Analysis of potential for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in municipal solid waste in Brazil, in the state and city of Rio de Janeiro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loureiro, S.M.; Rovere, E.L.L.; Mahler, C.F.

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ? We constructed future scenarios of emissions of greenhouse gases in waste. ? Was used the IPCC methodology for calculating emission inventories. ? We calculated the costs of abatement for emissions reduction in landfill waste. ? The results were compared to Brazil, state and city of Rio de Janeiro. ? The higher the environmental passive, the greater the possibility of use of biogas. - Abstract: This paper examines potential changes in solid waste policies for the reduction in GHG for the country of Brazil and one of its major states and cities, Rio de Janeiro, from 2005 to 2030. To examine these policy options, trends in solid waste quantities and associated GHG emissions are derived. Three alternative policy scenarios are evaluated in terms of effectiveness, technology, and economics and conclusions posited regarding optimal strategies for Brazil to implement. These scenarios are been building on the guidelines for national inventories of GHG emissions (IPCC, 2006) and adapted to Brazilian states and municipalities boundaries. Based on the results, it is possible to say that the potential revenue from products of solid waste management is more than sufficient to transform the current scenario in this country into one of financial and environmental gains, where the negative impacts of climate change have created a huge opportunity to expand infrastructure for waste management.

  13. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Development and Update of Long-Term Energy and GHG Emission Macroeconomic Accounting Tool

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about the development...

  14. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Development and Update of Long-Term Energy and GHG Emission Macroeconomic Accounting Tool

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about development and...

  15. Microsoft PowerPoint - FNC NEPA GHG Climate Slides -- 16Jan2015 updated 23Jan2015.pptx [Read-Only]

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    OVERVIEW OF THE COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY'S REVISED DRAFT GUIDANCE ON CONSIDERATION OF GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS AND THE EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE IN NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT REVIEWS HORST G GRECZMIEL ASSOCIATE DIRECTOR FOR NEPA OVERSIGHT FEDERAL NEPA CONTACTS MEETING 16 JANUARY 2015 UPDATED 23 JANUARY 2015 2 WHERE Revised Draft Guidance for Federal Departments and Agencies on Consideration of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and the Effects of Climate Change in NEPA Reviews  NEPA.GOV

  16. Battery-Powered Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Projects to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Resource for Project Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2002-07-31

    The transportation sector accounts for a large and growing share of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Worldwide, motor vehicles emit well over 900 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) each year, accounting for more than 15 percent of global fossil fuel-derived CO2 emissions.1 In the industrialized world alone, 20-25 percent of GHG emissions come from the transportation sector. The share of transport-related emissions is growing rapidly due to the continued increase in transportation activity.2 In 1950, there were only 70 million cars, trucks, and buses on the worlds roads. By 1994, there were about nine times that number, or 630 million vehicles. Since the early 1970s, the global fleet has been growing at a rate of 16 million vehicles per year. This expansion has been accompanied by a similar growth in fuel consumption.3 If this kind of linear growth continues, by the year 2025 there will be well over one billion vehicles on the worlds roads.4 In a response to the significant growth in transportation-related GHG emissions, governments and policy makers worldwide are considering methods to reverse this trend. However, due to the particular make-up of the transportation sector, regulating and reducing emissions from this sector poses a significant challenge. Unlike stationary fuel combustion, transportation-related emissions come from dispersed sources. Only a few point-source emitters, such as oil/natural gas wells, refineries, or compressor stations, contribute to emissions from the transportation sector. The majority of transport-related emissions come from the millions of vehicles traveling the worlds roads. As a result, successful GHG mitigation policies must find ways to target all of these small, non-point source emitters, either through regulatory means or through various incentive programs. To increase their effectiveness, policies to control emissions from the transportation sector often utilize indirect means to reduce emissions, such as requiring specific technology improvements or an increase in fuel efficiency. Site-specific project activities can also be undertaken to help decrease GHG emissions, although the use of such measures is less common. Sample activities include switching to less GHG-intensive vehicle options, such as electric vehicles (EVs) or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). As emissions from transportation activities continue to rise, it will be necessary to promote both types of abatement activities in order to reverse the current emissions path. This Resource Guide focuses on site- and project-specific transportation activities. .

  17. index | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Envrionment (Non-GHG) Analyses of technologies, policies or strategies to reduce the non-GHG environmental impact of fossil fuel...

  18. Regional Analysis of Building Distributed Energy Costs and CO2 Abatement: A U.S. - China Comparison

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendes, Goncalo; Feng, Wei; Stadler, Michael; Steinbach, Jan; Lai, Judy; Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris; Ding, Yan; Zhao, Jing; Tian, Zhe; Zhu, Neng

    2014-04-09

    The following paper conducts a regional analysis of the U.S. and Chinese buildings? potential for adopting Distributed Energy Resources (DER). The expected economics of DER in 2020-2025 is modeled for a commercial and a multi-family residential building in different climate zones. The optimal building energy economic performance is calculated using the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER CAM) which minimizes building energy costs for a typical reference year of operation. Several DER such as combined heat and power (CHP) units, photovoltaics, and battery storage are considered. The results indicate DER have economic and environmental competitiveness potential, especially for commercial buildings in hot and cold climates of both countries. In the U.S., the average expected energy cost savings in commercial buildings from DER CAM?s suggested investments is 17percent, while in Chinese buildings is 12percent. The electricity tariffs structure and prices along with the cost of natural gas, represent important factors in determining adoption of DER, more so than climate. High energy pricing spark spreads lead to increased economic attractiveness of DER. The average emissions reduction in commercial buildings is 19percent in the U.S. as a result of significant investments in PV, whereas in China, it is 20percent and driven by investments in CHP. Keywords: Building Modeling and Simulation, Distributed Energy Resources (DER), Energy Efficiency, Combined Heat and Power (CHP), CO2 emissions 1. Introduction The transition from a centralized and fossil-based energy paradigm towards the decentralization of energy supply and distribution has been a major subject of research over the past two decades. Various concerns have brought the traditional model into question; namely its environmental footprint, its structural inflexibility and inefficiency, and more recently, its inability to maintain acceptable reliability of supply. Under such a troubled setting, distributed energy resources (DER) comprising of small, modular, electrical renewable or fossil-based electricity generation units placed at or near the point of energy consumption, has gained much attention as a viable alternative or addition to the current energy system. In 2010, China consumed about 30percent of its primary energy in the buildings sector, leading the country to pay great attention to DER development and its applications in buildings. During the 11th Five Year Plan (FYP), China has implemented 371 renewable energy building demonstration projects, and 210 photovoltaics (PV) building integration projects. At the end of the 12th FYP, China is targeting renewable energy to provide 10percent of total building energy, and to save 30 metric tons of CO2 equivalents (mtce) of energy with building integrated renewables. China is also planning to implement one thousand natural gas-based distributed cogeneration demonstration projects with energy utilization rates over 70percent in the 12th FYP. All these policy targets require significant DER systems development for building applications. China?s fast urbanization makes building energy efficiency a crucial economic issue; however, only limited studies have been done that examine how to design and select suitable building energy technologies in its different regions. In the U.S., buildings consumed 40percent of the total primary energy in 2010 [1] and it is estimated that about 14 billion m2 of floor space of the existing building stock will be remodeled over the next 30 years. Most building?s renovation work has been on building envelope, lighting and HVAC systems. Although interest has emerged, less attention is being paid to DER for buildings. This context has created opportunities for research, development and progressive deployment of DER, due to its potential to combine the production of power and heat (CHP) near the point of consumption and delivering multiple benefits to customers, such as cost

  19. Evaluation of asbestos abatement techniques. Phase 2. Encapsulation with latex paint. Final report, May 1984-November 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chesson, J.; Margeson, D.P.; Ogden, J.; Bauer, K.; Bergman, F.J.

    1986-07-01

    Airborne asbestos levels were measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) before, during and after encapsulation of asbestos-containing material with latex paint in a suburban junior high school. The ceilings of the school were covered with a sprayed-on material containing chrysotile asbestos. Air samples were collected at four types of sites: indoor sites with unpainted asbestos material scheduled for painting, indoor sites with asbestos material which had been painted 16 months prior to the study, indoor sites with no asbestos material, and outdoor sites on the roof of the building. Bulk samples were collected prior to painting and analyzed by polarized light microscopy (PLM) to characterize the asbestos-containing material.

  20. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Potential for Energy Efficiency Improvement Beyond the Light-Duty-Vehicle Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vyas, A. D.; Patel, D. M.; Bertram, K. M.

    2013-03-01

    Considerable research has focused on energy efficiency and fuel substitution options for light-duty vehicles, while much less attention has been given to medium- and heavy-duty trucks, buses, aircraft, marine vessels, trains, pipeline, and off-road equipment. This report brings together the salient findings from an extensive review of literature on future energy efficiency options for these non-light-duty modes. Projected activity increases to 2050 are combined with forecasts of overall fuel efficiency improvement potential to estimate the future total petroleum and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to current levels. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  1. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Potential for Energy Efficiency Improvement Beyond the Light-Duty-Vehicle Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vyas, A. D.; Patel, D. M.; Bertram, K. M.

