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Sample records for ghg emissions proposed

  1. The Economic, Energy, and GHG Emissions Impacts of Proposed 20172025 Vehicle Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Economic, Energy, and GHG Emissions Impacts of Proposed 2017­2025 Vehicle Fuel Economy in the passenger vehicle fleet to evaluate the economic, energy use, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions impacts analysis need to be related to the economic, technological, and political forces that drive emissions

  2. Regulation of GHG emissions from transportation fuels: Emission quota versus emission intensity standard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Deepak

    2010-01-01

    Derivation of average cost of emission reduction by blending?) and ? respectively. GHG emissions per unit of blend is, ?+ ?? i Reduction in GHG emissions with respect to unblended

  3. Shale Gas Production: Potential versus Actual GHG Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Sullivan, Francis

    Estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use are controversial. Here we assess the level of GHG emissions from shale gas well hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States during ...

  4. Shale Gas Production: Potential versus Actual GHG Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shale Gas Production: Potential versus Actual GHG Emissions Francis O'Sullivan and Sergey Paltsev://globalchange.mit.edu/ Printed on recycled paper #12;1 Shale Gas Production: Potential versus Actual GHG Emissions Francis O'Sullivan* and Sergey Paltsev* Abstract Estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use

  5. Methodology for Estimating Reductions of GHG Emissions from Mosaic...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Methodology for Estimating Reductions of GHG Emissions from Mosaic Deforestation Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Methodology for Estimating Reductions of...

  6. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Refrigerati...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: The Greenhouse Gas Protocol...

  7. Energy and GHG Emissions in British Columbia 1990 -2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedersen, Tom

    Energy and GHG Emissions in British Columbia 1990 - 2010 Report Highlights John Nyboer and Maximilian Kniewasser Canadian Industrial Energy End-use Data and Analysis Centre (CIEEDAC) Simon Fraser for Climate Solutions 1 HIGHLIGHTS The Energy and GHG Emissions in British

  8. The Future Energy and GHG Emissions Impact of Alternative Personal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Future Energy and GHG Emissions Impact of Alternative Personal Transportation Pathways in China://globalchange.mit.edu/ Printed on recycled paper #12;The Future Energy and GHG Emissions Impact of Alternative Personal Paul N. Kishimoto, Sergey Paltsev and Valerie J. Karplus Report No. 231 September 2012 China Energy

  9. Regional GHG Emissions Stat s Greenhouse Gas and the Regional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,00070.0 Historical CO2 Emissions of the NW Power System CO2 Emissions Hydro Gen Fossil Fuel Gen (NG + Coal) Wind Gen6/5/2013 1 Regional GHG Emissions Stat s Greenhouse Gas and the Regional Power System Symposium power system All emissions are displayed in short tons (not metric tons) The Pacific Northwest (PNW

  10. Non-Light Duty Energy and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Accounting...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Non-Light Duty Energy and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Accounting Tool (NEAT) for Long Term Energy and GHG Impacts Evaluation: Domestic Freight Component Documentation and User's...

  11. GHG Emissions from Hydropower Reservoirs The role of hydropower reservoirs in contributing to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is poorly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GHG Emissions from Hydropower Reservoirs The role of hydropower reservoirs in contributing from tropical and boreal reservoirs are significant. In light of hydropower's potential role as a green to characterize carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions from hydropower reservoirs in the US Southeast

  12. GBTL Workshop GHG Emissions | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing Tool Fits the Bill Financing Tool Fits theSunShotB, Title III, Title VOpeningAttendeesGHG

  13. CEQ Issues Revised Draft NEPA Guidance on GHG Emissions and Climate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Revised Draft NEPA Guidance on GHG Emissions and Climate Change CEQ Issues Revised Draft NEPA Guidance on GHG Emissions and Climate Change March 3, 2015 - 10:37am Addthis CEQ...

  14. Estimate of Fuel Consumption and GHG Emission Impact on an Automated Mobility District: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Yuche; Young, Stanley; Gonder, Jeff; Qi, Xuewei

    2015-12-11

    This study estimates the range of fuel and emissions impact of an automated-vehicle (AV) based transit system that services campus-based developments, termed an automated mobility district (AMD). The study develops a framework to quantify the fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission impacts of a transit system comprised of AVs, taking into consideration average vehicle fleet composition, fuel consumption/GHG emission of vehicles within specific speed bins, and the average occupancy of passenger vehicles and transit vehicles. The framework is exercised using a previous mobility analysis of a personal rapid transit (PRT) system, a system which shares many attributes with envisioned AV-based transit systems. Total fuel consumption and GHG emissions with and without an AMD are estimated, providing a range of potential system impacts on sustainability. The results of a previous case study based of a proposed implementation of PRT on the Kansas State University (KSU) campus in Manhattan, Kansas, serves as the basis to estimate personal miles traveled supplanted by an AMD at varying levels of service. The results show that an AMD has the potential to reduce total system fuel consumption and GHG emissions, but the amount is largely dependent on operating and ridership assumptions. The study points to the need to better understand ride-sharing scenarios and calls for future research on sustainability benefits of an AMD system at both vehicle and system levels.

  15. GLOBAL EMISSIONS Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, largely carbon dioxide (CO2)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Green, Donna

    GLOBAL EMISSIONS Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, largely carbon dioxide (CO2) from the combustion- related CO2 emissions have risen 130-fold since 1850--from 200 million tons to 27 billion tons a year--and are projected to rise another 60 percent by 2030 (see Figure 1).1 Most of the world's emissions come from

  16. Reducing GHG emissions in the United States' transportation sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Sujit [ORNL; Andress, David A [ORNL; Nguyen, Tien [U.S. DOE

    2011-01-01

    Reducing GHG emissions in the U.S. transportation sector requires both the use of highly efficient propulsion systems and low carbon fuels. This study compares reduction potentials that might be achieved in 2060 for several advanced options including biofuels, hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), and fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV), assuming that technical and cost reduction targets are met and necessary fueling infrastructures are built. The study quantifies the extent of the reductions that can be achieved through increasing engine efficiency and transitioning to low-carbon fuels separately. Decarbonizing the fuels is essential for achieving large reductions in GHG emissions, and the study quantifies the reductions that can be achieved over a range of fuel carbon intensities. Although renewables will play a vital role, some combination of coal gasification with carbon capture and sequestration, and/or nuclear energy will likely be needed to enable very large reductions in carbon intensities for hydrogen and electricity. Biomass supply constraints do not allow major carbon emission reductions from biofuels alone; the value of biomass is that it can be combined with other solutions to help achieve significant results. Compared with gasoline, natural gas provides 20% reduction in GHG emissions in internal combustion engines and up to 50% reduction when used as a feedstock for producing hydrogen or electricity, making it a good transition fuel for electric propulsion drive trains. The material in this paper can be useful information to many other countries, including developing countries because of a common factor: the difficulty of finding sustainable, low-carbon, cost-competitive substitutes for petroleum fuels.

  17. Quantitative Analysis of Biofuel Sustainability, Including Land Use Change GHG Emissions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Plenary V: Biofuels and Sustainability: Acknowledging Challenges and Confronting MisconceptionsQuantitative Analysis of Biofuel Sustainability, Including Land Use Change GHG EmissionsJennifer B....

  18. Abstract--Energy consumption and the concomitant Green House Gases (GHG) emissions of network infrastructures are

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    Abstract--Energy consumption and the concomitant Green House Gases (GHG) emissions of network on the overall power consumption and on the GHG emissions with just 25% of green energy sources. I. INTRODUCTION]. In the zero carbon approach, renewable (green) energy sources (e.g. sun, wind, tide) are employed and no GHGs

  19. Systematic Review and Harmonization of Life Cycle GHG Emission Estimates for Electricity Generation Technologies (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, G.

    2012-06-01

    This powerpoint presentation to be presented at the World Renewable Energy Forum on May 14, 2012, in Denver, CO, discusses systematic review and harmonization of life cycle GHG emission estimates for electricity generation technologies.

  20. GHG emission factors developed for the recycling and composting of municipal waste in South African municipalities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedrich, Elena Trois, Cristina

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • GHG emission factors for local recycling of municipal waste are presented. • GHG emission factors for two composting technologies for garden waste are included. • Local GHG emission factors were compared to international ones and discussed. • Uncertainties and limitations are presented and areas for new research highlighted. - Abstract: GHG (greenhouse gas) emission factors for waste management are increasingly used, but such factors are very scarce for developing countries. This paper shows how such factors have been developed for the recycling of glass, metals (Al and Fe), plastics and paper from municipal solid waste, as well as for the composting of garden refuse in South Africa. The emission factors developed for the different recyclables in the country show savings varying from ?290 kg CO{sub 2} e (glass) to ?19 111 kg CO{sub 2} e (metals – Al) per tonne of recyclable. They also show that there is variability, with energy intensive materials like metals having higher GHG savings in South Africa as compared to other countries. This underlines the interrelation of the waste management system of a country/region with other systems, in particular with energy generation, which in South Africa, is heavily reliant on coal. This study also shows that composting of garden waste is a net GHG emitter, releasing 172 and 186 kg CO{sub 2} e per tonne of wet garden waste for aerated dome composting and turned windrow composting, respectively. The paper concludes that these emission factors are facilitating GHG emissions modelling for waste management in South Africa and enabling local municipalities to identify best practice in this regard.

  1. Transportation Energy Futures: Combining Strategies for Deep Reductions in Energy Consumption and GHG Emissions (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-03-01

    This fact sheet summarizes actions in the areas of light-duty vehicle, non-light-duty vehicle, fuel, and transportation demand that show promise for deep reductions in energy use. Energy efficient transportation strategies have the potential to simultaneously reduce oil consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project examined how the combination of multiple strategies could achieve deep reductions in GHG emissions and petroleum use on the order of 80%. Led by NREL, in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory, the project's primary goal was to help inform domestic decisions about transportation energy strategies, priorities, and investments, with an emphasis on underexplored opportunities. TEF findings reveal three strategies with the potential to displace most transportation-related petroleum use and GHG emissions: 1) Stabilizing energy use in the transportation sector through efficiency and demand-side approaches. 2) Using additional advanced biofuels. 3) Expanding electric drivetrain technologies.

  2. Selected GHG Emission Supply Curves | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc Jump to:Newberg,EnergyEastCarbonOpenSchulthess GroupSmart GridSeikoOpenBankGHG

  3. Regional GHG Emissions O tlook Greenhouse Gas and the Regional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    demand The model can also track CO2 emissions heat rates, emission rates, hydro shapes... Fuel prices Emission Rate Load Heat Rate 10 mmbtu/MWh Fuel 80,000 mmbtu Combined Cycle Plant 212 lb/mmbtu Emission Rate 4 8,000 MWh Load Heat Rate 7 mmbtu/MWh Fuel 56,000 mmbtu 3,276 tons CO2 Emission Rate 117 lb

  4. UBC Social, Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report GHG Emissions Data Tracker User Manual

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of a project/report." #12;GHG Emissions Data Tracker User Manual #12;Add/Edit vehicles Vehicles type addition will be saved automatically. Add Vehicles: Enter Vehicles name in the bottom most blank space and once you enter the first character it will create a new record in database. Edit Vehicles: Click on the text box that you

  5. Energy and GHG Emissions in British Columbia 1990 -2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedersen, Tom

    (STC) publication Report on Energy Supply and Demand (RESD) is the primary supply and use, greenhouse gas emissions and energy efficiency in British Columbia. It includes total energy use and emissions data for all sectors and some industries

  6. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Transport...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    emissions from purchased electricity, stationary combustion, refrigeration and air conditioning equipment, and several industrial sectors. References Retrieved from "http:...

  7. Regulation of GHG emissions from transportation fuels: Emission quota versus emission intensity standard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Deepak

    2010-01-01

    relative to coal than base case IV: Transportation cost isCoal-based ethanol pro- 0.430 duction cost ($/liter) Ethanol transportation 0.050 cost -transportation 0.130 cost - road ($/liter) Energy used in biore?ning 13.85 (MJ/liter) GHG intensity of coal-

  8. New Jersey: EERE-Supported Technology Lowers GHG Emissions 70...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    for Use of CO2 in Concrete Curing Project Overview Positive Impact R&D 100 Award-winning technology helps reduce greenhouse gas emissions in cement and concrete products up to...

  9. Capturing Fugitives to Reduce DOE’s GHG Emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Experts are hunting down fugitive carbon emissions from across 20 Energy Department laboratories, sites and program offices — and they’ve already prevented the release of more than 600,000 metric tons of CO2 equivalent since 2009 -- equal to taking 140,000 cars off the road for a year.

  10. Voluntary Agreements for Energy Efficiency or GHG EmissionsReduction in Industry: An Assessment of Programs Around the World

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn

    2005-06-01

    Voluntary agreements for energy efficiency improvement and reduction of energy-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been a popular policy instrument for the industrial sector in industrialized countries since the 1990s. A number of these national-level voluntary agreement programs are now being modified and strengthened, while additional countries--including some recently industrialized and developing countries--are adopting these type of agreements in an effort to increase the energy efficiency of their industrial sectors.Voluntary agreement programs can be roughly divided into three broad categories: (1) programs that are completely voluntary, (2) programs that use the threat of future regulations or energy/GHG emissions taxes as a motivation for participation, and (3) programs that are implemented in conjunction with an existing energy/GHG emissions tax policy or with strict regulations. A variety of government-provided incentives as well as penalties are associated with these programs. This paper reviews 23 energy efficiency or GHG emissions reduction voluntary agreement programs in 18 countries, including countries in Europe, the U.S., Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, South Korea, and Chinese Taipei (Taiwan) and discusses preliminary lessons learned regarding program design and effectiveness. The paper notes that such agreement programs, in which companies inventory and manage their energy use and GHG emissions to meet specific reduction targets, are an essential first step towards GHG emissions trading programs.

  11. Transportation Energy Futures- Combining Strategies for Deep Reductions in Energy Consumption and GHG Emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Transportation currently accounts for 71% of total U.S. petroleum use and 33% of the nation's total carbon emissions. The TEF project explores how combining multiple strategies could reduce GHG emissions and petroleum use by 80%. Researchers examined four key areas – lightduty vehicles, non-light-duty vehicles, fuels, and transportation demand – in the context of the marketplace, consumer behavior, industry capabilities, technology and the energy and transportation infrastructure. The TEF reports support DOE long-term planning. The reports provide analysis to inform decisions about transportation energy research investments, as well as the role of advanced transportation energy technologies and systems in the development of new physical, strategic, and policy alternatives.

  12. The Ecological Society of America wwwwww..ffrroonnttiieerrssiinneeccoollooggyy..oorrgg Emissions of the principal greenhouse gas (GHG), car-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Battles, John

    ..ffrroonnttiieerrssiinneeccoollooggyy..oorrgg Emissions of the principal greenhouse gas (GHG), car- bon dioxide (CO2), are driven primarily by the burn accumulation in forests and CO2 emissions from tropical deforestation (Canadell and Raupach 2008). Particular fixation by plant photosynthesis) and heterotrophic res- piration (CO2 emission by non-photosynthetic organ

  13. A multi-objective programming model for assessment the GHG emissions in MSW management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mavrotas, George; Skoulaxinou, Sotiria; Gakis, Nikos; Katsouros, Vassilis; Georgopoulou, Elena

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • The multi-objective multi-period optimization model. • The solution approach for the generation of the Pareto front with mathematical programming. • The very detailed description of the model (decision variables, parameters, equations). • The use of IPCC 2006 guidelines for landfill emissions (first order decay model) in the mathematical programming formulation. - Abstract: In this study a multi-objective mathematical programming model is developed for taking into account GHG emissions for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management. Mathematical programming models are often used for structure, design and operational optimization of various systems (energy, supply chain, processes, etc.). The last twenty years they are used all the more often in Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management in order to provide optimal solutions with the cost objective being the usual driver of the optimization. In our work we consider the GHG emissions as an additional criterion, aiming at a multi-objective approach. The Pareto front (Cost vs. GHG emissions) of the system is generated using an appropriate multi-objective method. This information is essential to the decision maker because he can explore the trade-offs in the Pareto curve and select his most preferred among the Pareto optimal solutions. In the present work a detailed multi-objective, multi-period mathematical programming model is developed in order to describe the waste management problem. Apart from the bi-objective approach, the major innovations of the model are (1) the detailed modeling considering 34 materials and 42 technologies, (2) the detailed calculation of the energy content of the various streams based on the detailed material balances, and (3) the incorporation of the IPCC guidelines for the CH{sub 4} generated in the landfills (first order decay model). The equations of the model are described in full detail. Finally, the whole approach is illustrated with a case study referring to the application of the model in a Greek region.

  14. Life Cycle GHG Emissions from Conventional Natural Gas Power Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, G.; O'Donoughue, P.; Whitaker, M.

    2012-12-01

    This research provides a systematic review and harmonization of the life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of electricity generated from conventionally produced natural gas. We focus on estimates of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emitted in the life cycle of electricity generation from conventionally produced natural gas in combustion turbines (NGCT) and combined-cycle (NGCC) systems. A process we term "harmonization" was employed to align several common system performance parameters and assumptions to better allow for cross-study comparisons, with the goal of clarifying central tendency and reducing variability in estimates of life cycle GHG emissions. This presentation summarizes preliminary results.

  15. GHG emission factors developed for the collection, transport and landfilling of municipal waste in South African municipalities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedrich, Elena; Trois, Cristina

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ? An average GHG emission factor for the collection and transport of municipal solid waste in South Africa is calculated. ? A range of GHG emission factors for different types of landfills (including dumps) in South Africa are calculated. ? These factors are compared internationally and their implications for South Africa and developing countries are discussed . ? Areas for new research are highlighted. - Abstract: Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission factors are used with increased frequency for the accounting and reporting of GHG from waste management. However, these factors have been calculated for developed countries of the Northern Hemisphere and are lacking for developing countries. This paper shows how such factors have been developed for the collection, transport and landfilling of municipal waste in South Africa. As such it presents a model on how international results and methodology can be adapted and used to calculate country-specific GHG emission factors from waste. For the collection and transport of municipal waste in South Africa, the average diesel consumption is around 5 dm{sup 3} (litres) per tonne of wet waste and the associated GHG emissions are about 15 kg CO{sub 2} equivalents (CO{sub 2} e). Depending on the type of landfill, the GHG emissions from the landfilling of waste have been calculated to range from ?145 to 1016 kg CO{sub 2} e per tonne of wet waste, when taking into account carbon storage, and from 441 to 2532 kg CO{sub 2} e per tonne of wet waste, when carbon storage is left out. The highest emission factor per unit of wet waste is for landfill sites without landfill gas collection and these are the dominant waste disposal facilities in South Africa. However, cash strapped municipalities in Africa and the developing world will not be able to significantly upgrade these sites and reduce their GHG burdens if there is no equivalent replacement of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) resulting from the Kyoto agreement. Other low cost avenues need to be investigated to suit local conditions, in particular landfill covers which enhance methane oxidation.

  16. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Climate Action Partnership Contribution of Food GHG Emissions Reduction: Moving

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    target: Ensure that 90% of UBC's food system waste can be composted or recycled by 2015. We reviewed Waste Management, UBC Food Services and the AMS Food and Beverage Partnership Contribution of Food GHG Emissions Reduction: Moving UBC Beyond Climate Neutral Jennifer Baum

  17. Reducing Emissions Through Sustainable Transport: Proposal for...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Reducing Emissions Through Sustainable Transport: Proposal for a Sectoral Approach Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Reducing Emissions Through Sustainable...

  18. Life-cycle energy and GHG emissions of forest biomass harvest and transport for biofuel production in Michigan

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Fengli; Johnson, Dana M.; Wang, Jinjiang

    2015-04-01

    High dependence on imported oil has increased U.S. strategic vulnerability and prompted more research in the area of renewable energy production. Ethanol production from renewable woody biomass, which could be a substitute for gasoline, has seen increased interest. This study analysed energy use and greenhouse gas emission impacts on the forest biomass supply chain activities within the State of Michigan. A life-cycle assessment of harvesting and transportation stages was completed utilizing peer-reviewed literature. Results for forest-delivered ethanol were compared with those for petroleum gasoline using data specific to the U.S. The analysis from a woody biomass feedstock supply perspective uncoveredmore »that ethanol production is more environmentally friendly (about 62% less greenhouse gas emissions) compared with petroleum based fossil fuel production. Sensitivity analysis was conducted with key inputs associated with harvesting and transportation operations. The results showed that research focused on improving biomass recovery efficiency and truck fuel economy further reduced GHG emissions and energy consumption.« less

  19. Life-cycle energy and GHG emissions of forest biomass harvest and transport for biofuel production in Michigan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Fengli; Johnson, Dana M.; Wang, Jinjiang

    2015-04-01

    High dependence on imported oil has increased U.S. strategic vulnerability and prompted more research in the area of renewable energy production. Ethanol production from renewable woody biomass, which could be a substitute for gasoline, has seen increased interest. This study analysed energy use and greenhouse gas emission impacts on the forest biomass supply chain activities within the State of Michigan. A life-cycle assessment of harvesting and transportation stages was completed utilizing peer-reviewed literature. Results for forest-delivered ethanol were compared with those for petroleum gasoline using data specific to the U.S. The analysis from a woody biomass feedstock supply perspective uncovered that ethanol production is more environmentally friendly (about 62% less greenhouse gas emissions) compared with petroleum based fossil fuel production. Sensitivity analysis was conducted with key inputs associated with harvesting and transportation operations. The results showed that research focused on improving biomass recovery efficiency and truck fuel economy further reduced GHG emissions and energy consumption.

  20. CEQ Issues Revised Draft NEPA Guidance on GHG Emissions and Climate Change

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment|Marketing, LLCEfficiency |CBA.PDF� MoreJune 28,Emissions and the|

  1. GBTL Workshop GHG Emissions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,Executive Compensation References: FAR 31.205-6Applicationsnatural gas as

  2. Implications of changing natural gas prices in the United States electricity sector for SO and life cycle GHG emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaramillo, Paulina

    Implications of changing natural gas prices in the United States electricity sector for SO 2 , NO X of changing natural gas prices in the United States electricity sector for SO2, NOX and life cycle GHG to projections of low natural gas prices and increased supply. The trend of increasing natural gas use

  3. Operational energy consumption and GHG emissions in residential sector in urban China : an empirical study in Jinan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jiyang, M.C.P. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2010-01-01

    Driven by rapid urbanization and increasing household incomes, residential energy consumption in urban China has been growing steadily in the past decade, posing critical energy and greenhouse gas emission challenges. ...

  4. LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) of Parabolic Trough CSP: Materials Inventory and Embodied GHG Emissions from Two-Tank Indirect and Thermocline Thermal Storage (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, G.; Burkhardt, J.; Turchi, C.; Decker, T.; Kutscher, C.

    2009-07-20

    In the United States, concentrating solar power (CSP) is one of the most promising renewable energy (RE) technologies for reduction of electric sector greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and for rapid capacity expansion. It is also one of the most price-competitive RE technologies, thanks in large measure to decades of field experience and consistent improvements in design. One of the key design features that makes CSP more attractive than many other RE technologies, like solar photovoltaics and wind, is the potential for including relatively low-cost and efficient thermal energy storage (TES), which can smooth the daily fluctuation of electricity production and extend its duration into the evening peak hours or longer. Because operational environmental burdens are typically small for RE technologies, life cycle assessment (LCA) is recognized as the most appropriate analytical approach for determining their environmental impacts of these technologies, including CSP. An LCA accounts for impacts from all stages in the development, operation, and decommissioning of a CSP plant, including such upstream stages as the extraction of raw materials used in system components, manufacturing of those components, and construction of the plant. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is undertaking an LCA of modern CSP plants, starting with those of parabolic trough design.

  5. GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG) INVENTORY REPORT 20102011 Dalhousie Office of Sustainability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brownstone, Rob

    ..................................... 30 Appendix E: Canadian Default Factors for Calculating CO2 Emissions from Combustion of Natural Gas GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG) INVENTORY REPORT 20102011 Dalhousie Office of Sustainability ......................................................... 34 Appendix K: Fleet Vehicles on Campus .............

  6. Should We Consider the CoBenefits of Agricultural GHG Levan Elbakidze, Bruce A. McCarl

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    agricultural management strategies are utilized to offset or reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions discussed case where a coal fired electrical powerplant, which is allocated fewer emission permits than

  7. The Economic, Energy, and GHG Emissions Impacts of Proposed 2017–2025 Vehicle Fuel Economy Standards in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karplus, Valerie

    2012-07-31

    Increases in the U.S. Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards for 2017 to 2025 model year light-duty vehicles are currently under consideration. This analysis uses an economy-wide model with detail in the passenger ...

  8. U.S. Greenhouse Gas Cap-and-Trade Proposals: Application of a Forward-Looking Computable General Equilibrium Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gurgel, Angelo C.

    We develop a forward-looking version of the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, and apply it to examine the economic implications of proposals in the U.S. Congress to limit greenhouse gas (GHG) ...

  9. Climate Change Proposed Scoping Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Climate Change Proposed Scoping Plan a amework for change Prepared by the California Air Resources #12;CLIMATE CHANGE SCOPING PLAN State of California Air Resources Board Resolution 08-47 December 11 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that cause global warming; WHEREAS, the adverse impacts of climate change

  10. What GHG Concentration Targets are Reachable in this Century?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paltsev, Sergey

    2013-07-26

    We offer simulations that help to understand the relationship between GHG emissions and concentrations, and the relative role of long-lived (e.g., CO2) and short-lived (e.g., CH4) emissions. We show that, absent technologies ...

  11. Decision-Making to Reduce Manufacturing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reich-Weiser, Corinne

    2010-01-01

    installed to replace hydro power, in terms of GHG emissions.coal-fired power plant or a hydro-power facility. 4. The GHG

  12. DRAFT VERSION September 6, 2009 1 1990 GHG Baseline for Building Energy Use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Escher, Christine

    DRAFT VERSION ­ September 6, 2009 1 1990 GHG Baseline for Building Energy Use in the Oregon of 1990 building energy use and the associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for Oregon University System's stated intent. Specifically, there is a focus on building energy use, the single largest source of direct

  13. LowCostGHG ReductionCARB 3/03 Low-Cost and Near-Term Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Paul N.

    manufacturers to focus on high fuel-economy cars. And Toyota Prius and Honda Civic Hybrid are wonderful, or oil resources. Nor would the anticipated 40 mpg Ford Escape hybrid in the "small SUV" class Cycle (UDC) for representative cars and light trucks.1 The horizontal axis shows measured emissions

  14. Abating Greenhouse Gas Emissions through Cash-for-Clunker Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Alexander; Carpenter, Rachel; Morrison, Geoff

    2009-01-01

    by multiplying the passenger car emissions estimate by the36 MPG new car to achieve the same GHG emissions reduction.U.S. (CARS) Stimulate auto industry and reduce GHG emissions

  15. Summary of Fast Pyrolysis and Upgrading GHG Analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Male, Jonathan L.

    2012-12-07

    The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 established new renewable fuel categories and eligibility requirements (EPA 2010). A significant aspect of the National Renewable Fuel Standard 2 (RFS2) program is the requirement that the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of a qualifying renewable fuel be less than the life cycle GHG emissions of the 2005 baseline average gasoline or diesel fuel that it replaces. Four levels of reduction are required for the four renewable fuel standards. Table 1 lists these life cycle performance improvement thresholds. Table 1. Life Cycle GHG Thresholds Specified in EISA Fuel Type Percent Reduction from 2005 Baseline Renewable fuel 20% Advanced biofuel 50% Biomass-based diesel 50% Cellulosic biofuel 60% Notably, there is a specialized subset of advanced biofuels that are the cellulosic biofuels. The cellulosic biofuels are incentivized by the Cellulosic Biofuel Producer Tax Credit (26 USC 40) to stimulate market adoption of these fuels. EISA defines a cellulosic biofuel as follows (42 USC 7545(o)(1)(E)): The term “cellulosic biofuel” means renewable fuel derived from any cellulose, hemicellulose, or lignin that is derived from renewable biomass and that has lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions, as determined by the Administrator, that are at least 60 percent less than the baseline lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions. As indicated, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has sole responsibility for conducting the life cycle analysis (LCA) and making the final determination of whether a given fuel qualifies under these biofuel definitions. However, there appears to be a need within the LCA community to discuss and eventually reach consensus on discerning a 50–59 % GHG reduction from a ? 60% GHG reduction for policy, market, and technology development. The level of specificity and agreement will require additional development of capabilities and time for the sustainability and analysis community, as illustrated by the rich dialogue and convergence around the energy content and GHG reduction of cellulosic ethanol (an example of these discussions can be found in Wang 2011). GHG analyses of fast pyrolysis technology routes are being developed and will require significant work to reach the levels of development and maturity of cellulosic ethanol models. This summary provides some of the first fast pyrolysis analyses and clarifies some of the reasons for differing results in an effort to begin the convergence on assumptions, discussion of quality of models, and harmonization.

  16. Buildings GHG Mitigation Estimator Worksheet, Version 1

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Xcel document describes Version 1 of the the Buildings GHG Mitigation Estimator tool. This tool assists federal agencies in estimating the greenhouse gas mitigation reduction from implementing energy efficiency measures across a portfolio of buildings. It is designed to be applied to groups of office buildings, for example, at a program level (regional or site) that can be summarized at the agency level. While the default savings and cost estimates apply to office buildings, users can define their own efficiency measures, costs, and savings estimates for inclusion in the portfolio assessment. More information on user-defined measures can be found in Step 2 of the buildings emission reduction guidance. The output of this tool is a prioritized set of activities that can help the agency to achieve its greenhouse gas reduction targets most cost-effectively.

  17. International Experience with Key Program Elements of Industrial Energy Efficiency or Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Target-Setting Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Kramer, Klaas Jan

    2008-01-01

    Berkeley National Laboratory’s Energy Analysis Program forare often national-level energy or GHG programs that combinea national-level energy or GHG emissions mitigation program

  18. Evaluation of Efficiency Activities in the Industrial Sector Undertaken in Response to Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    management program following national energy managementwith national-level energy or GHG tax programs, LBNLnational level energy efficiency and GHG emissions reduction programs.

  19. IGES GHG Emissions Data | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EA JumpDuimen RiverScoringUtilities CommEnergy, Work

  20. GHG Management Institute GHG MRV Curriculum | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable Urban TransportFortistarFuelCellsEtcSilicon Co LtdGEOGHD Inc Jump to:GHG

  1. Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O’Sullivan, Francis Martin

    Estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use are controversial. Here we assess the level of GHG emissions from shale gas well hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States during ...

  2. Impact of Canada’s Voluntary Agreement on Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Light Duty Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.

    2006-01-01

    Restrictions of Car Emissions. ” http://www.metronews.ca/passenger cars and 95% for light trucks from Tier 1 emissionPassenger Cars - With low-GHG MAC Credit GHG Emission Rate (

  3. Impact of Canada's Voluntary Agreement on Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Light Duty Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.

    2006-01-01

    Restrictions of Car Emissions. ” http://www.metronews.ca/passenger cars and 95% for light trucks from Tier 1 emissionPassenger Cars - With low-GHG MAC Credit GHG Emission Rate (

  4. EPA-GHG Inventory Targeted Data Collection Strategies and Software...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EPA-GHG Inventory Targeted Data Collection Strategies and Software Tools (Redirected from US EPA GHG Inventory Targeted Data Collection Strategies and Software Tools) Jump to:...

  5. Sharing the Burden of GHG Reductions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacoby, Henry D.

    The G8 countries propose a goal of a 50% reduction in global emissions by 2050, in an effort that needs to take account of other agreements specifying that developing countries are to be provided with incentives to action ...

