Sample records for ghg emission supply

  1. Selected GHG Emission Supply Curves | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit with form HistoryRistma AG Jump638324°,Schnell ZTools andSegen LtdGHG Emission

  2. avoid ghg emissions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    University Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Inventory Summary Queen's University completes annual GHG inventories as part of the ongoing commitment to reduce GHG emissions and address...

  3. Regulation of GHG emissions from transportation fuels: Emission quota versus emission intensity standard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Deepak

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Derivation of average cost of emission reduction by blending?) and ? respectively. GHG emissions per unit of blend is, ?+ ?? i Reduction in GHG emissions with respect to unblended

  4. Shale Gas Production: Potential versus Actual GHG Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Sullivan, Francis

    Estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use are controversial. Here we assess the level of GHG emissions from shale gas well hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States during ...

  5. Shale Gas Production: Potential versus Actual GHG Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shale Gas Production: Potential versus Actual GHG Emissions Francis O'Sullivan and Sergey Paltsev://globalchange.mit.edu/ Printed on recycled paper #12;1 Shale Gas Production: Potential versus Actual GHG Emissions Francis O'Sullivan* and Sergey Paltsev* Abstract Estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use

  6. GBTL Workshop GHG Emissions | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdf Flash2006-52.pdf0.pdfDepartment ofEnergy 3FungibleOpeningGHG Emissions GBTL

  7. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Transport...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    calculation-toolsall-tools Cost: Free The Greenhouse Gas Protocol tool for mobile combustion is a free Excel spreadsheet calculator designed to calculate GHG emissions...

  8. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Stationary...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Stationary Combustion Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative:...

  9. Methodology for Estimating Reductions of GHG Emissions from Mosaic...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Methodology for Estimating Reductions of GHG Emissions from Mosaic Deforestation AgencyCompany Organization: World Bank Sector: Land Focus Area: Forestry Topics: Co-benefits...

  10. The Future Energy and GHG Emissions Impact of Alternative Personal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Future Energy and GHG Emissions Impact of Alternative Personal Transportation Pathways in China://globalchange.mit.edu/ Printed on recycled paper #12;The Future Energy and GHG Emissions Impact of Alternative Personal Paul N. Kishimoto, Sergey Paltsev and Valerie J. Karplus Report No. 231 September 2012 China Energy

  11. Energy and GHG Emissions in British Columbia 1990 -2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedersen, Tom

    Energy and GHG Emissions in British Columbia 1990 - 2010 Report Highlights John Nyboer and Maximilian Kniewasser Canadian Industrial Energy End-use Data and Analysis Centre (CIEEDAC) Simon Fraser for Climate Solutions 1 HIGHLIGHTS The Energy and GHG Emissions in British

  12. Regional GHG Emissions O tlook Greenhouse Gas and the Regional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Information Administration Annual Energy Outlook for 2013 (AEO2013) along with the modeled curve Outlook with No Federal CO2 Regulatory Cost 70 Annual CO2 Emission from Power System 30 40 50 60 Million25 GHG Emission Outlook with a Federal CO2 Regulatory Cost 70 Annual CO2 Emission from Power System

  13. GHG Emissions from Hydropower Reservoirs The role of hydropower reservoirs in contributing to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is poorly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GHG Emissions from Hydropower Reservoirs The role of hydropower reservoirs in contributing from tropical and boreal reservoirs are significant. In light of hydropower's potential role as a green to characterize carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions from hydropower reservoirs in the US Southeast

  14. Quantitative Analysis of Biofuel Sustainability, Including Land Use Change GHG Emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Plenary V: Biofuels and Sustainability: Acknowledging Challenges and Confronting MisconceptionsQuantitative Analysis of Biofuel Sustainability, Including Land Use Change GHG EmissionsJennifer B....

  15. GLOBAL EMISSIONS Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, largely carbon dioxide (CO2)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Green, Donna

    GLOBAL EMISSIONS Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, largely carbon dioxide (CO2) from the combustion),2 China, Russia, Japan, India and Canada--accounted for more than 70 percent of energy-related CO2. Figure 1 Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1850­2030 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940

  16. A multi-objective programming model for assessment the GHG emissions in MSW management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mavrotas, George, E-mail: mavrotas@chemeng.ntua.gr [National Technical University of Athens, Iroon Polytechniou 9, Zografou, Athens, 15780 (Greece); Skoulaxinou, Sotiria [EPEM SA, 141 B Acharnon Str., Athens, 10446 (Greece); Gakis, Nikos [FACETS SA, Agiou Isidorou Str., Athens, 11471 (Greece); Katsouros, Vassilis [Athena Research and Innovation Center, Artemidos 6 and Epidavrou Str., Maroussi, 15125 (Greece); Georgopoulou, Elena [National Observatory of Athens, Thisio, Athens, 11810 (Greece)

    2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • The multi-objective multi-period optimization model. • The solution approach for the generation of the Pareto front with mathematical programming. • The very detailed description of the model (decision variables, parameters, equations). • The use of IPCC 2006 guidelines for landfill emissions (first order decay model) in the mathematical programming formulation. - Abstract: In this study a multi-objective mathematical programming model is developed for taking into account GHG emissions for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management. Mathematical programming models are often used for structure, design and operational optimization of various systems (energy, supply chain, processes, etc.). The last twenty years they are used all the more often in Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management in order to provide optimal solutions with the cost objective being the usual driver of the optimization. In our work we consider the GHG emissions as an additional criterion, aiming at a multi-objective approach. The Pareto front (Cost vs. GHG emissions) of the system is generated using an appropriate multi-objective method. This information is essential to the decision maker because he can explore the trade-offs in the Pareto curve and select his most preferred among the Pareto optimal solutions. In the present work a detailed multi-objective, multi-period mathematical programming model is developed in order to describe the waste management problem. Apart from the bi-objective approach, the major innovations of the model are (1) the detailed modeling considering 34 materials and 42 technologies, (2) the detailed calculation of the energy content of the various streams based on the detailed material balances, and (3) the incorporation of the IPCC guidelines for the CH{sub 4} generated in the landfills (first order decay model). The equations of the model are described in full detail. Finally, the whole approach is illustrated with a case study referring to the application of the model in a Greek region.

  17. Systematic Review and Harmonization of Life Cycle GHG Emission Estimates for Electricity Generation Technologies (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, G.

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This powerpoint presentation to be presented at the World Renewable Energy Forum on May 14, 2012, in Denver, CO, discusses systematic review and harmonization of life cycle GHG emission estimates for electricity generation technologies.

  18. 2008 Guidelines to Defra's GHG Conversion Methodology Paper for Transport Emission Factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008 Guidelines to Defra's GHG Conversion Factors: Methodology Paper for Transport Emission Factors: Methodology Paper for Transport Emission Factors Contents I. INTRODUCTION 3 II. AVIATION 4 Previous Approach 4 New Passenger Air Transport Emission Factors 5 New Freight Air Transport Emission Factors 10 Other

  19. GHG emission factors developed for the recycling and composting of municipal waste in South African municipalities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedrich, Elena, E-mail: Friedriche@ukzn.ac.za; Trois, Cristina

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • GHG emission factors for local recycling of municipal waste are presented. • GHG emission factors for two composting technologies for garden waste are included. • Local GHG emission factors were compared to international ones and discussed. • Uncertainties and limitations are presented and areas for new research highlighted. - Abstract: GHG (greenhouse gas) emission factors for waste management are increasingly used, but such factors are very scarce for developing countries. This paper shows how such factors have been developed for the recycling of glass, metals (Al and Fe), plastics and paper from municipal solid waste, as well as for the composting of garden refuse in South Africa. The emission factors developed for the different recyclables in the country show savings varying from ?290 kg CO{sub 2} e (glass) to ?19 111 kg CO{sub 2} e (metals – Al) per tonne of recyclable. They also show that there is variability, with energy intensive materials like metals having higher GHG savings in South Africa as compared to other countries. This underlines the interrelation of the waste management system of a country/region with other systems, in particular with energy generation, which in South Africa, is heavily reliant on coal. This study also shows that composting of garden waste is a net GHG emitter, releasing 172 and 186 kg CO{sub 2} e per tonne of wet garden waste for aerated dome composting and turned windrow composting, respectively. The paper concludes that these emission factors are facilitating GHG emissions modelling for waste management in South Africa and enabling local municipalities to identify best practice in this regard.

  20. Transportation Energy Futures: Combining Strategies for Deep Reductions in Energy Consumption and GHG Emissions (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This fact sheet summarizes actions in the areas of light-duty vehicle, non-light-duty vehicle, fuel, and transportation demand that show promise for deep reductions in energy use. Energy efficient transportation strategies have the potential to simultaneously reduce oil consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project examined how the combination of multiple strategies could achieve deep reductions in GHG emissions and petroleum use on the order of 80%. Led by NREL, in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory, the project's primary goal was to help inform domestic decisions about transportation energy strategies, priorities, and investments, with an emphasis on underexplored opportunities. TEF findings reveal three strategies with the potential to displace most transportation-related petroleum use and GHG emissions: 1) Stabilizing energy use in the transportation sector through efficiency and demand-side approaches. 2) Using additional advanced biofuels. 3) Expanding electric drivetrain technologies.

  1. UBC Social, Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report GHG Emissions Data Tracker User Manual

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of a project/report." #12;GHG Emissions Data Tracker User Manual #12;Add/Edit vehicles Vehicles type addition will be saved automatically. Add Vehicles: Enter Vehicles name in the bottom most blank space and once you enter the first character it will create a new record in database. Edit Vehicles: Click on the text box that you

  2. Life Cycle Analysis on Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions of Marcellus Shale Gas Supporting Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaramillo, Paulina

    the well pad drilling site and the location for accommodation. The rig and auxiliary equipments for hydraulic fracturing process are trucked in trailers to the drilling site. Several wells on one multi-well 1. GHG Emissions Estimation for Production of Marcellus Shale Gas 1.1 Preparation of Well Pad

  3. Abstract--Energy consumption and the concomitant Green House Gases (GHG) emissions of network infrastructures are

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    Abstract--Energy consumption and the concomitant Green House Gases (GHG) emissions of network as for their energy consumption. Renewable energy sources (e.g. solar, wind, tide, etc.) are emerging as a promising and the comparison of several energy-aware static routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) strategies for wavelength

  4. Regional GHG Emissions Stat s Greenhouse Gas and the Regional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klamath CoGen (536 MW) (300 MW) #12;6/5/2013 4 CO2 Emissions from Electricity in PNW (1990-2010 ) 25,00070.0 Historical CO2 Emissions of the NW Power System CO2 Emissions Hydro Gen Fossil Fuel Gen (NG + Coal) Wind Gen (MWa) 7 0 5,000 0.0 10.0 20.0 Annual CO2 Annual En CO2 Emissions by Resource in PNW (1995-2010) 80

  5. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Purchased...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    within a community. Separate calculators are available for emissions from stationary combustion, transport or mobile sources, refrigeration and air conditioning equipment, and...