    2013-02-01

    Considerable research has focused on energy efficiency and fuel substitution options for light-duty vehicles, while much less attention has been given to medium- and heavy-duty trucks, buses, aircraft, marine vessels, trains, pipeline, and off-road equipment. This report brings together the salient findings from an extensive review of literature on future energy efficiency options for these non-light-duty modes. Projected activity increases to 2050 are combined with forecasts of overall fuel efficiency improvement potential to estimate the future total petroleum and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to current levels. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  2. Well-to-wheels energy use and greenhouse gas emissions analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elgowainy, A.; Burnham, A.; Wang, M.; Molburg, J.; Rousseau, A.; Energy Systems

    2009-03-31

    Researchers at Argonne National Laboratory expanded the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model and incorporated the fuel economy and electricity use of alternative fuel/vehicle systems simulated by the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) to conduct a well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis of energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The WTW results were separately calculated for the blended charge-depleting (CD) and charge-sustaining (CS) modes of PHEV operation and then combined by using a weighting factor that represented the CD vehicle-miles-traveled (VMT) share. As indicated by PSAT simulations of the CD operation, grid electricity accounted for a share of the vehicle's total energy use, ranging from 6% for a PHEV 10 to 24% for a PHEV 40, based on CD VMT shares of 23% and 63%, respectively. In addition to the PHEV's fuel economy and type of on-board fuel, the marginal electricity generation mix used to charge the vehicle impacted the WTW results, especially GHG emissions. Three North American Electric Reliability Corporation regions (4, 6, and 13) were selected for this analysis, because they encompassed large metropolitan areas (Illinois, New York, and California, respectively) and provided a significant variation of marginal generation mixes. The WTW results were also reported for the U.S. generation mix and renewable electricity to examine cases of average and clean mixes, respectively. For an all-electric range (AER) between 10 mi and 40 mi, PHEVs that employed petroleum fuels (gasoline and diesel), a blend of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline (E85), and hydrogen were shown to offer a 40-60%, 70-90%, and more than 90% reduction in petroleum energy use and a 30-60%, 40-80%, and 10-100% reduction in GHG emissions, respectively, relative to an internal combustion engine vehicle that used gasoline. The spread of WTW GHG emissions among the different fuel production technologies and grid generation mixes was wider than the spread of petroleum energy use, mainly due to the diverse fuel production technologies and feedstock sources for the fuels considered in this analysis. The PHEVs offered reductions in petroleum energy use as compared with regular hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). More petroleum energy savings were realized as the AER increased, except when the marginal grid mix was dominated by oil-fired power generation. Similarly, more GHG emissions reductions were realized at higher AERs, except when the marginal grid generation mix was dominated by oil or coal. Electricity from renewable sources realized the largest reductions in petroleum energy use and GHG emissions for all PHEVs as the AER increased. The PHEVs that employ biomass-based fuels (e.g., biomass-E85 and -hydrogen) may not realize GHG emissions benefits over regular HEVs if the marginal generation mix is dominated by fossil sources. Uncertainties are associated with the adopted PHEV fuel consumption and marginal generation mix simulation results, which impact the WTW results and require further research. More disaggregate marginal generation data within control areas (where the actual dispatching occurs) and an improved dispatch modeling are needed to accurately assess the impact of PHEV electrification. The market penetration of the PHEVs, their total electric load, and their role as complements rather than replacements of regular HEVs are also uncertain. The effects of the number of daily charges, the time of charging, and the charging capacity have not been evaluated in this study. A more robust analysis of the VMT share of the CD operation is also needed.

  3. Mitigation options for methane emissions from rice fields in the Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lantin, R.S.; Buendia, L.V.; Wassmann, R.

    1996-12-31

    The contribution of Philippine rice production to global methane emission and breakthroughs in methane emission studies conducted in the country are presented in this paper. A significant impact in the reduction of GHG emissions from agriculture can be achieved if methane emissions from ricefields can be abated. This study presents the contribution of Philippine rice cultivation to global methane emission and breakthroughs in methane emission studies in the country which address the issue of mitigation. Using the derived emission factors from local measurements, rice cultivation contributes 566.6 Gg of methane emission in the Philippines. This value is 62% of the total methane emitted from the agriculture sector. The emission factors employed which are 78% of the IPCC value for irrigated rice and 95% for rainfed rice were derived from measurements with an automatic system taken during the growth duration in the respective ecosystems. Plots drained for 2 weeks at midtillering and before harvest gave a significant reduction in methane emission as opposed to continuously flooded plots and plots drained before harvest. The cultivar Magat reduced methane emission by 50% as compared to the check variety IR72. The application of ammonium sulfate instead of urea reduced methane emission by 10% to 34%. Addition of 6 t ha{sup {minus}1} phosphogypsum in combination with urea reduced emission by 74% as opposed to plots applied with urea alone. It is also from the results of such measurements that abatement strategies are based as regards to modifying treatments such as water management, fertilization, and choice of rice variety. It is not easy to identify and recommend mitigation strategies that will fit a particular cropping system. However, the identified mitigation options provide focus for the abatement of methane emission from ricefields.

  4. Geologic development and characteristics of continental margins, Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coleman, J.M.; Prior, D.B.; Roberts, H.H.

    1986-09-01

    The continental slope of the Gulf basin covers more than 500,000 km/sup 2/ and consists of smooth and gently sloping surfaces, prominent escarpments, knolls, intraslope basins, and submarine canyons and channels. It is an area of extremely diverse topographic and sedimentologic conditions. The slope extends from the shelf break, roughly at the 200-m isobath, to the upper limit of the continental rise at a depth of 2800 m. The most complex province in the basin, and the one of most interest to the petroleum industry, is the Texas-Louisiana slope, occupying 120,000 km/sup 2/ and in which bottom slopes range from less than 1/sup 0/ to greater than 20/sup 0/ around the knolls and basins. The near-surface geology and topography of the slope is a function of the interplay between episodes of rapid shelf-edge and slope progradation and contemporaneous modification of the depositional sequence by diapirism. Development of discrete depocenters throughout the Neogene results in rapid shelf-edge progradation, often exceeding 15-20 km/m.y. This rapid progradation of the shelf edge leads to development of thick wedges of sediment accumulation on the continental slope. Slope oversteepening, high pore pressures in rapidly deposited soft sediments, and changes in eustatic sea level cause subaqueous slope instabilities such as landslides and debris flows. Large-scale features such as shelf-edge separation scars and landslide-related canyons often result from such processes.

  5. Response margins of the dynamic analysis of piping systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, J.J.; Benda, B.J.; Chuang, T.Y.; Smith, P.D.

    1984-04-01

    This report is organized as follows: Section 2 describes the three piping systems of the Zion nuclear power plant which formed the basis of the present study. The auxiliary feedwater (AFW) piping from steam generator to containment, the residual heat removal (RHR) and safety injection piping in the auxiliary building, and the reactor coolant loops (RCL) including a portion of the branch lines were analyzed. Section 3 describes the analysis methods and the analyses performed. Section 4 presents the numerical results; the principal results presented as comparisons of response calculated by best estimate time history analysis methods vs. the SRP response spectrum technique. Section 5 draws conclusions from the results. Appendix A contains a brief description of the mathematical models that defined the structures containing the three piping systems. Response from these models provided input to the piping models. Appendix B provides a detailed derivation of the pseudostatic mode approach to the multisupport time history analysis method used in this study.

  6. Front and Center: Bringing Marginalized Girls into Focus in STEM...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    technology, engineering, and math (STEM) and career technical education (CTE) careers. ... since 2009, both fourth- and eighth-grade math scores on the National Assessment of ...

  7. Towards a Holographic Marginal Fermi Liquid (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOE Contract Number: AC02-76SF00515 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Submitted to Physical Review D Research Org: SLAC National Accelerator...

  8. Sandia Energy - NASA Award for Marginal Ice Zone Observations...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Alaska. (Photo by Mark Ivey) Sandians Mark Ivey and Darin Desilets (both in Sandia's Geophysics and Atmospheric Sciences Dept.) were included in a NASA Group Achievement Award "for...

  9. EPA GHG Certification of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles: Development of Road Grade Profiles Representative of US Controlled Access Highways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, Eric; Duran, Adam; Burton, Evan; Gonder, Jeffrey; Kelly, Kenneth

    2015-05-12

    This report includes a detailed comparison of the TomTom national road grade database relative to a local road grade dataset generated by Southwest Research Institute and a national elevation dataset publically available from the U.S. Geological Survey. This analysis concluded that the TomTom national road grade database was a suitable source of road grade data for purposes of this study.

  10. System and process for the abatement of casting pollution, reclaiming resin bonded sand, and/or recovering a low BTU fuel from castings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scheffer, Karl D. (121 Governor Dr., Scotia, NY 12302)

    1984-07-03

    Air is caused to flow through the resin bonded mold to aid combustion of the resin binder to form a low BTU gas fuel. Casting heat is recovered for use in a waste heat boiler or other heat abstraction equipment. Foundry air pollution is reduced, the burned portion of the molding sand is recovered for immediate reuse and savings in fuel and other energy is achieved.

  11. System and process for the abatement of casting pollution, reclaiming resin bonded sand, and/or recovering a low Btu fuel from castings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scheffer, K.D.

    1984-07-03

    Air is caused to flow through the resin bonded mold to aid combustion of the resin binder to form a low Btu gas fuel. Casting heat is recovered for use in a waste heat boiler or other heat abstraction equipment. Foundry air pollutis reduced, the burned portion of the molding sand is recovered for immediate reuse and savings in fuel and other energy is achieved. 5 figs.

  12. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Renewable Energy Sales and Use Tax Abatement The abatement applies to property used to generate electricity from renewable energy resources including solar, wind, biomass*, fuel...

  13. Category:EZFeed Policies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (Connecticut) Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions from Power Plants and Other Large Stationary Sources of Air Pollution (Connecticut) Abatement of Air...

  14. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Property Tax Abatement for Green Buildings Property tax abatement for new non-residential and multifamily residential green buildings Eligibility: Commercial, Industrial,...

  15. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    not identified, Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Property Tax Abatement for Green Buildings Property tax abatement for new non-residential and...

  16. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wind (Small) Renewable Energy Sales and Use Tax Abatement The abatement applies to property used to generate electricity from renewable energy resources including solar, wind,...

  17. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Geothermal Direct-Use, Anaerobic Digestion Property Tax Abatement for Green Buildings Property tax abatement for new non-residential and...

  18. Incorporating Agricultural Management Practices into the Assessment of Soil Carbon Change and Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Corn Stover Ethanol Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qin, Zhangcai; Canter, Christina E.; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Mueller, Steffen; Kwon, Ho-young; Han, Jeongwoo; Wander, Michelle M.; Wang, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Land management practices such as cover crop adoption or manure application that can increase soil organic carbon (SOC) may provide a way to counter SOC loss upon removal of stover from corn fields for use as a biofuel feedstock. This report documents the data, methodology, and assumptions behind the incorporation of land management practices into corn-soybean systems that dominate U.S. grain production using varying levels of stover removal in the GREETTM (Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation) model and its CCLUB (Carbon Calculator for Land Use change from Biofuels production) module. Tillage (i.e., conventional, reduced and no tillage), corn stover removal (i.e., at 0, 30% and 60% removal rate), and organic matter input techniques (i.e., cover crop and manure application) are included in the analysis as major land management practices. Soil carbon changes associated with land management changes were modeled with a surrogate CENTURY model. The resulting SOC changes were incorporated into CCLUB while GREET was expanded to include energy and material consumption associated with cover crop adoption and manure application. Life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of stover ethanol were estimated using a marginal approach (all burdens and benefits assigned to corn stover ethanol) and an energy allocation approach (burdens and benefits divided between grain and stover ethanol). In the latter case, we considered corn grain and corn stover ethanol to be produced at an integrated facility. Life-cycle GHG emissions of corn stover ethanol are dependent upon the analysis approach selected (marginal versus allocation) and the land management techniques applied. The expansion of CCLUB and GREET to accommodate land management techniques can produce a wide range of results because users can select from multiple scenario options such as choosing tillage levels, stover removal rates, and whether crop yields increase annually or remain constant. In a scenario with conventional tillage and a 30% stover removal rate, life-cycle GHG emissions for a combined gallon of corn grain and stover ethanol without cover crop adoption or manure application are 49 g CO2eq MJ-1, in comparison with 91 g CO2eq MJ-1 for petroleum gasoline. Adopting a cover crop or applying manure reduces the former ethanol life-cycle GHG emissions by 8% and 10%, respectively. We considered two different life cycle analysis approaches to develop estimates of life-cycle GHG emissions for corn stover ethanol, marginal analysis and energy allocation. In the same scenario, this fuel has GHG emissions of 12 20 g CO2eq MJ-1 (for manure and cover crop application, respectively) and 45 48 g CO2eq MJ-1 with the marginal approach and the energy allocation approach, respectively.

