Sample records for ghg emissions relative

  1. avoid ghg emissions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    University Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Inventory Summary Queen's University completes annual GHG inventories as part of the ongoing commitment to reduce GHG emissions and address...

  2. Regulation of GHG emissions from transportation fuels: Emission quota versus emission intensity standard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Deepak

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Derivation of average cost of emission reduction by blending?) and ? respectively. GHG emissions per unit of blend is, ?+ ?? i Reduction in GHG emissions with respect to unblended

  3. Shale Gas Production: Potential versus Actual GHG Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Sullivan, Francis

    Estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use are controversial. Here we assess the level of GHG emissions from shale gas well hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States during ...

  4. Shale Gas Production: Potential versus Actual GHG Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shale Gas Production: Potential versus Actual GHG Emissions Francis O'Sullivan and Sergey Paltsev://globalchange.mit.edu/ Printed on recycled paper #12;1 Shale Gas Production: Potential versus Actual GHG Emissions Francis O'Sullivan* and Sergey Paltsev* Abstract Estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use

  5. GBTL Workshop GHG Emissions | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdf Flash2006-52.pdf0.pdfDepartment ofEnergy 3FungibleOpeningGHG Emissions GBTL

  6. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Transport...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    calculation-toolsall-tools Cost: Free The Greenhouse Gas Protocol tool for mobile combustion is a free Excel spreadsheet calculator designed to calculate GHG emissions...

  7. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Stationary...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Stationary Combustion Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative:...

  8. Methodology for Estimating Reductions of GHG Emissions from Mosaic...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Methodology for Estimating Reductions of GHG Emissions from Mosaic Deforestation AgencyCompany Organization: World Bank Sector: Land Focus Area: Forestry Topics: Co-benefits...

  9. GLOBAL EMISSIONS Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, largely carbon dioxide (CO2)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Green, Donna

    GLOBAL EMISSIONS Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, largely carbon dioxide (CO2) from the combustion),2 China, Russia, Japan, India and Canada--accounted for more than 70 percent of energy-related CO2. Figure 1 Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1850­2030 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940

  10. The Future Energy and GHG Emissions Impact of Alternative Personal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Future Energy and GHG Emissions Impact of Alternative Personal Transportation Pathways in China://globalchange.mit.edu/ Printed on recycled paper #12;The Future Energy and GHG Emissions Impact of Alternative Personal Paul N. Kishimoto, Sergey Paltsev and Valerie J. Karplus Report No. 231 September 2012 China Energy

  11. Energy and GHG Emissions in British Columbia 1990 -2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedersen, Tom

    Energy and GHG Emissions in British Columbia 1990 - 2010 Report Highlights John Nyboer and Maximilian Kniewasser Canadian Industrial Energy End-use Data and Analysis Centre (CIEEDAC) Simon Fraser for Climate Solutions 1 HIGHLIGHTS The Energy and GHG Emissions in British

  12. Regional GHG Emissions O tlook Greenhouse Gas and the Regional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Information Administration Annual Energy Outlook for 2013 (AEO2013) along with the modeled curve Outlook with No Federal CO2 Regulatory Cost 70 Annual CO2 Emission from Power System 30 40 50 60 Million25 GHG Emission Outlook with a Federal CO2 Regulatory Cost 70 Annual CO2 Emission from Power System

  13. GHG Emissions from Hydropower Reservoirs The role of hydropower reservoirs in contributing to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is poorly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GHG Emissions from Hydropower Reservoirs The role of hydropower reservoirs in contributing from tropical and boreal reservoirs are significant. In light of hydropower's potential role as a green to characterize carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions from hydropower reservoirs in the US Southeast

  14. Transportation Energy Futures: Combining Strategies for Deep Reductions in Energy Consumption and GHG Emissions (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This fact sheet summarizes actions in the areas of light-duty vehicle, non-light-duty vehicle, fuel, and transportation demand that show promise for deep reductions in energy use. Energy efficient transportation strategies have the potential to simultaneously reduce oil consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project examined how the combination of multiple strategies could achieve deep reductions in GHG emissions and petroleum use on the order of 80%. Led by NREL, in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory, the project's primary goal was to help inform domestic decisions about transportation energy strategies, priorities, and investments, with an emphasis on underexplored opportunities. TEF findings reveal three strategies with the potential to displace most transportation-related petroleum use and GHG emissions: 1) Stabilizing energy use in the transportation sector through efficiency and demand-side approaches. 2) Using additional advanced biofuels. 3) Expanding electric drivetrain technologies.

  15. Selected GHG Emission Supply Curves | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit with form HistoryRistma AG Jump638324°,Schnell ZTools andSegen LtdGHG Emission

  16. Voluntary Agreements for Energy Efficiency or GHG EmissionsReduction in Industry: An Assessment of Programs Around the World

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Voluntary agreements for energy efficiency improvement and reduction of energy-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been a popular policy instrument for the industrial sector in industrialized countries since the 1990s. A number of these national-level voluntary agreement programs are now being modified and strengthened, while additional countries--including some recently industrialized and developing countries--are adopting these type of agreements in an effort to increase the energy efficiency of their industrial sectors.Voluntary agreement programs can be roughly divided into three broad categories: (1) programs that are completely voluntary, (2) programs that use the threat of future regulations or energy/GHG emissions taxes as a motivation for participation, and (3) programs that are implemented in conjunction with an existing energy/GHG emissions tax policy or with strict regulations. A variety of government-provided incentives as well as penalties are associated with these programs. This paper reviews 23 energy efficiency or GHG emissions reduction voluntary agreement programs in 18 countries, including countries in Europe, the U.S., Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, South Korea, and Chinese Taipei (Taiwan) and discusses preliminary lessons learned regarding program design and effectiveness. The paper notes that such agreement programs, in which companies inventory and manage their energy use and GHG emissions to meet specific reduction targets, are an essential first step towards GHG emissions trading programs.

  17. Quantitative Analysis of Biofuel Sustainability, Including Land Use Change GHG Emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Plenary V: Biofuels and Sustainability: Acknowledging Challenges and Confronting MisconceptionsQuantitative Analysis of Biofuel Sustainability, Including Land Use Change GHG EmissionsJennifer B....

  18. Systematic Review and Harmonization of Life Cycle GHG Emission Estimates for Electricity Generation Technologies (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, G.

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This powerpoint presentation to be presented at the World Renewable Energy Forum on May 14, 2012, in Denver, CO, discusses systematic review and harmonization of life cycle GHG emission estimates for electricity generation technologies.

  19. 2008 Guidelines to Defra's GHG Conversion Methodology Paper for Transport Emission Factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008 Guidelines to Defra's GHG Conversion Factors: Methodology Paper for Transport Emission Factors: Methodology Paper for Transport Emission Factors Contents I. INTRODUCTION 3 II. AVIATION 4 Previous Approach 4 New Passenger Air Transport Emission Factors 5 New Freight Air Transport Emission Factors 10 Other

  20. GHG emission factors developed for the recycling and composting of municipal waste in South African municipalities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedrich, Elena, E-mail: Friedriche@ukzn.ac.za; Trois, Cristina

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • GHG emission factors for local recycling of municipal waste are presented. • GHG emission factors for two composting technologies for garden waste are included. • Local GHG emission factors were compared to international ones and discussed. • Uncertainties and limitations are presented and areas for new research highlighted. - Abstract: GHG (greenhouse gas) emission factors for waste management are increasingly used, but such factors are very scarce for developing countries. This paper shows how such factors have been developed for the recycling of glass, metals (Al and Fe), plastics and paper from municipal solid waste, as well as for the composting of garden refuse in South Africa. The emission factors developed for the different recyclables in the country show savings varying from ?290 kg CO{sub 2} e (glass) to ?19 111 kg CO{sub 2} e (metals – Al) per tonne of recyclable. They also show that there is variability, with energy intensive materials like metals having higher GHG savings in South Africa as compared to other countries. This underlines the interrelation of the waste management system of a country/region with other systems, in particular with energy generation, which in South Africa, is heavily reliant on coal. This study also shows that composting of garden waste is a net GHG emitter, releasing 172 and 186 kg CO{sub 2} e per tonne of wet garden waste for aerated dome composting and turned windrow composting, respectively. The paper concludes that these emission factors are facilitating GHG emissions modelling for waste management in South Africa and enabling local municipalities to identify best practice in this regard.

  1. UBC Social, Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report GHG Emissions Data Tracker User Manual

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of a project/report." #12;GHG Emissions Data Tracker User Manual #12;Add/Edit vehicles Vehicles type addition will be saved automatically. Add Vehicles: Enter Vehicles name in the bottom most blank space and once you enter the first character it will create a new record in database. Edit Vehicles: Click on the text box that you

  2. Life Cycle Analysis on Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions of Marcellus Shale Gas Supporting Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaramillo, Paulina

    the well pad drilling site and the location for accommodation. The rig and auxiliary equipments for hydraulic fracturing process are trucked in trailers to the drilling site. Several wells on one multi-well 1. GHG Emissions Estimation for Production of Marcellus Shale Gas 1.1 Preparation of Well Pad

  3. Abstract--Energy consumption and the concomitant Green House Gases (GHG) emissions of network infrastructures are

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    Abstract--Energy consumption and the concomitant Green House Gases (GHG) emissions of network as for their energy consumption. Renewable energy sources (e.g. solar, wind, tide, etc.) are emerging as a promising and the comparison of several energy-aware static routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) strategies for wavelength

  4. Regional GHG Emissions Stat s Greenhouse Gas and the Regional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klamath CoGen (536 MW) (300 MW) #12;6/5/2013 4 CO2 Emissions from Electricity in PNW (1990-2010 ) 25,00070.0 Historical CO2 Emissions of the NW Power System CO2 Emissions Hydro Gen Fossil Fuel Gen (NG + Coal) Wind Gen (MWa) 7 0 5,000 0.0 10.0 20.0 Annual CO2 Annual En CO2 Emissions by Resource in PNW (1995-2010) 80

  5. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Purchased...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    within a community. Separate calculators are available for emissions from stationary combustion, transport or mobile sources, refrigeration and air conditioning equipment, and...

  6. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Refrigerati...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    within a community. Separate calculators are available for emissions from stationary combustion, transport or mobile sources, purchased electricity, and several industrial sectors....

  7. Capturing Fugitives to Reduce DOE’s GHG Emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Experts are hunting down fugitive carbon emissions from across 20 Energy Department laboratories, sites and program offices — and they’ve already prevented the release of more than 600,000 metric tons of CO2 equivalent since 2009 -- equal to taking 140,000 cars off the road for a year.

  8. A multi-objective programming model for assessment the GHG emissions in MSW management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mavrotas, George, E-mail: mavrotas@chemeng.ntua.gr [National Technical University of Athens, Iroon Polytechniou 9, Zografou, Athens, 15780 (Greece); Skoulaxinou, Sotiria [EPEM SA, 141 B Acharnon Str., Athens, 10446 (Greece); Gakis, Nikos [FACETS SA, Agiou Isidorou Str., Athens, 11471 (Greece); Katsouros, Vassilis [Athena Research and Innovation Center, Artemidos 6 and Epidavrou Str., Maroussi, 15125 (Greece); Georgopoulou, Elena [National Observatory of Athens, Thisio, Athens, 11810 (Greece)

    2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • The multi-objective multi-period optimization model. • The solution approach for the generation of the Pareto front with mathematical programming. • The very detailed description of the model (decision variables, parameters, equations). • The use of IPCC 2006 guidelines for landfill emissions (first order decay model) in the mathematical programming formulation. - Abstract: In this study a multi-objective mathematical programming model is developed for taking into account GHG emissions for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management. Mathematical programming models are often used for structure, design and operational optimization of various systems (energy, supply chain, processes, etc.). The last twenty years they are used all the more often in Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management in order to provide optimal solutions with the cost objective being the usual driver of the optimization. In our work we consider the GHG emissions as an additional criterion, aiming at a multi-objective approach. The Pareto front (Cost vs. GHG emissions) of the system is generated using an appropriate multi-objective method. This information is essential to the decision maker because he can explore the trade-offs in the Pareto curve and select his most preferred among the Pareto optimal solutions. In the present work a detailed multi-objective, multi-period mathematical programming model is developed in order to describe the waste management problem. Apart from the bi-objective approach, the major innovations of the model are (1) the detailed modeling considering 34 materials and 42 technologies, (2) the detailed calculation of the energy content of the various streams based on the detailed material balances, and (3) the incorporation of the IPCC guidelines for the CH{sub 4} generated in the landfills (first order decay model). The equations of the model are described in full detail. Finally, the whole approach is illustrated with a case study referring to the application of the model in a Greek region.

  9. Airborne greenhouse gas (GHG) measurements provide essential constraints for estimating surface emissions. Until recently, dedicated research-grade instruments have been required

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GHG columns · Quantifying local to regional GHG enhancements for emissions inventory verificationAbstract Airborne greenhouse gas (GHG) measurements provide essential constraints for estimating with another Cessna 210 over Central California quantified enhancements in CO2 and CH4 from urban

  10. Life Cycle GHG Emissions from Conventional Natural Gas Power Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, G.; O'Donoughue, P.; Whitaker, M.

    2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research provides a systematic review and harmonization of the life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of electricity generated from conventionally produced natural gas. We focus on estimates of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emitted in the life cycle of electricity generation from conventionally produced natural gas in combustion turbines (NGCT) and combined-cycle (NGCC) systems. A process we term "harmonization" was employed to align several common system performance parameters and assumptions to better allow for cross-study comparisons, with the goal of clarifying central tendency and reducing variability in estimates of life cycle GHG emissions. This presentation summarizes preliminary results.

  11. LowCostGHG ReductionCARB 3/03 Low-Cost and Near-Term Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Paul N.

    LowCostGHG ReductionCARB 3/03 1 Low-Cost and Near-Term Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Marc Ross for Light Duty Vehicles Critical to the Pavley bill's goal to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from trucks (large symbols). The emissions from midsize and smaller cars, emit about half as much. Question

  12. GHG emission factors developed for the collection, transport and landfilling of municipal waste in South African municipalities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedrich, Elena, E-mail: Friedriche@ukzn.ac.za [CRECHE Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Engineering, Civil Engineering Programme, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban (South Africa); Trois, Cristina [CRECHE Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Engineering, Civil Engineering Programme, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban (South Africa)

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: ? An average GHG emission factor for the collection and transport of municipal solid waste in South Africa is calculated. ? A range of GHG emission factors for different types of landfills (including dumps) in South Africa are calculated. ? These factors are compared internationally and their implications for South Africa and developing countries are discussed . ? Areas for new research are highlighted. - Abstract: Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission factors are used with increased frequency for the accounting and reporting of GHG from waste management. However, these factors have been calculated for developed countries of the Northern Hemisphere and are lacking for developing countries. This paper shows how such factors have been developed for the collection, transport and landfilling of municipal waste in South Africa. As such it presents a model on how international results and methodology can be adapted and used to calculate country-specific GHG emission factors from waste. For the collection and transport of municipal waste in South Africa, the average diesel consumption is around 5 dm{sup 3} (litres) per tonne of wet waste and the associated GHG emissions are about 15 kg CO{sub 2} equivalents (CO{sub 2} e). Depending on the type of landfill, the GHG emissions from the landfilling of waste have been calculated to range from ?145 to 1016 kg CO{sub 2} e per tonne of wet waste, when taking into account carbon storage, and from 441 to 2532 kg CO{sub 2} e per tonne of wet waste, when carbon storage is left out. The highest emission factor per unit of wet waste is for landfill sites without landfill gas collection and these are the dominant waste disposal facilities in South Africa. However, cash strapped municipalities in Africa and the developing world will not be able to significantly upgrade these sites and reduce their GHG burdens if there is no equivalent replacement of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) resulting from the Kyoto agreement. Other low cost avenues need to be investigated to suit local conditions, in particular landfill covers which enhance methane oxidation.

  13. 15th International Conference Ramiran, May 3-6, 2013, Versailles Accounting GHG emissions from sludge treatment and disposal routes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    sludge treatment and disposal routes ­ methodological problems focused on sludge land spreading% of sewage sludge is directly land spreading or composted before land spreading. Sludge application to quantify GHG emissions emitted during sludge treatment and disposal routes. This paper aims to present how

  14. Implications of Near-Term Coal Power Plant Retirement for SO2 and NOX and Life Cycle GHG Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaramillo, Paulina

    Implications of Near-Term Coal Power Plant Retirement for SO2 and NOX and Life Cycle GHG Emissions for electricity generation, by comparing systems that consist of individual natural gas and coal power plants when coal power plants are retired. These models estimate the order in which existing power plants

  15. 2011 & 2012 Queen's University Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Inventory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2011 & 2012 Queen's University Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Inventory Summary Queen's University completes annual GHG inventories as part of the ongoing commitment to reduce GHG emissions and address climate in 2010. This is the fourth inventory report. This inventory report accounts for GHG emissions from

  16. Life-cycle energy and GHG emissions of forest biomass harvest and transport for biofuel production in Michigan

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Fengli; Johnson, Dana M.; Wang, Jinjiang

    2015-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High dependence on imported oil has increased U.S. strategic vulnerability and prompted more research in the area of renewable energy production. Ethanol production from renewable woody biomass, which could be a substitute for gasoline, has seen increased interest. This study analysed energy use and greenhouse gas emission impacts on the forest biomass supply chain activities within the State of Michigan. A life-cycle assessment of harvesting and transportation stages was completed utilizing peer-reviewed literature. Results for forest-delivered ethanol were compared with those for petroleum gasoline using data specific to the U.S. The analysis from a woody biomass feedstock supply perspective uncoveredmore »that ethanol production is more environmentally friendly (about 62% less greenhouse gas emissions) compared with petroleum based fossil fuel production. Sensitivity analysis was conducted with key inputs associated with harvesting and transportation operations. The results showed that research focused on improving biomass recovery efficiency and truck fuel economy further reduced GHG emissions and energy consumption.« less

  17. Life-cycle energy and GHG emissions of forest biomass harvest and transport for biofuel production in Michigan

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Fengli [China Univ. of Petroleum, Beijing (China); Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Johnson, Dana M. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Wang, Jinjiang [China Univ. of Petroleum, Beijing (China)

    2015-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High dependence on imported oil has increased U.S. strategic vulnerability and prompted more research in the area of renewable energy production. Ethanol production from renewable woody biomass, which could be a substitute for gasoline, has seen increased interest. This study analysed energy use and greenhouse gas emission impacts on the forest biomass supply chain activities within the State of Michigan. A life-cycle assessment of harvesting and transportation stages was completed utilizing peer-reviewed literature. Results for forest-delivered ethanol were compared with those for petroleum gasoline using data specific to the U.S. The analysis from a woody biomass feedstock supply perspective uncovered that ethanol production is more environmentally friendly (about 62% less greenhouse gas emissions) compared with petroleum based fossil fuel production. Sensitivity analysis was conducted with key inputs associated with harvesting and transportation operations. The results showed that research focused on improving biomass recovery efficiency and truck fuel economy further reduced GHG emissions and energy consumption.

  18. What GHG Concentration Targets are Reachable in this Century?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paltsev, Sergey

    2013-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We offer simulations that help to understand the relationship between GHG emissions and concentrations, and the relative role of long-lived (e.g., CO2) and short-lived (e.g., CH4) emissions. We show that, absent technologies ...

  19. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Lime: GHG Inventory...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    GHG Inventory Protocols Read the CO2 Emissions Calculation Protocol for the Lime industry (PDF 229 KB) Download Acrobat Reader...

  20. LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) of Parabolic Trough CSP: Materials Inventory and Embodied GHG Emissions from Two-Tank Indirect and Thermocline Thermal Storage (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, G.; Burkhardt, J.; Turchi, C.; Decker, T.; Kutscher, C.

    2009-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In the United States, concentrating solar power (CSP) is one of the most promising renewable energy (RE) technologies for reduction of electric sector greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and for rapid capacity expansion. It is also one of the most price-competitive RE technologies, thanks in large measure to decades of field experience and consistent improvements in design. One of the key design features that makes CSP more attractive than many other RE technologies, like solar photovoltaics and wind, is the potential for including relatively low-cost and efficient thermal energy storage (TES), which can smooth the daily fluctuation of electricity production and extend its duration into the evening peak hours or longer. Because operational environmental burdens are typically small for RE technologies, life cycle assessment (LCA) is recognized as the most appropriate analytical approach for determining their environmental impacts of these technologies, including CSP. An LCA accounts for impacts from all stages in the development, operation, and decommissioning of a CSP plant, including such upstream stages as the extraction of raw materials used in system components, manufacturing of those components, and construction of the plant. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is undertaking an LCA of modern CSP plants, starting with those of parabolic trough design.

  1. Technical Potential of Solar Energy to Address Energy Poverty and Avoid GHG Emissions in Africa (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowlin, S.; Heimiller, D.; Bilello, D.; Renne, D.

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Approximately 1.6 billion people worldwide do not have access to electricity, and roughly 2.4 billion people rely on traditional biomass fuels to meet their heating and cooking needs. Lack of access to and use of energy - or energy poverty - has been recognized as a barrier to reaching the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and other targeted efforts to improve health and quality of life. Reducing reliance on traditional biomass can substantially reduce indoor air pollution-related morbidity and mortality; increasing access to lighting and refrigeration can improve educational and economic opportunities. Though targeted electrification efforts have had success within Latin America and East Asia (reaching electrification rates above 85%), sub-Saharan Africa has maintained electrification rates below 25% (IEA 2004).

  2. GBTL Workshop GHG Emissions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport inEnergy0.pdfTechnologiesNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTALnatural gas as a feedstock

  3. Implications of changing natural gas prices in the United States electricity sector for SO and life cycle GHG emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaramillo, Paulina

    Implications of changing natural gas prices in the United States electricity sector for SO 2 , NO X of changing natural gas prices in the United States electricity sector for SO2, NOX and life cycle GHG to projections of low natural gas prices and increased supply. The trend of increasing natural gas use

  4. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Minerals: GHG Work...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    major areas of activity - Emissions Measurement and Reporting, Opportunities for GHG Inventory Protocols Reduction of GHGs, Cross-Sector Projects, and Research & Development and...

  5. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Magnesium: GHG Inventory...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    GHG Inventory Protocols The Magnesium Industry Partnership's SF6 emissions tracking and reporting software tool (Excel based) can be accessed by visiting the Partnership's...

  6. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Magnesium: GHG Information

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    GHG Information The magnesium industry directly emits SF6 from its primary metal production, parts casting, and recycling operations. In 2005, the industry's SF6 emissions were...

  7. Operational energy consumption and GHG emissions in residential sector in urban China : an empirical study in Jinan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jiyang, M.C.P. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Driven by rapid urbanization and increasing household incomes, residential energy consumption in urban China has been growing steadily in the past decade, posing critical energy and greenhouse gas emission challenges. ...

  8. Energy-Related Carbon Emissions in Manufacturing

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy-related carbon emissions in manufacturing analysis and issues related to the energy use, energy efficiency, and carbon emission indicators.

  9. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Iron and Steel: GHG...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    GHG Inventory Protocols Principles for a Steel Industry Methodology for Reporting Carbon-Related Energy Sources and Raw Materials (PDF 48 KB) Download Acrobat Reader Steel Industry...

  10. GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG) INVENTORY REPORT 20102011 Dalhousie Office of Sustainability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brownstone, Rob

    ..................................... 30 Appendix E: Canadian Default Factors for Calculating CO2 Emissions from Combustion of Natural Gas GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG) INVENTORY REPORT 20102011 Dalhousie Office of Sustainability ......................................................... 34 Appendix K: Fleet Vehicles on Campus .............

  11. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Oil and Gas: GHG...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Prior to developing the API Compendium of GHG Emissions Methodologies for the Oil and Gas Industry (PDF 14.6 MB), API reviewed a wide range of government estimates of...

  12. Centre on Innovation and Energy Demand The UK's climate goals are ambitious and challenging. Achieving an 80% reduction in GHG emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jensen, Max

    Centre on Innovation and Energy Demand The UK's climate goals are ambitious and challenging demand. While many low-energy innovations represent relatively incremental changes to existing on energy demand and carbon emissions; and to provide practical recommendations for UK energy and climate

  13. Current Activities of the GHG Scientific Advisory Group Ed Dlugokencky

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Motivation High GWP gases Valuable in emissions trading Network of measurements likely to expand. This may be important as our observations are used to verify emission inventories under GHG emissions trading schemes. We also prepare documents that can be used by developing countries to assess

  14. GHG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdf Jump1946865°, -86.0529604°Wisconsin:FyreStorm IncLSE COMP POSTGHD IncGHG

  15. Land-use change and greenhouse gas emissions from corn and cellulosic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    key carbon content modeling variables on LUC GHG emissions associated with the four bioethanol pathways we examined. Our results indicate that LUC GHG emissions may have a smaller...

  16. DRAFT VERSION September 6, 2009 1 1990 GHG Baseline for Building Energy Use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Escher, Christine

    DRAFT VERSION ­ September 6, 2009 1 1990 GHG Baseline for Building Energy Use in the Oregon of 1990 building energy use and the associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for Oregon University System's stated intent. Specifically, there is a focus on building energy use, the single largest source of direct

  17. TECHNICAL REPORTS The greenhouse gas (GHG) impact of composting a range

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Sally

    TECHNICAL REPORTS 1396 The greenhouse gas (GHG) impact of composting a range of potential by composting and GHG emissions during composting. The primary carbon credits associated with composting are through CH4 avoidance when feedstocks are composted instead of landfilled (municipal solid waste

  18. Catalyst Paper No-Carb Strategy for GHG Reduction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McClain, C.; Robinson, J.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for manufacturing is generated by the powerhouse where 63% of thermal energy is now from biomass and alternative fuels. This strategy reduced gross energy usage by 22% and provided a direct reduction in Green House Gas (GHG) emissions by 71% from 1990 to 2005...

  19. GHG Considerations in Integrated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CO2 11 PGE's CO2 profile Carbon intensity 12 #12;6/5/2013 7 Ongoing, forecast load growth of 1-Quarters of U.S. coal fleet is over 30 years old 10 #12;6/5/2013 6 PGE's CO2 profile Total emissions & avoided

  20. Evaluation of metrics and baselines for tracking greenhouse gas emissions trends: Recommendations for the California climate action registry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn; Murtishaw, Scott; Worrell, Ernst

    2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Executive Summary: The California Climate Action Registry, which was initially established in 2000 and began operation in Fall 2002, is a voluntary registry for recording annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The purpose of the Registry is to assist California businesses and organizations in their efforts to inventory and document emissions in order to establish a baseline and to document early actions to increase energy efficiency and decrease GHG emissions. The State of California has committed to use its ''best efforts'' to ensure that entities that establish GHG emissions baselines and register their emissions will receive ''appropriate consideration under any future international, federal, or state regulatory scheme relating to greenhouse gas emissions.'' Reporting of GHG emissions involves documentation of both ''direct'' emissions from sources that are under the entity's control and indirect emissions controlled by others. Electricity generated by an off-site power source is consider ed to be an indirect GHG emission and is required to be included in the entity's report. Registry participants include businesses, non-profit organizations, municipalities, state agencies, and other entities. Participants are required to register the GHG emissions of all operations in California, and are encouraged to report nationwide. For the first three years of participation, the Registry only requires the reporting of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, although participants are encouraged to report the remaining five Kyoto Protocol GHGs (CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs, and SF6). After three years, reporting of all six Kyoto GHG emissions is required. The enabling legislation for the Registry (SB 527) requires total GHG emissions to be registered and requires reporting of ''industry-specific metrics'' once such metrics have been adopted by the Registry. The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) was asked to provide technical assistance to the California Energy Commission (Energy Commission) related to the Registry in three areas: (1) assessing the availability and usefulness of industry-specific metrics, (2) evaluating various methods for establishing baselines for calculating GHG emissions reductions related to specific actions taken by Registry participants, and (3) establishing methods for calculating electricity CO2 emission factors. The third area of research was completed in 2002 and is documented in Estimating Carbon Dioxide Emissions Factors for the California Electric Power Sector (Marnay et al., 2002). This report documents our findings related to the first areas of research. For the first area of research, the overall objective was to evaluate the metrics, such as emissions per economic unit or emissions per unit of production that can be used to report GHG emissions trends for potential Registry participants. This research began with an effort to identify methodologies, benchmarking programs, inventories, protocols, and registries that u se industry-specific metrics to track trends in energy use or GHG emissions in order to determine what types of metrics have already been developed. The next step in developing industry-specific metrics was to assess the availability of data needed to determine metric development priorities. Berkeley Lab also determined the relative importance of different potential Registry participant categories in order to asses s the availability of sectoral or industry-specific metrics and then identified industry-specific metrics in use around the world. While a plethora of metrics was identified, no one metric that adequately tracks trends in GHG emissions while maintaining confidentiality of data was identified. As a result of this review, Berkeley Lab recommends the development of a GHG intensity index as a new metric for reporting and tracking GHG emissions trends.Such an index could provide an industry-specific metric for reporting and tracking GHG emissions trends to accurately reflect year to year changes while protecting proprietary data. This GHG intensity index changes

  1. Emissions from US waste collection vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maimoun, Mousa A., E-mail: mousamaimoun@gmail.com [Department of Civil, Environmental, and Construction Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); Reinhart, Debra R. [Department of Civil, Environmental, and Construction Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); Gammoh, Fatina T. [Quality Department, Airport International Group, Amman (Jordan); McCauley Bush, Pamela [Department of Industrial Engineering and Management Systems, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States)

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: ? Life-cycle emissions for alternative fuel technologies. ? Fuel consumption of alternative fuels for waste collection vehicles. ? Actual driving cycle of waste collection vehicles. ? Diesel-fueled waste collection vehicle emissions. - Abstract: This research is an in-depth environmental analysis of potential alternative fuel technologies for waste collection vehicles. Life-cycle emissions, cost, fuel and energy consumption were evaluated for a wide range of fossil and bio-fuel technologies. Emission factors were calculated for a typical waste collection driving cycle as well as constant speed. In brief, natural gas waste collection vehicles (compressed and liquid) fueled with North-American natural gas had 6–10% higher well-to-wheel (WTW) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to diesel-fueled vehicles; however the pump-to-wheel (PTW) GHG emissions of natural gas waste collection vehicles averaged 6% less than diesel-fueled vehicles. Landfill gas had about 80% lower WTW GHG emissions relative to diesel. Biodiesel waste collection vehicles had between 12% and 75% lower WTW GHG emissions relative to diesel depending on the fuel source and the blend. In 2011, natural gas waste collection vehicles had the lowest fuel cost per collection vehicle kilometer travel. Finally, the actual driving cycle of waste collection vehicles consists of repetitive stops and starts during waste collection; this generates more emissions than constant speed driving.

  2. Summary of Fast Pyrolysis and Upgrading GHG Analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Male, Jonathan L.

    2012-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 established new renewable fuel categories and eligibility requirements (EPA 2010). A significant aspect of the National Renewable Fuel Standard 2 (RFS2) program is the requirement that the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of a qualifying renewable fuel be less than the life cycle GHG emissions of the 2005 baseline average gasoline or diesel fuel that it replaces. Four levels of reduction are required for the four renewable fuel standards. Table 1 lists these life cycle performance improvement thresholds. Table 1. Life Cycle GHG Thresholds Specified in EISA Fuel Type Percent Reduction from 2005 Baseline Renewable fuel 20% Advanced biofuel 50% Biomass-based diesel 50% Cellulosic biofuel 60% Notably, there is a specialized subset of advanced biofuels that are the cellulosic biofuels. The cellulosic biofuels are incentivized by the Cellulosic Biofuel Producer Tax Credit (26 USC 40) to stimulate market adoption of these fuels. EISA defines a cellulosic biofuel as follows (42 USC 7545(o)(1)(E)): The term “cellulosic biofuel” means renewable fuel derived from any cellulose, hemicellulose, or lignin that is derived from renewable biomass and that has lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions, as determined by the Administrator, that are at least 60 percent less than the baseline lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions. As indicated, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has sole responsibility for conducting the life cycle analysis (LCA) and making the final determination of whether a given fuel qualifies under these biofuel definitions. However, there appears to be a need within the LCA community to discuss and eventually reach consensus on discerning a 50–59 % GHG reduction from a ? 60% GHG reduction for policy, market, and technology development. The level of specificity and agreement will require additional development of capabilities and time for the sustainability and analysis community, as illustrated by the rich dialogue and convergence around the energy content and GHG reduction of cellulosic ethanol (an example of these discussions can be found in Wang 2011). GHG analyses of fast pyrolysis technology routes are being developed and will require significant work to reach the levels of development and maturity of cellulosic ethanol models. This summary provides some of the first fast pyrolysis analyses and clarifies some of the reasons for differing results in an effort to begin the convergence on assumptions, discussion of quality of models, and harmonization.

  3. Buildings GHG Mitigation Estimator Worksheet, Version 1

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Xcel document describes Version 1 of the the Buildings GHG Mitigation Estimator tool. This tool assists federal agencies in estimating the greenhouse gas mitigation reduction from implementing energy efficiency measures across a portfolio of buildings. It is designed to be applied to groups of office buildings, for example, at a program level (regional or site) that can be summarized at the agency level. While the default savings and cost estimates apply to office buildings, users can define their own efficiency measures, costs, and savings estimates for inclusion in the portfolio assessment. More information on user-defined measures can be found in Step 2 of the buildings emission reduction guidance. The output of this tool is a prioritized set of activities that can help the agency to achieve its greenhouse gas reduction targets most cost-effectively.

  4. IGES GHG Emissions Data | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup | OpenHunan Runhua New Energy DevelopmentListIIFCI Venture CapitalIGES

  5. Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of unadjusted energy-related CO2 emissions is attributed toEMISSIONS- T C EMISSIONS -T CO2 TOTAL Energy EmissionsEMISSIONS- T C EMISSIONS -T CO2 Coal Coke and Other

  6. EPA-GHG Inventory Targeted Data Collection Strategies and Software...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EPA-GHG Inventory Targeted Data Collection Strategies and Software Tools (Redirected from US EPA GHG Inventory Targeted Data Collection Strategies and Software Tools) Jump to:...

  7. 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 2018 2020 Rio Tinto GHG

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Tinto GHG Climate Policy Coverage (CO2 emissions of jurisdictions with carbon pricing as a % of global0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 2018 2020 Global CO2 Rio Benchmark for Direct Emissions Benchmark for carbon intensity of electricity Benchmark for electricity per

  8. Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O’Sullivan, Francis Martin

    Estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use are controversial. Here we assess the level of GHG emissions from shale gas well hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States during ...

  9. An integrated analytical framework for quantifying the LCOE of waste-to-energy facilities for a range of greenhouse gas emissions policy and technical factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Townsend, Aaron K., E-mail: aarontownsend@utexas.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C2200, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Webber, Michael E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C2200, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This study presents a novel integrated method for considering the economics of waste-to-energy (WTE) facilities with priced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions based upon technical and economic characteristics of the WTE facility, MSW stream, landfill alternative, and GHG emissions policy. The study demonstrates use of the formulation for six different policy scenarios and explores sensitivity of the results to ranges of certain technical parameters as found in existing literature. The study shows that details of the GHG emissions regulations have large impact on the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of WTE and that GHG regulations can either increase or decrease the LCOE of WTE depending on policy choices regarding biogenic fractions from combusted waste and emissions from landfills. Important policy considerations are the fraction of the carbon emissions that are priced (i.e. all emissions versus only non-biogenic emissions), whether emissions credits are allowed due to reducing fugitive landfill gas emissions, whether biogenic carbon sequestration in landfills is credited against landfill emissions, and the effectiveness of the landfill gas recovery system where waste would otherwise have been buried. The default landfill gas recovery system effectiveness assumed by much of the industry yields GHG offsets that are very close to the direct non-biogenic GHG emissions from a WTE facility, meaning that small changes in the recovery effectiveness cause relatively larger changes in the emissions factor of the WTE facility. Finally, the economics of WTE are dependent on the MSW stream composition, with paper and wood being advantageous, metal and glass being disadvantageous, and plastics, food, and yard waste being either advantageous or disadvantageous depending upon the avoided tipping fee and the GHG emissions price.