  6. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Refrigerati...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    within a community. Separate calculators are available for emissions from stationary combustion, transport or mobile sources, purchased electricity, and several industrial sectors....

  7. Capturing Fugitives to Reduce DOE’s GHG Emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Experts are hunting down fugitive carbon emissions from across 20 Energy Department laboratories, sites and program offices — and they’ve already prevented the release of more than 600,000 metric tons of CO2 equivalent since 2009 -- equal to taking 140,000 cars off the road for a year.

  8. Voluntary Agreements for Energy Efficiency or GHG EmissionsReduction in Industry: An Assessment of Programs Around the World

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Voluntary agreements for energy efficiency improvement and reduction of energy-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been a popular policy instrument for the industrial sector in industrialized countries since the 1990s. A number of these national-level voluntary agreement programs are now being modified and strengthened, while additional countries--including some recently industrialized and developing countries--are adopting these type of agreements in an effort to increase the energy efficiency of their industrial sectors.Voluntary agreement programs can be roughly divided into three broad categories: (1) programs that are completely voluntary, (2) programs that use the threat of future regulations or energy/GHG emissions taxes as a motivation for participation, and (3) programs that are implemented in conjunction with an existing energy/GHG emissions tax policy or with strict regulations. A variety of government-provided incentives as well as penalties are associated with these programs. This paper reviews 23 energy efficiency or GHG emissions reduction voluntary agreement programs in 18 countries, including countries in Europe, the U.S., Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, South Korea, and Chinese Taipei (Taiwan) and discusses preliminary lessons learned regarding program design and effectiveness. The paper notes that such agreement programs, in which companies inventory and manage their energy use and GHG emissions to meet specific reduction targets, are an essential first step towards GHG emissions trading programs.

  9. Life-cycle energy and GHG emissions of forest biomass harvest and transport for biofuel production in Michigan

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Fengli; Johnson, Dana M.; Wang, Jinjiang

    2015-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High dependence on imported oil has increased U.S. strategic vulnerability and prompted more research in the area of renewable energy production. Ethanol production from renewable woody biomass, which could be a substitute for gasoline, has seen increased interest. This study analysed energy use and greenhouse gas emission impacts on the forest biomass supply chain activities within the State of Michigan. A life-cycle assessment of harvesting and transportation stages was completed utilizing peer-reviewed literature. Results for forest-delivered ethanol were compared with those for petroleum gasoline using data specific to the U.S. The analysis from a woody biomass feedstock supply perspective uncoveredmore »that ethanol production is more environmentally friendly (about 62% less greenhouse gas emissions) compared with petroleum based fossil fuel production. Sensitivity analysis was conducted with key inputs associated with harvesting and transportation operations. The results showed that research focused on improving biomass recovery efficiency and truck fuel economy further reduced GHG emissions and energy consumption.« less

  10. Life-cycle energy and GHG emissions of forest biomass harvest and transport for biofuel production in Michigan

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Fengli [China Univ. of Petroleum, Beijing (China); Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Johnson, Dana M. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Wang, Jinjiang [China Univ. of Petroleum, Beijing (China)

    2015-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High dependence on imported oil has increased U.S. strategic vulnerability and prompted more research in the area of renewable energy production. Ethanol production from renewable woody biomass, which could be a substitute for gasoline, has seen increased interest. This study analysed energy use and greenhouse gas emission impacts on the forest biomass supply chain activities within the State of Michigan. A life-cycle assessment of harvesting and transportation stages was completed utilizing peer-reviewed literature. Results for forest-delivered ethanol were compared with those for petroleum gasoline using data specific to the U.S. The analysis from a woody biomass feedstock supply perspective uncovered that ethanol production is more environmentally friendly (about 62% less greenhouse gas emissions) compared with petroleum based fossil fuel production. Sensitivity analysis was conducted with key inputs associated with harvesting and transportation operations. The results showed that research focused on improving biomass recovery efficiency and truck fuel economy further reduced GHG emissions and energy consumption.

  11. Airborne greenhouse gas (GHG) measurements provide essential constraints for estimating surface emissions. Until recently, dedicated research-grade instruments have been required

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GHG columns · Quantifying local to regional GHG enhancements for emissions inventory verificationAbstract Airborne greenhouse gas (GHG) measurements provide essential constraints for estimating with another Cessna 210 over Central California quantified enhancements in CO2 and CH4 from urban

  12. Life Cycle GHG Emissions from Conventional Natural Gas Power Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, G.; O'Donoughue, P.; Whitaker, M.

    2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research provides a systematic review and harmonization of the life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of electricity generated from conventionally produced natural gas. We focus on estimates of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emitted in the life cycle of electricity generation from conventionally produced natural gas in combustion turbines (NGCT) and combined-cycle (NGCC) systems. A process we term "harmonization" was employed to align several common system performance parameters and assumptions to better allow for cross-study comparisons, with the goal of clarifying central tendency and reducing variability in estimates of life cycle GHG emissions. This presentation summarizes preliminary results.

  13. LowCostGHG ReductionCARB 3/03 Low-Cost and Near-Term Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Paul N.

    LowCostGHG ReductionCARB 3/03 1 Low-Cost and Near-Term Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Marc Ross for Light Duty Vehicles Critical to the Pavley bill's goal to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from trucks (large symbols). The emissions from midsize and smaller cars, emit about half as much. Question

  14. Implications of changing natural gas prices in the United States electricity sector for SO and life cycle GHG emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaramillo, Paulina

    Implications of changing natural gas prices in the United States electricity sector for SO 2 , NO X of changing natural gas prices in the United States electricity sector for SO2, NOX and life cycle GHG to projections of low natural gas prices and increased supply. The trend of increasing natural gas use

  15. GHG emission factors developed for the collection, transport and landfilling of municipal waste in South African municipalities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedrich, Elena, E-mail: Friedriche@ukzn.ac.za [CRECHE Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Engineering, Civil Engineering Programme, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban (South Africa); Trois, Cristina [CRECHE Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Engineering, Civil Engineering Programme, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban (South Africa)

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: ? An average GHG emission factor for the collection and transport of municipal solid waste in South Africa is calculated. ? A range of GHG emission factors for different types of landfills (including dumps) in South Africa are calculated. ? These factors are compared internationally and their implications for South Africa and developing countries are discussed . ? Areas for new research are highlighted. - Abstract: Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission factors are used with increased frequency for the accounting and reporting of GHG from waste management. However, these factors have been calculated for developed countries of the Northern Hemisphere and are lacking for developing countries. This paper shows how such factors have been developed for the collection, transport and landfilling of municipal waste in South Africa. As such it presents a model on how international results and methodology can be adapted and used to calculate country-specific GHG emission factors from waste. For the collection and transport of municipal waste in South Africa, the average diesel consumption is around 5 dm{sup 3} (litres) per tonne of wet waste and the associated GHG emissions are about 15 kg CO{sub 2} equivalents (CO{sub 2} e). Depending on the type of landfill, the GHG emissions from the landfilling of waste have been calculated to range from ?145 to 1016 kg CO{sub 2} e per tonne of wet waste, when taking into account carbon storage, and from 441 to 2532 kg CO{sub 2} e per tonne of wet waste, when carbon storage is left out. The highest emission factor per unit of wet waste is for landfill sites without landfill gas collection and these are the dominant waste disposal facilities in South Africa. However, cash strapped municipalities in Africa and the developing world will not be able to significantly upgrade these sites and reduce their GHG burdens if there is no equivalent replacement of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) resulting from the Kyoto agreement. Other low cost avenues need to be investigated to suit local conditions, in particular landfill covers which enhance methane oxidation.

  16. 15th International Conference Ramiran, May 3-6, 2013, Versailles Accounting GHG emissions from sludge treatment and disposal routes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    sludge treatment and disposal routes ­ methodological problems focused on sludge land spreading% of sewage sludge is directly land spreading or composted before land spreading. Sludge application to quantify GHG emissions emitted during sludge treatment and disposal routes. This paper aims to present how

  17. Implications of Near-Term Coal Power Plant Retirement for SO2 and NOX and Life Cycle GHG Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaramillo, Paulina

    Implications of Near-Term Coal Power Plant Retirement for SO2 and NOX and Life Cycle GHG Emissions for electricity generation, by comparing systems that consist of individual natural gas and coal power plants when coal power plants are retired. These models estimate the order in which existing power plants

  18. 2011 & 2012 Queen's University Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Inventory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2011 & 2012 Queen's University Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Inventory Summary Queen's University completes annual GHG inventories as part of the ongoing commitment to reduce GHG emissions and address climate in 2010. This is the fourth inventory report. This inventory report accounts for GHG emissions from

  19. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Lime: GHG Inventory...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    GHG Inventory Protocols Read the CO2 Emissions Calculation Protocol for the Lime industry (PDF 229 KB) Download Acrobat Reader...

  20. The supply chain of CO2 emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, S. J; Peters, G. P; Caldeira, K.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In almost all cases, the emissions related to traded fuelsextraction (F Er ) and production (F Pr ) emissions (i.e. ,the net effect of emissions from traded fossil fuels; Top),

  1. The supply chain of CO2 emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, S. J; Peters, G. P; Caldeira, K.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    emissions from traded fossil fuels; Top), production (F Pr )Regional, and National Fossil-Fuel CO 2 Emissions (Carbonfrom the burning of fossil fuels are conventionally

  2. GBTL Workshop GHG Emissions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport inEnergy0.pdfTechnologiesNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTALnatural gas as a feedstock

  3. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Minerals: GHG Work...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    major areas of activity - Emissions Measurement and Reporting, Opportunities for GHG Inventory Protocols Reduction of GHGs, Cross-Sector Projects, and Research & Development and...

  4. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Magnesium: GHG Inventory...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    GHG Inventory Protocols The Magnesium Industry Partnership's SF6 emissions tracking and reporting software tool (Excel based) can be accessed by visiting the Partnership's...

  5. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Magnesium: GHG Information

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    GHG Information The magnesium industry directly emits SF6 from its primary metal production, parts casting, and recycling operations. In 2005, the industry's SF6 emissions were...

  6. Operational energy consumption and GHG emissions in residential sector in urban China : an empirical study in Jinan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jiyang, M.C.P. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Driven by rapid urbanization and increasing household incomes, residential energy consumption in urban China has been growing steadily in the past decade, posing critical energy and greenhouse gas emission challenges. ...

  7. LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) of Parabolic Trough CSP: Materials Inventory and Embodied GHG Emissions from Two-Tank Indirect and Thermocline Thermal Storage (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, G.; Burkhardt, J.; Turchi, C.; Decker, T.; Kutscher, C.