  19. Land Transport Sector in Bangladesh: An Analysis Toward Motivating...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Toward Motivating GHG Emission Reduction Strategies Jump to: navigation, search Name Land Transport Sector in Bangladesh: An Analysis Toward Motivating GHG Emission Reduction...

  20. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: Allocation of Emissions...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    for allocation of GHG emissions from a combined heat and power (CHP) plant is a free Excel spreadsheet calculator designed to determine the GHG emissions attributable to the...

  1. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AND UTILIZATION ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES LAND USE WATER EFFICIENCY BIOFUELS GHG EMISSIONS Energy Analysis LAND USE WATER EFFICIENCY BIOFUELS GHG EMISSIONS Energy Analysis The...

  2. Future Perfect Partnering with California Air Resources Board...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Board (CARB) AgencyCompany Organization: Future Perfect Sector: Climate Focus Area: GHG Inventory Development, Greenhouse Gas Topics: GHG inventory, Low emission development...

  3. Microsoft PowerPoint - RFA_EIA_conference_2009.ppt

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    production yields between 30 and 59% reduction in GHG emissions compared to gasoline (Journal of Industrial Ecology, Liska et all., 2009 and IEA Bioenergy Task 39) * Future GHG ...

  4. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruth, M.; Mai, T.; Newes, E.; Aden, A.; Warner, E.; Uriarte, C.; Inman, D.; Simpkins, T.; Argo, A.

    2013-03-01

    The viability of biomass as transportation fuel depends upon the allocation of limited resources for fuel, power, and products. By focusing on mature markets, this report identifies how biomass is projected to be most economically used in the long term and the implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and petroleum use. In order to better understand competition for biomass between these markets and the potential for biofuel as a market-scale alternative to petroleum-based fuels, this report presents results of a micro-economic analysis conducted using the Biomass Allocation and Supply Equilibrium (BASE) modeling tool. The findings indicate that biofuels can outcompete biopower for feedstocks in mature markets if research and development targets are met. The BASE tool was developed for this project to analyze the impact of multiple biomass demand areas on mature energy markets. The model includes domestic supply curves for lignocellulosic biomass resources, corn for ethanol and butanol production, soybeans for biodiesel, and algae for diesel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  5. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Effects of Travel Reduction and Efficient Driving on Transportation. Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter, C. D.; Brown, A.; DeFlorio, J.; McKenzie, E.; Tao, W.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2013-03-01

    Since the 1970s, numerous transportation strategies have been formulated to change the behavior of drivers or travelers by reducing trips, shifting travel to more efficient modes, or improving the efficiency of existing modes. This report summarizes findings documented in existing literature to identify strategies with the greatest potential impact. The estimated effects of implementing the most significant and aggressive individual driver behavior modification strategies range from less than 1% to a few percent reduction in transportation energy use and GHG emissions. Combined strategies result in reductions of 7% to 15% by 2030. Pricing, ridesharing, eco-driving, and speed limit reduction/enforcement strategies are widely judged to have the greatest estimated potential effect, but lack the widespread public acceptance needed to accomplish maximum results. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  6. A Cross-model Comparison of Global Long-term Technology Diffusion under a 2?C Climate Change Control Target

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van der Zwaan, Bob; Rosler, Hilke; Kober, Tom; Aboumahboub, Tino; Calvin, Katherine V.; Gernaat, David; Marangoni, Giacomo; McCollum, David

    2013-11-01

    We investigate the long-term global energy technology diffusion patterns required to reach a stringent climate change target with a maximum average atmospheric temperature increase of 2C. If the anthropogenic temperature increase is to be limited to 2C, total CO2 emissions have to be reduced massively, so as to reach substantial negative values during the second half of the century. Particularly power sector CO2 emissions should become negative from around 2050 onwards according to most models used for this analysis in order to compensate for GHG emissions in other sectors where abatement is more costly. The annual additional capacity deployment intensity (expressed in GW/yr) for solar and wind energy until 2030 needs to be around that recently observed for coal-based power plants, and will have to be several times higher in the period 20302050. Relatively high agreement exists across models in terms of the aggregated low-carbon energy system cost requirements on the supply side until 2050, which amount to about 50 trillion US$.

  7. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melaina, M. W.; Heath, G.; Sandor, D.; Steward, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Warner, E.; Webster, K. W.

    2013-04-01

    Achieving the Department of Energy target of an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 depends on transportation-related strategies combining technology innovation, market adoption, and changes in consumer behavior. This study examines expanding low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure to achieve deep GHG emissions reductions, with an emphasis on fuel production facilities and retail components serving light-duty vehicles. Three distinct low-carbon fuel supply scenarios are examined: Portfolio: Successful deployment of a range of advanced vehicle and fuel technologies; Combustion: Market dominance by hybridized internal combustion engine vehicles fueled by advanced biofuels and natural gas; Electrification: Market dominance by electric drive vehicles in the LDV sector, including battery electric, plug-in hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles, that are fueled by low-carbon electricity and hydrogen. A range of possible low-carbon fuel demand outcomes are explored in terms of the scale and scope of infrastructure expansion requirements and evaluated based on fuel costs, energy resource utilization, fuel production infrastructure expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion for LDVs. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored transportation-related strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence.

  8. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Effects of the Built Environment on Transportation: Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Other Factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter, C. D.; Brown, A.; Dunphy, R. T.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2013-03-01

    Planning initiatives in many regions and communities aim to reduce transportation energy use, decrease emissions, and achieve related environmental benefits by changing land use. This report reviews and summarizes findings from existing literature on the relationship between the built environment and transportation energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, identifying results trends as well as potential future actions. The indirect influence of federal transportation and housing policies, as well as the direct impact of municipal regulation on land use are examined for their effect on transportation patterns and energy use. Special attention is given to the 'four D' factors of density, diversity, design and accessibility. The report concludes that policy-driven changes to the built environment could reduce transportation energy and GHG emissions from less than 1% to as much as 10% by 2050, the equivalent of 16%-18% of present-day urban light-duty-vehicle travel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  9. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Effects of the Built Environment on Transportation. Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Other Factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter, C. D.; Brown, A.; Dunphy, R. T.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2013-03-15

    Planning initiatives in many regions and communities aim to reduce transportation energy use, decrease emissions, and achieve related environmental benefits by changing land use. This report reviews and summarizes findings from existing literature on the relationship between the built environment and transportation energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, identifying results trends as well as potential future actions. The indirect influence of federal transportation and housing policies, as well as the direct impact of municipal regulation on land use are examined for their effect on transportation patterns and energy use. Special attention is given to the 'four D' factors of density, diversity, design and accessibility. The report concludes that policy-driven changes to the built environment could reduce transportation energy and GHG emissions from less than 1% to as much as 10% by 2050, the equivalent of 16%-18% of present-day urban light-duty-vehicle travel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  10. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Effects of Travel Reduction and Efficient Driving on Transportation: Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter, C. D.; Brown, A.; DeFlorio, J.; McKenzie, E.; Tao, W.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2013-03-01

    Since the 1970s, numerous transportation strategies have been formulated to change the behavior of drivers or travelers by reducing trips, shifting travel to more efficient modes, or improving the efficiency of existing modes. This report summarizes findings documented in existing literature to identify strategies with the greatest potential impact. The estimated effects of implementing the most significant and aggressive individual driver behavior modification strategies range from less than 1% to a few percent reduction in transportation energy use and GHG emissions. Combined strategies result in reductions of 7% to 15% by 2030. Pricing, ridesharing, eco-driving, and speed limit reduction/enforcement strategies are widely judged to have the greatest estimated potential effect, but lack the widespread public acceptance needed to accomplish maximum results. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  11. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruth, M.; Mai, T.; Newes, E.; Aden, A.; Warner, E.; Uriarte, C.; Inman, D.; Simpkins, T.; Argo, A.

    2013-03-01

    The viability of biomass as transportation fuel depends upon the allocation of limited resources for fuel, power, and products. By focusing on mature markets, this report identifies how biomass is projected to be most economically used in the long term and the implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and petroleum use. In order to better understand competition for biomass between these markets and the potential for biofuel as a market-scale alternative to petroleum-based fuels, this report presents results of a micro-economic analysis conducted using the Biomass Allocation and Supply Equilibrium (BASE) modeling tool. The findings indicate that biofuels can outcompete biopower for feedstocks in mature markets if research and development targets are met. The BASE tool was developed for this project to analyze the impact of multiple biomass demand areas on mature energy markets. The model includes domestic supply curves for lignocellulosic biomass resources, corn for ethanol and butanol production, soybeans for biodiesel, and algae for diesel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  12. Quantitative Analysis of Biofuel Sustainability, Including Land Use Change

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    GHG Emissions | Department of Energy Quantitative Analysis of Biofuel Sustainability, Including Land Use Change GHG Emissions Quantitative Analysis of Biofuel Sustainability, Including Land Use Change GHG Emissions Plenary V: Biofuels and Sustainability: Acknowledging Challenges and Confronting Misconceptions Quantitative Analysis of Biofuel Sustainability, Including Land Use Change GHG Emissions Jennifer B. Dunn, Energy Systems and Sustainability Analyst, Argonne National Laboratory PDF

  13. Gas hydrates on the Atlantic Continental Margin of the United States - controls on concentration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dillon, W.P.; Fehlhaber, K.; Coleman, D.F. ); Lee, M.W. )

    1993-01-01

    Large volumes of gas hydrates exist within ocean-floor deposits at water depths exceeding about 300 to 500 m. They cement a surface layer of sediments as much as about 1,000 m thick, limited at its base by increasing temperature. Gas hydrates are identified by drilled samples and by their characteristic responses in seismic reflection profiles. These seismic responses include, at the base of the hydrate-cemented surface layer, a marked velocity decrease and a sea-floor-paralleling reflection (known as the bottom-simulating reflection, or BSR), and, within the hydrate-cemented layer, a reduction in amplitude of seismic reflections (known as blanking), which is apparently caused by cementation of strata. By using seismic-reflection data we have mapped the volume of hydrate and thickness of the hydrate-cemented layer off the US East Coast. The sources of gas at these concentrations are probably bacterial generation of methane at the locations of rapid deposition, and possibly the migration of deep, thermogenic gap up faults near diapirs. The thickness of the gas-hydrate layer decreases markedly at landslide scars, possibly due to break-down of hydrate resulting from pressure reduction caused by removal of sediment by the slide. Gas traps appear to exist where a seal is formed by the gas-hydrate-cemented layer. Such traps are observed (1) where the sea floor forms a dome, and therefore the bottom-paralleling, hydrate-cemented layer also forms a dome; (2) above diapirs, where the greater thermal conductivity of salt creates a warm spot and salt ions act as antifreeze, both effects resulting in a local shallowing of the base of the hydrate; and (3) at locations where strata dip relative to the sea floor, and the updip regions of porous strata are sealed by the gas-hydrate-cemented layer to form a trap. In such situations the gas in the hydrate-sealed trap, as well as the gas that forms the hydrate, may become a resource. 32 refs., 19 figs.