  6. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation and Marine Transportation: Mitigation Potential and Policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L; Gould, Gregory; Greene, David L

    2010-01-01

    Extending the EU Emissions Trading Scheme to Aviation.Air Transport Emissions Trading Scheme Workshop, UKaviation in its GHG emission trading system (i.e. , by

  7. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Monitoring Plan - 40 CFR 98

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deborah L. Layton; Kimberly Frerichs

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Monitoring Plan is to meet the monitoring plan requirements of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 98.3(g)(5). This GHG Monitoring Plan identifies procedures and methodologies used at the Idaho National Laboratory Site (INL Site) to collect data used for GHG emissions calculations and reporting requirements from stationary combustion and other regulated sources in accordance with 40 CFR 98, Subparts A and other applicable subparts. INL Site Contractors determined subpart applicability through the use of a checklist (Appendix A). Each facility/contractor reviews operations to determine which subparts are applicable and the results are compiled to determine which subparts are applicable to the INL Site. This plan is applicable to the 40 CFR 98-regulated activities managed by the INL Site contractors: Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Cleanup Project (ICP), Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP), and Naval Reactors Facilities (NRF).

  8. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Monitoring Plan - 40 CFR 98

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deborah L. Layton; Kimberly Frerichs

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Monitoring Plan is to meet the monitoring plan requirements of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 98.3(g)(5). This GHG Monitoring Plan identifies procedures and methodologies used at the Idaho National Laboratory Site (INL Site) to collect data used for GHG emissions calculations and reporting requirements from stationary combustion and other regulated sources in accordance with 40 CFR 98, Subparts A and other applicable subparts. INL Site Contractors determined subpart applicability through the use of a checklist (Appendix A). Each facility/contractor reviews operations to determine which subparts are applicable and the results are compiled to determine which subparts are applicable to the INL Site. This plan is applicable to the 40 CFR 98-regulated activities managed by the INL Site contractors: Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Cleanup Project (ICP), Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP), and Naval Reactors Facilities (NRF).

  9. Evaluation of Efficiency Activities in the Industrial Sector Undertaken in Response to Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    DEFRA), 2005a. UK Emissions Trading Scheme. London: DEFRA.Energy/GHG Tax Emissions trading Target Setting Penaltiesthe European Union Emissions Trading Scheme and a lack of

  10. Closing the Gap: Using the Clean Air Act to Control Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Energy Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hagan, Colin R.

    2012-01-01

    out that EPA used an emissions trading program to controlsuggested that an emissions trading system could qualify asTO MANAGE LIFECYCLE GHG emissions trading system would also

  11. 2011 Guidelines to Defra / DECC's GHG Conversion Factors for Company Reporting Produced by AEA for the Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    % conventional petrol and diesel (i.e. refined from crude oil). iii. The lifecycle emissions factors Scope 1 or Scope 3 as defined by the GHG Protocol (e.g. depends on ownership of vehicle stock

  12. Reducing Greenhouse Emissions and Fuel Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaheen, Susan; Lipman, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    Laboratory . Other full fuel cycle GHG emission models, such440 grams per mile on a full fuel cycle (or "well-to-wheel")

  13. Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Climate Stabilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, David D.

    Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Climate Stabilization: Framing Regional Options L A U R A S C reduction of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by as much as 80% by 2050. Subnational efforts to cut The call to cut global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by up to 80% below 2000 levels, which researchers

  14. Recent increases in global HFC-23 emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions and sinks: 1990-2007, Rep.A. Lindley (2007), Global emissions of HFC-23 estimated to2009), Greenhouse Gas Emissions Data, http://unfccc.int/ghg_

  15. Achieving California’s Land Use and Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emission Targets Under AB 32: An Exploration of Potential Policy Processes and Mechanisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaheen, Susan A.; Bejamin-Chung, Jade; Allen, Denise; Howe-Steiger, Linda

    2009-01-01

    1999?for fuel economy, CO2 emissions, car dealerships Tax onfor passenger cars and induce GHG emission reductions. Taxesregulates CO2 emissions from passenger cars; the policy

  16. Optimal Design and Allocation of Electrified Vehicles and Dedicated Charging Infrastructure for Minimum Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michalek, Jeremy J.

    for Minimum Greenhouse Gas Emissions Submitted for Presentation at the 2011 Annual Meeting to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from personal transportation by shifting energy demand from

  17. Forecasting and Capturing Emission Reductions Using Industrial Energy Management and Reporting Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robinson, J.

    2010-01-01

    The Mandatory 2010 Green House Gas (GHG) Reporting Regulations and pending climate change legislation has increased interest in Energy Management and Reporting Systems (EMRS) as a means of both reducing and reporting GHG emissions. This paper...

  18. GHG Management Institute curriculum | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OFAMERICA'SHeavy ElectricalsFTL Solar JumpNetworkingGAOH OffshoreGHESolar JumpGHG

  19. Multi-criteria comparison of fuel policies: Renewable fuel mandate, fuel emission-standards, and fuel carbon tax

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Deepak; Hochman, G.; Zilberman, D.

    2012-01-01

    is only one type of fossil fuel and one alternative fuel andGHG emissions and reducing fossil fuel use, and ?nd biofuelin GHG intensity of both fossil fuels and renewable fuels,

  20. Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Inventory City College of New York (CCNY)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Yi

    Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Inventory Program City College of New York (CCNY) New York, New York September 2008 #12;13749/42550 Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Inventory Program Prepared for: City College of New York Township Line Road 2 Valley Square, Suite 120 Blue Bell, Pennsylvania 19422 #12;City College of New York

  1. Emissions trading to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the United States : the McCain-Lieberman Proposal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paltsev, Sergey.

    The Climate Stewardship Act of 2003 (S. 139) is the most detailed effort to date to design an economy-wide cap-and-trade system for US greenhouse gas emissions reductions. The Act caps sectors at their 2000 emissions in ...

  2. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Stationary...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    from purchased electricity, transport or mobile sources, refrigeration and air conditioning equipment, and several industrial sectors. References 1.0 1.1 "Stationary...

  3. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Purchased...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    from stationary combustion, transport or mobile sources, refrigeration and air conditioning equipment, and several industrial sectors. References 1.0 1.1 "Electricity...

  4. POLICYBRIEF Can Deep Cuts in GHG Emissions from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    using gasoline and some buses and delivery trucks using natural gas. Trucking companies currently buy by conventional and hybrid diesel trucks (and to gasoline for trucks using that fuel). The advantage

  5. EPA Climate Leaders Simplified GHG Emissions Calculator (SGEC) | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EA Jump to:of the NationalDynetek Europe GmbHEDENERGYEOL EnergyEnergy

  6. Methodology for Estimating Reductions of GHG Emissions from Mosaic

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc Jump to: navigation,Mereg GmbH Jump to: navigation, searchMetalco SpA

  7. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Purchased

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc JumpHeterInformation Policy andInstitute Jump to:

  8. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Refrigeration

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc JumpHeterInformation Policy andInstitute Jump to:and Air Conditioning |

  9. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Stationary

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJ AutomationTexas/Wind Resources <forGerman WindCombustion | Open

  10. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Transport or

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJ AutomationTexas/Wind Resources <forGerman WindCombustion |

  11. Attachment C - Summary GHG Emissions Data FINAL | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l De p u tCorporationIt'sDOE Phased Retirement

  12. Attachment C Summary GHG Emissions Data FINAL | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l De p u tCorporationIt'sDOE Phased

  13. Proposed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeedingProgramExemptions |(Conference)ProjectProposed Settlement for Hanford

  14. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Solar Photovoltaics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-11-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Harmonization Project, a study that helps to clarify inconsistent and conflicting life cycle GHG emission estimates in the published literature and provide more precise estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from PV systems.

  15. Catalyst Paper No-Carb Strategy for GHG Reduction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McClain, C.; Robinson, J.

    2008-01-01

    The Catalyst Paper strategy to manage GHG exposure is a combination of energy reduction initiatives in manufacturing and the effective use of biomass and alternative fuels to produce mill steam and electricity from the powerhouse. The energy...

  16. Challenges and opportunities in accounting for non-energy use CO2 emissions: an editorial comment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masanet, Eric; Sathaye, Jayant

    2009-01-01

    recovery from waste ?ows of polymers and tires might lead to net GHG emissions reductions by offsetting fuels such as coal,

  17. A Comparative Evaluation of Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Strategies for the Maritime Shipping and Aviation Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, Mark; Smirti, Megan; Zou, Bo

    2008-01-01

    Vehicle Activity Network Efficiency GHG Emissions Operational Efficiency Alternative EnergyAlternative energy includes the substitution of fuels other than fossil fuels for vehicle

  18. Evaluation of Efficiency Activities in the Industrial Sector Undertaken in Response to Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Avoided Energy/GHG Tax Emissions trading Target Settingexits • Calculating trading group targets • Measuring energyemissions trading scheme, and a “light touch” on energy

  19. Greenhouse gas emissions in biogas production systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dittert, Klaus; Senbayram, Mehmet; Wienforth, Babette; Kage, Henning; Muehling, Karl H

    2009-01-01

    fuel consumption and of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions fromand N 2 O are the major greenhouse gases produced in soils,O is the most important greenhouse gas that is emitted from

  20. Reducing Greenhouse Emissions and Fuel Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaheen, Susan; Lipman, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    Compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles offer similar emissionsimilar GHG emission levels as CNG vehicles and diesel vehi­BRT buses . The 40-foot CNG buses used in a BRT system

  1. Regulation of GHG emissions from transportation fuels: Emission quota versus emission intensity standard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Deepak

    2010-01-01

    For instance, gasoline from oil sands (which is more carbonfuels. Since both oil sands and cellulosic biofuels are

  2. Regulation of GHG emissions from transportation fuels: Emission quota versus emission intensity standard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Deepak

    2010-01-01

    mandated envision that blending gasoline (or diesel) withemission intensity as blending gasoline from crude oil with

  3. Regulation of GHG emissions from transportation fuels: Emission quota versus emission intensity standard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Deepak

    2010-01-01

    ethanol in gCO2e/liter Price of coal energy 0.0020 ($/MJ)model estimate 8. Price of coal energy: average deliveredI II III IV V Price of ethanol ($/liter) Coal-based ethanol

  4. GHG Inventory Update Summary December 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vonessen, Nikolaus

    : Emissions from all on-campus fuel combustion (co-gen facility, heating oil, propane) Direct Transportation inventories. The first several charts illustrate campus consumption of electricity, gas/diesel, propane, and the Flathead Lake biological station, use propane for the heating of their buildings. This is a possible reason

  5. Fact #589: September 21, 2009 Proposed Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On September 15, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Department of Transportation's National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) jointly announced a proposal to...

  6. Using Section 111 of the Clean Air Act for Cap-and-Trade of Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Obstacles and Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enion, Rhead M.

    2012-01-01

    focused nitro- gen oxide emissions-trading program for largeNSPS program could use emissions trading, including cap-and-regulations that allow emissions trading, to achieve GHG

  7. Development and Update of Models for Long-Term Energy and GHG...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Update of Models for Long-Term Energy and GHG Impact Evaluation Development and Update of Models for Long-Term Energy and GHG Impact Evaluation 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

  8. EIA: High Oil Prices, GHG Controls Would Help Clean Energy Grow...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EIA: High Oil Prices, GHG Controls Would Help Clean Energy Grow EIA: High Oil Prices, GHG Controls Would Help Clean Energy Grow April 1, 2009 - 11:35am Addthis The growth of...

  9. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Concentrating Solar Power (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-11-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Harmonization Project, a study that makes great strides in clarifying inconsistent and conflicting GHG emission estimates in the published literature while providing more precise estimates of GHG emissions from utility-scale CSP systems.

  10. Assessing the fuel Use and greenhouse gas emissions of future light-duty vehicles in Japan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nishimura, Eriko

    2011-01-01

    Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is of great concern in Japan, as well as elsewhere, such as in the U.S. and EU. More than 20% of GHG emissions in Japan come from the transportation sector, and a more than 70% ...

  11. Hydrogen Pathways: Cost, Well-to-Wheels Energy Use, and Emissions for the Current Technology Status of Seven Hydrogen Production, Delivery, and Distribution Scenarios

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    Report of levelized cost in 2005 U.S. dollars, energy use, and GHG emission benefits of seven hydrogen production, delivery, and distribution pathways.

  12. Hydrogen Pathways: Cost, Well-to-Wheels Energy Use, and Emissions for the Current Technology Status of Seven Hydrogen Production, Delivery, and Distribution Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruth, M.; Laffen, M.; Timbario, T. A.

    2009-09-01

    Report of levelized cost in 2005 U.S. dollars, energy use, and GHG emission benefits of seven hydrogen production, delivery, and distribution pathways.

  13. Hydrogen Pathways. Cost, Well-to-Wheels Energy Use, and Emissions for the Current Technology Status of Seven Hydrogen Production, Delivery, and Distribution Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruth, Mark; Laffen, Melissa; Timbario, Thomas A.

    2009-09-01

    Report of levelized cost in 2005 U.S. dollars, energy use, and GHG emission benefits of seven hydrogen production, delivery, and distribution pathways.

  14. Tillage and Field Scale Controls on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Juhwan Lee,* Johan Six, Amy P. King, Chris van Kessel, and Dennis E. Rolston

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Kessel, Chris

    -scale controls on GHG emissions. AGRICULTURE is an important anthropogenic source of atmospheric CO2, N2O, and CH by CO2 emissions from agriculture is currently considered minor compared to other anthropogenic sources and N were less important in controlling GHG emissions across tillage systems. The CO2 flux was more

  15. Waste-to-energy sector and the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fotis, S.C. [Van Ness Feldman, Washington, DC (United States); Sussman, D. [Poubelle Associates, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The waste-to-energy sector provides one important avenue for the United States to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the significant GHG reductions capable of being achieved by the waste-to-energy (WTE) sector through avoided fossil generation and reduced municipal landfills. The paper begins with a review of the current voluntary reporting mechanism for {open_quotes}registering{close_quotes} GHG reduction credits under section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. The paper then provides an overview of possible emerging international and domestic trends that could ultimately lead to mandatory targets and timetables for GHG mitigation in the United States and other countries. The paper ends with an analysis of the GHG benefits achievable by the WTE sector, based on the section 1605(b) report filed by the Integrated Waste Services Association IWSA on the GHG emissions avoided for year 1995.

  16. Impact of Component Sizing in Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles for Energy Resource and Greenhouse Emissions Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malikopoulos, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Widespread use of alternative hybrid powertrains currently appears inevitable and many opportunities for substantial progress remain. The necessity for environmentally friendly vehicles, in conjunction with increasing concerns regarding U.S. dependency on foreign oil and climate change, has led to significant investment in enhancing the propulsion portfolio with new technologies. Recently, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have attracted considerable attention due to their potential to reduce petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the transportation sector. PHEVs are especially appealing for short daily commutes with excessive stop-and-go driving. However, the high costs associated with their components, and in particular, with their energy storage systems have been significant barriers to extensive market penetration of PEVs. In the research reported here, we investigated the implications of motor/generator and battery size on fuel economy and GHG emissions in a medium duty PHEV. An optimization framework is proposed and applied to two different parallel powertrain configurations, pre-transmission and post-transmission, to derive the Pareto frontier with respect to motor/generator and battery size. The optimization and modeling approach adopted here facilitates better understanding of the potential benefits from proper selection of motor/generator and battery size on fuel economy and GHG emissions. This understanding can help us identify the appropriate sizing of these components and thus reducing the PHEV cost. Addressing optimal sizing of PHEV components could aim at an extensive market penetration of PHEVs.

  17. Emissions Minimization Vehicle Routing Problem Miguel Figliozzi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    costs will have a clear economic value, e.g CO2 emissions in $/kg. This research aims to formulate it is likely that GHG emissions will have a monetary cost. Under cap and trade emissions system initiatives is the primary objective or is part of a generalized cost function. In addition, departure times and travel

  18. Simulation of the Impact of the SO2 Emissions from the Proposed Sithe Power Plant on the Grand Canyon and other Class I Areas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, Emily V.

    . Rodriguez Abstract A 1500 MW coal-fired power plant is proposed to be built by Sithe Energies IncSimulation of the Impact of the SO2 Emissions from the Proposed Sithe Power Plant on the Grand. in the Four Corners basin near the existing Four Corners and San Juan power plants. Four Corners is located

  19. An Analysis of Measures to Reduce the Life-Cycle Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of California's Personal Computers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horvath, A; Masanet, Eric

    2007-01-01

    +C+D+E A+B+C+D+E+F Primary Energy Use (PJ/yr) Direct Total %were converted to primary energy use and GHG emissions inFPD UEC (kWh/yr) Primary Energy Use (MJ/yr) GHG Emissions (

  20. Projections of Full-Fuel-Cycle Energy and Emissions Metrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coughlin, Katie

    2013-01-01

    Oil Production and Oil Sands. ” Environ. Sci. Technol. 44 (and B. L. Fortin. 2009. “Oil Sands Development ContributesGHG) Emissions from Canadian Oil Sands as a Feedstock for

  1. Biochar amendment and greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Case, Sean Daniel Charles

    2013-11-28

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of biochar amendment on soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and to elucidate the mechanisms behind these effects. I investigated the suppression of soil carbon dioxide ...

  2. 2008 Guidelines to Defra's GHG Conversion Factors Guidelines to Defra's GHG Conversion Factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2457 x 2457 kWh x 0.347 x 0.330 Domestic Coal 3 tonnes x 2523 x 2523 kWh x 0.313 x 0.298 Wood Pellets 4 stations or for industrial purposes have different emission factors. Wood pellets are used in domestic

  3. Emissions from US waste collection vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maimoun, Mousa A.; Reinhart, Debra R.; Gammoh, Fatina T.; McCauley Bush, Pamela

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ? Life-cycle emissions for alternative fuel technologies. ? Fuel consumption of alternative fuels for waste collection vehicles. ? Actual driving cycle of waste collection vehicles. ? Diesel-fueled waste collection vehicle emissions. - Abstract: This research is an in-depth environmental analysis of potential alternative fuel technologies for waste collection vehicles. Life-cycle emissions, cost, fuel and energy consumption were evaluated for a wide range of fossil and bio-fuel technologies. Emission factors were calculated for a typical waste collection driving cycle as well as constant speed. In brief, natural gas waste collection vehicles (compressed and liquid) fueled with North-American natural gas had 6–10% higher well-to-wheel (WTW) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to diesel-fueled vehicles; however the pump-to-wheel (PTW) GHG emissions of natural gas waste collection vehicles averaged 6% less than diesel-fueled vehicles. Landfill gas had about 80% lower WTW GHG emissions relative to diesel. Biodiesel waste collection vehicles had between 12% and 75% lower WTW GHG emissions relative to diesel depending on the fuel source and the blend. In 2011, natural gas waste collection vehicles had the lowest fuel cost per collection vehicle kilometer travel. Finally, the actual driving cycle of waste collection vehicles consists of repetitive stops and starts during waste collection; this generates more emissions than constant speed driving.

  4. IGES GHG Calculator For Solid Waste | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: Energy Resources JumpNewTexas:HydrothermallyIFB Agro Industries Ltd Jump to:IGES GHG

  5. ECN GHG Marginal Abatement Cost curves (NAMAC) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EA Jump to:of the NationalDynetek Europe GmbH JumpE+CoTheECN GHG

  6. Emission

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansas NuclearElectronic StructureEly M.Emilio Segrè About the LabEmission

  7. INTEGRATING AGRICULTURAL AND FORESTRY GHG MITIGATION RESPONSE INTO GENEARL ECONOMY FRAMEWORKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    INTEGRATING AGRICULTURAL AND FORESTRY GHG MITIGATION RESPONSE INTO GENEARL ECONOMY FRAMEWORKS GHG MITIGATION RESPONSE INTO GENEARL ECONOMY FRAMEWORKS: DEVELOPING A FAMILY OF RESPONSE FUNCTIONS 1 of economy-wide analysis of greenhouse gas mitigation options can be found in a special issue of the Energy

  8. Market-Based Emissions Regulation and Industry Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fowlie, Meredith

    . The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of NSF grant SES-0922401. 1 #12;Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) in the European Union and California's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading program. In these "cap is that, provided a series of conditions are met, an emissions trading program designed to equate marginal

  9. Market-Based Emissions Regulation and Industry Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fowlie, Meredith

    . Examples include the Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) in the European Union and California's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading program. In these "cap-and-trade" (CAT) programs, regulators impose a cap- sions is that, provided a series of conditions are met, an emissions trading program designed to equate

  10. C.D. Howe Institute Taxing Emissions, Not Income

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C.D. Howe Institute COMMENTARY Taxing Emissions, Not Income: How to Moderate the Regional Impact... If policymakers wish to reduce Canadian greenhouse gas emissions, they can do so using a suite of policy tools dioxide and other GHG emissions. However, policymakers have yet to take such action because of concerns

  11. CALIFORNIA CLIMATE POLICY MODELING (CCPM) DIALOG Greenhouse Gas Emissions Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    H2 CALIFORNIA CLIMATE POLICY MODELING (CCPM) DIALOG Greenhouse Gas Emissions Modeling ­ California goals of criteria pollutant and GHG emission reduction. · Modelers need to work with policy makers more to policy-makers and stakeholders. 5 #12;Greenhouse Gas Emissions Modeling ­ California 2030 #12;

  12. Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in China: Growth, Transition, and Institutional Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahrl, Fredrich James

    2011-01-01

    global atmosphere, on a per capita basis energy consumptionenergy consumption and GHG emissions in China has taken on a new, globalglobal impacts. On a per capita basis, residential energy consumption

  13. A Strategy for a Global Observing System for Verification of National Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prinn, Ronald G.

    With the risks of climate change becoming increasingly evident, there is growing discussion regarding international treaties and national regulations to lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Enforcement of such agreements ...

  14. Uncertainties in Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Advanced Biomass Feedstock Logistics Supply Chains in Kansas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cafferty, Kara G.; Searcy, Erin M.; Nguyen, Long; Spatari, Sabrina

    2014-11-01

    To meet Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) cellulosic biofuel mandates, the United States will require an annual domestic supply of about 242 million Mg of biomass by 2022. To improve the feedstock logistics of lignocellulosic biofuels and access available biomass resources from areas with varying yields, commodity systems have been proposed and designed to deliver on-spec biomass feedstocks at preprocessing “depots”, which densify and stabilize the biomass prior to long-distance transport and delivery to centralized biorefineries. The harvesting, preprocessing, and logistics (HPL) of biomass commodity supply chains thus could introduce spatially variable environmental impacts into the biofuel life cycle due to needing to harvest, move, and preprocess biomass from multiple distances that have variable spatial density. This study examines the uncertainty in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of corn stover logisticsHPL within a bio-ethanol supply chain in the state of Kansas, where sustainable biomass supply varies spatially. Two scenarios were evaluated each having a different number of depots of varying capacity and location within Kansas relative to a central commodity-receiving biorefinery to test GHG emissions uncertainty. Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate the spatial uncertainty in the HPL gate-to-gate sequence. The results show that the transport of densified biomass introduces the highest variability and contribution to the carbon footprint of the logistics HPL supply chain (0.2-13 g CO2e/MJ). Moreover, depending upon the biomass availability and its spatial density and surrounding transportation infrastructure (road and rail), logistics HPL processes can increase the variability in life cycle environmental impacts for lignocellulosic biofuels. Within Kansas, life cycle GHG emissions could range from 24 to 41 g CO2e/MJ depending upon the location, size and number of preprocessing depots constructed. However, this range can be minimized through optimizing the siting of preprocessing depots where ample rail infrastructure exists to supply biomass commodity to a regional biorefinery supply system

  15. What are the likely roles of fossil fuels in the next 15, 50, and 100 years, with or without active controls on greenhouse gas emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kane, R.L. (USDOE Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy, Washington, DC (USA)); South, D.W. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Since the industrial revolution, the production and utilization of fossil fuels have been an engine driving economic and industrial development in many countries worldwide. However, future reliance on fossil fuels has been questioned due to emerging concerns about greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, particularly carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and its potential contribution to global climate change (GCC). While substantial uncertainties exist regarding the ability to accurately predict climate change and the role of various greenhouse gases, some scientists and policymakers have called for immediate action. As a result, there have been many proposals and worldwide initiatives to address the perceived problem. In many of these proposals, the premise is that CO{sub 2} emissions constitute the principal problem, and, correspondingly, that fossil-fuel combustion must be curtailed to resolve this problem. This paper demonstrates that the worldwide fossil fuel resource base and infrastructure are extensive and thus, will continue to be relied on in developed and developing countries. Furthermore, in the electric generating sector (the focus of this paper), numerous clean coal technologies (CCTs) are currently being demonstrated (or are under development) that have higher conversion efficiencies, and thus lower CO{sub 2} emission rates than conventional coal-based technologies. As these technologies are deployed in new power plant or repowering applications to meet electrical load growth, CO{sub 2} (and other GHG) emission levels per unit of electricity generated will be lower than that produced by conventional fossil-fuel technologies. 37 refs., 14 figs., 11 tabs.

  16. Insights from Agricultural GHG Offset studies that might

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    (agriculture only) Pacific Northwest - West Side Pacific Northwest - East Side South Central Southern Plains Livestock Herd Size Emission X X Livestock System Change Emission X X Manure Management Emission X X Rice supply and demand Regression ­ Pesticide usage, Non Ag water use Extreme event effects Adaptation obs

  17. USDA/CSREES IFAFS GRANT PROPOSAL Reducing ammonia emissions from poultry houses by enhanced manure and diet management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kentucky, University of

    , and are not representative of modern US poultry systems. Our recent preliminary data demonstrates that currently-used EF emission abatement through dietary manipulation and manure management; 3) Provide research-based and diet management Principal Investigators of Each Institute: Richard S. Gates Institution: University

  18. Individual project/degree project Proposed title: Greenhouse gas emission at different water potentials from soils with the same texture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    potentials from soils with the same texture but contrasting organic matter content Credits: 30 credits Level: Advanced, MSc Subject: Soil Science/Environmental Science Start: Not before October 2013 Background Soil structure is known to play a vital role in greenhouse gas emissions from soil

  19. Greenhouse Gas emissions from California Geothermal Power Plants

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sullivan, John

    The information given in this file represents GHG emissions and corresponding emission rates for California flash and dry steam geothermal power plants. This stage of the life cycle is the fuel use component of the fuel cycle and arises during plant operation. Despite that no fossil fuels are being consumed during operation of these plants, GHG emissions nevertheless arise from GHGs present in the geofluids and dry steam that get released to the atmosphere upon passing through the system. Data for the years of 2008 to 2012 are analyzed.

  20. Greenhouse Gas emissions from California Geothermal Power Plants

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sullivan, John

    2014-03-14

    The information given in this file represents GHG emissions and corresponding emission rates for California flash and dry steam geothermal power plants. This stage of the life cycle is the fuel use component of the fuel cycle and arises during plant operation. Despite that no fossil fuels are being consumed during operation of these plants, GHG emissions nevertheless arise from GHGs present in the geofluids and dry steam that get released to the atmosphere upon passing through the system. Data for the years of 2008 to 2012 are analyzed.

  1. Assessing seasonal greenhouse gas emissions and belowground C anAssessing seasonal greenhouse gas emissions and belowground C and N processes under different fired N processes under different fire frequencies in soils of Sierra Nevada chaparral shrublands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norton, Jay B.

    Assessing seasonal greenhouse gas emissions and belowground C anAssessing seasonal greenhouse gas of greenhouse gases (GHG) to the atmosphere is lacking. ·Historically, fire played a critical role in shaping

  2. Meeting State Carbon Emission Requirements through Industrial Energy Efficiency: The Southern California Gas Company’s Industrial End User Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-06-25

    This case study describes the Southern California Gas Company’s Industrial End User program that helps large industrial customers increase energy efficiency and reduce energy use and GHG emissions.

  3. Multi-criteria comparison of fuel policies: Renewable fuel mandate, fuel emission-standards, and fuel carbon tax

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Deepak; Hochman, G.; Zilberman, D.

    2012-01-01

    ghg) emissions from canadian oil sands as a feed- stock forCanada’s questions and oil sands: answers, Opportuni- URLimpacts of alberta’s oil sands. canadian energy research

  4. Life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions and non-CO? combustion effects from alternative jet fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stratton, Russell William

    2010-01-01

    The long-term viability and success of a transportation fuel depends on both economic and environmental sustainability. This thesis focuses specifically on assessing the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and non-CO ...

  5. Marginal Abatement Costs and Marginal Welfare Costs for Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reductions: Results from the EPPA Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris, Jennifer

    Marginal abatement cost (MAC) curves, relationships between tons of emissions abated and the CO2 (or GHG) price, have been widely used as pedagogic devices to illustrate simple economic concepts such as the benefits of ...

  6. Operational and policy implications of managing uncertainty in quality and emissions of multi-feedstock biodiesel systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gül?en, Ece

    2012-01-01

    As an alternative transportation fuel to petrodiesel, biodiesel has been widely promoted within national energy portfolio targets across the world. Early estimations of low lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of ...

  7. Land Use Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Conventional Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turetsky, Merritt

    Land Use Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Conventional Oil Production and Oil Sands S O N I A Y E H received September 12, 2010. Accepted September 14, 2010. Debates surrounding the greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of California crude and in situ oil sands production (

  8. Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions* Francis O Environ. Res. Lett. 7 (2012) 044030 (6pp) doi:10.1088/1748-9326/7/4/044030 Shale gas production: potential gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use are controversial. Here we assess the level

  9. An approach for verifying biogenic greenhouse gas emissions inventories with atmospheric CO 2 concentration data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ogle, Stephen; Davis, Kenneth J.; Lauvaux, Thomas; Schuh, Andrew E.; Cooley, Dan; West, Tristram O.; Heath, L.; Miles, Natasha; Richardson, S. J.; Breidt, F. Jay; et al

    2015-03-10

    Verifying national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions inventories is a critical step to ensure that reported emissions data to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are accurate and representative of a country’s contribution to GHG concentrations in the atmosphere. Verification could include a variety of evidence, but arguably the most convincing verification would be confirmation of a change in GHG concentrations in the atmosphere that is consistent with reported emissions to the UNFCCC. We report here on a case study evaluating this option based on a prototype atmospheric CO2 measurement network deployed in the Mid-Continent Region of themore »conterminous United States. We found that the atmospheric CO2 measurement data did verify the accuracy of the emissions inventory within the confidence limits of the emissions estimates, suggesting that this technology could be further developed and deployed more widely in the future for verifying reported emissions.« less

  10. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Wenzel, Tom; Price, Lynn

    2008-08-13

    Central to any study of climate change is the development of an emission inventory that identifies and quantifies the State's primary anthropogenic sources and sinks of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion accounted for 80 percent of California GHG emissions (CARB, 2007a). Even though these CO2 emissions are well characterized in the existing state inventory, there still exist significant sources of uncertainties regarding their accuracy. This report evaluates the CO2 emissions accounting based on the California Energy Balance database (CALEB) developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in terms of what improvements are needed and where uncertainties lie. The estimated uncertainty for total CO2 emissions ranges between -21 and +37 million metric tons (Mt), or -6percent and +11percent of total CO2 emissions. The report also identifies where improvements are needed for the upcoming updates of CALEB. However, it is worth noting that the California Air Resources Board (CARB) GHG inventory did not use CALEB data for all combustion estimates. Therefore the range in uncertainty estimated in this report does not apply to the CARB's GHG inventory. As much as possible, additional data sources used by CARB in the development of its GHG inventory are summarized in this report for consideration in future updates to CALEB.

  11. The influence of biodiesel composition on compression ignition combustion and emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Peter JS

    in anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) are to be achieved4,5 . Such factors have driven legislative alternatives to fossil fuels are necessary for the reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissionsThe influence of biodiesel composition on compression ignition combustion and emissions Paul

  12. Beyond the Inventory: An Interagency Collaboration to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Greater Yellowstone Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kandt, A.; Hotchkiss, E.; Fiebig, M.