  10. Figure 3. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions" " (million metric tons)" ,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013,2014,2015,2016,2017,2018,2019,2020,2021,2022,2023,2024,2025,2026,2027,2028,...

  11. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Nuclear Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warner, E. S.; Heath, G. A.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of nuclear electricity generation technologies was performed to determine causes of and, where possible, reduce variability in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to clarify the state of knowledge and inform decision making. LCA literature indicates that life cycle GHG emissions from nuclear power are a fraction of traditional fossil sources, but the conditions and assumptions under which nuclear power are deployed can have a significant impact on the magnitude of life cycle GHG emissions relative to renewable technologies. Screening 274 references yielded 27 that reported 99 independent estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from light water reactors (LWRs). The published median, interquartile range (IQR), and range for the pool of LWR life cycle GHG emission estimates were 13, 23, and 220 grams of carbon dioxide equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh), respectively. After harmonizing methods to use consistent gross system boundaries and values for several important system parameters, the same statistics were 12, 17, and 110 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh, respectively. Harmonization (especially of performance characteristics) clarifies the estimation of central tendency and variability. To explain the remaining variability, several additional, highly influential consequential factors were examined using other methods. These factors included the primary source energy mix, uranium ore grade, and the selected LCA method. For example, a scenario analysis of future global nuclear development examined the effects of a decreasing global uranium market-average ore grade on life cycle GHG emissions. Depending on conditions, median life cycle GHG emissions could be 9 to 110 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh by 2050.

  12. Fire-related carbon emissions from land use transitions in southern Amazonia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2008 Fire-related carbon emissions from land use transitionsto atmospheric carbon emissions, including forest conversionthe major sources of emissions from fires in this region.

  13. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation and Marine Transportation: Mitigation Potential and Policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L; Gould, Gregory; Greene, David L

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Extending the EU Emissions Trading Scheme to Aviation.Air Transport Emissions Trading Scheme Workshop, UKaviation in its GHG emission trading system (i.e. , by

  14. Urban Form Energy Use and Emissions in China: Preliminary Findings and Model Proof of Concept

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    urban areas US national-level data on transportation and land use Purpose Development of sector GHG emissions inventories

  15. GHG Update/CAP Progress ReportGHG Update/CAP Progress Report 2010 GHG Update2010 GHG Update

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Pei

    i i f t d d 486­ Duke Energy emission factors decreased .486 kgCO2/kWh to .405 kgCO2/kWh · Steam Percentages 15% 1% (~328,000 MTeCO2) 13% 1% (~307,000 MTeCO2) 44% 10% 15% 49%1% 11% 44% 1% 1% 28% Electricity Update 450000 500000 250000 300000 350000 400000 CO2 100000 150000 200000 250000 MTeC 0 50000 1990 1991

  16. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Monitoring Plan - 40 CFR 98

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deborah L. Layton; Kimberly Frerichs

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Monitoring Plan is to meet the monitoring plan requirements of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 98.3(g)(5). This GHG Monitoring Plan identifies procedures and methodologies used at the Idaho National Laboratory Site (INL Site) to collect data used for GHG emissions calculations and reporting requirements from stationary combustion and other regulated sources in accordance with 40 CFR 98, Subparts A and other applicable subparts. INL Site Contractors determined subpart applicability through the use of a checklist (Appendix A). Each facility/contractor reviews operations to determine which subparts are applicable and the results are compiled to determine which subparts are applicable to the INL Site. This plan is applicable to the 40 CFR 98-regulated activities managed by the INL Site contractors: Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Cleanup Project (ICP), Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP), and Naval Reactors Facilities (NRF).

  17. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Monitoring Plan - 40 CFR 98

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deborah L. Layton; Kimberly Frerichs

    2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Monitoring Plan is to meet the monitoring plan requirements of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 98.3(g)(5). This GHG Monitoring Plan identifies procedures and methodologies used at the Idaho National Laboratory Site (INL Site) to collect data used for GHG emissions calculations and reporting requirements from stationary combustion and other regulated sources in accordance with 40 CFR 98, Subparts A and other applicable subparts. INL Site Contractors determined subpart applicability through the use of a checklist (Appendix A). Each facility/contractor reviews operations to determine which subparts are applicable and the results are compiled to determine which subparts are applicable to the INL Site. This plan is applicable to the 40 CFR 98-regulated activities managed by the INL Site contractors: Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Cleanup Project (ICP), Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP), and Naval Reactors Facilities (NRF).

  18. Updated greenhouse gas and criteria air pollutant emission factors and their probability distribution functions for electricity generating units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, H.; Wang, M.; Elgowainy, A.; Han, J. (Energy Systems)

    2012-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Greenhouse gas (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O, hereinafter GHG) and criteria air pollutant (CO, NO{sub x}, VOC, PM{sub 10}, PM{sub 2.5} and SO{sub x}, hereinafter CAP) emission factors for various types of power plants burning various fuels with different technologies are important upstream parameters for estimating life-cycle emissions associated with alternative vehicle/fuel systems in the transportation sector, especially electric vehicles. The emission factors are typically expressed in grams of GHG or CAP per kWh of electricity generated by a specific power generation technology. This document describes our approach for updating and expanding GHG and CAP emission factors in the GREET (Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation) model developed at Argonne National Laboratory (see Wang 1999 and the GREET website at http://greet.es.anl.gov/main) for various power generation technologies. These GHG and CAP emissions are used to estimate the impact of electricity use by stationary and transportation applications on their fuel-cycle emissions. The electricity generation mixes and the fuel shares attributable to various combustion technologies at the national, regional and state levels are also updated in this document. The energy conversion efficiencies of electric generating units (EGUs) by fuel type and combustion technology are calculated on the basis of the lower heating values of each fuel, to be consistent with the basis used in GREET for transportation fuels. On the basis of the updated GHG and CAP emission factors and energy efficiencies of EGUs, the probability distribution functions (PDFs), which are functions that describe the relative likelihood for the emission factors and energy efficiencies as random variables to take on a given value by the integral of their own probability distributions, are updated using best-fit statistical curves to characterize the uncertainties associated with GHG and CAP emissions in life-cycle modeling with GREET.

  19. Closing the Gap: Using the Clean Air Act to Control Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Energy Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hagan, Colin R.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    out that EPA used an emissions trading program to controlsuggested that an emissions trading system could qualify asTO MANAGE LIFECYCLE GHG emissions trading system would also

  20. Evaluation of Efficiency Activities in the Industrial Sector Undertaken in Response to Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DEFRA), 2005a. UK Emissions Trading Scheme. London: DEFRA.Energy/GHG Tax Emissions trading Target Setting Penaltiesthe European Union Emissions Trading Scheme and a lack of

  1. Reducing Greenhouse Emissions and Fuel Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaheen, Susan; Lipman, Timothy

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory . Other full fuel cycle GHG emission models, such440 grams per mile on a full fuel cycle (or "well-to-wheel")

  2. Greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation and monitoring technology performance: Activities of the GHG Technology Verification Center. Report for January 1998--January 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masemore, S.; Kirchgessner, D.A.

    1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper discusses greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation and monitoring technology performance activities of the GHG Technology Verification Center. The Center is a public/private partnership between Southern Research Institute and the US EPA`s Office of Research and Development. The Center is part of EPA`s Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program, which has established 12 verification centers to evaluate a wide range of technologies in various environmental media and technology areas. The Center has published the results of its first verification: use of a phosphoric acid fuel cell to produce electricity from landfill gas. It has also initiated three new field verifications, two on technologies that reduce methane emissions from natural gas transmissions compressors, and one on a new microturbine electricity production technology.

  3. Recent increases in global HFC-23 emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions and sinks: 1990-2007, Rep.A. Lindley (2007), Global emissions of HFC-23 estimated to2009), Greenhouse Gas Emissions Data, http://unfccc.int/ghg_

  4. Forecasting and Capturing Emission Reductions Using Industrial Energy Management and Reporting Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robinson, J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Mandatory 2010 Green House Gas (GHG) Reporting Regulations and pending climate change legislation has increased interest in Energy Management and Reporting Systems (EMRS) as a means of both reducing and reporting GHG emissions. This paper...

  5. GHG Management Institute | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A PotentialJumpGermanFifeGEXA Corp. (New Jersey) Jump to:GGAM ElectricalGHG

  6. EIA - AEO2013 Early Release Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy-Related CO2 Emissions Total U.S. energy-related CO2 emissions do not return to their 2005 level (5,997 million metric tons) by the end of the AEO2013 projection period.6...

  7. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Minerals: GHG Inventory...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    GHG Inventory Protocols Read the Industrial Minerals Association - North America (IMA-NA) Borates and Soda Ash Sections Greenhouse Gas Inventory Protocol (PDF 75 KB) Download...

  8. Battery-Powered Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Projects to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Resource for Project Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2002-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The transportation sector accounts for a large and growing share of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Worldwide, motor vehicles emit well over 900 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) each year, accounting for more than 15 percent of global fossil fuel-derived CO2 emissions.1 In the industrialized world alone, 20-25 percent of GHG emissions come from the transportation sector. The share of transport-related emissions is growing rapidly due to the continued increase in transportation activity.2 In 1950, there were only 70 million cars, trucks, and buses on the world’s roads. By 1994, there were about nine times that number, or 630 million vehicles. Since the early 1970s, the global fleet has been growing at a rate of 16 million vehicles per year. This expansion has been accompanied by a similar growth in fuel consumption.3 If this kind of linear growth continues, by the year 2025 there will be well over one billion vehicles on the world’s roads.4 In a response to the significant growth in transportation-related GHG emissions, governments and policy makers worldwide are considering methods to reverse this trend. However, due to the particular make-up of the transportation sector, regulating and reducing emissions from this sector poses a significant challenge. Unlike stationary fuel combustion, transportation-related emissions come from dispersed sources. Only a few point-source emitters, such as oil/natural gas wells, refineries, or compressor stations, contribute to emissions from the transportation sector. The majority of transport-related emissions come from the millions of vehicles traveling the world’s roads. As a result, successful GHG mitigation policies must find ways to target all of these small, non-point source emitters, either through regulatory means or through various incentive programs. To increase their effectiveness, policies to control emissions from the transportation sector often utilize indirect means to reduce emissions, such as requiring specific technology improvements or an increase in fuel efficiency. Site-specific project activities can also be undertaken to help decrease GHG emissions, although the use of such measures is less common. Sample activities include switching to less GHG-intensive vehicle options, such as electric vehicles (EVs) or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). As emissions from transportation activities continue to rise, it will be necessary to promote both types of abatement activities in order to reverse the current emissions path. This Resource Guide focuses on site- and project-specific transportation activities. .

  9. A fuel cycle framework for evaluating greenhouse gas emission reduction technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashton, W.B.; Barns, D.W. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Bradley, R.A. (USDOE Office of Policy, Planning and Analysis, Washington, DC (USA). Office of Environmental Analysis)

    1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions arise from a number of fossil fuels, processes and equipment types throughout the full cycle from primary fuel production to end-use. Many technology alternatives are available for reducing emissions based on efficiency improvements, fuel switching to low-emission fuels, GHG removal, and changes in end-use demand. To conduct systematic analysis of how new technologies can be used to alter current emission levels, a conceptual framework helps develop a comprehensive picture of both the primary and secondary impacts of a new technology. This paper describes a broad generic fuel cycle framework which is useful for this purpose. The framework is used for cataloging emission source technologies and for evaluating technology solutions to reduce GHG emissions. It is important to evaluate fuel mix tradeoffs when investigating various technology strategies for emission reductions. For instance, while substituting natural gas for coal or oil in end-use applications to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, natural gas emissions of methane in the production phase of the fuel cycle may increase. Example uses of the framework are given.

  10. South Africa-Quantifying Emission Reduction Opportunities in...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AgencyCompany Organization Ecofys Sector Energy Topics Background analysis, GHG inventory, Low emission development planning, Pathways analysis Website http:www.ecofys.com...

  11. acid forming emissions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    O V 2007-01-01 58 Project Information Form Project Title Urban Spatial Structure and GHG Emissions Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization Websites Summary: has a larger...

  12. acid gas emissions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    gas ((GHG) (CO2, NH4, HFCs 26 INTRODUCTION Greenhouse Gas Emissions in an Urban Environment Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: INTRODUCTION Greenhouse Gas...

  13. Multi-criteria comparison of fuel policies: Renewable fuel mandate, fuel emission-standards, and fuel carbon tax

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Deepak; Hochman, G.; Zilberman, D.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is only one type of fossil fuel and one alternative fuel andGHG emissions and reducing fossil fuel use, and ?nd biofuelin GHG intensity of both fossil fuels and renewable fuels,

  14. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from U.S. Hydropower Reservoirs: FY2011 Annual Progress Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, Arthur J [ORNL; Mosher, Jennifer J [ORNL; Mulholland, Patrick J [ORNL; Fortner, Allison M [ORNL; Phillips, Jana Randolph [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of this study is to quantify the net emissions of key greenhouse gases (GHG) - notably, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} - from hydropower reservoirs in moist temperate areas within the U.S. The rationale for this objective is straightforward: if net emissions of GHG can be determined, it would be possible to directly compare hydropower to other power-producing methods on a carbon-emissions basis. Studies of GHG emissions from hydropower reservoirs elsewhere suggest that net emissions can be moderately high in tropical areas. In such areas, warm temperatures and relatively high supply rates of labile organic matter can encourage high rates of decomposition, which (depending upon local conditions) can result in elevated releases of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}. CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} emissions also tend to be higher for younger reservoirs than for older reservoirs, because vegetation and labile soil organic matter that is inundated when a reservoir is created can continue to decompose for several years (Galy-Lacaux et al. 1997, Barros et al. 2011). Water bodies located in climatically cooler areas, such as in boreal forests, could be expected to have lower net emissions of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} because their organic carbon supplies tend to be relatively recalcitrant to microbial action and because cooler water temperatures are less conducive to decomposition.

  15. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Semiconductors: GHG...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    2005, the industry's PFC emissions were equivalent to 4.3 million metric tons of CO2 (Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2005, U.S. EPA, 2007). Since...

  16. Energy and GHG Emissions in British Columbia 1990 -2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedersen, Tom

    economy. Use of natural gas in 2010 was 3% lower than it was in 1990 while intensity declined by 16% per person and 37% per dollar from 1990. Natural gas Environment Canada, Natural Resources Canada, Aluminium Industry Association, Canadian Chemical Producers

  17. New Jersey: EERE-Supported Technology Lowers GHG Emissions 70...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Innovation Recognized by R&D Magazine for Fuel-Saving Product Washington: Graphene Nanostructures for Lithium Batteries Recieves 2012 R&D 100 Award Project Overview...

  18. Attachment C - Summary GHG Emissions Data FINAL | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently20,000 RussianBy:Whether you'reInc.:memo memorializes the meeting

  19. Attachment C Summary GHG Emissions Data FINAL | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently20,000 RussianBy:Whether you'reInc.:memo memorializes the

  20. EPA Climate Leaders Simplified GHG Emissions Calculator (SGEC) | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A Potential MicrohydroDistrict ofDongjinDynetek42EOP Biodiesel AG JumpEnergy

  1. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Stationary

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f <MaintainedInformation 2EnergyCity ofGeysers and SaltonLimited

  2. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Transport or

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f <MaintainedInformation 2EnergyCity ofGeysers and SaltonLimitedMobil

  3. Methodology for Estimating Reductions of GHG Emissions from Mosaic

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup |JilinLu an GroupInformation Meier(Redirected from

  4. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Purchased

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit with formSoutheasternInformationPolicy |Environmental BuildingTheElectricity

  5. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Refrigeration

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit with formSoutheasternInformationPolicy |Environmental

  6. Greenhouse Emission Reductions and Natural Gas Vehicles: A Resource Guide on Technology Options and Project Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orestes Anastasia; NAncy Checklick; Vivianne Couts; Julie Doherty; Jette Findsen; Laura Gehlin; Josh Radoff

    2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accurate and verifiable emission reductions are a function of the degree of transparency and stringency of the protocols employed in documenting project- or program-associated emissions reductions. The purpose of this guide is to provide a background for law and policy makers, urban planners, and project developers working with the many Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission reduction programs throughout the world to quantify and/or evaluate the GHG impacts of Natural Gas Vehicle (NGVs). In order to evaluate the GHG benefits and/or penalties of NGV projects, it is necessary to first gain a fundamental understanding of the technology employed and the operating characteristics of these vehicles, especially with regard to the manner in which they compare to similar conventional gasoline or diesel vehicles. Therefore, the first two sections of this paper explain the basic technology and functionality of NGVs, but focus on evaluating the models that are currently on the market with their similar conventional counterparts, including characteristics such as cost, performance, efficiency, environmental attributes, and range. Since the increased use of NGVs, along with Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFVs) in general, represents a public good with many social benefits at the local, national, and global levels, NGVs often receive significant attention in the form of legislative and programmatic support. Some states mandate the use of NGVs, while others provide financial incentives to promote their procurement and use. Furthermore, Federal legislation in the form of tax incentives or procurement requirements can have a significant impact on the NGV market. In order to implement effective legislation or programs, it is vital to have an understanding of the different programs and activities that already exist so that a new project focusing on GHG emission reduction can successfully interact with and build on the experience and lessons learned of those that preceded it. Finally, most programs that deal with passenger vehicles--and with transportation in general--do not address the climate change component explicitly, and thus there are few GHG reduction goals that are included in these programs. Furthermore, there are relatively few protocols that exist for accounting for the GHG emissions reductions that arise from transportation and, specifically, passenger vehicle projects and programs. These accounting procedures and principles gain increased importance when a project developer wishes to document in a credible manner, the GHG reductions that are achieved by a given project or program. Section four of this paper outlined the GHG emissions associated with NGVs, both upstream and downstream, and section five illustrated the methodology, via hypothetical case studies, for measuring these reductions using different types of baselines. Unlike stationary energy combustion, GHG emissions from transportation activities, including NGV projects, come from dispersed sources creating a need for different methodologies for assessing GHG impacts. This resource guide has outlined the necessary context and background for those parties wishing to evaluate projects and develop programs, policies, projects, and legislation aimed at the promotion of NGVs for GHG emission reduction.

  7. On fair pricing of emission-related derivatives National University of Singapore

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaudhuri, Sanjay

    On fair pricing of emission-related derivatives Juri Hinz National University of Singapore of such derivatives. Key words: environmental risk, energy economics, emission trading, emis- sion derivatives 1 #12 emissions and adjust allowance positions. In the following sections, we address the problem of fair pricing

  8. Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steve Winkelman; Tim Hargrave; Christine Vanderlan

    1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors conclude in this report that an upstream system would ensure complete regulatory coverage of transportation sector emissions in an efficient and feasible manner, and as such represents a key component of a national least-cost GHG emissions abatement strategy. The broad coverage provided by an upstream system recommends this approach over vehicle-maker based approaches, which would not cover emissions from heavy-duty vehicles and the aviation, marine and off-road sub-sectors. The on-road fleet approach unfairly and inefficiently burdens vehicle manufacturers with responsibility for emissions that they cannot control. A new vehicles approach would exclude emissions from vehicles on the road prior to program inception. The hybrid approach faces significant technical and political complications, and it is not clear that the approach would actually change behavior among vehicle makers and users, which is its main purpose. They also note that a trading system would fail to encourage many land use and infrastructure measures that affect VMT growth and GHG emissions. They recommend that this market failure be addressed by complementing the trading system with a program specifically targeting land use- and infrastructure-related activities. A key issue that must be addressed in designing a national GHG control strategy is whether or not it is necessary to guarantee GHG reductions from the transport sector. Neither an upstream system nor a downstream approach would do so, since both would direct capital to the least-cost abatement opportunities wherever they were found. They review two reasons why it may be desirable to force transportation sector reductions: first, that the long-term response to climate change will require reductions in all sectors; and second, the many ancillary benefits associated with transportation-related, and especially VMT-related, emissions reduction activities. If policy makers find it desirable to establish transportation-specific policies, they recommend (in addition to the land use policies mentioned above), that they combine an upstream trading system with a carbon efficiency standard similar to the current CAFE standard. Under this approach a fuel price signal would be complemented by incentives for manufacturers to produce more carbon efficient vehicles. To prevent vehicle manufacturers from being forced to pay more than other sectors for reducing GHG emissions, they recommend that the vehicle makers be allowed to pay a cash penalty equal to the market price of allowances in lieu of meeting carbon efficiency requirements.

  9. Catalyst Paper No-Carb Strategy for GHG Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McClain, C.; Robinson, J.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Catalyst Paper strategy to manage GHG exposure is a combination of energy reduction initiatives in manufacturing and the effective use of biomass and alternative fuels to produce mill steam and electricity from the powerhouse. The energy...

  10. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Aluminum: GHG Information

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    GHG Information The primary aluminum industry emits PFCs and CO2 directly from the production process and indirectly emits CO2 from its energy consumption. In 2001, the U.S....

  11. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Minerals: GHG Information

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    GHG Information Read the Industrial Minerals Association - North America (IMA-NA) 2011 Greenhouse Gas and Energy Survey Industry Summary for the period from 2000 to 2010 (PDF 16...

  12. Climate Change Technology Scenarios: Energy, Emissions, and Economic Implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Placet, Marylynn; Humphreys, Kenneth K.; Mahasenan, N Maha

    2004-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes three advanced technology scenarios and various illustrative cases developed by staff of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Climate Change Technology Program. These scenarios and illustrative cases explore the energy, emissions and economic implications of using advanced energy technologies and other climate change related technologies to reduce future emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The cases were modeled using the Mini Climate Assessment Model (MiniCAM) developed by PNNL. The report describes the scenarios, the specifications for the cases, and the results. The report also provides background information on current emissions of GHGs and issues associated with stabilizing GHG concentrations.

  13. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Utility-Scale Wind Power: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dolan, S. L.; Heath, G. A.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of utility-scale wind power systems was performed to determine the causes of and, where possible, reduce variability in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Screening of approximately 240 LCAs of onshore and offshore systems yielded 72 references meeting minimum thresholds for quality, transparency, and relevance. Of those, 49 references provided 126 estimates of life cycle GHG emissions. Published estimates ranged from 1.7 to 81 grams CO{sub 2}-equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh), with median and interquartile range (IQR) both at 12 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh. After adjusting the published estimates to use consistent gross system boundaries and values for several important system parameters, the total range was reduced by 47% to 3.0 to 45 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh and the IQR was reduced by 14% to 10 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh, while the median remained relatively constant (11 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh). Harmonization of capacity factor resulted in the largest reduction in variability in life cycle GHG emission estimates. This study concludes that the large number of previously published life cycle GHG emission estimates of wind power systems and their tight distribution suggest that new process-based LCAs of similar wind turbine technologies are unlikely to differ greatly. However, additional consequential LCAs would enhance the understanding of true life cycle GHG emissions of wind power (e.g., changes to other generators operations when wind electricity is added to the grid), although even those are unlikely to fundamentally change the comparison of wind to other electricity generation sources.

  14. Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    At an international conference on global warming, held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the United States committed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 7% over its 1990 level by the year 2012. To help achieve that goal, transportation GHG emissions need to be reduced. Using Argonne's fuel-cycle model, I estimated GHG emissions reduction potentials of various near- and long-term transportation technologies. The estimated per-mile GHG emissions results show that alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies can help significantly reduce transportation GHG emissions. Of the near-term technologies evaluated in this study, electric vehicles; hybrid electric vehicles; compression-ignition, direct-injection vehicles; and E85 flexible fuel vehicles can reduce fuel-cycle GHG emissions by more than 25%, on the fuel-cycle basis. Electric vehicles powered by electricity generated primarily from nuclear and renewable sources can reduce GHG emissions by 80%. Other alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, offer limited, but positive, GHG emission reduction benefits. Among the long-term technologies evaluated in this study, conventional spark ignition and compression ignition engines powered by alternative fuels and gasoline- and diesel-powered advanced vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by 10% to 30%. Ethanol dedicated vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by over 40%. Spark ignition engines and fuel-cell vehicles powered by cellulosic ethanol and solar hydrogen (for fuel-cell vehicles only) can reduce GHG emissions by over 80%. In conclusion, both near- and long-term alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies can play a role in reducing the United States GHG emissions.

  15. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Solar Photovoltaics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Harmonization Project, a study that helps to clarify inconsistent and conflicting life cycle GHG emission estimates in the published literature and provide more precise estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from PV systems.

  16. Sharing the Burden of GHG Reductions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacoby, Henry D.

    The G8 countries propose a goal of a 50% reduction in global emissions by 2050, in an effort that needs to take account of other agreements specifying that developing countries are to be provided with incentives to action ...

  17. 2008 Guidelines to Defra's GHG Conversion Factors Guidelines to Defra's GHG Conversion Factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - Imports and Exports Last updated: Jun-05 Total emissions (kg CO2) Total electricity produced Total heat produced kg CO2/kWh elecricity Total emissions (kg CO2) Total electricity produced Total heat produced kg CO2/kWh heat Emissions (in kgCO2) per kWh electricity = twice total emissions (in kgCO2) twice total

  18. Mileage efficiency and relative emission of automotive vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patankar, Neelesh A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Physics dictates that cars with small mass will travel more miles per gallon (mpg) compared to massive trucks. Does this imply that small cars are more efficient machines? In this work a mileage efficiency metric is defined as a ratio of actual car mileage (mpg) to the mileage of an ideal car. This metric allows comparison of efficiencies of cars with different masses and fuel types. It is as useful to quantify efficiencies of cars as the concept of drag coefficient is to quantify the efficacy of their aerodynamic shapes. Maximum mileage and lowest CO2 emission of conventional gasoline cars, at different driving schedules, is reported based on the concept of an ideal car. This can help put government imposed standards in a rigorous context.

  19. EIA - AEO2012 Early Release Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    of the CSAPR, which helps shift the fuel mix away from coal toward lower carbon fuels. Energy-related CO2 emissions reflect the mix of fossil fuels consumed. Given the high...

  20. Identifying Options for Deep Reductions in Greenhouse Gas Emissions from California Transportation: Meeting an 80% Reduction Goal in 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Christopher; McCollum, David L; McCarthy, Ryan; Leighty, Wayne

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of U.S. Croplands for Biofuels Increases Greenhouse GasesGHG Emissions from Biofuels . in STEPS Research Symposium .NRDC, Growing Energy: How Biofuels Can Help End America's

  1. Integrating Agricultural and Forestry GHG Mitigation Response into General Economy Frameworks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    Integrating Agricultural and Forestry GHG Mitigation Response into General Economy Frameworks. #12;2 Integrating Agricultural and Forestry GHG Mitigation Response into General Economy Frameworks for characterizing potential responses to greenhouse gas mitigation policies by the agriculture and forestry

  2. Using Section 111 of the Clean Air Act for Cap-and-Trade of Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Obstacles and Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enion, Rhead M.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    focused nitro- gen oxide emissions-trading program for largeNSPS program could use emissions trading, including cap-and-regulations that allow emissions trading, to achieve GHG

  3. Assessing the fuel Use and greenhouse gas emissions of future light-duty vehicles in Japan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nishimura, Eriko

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is of great concern in Japan, as well as elsewhere, such as in the U.S. and EU. More than 20% of GHG emissions in Japan come from the transportation sector, and a more than 70% ...

  4. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Concentrating Solar Power (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Harmonization Project, a study that makes great strides in clarifying inconsistent and conflicting GHG emission estimates in the published literature while providing more precise estimates of GHG emissions from utility-scale CSP systems.

  5. Hydrogen Pathways: Cost, Well-to-Wheels Energy Use, and Emissions for the Current Technology Status of Seven Hydrogen Production, Delivery, and Distribution Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruth, M.; Laffen, M.; Timbario, T. A.

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Report of levelized cost in 2005 U.S. dollars, energy use, and GHG emission benefits of seven hydrogen production, delivery, and distribution pathways.

  6. Hydrogen Pathways: Cost, Well-to-Wheels Energy Use, and Emissions for the Current Technology Status of Seven Hydrogen Production, Delivery, and Distribution Scenarios

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    Report of levelized cost in 2005 U.S. dollars, energy use, and GHG emission benefits of seven hydrogen production, delivery, and distribution pathways.

  7. Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Qin, Yining

    2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Although China became the world's largest emitter of energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions in 2007, China does not publish annual estimates of CO{sub 2} emissions and most published estimates of China's emissions have been done by other international organizations. Undertaken at the request of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Department of Energy, this study examines the feasibility of applying the EIA emissions inventory methodology to estimate China's emissions from published Chinese data. Besides serving as a proof of concept, this study also helps develop a consistent and transparent method for estimating China's CO{sub 2} emissions using an Excel model and identified China-specific data issues and areas for improvement. This study takes a core set of data from the energy balances published in the China Energy Statistical Yearbook 2009 and China Petrochemical Corporation Yearbook 2009 and applies the EIA's eight-step methodology to estimate China's 2008 CO{sub 2} emissions. First, China's primary and secondary fuel types and consumption by end use are determined with slight discrepancies identified between the two data sources and inconsistencies in product categorization with the EIA. Second, energy consumption data are adjusted to eliminate double counting in the four potential areas identified by EIA; consumption data from China's Special Administrative Regions are not included. Physical fuel units are then converted to energy equivalents using China's standard energy measure of coal equivalent (1 kilogram = 29.27 MJ) and IPCC carbon emissions coefficients are used to calculate each fuel's carbon content. Next, carbon sequestration is estimated following EIA conventions for other petroleum products and non-energy use of secondary fuels. Emissions from international bunker fuels are also subtracted under the 'reference' calculation of estimating apparent energy consumption by fuel type and the 'sectoral' calculation of summing emissions across end-use sectors. Adjustments for the China-specific conventions of reporting foreign bunkers and domestic bunkers fueling abroad are made following IPCC definitions of international bunkers and EIA reporting conventions, while the sequestration of carbon in carbon steel is included as an additional adjustment. Under the sectoral approach, fuel consumption of bunkers and other transformation losses as well as gasoline consumption are reallocated to conform to EIA sectoral reporting conventions. To the extent possible, this study relies on official energy data from primary sources. A limited number of secondary sources were consulted to provide insight into the nature of consumption of some products and to guide the analysis of carbon sequestered in steel. Beyond these, however, the study avoided trying to estimate figures where directly unavailable, such as natural gas flaring. As a result, the basic calculations should be repeatable for other years with the core set of data from National Bureau of Statistics and Sinopec (or a similarly authoritative source of oil product data). This study estimates China's total energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions in 2008 to be 6666 Mt CO{sub 2}, including 234.6 Mt of non-fuel CO{sub 2} emissions and 154 Mt of sequestered CO{sub 2}. Bunker fuel emissions in 2008 totaled 15.9 Mt CO{sub 2}, but this figure is underestimated because fuel use by Chinese ship and planes for international transportation and military bunkers are not included. Of emissions related to energy consumption, 82% is from coal consumption, 15% from petroleum and 3% from natural gas. From the sectoral approach, industry had the largest share of China's energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions with 72%, followed by residential at 11%, transport and telecommunications at 8%, and the other four (commerce, agriculture, construction and other public) sectors having a combined share of 9%. Thermal electricity and (purchased) heat (to a lesser degree) are major sources of fuel consumption behind sectoral emissions, responsible for 2533 Mt CO2 and 321 Mt CO{sub 2}, respec

  8. Quantification of greenhouse gas emissions from waste management processes for municipalities - A comparative review focusing on Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedrich, Elena, E-mail: Friedriche@ukzn.ac.za [CRECHE Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Surveying and Construction, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban (South Africa); Trois, Cristina [CRECHE Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Surveying and Construction, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban (South Africa)

    2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The amount of greenhouse gases (GHG) emitted due to waste management in the cities of developing countries is predicted to rise considerably in the near future; however, these countries have a series of problems in accounting and reporting these gases. Some of these problems are related to the status quo of waste management in the developing world and some to the lack of a coherent framework for accounting and reporting of greenhouse gases from waste at municipal level. This review summarizes and compares GHG emissions from individual waste management processes which make up a municipal waste management system, with an emphasis on developing countries and, in particular, Africa. It should be seen as a first step towards developing a more holistic GHG accounting model for municipalities. The comparison between these emissions from developed and developing countries at process level, reveals that there is agreement on the magnitude of the emissions expected from each process (generation of waste, collection and transport, disposal and recycling). The highest GHG savings are achieved through recycling, and these savings would be even higher in developing countries which rely on coal for energy production (e.g. South Africa, India and China) and where non-motorized collection and transport is used. The highest emissions are due to the methane released by dumpsites and landfills, and these emissions are predicted to increase significantly, unless more of the methane is captured and either flared or used for energy generation. The clean development mechanism (CDM) projects implemented in the developing world have made some progress in this field; however, African countries lag behind.

  9. Developing an indicator for the chronic health impact of traffic-related pollutant emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lepicier, Veronique [IFSTTAR, Laboratoire Transport et Environnement, 25, av. F. Mitterrand, 69675 Bron Cedex (France); Chiron, Mireille [IFSTTAR, UMRESTTE, 25, av. F. Mitterrand, 69675 Bron Cedex (France); Joumard, Robert, E-mail: robert.joumard@laposte.net [IFSTTAR, Laboratoire Transport et Environnement, 25, av. F. Mitterrand, 69675 Bron Cedex (France)

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this study is to develop an emission based indicator for the health impact of the air pollution caused by traffic. This indicator must make it possible to compare different situations, for example different Urban Travel Plans, or technical innovations. Our work is based on a literature survey of methods for evaluating health impacts and, more particularly, those which relate to the atmospheric pollution caused by transport. We then define a health impact indicator based on the traffic emissions, named IISCEP for Chronic health impact indicator of pollutant emission. Here health is understood in a restricted meaning, excluding well-being. Only primary pollutants can be considered, as the inputs are emission data and an indicator must be simple. The indicator is calculated as the sum of each pollutant emission multiplied by a dispersion and exposition factor and a substance specific toxicity factor taking account of the severity. Last, two examples are shown using the IISCEP: comparison between petrol and diesel vehicles, and Nantes urban district in 2008 vs 2002. Even if it could still be improved, IISCEP is a straightforward indicator which can be used to gauge the chronic effects of inhaling primary pollutants. It can only be used in comparisons, between different scenarios or different technologies. The quality of the emissions data and the choice of the pollutants that are considered are the two essential factors that determine its validity and reliability. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The goal of the study is to develop an emission based indicator for the health impact of the air pollution caused by traffic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is based on a literature survey of methods for evaluating health impacts related to the atmospheric pollution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We define a composite indicator based on the traffic emissions and on local data as dispersion conditions and population. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The indicator is a combination of pollutant emission, dispersion, exposition factor, and substance specific toxicity factor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Applications are global (e.g. comparison of vehicle technologies) or local (e.g. comparison of populations or areas).

  10. Greenhouse gas emissions from MSW incineration in China: Impacts of waste characteristics and energy recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Na [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhang Hua, E-mail: zhanghua_tj@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Chen Miao; Shao Liming [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); He Pinjing, E-mail: xhpjk@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Determination of the amount of greenhouse gas (GHG) emitted during municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is complex because both contributions and savings of GHGs exist in the process. To identify the critical factors influencing GHG emissions from MSWI in China, a GHG accounting model was established and applied to six Chinese cities located in different regions. The results showed that MSWI in most of the cities was the source of GHGs, with emissions of 25-207 kg CO{sub 2}-eq t{sup -1} rw. Within all process stages, the emission of fossil CO{sub 2} from the combustion of MSW was the main contributor (111-254 kg CO{sub 2}-eq t{sup -1} rw), while the substitution of electricity reduced the GHG emissions by 150-247 kg CO{sub 2}-eq t{sup -1} rw. By affecting the fossil carbon content and the lower heating value of the waste, the contents of plastic and food waste in the MSW were the critical factors influencing GHG emissions of MSWI. Decreasing food waste content in MSW by half will significantly reduce the GHG emissions from MSWI, and such a reduction will convert MSWI in Urumqi and Tianjin from GHG sources to GHG sinks. Comparison of the GHG emissions in the six Chinese cities with those in European countries revealed that higher energy recovery efficiency in Europe induced much greater reductions in GHG emissions. Recovering the excess heat after generation of electricity would be a good measure to convert MSWI in all the six cities evaluated herein into sinks of GHGs.