  14. Geologic development and characteristics of the continental margins, Gulf of Mexico. Research report, 1983-1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coleman, J.M.; Prior, D.B.; Roberts, H.H.

    1986-01-01

    The continental slope of the Gulf Basin covers more than 500,000 sq km and consists of smooth and gently sloping surfaces, prominent escarpments, knolls, intraslope basins, and submarine canyons and channels. It is an area of extremely diverse topographic and sedimentologic conditions. The slope extends from the shelf break, roughly at the 200 m isobath, to the upper limit of the continental rise, at a depth of 2800 m. The most-complex province in the basin, and the one of most interest to the petroleum industry, is the Texas-Louisiana slope, occupying 120,000 sq km and in which bottom slopes range from < 1 deg to > 20 deg around the knolls and basins. The near-surface geology and topography of the slope are functions of the interplay between episodes of rapid shelf-edge and slope progradation and contemporaneous modification of the depositional sequence by diapirism. Development of discrete depo-centers throughout the Neogene results in rapid shelf-edge progradation, often in excess of 15-20 km/my. This rapid progradation of the shelf edge leads to development of thick wedges of sediment accumulation on the continental slope. Oversteeping, high pore pressures in rapidly deposited soft sediments and changes in eustatic sea level cause subaqueous slope instabilities such as landsliding and debris flows. Large scale features such as shelf edge separation scars and landslide related canyons often results from such processes.

  15. Self-organized criticality and the dynamics of near-marginal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    transport in magnetically confined fusion plasmas This content will become publicly ... transport in magnetically confined fusion plasmas Authors: Sanchez, R. ; Newman, D. ...

  16. Biological Ocean Margins Program. Active Microbes Responding to Inputs from the Orinoco River Plume. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jorge E. Corredor

    2013-01-28

    The overall goal of the proposed work is to identify the active members of the heterotrophic community involved in C and N cycling in the perimeter of the Orinoco River Plume (ORP), assess their spatial distribution, quantify their metabolic activity, and correlate these parameters to plume properties such as salinity, organic matter content and phytoplankton biomass.

  17. A model of the methane cycle, permafrost, and hydrology of the Siberian continental margin

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Archer, D.

    2015-05-21

    A two-dimensional model of a sediment column, with Darcy fluid flow, biological and thermal methane production, and permafrost and methane hydrate formation, is subjected to glacial–interglacial cycles in sea level, alternately exposing the continental shelf to the cold atmosphere during glacial times and immersing it in the ocean in interglacial times. The glacial cycles are followed by a "long-tail" 100 kyr warming due to fossil fuel combustion. The salinity of the sediment column in the interior of the shelf can be decreased by hydrological forcing to depths well below sea level when the sediment is exposed to the atmosphere. Theremore » is no analogous advective seawater-injecting mechanism upon resubmergence, only slower diffusive mechanisms. This hydrological ratchet is consistent with the existence of freshwater beneath the sea floor on continental shelves around the world, left over from the last glacial period. The salt content of the sediment column affects the relative proportions of the solid and fluid H2O-containing phases, but in the permafrost zone the salinity in the pore fluid brine is a function of temperature only, controlled by equilibrium with ice. Ice can tolerate a higher salinity in the pore fluid than methane hydrate can at low pressure and temperature, excluding methane hydrate from thermodynamic stability in the permafrost zone. The implication is that any methane hydrate existing today will be insulated from anthropogenic climate change by hundreds of meters of sediment, resulting in a response time of thousands of years. The strongest impact of the glacial–interglacial cycles on the atmospheric methane flux is due to bubbles dissolving in the ocean when sea level is high. When sea level is low and the sediment surface is exposed to the atmosphere, the atmospheric flux is sensitive to whether permafrost inhibits bubble migration in the model. If it does, the atmospheric flux is highest during the glaciating, sea level regression (soil-freezing) part of the cycle rather than during deglacial transgression (warming and thawing). The atmospheric flux response to a warming climate is small, relative to the rest of the methane sources to the atmosphere in the global budget, because of the ongoing flooding of the continental shelf. The increased methane flux due to ocean warming could be completely counteracted by a sea level rise of tens of meters on millennial timescales due to the loss of ice sheets, decreasing the efficiency of bubble transit through the water column. The model results give no indication of a mechanism by which methane emissions from the Siberian continental shelf could have a significant impact on the near-term evolution of Earth's climate, but on millennial timescales the release of carbon from hydrate and permafrost could contribute significantly to the fossil fuel carbon burden in the atmosphere–ocean–terrestrial carbon cycle.« less

  18. The Marginal Damage Costs of Different Greenhouse Gases: An Application of FUND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waldhoff, Stephanie T.; Anthoff, David; Rose, Steven K.; Tol, Richard

    2014-01-01

    We use FUND 3.8 to estimate the social cost of four greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and sulphur hexafluoride emissions. The damage potential for each gasthe ratio of the social cost of the non-carbon dioxide greenhouse gas to the social cost of carbon dioxideis also estimated. The damage potentials are compared to several metrics, focusing in particular on the global warming potentials, which are frequently used to measure the trade-off between gases in the form of carbon dioxide equivalents. We find that damage potentials could be significantly higher than global warming potentials. This finding implies that previous papers have underestimated the relative importance of reducing non-carbon dioxide greenhouse gas emissions from an economic damage perspective. We show results for a range of sensitivity analyses: carbon dioxide fertilization on agriculture productivity, terrestrial feedbacks, climate sensitivity, discounting, equity weighting, and socioeconomic and emissions scenarios. The sensitivity of the results to carbon dioxide fertilization is a primary focus as it is an important element of climate change that has not been considered in much of the previous literature. We estimate that carbon dioxide fertilization has a large positive impact that reduces the social cost of carbon dioxide with a much smaller effect on the other greenhouse gases. As a result, our estimates of the damage potentials of methane and nitrous oxide are much higher compared to estimates that ignore carbon dioxide fertilization. As a result, our base estimates of the damage potential for methane and nitrous oxide that include carbon dioxide fertilization are twice their respective global warming potentials. Our base estimate of the damage potential of sulphur hexafluoride is similar to the one previous estimate, both almost three times the global warming potential.

  19. Table 8.12a Electric Noncoincident Peak Load and Capacity Margin...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Interconnection. 16SERC Reliability Corporation (SERC). 4Electric Reliability Council ... (EIA), Electric Power Annual 2010 (November 2011), Tables 4.1.A., 4.1.B., 4.3.A., and 4.3

  20. Shock margin testing of a one-axis MEMS accelerometer. (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    on the shock loading response of the device and provides the necessary data for adding influence of environmental exposure to the reliability of this class of devices. The...

  1. Economic Recovery of Oil Trapped at Fan Margins Using High Angle Wells and Multiple Hydraulic fractures.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laue, M.L.

    1997-08-31

    The long radius, near-horizontal well has been drilled and completion operations are in progress. Upon initial review of log data, two hydraulic fracture treatments were planned. However, the probability of the lower frac growing into thick sands previously swept by waterflood has called for additional information to be obtained prior to proceeding with hydraulic fracture treatments. Should permeabilities prove to be as favorable as some data indicate, produced water volumes could be excessively high. Prior to pumping the first frac, the well will be perforated and produced from lower pay intervals. These perfs will not impact future frac work. Rate data and pressure transient analysis will dictate the need for the lower frac.

  2. The CO2 Reduction Potential of Combined Heat and Power in California's Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Cardoso, Goncalo; Lipman, Tim; Megel, Olivier; Ganguly, Srirupa; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy

    2009-11-16

    The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) to determine the potential role of commercial sector distributed generation (DG) with combined heat and power (CHP) capability deployment in greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) reductions. CHP applications at large industrial sites are well known, and a large share of their potential has already been harvested. In contrast, relatively little attention has been paid to the potential of medium-sized commercial buildings, i.e., ones with peak electric loads ranging from 100 kW to 5 MW. We examine how this sector might implement DG with CHP in cost minimizing microgrids that are able to adopt and operate various energy technologies, such as solar photovoltaics (PV), on-site thermal generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and storage systems. We apply a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that minimizes a site's annual energy costs as its objective. Using 138 representative mid-sized commercial sites in California (CA), existing tariffs of three major electricity distribution ultilities plus a natural gas company, and performance data of available technology in 2020, we find the GHG reduction potential for this CA commercial sector segment, which represents about 35percent of total statewide commercial sector sales. Under the assumptions made, in a reference case, this segment is estimated to be capable of economically installing 1.4 GW of CHP, 35percent of the California Air Resources Board (CARB) statewide 4 GW goal for total incremental CHP deployment by 2020. However, because CARB's assumed utilization is far higherthan is found by the MILP, the adopted CHP only contributes 19percent of the CO2 target. Several sensitivity runs were completed. One applies a simple feed-in tariff similar to net metering, and another includes a generous self-generation incentive program (SGIP) subsidy for fuel cells. The feed-in tariff proves ineffective at stimulating CHP deployment, while the SGIP buy down is more powerful. The attractiveness of CHP varies widely by climate zone and service territory, but in general, hotter inland areas and San Diego are the more attractive regions because high cooling loads achieve higher equipment utilization. Additionally, large office buildings are surprisingly good hosts for CHP, so large office buildings in San Diego and hotter urban centers emerge as promising target hosts. Overall the effect on CO2 emissions is limited, never exceeding 27percent of the CARB target. Nonetheless, results suggest that the CO2 emissions abatement potential of CHP in mid-sized CA buildings is significant, and much more promising than is typically assumed.