    2009-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In the United States, concentrating solar power (CSP) is one of the most promising renewable energy (RE) technologies for reduction of electric sector greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and for rapid capacity expansion. It is also one of the most price-competitive RE technologies, thanks in large measure to decades of field experience and consistent improvements in design. One of the key design features that makes CSP more attractive than many other RE technologies, like solar photovoltaics and wind, is the potential for including relatively low-cost and efficient thermal energy storage (TES), which can smooth the daily fluctuation of electricity production and extend its duration into the evening peak hours or longer. Because operational environmental burdens are typically small for RE technologies, life cycle assessment (LCA) is recognized as the most appropriate analytical approach for determining their environmental impacts of these technologies, including CSP. An LCA accounts for impacts from all stages in the development, operation, and decommissioning of a CSP plant, including such upstream stages as the extraction of raw materials used in system components, manufacturing of those components, and construction of the plant. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is undertaking an LCA of modern CSP plants, starting with those of parabolic trough design.

  8. Unintended Impacts of Increased Truck Loads on Pavement Supply-Chain Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Unintended Impacts of Increased Truck Loads on Pavement Supply-Chain Emissions Nakul Sathaye, Arpad by pavements. The supply chain associated with pavement maintenance and construction releases significant air tailpipe versus pavement supplychain emissions. In some cases, unintended emissions from the pavement

  9. Allocation of Transportation Cost & CO2 Emission in Pooled Supply Chains Using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Allocation of Transportation Cost & CO2 Emission in Pooled Supply Chains Using Cooperative Game and the transport CO2 emissions. In this regard, this paper introduces a scheme to share in a fairly manner the savings. After a summary of the concept of pooled-supply-networks optimization and CO2 emission model, we

  10. GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG) INVENTORY REPORT 20102011 Dalhousie Office of Sustainability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brownstone, Rob

    ..................................... 30 Appendix E: Canadian Default Factors for Calculating CO2 Emissions from Combustion of Natural Gas GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG) INVENTORY REPORT 20102011 Dalhousie Office of Sustainability ......................................................... 34 Appendix K: Fleet Vehicles on Campus .............

  11. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Oil and Gas: GHG...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Prior to developing the API Compendium of GHG Emissions Methodologies for the Oil and Gas Industry (PDF 14.6 MB), API reviewed a wide range of government estimates of...

  12. Current Activities of the GHG Scientific Advisory Group Ed Dlugokencky

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Motivation High GWP gases Valuable in emissions trading Network of measurements likely to expand. This may be important as our observations are used to verify emission inventories under GHG emissions trading schemes. We also prepare documents that can be used by developing countries to assess

  13. GHG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdf Jump1946865°, -86.0529604°Wisconsin:FyreStorm IncLSE COMP POSTGHD IncGHG

  14. Assessment of Supply Chain Energy Efficiency Potentials: A U.S. Case Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masanet, Eric; Kramer, Klaas Jan; Homan, Gregory; Brown, Richard; Worrell, Ernst

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper summarizes a modeling framework that characterizes the key underlying technologies and processes that contribute to the supply chain energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of a variety of goods and services purchased by U.S. consumers. The framework couples an input-output supply chain modeling approach with"bottom-up" fuel end use models for individual IO sectors. This fuel end use modeling detail allows energy and policy analysts to better understand the underlying technologies and processes contributing to the supply chain energy and GHG"footprints" of goods and services. To illustrate the policy-relevance of thisapproach, a case study was conducted to estimate achievable household GHG footprint reductions associated with the adoption of best practice energy-efficient supply chain technologies.

  15. The effect of natural gas supply on US renewable energy and CO2emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shearer, C; Shearer, C; Bistline, J; Inman, M; Davis, SJ; Davis, SJ

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    leaks from North American natural gas systems Science 343of methane emissions at natural gas production sites in theThe effect of natural gas supply on US renewable energy and

  16. What GHG Concentration Targets are Reachable in this Century?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paltsev, Sergey

    2013-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We offer simulations that help to understand the relationship between GHG emissions and concentrations, and the relative role of long-lived (e.g., CO2) and short-lived (e.g., CH4) emissions. We show that, absent technologies ...

  17. Seattle University | Albers School of Business & Economics OPER 564 Supply Chain Management Winter 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carter, John

    Chain Game Simulation from Responsive Learning Technologies Course Description A supply chain base. These functions, together with the process flows (material, information, and financial. Social (e.g., working conditions, workers' rights) and environmental issues (e.g., GHG emissions, water

  18. Land-use change and greenhouse gas emissions from corn and cellulosic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    key carbon content modeling variables on LUC GHG emissions associated with the four bioethanol pathways we examined. Our results indicate that LUC GHG emissions may have a smaller...

  19. DRAFT VERSION September 6, 2009 1 1990 GHG Baseline for Building Energy Use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Escher, Christine

    DRAFT VERSION ­ September 6, 2009 1 1990 GHG Baseline for Building Energy Use in the Oregon of 1990 building energy use and the associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for Oregon University System's stated intent. Specifically, there is a focus on building energy use, the single largest source of direct

  20. TECHNICAL REPORTS The greenhouse gas (GHG) impact of composting a range

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Sally

    TECHNICAL REPORTS 1396 The greenhouse gas (GHG) impact of composting a range of potential by composting and GHG emissions during composting. The primary carbon credits associated with composting are through CH4 avoidance when feedstocks are composted instead of landfilled (municipal solid waste

  1. Assessing Vehicle Electricity Demand Impacts on California Electricity Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan W.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    global warming potentials of 23 and 296, respectively. Marginal electricity GHG emissions rates for vehicle recharging and hydrogen production

  2. Centre on Innovation and Energy Demand The UK's climate goals are ambitious and challenging. Achieving an 80% reduction in GHG emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jensen, Max

    Centre on Innovation and Energy Demand The UK's climate goals are ambitious and challenging demand. While many low-energy innovations represent relatively incremental changes to existing on energy demand and carbon emissions; and to provide practical recommendations for UK energy and climate

  3. Catalyst Paper No-Carb Strategy for GHG Reduction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McClain, C.; Robinson, J.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for manufacturing is generated by the powerhouse where 63% of thermal energy is now from biomass and alternative fuels. This strategy reduced gross energy usage by 22% and provided a direct reduction in Green House Gas (GHG) emissions by 71% from 1990 to 2005...

  4. GHG Considerations in Integrated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CO2 11 PGE's CO2 profile Carbon intensity 12 #12;6/5/2013 7 Ongoing, forecast load growth of 1-Quarters of U.S. coal fleet is over 30 years old 10 #12;6/5/2013 6 PGE's CO2 profile Total emissions & avoided

  5. Summary of Fast Pyrolysis and Upgrading GHG Analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Male, Jonathan L.

    2012-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 established new renewable fuel categories and eligibility requirements (EPA 2010). A significant aspect of the National Renewable Fuel Standard 2 (RFS2) program is the requirement that the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of a qualifying renewable fuel be less than the life cycle GHG emissions of the 2005 baseline average gasoline or diesel fuel that it replaces. Four levels of reduction are required for the four renewable fuel standards. Table 1 lists these life cycle performance improvement thresholds. Table 1. Life Cycle GHG Thresholds Specified in EISA Fuel Type Percent Reduction from 2005 Baseline Renewable fuel 20% Advanced biofuel 50% Biomass-based diesel 50% Cellulosic biofuel 60% Notably, there is a specialized subset of advanced biofuels that are the cellulosic biofuels. The cellulosic biofuels are incentivized by the Cellulosic Biofuel Producer Tax Credit (26 USC 40) to stimulate market adoption of these fuels. EISA defines a cellulosic biofuel as follows (42 USC 7545(o)(1)(E)): The term “cellulosic biofuel” means renewable fuel derived from any cellulose, hemicellulose, or lignin that is derived from renewable biomass and that has lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions, as determined by the Administrator, that are at least 60 percent less than the baseline lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions. As indicated, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has sole responsibility for conducting the life cycle analysis (LCA) and making the final determination of whether a given fuel qualifies under these biofuel definitions. However, there appears to be a need within the LCA community to discuss and eventually reach consensus on discerning a 50–59 % GHG reduction from a ? 60% GHG reduction for policy, market, and technology development. The level of specificity and agreement will require additional development of capabilities and time for the sustainability and analysis community, as illustrated by the rich dialogue and convergence around the energy content and GHG reduction of cellulosic ethanol (an example of these discussions can be found in Wang 2011). GHG analyses of fast pyrolysis technology routes are being developed and will require significant work to reach the levels of development and maturity of cellulosic ethanol models. This summary provides some of the first fast pyrolysis analyses and clarifies some of the reasons for differing results in an effort to begin the convergence on assumptions, discussion of quality of models, and harmonization.

  6. Buildings GHG Mitigation Estimator Worksheet, Version 1

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Xcel document describes Version 1 of the the Buildings GHG Mitigation Estimator tool. This tool assists federal agencies in estimating the greenhouse gas mitigation reduction from implementing energy efficiency measures across a portfolio of buildings. It is designed to be applied to groups of office buildings, for example, at a program level (regional or site) that can be summarized at the agency level. While the default savings and cost estimates apply to office buildings, users can define their own efficiency measures, costs, and savings estimates for inclusion in the portfolio assessment. More information on user-defined measures can be found in Step 2 of the buildings emission reduction guidance. The output of this tool is a prioritized set of activities that can help the agency to achieve its greenhouse gas reduction targets most cost-effectively.

  7. Assessing Vehicle Electricity Demand Impacts on California Electricity Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan W.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fractions of coal power, marginal emissions rates could beon coal power in LADWP leads to higher average emissionscoal-fired power plants, respectively, median hourly GHG emissions

  8. IGES GHG Emissions Data | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup | OpenHunan Runhua New Energy DevelopmentListIIFCI Venture CapitalIGES

  9. EPA-GHG Inventory Targeted Data Collection Strategies and Software...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EPA-GHG Inventory Targeted Data Collection Strategies and Software Tools (Redirected from US EPA GHG Inventory Targeted Data Collection Strategies and Software Tools) Jump to:...

  10. 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 2018 2020 Rio Tinto GHG

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Tinto GHG Climate Policy Coverage (CO2 emissions of jurisdictions with carbon pricing as a % of global0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 2018 2020 Global CO2 Rio Benchmark for Direct Emissions Benchmark for carbon intensity of electricity Benchmark for electricity per

  11. Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O’Sullivan, Francis Martin

    Estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use are controversial. Here we assess the level of GHG emissions from shale gas well hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States during ...

  12. Unintended Impacts of Increased Truck Loads on Pavement Supply-Chain Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathaye, Nakul; Horvath, Arpad; Madanat, Samer

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Restrictions: Impacts on Truck  Emissions and Performance reduction in truck tailpipe emissions (McKinnon,  2005).   to estimate tailpipe  emissions from trucks transporting 

  13. Unintended Impacts of Increased Truck Loads on Pavement Supply-chain Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathaye, Nakul; Horvath, Arpad; Madanat, Samer M

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Restrictions: Impacts on Truck Emissions and Performancereduction in truck tailpipe emissions (McKinnon, 2005). Theused to estimate tailpipe emissions from trucks transporting

  14. Decision-Making to Reduce Manufacturing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reich-Weiser, Corinne

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to GHG/kWh of the USA electricity supply chain are coalGHG/kWh of electricity example based on USA. Distributionnuclear (USA) are different because of the electricity mix

  15. Assessing Vehicle Electricity Demand Impacts on California Electricity Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan W.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    management in the US electricity sector, Energy Policy, 23(deep reductions in electricity sector GHG emissions requireson the electricity sector. 19 Table 3.