    2010-10-01

    As one of the largest, intact ecosystems in the continental United States, land managers within the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) have recognized the importance of compiling and understanding agency greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The 10 Federal units within the GYA have taken an active role in compiling GHG inventories on a unit- and ecosystem-wide level, setting goals for GHG mitigation, and identifying mitigation strategies for achieving those goals. This paper details the processes, methodologies, challenges, solutions, and lessons learned by the 10 Federal units within the GYA throughout this ongoing effort.

  13. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Electricity Generation Fact Sheet

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As clean energy increasingly becomes part of the national dialogue, lenders, utilities, and lawmakers need the most comprehensive and accurate information on GHG emissions from various sources of energy to inform policy, planning, and investment decisions. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Harmonization Project, a study that gives decision makers and investors more precise estimates of life cycle GHG emissions for renewable and conventional generation, clarifying inconsistent and conflicting estimates in the published literature, and reducing uncertainty.

  14. A light diet for a giant appetite: An assessment of China's proposed fluorescent lamp standard

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Jiang

    2002-04-11

    Lighting has been one of the fastest growing electric end-uses in China over the last twenty years, with an average annual growth rate of 14%. Fluorescent lighting provides a significant portion of China's lighting need. In 1998, China produced 680 million fluorescent lamps, of which 420 million were linear fluorescent lamps of various diameters (T8 to T12). There are substantial variations both in energy efficiency and lighting performance among locally produced fluorescent lamps. Such variations present a perfect opportunity for policy intervention through efficiency standards to promote the adoption of more efficient fluorescent lamps in China. This paper analyzes China's proposed minimum efficiency standard for fluorescent lamps and presents an assessment of its likely impacts on China's lighting energy consumption and GHG emissions.

  15. Development and Update of Long-Term Energy and GHG Emission Macroecono...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Approach: Create a Long Term Base Case Major Inputs 9 Light Vehicles (Car and Light Truck) Heavy Vehicles (GVW Class 3-8) Medium: Class 3-6 Truck Heavy:...

  16. Technical Potential of Solar Energy to Address Energy Poverty and Avoid GHG Emissions in Africa (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowlin, S.; Heimiller, D.; Bilello, D.; Renne, D.

    2008-10-01

    Approximately 1.6 billion people worldwide do not have access to electricity, and roughly 2.4 billion people rely on traditional biomass fuels to meet their heating and cooking needs. Lack of access to and use of energy - or energy poverty - has been recognized as a barrier to reaching the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and other targeted efforts to improve health and quality of life. Reducing reliance on traditional biomass can substantially reduce indoor air pollution-related morbidity and mortality; increasing access to lighting and refrigeration can improve educational and economic opportunities. Though targeted electrification efforts have had success within Latin America and East Asia (reaching electrification rates above 85%), sub-Saharan Africa has maintained electrification rates below 25% (IEA 2004).

  17. TRANSPORTATION ENERGY FUTURES - Combining Strategies for Deep Reductions in Energy Consumption and GHG Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anya Breitenbach

    2013-03-15

    This fact sheet summarizes actions in the areas of light-duty vehicle, non-light-duty vehicle, fuel, and transportation demand that show promise for deep reductions in energy use.

  18. ASSESSING GHG EMISSIONS FROM SLUDGE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL ROUTES THE METHOD BEHIND GESTABOUES TOOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    stakeholders to better understand the carbon footprint of sludge treatment and disposal options, we developed by a wastewater treatment plant of x per-captia-equivalents (PCE) during one year. The carbon footprint method we developed is adapted to sludge treatment and disposal processes and based on the "Bilan Carbone® " method

  19. Mexico-NAMA on Reducing GHG Emissions in the Cement Sector | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland: Energy ResourcesDec 2005 WindPRO is developed byEnergy

  20. Petroleum Refining Sector (NAICS 324110) Energy and GHG Combustion Emissions Profile, November 2012

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills andOrder 422.1, CONDUCTCritical Materials Use |Petroleum Refining69

  1. Chemicals Sector (NAICS 325) Energy and GHG Combustion Emissions Profile, November 2012

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels|Programs |Chart of breakout of funds by majorEnergyChemicals39

  2. Iron and Steel Sector (NAICS 3311 and 3312) Energy and GHG Combustion Emissions Profile, November 2012

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE INDUSTRIALU.S. Department of(Presentation) |ofEnergyEnergyIowa99

  3. Forest Products Sector (NAICS 321 and 322) Energy and GHG Combustion Emissions Profile, November 2012

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015ExecutiveFluorescent Lamp BallastsActivities, OAS-M-06-09andSault U.S.

  4. Estimate of Fuel Consumption and GHG Emission Impact on an Automated Mobility District: Preprint

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansasCommunitiesof Energy ServicesEnergy4thwritesOffice of Scientific

  5. New Jersey: EERE-Supported Technology Lowers GHG Emissions 70%, Wins R&D

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuelsof EnergyApril 2014Department of EnergyDepartment of| Department of100

  6. Comparing the greenhouse gas emissions from three alternative waste combustion concepts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vainikka, Pasi, E-mail: pasi.vainikka@vtt.fi [VTT, Koivurannantie 1, FIN 40101 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Tsupari, Eemeli; Sipilae, Kai [VTT, Koivurannantie 1, FIN 40101 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Hupa, Mikko [Aabo Akademi Process Chemistry Centre, Piispankatu 8, FIN 20500 Turku (Finland)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Significant GHG reductions are possible by efficient WtE technologies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CHP and high power-to-heat ratio provide significant GHG savings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N{sub 2}O and coal mine type are important in LCA GHG emissions of FBC co-combustion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substituting coal and fuel oil by waste is beneficial in electricity and heat production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substituting natural gas by waste may not be reasonable in CHP generation. - Abstract: Three alternative condensing mode power and combined heat and power (CHP) waste-to-energy concepts were compared in terms of their impacts on the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a heat and power generation system. The concepts included (i) grate, (ii) bubbling fluidised bed (BFB) and (iii) circulating fluidised bed (CFB) combustion of waste. The BFB and CFB take advantage of advanced combustion technology which enabled them to reach electric efficiency up to 35% and 41% in condensing mode, respectively, whereas 28% (based on the lower heating value) was applied for the grate fired unit. A simple energy system model was applied in calculating the GHG emissions in different scenarios where coal or natural gas was substituted in power generation and mix of fuel oil and natural gas in heat generation by waste combustion. Landfilling and waste transportation were not considered in the model. GHG emissions were reduced significantly in all of the considered scenarios where the waste combustion concepts substituted coal based power generation. With the exception of condensing mode grate incinerator the different waste combustion scenarios resulted approximately in 1 Mton of fossil CO{sub 2}-eq. emission reduction per 1 Mton of municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerated. When natural gas based power generation was substituted by electricity from the waste combustion significant GHG emission reductions were not achieved.

  7. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Climate Action Partnership. Contribution of Food Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    similar to the Land and Food Systems (LFS) Orchard Garden, 0.019 tons of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions an external source. This study attempts to quantify the GHG emissions from the transportation of the food Partnership. Contribution of Food Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reductions: Moving UBC Beyond Climate Neutral

  8. The effects of potential changes in United States beef production on global grazing systems and greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    and greenhouse gas emissions Jerome Dumortier1 , Dermot J Hayes2 , Miguel Carriquiry2 , Fengxia Dong3 , Xiaodong in the U.S. causes a net increase in GHG emissions on a global scale. We couple a global agricultural production in the United States. The effects on emissions from agricultural production (i.e., methane

  9. TECHNICAL REPORTS The greenhouse gas (GHG) impact of composting a range

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Sally

    . For example, a facility that composts an equal mixture of manure, newsprint, and food waste could conserve are through CH4 avoidance when feedstocks are composted instead of landfilled (municipal solid wasteTECHNICAL REPORTS 1396 The greenhouse gas (GHG) impact of composting a range of potential

  10. Analyzing California's GHG Reduction Paths using CA-TIMES Energy System Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Analyzing California's GHG Reduction Paths using CA-TIMES Energy System Model Christopher Yang@ucdavis.edu NextSTEPS (Sustainable Transportation Energy Pathways) #12;CA-TIMES Model Overview · CA-TIMES is a bottom-up, linear optimization model of California's energy sectors ­ Technology and resources details

  11. Meta-Analysis of Estimates of Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Concentrating Solar Power: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, G. A.; Burkhardt, J. J.

    2011-09-01

    In reviewing life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of utility-scale CSP systems, this analysis focuses on clarifying central tendency and reducing variability in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through a meta-analytical process called harmonization. From 125 references reviewed, 10 produced 36 independent GHG emission estimates passing screens for quality and relevance: 19 for parabolic trough technology and 17 for power tower technology. The interquartile range (IQR) of published GHG emission estimates was 83 and 20 g CO2eq/kWh for trough and tower, respectively, with medians of 26 and 38 g CO2eq/kWh. Two levels of harmonization were applied. Light harmonization reduced variability in published estimates by using consistent values for key parameters pertaining to plant design and performance. Compared to the published estimates, IQR was reduced by 69% and median increased by 76% for troughs. IQR was reduced by 26% for towers, and median was reduced by 34%. A second level of harmonization was applied to five well-documented trough LC GHG emission estimates, harmonizing to consistent values for GHG emissions embodied in materials and from construction activities. As a result, their median was further reduced by 5%, while the range increased by 6%. In sum, harmonization clarified previous results.

  12. Effects of Travel Reduction and Efficient Driving on Transportation: Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Numerous transportation strategies are directed at reducing energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by changing the behavior of individual drivers or travelers. These behavioral changes may have the effect of reducing travel, shifting travel to more efficient modes, or improving the efficiency of existing travel. Since the 1970s, federal, regional, state and municipal agencies have tried to reduce energy use, emissions, and congestion by influencing travel behavior. This report reviews and summarizes the literature on relationships between these strategies and transportation-related energy use and GHG emissions to examine how changes to travel behavior can reduce transportation energy use and discuss the potential for federal actions to affect travel behavior.

  13. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Electricity Generation (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-01-01

    Analysts at NREL have developed and applied a systematic approach to review the LCA literature, identify primary sources of variability and, where possible, reduce variability in GHG emissions estimates through a procedure called 'harmonization.' Harmonization of the literature provides increased precision and helps clarify the impacts of specific electricity generation choices, producing more robust results.

  14. Greenhouse gas emissions and the surface transport of freight in Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenhouse gas emissions and the surface transport of freight in Canada Paul Steenhof a,*, Clarence annual reduction of greenhouse gases of 6% below 1990 levels between 2008 and 2012. The transportation committed to reducing its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 6% below 1990 levels between 2008 and 2012

  15. Updated greenhouse gas and criteria air pollutant emission factors and their probability distribution functions for electricity generating units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, H.; Wang, M.; Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.

    2012-07-06

    Greenhouse gas (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O, hereinafter GHG) and criteria air pollutant (CO, NO{sub x}, VOC, PM{sub 10}, PM{sub 2.5} and SO{sub x}, hereinafter CAP) emission factors for various types of power plants burning various fuels with different technologies are important upstream parameters for estimating life-cycle emissions associated with alternative vehicle/fuel systems in the transportation sector, especially electric vehicles. The emission factors are typically expressed in grams of GHG or CAP per kWh of electricity generated by a specific power generation technology. This document describes our approach for updating and expanding GHG and CAP emission factors in the GREET (Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation) model developed at Argonne National Laboratory (see Wang 1999 and the GREET website at http://greet.es.anl.gov/main) for various power generation technologies. These GHG and CAP emissions are used to estimate the impact of electricity use by stationary and transportation applications on their fuel-cycle emissions. The electricity generation mixes and the fuel shares attributable to various combustion technologies at the national, regional and state levels are also updated in this document. The energy conversion efficiencies of electric generating units (EGUs) by fuel type and combustion technology are calculated on the basis of the lower heating values of each fuel, to be consistent with the basis used in GREET for transportation fuels. On the basis of the updated GHG and CAP emission factors and energy efficiencies of EGUs, the probability distribution functions (PDFs), which are functions that describe the relative likelihood for the emission factors and energy efficiencies as random variables to take on a given value by the integral of their own probability distributions, are updated using best-fit statistical curves to characterize the uncertainties associated with GHG and CAP emissions in life-cycle modeling with GREET.

  16. Impacts of greenhouse gas mitigation policies on agricultural land

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Xiaodong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are widely acknowledged to be responsible for much of the global warming in the past century. A number of approaches have been proposed to mitigate GHG emissions. Since the burning of ...

  17. Environ. Res. Lett. 10 (2015) 034012 doi:10.1088/1748-9326/10/3/034012 An approach for verifying biogenic greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    for verifying biogenic greenhouse gas emissions inventories with atmospheric CO2 concentration data Stephen M.ogle@colostate.edu Keywords: greenhouse gas emissions inventory, atmospheric inversion modeling, emissions verification, carbon cycle Abstract Verifying national greenhouse gas(GHG)emissionsinventoriesis a criticalstep

  18. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Nuclear Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As clean energy increasingly becomes part of the national dialogue, lenders, utilities, and lawmakers need the most comprehensive and accurate information on GHG emissions from various sources of energy to inform policy, planning, and investment decisions. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Harmonization Project, a study that gives decision makers and investors more precise estimates of life cycle GHG emissions for renewable and conventional generation, clarifying inconsistent and conflicting estimates in the published literature, and reducing uncertainty.

  19. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As clean energy increasingly becomes part of the national dialogue, lenders, utilities, and lawmakers need the most comprehensive and accurate information on GHG emissions from various sources of energy to inform policy, planning, and investment decisions. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Harmonization Project, a study that gives decision makers and investors more precise estimates of life cycle GHG emissions for renewable and conventional generation, clarifying inconsistent and conflicting estimates in the published literature, and reducing uncertainty.

  20. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Utility-Scale Wind Power: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As clean energy increasingly becomes part of the national dialogue, lenders, utilities, and lawmakers need the most comprehensive and accurate information on GHG emissions from various sources of energy to inform policy, planning, and investment decisions. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Harmonization Project, a study that gives decision makers and investors more precise estimates of life cycle GHG emissions for renewable and conventional generation, clarifying inconsistent and conflicting estimates in the published literature, and reducing uncertainty.

  1. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Thin-film Photovoltaic Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    As clean energy increasingly becomes part of the national dialogue, lenders, utilities, and lawmakers need the most comprehensive and accurate information on GHG emissions from various sources of energy to inform policy, planning, and investment decisions. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Harmonization Project, a study that gives decision makers and investors more precise estimates of life cycle GHG emissions for renewable and conventional generation, clarifying inconsistent and conflicting estimates in the published literature, and reducing uncertainty.

  2. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Coal-Fired Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As clean energy increasingly becomes part of the national dialogue, lenders, utilities, and lawmakers need the most comprehensive and accurate information on GHG emissions from various sources of energy to inform policy, planning, and investment decisions. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Harmonization Project, a study that gives decision makers and investors more precise estimates of life cycle GHG emissions for renewable and conventional generation, clarifying inconsistent and conflicting estimates in the published literature, and reducing uncertainty.

  3. 1 Forecasting Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Urban Regions: 2 Microsimulation of Land Use and Transport Patterns in Austin, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kockelman, Kara M.

    use electricity, natural gas and other energy sources regularly52 for space conditioning and powering1 Forecasting Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Urban Regions: 2 Microsimulation of Land Use 2030 household energy 26 demands and GHG emissions estimates are compared under five different land use

  4. Optimal design and allocation of electrified vehicles and dedicated charging infrastructure for minimum life cycle greenhouse gas emissions and cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGaughey, Alan

    and GHG emissions of electrified vehicles. c We design PHEVs and BEVs and assign vehicles and charging). Passenger vehicles accounted for 9.5% of 2010 US carbon dioxide emissions (US EPA, 2011) and 19% of 2009Optimal design and allocation of electrified vehicles and dedicated charging infrastructure

  5. Fact #589: September 21, 2009 Proposed Fuel Economy and Greenhouse...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9: September 21, 2009 Proposed Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards Fact 589: September 21, 2009 Proposed Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards On...

  6. Mali-Reducing the GHG Impacts of Sustainable Intensification | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource HistoryScenarios TowardsInformation Reducing the GHG Impacts of Sustainable

  7. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Coal-Fired Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitaker, M.; Heath, G. A.; O'Donoughue, P.; Vorum, M.

    2012-04-01

    This systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessments (LCAs) of utility-scale coal-fired electricity generation systems focuses on reducing variability and clarifying central tendencies in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Screening 270 references for quality LCA methods, transparency, and completeness yielded 53 that reported 164 estimates of life cycle GHG emissions. These estimates for subcritical pulverized, integrated gasification combined cycle, fluidized bed, and supercritical pulverized coal combustion technologies vary from 675 to 1,689 grams CO{sub 2}-equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh) (interquartile range [IQR]= 890-1,130 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh; median = 1,001) leading to confusion over reasonable estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from coal-fired electricity generation. By adjusting published estimates to common gross system boundaries and consistent values for key operational input parameters (most importantly, combustion carbon dioxide emission factor [CEF]), the meta-analytical process called harmonization clarifies the existing literature in ways useful for decision makers and analysts by significantly reducing the variability of estimates ({approx}53% in IQR magnitude) while maintaining a nearly constant central tendency ({approx}2.2% in median). Life cycle GHG emissions of a specific power plant depend on many factors and can differ from the generic estimates generated by the harmonization approach, but the tightness of distribution of harmonized estimates across several key coal combustion technologies implies, for some purposes, first-order estimates of life cycle GHG emissions could be based on knowledge of the technology type, coal mine emissions, thermal efficiency, and CEF alone without requiring full LCAs. Areas where new research is necessary to ensure accuracy are also discussed.

  8. A fuel cycle framework for evaluating greenhouse gas emission reduction technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashton, W.B.; Barns, D.W. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Bradley, R.A. (USDOE Office of Policy, Planning and Analysis, Washington, DC (USA). Office of Environmental Analysis)

    1990-05-01

    Energy-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions arise from a number of fossil fuels, processes and equipment types throughout the full cycle from primary fuel production to end-use. Many technology alternatives are available for reducing emissions based on efficiency improvements, fuel switching to low-emission fuels, GHG removal, and changes in end-use demand. To conduct systematic analysis of how new technologies can be used to alter current emission levels, a conceptual framework helps develop a comprehensive picture of both the primary and secondary impacts of a new technology. This paper describes a broad generic fuel cycle framework which is useful for this purpose. The framework is used for cataloging emission source technologies and for evaluating technology solutions to reduce GHG emissions. It is important to evaluate fuel mix tradeoffs when investigating various technology strategies for emission reductions. For instance, while substituting natural gas for coal or oil in end-use applications to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, natural gas emissions of methane in the production phase of the fuel cycle may increase. Example uses of the framework are given.

  9. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Trough and Tower Concentrating Solar Power Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As clean energy increasingly becomes part of the national dialogue, lenders, utilities, and lawmakers need the most comprehensive and accurate information on GHG emissions from various sources of energy to inform policy, planning, and investment decisions. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Harmonization Project, a study that gives decision makers and investors more precise estimates of life cycle GHG emissions for renewable and conventional generation, clarifying inconsistent and conflicting estimates in the published literature, and reducing uncertainty.

  10. U.S. Government Supports Low Emission Economic Growth (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, A.; Sandor, D.; Butheau, M.

    2013-11-01

    Countries around the world face the challenge of maintaining long-term sustainable economic growth and development under the threat of climate change. By identifying and pursuing a sustainable development pathway now, they are better positioned to reach their economic growth goals while addressing climate change impacts and lowering greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Low emission development strategies - development plans that promote sustainable social and economic development while reducing long-term GHG emissions - provide a pathway to preparing for a global low emission future. Partner country governments are working with the U.S. government through the Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies (EC-LEDS) program to further their national development objectives.

  11. Greenhouse Emission Reductions and Natural Gas Vehicles: A Resource Guide on Technology Options and Project Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orestes Anastasia; NAncy Checklick; Vivianne Couts; Julie Doherty; Jette Findsen; Laura Gehlin; Josh Radoff

    2002-09-01

    Accurate and verifiable emission reductions are a function of the degree of transparency and stringency of the protocols employed in documenting project- or program-associated emissions reductions. The purpose of this guide is to provide a background for law and policy makers, urban planners, and project developers working with the many Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission reduction programs throughout the world to quantify and/or evaluate the GHG impacts of Natural Gas Vehicle (NGVs). In order to evaluate the GHG benefits and/or penalties of NGV projects, it is necessary to first gain a fundamental understanding of the technology employed and the operating characteristics of these vehicles, especially with regard to the manner in which they compare to similar conventional gasoline or diesel vehicles. Therefore, the first two sections of this paper explain the basic technology and functionality of NGVs, but focus on evaluating the models that are currently on the market with their similar conventional counterparts, including characteristics such as cost, performance, efficiency, environmental attributes, and range. Since the increased use of NGVs, along with Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFVs) in general, represents a public good with many social benefits at the local, national, and global levels, NGVs often receive significant attention in the form of legislative and programmatic support. Some states mandate the use of NGVs, while others provide financial incentives to promote their procurement and use. Furthermore, Federal legislation in the form of tax incentives or procurement requirements can have a significant impact on the NGV market. In order to implement effective legislation or programs, it is vital to have an understanding of the different programs and activities that already exist so that a new project focusing on GHG emission reduction can successfully interact with and build on the experience and lessons learned of those that preceded it. Finally, most programs that deal with passenger vehicles--and with transportation in general--do not address the climate change component explicitly, and thus there are few GHG reduction goals that are included in these programs. Furthermore, there are relatively few protocols that exist for accounting for the GHG emissions reductions that arise from transportation and, specifically, passenger vehicle projects and programs. These accounting procedures and principles gain increased importance when a project developer wishes to document in a credible manner, the GHG reductions that are achieved by a given project or program. Section four of this paper outlined the GHG emissions associated with NGVs, both upstream and downstream, and section five illustrated the methodology, via hypothetical case studies, for measuring these reductions using different types of baselines. Unlike stationary energy combustion, GHG emissions from transportation activities, including NGV projects, come from dispersed sources creating a need for different methodologies for assessing GHG impacts. This resource guide has outlined the necessary context and background for those parties wishing to evaluate projects and develop programs, policies, projects, and legislation aimed at the promotion of NGVs for GHG emission reduction.

  12. Predicting and mitigating the net greenhouse gas emissions of crop rotations in Western Europe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    balance; Agro-ecosystem model; CERES-EGC; Bayesian calibration; Green- house gases; Nitrous oxidePredicting and mitigating the net greenhouse gas emissions of crop rotations in Western Europe gases (GHG) con- tributing to net greenhouse gas balance of agro-ecosystems. Evaluating the impact

  13. Hybrid modeling of industrial energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions with an application to Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hybrid modeling of industrial energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions with an application explore the implications for Canada's industrial sector of an economy-wide, compulsory greenhouse gas of the Canadian industrial sector to GHG charges implemented throughout the economy, starting in the year 2006

  14. Challenges and opportunities in accounting for non-energy use CO2 emissions: an editorial comment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masanet, Eric; Sathaye, Jayant

    2009-01-01

    for preliminary cost–bene?t analyses of discrete NEU-CO2of the costs and bene?ts of various NEU-CO2 emissionscosts and GHG emissions reduction bene?ts as compared to competing options—will require greater NEU-CO2

  15. An Empirically-Derived Mechanism of Combined Incentives to Reduce Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bateman, Ian J.

    C/ emitted per year amount to 17-25% of anthropogenic GHG emissions (10-12). Recent research suggest of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, NR4 7TJ (UK) 2 Energy Planning Program, COPPE ecosystems of the planet, tropical forests (1). Home to 50-66% of Earth's species (5-6), these forests

  16. The Effect of Transaction Costs on Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation for Agriculture and Forestry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Seong Woo

    2011-08-08

    of the activities of agricultural and forestry to EPA?s carbon prices: 40 percent from tillage practices, 30 percent from afforestation, 20 percent from methane capture, and 20 percent from production of bioenergy crops. Mooney et al. (2003................................ 14 III ECONOMIC POTENTIAL OF GHG EMISSION REDUCTIONS: EFFECTS OF INCLUDING TRANSACTION COSTS IN ELIGIBILITY ................................................................................. 19 Introduction...

  17. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSION CONTROL OPTIONS: ASSESSING TRANSPORTATION AND ELECTRICITY GENERATION TECHNOLOGIES AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kockelman, Kara M.

    1 GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSION CONTROL OPTIONS: ASSESSING TRANSPORTATION AND ELECTRICITY GENERATION, Environmental and Ecological Effects," August 2013. KEY WORDS: Greenhouse gases, transportation energy, electric options is an important step in formulating a cohesive strategy to abate U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG

  18. Response to Comment on "Prevented Mortality and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Historical and Projected Nuclear Power"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    measures and renewable energy technologies in the near term. However, much of their rationale reflects costs and levelized costs of electricity, we refer readers to Table 1.9 of the Global Energy Assessment that nuclear power is unable to displace greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as effectively as energy efficiency

  19. Battery-Powered Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Projects to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Resource for Project Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2002-07-31

    The transportation sector accounts for a large and growing share of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Worldwide, motor vehicles emit well over 900 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) each year, accounting for more than 15 percent of global fossil fuel-derived CO2 emissions.1 In the industrialized world alone, 20-25 percent of GHG emissions come from the transportation sector. The share of transport-related emissions is growing rapidly due to the continued increase in transportation activity.2 In 1950, there were only 70 million cars, trucks, and buses on the world’s roads. By 1994, there were about nine times that number, or 630 million vehicles. Since the early 1970s, the global fleet has been growing at a rate of 16 million vehicles per year. This expansion has been accompanied by a similar growth in fuel consumption.3 If this kind of linear growth continues, by the year 2025 there will be well over one billion vehicles on the world’s roads.4 In a response to the significant growth in transportation-related GHG emissions, governments and policy makers worldwide are considering methods to reverse this trend. However, due to the particular make-up of the transportation sector, regulating and reducing emissions from this sector poses a significant challenge. Unlike stationary fuel combustion, transportation-related emissions come from dispersed sources. Only a few point-source emitters, such as oil/natural gas wells, refineries, or compressor stations, contribute to emissions from the transportation sector. The majority of transport-related emissions come from the millions of vehicles traveling the world’s roads. As a result, successful GHG mitigation policies must find ways to target all of these small, non-point source emitters, either through regulatory means or through various incentive programs. To increase their effectiveness, policies to control emissions from the transportation sector often utilize indirect means to reduce emissions, such as requiring specific technology improvements or an increase in fuel efficiency. Site-specific project activities can also be undertaken to help decrease GHG emissions, although the use of such measures is less common. Sample activities include switching to less GHG-intensive vehicle options, such as electric vehicles (EVs) or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). As emissions from transportation activities continue to rise, it will be necessary to promote both types of abatement activities in order to reverse the current emissions path. This Resource Guide focuses on site- and project-specific transportation activities. .

  20. Using ArcGIS to extrapolate greenhouse gas emissions on the Pengxi River, a tributary of the Three Gorges Reservoir in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yasarer, Lindsey

    2014-11-19

    Using ArcGIS to extrapolate greenhouse gas emissions on the Pengxi River, a tributary of the Three Gorges Reservoir in China Lindsey MW Yasarer, PhD Candidate, University of Kansas Dr. Zhe Li, Associate Professor, Chongqing University Dr.... Belinda Sturm, Associate Professor, University of Kansas RESERVOIR GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS (Image from FURNAS www.dsr.inpe.br) HOW TO SCALE UP GHG EMISSIONS? PROJECT OBJECTIVE: Estimate overall greenhouse gas emissions from the Pengxi River Backwater...

  1. Energy efficiency and the cost of GHG abatement: A comparison of bottom-up and hybrid models for the US

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy efficiency and the cost of GHG abatement: A comparison of bottom-up and hybrid models February 2011 Accepted 16 August 2011 Available online 17 September 2011 Keywords: Energy efficiency that a large potential for profitable energy efficiency exists in the US, and that substantial greenhouse gas

  2. LEDS Global Partnership in Action: Advancing Climate-Resilient Low Emission Development Around the World (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-11-01

    Many countries around the globe are designing and implementing low emission development strategies (LEDS). These LEDS seek to achieve social, economic, and environmental development goals while reducing long-term greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and increasing resiliency to climate change impacts. The LEDS Global Partnership (LEDS GP) harnesses the collective knowledge and resources of more than 120 countries and international donor and technical organizations to strengthen climate-resilient low emission development efforts around the world.

  3. Potential Cost-Effective Opportunities for Methane Emission Abatement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warner, Ethan; Steinberg, Daniel; Hodson, Elke; Heath, Garvin

    2015-08-01

    The energy sector was responsible for approximately 84% of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the U.S. in 2012 (EPA 2014a). Methane is the second most important GHG, contributing 9% of total U.S. CO2e emissions. A large portion of those methane emissions result from energy production and use; the natural gas, coal, and oil industries produce approximately 39% of anthropogenic methane emissions in the U.S. As a result, fossil-fuel systems have been consistently identified as high priority sectors to contribute to U.S. GHG reduction goals (White House 2015). Only two studies have recently attempted to quantify the abatement potential and cost associated with the breadth of opportunities to reduce GHG emissions within natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains in the United States, namely the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2013a) and ICF (2014). EPA, in its 2013 analysis, estimated the marginal cost of abatement for non-CO2 GHG emissions from the natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains for multiple regions globally, including the United States. Building on this work, ICF International (ICF) (2014) provided an update and re-analysis of the potential opportunities in U.S. natural gas and oil systems. In this report we synthesize these previously published estimates as well as incorporate additional data provided by ICF to provide a comprehensive national analysis of methane abatement opportunities and their associated costs across the natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains. Results are presented as a suite of marginal abatement cost curves (MACCs), which depict the total potential and cost of reducing emissions through different abatement measures. We report results by sector (natural gas, oil, and coal) and by supply chain segment - production, gathering and boosting, processing, transmission and storage, or distribution - to facilitate identification of which sectors and supply chain segments provide the greatest opportunities for low cost abatement.

  4. Hydrogen Pathways: Updated Cost, Well-to-Wheels Energy Use, and Emissions for the Current Technology Status of Ten Hydrogen Production, Delivery, and Distribution Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsden, T.; Ruth, M.; Diakov, V.; Laffen, M.; Timbario, T. A.

    2013-03-01

    This report describes a life-cycle assessment conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) of 10 hydrogen production, delivery, dispensing, and use pathways that were evaluated for cost, energy use, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This evaluation updates and expands on a previous assessment of seven pathways conducted in 2009. This study summarizes key results, parameters, and sensitivities to those parameters for the 10 hydrogen pathways, reporting on the levelized cost of hydrogen in 2007 U.S. dollars as well as life-cycle well-to-wheels energy use and GHG emissions associated with the pathways.

  5. PhD position In situ assessment of greenhouse gases and ammonia emissions from livestock systems in East Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Charles W.

    in East Africa The International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI, www.ilri.org) in cooperation on greenhouse gases (GHG) and ammonia emissions from different livestock systems in East Africa. The candidate Africa by means of a combination of chamber measurements, eddy covariance techniques and other

  6. 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 2018 2020 Rio Tinto GHG

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    , but with a preponderance of trading Private and confidential 2 Emissions trading Carbon tax EU ETS Australian ETS (with EU

  7. Implications of near-term coal power plant retirement for SO2 and NOX, and life cycle GHG emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaramillo, Paulina

    prices of electricity production Plant type Unit Price Nuclear ($/MWh) 16.51 Wind ($/MWh) 201 Hydro Top SO2 100 430 95 440 100 430 Top NOX 105 350 100 380 105 345 Small, inefficient 125 410 125 405 125) Manitoba Hydro Manitoba Hydro Undertaking # 57 http://www.pub.gov.mb.ca/exhibits/mh-83.pdf. (5) Sotkiewicz

  8. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Development and Update of Long-Term Energy and GHG Emission Macroeconomic Accounting Tool

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about development and...