  11. Biochar amendment and greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Case, Sean Daniel Charles

    2013-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of biochar amendment on soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and to elucidate the mechanisms behind these effects. I investigated the suppression of soil carbon dioxide ...

  12. Uncertainties in Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Advanced

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kara G. Cafferty; Erin M. Searcy; Long Nguyen; Sabrina Spatari

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To meet Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) cellulosic biofuel mandates, the United States will require an annual domestic supply of about 242 million Mg of biomass by 2022. To improve the feedstock logistics of lignocellulosic biofuels and access available biomass resources from areas with varying yields, commodity systems have been proposed and designed to deliver on-spec biomass feedstocks at preprocessing “depots”, which densify and stabilize the biomass prior to long-distance transport and delivery to centralized biorefineries. The harvesting, preprocessing, and logistics (HPL) of biomass commodity supply chains thus could introduce spatially variable environmental impacts into the biofuel life cycle due to needing to harvest, move, and preprocess biomass from multiple distances that have variable spatial density. This study examines the uncertainty in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of corn stover logisticsHPL within a bio-ethanol supply chain in the state of Kansas, where sustainable biomass supply varies spatially. Two scenarios were evaluated each having a different number of depots of varying capacity and location within Kansas relative to a central commodity-receiving biorefinery to test GHG emissions uncertainty. Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate the spatial uncertainty in the HPL gate-to-gate sequence. The results show that the transport of densified biomass introduces the highest variability and contribution to the carbon footprint of the logistics HPL supply chain (0.2-13 g CO2e/MJ). Moreover, depending upon the biomass availability and its spatial density and surrounding transportation infrastructure (road and rail), logistics HPL processes can increase the variability in life cycle environmental impacts for lignocellulosic biofuels. Within Kansas, life cycle GHG emissions could range from 24 to 41 g CO2e/MJ depending upon the location, size and number of preprocessing depots constructed. However, this range can be minimized through optimizing the siting of preprocessing depots where ample rail infrastructure exists to supply biomass commodity to a regional biorefinery supply system

  13. Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    China's 2008 Total CO 2 Emissions from Energy Consumption:10. China's 2008 Total CO 2 Emissions from Energy: Sectoral16 Table 11. China's 2008 CO 2 Emissions from Energy:

  14. Using Cool Roofs to Reduce Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Urban Heat-island Effects: Findings from an India Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akbari, Hashem

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electricity Savings (kWh/m2/year) GHG Emissions Factor* (kg CO2Electricity savings for a commercial building (kg CO2 per kWh) Average CO2 Emissions (

  15. Market-Based Emissions Regulation and Industry Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fowlie, Meredith

    . The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of NSF grant SES-0922401. 1 #12;Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) in the European Union and California's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading program. In these "cap is that, provided a series of conditions are met, an emissions trading program designed to equate marginal

  16. Market-Based Emissions Regulation and Industry Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fowlie, Meredith

    . Examples include the Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) in the European Union and California's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading program. In these "cap-and-trade" (CAT) programs, regulators impose a cap- sions is that, provided a series of conditions are met, an emissions trading program designed to equate

  17. Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Measurement, Causation and Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .S. CO2 emissions sources. U.S. CO2 transportation emissions sources by mode. #12;Center% of the carbon dioxide we produce. As such it is a leading candidate for greenhouse gas ((GHG) (CO2, NH4, HFCsTransportation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Measurement, Causation and Mitigation Oak Ridge

  18. Well-to-wheels energy use and greenhouse gas emissions analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elgowainy, A.; Burnham, A.; Wang, M.; Molburg, J.; Rousseau, A.; Energy Systems

    2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Researchers at Argonne National Laboratory expanded the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model and incorporated the fuel economy and electricity use of alternative fuel/vehicle systems simulated by the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) to conduct a well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis of energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The WTW results were separately calculated for the blended charge-depleting (CD) and charge-sustaining (CS) modes of PHEV operation and then combined by using a weighting factor that represented the CD vehicle-miles-traveled (VMT) share. As indicated by PSAT simulations of the CD operation, grid electricity accounted for a share of the vehicle's total energy use, ranging from 6% for a PHEV 10 to 24% for a PHEV 40, based on CD VMT shares of 23% and 63%, respectively. In addition to the PHEV's fuel economy and type of on-board fuel, the marginal electricity generation mix used to charge the vehicle impacted the WTW results, especially GHG emissions. Three North American Electric Reliability Corporation regions (4, 6, and 13) were selected for this analysis, because they encompassed large metropolitan areas (Illinois, New York, and California, respectively) and provided a significant variation of marginal generation mixes. The WTW results were also reported for the U.S. generation mix and renewable electricity to examine cases of average and clean mixes, respectively. For an all-electric range (AER) between 10 mi and 40 mi, PHEVs that employed petroleum fuels (gasoline and diesel), a blend of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline (E85), and hydrogen were shown to offer a 40-60%, 70-90%, and more than 90% reduction in petroleum energy use and a 30-60%, 40-80%, and 10-100% reduction in GHG emissions, respectively, relative to an internal combustion engine vehicle that used gasoline. The spread of WTW GHG emissions among the different fuel production technologies and grid generation mixes was wider than the spread of petroleum energy use, mainly due to the diverse fuel production technologies and feedstock sources for the fuels considered in this analysis. The PHEVs offered reductions in petroleum energy use as compared with regular hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). More petroleum energy savings were realized as the AER increased, except when the marginal grid mix was dominated by oil-fired power generation. Similarly, more GHG emissions reductions were realized at higher AERs, except when the marginal grid generation mix was dominated by oil or coal. Electricity from renewable sources realized the largest reductions in petroleum energy use and GHG emissions for all PHEVs as the AER increased. The PHEVs that employ biomass-based fuels (e.g., biomass-E85 and -hydrogen) may not realize GHG emissions benefits over regular HEVs if the marginal generation mix is dominated by fossil sources. Uncertainties are associated with the adopted PHEV fuel consumption and marginal generation mix simulation results, which impact the WTW results and require further research. More disaggregate marginal generation data within control areas (where the actual dispatching occurs) and an improved dispatch modeling are needed to accurately assess the impact of PHEV electrification. The market penetration of the PHEVs, their total electric load, and their role as complements rather than replacements of regular HEVs are also uncertain. The effects of the number of daily charges, the time of charging, and the charging capacity have not been evaluated in this study. A more robust analysis of the VMT share of the CD operation is also needed.

  19. Relative ozone forming potential of methanol-fueled vehicle emissions and gasoline-fueled vehicle emissions in outdoor smog chambers. Interim report, 1991-1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffries, H.E.; Sexton, K.G.

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The experimental program compares the relative NO oxidation and O3 forming capabilities of surrogate VOC mixtures that are representative of urban air, emissions from vehicles using methanol fuels, and emissions from vehicles using industry-average gasoline. The experiments used a dual side-by-side outdoor chamber with initial NOx of 330 ppb and hydrocarbon-to-NOx ratios 4.5, 6, and 9:1. The urban VOC mixture was based upon ambient air analyses conducted by EPA for 6-9 AM in 41 cities over the period 1984-1988. The automotive VOC mixtures were based upon exhaust, evaporative, and running loss measurements made in the Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program and upon the application of EPA's MOBILE4 emissions model applied in a model scenario in Dallas/Fort Worth in the year 2005. Each of the VOC mixtures had about 55 individual species in which about 45 species were surrogates for the remaining measured carbon. In addition to testing the relative reactivity of each VOC mixture against the other mixtures, the majority of the experiments used mixtures in which 50% of the carbon was from the urban mix and 50% of the carbon was from industry-average gasoline vehicle emissions or 50% of the carbon was from the methanol-fueled vehicle emissions. Some experiments were also conducted with higher fractions of formaldehyde (HCHO) in either the urban mix or in the methanol mix.

  20. GLOBAL EMISSIONS INVENTORIES OF ACID-RELATED COMPOUNDS T.E. GRAEDEL t , C.M. BENKOVITZ 2, W.C. KEENE 3, D.S. LEE 4,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GLOBAL EMISSIONS INVENTORIES OF ACID-RELATED COMPOUNDS T.E. GRAEDEL t , C.M. BENKOVITZ 2, W, and future rely in part on inventories of emissions constructed on appropriate spatial and temporal scales and the regulatory and policy communities. The production of global emissions inventories is the task of the GlobalEmissionsInventory

  1. Improving Energy Efficiency and Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in BPs PTA Manufacturing Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, F.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improving Energy Efficiency and Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in BPs PTA Manufacturing Plants Fred Clark Energy/GHG Advisor BP Aromatics & Acetyls Naperville, Illinois BP is the world?s leading producer of purified terephthalic acid...

  2. A Strategy for a Global Observing System for Verification of National Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prinn, Ronald G.

    With the risks of climate change becoming increasingly evident, there is growing discussion regarding international treaties and national regulations to lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Enforcement of such agreements ...

  3. Development and Update of Models for Long-Term Energy and GHG...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    and Update of Models for Long-Term Energy and GHG Impact Evaluation 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer...

  4. Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    China’s 2008 Thermal Electricity Sector CO 2 Emissions byheat. Share of thermal electricity sector’s CO 2 emissionsheat. Share of thermal electricity sector’s CO 2 emissions

  5. Key statistics related to CO/sub 2/ emissions: Significant contributing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kellogg, M.A.; Edmonds, J.A.; Scott, M.J.; Pomykala, J.S.

    1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This country selection task report describes and applies a methodology for identifying a set of countries responsible for significant present and anticipated future emissions of CO/sub 2/ and other radiatively important gases (RIGs). The identification of countries responsible for CO/sub 2/ and other RIGs emissions will help determine to what extent a select number of countries might be capable of influencing future emissions. Once identified, those countries could potentially exercise cooperative collective control of global emissions and thus mitigate the associated adverse affects of those emissions. The methodology developed consists of two approaches: the resource approach and the emissions approach. While conceptually very different, both approaches yield the same fundamental conclusion. The core of any international initiative to control global emissions must include three key countries: the US, USSR, and the People's Republic of China. It was also determined that broader control can be achieved through the inclusion of sixteen additional countries with significant contributions to worldwide emissions.

  6. GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG) INVENTORY REPORT 20102011 Dalhousie Office of Sustainability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brownstone, Rob

    Caption. LSC Solar thermal panels installed 20102011. #12;Page | 1 TableofContents Table ......................................................................................... 35 Appendix I: Nova Scotia Power Emission Factors ......

  7. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Electric Power: GHG...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    - i.e., North American Industry Classification System 22 plants". It does not include CO2 emissions or electric output from industrial and commercial combined heat and power...

  8. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Mining: GHG Information

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    various sources describing the energy consumption of the industrial sector and the carbon emissions in particular. Below is an estimate of the million metric tons of carbon...

  9. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Oil and Gas: GHG...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Toward a Consistent Methodology for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Oil and Natural Gas Industry Operations (PDF 378 KB) Download Acrobat Reader Addressing climate...

  10. Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    emissions are allocated to that sector accordingly. Biogas.The majority of biogas consumed in China is from rural

  11. The Clean Development Mechanism and CER Price Formation in the Carbon Emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carmona, Rene

    to earn Certified Emission Reduction (CER) credits, each equiva- lent to one ton of CO2. These CERs can is to reduce CO2 emissions from these installations by 10% by 2018. However, the European Union Emission House Gas (GHG) emission reduction targets set Partially supported by NSF: DMS-0806591. The second named

  12. Greenhouse Gas emissions from California Geothermal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, John

    2014-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The information given in this file represents GHG emissions and corresponding emission rates for California flash and dry steam geothermal power plants. This stage of the life cycle is the fuel use component of the fuel cycle and arises during plant operation. Despite that no fossil fuels are being consumed during operation of these plants, GHG emissions nevertheless arise from GHGs present in the geofluids and dry steam that get released to the atmosphere upon passing through the system. Data for the years of 2008 to 2012 are analyzed.

  13. Greenhouse Gas emissions from California Geothermal Power Plants

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sullivan, John

    The information given in this file represents GHG emissions and corresponding emission rates for California flash and dry steam geothermal power plants. This stage of the life cycle is the fuel use component of the fuel cycle and arises during plant operation. Despite that no fossil fuels are being consumed during operation of these plants, GHG emissions nevertheless arise from GHGs present in the geofluids and dry steam that get released to the atmosphere upon passing through the system. Data for the years of 2008 to 2012 are analyzed.

  14. Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Standards Press, June 2010. EIA, 2008. “Documentation forInformation Administration (EIA) of the US Department ofthe feasibility of applying the EIA emissions inventory

  15. Relation of SiO maser emission to IR radiation in evolved stars based on the MSX observation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. W. Jiang

    2002-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on the space MSX observation in bands A(8$\\mu$m), C(12$\\mu$m), D(15$\\mu$m) and E(21$\\mu$m), and the ground SiO maser observation of evolved stars by the Nobeyama 45-m telescope in the v=1 and v=2 J=1-0 transitions, the relation between SiO maser emission and mid-IR continuum radiation is analyzed. The relation between SiO maser emission and the IR radiation in the MSX bands A, C, D and E is all clearly correlated. The SiO maser emission can be explained by a radiative pumping mechanism according to its correlation with infrared radiation in the MSX band A.

  16. Life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions and non-CO? combustion effects from alternative jet fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stratton, Russell William

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The long-term viability and success of a transportation fuel depends on both economic and environmental sustainability. This thesis focuses specifically on assessing the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and non-CO ...

  17. Marginal Abatement Costs and Marginal Welfare Costs for Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reductions: Results from the EPPA Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris, Jennifer

    Marginal abatement cost (MAC) curves, relationships between tons of emissions abated and the CO2 (or GHG) price, have been widely used as pedagogic devices to illustrate simple economic concepts such as the benefits of ...

  18. Operational and policy implications of managing uncertainty in quality and emissions of multi-feedstock biodiesel systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gül?en, Ece

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As an alternative transportation fuel to petrodiesel, biodiesel has been widely promoted within national energy portfolio targets across the world. Early estimations of low lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of ...

  19. Further Sensitivity Analysis of Hypothetical Policies to Limit Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This analysis supplements the Annual Energy Outlook 2013 alternative cases which imposed hypothetical carbon dioxide emission fees on fossil fuel consumers. It offers further cases that examine the impacts of fees placed only on the emissions from electric power facilities, impacts of returning potential revenues to consumers, and two cap-and-trade policies.

  20. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Wenzel, Tom; Price, Lynn

    2008-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Central to any study of climate change is the development of an emission inventory that identifies and quantifies the State's primary anthropogenic sources and sinks of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion accounted for 80 percent of California GHG emissions (CARB, 2007a). Even though these CO2 emissions are well characterized in the existing state inventory, there still exist significant sources of uncertainties regarding their accuracy. This report evaluates the CO2 emissions accounting based on the California Energy Balance database (CALEB) developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in terms of what improvements are needed and where uncertainties lie. The estimated uncertainty for total CO2 emissions ranges between -21 and +37 million metric tons (Mt), or -6percent and +11percent of total CO2 emissions. The report also identifies where improvements are needed for the upcoming updates of CALEB. However, it is worth noting that the California Air Resources Board (CARB) GHG inventory did not use CALEB data for all combustion estimates. Therefore the range in uncertainty estimated in this report does not apply to the CARB's GHG inventory. As much as possible, additional data sources used by CARB in the development of its GHG inventory are summarized in this report for consideration in future updates to CALEB.

  1. Prioritizing Climate Change Mitigation Alternatives: Comparing Transportation Technologies to Options in Other Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    truck GHG emissions25. Commercial truck GHG emissions with emission-reductionCost effectiveness curve for truck GHG emission reduction

  2. Greenhouse gas emissions and the surface transport of freight in Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenhouse gas emissions and the surface transport of freight in Canada Paul Steenhof a,*, Clarence committed to reducing its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 6% below 1990 levels between 2008 and 2012's emissions of 740 million metric tonnes of carbon dioxide (mmTCO2e), and 41% of the CO2e emitted from

  3. Julian Cleary, Nigel T. Roulet and Tim R. Moore Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roulet, Nigel T.

    ) emissions from land use, fossil fuel combustion, and peat decomposition, contributes to Canada's net the rate of in situ decomposition through greater diffusion of oxygen, increasing CO2 emissions, manufacturing, use, and disposition (12, 13). GHG emissions, comprising carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4

  4. Beyond the Inventory: An Interagency Collaboration to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Greater Yellowstone Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kandt, A.; Hotchkiss, E.; Fiebig, M.

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As one of the largest, intact ecosystems in the continental United States, land managers within the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) have recognized the importance of compiling and understanding agency greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The 10 Federal units within the GYA have taken an active role in compiling GHG inventories on a unit- and ecosystem-wide level, setting goals for GHG mitigation, and identifying mitigation strategies for achieving those goals. This paper details the processes, methodologies, challenges, solutions, and lessons learned by the 10 Federal units within the GYA throughout this ongoing effort.

  5. Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.; Arons, Samuel M.; Lemoine, Derek M.; Hummel, Holmes

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    COMPACT EMISSIONS HEV PHEV marginal power plant is a coalpower uses relatively little coal, but in other cases emissions

  6. ASSESSING GHG EMISSIONS FROM SLUDGE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL ROUTES THE METHOD BEHIND GESTABOUES TOOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    stakeholders to better understand the carbon footprint of sludge treatment and disposal options, we developed by a wastewater treatment plant of x per-captia-equivalents (PCE) during one year. The carbon footprint method we developed is adapted to sludge treatment and disposal processes and based on the "Bilan Carbone® " method

  7. Development and Update of Long-Term Energy and GHG Emission Macroecono...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diesel HEV Diesel ICE and LNG ICE FeedstockPathways Crude oil (Gasoline, Diesel) Nature gas (FT diesel, NG) Soybeans (Bio-diesel) Corn, corn stover, switchgass, woody biomass,...

  8. Forest Products Sector (NAICS 321 and 322) Energy and GHG Combustion Emissions Profile, November 2012

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport inEnergy0.pdf Flash2010-60.pdf2 DOE Hydrogen andMeetingonupSault Ste. U.S.

  9. Iron and Steel Sector (NAICS 3311 and 3312) Energy and GHG Combustion Emissions Profile, November 2012

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetter Report: I11IG002RTC3 | 12/1/2014 | ©Iowa lab getsIron

  10. Petroleum Refining Sector (NAICS 324110) Energy and GHG Combustion Emissions Profile, November 2012

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in235-1 TermoelectricaPavingPerry Luksin About69 2.4 PETROLEUM REFINING

  11. Chemicals Sector (NAICS 325) Energy and GHG Combustion Emissions Profile, November 2012

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof EnergyAdministration-DesertofSuccessTroy A.Chemical Sciences39 2.2

  12. New Jersey: EERE-Supported Technology Lowers GHG Emissions 70%, Wins R&D

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China 2015of 2005 attheMohammed Khan -DepartmentDepartment ofDevelopment100 Award |

  13. Mexico-NAMA on Reducing GHG Emissions in the Cement Sector | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant JumpMarysville, Ohio:Menomonee| Open Energy Information Topics Low

  14. Simplified life cycle approach: GHG variability assessment for onshore wind electricity based on Monte-Carlo simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    in the literature. In the special case of greenhouses gases (GHG) from wind power electricity, the LCA resultsSimplified life cycle approach: GHG variability assessment for onshore wind electricity based performed by the IPCC [1]. Such result might lead policy makers to consider LCA as an inconclusive method [2

  15. Scientific perspectives on MRV: approaches, techniques, and requirements of quantifying GHG

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scientific perspectives on MRV: approaches, techniques, and requirements of quantifying GHG-up inventories - measure changes in stocks or flows of carbon, extrapolate to all ecosystems. ~Bottom-up TBMs to Bedrich Benes, Jason Lambert, Yuyu Zhou #12;INFLUX Background CO2, CH4 WindWind Urban CO2, CH4 Thanks

  16. EVOLUTION OF THE HOUSEHOLD VEHICLE FLEET: ANTICIPATING FLEET COMPOSITION, PHEV ADOPTION AND GHG

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kockelman, Kara M.

    EVOLUTION OF THE HOUSEHOLD VEHICLE FLEET: ANTICIPATING FLEET COMPOSITION, PHEV ADOPTION AND GHG evolution, vehicle ownership, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), climate change policy, stated preference, opinion survey, microsimulation ABSTRACT In todays world of volatile fuel prices and climate

  17. Comparing the greenhouse gas emissions from three alternative waste combustion concepts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vainikka, Pasi, E-mail: pasi.vainikka@vtt.fi [VTT, Koivurannantie 1, FIN 40101 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Tsupari, Eemeli; Sipilae, Kai [VTT, Koivurannantie 1, FIN 40101 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Hupa, Mikko [Aabo Akademi Process Chemistry Centre, Piispankatu 8, FIN 20500 Turku (Finland)

    2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Significant GHG reductions are possible by efficient WtE technologies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CHP and high power-to-heat ratio provide significant GHG savings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N{sub 2}O and coal mine type are important in LCA GHG emissions of FBC co-combustion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substituting coal and fuel oil by waste is beneficial in electricity and heat production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substituting natural gas by waste may not be reasonable in CHP generation. - Abstract: Three alternative condensing mode power and combined heat and power (CHP) waste-to-energy concepts were compared in terms of their impacts on the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a heat and power generation system. The concepts included (i) grate, (ii) bubbling fluidised bed (BFB) and (iii) circulating fluidised bed (CFB) combustion of waste. The BFB and CFB take advantage of advanced combustion technology which enabled them to reach electric efficiency up to 35% and 41% in condensing mode, respectively, whereas 28% (based on the lower heating value) was applied for the grate fired unit. A simple energy system model was applied in calculating the GHG emissions in different scenarios where coal or natural gas was substituted in power generation and mix of fuel oil and natural gas in heat generation by waste combustion. Landfilling and waste transportation were not considered in the model. GHG emissions were reduced significantly in all of the considered scenarios where the waste combustion concepts substituted coal based power generation. With the exception of condensing mode grate incinerator the different waste combustion scenarios resulted approximately in 1 Mton of fossil CO{sub 2}-eq. emission reduction per 1 Mton of municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerated. When natural gas based power generation was substituted by electricity from the waste combustion significant GHG emission reductions were not achieved.

  18. Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of Marcellus shale gas This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaramillo, Paulina

    Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of Marcellus shale gas This article has been downloaded from.1088/1748-9326/6/3/034014 Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of Marcellus shale gas Mohan Jiang1 , W Michael Griffin2,3 , Chris greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the production of Marcellus shale natural gas and compares its emissions

  19. A Bottom up Approach to on-Road CO2 Emissions Estimates: Improved Spatial Accuracy and Applications for Regional Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutyra, Lucy R.

    component of vehicle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is CO2 generated by the combustion of motor gasoline and diesel fuel. CO2 emissions contribute to global climate change,2 but the United States has yetA Bottom up Approach to on-Road CO2 Emissions Estimates: Improved Spatial Accuracy and Applications

  20. The effects of potential changes in United States beef production on global grazing systems and greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    and greenhouse gas emissions Jerome Dumortier1 , Dermot J Hayes2 , Miguel Carriquiry2 , Fengxia Dong3 , Xiaodong in the U.S. causes a net increase in GHG emissions on a global scale. We couple a global agricultural production in the United States. The effects on emissions from agricultural production (i.e., methane

  1. Meta-Analysis of Estimates of Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Concentrating Solar Power: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, G. A.; Burkhardt, J. J.

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In reviewing life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of utility-scale CSP systems, this analysis focuses on clarifying central tendency and reducing variability in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through a meta-analytical process called harmonization. From 125 references reviewed, 10 produced 36 independent GHG emission estimates passing screens for quality and relevance: 19 for parabolic trough technology and 17 for power tower technology. The interquartile range (IQR) of published GHG emission estimates was 83 and 20 g CO2eq/kWh for trough and tower, respectively, with medians of 26 and 38 g CO2eq/kWh. Two levels of harmonization were applied. Light harmonization reduced variability in published estimates by using consistent values for key parameters pertaining to plant design and performance. Compared to the published estimates, IQR was reduced by 69% and median increased by 76% for troughs. IQR was reduced by 26% for towers, and median was reduced by 34%. A second level of harmonization was applied to five well-documented trough LC GHG emission estimates, harmonizing to consistent values for GHG emissions embodied in materials and from construction activities. As a result, their median was further reduced by 5%, while the range increased by 6%. In sum, harmonization clarified previous results.

  2. Pyrolysis and gasification of meat-and-bone-meal: Energy balance and GHG accounting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cascarosa, Esther [Thermochemical Processes Group, Aragón Institute for Engineering Research (I3A), Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Boldrin, Alessio, E-mail: aleb@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering. Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Astrup, Thomas [Department of Environmental Engineering. Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • GHG savings are in the order of 600–1000 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. per Mg of MBM treated. • Energy recovery differed in terms of energy products and efficiencies. • The results were largely determined by use of the products for energy purposes. - Abstract: Meat-and-bone-meal (MBM) produced from animal waste has become an increasingly important residual fraction needing management. As biodegradable waste is routed away from landfills, thermo-chemical treatments of MBM are considered promising solution for the future. Pyrolysis and gasification of MBM were assessed based on data from three experimental lab and pilot-scale plants. Energy balances were established for the three technologies, providing different outcomes for energy recovery: bio-oil was the main product for the pyrolysis system, while syngas and a solid fraction of biochar were the main products in the gasification system. These products can be used – eventually after upgrading – for energy production, thereby offsetting energy production elsewhere in the system. Greenhouse gases (GHG) accounting of the technologies showed that all three options provided overall GHG savings in the order of 600–1000 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. per Mg of MBM treated, mainly as a consequence of avoided fossil fuel consumption in the energy sector. Local conditions influencing the environmental performance of the three systems were identified, together with critical factors to be considered during decision-making regarding MBM management.

  3. REDUCING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS FROM DEFORESTATION IN DEVELOPING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Andrew

    mitigation effort post-2012. Reducing GHG emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD)2 in developing of Environment of Mexico1 Esteve Corbera and Katrina Brown Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, UK School of Mexico or the Mexican Government. #12;ABSTRACT This paper provides a critical perspective to the debate

  4. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Electricity Generation (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Analysts at NREL have developed and applied a systematic approach to review the LCA literature, identify primary sources of variability and, where possible, reduce variability in GHG emissions estimates through a procedure called 'harmonization.' Harmonization of the literature provides increased precision and helps clarify the impacts of specific electricity generation choices, producing more robust results.

  5. Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Reference Manual (VolumeNational Greenhouse Gas Inventories: the Workbook (VolumeN ATIONAL L ABORATORY Inventory of China’s Energy-Related CO

  6. Atmospheric Environment 38 (2004) 49214929 Qualitative assessment of methane emission inventory from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    assurance/quality control (QA/QC) and uncertainty estimation in national GHG emission inventories haveAtmospheric Environment 38 (2004) 4921­4929 Qualitative assessment of methane emission inventory May 2004 Abstract In developing countries like India, urban solid waste (SW) generation is increasing

  7. Impact of the renewable oxygenate standard for reformulated gasoline on ethanol demand, energy use, and greenhouse gas emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stork, K.C.; Singh, M.K.

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To assure a place for renewable oxygenates in the national reformulated gasoline (RFG) program, the US Environmental Protection Agency has promulgated the renewable oxygenate standard (ROS) for RFG. It is assumed that ethanol derived from corn will be the only broadly available renewable oxygenate during Phase I of the RFG program. This report analyzes the impact that the ROS could have on the supply of ethanol, its transported volume, and its displacement from existing markets. It also considers the energy and crude oil consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that could result from the production and use of various RFGs that could meet the ROS requirements. The report concludes that on the basis of current and projected near-term ethanol capacity, if ethanol is the only available renewable oxygenate used to meet the requirements of the ROS, diversion of ethanol from existing use as a fuel is likely to be necessary. Year-round use of ethanol and ETBE would eliminate the need for diversion by reducing winter demand for ethanol. On an RFG-program-wide basis, using ethanol and ETBE to satisfy the ROS can be expected to slightly reduce fossil energy use, increase crude oil use, and have essentially no effect on GHG emissions or total energy use relative to using RFG oxygenated only with MTBE.

  8. The impacts of congestion on time-definitive urban freight distribution networks CO2 emission levels: Results from a case study in Portland,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertini, Robert L.

    The impacts of congestion on time-definitive urban freight distribution networks CO2 emission Accepted 29 November 2010 Keywords: Vehicle routing Time-dependent travel time speed GHG or CO2 emissions pressures to limit the impacts associated with CO2 emissions are mounting rapidly. A key challenge

  9. U.S. HDV GHG and Fuel Efficiency Final Rule | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideoStrategic|IndustrialCenterMarchC.DepartmentTexas to CallDepartmentHDV GHG and

  10. Optimal design and allocation of electrified vehicles and dedicated charging infrastructure for minimum life cycle greenhouse gas emissions and cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michalek, Jeremy J.

    for minimum life cycle greenhouse gas emissions and cost Elizabeth Traut a,n , Chris Hendrickson b,1 , Erica and dedicated workplace charging infrastructure in the fleet for minimum life cycle cost or GHG emissions over vehicle and battery costs are the major drivers for PHEVs and BEVs to enter and dominate the cost

  11. Congressional Request Limiting the Magnitude

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as goals? Target: limit U.S. GHG emissions (e.g., national emission budget, or percent reduction) What is a reasonable share of U.S. emission reductions relative to the global targets? What is the implied emissions on atmospheric GHG concentrations? Target: limit atmospheric GHG concentrations (e.g., 450, 550 ppm CO2,eq) How

  12. ASSESSMENT OF HOUSEHOLD CARBON FOOTPRINT REDUCTION POTENTIALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masanet, Eric

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    11 Table 2: Estimated natural gas end use UECs and 95%annual supply chain natural gas related GHG emissions per2: Estimated annual direct natural gas GHG emissions per

  13. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Coal-Fired Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitaker, M.; Heath, G. A.; O'Donoughue, P.; Vorum, M.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessments (LCAs) of utility-scale coal-fired electricity generation systems focuses on reducing variability and clarifying central tendencies in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Screening 270 references for quality LCA methods, transparency, and completeness yielded 53 that reported 164 estimates of life cycle GHG emissions. These estimates for subcritical pulverized, integrated gasification combined cycle, fluidized bed, and supercritical pulverized coal combustion technologies vary from 675 to 1,689 grams CO{sub 2}-equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh) (interquartile range [IQR]= 890-1,130 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh; median = 1,001) leading to confusion over reasonable estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from coal-fired electricity generation. By adjusting published estimates to common gross system boundaries and consistent values for key operational input parameters (most importantly, combustion carbon dioxide emission factor [CEF]), the meta-analytical process called harmonization clarifies the existing literature in ways useful for decision makers and analysts by significantly reducing the variability of estimates ({approx}53% in IQR magnitude) while maintaining a nearly constant central tendency ({approx}2.2% in median). Life cycle GHG emissions of a specific power plant depend on many factors and can differ from the generic estimates generated by the harmonization approach, but the tightness of distribution of harmonized estimates across several key coal combustion technologies implies, for some purposes, first-order estimates of life cycle GHG emissions could be based on knowledge of the technology type, coal mine emissions, thermal efficiency, and CEF alone without requiring full LCAs. Areas where new research is necessary to ensure accuracy are also discussed.

  14. International Experience with Key Program Elements of IndustrialEnergy Efficiency or Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Target-SettingPrograms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Kramer, Klaas Jan

    2008-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Target-setting agreements, also known as voluntary ornegotiated agreements, have been used by a number of governments as amechanism for promoting energy efficiency within the industrial sector. Arecent survey of such target-setting agreement programs identified 23energy efficiency or GHG emissions reduction voluntary agreement programsin 18 countries. International best practice related to target-settingagreement programs calls for establishment of a coordinated set ofpolicies that provide strong economic incentives as well as technical andfinancial support to participating industries. The key program elementsof a target-setting program are the target-setting process,identification of energy-saving technologies and measures usingenergy-energy efficiency guidebooks and benchmarking as well as byconducting energy-efficiency audits, development of an energy-savingsaction plan, development and implementation of energy managementprotocols, development of incentives and supporting policies, monitoringprogress toward targets, and program evaluation. This report firstprovides a description of three key target-setting agreement programs andthen describes international experience with the key program elementsthat comprise such programs using information from the three keytarget-setting programs as well as from other international programsrelated to industrial energy efficiency or GHG emissionsreductions.

  15. Relative ozone forming potential of methanol-fueled vehicle emissions and gasoline-fueled vehicle emisons in outdoor smog chambers. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffries, H.E.; Sexton, K.G.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This experimental program compares the relative NO oxidation and O3 forming capabilities of surrogate VOC mixtures that are representative of urban air, emissions from vehicles using methanol fuels, and emission from vehicles using industry-average gasoline and Fuel F, one of the reformulated fuels used in the Auto/Oil test program. The urban VOC mixture was based upon ambient air analyses conducted by EPA for 6-9 AM in 41 cities over the period 1984-1988. The automotive VOC mixtures were based upon exhaust, evaporative, and running loss measurements made in the Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program and upon the application of EPA`s MOBILE4 emissions model applied in an Urban Airshed scenario in Dallas/Fort Worth in the year 2005. In addition to testing the relative reactivity of each VOC mixture against the other mixtures, the majority of the experiments used mixtures in which 50% of the carbon was from urban mix and 50% of the carbon was from industry-average gasoline vehicle emissions or 50% of the carbon was from the methanol-fueled vehicle emissions. Some experiments were also conducted with higher fractions of formaldehyde (HCHO) in either the urban mix or in the methanol mix. Another set of experiments compared just the alkane and alkene fractions while in another set, just the aromatic species reactivities were compared.

  16. Energy efficiency and the cost of GHG abatement: A comparison of bottom-up and hybrid models for the US

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy efficiency and the cost of GHG abatement: A comparison of bottom-up and hybrid models energy­economy models. Using the CIMS hybrid model, we conducted simulations for comparison with the Mc February 2011 Accepted 16 August 2011 Available online 17 September 2011 Keywords: Energy efficiency

  17. Guidelines to Defra's GHG conversion factors for company reporting Annexes updated June 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Exports Last updated: Jun-05 Total emissions (kg CO2) Total electricity produced Total heat produced kg CO2/kWh elecricity Total emissions (kg CO2) Total electricity produced Total heat produced kg CO2/kWh heat Emissions (in kgCO2) per kWh electricity = twice total emissions (in kgCO2) twice total

  18. 2009 Guidelines to Defra / DECC's GHG Conversion Factors for Company Reporting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . OVERSEAS ELECTRICITY EMISSION FACTORS (ANNEX 10) 54 ANNEX: EXTRACT FROM THE CRG PASSENGER TRANSPORT CO2 (ANNEX 6 AND ANNEX 7) 12 Previous Approach 12 New Passenger Air Transport CO2 Emission Factors (Annex 6) 13 New Freight Air Transport CO2 Emission Factors (Annex 7) 18 New Air Transport Emission Factors

  19. 2010 Guidelines to Defra / DECC's GHG Conversion Factors for Company Reporting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    update 44 Passenger Air Transport Direct CO2 Emission Factors (Annex 6) 44 Freight Air Transport Direct CO2 Emission Factors (Annex 7) 49 Air Transport Direct Emission Factors for CH4 and N2O 52 Air. ELECTRICITY CONVERSION FACTORS (ANNEX 3) 10 Summary of changes since previous update 10 Direct Emissions from

  20. Overview of Avista GHG Modeling NPCC Greenhouse Gas and the Regional Power System Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natural Gas CO2 Emissions A Bridge to a Low Carbon Future, or the Future? 815 1,190 lbs/MWh Gas CCCT has 210 CCCT CT Colstrip 3/4 #12;6/5/2013 2 Avista CO2 Emissions Forecast Rising emissions overall 2030 2031 2032 2033 #12;6/5/2013 4 WECC CO2 Emissions Forecast CO2 Prices

  1. U.S. Government Supports Low Emission Economic Growth (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, A.; Sandor, D.; Butheau, M.