  16. Assessing Vehicle Electricity Demand Impacts on California Electricity Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan W.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in Figure 63. Average electricity costs are noticeably lowerprofile has lower average electricity costs, because fossiland generation, average electricity costs, and GHG emissions

  17. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from U.S. Hydropower Reservoirs: FY2011 Annual Progress Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, Arthur J [ORNL; Mosher, Jennifer J [ORNL; Mulholland, Patrick J [ORNL; Fortner, Allison M [ORNL; Phillips, Jana Randolph [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of this study is to quantify the net emissions of key greenhouse gases (GHG) - notably, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} - from hydropower reservoirs in moist temperate areas within the U.S. The rationale for this objective is straightforward: if net emissions of GHG can be determined, it would be possible to directly compare hydropower to other power-producing methods on a carbon-emissions basis. Studies of GHG emissions from hydropower reservoirs elsewhere suggest that net emissions can be moderately high in tropical areas. In such areas, warm temperatures and relatively high supply rates of labile organic matter can encourage high rates of decomposition, which (depending upon local conditions) can result in elevated releases of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}. CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} emissions also tend to be higher for younger reservoirs than for older reservoirs, because vegetation and labile soil organic matter that is inundated when a reservoir is created can continue to decompose for several years (Galy-Lacaux et al. 1997, Barros et al. 2011). Water bodies located in climatically cooler areas, such as in boreal forests, could be expected to have lower net emissions of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} because their organic carbon supplies tend to be relatively recalcitrant to microbial action and because cooler water temperatures are less conducive to decomposition.

  18. Uncertainties in Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Advanced

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kara G. Cafferty; Erin M. Searcy; Long Nguyen; Sabrina Spatari

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To meet Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) cellulosic biofuel mandates, the United States will require an annual domestic supply of about 242 million Mg of biomass by 2022. To improve the feedstock logistics of lignocellulosic biofuels and access available biomass resources from areas with varying yields, commodity systems have been proposed and designed to deliver on-spec biomass feedstocks at preprocessing “depots”, which densify and stabilize the biomass prior to long-distance transport and delivery to centralized biorefineries. The harvesting, preprocessing, and logistics (HPL) of biomass commodity supply chains thus could introduce spatially variable environmental impacts into the biofuel life cycle due to needing to harvest, move, and preprocess biomass from multiple distances that have variable spatial density. This study examines the uncertainty in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of corn stover logisticsHPL within a bio-ethanol supply chain in the state of Kansas, where sustainable biomass supply varies spatially. Two scenarios were evaluated each having a different number of depots of varying capacity and location within Kansas relative to a central commodity-receiving biorefinery to test GHG emissions uncertainty. Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate the spatial uncertainty in the HPL gate-to-gate sequence. The results show that the transport of densified biomass introduces the highest variability and contribution to the carbon footprint of the logistics HPL supply chain (0.2-13 g CO2e/MJ). Moreover, depending upon the biomass availability and its spatial density and surrounding transportation infrastructure (road and rail), logistics HPL processes can increase the variability in life cycle environmental impacts for lignocellulosic biofuels. Within Kansas, life cycle GHG emissions could range from 24 to 41 g CO2e/MJ depending upon the location, size and number of preprocessing depots constructed. However, this range can be minimized through optimizing the siting of preprocessing depots where ample rail infrastructure exists to supply biomass commodity to a regional biorefinery supply system

  19. Interactions between Electric-drive Vehicles and the Power Sector in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan; Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    if supplied with coal power; at emissions rates equal torates). If coal power Electricity GHG emissions rate (gCOlower GHG emissions rates than coal power supplying non-

  20. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation and Marine Transportation: Mitigation Potential and Policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L; Gould, Gregory; Greene, David L

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Extending the EU Emissions Trading Scheme to Aviation.Air Transport Emissions Trading Scheme Workshop, UKaviation in its GHG emission trading system (i.e. , by

  1. Urban Form Energy Use and Emissions in China: Preliminary Findings and Model Proof of Concept

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    urban areas US national-level data on transportation and land use Purpose Development of sector GHG emissions inventories

  2. GHG Update/CAP Progress ReportGHG Update/CAP Progress Report 2010 GHG Update2010 GHG Update

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Pei

    i i f t d d 486­ Duke Energy emission factors decreased .486 kgCO2/kWh to .405 kgCO2/kWh · Steam Percentages 15% 1% (~328,000 MTeCO2) 13% 1% (~307,000 MTeCO2) 44% 10% 15% 49%1% 11% 44% 1% 1% 28% Electricity Update 450000 500000 250000 300000 350000 400000 CO2 100000 150000 200000 250000 MTeC 0 50000 1990 1991

  3. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Monitoring Plan - 40 CFR 98

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deborah L. Layton; Kimberly Frerichs

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Monitoring Plan is to meet the monitoring plan requirements of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 98.3(g)(5). This GHG Monitoring Plan identifies procedures and methodologies used at the Idaho National Laboratory Site (INL Site) to collect data used for GHG emissions calculations and reporting requirements from stationary combustion and other regulated sources in accordance with 40 CFR 98, Subparts A and other applicable subparts. INL Site Contractors determined subpart applicability through the use of a checklist (Appendix A). Each facility/contractor reviews operations to determine which subparts are applicable and the results are compiled to determine which subparts are applicable to the INL Site. This plan is applicable to the 40 CFR 98-regulated activities managed by the INL Site contractors: Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Cleanup Project (ICP), Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP), and Naval Reactors Facilities (NRF).

  4. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Monitoring Plan - 40 CFR 98

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deborah L. Layton; Kimberly Frerichs

    2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Monitoring Plan is to meet the monitoring plan requirements of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 98.3(g)(5). This GHG Monitoring Plan identifies procedures and methodologies used at the Idaho National Laboratory Site (INL Site) to collect data used for GHG emissions calculations and reporting requirements from stationary combustion and other regulated sources in accordance with 40 CFR 98, Subparts A and other applicable subparts. INL Site Contractors determined subpart applicability through the use of a checklist (Appendix A). Each facility/contractor reviews operations to determine which subparts are applicable and the results are compiled to determine which subparts are applicable to the INL Site. This plan is applicable to the 40 CFR 98-regulated activities managed by the INL Site contractors: Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Cleanup Project (ICP), Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP), and Naval Reactors Facilities (NRF).

  5. Closing the Gap: Using the Clean Air Act to Control Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Energy Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hagan, Colin R.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    out that EPA used an emissions trading program to controlsuggested that an emissions trading system could qualify asTO MANAGE LIFECYCLE GHG emissions trading system would also

  6. Evaluation of Efficiency Activities in the Industrial Sector Undertaken in Response to Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DEFRA), 2005a. UK Emissions Trading Scheme. London: DEFRA.Energy/GHG Tax Emissions trading Target Setting Penaltiesthe European Union Emissions Trading Scheme and a lack of

  7. Comparative life-cycle air emissions of coal, domestic natural gas, LNG, and SNG for electricity generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paulina Jaramillo; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Civil and Environmental Engineering Department

    2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates that in the coming decades the United States' natural gas (NG) demand for electricity generation will increase. Estimates also suggest that NG supply will increasingly come from imported liquefied natural gas (LNG). Additional supplies of NG could come domestically from the production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) via coal gasification-methanation. The objective of this study is to compare greenhouse gas (GHG), SOx, and NOx life-cycle emissions of electricity generated with NG/LNG/SNG and coal. This life-cycle comparison of air emissions from different fuels can help us better understand the advantages and disadvantages of using coal versus globally sourced NG for electricity generation. Our estimates suggest that with the current fleet of power plants, a mix of domestic NG, LNG, and SNG would have lower GHG emissions than coal. If advanced technologies with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) are used, however, coal and a mix of domestic NG, LNG, and SNG would have very similar life-cycle GHG emissions. For SOx and NOx we find there are significant emissions in the upstream stages of the NG/LNG life-cycles, which contribute to a larger range in SOx and NOx emissions for NG/LNG than for coal and SNG. 38 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Reducing Greenhouse Emissions and Fuel Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaheen, Susan; Lipman, Timothy

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory . Other full fuel cycle GHG emission models, such440 grams per mile on a full fuel cycle (or "well-to-wheel")

  9. Greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation and monitoring technology performance: Activities of the GHG Technology Verification Center. Report for January 1998--January 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masemore, S.; Kirchgessner, D.A.

    1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper discusses greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation and monitoring technology performance activities of the GHG Technology Verification Center. The Center is a public/private partnership between Southern Research Institute and the US EPA`s Office of Research and Development. The Center is part of EPA`s Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program, which has established 12 verification centers to evaluate a wide range of technologies in various environmental media and technology areas. The Center has published the results of its first verification: use of a phosphoric acid fuel cell to produce electricity from landfill gas. It has also initiated three new field verifications, two on technologies that reduce methane emissions from natural gas transmissions compressors, and one on a new microturbine electricity production technology.

  10. Recent increases in global HFC-23 emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions and sinks: 1990-2007, Rep.A. Lindley (2007), Global emissions of HFC-23 estimated to2009), Greenhouse Gas Emissions Data, http://unfccc.int/ghg_

  11. Electric supply options in a world driven by CO{sub 2} emission policies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winters, Tobey

    2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Portfolio analysis borrowed from finance illustrates investors' need to reduce the uncertainty of nuclear, coal and wind technologies. To manage these risks, the article proposes a new deal between government and the private sector that bridges the gap between investment realities and CO{sub 2} emission reduction goals. (author)

  12. Forecasting and Capturing Emission Reductions Using Industrial Energy Management and Reporting Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robinson, J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Mandatory 2010 Green House Gas (GHG) Reporting Regulations and pending climate change legislation has increased interest in Energy Management and Reporting Systems (EMRS) as a means of both reducing and reporting GHG emissions. This paper...

  13. GHG Management Institute | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A PotentialJumpGermanFifeGEXA Corp. (New Jersey) Jump to:GGAM ElectricalGHG

  14. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Minerals: GHG Inventory...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    GHG Inventory Protocols Read the Industrial Minerals Association - North America (IMA-NA) Borates and Soda Ash Sections Greenhouse Gas Inventory Protocol (PDF 75 KB) Download...

  15. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Iron and Steel: GHG...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    GHG Inventory Protocols Principles for a Steel Industry Methodology for Reporting Carbon-Related Energy Sources and Raw Materials (PDF 48 KB) Download Acrobat Reader Steel Industry...