  9. Charging into the Future: An economic and GHG analysis of fleet conversion to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    : ............................................................................................................. 8 A. Technology Assessment emissions are determined by the electricity they use. UC Davis is already working to add renewable energy

  10. Microsoft PowerPoint - FNC NEPA GHG Climate Slides -- 16Jan2015...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    REVISED DRAFT GUIDANCE ON CONSIDERATION OF GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS AND THE EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE IN NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT REVIEWS HORST G GRECZMIEL ASSOCIATE...

  11. Top-down methane emissions estimates for the San Francisco Bay Area from 1990 to 2012

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fairley, David; Fischer, Marc L.

    2015-01-30

    Methane is a potent greenhouse gas (GHG) that is now included in both California State and San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) bottom-up emission inventories as part of California's effort to reduce anthropogenic GHG emissions. Here we provide a top-down estimate of methane (CH4) emissions from the SFBA by combining atmospheric measurements with the comparatively better estimated emission inventory for carbon monoxide (CO). Local enhancements of CH4 and CO are estimated using measurements from 14 air quality sites in the SFBA combined together with global background measurements. Mean annual CH4 emissions are estimated from the product of Bay Area Air Qualitymore »Management District (BAAQMD) emission inventory CO and the slope of ambient local CH4 to CO. The resulting top-down estimates of CH4 emissions are found to decrease slightly from 1990 to 2012, with a mean value of 240 ± 60 GgCH4 yr?¹ (at 95% confidence) in the most recent (2009–2012) period, and correspond to reasonably a constant factor of 1.5–2.0 (at 95% confidence) times larger than the BAAQMD CH4 emission inventory. However, we note that uncertainty in these emission estimates is dominated by the variation in CH4:CO enhancement ratios across the observing sites and we expect the estimates could represent a lower-limit on CH4 emissions because BAAQMD monitoring sites focus on urban air quality and may be biased toward CO rather than CH4 sources.« less

  12. Comparative life-cycle air emissions of coal, domestic natural gas, LNG, and SNG for electricity generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paulina Jaramillo; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews

    2007-09-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates that in the coming decades the United States' natural gas (NG) demand for electricity generation will increase. Estimates also suggest that NG supply will increasingly come from imported liquefied natural gas (LNG). Additional supplies of NG could come domestically from the production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) via coal gasification-methanation. The objective of this study is to compare greenhouse gas (GHG), SOx, and NOx life-cycle emissions of electricity generated with NG/LNG/SNG and coal. This life-cycle comparison of air emissions from different fuels can help us better understand the advantages and disadvantages of using coal versus globally sourced NG for electricity generation. Our estimates suggest that with the current fleet of power plants, a mix of domestic NG, LNG, and SNG would have lower GHG emissions than coal. If advanced technologies with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) are used, however, coal and a mix of domestic NG, LNG, and SNG would have very similar life-cycle GHG emissions. For SOx and NOx we find there are significant emissions in the upstream stages of the NG/LNG life-cycles, which contribute to a larger range in SOx and NOx emissions for NG/LNG than for coal and SNG. 38 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. EVOLUTION OF THE HOUSEHOLD VEHICLE FLEET: ANTICIPATING FLEET COMPOSITION, PHEV ADOPTION AND GHG

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kockelman, Kara M.

    more significant effects on energy dependence and greenhouse gas emissions. INTRODUCTION AND MOTIVATION all #12;scenarios. And HEVs, PHEVs and Smart Cars are estimated to represent a major share

  14. Observation of CH4 and other Non-CO2 Green House Gas Emissions from California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, Marc L.; Zhao, Chuanfeng; Riley, William J.; Andrews, Arlyn C.

    2009-01-09

    In 2006, California passed the landmark assembly bill AB-32 to reduce California's emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) that contribute to global climate change. AB-32 commits California to reduce total GHG emissions to 1990 levels by 2020, a reduction of 25 percent from current levels. To verify that GHG emission reductions are actually taking place, it will be necessary to measure emissions. We describe atmospheric inverse model estimates of GHG emissions obtained from the California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Measurement (CALGEM) project. In collaboration with NOAA, we are measuring the dominant long-lived GHGs at two tall-towers in central California. Here, we present estimates of CH{sub 4} emissions obtained by statistical comparison of measured and predicted atmospheric mixing ratios. The predicted mixing ratios are calculated using spatially resolved a priori CH{sub 4} emissions and surface footprints, that provide a proportional relationship between the surface emissions and the mixing ratio signal at tower locations. The footprints are computed using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) coupled to the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model. Integral to the inverse estimates, we perform a quantitative analysis of errors in atmospheric transport and other factors to provide quantitative uncertainties in estimated emissions. Regressions of modeled and measured mixing ratios suggest that total CH{sub 4} emissions are within 25% of the inventory estimates. A Bayesian source sector analysis obtains posterior scaling factors for CH{sub 4} emissions, indicating that emissions from several of the sources (e.g., landfills, natural gas use, petroleum production, crops, and wetlands) are roughly consistent with inventory estimates, but livestock emissions are significantly higher than the inventory. A Bayesian 'region' analysis is used to identify spatial variations in CH{sub 4} emissions from 13 sub-regions within California. Although, only regions near the tower are significantly constrained by the tower measurements, CH{sub 4} emissions from the south Central Valley appear to be underestimated in a manner consistent with the under-prediction of livestock emissions. Finally, we describe a pseudo-experiment using predicted CH{sub 4} signals to explore the uncertainty reductions that might be obtained if additional measurements were made by a future network of tall-tower stations spread over California. These results show that it should be possible to provide high-accuracy estimates of surface CH{sub 4} emissions for multiple regions as a means to verify future emissions reductions.

  15. Greenhouse gas emissions trading in U.S. States: observations and lessons from the OTC NOx Budget Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Aulisi; Alexander E. Farrell; Jonathan Pershing; Stacy VanDeveer

    2005-07-01

    A number of U.S. states are considering market-based policies to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The experience gained from emissions trading for sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) offers a useful body of information and data to draw on to design a GHG emissions trading system. This report examines NOx trading under the Ozone Transport Commission (OTC) NOx Budget Program, which resulted principally from the leadership, decisions, and actions by a group of states, ultimately becoming the first multilateral cap-and-trade system for emissions of air pollutants. 72 refs.

  16. Estimating U.S. Methane Emissions from the Natural Gas Supply Chain. Approaches, Uncertainties, Current Estimates, and Future Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, Garvin; Warner, Ethan; Steinberg, Daniel; Brandt, Adam

    2015-08-01

    A growing number of studies have raised questions regarding uncertainties in our understanding of methane (CH4) emissions from fugitives and venting along the natural gas (NG) supply chain. In particular, a number of measurement studies have suggested that actual levels of CH4 emissions may be higher than estimated by EPA" tm s U.S. GHG Emission Inventory. We reviewed the literature to identify the growing number of studies that have raised questions regarding uncertainties in our understanding of methane (CH4) emissions from fugitives and venting along the natural gas (NG) supply chain.

  17. REDUCING CARBON EMISSIONS REAL WORLD EXAMPLES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Sally

    process are used to produce carbon- neutral bio-energy 1 2 3 4 5 #12;GHG REDUCTION COMMITMENT Percentage

  18. Integrating Agricultural and Forestry GHG Mitigation Response into General Economy Frameworks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    for characterizing potential responses to greenhouse gas mitigation policies by the agriculture and forestry can be achieved through AF efforts by employing sink strategies, biofuel production or emissions management relative to carbon, methane (CH4) or nitrous oxide (N2O). Agricultural and forestry participation

  19. Passive Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement Passive Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement Numerically evaluated and optimized proposed...

  20. Unsolicited Proposals

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2002-02-27

    The order sets forth Department of Energy (DOE) requirements and responsibilities for the receipt, processing, and review of unsolicited proposals (USPs). To ensure that those submitting USPs are notified in a timely manner of the status (e.g., pending, accepted for funding, or declined) of their Supersedes DOE O 542.2. Certified 12-28-06.

  1. Hydrogen production and delivery analysis in US markets : cost, energy and greenhouse gas emissions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mintz, M.; Gillette, J.; Elgowainy, A.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen production cost conclusions are: (1) Steam Methane Reforming (SMR) is the least-cost production option at current natural gas prices and for initial hydrogen vehicle penetration rates, at high production rates, SMR may not be the least-cost option; (2) Unlike coal and nuclear technologies, the cost of natural gas feedstock is the largest contributor to SMR production cost; (3) Coal- and nuclear-based hydrogen production have significant penalties at small production rates (and benefits at large rates); (4) Nuclear production of hydrogen is likely to have large economies of scale, but because fixed O&M costs are uncertain, the magnitude of these effects may be understated; and (5) Given H2A default assumptions for fuel prices, process efficiencies and labor costs, nuclear-based hydrogen is likely to be more expensive to produce than coal-based hydrogen. Carbon taxes and caps can narrow the gap. Hydrogen delivery cost conclusions are: (1) For smaller urban markets, compressed gas delivery appears most economic, although cost inputs for high-pressure gas trucks are uncertain; (2) For larger urban markets, pipeline delivery is least costly; (3) Distance from hydrogen production plant to city gate may change relative costs (all results shown assume 100 km); (4) Pipeline costs may be reduced with system 'rationalization', primarily reductions in service pipeline mileage; and (5) Liquefier and pipeline capital costs are a hurdle, particularly at small market sizes. Some energy and greenhouse gas Observations: (1) Energy use (per kg of H2) declines slightly with increasing production or delivery rate for most components (unless energy efficiency varies appreciably with scale, e.g., liquefaction); (2) Energy use is a strong function of production technology and delivery mode; (3) GHG emissions reflect the energy efficiency and carbon content of each component in a production-delivery pathway; (4) Coal and natural gas production pathways have high energy consumption and significant GHG emissions (in the absence of carbon caps, taxes or sequestration); (5) Nuclear pathway is most favorable from energy use and GHG emissions perspective; (6) GH2 Truck and Pipeline delivery have much lower energy use and GHG emissions than LH2 Truck delivery; and (7) For LH2 Truck delivery, the liquefier accounts for most of the energy and GHG emissions.

  2. Pilot application of PalmGHG, the RSPO greenhouse gas calculator for oil palm products , Chase L.D.C.b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Pilot application of PalmGHG, the RSPO greenhouse gas calculator for oil palm products Bessou C, accounting in 2011 for 31.3% of the global oils and fats production (Oil World, 2012). About 10% of global production is certified by RSPO, the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (Oil World, 2012; RSPO, 2013). RSPO

  3. Cost of Ownership and Well-to-Wheels Carbon Emissions/Oil Use of Alternative Fuels and Advanced Light-Duty Vehicle Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elgowainy, Mr. Amgad; Rousseau, Mr. Aymeric; Wang, Mr. Michael; Ruth, Mr. Mark; Andress, Mr. David; Ward, Jacob; Joseck, Fred; Nguyen, Tien; Das, Sujit

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne), and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) updated their analysis of the well-to-wheels (WTW) greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions, petroleum use, and the cost of ownership (excluding insurance, maintenance, and miscellaneous fees) of vehicle technologies that have the potential to significantly reduce GHG emissions and petroleum consumption. The analyses focused on advanced light-duty vehicle (LDV) technologies such as plug-in hybrid, battery electric, and fuel cell electric vehicles. Besides gasoline and diesel, alternative fuels considered include natural gas, advanced biofuels, electricity, and hydrogen. The Argonne Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) and Autonomie models were used along with the Argonne and NREL H2A models.

  4. Analysis of potential for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in municipal solid waste in Brazil, in the state and city of Rio de Janeiro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loureiro, S.M.; Rovere, E.L.L.; Mahler, C.F.

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ? We constructed future scenarios of emissions of greenhouse gases in waste. ? Was used the IPCC methodology for calculating emission inventories. ? We calculated the costs of abatement for emissions reduction in landfill waste. ? The results were compared to Brazil, state and city of Rio de Janeiro. ? The higher the environmental passive, the greater the possibility of use of biogas. - Abstract: This paper examines potential changes in solid waste policies for the reduction in GHG for the country of Brazil and one of its major states and cities, Rio de Janeiro, from 2005 to 2030. To examine these policy options, trends in solid waste quantities and associated GHG emissions are derived. Three alternative policy scenarios are evaluated in terms of effectiveness, technology, and economics and conclusions posited regarding optimal strategies for Brazil to implement. These scenarios are been building on the guidelines for national inventories of GHG emissions (IPCC, 2006) and adapted to Brazilian states and municipalities’ boundaries. Based on the results, it is possible to say that the potential revenue from products of solid waste management is more than sufficient to transform the current scenario in this country into one of financial and environmental gains, where the negative impacts of climate change have created a huge opportunity to expand infrastructure for waste management.

  5. Evaluation of Efficiency Activities in the Industrial Sector Undertaken in Response to Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Lu, Hongyou; Horvath, Arpad

    2010-05-21

    The 2006 California Global Warming Solutions Act calls for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. Meeting this target will require action from all sectors of the California economy, including industry. The industrial sector consumes 25% of the energy used and emits 28% of the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) produced in the state. Many countries around the world have national-level GHG reduction or energy-efficiency targets, and comprehensive programs focused on implementation of energy efficiency and GHG emissions mitigation measures in the industrial sector are essential for achieving their goals. A combination of targets and industry-focused supporting programs has led to significant investments in energy efficiency as well as reductions in GHG emissions within the industrial sectors in these countries. This project has identified program and policies that have effectively targeted the industrial sector in other countries to achieve real energy and CO{sub 2} savings. Programs in Ireland, France, The Netherlands, Denmark, and the UK were chosen for detailed review. Based on the international experience documented in this report, it is recommended that companies in California's industrial sector be engaged in a program to provide them with support to meet the requirements of AB32, The Global Warming Solution Act. As shown in this review, structured programs that engage industry, require members to evaluate their potential efficiency measures, plan how to meet efficiency or emissions reduction goals, and provide support in achieving the goals, can be quite effective at assisting companies to achieve energy efficiency levels beyond those that can be expected to be achieved autonomously.

  6. Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

    2007-05-01

    The era of publicly mandated GHG emissions restrictions inthe United States has begun with recent legislation in California andseven northeastern states. Commercial and industrial buildings canimprove the carbon-efficiency of end-use energy consumption by installingtechnologies such as on-site cogeneration of electricity and useful heatin combined heat and power systems, thermally-activated cooling, solarelectric and thermal equipment, and energy storage -- collectively termeddistributed energy resources (DER). This research examines a collectionof buildings in California, the Northeast, and the southern United Statesto demonstrate the effects of regional characteristics such as the carbonintensity of central electricity grid, the climate-driven demand forspace heating and cooling, and the availability of solar insolation. Theresults illustrate that the magnitude of a realistic carbon tax ($100/tC)is too small to incent significant carbon-reducing effects oneconomically optimal DER adoption. In large part, this is because costreduction and carbon reduction objectives are roughly aligned, even inthe absence of a carbon tax.

  7. Proposal Process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeedingProgramExemptions |(Conference)Project TourVehicles &Proposal Process

  8. Proposed Handout

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeedingProgramExemptions |(Conference)ProjectProposed Settlement

  9. RAPIDD Proposals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMassR&D100 Winners * Impacts on Global Technology OUTSIDE FRONT7a.RRAPIDD Proposals

  10. Final Proposal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (Journal Article) | SciTechSubmittedEcologistand9,Final-Proposal Sign In

  11. Emission Market Opportunities for Federal Energy Projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vimmerstedt, L.; Shah, C.

    2005-06-01

    This document assists federal agencies in incorporating emissions market opportunities in their energy projects, including emission reduction credit markets and cap and trade. It looks at how potential emissions costs/revenues can be incorporated into project proposals, how groups can apply for emissions allowances, and how agencies can sell emissions allowances and receive the financial benefit. The fact sheet also outlines how FEMP can provide assistance throughout the process.

  12. Assessment of U.S. cap-and-trade proposals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paltsev, Sergey V.

    2007-01-01

    The MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis model is applied to an assessment of a set of cap-and-trade proposals being considered by the U.S. Congress in spring 2007. The bills specify emissions reductions to be ...

  13. Assessment of U.S. Cap-and-Trade Proposals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paltsev, Sergey

    The MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis model is applied to an assessment of a set of cap-and-trade proposals being considered by the U.S. Congress in spring 2007. The bills specify emissions reductions to be ...

  14. Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in California: The California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenblatt, Jeffery B.

    2013-10-10

    A California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) model was developed to explore the impact of combinations of state policies on state greenhouse gas (GHG) and regional criteria pollutant emissions. The model included representations of all GHG- emitting sectors of the California economy (including those outside the energy sector, such as high global warming potential gases, waste treatment, agriculture and forestry) in varying degrees of detail, and was carefully calibrated using available data and projections from multiple state agencies and other sources. Starting from basic drivers such as population, numbers of households, gross state product, numbers of vehicles, etc., the model calculated energy demands by type (various types of liquid and gaseous hydrocarbon fuels, electricity and hydrogen), and finally calculated emissions of GHGs and three criteria pollutants: reactive organic gases (ROG), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and fine (2.5 ?m) particulate matter (PM2.5). Calculations were generally statewide, but in some sectors, criteria pollutants were also calculated for two regional air basins: the South Coast Air Basin (SCAB) and the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). Three scenarios were developed that attempt to model: (1) all committed policies, (2) additional, uncommitted policy targets and (3) potential technology and market futures. Each scenario received extensive input from state energy planning agencies, in particular the California Air Resources Board. Results indicate that all three scenarios are able to meet the 2020 statewide GHG targets, and by 2030, statewide GHG emissions range from between 208 and 396 MtCO2/yr. However, none of the scenarios are able to meet the 2050 GHG target of 85 MtCO2/yr, with emissions ranging from 188 to 444 MtCO2/yr, so additional policies will need to be developed for California to meet this stringent future target. A full sensitivity study of major scenario assumptions was also performed. In terms of criteria pollutants, targets were less well-defined, but while all three scenarios were able to make significant reductions in ROG, NOx and PM2.5 both statewide and in the two regional air basins, they may nonetheless fall short of what will be required by future federal standards. Specifically, in Scenario 1, regional NOx emissions are approximately three times the estimated targets for both 2023 and 2032, and in Scenarios 2 and 3, NOx emissions are approximately twice the estimated targets. Further work is required in this area, including detailed regional air quality modeling, in order to determine likely pathways for attaining these stringent targets.

  15. Opportunity Analysis for Recovering Energy from Industrial Waste Heat and Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viswanathan, Vish V.; Davies, Richard W.; Holbery, Jim D.

    2006-04-01

    United States industry consumed 32.5 Quads (34,300 PJ) of energy during 2003, which was 33.1% of total U.S. energy consumption (EIA 2003 Annual Energy Review). The U.S. industrial complex yields valuable goods and products. Through its manufacturing processes as well as its abundant energy consumption, it supports a multi-trillion dollar contribution to the gross domestic product and provides millions of jobs in the U.S. each year. Industry also yields waste products directly through its manufacturing processes and indirectly through its energy consumption. These waste products come in two forms, chemical and thermal. Both forms of waste have residual energy values that are not routinely recovered. Recovering and reusing these waste products may represent a significant opportunity to improve the energy efficiency of the U.S. industrial complex. This report was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Industrial Technologies Program (DOE-ITP). It analyzes the opportunity to recover chemical emissions and thermal emissions from U.S. industry. It also analyzes the barriers and pathways to more effectively capitalize on these opportunities. A primary part of this analysis was to characterize the quantity and energy value of the emissions. For example, in 2001, the industrial sector emitted 19% of the U.S. greenhouse gases (GHG) through its industrial processes and emitted 11% of GHG through electricity purchased from off-site utilities. Therefore, industry (not including agriculture) was directly and indirectly responsible for emitting 30% of the U.S. GHG. These emissions were mainly comprised of carbon dioxide (CO2), but also contained a wide-variety of CH4 (methane), CO (carbon monoxide), H2 (hydrogen), NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compound), and other chemicals. As part of this study, we conducted a survey of publicly available literature to determine the amount of energy embedded in the emissions and to identify technology opportunities to capture and reuse this energy. As shown in Table E-1, non-CO2 GHG emissions from U.S. industry were identified as having 2180 peta joules (PJ) or 2 Quads (quadrillion Btu) of residual chemical fuel value. Since landfills are not traditionally considered industrial organizations, the industry component of these emissions had a value of 1480 PJ or 1.4 Quads. This represents approximately 4.3% of the total energy used in the United States Industry.

  16. Role of anthropogenic direct heat emissions in global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Fei; Zhao, Guangju; Gao, Peng; Li, Pengfei

    2015-01-01

    The anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) are widely realized as the predominant drivers of global warming, but the huge and increasing anthropogenic direct heat emissions (AHE) has not gained enough attention in terms of its role in the warming of the climate system. Based on two reasonable assumptions of (1) AHE eventually transfers to the Earth energy system and (2) the net warming is only driven by the net radioactive forcing (RF) from either GHG or other causes, we analyzed the role of AHE in global warming. The mean annual total AHE of the four main sources including energy consumption, residual heat of electricity generation, biomass decomposition by land use and cover change (LUCC) and food consumption was estimated to be 4.41*10^20 J in 1970-2010, accounting for 6.23% of the net annual heat increase of the Earth reported by IPCC AR5 for the period. The mean annual radioactive forcing (RF) by AHE was up to 29.94 mW m^(-2) globally in 1981-2010, less than the annual net increase of total GH...

  17. Well-to-Wheels Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis of High-Octane Fuels with Various Market Shares and Ethanol Blending Levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Jeongwoo; Elgowainy, Amgad; Wang, Michael; Divita, Vincent

    2015-07-14

    In this study, we evaluated the impacts of producing HOF with a RON of 100, using a range of ethanol blending levels (E10, E25, and E40), vehicle efficiency gains, and HOF market penetration scenarios (3.4% to 70%), on WTW petroleum use and GHG emissions. In particular, we conducted LP modeling of petroleum refineries to examine the impacts of different HOF production scenarios on petroleum refining energy use and GHG emissions. We compared two cases of HOF vehicle fuel economy gains of 5% and 10% in terms of MPGGE to baseline regular gasoline vehicles. We incorporated three key factors in GREET — (1) refining energy intensities of gasoline components for the various ethanol blending options and market shares, (2) vehicle efficiency gains, and (3) upstream energy use and emissions associated with the production of different crude types and ethanol — to compare the WTW GHG emissions of various HOF/vehicle scenarios with the business-as-usual baseline regular gasoline (87 AKI E10) pathway.

  18. Assessment of fuel-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas emissions for Fischer-Tropsch diesel from coal and cellulosic biomass.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, X.; Wang, M.; Han, J. (Energy Systems)

    2011-04-01

    This study expands and uses the GREET (Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation) model to assess the effects of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology and cellulosic biomass and coal cofeeding in Fischer-Tropsch (FT) plants on energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of FT diesel (FTD). To demonstrate the influence of the coproduct credit methods on FTD life-cycle analysis (LCA) results, two allocation methods based on the energy value and the market revenue of different products and a hybrid method are employed. With the energy-based allocation method, fossil energy use of FTD is less than that of petroleum diesel, and GHG emissions of FTD could be close to zero or even less than zero with CCS when forest residue accounts for 55% or more of the total dry mass input to FTD plants. Without CCS, GHG emissions are reduced to a level equivalent to that from petroleum diesel plants when forest residue accounts for 61% of the total dry mass input. Moreover, we show that coproduct method selection is crucial for LCA results of FTD when a large amount of coproducts is produced.

  19. Well-to-wheels energy use and greenhouse gas emissions analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elgowainy, A.; Burnham, A.; Wang, M.; Molburg, J.; Rousseau, A.; Energy Systems

    2009-03-31

    Researchers at Argonne National Laboratory expanded the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model and incorporated the fuel economy and electricity use of alternative fuel/vehicle systems simulated by the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) to conduct a well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis of energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The WTW results were separately calculated for the blended charge-depleting (CD) and charge-sustaining (CS) modes of PHEV operation and then combined by using a weighting factor that represented the CD vehicle-miles-traveled (VMT) share. As indicated by PSAT simulations of the CD operation, grid electricity accounted for a share of the vehicle's total energy use, ranging from 6% for a PHEV 10 to 24% for a PHEV 40, based on CD VMT shares of 23% and 63%, respectively. In addition to the PHEV's fuel economy and type of on-board fuel, the marginal electricity generation mix used to charge the vehicle impacted the WTW results, especially GHG emissions. Three North American Electric Reliability Corporation regions (4, 6, and 13) were selected for this analysis, because they encompassed large metropolitan areas (Illinois, New York, and California, respectively) and provided a significant variation of marginal generation mixes. The WTW results were also reported for the U.S. generation mix and renewable electricity to examine cases of average and clean mixes, respectively. For an all-electric range (AER) between 10 mi and 40 mi, PHEVs that employed petroleum fuels (gasoline and diesel), a blend of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline (E85), and hydrogen were shown to offer a 40-60%, 70-90%, and more than 90% reduction in petroleum energy use and a 30-60%, 40-80%, and 10-100% reduction in GHG emissions, respectively, relative to an internal combustion engine vehicle that used gasoline. The spread of WTW GHG emissions among the different fuel production technologies and grid generation mixes was wider than the spread of petroleum energy use, mainly due to the diverse fuel production technologies and feedstock sources for the fuels considered in this analysis. The PHEVs offered reductions in petroleum energy use as compared with regular hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). More petroleum energy savings were realized as the AER increased, except when the marginal grid mix was dominated by oil-fired power generation. Similarly, more GHG emissions reductions were realized at higher AERs, except when the marginal grid generation mix was dominated by oil or coal. Electricity from renewable sources realized the largest reductions in petroleum energy use and GHG emissions for all PHEVs as the AER increased. The PHEVs that employ biomass-based fuels (e.g., biomass-E85 and -hydrogen) may not realize GHG emissions benefits over regular HEVs if the marginal generation mix is dominated by fossil sources. Uncertainties are associated with the adopted PHEV fuel consumption and marginal generation mix simulation results, which impact the WTW results and require further research. More disaggregate marginal generation data within control areas (where the actual dispatching occurs) and an improved dispatch modeling are needed to accurately assess the impact of PHEV electrification. The market penetration of the PHEVs, their total electric load, and their role as complements rather than replacements of regular HEVs are also uncertain. The effects of the number of daily charges, the time of charging, and the charging capacity have not been evaluated in this study. A more robust analysis of the VMT share of the CD operation is also needed.

  20. Attributing land-use change carbon emissions to exported biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saikku, Laura, E-mail: laura.saikku@helsinki.fi [University of Helsinki, P.O Box 65, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Soimakallio, Sampo, E-mail: sampo.soimakallio@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, 02044 VTT (Finland); Pingoud, Kim, E-mail: kim.pingoud@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, 02044 VTT (Finland)

    2012-11-15

    In this study, a simple, transparent and robust method is developed in which land-use change (LUC) emissions are retrospectively attributed to exported biomass products based on the agricultural area occupied for the production. LUC emissions account for approximately one-fifth of current greenhouse gas emissions. Increasing agricultural exports are becoming an important driver of deforestation. Brazil and Indonesia are used as case studies due to their significant deforestation in recent years. According to our study, in 2007, approximately 32% and 15% of the total agricultural land harvested and LUC emissions in Brazil and Indonesia respectively were due to exports. The most important exported single items with regard to deforestation were palm oil for Indonesia and bovine meat for Brazil. To reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions effectively worldwide, leakage of emissions should be avoided. This can be done, for example, by attributing embodied LUC emissions to exported biomass products. With the approach developed in this study, controversial attribution between direct and indirect LUC and amortization of emissions over the product life cycle can be overcome, as the method operates on an average basis and annual level. The approach could be considered in the context of the UNFCCC climate policy instead of, or alongside with, other instruments aimed at reducing deforestation. However, the quality of the data should be improved and some methodological issues, such as the allocation procedure in multiproduct systems and the possible dilution effect through third parties not committed to emission reduction targets, should be considered. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CO{sub 2} emissions from land use changes are highly important. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Attribution of land use changes for products is difficult. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simple and robust method is developed to attribute land use change emissions.

  1. Capital requirements and fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts of potential PNGV fuels.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, L.; Mintz, M.; Singh, M.; Stork, K.; Vyas, A.; Wang, M.

    1999-03-11

    Our study reveals that supplying gasoline-equivalent demand for the low-market-share scenario requires a capital investment of less than $40 billion for all fuels except H{sub 2}, which will require a total cumulative investment of $150 billion. By contrast, cumulative capital investments under the high-market-share scenario are $50 billion for LNG, $90 billion for ethanol, $100 billion for methanol, $160 billion for CNG and DME, and $560 billion for H{sub 2}. Although these substantial capital requirements are spread over many years, their magnitude could pose a challenge to the widespread introduction of 3X vehicles. Fossil fuel use by US light-duty vehicles declines significantly with introduction of 3X vehicles because of fuel-efficiency improvements for 3X vehicles and because of fuel substitution (which applies to the nonpetroleum-fueled alternatives). Petroleum use for light-duty vehicles in 2030 is reduced by as much as 45% relative to the reference scenario. GHG emissions follow a similar pattern. Total GHG emissions decline by 25-30% with most of the propulsion system/fuel alternatives. For those using renewable fuels (i.e., ethanol and H{sub 2} from solar energy), GHG emissions drop by 33% (H{sub 2}) and 45% (ethanol). Among urban air pollutants, urban NOX emissions decline slightly for 3X vehicles using CIDI and SIDI engines and drop substantially for fuel-cell vehicles. Urban CO emissions decline for CIDI and FCV alternatives, while VOC emissions drop significantly for all alternatives except RFG-, methanol-, and ethanol-fueled SIDI engines. With the exception of CIDI engines fueled by RFD, FT50, or B20 (which increase urban PM{sub 10} emissions by over 30%), all propulsion system/fuel alternatives reduce urban PM{sub 10} emissions. Reductions are approximately 15-20% for fuel cells and for methanol-, ethanol-, CNG-, or LPG-fueled SIDI engines. Table 3 qualitatively summarizes impacts of the 13 alternatives on capital requirements and on energy use and emissions relative to the reference scenario. The table clearly shows the trade-off between costs and benefits. For example, while H{sub 2} FCVs have the greatest incremental capital needs, they offer the largest energy and emissions benefits. On the basis of the cost and benefit changes shown, methanol and gasoline FCVs appear to have particularly promising benefits-to-costs ratios.

  2. Decision-Making to Reduce Manufacturing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reich-Weiser, Corinne

    2010-01-01

    to GHG/kWh of the USA electricity supply chain are coalGHG/kWh of electricity example based on USA. Distributionnuclear (USA) are different because of the electricity mix

  3. Field data on testing of natural gas vehicle (NGV) containers using proposed ASTM standard test method for examination of gas-filled filament-wound pressure vessels using acoustic emission (ASTM-E070403-95/1)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fultineer, R.D. Jr.; Mitchell, J.R.

    1999-07-01

    There are many composite wrapped pressure vessels in service. These containers are most widely used for gas storage in natural gas vehicles (NGV). A standard has been developed for the testing of these vessels by the subcommittee ASTM E07.04.03 Acoustic Emission (AE) applications. The AE test method is supported by both field test data and laboratory destructive testing. The test method describes a global volumetric testing technique which is offered as an alternative to the current practice of visual inspection.