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Countries around the world face the challenge of maintaining long-term sustainable economic growth and development under the threat of climate change. By identifying and pursuing a sustainable development pathway now, they are better positioned to reach their economic growth goals while addressing climate change impacts and lowering greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Low emission development strategies - development plans that promote sustainable social and economic development while reducing long-term GHG emissions - provide a pathway to preparing for a global low emission future. Partner country governments are working with the U.S. government through the Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies (EC-LEDS) program to further their national development objectives.

  2. Inhomogeneous distribution of defect-related emission in Si-doped AlGaN epitaxial layers with different Al content and Si concentration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurai, Satoshi, E-mail: kurai@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp; Ushijima, Fumitaka; Yamada, Yoichi [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Yamaguchi University, 2-16-1 Tokiwadai, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8611 (Japan); Miyake, Hideto; Hiramatsu, Kazumasa [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Mie University, 1577 Kurimamachiya, Tsu, Mie 514-8507 (Japan)

    2014-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The spatial distribution of luminescence in Si-doped AlGaN epitaxial layers that differ in Al content and Si concentration has been studied by cathodoluminescence (CL) mapping in combination with scanning electron microscopy. The density of surface hillocks increased with decreasing Al content and with increasing Si concentration. The mechanisms giving rise to those hillocks are likely different. The hillocks induced surface roughening, and the compositional fluctuation and local donor-acceptor-pair (DAP) emission at hillock edges in AlGaN epitaxial layers were enhanced irrespective of the origin of the hillocks. The intensity of local DAP emission was related to Si concentration, as well as to hillock density. CL observation revealed that DAP emission areas were present inside the samples and were likely related to dislocations concentrated at hillock edges. Possible candidates for acceptors in the observed DAP emission that are closely related in terms of both Si concentration and hillock edges with large deformations are a V{sub III}-Si{sub III} complex and Si{sub N}, which are unfavorable in ordinary III-nitrides.

  3. Driving and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: The Evidence Base and How to Learn More

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Driving and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: The Evidence Base and How to Learn;SB 375 GHG Reduc2on Targets · SCAG (greater Los Angeles) ­ 189 ci2es and 6 as underlying data, rela2onships, and calibra2on. 2. Policies and Prac2ces a) Models

  4. The nature of lubricant-derived ash-related emissions and their impact on diesel aftertreatment system performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sappok, Alexander G. (Alexander Georg)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Diesel particulate filters (DPF) have seen widespread use in on- and off-road applications as an effective means for meeting increasingly stringent particle emissions regulations. Over time, incombustible material or ash, ...

  5. Mitigating Carbon Emissions: the Potential of Improving Efficiencyof Household Appliances in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Jiang

    2006-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    China is already the second's largest energy consumer in the world after the United States, and its demand for energy is expected to continue to grow rapidly in the foreseeable future, due to its fast economic growth and its low level of energy use per capita. From 2001 to 2005, the growth rate of energy consumption in China has exceeded the growth rate of its economy (NBS, 2006), raising serious concerns about the consequences of such energy use on local environment and global climate. It is widely expected that China is likely to overtake the US in energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during the first half of the 21st century. Therefore, there is considerable interest in the international community in searching for options that may help China slow down its growth in energy consumption and GHG emissions through improving energy efficiency and adopting more environmentally friendly fuel supplies such as renewable energy. This study examines the energy saving potential of three major residential energy end uses: household refrigeration, air-conditioning, and water heating. China is already the largest consumer market in the world for household appliances, and increasingly the global production base for consumer appliances. Sales of household refrigerators, room air-conditioners, and water heaters are growing rapidly due to rising incomes and booming housing market. At the same time, the energy use of Chinese appliances is relatively inefficient compared to similar products in the developed economies. Therefore, the potential for energy savings through improving appliance efficiency is substantial. This study focuses particularly on the impact of more stringent energy efficiency standards for household appliances, given that such policies are found to be very effective in improving the efficiency of household appliances, and are well established both in China and around world (CLASP, 2006).

  6. LEDS Global Partnership in Action: Advancing Climate-Resilient Low Emission Development Around the World (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many countries around the globe are designing and implementing low emission development strategies (LEDS). These LEDS seek to achieve social, economic, and environmental development goals while reducing long-term greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and increasing resiliency to climate change impacts. The LEDS Global Partnership (LEDS GP) harnesses the collective knowledge and resources of more than 120 countries and international donor and technical organizations to strengthen climate-resilient low emission development efforts around the world.

  7. EPA program focuses on SF{sub 6} emission control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Irwin, P.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) gas fills an important niche in electric utilities` arsenal of switching equipment. SF{sub 6} (a powerful dielectric) is relatively inexpensive, easy to use, long-lasting and self-healing. Unfortunately, it also is a power greenhouse gas (GHG) and is now the focus of an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) initiative to reduce global warming gases.

  8. Life cycle GHG emissions from Malaysian oil palm bioenergy development: The impact on transportation sector's energy security

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaramillo, Paulina

    on transportation sector's energy security Mohd Nor Azman Hassan a,n , Paulina Jaramillo a , W. Michael Griffin a sector accounts for 41% of the country's total energy use. The country is expected to become a net oil% of total energy consumption. This is expected to increase to about 1100 PJ in 2015 extrapolat- ing

  9. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Development and Update of Long-Term Energy and GHG Emission Macroeconomic Accounting Tool

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about development and...

  10. The Economic, Energy, and GHG Emissions Impacts of Proposed 2017–2025 Vehicle Fuel Economy Standards in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karplus, Valerie

    2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Increases in the U.S. Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards for 2017 to 2025 model year light-duty vehicles are currently under consideration. This analysis uses an economy-wide model with detail in the passenger ...

  11. Implications of near-term coal power plant retirement for SO2 and NOX, and life cycle GHG emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaramillo, Paulina

    prices of electricity production Plant type Unit Price Nuclear ($/MWh) 16.51 Wind ($/MWh) 201 Hydro Top SO2 100 430 95 440 100 430 Top NOX 105 350 100 380 105 345 Small, inefficient 125 410 125 405 125) Manitoba Hydro Manitoba Hydro Undertaking # 57 http://www.pub.gov.mb.ca/exhibits/mh-83.pdf. (5) Sotkiewicz

  12. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Development and Update of Long-Term Energy and GHG Emission Macroeconomic Accounting Tool

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about the development...

  13. Hydrogen Pathways: Updated Cost, Well-to-Wheels Energy Use, and Emissions for the Current Technology Status of Ten Hydrogen Production, Delivery, and Distribution Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsden, T.; Ruth, M.; Diakov, V.; Laffen, M.; Timbario, T. A.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes a life-cycle assessment conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) of 10 hydrogen production, delivery, dispensing, and use pathways that were evaluated for cost, energy use, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This evaluation updates and expands on a previous assessment of seven pathways conducted in 2009. This study summarizes key results, parameters, and sensitivities to those parameters for the 10 hydrogen pathways, reporting on the levelized cost of hydrogen in 2007 U.S. dollars as well as life-cycle well-to-wheels energy use and GHG emissions associated with the pathways.

  14. HI Absorption in the Gigamaser Galaxy TXS 2226-184 and the Relation between HI Absorption and Water Emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. B. Taylor; A. B. Peck; C. Henkel; H. Falcke; C. G. Mundell; C. P. O'Dea; S. A. Baum; J. F. Gallimore

    2002-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the discovery of HI in absorption toward the gigamaser galaxy TXS2226-184 using the VLA. The absorption appears to consist of two components -- one with a width of 125 km/s, and one broader (420 km/s), both toward the compact radio source in the nucleus of the galaxy. Based on these large velocity widths we suggest that the HI absorption is produced in the central parsecs of the galaxy, on a similar scale to that which gives rise to the water maser emission. This brings to eight the number of galaxies known to exhibit both water masers and HI absorption. We explore the relationship between these two phenomena, and present a physically motivated (but unfruitful) search for water maser emission in five radio galaxies known to exhibit strong HI absorption.

  15. Avoiding deforestation in Panamanian protected areas: An analysis of protection effectiveness and implications for reducing emissions from deforestation and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bermingham, Eldredge

    -energy sector GHG emissions and to encourage broader participation in climate change mitigation by generally, Col. Country Club, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Me´xico, C.P. 45010, Mexico 1. Introduction: avoiding deforestation and protected areas In the last decade, climate change mitigation has received much international

  16. Microsoft PowerPoint - FNC NEPA GHG Climate Slides -- 16Jan2015...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY'S REVISED DRAFT GUIDANCE ON CONSIDERATION OF GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS AND THE EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE IN NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT REVIEWS HORST...

  17. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Effects of the Built Environment on Transportation: Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Other Factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter, C. D.; Brown, A.; Dunphy, R. T.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Planning initiatives in many regions and communities aim to reduce transportation energy use, decrease emissions, and achieve related environmental benefits by changing land use. This report reviews and summarizes findings from existing literature on the relationship between the built environment and transportation energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, identifying results trends as well as potential future actions. The indirect influence of federal transportation and housing policies, as well as the direct impact of municipal regulation on land use are examined for their effect on transportation patterns and energy use. Special attention is given to the 'four D' factors of density, diversity, design and accessibility. The report concludes that policy-driven changes to the built environment could reduce transportation energy and GHG emissions from less than 1% to as much as 10% by 2050, the equivalent of 16%-18% of present-day urban light-duty-vehicle travel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  18. Presentation 1.1: An overview of existing and emerging EU policies relating to energy from biomass and their effects on forest based industries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in policies are needed to: - mitigate climate change by reducing GHG emissions, CO2 capture - increase EU) 2. Papers on Energy Security NB other technologies becoming available : Hydrogen & fuel cells; Zero-emission: - raw material operator and "co-ordinator" - as a large energy user of electricity & heat - as producer

  19. Article published Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology DOI: 10.1002/ghg.1395

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    for pipelines that are robust to a priori uncertainty in CO2 production from industrial sources and CO2 storage emissions from electric power plants that emit CO2 as a consequence of combusting fossil fuels (namely coal% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions,5 whereas steel production emitted approximately 2.7 GtCO2 in 2011.6 CO2 capture

  20. Relationalism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edward Anderson

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This article contributes to the debate of the meaning of relationalism and background independence, which has remained of interest in theoretical physics from Newton versus Leibniz through to foundational issues for today's leading candidate theories of quantum gravity. I contrast and compose the substantially different Leibniz--Mach--Barbour (LMB) and Rovelli--Crane (RC) uses of the word `relational'. Leibniz advocated primary timelessness and Mach that `time is to be abstracted from change'. I consider 3 distinct viewpoints on Machian time: Barbour's, Rovelli's and my own. I provide four expansions on Barbour's taking configuration space to be primary: to (perhaps a weakened notion of) phase space, categorizing, perspecting and propositioning. Categorizing means considering not only object spaces but also the corresponding morphisms and then functors between such pairs. Perspecting means considering the set of subsystem perspectives; this is an arena in which the LMB and Rovelli approaches make contact. By propositioning, I mean considering the set of propositions about a physical (sub)system. I argue against categorization being more than a formal pre-requisite for quantization in general; however, perspecting is a categorical operation, and propositioning leads one to considering topoi, with Isham and Doering's work represents one possibility for a mathematically sharp implementation of propositioning. Further applications of this article are arguing for Ashtekar variables as being relational in LMB as well as just the usually-ascribed RC sense, relationalism versus supersymmetry, string theory and M-theory. The question of whether scale is relational is also considered, with quantum cosmology in mind.

  1. Will Monetized Carbon Emission Reductions Buy Enhanced Building Operations?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millhone, J.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Role in Climate Change #0;z Estimates Vary Depending on Definitions #0;z IPCC WG-3 Latest Estimate (2007) ? Buildings Lead in Emission Reduction Potential ? Buildings Lead in the Certainty of Benefits #0;z Collateral Benefits ? Reduced Industrial..., 2012 ? Enforceable Target: Reduce State’s Kyoto GHG Emissions to 1990 Levels by 2020 ? Advisors Recommend Allocation-Based C&T with 4 Options—EU ETS Type to Broad Coverage ? Advisors Recommend Offsets, e.g. CDMs and JIs #0;z Regional Greenhouse Gas...

  2. Linear and nonlinear physics of the magnetoacoustic cyclotron instability of fusion-born ions in relation to ion cyclotron emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carbajal, L., E-mail: L.Carbajal-Gomez@warwick.ac.uk; Cook, J. W. S. [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, The University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)] [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, The University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Dendy, R. O. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom) [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, The University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Chapman, S. C. [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, The University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom) [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, The University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Tromsø, N-9037, Tromsø (Norway); Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, D-01187, Dresden (Germany)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The magnetoacoustic cyclotron instability (MCI) probably underlies observations of ion cyclotron emission (ICE) from energetic ion populations in tokamak plasmas, including fusion-born alpha-particles in JET and TFTR [Dendy et al., Nucl. Fusion 35, 1733 (1995)]. ICE is a potential diagnostic for lost alpha-particles in ITER; furthermore, the MCI is representative of a class of collective instabilities, which may result in the partial channelling of the free energy of energetic ions into radiation, and away from collisional heating of the plasma. Deep understanding of the MCI is thus of substantial practical interest for fusion, and the hybrid approximation for the plasma, where ions are treated as particles and electrons as a neutralising massless fluid, offers an attractive way forward. The hybrid simulations presented here access MCI physics that arises on timescales longer than can be addressed by fully kinetic particle-in-cell simulations and by analytical linear theory, which the present simulations largely corroborate. Our results go further than previous studies by entering into the nonlinear stage of the MCI, which shows novel features. These include stronger drive at low cyclotron harmonics, the re-energisation of the alpha-particle population, self-modulation of the phase shift between the electrostatic and electromagnetic components, and coupling between low and high frequency modes of the excited electromagnetic field.

  3. Climate and Transportation Solutions: Findings from the 2009 Asilomar Conference on Transportation and Energy Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Daniel; Cannon, James S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of biofuels. Heavy duty truck GHG emissions are projected toto decline, heavy duty truck GHG emissions are projected toperiod. Heavy duty truck GHG emissions are projected to grow

  4. Comparative life-cycle air emissions of coal, domestic natural gas, LNG, and SNG for electricity generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paulina Jaramillo; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Civil and Environmental Engineering Department

    2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates that in the coming decades the United States' natural gas (NG) demand for electricity generation will increase. Estimates also suggest that NG supply will increasingly come from imported liquefied natural gas (LNG). Additional supplies of NG could come domestically from the production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) via coal gasification-methanation. The objective of this study is to compare greenhouse gas (GHG), SOx, and NOx life-cycle emissions of electricity generated with NG/LNG/SNG and coal. This life-cycle comparison of air emissions from different fuels can help us better understand the advantages and disadvantages of using coal versus globally sourced NG for electricity generation. Our estimates suggest that with the current fleet of power plants, a mix of domestic NG, LNG, and SNG would have lower GHG emissions than coal. If advanced technologies with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) are used, however, coal and a mix of domestic NG, LNG, and SNG would have very similar life-cycle GHG emissions. For SOx and NOx we find there are significant emissions in the upstream stages of the NG/LNG life-cycles, which contribute to a larger range in SOx and NOx emissions for NG/LNG than for coal and SNG. 38 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Observation of CH4 and other Non-CO2 Green House Gas Emissions from California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, Marc L.; Zhao, Chuanfeng; Riley, William J.; Andrews, Arlyn C.

    2009-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2006, California passed the landmark assembly bill AB-32 to reduce California's emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) that contribute to global climate change. AB-32 commits California to reduce total GHG emissions to 1990 levels by 2020, a reduction of 25 percent from current levels. To verify that GHG emission reductions are actually taking place, it will be necessary to measure emissions. We describe atmospheric inverse model estimates of GHG emissions obtained from the California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Measurement (CALGEM) project. In collaboration with NOAA, we are measuring the dominant long-lived GHGs at two tall-towers in central California. Here, we present estimates of CH{sub 4} emissions obtained by statistical comparison of measured and predicted atmospheric mixing ratios. The predicted mixing ratios are calculated using spatially resolved a priori CH{sub 4} emissions and surface footprints, that provide a proportional relationship between the surface emissions and the mixing ratio signal at tower locations. The footprints are computed using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) coupled to the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model. Integral to the inverse estimates, we perform a quantitative analysis of errors in atmospheric transport and other factors to provide quantitative uncertainties in estimated emissions. Regressions of modeled and measured mixing ratios suggest that total CH{sub 4} emissions are within 25% of the inventory estimates. A Bayesian source sector analysis obtains posterior scaling factors for CH{sub 4} emissions, indicating that emissions from several of the sources (e.g., landfills, natural gas use, petroleum production, crops, and wetlands) are roughly consistent with inventory estimates, but livestock emissions are significantly higher than the inventory. A Bayesian 'region' analysis is used to identify spatial variations in CH{sub 4} emissions from 13 sub-regions within California. Although, only regions near the tower are significantly constrained by the tower measurements, CH{sub 4} emissions from the south Central Valley appear to be underestimated in a manner consistent with the under-prediction of livestock emissions. Finally, we describe a pseudo-experiment using predicted CH{sub 4} signals to explore the uncertainty reductions that might be obtained if additional measurements were made by a future network of tall-tower stations spread over California. These results show that it should be possible to provide high-accuracy estimates of surface CH{sub 4} emissions for multiple regions as a means to verify future emissions reductions.

  6. Waste management activities and carbon emissions in Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Couth, R. [University of KwaZulu-Natal, CRECHE, School of Civil Engineering, Survey and Construction, Durban 4041 (South Africa); Trois, C., E-mail: troisc@ukzn.ac.za [University of KwaZulu-Natal, CRECHE, School of Civil Engineering, Survey and Construction, Durban 4041 (South Africa)

    2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper summarizes research into waste management activities and carbon emissions from territories in sub-Saharan Africa with the main objective of quantifying emission reductions (ERs) that can be gained through viable improvements to waste management in Africa. It demonstrates that data on waste and carbon emissions is poor and generally inadequate for prediction models. The paper shows that the amount of waste produced and its composition are linked to national Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Waste production per person is around half that in developed countries with a mean around 230 kg/hd/yr. Sub-Saharan territories produce waste with a biogenic carbon content of around 56% (+/-25%), which is approximately 40% greater than developed countries. This waste is disposed in uncontrolled dumps that produce large amounts of methane gas. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from waste will rise with increasing urbanization and can only be controlled through funding mechanisms from developed countries.

  7. Future Sulfur Dioxide Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Steven J.; Pitcher, Hugh M.; Wigley, Tom M.

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The importance of sulfur dioxide emissions for climate change is now established, although substantial uncertainties remain. This paper presents projections for future sulfur dioxide emissions using the MiniCAM integrated assessment model. A new income-based parameterization for future sulfur dioxide emissions controls is developed based on purchasing power parity (PPP) income estimates and historical trends related to the implementation of sulfur emissions limitations. This parameterization is then used to produce sulfur dioxide emissions trajectories for the set of scenarios developed for the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). We use the SRES methodology to produce harmonized SRES scenarios using the latest version of the MiniCAM model. The implications, and requirements, for IA modeling of sulfur dioxide emissions are discussed. We find that sulfur emissions eventually decline over the next century under a wide set of assumptions. These emission reductions result from a combination of emission controls, the adoption of advanced electric technologies, and a shift away from the direct end use of coal with increasing income levels. Only under a scenario where incomes in developing regions increase slowly do global emission levels remain at close to present levels over the next century. Under a climate policy that limits emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide emissions fall in a relatively narrow range. In all cases, the relative climatic effect of sulfur dioxide emissions decreases dramatically to a point where sulfur dioxide is only a minor component of climate forcing by the end of the century. Ecological effects of sulfur dioxide, however, could be significant in some developing regions for many decades to come.

  8. Pilot application of PalmGHG, the RSPO greenhouse gas calculator for oil palm products , Chase L.D.C.b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and consumption of sustainable palm oil through a voluntary certification scheme. This certification scheme1 Pilot application of PalmGHG, the RSPO greenhouse gas calculator for oil palm products Bessou C, France b Independent Consultant in Tropical Agriculture, High Trees, Martineau Drive, Dorking, Surrey RH4

  9. 11 2011 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd | Greenhouse Gas Sci Technol. 1:1120 (2011); DOI: 10.1002/ghg3 Perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Quanlin

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com). DOI: 10.1002/ghg3.001 On scale and magnitude of pressure build-up, such as oil produc- tion. Large-scale pressure build-up in response to the injection may limit the dynamic of pressure build-up induced by industrial-scale CO2 storage projects is presented. Also dis- cussed

  10. Cleaning Up Diesel Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    by 2016 * Features of rule - All GHG emissions from vehicle - CO 2 -equivalent per global warming potential - Fleet average standard - Preserves model choice Relative...

  11. Use of emission spectroscopy for real-time assessment of relative wall erosion rate of BHT-200 hall thruster for various regimes of operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Çelik, Murat Alp

    Radiation emission due to Boron atoms sputtered from the Boron-Nitride ceramic walls of a BHT-200 Hall thruster was measured as

  12. The Challenge of Limiting Greenhouse Gas Emissions Through Activities implemented Jointly in Developing Countries: A Brazilian Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    La Rovere, E.L.

    1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper addresses, from the Brazilian perspective, the main problems with Joint Implementation/Activities Implemented Jointly (JI/AIJ) between industrialized (Annex I) and developing (non-Annex I) countries, as defined by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Four possible GHG emissions abatement measures are presented for Brazil: forest protection, reforestation projects for carbon sequestration or charcoal manufacturing, use of ethanol produced from sugar cane as a car fuel, and electrical energy conservation through an increase in end-use efficiencies. These four case studies form the basis of a discussion regarding the validity of developing countries' concerns about JI/AIJ. Recommendations are offered for overcoming the present shortcomings of JI/AIJ in developing countries. The primary conclusion is that Annex I countries' funding of JI/AIJ projects in developing countries in return for GHG emissions credits is not the best means to implement the UNFCCC. However, JI/AIJ projects can be a productive means of preventing global climate change if combined with other measures, including GHG emissions reduction targets for all countries involved in JI/AIJ projects and limits on the percentage of industrialized countries' emissions reductions that can be met through projects in developing countries.

  13. Total energy cycle energy use and emissions of electric vehicles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, M. K.

    1999-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A total energy cycle analysis (TECA) of electric vehicles (EV) was recently completed. The EV energy cycle includes production and transport of fuels used in power plants to generate electricity, electricity generation, EV operation, and vehicle and battery manufacture. This paper summarizes the key assumptions and results of the EVTECA. The total energy requirements of EVS me estimated to be 24-35% lower than those of the conventional, gasoline-fueled vehicles they replace, while the reductions in total oil use are even greater: 55-85%. Greenhouse gases (GHG) are 24-37% lower with EVs. EVs reduce total emissions of several criteria air pollutants (VOC, CO, and NO{sub x}) but increase total emissions of others (SO{sub x}, TSP, and lead) over the total energy cycle. Regional emissions are generally reduced with EVs, except possibly SO{sub x}. The limitations of the EVTECA are discussed, and its results are compared with those of other evaluations of EVs. In general, many of the results (particularly the oil use, GHG, VOC, CO, SO{sub x}, and lead results) of the analysis are consistent with those of other evaluations.

  14. The supply chain of CO2 emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, S. J; Peters, G. P; Caldeira, K.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In almost all cases, the emissions related to traded fuelsextraction (F Er ) and production (F Pr ) emissions (i.e. ,the net effect of emissions from traded fossil fuels; Top),

  15. Fuel-Cycle energy and emission impacts of ethanol-diesel blends in urban buses and farming tractors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.; Saricks, C.; Lee, H.

    2003-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    About 2.1 billion gallons of fuel ethanol was used in the United States in 2002, mainly in the form of gasoline blends containing up to 10% ethanol (E10). Ethanol use has the potential to increase in the U.S. blended gasoline market because methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), formerly the most popular oxygenate blendstock, may be phased out owing to concerns about MTBE contamination of the water supply. Ethanol would remain the only viable near-term option as an oxygenate in reformulated gasoline production and to meet a potential federal renewable fuels standard (RFS) for transportation fuels. Ethanol may also be blended with additives (co-solvents) into diesel fuels for applications in which oxygenation may improve diesel engine emission performance. Numerous studies have been conducted to evaluate the fuel-cycle energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission effects of ethanol-gasoline blends relative to those of gasoline for applications in spark-ignition engine vehicles (see Wang et al. 1997; Wang et al. 1999; Levelton Engineering et al. 1999; Shapouri et al. 2002; Graboski 2002). Those studies did not address the energy and emission effects of ethanol-diesel (E-diesel or ED) blends relative to those of petroleum diesel fuel in diesel engine vehicles. The energy and emission effects of E-diesel could be very different from those of ethanol-gasoline blends because (1) the energy use and emissions generated during diesel production (so-called ''upstream'' effects) are different from those generated during gasoline production; and (2) the energy and emission performance of E-diesel and petroleum diesel fuel in diesel compression-ignition engines differs from that of ethanol-gasoline blends in spark-ignition (Otto-cycle-type) engine vehicles. The Illinois Department of Commerce and Community Affairs (DCCA) commissioned Argonne National Laboratory to conduct a full fuel-cycle analysis of the energy and emission effects of E-diesel blends relative to those of petroleum diesel when used in the types of diesel engines that will likely be targeted first in the marketplace. This report documents the results of our study. The draft report was delivered to DCCA in January 2003. This final report incorporates revisions by the sponsor and by Argonne.

  16. Cost of Ownership and Well-to-Wheels Carbon Emissions/Oil Use of Alternative Fuels and Advanced Light-Duty Vehicle Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elgowainy, Mr. Amgad [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Rousseau, Mr. Aymeric [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Wang, Mr. Michael [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Ruth, Mr. Mark [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Andress, Mr. David [David Andress & Associates, Inc.; Ward, Jacob [U.S. Department of Energy; Joseck, Fred [U.S. Department of Energy; Nguyen, Tien [U.S. Department of Energy; Das, Sujit [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne), and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) updated their analysis of the well-to-wheels (WTW) greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions, petroleum use, and the cost of ownership (excluding insurance, maintenance, and miscellaneous fees) of vehicle technologies that have the potential to significantly reduce GHG emissions and petroleum consumption. The analyses focused on advanced light-duty vehicle (LDV) technologies such as plug-in hybrid, battery electric, and fuel cell electric vehicles. Besides gasoline and diesel, alternative fuels considered include natural gas, advanced biofuels, electricity, and hydrogen. The Argonne Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) and Autonomie models were used along with the Argonne and NREL H2A models.

  17. Analysis of potential for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in municipal solid waste in Brazil, in the state and city of Rio de Janeiro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loureiro, S.M., E-mail: saulo@lima.coppe.ufrj.br [Department of Energy Planning, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, C.P. 68565, CEP 21949-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rovere, E.L.L., E-mail: emilio@ppe.ufrj.br [Department of Energy Planning, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, C.P. 68565, CEP 21949-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mahler, C.F., E-mail: mahler0503@yahoo.com [Department of Civil Engineering, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, C.P. 68506, CEP 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: ? We constructed future scenarios of emissions of greenhouse gases in waste. ? Was used the IPCC methodology for calculating emission inventories. ? We calculated the costs of abatement for emissions reduction in landfill waste. ? The results were compared to Brazil, state and city of Rio de Janeiro. ? The higher the environmental passive, the greater the possibility of use of biogas. - Abstract: This paper examines potential changes in solid waste policies for the reduction in GHG for the country of Brazil and one of its major states and cities, Rio de Janeiro, from 2005 to 2030. To examine these policy options, trends in solid waste quantities and associated GHG emissions are derived. Three alternative policy scenarios are evaluated in terms of effectiveness, technology, and economics and conclusions posited regarding optimal strategies for Brazil to implement. These scenarios are been building on the guidelines for national inventories of GHG emissions (IPCC, 2006) and adapted to Brazilian states and municipalities’ boundaries. Based on the results, it is possible to say that the potential revenue from products of solid waste management is more than sufficient to transform the current scenario in this country into one of financial and environmental gains, where the negative impacts of climate change have created a huge opportunity to expand infrastructure for waste management.

  18. Evaluation of Efficiency Activities in the Industrial Sector Undertaken in Response to Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Lu, Hongyou; Horvath, Arpad

    2010-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The 2006 California Global Warming Solutions Act calls for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. Meeting this target will require action from all sectors of the California economy, including industry. The industrial sector consumes 25% of the energy used and emits 28% of the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) produced in the state. Many countries around the world have national-level GHG reduction or energy-efficiency targets, and comprehensive programs focused on implementation of energy efficiency and GHG emissions mitigation measures in the industrial sector are essential for achieving their goals. A combination of targets and industry-focused supporting programs has led to significant investments in energy efficiency as well as reductions in GHG emissions within the industrial sectors in these countries. This project has identified program and policies that have effectively targeted the industrial sector in other countries to achieve real energy and CO{sub 2} savings. Programs in Ireland, France, The Netherlands, Denmark, and the UK were chosen for detailed review. Based on the international experience documented in this report, it is recommended that companies in California's industrial sector be engaged in a program to provide them with support to meet the requirements of AB32, The Global Warming Solution Act. As shown in this review, structured programs that engage industry, require members to evaluate their potential efficiency measures, plan how to meet efficiency or emissions reduction goals, and provide support in achieving the goals, can be quite effective at assisting companies to achieve energy efficiency levels beyond those that can be expected to be achieved autonomously.

  19. Greenhouse Gas Emissions (Minnesota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This statute sets goals for the reduction of statewide greenhouse gas emissions by at least 15 percent by 2015, 30 percent by 2025, and 80 percent by 2050, calculated relative to 2005 levels. These...

  20. Estimating carbon dioxide emission factors for the California electric power sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marnay, Chris; Fisher, Diane; Murtishaw, Scott; Phadke, Amol; Price, Lynn; Sathaye, Jayant

    2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The California Climate Action Registry (''Registry'') was initially established in 2000 under Senate Bill 1771, and clarifying legislation (Senate Bill 527) was passed in September 2001. The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has been asked to provide technical assistance to the California Energy Commission (CEC) in establishing methods for calculating average and marginal electricity emissions factors, both historic and current, as well as statewide and for sub-regions. This study is exploratory in nature. It illustrates the use of three possible approaches and is not a rigorous estimation of actual emissions factors. While the Registry will ultimately cover emissions of all greenhouse gases (GHGs), presently it is focusing on carbon dioxide (CO2). Thus, this study only considers CO2, which is by far the largest GHG emitted in the power sector. Associating CO2 emissions with electricity consumption encounters three major complications. First, electricity can be generated from a number of different primary energy sources, many of which are large sources of CO2 emissions (e.g., coal combustion) while others result in virtually no CO{sub 2} emissions (e.g., hydro). Second, the mix of generation resources used to meet loads may vary at different times of day or in different seasons. Third, electrical energy is transported over long distances by complex transmission and distribution systems, so the generation sources related to electricity usage can be difficult to trace and may occur far from the jurisdiction in which that energy is consumed. In other words, the emissions resulting from electricity consumption vary considerably depending on when and where it is used since this affects the generation sources providing the power. There is no practical way to identify where or how all the electricity used by a certain customer was generated, but by reviewing public sources of data the total emission burden of a customer's electricity supplier can b e found and an average emissions factor (AEF) calculated. These are useful for assigning a net emission burden to a facility. In addition, marginal emissions factors (MEFs) for estimating the effect of changing levels of usage can be calculated. MEFs are needed because emission rates at the margin are likely to diverge from the average. The overall objective of this task is to develop methods for estimating AEFs and MEFs that can provide an estimate of the combined net CO2 emissions from all generating facilities that provide electricity to California electricity customers. The method covers the historic period from 1990 to the present, with 1990 and 1999 used as test years. The factors derived take into account the location and time of consumption, direct contracts for power which may have certain atypical characteristics (e.g., ''green'' electricity from renewable resources), resource mixes of electricity providers, import and export of electricity from utility owned and other sources, and electricity from cogeneration. It is assumed that the factors developed in this way will diverge considerably from simple statewide AEF estimates based on standardized inventory estimates that use conventions inconsistent with the goals of this work. A notable example concerns the treatment of imports, which despite providing a significant share of California's electricity supply picture, are excluded from inventory estimates of emissions, which are based on geographical boundaries of the state.

  1. Impact of Component Sizing in Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles for Energy Resource and Greenhouse Emissions Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Widespread use of alternative hybrid powertrains currently appears inevitable and many opportunities for substantial progress remain. The necessity for environmentally friendly vehicles, in conjunction with increasing concerns regarding U.S. dependency on foreign oil and climate change, has led to significant investment in enhancing the propulsion portfolio with new technologies. Recently, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have attracted considerable attention due to their potential to reduce petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the transportation sector. PHEVs are especially appealing for short daily commutes with excessive stop-and-go driving. However, the high costs associated with their components, and in particular, with their energy storage systems have been significant barriers to extensive market penetration of PEVs. In the research reported here, we investigated the implications of motor/generator and battery size on fuel economy and GHG emissions in a medium duty PHEV. An optimization framework is proposed and applied to two different parallel powertrain configurations, pre-transmission and post-transmission, to derive the Pareto frontier with respect to motor/generator and battery size. The optimization and modeling approach adopted here facilitates better understanding of the potential benefits from proper selection of motor/generator and battery size on fuel economy and GHG emissions. This understanding can help us identify the appropriate sizing of these components and thus reducing the PHEV cost. Addressing optimal sizing of PHEV components could aim at an extensive market penetration of PHEVs.

  2. Logistics, Costs, and GHG Impacts of Utility Scale Cofiring with 20% Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boardman, Richard D.; Cafferty, Kara G.; Nichol, Corrie; Searcy, Erin M.; Westover, Tyler; Wood, Richard; Bearden, Mark D.; Cabe, James E.; Drennan, Corinne; Jones, Susanne B.; Male, Jonathan L.; Muntean, George G.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Widder, Sarah H.

    2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of utility-scale biomass cofiring in large pulverized coal power plants. The purpose of this evaluation is to assess the cost and greenhouse gas reduction benefits of substituting relatively high volumes of biomass in coal. Two scenarios for cofiring up to 20% biomass with coal (on a lower heating value basis) are presented; (1) woody biomass in central Alabama where Southern Pine is currently produced for the wood products and paper industries, and (2) purpose-grown switchgrass in the Ohio River Valley. These examples are representative of regions where renewable biomass growth rates are high in correspondence with major U.S. heartland power production. While these scenarios may provide a realistic reference for comparing the relative benefits of using a high volume of biomass for power production, this evaluation is not intended to be an analysis of policies concerning renewable portfolio standards or the optimal use of biomass for energy production in the U.S.

  3. Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in California: The California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenblatt, Jeffery B.

    2013-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) model was developed to explore the impact of combinations of state policies on state greenhouse gas (GHG) and regional criteria pollutant emissions. The model included representations of all GHG- emitting sectors of the California economy (including those outside the energy sector, such as high global warming potential gases, waste treatment, agriculture and forestry) in varying degrees of detail, and was carefully calibrated using available data and projections from multiple state agencies and other sources. Starting from basic drivers such as population, numbers of households, gross state product, numbers of vehicles, etc., the model calculated energy demands by type (various types of liquid and gaseous hydrocarbon fuels, electricity and hydrogen), and finally calculated emissions of GHGs and three criteria pollutants: reactive organic gases (ROG), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and fine (2.5 ?m) particulate matter (PM2.5). Calculations were generally statewide, but in some sectors, criteria pollutants were also calculated for two regional air basins: the South Coast Air Basin (SCAB) and the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). Three scenarios were developed that attempt to model: (1) all committed policies, (2) additional, uncommitted policy targets and (3) potential technology and market futures. Each scenario received extensive input from state energy planning agencies, in particular the California Air Resources Board. Results indicate that all three scenarios are able to meet the 2020 statewide GHG targets, and by 2030, statewide GHG emissions range from between 208 and 396 MtCO2/yr. However, none of the scenarios are able to meet the 2050 GHG target of 85 MtCO2/yr, with emissions ranging from 188 to 444 MtCO2/yr, so additional policies will need to be developed for California to meet this stringent future target. A full sensitivity study of major scenario assumptions was also performed. In terms of criteria pollutants, targets were less well-defined, but while all three scenarios were able to make significant reductions in ROG, NOx and PM2.5 both statewide and in the two regional air basins, they may nonetheless fall short of what will be required by future federal standards. Specifically, in Scenario 1, regional NOx emissions are approximately three times the estimated targets for both 2023 and 2032, and in Scenarios 2 and 3, NOx emissions are approximately twice the estimated targets. Further work is required in this area, including detailed regional air quality modeling, in order to determine likely pathways for attaining these stringent targets.