  3. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Tax Abatement (Nevada State Office of Energy) There are several job creation and job quality requirements that must be met in order for a project to receive an abatement....

  4. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Buildings Property tax abatement for new non-residential and multifamily residential green buildings Eligibility: Commercial, Industrial, Multifamily Residential Savings...

  5. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    not identified, Wind (Small), Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels, Microturbines Property Tax Abatement for Production and Manufacturing Facilities Qualifying renewable...

  6. SURVEY OF NOISE SUPPRESSION SYSTEMS FOR ENGINE GENERATOR SETS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGANISMS AND BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS; ENGINES; NOISE POLLUTION ABATEMENT; POLLUTION CONTROL EQUIPMENT; ELECTRIC GENERATORS No abstract prepared....

  7. "Title","Creator/Author","Publication Date","OSTI Identifier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGANISMS AND BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS; ENGINES; NOISE POLLUTION ABATEMENT; POLLUTION CONTROL EQUIPMENT; ELECTRIC GENERATORS",,"No abstract...

  8. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion Property Tax Abatement for Production and Manufacturing Facilities Qualifying renewable energy manufacturing...

  9. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    technologies not identified, Wind (Small), Anaerobic Digestion Property Tax Abatement for Production and Manufacturing Facilities Qualifying renewable energy manufacturing...

  10. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Property Tax Abatement for Production and Manufacturing Facilities Qualifying renewable energy manufacturing...

  11. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels, Microturbines Property Tax Abatement for Production and Manufacturing Facilities Qualifying renewable energy manufacturing...

  12. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Municipal Solid Waste, Landfill Gas, Anaerobic Digestion Property Tax Abatement for Production and Manufacturing Facilities Qualifying renewable energy manufacturing...

  13. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Wind (Small), Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels, Microturbines Property Tax Abatement for Production and Manufacturing Facilities Qualifying renewable energy manufacturing...

  14. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Electric, Solar Thermal Process Heat, Solar Photovoltaics Property Tax Abatement for Production and Manufacturing Facilities Qualifying renewable energy manufacturing...

  15. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Hydroelectric (Small), Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Property Tax Abatement for Production and Manufacturing Facilities Qualifying renewable energy manufacturing...

  16. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Property tax abatement for new non-residential and multifamily residential green buildings Eligibility: Commercial, Industrial, Multifamily Residential Savings Category:...

  17. Comparative Analysis of Modeling Studies on China's Future Energy and Emissions Outlook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David

    2010-09-01

    The past decade has seen the development of various scenarios describing long-term patterns of future Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions, with each new approach adding insights to our understanding of the changing dynamics of energy consumption and aggregate future energy trends. With the recent growing focus on China's energy use and emission mitigation potential, a range of Chinese outlook models have been developed across different institutions including in China's Energy Research Institute's 2050 China Energy and CO2 Emissions Report, McKinsey & Co's China's Green Revolution report, the UK Sussex Energy Group and Tyndall Centre's China's Energy Transition report, and the China-specific section of the IEA World Energy Outlook 2009. At the same time, the China Energy Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has developed a bottom-up, end-use energy model for China with scenario analysis of energy and emission pathways out to 2050. A robust and credible energy and emission model will play a key role in informing policymakers by assessing efficiency policy impacts and understanding the dynamics of future energy consumption and energy saving and emission reduction potential. This is especially true for developing countries such as China, where uncertainties are greater while the economy continues to undergo rapid growth and industrialization. A slightly different assumption or storyline could result in significant discrepancies among different model results. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the key models in terms of their scope, methodologies, key driver assumptions and the associated findings. A comparative analysis of LBNL's energy end-use model scenarios with the five above studies was thus conducted to examine similarities and divergences in methodologies, scenario storylines, macroeconomic drivers and assumptions as well as aggregate energy and emission scenario results. Besides directly tracing different energy and CO{sub 2} savings potential back to the underlying strategies and combination of efficiency and abatement policy instruments represented by each scenario, this analysis also had other important but often overlooked findings.

  18. http://www.epa.gov/climateleaders/smallbiz/footprint.html

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    (MS Word) (14 pp, 305K) Need help developing your GHG Inventory? Ask a question. Attend free training webinars on developing an inventory and reducing GHG emissions. What Do I Do...

  19. Weekly Weather and Crop Bulletin | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    United States Department of Agriculture, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Sector: Land Focus Area: Agriculture Topics: GHG inventory, Resource...

  20. Ecofys-Sectoral Proposal Templates | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Land Phase: Determine Baseline Topics: Baseline projection, GHG inventory, Low emission development planning Resource Type: Softwaremodeling tools User Interface:...

  1. Enabling a Transition to Low Carbon Economies in Developing Countries...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    - Waste to Energy, - Anaerobic Digestion, Solar, - Concentrating Solar Power, - Solar PV, Wind Topics: GHG inventory, Low emission development planning, Policiesdeployment...

  2. Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Topics GHG inventory, Policiesdeployment programs Resource Type Guidemanual, Lessons learnedbest practices Website http:globalresearchalliance. References Global...

  3. Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Topics: GHG inventory, Low emission development planning Resource Type: Publications, Lessons learnedbest practices, Case studiesexamples Website: unfccc.inthomeitems...

  4. Assisting Mexico in Developing Energy Supply and Demand Projections...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AgencyCompany Organization Argonne National Laboratory Sector Energy Topics GHG inventory, Background analysis Resource Type Softwaremodeling tools Website http:...

  5. Agricultural Monitoring and Evaluation Systems: What can we learn...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sector: Land, Climate Focus Area: Agriculture, Land Use Topics: Implementation, GHG inventory Resource Type: Publications, Lessons learnedbest practices, Case studies...

  6. Development of the Electricity Carbon Emission Factors for Ukraine...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Organization European Bank for Reconstruction and Development Sector Energy Topics GHG inventory, Policiesdeployment programs, Co-benefits assessment, Pathways analysis...

  7. Transport Policy Note-Bangladesh | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Bangladesh Sector Energy Focus Area Transportation Topics Implementation, GHG inventory, Policiesdeployment programs, Background analysis Website http:...

  8. LBNL International Energy Studies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Sector Energy, Land Focus Area Energy Efficiency, Forestry Topics Implementation, GHG inventory, Policiesdeployment programs,...

  9. LBNL China Energy Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Organization Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Sector Energy Focus Area Energy Efficiency Topics Implementation, GHG inventory, Market analysis, Policiesdeployment programs,...

  10. Egypt-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Economic Development, Energy Efficiency, Greenhouse Gas, Industry, People and Policy, Solar, Transportation, Water Power, Wind Topics Background analysis, Finance, GHG...

  11. Microsoft PowerPoint - Sale at SWPA workshop June-09 v3mjs.ppt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    impacts and mitigation Examples: *Improved fish passage * Water use optimization * GHG reservoir emissions 2. Asset management Examples: *Resourceindustry assessments * Asset...

  12. Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AgencyCompany Organization: United States Environmental Protection Agency Sector: Energy Focus Area: Transportation Topics: GHG inventory Resource Type: Softwaremodeling...

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Study In October 2013, the Climate Legislative and Executive Workgroup finalized a report, Evaluation of Approaches to Reduce GHG Emissions in Washington State, for the governor. The report evaluates strategies for the state to reduce its GHG emissions and makes recommendations. The evaluation includes a review of state policies to stabilize or reduce GHG emissions, including converting public vehicles to alternative fuels and public alternative fuel vehicle (AFV)

  14. Acoustic profiles and images of the Palos Verdes Margin: Implications concerning deposition from the White's Point outfall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hampton, M A.; Karl, H; Murray, Christopher J. )

    2001-12-01

    Subbottom profiles and sidescan-sonar images collected on and around the Palos Verdes shelf show a surficial deposit interpreted to contain effluent from the White's Point diffusers, as well as showing several geologic features that affect the deposit's distribution. The effluent-affected deposit is visible in high-resolution subbottom profiles on the shelf and the adjacent San Pedro basin slope to water depths of 170 m. It has a maximum thickness of 75 cm and was mapped acoustically over an area of 10.8 km{sup 2}, which encompasses a volume of about 3.2 million m{sup 3}. The deposit's basal reflector is acoustically distinct over most of the mapped area, implying that the deposit has not been extensively mixed across its base, perhaps being relatively free of reworking since its initial deposition. Nearshore, the basal reflector is weak and fades away toward land, which could result from syndepositional intermixing of coarse native sediment (particularly from the Portuguese Bend landslide) with effluent in the high-energy nearshore zone, or postdepositionally by physical (wave) or biological mixing across the interface. The geometry of the deposit implies that effluent is dispersed primarily in a northwesterly and seaward direction from the diffusers. Dispersal across the shelf break is in some places strongly affected by topography, particularly by submarine canyons. The deposit overlies stratified and unstratified Quaternary sediment, up to 30 m thick, that in turn overlies the irregular erosional surface of deformed Miocene bedrock that crops out in places on the shelf and upper basin slope. The effluent-affected deposit rests on potentially unstable landslide deposits on the San Pedro basin slope. The acoustic profiles and side-scan images show evidence for active and inactive vents, probably of hot water and gas, some of which are within the boundary of the effluent-affected sediment deposit and could disrupt it if seepage occurs.

  15. Final Technical Report: DOE-Biological Ocean Margins Program. Microbial Ecology of Denitrifying Bacteria in the Coastal Ocean.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee Kerkhof

    2013-01-01

    The focus of our research was to provide a comprehensive study of the bacterioplankton populations off the coast of New Jersey near the Rutgers University marine field station using terminal restriction fragment polymorphism analysis (TRFLP) coupled to 16S rRNA genes for large data set studies. Our three revised objectives to this study became: (1) to describe bacterioplankton population dynamics in the Mid Atlantic Bight using TRFLP analysis of 16S rRNA genes. (2) to determine whether spatial and temporal factors are driving bacterioplankton community dynamics in the MAB using monthly samping along our transect line over a 2-year period. (3) to identify dominant members of a coastal bacterioplankton population by clonal library analysis of 16S rDNA genes and sequencing of PCR product corresponding to specific TRFLP peaks in the data set. Although open ocean time-series sites have been areas of microbial research for years, relatively little was known about the population dynamics of bacterioplankton communities in the coastal ocean on kilometer spatial and seasonal temporal scales. To gain a better understanding of microbial community variability, monthly samples of bacterial biomass were collected in 1995-1996 along a 34-km transect near the Long-Term Ecosystem Observatory (LEO-15) off the New Jersey coast. Surface and bottom sampling was performed at seven stations along a transect line with depths ranging from 1 to 35m (n=178). The data revealed distinct temporal patterns among the bacterioplankton communities in the Mid-Atlantic Bight rather than grouping by sample location or depth (figure 2-next page). Principal components analysis models supported the temporal patterns. In addition, partial least squares regression modeling could not discern a significant correlation from traditional oceanographic physical and phytoplankton nutrient parameters on overall bacterial community variability patterns at LEO-15. These results suggest factors not traditionally measured during oceanographic studies are structuring coastal microbial communities.