  4. Centre on Innovation and Energy Demand The UK's climate goals are ambitious and challenging. Achieving an 80% reduction in GHG emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jensen, Max

    of the electricity sector; the rapid and widespread deployment of innovative technologies such as heat pumps in the industrial, buildings and transport sectors, with the aim of identifying common themes and drawing context

  5. Analysis of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Tax Proposals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metcalf, Gilbert E.

    The U.S. Congress is considering a set of bills designed to limit the nation’s greenhouse gas (GHG)

  6. The Projected Impacts of Carbon Dioxide Emissions Reduction Legislation on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;The Projected Impacts of Carbon Dioxide Emissions Reduction Legislation on Electricity Prices the impact of proposed federal regulations aimed at reductions in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions gas emissions; however, it does not attempt to model the full details of the proposed legislation

  7. GHG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable Urban TransportFortistarFuelCellsEtcSilicon Co LtdGEOGHD Inc Jump

  8. ARM - Campaign Instrument - ghg

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better Anode Design to Improve4AJ01) (See EnergyCurrent : 0.0 WaitingMay

  9. ARM - Instrument - ghg

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments? WeDatastreamstpsgovInstrumentsclap Documentation ARM DatagovInstrumentsflask

  10. Radially Localized Measurements of Superthermal Electrons Using Oblique Electron Cyclotron Emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radially Localized Measurements of Superthermal Electrons Using Oblique Electron Cyclotron Emission Electron Cyclotron Emission from superthermal electrons can be imposed by observation of emission upshifted diagnostic has been proposed and operated to make radially localized measurements of superthermal electrons

  11. Mitigation options for methane emissions from rice fields in the Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lantin, R.S.; Buendia, L.V.; Wassmann, R.

    1996-12-31

    The contribution of Philippine rice production to global methane emission and breakthroughs in methane emission studies conducted in the country are presented in this paper. A significant impact in the reduction of GHG emissions from agriculture can be achieved if methane emissions from ricefields can be abated. This study presents the contribution of Philippine rice cultivation to global methane emission and breakthroughs in methane emission studies in the country which address the issue of mitigation. Using the derived emission factors from local measurements, rice cultivation contributes 566.6 Gg of methane emission in the Philippines. This value is 62% of the total methane emitted from the agriculture sector. The emission factors employed which are 78% of the IPCC value for irrigated rice and 95% for rainfed rice were derived from measurements with an automatic system taken during the growth duration in the respective ecosystems. Plots drained for 2 weeks at midtillering and before harvest gave a significant reduction in methane emission as opposed to continuously flooded plots and plots drained before harvest. The cultivar Magat reduced methane emission by 50% as compared to the check variety IR72. The application of ammonium sulfate instead of urea reduced methane emission by 10% to 34%. Addition of 6 t ha{sup {minus}1} phosphogypsum in combination with urea reduced emission by 74% as opposed to plots applied with urea alone. It is also from the results of such measurements that abatement strategies are based as regards to modifying treatments such as water management, fertilization, and choice of rice variety. It is not easy to identify and recommend mitigation strategies that will fit a particular cropping system. However, the identified mitigation options provide focus for the abatement of methane emission from ricefields.

  12. California’s K-12 Educational Infrastructure Investments: Leveraging the State’s Role for Quality School Facilities in Sustainable Communities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vincent, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    gas  (GHG)  emissions,  particularly  from  vehicle  miles  decrease  in  vehicle  travel  and   GHG  emissions  from  vehicle  miles  traveled  and   greenhouse  gas  emissions  

  13. ECOLOGICAL JUSTICE IN THE GREENHOUSE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delaware, University of

    for inclusion of nuclear power as a GHG mitigation option. We regard current proposals for emission trading, joint implementation and `clean development' to be examples of airy politics in which Annex I profit of nuclear power as a GHG mitigation alternative are characterized as oxymoronic policy that will mean little

  14. Proposal Study Panels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proposal Study Panels Proposal Study Panels Print Two Proposal Study Panels (PSPs) exist at the ALS: one for the general sciences and one for structural biology. The role of the...

  15. Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.; Arons, Samuel M.; Lemoine, Derek M.; Hummel, Holmes

    2009-01-01

    lower greenhouse gas emissions from electricity productionAssessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Plug-in Hybridof national greenhouse gas emissions. Both motor vehicle

  16. Categories for IGPPS Proposals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    postdoc's total salary for the fiscal year. Proposals will be for one year only, though renewal proposals for an additional year may be considered. Postdocs entering their first,...

  17. Trident Call for Proposals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Call for Proposals Trident Call for Proposals Enabling world-class science in high-energy density physics and fundamental laser-matter interactions Contact Operations Team...

  18. Implementation, Enforcement, & Moderator: Benjamin Gramig, Purdue University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in GHG Emissions Trading Debbie marketpaymentsforthesupplyofclimateregulatingecosystemservices. Becausethereareprivatecostsavingstofarmersandsocialbenefitsfrom 23Emissions Trading Workshop #12

  19. Rapid and extensive warming following cessation of solar radiation management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCusker, Kelly E

    Solar radiation management (SRM) has been proposed as a means to alleviate the climate impacts of ongoing anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, its efficacy depends on its indefinite maintenance, without ...

  20. The European Union's emissions trading system in perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Denny Ellerman; Paul L. Joskow

    2008-05-15

    The performance of the European Union's Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) to date cannot be evaluated without recognizing that the first three years from 2005 through 2007 constituted a 'trial' period and understanding what this trial period was supposed to accomplish. Its primary goal was to develop the infrastructure and to provide the experience that would enable the successful use of a cap-and-trade system to limit European GHG emissions during a second trading period, 2008-12, corresponding to the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol. The trial period was a rehearsal for the later more serious engagement and it was never intended to achieve significant reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions in only three years. In light of the speed with which the program was developed, the many sovereign countries involved, the need to develop the necessary data, information dissemination, compliance and market institutions, and the lack of extensive experience with emissions trading in Europe, we think that the system has performed surprisingly well. Although there have been plenty of rough edges, a transparent and widely accepted price for tradable CO{sub 2} emission allowances emerged by January 1, 2005, a functioning market for allowances has developed quickly and effortlessly without any prodding by the Commission or member state governments, the cap-and-trade infrastructure of market institutions, registries, monitoring, reporting and verification is in place, and a significant segment of European industry is incorporating the price of CO{sub 2} emissions into their daily production decisions. The development of the EU ETS and the experience with the trial period provides a number of useful lessons for the U.S. and other countries. 27 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. First phase beamlines at CLS PROPOSED & UNDER REVIEW (Mar 2001)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hitchcock, Adam P.

    First phase beamlines at CLS PROPOSED & UNDER REVIEW (Mar 2001) X-ray Emission Alex Moewes (U. Sask 27 June 2000 27 June 2000 27-Feb 2001 27-Feb 2001 27-Feb 2001 #12;

  2. Proposed Renovations for Lansing Chapman Rink Energy Efficiency Improvements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aalberts, Daniel P.

    Benson 1 Proposed Renovations for Lansing Chapman Rink Energy Efficiency Improvements A Luce.3%, energy used by 21.9%, and CO2 emissions by 29.3%. The full renovation project has a net present value, it is this design that also creates unnecessary and wasteful energy use and carbon emissions. With these two

  3. Reducing Emissions Through Sustainable Transport: Proposal for a Sectoral

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onRAPID/Geothermal/Exploration/Colorado <RAPID/Geothermal/WaterEnergyRedfield Campus GeothermalApproach | Open Energy

  4. 7Emissions Trading Workshop Summary Report Discussion Synthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    7Emissions Trading Workshop Summary Report Discussion Synthesis Background On April 30, 2010, more than 70 people gathered for an all-day workshop on emissions trading at Purdue University's Discovery of different emission trading proposals. The need for such discussion is great. Pollution trading is a high

  5. 2014 ALCC Proposals Due

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALCC Proposals Due February 3, 2014 2014 DOE ALCC Proposals Due February 3 December 23, 2013 by Francesca Verdier (0 Comments) DOE's 2014 call for its ASCR Leadership Computing...

  6. Key words. Emissions markets, Cap-and-trade schemes, Equilibrium models, Environmental MARKET DESIGN FOR EMISSION TRADING SCHEMES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carmona, Rene

    Key words. Emissions markets, Cap-and-trade schemes, Equilibrium models, Environmental Finance. MARKET DESIGN FOR EMISSION TRADING SCHEMES REN´E CARMONA , MAX FEHR , JURI HINZ , AND ARNAUD PORCHET to help policy makers and regulators understand the pros and the cons of the emissions markets. We propose

  7. Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Argonne National Laboratory Focus Area: GHG Inventory Development Topics: Analysis Tools Website: greet.es.anl.gov Transport Toolkit Region(s): Global, Australia & North...

  8. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AND UTILIZATION ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES LAND USE WATER EFFICIENCY BIOFUELS GHG EMISSIONS Energy Analysis LAND USE WATER EFFICIENCY BIOFUELS GHG EMISSIONS Energy Analysis The...

  9. Impact of the renewable oxygenate standard for reformulated gasoline on ethanol demand, energy use, and greenhouse gas emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stork, K.C.; Singh, M.K.

    1995-04-01

    To assure a place for renewable oxygenates in the national reformulated gasoline (RFG) program, the US Environmental Protection Agency has promulgated the renewable oxygenate standard (ROS) for RFG. It is assumed that ethanol derived from corn will be the only broadly available renewable oxygenate during Phase I of the RFG program. This report analyzes the impact that the ROS could have on the supply of ethanol, its transported volume, and its displacement from existing markets. It also considers the energy and crude oil consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that could result from the production and use of various RFGs that could meet the ROS requirements. The report concludes that on the basis of current and projected near-term ethanol capacity, if ethanol is the only available renewable oxygenate used to meet the requirements of the ROS, diversion of ethanol from existing use as a fuel is likely to be necessary. Year-round use of ethanol and ETBE would eliminate the need for diversion by reducing winter demand for ethanol. On an RFG-program-wide basis, using ethanol and ETBE to satisfy the ROS can be expected to slightly reduce fossil energy use, increase crude oil use, and have essentially no effect on GHG emissions or total energy use relative to using RFG oxygenated only with MTBE.

  10. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Methane Emissions

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    of U.S. methane emissions are energy production, distribution, and use; agriculture; and waste management (Figure 17). U.S. methane emissions in 2009 totaled 731 MMTCO2e, 0.9...

  11. A greenhouse-gas information system monitoring and validating emissions reporting and mitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonietz, Karl K; Dimotakis, Paul E; Walker, Bruce C

    2011-09-26

    Current GHG-mitigating regimes, whether internationally agreed or self-imposed, rely on the aggregation of self-reported data, with limited checks for consistency and accuracy, for monitoring. As nations commit to more stringent GHG emissions-mitigation actions and as economic rewards or penalties are attached to emission levels, self-reported data will require independent confirmation that they are accurate and reliable, if they are to provide the basis for critical choices and actions that may be required. Supporting emissions-mitigation efforts and agreements, as well as monitoring energy- and fossil-fuel intensive national and global activities would be best achieved by a process of: (1) monitoring of emissions and emission-mitigation actions, based, in part, on, (2) (self-) reporting of pertinent bottom-up inventory data, (3) verification that reported data derive from and are consistent with agreed-upon processes and procedures, and (4) validation that reported emissions and emissions-mitigation action data are correct, based on independent measurements (top-down) derived from a suite of sensors in space, air, land, and, possibly, sea, used to deduce and attribute anthropogenic emissions. These data would be assessed and used to deduce and attribute measured GHG concentrations to anthropogenic emissions, attributed geographically and, to the extent possible, by economic sector. The validation element is needed to provide independent assurance that emissions are in accord with reported values, and should be considered as an important addition to the accepted MRV process, leading to a MRV&V process. This study and report focus on attributes of a greenhouse-gas information system (GHGIS) needed to support MRV&V needs. These needs set the function of such a system apart from scientific/research monitoring of GHGs and carbon-cycle systems, and include (not exclusively): the need for a GHGIS that is operational, as required for decision-support; the need for a system that meets specifications derived from imposed requirements; the need for rigorous calibration, verification, and validation (CV&V) standards, processes, and records for all measurement and modeling/data-inversion data; the need to develop and adopt an uncertainty-quantification (UQ) regimen for all measurement and modeling data; and the requirement that GHGIS products can be subjected to third-party questioning and scientific scrutiny. This report examines and assesses presently available capabilities that could contribute to a future GHGIS. These capabilities include sensors and measurement technologies; data analysis and data uncertainty quantification (UQ) practices and methods; and model-based data-inversion practices, methods, and their associated UQ. The report further examines the need for traceable calibration, verification, and validation processes and attached metadata; differences between present science-/research-oriented needs and those that would be required for an operational GHGIS; the development, operation, and maintenance of a GHGIS missions-operations center (GMOC); and the complex systems engineering and integration that would be required to develop, operate, and evolve a future GHGIS. Present monitoring systems would be heavily relied on in any GHGIS implementation at the outset and would likely continue to provide valuable future contributions to GHGIS. However, present monitoring systems were developed to serve science/research purposes. This study concludes that no component or capability presently available is at the level of technological maturity and readiness required for implementation in an operational GHGIS today. However, purpose-designed and -built components could be developed and implemented in support of a future GHGIS. The study concludes that it is possible to develop and provide a capability-driven prototype GHGIS, as part of a Phase-1 effort, within three years from project-funding start, that would make use of and integrate existing sensing and system capabilities. As part of a Phase-2 effort, a requirem

  12. NSF Proposal Preparation 101

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    /IPAs National Science Board #12;National Science Foundation #12;NSF Web Page #12;Grant Proposal Guide (GPG be returned without review #12;GPG (cont'd) Describes process for withdrawals, returns & declinations and administration processes #12;GPG (cont'd) Details process for submission of collaborative proposals via: Issuance

  13. Doctoral school COURSE PROPOSAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeanjean, Louis

    Doctoral school COURSE PROPOSAL ED SPIM / Course proposal Page 1/2 2013 Title: The Web of data This course will give an overview of the principles of Linked Data along with the Web of Data, as it emerged architectures. This course also presents the concepts and definitions related to the Semantic Web (or Web

  14. Well-to-wheels Analysis of Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Hydrogen Produced with Nuclear Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Ye; Wang, Michael Q.; Vyas, Anant D.; Wade, David C.; Taiwo, Temitope A.

    2004-07-01

    A fuel-cycle model-called the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model-has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory to evaluate well-to-wheels (WTW) energy and emission impacts of motor vehicle technologies fueled with various transportation fuels. The GREET model contains various hydrogen (H{sub 2}) production pathways for fuel-cell vehicles (FCVs) applications. In this effort, the GREET model was expanded to include four nuclear H{sub 2} production pathways: (1) H{sub 2} production at refueling stations via electrolysis using Light Water Reactor (LWR)-generated electricity; (2) H{sub 2} production in central plants via thermo-chemical water cracking using steam from High Temperature Gas cooled Reactor (HTGR); (3) H{sub 2} production in central plants via high-temperature electrolysis using HTGR-generated electricity and steam; and (4) H{sub 2} production at refueling stations via electrolysis using HTGR-generated electricity The WTW analysis of these four options include these stages: uranium ore mining and milling; uranium ore transportation; uranium conversion; uranium enrichment; uranium fuel fabrication; uranium fuel transportation; electricity or H{sub 2} production in nuclear power plants; H{sub 2} transportation; H{sub 2} compression; and H{sub 2} FCVs operation. Due to large differences in electricity requirements for uranium fuel enrichment between gas diffusion and centrifuge technologies, two scenarios were designed for uranium enrichment: (1) 55% of fuel enriched through gaseous diffusion technology and 45% through centrifuge technology (the current technology split for U.S. civilian nuclear power plants); and (2) 100% fuel enrichment using the centrifuge technology (a future trend). Our well-to-pump (WTP) results show that significant reductions in fossil energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are achieved by nuclear-based H{sub 2} compared to natural gas-based H{sub 2} production via steam methane reforming for a unit of H{sub 2} delivered at refueling stations. In particular, 73-98% of GHG emissions and 81- 99% of fossil energy use are reduced by nuclear-based H{sub 2} relative to natural gas-based H{sub 2}, depending on the uranium enrichment technology and type of nuclear reactor used. When H{sub 2} is applied to FCVs, the WTW results also show large benefit in reducing fossil energy use and GHG emissions. (authors)

  15. Spatial Disaggregation of CO2 Emissions for the State of California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Wenzel, Tom; Fischer, Marc

    2008-06-11

    This report allocates California's 2004 statewide carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fuel combustion to the 58 counties in the state. The total emissions are allocated to counties using several different methods, based on the availability of data for each sector. Data on natural gas use in all sectors are available by county. Fuel consumption by power and combined heat and power generation plants is available for individual plants. Bottom-up models were used to distribute statewide fuel sales-based CO2 emissions by county for on-road vehicles, aircraft, and watercraft. All other sources of CO2 emissions were allocated to counties based on surrogates for activity. CO2 emissions by sector were estimated for each county, as well as for the South Coast Air Basin. It is important to note that emissions from some sources, notably electricity generation, were allocated to counties based on where the emissions were generated, rather than where the electricity was actually consumed. In addition, several sources of CO2 emissions, such as electricity generated in and imported from other states and international marine bunker fuels, were not included in the analysis. California Air Resource Board (CARB) does not include CO2 emissions from interstate and international air travel, in the official California greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory, so those emissions were allocated to counties for informational purposes only. Los Angeles County is responsible for by far the largest CO2 emissions from combustion in the state: 83 Million metric tonnes (Mt), or 24percent of total CO2 emissions in California, more than twice that of the next county (Kern, with 38 Mt, or 11percent of statewide emissions). The South Coast Air Basin accounts for 122 MtCO2, or 35percent of all emissions from fuel combustion in the state. The distribution of emissions by sector varies considerably by county, with on-road motor vehicles dominating most counties, but large stationary sources and rail travel dominating in other counties.The CO2 emissions data by county and source are available upon request.

  16. Spontaneous emission of electromagnetic radiation in turbulent plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziebell, L. F.; Yoon, P. H.; Simões, F. J. R.; Pavan, J.; Gaelzer, R.; Instituto de Física e Matemática, UFPel, Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul

    2014-01-15

    Known radiation emission mechanisms in plasmas include bremmstrahlung (or free-free emission), gyro- and synchrotron radiation, cyclotron maser, and plasma emission. For unmagnetized plasmas, only bremmstrahlung and plasma emissions are viable. Of these, bremmstrahlung becomes inoperative in the absence of collisions, and the plasma emission requires the presence of electron beam, followed by various scattering and conversion processes. The present Letter proposes a new type of radiation emission process for plasmas in a state of thermodynamic quasi-equilibrium between particles and enhanced Langmuir turbulence. The radiation emission mechanism proposed in the present Letter is not predicted by the linear theory of thermal plasmas, but it relies on nonlinear wave-particle resonance processes. The electromagnetic particle-in-cell numerical simulation supports the new mechanism.

  17. DOE Withdraws Proposed Rulemaking (Test Procedure) and Proposed...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    DOE Withdraws Proposed Rulemaking (Test Procedure) and Proposed Coverage Determination (Energy Conservation Standard) for Set-Top Boxes DOE Withdraws Proposed Rulemaking (Test...

  18. October 31, 2001 Water Quality Co-Benefits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    that generate GHG emissions through fossil fuel combustion. Terrestrial or biological carbon sequestration gas (GHG) mitigation through (1) carbon sequestration, (2) reduction of GHG emissions from management practices, and (3 ) substitution of renewable biomass based products for materials and processes

  19. Vehicle Emissions Review- 2012

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Reviews vehicle emission control highlighting representative studies that illustrate the state-of-the-art

  20. Multiwavelength Thermal Emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Multiwavelength Astronomy NASA #12;Thermal Emission #12;Thermal Emission Non-thermal p-p collisions Optical IR Radio/ Microwave sources of emission massive stars, WHIM, Ly many dust, cool objects-ray ~GeV Gamma-ray ~TeV sources of emission AGN, clusters, SNR, binaries, stars AGN (obscured), shocks

  1. Diesel Emission Control Review

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Reviews regulatory requirements and technology approaches for diesel emission control for heavy and light duty applications

  2. Physical and Chemical Characterization of Particulate and Gas phase Emissions from Biomass Burning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hosseini, Seyedehsan

    2012-01-01

    carbon monoxide, and particulate emissions from the combustioncombustion of biomass is dominated by emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), carbon monoxide (carbon monoxide; EC/TC ratio is proposed as a better surrogate of combustion

  3. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Nitrous Oxide Emissions

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    U.S. nitrous oxide emissions include agriculture, energy use, industrial processes, and waste management (Figure 22). The largest source is agriculture (73 percent), and the...

  4. The Elephant in the Room: Dealing with Carbon Emissions from Synthetic Transportation Fuels Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Graham B.; Dahowski, Robert T.

    2007-07-11

    Carbon dioxide (CO2), produced by conversion of hydrocarbons to energy, primarily via fossil fuel combustion, is one of the most ubiquitous and significant greenhouse gases (GHGs). Concerns over climate change precipitated by rising atmospheric GHG concentrations have prompted many industrialized nations to begin adopting limits on emissions to inhibit increases in atmospheric CO2 levels. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change states as a key goal the stabilization of atmospheric CO2 at a level that prevents “dangerous anthropogenic interference” with the planet’s climate systems. This will require sharply reducing emissions growth rates in developing nations, and reducing CO2 emissions in the industrialized world to half current rates in the next 50 years. And ultimately, stabilization will require that annual emissions drop to almost zero.Recently, there has been interest in producing synthetic transportation fuels via coal-to-liquids (CTL) production, particularly in countries where there is an abundant supply of domestic coal, including the United States. This paper provides an overview of the current state of CTL technologies and deployment, a discussion of costs and technical requirements for mitigating the CO2 impacts associated with a CTL facility, and the challenges facing the CTL industry as it moves toward maturity.

  5. A proposed gravitodynamic theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Chang

    1997-03-18

    This paper proposes a gravitodynamic theory because there are similarities between gravitational theory and electrodynamics. Based on Einstein's principle of equivalence, two coordinate conditions are proposed into the four-dimensional line element and transformations. As a consequence,the equation of motion for gravitational force or inertial force has a form similar to the equation of Lorentz force on a charge in electrodynamics. The inertial forces in auniformly rotating system are calculated, which show that the Coriolis force is produced by a magnetic-type gravitational field. We have also calculated the Sagnac effect due to the rotation. These experimental facts strongly support our proposed coordinate conditions. In addition, the gravitodynamic field equations are briefly discussed. Since only four gravitational potentials (3 + 1 split) enter the metric tensor, the gravitodynamic field equations in ``3+1 split" form would be analogous to Maxwell's equations.

  6. Proposal Study Panels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeedingProgramExemptions |(Conference)Project TourVehicles &ProposalProposal

  7. BP's Perspective on Emissions Purdue Emissions Trading Workshop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BP's Perspective on Emissions Trading Purdue Emissions Trading Workshop April 30, 2010 Mark - Government policies can create a carbon price via three primary mechanisms: - Emissions trading (BP's strong

  8. Proposed Drill Sites

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Lane, Michael

    Proposed drill sites for intermediate depth temperature gradient holes and/or deep resource confirmation wells. Temperature gradient contours based on shallow TG program and faults interpreted from seismic reflection survey are shown, as are two faults interpreted by seismic contractor Optim but not by Oski Energy, LLC.

  9. Proposed Drill Sites

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Lane, Michael

    2013-06-28

    Proposed drill sites for intermediate depth temperature gradient holes and/or deep resource confirmation wells. Temperature gradient contours based on shallow TG program and faults interpreted from seismic reflection survey are shown, as are two faults interpreted by seismic contractor Optim but not by Oski Energy, LLC.

  10. PROJECT PROPOSAL FPGA PAINT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PROJECT PROPOSAL FPGA PAINT Design of Embedded Systems, Advanced Course Faculty to develop a paint program on Digilent Nexys2 FPGA board. We expect it to be a platform of painting on a plain space or painting an existing picture outline with color. There would be options for changing

  11. International Experience with Key Program Elements of IndustrialEnergy Efficiency or Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Target-SettingPrograms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Kramer, Klaas Jan

    2008-02-02

    Target-setting agreements, also known as voluntary ornegotiated agreements, have been used by a number of governments as amechanism for promoting energy efficiency within the industrial sector. Arecent survey of such target-setting agreement programs identified 23energy efficiency or GHG emissions reduction voluntary agreement programsin 18 countries. International best practice related to target-settingagreement programs calls for establishment of a coordinated set ofpolicies that provide strong economic incentives as well as technical andfinancial support to participating industries. The key program elementsof a target-setting program are the target-setting process,identification of energy-saving technologies and measures usingenergy-energy efficiency guidebooks and benchmarking as well as byconducting energy-efficiency audits, development of an energy-savingsaction plan, development and implementation of energy managementprotocols, development of incentives and supporting policies, monitoringprogress toward targets, and program evaluation. This report firstprovides a description of three key target-setting agreement programs andthen describes international experience with the key program elementsthat comprise such programs using information from the three keytarget-setting programs as well as from other international programsrelated to industrial energy efficiency or GHG emissionsreductions.

  12. Comparative Analysis of Modeling Studies on China's Future Energy and Emissions Outlook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David

    2010-09-01

    The past decade has seen the development of various scenarios describing long-term patterns of future Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions, with each new approach adding insights to our understanding of the changing dynamics of energy consumption and aggregate future energy trends. With the recent growing focus on China's energy use and emission mitigation potential, a range of Chinese outlook models have been developed across different institutions including in China's Energy Research Institute's 2050 China Energy and CO2 Emissions Report, McKinsey & Co's China's Green Revolution report, the UK Sussex Energy Group and Tyndall Centre's China's Energy Transition report, and the China-specific section of the IEA World Energy Outlook 2009. At the same time, the China Energy Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has developed a bottom-up, end-use energy model for China with scenario analysis of energy and emission pathways out to 2050. A robust and credible energy and emission model will play a key role in informing policymakers by assessing efficiency policy impacts and understanding the dynamics of future energy consumption and energy saving and emission reduction potential. This is especially true for developing countries such as China, where uncertainties are greater while the economy continues to undergo rapid growth and industrialization. A slightly different assumption or storyline could result in significant discrepancies among different model results. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the key models in terms of their scope, methodologies, key driver assumptions and the associated findings. A comparative analysis of LBNL's energy end-use model scenarios with the five above studies was thus conducted to examine similarities and divergences in methodologies, scenario storylines, macroeconomic drivers and assumptions as well as aggregate energy and emission scenario results. Besides directly tracing different energy and CO{sub 2} savings potential back to the underlying strategies and combination of efficiency and abatement policy instruments represented by each scenario, this analysis also had other important but often overlooked findings.

  13. Emissions Trading and Social Justice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farber, Daniel A

    2011-01-01

    David  M.  Driesen,  Does  Emissions  Trading  Encourage  Jason  Coburn,  Emissions  Trading   and   Environmental  Szambelan,  U.S.  Emissions  Trading  Markets  for  SO 2  

  14. Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Dairy Cows and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    , California 94720, and Department of Animal Science, University of California, Davis, Davis, California 95616 of California Senate Bill 700. The proposed SJV Air District Rule 4570 intends to reduce VOC emissions from

  15. Research Interests My research is motivated by a desire to sustainably manage soil and water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    AND COMPANY, BOSTON, MA -- 2009 Modeled avoided GHG emissions of agricultural anaerobic digester. Published

  16. Technical Report NREL/TP-6A2-48258

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emissions Trading Scheme (European Union) EU European Union GHG greenhouse gas ITC investment tax credit MWh

  17. MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    regulation and have gained attention recently within the context of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading

  18. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 2: Policy Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

    2007-01-01

    innovation and development of new technologies that can dramatically lower GHG emissions at low costs

  19. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 2: Policy Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    innovation and development of new technologies that can dramatically lower GHG emissions at low costs

  20. SUSTAINABILITY 2013/14 FAST FACTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    REBATES AND GHG EMISSIONS REDUCTION INCENTIVES 57% OF CAMPUS DISTRICT ENERGY SYSTEM HEAT SOURCED FROM

  1. Contribution of cooperative sector recycling to greenhouse gas emissions reduction: A case study of Ribeirão Pires, Brazil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, Megan F.; Gutberlet, Jutta

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Cooperative recycling achieves environmental, economic and social objectives. • We calculate GHG emissions reduction for a recycling cooperative in São Paulo, Brazil. • The cooperative merits consideration as a Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) project. • A CDM project would enhance the achievements of the recycling cooperative. • National and local waste management policies support the recycling cooperative. - Abstract: Solid waste, including municipal waste and its management, is a major challenge for most cities and among the key contributors to climate change. Greenhouse gas emissions can be reduced through recovery and recycling of resources from the municipal solid waste stream. In São Paulo, Brazil, recycling cooperatives play a crucial role in providing recycling services including collection, separation, cleaning, stocking, and sale of recyclable resources. The present research attempts to measure the greenhouse gas emission reductions achieved by the recycling cooperative Cooperpires, as well as highlight its socioeconomic benefits. Methods include participant observation, structured interviews, questionnaire application, and greenhouse gas accounting of recycling using a Clean Development Mechanism methodology. The results show that recycling cooperatives can achieve important energy savings and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, and suggest there is an opportunity for Cooperpires and other similar recycling groups to participate in the carbon credit market. Based on these findings, the authors created a simple greenhouse gas accounting calculator for recyclers to estimate their emissions reductions.

  2. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    carbon-intensive fossil fuel, increased by 4.8 percent. 2.8. Carbon dioxide emissions and carbon sequestration from nonfuel uses of energy inputs Nonfuel uses of fossil fuels (for...

  3. Evaluating greenhouse gas emissions from hydropower complexes on large rivers in Eastern Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arntzen, Evan V.; Miller, Benjamin L.; O'Toole, Amanda C.; Niehus, Sara E.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2013-03-15

    Water bodies, such as freshwater lakes, are known to be net emitters of carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4). In recent years, significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from tropical, boreal, and mid-latitude reservoirs have been reported. At a time when hydropower is increasing worldwide, better understanding of seasonal and regional variation in GHG emissions is needed in order to develop a predictive understanding of such fluxes within man-made impoundments. We examined power-producing dam complexes within xeric temperate locations in the northwestern United States. Sampling environments on the Snake (Lower Monumental Dam Complex) and Columbia Rivers (Priest Rapids Dam Complex) included tributary, mainstem, embayment, forebay, and tailrace areas during winter and summer 2012. At each sampling location, GHG measurement pathways included surface gas flux, degassing as water passed through dams during power generation, ebullition within littoral embayments, and direct sampling of hyporheic pore-water. Measurements were also carried out in a free-flowing reach of the Columbia River to estimate unaltered conditions. Surface flux resulted in very low emissions, with reservoirs acting as a sink for CO2 (up to –262 mg m-2 d-1, which is within the range previously reported for similarly located reservoirs). Surface flux of methane remained below 1 mg CH4 m-2d-1, a value well below fluxes reported previously for temperate reservoirs. Water passing through hydroelectric projects acted as a sink for CO2 during winter and a small source during summer, with mean degassing fluxes of –117 and 4.5 t CO2 d-1, respectively. Degassing of CH4 was minimal, with mean fluxes of 3.1 × 10-6 and –5.6 × 10-4 t CH4 d-1 during winter and summer, respectively. Gas flux due to ebullition was greater in coves located within reservoirs than in coves within the free flowing Hanford Reach–and CH4 flux exceeded that of CO2. Methane emissions varied widely across sampling locations, ranging from 10.5 to 1039 mg CH4 m-2 d-1, with mean fluxes of 324 mg CH4 m-2 d-1in Lower Monumental Dam reservoir and 482 mg CH4 m-2d-1 in the Priest Rapids Dam reservoir. The magnitude of methane flux due to ebullition was unexpectedly high, and falls within the range recently reported for other temperate reservoirs around the world, further suggesting that this methane source should be considered in estimates of global greenhouse gas emissions. Methane flux from sediment pore-water within littoral embayments averaged 4.2 mg m-2 d-1 during winter and 8.1 mg m-2 d-1 during summer, with a peak flux of 19.8 mg m-2d-1 (at the same location where CH4 ebullition was also the greatest). Carbon dioxide flux from sediment pore-water averaged approximately 80 mg m-2d-1 with little difference between winter and summer. Similar to emissions from ebullition, flux from sediment pore-water was higher in reservoirs than in the free flowing reach.