  16. A Multi-Objective, Hub-and-Spoke Supply Chain Design Model For Densified Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Md S. Roni; Sandra Eksioglu; Kara G. Cafferty

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we propose a model to design the supply chain for densified biomass. Rail is typically used for long-haul, high-volume shipment of densified biomass. This is the reason why a hub-and-spoke network structure is used to model this supply chain. The model is formulated as a multi-objective, mixed-integer programing problem under economic, environmental, and social criteria. The goal is to identify the feasibility of meeting the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) by using biomass for production of cellulosic ethanol. The focus in not just on the costs associated with meeting these standards, but also exploring the social and environmental benefits that biomass production and processing offers by creating new jobs and reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We develop an augmented ?-constraint method to find the exact Pareto solution to this optimization problem. We develop a case study using data from the Mid-West. The model identifies the number, capacity and location of biorefineries needed to make use of the biomass available in the region. The model estimates the delivery cost of cellulosic ethanol under different scenario, the number new jobs created and the GHG emission reductions in the supply chain.

  17. Ligncellulosic feedstock supply systems with intermodal and overseas transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ric Hoefnagels; Kara Cafferty; Erin Searcy; Jacob J. Jacobson; Martin Junginger; Thijs Cornelissen; Andre Faaij

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With growing demand for biomass from industrial uses and international trade, the logistic operations required to economically move the biomass from the field or forest to the end users have become increasingly complex. In addition to economics, understanding energy and GHG emissions is required to design cost effective, sustainable logistic process operations; in order to improve international supply chains it is also important to understate their interdependencies and related uncertainties. This article presents an approach to assess lignocellulosic feedstock supply systems at the operational level. For this purpose, the Biomass Logistic Model (BLM) has been linked with the Geographic Information Systems based Biomass Intermodal Transportation model (BIT-UU) and extended with inter-continental transport routes. Case studies of herbaceous and woody biomass, produced in the U.S. Midwest and U.S. Southeast, respectively, and shipped to Europe for conversion to Fischer-Tropsch (FT) diesel are included to demonstrate how intermodal transportation and, in particular, overseas shipping integrates with the bioenergy supply chains. For the cases demonstrated, biomass can be supplied at 99 € Mg-1 to 117 € Mg-1 (dry) and converted to FT-diesel at 19 € GJ-1 to 24 € GJ-1 depending on the feedstock type and location, intermediate (chips or pellets) and size of the FT-diesel production plant. With the flexibility to change the design of supply chains as well as input variables, many alternative supply chain cases can be assessed.

  18. South Africa-Quantifying Emission Reduction Opportunities in...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AgencyCompany Organization Ecofys Sector Energy Topics Background analysis, GHG inventory, Low emission development planning, Pathways analysis Website http:www.ecofys.com...

  19. acid forming emissions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    O V 2007-01-01 58 Project Information Form Project Title Urban Spatial Structure and GHG Emissions Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization Websites Summary: has a larger...

  20. acid gas emissions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    gas ((GHG) (CO2, NH4, HFCs 26 INTRODUCTION Greenhouse Gas Emissions in an Urban Environment Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: INTRODUCTION Greenhouse Gas...

  1. Multi-criteria comparison of fuel policies: Renewable fuel mandate, fuel emission-standards, and fuel carbon tax

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Deepak; Hochman, G.; Zilberman, D.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is only one type of fossil fuel and one alternative fuel andGHG emissions and reducing fossil fuel use, and ?nd biofuelin GHG intensity of both fossil fuels and renewable fuels,

  2. Carbon-Optimal and Carbon-Neutral Supply Chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caro, F.; Corbett, C. J.; Tan, T.; Zuidwijk, R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    or in full). For instance, Coca Cola reported that totalGHG emissions in the Coca Cola system in 2009 were 5.4330ml glass bottle of Coca Cola is 360g. 2 Beyond estimating

  3. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Semiconductors: GHG...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    2005, the industry's PFC emissions were equivalent to 4.3 million metric tons of CO2 (Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2005, U.S. EPA, 2007). Since...

  4. Energy and GHG Emissions in British Columbia 1990 -2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedersen, Tom

    economy. Use of natural gas in 2010 was 3% lower than it was in 1990 while intensity declined by 16% per person and 37% per dollar from 1990. Natural gas Environment Canada, Natural Resources Canada, Aluminium Industry Association, Canadian Chemical Producers

  5. New Jersey: EERE-Supported Technology Lowers GHG Emissions 70...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Innovation Recognized by R&D Magazine for Fuel-Saving Product Washington: Graphene Nanostructures for Lithium Batteries Recieves 2012 R&D 100 Award Project Overview...

  6. Attachment C - Summary GHG Emissions Data FINAL | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently20,000 RussianBy:Whether you'reInc.:memo memorializes the meeting

  7. Attachment C Summary GHG Emissions Data FINAL | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently20,000 RussianBy:Whether you'reInc.:memo memorializes the

  8. EPA Climate Leaders Simplified GHG Emissions Calculator (SGEC) | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A Potential MicrohydroDistrict ofDongjinDynetek42EOP Biodiesel AG JumpEnergy

  9. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Stationary

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f <MaintainedInformation 2EnergyCity ofGeysers and SaltonLimited

  10. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Transport or

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f <MaintainedInformation 2EnergyCity ofGeysers and SaltonLimitedMobil

  11. Methodology for Estimating Reductions of GHG Emissions from Mosaic

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup |JilinLu an GroupInformation Meier(Redirected from

  12. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Purchased

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit with formSoutheasternInformationPolicy |Environmental BuildingTheElectricity

  13. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Refrigeration

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit with formSoutheasternInformationPolicy |Environmental

  14. Catalyst Paper No-Carb Strategy for GHG Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McClain, C.; Robinson, J.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Catalyst Paper strategy to manage GHG exposure is a combination of energy reduction initiatives in manufacturing and the effective use of biomass and alternative fuels to produce mill steam and electricity from the powerhouse. The energy...

  15. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Aluminum: GHG Information

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    GHG Information The primary aluminum industry emits PFCs and CO2 directly from the production process and indirectly emits CO2 from its energy consumption. In 2001, the U.S....

  16. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Minerals: GHG Information

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    GHG Information Read the Industrial Minerals Association - North America (IMA-NA) 2011 Greenhouse Gas and Energy Survey Industry Summary for the period from 2000 to 2010 (PDF 16...

  17. Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    At an international conference on global warming, held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the United States committed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 7% over its 1990 level by the year 2012. To help achieve that goal, transportation GHG emissions need to be reduced. Using Argonne's fuel-cycle model, I estimated GHG emissions reduction potentials of various near- and long-term transportation technologies. The estimated per-mile GHG emissions results show that alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies can help significantly reduce transportation GHG emissions. Of the near-term technologies evaluated in this study, electric vehicles; hybrid electric vehicles; compression-ignition, direct-injection vehicles; and E85 flexible fuel vehicles can reduce fuel-cycle GHG emissions by more than 25%, on the fuel-cycle basis. Electric vehicles powered by electricity generated primarily from nuclear and renewable sources can reduce GHG emissions by 80%. Other alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, offer limited, but positive, GHG emission reduction benefits. Among the long-term technologies evaluated in this study, conventional spark ignition and compression ignition engines powered by alternative fuels and gasoline- and diesel-powered advanced vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by 10% to 30%. Ethanol dedicated vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by over 40%. Spark ignition engines and fuel-cell vehicles powered by cellulosic ethanol and solar hydrogen (for fuel-cell vehicles only) can reduce GHG emissions by over 80%. In conclusion, both near- and long-term alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies can play a role in reducing the United States GHG emissions.

  18. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Solar Photovoltaics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Harmonization Project, a study that helps to clarify inconsistent and conflicting life cycle GHG emission estimates in the published literature and provide more precise estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from PV systems.

  19. Sharing the Burden of GHG Reductions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacoby, Henry D.

    The G8 countries propose a goal of a 50% reduction in global emissions by 2050, in an effort that needs to take account of other agreements specifying that developing countries are to be provided with incentives to action ...

  20. 2008 Guidelines to Defra's GHG Conversion Factors Guidelines to Defra's GHG Conversion Factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - Imports and Exports Last updated: Jun-05 Total emissions (kg CO2) Total electricity produced Total heat produced kg CO2/kWh elecricity Total emissions (kg CO2) Total electricity produced Total heat produced kg CO2/kWh heat Emissions (in kgCO2) per kWh electricity = twice total emissions (in kgCO2) twice total

  1. Fashion Supply Chain Network Competition Ecolabelling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    , Gothenburg, Sweden 3 Pamplin School of Business Administration University of Portland Portland, Oregon 97203)). At the same time, this industry utilizes extensive amounts of natural resources from water and grown cotton is a primary source of GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions, including CO2, one of the principal sources of global

  2. Identifying Options for Deep Reductions in Greenhouse Gas Emissions from California Transportation: Meeting an 80% Reduction Goal in 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Christopher; McCollum, David L; McCarthy, Ryan; Leighty, Wayne

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of U.S. Croplands for Biofuels Increases Greenhouse GasesGHG Emissions from Biofuels . in STEPS Research Symposium .NRDC, Growing Energy: How Biofuels Can Help End America's

  3. Integrating Agricultural and Forestry GHG Mitigation Response into General Economy Frameworks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    Integrating Agricultural and Forestry GHG Mitigation Response into General Economy Frameworks. #12;2 Integrating Agricultural and Forestry GHG Mitigation Response into General Economy Frameworks for characterizing potential responses to greenhouse gas mitigation policies by the agriculture and forestry

  4. Using Section 111 of the Clean Air Act for Cap-and-Trade of Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Obstacles and Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enion, Rhead M.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    focused nitro- gen oxide emissions-trading program for largeNSPS program could use emissions trading, including cap-and-regulations that allow emissions trading, to achieve GHG

  5. Assessing the fuel Use and greenhouse gas emissions of future light-duty vehicles in Japan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nishimura, Eriko

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is of great concern in Japan, as well as elsewhere, such as in the U.S. and EU. More than 20% of GHG emissions in Japan come from the transportation sector, and a more than 70% ...

  6. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Concentrating Solar Power (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Harmonization Project, a study that makes great strides in clarifying inconsistent and conflicting GHG emission estimates in the published literature while providing more precise estimates of GHG emissions from utility-scale CSP systems.

  7. Hydrogen Pathways: Cost, Well-to-Wheels Energy Use, and Emissions for the Current Technology Status of Seven Hydrogen Production, Delivery, and Distribution Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruth, M.; Laffen, M.; Timbario, T. A.

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Report of levelized cost in 2005 U.S. dollars, energy use, and GHG emission benefits of seven hydrogen production, delivery, and distribution pathways.

  8. Hydrogen Pathways: Cost, Well-to-Wheels Energy Use, and Emissions for the Current Technology Status of Seven Hydrogen Production, Delivery, and Distribution Scenarios

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    Report of levelized cost in 2005 U.S. dollars, energy use, and GHG emission benefits of seven hydrogen production, delivery, and distribution pathways.