  16. An Integrative Modeling Framework to Evaluate the Productivity and Sustainability of Biofuel Crop Production Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Xuesong; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Manowitz, David H.; West, T. O.; Post, W. M.; Thomson, Allison M.; Bandaru, V. P.; Nichols, J.; Williams, J.R.

    2010-09-08

    The potential expansion of biofuel production raises food, energy, and environmental challenges that require careful assessment of the impact of biofuel production on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, soil erosion, nutrient loading, and water quality. In this study, we describe a spatially-explicit integrative modeling framework (SEIMF) to understand and quantify the environmental impacts of different biomass cropping systems. This SEIMF consists of three major components: 1) a geographic information system (GIS)-based data analysis system to define spatial modeling units with resolution of 56 m to address spatial variability, 2) the biophysical and biogeochemical model EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) applied in a spatially-explicit way to predict biomass yield, GHG emissions, and other environmental impacts of different biofuel crops production systems, and 3) an evolutionary multi-objective optimization algorithm for exploring the trade-offs between biofuel energy production and unintended ecosystem-service responses. Simple examples illustrate the major functions of the SEIMF when applied to a 9-county Regional Intensive Modeling Area (RIMA) in SW Michigan to 1) simulate biofuel crop production, 2) compare impacts of management practices and local ecosystem settings, and 3) optimize the spatial configuration of different biofuel production systems by balancing energy production and other ecosystem-service variables. Potential applications of the SEIMF to support life cycle analysis and provide information on biodiversity evaluation and marginal-land identification are also discussed. The SEIMF developed in this study is expected to provide a useful tool for scientists and decision makers to understand sustainability issues associated with the production of biofuels at local, regional, and national scales.

  17. Notices

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    61 Federal Register / Vol. 79, No. 107 / Wednesday, June 4, 2014 / Notices invite comments on the LCA GHG Report, as applied to the pending matters. The LCA GHG Report The LCA GHG Report was conducted by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), a DOE laboratory. The LCA GHG Report estimates the life cycle GHG emissions of U.S. LNG exports to Europe and Asia, compared with alternative supplies, to produce electric power. For additional information on the natural gas model, refer to the

  18. U.S. Department of Energy Portsmouth/Paducah Project Office

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    perform asbestos abatement, removal and renovation actions which would include cleanup, encapsulation, removal, and/or disposal of asbestos-containing materials (ACM) from existing buildings or structures. Some of the ACM may be radiologically contaminated. Abatement actions would include disposal of ACM in accordance with regulations at existing facilities permitted/approved to handle the waste generated from these removal actions. Abatement actions would be conducted in accordance with 40 CFR

  19. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CITES SAVANNAH RIVER NUCLEAR SOLUTIONS,...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    regulations in the areas of: (1) identification, assessment, prevention, and abatement of hazards; (2) scaffold safety; (3) training and information; and (4) occupational medicine. ...

  20. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CITES STANFORD UNIVERSITY FOR WORKER SAFETY...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    851, Worker Safety and Health Program, in the areas of hazard identification and assessment; hazard prevention and abatement; training and information; and occupational medicine. ...

  1. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Renewable Fuels Large Scale Renewable Energy Property Tax Abatement (Nevada State Office of Energy) There are several job creation and job quality requirements that must be...

  2. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Anaerobic Digestion Large Scale Renewable Energy Property Tax Abatement (Nevada State Office of Energy) There are several job creation and job quality requirements that must be...

  3. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels City of Cleveland- Residential Property Tax Abatement for Green Buildings The City of Cleveland, in cooperation with the Cuyahoga...

  4. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    City of Cleveland- Residential Property Tax Abatement for Green Buildings The City of Cleveland, in cooperation with the Cuyahoga County Auditor's Office, provides a 10 to 15 year...

  5. Reducing the environmental impact on solid wastes from a fluidized...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; COAL; FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION; WASTE MANAGEMENT; AIR POLLUTION ABATEMENT; ALUMINIUM OXIDES; CALCIUM OXIDES; CHEMICAL ACTIVATION;...

  6. U.S. Department of Energy Portsmouth/Paducah Project Office

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    andor disposal of asbestos-containing materials (ACM) from existing buildings or structures. Some of the ACM may be radiologically contaminated. Abatement actions would include...

  7. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    cannot be claimed if another state tax abatement or exemption is claimed by the same building. Eligibility: Commercial, Industrial, Agricultural Savings Category: Solar -...

  8. Property:Incentive/Website | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (Vermont) + http:www.watershedmanagement.vt.govpermitshtmpm401.htm + A Abatement of Air Pollution: Air Pollution Control Equipment and Monitoring Equipment Operation...

  9. Property:Incentive/AuthDtEff | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    25) (next 25) 3 30% Business Tax Credit for Solar (Vermont) + 2008-07-01 + A Abatement of Air Pollution: Air Pollution Control Equipment and Monitoring Equipment Operation...

  10. Property:Incentive/PolicyType | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (previous 25) (next 25) 4 401 Certification (Vermont) + Other Policy + A Abatement of Air Pollution: Air Pollution Control Equipment and Monitoring Equipment Operation...

  11. Property:Incentive/AuthLink | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (Vermont) + http:www.nrb.state.vt.uswrppublicationswqs.pdf + A Abatement of Air Pollution: Air Pollution Control Equipment and Monitoring Equipment Operation...

  12. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Property Tax Exemption The renewable energy property tax exemption cannot be claimed if another state tax abatement or exemption is claimed by the same building. Eligibility:...

  13. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Systems Property Tax Exemption The renewable energy property tax exemption cannot be claimed if another state tax abatement or exemption is claimed by the same building....

  14. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Renewable Energy Systems Property Tax Exemption The renewable energy property tax exemption cannot be claimed if another state tax abatement or exemption is claimed by the same...

  15. Renewable Energy Systems Property Tax Exemption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The renewable energy property tax exemption cannot be claimed if another state tax abatement or exemption is claimed by the same building.

  16. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGANISMS AND BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS ENGINES NOISE POLLUTION ABATEMENT POLLUTION CONTROL EQUIPMENT ELECTRIC GENERATORS No abstract prepared OSTI...

  17. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    atmospheric-- chemicals monitoring & transport-- (-1989) (2) absorption (2) air pollution abatement (2) combustion products (2) combustors (2) design (2) diagrams (2) ...

  18. PowerPoint Presentation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3 B&W MEGTEC: Businesses 3 ENGINEERED PRODUCTS (EP) ENVIRONMENTAL SOLUTIONS (ES) Air Pollution Abatement Carbon Management Energy Recovery Biofuels & Renewable Energy Energy ...

  19. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuels, Landfill Gas, Yes; specific technologies not identified, Wind (Small), Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Large Scale Renewable Energy Property Tax Abatement...

  20. Quantification of the Potential Gross Economic Impacts of Five...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... as having any special scientific ... are feasible. 3 This report is available at no cost ... Methodology All cost and emissions abatement scenarios in this study are ...

  1. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    not identified, Wind (Small), Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Property Tax Abatement for Production and Manufacturing Facilities Qualifying renewable energy manufacturing...

  2. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Property Tax Abatement for Production and Manufacturing Facilities Qualifying renewable energy manufacturing facilities are those that (1) produce materials, components or systems...

  3. Illinois' 13th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Abatement Systems Inc Coskata EPIR Technologies Elevance Renewable Sciences Inc INEOS Bio Molex Incorporated Primary Energy Ventures Recycled Energy Development Utility...

  4. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Wind (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Large Scale Renewable Energy Property Tax Abatement (Nevada State Office of Energy) There are several job...

  5. Edwards Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sector: Solar Product: UK capital equipment manufacturer for semiconductors, LEDs, flat panel displays, and solar cells; for solar, offers vacuum and abatement systems....

  6. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    tax abatement for photovoltaic (PV) system expenditures made on buildings located in cities with a population of 1 mil... Eligibility: Commercial, Industrial, Nonprofit,...

  7. Department of Energy Cites Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The violations are associated with a November 29, 2011, fall ... and assessment; hazard prevention and abatement; and ... In response to the fall injury event, BSA implemented ...

  8. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (3) collimators (2) ionization chambers (2) isotopes and radiation sources (2) plastic scintillation detectors (2) accuracy (1) air pollution abatement (1) applied life...

  9. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Air conditioners, Other EE City of Cleveland- Residential Property Tax Abatement for Green Buildings The City of Cleveland, in cooperation with the Cuyahoga County Auditor's...

  10. Occupational Safety Functional Area Qualification Standard

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Supporting Knowledge and Skills a. Explain hazard analysis techniques, and ... Discuss importance of informing affected workers of hazards, mitigation and abatement activities, ...

  11. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Tax Abatement for Production and Manufacturing Facilities Qualifying renewable energy manufacturing facilities are those that (1) produce materials, components or systems...

  12. Wind LCA Harmonization (Fact Sheet), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-06-01

    NREL recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Harmonization Project, a study that provides more exact estimates of GHG emissions for renewable and conventional generation, clarifying inconsistent and conflicting estimates in the published literature, and reducing uncertainty. This involved a systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of utility-scale wind power systems in order to determine the causes of life cycle greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions and, where possible, reduce variability in GHG estimates.

  13. Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-12-16

    At an international conference on global warming, held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the United States committed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 7% over its 1990 level by the year 2012. To help achieve that goal, transportation GHG emissions need to be reduced. Using Argonne's fuel-cycle model, I estimated GHG emissions reduction potentials of various near- and long-term transportation technologies. The estimated per-mile GHG emissions results show that alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies can help significantly reduce transportation GHG emissions. Of the near-term technologies evaluated in this study, electric vehicles; hybrid electric vehicles; compression-ignition, direct-injection vehicles; and E85 flexible fuel vehicles can reduce fuel-cycle GHG emissions by more than 25%, on the fuel-cycle basis. Electric vehicles powered by electricity generated primarily from nuclear and renewable sources can reduce GHG emissions by 80%. Other alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, offer limited, but positive, GHG emission reduction benefits. Among the long-term technologies evaluated in this study, conventional spark ignition and compression ignition engines powered by alternative fuels and gasoline- and diesel-powered advanced vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by 10% to 30%. Ethanol dedicated vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by over 40%. Spark ignition engines and fuel-cell vehicles powered by cellulosic ethanol and solar hydrogen (for fuel-cell vehicles only) can reduce GHG emissions by over 80%. In conclusion, both near- and long-term alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies can play a role in reducing the United States GHG emissions.