  4. Opportunity Analysis for Recovering Energy from Industrial Waste Heat and Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viswanathan, Vish V.; Davies, Richard W.; Holbery, Jim D.

    2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    United States industry consumed 32.5 Quads (34,300 PJ) of energy during 2003, which was 33.1% of total U.S. energy consumption (EIA 2003 Annual Energy Review). The U.S. industrial complex yields valuable goods and products. Through its manufacturing processes as well as its abundant energy consumption, it supports a multi-trillion dollar contribution to the gross domestic product and provides millions of jobs in the U.S. each year. Industry also yields waste products directly through its manufacturing processes and indirectly through its energy consumption. These waste products come in two forms, chemical and thermal. Both forms of waste have residual energy values that are not routinely recovered. Recovering and reusing these waste products may represent a significant opportunity to improve the energy efficiency of the U.S. industrial complex. This report was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Industrial Technologies Program (DOE-ITP). It analyzes the opportunity to recover chemical emissions and thermal emissions from U.S. industry. It also analyzes the barriers and pathways to more effectively capitalize on these opportunities. A primary part of this analysis was to characterize the quantity and energy value of the emissions. For example, in 2001, the industrial sector emitted 19% of the U.S. greenhouse gases (GHG) through its industrial processes and emitted 11% of GHG through electricity purchased from off-site utilities. Therefore, industry (not including agriculture) was directly and indirectly responsible for emitting 30% of the U.S. GHG. These emissions were mainly comprised of carbon dioxide (CO2), but also contained a wide-variety of CH4 (methane), CO (carbon monoxide), H2 (hydrogen), NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compound), and other chemicals. As part of this study, we conducted a survey of publicly available literature to determine the amount of energy embedded in the emissions and to identify technology opportunities to capture and reuse this energy. As shown in Table E-1, non-CO2 GHG emissions from U.S. industry were identified as having 2180 peta joules (PJ) or 2 Quads (quadrillion Btu) of residual chemical fuel value. Since landfills are not traditionally considered industrial organizations, the industry component of these emissions had a value of 1480 PJ or 1.4 Quads. This represents approximately 4.3% of the total energy used in the United States Industry.

  5. Development of a local carbon dioxide emissions inventory based on energy demand and waste production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joao Gomes; Joana Nascimento; Helena Rodrigues [Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper describes the study that led to the development of a carbon dioxide emissions matrix for the Oeiras municipality, one of the largest Portuguese municipalities, located in the metropolitan area of Lisbon. This matrix takes into account the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions due to an increase of electricity demand in buildings as well as solid and liquid wastes treatment from the domestic and services sectors. Using emission factors that were calculated from the relationship between the electricity produced and amount of treated wastes, the GHC emissions in the Oeiras municipality were estimated for a time series of 6 yr (1998 - 2003). The obtained results showed that the electricity sector accounts for approximately 75% of the municipal emissions in 2003. This study was developed to obtain tools to base options and actions to be undertaken by local authorities such as energy planning and also public information. 11 refs., 12 tabs.

  6. Assessment of fuel-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas emissions for Fischer-Tropsch diesel from coal and cellulosic biomass.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, X.; Wang, M.; Han, J. (Energy Systems)

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study expands and uses the GREET (Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation) model to assess the effects of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology and cellulosic biomass and coal cofeeding in Fischer-Tropsch (FT) plants on energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of FT diesel (FTD). To demonstrate the influence of the coproduct credit methods on FTD life-cycle analysis (LCA) results, two allocation methods based on the energy value and the market revenue of different products and a hybrid method are employed. With the energy-based allocation method, fossil energy use of FTD is less than that of petroleum diesel, and GHG emissions of FTD could be close to zero or even less than zero with CCS when forest residue accounts for 55% or more of the total dry mass input to FTD plants. Without CCS, GHG emissions are reduced to a level equivalent to that from petroleum diesel plants when forest residue accounts for 61% of the total dry mass input. Moreover, we show that coproduct method selection is crucial for LCA results of FTD when a large amount of coproducts is produced.

  7. Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Agency (IEA), 2004c. CO2 emissions from fuel combustion,12. Global Energy-Related CO2 Emissions by End-Use Sector,2030. Energy-Related CO2 Emissions (GtC) Transport Buildings

  8. Graphene field emission devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, S., E-mail: shishirk@gmail.com; Raghavan, S. [Centre for Nanoscience and Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru (India); Duesberg, G. S. [Centre for Research on Adaptive Nanostructures and Nanodevices (CRANN) and School of Chemistry, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, D2 (Ireland); Pratap, R. [Centre for Nanoscience and Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru (India); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru (India)

    2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphene field emission devices are fabricated using a scalable process. The field enhancement factors, determined from the Fowler-Nordheim plots, are within few hundreds and match the theoretical predictions. The devices show high emission current density of ?10?nA ?m{sup ?1} at modest voltages of tens of volts. The emission is stable with time and repeatable over long term, whereas the noise in the emission current is comparable to that from individual carbon nanotubes emitting under similar conditions. We demonstrate a power law dependence of emission current on pressure which can be utilized for sensing. The excellent characteristics and relative ease of making the devices promise their great potential for sensing and electronic applications.

  9. Analysis of Emission Shapes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Danielewicz

    2007-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Shapes of relative emission sources can be accessed by expanding shapes of correlations at low relative velocities in pair center of mass in Cartesian harmonics. Coefficients of expansion for correlations are related to the respective coefficients of expansion for the sources through one dimensional integral transforms involving properties of pair relative wavefunctions. The methodology is illustrated with analyses of NA49 and PHENIX correlation data.

  10. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Effects of Travel Reduction and Efficient Driving on Transportation: Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter, C. D.; Brown, A.; DeFlorio, J.; McKenzie, E.; Tao, W.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the 1970s, numerous transportation strategies have been formulated to change the behavior of drivers or travelers by reducing trips, shifting travel to more efficient modes, or improving the efficiency of existing modes. This report summarizes findings documented in existing literature to identify strategies with the greatest potential impact. The estimated effects of implementing the most significant and aggressive individual driver behavior modification strategies range from less than 1% to a few percent reduction in transportation energy use and GHG emissions. Combined strategies result in reductions of 7% to 15% by 2030. Pricing, ridesharing, eco-driving, and speed limit reduction/enforcement strategies are widely judged to have the greatest estimated potential effect, but lack the widespread public acceptance needed to accomplish maximum results. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  11. Implications of changing natural gas prices in the United States electricity sector for SO2, NOX and life cycle GHG emissions: Supplementary Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaramillo, Paulina

    % Figure S2. Relationship between regional and U.S. average electricity sector delivered natural gas prices1 Implications of changing natural gas prices in the United States electricity sector for SO2, NOX Griffin, H Scott Matthews Table S1. Base case fuel prices and marginal prices of electricity production

  12. Transportation Energy Futures: Combining Strategies for Deep Reductions in Energy Consumption and GHG Emissions (Brochure), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Toolsearch keywordsclearLIGHT-DUTY

  13. Decision-Making to Reduce Manufacturing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reich-Weiser, Corinne

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to GHG/kWh of the USA electricity supply chain are coalGHG/kWh of electricity example based on USA. Distributionnuclear (USA) are different because of the electricity mix

  14. Attributing land-use change carbon emissions to exported biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saikku, Laura, E-mail: laura.saikku@helsinki.fi [University of Helsinki, P.O Box 65, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Soimakallio, Sampo, E-mail: sampo.soimakallio@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, 02044 VTT (Finland); Pingoud, Kim, E-mail: kim.pingoud@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, 02044 VTT (Finland)

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, a simple, transparent and robust method is developed in which land-use change (LUC) emissions are retrospectively attributed to exported biomass products based on the agricultural area occupied for the production. LUC emissions account for approximately one-fifth of current greenhouse gas emissions. Increasing agricultural exports are becoming an important driver of deforestation. Brazil and Indonesia are used as case studies due to their significant deforestation in recent years. According to our study, in 2007, approximately 32% and 15% of the total agricultural land harvested and LUC emissions in Brazil and Indonesia respectively were due to exports. The most important exported single items with regard to deforestation were palm oil for Indonesia and bovine meat for Brazil. To reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions effectively worldwide, leakage of emissions should be avoided. This can be done, for example, by attributing embodied LUC emissions to exported biomass products. With the approach developed in this study, controversial attribution between direct and indirect LUC and amortization of emissions over the product life cycle can be overcome, as the method operates on an average basis and annual level. The approach could be considered in the context of the UNFCCC climate policy instead of, or alongside with, other instruments aimed at reducing deforestation. However, the quality of the data should be improved and some methodological issues, such as the allocation procedure in multiproduct systems and the possible dilution effect through third parties not committed to emission reduction targets, should be considered. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CO{sub 2} emissions from land use changes are highly important. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Attribution of land use changes for products is difficult. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simple and robust method is developed to attribute land use change emissions.

  15. Photon enhanced thermionic emission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schwede, Jared; Melosh, Nicholas; Shen, Zhixun

    2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Photon Enhanced Thermionic Emission (PETE) is exploited to provide improved efficiency for radiant energy conversion. A hot (greater than 200.degree. C.) semiconductor cathode is illuminated such that it emits electrons. Because the cathode is hot, significantly more electrons are emitted than would be emitted from a room temperature (or colder) cathode under the same illumination conditions. As a result of this increased electron emission, the energy conversion efficiency can be significantly increased relative to a conventional photovoltaic device. In PETE, the cathode electrons can be (and typically are) thermalized with respect to the cathode. As a result, PETE does not rely on emission of non-thermalized electrons, and is significantly easier to implement than hot-carrier emission approaches.

  16. Absolute vs. intensity-based emission caps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellerman, A. Denny.

    Cap-and-trade systems limit emissions to some pre-specified absolute quantity. Intensity-based limits, that restrict emissions to some pre-specified rate relative to input or output, are much more widely used in environmental ...

  17. China's Energy and Carbon Emissions Outlook to 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    43 International trends in CO2 emissions and GDP per capita,53 Figure 62 Transport CO2 Emission Reduction under AIS by54 Figure 63 AIS EV Change in CO2 Emissions Relative to

  18. Should We Consider the CoBenefits of Agricultural GHG Levan Elbakidze, Bruce A. McCarl

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    power plant activity would generate additional environmental costs amounting to about 50% of the value discussed case where a coal fired electrical powerplant, which is allocated fewer emission permits than allows both power generation and coal burning by-products, including commonly discussed air pollutants

  19. Production, Energy, and Carbon Emissions: A Data Profile of the Iron and Steel Industry

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy-related carbon emissions in manufacturing analysis and issues related to the energy use, energy efficiency, and carbon emission indicators.

  20. Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Michigan's Customer Choice and Electric Reliability Act of 2000 (P.A. 141) requires electric suppliers to disclose to customers details related to the fuel mix and emissions, in pounds per megawatt...

  1. Interactions between Electric-drive Vehicles and the Power Sector in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan; Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    if supplied with coal power; at emissions rates equal torates). If coal power Electricity GHG emissions rate (gCOlower GHG emissions rates than coal power supplying non-

  2. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Trough and Tower Concentrating Solar Power Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burkhardt, J. J.; Heath, G.; Cohen, E.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In reviewing life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of utility-scale concentrating solar power (CSP) systems, this analysis focuses on reducing variability and clarifying the central tendency of published estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through a meta-analytical process called harmonization. From 125 references reviewed, 10 produced 36 independent GHG emissions estimates passing screens for quality and relevance: 19 for parabolic trough (trough) technology and 17 for power tower (tower) technology. The interquartile range (IQR) of published estimates for troughs and towers were 83 and 20 grams of carbon dioxide equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO2-eq/kWh),1 respectively; median estimates were 26 and 38 g CO2-eq/kWh for trough and tower, respectively. Two levels of harmonization were applied. Light harmonization reduced variability in published estimates by using consistent values for key parameters pertaining to plant design and performance. The IQR and median were reduced by 87% and 17%, respectively, for troughs. For towers, the IQR and median decreased by 33% and 38%, respectively. Next, five trough LCAs reporting detailed life cycle inventories were identified. The variability and central tendency of their estimates are reduced by 91% and 81%, respectively, after light harmonization. By harmonizing these five estimates to consistent values for global warming intensities of materials and expanding system boundaries to consistently include electricity and auxiliary natural gas combustion, variability is reduced by an additional 32% while central tendency increases by 8%. These harmonized values provide useful starting points for policy makers in evaluating life cycle GHG emissions from CSP projects without the requirement to conduct a full LCA for each new project.

  3. Implementation, Enforcement, & Moderator: Benjamin Gramig, Purdue University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in GHG Emissions Trading Debbie marketpaymentsforthesupplyofclimateregulatingecosystemservices. Becausethereareprivatecostsavingstofarmersandsocialbenefitsfrom 23Emissions Trading Workshop #12

  4. Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.; Arons, Samuel M.; Lemoine, Derek M.; Hummel, Holmes

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    lower greenhouse gas emissions from electricity productionAssessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Plug-in Hybridof national greenhouse gas emissions. Both motor vehicle

  5. A methodology to estimate greenhouse gases emissions in Life Cycle Inventories of wastewater treatment plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez-Garcia, G., E-mail: gonzalo.rodriguez.garcia@usc.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, Rua Lope Gomez de Marzoa, S/N, 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Hospido, A., E-mail: almudena.hospido@usc.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, Rua Lope Gomez de Marzoa, S/N, 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Bagley, D.M., E-mail: bagley@uwyo.edu [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Wyoming, 82072 Laramie, WY (United States); Moreira, M.T., E-mail: maite.moreira@usc.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, Rua Lope Gomez de Marzoa, S/N, 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Feijoo, G., E-mail: gumersindo.feijoo@usc.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, Rua Lope Gomez de Marzoa, S/N, 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objective of this paper is to present the Direct Emissions Estimation Model (DEEM), a model for the estimation of CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O emissions from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). This model is consistent with non-specific but widely used models such as AS/AD and ASM no. 1 and presents the benefits of simplicity and application over a common WWTP simulation platform, BioWin Registered-Sign , making it suitable for Life Cycle Assessment and Carbon Footprint studies. Its application in a Spanish WWTP indicates direct N{sub 2}O emissions to be 8 times larger than those associated with electricity use and thus relevant for LCA. CO{sub 2} emissions can be of similar importance to electricity-associated ones provided that 20% of them are of non-biogenic origin. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A model has been developed for the estimation of GHG emissions in WWTP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Model was consistent with both ASM no. 1 and AS/AD. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N{sub 2}O emissions are 8 times more relevant than the one associated with electricity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CO{sub 2} emissions are as important as electricity if 20% of it is non-biogenic.

  6. Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shanshan Xu; Wenxin Liu; Shu Tao [Peking University, Beijing (China). Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Environmental Sciences

    2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emission of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) listed as U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) priority pollutants from major sources in China were compiled. Geographical distribution and temporal change of the PAH emission, as well as emission profiles, are discussed. It was estimated that the total PAH emission in China was 25,300 tons in 2003. The emission profile featured a relatively higher portion of high molecular weight (HMW) species with carcinogenic potential due to large contributions of domestic coal and coking industry. Among various sources, biomass burning, domestic coal combustion, and the coking industry contributed 60%, 20%, and 16% of the total emission, respectively. Total emission, emission density, emission intensity, and emission per capita showed geographical variations. In general, the southeastern provinces were characterized by higher emission density, while those in western and northern China featured higher emission intensity and population-normalized emission. Although energy consumption in China went up continuously during the past two decades, annual emission of PAHs fluctuated depending on the amount of domestic coal consumption, coke production, and the efficiency of energy utilization. 47 refs., 6 figs.

  7. California’s Energy Future: Transportation Energy Use in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M; Hwang, Roland; Sperling, Daniel

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    lowering GHG emissions from the heavy-duty truck sector isuse and GHG emissions from long-haul heavy-trucks are likelytrucks, but while these fuels could reduce GHG emissions,

  8. 2009 Guidelines to Defra / DECC's GHG Conversion Factors for Company Reporting Produced by AEA for the Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , emissions factors have only been provided for CO2. The 2009 update provides emissions factors for the non-CO to landfill) into kilograms of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2eq). Carbon dioxide equivalent is a universal and refrigeration have been added. v. International electricity emission factors have been added Major changes

  9. What are the likely roles of fossil fuels in the next 15, 50, and 100 years, with or without active controls on greenhouse gas emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kane, R.L. (USDOE Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy, Washington, DC (USA)); South, D.W. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the industrial revolution, the production and utilization of fossil fuels have been an engine driving economic and industrial development in many countries worldwide. However, future reliance on fossil fuels has been questioned due to emerging concerns about greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, particularly carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and its potential contribution to global climate change (GCC). While substantial uncertainties exist regarding the ability to accurately predict climate change and the role of various greenhouse gases, some scientists and policymakers have called for immediate action. As a result, there have been many proposals and worldwide initiatives to address the perceived problem. In many of these proposals, the premise is that CO{sub 2} emissions constitute the principal problem, and, correspondingly, that fossil-fuel combustion must be curtailed to resolve this problem. This paper demonstrates that the worldwide fossil fuel resource base and infrastructure are extensive and thus, will continue to be relied on in developed and developing countries. Furthermore, in the electric generating sector (the focus of this paper), numerous clean coal technologies (CCTs) are currently being demonstrated (or are under development) that have higher conversion efficiencies, and thus lower CO{sub 2} emission rates than conventional coal-based technologies. As these technologies are deployed in new power plant or repowering applications to meet electrical load growth, CO{sub 2} (and other GHG) emission levels per unit of electricity generated will be lower than that produced by conventional fossil-fuel technologies. 37 refs., 14 figs., 11 tabs.

  10. Forecasting and Capturing Emission Reductions Using Industrial Energy Management and Reporting Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robinson, J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Mandatory 2010 Green House Gas (GHG) Reporting Regulations and pending climate change legislation has increased interest in Energy Management and Reporting Systems (EMRS) as a means of both reducing and reporting GHG ...

  11. Mexico joins the venture: Joint Implementation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Imaz, M.; Gay, C.; Friedmann, R.; Goldberg, B.

    1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Joint Implementation (JI) and its pilot phase of Activities Implemented Jointly (AIJ) are envisioned as an economic way of reducing global emissions of greenhouse gases. This paper draws upon the Mexican experience with AIJ to identify Mexican concerns with AIJ/JI and proposed solutions to these. Three approved Mexican AIJ projects (Ilumex, Scolel Te, and Salicornia) are described in detail. The Ilurnex project promotes the use of compact fluorescent lamps in Mexican homes of the States of Jalisco and Nuevo Leon, to reduce electric demand. Scolel Te is a sustainable forest management project in Chiapas. Salicornia examines the potential for carbon sequestration with a Halophyte-based crop irrigated with saline waters in Sonora. These three projects are reviewed to clarify the issues and concerns that Mexico has with AIJ and JI and propose measures to deal with them. These initial Mexican AIJ projects show that there is a need for creation of standard project evaluation procedures, and criteria and institutions to oversee project design, selection, and implementation. Further JI development will be facilitated by national and international clarification of key issues such as additionality criteria, carbon-credit sharing, and valuation of non-GHG environmental and/or social benefits and impacts for AIJ projects. Mexico is concerned that JI funding could negatively impact official development assistance or that OECD countries will use JI to avoid taking significant GHG mitigation actions in their own countries. The lack of carbon credit trading in the AIJ stage must be removed to provide useful experience on how to share carbon credits. National or international guidelines are needed to ensure that a portion of the carbon credits is allocated to Mexico.

  12. Energy-Related Carbon Emissions in Manufacturing

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688Electricity Use as an IndicatorNatural Gas

  13. Glossary: Energy-Related Carbon Emissions

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803 Table A1.GasYearper Thousand Cubic Feet)2.46 60

  14. South Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and Reduction...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    from Buildings AgencyCompany Organization United Nations Environment Programme Sector Energy Focus Area Buildings Topics Baseline projection, GHG inventory, Pathways analysis,...

  15. Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) Model AgencyCompany Organization: Argonne National Laboratory Focus Area: GHG Inventory Development Topics: Analysis Tools...

  16. anemia mga1 region: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Plants Websites Summary: 652013 1 Regional GHG Emissions O tlook Greenhouse Gas and the Regional Power System Symposium Regional GHG Emissions - Outlook June 4, 2013...

  17. Land Transport Sector in Bangladesh: An Analysis Toward Motivating...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Motivating GHG Emission Reduction Strategies Jump to: navigation, search Name Land Transport Sector in Bangladesh: An Analysis Toward Motivating GHG Emission Reduction...

  18. Interactions between Electric-drive Vehicles and the Power Sector in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan; Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium GHG emissions rate Variable costand Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium GHG emissions rate (CO 2 -eq/kWh) Cost

  19. Driving Down Diesel Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harley, Robert

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Turnover on Drayage Truck Emissions at the Port of Oakland,”actions to clean up port truck emissions in Oakland serve asTurnover on Drayage Truck Emissions at the Port of Oakland,”

  20. On spontaneous emission into guided modes with curved wavefronts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yariv, A.; Margalit, S.

    1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The problem of spontaneous emission into guided modes with curved wavefronts is examined quantum mechanically. A classical result due to Petermann, which shows an increased emission rate relative to modes with planar phase fronts, is corroborated.

  1. A greenhouse-gas information system monitoring and validating emissions reporting and mitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonietz, Karl K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dimotakis, Paul E [JPL/CAL TECH; Roman, Douglas A [LLNL; Walker, Bruce C [SNL

    2011-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Current GHG-mitigating regimes, whether internationally agreed or self-imposed, rely on the aggregation of self-reported data, with limited checks for consistency and accuracy, for monitoring. As nations commit to more stringent GHG emissions-mitigation actions and as economic rewards or penalties are attached to emission levels, self-reported data will require independent confirmation that they are accurate and reliable, if they are to provide the basis for critical choices and actions that may be required. Supporting emissions-mitigation efforts and agreements, as well as monitoring energy- and fossil-fuel intensive national and global activities would be best achieved by a process of: (1) monitoring of emissions and emission-mitigation actions, based, in part, on, (2) (self-) reporting of pertinent bottom-up inventory data, (3) verification that reported data derive from and are consistent with agreed-upon processes and procedures, and (4) validation that reported emissions and emissions-mitigation action data are correct, based on independent measurements (top-down) derived from a suite of sensors in space, air, land, and, possibly, sea, used to deduce and attribute anthropogenic emissions. These data would be assessed and used to deduce and attribute measured GHG concentrations to anthropogenic emissions, attributed geographically and, to the extent possible, by economic sector. The validation element is needed to provide independent assurance that emissions are in accord with reported values, and should be considered as an important addition to the accepted MRV process, leading to a MRV&V process. This study and report focus on attributes of a greenhouse-gas information system (GHGIS) needed to support MRV&V needs. These needs set the function of such a system apart from scientific/research monitoring of GHGs and carbon-cycle systems, and include (not exclusively): the need for a GHGIS that is operational, as required for decision-support; the need for a system that meets specifications derived from imposed requirements; the need for rigorous calibration, verification, and validation (CV&V) standards, processes, and records for all measurement and modeling/data-inversion data; the need to develop and adopt an uncertainty-quantification (UQ) regimen for all measurement and modeling data; and the requirement that GHGIS products can be subjected to third-party questioning and scientific scrutiny. This report examines and assesses presently available capabilities that could contribute to a future GHGIS. These capabilities include sensors and measurement technologies; data analysis and data uncertainty quantification (UQ) practices and methods; and model-based data-inversion practices, methods, and their associated UQ. The report further examines the need for traceable calibration, verification, and validation processes and attached metadata; differences between present science-/research-oriented needs and those that would be required for an operational GHGIS; the development, operation, and maintenance of a GHGIS missions-operations center (GMOC); and the complex systems engineering and integration that would be required to develop, operate, and evolve a future GHGIS. Present monitoring systems would be heavily relied on in any GHGIS implementation at the outset and would likely continue to provide valuable future contributions to GHGIS. However, present monitoring systems were developed to serve science/research purposes. This study concludes that no component or capability presently available is at the level of technological maturity and readiness required for implementation in an operational GHGIS today. However, purpose-designed and -built components could be developed and implemented in support of a future GHGIS. The study concludes that it is possible to develop and provide a capability-driven prototype GHGIS, as part of a Phase-1 effort, within three years from project-funding start, that would make use of and integrate existing sensing and system capabilities. As part of a Phase-2 effort, a requirem

  2. Global Carbon Emissions in the Coming Decades: The Case of China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Mark D.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of energy-related CO2 emissions in China during 1980 todrivers of accelerating CO2 emissions. Proceedings of thefraction of China’s CO2 emissions can be attributed to

  3. Policy Agenda for Addressing Climate Change in Bangladesh: Copenhagen...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    gas (GHG) emissions could rise by 25 - 90 percent by 2030 relative to 2000 The Earth could warm by 3 C by 2100 best estimates indicate that the 3 2100. Even if countries...

  4. Impacts of residential developments on local sustainability : case study in Metro Boston

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xia, Jie, M.C.P. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Along with urbanization and decentralization, the sustainability of metropolitan areas is considered one of the most significant challenges worldwide. Transportation-related problems, such as congestion, GHG emissions, and ...

  5. Spatial Disaggregation of CO2 Emissions for the State of California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Wenzel, Tom; Fischer, Marc

    2008-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This report allocates California's 2004 statewide carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fuel combustion to the 58 counties in the state. The total emissions are allocated to counties using several different methods, based on the availability of data for each sector. Data on natural gas use in all sectors are available by county. Fuel consumption by power and combined heat and power generation plants is available for individual plants. Bottom-up models were used to distribute statewide fuel sales-based CO2 emissions by county for on-road vehicles, aircraft, and watercraft. All other sources of CO2 emissions were allocated to counties based on surrogates for activity. CO2 emissions by sector were estimated for each county, as well as for the South Coast Air Basin. It is important to note that emissions from some sources, notably electricity generation, were allocated to counties based on where the emissions were generated, rather than where the electricity was actually consumed. In addition, several sources of CO2 emissions, such as electricity generated in and imported from other states and international marine bunker fuels, were not included in the analysis. California Air Resource Board (CARB) does not include CO2 emissions from interstate and international air travel, in the official California greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory, so those emissions were allocated to counties for informational purposes only. Los Angeles County is responsible for by far the largest CO2 emissions from combustion in the state: 83 Million metric tonnes (Mt), or 24percent of total CO2 emissions in California, more than twice that of the next county (Kern, with 38 Mt, or 11percent of statewide emissions). The South Coast Air Basin accounts for 122 MtCO2, or 35percent of all emissions from fuel combustion in the state. The distribution of emissions by sector varies considerably by county, with on-road motor vehicles dominating most counties, but large stationary sources and rail travel dominating in other counties.The CO2 emissions data by county and source are available upon request.

  6. GHG Management Institute GHG MRV Curriculum | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdf Jump1946865°, -86.0529604°Wisconsin:FyreStorm IncLSE COMP POSTGHD Inc

  7. Eco-efficiency for greenhouse gas emissions mitigation of municipal solid waste management: A case study of Tianjin, China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao Wei, E-mail: zhaowei.tju@gmail.com [College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Liaoning University of Technology, 121000 Jinzhou (China); Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300RA Leiden (Netherlands); Huppes, Gjalt, E-mail: huppes@cml.leidenuniv.nl [Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300RA Leiden (Netherlands); Voet, Ester van der, E-mail: Voet@cml.leidenuniv.nl [Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The issue of municipal solid waste (MSW) management has been highlighted in China due to the continually increasing MSW volumes being generated and the limited capacity of waste treatment facilities. This article presents a quantitative eco-efficiency (E/E) analysis on MSW management in terms of greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. A methodology for E/E analysis has been proposed, with an emphasis on the consistent integration of life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC). The environmental and economic impacts derived from LCA and LCC have been normalized and defined as a quantitative E/E indicator. The proposed method was applied in a case study of Tianjin, China. The study assessed the current MSW management system, as well as a set of alternative scenarios, to investigate trade-offs between economy and GHG emissions mitigation. Additionally, contribution analysis was conducted on both LCA and LCC to identify key issues driving environmental and economic impacts. The results show that the current Tianjin's MSW management system emits the highest GHG and costs the least, whereas the situation reverses in the integrated scenario. The key issues identified by the contribution analysis show no linear relationship between the global warming impact and the cost impact in MSW management system. The landfill gas utilization scenario is indicated as a potential optimum scenario by the proposed E/E analysis, given the characteristics of MSW, technology levels, and chosen methodologies. The E/E analysis provides an attractive direction towards sustainable waste management, though some questions with respect to uncertainty need to be discussed further.

  8. Multiwavelength Thermal Emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Multiwavelength Astronomy NASA #12;Thermal Emission #12;Thermal Emission Non-thermal p-p collisions Optical IR Radio/ Microwave sources of emission massive stars, WHIM, Ly many dust, cool objects-ray ~GeV Gamma-ray ~TeV sources of emission AGN, clusters, SNR, binaries, stars AGN (obscured), shocks

  9. Bottom-up Representation of Industrial Energy Efficiency Technologies in Integrated Assessment Models for the Cement Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sathaye, J.; Xu, T.; Galitsky, C.

    2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Adoption of efficient end-use technologies is one of the key measures for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. How to effectively analyze and manage the costs associated with GHG reductions becomes extremely important for the industry and policy makers around the world. Energy-climate (EC) models are often used for analyzing the costs of reducing GHG emissions for various emission-reduction measures, because an accurate estimation of these costs is critical for identifying and choosing optimal emission reduction measures, and for developing related policy options to accelerate market adoption and technology implementation. However, accuracies of assessing of GHG-emission reduction costs by taking into account the adoption of energy efficiency technologies will depend on how well these end-use technologies are represented in integrated assessment models (IAM) and other energy-climate models.

  10. The impact of municipal solid waste treatment methods on greenhouse gas emissions in Lahore, Pakistan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batool, Syeda Adila [Department of Space Science, Punjab University, Lahore 54600 (Pakistan)], E-mail: aadila_batool@yahoo.com; Chuadhry, Muhammad Nawaz [College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan)], E-mail: muhammadnawazchaudhry@yahoo.com

    2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The contribution of existing municipal solid waste management to emission of greenhouse gases and the alternative scenarios to reduce emissions were analyzed for Data Ganj Bukhsh Town (DGBT) in Lahore, Pakistan using the life cycle assessment methodology. DGBT has a population of 1,624,169 people living in 232,024 dwellings. Total waste generated is 500,000 tons per year with an average per capita rate of 0.84 kg per day. Alternative scenarios were developed and evaluated according to the environmental, economic, and social atmosphere of the study area. Solid waste management options considered include the collection and transportation of waste, collection of recyclables with single and mixed material bank container systems (SMBCS, MMBCS), material recovery facilities (MRF), composting, biogasification and landfilling. A life cycle inventory (LCI) of the six scenarios along with the baseline scenario was completed; this helped to quantify the CO{sub 2} equivalents, emitted and avoided, for energy consumption, production, fuel consumption, and methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions. LCI results showed that the contribution of the baseline scenario to the global warming potential as CO{sub 2} equivalents was a maximum of 838,116 tons. The sixth scenario had a maximum reduction of GHG emissions in terms of CO{sub 2} equivalents of -33,773 tons, but the most workable scenario for the current situation in the study area is scenario 5. It saves 25% in CO{sub 2} equivalents compared to the baseline scenario.

  11. Article published in Energy Policy, vol. 39(6): 35033514 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2011.03.049

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -quarter of total fossil fuel-combustion related CO2 emissions of the world (IEA, 2010b). In 2004, the transport sector is responsible for 14% of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and 17% of global CO2 emission.03.049 Decoupling urban transport from GHG emissions in Indian cities -- A critical review and perspectives Jun Li

  12. BP's Perspective on Emissions Purdue Emissions Trading Workshop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BP's Perspective on Emissions Trading Purdue Emissions Trading Workshop April 30, 2010 Mark - Government policies can create a carbon price via three primary mechanisms: - Emissions trading (BP's strong

  13. Comparative Analysis of Modeling Studies on China's Future Energy and Emissions Outlook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The past decade has seen the development of various scenarios describing long-term patterns of future Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions, with each new approach adding insights to our understanding of the changing dynamics of energy consumption and aggregate future energy trends. With the recent growing focus on China's energy use and emission mitigation potential, a range of Chinese outlook models have been developed across different institutions including in China's Energy Research Institute's 2050 China Energy and CO2 Emissions Report, McKinsey & Co's China's Green Revolution report, the UK Sussex Energy Group and Tyndall Centre's China's Energy Transition report, and the China-specific section of the IEA World Energy Outlook 2009. At the same time, the China Energy Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has developed a bottom-up, end-use energy model for China with scenario analysis of energy and emission pathways out to 2050. A robust and credible energy and emission model will play a key role in informing policymakers by assessing efficiency policy impacts and understanding the dynamics of future energy consumption and energy saving and emission reduction potential. This is especially true for developing countries such as China, where uncertainties are greater while the economy continues to undergo rapid growth and industrialization. A slightly different assumption or storyline could result in significant discrepancies among different model results. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the key models in terms of their scope, methodologies, key driver assumptions and the associated findings. A comparative analysis of LBNL's energy end-use model scenarios with the five above studies was thus conducted to examine similarities and divergences in methodologies, scenario storylines, macroeconomic drivers and assumptions as well as aggregate energy and emission scenario results. Besides directly tracing different energy and CO{sub 2} savings potential back to the underlying strategies and combination of efficiency and abatement policy instruments represented by each scenario, this analysis also had other important but often overlooked findings.

  14. MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    regulation and have gained attention recently within the context of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading

  15. Excess Emissions (New Mexico)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This regulation establishes requirements for a source whose operation results in an excess emission and to establish criteria for a source whose operation results in an excess emission to claim an...

  16. Emissions Trading and Social Justice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farber, Daniel A

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    David  M.  Driesen,  Does  Emissions  Trading  Encourage  Jason  Coburn,  Emissions  Trading   and   Environmental  Szambelan,  U.S.  Emissions  Trading  Markets  for  SO 2  

  17. Contribution of cooperative sector recycling to greenhouse gas emissions reduction: A case study of Ribeirão Pires, Brazil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, Megan F., E-mail: mfking@uvic.ca [The Community-Based Research Laboratory, Department of Geography, University of Victoria, PO Box 3060 STN CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 3R4 (Canada); Gutberlet, Jutta, E-mail: gutber@uvic.ca [Department of Geography, University of Victoria, PO Box 3060 STN CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 3R4 (Canada)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • Cooperative recycling achieves environmental, economic and social objectives. • We calculate GHG emissions reduction for a recycling cooperative in São Paulo, Brazil. • The cooperative merits consideration as a Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) project. • A CDM project would enhance the achievements of the recycling cooperative. • National and local waste management policies support the recycling cooperative. - Abstract: Solid waste, including municipal waste and its management, is a major challenge for most cities and among the key contributors to climate change. Greenhouse gas emissions can be reduced through recovery and recycling of resources from the municipal solid waste stream. In São Paulo, Brazil, recycling cooperatives play a crucial role in providing recycling services including collection, separation, cleaning, stocking, and sale of recyclable resources. The present research attempts to measure the greenhouse gas emission reductions achieved by the recycling cooperative Cooperpires, as well as highlight its socioeconomic benefits. Methods include participant observation, structured interviews, questionnaire application, and greenhouse gas accounting of recycling using a Clean Development Mechanism methodology. The results show that recycling cooperatives can achieve important energy savings and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, and suggest there is an opportunity for Cooperpires and other similar recycling groups to participate in the carbon credit market. Based on these findings, the authors created a simple greenhouse gas accounting calculator for recyclers to estimate their emissions reductions.