  9. Greenhouse gas emissions from MSW incineration in China: Impacts of waste characteristics and energy recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Na [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhang Hua, E-mail: zhanghua_tj@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Chen Miao; Shao Liming [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); He Pinjing, E-mail: xhpjk@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Determination of the amount of greenhouse gas (GHG) emitted during municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is complex because both contributions and savings of GHGs exist in the process. To identify the critical factors influencing GHG emissions from MSWI in China, a GHG accounting model was established and applied to six Chinese cities located in different regions. The results showed that MSWI in most of the cities was the source of GHGs, with emissions of 25-207 kg CO{sub 2}-eq t{sup -1} rw. Within all process stages, the emission of fossil CO{sub 2} from the combustion of MSW was the main contributor (111-254 kg CO{sub 2}-eq t{sup -1} rw), while the substitution of electricity reduced the GHG emissions by 150-247 kg CO{sub 2}-eq t{sup -1} rw. By affecting the fossil carbon content and the lower heating value of the waste, the contents of plastic and food waste in the MSW were the critical factors influencing GHG emissions of MSWI. Decreasing food waste content in MSW by half will significantly reduce the GHG emissions from MSWI, and such a reduction will convert MSWI in Urumqi and Tianjin from GHG sources to GHG sinks. Comparison of the GHG emissions in the six Chinese cities with those in European countries revealed that higher energy recovery efficiency in Europe induced much greater reductions in GHG emissions. Recovering the excess heat after generation of electricity would be a good measure to convert MSWI in all the six cities evaluated herein into sinks of GHGs.

  10. Biochar amendment and greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Case, Sean Daniel Charles

    2013-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of biochar amendment on soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and to elucidate the mechanisms behind these effects. I investigated the suppression of soil carbon dioxide ...

  11. Emissions from US waste collection vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maimoun, Mousa A., E-mail: mousamaimoun@gmail.com [Department of Civil, Environmental, and Construction Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); Reinhart, Debra R. [Department of Civil, Environmental, and Construction Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); Gammoh, Fatina T. [Quality Department, Airport International Group, Amman (Jordan); McCauley Bush, Pamela [Department of Industrial Engineering and Management Systems, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States)

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: ? Life-cycle emissions for alternative fuel technologies. ? Fuel consumption of alternative fuels for waste collection vehicles. ? Actual driving cycle of waste collection vehicles. ? Diesel-fueled waste collection vehicle emissions. - Abstract: This research is an in-depth environmental analysis of potential alternative fuel technologies for waste collection vehicles. Life-cycle emissions, cost, fuel and energy consumption were evaluated for a wide range of fossil and bio-fuel technologies. Emission factors were calculated for a typical waste collection driving cycle as well as constant speed. In brief, natural gas waste collection vehicles (compressed and liquid) fueled with North-American natural gas had 6–10% higher well-to-wheel (WTW) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to diesel-fueled vehicles; however the pump-to-wheel (PTW) GHG emissions of natural gas waste collection vehicles averaged 6% less than diesel-fueled vehicles. Landfill gas had about 80% lower WTW GHG emissions relative to diesel. Biodiesel waste collection vehicles had between 12% and 75% lower WTW GHG emissions relative to diesel depending on the fuel source and the blend. In 2011, natural gas waste collection vehicles had the lowest fuel cost per collection vehicle kilometer travel. Finally, the actual driving cycle of waste collection vehicles consists of repetitive stops and starts during waste collection; this generates more emissions than constant speed driving.

  12. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Cement: GHG Information...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the supply side, the footprints provide details on the energy purchased from utilities (electricity, fossil fuels), energy generated onsite, and excess energy transported to the...

  13. Using Cool Roofs to Reduce Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Urban Heat-island Effects: Findings from an India Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akbari, Hashem

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electricity Savings (kWh/m2/year) GHG Emissions Factor* (kg CO2Electricity savings for a commercial building (kg CO2 per kWh) Average CO2 Emissions (

  14. Market-Based Emissions Regulation and Industry Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fowlie, Meredith

    . The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of NSF grant SES-0922401. 1 #12;Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) in the European Union and California's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading program. In these "cap is that, provided a series of conditions are met, an emissions trading program designed to equate marginal

  15. Market-Based Emissions Regulation and Industry Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fowlie, Meredith

    . Examples include the Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) in the European Union and California's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading program. In these "cap-and-trade" (CAT) programs, regulators impose a cap- sions is that, provided a series of conditions are met, an emissions trading program designed to equate

  16. Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Measurement, Causation and Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .S. CO2 emissions sources. U.S. CO2 transportation emissions sources by mode. #12;Center% of the carbon dioxide we produce. As such it is a leading candidate for greenhouse gas ((GHG) (CO2, NH4, HFCsTransportation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Measurement, Causation and Mitigation Oak Ridge

  17. Evaluation of metrics and baselines for tracking greenhouse gas emissions trends: Recommendations for the California climate action registry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn; Murtishaw, Scott; Worrell, Ernst

    2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Executive Summary: The California Climate Action Registry, which was initially established in 2000 and began operation in Fall 2002, is a voluntary registry for recording annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The purpose of the Registry is to assist California businesses and organizations in their efforts to inventory and document emissions in order to establish a baseline and to document early actions to increase energy efficiency and decrease GHG emissions. The State of California has committed to use its ''best efforts'' to ensure that entities that establish GHG emissions baselines and register their emissions will receive ''appropriate consideration under any future international, federal, or state regulatory scheme relating to greenhouse gas emissions.'' Reporting of GHG emissions involves documentation of both ''direct'' emissions from sources that are under the entity's control and indirect emissions controlled by others. Electricity generated by an off-site power source is consider ed to be an indirect GHG emission and is required to be included in the entity's report. Registry participants include businesses, non-profit organizations, municipalities, state agencies, and other entities. Participants are required to register the GHG emissions of all operations in California, and are encouraged to report nationwide. For the first three years of participation, the Registry only requires the reporting of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, although participants are encouraged to report the remaining five Kyoto Protocol GHGs (CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs, and SF6). After three years, reporting of all six Kyoto GHG emissions is required. The enabling legislation for the Registry (SB 527) requires total GHG emissions to be registered and requires reporting of ''industry-specific metrics'' once such metrics have been adopted by the Registry. The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) was asked to provide technical assistance to the California Energy Commission (Energy Commission) related to the Registry in three areas: (1) assessing the availability and usefulness of industry-specific metrics, (2) evaluating various methods for establishing baselines for calculating GHG emissions reductions related to specific actions taken by Registry participants, and (3) establishing methods for calculating electricity CO2 emission factors. The third area of research was completed in 2002 and is documented in Estimating Carbon Dioxide Emissions Factors for the California Electric Power Sector (Marnay et al., 2002). This report documents our findings related to the first areas of research. For the first area of research, the overall objective was to evaluate the metrics, such as emissions per economic unit or emissions per unit of production that can be used to report GHG emissions trends for potential Registry participants. This research began with an effort to identify methodologies, benchmarking programs, inventories, protocols, and registries that u se industry-specific metrics to track trends in energy use or GHG emissions in order to determine what types of metrics have already been developed. The next step in developing industry-specific metrics was to assess the availability of data needed to determine metric development priorities. Berkeley Lab also determined the relative importance of different potential Registry participant categories in order to asses s the availability of sectoral or industry-specific metrics and then identified industry-specific metrics in use around the world. While a plethora of metrics was identified, no one metric that adequately tracks trends in GHG emissions while maintaining confidentiality of data was identified. As a result of this review, Berkeley Lab recommends the development of a GHG intensity index as a new metric for reporting and tracking GHG emissions trends.Such an index could provide an industry-specific metric for reporting and tracking GHG emissions trends to accurately reflect year to year changes while protecting proprietary data. This GHG intensity index changes

  18. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Mining: GHG Information

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Energy Footprints DOE developed a series of Energy Footprints to map the flow of energy supply and demand in U.S. manufacturing industries. Identifying the sources and end uses of...

  19. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Aluminum: GHG Information...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Energy Footprints DOE developed a series of Energy Footprints to map the flow of energy supply and demand in U.S. manufacturing industries. Identifying the sources and end uses of...

  20. Improving Energy Efficiency and Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in BPs PTA Manufacturing Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, F.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improving Energy Efficiency and Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in BPs PTA Manufacturing Plants Fred Clark Energy/GHG Advisor BP Aromatics & Acetyls Naperville, Illinois BP is the world?s leading producer of purified terephthalic acid...

  1. A Strategy for a Global Observing System for Verification of National Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prinn, Ronald G.

    With the risks of climate change becoming increasingly evident, there is growing discussion regarding international treaties and national regulations to lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Enforcement of such agreements ...

  2. Development and Update of Models for Long-Term Energy and GHG...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    and Update of Models for Long-Term Energy and GHG Impact Evaluation 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer...

  3. Impact of the renewable oxygenate standard for reformulated gasoline on ethanol demand, energy use, and greenhouse gas emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stork, K.C.; Singh, M.K.

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To assure a place for renewable oxygenates in the national reformulated gasoline (RFG) program, the US Environmental Protection Agency has promulgated the renewable oxygenate standard (ROS) for RFG. It is assumed that ethanol derived from corn will be the only broadly available renewable oxygenate during Phase I of the RFG program. This report analyzes the impact that the ROS could have on the supply of ethanol, its transported volume, and its displacement from existing markets. It also considers the energy and crude oil consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that could result from the production and use of various RFGs that could meet the ROS requirements. The report concludes that on the basis of current and projected near-term ethanol capacity, if ethanol is the only available renewable oxygenate used to meet the requirements of the ROS, diversion of ethanol from existing use as a fuel is likely to be necessary. Year-round use of ethanol and ETBE would eliminate the need for diversion by reducing winter demand for ethanol. On an RFG-program-wide basis, using ethanol and ETBE to satisfy the ROS can be expected to slightly reduce fossil energy use, increase crude oil use, and have essentially no effect on GHG emissions or total energy use relative to using RFG oxygenated only with MTBE.

  4. GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG) INVENTORY REPORT 20102011 Dalhousie Office of Sustainability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brownstone, Rob

    Caption. LSC Solar thermal panels installed 20102011. #12;Page | 1 TableofContents Table ......................................................................................... 35 Appendix I: Nova Scotia Power Emission Factors ......

  5. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Electric Power: GHG...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    - i.e., North American Industry Classification System 22 plants". It does not include CO2 emissions or electric output from industrial and commercial combined heat and power...

  6. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Mining: GHG Information

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    various sources describing the energy consumption of the industrial sector and the carbon emissions in particular. Below is an estimate of the million metric tons of carbon...

  7. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Oil and Gas: GHG...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Toward a Consistent Methodology for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Oil and Natural Gas Industry Operations (PDF 378 KB) Download Acrobat Reader Addressing climate...