  14. Drivers, Trends and Mitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanco, Arthur S.; Gerlagh, Reyer; Suh, Sangwon; Barrett, John A.; de Coninck, Heleen; Diaz Morejon, Cristobal Felix; Mathur, Ritu; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa; Ahenkorah, Alfred Ofosu; Pan, Jiahua; Pathak, Himanshu; Rice, Jake; Richels, Richard G.; Smith, Steven J.; Stern, David; Toth, Ferenc L.; Zhou, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Chapter 5 analyzes the anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends until the present and the main drivers that explain those trends. The chapter uses different perspectives to analyze past GHG-emissions trends, including aggregate emissions flows and per capita emissions, cumulative emissions, sectoral emissions, and territory-based vs. consumption-based emissions. In all cases, global and regional trends are analyzed. Where appropriate, the emission trends are contextualized with long-term historic developments in GHG emissions extending back to 1750.

  15. Department of Energy Goals | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Department of Energy Goals The DOE has a goal of reducing its scope 3 GHG by 13% by FY2020 using FY2008 as the baseline. Scope 3 GHG Emissions: Includes greenhouse gas emissions from sources not owned or directly controlled by a Federal agency but related to agency activities, such as vendor supply chains, delivery services, and employee travel and commuting. The Laboratory has set a goal to reduce its scope 3 GHG by 1% in CY2011

  16. NREL: Sustainable NREL - Greenhouse Gas Reduction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Greenhouse Gas Reduction A leader in federal greenhouse gas (GHG) management, NREL has conducted GHG inventories, developed reduction goals, and reported emissions since 2000. NREL was the first federal facility to become a partner in the Environmental Protection Agency's Climate Leaders program, and has played a critical support role in the development of federal guidelines for GHG accounting and reporting through DOE's Federal Energy Management Program. Carbon Neutrality NREL is committed to

  17. Land-use change and greenhouse gas emissions from corn and cellulosic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ethanol | Argonne National Laboratory Land-use change and greenhouse gas emissions from corn and cellulosic ethanol July 16, 2013 Tweet EmailPrint The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that may accompany land-use change (LUC) from increased biofuel feedstock production are a source of debate in the discussion of drawbacks and advantages of biofuels. Estimates of LUC GHG emissions focus mainly on corn ethanol and vary widely. Increasing the understanding of LUC GHG impacts associated with both

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Vehicle Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards Vehicle manufacturers must meet fuel economy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions standards for vehicles sold in the United States. The U.S. Department of Transportation's (DOT) National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) regulates fuel economy standards, while the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates GHG emissions. NHTSA's Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) program and EPA's light-duty vehicle GHG emissions

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Reporting Requirement Vehicle and engine manufacturers are required to report annual GHG emissions to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Vehicle and engine manufacturers outside of the light-duty sector are required to report carbon dioxide emissions levels beginning with Model Year 2011 and other GHG emissions in subsequent model years. This includes heavy trucks, motorcycles, and non-road engines and equipment. The reporting requirement also applies to

  20. Zolo Technologies Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to improve the efficiency and reduce harmful emission, including GHG's, from large combustion sources such as coal-fired power plants and gas turbines. References: Zolo...

  1. Microsoft Word - Renewable_Energy_Efficient_Energy_Projects_Loan...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Lifecycle GHG Emissions Data Worksheet......Guarantee Program decision-making procedures to ensure ... following formats: Microsoft Excel or Adobe PDF. Do not ...

  2. FEDERAL LOAN GUARANTEE SOLICITATION & SUPPLEMENTS FOR: ADVANCED...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Lifecycle GHG Emissions Data Worksheet......5 Guarantee Program decision-making procedures to ensure ... following formats: Microsoft Excel or Adobe PDF. Do not ...

  3. Microsoft Word - Advanced_Fossil_Energy_Projects_Loan_Guarantee...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Lifecycle GHG Emissions Data Worksheet......5 Guarantee Program decision-making procedures to ensure ... following formats: Microsoft Excel or Adobe PDF. Do not ...

  4. Monitoring and Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Mitigation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the MAGHG project is to support developing countries assess and report their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture, including assessment of mitigation options for...

  5. National integrated mitigation planning in agriculture: A review...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    National integrated mitigation planning in agriculture: A review paper This review of national greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation planning in the agriculture sector has two...

  6. Navigating the Numbers: Greenhouse Gas Data and International...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Gas Data and International Climate Policy1 Overview "This report examines greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at the global, national, sectoral, and fuel levels and identifies...

  7. Finalize Historic National Program to Reduce Greenhouse Gases...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    greenhouse gas emissions and improve fuel economy. EPA is finalizing the first-ever national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions standards under the Clean Air Act References...

  8. Property:OpenEI/PageDescription | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Agency since 2000. This international workshop focuses on developments in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading around the world at the international, national and...

  9. Urban Transportation Emission Calculator | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Calculator (UTEC) is a user-friendly tool for estimating annual emissions from personal, commercial, and public transit vehicles. It estimates greenhouse gas (GHG) and...

  10. Slide 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gas (GHG) emissions reduced by 100,000 tons a year significantly decreasing the carbon footprint of the SR Site Overall annual air emissions rates will decrease: -...

  11. Climate Change Update: Baseload Geothermal is One of the Lowest...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Estimates of life-cycle GHG emission among power production ... more efficient than current technologies, they also ... Loan Guarantee to Tonopah SolarEnergy for Nevada Project

  12. Cambodia-Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests (LEAF) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    for GHG reductions, Build and institutionalize technical capacity for economic valuation of forest ecosystem services and monitoring changes in forest carbon stocks, and...

  13. Greenhouse Gas Services AES GE EFS | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Services (AESGE EFS) Place: Arlington, Virginia Zip: 22203-4168 Product: Develop and invest in a range of projects that reduce greenhouse gas emissions that produce verified GHG...

  14. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: Measurement and Estimation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GHG Emissions AgencyCompany Organization: World Resources Institute, World Business Council for Sustainable Development Sector: Energy, Climate Focus Area: Greenhouse Gas Phase:...

  15. UNDP-Low Emission Climate Resilient Development Strategies (LECRDS...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AgencyCompany Organization: United Nations Development Programme Sector: Energy, Land, Climate Focus Area: Economic Development, Greenhouse Gas Topics: Finance, GHG...

  16. Redpoint Ventures | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    cost-effective scale-up. The specific sectors are in energy generation, storage, novel fuels, energy efficiency, GHG mitigation, fossil fuel beneficiation, and foundation...

  17. Ligncellulosic feedstock supply systems with intermodal and overseas...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    GHG emissions is required to design cost effective, sustainable logistic process operations; in order to ... or pellets) and size ofmore the FT-diesel production plant. ...

  18. Ecofys-Sectoral Proposal Templates | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Baseline projection, GHG inventory, Low emission development planning Resource Type: Softwaremodeling tools User Interface: Spreadsheet ComplexityEase of Use: Moderate Website:...

  19. Hydrogen Pathways. Cost, Well-to-Wheels Energy Use, and Emissions for the Current Technology Status of Seven Hydrogen Production, Delivery, and Distribution Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruth, Mark; Laffen, Melissa; Timbario, Thomas A.

    2009-09-01

    Report of levelized cost in 2005 U.S. dollars, energy use, and GHG emission benefits of seven hydrogen production, delivery, and distribution pathways.

  20. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    decay prior to landfill capping resulting in the atmospheric release of methane a green house gas GHG This research project was therefore conceptualized and implemented by...

  1. Hydrogen Pathways: Cost, Well-to-Wheels Energy Use, and Emissions for the Current Technology Status of Seven Hydrogen Production, Delivery, and Distribution Scenarios

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    Report of levelized cost in 2005 U.S. dollars, energy use, and GHG emission benefits of seven hydrogen production, delivery, and distribution pathways.

  2. Transportation Energy Futures: Combining Strategies for Deep...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ENERGY FUTURES Combining Strategies for Deep Reductions in Energy Consumption and GHG Emissions Significant Energy Consumption - and Opportunities for Reduction Transportation is...

  3. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    most economically used in the long term and the implications for greenhouse gas GHG emissions and petroleum use In order to better understand competition for biomass between...

  4. "Title","Creator/Author","Publication Date","OSTI Identifier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AND UTILIZATION; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES LAND USE; WATER EFFICIENCY; BIOFUELS; GHG EMISSIONS; Energy Analysis",,"The potential for unintended consequences of...

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    two competitive grant programs to fund projects that reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the transportation sector. The Delaware Alternative Fueling Infrastructure Grant...

  6. "Title","Creator/Author","Publication Date","OSTI Identifier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    most economically used in the long term and the implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and petroleum use. In order to better understand competition for biomass between...

  7. CDM Emission Reductions Calculation Sheet Series | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Institute for Global Environmental Strategies Sector: Energy, Water Focus Area: Agriculture, Greenhouse Gas Topics: Baseline projection, GHG inventory Resource Type: Online...

  8. Forest Cover and Deforestation in Belize: 1980-2010 | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Latin America & the Caribbean (CATHALAC), National Aeronautics and Space Administration Sector Land Focus Area Forestry Topics Co-benefits assessment, GHG inventory,...

  9. Built Environment Energy Analysis Tool Overview (Presentation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL. NOTICE This report was prepared as an ... gas (GHG) emissions Tool can be used to evaluate scenarios of different ... Growing Cooler, TRB Special Report 298) 13 ...

  10. Hydrogen Pathways: Cost, Well-to-Wheels Energy Use, and Emissions for the Current Technology Status of Seven Hydrogen Production, Delivery, and Distribution Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruth, M.; Laffen, M.; Timbario, T. A.

    2009-09-01

    Report of levelized cost in 2005 U.S. dollars, energy use, and GHG emission benefits of seven hydrogen production, delivery, and distribution pathways.

  11. IPCC Inventory Guidelines LULUCF | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Land Focus Area: Forestry, Agriculture Topics: GHG inventory Resource Type: Guidemanual, Lessons learnedbest practices Website: www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jppublicgpglulucf...

  12. Forest Carbon Portal | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Forest Trends Sector: Land Focus Area: Forestry Topics: GHG inventory Resource Type: Lessons learnedbest practices Website: www.forestcarbonportal.com Forest Carbon Portal...

  13. CfRN-Developing a Low Carbon Growth Plan | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Topics: GHG inventory, Low emission development planning Resource Type: Guidemanual, Lessons learnedbest practices, Publications Website: www.rainforestcoalition.org CfRN Low...