  18. Evaluating greenhouse gas emissions from hydropower complexes on large rivers in Eastern Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arntzen, Evan V.; Miller, Benjamin L.; O'Toole, Amanda C.; Niehus, Sara E.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Water bodies, such as freshwater lakes, are known to be net emitters of carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4). In recent years, significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from tropical, boreal, and mid-latitude reservoirs have been reported. At a time when hydropower is increasing worldwide, better understanding of seasonal and regional variation in GHG emissions is needed in order to develop a predictive understanding of such fluxes within man-made impoundments. We examined power-producing dam complexes within xeric temperate locations in the northwestern United States. Sampling environments on the Snake (Lower Monumental Dam Complex) and Columbia Rivers (Priest Rapids Dam Complex) included tributary, mainstem, embayment, forebay, and tailrace areas during winter and summer 2012. At each sampling location, GHG measurement pathways included surface gas flux, degassing as water passed through dams during power generation, ebullition within littoral embayments, and direct sampling of hyporheic pore-water. Measurements were also carried out in a free-flowing reach of the Columbia River to estimate unaltered conditions. Surface flux resulted in very low emissions, with reservoirs acting as a sink for CO2 (up to –262 mg m-2 d-1, which is within the range previously reported for similarly located reservoirs). Surface flux of methane remained below 1 mg CH4 m-2d-1, a value well below fluxes reported previously for temperate reservoirs. Water passing through hydroelectric projects acted as a sink for CO2 during winter and a small source during summer, with mean degassing fluxes of –117 and 4.5 t CO2 d-1, respectively. Degassing of CH4 was minimal, with mean fluxes of 3.1 × 10-6 and –5.6 × 10-4 t CH4 d-1 during winter and summer, respectively. Gas flux due to ebullition was greater in coves located within reservoirs than in coves within the free flowing Hanford Reach–and CH4 flux exceeded that of CO2. Methane emissions varied widely across sampling locations, ranging from 10.5 to 1039 mg CH4 m-2 d-1, with mean fluxes of 324 mg CH4 m-2 d-1in Lower Monumental Dam reservoir and 482 mg CH4 m-2d-1 in the Priest Rapids Dam reservoir. The magnitude of methane flux due to ebullition was unexpectedly high, and falls within the range recently reported for other temperate reservoirs around the world, further suggesting that this methane source should be considered in estimates of global greenhouse gas emissions. Methane flux from sediment pore-water within littoral embayments averaged 4.2 mg m-2 d-1 during winter and 8.1 mg m-2 d-1 during summer, with a peak flux of 19.8 mg m-2d-1 (at the same location where CH4 ebullition was also the greatest). Carbon dioxide flux from sediment pore-water averaged approximately 80 mg m-2d-1 with little difference between winter and summer. Similar to emissions from ebullition, flux from sediment pore-water was higher in reservoirs than in the free flowing reach.

  19. Transforming trash: reuse as a waste management and climate change mitigation strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vergara, Sintana Eugenia

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    10: GHG emission sensitivity to landfill gas collectionfollowed by incineration, then landfill gas combustion), andthrough increased landfill gas collection; and avoided GHG

  20. Using Dashboards to Improve Energy and Comfort in Federal Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marini, Kyle

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gases (GHG) or carbon footprint, and public education onand lowering the carbon footprint or GHG emissions forby reducing carbon footprint. • Compare buildings’ energy

  1. actor-partner interdependence models: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    sixth in the US for total GHG emissions. The agricultural a comprehensive greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory, which the Florida Department of Environmental Protection will develop over...

  2. Extended emission around GPS radio sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Stanghellini; C. P. O'Dea; D. Dallacasa; P. Cassaro; S. A. Baum; R. Fanti; C. Fanti

    2005-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Extended radio emission detected around a sample of GHz Peaked Spectrum (GPS) radio sources is discussed. Evidence for extended emission which is related to the GPS source is found in 6 objects out of 33. Three objects are associated with quasars with core-jet pc-scale morphology, and three are identified with galaxies with symmetric (CSO) radio morphology. We conclude that the core-jet GPS quasars are likely to be beamed objects with a continuous supply of energy from the core to the kpc scale. It is also possible that low surface brightness extended radio emission is present in other GPS quasars but the emission is below our detection limit due to the high redshifts of the objects. On the other hand, the CSO/galaxies with extended large scale emission may be rejuvenated sources where the extended emission is the relic of previous activity. In general, the presence of large scale emission associated with GPS galaxies is uncommon, suggesting that in the context of the recurrent activity model, the time scale between subsequent bursts is in general longer than the radiative lifetime of the radio emission from the earlier activity.

  3. The TRANSIMS Approach to Emission Estimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barth, M.J.; Smith, L.; Thayer, G.R.; Williams, M.D.

    1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transportation systems play a significant role in urban air quality, energy consumption and carbon-dioxide emissions. Recently, it has been found that current systems for estimating emissions of pollutants from transportation devices lead to significant inaccuracies. Most of the existing emission modules use very aggregate representations of traveler behavior and attempt to estimate emissions on typical driving cycles. However, recent data suggests that typical driving cycles produce relatively low emissions with most emissions coming from off-cycle driving, cold-starts, malfunctioning vehicles, and evaporative emissions. TRANSIMS is a simulation system for the analysis of transportation options in metropolitan areas. It's major functional components are: (1) a population disaggregation module, (2) a travel planning module, (3) a regional microsimulation module, and (4) an environmental module. In addition to the major functional components, it includes a strong underpining of simulation science and an analyst's tool box. The purpose of the environmental module is to translate traveler behavior into consequent air quality. The environmental module uses information from the TRANSIMS planner and the microsimulation and it supports the analyst's toolbox. The TRANSIMS system holds the promise of a more complete description of the role of heterogeneity in transportation in emission estimation.

  4. Vapor canister heater for evaporative emissions systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bishop, R.P.; Berg, P.G.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Automotive evaporative emissions systems use a charcoal canister to store evaporative hydrocarobn emissions. These stored vapors are later purged and burned during engine operation. Under certain conditions the engine cannot completely purge the canister of the stored fuel vapors, which results in a decreased vapor storage capacity in the canister. A self-regulating PTC (Positive Temperature Coefficient) heater has been developed to warm the purge air as it enters the canister, in order to provide thermal energy for increased release of the vapors from charcoal sites. This paper describes the construction and operation of the vapor canister heater as it relates to improved evaporative emission system performance.

  5. This event is part of a semester-long lecture and panel series focused on how to meet rising energy demand while simultaneously bringing GHG emissions under control. It is intended to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    Initiative and the CIRES Center for Science and Technology Policy Research For more information see http://ei, October 30 7:00 PM - 9:00 PM CU-Boulder, Eaton Humanities 150 Free and Open to the Public PANELISTS

  6. Global and regional emission estimates for HCFC-22

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saikawa, Eri

    HCFC-22 (CHClF[subscript 2], chlorodifluoromethane) is an ozone-depleting substance (ODS) as well as a significant greenhouse gas (GHG). HCFC-22 has been used widely as a refrigerant fluid in cooling and air-conditioning ...

  7. U.S. Natural Gas System Methane Emissions: State of Knowledge from LCAs, Inventories, and Atmospheric Measurements (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, G.

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural gas (NG) is a potential "bridge fuel" during transition to a decarbonized energy system: It emits less carbon dioxide during combustion than other fossil fuels and can be used in many industries. However, because of the high global warming potential of methane (CH4, the major component of NG), climate benefits from NG use depend on system leakage rates. Some recent estimates of leakage have challenged the benefits of switching from coal to NG, a large near-term greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction opportunity. During this presentation, Garvin will review evidence from multiple perspectives - life cycle assessments (LCAs), inventories and measurements - about NG leakage in the US. Particular attention will be paid to a recent article in Science magazine which reviewed over 20 years of published measurements to better understand what we know about total methane emissions and those from the oil and gas sectors. Scientific and policy implications of the state of knowledge will be discussed.

  8. SPECIAL REPORT 298: EFFECTS OF LAND DEVELOPMENT PATTERNS ON MOTORIZED TRAVEL, ENERGY, AND CO2 EMISSIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kockelman, Kara M.

    , plug-in hybrid purchases, home heating and cooling practices, and power generation processes alternative to gasoline and diesel, achieving significant GHG and petroleum savings. However, biofuels

  9. Field emission chemical sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Panitz, J.A.

    1983-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A field emission chemical sensor for specific detection of a chemical entity in a sample includes a closed chamber enclosing two field emission electrode sets, each field emission electrode set comprising (a) an electron emitter electrode from which field emission electrons can be emitted when an effective voltage is connected to the electrode set; and (b) a collector electrode which will capture said electrons emitted from said emitter electrode. One of the electrode sets is passive to the chemical entity and the other is active thereto and has an active emitter electrode which will bind the chemical entity when contacted therewith.

  10. Modeling Traffic Flow Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cappiello, Alessandra

    2002-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The main topic of this thesis is the development of light-duty vehicle dynamic emission models and their integration with dynamic traffic models. Combined, these models

  11. Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.; Arons, Samuel M.; Lemoine, Derek M.; Hummel, Holmes

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    would in turn lower PHEV fuel costs and make them morestretches from fossil-fuel- powered conventional vehiclesbraking, as do Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions Making Plug-

  12. Vehicle Emissions Review - 2011

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    mass, membrane effects, fundamentals on permeability * DOC Pd:Pt ratios allow optimization * Gasoline emission control is amazing - Zone coating - Lower PGM with better...

  13. Spectral Emission of Moving Atom

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. X. Zheng-Johansson

    2008-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A renewed analysis of the H.E. Ives and G.R. Stilwell's experiment on moving hydrogen canal rays (J. Opt. Soc. Am., 1938, v.28, 215) concludes that the spectral emission of a moving atom exhibits always a redshift which informs not the direction of the atom's motion. The conclusion is also evident from a simple energy relation: atomic spectral radiation is emitted as an orbiting electron consumes a portion of its internal energy on transiting to a lower-energy state which however has in a moving atom an additional energy gain; this results in a redshift in the emission frequency. Based on auxiliary experimental information and a scheme for de Broglie particle formation, we give a vigorous elucidation of the mechanism for deceleration radiation of atomic electron; the corresponding prediction of the redshift is in complete agreement with the Ives and Stilwell's experimental formula.

  14. Integrated Emissivity And Temperature Measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poulsen, Peter (Livermore, CA)

    2005-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-channel spectrometer and a light source are used to measure both the emitted and the reflected light from a surface which is at an elevated temperature relative to its environment. In a first method, the temperature of the surface and emissivity in each wavelength is calculated from a knowledge of the spectrum and the measurement of the incident and reflected light. In the second method, the reflected light is measured from a reference surface having a known reflectivity and the same geometry as the surface of interest and the emitted and the reflected light are measured for the surface of interest. These measurements permit the computation of the emissivity in each channel of the spectrometer and the temperature of the surface of interest.

  15. Methane emissions from MBT landfills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heyer, K.-U., E-mail: heyer@ifas-hamburg.de; Hupe, K.; Stegmann, R.

    2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • Compilation of methane generation potential of mechanical biological treated (MBT) municipal solid waste. • Impacts and kinetics of landfill gas production of MBT landfills, approach with differentiated half-lives. • Methane oxidation in the waste itself and in soil covers. • Estimation of methane emissions from MBT landfills in Germany. - Abstract: Within the scope of an investigation for the German Federal Environment Agency (“Umweltbundesamt”), the basics for the estimation of the methane emissions from the landfilling of mechanically and biologically treated waste (MBT) were developed. For this purpose, topical research including monitoring results regarding the gas balance at MBT landfills was evaluated. For waste treated to the required German standards, a methane formation potential of approximately 18–24 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/t of total dry solids may be expected. Monitoring results from MBT landfills show that a three-phase model with differentiated half-lives describes the degradation kinetics in the best way. This is due to the fact that during the first years of disposal, the anaerobic degradation processes still proceed relatively intensively. In addition in the long term (decades), a residual gas production at a low level is still to be expected. Most of the soils used in recultivation layer systems at German landfills show a relatively high methane oxidation capacity up to 5 l CH{sub 4}/(m{sup 2} h). However, measurements at MBT disposal sites indicate that the majority of the landfill gas (in particular at non-covered areas), leaves the landfill body via preferred gas emission zones (hot spots) without significant methane oxidation. Therefore, rather low methane oxidation factors are recommended for open and temporarily covered MBT landfills. Higher methane oxidation rates can be achieved when the soil/recultivation layer is adequately designed and operated. Based on the elaborated default values, the First Order Decay (FOD) model of the IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, 2006, was used to estimate the methane emissions from MBT landfills. Due to the calculation made by the authors emissions in the range of 60,000–135,000 t CO{sub 2-eq.}/a for all German MBT landfills can be expected. This wide range shows the uncertainties when the here used procedure and the limited available data are applied. It is therefore necessary to generate more data in the future in order to calculate more precise methane emission rates from MBT landfills. This is important for the overall calculation of the climate gas production in Germany which is required once a year by the German Government.

  16. An Assessment of Energy and Environmental Issues Related to the Use of Gas-to-Liquid Fuels in Transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent technological advances in processes for converting natural gas into liquid fuels, combined with a growing need for cleaner, low-sulfur distillate fuel to mitigate the environmental impacts of diesel engines have raised the possibility of a substantial global gas-to-liquids (G-T-L) industry. This report examines the implications of G-T-L supply for U.S. energy security and the environment. It appears that a G-T-L industry would increase competitiveness in world liquid fuels markets, even if OPEC states are major producers of G-T-L's. Cleaner G-T-L distillates would help reduce air pollution from diesel engines. Implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions could be positive or negative, depending on the sources of natural gas, their alternative uses, and the degree of sequestration that can be achieved for CO2 emissions produced during the conversion process.

  17. An assessment of energy and environmental issues related to the use of gas-to-liquid fuels in transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent technological advances in processes for converting natural gas into liquid fuels, combined with a growing need for cleaner, low-sulfur distillate fuel to mitigate the environmental impacts of diesel engines have raised the possibility of a substantial global gas-to-liquids (G-T-L) industry. This report examines the implications of G-T-L supply for U.S. energy security and the environment. It appears that a G-T-L industry would increase competitiveness in world liquid fuels markets, even if OPEC states are major producers of G-T-L's. Cleaner G-T-L distillates would help reduce air pollution from diesel engines. Implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions could be positive or negative, depending on the sources of natural gas, their alternative uses, and the degree of sequestration that can be achieved for CO{sub 2} emissions produced during the conversion process.

  18. Air Emission Inventory for the INEEL -- 1999 Emission Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zohner, Steven K

    2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the 1999 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  19. Biofuels: Review of Policies and Impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Janda, Karel; Kristoufek, Ladislav; Zilberman, David

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gas emissions, fossil fuel demand and solar energyfossil fuels, to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and to increase demand

  20. Climate and Transportation Solutions: Findings from the 2009 Asilomar Conference on Transportation and Energy Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Daniel; Cannon, James S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    approach based on the full fuel cycle emissions of eachbased, and accounts for full fuel cycle GHG emissions. A

  1. Page 1 of 10 Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    removals and emissions from domestic woodland creation and deforestation .........................................................................................................................3 Step 3: Account for GHG emissions from deforestation

  2. A Guidebook for Low-Carbon Development at the Local Level

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emission Reduction Potential Renewable energy sources arerenewable energy, it is difficult to quantify GHG emission reduction potential

  3. Where in the World is it Cheapest to Cut Carbon Emissions? David I. Stern

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pezzey, Jack

    , relative total costs are higher in emissions-intensive countries. Using the results of the 22nd Energy with low marginal costs of abating carbon emissions may have high total costs, and vice versa, for a given mitigation. We hypothesize that, under a common percentage cut in emissions intensity relative to business

  4. Permit Allocation in Emissions Trading using the Boltzmann Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Ji-Won; Isard, Walter

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In emissions trading, the initial permit allocation is an intractable issue because it needs to be essentially fair to the participating countries. There are many ways to distribute a given total amount of emissions permits among countries, but the existing distribution methods such as auctioning and grandfathering have been debated. Here we describe a new model for permit allocation in emissions trading using the Boltzmann distribution. The Boltzmann distribution is introduced to permit allocation by combining it with concepts in emissions trading. A price determination mechanism for emission permits is then developed in relation to the {\\beta} value in the Boltzmann distribution. Finally, it is demonstrated how emissions permits can be practically allocated among participating countries in empirical results. The new allocation model using the Boltzmann distribution describes a most probable, natural, and unbiased distribution of emissions permits among multiple countries. Based on its simplicity and versati...

  5. Spontaneous Emission Rate Enhancement Using Optical Antennas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Nikhil

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of  Spontaneous  Emission  in  a  Semiconductor  nanoLED,”  emission  rate  enhancement  using  the  Fluorescent  Emission  by  Lattice   Resonances  in  

  6. EMISSION AND TRANSMISSION NOISE PROPAGATION IN POSITRON EMISSION COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gullberg, G.T.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High Resolution Computed Tomography of Positron Emitters,"of Dynamic Emission Computed Tomography," J. Nucl. Med. ~:IN POSITRON EMISSION COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY RECEIVED lAWRENCE

  7. Contraction & Convergence: UK carbon emissions and the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Andrew

    the EU's emissions trading scheme will do little to mitigate carbon emissions 4) Aviation growth must emissions. Keywords Contraction & Convergence; aviation; emissions trading; passengers; carbon dioxide #12

  8. A Statistical Model to Assess Indirect CO2 Emissions of the UAE Residential Sector 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radhi, H.; Fikry, F.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study presents a regional bottom-up model for assessing space cooling energy and related greenhouse gas emissions. The model was developed with the aim of improving the quality and quantity of cooling energy and emission data, especially...

  9. Global Carbon Emissions in the Coming Decades: The Case of China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Mark D.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    forecasts, carbon intensity, energy policy, emissions reductions Abstract China’China Surpassing American Energy-Related Carbon Emissions (1, 2) ForecastChina’s energy demand grew faster than any of the forecasts –

  10. Emission Abatement System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bromberg, Leslie (Sharon, MA); Cohn, Daniel R. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Rabinovich, Alexander (Swampscott, MA)

    2003-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Emission abatement system. The system includes a source of emissions and a catalyst for receiving the emissions. Suitable catalysts are absorber catalysts and selective catalytic reduction catalysts. A plasma fuel converter generates a reducing gas from a fuel source and is connected to deliver the reducing gas into contact with the absorber catalyst for regenerating the catalyst. A preferred reducing gas is a hydrogen rich gas and a preferred plasma fuel converter is a plasmatron. It is also preferred that the absorber catalyst be adapted for absorbing NO.sub.x.

  11. Emission Standards for Contaminants (Iowa)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations list emissions standards for various contaminants, and contain special requirements for anaerobic lagoons. These regulations also describe alternative emissions limits, which may...

  12. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the fourth Energy Information Administration (EIA) annual report on US emissions of greenhouse gases. This report presents estimates of US anthropogenic (human-caused) emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and several other greenhouse gases for 1988 through 1994. Estimates of 1995 carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and halocarbon emissions are also provided, although complete 1995 estimates for methane are not yet available. Emissions of carbon dioxide increased by 1.9% from 1993 to 1994 and by an additional 0.8% from 1994 to 1995. Most carbon dioxide emissions are caused by the burning of fossil fuels for energy consumption, which is strongly related to economic growth, energy prices, and weather. The US economy grew rapidly in 1994 and slowed in 1995. Estimated emissions of methane increased slightly in 1994, as a result of a rise in emissions from energy and agricultural sources. Estimated nitrous oxide emissions increased by 1.8% in 1995, primarily due to increased use of nitrogen fertilizers and higher output of chemicals linked to nitrous oxide emissions. Estimated emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs), which are known to contribute to global warming, increased by nearly 11% in 1995, primarily as a result of increasing substitution for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). With the exception of methane, the historical emissions estimates presented in this report are only slightly revised from those in last year`s report.

  13. Field emission electron source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zettl, Alexander Karlwalter (Kensington, CA); Cohen, Marvin Lou (Berkeley, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel field emitter material, field emission electron source, and commercially feasible fabrication method is described. The inventive field emission electron source produces reliable electron currents of up to 400 mA/cm.sup.2 at 200 volts. The emitter is robust and the current it produces is not sensitive to variability of vacuum or the distance between the emitter tip and the cathode. The novel emitter has a sharp turn-on near 100 volts.

  14. World Energy Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1950 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -U" relation with a within- sample peak between carbon dioxide emissions (and energy use) per capita and perWorld Energy Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1950 Ñ 2050 Richard Schmalensee, Thomas M capita income. Using the income and population growth assumptions of the Intergovernmental Panel

  15. Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Emission factors Shawn Urbanski

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Emission factors Shawn Urbanski Missoula Fire burning Greenhouse gases Emission factors a b s t r a c t While the vast majority of carbon emitted mixture of gases and aerosols. Primary emissions include sig- nificant amounts of CH4 and aerosol (organic

  16. Life Cycle Assessment Applied to 95 Representative U.S. Farms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutland, Christopher T.

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    or are considering the regulation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission to mitigate the global warming effect. Because agriculture accounts for a large portion of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, it is necessary to establish a baseline measure of the GHG emission...

  17. Global Carbon Emissions in the Coming Decades: The Case of China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levine, Mark; Levine, Mark D.; Aden, Nathaniel T.

    2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    China's annual energy-related carbon emissions surpassed those of the United States in In order to build a more robust understanding of China's energy-related carbon emissions, emissions after 2001? The divergence between actual and forecasted carbon emissions international trade, and central government policies in driving emissions growth. so greatly in error and what drove the rapid growth of China's energy-related carbon this article reviews the role of economic restructuring, urbanization, coal dependence, underscores the rapid changes that have taken place in China's energy system since 2001.

  18. Simultaneous measurements of driveability and emissions at cool ambient temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jorgensen, S.W.; Benson, J.D.

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Simultaneous measurements of cold-start/warm-up driveability and tailpipe emissions on a chassis dynamometer were made at 5{degree}C using four late-model vehicles. Two fuels were used: a low driveability index (DI) fuel containing 11% MTBE and 29% aromatics, and a high DI fuel with no MTBE and 43% aromatics. Tailpipe hydrocarbon emissions and total weighted driveability demerits (TWDs) both correlated with the fuel used; both increased significantly when high-DI/no-MTBE fuel was used. A strong linear relation exists between TWDs and simultaneously measured tailpipe hydrocarbon emissions. CO and NOx emissions did not correlate with fuel composition. 10 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Well-to-wheels analysis of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.; Poch, L.; Wang, M.; Vyas, A.; Mahalik, M.; Rousseau, A.

    2010-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are being developed for mass production by the automotive industry. PHEVs have been touted for their potential to reduce the US transportation sector's dependence on petroleum and cut greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by (1) using off-peak excess electric generation capacity and (2) increasing vehicles energy efficiency. A well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis - which examines energy use and emissions from primary energy source through vehicle operation - can help researchers better understand the impact of the upstream mix of electricity generation technologies for PHEV recharging, as well as the powertrain technology and fuel sources for PHEVs. For the WTW analysis, Argonne National Laboratory researchers used the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model developed by Argonne to compare the WTW energy use and GHG emissions associated with various transportation technologies to those associated with PHEVs. Argonne researchers estimated the fuel economy and electricity use of PHEVs and alternative fuel/vehicle systems by using the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) model. They examined two PHEV designs: the power-split configuration and the series configuration. The first is a parallel hybrid configuration in which the engine and the electric motor are connected to a single mechanical transmission that incorporates a power-split device that allows for parallel power paths - mechanical and electrical - from the engine to the wheels, allowing the engine and the electric motor to share the power during acceleration. In the second configuration, the engine powers a generator, which charges a battery that is used by the electric motor to propel the vehicle; thus, the engine never directly powers the vehicle's transmission. The power-split configuration was adopted for PHEVs with a 10- and 20-mile electric range because they require frequent use of the engine for acceleration and to provide energy when the battery is depleted, while the series configuration was adopted for PHEVs with a 30- and 40-mile electric range because they rely mostly on electrical power for propulsion. Argonne researchers calculated the equivalent on-road (real-world) fuel economy on the basis of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency miles per gallon (mpg)-based formulas. The reduction in fuel economy attributable to the on-road adjustment formula was capped at 30% for advanced vehicle systems (e.g., PHEVs, fuel cell vehicles [FCVs], hybrid electric vehicles [HEVs], and battery-powered electric vehicles [BEVs]). Simulations for calendar year 2020 with model year 2015 mid-size vehicles were chosen for this analysis to address the implications of PHEVs within a reasonable timeframe after their likely introduction over the next few years. For the WTW analysis, Argonne assumed a PHEV market penetration of 10% by 2020 in order to examine the impact of significant PHEV loading on the utility power sector. Technological improvement with medium uncertainty for each vehicle was also assumed for the analysis. Argonne employed detailed dispatch models to simulate the electric power systems in four major regions of the US: the New England Independent System Operator, the New York Independent System Operator, the State of Illinois, and the Western Electric Coordinating Council. Argonne also evaluated the US average generation mix and renewable generation of electricity for PHEV and BEV recharging scenarios to show the effects of these generation mixes on PHEV WTW results. Argonne's GREET model was designed to examine the WTW energy use and GHG emissions for PHEVs and BEVs, as well as FCVs, regular HEVs, and conventional gasoline internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). WTW results are reported for charge-depleting (CD) operation of PHEVs under different recharging scenarios. The combined WTW results of CD and charge-sustaining (CS) PHEV operations (using the utility factor method) were also examined and reported. According to the utility factor method, the share of vehicle miles trav

  20. CleanFleet. Final report: Volume 7, vehicle emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurements of exhaust and evaporative emissions from Clean Fleet vans running on M-85, compressed natural gas (CNG), California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), propane gas, and a control gasoline (RF-A) are presented. Three vans from each combination of vehicle manufacturer and fuel were tested at the California Air Resources Board (ARB) as they accumulated mileage in the demonstration. Data are presented on regulated emissions, ozone precursors, air toxics, and greenhouse gases. The emissions tests provide information on in-use emissions. That is, the vans were taken directly from daily commercial service and tested at the ARB. The differences in alternative fuel technology provide the basis for a range of technology options. The emissions data reflect these differences, with classes of vehicle/fuels producing either more or less emissions for various compounds relative to the control gasoline.

  1. Emissive sensors and devices incorporating these sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swager, Timothy M; Zhang, Shi-Wei

    2013-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention generally relates to luminescent and/or optically absorbing compositions and/or precursors to those compositions, including solid films incorporating these compositions/precursors, exhibiting increased luminescent lifetimes, quantum yields, enhanced stabilities and/or amplified emissions. The present invention also relates to sensors and methods for sensing analytes through luminescent and/or optically absorbing properties of these compositions and/or precursors. Examples of analytes detectable by the invention include electrophiles, alkylating agents, thionyl halides, and phosphate ester groups including phosphoryl halides, cyanides and thioates such as those found in certain chemical warfare agents. The present invention additionally relates to devices and methods for amplifying emissions, such as those produced using the above-described compositions and/or precursors, by incorporating the composition and/or precursor within a polymer having an energy migration pathway. In some cases, the compositions and/or precursors thereof include a compound capable of undergoing a cyclization reaction.

  2. Controlled spontaneous emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jae-Seung Lee; Mary A. Rohrdanz; A. K. Khitrin

    2007-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The problem of spontaneous emission is studied by a direct computer simulation of the dynamics of a combined system: atom + radiation field. The parameters of the discrete finite model, including up to 20k field oscillators, have been optimized by a comparison with the exact solution for the case when the oscillators have equidistant frequencies and equal coupling constants. Simulation of the effect of multi-pulse sequence of phase kicks and emission by a pair of atoms shows that both the frequency and the linewidth of the emitted spectrum could be controlled.

  3. Optimal irreversible stimulated emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D Valente; Y Li; J P Poizat; J M Gerard; L C Kwek; M F Santos; A Auffeves

    2012-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We studied the dynamics of an initially inverted atom in a semi-infinite waveguide, in the presence of a single propagating photon. We show that atomic relaxation is enhanced by a factor of 2, leading to maximal bunching in the output field. This optimal irreversible stimulated emission is a novel phenomenon that can be observed with state-of-the-art solid-state atoms and waveguides. When the atom interacts with two one-dimensional electromagnetic environments, the preferential emission in the stimulated field can be exploited to efficiently amplify a classical or a quantum state.

  4. Emissions Trading and Air Toxics Emissions: RECLAIM and Toxics Regulation in the South Coast Air Basin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Nancy J.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emissions Trading and Air Toxics Emissions: RECLAIM anda mar- ket-based emissions trading program called theimpacts cre- ated by emissions trading programs that affect

  5. Upconversion emission from amorphous Y2O3:Tm3+ prepared by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Wenwu

    Upconversion emission from amorphous Y2O3:Tm3+ , Yb3+ prepared by nanosecond pulsed laser that the material produced by laser irradiation is amorphous, which presents strong blue upcon- version emission under the excitation of 976 nm diode laser. The relative intensity of the blue emission to the infrared

  6. Graphene Coating Coupled Emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyamasundar, R.K.

    Graphene Coating Coupled Emission A COMSET, A single sheet of sp2-hybridized carbon atoms, called of graphene and its unique properties, I will present amplification of surface graphene-Ag hybrid films which when graphene is used as the spacer layer in a conventional Ag- harnessed the nonlinear properties

  7. Secondary emission gas chamber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. In'shakov; V. Kryshkin; V. Skvortsov

    2014-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    For a hadron calorimeter active element there is considered a gaseous secondary emis-sion detector (150 micron gap, 50 kV/cm). Such one-stage parallel plate chamber must be a radiation hard, fast and simple. A model of such detector has been produced, tested and some characteristics are presented.

  8. Assessment of non-tailpipe hydrocarbon emissions from motor vehicles. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierson, W.R.; Lawson, D.R.; Schorran, D.E.; Fujita, E.M.; Sagebiel, J.C.

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report evaluates tailpipe and non-tailpipe hydrocarbon (HC) emissions from light-duty spark-ignition vehicles. The sources of information were unpublished data sets, generated mainly from 1990 through 1994, on emissions from volunteer fleets of in-use vehicles, and published Chemical Mass Balance source apportionments of HC in roadway tunnels and in urban air. The objective was to extract as much existing information as possible about magnitudes of running-loss emissions, hot soak emissions, diurnal emissions, and resting loss emissions, in absolute terms and in terms relative to one another and to tailpipe emissions. Relations between pressure- and purge-test failures and actual non-tailpipe emissions were also examined.

  9. Allocation of emission rights Economic incentives for emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for all countries High cost effectiviness:High cost effectiviness: International Emission trading Fairness NAM Department of Physical Resource Theory #12;Financial flows from emissions trading 450 ppmGDP SAS CPA WEU NAM Department of Physical Resource Theory #12;Financial flows from emissions trading 450

  10. Study on neutron emission from 2.2?kJ plasma focus device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Talukdar, N.; Neog, N. K.; Borthakur, T. K., E-mail: tkborthakur@yahoo.co.uk [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Sonapur 782402, Kamrup, Assam (India)

    2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The neutron emission from a low energy (2.2?kJ) plasma focus device operated in deuterium medium has been investigated by employing photo-multiplier tube (PMT) and bubble dosimeter. The neutron emission is found to be pressure dependent and anisotropic in nature. In most cases of plasma focus shots, the PMT signal shows double pulses of neutron emission with different intensities and widths. An interesting relation between intensity of hard X-ray and neutron emission is also observed.

  11. Prompt optical emission from residual collisions in GRB outflows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhuo Li; Eli Waxman

    2008-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The prompt gamma-ray emission in gamma-ray bursts is believed to be produced by internal shocks within a relativistic unsteady outflow. The recent detection of prompt optical emission accompanying the prompt gamma-ray emission appears to be inconsistent with this model since the out flowing plasma is expected to be highly optically thick to optical photons. We show here that fluctuations in flow properties on short, ~ 1 ms, time scale, which drive the gamma-ray producing collisions at small radii, are expected to lead to "residual" collisions at much larger radii, where the optical depth to optical photons is low. The late residual collisions naturally account for the relatively bright optical emission. The apparent simultaneity of gamma-ray and optical emission is due to the highly relativistic speed with which the plasma expands. Residual collisions may also account for the X-ray emission during the early "steep decline" phase, where the radius is inferred to be larger than the gamma-ray emission radius. Finally, we point out that inverse-Compton emission from residual collisions at large radii is expected to contribute significantly to the emission at high energy, and may therefore "smear" the pair production spectral cut-off.

  12. GeV emission from Gamma-Ray Burst afterglows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Panaitescu

    2008-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculate the GeV afterglow emission expected from a few mechanisms related to GRBs and their afterglows. Given the brightness of the early X-ray afterglow emission measured by Swift/XRT, GLAST/LAT should detect the self-Compton emission from the forward-shock driven by the GRB ejecta into the circumburst medium. Novel features discovered by Swift in X-ray afterglows (plateaus and chromatic light-curve breaks) indicate the existence of a pair-enriched, relativistic outflow located behind the forward shock. Bulk and inverse-Compton upscattering of the prompt GRB emission by such outflows provide another source of GeV afterglow emission detectable by LAT. The large-angle burst emission and synchrotron forward-shock emission are, most likely, too dim at high photon energy to be observed by LAT. The spectral slope of the high-energy afterglow emission and its decay rate (if it can be measured) allow the identification of the mechanism producing the GeV transient emission following GRBs.

  13. Field emission from organic materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kymissis, Ioannis, 1977-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Field emission displays (FEDs) show great promise as high performance flat panel displays. The light emission process is efficient, long lifetimes are possible with high brightness, and bright passive matrix displays can ...

  14. Fuels, Engines & Emissions | Clean Energy | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuels, Engines, Emissions SHARE Fuels, Engines and Emissions Research Fuels, Engines, and Emissions research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is helping identify ways to increase...

  15. Greenhouse gas emissions in biogas production systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dittert, Klaus; Senbayram, Mehmet; Wienforth, Babette; Kage, Henning; Muehling, Karl H

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cameron KC. Nitrous oxide emissions from two dairy pastureand land use on N 2 O emissions from an imperfectly drainedoptions for N 2 O emissions from differently managed

  16. B. Lengers, W. Britz -Review of Agricultural and Environmental Studies, 93 (2), 117-144 Bernd LENGERS *, Wolfgang BRITZ **

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (CH4, N2O, CO2) in 2004 (IPCC, 2007) stemming from ruminant (Steinfield et al., 2006; FAO, 2009). It is obvious that higher emission reduction targets, also instruments to GHG emissions from dairy farms needs to rely on GHG indicators as actual emissions

  17. 6, 57735796, 2006 Vehicular emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    be partly responsible for lower CO2 and higher CO and NO emission factors. Also, a fast reduction the emission (in g/km) of key and non-regulated pollutants, such as CO2, CO, NO, SO2, NH3, HCHO, NMHC, dur-10 of pollutants, even from a super ultra-low emission vehicle (SULEV). The emissions of HC's, NOx, CO20 and CO2

  18. 4, 507532, 2004 Emission uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    and Physics Discussions Impact of different emission inventories on simulated tropospheric ozone over China The importance of emission inventory uncertainty on the simulation of summertime tro- pospheric Ozone over China has been analyzed using a regional chemical transport model. Three independent emissions inventories

  19. Low emissions diesel fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Dorsey, G.F.; West, B.H.

    1998-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and matter of composition for controlling NO{sub x} emissions from existing diesel engines. The method is achieved by adding a small amount of material to the diesel fuel to decrease the amount of NO{sub x} produced during combustion. Specifically, small amounts, less than about 1%, of urea or a triazine compound (methylol melamines) are added to diesel fuel. Because urea and triazine compounds are generally insoluble in diesel fuel, microemulsion technology is used to suspend or dissolve the urea or triazine compound in the diesel fuel. A typical fuel formulation includes 5% t-butyl alcohol, 4.5% water, 0.5% urea or triazine compound, 9% oleic acid, and 1% ethanolamine. The subject invention provides improved emissions in heavy diesel engines without the need for major modifications.