  8. The Clean Development Mechanism and CER Price Formation in the Carbon Emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carmona, Rene

    to earn Certified Emission Reduction (CER) credits, each equiva- lent to one ton of CO2. These CERs can is to reduce CO2 emissions from these installations by 10% by 2018. However, the European Union Emission House Gas (GHG) emission reduction targets set Partially supported by NSF: DMS-0806591. The second named

  9. ASSESSMENT OF HOUSEHOLD CARBON FOOTPRINT REDUCTION POTENTIALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masanet, Eric

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    11 Table 2: Estimated natural gas end use UECs and 95%annual supply chain natural gas related GHG emissions per2: Estimated annual direct natural gas GHG emissions per

  10. Greenhouse Gas emissions from California Geothermal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, John

    2014-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The information given in this file represents GHG emissions and corresponding emission rates for California flash and dry steam geothermal power plants. This stage of the life cycle is the fuel use component of the fuel cycle and arises during plant operation. Despite that no fossil fuels are being consumed during operation of these plants, GHG emissions nevertheless arise from GHGs present in the geofluids and dry steam that get released to the atmosphere upon passing through the system. Data for the years of 2008 to 2012 are analyzed.

  11. Greenhouse Gas emissions from California Geothermal Power Plants

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sullivan, John

    The information given in this file represents GHG emissions and corresponding emission rates for California flash and dry steam geothermal power plants. This stage of the life cycle is the fuel use component of the fuel cycle and arises during plant operation. Despite that no fossil fuels are being consumed during operation of these plants, GHG emissions nevertheless arise from GHGs present in the geofluids and dry steam that get released to the atmosphere upon passing through the system. Data for the years of 2008 to 2012 are analyzed.

  12. Life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions and non-CO? combustion effects from alternative jet fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stratton, Russell William

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The long-term viability and success of a transportation fuel depends on both economic and environmental sustainability. This thesis focuses specifically on assessing the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and non-CO ...

  13. Marginal Abatement Costs and Marginal Welfare Costs for Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reductions: Results from the EPPA Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris, Jennifer

    Marginal abatement cost (MAC) curves, relationships between tons of emissions abated and the CO2 (or GHG) price, have been widely used as pedagogic devices to illustrate simple economic concepts such as the benefits of ...

  14. Operational and policy implications of managing uncertainty in quality and emissions of multi-feedstock biodiesel systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gül?en, Ece

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As an alternative transportation fuel to petrodiesel, biodiesel has been widely promoted within national energy portfolio targets across the world. Early estimations of low lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of ...

  15. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Wenzel, Tom; Price, Lynn

    2008-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Central to any study of climate change is the development of an emission inventory that identifies and quantifies the State's primary anthropogenic sources and sinks of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion accounted for 80 percent of California GHG emissions (CARB, 2007a). Even though these CO2 emissions are well characterized in the existing state inventory, there still exist significant sources of uncertainties regarding their accuracy. This report evaluates the CO2 emissions accounting based on the California Energy Balance database (CALEB) developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in terms of what improvements are needed and where uncertainties lie. The estimated uncertainty for total CO2 emissions ranges between -21 and +37 million metric tons (Mt), or -6percent and +11percent of total CO2 emissions. The report also identifies where improvements are needed for the upcoming updates of CALEB. However, it is worth noting that the California Air Resources Board (CARB) GHG inventory did not use CALEB data for all combustion estimates. Therefore the range in uncertainty estimated in this report does not apply to the CARB's GHG inventory. As much as possible, additional data sources used by CARB in the development of its GHG inventory are summarized in this report for consideration in future updates to CALEB.

  16. Prioritizing Climate Change Mitigation Alternatives: Comparing Transportation Technologies to Options in Other Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    truck GHG emissions25. Commercial truck GHG emissions with emission-reductionCost effectiveness curve for truck GHG emission reduction

  17. Towards Process-based Composition of Activities for Collecting Data in Supply Chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulm, Universität

    , for example, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions or the amount of lead contained in products. However, to report. In particular, they continuously need to report sustainability data about their products and manufacturing pro authorities and the market require sustainable production. Therefore, com- panies are increasingly forced

  18. Greenhouse gas emissions and the surface transport of freight in Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenhouse gas emissions and the surface transport of freight in Canada Paul Steenhof a,*, Clarence committed to reducing its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 6% below 1990 levels between 2008 and 2012's emissions of 740 million metric tonnes of carbon dioxide (mmTCO2e), and 41% of the CO2e emitted from

  19. Julian Cleary, Nigel T. Roulet and Tim R. Moore Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roulet, Nigel T.

    ) emissions from land use, fossil fuel combustion, and peat decomposition, contributes to Canada's net the rate of in situ decomposition through greater diffusion of oxygen, increasing CO2 emissions, manufacturing, use, and disposition (12, 13). GHG emissions, comprising carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4

  20. Beyond the Inventory: An Interagency Collaboration to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Greater Yellowstone Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kandt, A.; Hotchkiss, E.; Fiebig, M.

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As one of the largest, intact ecosystems in the continental United States, land managers within the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) have recognized the importance of compiling and understanding agency greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The 10 Federal units within the GYA have taken an active role in compiling GHG inventories on a unit- and ecosystem-wide level, setting goals for GHG mitigation, and identifying mitigation strategies for achieving those goals. This paper details the processes, methodologies, challenges, solutions, and lessons learned by the 10 Federal units within the GYA throughout this ongoing effort.

  1. ASSESSING GHG EMISSIONS FROM SLUDGE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL ROUTES THE METHOD BEHIND GESTABOUES TOOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    stakeholders to better understand the carbon footprint of sludge treatment and disposal options, we developed by a wastewater treatment plant of x per-captia-equivalents (PCE) during one year. The carbon footprint method we developed is adapted to sludge treatment and disposal processes and based on the "Bilan Carbone® " method

  2. Development and Update of Long-Term Energy and GHG Emission Macroecono...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diesel HEV Diesel ICE and LNG ICE FeedstockPathways Crude oil (Gasoline, Diesel) Nature gas (FT diesel, NG) Soybeans (Bio-diesel) Corn, corn stover, switchgass, woody biomass,...

  3. Technical Potential of Solar Energy to Address Energy Poverty and Avoid GHG Emissions in Africa (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowlin, S.; Heimiller, D.; Bilello, D.; Renne, D.

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Approximately 1.6 billion people worldwide do not have access to electricity, and roughly 2.4 billion people rely on traditional biomass fuels to meet their heating and cooking needs. Lack of access to and use of energy - or energy poverty - has been recognized as a barrier to reaching the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and other targeted efforts to improve health and quality of life. Reducing reliance on traditional biomass can substantially reduce indoor air pollution-related morbidity and mortality; increasing access to lighting and refrigeration can improve educational and economic opportunities. Though targeted electrification efforts have had success within Latin America and East Asia (reaching electrification rates above 85%), sub-Saharan Africa has maintained electrification rates below 25% (IEA 2004).

  4. Forest Products Sector (NAICS 321 and 322) Energy and GHG Combustion Emissions Profile, November 2012

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport inEnergy0.pdf Flash2010-60.pdf2 DOE Hydrogen andMeetingonupSault Ste. U.S.

  5. Iron and Steel Sector (NAICS 3311 and 3312) Energy and GHG Combustion Emissions Profile, November 2012

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetter Report: I11IG002RTC3 | 12/1/2014 | ©Iowa lab getsIron

  6. Petroleum Refining Sector (NAICS 324110) Energy and GHG Combustion Emissions Profile, November 2012

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in235-1 TermoelectricaPavingPerry Luksin About69 2.4 PETROLEUM REFINING

  7. Chemicals Sector (NAICS 325) Energy and GHG Combustion Emissions Profile, November 2012

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof EnergyAdministration-DesertofSuccessTroy A.Chemical Sciences39 2.2

  8. New Jersey: EERE-Supported Technology Lowers GHG Emissions 70%, Wins R&D

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China 2015of 2005 attheMohammed Khan -DepartmentDepartment ofDevelopment100 Award |

  9. Mexico-NAMA on Reducing GHG Emissions in the Cement Sector | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant JumpMarysville, Ohio:Menomonee| Open Energy Information Topics Low

  10. Simplified life cycle approach: GHG variability assessment for onshore wind electricity based on Monte-Carlo simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    in the literature. In the special case of greenhouses gases (GHG) from wind power electricity, the LCA resultsSimplified life cycle approach: GHG variability assessment for onshore wind electricity based performed by the IPCC [1]. Such result might lead policy makers to consider LCA as an inconclusive method [2

  11. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Nuclear Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warner, E. S.; Heath, G. A.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of nuclear electricity generation technologies was performed to determine causes of and, where possible, reduce variability in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to clarify the state of knowledge and inform decision making. LCA literature indicates that life cycle GHG emissions from nuclear power are a fraction of traditional fossil sources, but the conditions and assumptions under which nuclear power are deployed can have a significant impact on the magnitude of life cycle GHG emissions relative to renewable technologies. Screening 274 references yielded 27 that reported 99 independent estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from light water reactors (LWRs). The published median, interquartile range (IQR), and range for the pool of LWR life cycle GHG emission estimates were 13, 23, and 220 grams of carbon dioxide equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh), respectively. After harmonizing methods to use consistent gross system boundaries and values for several important system parameters, the same statistics were 12, 17, and 110 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh, respectively. Harmonization (especially of performance characteristics) clarifies the estimation of central tendency and variability. To explain the remaining variability, several additional, highly influential consequential factors were examined using other methods. These factors included the primary source energy mix, uranium ore grade, and the selected LCA method. For example, a scenario analysis of future global nuclear development examined the effects of a decreasing global uranium market-average ore grade on life cycle GHG emissions. Depending on conditions, median life cycle GHG emissions could be 9 to 110 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh by 2050.

  12. An integrated analytical framework for quantifying the LCOE of waste-to-energy facilities for a range of greenhouse gas emissions policy and technical factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Townsend, Aaron K., E-mail: aarontownsend@utexas.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C2200, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Webber, Michael E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C2200, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This study presents a novel integrated method for considering the economics of waste-to-energy (WTE) facilities with priced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions based upon technical and economic characteristics of the WTE facility, MSW stream, landfill alternative, and GHG emissions policy. The study demonstrates use of the formulation for six different policy scenarios and explores sensitivity of the results to ranges of certain technical parameters as found in existing literature. The study shows that details of the GHG emissions regulations have large impact on the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of WTE and that GHG regulations can either increase or decrease the LCOE of WTE depending on policy choices regarding biogenic fractions from combusted waste and emissions from landfills. Important policy considerations are the fraction of the carbon emissions that are priced (i.e. all emissions versus only non-biogenic emissions), whether emissions credits are allowed due to reducing fugitive landfill gas emissions, whether biogenic carbon sequestration in landfills is credited against landfill emissions, and the effectiveness of the landfill gas recovery system where waste would otherwise have been buried. The default landfill gas recovery system effectiveness assumed by much of the industry yields GHG offsets that are very close to the direct non-biogenic GHG emissions from a WTE facility, meaning that small changes in the recovery effectiveness cause relatively larger changes in the emissions factor of the WTE facility. Finally, the economics of WTE are dependent on the MSW stream composition, with paper and wood being advantageous, metal and glass being disadvantageous, and plastics, food, and yard waste being either advantageous or disadvantageous depending upon the avoided tipping fee and the GHG emissions price.