  4. BP-12 Final Proposal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O O DBiomassBudget BasicDeliveringOverview: ProgressR8Proposal

  5. Categories for IGPPS Proposals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News PublicationsAudits &BradburyMay 1, 2013,CafeCarbon-freeCary WhitneyProposal Categories

  6. Proposal Study Panels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeedingProgramExemptions |(Conference)Project TourVehicles &Proposal

  7. Proposal Study Panels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeedingProgramExemptions |(Conference)Project TourVehiclesProposal Study Panels

  8. Proposed Conveyance of Land

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeedingProgramExemptions |(Conference)ProjectProposed Settlement for17Conveyance

  9. LANSCE | User Resources | Proposals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid you notHeat Pumps HeatTechnologies| BlandineHistory From theProposals |

  10. LANSCE | User Resources | Proposals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid you notHeat Pumps HeatTechnologies| BlandineHistory From theProposals

  11. LANSCE | User Resources | Proposals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesse Bergkamp Graduate student Subtask2 J.N.openNeutronUserProposals dotline

  12. LANSCE | User Resources | Proposals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesse Bergkamp Graduate student Subtask2 J.N.openNeutronUserProposals

  13. 2015 Electricity Form Proposals

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural Gas ReservesAlabama AlabamaSurvey Forms Proposed Changes to

  14. Low Emissions Aftertreatment and Diesel Emissions Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2005-05-27

    Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) has successfully completed a five-year Low Emissions Aftertreatment and Diesel Emissions Reduction (LEADER) program under a DOE project entitled: ''Research and Development for Compression-Ignition Direct-Injection Engines (CIDI) and Aftertreatment Sub-Systems''. The objectives of the LEADER Program were to: Demonstrate technologies that will achieve future federal Tier 2 emissions targets; and Demonstrate production-viable technical targets for engine out emissions, efficiency, power density, noise, durability, production cost, aftertreatment volume and weight. These objectives were successfully met during the course of the LEADER program The most noteworthy achievements in this program are listed below: (1) Demonstrated Tier 2 Bin 3 emissions target over the FTP75 cycle on a PNGV-mule Neon passenger car, utilizing a CSF + SCR system These aggressive emissions were obtained with no ammonia (NH{sub 3}) slip and a combined fuel economy of 63 miles per gallon, integrating FTP75 and highway fuel economy transient cycle test results. Demonstrated feasibility to achieve Tier 2 Bin 8 emissions levels without active NOx aftertreatment. (2) Demonstrated Tier 2 Bin 3 emissions target over the FTP75 cycle on a light-duty truck utilizing a CSF + SCR system, synergizing efforts with the DOE-DDC DELTA program. This aggressive reduction in tailpipe out emissions was achieved with no ammonia slip and a 41% fuel economy improvement, compared to the equivalent gasoline engine-equipped vehicle. (3) Demonstrated Tier 2 near-Bin 9 emissions compliance on a light-duty truck, without active NOx aftertreatment devices, in synergy with the DOE-DDC DELTA program. (4) Developed and applied advanced combustion technologies such as ''CLEAN Combustion{copyright}'', which yields simultaneous reduction in engine out NOx and PM emissions while also improving engine and aftertreatment integration by providing favorable exhaust species and temperature characteristics. These favorable emissions characteristics were obtained while maintaining performance and fuel economy. These aggressive emissions and performance results were achieved by applying a robust systems technology development methodology. This systems approach benefits substantially from an integrated experimental and analytical approach to technology development, which is one of DDCs core competencies Also, DDC is uniquely positioned to undertake such a systems technology development approach, given its vertically integrated commercial structure within the DaimlerChrysler organization. State-of-the-art analytical tools were developed targeting specific LEADER program objectives and were applied to guide system enhancements and to provide testing directions, resulting in a shortened and efficient development cycle. Application examples include ammonia/NO{sub x} distribution improvement and urea injection controls development, and were key contributors to significantly reduce engine out as well as tailpipe out emissions. Successful cooperation between DDC and Engelhard Corporation, the major subcontractor for the LEADER program and provider of state-of-the-art technologies on various catalysts, was another contributing factor to ensure that both passenger car and LD truck applications achieved Tier 2 Bin 3 emissions levels. Significant technical challenges, which highlight barriers of commercialization of diesel technology for passenger cars and LD truck applications, are presented at the end of this report.

  15. Using Dashboards to Improve Energy and Comfort in Federal Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marini, Kyle

    2011-01-01

    gases (GHG) or carbon footprint, and public education onand lowering the carbon footprint or GHG emissions forby reducing carbon footprint. • Compare buildings’ energy

  16. THE UNUSUAL HYDROCARBON EMISSION FROM THE EARLY CARBON STAR HD 100764: THE CONNECTION BETWEEN AROMATICS AND ALIPHATICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sloan, Gregory C.

    THE UNUSUAL HYDROCARBON EMISSION FROM THE EARLY CARBON STAR HD 100764: THE CONNECTION BETWEEN disk. The spectrum shows emission features from polycyclic aro- matic hydrocarbons (PAHs shifts are consistent with hydrocarbon mixtures containing both aromatic and aliphatic bonds. We propose

  17. ANALYTICAL EMISSION MODELS FOR SIGNALISED ARTERIALS Bruce Hellinga, Mohammad Ali Khan, and Liping Fu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hellinga, Bruce

    ANALYTICAL EMISSION MODELS FOR SIGNALISED ARTERIALS Bruce Hellinga, Mohammad Ali Khan, and Liping for quantifying vehicle tailpipe emissions. In this paper we present non-linear regression models that can be used for emission data is examined using field data. The proposed models have adjusted R 2 values ranging from 0

  18. Vehicle Emissions Review- 2011

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Reviews regulatory requirements and general technology approaches for heavy- and light-duty vehicle emissions control - filter technology, new catalysts, NOx control, diesel oxidation catalysts, gasoline particulate filters

  19. Field emission chemical sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Panitz, J.A.

    1983-11-22

    A field emission chemical sensor for specific detection of a chemical entity in a sample includes a closed chamber enclosing two field emission electrode sets, each field emission electrode set comprising (a) an electron emitter electrode from which field emission electrons can be emitted when an effective voltage is connected to the electrode set; and (b) a collector electrode which will capture said electrons emitted from said emitter electrode. One of the electrode sets is passive to the chemical entity and the other is active thereto and has an active emitter electrode which will bind the chemical entity when contacted therewith.

  20. Modeling Traffic Flow Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cappiello, Alessandra

    2002-09-17

    The main topic of this thesis is the development of light-duty vehicle dynamic emission models and their integration with dynamic traffic models. Combined, these models

  1. Biological Air Emissions Control

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Air quality standards are becoming more stringent for the U.S. wood products industry. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) (including methanol,...

  2. Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.; Arons, Samuel M.; Lemoine, Derek M.; Hummel, Holmes

    2009-01-01

    would in turn lower PHEV fuel costs and make them morestretches from fossil-fuel- powered conventional vehiclesbraking, as do Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions Making Plug-

  3. U.S. Natural Gas System Methane Emissions: State of Knowledge from LCAs, Inventories, and Atmospheric Measurements (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, G.

    2014-04-01

    Natural gas (NG) is a potential "bridge fuel" during transition to a decarbonized energy system: It emits less carbon dioxide during combustion than other fossil fuels and can be used in many industries. However, because of the high global warming potential of methane (CH4, the major component of NG), climate benefits from NG use depend on system leakage rates. Some recent estimates of leakage have challenged the benefits of switching from coal to NG, a large near-term greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction opportunity. During this presentation, Garvin will review evidence from multiple perspectives - life cycle assessments (LCAs), inventories and measurements - about NG leakage in the US. Particular attention will be paid to a recent article in Science magazine which reviewed over 20 years of published measurements to better understand what we know about total methane emissions and those from the oil and gas sectors. Scientific and policy implications of the state of knowledge will be discussed.

  4. Air Emission Inventory for the INEEL -- 1999 Emission Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zohner, Steven K

    2000-05-01

    This report presents the 1999 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  5. Climate and Transportation Solutions: Findings from the 2009 Asilomar Conference on Transportation and Energy Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Daniel; Cannon, James S.

    2010-01-01

    approach based on the full fuel cycle emissions of eachbased, and accounts for full fuel cycle GHG emissions. A

  6. Non-extremal fuzzballs and ergoregion emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borun D. Chowdhury; Samir D. Mathur

    2008-10-23

    In the traditional picture of black holes Hawking radiation is created by pair creation from the vacuum at the horizon. In the fuzzball proposal, individual microstates do not have a horizon with the `vacuum' state in its vicinity. For a special family of non-extremal microstates it was recently found that emission occurs due to pair creation in an ergoregion, rather than at a horizon. In this paper we extend this result to a slightly larger class of microstates, again finding exact agreement between the emission in the gravity picture and the CFT dual. We write down an expression for emission from geometries with ergoregions, in terms of the leading falloff behavior of the wavefunctions in the fuzzball region. Finally, we describe another family of nonextremal microstates and find their ergoregion.

  7. Nanoparticle Emissions from Internal Combustion Engines | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nanoparticle Emissions from Internal Combustion Engines Nanoparticle Emissions from Internal Combustion Engines 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference...

  8. Spontaneous Emission Rate Enhancement Using Optical Antennas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Nikhil

    2013-01-01

    of  Spontaneous  Emission  in  a  Semiconductor  nanoLED,”  emission  rate  enhancement  using  the  Fluorescent  Emission  by  Lattice   Resonances  in  

  9. LBNL Frequently Needed Proposal Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    06/05/2014 LBNL Frequently Needed Proposal Information Frequently Needed Proposal information is LBNL Institutional Information that may be required to complete proposals and grant applications. If you do not find the institutional information you need, please contact your OSPIP Contracts Officer

  10. Contraction & Convergence: UK carbon emissions and the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Andrew

    the EU's emissions trading scheme will do little to mitigate carbon emissions 4) Aviation growth must emissions. Keywords Contraction & Convergence; aviation; emissions trading; passengers; carbon dioxide #12

  11. Inhalation of Vehicle Emissions in Urban Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marshall, Julian David

    2005-01-01

    distances between vehicles, and emissions from neighboringgasoline on motor vehicle emissions. 2. 6 Volatile organicgasoline on motor vehicle emissions. 1. Mass emission rates.

  12. Emission Abatement System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bromberg, Leslie (Sharon, MA); Cohn, Daniel R. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Rabinovich, Alexander (Swampscott, MA)

    2003-05-13

    Emission abatement system. The system includes a source of emissions and a catalyst for receiving the emissions. Suitable catalysts are absorber catalysts and selective catalytic reduction catalysts. A plasma fuel converter generates a reducing gas from a fuel source and is connected to deliver the reducing gas into contact with the absorber catalyst for regenerating the catalyst. A preferred reducing gas is a hydrogen rich gas and a preferred plasma fuel converter is a plasmatron. It is also preferred that the absorber catalyst be adapted for absorbing NO.sub.x.

  13. The Design and Economics of Low Carbon Fuel Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

    The Design and Economics of Low Carbon Fuel Standards Gabriel E. Lade and C.-Y. Cynthia Lin January greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and the vast majority of those emissions are the direct result of fossil fuel in the sector. Proposals include using carbon taxes, fuel economy standards for new vehicles, renewable fuel

  14. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    non-marketed natural gas. g Includes methane emissions related to energy, agriculture, waste management, and industrial processes. h Includes nitrous oxide emissions related...

  15. EPA Emissions | ornl.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    EPA Emissions ORNL research informs new EPA emissions standards July 11, 2014 Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed a streamlined method for determining vehicle...

  16. ZERO EMISSION POWER GENERATION TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald Bischoff; Stephen Doyle

    2005-01-20

    Clean Energy Systems (CES) was previously funded by DOE's ''Vision 21'' program. This program provided a proof-of-concept demonstration that CES' novel gas generator (combustor) enabled production of electrical power from fossil fuels without pollution. CES has used current DOE funding for additional design study exercises which established the utility of the CES-cycle for retrofitting existing power plants for zero-emission operations and for incorporation in zero-emission, ''green field'' power plant concepts. DOE funding also helped define the suitability of existing steam turbine designs for use in the CES-cycle and explored the use of aero-derivative turbines for advanced power plant designs. This work is of interest to the California Energy Commission (CEC) and the Norwegian Ministry of Petroleum & Energy. California's air quality districts have significant non-attainment areas in which CES technology can help. CEC is currently funding a CES-cycle technology demonstration near Bakersfield, CA. The Norwegian government is supporting conceptual studies for a proposed 40 MW zero-emission power plant in Stavager, Norway which would use the CES-cycle. The latter project is called Zero-Emission Norwegian Gas (ZENG). In summary, current engineering studies: (1) supported engineering design of plant subsystems applicable for use with CES-cycle zero-emission power plants, and (2) documented the suitability and availability of steam turbines for use in CES-cycle power plants, with particular relevance to the Norwegian ZENG Project.

  17. CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSION REDUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delaware, University of

    ........................................................................................ 21 2.3.5 Pulp and paper industry Technologies and Measures in Pulp and Paper IndustryCARBON DIOXIDE EMISSION REDUCTION TECHNOLOGIES AND MEASURES IN US INDUSTRIAL SECTOR FINAL REPORT

  18. Gas Turbine Emissions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frederick, J. D.

    1990-01-01

    Historically, preliminary design information regarding gas turbine emissions has been unreliable, particularly for facilities using steam injection and other forms of Best Available Control Technology (BACT). This was probably attributed to the lack...

  19. Photon enhanced thermionic emission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schwede, Jared; Melosh, Nicholas; Shen, Zhixun

    2014-10-07

    Photon Enhanced Thermionic Emission (PETE) is exploited to provide improved efficiency for radiant energy conversion. A hot (greater than 200.degree. C.) semiconductor cathode is illuminated such that it emits electrons. Because the cathode is hot, significantly more electrons are emitted than would be emitted from a room temperature (or colder) cathode under the same illumination conditions. As a result of this increased electron emission, the energy conversion efficiency can be significantly increased relative to a conventional photovoltaic device. In PETE, the cathode electrons can be (and typically are) thermalized with respect to the cathode. As a result, PETE does not rely on emission of non-thermalized electrons, and is significantly easier to implement than hot-carrier emission approaches.

  20. Field emission electron source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zettl, Alexander Karlwalter (Kensington, CA); Cohen, Marvin Lou (Berkeley, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A novel field emitter material, field emission electron source, and commercially feasible fabrication method is described. The inventive field emission electron source produces reliable electron currents of up to 400 mA/cm.sup.2 at 200 volts. The emitter is robust and the current it produces is not sensitive to variability of vacuum or the distance between the emitter tip and the cathode. The novel emitter has a sharp turn-on near 100 volts.

  1. Allocation of emission rights Economic incentives for emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allocation of emission rights Economic incentives for emission reductions of CO2 in developing of Physical Resource Theory #12;CO2 per capita emissions in 1999 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Population PercapitaCO2emissions(tonC/cap/yr) AFRICA CPA FAR EAST MEA OCEANIA WEU NAM FSU/ EEU WORLD AVERAGE LAM Department

  2. A HISTORY OF ON-ROAD EMISSIONS AND EMISSIONS DETERIORATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denver, University of

    emissions relative to the newer. · Why? IM240 is registration based, every old car is supposed to be testedA HISTORY OF ON-ROAD EMISSIONS AND EMISSIONS DETERIORATION www.feat.biochem.du.edu www of Denver 2101 E. Wesley Ave. Denver, CO 80208 303 871-2580.. FAX 2587 dstedman@du.edu #12;Emissions

  3. Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Emission factors Shawn Urbanski

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Emission factors Shawn Urbanski Missoula Fire burning Greenhouse gases Emission factors a b s t r a c t While the vast majority of carbon emitted mixture of gases and aerosols. Primary emissions include sig- nificant amounts of CH4 and aerosol (organic

  4. Unsolicited Proposals | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    for all Unsolicited Proposals is the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) which includes all DOE Program Research Areas. http:www.netl.doe.govbusinessuspunsol.html...

  5. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Effects of the Built Environment on Transportation. Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Other Factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter, C. D.; Brown, A.; Dunphy, R. T.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2013-03-15

    Planning initiatives in many regions and communities aim to reduce transportation energy use, decrease emissions, and achieve related environmental benefits by changing land use. This report reviews and summarizes findings from existing literature on the relationship between the built environment and transportation energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, identifying results trends as well as potential future actions. The indirect influence of federal transportation and housing policies, as well as the direct impact of municipal regulation on land use are examined for their effect on transportation patterns and energy use. Special attention is given to the 'four D' factors of density, diversity, design and accessibility. The report concludes that policy-driven changes to the built environment could reduce transportation energy and GHG emissions from less than 1% to as much as 10% by 2050, the equivalent of 16%-18% of present-day urban light-duty-vehicle travel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  6. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Effects of the Built Environment on Transportation: Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Other Factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter, C. D.; Brown, A.; Dunphy, R. T.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2013-03-01

    Planning initiatives in many regions and communities aim to reduce transportation energy use, decrease emissions, and achieve related environmental benefits by changing land use. This report reviews and summarizes findings from existing literature on the relationship between the built environment and transportation energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, identifying results trends as well as potential future actions. The indirect influence of federal transportation and housing policies, as well as the direct impact of municipal regulation on land use are examined for their effect on transportation patterns and energy use. Special attention is given to the 'four D' factors of density, diversity, design and accessibility. The report concludes that policy-driven changes to the built environment could reduce transportation energy and GHG emissions from less than 1% to as much as 10% by 2050, the equivalent of 16%-18% of present-day urban light-duty-vehicle travel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  7. EIS-0186: Proposed Healy Clean Coal Project, Healy, AK

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This environmental impact statement analyzes two proposed technologies. Under the Department of Energy's third solicitation of the Clean Coal Technology Program, the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority conceived, designed, and proposed the Healy Clean Coal Project. The project, a coal-fired power generating facility, would provide the necessary data for evaluating the commercial readiness of two promising technologies for decreasing emissions of sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, and particulate matter. DOE prepared this statement to analyze potential impacts of their potential support for this project.

  8. Continuum Radio Emission and Diagnostics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Stephen

    Continuum Radio Emission and Diagnostics The Sun is a strong radio source (one of the first objects discusses incoher­ ent emission from thermal plasma in the non­flaring so­ lar atmosphere; other relevant material may be found in Coherent Plasma Emission and in Solar Flares: Radio Bursts. Emission mechanisms

  9. Progress Update: Creating Mobile Emission Reduction Credits

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Emission Reduction Specialists

  10. After 2020: prospects for Higher RPS Levels inHigher RPS Levels in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scoping Plan · Progress on 2020 GHG goals Energy Policy Report (IEPR) · "Evaluation of · Proposed bill proposals are likely in next session 2 modeling session #12;Why Renewable Energy? 1. California leadership in 2011 covered 62% of global emissions China (28%), United States (16%), EU27 (11%), India (7

  11. Deconstructing (2,0) Proposals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Lambert; C. Papageorgakis; M. Schmidt-Sommerfeld

    2013-06-27

    We examine the relationships between three proposals for the six-dimensional (2,0) theory: the DLCQ of hep-th/9707079, hep-th/9712117, the deconstruction prescription of hep-th/0110146, and the five-dimensional maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills proposal of 1012.2880, 1012.2882. We show that hep-th/0110146 gives a deconstruction of five-dimensional maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills. The proposal of hep-th/9707079, hep-th/9712117 uses a subset of the degrees of freedom of five-dimensional Yang-Mills and we show that compactification of it on a circle of finite radius agrees with the DLCQ arising from the proposal of 1012.2880, 1012.2882 or from the deconstruction proposal of hep-th/0110146.

  12. Well-to-wheels analysis of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.; Poch, L.; Wang, M.; Vyas, A.; Mahalik, M.; Rousseau, A.

    2010-06-14

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are being developed for mass production by the automotive industry. PHEVs have been touted for their potential to reduce the US transportation sector's dependence on petroleum and cut greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by (1) using off-peak excess electric generation capacity and (2) increasing vehicles energy efficiency. A well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis - which examines energy use and emissions from primary energy source through vehicle operation - can help researchers better understand the impact of the upstream mix of electricity generation technologies for PHEV recharging, as well as the powertrain technology and fuel sources for PHEVs. For the WTW analysis, Argonne National Laboratory researchers used the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model developed by Argonne to compare the WTW energy use and GHG emissions associated with various transportation technologies to those associated with PHEVs. Argonne researchers estimated the fuel economy and electricity use of PHEVs and alternative fuel/vehicle systems by using the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) model. They examined two PHEV designs: the power-split configuration and the series configuration. The first is a parallel hybrid configuration in which the engine and the electric motor are connected to a single mechanical transmission that incorporates a power-split device that allows for parallel power paths - mechanical and electrical - from the engine to the wheels, allowing the engine and the electric motor to share the power during acceleration. In the second configuration, the engine powers a generator, which charges a battery that is used by the electric motor to propel the vehicle; thus, the engine never directly powers the vehicle's transmission. The power-split configuration was adopted for PHEVs with a 10- and 20-mile electric range because they require frequent use of the engine for acceleration and to provide energy when the battery is depleted, while the series configuration was adopted for PHEVs with a 30- and 40-mile electric range because they rely mostly on electrical power for propulsion. Argonne researchers calculated the equivalent on-road (real-world) fuel economy on the basis of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency miles per gallon (mpg)-based formulas. The reduction in fuel economy attributable to the on-road adjustment formula was capped at 30% for advanced vehicle systems (e.g., PHEVs, fuel cell vehicles [FCVs], hybrid electric vehicles [HEVs], and battery-powered electric vehicles [BEVs]). Simulations for calendar year 2020 with model year 2015 mid-size vehicles were chosen for this analysis to address the implications of PHEVs within a reasonable timeframe after their likely introduction over the next few years. For the WTW analysis, Argonne assumed a PHEV market penetration of 10% by 2020 in order to examine the impact of significant PHEV loading on the utility power sector. Technological improvement with medium uncertainty for each vehicle was also assumed for the analysis. Argonne employed detailed dispatch models to simulate the electric power systems in four major regions of the US: the New England Independent System Operator, the New York Independent System Operator, the State of Illinois, and the Western Electric Coordinating Council. Argonne also evaluated the US average generation mix and renewable generation of electricity for PHEV and BEV recharging scenarios to show the effects of these generation mixes on PHEV WTW results. Argonne's GREET model was designed to examine the WTW energy use and GHG emissions for PHEVs and BEVs, as well as FCVs, regular HEVs, and conventional gasoline internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). WTW results are reported for charge-depleting (CD) operation of PHEVs under different recharging scenarios. The combined WTW results of CD and charge-sustaining (CS) PHEV operations (using the utility factor method) were also examined and reported. According to the utility factor method, the share of vehicle miles trav

  13. Proposals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeedingProgramExemptions |(Conference)Project

  14. Proposal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich MatricesstudentsProjectsProperty - THERE ARE NO

  15. On the Nature of Pulsar Radio Emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxim Lyutikov; Roger D. Blandford; George Machabeli

    1998-06-27

    A theory of pulsar radio emission generation, in which the observed waves are produced directly by maser-type plasma instabilities operating at the anomalous cyclotron-Cherenkov resonance $\\omega- k_{\\parallel} v_{\\parallel} + \\omega_B/ \\gamma_{res}=0$ and the Cherenkov-drift resonance $\\omega- k_{\\parallel} v_{\\parallel} - k_{\\perp} u_d =0$, is capable of explaining the main observational characteristics of pulsar radio emission. The instabilities are due to the interaction of the fast particles from the primary beam and the tail of the distribution with the normal modes of a strongly magnetized one-dimensional electron-positron plasma. The waves emitted at these resonances are vacuum-like, electromagnetic waves that may leave the magnetosphere directly. In this model, the cyclotron-Cherenkov instability is responsible for core emission pattern and the Cherenkov-drift instability produces conal emission. The conditions for the development of the cyclotron-Cherenkov instability are satisfied for both typical and millisecond pulsars provided that the streaming energy of the bulk plasma is not very high $\\gamma_p \\approx 10$. In a typical pulsar the cyclotron-Cherenkov and Cherenkov-drift resonances occur in the outer parts of magnetosphere at $r_{res} \\approx 10^9 cm$. This theory can account for various aspects of pulsar phenomenology including the morphology of the pulses, their polarization properties and their spectral behavior. We propose several observational tests for the theory. The most prominent prediction are the high altitudes of the emission region and the linear polarization of conal emission in the plane orthogonal to the local osculating plane of the magnetic field.

  16. Controlled spontaneous emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jae-Seung Lee; Mary A. Rohrdanz; A. K. Khitrin

    2007-07-03

    The problem of spontaneous emission is studied by a direct computer simulation of the dynamics of a combined system: atom + radiation field. The parameters of the discrete finite model, including up to 20k field oscillators, have been optimized by a comparison with the exact solution for the case when the oscillators have equidistant frequencies and equal coupling constants. Simulation of the effect of multi-pulse sequence of phase kicks and emission by a pair of atoms shows that both the frequency and the linewidth of the emitted spectrum could be controlled.

  17. Optimal irreversible stimulated emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D Valente; Y Li; J P Poizat; J M Gerard; L C Kwek; M F Santos; A Auffeves

    2012-08-28

    We studied the dynamics of an initially inverted atom in a semi-infinite waveguide, in the presence of a single propagating photon. We show that atomic relaxation is enhanced by a factor of 2, leading to maximal bunching in the output field. This optimal irreversible stimulated emission is a novel phenomenon that can be observed with state-of-the-art solid-state atoms and waveguides. When the atom interacts with two one-dimensional electromagnetic environments, the preferential emission in the stimulated field can be exploited to efficiently amplify a classical or a quantum state.

  18. Multi-criteria comparison of fuel policies: Renewable fuel mandate, fuel emission-standards, and fuel carbon tax

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Deepak; Hochman, G.; Zilberman, D.

    2012-01-01

    a Ratio of GHG intensity of oilsand 1.1 a products relativecrude) Oil products 0% (oilsand) Corn ethanol Cane ethanol

  19. Emissions Trading and Air Toxics Emissions: RECLAIM and Toxics Regulation in the South Coast Air Basin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Nancy J.

    1993-01-01

    Emissions Trading and Air Toxics Emissions: RECLAIM anda mar- ket-based emissions trading program called theimpacts cre- ated by emissions trading programs that affect

  20. Secondary emission gas chamber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. In'shakov; V. Kryshkin; V. Skvortsov

    2014-12-10

    For a hadron calorimeter active element there is considered a gaseous secondary emis-sion detector (150 micron gap, 50 kV/cm). Such one-stage parallel plate chamber must be a radiation hard, fast and simple. A model of such detector has been produced, tested and some characteristics are presented.

  1. Graphene Coating Coupled Emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyamasundar, R.K.

    Graphene Coating Coupled Emission A COMSET, A single sheet of sp2-hybridized carbon atoms, called of graphene and its unique properties, I will present amplification of surface graphene-Ag hybrid films which when graphene is used as the spacer layer in a conventional Ag- harnessed the nonlinear properties

  2. Proposed Curriculum in Spatial Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Proposed Curriculum in Spatial Sciences Catalog 14-15 University Core Curriculum Required Courses...............................................................................................................(3-2) 4 39 #12;Spatial Sciences Core Curriculum ESSM 444 Remote Sensing of the Environment

  3. Estimating carbon dioxide emission factors for the California electric power sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marnay, Chris; Fisher, Diane; Murtishaw, Scott; Phadke, Amol; Price, Lynn; Sathaye, Jayant

    2002-08-01

    The California Climate Action Registry (''Registry'') was initially established in 2000 under Senate Bill 1771, and clarifying legislation (Senate Bill 527) was passed in September 2001. The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has been asked to provide technical assistance to the California Energy Commission (CEC) in establishing methods for calculating average and marginal electricity emissions factors, both historic and current, as well as statewide and for sub-regions. This study is exploratory in nature. It illustrates the use of three possible approaches and is not a rigorous estimation of actual emissions factors. While the Registry will ultimately cover emissions of all greenhouse gases (GHGs), presently it is focusing on carbon dioxide (CO2). Thus, this study only considers CO2, which is by far the largest GHG emitted in the power sector. Associating CO2 emissions with electricity consumption encounters three major complications. First, electricity can be generated from a number of different primary energy sources, many of which are large sources of CO2 emissions (e.g., coal combustion) while others result in virtually no CO{sub 2} emissions (e.g., hydro). Second, the mix of generation resources used to meet loads may vary at different times of day or in different seasons. Third, electrical energy is transported over long distances by complex transmission and distribution systems, so the generation sources related to electricity usage can be difficult to trace and may occur far from the jurisdiction in which that energy is consumed. In other words, the emissions resulting from electricity consumption vary considerably depending on when and where it is used since this affects the generation sources providing the power. There is no practical way to identify where or how all the electricity used by a certain customer was generated, but by reviewing public sources of data the total emission burden of a customer's electricity supplier can b e found and an average emissions factor (AEF) calculated. These are useful for assigning a net emission burden to a facility. In addition, marginal emissions factors (MEFs) for estimating the effect of changing levels of usage can be calculated. MEFs are needed because emission rates at the margin are likely to diverge from the average. The overall objective of this task is to develop methods for estimating AEFs and MEFs that can provide an estimate of the combined net CO2 emissions from all generating facilities that provide electricity to California electricity customers. The method covers the historic period from 1990 to the present, with 1990 and 1999 used as test years. The factors derived take into account the location and time of consumption, direct contracts for power which may have certain atypical characteristics (e.g., ''green'' electricity from renewable resources), resource mixes of electricity providers, import and export of electricity from utility owned and other sources, and electricity from cogeneration. It is assumed that the factors developed in this way will diverge considerably from simple statewide AEF estimates based on standardized inventory estimates that use conventions inconsistent with the goals of this work. A notable example concerns the treatment of imports, which despite providing a significant share of California's electricity supply picture, are excluded from inventory estimates of emissions, which are based on geographical boundaries of the state.

  4. An Emission Saved is an Emission Earned: An Empirical Study of Emission Banking for Light-Duty Vehicle Manufacturers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubin, Jonathan D.; Kling, Catherine

    1993-01-01

    System for Light-Duty Vehicle Emission Control," Ph.D.the same number of vehicles and emissions in each category.estimates for vehicle emissions, unpublished manuscript,

  5. CPS Energy Prospective on the EPA Proposed Carbon Rule 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, R.

    2014-01-01

    : Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 CPS ENERGY PERSPECTIVE ON THE EPA PROPOSED CARBON RULE R A I F O R D S M I T H V P, C O R P. D E V E LO P M E N T & P L A N N I N G N OV E M B E R 1 9 , 2 0 1 4 2 ESL-KT-14...-11-18 CATEE 2014: Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY • On June 2, 2014 EPA proposed new regulation for the emission of Greenhouse Gases from existing power plants • EPA proposal calls for utilities to reduce CO...

  6. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    consumption 13 U.S. carbon dioxide emissions from nonfuel uses of energy fuels 14 U.S. carbon sequestration from nonfuel uses of energy fuels 15 U.S. carbon dioxide emissions:...