  14. Zambia-Long-Term Generation Expansion Study | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Implementation, GHG inventory, Background analysis Resource Type Softwaremodeling tools, Lessons learnedbest practices Website http:www.dis.anl.govpubs61 Country Zambia UN...

  15. Monitoring and Tracking Long-Term Finance to Support Climate...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sector: Energy, Climate Topics: Finance, GHG inventory Resource Type: Publications, Lessons learnedbest practices Website: www.oecd.orgdataoecd575748073739.pdf Cost:...

  16. Baselines for Greenhouse Gas Reductions: Problems, Precedents...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Baseline projection, GHG inventory, Pathways analysis Resource Type: Publications, Lessons learnedbest practices Website: www.p2pays.orgref2221739.pdf References:...

  17. Greenhouse Gas Inventory Development in Asia | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Research Sector: Energy, Land Topics: GHG inventory Resource Type: Guidemanual, Lessons learnedbest practices Website: www.nies.go.jpgaiyomediakit9.WGIAI067.pdf...

  18. January 2015 Office of Management and Budget Scorecard on Sustainability/Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    of Energy January 2015 OMB Scorecard on Sustainability/Energy Scope 1&2 GHG Emission Reduction Target For Scope 1&2 GHG Reduction Target of 28% by 2020: 34% reduction in 2014 and on track Score: GREEN Scope 3 GHG Emission Reduction Target For Scope 3 GHG Reduction Target of 13% by 2020: 24% reduction in 2014 and on track Score: GREEN Reduction in Energy Intensity Reduction in energy intensity in goal-subject facilities compared with 2003: 28% and on track for 30% by 2015 Score: GREEN

  19. ClearPath | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    TOOL Name: ClearPath AgencyCompany Organization: ICLEI Local Governmets for Sustainability USA Sector: Climate Focus Area: GHG Inventory Development, Greenhouse Gas Phase:...

  20. U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Office Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Fuel Sources * Domestic & Renewable Sustainable Transportation Sector 50% by 2020 Net Oil Imports GHG Emissions 17% by 2020 >80% by 2050 Fuel Cell Technologies Office | 6 47...

  1. 07-26-2012_Kathleen_Hogan_FT

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    sector accounts for approximately two-thirds of the United States' oil consumption and contributes to one-third of the Nation's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. 1 Net...

  2. EE_Final_Testimony(2).pdf

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The transportation sector accounts for approximately two-thirds of the United States' oil consumption and contributes to one-third of the Nation's greenhouse gas (GHG)...

  3. Climate Registry Information System | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    CRIS may be used not only to calculate and report, but also to verify GHG emissions inventory. Through The Climate Registry, emissions reports are verified by independent,...

  4. CHP Emissions Reduction Estimator | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Agency Sector: Energy Focus Area: Buildings, Transportation, Industry Topics: GHG inventory, Co-benefits assessment Resource Type: Softwaremodeling tools User Interface:...

  5. Opening Remarks, Achieving Air Quality and Climate Change Goals...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    exposure to pollutants and toxics Stable Global Climate Reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) 80% below 1990 levels by 2050 Driving Forces Behind CARB Policies 2 Source: ...

  6. South Africa-Low Carbon Growth Strategy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Assistance Program of the World Bank Sector Energy, Land Focus Area Energy Efficiency, Transportation Topics GHG inventory, Low emission development planning, Policies...

  7. Africa - Technical Potential of Solar Energy to Address Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    - Technical Potential of Solar Energy to Address Energy Poverty and Avoid GHG Emissions Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Technical Potential of Solar...

  8. Atmosfair | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    carbon offset retailer that allows customers to neutralise their personal contribution to global warming due to air travel. Customer payments are then used to fund GHG emissions...

  9. IADB/UNDP LEDS Community of Practice | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to communicate different methods for preparation of LED strategies including: The involvement of sectors and stakeholders Updating GHG inventories Preparation and analysis of...

  10. The Climate Registry | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    North America should partner with The Climate Registry as a cost effective central repository or clearinghouse for reporting andor tracking GHG data." "Members of The Climate...

  11. Clean Cities: Western Riverside County Clean Cities coalition

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    region of Riverside County. Designated: October 24, 1997 Alternative Fueling Stations: Natural Gas: 5 Electric: 34 Propane: 6 Petroleum and GHG Savings* Total Gallons Saved Total...

  12. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Projected Biomass Utilization...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of agricultural products. Goals for biopower policies include displacement of coal for environmental concerns and GHG reduction. In the past two decades, the U.S. Department of...

  13. Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies (EC...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    development goals, slow the growth rate of GHG emissions and support climate change resilience Prioritized policies, programs and measures-identified through broad stakeholder...

  14. Greenhouse Gas Initiative Scenario Database | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    TOOL Name: Greenhouse Gas Initiative Scenario Database AgencyCompany Organization: Science for Global Insight Sector: Climate, Energy, Land Topics: Baseline projection, GHG...

  15. South Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and Reduction...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    from Buildings AgencyCompany Organization United Nations Environment Programme Sector Energy Focus Area Buildings Topics Baseline projection, GHG inventory, Pathways analysis,...

  16. Mexico - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    from Buildings AgencyCompany Organization United Nations Environment Programme Sector Energy Focus Area Buildings Topics Baseline projection, GHG inventory, Pathways analysis,...

  17. Technical Cost Modeling - Life Cycle Analysis Basis for Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    reductions in GHG, criteria pollutants and acidification gases and * Development of LCA framework based on ISO standards and LCA technical reports such as 14040, 14044, and...

  18. Rebuilding It Better: Greensburg, Kansas, Business Incubator...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    *Other commercial and public buildings will be designed to LEED Platinum or Gold rating levels *100% renewable electricity 100% of the time Reduce GHG emissions by 36%...

  19. Rebuilding It Better: BTI-Greensburg John Deere Dealership |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    *Other commercial and public buildings will be designed to LEED Platinum or Gold rating levels *100% renewable electricity 100% of the time Reduce GHG emissions by 36%...

  20. Rebuilding After Disaster: Going Green from the Ground Up | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Other commercial and public buildings will be designed to LEED Platinum or Gold rating levels 100% renewable electricity 100% of the time Reduce GHG emissions by 36%...

  1. Rebuilding It Better: Greensburg, Kansas, City Hall | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    *Other commercial and public buildings will be designed to LEED Platinum or Gold rating levels *100% renewable electricity 100% of the time Reduce GHG emissions by 36%...

  2. Rebuilding It Better: Greensburg, Kansas, Kiowa County Memorial...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    *Other commercial and public buildings will be designed to LEED Platinum or Gold rating levels *100% renewable electricity 100% of the time Reduce GHG emissions by 36%...

  3. Rebuilding It Better: Greensburg, Kansas, K-12 School | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Other commercial and public buildings will be designed to LEED Platinum or Gold rating levels 100% renewable electricity 100% of the time Reduce GHG emissions by 36%...

  4. Greensburg, Kansas--A Better, Greener Place to Live | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Other commercial and public buildings will be designed to LEED Platinum or Gold rating levels 100% renewable electricity 100% of the time Reduce GHG emissions by 36%...

  5. Rebuilding It Better: Greensburg, Kansas, Kiowa County Courthouse...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    *Other commercial and public buildings will be designed to LEED Platinum or Gold rating levels *100% renewable electricity 100% of the time Reduce GHG emissions by 36%...

  6. SUPPLEMENT ANALYSIS PROPOSED SHIPMENT OF COMMERCIAL SPENT NUCLEAR...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... radiological doses to potential latent cancer fatalities, the 1995 PEIS used a factor ... GHG emissions on an annual LATENT CANCER FATALITY A latent cancer fatality is a ...

  7. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... is an exploration of the accounting methodology for GHG reductions with CHP and the ... No actual experimental research has been conducted in the writing of this report, but ...

  8. GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTION POTENTIAL WITH COMBINED HEAT AND POWER...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    is an exploration of the accounting methodology for GHG reductions with CHP and the ... Research Org: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); National Transportation Research ...

  9. Asia/ITS

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    our energy goals? Climate protection - 50-80% GHG reduction by 2050 Energy security - 11 mbd change in US petroleum SupplyDemand balance by 2030 Sustainable ...

  10. EPA-Integrated Environmental Strategies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the IES program: Provide tools and approaches to help analyze and quantify environmental (air quality and associated GHG), public health, and economic co-benefits in major...

  11. Assessing Development Impacts Associated with Low Emission Development...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... As opposed to programs strictly focused on GHG emission mitigation, LEDS actions are aligned with the development goals of the country, such as poverty alleviation, economic ...

  12. NREL: Energy Analysis - Donna Heimiller

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Cowlin, S. C.; Heimiller, D.; Bilello, D.; Renne, D. (2008). Technical Potential of Solar Energy to Address Energy Poverty and Avoid GHG Emissions in Africa. Proceedings of the ...

  13. GEIA-ACCENT Emission Data Portal | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AgencyCompany Organization: National Aeronautics and Space Administration Sector: Energy, Land Topics: GHG inventory Resource Type: Dataset Website: www.geiacenter.org...

  14. Kenya-LEDS Tier I Activities | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    for GHG inventories and decision making and a general need for raising awareness of climate change activities. References "Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development...

  15. Costa Rica-LEDS Tier I Activities | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    for GHG inventories and decision making and a general need for raising awareness of climate change activities. References "Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development...

  16. Waste to Energy Market | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to energy market is fueled by reduced GHG emission from landfills, rising concern towards energy security, growing regulatory support as well as incentives, and tax increment on...

  17. Waste to Energy | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to energy market is fueled by reduced GHG emission from landfills, rising concern towards energy security, growing regulatory support as well as incentives, and tax increment on...

  18. Waste to Energy: Escalating Energy Concerns to Push Global Market...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to energy market is fueled by reduced GHG emission from landfills, rising concern towards energy security, growing regulatory support as well as incentives, and tax increment on...

  19. January 2013 OMB Scorecard on Sustainability/Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    3 OMB Scorecard on Sustainability/Energy Scope 1&2 GHG Emission Reduction Target For Scope 1&2 GHG Reduction Target of 28% by 2020: 34.3% reduction in 2012 and on track Scope 3 GHG Emission Reduction Target For Scope 3 GHG Reduction Target of 13% by 2020: 15.3% reduction in 2012 and on track Reduction in Energy Intensity Reduction in energy intensity in goal-subject facilities compared with 2003: 23.5% and on track for 30% by 2015 Use of Renewable Energy Use of renewable energy as a

  20. IEA Energy Statistics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Statistics Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: IEA Energy Statistics AgencyCompany Organization: International Energy Agency Sector: Energy Topics: GHG...