  20. Low emissions diesel fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Compere, Alicia L. (Knoxville, TN); Griffith, William L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dorsey, George F. (Farragut, TN); West, Brian H. (Kingston, TN)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and matter of composition for controlling NO.sub.x emissions from existing diesel engines. The method is achieved by adding a small amount of material to the diesel fuel to decrease the amount of NO.sub.x produced during combustion. Specifically, small amounts, less than about 1%, of urea or a triazine compound (methylol melamines) are added to diesel fuel. Because urea and triazine compounds are generally insoluble in diesel fuel, microemulsion technology is used to suspend or dissolve the urea or triazine compound in the diesel fuel. A typical fuel formulation includes 5% t-butyl alcohol, 4.5% water, 0.5% urea or triazine compound, 9% oleic acid, and 1% ethanolamine. The subject invention provides improved emissions in heavy diesel engines without the need for major modifications.

  1. Gas Turbine Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frederick, J. D.

    technology developers and electric utilities will share emissions reductions in the coming era of pollution allowance trading is becoming prominent on the agendas of strategic planners at technology vendors and the electric power industry ??? ? (1...., "Authority to Construct for Badger Creek Limited," Kern County Air Pollution Control District, Bakersfield.. Ca., June 20, 1989. 3) Wark, K. and Warner, C. F., Air Pollution - Its Origin and Control, Harper and Row, New York, New York, 1976, pp. 453...

  2. U.S. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2013

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2,EHSSCoal Production andOrigin219:

  3. EIA Energy Efficiency-Energy Related Greenhouse Gas Emissions...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Climate Change, Climate change refers to long-term changes in temperature, precipitation, wind patterns, and other elements of the earth's climate system. The Intergovernmental...

  4. Estimates of State Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688Electricity Use as an IndicatorNatural GasRevenueMay

  5. Energy-Related Carbon Emissions, by Industry, 1994

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803 Table A1. Refiner/Reseller Motor Gasoline11

  6. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the sixth annual report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases. It covers emissions over the period 1990--1996, with preliminary estimates of emissions for 1997. Chapter one summarizes some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect. Important recent developments in global climate change activities are discussed, especially the third Conference of the Parties to the Framework Convention on Climate Change, which was held in December of 1997 in Kyoto, Japan. Chapters two through five cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons and related gases, respectively. Chapter six describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes. Six appendices are included in the report. 96 refs., 38 tabs.

  7. Partnerships to continue moving toward zero emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Partnerships to continue moving toward zero emissions Zero Emission transportation goals Zero Emission MAP makes available technical assistance to states and cities to support the growth of zero emission mobility markets. 1 Research shows

  8. Impacts of greenhouse gas mitigation policies on agricultural land

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Xiaodong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are widely acknowledged to be responsible for much of the global warming in the past century. A number of approaches have been proposed to mitigate GHG emissions. Since the burning of ...

  9. Life-cycle Environmental Inventory of Passenger Transportation in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chester, Mikhail V

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    energy  and  GHG performance of Chicago and New York is the Chicago and New York systems where energy and  emissions CO 2 e).  For New York, life?cycle energy and GHG emissions 

  10. Sponsors of CIEEDAC: Environment Canada Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Industry Program for Energy Conservation, Aluminium Industry Association, Canadian Chemical Producers' Association, Canadian Electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of making more transparent data available to the public; · initiating the historical GHG emissions review ++ ­ + Prices + ­ + Crude oil -use Energy Data and Analysis Centre Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC February, 2008 #12;GHG Emissions

  11. Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Distributed Energy Resource Technology Characterizations. ”ABORATORY Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions5128 Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions

  12. Measurement and Characterization of Unregulated Emissions from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Ethanol Effects on Lean-Burn and Stoichiometric GDI Emissions Measurement and Characterization of Unregulated Emissions from Advanced Technologies...

  13. Using Cool Roofs to Reduce Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Urban Heat-island Effects: Findings from an India Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem; Xu, Tengfang; Taha, Haider; Wray, Craig; Sathaye, Jayant; Garg, Vishal; Tetali, Surekha; Babu, M. Hari; Reddy, K. Niranjan

    2011-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Cool roofs, cool pavements, and urban vegetation reduce energy use in buildings, lower local air pollutant concentrations, and decrease greenhouse gas emissions from urban areas. This report summarizes the results of a detailed monitoring project in India and related simulations of meteorology and air quality in three developing countries. The field results quantified direct energy savings from installation of cool roofs on individual commercial buildings. The measured annual energy savings potential from roof-whitening of previously black roofs ranged from 20-22 kWh/m2 of roof area, corresponding to an air-conditioning energy use reduction of 14-26% in commercial buildings. The study estimated that typical annual savings of 13-14 kWh/m2 of roof area could be achieved by applying white coating to uncoated concrete roofs on commercial buildings in the Metropolitan Hyderabad region, corresponding to cooling energy savings of 10-19%. With the assumption of an annual increase of 100,000 square meters of new roof construction for the next 10 years in the Metropolitan Hyderabad region, the annual cooling energy savings due to whitening concrete roof would be 13-14 GWh of electricity in year ten alone, with cumulative 10-year cooling energy savings of 73-79 GWh for the region. The estimated savings for the entire country would be at least 10 times the savings in Hyderabad, i.e., more than 730-790 GWh. We estimated that annual direct CO2 reduction associated with reduced energy use would be 11-12 kg CO2/m2 of flat concrete roof area whitened, and the cumulative 10-year CO2 reduction would be approximately 0.60-0.65 million tons in India. With the price of electricity estimated at seven Rupees per kWh, the annual electricity savings on air-conditioning would be approximately 93-101 Rupees per m2 of roof. This would translate into annual national savings of approximately one billion Rupees in year ten, and cumulative 10-year savings of over five billion Rupees for cooling energy in India. Meteorological simulations in this study indicated that a reduction of 2C in air temperature in the Hyderabad area would be likely if a combination of increased surface albedo and vegetative cover are used as urban heat-island control strategies. In addition, air-temperature reductions on the order of 2.5-3.5C could be achieved if moderate and aggressive heat-island mitigation measures are adopted, respectively. A large-scale deployment of mitigation measures can bring additional indirect benefit to the urban area. For example, cooling outside air can improve the efficiency of cooling systems, reduce smog and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and indirectly reduce pollution from power plants - all improving environmental health quality. This study has demonstrated the effectiveness of cool-roof technology as one of the urban heat-island control strategies for the Indian industrial and scientific communities and has provided an estimate of the national energy savings potential of cool roofs in India. These outcomes can be used for developing cool-roof building standards and related policies in India. Additional field studies, built upon the successes and lessons learned from this project, may be helpful to further confirm the scale of potential energy savings from the application of cooler roofs in various regions of India. In the future, a more rigorous meteorological simulation using urbanized (meso-urban) meteorological models should be conducted, which may produce a more accurate estimate of the air-temperature reductions for the entire urban area.

  14. Imaging Sources with Fast and Slow Emission Components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Verde; D. A. Brown; P. Danielewicz; C. K. Gelbke; W. G. Lynch; M. B. Tsang

    2001-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate two-proton correlation functions for reactions in which fast dynamical and slow evaporative proton emission are both present. In such cases, the width of the correlation peak provides the most reliable information about the source size of the fast dynamical component. The maximum of the correlation function is sensitive to the relative yields from the slow and fast emission components. Numerically inverting the correlation function allows one to accurately disentangle fast dynamical from slow evaporative emission and extract details of the shape of the two-proton source.

  15. Toward a Post-Kyoto Climate Change Architecture: A Political Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raustiala, Kal; Keohane, Robert O.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    FOR INTERNATIONAL GHG EMISSIONS TRADING (2000), http://al. , International Emissions Trading Rules as a Compliancethe Economic Benefits of Emissions Trading Under the Kyoto

  16. Carbon Trading Protocols for Geologic Sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoversten, Shanna

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EU ETS: European Union Emissions Trading System GHG: Greenstarts operating an emissions trading scheme (ETS) similarGovernments operating emissions trading systems face the

  17. Hydrogen as an Energy Carrier: Outlook for 2010, 2030, and 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ogden, Joan M

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    scale with nearly zero full fuel cycle emissions of GHG andthe electricity, the full fuel cycle carbon emissions fromuse have the same full fuel cycle emissions of greenhouse

  18. Safety and core design of large liquid-metal cooled fast breeder reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qvist, Staffan Alexander

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by GHG-emissions, coal power plant emissions such as sulfur2]. In Europe, coal power plant emissions cause an estimated

  19. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Welch, M. J.

    1990-01-00T23:59:59.000Z

    Positron emission tomography (PET) assesses biochemical processes in the living subject, producing images of function rather than form. Using PET, physicians are able to obtain not the anatomical information provided by other medical imaging techniques, but pictures of physiological activity. In metaphoric terms, traditional imaging methods supply a map of the body's roadways, its, anatomy; PET shows the traffic along those paths, its biochemistry. This document discusses the principles of PET, the radiopharmaceuticals in PET, PET research, clinical applications of PET, the cost of PET, training of individuals for PET, the role of the United States Department of Energy in PET, and the futures of PET.

  20. Acoustic emission intrusion detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carver, Donald W. (Knoxville, TN); Whittaker, Jerry W. (Knoxville, TN)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An intrusion detector is provided for detecting a forcible entry into a secured structure while minimizing false alarms. The detector uses a piezoelectric crystal transducer to sense acoustic emissions. The transducer output is amplified by a selectable gain amplifier to control the sensitivity. The rectified output of the amplifier is applied to a Schmitt trigger circuit having a preselected threshold level to provide amplitude discrimination. Timing circuitry is provided which is activated by successive pulses from the Schmitt trigger which lie within a selected time frame for frequency discrimination. Detected signals having proper amplitude and frequency trigger an alarm within the first complete cycle time of a detected acoustical disturbance signal.

  1. Solid Fuel - Oxygen Fired Combustion for Production of Nodular Reduced Iron to Reduce CO2 Emissions and Improve Energy Efficiencies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald R. Fosnacht; Richard F. Kiesel; David W. Hendrickson; David J. Englund; Iwao Iwasaki; Rodney L. Bleifuss; Mathew A. Mlinar

    2011-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The current trend in the steel industry is an increase in iron and steel produced in electric arc furnaces (EAF) and a gradual decline in conventional steelmaking from taconite pellets in blast furnaces. In order to expand the opportunities for the existing iron ore mines beyond their blast furnace customer base, a new material is needed to satisfy the market demands of the emerging steel industry while utilizing the existing infrastructure and materials handling capabilities. This demand creates opportunity to convert iron ore or other iron bearing materials to Nodular Reduced Iron (NRI) in a recently designed Linear Hearth Furnace (LHF). NRI is a metallized iron product containing 98.5 to 96.0% iron and 2.5 to 4% C. It is essentially a scrap substitute with little impurity that can be utilized in a variety of steelmaking processes, especially the electric arc furnace. The objective of this project was to focus on reducing the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) through reducing the energy intensity using specialized combustion systems, increasing production and the use of biomass derived carbon sources in this process. This research examined the use of a solid fuel-oxygen fired combustion system and compared the results from this system with both oxygen-fuel and air-fuel combustion systems. The solid pulverized fuels tested included various coals and a bio-coal produced from woody biomass in a specially constructed pilot scale torrefaction reactor at the Coleraine Minerals Research Laboratory (CMRL). In addition to combustion, the application of bio-coal was also tested as a means to produce a reducing atmosphere during key points in the fusion process, and as a reducing agent for ore conversion to metallic iron to capture the advantage of its inherent reduced carbon footprint. The results from this study indicate that the approaches taken can reduce both greenhouse gas emissions and the associated energy intensity with the Linear Hearth Furnace process for converting iron ore to metallic iron nodules. Various types of coals including a bio-coal produced though torrefaction can result in production of NRI at reduced GHG levels. The process results coupled with earlier already reported developments indicate that this process technique should be evaluated at the next level in order to develop parameter information for full scale process design. Implementation of the process to full commercialization will require a full cost production analysis and comparison to other reduction technologies and iron production alternatives. The technical results verify that high quality NRI can be produced under various operating conditions at the pilot level.

  2. Future Perfect Partnering with Portuguese Environmental Protection...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Gas Topics: GHG inventory, Low emission development planning, -LEDS Resource Type: Case studiesexamples, Training materials Website: www.gpstrategiesltd.comdivisions...

  3. Assessing Vehicle Electricity Demand Impacts on California Electricity Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan W.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    global warming potentials of 23 and 296, respectively. Marginal electricity GHG emissions rates for vehicle recharging and hydrogen production

  4. Greenhouse Gases

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Federal agencies are required to inventory and manage greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to meet Federal goals and mitigate climate change.

  5. SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION ENERGY PATHWAYS A Research Summary for Decision Makers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    the total CO2 -equivalent GHG emissions from the entire transportation sector on a full fuel-cycle basis

  6. Green Initiatives and Contracting

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    13514 Reduce GHG emissions Improve water use efficiency Promote pollution prevention Advance integrated planning High performance sustainable...

  7. Project Information Form Project Title Exploring Unintended Environmental and SocialEquity Consequences of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    . The MOVES vehicle emissions model and an economic lifecycle #12;assessment model will be used to examine GHG

  8. Insights from Agricultural GHG Offset studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    Ron Sands PNNL Maryland Man Keun Kim PNNL Maryland Francisco de Lachesnaye EPA Heng-Chi Lee Waterloo

  9. Discounts, Fungibility and Agricultural GHG Offset projects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    in MMT of Carbon Equivalents Soil Carbon Sequestration Discount for Saturating Sinks No Sink Discounting of Carbon Equivalents Carbon Sequestration from Trees Discount for Saturating Sinks No Sink Discounting 0.S. Agricultural and Forest Carbon Sequestration," 2003. #12;FungibilityFungibility A number of concepts have

  10. China-GHG Monitoring | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovation inOpenadd:Information ChinaChinaInformation

  11. China-GHG Monitoring | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovation inOpenadd:Information ChinaChinaInformationMonitoring

  12. GHG Management Institute curriculum | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2,AUDIT REPORTEnergyFarms A S JumpWindfarmFundicioncurriculum Jump to:

  13. Zero emission coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziock, H.; Lackner, K.

    2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss a novel, emission-free process for producing hydrogen or electricity from coal. Even though we focus on coal, the basic design is compatible with any carbonaceous fuel. The process uses cyclical carbonation of calcium oxide to promote the production of hydrogen from carbon and water. The carbonation of the calcium oxide removes carbon dioxide from the reaction products and provides the additional energy necessary to complete hydrogen production without additional combustion of carbon. The calcination of the resulting calcium carbonate is accomplished using the high temperature waste heat from solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), which generate electricity from hydrogen fuel. Converting waste heat back to useful chemical energy allows the process to achieve very high conversion efficiency from fuel energy to electrical energy. As the process is essentially closed-loop, the process is able to achieve zero emissions if the concentrated exhaust stream of CO{sub 2} is sequestered. Carbon dioxide disposal is accomplished by the production of magnesium carbonate from ultramafic rock. The end products of the sequestration process are stable naturally occurring minerals. Sufficient rich ultramafic deposits exist to easily handle all the world's coal.

  14. Infrared Emission from AGN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. B. Sanders

    1999-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Infrared observations of complete samples of active galactic nuclei (AGN) have shown that a substantial fraction of their bolometric luminosity is emitted at wavelengths ~8-1000microns. In radio-loud and Blazar-like objects much of this emission appears to be direct non-thermal synchrotron radiation. However, in the much larger numbers of radio-quiet AGN it is now clear that thermal dust emission is responsible for the bulk of radiation from the near-infrared through submillimeter wavelengths. Luminous infrared-selected AGN are often surrounded by powerful nuclear starbursts, both of which appear to be fueled by enormous supplies of molecular gas and dust funneled into the nuclear region during the strong interaction/merger of gas rich disks. All-sky surveys in the infrared show that luminous infrared AGN are at least as numerous as optically-selected AGN of comparable bolometric luminosity, suggesting that AGN may spend a substantial fraction of their lifetime in a dust-enshrouded phase. The space density of luminous infrared AGN at high redshift may be sufficient to account for much of the X-Ray background, and for a substantial fraction of the far-infrared background as well. These objects plausibly represent a major epoch in the formation of spheroids and massive black holes (MBH).

  15. Elastic emission polishing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loewenthal, M.; Loseke, K.; Dow, T.A.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Elastic emission polishing, also called elastic emission machining (EEM), is a process where a stream of abrasive slurry is used to remove material from a substrate and produce damage free surfaces with controlled surface form. It is a noncontacting method utilizing a thick elasto-hydrodynamic film formed between a soft rotating ball and the workpiece to control the flow of the abrasive. An apparatus was built in the Center, which consists of a stationary spindle, a two-axis table for the workpiece, and a pump to circulate the working fluid. The process is controlled by a programmable computer numerical controller (CNC), which presently can operate the spindle speed and movement of the workpiece in one axis only. This apparatus has been used to determine material removal rates on different material samples as a function of time, utilizing zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) particles suspended in distilled water as the working fluid. By continuing a study of removal rates the process should become predictable, and thus create a new, effective, yet simple tool for ultra-precision mechanical machining of surfaces.

  16. U.S. Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    is energy used in U.S. manufacturing? How much greenhouse gas (GHG) is emitted from combustion in manufacturing operations? The U.S. Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas...

  17. Contribution of Anaerobic Digesters to Emissions Mitigation and Electricity Generation Under U.S. Climate Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zaks, David P. M.

    Livestock husbandry in the U.S. significantly contributes to many environmental problems, including the release of methane, a potent greenhouse gas (GHG). Anaerobic digesters (ADs) break down organic wastes using bacteria ...

  18. Leveraging Existing Data Streams Toward Climate-Driven Emissions Inventorying and Reporting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reith, C. C.; Shanin, D.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , and evaluating potentially useful information streams. We have found that for corporations and industrial facilities, energy invoices are a valuable, often under-utilized resource for preparing the GHG inventories that are important for characterizing...

  19. Economic investigation of discount factors for agricultural greenhouse gas emission offsets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Man-Keun

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    approaches to discount factors, estimation and incorporation of discount factors procedures are developed. Discount factors would be imposed by credit purchasers due to noncompliance with regulatory program of the credits with GHG program including...

  20. Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Electricity suppliers and electricity companies must also provide a fuel mix report to customers twice annually, within the June and December billing cycles. Emissions information must be disclos...

  1. Emission Impacts of Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Quanlu; DeLuchi, Mark A.; Sperling, Daniel

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    California, 1982. 26. R. E. Simkins, "Evaporative runningevapora- tive emissions. Simkins concluded that runningis consis- tent with Simkins’ result. Weuse EPA’sestimates

  2. Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Maryland’s 1999 electric utility restructuring legislation requires all electric companies and electricity suppliers to provide customers with details regarding the fuel mix and emissions of...

  3. Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Ohio's 1999 electric industry restructuring law requires the state's electricity suppliers to disclose details regarding their fuel mix and emissions to customers. Electric utilities and...

  4. Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Virginia’s 1999 electric industry restructuring law requires the state's electricity providers to disclose -- "to the extent feasible" -- fuel mix and emissions data regarding electric generation....

  5. Emission Impacts of Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Quanlu; DeLuchi, Mark A.; Sperling, Daniel

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Simkins, "Evaporative running loss emissions," NIPER- 266,soak emissionsoccur. Running losses are evaporative lossesdiurnal, hot soak, running loss), and gasoline station and

  6. Biodiesel and Pollutant Emissions (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormick, R.; Williams, A.; Ireland, J.; Hayes, B.

    2006-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Presents the results from three methods of testing--engine, chassis, and PEM--for testing nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from B20.

  7. Electrochemical sharpening of field emission tips

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernhardt, Anthony F. (Berkeley, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for sharpening field emitter tips by electroetching/polishing. In gated field emitters, it is very important to initiate electron emission at the lowest possible voltage and thus the composition of the emitter and the gate, as well as the emitter-gate structure, are important factors. This method of sharpening the emitter tips uses the grid as a counter electrode in electroetching of the emitters, which can produce extremely sharp emitter tips as well as remove asperities and other imperfections in the emitters, each in relation to the specific grid hole in which it resides. This has the effect of making emission more uniform among the emitters as well as lowering the turn-on voltage.

  8. Why Hydrogen and Fuel Cells are Needed to Support California Climate Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cunningham, Joshua M; Gronich, Sig

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006, which caps state GHG emissions at 1990 levelsGlobal Warming Solutions Act of 2006, which caps state greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at 1990 levelsGlobal Warming Solutions Act. Requires CA GHG emission reductions to 1990 levels

  9. Going Mobile: Emissions Trading Gets a Boost from Mobile Source Emission Reduction Credits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldschein, Perry S.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Going Mobile: Emissions Trading Gets a Boost From Mobilehave tested various emissions trading policies to supplementAn Analysis of EPA's Emissions Trading Program, 6 YALE J. ON

  10. Study Pinpoints Sources of Polluting Vehicle Emissions (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Unburned lubricant produces 60%-90% of organic carbon emissions. While diesel fuel is often viewed as the most polluting of conventional petroleum-based fuels, emissions from gasoline engines can more significantly degrade air quality. Gasoline exhaust is at least as toxic on a per-unit-mass basis as diesel exhaust, and contributes up to 10 times more particulate matter (PM) to the emission inventory. Because emissions from both fuels can gravely impact health and the environment, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) launched a study to understand how these pollutants relate to fuels, lubricants, and engine operating conditions. NREL's Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE) project tested a variety of vehicles over different drive cycles at moderate (72 F) and cold (20 F) temperatures. Testing included: (1) Normal and high-emitting light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicles; (2) Gasoline, diesel, and compressed natural gas (CNG)-powered vehicles; (3) New and aged lubricants representative of those currently on the market; and (4) Gasoline containing no ethanol, E10, Texas-mandated low-emission diesel fuel, biodiesel, and CNG. The study confirmed that normally functioning emission control systems for gasoline light-duty vehicles are very effective at controlling organic carbon (OC) emissions. Diesel vehicles without aftertreatment emission control systems exhibited OC emissions approximately one order of magnitude higher than gasoline vehicles. High-emitter gasoline vehicles produced OC emissions similar to diesel vehicles without exhaust aftertreatment emission control. Exhaust catalysts combusted or converted more than 75% of lubricating oil components in the exhaust gases. Unburned crankcase lubricant made up 60%-90% of OC emissions. This OC represented 20%-50% of emitted PM in all but two of the vehicles. Three-way catalysts proved effective at reducing most of the OC. With high PM emitters or vehicles with deteriorated aftertreatment, high-molecular-weight fuel components and unburned lubricant were emitted at higher rates than in vehicles in good repair, with functioning emissions systems. Light-duty gasoline, medium-duty diesel, and heavy-duty natural gas vehicles produced more particles with fresh oil than with aged oil. The opposite trend was observed in light- and medium-duty high PM emitters. This effect was not readily apparent with heavy-duty diesel vehicles, perhaps because the lubricant represented a much smaller fraction of the total PM in those trucks.

  11. Silicate emission in Orion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Cesarsky; A. P. Jones; J. Lequeux; L. Verstraete

    2000-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We present mid-infrared spectro-imagery and high-resolution spectroscopy of the Orion bar and of a region in the Orion nebula. These observations have been obtained in the Guaranteed Time with the Circular Variable Filters of the ISO camera (CAM-CVF) and with the Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS), on board the European Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). Our data shows emission from amorphous silicate grains from the entire HII region and around the isolated O9.5V star Theta2 Ori A. The observed spectra can be reproduced by a mixture of interstellar silicate and carbon grains heated by the radiation of the hot stars present in the region. Crystalline silicates are also observed in the Orion nebula and suspected around Theta2 Ori A. They are probably of interstellar origin. The ionization structure and the distribution of the carriers of the Aromatic Infrared Bands (AIBs) are briefly discussed on the basis of the ISO observations.

  12. Estonian greenhouse gas emissions inventory report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Punning, J.M.; Ilomets, M.; Karindi, A.; Mandre, M.; Reisner, V. [Inst. of Ecology, Tallinn (Estonia); Martins, A.; Pesur, A. [Inst. of Energy Research, Tallinn (Estonia); Roostalu, H.; Tullus, H. [Estonian Agricultural Univ., Tartu (Estonia)

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is widely accepted that the increase of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere due to human activities would result in warming of the Earth`s surface. To examine this effect and better understand how the GHG increase in the atmosphere might change the climate in the future, how ecosystems and societies in different regions of the World should adapt to these changes, what must policymakers do for the mitigation of that effect, the worldwide project within the Framework Convention on Climate Change was generated by the initiative of United Nations. Estonia is one of more than 150 countries, which signed the Framework Convention on Climate Change at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. In 1994 a new project, Estonian Country Study was initiated within the US Country Studies Program. The project will help to compile the GHG inventory for Estonia, find contemporary trends to investigate the impact of climate change on the Estonian ecosystems and economy and to formulate national strategies for Estonia addressing to global climate change.

  13. Estimating the potential of greenhouse gas mitigation in Kazakhstan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monacrovich, E.; Pilifosova, O.; Danchuck, D. [Kazakh Scientific-Research Hydrometeorlogical Institute, Almaty (Kazakhstan)] [and others

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the studies related to the obligations of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Republic of Kazakhstan started activities to inventory greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and assess of GHG mitigation options, The objective of this paper is to present an estimate of the possibility of mitigating GHG emissions and determine the mitigation priorities. It presents a compilation of the possible options and their assessment in terms of major criteria and implementation feasibility. Taking into account the structure of GHG emissions in Kazakhstan in 1990, preliminary estimates of the potential for mitigation are presented for eight options for the energy sector and agriculture and forestry sector. The reference scenario prepared by expert assessments assumes a reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions in 1996-1998 by about 26% from the 1990 level due to general economic decline, but then emissions increase. It is estimated that the total potential for the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions for the year 2000 is 3% of the CO{sub 2} emissions in the reference scenario. The annual reduction in methane emissions due to the estimated options can amount to 5%-6% of the 1990 level. 10 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  14. PHOTOSPHERIC EMISSION FROM STRATIFIED JETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ito, Hirotaka; Nagataki, Shigehiro; Ono, Masaomi; Lee, Shiu-Hang; Mao, Jirong [Astrophysical Big Bang Laboratory, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Yamada, Shoichi [Department of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Pe'er, Asaf [Institute for Theory and Computation, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Mizuta, Akira [KEK Theory Center, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Harikae, Seiji, E-mail: hito@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Quants Research Department, Financial Engineering Division, Mitsubishi UFJ Morgan Stanley Securities Co., Ltd., Mejirodai Bldg., 3-29-20 Mejirodai, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8688 (Japan)

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We explore photospheric emissions from stratified two-component jets, wherein a highly relativistic spine outflow is surrounded by a wider and less relativistic sheath outflow. Thermal photons are injected in regions of high optical depth and propagated until the photons escape at the photosphere. Because of the presence of shear in velocity (Lorentz factor) at the boundary of the spine and sheath region, a fraction of the injected photons are accelerated using a Fermi-like acceleration mechanism such that a high-energy power-law tail is formed in the resultant spectrum. We show, in particular, that if a velocity shear with a considerable variance in the bulk Lorentz factor is present, the high-energy part of observed gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) photon spectrum can be explained by this photon acceleration mechanism. We also show that the accelerated photons might also account for the origin of the extra-hard power-law component above the bump of the thermal-like peak seen in some peculiar bursts (e.g., GRB 090510, 090902B, 090926A). We demonstrate that time-integrated spectra can also reproduce the low-energy spectrum of GRBs consistently using a multi-temperature effect when time evolution of the outflow is considered. Last, we show that the empirical E{sub p}-L{sub p} relation can be explained by differences in the outflow properties of individual sources.

  15. Spatial variability of nitrous oxide and methane emissions from an MBT landfill in operation: Strong N{sub 2}O hotspots at the working face

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harborth, Peter, E-mail: p.harborth@tu-bs.de [Department of Waste and Resource Management, Leichtweiß-Institute for Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig (Germany); Fuß, Roland [Institute of Climate-Smart Agriculture, Johann Heinrich von Thünen Institute, Braunschweig (Germany); Münnich, Kai [Department of Waste and Resource Management, Leichtweiß-Institute for Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig (Germany); Flessa, Heinz [Institute of Climate-Smart Agriculture, Johann Heinrich von Thünen Institute, Braunschweig (Germany); Fricke, Klaus [Department of Waste and Resource Management, Leichtweiß-Institute for Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: ? First measurements of N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} emissions from an MBT landfill. ? High N{sub 2}O emissions from recently deposited material. ? N{sub 2}O emissions associated with aeration and the occurrence of nitrite and nitrate. ? Strong negative correlation between CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O production activity. - Abstract: Mechanical biological treatment (MBT) is an effective technique, which removes organic carbon from municipal solid waste (MSW) prior to deposition. Thereby, methane (CH{sub 4}) production in the landfill is strongly mitigated. However, direct measurements of greenhouse gas emissions from full-scale MBT landfills have not been conducted so far. Thus, CH{sub 4} and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions from a German MBT landfill in operation as well as their concentrations in the landfill gas (LFG) were measured. High N{sub 2}O emissions of 20–200 g CO{sub 2} eq. m{sup ?2} h{sup ?1} magnitude (up to 428 mg N m{sup ?2} h{sup ?1}) were observed within 20 m of the working face. CH{sub 4} emissions were highest at the landfill zone located at a distance of 30–40 m from the working face, where they reached about 10 g CO{sub 2} eq. m{sup ?2} h{sup ?1}. The MBT material in this area has been deposited several weeks earlier. Maximum LFG concentration for N{sub 2}O was 24.000 ppmv in material below the emission hotspot. At a depth of 50 cm from the landfill surface a strong negative correlation between N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} concentrations was observed. From this and from the distribution pattern of extractable ammonium, nitrite, and nitrate it has been concluded that strong N{sub 2}O production is associated with nitrification activity and the occurrence of nitrite and nitrate, which is initiated by oxygen input during waste deposition. Therefore, CH{sub 4} mitigation measures, which often employ aeration, could result in a net increase of GHG emissions due to increased N{sub 2}O emissions, especially at MBT landfills.

  16. X-ray Emission from Massive StarsX-ray Emission from Massive Stars David CohenDavid Cohen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, David

    X-ray Emission from Massive StarsX-ray Emission from Massive Stars David CohenDavid Cohen/s)Velocity (km/s) #12;absorption emission emission occulted emission emission UV telescope side side front back #12;absorption emission emission occulted emission emission UV telescope side side front back #12;The

  17. nature geoscience | VOL 2 | NOVEMBER 2009 | www.nature.com/naturegeoscience 737 CO2 emissions from forest loss

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Robert B.

    to account for about 20% of global anthropogenic CO2 emissions2­5 . A recalculation of this fraction using combustion suggests that in 2008, the relative contribution of CO2 emissions from deforestation and forest deforestation and forest degradation (REDD). The two main assessments of CO2 emissions from deforestation

  18. Modeling air emissions from contaminated sediment dredged materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valsaraj, K.T.; Thibodeaux, L.J. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Reible, D.D. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); [Univ. of Sydney, New South Wales (Australia)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Volatilization rates for hydrophobic organic compounds from a confined disposal facility (CDF) containing contaminated dredged material are presently unknown. The primary purpose of this study is to indicate the availability of theoretical models for the evaluation of volatile emission from a CDF. Four emission locales are identified and modeled: the sediment relocation (dredging) locale, the exposed sediment locale, the ponded sediment locale, and the vegetation-covered sediment locale. Rate expressions are derived to estimate the volatile organic chemical (VOC) emission from each locale. Emission rates (in mass of total VOCs per unit time) are primarily dependent on the chemical concentration at the source, the surface area of the source, and the degree to which the dredged material is in direct contact with air. The relative magnitude of these three parameters provides a basis upon which a tentative ranking of emission rates from the different locales can be given. Exposed sediment results in the greatest estimated emissions of volatiles followed by water with high levels of suspended sediments, such as might occur during dredging or during placement in a CDF. Expected to be lower in volatile emissions are dredged materials covered by a quiescent water column or vegetation.

  19. Field emission properties of single crystal chromium disilicide nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valentin, L. A.; Carpena-Nunez, J.; Yang, D.; Fonseca, L. F. [Department of Physics, University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus, P.O. Box 70377, San Juan, 00931 (Puerto Rico)

    2013-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The composition, crystal structure, and field emission properties of high-crystallinity chromium disilicide (CrSi{sub 2}) nanowires synthesized by a vapor deposition method have been studied. High resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and selected area electron diffraction studies confirm the single-crystalline structure and composition of the CrSi{sub 2} nanowires. Field emission measurements show that an emission current density of 0.1 {mu}A/cm{sup 2} was obtained at a turn-on electric field intensity of 2.80 V/{mu}m. The maximum emission current measured was 1.86 mA/cm{sup 2} at 3.6 V/{mu}m. The relation between the emission current density and the electric field obtained follows the Fowler-Nordheim equation, with an enhancement coefficient of 1140. The electrical conductivity of single nanowires was measured by using four-point-probe specialized microdevices at different temperatures, and the calculated values are close to those reported in previous studies for highly conductive single crystal bulk CrSi{sub 2}. The thermal tolerance of the nanowires was studied up to a temperature of 1100 Degree-Sign C. The stability of the field emission current, the I-E values, their thermal tolerance, and high electrical conductivity make CrSi{sub 2} nanowires a promising material for field emission applications.

  20. Statistical nature of cluster emission in nuclear liquid phase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. G. Ma

    2002-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The emission of nuclear clusters is investigated within the framework of isospin dependent lattice gas model and classical molecular dynamics model. It is found that the emission of individual cluster which is heavier than proton is almost Poissonian except near the liquid gas phase transition point and the thermal scaling is observed by the linear Arrhenius plots which is made from the average multiplicity of each cluster versus the inverse of temperature in the nuclear liquid phase. It indicates of a statistical nature of such cluster emission in the models. The "emission barriers" which are the slopes of the Arrhenius plots are extracted as a function of the mass or charge number and fitted by the formula embodied with the contributions of the surface energy and Coulomb interaction. The possible influences of the source size, Coulomb interaction and "freeze-out" density and related physical implications are discussed.

  1. Macro-coherent two photon and radiative neutrino pair emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Yoshimura; C. Ohae; A. Fukumi; K. Nakajima; I. Nakano; H. Nanjo; N. Sasao

    2008-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss a possibility of detecting a coherent photon pair emission and related radiative neutrino pair emission from excited atoms. It is shown that atoms of lambda- and ladder-type three level system placed in a pencil-like cylinder give a back to back emission of two photons of equal energy $\\Delta/2$, sharply peaked with a width $\\propto $ 1/(target size) and well collimated along the cylinder axis. This process has a measurable rate $\\propto$ (target number density) $^2 \\times$ target volume, while a broader spectral feature of one-photon distribution separated by (mass sum of a neutrino pair)$^2/(2\\Delta)$ from the two photon peak may arise from radiative neutrino pair emission, with a much smaller rate.

  2. Emission Inventories and Projections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Streets, D. G.; van Aardenne, John; Battye, Bill; Garivait, Savitri; Grano, D.; Guenther, Alex; Klimont, Z.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Lu, Zifeng; Maenhout, Greet; Ohara, Toshimasa; Parrish, David J.; Smith, Steven J.; Vallack, Harry

    2011-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    When the Executive Body to the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution took the decision to establish the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP) in December 2004, it was on the basis of a growing understanding of the issues surrounding the hemispheric and intercontinental transport of air pollutants. It was recognised that whilst current regional emissions on their own created pollution levels that exceeded internationally-agreed air quality objectives, hemispheric transport could exacerbate local and regional air quality problems.Two particular pollutants of concern, and the focus of this report, are ozone and particulate matter (PM), known for their detrimental impacts on human health (these impacts and others are described in Chapter 5). There was well-documented evidence for the intercontinental transport of ozone and PM but, at that time, the significance of this intercontinental influence on the design of air pollution control policies was not well understood. The European Union, in drawing up its Thematic Strategy on Clean Air for Europe during 2004, became aware of the significance of intercontinental transport and the importance of sources of pollution beyond its borders and sphere of influence, in meeting its air quality goals.