  7. Sharing a quota on cumulative carbon emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-01

    redistribution by emissions trading) is the time for whichof offset such as emissions trading (see below). For thebefore any possible emissions trading, are plotted against

  8. Greenhouse gas emissions in biogas production systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dittert, Klaus; Senbayram, Mehmet; Wienforth, Babette; Kage, Henning; Muehling, Karl H

    2009-01-01

    Cameron KC. Nitrous oxide emissions from two dairy pastureand land use on N 2 O emissions from an imperfectly drainedoptions for N 2 O emissions from differently managed

  9. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wahl, Linnea

    2012-01-01

    470E-20Ì1 Radionuclide Air Emission Report for Prepared by:Environmental Protection Agency, National Emission Standardsfor Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From

  10. Sesquiterpene emissions from vegetation: A review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duhl, AB

    2008-01-01

    The investigators plotted ?-Car emission data as function ofbelow which ?-Car emissions cannot occur. Temperature ex-e.g. , Helmig, 2006). ?-Car emissions from sunflower were

  11. Fuels, Engines & Emissions | Clean Energy | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuels, Engines, Emissions SHARE Fuels, Engines and Emissions Research Fuels, Engines, and Emissions research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is helping identify ways to increase...

  12. Feasibility study for a correlation electron cyclotron emission turbulence diagnostic based on nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mikkelsen, D. R.

    This paper describes the use of nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations to assess the feasibility of a new correlation electron cyclotron emission (CECE) diagnostic that has been proposed for the Alcator C-Mod tokamak (Marmar ...

  13. EIS-0284: Low-Emission Boiler System (LEBS) Proof-of-Concept System, Elkhart, Illinois

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS evaluates the potential environmental impacts of a proposal by Babcock Borsig Power to design, construct, and operate an advanced pulverized coal-fired power facility using a low emission...

  14. Comparison of Life Cycle Emissions and Energy Consumption for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clarens, Andres

    Comparison of Life Cycle Emissions and Energy Consumption for Environmentally Adapted Metalworking of environmentally adapted lubricants have been proposed in response to the environmental and health impacts/or deliver minimum quantities of lubricant in gas rather than water, with the former strategy being more

  15. Stimulated Emission of Radiation in a Nuclear Fusion Reaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Duren

    1999-04-06

    This letter claims that process of stimulated emission of radiation can be used to induce a fusion reaction in a HD molecule to produce Helium-3. An experimental set-up for this reaction is presented. It is proposed to study the technical potential of this reaction as an energy amplifier.

  16. CSIRO AUSTRALIA Future Emissions and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CSIRO AUSTRALIA Future Emissions and Concentrations of Carbon Dioxide: Key Ocean Cataloguing­in­Publication Entry Enting, I.G. Future Emissions and Concentrations of Carbon Dioxide: Key Ocean Emissions and Concentrations of Carbon Dioxide: Key Ocean/Atmosphere/Land Analyses Written and edited by I

  17. Introduction to Positron Emission Tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oakes, Terry

    range: 1-10 mm Gamma-Ray range: 10 mm - 8 positron annihilation #12;Positron Emission TomographyIntroduction to Positron Emission Tomography Positron Annihilation 180 o #1 #2 with your host detector #2 detector #1 #2 #1 detector ring #12;Positron Emission Tomography detector #2 detector #1 #2

  18. Low emissions diesel fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Compere, Alicia L. (Knoxville, TN); Griffith, William L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dorsey, George F. (Farragut, TN); West, Brian H. (Kingston, TN)

    1998-01-01

    A method and matter of composition for controlling NO.sub.x emissions from existing diesel engines. The method is achieved by adding a small amount of material to the diesel fuel to decrease the amount of NO.sub.x produced during combustion. Specifically, small amounts, less than about 1%, of urea or a triazine compound (methylol melamines) are added to diesel fuel. Because urea and triazine compounds are generally insoluble in diesel fuel, microemulsion technology is used to suspend or dissolve the urea or triazine compound in the diesel fuel. A typical fuel formulation includes 5% t-butyl alcohol, 4.5% water, 0.5% urea or triazine compound, 9% oleic acid, and 1% ethanolamine. The subject invention provides improved emissions in heavy diesel engines without the need for major modifications.

  19. Low emissions diesel fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Dorsey, G.F.; West, B.H.

    1998-05-05

    A method and matter of composition for controlling NO{sub x} emissions from existing diesel engines. The method is achieved by adding a small amount of material to the diesel fuel to decrease the amount of NO{sub x} produced during combustion. Specifically, small amounts, less than about 1%, of urea or a triazine compound (methylol melamines) are added to diesel fuel. Because urea and triazine compounds are generally insoluble in diesel fuel, microemulsion technology is used to suspend or dissolve the urea or triazine compound in the diesel fuel. A typical fuel formulation includes 5% t-butyl alcohol, 4.5% water, 0.5% urea or triazine compound, 9% oleic acid, and 1% ethanolamine. The subject invention provides improved emissions in heavy diesel engines without the need for major modifications.

  20. Diesel hybridization and emissions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pasquier, M.; Monnet, G.

    2004-04-21

    The CTR Vehicle Systems and Fuels team a diesel hybrid powertrain. The goal of this experiment was to investigate and demonstrate the potential of diesel engines for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) in a fuel economy and emissions. The test set-up consisted of a diesel engine coupled to an electric motor driving a Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT). This hybrid drive is connected to a dynamometer and a DC electrical power source creating a vehicle context by combining advanced computer models and emulation techniques. The experiment focuses on the impact of the hybrid control strategy on fuel economy and emissions-in particular, nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and particulate matter (PM). The same hardware and test procedure were used throughout the entire experiment to assess the impact of different control approaches.

  1. Model limits on the role of volcanic carbon emissions in regulating glacialinterglacial CO2 variations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortunat, Joos

    Model limits on the role of volcanic carbon emissions in regulating glacial­interglacial CO2 (2009) proposed that an increase in volcanic activity provoked by ice sheet melting contributed emissions in regulating glacial­interglacial CO2 variations, but uncertainties prevent a firm conclusion

  2. Analysis of Emission Shapes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Danielewicz

    2007-07-03

    Shapes of relative emission sources can be accessed by expanding shapes of correlations at low relative velocities in pair center of mass in Cartesian harmonics. Coefficients of expansion for correlations are related to the respective coefficients of expansion for the sources through one dimensional integral transforms involving properties of pair relative wavefunctions. The methodology is illustrated with analyses of NA49 and PHENIX correlation data.

  3. TECHNICAL PROPOSAL Table of Contents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ____________________________________________ 13 A.4.5 Energy Management ____________________________________________ 14 Related Work, the DSG has proposed building a test bed patient monitoring system in the Emergency Department monitoring system. The three main components of this system are (1) a patient­ based sensor system; (2

  4. TECHNICAL PROPOSAL Table of Contents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ____________________________________________ 13 A.4.5 Energy Management ____________________________________________ 14 Related Work of Advanced Network Infrastructure Technology in Health and Disaster Management," the Decision Systems Group proposed building a test bed patient monitoring system in the Emergency Department at the Brigham and Women

  5. Grasers: proposals, problems, and prospects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baldwin, G.C.

    1982-01-01

    The possibility and potentiality of amplification of recoilless radiation emitted by nuclear isomers has long been recognized; nevertheless, development of gamma-ray lasers continues to await resolution of the pumping vs. linebreadth dilemma. Problems that accompany proposals for reducing the excitation requirements and suggest areas of investigation that may contribute to resolving the dilemma are identified; several involve use of optical lasers.

  6. Climate Change Proposed Scoping Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Climate Change Proposed Scoping Plan a amework for change Prepared by the California Air ResourcesBackgroundBackgroundBackground ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4444 1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California

  7. Proposals that work Barbara Crutchley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gosselin, Louis A.

    with lower ratings are often not discussed at the funding meeting: "The proposed program of research is generally consistent with the standards of the field but is not particularly innovative, or may Justification Be Reasonable! Don't overestimate your costs ­ a padded budget can easily irritate the reviewer

  8. Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Distributed Energy Resource Technology Characterizations. ”ABORATORY Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions5128 Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions

  9. Drivers, Trends and Mitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanco, Arthur S.; Gerlagh, Reyer; Suh, Sangwon; Barrett, John A.; de Coninck, Heleen; Diaz Morejon, Cristobal Felix; Mathur, Ritu; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa; Ahenkorah, Alfred Ofosu; Pan, Jiahua; Pathak, Himanshu; Rice, Jake; Richels, Richard G.; Smith, Steven J.; Stern, David; Toth, Ferenc L.; Zhou, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Chapter 5 analyzes the anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends until the present and the main drivers that explain those trends. The chapter uses different perspectives to analyze past GHG-emissions trends, including aggregate emissions flows and per capita emissions, cumulative emissions, sectoral emissions, and territory-based vs. consumption-based emissions. In all cases, global and regional trends are analyzed. Where appropriate, the emission trends are contextualized with long-term historic developments in GHG emissions extending back to 1750.

  10. Thesis Proposal Guidelines for the Molecular Genetics and Genomics Program Timing of the Thesis Proposal (or Pre-Proposal)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gereau, Robert W. IV

    Thesis Proposal Guidelines for the Molecular Genetics and Genomics Program Timing of the Thesis Proposal (or Pre-Proposal) NEW: Students are encouraged to present a thesis proposal as soon as possible the thesis proposal by December 31 of their second year). If a student anticipates that he or she

  11. Controlling NOx emission from industrial sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srivastava, R.K.; Nueffer, W.; Grano, D.; Khan, S.; Staudt, J.E.; Jozewicz, W.

    2005-07-01

    A number of regulatory actions focused on reducing NOx emissions from stationary combustion sources have been taken in the United States in the last decade. These actions include the Acid Rain NOx regulations, the Ozone Transport Commission's NOx Budget Program, and the NOx SIP Call rulemakings. In addition to these regulations, the recent Interstate Air Quality Rulemaking proposal and other bills in the Congress are focusing on additional reductions of NOx. Industrial combustion sources accounted for about 18016 of NOx emissions in the United States in 2000 and constituted the second largest emitting source category within stationary sources, only behind electric utility sources. Based on these data, reduction of NOx emissions from industrial combustion sources is an important consideration in efforts undertaken to address the environmental concerns associated with NOx. This paper discusses primary and secondary NOx control technologies applicable to various major categories of industrial sources. The sources considered in this paper include large boilers, furnaces and fired heaters, combustion turbines, large IC engines, and cement kilns. For each source category considered in this paper, primary NOx controls are discussed first, followed by a discussion of secondary NOx controls.

  12. Capital investment requirements for greenhouse gas emissions mitigation in power generation on near term to century time scales and global to regional spatial scales

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Clarke, Leon E.; Edmonds, James A.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Kyle, G. Page

    2014-11-01

    Electrification plays a crucial role in cost-effective greenhouse gas emissions mitigation strategies. Such strategies in turn carry implications for financial capital markets. This paper explores the implication of climate mitigation policy for capital investment demands by the electric power sector on decade to century time scales. We go further to explore the implications of technology performance and the stringency of climate policy for capital investment demands by the power sector. Finally, we discuss the regional distribution of investment demands. We find that stabilizing GHG emissions will require additional investment in the electricity generation sector over and above investments that would be need in the absence of climate policy, in the range of 16 to 29 Trillion US$ (60-110%) depending on the stringency of climate policy during the period 2015 to 2095 under default technology assumptions. This increase reflects the higher capital intensity of power systems that control emissions. Limits on the penetration of nuclear and carbon capture and storage technology could increase costs substantially. Energy efficiency improvements can reduce the investment requirement by 8 to21 Trillion US$ (default technology assumptions), depending on climate policy scenario with higher savings being obtained under the most stringent climate policy. The heaviest investments in power generation were observed in the China, India, SE Asia and Africa regions with the latter three regions dominating in the second half of the 21st century.

  13. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Welch, M. J.

    1990-01-00

    Positron emission tomography (PET) assesses biochemical processes in the living subject, producing images of function rather than form. Using PET, physicians are able to obtain not the anatomical information provided by other medical imaging techniques, but pictures of physiological activity. In metaphoric terms, traditional imaging methods supply a map of the body's roadways, its, anatomy; PET shows the traffic along those paths, its biochemistry. This document discusses the principles of PET, the radiopharmaceuticals in PET, PET research, clinical applications of PET, the cost of PET, training of individuals for PET, the role of the United States Department of Energy in PET, and the futures of PET.

  14. Acoustic emission intrusion detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carver, Donald W. (Knoxville, TN); Whittaker, Jerry W. (Knoxville, TN)

    1980-01-01

    An intrusion detector is provided for detecting a forcible entry into a secured structure while minimizing false alarms. The detector uses a piezoelectric crystal transducer to sense acoustic emissions. The transducer output is amplified by a selectable gain amplifier to control the sensitivity. The rectified output of the amplifier is applied to a Schmitt trigger circuit having a preselected threshold level to provide amplitude discrimination. Timing circuitry is provided which is activated by successive pulses from the Schmitt trigger which lie within a selected time frame for frequency discrimination. Detected signals having proper amplitude and frequency trigger an alarm within the first complete cycle time of a detected acoustical disturbance signal.

  15. II. Greenhouse gas markets, carbon dioxide credits and biofuels17

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    biofuels production. GHG policies18 that create a carbon price either through an emissions trading system analysed in the previous chapter. GHG policies that create an emissions trading system such as the cap

  16. Life-cycle Environmental Inventory of Passenger Transportation in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chester, Mikhail V

    2008-01-01

    energy  and  GHG performance of Chicago and New York is the Chicago and New York systems where energy and  emissions CO 2 e).  For New York, life?cycle energy and GHG emissions 

  17. Sponsors of CIEEDAC: Environment Canada Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Industry Program for Energy Conservation, Aluminium Industry Association, Canadian Chemical Producers' Association, Canadian Electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of making more transparent data available to the public; · initiating the historical GHG emissions review ++ ­ + Prices + ­ + Crude oil -use Energy Data and Analysis Centre Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC February, 2008 #12;GHG Emissions

  18. Zero emission coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziock, H.; Lackner, K.

    2000-08-01

    We discuss a novel, emission-free process for producing hydrogen or electricity from coal. Even though we focus on coal, the basic design is compatible with any carbonaceous fuel. The process uses cyclical carbonation of calcium oxide to promote the production of hydrogen from carbon and water. The carbonation of the calcium oxide removes carbon dioxide from the reaction products and provides the additional energy necessary to complete hydrogen production without additional combustion of carbon. The calcination of the resulting calcium carbonate is accomplished using the high temperature waste heat from solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), which generate electricity from hydrogen fuel. Converting waste heat back to useful chemical energy allows the process to achieve very high conversion efficiency from fuel energy to electrical energy. As the process is essentially closed-loop, the process is able to achieve zero emissions if the concentrated exhaust stream of CO{sub 2} is sequestered. Carbon dioxide disposal is accomplished by the production of magnesium carbonate from ultramafic rock. The end products of the sequestration process are stable naturally occurring minerals. Sufficient rich ultramafic deposits exist to easily handle all the world's coal.

  19. Elastic emission polishing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loewenthal, M.; Loseke, K.; Dow, T.A.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    Elastic emission polishing, also called elastic emission machining (EEM), is a process where a stream of abrasive slurry is used to remove material from a substrate and produce damage free surfaces with controlled surface form. It is a noncontacting method utilizing a thick elasto-hydrodynamic film formed between a soft rotating ball and the workpiece to control the flow of the abrasive. An apparatus was built in the Center, which consists of a stationary spindle, a two-axis table for the workpiece, and a pump to circulate the working fluid. The process is controlled by a programmable computer numerical controller (CNC), which presently can operate the spindle speed and movement of the workpiece in one axis only. This apparatus has been used to determine material removal rates on different material samples as a function of time, utilizing zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) particles suspended in distilled water as the working fluid. By continuing a study of removal rates the process should become predictable, and thus create a new, effective, yet simple tool for ultra-precision mechanical machining of surfaces.

  20. Carbon Trading Protocols for Geologic Sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoversten, Shanna

    2009-01-01

    EU ETS: European Union Emissions Trading System GHG: Greenstarts operating an emissions trading scheme (ETS) similarGovernments operating emissions trading systems face the

  1. Toward a Post-Kyoto Climate Change Architecture: A Political Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raustiala, Kal; Keohane, Robert O.

    2009-01-01

    FOR INTERNATIONAL GHG EMISSIONS TRADING (2000), http://al. , International Emissions Trading Rules as a Compliancethe Economic Benefits of Emissions Trading Under the Kyoto

  2. 1 Copyright 2007 by ASME Proceedings of the ASME 2008 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences & Computers and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papalambros, Panos

    . Negative externalities related to automobiles include traffic congestion, harmful pollutant emissions, road degradation, accidents, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Mechanisms such as fuel taxes, emissions standards

  3. Sandia Energy - Greenhouse Gas Source Attribution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for 80 percent of anthropogenic GHG emissions and 98 percent of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Approximately 60 percent of anthropogenic CO2 emissions are from the use of...

  4. Hydrogen as an Energy Carrier: Outlook for 2010, 2030, and 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ogden, Joan M

    2004-01-01

    scale with nearly zero full fuel cycle emissions of GHG andthe electricity, the full fuel cycle carbon emissions fromuse have the same full fuel cycle emissions of greenhouse

  5. Solid Fuel - Oxygen Fired Combustion for Production of Nodular Reduced Iron to Reduce CO2 Emissions and Improve Energy Efficiencies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald R. Fosnacht; Richard F. Kiesel; David W. Hendrickson; David J. Englund; Iwao Iwasaki; Rodney L. Bleifuss; Mathew A. Mlinar

    2011-12-22

    The current trend in the steel industry is an increase in iron and steel produced in electric arc furnaces (EAF) and a gradual decline in conventional steelmaking from taconite pellets in blast furnaces. In order to expand the opportunities for the existing iron ore mines beyond their blast furnace customer base, a new material is needed to satisfy the market demands of the emerging steel industry while utilizing the existing infrastructure and materials handling capabilities. This demand creates opportunity to convert iron ore or other iron bearing materials to Nodular Reduced Iron (NRI) in a recently designed Linear Hearth Furnace (LHF). NRI is a metallized iron product containing 98.5 to 96.0% iron and 2.5 to 4% C. It is essentially a scrap substitute with little impurity that can be utilized in a variety of steelmaking processes, especially the electric arc furnace. The objective of this project was to focus on reducing the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) through reducing the energy intensity using specialized combustion systems, increasing production and the use of biomass derived carbon sources in this process. This research examined the use of a solid fuel-oxygen fired combustion system and compared the results from this system with both oxygen-fuel and air-fuel combustion systems. The solid pulverized fuels tested included various coals and a bio-coal produced from woody biomass in a specially constructed pilot scale torrefaction reactor at the Coleraine Minerals Research Laboratory (CMRL). In addition to combustion, the application of bio-coal was also tested as a means to produce a reducing atmosphere during key points in the fusion process, and as a reducing agent for ore conversion to metallic iron to capture the advantage of its inherent reduced carbon footprint. The results from this study indicate that the approaches taken can reduce both greenhouse gas emissions and the associated energy intensity with the Linear Hearth Furnace process for converting iron ore to metallic iron nodules. Various types of coals including a bio-coal produced though torrefaction can result in production of NRI at reduced GHG levels. The process results coupled with earlier already reported developments indicate that this process technique should be evaluated at the next level in order to develop parameter information for full scale process design. Implementation of the process to full commercialization will require a full cost production analysis and comparison to other reduction technologies and iron production alternatives. The technical results verify that high quality NRI can be produced under various operating conditions at the pilot level.

  6. Simulated synchrotron emission from Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luca Del Zanna; Delia Volpi; Elena Amato; Niccolo' Bucciantini

    2006-03-03

    A complete set of diagnostic tools aimed at producing synthetic synchrotron emissivity, polarization, and spectral index maps from relativistic MHD simulations is presented. As a first application we consider here the case of the emission from Pulsar Wind Nebulae (PWNe). The proposed method is based on the addition, on top of the basic set of MHD equations, of an extra equation describing the evolution of the maximum energy of the emitting particles. This equation takes into account adiabatic and synchrotron losses along streamlines for the distribution of emitting particles and its formulation is such that it is easily implemented in any numerical scheme for relativistic MHD. Application to the axisymmetric simulations of PWNe, analogous to those described by Del Zanna et al. (2004, A&A, 421, 1063), allows direct comparison between the numerical results and observations of the inner structure of the Crab Nebula, and similar objects, in the optical and X-ray bands. We are able to match most of the observed features typical of PWNe, like the equatorial torus and the polar jets, with velocities in the correct range, as well as finer emission details, like arcs, rings and the bright knot, that turn out to arise mainly from Doppler boosting effects. Spectral properties appear to be well reproduced too: detailed spectral index maps are produced for the first time and show softening towards the PWN outer borders, whereas spectral breaks appear in integrated spectra. The emission details are found to strongly depend on both the average wind magnetization (here approximately 2%), and on the magnetic field shape.

  7. 2014 INCITE Call for Proposals - Due

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    INCITE Call for Proposals 2014 INCITE Call for Proposals - Due June 28 April 30, 2013 by Francesca Verdier (0 Comments) The 2014 INCITE Call for Proposals is now open. Open to...

  8. IEEE/ACM TRANSACTIONS ON NETWORKING, VOL. XX, NO. XX 1 Energy Efficiency in TDMA-based Next-Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shihada, Basem

    networks which requires reducing global Green House Gas (GHG) emissions at large quantities [3]­[6]. One for the implementation of green bandwidth allocation (GBA) in TDMA-PONs. The proposed framework leverages the batch), Green Commu- nications, Energy Efficiency, quality-of-service (QoS), Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation

  9. For more policy briefs, click here. Policy Brief 2014-03

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    For more policy briefs, click here. Policy Brief 2014-03 Energy and Climate Experts Find Wide Range is a leader in developing and implementing policies that reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, improve air or proposed policy targets and policy instruments. The California Climate Policy Modeling (CCPM) is an ongoing

  10. Contribution of Anaerobic Digesters to Emissions Mitigation and Electricity Generation Under U.S. Climate Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zaks, David P. M.

    Livestock husbandry in the U.S. significantly contributes to many environmental problems, including the release of methane, a potent greenhouse gas (GHG). Anaerobic digesters (ADs) break down organic wastes using bacteria ...

  11. Multi-objective regulations on transportation fuels: Comparing renewable fuel mandates and emission standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, D; Rajagopal, D; Plevin, R; Hochman, G; Zilberman, D

    2015-01-01

    ethanol Gasoline Diesel Oil sands crude Conventional crudeshuf?ing of GHG-intensive oil sands from the home region inconventional crude oil, oil sands, corn ethanol and cane

  12. Multi-objective regulations on transportation fuels: Comparing renewable fuel mandates and emission standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, D; Rajagopal, D; Plevin, R; Hochman, G; Zilberman, D

    2015-01-01

    Rajagopal and Plevin, 2013 oilsand supply was ?xed), the twoand abroad while crude from oilsand is supplied only by theRatio of GHG intensity of oilsand products relative products

  13. IEEE Copyright Statement: Copyright 2012 IEEE. Reprinted from Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 100, No. 1, 2012, Pp. 195-209.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinopoli, Bruno

    Vwhich is expensive and contributes to Green-house Gas (GhG) emissions. For similar reasons it is difficult

  14. Sub-national TIMES model for analyzing regional future use of Biomass and Biofuels in France and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    the green house gas emission (GHG) by 50% by 2050. To reach these targets, biomass is expected to play

  15. The Australian terrestrial carbon budget

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    the Australian National Green- house Gas Inventory (DCCEE,fuel emissions Carbon and green house gas (GHG) accounts are

  16. Combined Heat and Power (CHP): Essential for a Cost Effective Clean Energy Standard, April 2011

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    White paper demonstrating cost-effective and flexible approach in increasing power-sector efficiency and reducing GHG emissions

  17. Testimony to the United States Senate Finance Committee

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -derived gasoline) would increase full fuel cycle GHG emissions unless by-product carbon dioxide (CO2) were captured

  18. National Master Plan for Development of Waste-to-Energy in India 1 The National Master Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    on development of high rage biomethanation processes as a means of reducing Green House Gases (GHG) Emission

  19. X-ray Emission from Isolated Be Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David H. Cohen

    2000-08-22

    I discuss the X-ray observations of Be stars, and how their properties compare to non-emission B stars. I focus on several specific stars that show high flux levels and variability but also report on several interesting survey results. The Be X-ray properties are discussed in the context of wind-shock X-ray emission from normal OB stars as well as in the context of general mechanisms that have been proposed to explain the Be phenomenon. Finally, I conclude with a discussion of the spectral diagnostics that will be available from the new generation of X-ray telescopes.

  20. Biodiesel and Pollutant Emissions (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormick, R.; Williams, A.; Ireland, J.; Hayes, B.

    2006-09-28

    Presents the results from three methods of testing--engine, chassis, and PEM--for testing nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from B20.

  1. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    or collectively). EMCON Methane Generation Model: A model for estimating the production of methane from municipal solid waste landfills. Emissions: Anthropogenic releases...

  2. ARM - Propose a Field Campaign

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory of rare Kaonforsupernovae2GatheringARMHistorygovCampaignsPropose a Campaign

  3. Technical Proposal Disclosure Policy - ITER

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With U.S. Coal StocksSuppliersmillion coreChallenges inProposal

  4. CONFIGURATION CHANGE PROPOSAL FORM | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CONFIGURATION CHANGE PROPOSAL FORM CONFIGURATION CHANGE PROPOSAL FORM This form is used for sharing information on Domain Name Server (DNS) changes, new requirements, modifications...

  5. A knife-edge array field emission cathode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, B.

    1994-08-01

    many cathode applications require a new type of cathode that is able to produce short pulsed electron beams at high emission current. Gated field emitter arrays of micrometer size are recognized as candidates to meet this need and have become the research focus of vacuum microelectronics. Existing fabrication methods produce emitters that are limited either in frequency response or in current emission. One reason is that the structure of these emitters are not sufficiently optimized. In this study, the author investigated the factors that affect the performance of field emitters. An optimum emitter structure, the knife-edge field emitter array, was developed from the analysis. Large field enhancement factor, large effective emission area, and small emitter capacitance are the advantages of the structure. The author next explored various options of fabricating the knife-edge emitter structure. He proposed a unique thin film process procedure and developed the fabrication techniques to build the emitters on (110) silicon wafers. Data from the initial cathode tests showed very low onset voltages and Fowler-Nordheim type emission. Emission simulation based on the fabricated emitter structure indicated that the knife-edge emitter arrays have the potential to produce high performance in modulation frequency and current emission. Several fabrication issues that await further development are discussed and possible solutions are suggested.

  6. Going Mobile: Emissions Trading Gets a Boost from Mobile Source Emission Reduction Credits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldschein, Perry S.

    1995-01-01

    Going Mobile: Emissions Trading Gets a Boost From Mobilehave tested various emissions trading policies to supplementAn Analysis of EPA's Emissions Trading Program, 6 YALE J. ON

  7. Improved land cover and emission factors for modeling biogenic volatile organic compounds emissions from Hong Kong

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leung, DYC; Wong, P; Cheung, BKH; Guenther, A

    2010-01-01

    organic compounds emissions in Hong Kong. Atmosphericvolatile organic compounds emission inventory for Beijing.volatile organic compound emissions. Journal of Geophysical

  8. Biogenic emissions of isoprenoids and NO in China and comparison to anthropogenic emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tie, X; Li, G; Ying, Z; Guenther, A; Madronich, S

    2006-01-01

    hydrocarbons and biogenic emission fluxes in the Amazonincrease in pollutant emissions. For example, the energyEq. (1) to calculate the emission rates. Each component of

  9. The Tropical Forest and Fire Emissions Experiment: overview and airborne fire emission factor measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    W. M. : The tropical forest and fire emissions experiment:Physics The Tropical Forest and Fire Emissions Experiment:A. : The tropical forest and fire emissions experiment:

  10. Fuel-Cycle energy and emission impacts of ethanol-diesel blends in urban buses and farming tractors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.; Saricks, C.; Lee, H.

    2003-09-11

    About 2.1 billion gallons of fuel ethanol was used in the United States in 2002, mainly in the form of gasoline blends containing up to 10% ethanol (E10). Ethanol use has the potential to increase in the U.S. blended gasoline market because methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), formerly the most popular oxygenate blendstock, may be phased out owing to concerns about MTBE contamination of the water supply. Ethanol would remain the only viable near-term option as an oxygenate in reformulated gasoline production and to meet a potential federal renewable fuels standard (RFS) for transportation fuels. Ethanol may also be blended with additives (co-solvents) into diesel fuels for applications in which oxygenation may improve diesel engine emission performance. Numerous studies have been conducted to evaluate the fuel-cycle energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission effects of ethanol-gasoline blends relative to those of gasoline for applications in spark-ignition engine vehicles (see Wang et al. 1997; Wang et al. 1999; Levelton Engineering et al. 1999; Shapouri et al. 2002; Graboski 2002). Those studies did not address the energy and emission effects of ethanol-diesel (E-diesel or ED) blends relative to those of petroleum diesel fuel in diesel engine vehicles. The energy and emission effects of E-diesel could be very different from those of ethanol-gasoline blends because (1) the energy use and emissions generated during diesel production (so-called ''upstream'' effects) are different from those generated during gasoline production; and (2) the energy and emission performance of E-diesel and petroleum diesel fuel in diesel compression-ignition engines differs from that of ethanol-gasoline blends in spark-ignition (Otto-cycle-type) engine vehicles. The Illinois Department of Commerce and Community Affairs (DCCA) commissioned Argonne National Laboratory to conduct a full fuel-cycle analysis of the energy and emission effects of E-diesel blends relative to those of petroleum diesel when used in the types of diesel engines that will likely be targeted first in the marketplace. This report documents the results of our study. The draft report was delivered to DCCA in January 2003. This final report incorporates revisions by the sponsor and by Argonne.

  11. Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    National Lab Directors, . .

    2001-04-05

    The rise in greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion and industrial and agricultural activities has aroused international concern about the possible impacts of these emissions on climate. Greenhouse gases--mostly carbon dioxide, some methane, nitrous oxide and other trace gases--are emitted to the atmosphere, enhancing an effect in which heat reflected from the earth's surface is kept from escaping into space, as in a greenhouse. Thus, there is concern that the earth's surface temperature may rise enough to cause global climate change. Approximately 90% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions from anthropogenic sources come from energy production and use, most of which are a byproduct of the combustion of fossil fuels. On a per capita basis, the United States is one of the world's largest sources of greenhouse gas emissions, comprising 4% of the world's population, yet emitting 23% of the world's greenhouse gases. Emissions in the United States are increasing at around 1.2% annually, and the Energy Information Administration forecasts that emissions levels will continue to increase at this rate in the years ahead if we proceed down the business-as-usual path. President Clinton has presented a two-part challenge for the United States: reduce greenhouse gas emissions and grow the economy. Meeting the challenge will mean that in doing tomorrow's work, we must use energy more efficiently and emit less carbon for the energy expended than we do today. To accomplish these goals, President Clinton proposed on June 26, 1997, that the United States ''invest more in the technologies of the future''. In this report to Secretary of Energy Pena, 47 technology pathways are described that have significant potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The present study was completed before the December 1997 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and is intended to provide a basis to evaluate technology feasibility and options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. These technology pathways (which are described in greater detail in Appendix B, Technology Pathways) address three areas: energy efficiency, clean energy, and carbon sequestration (removing carbon from emissions and enhancing carbon storage). Based on an assessment of each of these technology pathways over a 30-year planning horizon, the directors of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) national laboratories conclude that success will require pursuit of multiple technology pathways to provide choices and flexibility for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Advances in science and technology are necessary to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the United States while sustaining economic growth and providing collateral benefits to the nation.