  3. NO{sub x} Emission Abatement Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goles, R

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) will convert Hanford Site high-level liquid defense waste to a solid vitrified (glass) form suitable for final disposal in a geological repository. Future process flow sheet developments may establish a need for a NO, scrubber in the melter off-gas system. Consequently, a technology review has been conducted to identify and compare applicable off-gas processing alternatives should NO, emission abatement be required. Denitrification processes can be separated into two distinct categories, wet or dry, depending upon whether or not NO{sub x} is absorbed into an aqueous solution. The dry methods of removal are generally more efficient (>90%) than wet scrubbing approaches (>60%); however, most dry approaches are applicable only to NO,. Of the dry removal methods, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) using NH3 reductant and a hydrogen zeolite catalyst appears to be the most suitable technology for reducing HWVP NO{sub x} emissions should emission abatement be required. SCR is a relatively simple, well established technology that produces no secondary waste stream and is applicable to a wide range of NO{sub x} concentrations (500 to 30,000 ppm). This technology has been successfully applied to uranium dissolver exhaust streams and has, more recently, been tested and evaluated as the best available control technology for reducing NO, emissions at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's waste calciner facility, and at DOE's West Valley Demonstration Project. Unlike dry NO, scrubbing methods, the wet techniques are not specific to NO{sub x}, so they may support the process in more than one way. This is the only major advantage associated with wet technologies. Their disadvantages are that they are not highly efficient at low NO{sub x} concentrations, they produce a secondary waste stream, and they may require complex chemical support to reduce equipment size. Wet scrubbing of HWVP process NO{sub x} emissions is an option that is justifiable only if the technology is needed to eliminate other process emissions and scrubbing compatibility can be established.

  4. China Energy and Emissions Paths to 2030

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Potential for Electricity Saving and CO2 Emission ReductionPotential for Electricity Saving and CO2 Emission ReductionPotential for Electricity Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction

  5. Reducing Greenhouse Emissions and Fuel Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaheen, Susan; Lipman, Timothy

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that energy use and CO2 emissions in developed countries w icap-and-trade program for CO2 emissions from the electricalout and "sequester" the CO2 emissions, though the cost and

  6. Reducing Greenhouse Emissions and Fuel Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaheen, Susan; Lipman, Timothy

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    estimated to produce CO2 emission reductions ranging frombetween low CO2 emissions and the reductions in the auto usea 16 percent reduction in CO2 traffic emissions within the

  7. China Energy and Emissions Paths to 2030

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electricity Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction in the Cementfor Fuel Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction in the Iron andElectricity Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction in the Iron

  8. Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: U.S. emissions inventories Narasimhan K. Larkin a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: U.S. emissions inventories Narasimhan K. Larkin a: Fire emissions Emissions inventories Greenhouse gases a b s t r a c t Emissions from wildland fire fire emissions change considerably due to fluctuations from year to year with overall fire season

  9. Idaho National Laboratory’s FY09 & FY10 Greenhouse Gas Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennifer D. Morton

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory is a systematic approach to account for the production and release of certain gases generated by an institution from various emission sources. The gases of interest are those that climate science has identified as related to anthropogenic global climate change. This document presents an inventory of GHGs generated during fiscal year (FY) 2009 and 2010 by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored entity, located in southeastern Idaho. In recent years, concern has grown about the environmental impact of GHGs. This, together with a desire to decrease harmful environmental impacts, would be enough to encourage the calculation of an inventory of the total GHGs generated at INL. Additionally, INL has a desire to see how its emissions compare with similar institutions, including other DOE national laboratories. Executive Order 13514 requires that federal agencies and institutions document reductions in GHG emissions. INL's GHG inventory was calculated according to methodologies identified in federal GHG guidance documents using operational control boundaries. It measures emissions generated in three scopes: (1) INL emissions produced directly by stationary or mobile combustion and by fugitive emissions, (2) the share of emissions generated by entities from which INL purchased electrical power, and (3) indirect or shared emissions generated by outsourced activities that benefit INL (occur outside INL's organizational boundaries, but are a consequence of INL's activities). This inventory found that INL generated 103,590 and 102,413 MT of CO2-equivalent emissions during FY09 and FY10, respectively. The following conclusions were made from looking at the results of the individual contributors to INL's FY09 and FY10 GHG inventories: (1) Electricity (including the associated transmission and distribution losses) is the largest contributor to INL's GHG inventory, with over 50% of the CO2e emissions; (2) Other sources with high emissions were stationary combustion (facility fuels), waste disposal (including fugitive emissions from the onsite landfill and contracted disposal), mobile combustion (fleet fuels), employee commuting, and business air travel; and (3) Sources with low emissions were wastewater treatment (onsite and contracted), fugitive emissions from refrigerants, and business ground travel (in personal and rental vehicles). This report details the methods behind quantifying INL's GHG inventory and discusses lessons learned on better practices by which information important to tracking GHGs can be tracked and recorded. It is important to note that because this report differentiates between those portions of INL that are managed and operated by the Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA) and those managed by other contractors, it includes only that large proportion of Laboratory activities overseen by BEA. It is assumed that other contractors will provide similar reporting for those activities they manage, where appropriate.

  10. Emission from the D1D5 CFT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steven G. Avery; Borun D. Chowdhury; Samir D. Mathur

    2009-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    It is believed that the D1D5 brane system is described by an 'orbifold CFT' at a special point in moduli space. We first develop a general formulation relating amplitudes in a d-dimensional CFT to absorption/emission of quanta from flat infinity. We then construct the D1D5 vertex operators for minimally coupled scalars in supergravity, and use these to compute the CFT amplitude for emission from a state carrying a single excitation. Using spectral flow we relate this process to one where we have emission from a highly excited initial state. In each case the radiation rate is found to agree with the radiation found in the gravity dual.

  11. Air Pollution Emissions and Abatement (Minnesota) | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Environmental Regulations A person who controls the source of an emission must notify the Pollution Control Agency immediately of excessive or abnormal unpermitted emissions, and...

  12. Materials Applications of Photoelectron Emission Microscopy....

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a variety of photoexcitation sources including synchrotron emission, femtosecond laser pulses and conventional UV lamp emission. Each source has advantages, for example, fs...

  13. Measurement and Characterization of Unregulated Emissions from...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    from Advanced Technologies Effects of Advanced Combustion Technologies on Particulate Matter Emissions Characteristics Efficient Emissions Control for Multi-Mode Lean DI Engines...

  14. Integrated Nozzle Flow, Spray, Combustion, & Emission Modeling...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nozzle Flow, Spray, Combustion, & Emission Modeling using KH-ACT Primary Breakup Model & Detailed Chemistry Integrated Nozzle Flow, Spray, Combustion, & Emission Modeling using...

  15. Characterizing Test Methods and Emissions Reduction Performance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Test Methods and Emissions Reduction Performance of In-Use Diesel Retrofit Technologies from the National Clean Diesel Campaign Characterizing Test Methods and Emissions Reduction...

  16. The supply chain of CO2 emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, S. J; Peters, G. P; Caldeira, K.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    emissions from traded fossil fuels; Top), production (F Pr )Regional, and National Fossil-Fuel CO 2 Emissions (Carbonfrom the burning of fossil fuels are conventionally

  17. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wahl, Linnea

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LBNL-470E-20Ì1 Radionuclide Air Emission Report for Preparedfor Estimating Fugitive Air Emissions of Radionuclides fromStandards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (Radionuclides),

  18. Particle Number & Particulate Mass Emissions Measurements on...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Number & Particulate Mass Emissions Measurements on a 'Euro VI' Heavy-duty Engine using the PMP Methodologies Particle Number & Particulate Mass Emissions Measurements on a 'Euro...

  19. Demonstrating Fuel Consumption and Emissions Reductions with...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption and Emissions Reductions with Next Generation Model-Based Diesel Engine Control Demonstrating Fuel Consumption and Emissions Reductions with Next Generation...

  20. Complementary Relativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. F. Gonzalez-Diaz

    1994-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Special theory of relativity has been formulated in a vacuum momentum-energy representation which is equivalent to Einstein special relativity and predicts just the same results as it. Although in this sense such a formulation would be at least classically useless, its consistent extension to noninertial frames produces a momentum-energy metric which behaves as a new dynamical quantity that is here interpreted in terms of a cosmological field. This new field would be complementary to gravity in that its strength varies inversely to as that of gravity does. Using a strong-field approximation, we suggest that the existence of this cosmological field would induce a shift of luminous energy which could justify the existence of all the assumed invisible matter in the universe, so as the high luminousities found in active galactic nuclei and quasars.

  1. Accounting for Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Biomass Energy Combustion (released in AEO2010)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions from the combustion of biomass to produce energy are excluded from the energy-related CO2 emissions reported in Annual Energy Outlook 2010. According to current international convention, carbon released through biomass combustion is excluded from reported energy-related emissions. The release of carbon from biomass combustion is assumed to be balanced by the uptake of carbon when the feedstock is grown, resulting in zero net emissions over some period of time]. However, analysts have debated whether increased use of biomass energy may result in a decline in terrestrial carbon stocks, leading to a net positive release of carbon rather than the zero net release assumed by its exclusion from reported energy-related emissions.

  2. Emission Impacts of Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Quanlu; DeLuchi, Mark A.; Sperling, Daniel

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    category includes California-owned power plants out- sideCalifornia Air ResourcesBoard, "Uncontrolled and controlled power-plantsCalifornia. First, we include emissions from out-state coal power plants.

  3. The Value of Emissions Trading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webster, Mort David.

    This paper estimates the value of international emissions trading, focusing attention on a here-to-fore neglected component: its value as a hedge against uncertainty. Much analysis has been done of the Kyoto Protocol and ...

  4. Mobile fiber optic emission spectrograph

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, W.A.; Coleman, C.J.; McCarty, J.E.; Beck, R.S.

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Technical Assistance Request HLW/DWPF-TAR-970064 asked SRTC to evaluate the use of a fiber optic coupled emission spectrometer. The spectrometer would provide additional ICP analyses in the DWPF laboratory.

  5. Trading quasi-emission permits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montero, Juan-Pablo

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I study the design of environmental policies for a regulator that has incomplete information on firms' emissions and costs of production and abatement (e.g., air pollution in cities with numerous small polluting sources). ...

  6. Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Rhode Island requires all entities that sell electricity in the state to disclose details regarding the fuel mix and emissions of their electric generation to end-use customers. This information...

  7. Anomalous Emission from HII regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Dickinson

    2008-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Spinning dust appears to be the best explanation for the anomalous emission that has been observed at $\\sim 10-60$ GHz. One of the best examples of spinning dust comes from a HII region in the Perseus molecular cloud. Observations of other HII regions also show tentative evidence for excess emission at frequencies $\\sim 30$ GHz, although at lower emissivity levels. A new detection of excess emission at 31 GHz in the HII region RCW175 has been made. The most plausible explanation again comes from spinning dust. HII regions are a good place to look for spinning dust as long as accurate radio data spanning the $\\sim 5-100$ GHz range is available.

  8. Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2001, Nevada enacted legislation requiring the state’s electric utilities to provide details regarding the fuel mix and emissions of electric generation to their customers. Utilities must...

  9. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.P.Evans; K.E. Redinger; M.J. Holmes

    1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. Ideally, the project aim is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPS), fabric filters (baghouse), and wet flue gas desulfurization. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate and hydrogen chloride. Following the construction and evaluation of a representative air toxics test facility in Phase I, Phase II focused on the evaluation of mercury and several other air toxics emissions. The AECDP is jointly funded by the United States Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development (oCDO), and Babcock& Wilcox-a McDermott company (B&W).

  10. Diesel Emission Control Technology Review

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Conf. 5-06 However, despite considerable increases in vehicle mass, power, and capacity, CO2 emissions have still dropped. 5 To sell European cars into the US market, a minimum of...

  11. Systematics of proton emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. S. Delion; R. J. Liotta; R. Wyss

    2006-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A very simple formula is presented that relates the logarithm of the half-life, corrected by the centrifugal barrier, with the Coulomb parameter in proton decay processes. The corresponding experimental data lie on two straight lines which appear as a result of a sudden change in the nuclear shape marking two regions of deformation independently of the angular momentum of the outgoing proton. This feature provides a powerful tool to assign experimentally quantum numbers in proton emitters.

  12. Emission spectrum of soft massless states from heavy superstring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shoichi Kawamoto; Toshihiro Matsuo

    2013-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculate emission rates of various bosonic/fermionic soft massless states of open/closed superstring from an ensemble of a highly excited open/closed superstring in the flat background. The resulting spectrum shows thermal distributions at the Hagedorn temperature. We find greybody factors for each process and observe their relation to the ones from blackholes.

  13. Predicting Reactor Antineutrino Emissions Using New Precision Beta Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Asner; K. A. Burns; B. Greenfield; M. S. Kos; J. L. Orrell; M. Schram; B. A. VanDevender; D. Wootan

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A conceptual experimental method for providing a new measurement of the underlying beta decay spectra from fission products is presented. The goal is to provide additional information related to the prediction of the antineutrino emission spectra from fission reactors and assist evaluation of the reactor neutrino anomaly.

  14. On the Absorption and Emission Properties of Interstellar Grains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aigen Li

    2005-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Our current understanding of the absorption and emission properties of interstellar grains are reviewed. The constraints placed by the Kramers-Kronig relation on the wavelength-dependence and the maximum allowable quantity of the dust absorption are discussed. Comparisons of the opacities (mass absorption coefficients) derived from interstellar dust models with those directly estimated from observations are presented.

  15. Emission of Scission Neutrons in the Sudden Approximation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Carjan; P. Talou; O. Serot

    2007-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    At a certain finite neck radius during the descent of a fissioning nucleus from the saddle to the scission point, the attractive nuclear forces can no more withstand the repulsive Coulomb forces producing the neck rupture and the sudden absorption of the neck stubs by the fragments. At that moment, the neutrons, although still characterized by their pre-scission wave functions, find themselves in the newly created potential of their interaction with the separated fragments. Their wave functions become wave packets with components in the continuum. The probability to populate such states gives evidently the emission probability of neutrons at scission. In this way, we have studied scission neutrons for the fissioning nucleus $^{236}$U, using two-dimensional realistic nuclear shapes. Both the emission probability and the distribution of the emission points relative to the fission fragments strongly depend on the quantum numbers of the pre-scission state from which the neutron is emitted. In particular it was found that states with $\\Omega \\pi$ = 1/2+ dominate the emission. Depending on the assumed pre- and post-scission configurations and on the emission-barrier height, 30 to 50% of the total scission neutrons are emitted from 1/2+ states. Their emission points are concentrated in the region between the newly separated fragments. The upper limit for the total number of neutrons per scission event is predicted to lie between 0.16 and 1.73 (depending on the computational assumptions).

  16. Proc. of Atmospheric Studies by Optical Methods (2001) :16 Optical Emissions from Proton Aurora

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lummerzheim, Dirk

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proc. of Atmospheric Studies by Optical Methods (2001) :1­6 Optical Emissions from Proton Aurora D of proton aurora. The Doppler-shifted hydrogen emission lines can be inter- preted in terms of the mean in electron aurora, the relative brightness of emis- sion features differs from that in electron aurora

  17. Estimation of Annual Reductions of NOx Emissions in ERCOT for the HB3693 Electricity Savings Goals 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diem, Art; Mulholland, Denise; Yarbrough, James; Baltazar, Juan Carlos; Im, Piljae; Haberl, Jeff

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    avoided emission rate is approximately 0.51 pounds (lb) of NOx reduced per MWh of electricity savings. While House Bill 3693 is an Act related to energy and does not target emissions levels, the energy efficiency improvements would achieve air pollution...

  18. Anthropogenic emissions of nonmethane hydrocarbons in the northeastern United States: Measured seasonal variations from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    influenced by sources not associated with fuel combustion. Changes in the observed correlations of CO2 and CO relative to acetylene are consistent with published changes in the estimated emissions of CO2 and CO over these emissions in the United States. Hydrocarbon, NOx and CO sources include fuel combustion in both mobile

  19. Aspects of Graviton Detection: Graviton Emission and Absorption by Atomic Hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephen Boughn; Tony Rothman

    2006-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Graviton absorption cross sections and emission rates for hydrogen are calculated by both semi-classical and field theoretic methods. We point out several mistakes in the literature concerning spontaneous emission of gravitons and related phenomena, some of which are due to a subtle issue concerning gauge invariance of the linearized interaction Hamiltonian.

  20. ACOUSTIC EMISSION HEALTH MONITORING OF STEEL BRIDGES Pooria L. Pahlavan1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACOUSTIC EMISSION HEALTH MONITORING OF STEEL BRIDGES Pooria L. Pahlavan1 , Joep Paulissen2 in the field of Acoustic Emission (AE) for monitoring fatigue cracks in steel structures, the implementation in the utilization of AE systems for steel bridge decks. These challenges are mainly related to the multi

  1. Yale's Environment School Power Plants Big Influence in Regional Mercury Emissions Introduction Knowledge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Xuhui

    Yale's Environment School · Power Plants Big Influence in Regional Mercury Emissions Introduction Power Plants Big Influence in Regional Mercury Emissions Related Topics: News Releases; Publications winters and a correspondent decrease in the need for regional power plants to burn coal could partially

  2. Related Links

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch > TheNuclear Press Releases 2014References by Websitehome / Related Links

  3. Energy Implications of Alternative Water Futures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keller, Arturo A.

    Energy Implications of Alternative Water Futures First Western Forum on Energy & Water water, energy, and GHG emissions. Water-related energy use is expected to rise. Conservation canWaterUse(MAF) Historical Use More Resource Intensive Less Resource Intensive Current Trends #12;Water and Energy Link

  4. Energy and Society Section Handout Week of October 13, 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    opportunities available in an economy. For energy-related CO2 emissions, the opportunities usually revolve around some form of efficiency or cleaner energy production. For other CO2 and non-CO2 GHG's (like CH4) Services (e.g., banking) System LCA examples Electricity supply system Transportation system Internet

  5. C a l i f o r n i a E n E r g y C o m m i s s i o n

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (GHG) emissions in the electricity and natural gas sectors. Why are the electricity and natural gas sec- tors being asked to reduce GHG emissions? As a combined energy sector, electricity and natural gas are second to the transportation sector in California's GHG emis- sions. Electricity accounts for 25 percent

  6. Simbol-X capability of detecting the non-thermal emission of stellar flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Argiroffi; G. Micela; A. Maggio

    2008-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the capability of detecting, with Simbol-X, non-thermal emission during stellar flares, and distinguishing it from hot thermal emission. We find that flare non-thermal emission is detectable when at least ~20 cts are detected with the CZT detector in the 20-80 keV band. Therefore Simbol-X will detect the non-thermal emission from some of the X-ray brightest nearby stars, whether the thermal vs. non-thermal relation, derived for solar flares, holds.

  7. Picosecond buildup and relaxation of intense stimulated emission in GaAs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ageeva, N. N.; Bronevoi, I. L., E-mail: bil@cplire.ru; Zabegaev, D. N.; Krivonosov, A. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kotelnikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (Russian Federation)

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In support of the idea developed previously based on circumstantial evidence, we have found that stimulated emission emerges in GaAs and its intensity increases with a picosecond delay relative to the front of powerful picosecond optical pumping that produced a dense electron-hole plasma. The emission intensity relaxes with decreasing pumping with a characteristic time of {approx}10 ps. We have derived the dependences of the delay time, the relaxation time, and the duration of the picosecond emission pulse on its photon energy. The estimates based on the fact that the relaxation of emission is determined by electron-hole plasma cooling correspond to the measured relaxation time.

  8. Formation Kinetics of Nitric Oxide of Biodiesel Relative to Petroleum Diesel under Comparable Oxygen Equivalence Ratio in a Homogeneous Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathore, Gurlovleen K.

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Interest in biodiesel has piqued with advent of stringent emissions regulations. Biodiesel is a viable substitute for petroleum diesel because biodiesel produces significantly lower particulate and soot emissions relative to petroleum diesel. Higher...

  9. Emissions Trading: A Feasible Analysis for UBC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emissions Trading: A Feasible Analysis for UBC Vivian Hoffman, J Chisholm I. Introduction The GVRD environmental objectives are achieved. Emissions reduction credit trading (or emissions trading) is an example Valley (LFV). Section III describes the market-based instruments of emissions trading and facility

  10. Atmospheric Mercury: Emissions, Transport/Fate,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , global...) Is "emissions trading" workable and ethical? Is the recently promulgated Clean Air Mercury

  11. Zero-emission vehicle technology assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woods, T.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New York State adopted the California Low Emission Vehicle (LEV) program that includes a sales mandate for ZEVs starting in 1988. The New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) was required to perform a technology review of zero-emission vehicles (ZEVs) in 1994, and examine technology developments and issues relating to ZEV performance in New York State, by the amendments to 6NYCRR Part 218, February 1992. The Final Report presents an overview of technology as of the spring of 1995, and a projection of technology status over the next 10 years.

  12. Evaluation of Efficiency Activities in the Industrial Sector Undertaken in Response to Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy/GHG Taxes or Regulations Australia Denmark Energy EfficiencyAustralia has two Government programs that encourage businesses to improve their energy efficiencyAustralia has two Government programs that encourage businesses to improve their energy efficiency

  13. Plant power : the cost of using biomass for power generation and potential for decreased greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cuellar, Amanda Dulcinea

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To date, biomass has not been a large source of power generation in the United States, despite the potential for greenhouse gas (GHG) benefits from displacing coal with carbon neutral biomass. In this thesis, the fuel cycle ...

  14. Scale model seismicity: a detailed study of deformation localisation from laboratory acoustic emission data 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graham, Caroline C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Acoustic emissions (AE) can provide information relating to the internal state of a deforming rock sample during laboratory testing and have been utilised to quantify damage progression for time-dependent failure modeling. ...

  15. Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in China: Growth, Transition, and Institutional Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahrl, Fredrich James

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    72.4 EJ forecast of final energy consumption for China inforecast in 2002 that, by 2020, energy consumption in Chinaforecast of energy-related CO 2 emissions growth in China

  16. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Business Roundtable

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and expertise of the Roundtable member companies behind the goal of enhanced action to control greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and improve the GHG intensity of the U.S. economy. The...

  17. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Business Roundtable...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and expertise of the Roundtable member companies behind the goal of enhanced action to control greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and improve the GHG intensity of the U.S. economy. We...

  18. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Perspective on Exporting Liquefied...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to inform its decisions regarding the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of U.S. LNG exports for use in electric power generation. The LCA GHG Report compares life cycle...

  19. Biological and environmental efficiency of high producing dairy systems through application of life cycle analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ross, Stephen Alexander

    2014-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Dairy production systems are an important global contributor to anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions including methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Due to the role GHG play in climate ...

  20. Assessing Vehicle Electricity Demand Impacts on California Electricity Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan W.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fractions of coal power, marginal emissions rates could beon coal power in LADWP leads to higher average emissionscoal-fired power plants, respectively, median hourly GHG emissions

  1. Air emission inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: 1994 emissions report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report Presents the 1994 update of the Air Emission inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of non-radionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL, and provides non-radionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  2. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory - Calendar Year 1999 Emission Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zohner, S.K.

    2000-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the 1999 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  3. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory - Calendar Year 1998 Emissions Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. K. Zohner

    1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the 1998 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradiological emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  4. Suzaku Spectroscopy of the Extended X-Ray Emission in M17

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoshiaki Hyodo; Masahiro Tsujimoto; Kenji Hamaguchi; Katsuji Koyama; Shunji Kitamoto; Yoshitomo Maeda; Yohko Tsuboi; Yuichiro Ezoe

    2007-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the results of a Suzaku spectroscopic study of the soft extended X-ray emission in the HII region M17. The spectrum of the extended emission was obtained with a high signal-to-noise ratio in a spatially-resolved manner using the X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (XIS). We established that the contamination by unresolved point sources, the Galactic Ridge X-ray emission, the cosmic X-ray background, and the local hot bubble emission is negligible in the background-subtracted XIS spectrum of the diffuse emission. Half a dozen of emission lines were resolved clearly for the first time, including K lines of highly ionized O, Ne, and Mg as well as L series complex of Fe at 0.5--1.5 keV. Based on the diagnosis of these lines, we obtained the following results: (1) the extended emission is an optically-thin thermal plasma represented well by a single temperature of 3.0 +/- 0.4 MK, (2) the abundances of elements with emission lines in the diffuse spectrum are 0.1--0.3 solar, while those of bright discrete sources are 0.3--1.5 solar, (3) the metal abundances relative to each other in the diffuse emission are consistent with solar except for a Ne enhancement of a factor of 2, (4) both the plasma temperature and the chemical composition of the diffuse emission show no spatial variation across the studied spatial scale of about 5 pc.

  5. Organic light-emitting device with a phosphor-sensitized fluorescent emission layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen (Ann Arbor, MI); Kanno, Hiroshi (Osaka, JP)

    2009-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to organic light emitting devices (OLEDs), and more specifically to OLEDS that emit light using a combination of fluorescent emitters and phosphorescent emitters. The emissive region of the devices of the present invention comprise at least one phosphor-sensitized layer which has a combined emission from a phosphorescent emitter and a fluorescent emitter. In preferred embodiments, the invention relates to white-emitting OLEDS (WOLEDs).

  6. New Double Soft Emission Theorems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Freddy Cachazo; Song He; Ellis Ye Yuan

    2015-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the behavior of the tree-level S-matrix of a variety of theories as two particles become soft. By analogy with the recently found subleading soft theorems for gravitons and gluons, we explore subleading terms in double soft emissions. We first consider double soft scalar emissions and find subleading terms that are controlled by the angular momentum operator acting on hard particles. The order of the subleading theorems depends on the presence or not of color structures. Next we obtain a compact formula for the leading term in a double soft photon emission. The theories studied are a special Galileon, DBI, Einstein-Maxwell-Scalar, NLSM and Yang-Mills-Scalar. We use the recently found CHY representation of these theories in order to give a simple proof of the leading order part of all these theorems

  7. Labor Relations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Addressing Poor Performance What Happens if an Employee’s Performance is Below the Meets Expectations (ME) level? Any time during the appraisal period an employee demonstrates that he/she is performing below the ME level in at least one critical element, the Rating Official should contact his/her Human Resources Office for guidance and: •If performance is at the Needs Improvement (NI) level; issue the employee a Performance Assistance Plan (PAP); or •If performance is at the Fails to Meet Expectations (FME) level; issue the employee a Performance Improvement Plan (PIP). Department of Energy Headquarters and The National Treasury Employees Union (NTEU) Collective Bargaining Agreement The National Treasury Employees Union (NTEU) is the exclusive representative of bargaining unit employees at the Department of Energy Headquarters offices in the Washington DC metropolitan area. The terms and conditions of this agreement have been negotiated by DOE and NTEU, and prescribe their respective rights and obligations in matters related to conditions of employment. Headquarters 1187 Request For Payroll Deductions For Labor Organization Dues The Request for Payroll Deduction for Labor Organization Dues (SF-1187) permits eligible employees, who are members of the National Treasury Employees Union (NTEU), to authorize voluntary allotments from their compensation. Headquarters 1188 Cancellation Of Payroll Deductions For Labor Organization Dues The Cancellation of Payroll Deductions for Labor Organizations Dues (SF-1188) permits eligible employees, who are members of the National Treasury Employees Union (NTEU), to cancel dues allotments. The National Treasury Employees Union, Collective Bargaining Agreement, Article 9 – Dues Withholding This article is for the purpose of permitting eligible employees, who are members of the National Treasury Employees Union (NTEU), to authorize voluntary allotments from their compensation.

  8. Battery Ownership Model: A Tool for Evaluating the Economics of Electrified Vehicles and Related Infrastructure; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Keefe, M.; Brooker, A.; Johnson, C.; Mendelsohn, M.; Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric vehicles could significantly reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and dependence on imported petroleum. However, for mass adoption, EV costs have historically been too high to be competitive with conventional vehicle options due to the high price of batteries, long refuel time, and a lack of charging infrastructure. A number of different technologies and business strategies have been proposed to address some of these cost and utility issues: battery leasing, battery fast-charging stations, battery swap stations, deployment of charge points for opportunity charging, etc. In order to investigate these approaches and compare their merits on a consistent basis, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed a new techno-economic model. The model includes nine modules to examine the levelized cost per mile for various types of powertrain and business strategies. The various input parameters such as vehicle type, battery, gasoline, and electricity prices; battery cycle life; driving profile; and infrastructure costs can be varied. In this paper, we discuss the capabilities of the model; describe key modules; give examples of how various assumptions, powertrain configurations, and business strategies impact the cost to the end user; and show the vehicle's levelized cost per mile sensitivity to seven major operational parameters.

  9. Microwave emissions from police radar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fink, John Michael

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MICROWAVE EMISSIONS FROM POLICE RADAR A Thesis by JOHN MICHAEL FINK Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1994 Major Subject...: Industrial Hygiene MICROWAVE EMISSIONS FROM POLICE RADAR A Thesis by JOHN MICHAEL FINK Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE John P. Wag (Chair of Committee) Jero e J. C...

  10. Locomotive emission study. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The work for the report involved the estimation of the air pollution emissions arising from the operation of railroad locomotives in six non-attainment air management basins within California. The six air basins are the Bay Area, the Central Coast (which includes the North Central Coast and the South Central Coast basins), the South Coast, San Diego, San Joaquin, and the Sacramento Valley basins. In addition, the effort involved the development of information about the efficacy and cost of feasible control strategies for locomotive-generated air pollution emissions, for both long and short term implementation.

  11. 8 Equivalence Relations 8.1 Relations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gera, Ralucca

    8 Equivalence Relations 8.1 Relations 1. for sets A and B we define a relation from A to B have that if (a, b) R and (b, c) R then (a, c) R 8.3 Equivalence Relations 1. a relation is an equivalence relation if it is reflexive, symmetric and transitive 2. if a relation R on a set

  12. Apparatus and method for transient thermal infrared emission spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McClelland, John F. (Ames, IA); Jones, Roger W. (Ames, IA)

    1991-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for enabling analysis of a solid material (16, 42) by applying energy from an energy source (20, 70) top a surface region of the solid material sufficient to cause transient heating in a thin surface layer portion of the solid material (16, 42) so as to enable transient thermal emission of infrared radiation from the thin surface layer portion, and by detecting with a spectrometer/detector (28, 58) substantially only the transient thermal emission of infrared radiation from the thin surface layer portion of the solid material. The detected transient thermal emission of infrared radiation is sufficiently free of self-absorption by the solid material of emitted infrared radiation, so as to be indicative of characteristics relating to molecular composition of the solid material.

  13. Greenhouse gases in the corn-to-fuel ethanol pathway.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has applied its Greenhouse gas, Regulated Emissions and Energy in Transportation (GREET) full-fuel-cycle analysis model to examine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of corn-feedstock ethanol, given present and near-future production technology and practice. On the basis of updated information appropriate to corn farming and processing operations in the four principal corn- and ethanol-producing states (Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska), the model was used to estimate energy requirements and GHG emissions of corn farming; the manufacture, transportation to farms, and field application of fertilizer and pesticide; transportation of harvested corn to ethanol plants; nitrous oxide emissions from cultivated cornfields; ethanol production in current average and future technology wet and dry mills; and operation of cars and light trucks using ethanol fuels. For all cases examined on the basis of mass emissions per travel mile, the corn-to-ethanol fuel cycle for Midwest-produced ethanol used in both E85 and E10 blends with gasoline outperforms conventional (current) and reformulated (future) gasoline with respect to energy use and GHG production. Also, GHG reductions (but not energy use) appear surprisingly sensitive to the value chosen for combined soil and leached N-fertilizer conversion to nitrous oxide. Co-product energy-use attribution remains the single key factor in estimating ethanol's relative benefits because this value can range from 0 to 50%, depending on the attribution method chosen.

  14. Limiting net greenhouse gas emissions in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, R A; Watts, E C; Williams, E R [eds.

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1988, Congress requested that DOE produce a study on carbon dioxide inventory and policy to provide an inventory of emissions sources and to analyze policies to achieve a 20% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions in 5 to 10 years and a 50% reduction in 15 to 20 years. Energy and environmental technology data were analyzed using computational analysis models. This information was then evaluated, drawing on current scientific understanding of global climate change, the possible consequences of anthropogenic climate change (change caused by human activity) and the relationship between energy production and use and the emission of radiatively important gases. Topics discussed include: state of the science in estimating atmosphere/climate change relationships, the potential consequences of atmosphere/climate change, us greenhouse emissions past and present, an approach to analyzing the technical potential and cost of reducing US energy-related greenhouse gas emissions, current policy base and National Energy Strategy actions, fiscal instruments, regulatory instruments, combined strategies and instruments, macroeconomic impacts, carbon taxation and international trade, a comparison to other studies.

  15. Introduction to Positron Emission Tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oakes, Terry

    range: 1-10 mm Gamma-Ray range: 10 mm - 8 positron annihilation #12;Positron Emission Tomography #12;P.E.T. measures Concentration of Radioactivity 1) Gamma-rays escape from body: External detection possible. 2) Two gamma rays emitted at 180 when a positron annihilates: The annihilation occured somewhere

  16. Fiber optics spectrochemical emission sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griffin, J.W.; Olsen, K.B.

    1992-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described of in situ monitoring of a body of a fluid stored in a tank or groundwater or vadose zone gases in a well for the presence of selected chemical species. The method uses a probe insertable into the well or tank via a cable and having an electrical apparatus for exciting selected chemical species in the body of fluid. The probe can have a pair of electrodes for initiating a spark or a plasma cell for maintaining a plasma to excite the selected chemical species. The probe also has an optical apparatus for receiving optical emissions emitted by the excited species and optically transmitting the emissions via the cable to an analysis location outside the well. The analysis includes detecting a selected wavelength in the emissions indicative of the presence of the selected chemical species. A plurality of probes can be suspended at an end of a respective cable, with the transmitting and analyzing steps for each probe being synchronized sequentially for one set of support equipment and instrumentation to monitor at multiple test points. The optical apparatus is arranged about the light guide axis so that the selected chemical species are excited in the fluid in alignment with the light guide axis. Optical emissions are received from the excited chemical species along such axis. 18 figs.

  17. Continuum Radio Emission and Diagnostics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Stephen

    and inversely proportional to the square of frequency and to temperature to the power 1.5. It is therefore discusses incoher­ ent emission from thermal plasma in the non­flaring so­ lar atmosphere; other relevant. The opacity of this mecha­ nism is proportional to the product of the electron and ion charge densities

  18. High energy emission from microquasars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rob Fender; Tom Maccarone

    2003-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The microquasar phenomenon is associated with the production of jets by X-ray binaries and, as such, may be associated with the majority of such systems. In this chapter we briefly outline the associations, definite, probable, possible, and speculative, between such jets and X-ray, gamma-ray and particle emission.

  19. Fiber optics spectrochemical emission sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griffin, Jeffrey W. (Kennewick, WA); Olsen, Khris B. (West Richland, WA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of in situ monitoring of a body of a fluid stored in a tank or groundwater or vadose zone gases in a well for the presence of selected chemical species uses a probe insertable into the well or tank via a cable and having electrical apparatus for exciting selected chemical species in the body of fluid. The probe can have a pair of electrodes for initiating a spark or a plasma cell for maintaining a plasma to excite the selected chemical species. The probe also has optical apparatus for receiving optical emissions emitted by the excited species and optically transmitting the emissions via the cable to an analysis location outside the well. The analysis includes detecting a selected wavelength in the emissions indicative of the presence of the selected chemical species. A plurality of probes can be suspended at an end of a respective cable, with the transmitting and analyzing steps for each probe being synchronized sequentially for one set of support equipment and instrumentation to monitor at multiple test points. The optical apparatus is arranged about the light guide axis so that the selected chemical species are excited the fluid in alignment with the light guide axis and optical emissions are received from the excited chemical species along such axis.

  20. Atomic line emission analyzer for hydrogen isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for isotopic analysis of hydrogen comprises a low pressure chamber into which a sample of hydrogen is introduced and then exposed to an electrical discharge to excite the electrons of the hydrogen atoms to higher energy states and thereby cause the emission of light on the return to lower energy states, a Fresnel prism made at least in part of a material anomalously dispersive to the wavelengths of interest for dispersing the emitted light, and a photodiode array for receiving the dispersed light. The light emitted by the sample is filtered to pass only the desired wavelengths, such as one of the lines of the Balmer series for hydrogen, the wavelengths of which differ slightly from one isotope to another. The output of the photodiode array is processed to determine the relative amounts of each isotope present in the sample. Additionally, the sample itself may be recovered using, a metal hydride.