  12. STATE OF CALIFORNIA NATURAL RESOURCES AGENCY EDMUND G. BROWN JR., Governor NOTICE OF PROPOSED AWARDS (NOPA)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    proposals that aim to reduce emissions for the direct use of biogas/biomethane and investigate potential and other local resources. D. Air Quality Implications of Using Biogas to Replace Natural Gas ­ sought Implications of Using Biogas to Replace Natural Gas," two projects are recommended for funding for a total

  13. Estonian greenhouse gas emissions inventory report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Punning, J.M.; Ilomets, M.; Karindi, A.; Mandre, M.; Reisner, V.; Martins, A.; Pesur, A.; Roostalu, H.; Tullus, H.

    1996-07-01

    It is widely accepted that the increase of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere due to human activities would result in warming of the Earth`s surface. To examine this effect and better understand how the GHG increase in the atmosphere might change the climate in the future, how ecosystems and societies in different regions of the World should adapt to these changes, what must policymakers do for the mitigation of that effect, the worldwide project within the Framework Convention on Climate Change was generated by the initiative of United Nations. Estonia is one of more than 150 countries, which signed the Framework Convention on Climate Change at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. In 1994 a new project, Estonian Country Study was initiated within the US Country Studies Program. The project will help to compile the GHG inventory for Estonia, find contemporary trends to investigate the impact of climate change on the Estonian ecosystems and economy and to formulate national strategies for Estonia addressing to global climate change.

  14. Introduction to Positron Emission Tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oakes, Terry

    Introduction to Positron Emission Tomography with your host, Terry Oakes Positron Annihilation #1 neighboring atom Positron range: 1-10 mm Gamma-Ray range: 10 mm - 8 positron annihilation #2 #1 T.R.Oakes Univ. WI-Madison #12;Positron Emission Tomography detector #2 detector #1 #2 #1 detector ring T

  15. Medical heavy ion accelerator proposals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gough, R.A.

    1985-05-01

    For several decades, accelerators designed primarily for research in nuclear and high energy physics have been adapted for biomedical research including radiotherapeutic treatment of human diseases such as pituitary disorders, cancer, and more recently, arteriovascular malformations. The particles used in these treatments include pions, protons and heavier ions such as carbon, neon, silicon and argon. Maximum beam energies must be available to penetrate into an equivalent of about 30 cm of water, requiring treatment beams of 250 to 1000 MeV/nucleon. Certain special treatments of superficial melanoma, however, require that beam energies as low as 70 MeV/nucleon also be available. Intensities must be adequate to complete a 100 rad treatment fraction in about 1 minute. For most heavy ion treatments, this corresponds to 10/sup 7/-10/sup 9/ ions/second at the patient. Because this research is best conducted in a dedicated, hospital-based facility, and because of the clinical need for ultra-high reliability, the construction of new and dedicated facilities has been proposed. Heavy ion accelerators can provide a variety of ions and energies, permitting treatment plans that exploit the properties of the ion best suited to each individual treatment, and that employ radioactive beams (such as /sup 11/C and /sup 19/Ne) to precisely confirm the dose localization. The favored technical approach in these proposals utilizes a conventional, strong-focusing synchrotron capable of fast switching between ions and energies, and servicing multiple treatment rooms. Specialized techniques for shaping the dose to conform to irregularly-shaped target volumes, while simultaneously sparing surrounding, healthy tissue and critical structures, are employed in each treatment room, together with the sophisticated dosimetry necessary for verification, monitoring, and patient safety. 3 refs., 8 figs.

  16. Impact of California Reformulated Gasoline On Motor Vehicle Emissions. 1. Mass Emission Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Singer, Brett C.; Harley, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    gasoline on motor vehicle emissions. 2. Volatile organicOn Motor Vehicle Emissions 1. Mass Emission Rates ThomasW.the effect of phase RFGon vehicle emissions, including cold-

  17. Active Diesel Emission Control Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Systems Active Diesel Emission Control Systems 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conferencen Presentation: RYPOS Active Diesel Emission Control Systems...

  18. Data Needs for Evolving Motor Vehicle Emission Modeling Approaches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guensler, Randall

    1993-01-01

    Agency; Highway Vehicle Emission Estimates; Office offor Evolving Motor Vehicle Emission Modeling Approachesfor Evolving Motor Vehicle Emission Modeling Approaches

  19. Discounts, Fungibility and Agricultural GHG Offset projects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    in MMT of Carbon Equivalents Soil Carbon Sequestration Discount for Saturating Sinks No Sink Discounting of Carbon Equivalents Carbon Sequestration from Trees Discount for Saturating Sinks No Sink Discounting 0.S. Agricultural and Forest Carbon Sequestration," 2003. #12;FungibilityFungibility A number of concepts have

  20. China-GHG Monitoring | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar Energy LLCLtd Jump to:ChangingCNE Jump to:New EnergyPFAN) |(Redirected from

  1. China-GHG Monitoring | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar Energy LLCLtd Jump to:ChangingCNE Jump to:New EnergyPFAN) |(Redirected

  2. GHG Management Institute | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EA Jump to:ofEnia SpAFlexStock Co LtdWiegandGEXA Corp.

  3. The supply chain of CO2 emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, S. J; Peters, G. P; Caldeira, K.

    2011-01-01

    In almost all cases, the emissions related to traded fuelsextraction (F Er ) and production (F Pr ) emissions (i.e. ,the net effect of emissions from traded fossil fuels; Top),

  4. Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions TRANSPORTATION ENERGY RESEARCH PIER Transportation, particulate matter emissions may become a significant barrier to deploying beneficial alternative fuel that particulate matter from sparkignition vehicles contributes significantly to particulate matter emissions

  5. Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenbaum, Daniel; Costantini, Maria; Van Erp, Annemoon; Shaikh, Rashid; Bailey, Brent; Tennant, Chris; Khalek, Imad; Mauderly, Joe; McDonald, Jacob; Zielinska, Barbara; Bemis, Jeffrey; Storey, John; Hallberg, Lance; Clark, Nigel

    2013-12-31

    The objective of the Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES) was to determine before widespread commercial deployment whether or not the new, energy-efficient, heavy duty diesel engines (2007 and 2010 EPA Emissions Standards Compliant) may generate anticipated toxic emissions that could adversely affect the environment and human health. ACES was planned to take place in three phases. In Phase 1, extensive emissions characterization of four production-intent prototype engine and control systems designed to meet 2007 standards for nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) was conducted at an existing emissions characterization facility: Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). One of the tested engines was selected (at random, after careful comparison of results) for health testing in Phase 3. In Phase 2, extensive emission characterization of three production-intent prototype engine and control systems meeting the 2010 standards (including more advanced NOx controls to meet the more stringent 2010 NOx standards) was conducted at the same test facility. In Phase 3, one engine/aftertreatment system selected from Phase 1 was further characterized during health effects studies (at an existing inhalation toxicology laboratory: Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, [LRRI]) to form the basis of the ACES safety assessment. The Department of Energy (DOE) award provided funding for emissions characterization in Phases 1 and 2 as well as exposure characterization in Phase 3. The main health analyses in Phase 3 were funded separately and are not reported here.

  6. Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: U.S. emissions inventories Narasimhan K. Larkin a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: U.S. emissions inventories Narasimhan K. Larkin a: Fire emissions Emissions inventories Greenhouse gases a b s t r a c t Emissions from wildland fire fire emissions change considerably due to fluctuations from year to year with overall fire season

  7. The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

    2008-01-01

    Damage Costs of Carbon Dioxide Emissions: An Assessment ofper Megawatt Hrs) Carbon Dioxide Emissions Cost ($ per Year)Megawatt Hrs) Carbon Dioxide Emissions Cost MSA Emissions

  8. Exposure to motor vehicle emissions: An intake fraction approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marshall, Julian D.

    2002-01-01

    on California Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions." EnvironmentalGasoline on Motor Vehicle Emissions. 2. Volatile OrganicGasoline on Motor Vehicle Emissions. I. Mass Emission

  9. DARWIN mission proposal to ESA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alain Leger; Tom Herbst

    2007-07-23

    The discovery of extra-solar planets is one of the greatest achievements of modern astronomy. There are now more than 200 such objects known, and the recent detection of planets with masses approximately 5 times that of Earth demonstrates that extra-solar planets of low mass exist. In addition to providing a wealth of scientific information on the formation and structure of planetary systems, these discoveries capture the interest of both scientists and the wider public with the profound prospect of the search for life in the Universe. We propose an L-type mission, called Darwin, whose primary goal is the study of terrestrial extrasolar planets and the search for life on them. By its very nature, Darwin advances the first Grand Theme of ESA Cosmic Vision. Accomplishing the mission objectives will require collaborative science across disciplines ranging from planet formation and atmospheres to chemistry and biology, and these disciplines will reap profound rewards from their contributions to the Darwin mission.

  10. Spontaneous Emission from a Fractal Vacuum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eric Akkermans; Evgeni Gurevich

    2012-10-25

    Spontaneous emission of a quantum emitter coupled to a QED vacuum with a deterministic fractal structure of its spectrum is considered. We show that the decay probability does not follow a Wigner-Weisskopf exponential decrease but rather an overall power law behavior with a rich oscillatory structure, both depending on the local fractal properties of the vacuum spectrum. These results are obtained by giving first a general perturbative derivation for short times. Then we propose a simplified model which retains the main features of a fractal spectrum to establish analytic expressions valid for all time scales. Finally, we discuss the case of a Fibonacci cavity and its experimental relevance to observe these results.

  11. Air Pollution Emissions and Abatement (Minnesota) | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Environmental Regulations A person who controls the source of an emission must notify the Pollution Control Agency immediately of excessive or abnormal unpermitted emissions, and...

  12. Reducing Greenhouse Emissions and Fuel Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaheen, Susan; Lipman, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    Action Programme Against Greenhouse Gas Emissions. City ofActionProgramme_against Greenhouse_Gases 2002. pdf. (2002).calculating emissions of greenhouse gases: key facts and

  13. Integrated Nozzle Flow, Spray, Combustion, & Emission Modeling...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nozzle Flow, Spray, Combustion, & Emission Modeling using KH-ACT Primary Breakup Model & Detailed Chemistry Integrated Nozzle Flow, Spray, Combustion, & Emission Modeling using...

  14. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wahl, Linnea

    2012-01-01

    LBNL-470E-20Ì1 Radionuclide Air Emission Report for Preparedfor Estimating Fugitive Air Emissions of Radionuclides fromStandards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (Radionuclides),

  15. French perspective on diesel engines & emissions | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    French perspective on diesel engines & emissions French perspective on diesel engines & emissions 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Aaqius & Aaqius 2002deernino.pdf More...

  16. Marine Sciences Laboratory Radionuclide Air Emissions Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, "National Emission Standards...

  17. School Bus Emissions Study | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    School Bus Emissions Study School Bus Emissions Study 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: international Truck and Engine Corporation deer2003slodowske.pdf More Documents &...

  18. Characterizing Test Methods and Emissions Reduction Performance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Test Methods and Emissions Reduction Performance of In-Use Diesel Retrofit Technologies from the National Clean Diesel Campaign Characterizing Test Methods and Emissions Reduction...

  19. Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES) | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    impacts to public health and welfare deer09greenbaum.pdf More Documents & Publications Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES) Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES)...

  20. Energy-Related Carbon Emissions in Manufacturing

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2000-01-01

    Energy-related carbon emissions in manufacturing analysis and issues related to the energy use, energy efficiency, and carbon emission indicators.

  1. DIesel Emission Control Technology Developments | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DIesel Emission Control Technology Developments DIesel Emission Control Technology Developments 2005deerandreoni.pdf More Documents & Publications Cleaning Up Diesel Engines...

  2. The supply chain of CO2 emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, S. J; Peters, G. P; Caldeira, K.

    2011-01-01

    emissions from traded fossil fuels; Top), production (F Pr )Regional, and National Fossil-Fuel CO 2 Emissions (Carbonfrom the burning of fossil fuels are conventionally

  3. The Maritime Administration's Energy and Emissions Program -...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy and Emissions Program - Part 1 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Maritime Administration 2002deergore1.pdf More Documents & Publications Recent Diesel Engine Emission...

  4. The Maritime Administration's Energy and Emissions Program -...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy and Emissions Program - Part 2 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Maritime Administration 2002deergore2.pdf More Documents & Publications Recent Diesel Engine Emission...

  5. Low Emission Development Strategies (LEDS): Technical, Institutional...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Low Emission Development Strategies (LEDS): Technical, Institutional and Policy Lessons Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Low Emission Development...

  6. Electrochemical NOx Sensor for Monitoring Diesel Emissions |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sensor for Monitoring Diesel Emissions Electrochemical NOx Sensor for Monitoring Diesel Emissions Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle Technologies "Mega" Merit Review...

  7. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Effects of Travel Reduction and Efficient Driving on Transportation: Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter, C. D.; Brown, A.; DeFlorio, J.; McKenzie, E.; Tao, W.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2013-03-01

    Since the 1970s, numerous transportation strategies have been formulated to change the behavior of drivers or travelers by reducing trips, shifting travel to more efficient modes, or improving the efficiency of existing modes. This report summarizes findings documented in existing literature to identify strategies with the greatest potential impact. The estimated effects of implementing the most significant and aggressive individual driver behavior modification strategies range from less than 1% to a few percent reduction in transportation energy use and GHG emissions. Combined strategies result in reductions of 7% to 15% by 2030. Pricing, ridesharing, eco-driving, and speed limit reduction/enforcement strategies are widely judged to have the greatest estimated potential effect, but lack the widespread public acceptance needed to accomplish maximum results. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  8. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Effects of Travel Reduction and Efficient Driving on Transportation. Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter, C. D.; Brown, A.; DeFlorio, J.; McKenzie, E.; Tao, W.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2013-03-01

    Since the 1970s, numerous transportation strategies have been formulated to change the behavior of drivers or travelers by reducing trips, shifting travel to more efficient modes, or improving the efficiency of existing modes. This report summarizes findings documented in existing literature to identify strategies with the greatest potential impact. The estimated effects of implementing the most significant and aggressive individual driver behavior modification strategies range from less than 1% to a few percent reduction in transportation energy use and GHG emissions. Combined strategies result in reductions of 7% to 15% by 2030. Pricing, ridesharing, eco-driving, and speed limit reduction/enforcement strategies are widely judged to have the greatest estimated potential effect, but lack the widespread public acceptance needed to accomplish maximum results. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  9. Energy development and CO{sub 2} emissions in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiaolin Xi [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The objective of this research is to provide a better understanding of future Chinese energy development and CO{sub 2} emissions from burning fossil fuels. This study examines the current Chinese energy system, estimates CO{sub 2} emissions from burning fossil fuels and projects future energy use and resulting CO{sub 2} emissions up to the year of 2050. Based on the results of the study, development strategies are proposed and policy implications are explored. This study first develops a Base scenario projection of the Chinese energy development based upon a sectoral analysis. The Base scenario represents a likely situation of future development, but many alternatives are possible. To explore this range of alternatives, a systematic uncertainty analysis is performed. The Base scenario also represents an extrapolation of current policies and social and economic trends. As such, it is not necessarily the economically optimal future course for Chinese energy development. To explore this issue, an optimization analysis is performed. For further understanding of developing Chinese energy system and reducing CO{sub 2} emissions, a Chinese energy system model with 84 supply and demand technologies has been constructed in MARKAL, a computer LP optimization program for energy systems. Using this model, various technological options and economic aspects of energy development and CO{sub 2} emissions reduction in China during the 1985-2020 period are examined.

  10. Origin of multi-band emission from the microquasar Cygnus X-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jianfu; Lu, Jufu; Xu, Bing

    2014-06-20

    We study the origin of non-thermal emissions from the Galactic black hole X-ray binary Cygnus X-1, which is a confirmed high-mass microquasar. By analogy with the methods used in studies of active galactic nuclei, we propose a two-dimensional, time-dependent radiation model from the microquasar Cygnus X-1. In this model, the evolution equation for relativistic electrons in a conical jet are numerically solved by including escape, adiabatic, and various radiative losses. The radiative processes involved are synchrotron emission, its self-Compton scattering, and inverse Compton scatterings of an accretion disk and its surrounding stellar companion. This model also includes an electromagnetic cascade process of an anisotropic ?-? interaction. We study the spectral properties of electron evolution and its emission spectral characteristic at different heights of the emission region located in the jet. We find that radio data from Cygnus X-1 are reproduced by the synchrotron emission, the Fermi Large Area Telescope measurements by the synchrotron emission and Comptonization of photons of the stellar companion, and the TeV band emission fluxes by the Comptonization of the stellar photons. Our results show the following. (1) The radio emission region extends from the binary system scales to the termination of the jet. (2) The GeV band emissions should originate from the distance close to the binary system scales. (3) The TeV band emissions could be inside the binary system, and these emissions could be probed by the upcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array. (4) The MeV tail emissions, which produce a strongly linearly polarized signal, are emitted inside the binary system. The location of the emissions is very close to the inner region of the jet.

  11. Diesel Emission Control in Review

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT).

  12. The Value of Emissions Trading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webster, Mort David.

    This paper estimates the value of international emissions trading, focusing attention on a here-to-fore neglected component: its value as a hedge against uncertainty. Much analysis has been done of the Kyoto Protocol and ...

  13. Acoustic emission linear pulse holography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collins, H.D.; Busse, L.J.; Lemon, D.K.

    1983-10-25

    This device relates to the concept of and means for performing Acoustic Emission Linear Pulse Holography, which combines the advantages of linear holographic imaging and Acoustic Emission into a single non-destructive inspection system. This unique system produces a chronological, linear holographic image of a flaw by utilizing the acoustic energy emitted during crack growth. The innovation is the concept of utilizing the crack-generated acoustic emission energy to generate a chronological series of images of a growing crack by applying linear, pulse holographic processing to the acoustic emission data. The process is implemented by placing on a structure an array of piezoelectric sensors (typically 16 or 32 of them) near the defect location. A reference sensor is placed between the defect and the array.

  14. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.P.Evans; K.E. Redinger; M.J. Holmes

    1998-04-01

    The objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. Ideally, the project aim is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPS), fabric filters (baghouse), and wet flue gas desulfurization. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate and hydrogen chloride. Following the construction and evaluation of a representative air toxics test facility in Phase I, Phase II focused on the evaluation of mercury and several other air toxics emissions. The AECDP is jointly funded by the United States Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development (oCDO), and Babcock& Wilcox-a McDermott company (B&W).

  15. Emission Impacts of Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Quanlu; DeLuchi, Mark A.; Sperling, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    category includes California-owned power plants out- sideCalifornia Air ResourcesBoard, "Uncontrolled and controlled power-plantsCalifornia. First, we include emissions from out-state coal power plants.

  16. Anomalous Emission from HII regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Dickinson

    2008-08-04

    Spinning dust appears to be the best explanation for the anomalous emission that has been observed at $\\sim 10-60$ GHz. One of the best examples of spinning dust comes from a HII region in the Perseus molecular cloud. Observations of other HII regions also show tentative evidence for excess emission at frequencies $\\sim 30$ GHz, although at lower emissivity levels. A new detection of excess emission at 31 GHz in the HII region RCW175 has been made. The most plausible explanation again comes from spinning dust. HII regions are a good place to look for spinning dust as long as accurate radio data spanning the $\\sim 5-100$ GHz range is available.

  17. Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    ACES is a cooperative multi-party effort to characterize emissions and possible health effects of new, advanced heavy duty engine and control systems and fuels in the market 2007 - 2010.

  18. Trading quasi-emission permits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montero, Juan-Pablo

    2002-01-01

    I study the design of environmental policies for a regulator that has incomplete information on firms' emissions and costs of production and abatement (e.g., air pollution in cities with numerous small polluting sources). ...

  19. Energy Market and Economic Impacts Proposal to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Intensity with a Cap and Trade System

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01

    This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), in response to a September 27, 2006, request from Senators Bingaman, Landrieu, Murkowski, Specter, Salazar, and Lugar. The Senators requested that EIA assess the impacts of a proposal that would regulate emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) through an allowance cap-and-trade system. The program would set the cap to achieve a reduction in emissions relative to economic output, or greenhouse gas intensity.

  20. Modave Lectures on Fuzzballs and Emission from the D1-D5 System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chowdhury, Borun D

    2010-01-01

    These lecture notes present an introduction to the fuzzball proposal and emission from the D1-D5 system which is geared to an audience of graduate students and others with little background in the subject. The presentation begins with a discussion of the Penrose process and Hawking radiation. The fuzzball proposal is then introduced, and the two- and three-charge systems are reviewed. In the three-charge case details are not discussed. A detailed discussion of emission calculations for D1-D5-P black holes and for certain non-extremal fuzzballs from both the gravity and CFT perspectives is included. We explicitly demonstrate how seemingly different emission processes in gravity, namely, Hawking radiation and superradiance from D1-D5-P black holes, and ergoregion emission from certain non-extremal fuzzballs, are only different manifestations of the same phenomenon in the CFT.

  1. Proposal for a High Energy Nuclear Database

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, David A.; Vogt, Ramona

    2005-01-01

    Proposal for a High Energy Nuclear Database XML documentsProposal for a High Energy Nuclear Database David A. Brown 1it requires the high-energy nuclear physics com- munity’s ?

  2. Return on investment (ROI) proposal preparation guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VALERO, O.J.

    1998-10-09

    The ROI Proposal Preparation Guide is a tool to assist Hanford waste generators in preparing ROI proposal forms for submittal to Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE/RL) for funding. The guide describes the requirements for submitting an ROI proposal and provides examples of completed ROI forms. The intent is to assist waste generators in identifying projects that meet the criteria, provide information necessary to complete the ROI forms, and submit a proposal that is eligible to receive funding.

  3. 7, 68436902, 2007 An Asian emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 7, 6843­6902, 2007 An Asian emission inventory for the period 1980­2020 T. Ohara et al. Title Chemistry and Physics Discussions An Asian emission inventory of anthropogenic emission sources 7, 6843­6902, 2007 An Asian emission inventory for the period 1980­2020 T. Ohara et al. Title Page

  4. Emissions Trading: A Feasible Analysis for UBC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emissions Trading: A Feasible Analysis for UBC Vivian Hoffman, J Chisholm I. Introduction The GVRD environmental objectives are achieved. Emissions reduction credit trading (or emissions trading) is an example Valley (LFV). Section III describes the market-based instruments of emissions trading and facility

  5. Winter Motor-Vehicle EMISSIONS in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denver, University of

    Winter Motor-Vehicle EMISSIONS in Yellowstone National Park A ir-pollution emissions from off- road recreational vehicles have ris- en in national importance, even as emissions from these vehicles have declined of lawsuits, a new study shows that reductions in snowmobile emissions highlight the need for the snowcoach

  6. Compilationof Regional to Global Inventoriesof Anthropogenic Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Compilationof Regional to Global Inventoriesof Anthropogenic Emissions CarmenM. Benkovitz, Hajime inventories of emissions of the trace species included in the study at the appropriate sectoral, spatial on emissions is also required at high resolution for the design of policies aimed at reducing emissions

  7. Implementation of SB 1368 Emission Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ........................................................................... 8 Chapter 4: Emissions Performance Standard .....................13 Coal................................................................................................................. 14 Petroleum Coke

  8. Implications of ethanol-based fuels for greenhouse gas emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marland, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); DeLuchi, M.A. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Inst. of Transportation Studies; Wyman, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1994-02-14

    The US Environmental Protection Agency has proposed a rule which would mandate that 30% of the oxygen content of reformulated gasoline be provided by renewable oxygenates. The rule would essentially require that biomass-based ethanol, or ETBE derived from ethanol, be used to supply 30% of the oxygen in reformulated gasoline. This short statement addresses the very narrow question, ``Would this rule result in a net decrease in greenhouse gas emissions?`` The challenge then is to determine how much greenhouse gas is emitted during the ethanol fuel cycle, a fuel cycle that is much less mature and less well documented than the petroleum fuel cycle. In the petroleum fuel cycle, most of the greenhouse gas emissions come from fuel combustion. In the ethanol fuel cycle most of the greenhouse gas emissions come from the fuel production processes. Details of corn productivity, fertilizer use, process efficiency, fuel source, etc. become very important. It is also important that the ethanol fuel cycle produces additional products and the greenhouse gas emissions have somehow to be allocated among the respective products. With so many variables in the ethanol fuel cycle, the concern is actually with ethanol-based additives which will be produced in response to the proposed rule, and not necessarily with the average of ethanol which is being produced now. A first important observation is that the difference between standard gasoline and reformulated gasoline is very small so that when differences are drawn against alternative fuels, it makes little difference whether the contrast is against standard or reformulated gasoline. A second observation is that for this base case comparison, emissions of CO{sub 2} alone are roughly 13% less for the ethanol fuel cycle than for the reformulated gasoline cycle.

  9. Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urban turf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Townsend-Small, Amy; Czimczik, Claudia I

    2010-01-01

    facts: Average carbon dioxide emissions resulting fromcalculation of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions from fuel

  10. Volatile organic emissions from the distillation and pyrolysis of vegetation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenberg, T

    2006-01-01

    D. W. T. : Emissions from smoldering combustion of biomassthe combustion process. Emission factors for biomass burning

  11. Impact of Real-World Driving Characteristics on Vehicular Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NESAMANI, K.S.; SUBRAMANIAN, K.P.

    2006-01-01

    In India, vehicular emissions and energy consumption havesince two decades in India. emissions and energy consumption

  12. Allocation of energy use in petroleum refineries to petroleum products : implications for life-cycle energy use and emission inventory of petroleum transportation fuels.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.; Lee, H.; Molburg, J.

    2004-01-01

    Studies to evaluate the energy and emission impacts of vehicle/fuel systems have to address allocation of the energy use and emissions associated with petroleum refineries to various petroleum products because refineries produce multiple products. The allocation is needed in evaluating energy and emission effects of individual transportation fuels. Allocation methods used so far for petroleum-based fuels (e.g., gasoline, diesel, and liquefied petroleum gas [LPG]) are based primarily on mass, energy content, or market value shares of individual fuels from a given refinery. The aggregate approach at the refinery level is unable to account for the energy use and emission differences associated with producing individual fuels at the next sub-level: individual refining processes within a refinery. The approach ignores the fact that different refinery products go through different processes within a refinery. Allocation at the subprocess level (i.e., the refining process level) instead of at the aggregate process level (i.e., the refinery level) is advocated by the International Standard Organization. In this study, we seek a means of allocating total refinery energy use among various refinery products at the level of individual refinery processes. We present a petroleum refinery-process-based approach to allocating energy use in a petroleum refinery to petroleum refinery products according to mass, energy content, and market value share of final and intermediate petroleum products as they flow through refining processes within a refinery. The results from this study reveal that product-specific energy use based on the refinery process-level allocation differs considerably from that based on the refinery-level allocation. We calculated well-to-pump total energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for gasoline, diesel, LPG, and naphtha with the refinery process-based allocation approach. For gasoline, the efficiency estimated from the refinery-level allocation underestimates gasoline energy use, relative to the process-level based gasoline efficiency. For diesel fuel, the well-to-pump energy use for the process-level allocations with the mass- and energy-content-based weighting factors is smaller than that predicted with the refinery-level allocations. However, the process-level allocation with the market-value-based weighting factors has results very close to those obtained by using the refinery-level allocations. For LPG, the refinery-level allocation significantly overestimates LPG energy use. For naphtha, the refinery-level allocation overestimates naphtha energy use. The GHG emission patterns for each of the fuels are similar to those of energy use.We presented a refining-process-level-based method that can be used to allocate energy use of individual refining processes to refinery products. The process-level-based method captures process-dependent characteristics of fuel production within a petroleum refinery. The method starts with the mass and energy flow chart of a refinery, tracks energy use by individual refining processes, and distributes energy use of a given refining process to products from the process. In allocating energy use to refinery products, the allocation method could rely on product mass, product energy contents, or product market values as weighting factors. While the mass- and energy-content-based allocation methods provide an engineering perspective of energy allocation within a refinery, the market-value-ased allocation method provides an economic perspective. The results from this study show that energy allocations at the aggregate refinery level and at the refining process level could make a difference in evaluating the energy use and emissions associated with individual petroleum products. Furthermore, for the refining-process-level allocation method, use of mass -- energy content- or market value share-based weighting factors could lead to different results for diesel fuels, LPG, and naphtha. We suggest that, when possible, energy use allocations should be made at the lowest subprocess level

  13. Multi-scale Modeling Approach to Acoustic Emission during Plastic Deformation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jagadish Kumar; G. Ananthakrishna

    2011-02-20

    We address the long standing problem of the origin of acoustic emission commonly observed during plastic deformation. We propose a frame-work to deal with the widely separated time scales of collective dislocation dynamics and elastic degrees of freedom to explain the nature of acoustic emission observed during the Portevin-Le Chatelier effect. The Ananthakrishna model is used as it explains most generic features of the phenomenon. Our results show that while acoustic emission bursts correlated with stress drops are well separated for the type C serrations, these bursts merge to form nearly continuous acoustic signals with overriding bursts for the propagating type A bands.

  14. Noise Equivalent Counts Based Emission Image Reconstruction Algorithm of Tomographic Gamma Scanning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Ke; Feng, Wei; Han, Dong

    2014-01-01

    Tomographic Gamma Scanning (TGS) is a technique used to assay the nuclide distribution and radioactivity in nuclear waste drums. Both transmission and emission scans are performed in TGS and the transmission image is used for the attenuation correction in emission reconstructions. The error of the transmission image, which is not considered by the existing reconstruction algorithms, negatively affects the final results. An emission reconstruction method based on Noise Equivalent Counts (NEC) is presented. Noises from the attenuation image are concentrated to the projection data to apply the NEC Maximum-Likelihood Expectation-Maximization algorithm. Experiments are performed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. Noise Equivalent Counts Based Emission Image Reconstruction Algorithm of Tomographic Gamma Scanning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ke Wang; Zheng Li; Wei Feng; Dong Han

    2014-04-17

    Tomographic Gamma Scanning (TGS) is a technique used to assay the nuclide distribution and radioactivity in nuclear waste drums. Both transmission and emission scans are performed in TGS and the transmission image is used for the attenuation correction in emission reconstructions. The error of the transmission image, which is not considered by the existing reconstruction algorithms, negatively affects the final results. An emission reconstruction method based on Noise Equivalent Counts (NEC) is presented. Noises from the attenuation image are concentrated to the projection data to apply the NEC Maximum-Likelihood Expectation-Maximization algorithm. Experiments are performed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. 1 Data from Farrell et al 2006; GHG based on IPCC 100a; Net energy = fuel energy (MJ L-1) -energy input (MJ) A survey of the literature, by NREL, indicates that there are > 60 ethanol studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    ; Net energy = fuel energy (MJ L-1) - energy input (MJ) ·A survey of the literature, by NREL, indicates year hourly simulation 3. Can predict ozone 3. Align AQ modeling to NREL's LCA model 1. Additional NREL Role ­ Develop air pollutant emissions inventory for all processes in NREL LCA model · PM

  17. GM-Ford-Chrysler: ATV Proposed Product Costs | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ATV Proposed Product Costs GM-Ford-Chrysler: ATV Proposed Product Costs "Proposed Product Cost for Advanced Technology Vehicles" GM-Ford-Chrysler: ATV Proposed Product Costs More...

  18. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. P. Evans

    1998-12-03

    McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using the Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species, hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  19. Advanced Emission Control Development Program.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, A.P.

    1997-12-31

    Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B&W`s new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  20. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. J. Holmes

    1998-12-03

    McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using the Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.