  13. Scientific perspectives on MRV: approaches, techniques, and requirements of quantifying GHG

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scientific perspectives on MRV: approaches, techniques, and requirements of quantifying GHG-up inventories - measure changes in stocks or flows of carbon, extrapolate to all ecosystems. ~Bottom-up TBMs to Bedrich Benes, Jason Lambert, Yuyu Zhou #12;INFLUX Background CO2, CH4 WindWind Urban CO2, CH4 Thanks

  14. EVOLUTION OF THE HOUSEHOLD VEHICLE FLEET: ANTICIPATING FLEET COMPOSITION, PHEV ADOPTION AND GHG

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kockelman, Kara M.

    EVOLUTION OF THE HOUSEHOLD VEHICLE FLEET: ANTICIPATING FLEET COMPOSITION, PHEV ADOPTION AND GHG evolution, vehicle ownership, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), climate change policy, stated preference, opinion survey, microsimulation ABSTRACT In todays world of volatile fuel prices and climate

  15. Comparing the greenhouse gas emissions from three alternative waste combustion concepts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vainikka, Pasi, E-mail: pasi.vainikka@vtt.fi [VTT, Koivurannantie 1, FIN 40101 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Tsupari, Eemeli; Sipilae, Kai [VTT, Koivurannantie 1, FIN 40101 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Hupa, Mikko [Aabo Akademi Process Chemistry Centre, Piispankatu 8, FIN 20500 Turku (Finland)

    2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Significant GHG reductions are possible by efficient WtE technologies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CHP and high power-to-heat ratio provide significant GHG savings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N{sub 2}O and coal mine type are important in LCA GHG emissions of FBC co-combustion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substituting coal and fuel oil by waste is beneficial in electricity and heat production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substituting natural gas by waste may not be reasonable in CHP generation. - Abstract: Three alternative condensing mode power and combined heat and power (CHP) waste-to-energy concepts were compared in terms of their impacts on the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a heat and power generation system. The concepts included (i) grate, (ii) bubbling fluidised bed (BFB) and (iii) circulating fluidised bed (CFB) combustion of waste. The BFB and CFB take advantage of advanced combustion technology which enabled them to reach electric efficiency up to 35% and 41% in condensing mode, respectively, whereas 28% (based on the lower heating value) was applied for the grate fired unit. A simple energy system model was applied in calculating the GHG emissions in different scenarios where coal or natural gas was substituted in power generation and mix of fuel oil and natural gas in heat generation by waste combustion. Landfilling and waste transportation were not considered in the model. GHG emissions were reduced significantly in all of the considered scenarios where the waste combustion concepts substituted coal based power generation. With the exception of condensing mode grate incinerator the different waste combustion scenarios resulted approximately in 1 Mton of fossil CO{sub 2}-eq. emission reduction per 1 Mton of municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerated. When natural gas based power generation was substituted by electricity from the waste combustion significant GHG emission reductions were not achieved.

  16. Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of Marcellus shale gas This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaramillo, Paulina

    Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of Marcellus shale gas This article has been downloaded from.1088/1748-9326/6/3/034014 Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of Marcellus shale gas Mohan Jiang1 , W Michael Griffin2,3 , Chris greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the production of Marcellus shale natural gas and compares its emissions

  17. Mitigating Carbon Emissions: the Potential of Improving Efficiencyof Household Appliances in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Jiang

    2006-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    China is already the second's largest energy consumer in the world after the United States, and its demand for energy is expected to continue to grow rapidly in the foreseeable future, due to its fast economic growth and its low level of energy use per capita. From 2001 to 2005, the growth rate of energy consumption in China has exceeded the growth rate of its economy (NBS, 2006), raising serious concerns about the consequences of such energy use on local environment and global climate. It is widely expected that China is likely to overtake the US in energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during the first half of the 21st century. Therefore, there is considerable interest in the international community in searching for options that may help China slow down its growth in energy consumption and GHG emissions through improving energy efficiency and adopting more environmentally friendly fuel supplies such as renewable energy. This study examines the energy saving potential of three major residential energy end uses: household refrigeration, air-conditioning, and water heating. China is already the largest consumer market in the world for household appliances, and increasingly the global production base for consumer appliances. Sales of household refrigerators, room air-conditioners, and water heaters are growing rapidly due to rising incomes and booming housing market. At the same time, the energy use of Chinese appliances is relatively inefficient compared to similar products in the developed economies. Therefore, the potential for energy savings through improving appliance efficiency is substantial. This study focuses particularly on the impact of more stringent energy efficiency standards for household appliances, given that such policies are found to be very effective in improving the efficiency of household appliances, and are well established both in China and around world (CLASP, 2006).

  18. Why Supply Chain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Datta, Shoumen

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Why supply chain explains the importance of supply chains. It includes an introduction to ERP as designed by SAP.

  19. A Bottom up Approach to on-Road CO2 Emissions Estimates: Improved Spatial Accuracy and Applications for Regional Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutyra, Lucy R.

    component of vehicle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is CO2 generated by the combustion of motor gasoline and diesel fuel. CO2 emissions contribute to global climate change,2 but the United States has yetA Bottom up Approach to on-Road CO2 Emissions Estimates: Improved Spatial Accuracy and Applications

  20. The effects of potential changes in United States beef production on global grazing systems and greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    and greenhouse gas emissions Jerome Dumortier1 , Dermot J Hayes2 , Miguel Carriquiry2 , Fengxia Dong3 , Xiaodong in the U.S. causes a net increase in GHG emissions on a global scale. We couple a global agricultural production in the United States. The effects on emissions from agricultural production (i.e., methane

  1. Meta-Analysis of Estimates of Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Concentrating Solar Power: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, G. A.; Burkhardt, J. J.

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In reviewing life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of utility-scale CSP systems, this analysis focuses on clarifying central tendency and reducing variability in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through a meta-analytical process called harmonization. From 125 references reviewed, 10 produced 36 independent GHG emission estimates passing screens for quality and relevance: 19 for parabolic trough technology and 17 for power tower technology. The interquartile range (IQR) of published GHG emission estimates was 83 and 20 g CO2eq/kWh for trough and tower, respectively, with medians of 26 and 38 g CO2eq/kWh. Two levels of harmonization were applied. Light harmonization reduced variability in published estimates by using consistent values for key parameters pertaining to plant design and performance. Compared to the published estimates, IQR was reduced by 69% and median increased by 76% for troughs. IQR was reduced by 26% for towers, and median was reduced by 34%. A second level of harmonization was applied to five well-documented trough LC GHG emission estimates, harmonizing to consistent values for GHG emissions embodied in materials and from construction activities. As a result, their median was further reduced by 5%, while the range increased by 6%. In sum, harmonization clarified previous results.

  2. Pyrolysis and gasification of meat-and-bone-meal: Energy balance and GHG accounting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cascarosa, Esther [Thermochemical Processes Group, Aragón Institute for Engineering Research (I3A), Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Boldrin, Alessio, E-mail: aleb@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering. Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Astrup, Thomas [Department of Environmental Engineering. Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • GHG savings are in the order of 600–1000 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. per Mg of MBM treated. • Energy recovery differed in terms of energy products and efficiencies. • The results were largely determined by use of the products for energy purposes. - Abstract: Meat-and-bone-meal (MBM) produced from animal waste has become an increasingly important residual fraction needing management. As biodegradable waste is routed away from landfills, thermo-chemical treatments of MBM are considered promising solution for the future. Pyrolysis and gasification of MBM were assessed based on data from three experimental lab and pilot-scale plants. Energy balances were established for the three technologies, providing different outcomes for energy recovery: bio-oil was the main product for the pyrolysis system, while syngas and a solid fraction of biochar were the main products in the gasification system. These products can be used – eventually after upgrading – for energy production, thereby offsetting energy production elsewhere in the system. Greenhouse gases (GHG) accounting of the technologies showed that all three options provided overall GHG savings in the order of 600–1000 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. per Mg of MBM treated, mainly as a consequence of avoided fossil fuel consumption in the energy sector. Local conditions influencing the environmental performance of the three systems were identified, together with critical factors to be considered during decision-making regarding MBM management.

  3. REDUCING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS FROM DEFORESTATION IN DEVELOPING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Andrew

    mitigation effort post-2012. Reducing GHG emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD)2 in developing of Environment of Mexico1 Esteve Corbera and Katrina Brown Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, UK School of Mexico or the Mexican Government. #12;ABSTRACT This paper provides a critical perspective to the debate

  4. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Electricity Generation (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Analysts at NREL have developed and applied a systematic approach to review the LCA literature, identify primary sources of variability and, where possible, reduce variability in GHG emissions estimates through a procedure called 'harmonization.' Harmonization of the literature provides increased precision and helps clarify the impacts of specific electricity generation choices, producing more robust results.

  5. Atmospheric Environment 38 (2004) 49214929 Qualitative assessment of methane emission inventory from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    assurance/quality control (QA/QC) and uncertainty estimation in national GHG emission inventories haveAtmospheric Environment 38 (2004) 4921­4929 Qualitative assessment of methane emission inventory May 2004 Abstract In developing countries like India, urban solid waste (SW) generation is increasing

  6. Updated greenhouse gas and criteria air pollutant emission factors and their probability distribution functions for electricity generating units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, H.; Wang, M.; Elgowainy, A.; Han, J. (Energy Systems)

    2012-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Greenhouse gas (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O, hereinafter GHG) and criteria air pollutant (CO, NO{sub x}, VOC, PM{sub 10}, PM{sub 2.5} and SO{sub x}, hereinafter CAP) emission factors for various types of power plants burning various fuels with different technologies are important upstream parameters for estimating life-cycle emissions associated with alternative vehicle/fuel systems in the transportation sector, especially electric vehicles. The emission factors are typically expressed in grams of GHG or CAP per kWh of electricity generated by a specific power generation technology. This document describes our approach for updating and expanding GHG and CAP emission factors in the GREET (Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation) model developed at Argonne National Laboratory (see Wang 1999 and the GREET website at http://greet.es.anl.gov/main) for various power generation technologies. These GHG and CAP emissions are used to estimate the impact of electricity use by stationary and transportation applications on their fuel-cycle emissions. The electricity generation mixes and the fuel shares attributable to various combustion technologies at the national, regional and state levels are also updated in this document. The energy conversion efficiencies of electric generating units (EGUs) by fuel type and combustion technology are calculated on the basis of the lower heating values of each fuel, to be consistent with the basis used in GREET for transportation fuels. On the basis of the updated GHG and CAP emission factors and energy efficiencies of EGUs, the probability distribution functions (PDFs), which are functions that describe the relative likelihood for the emission factors and energy efficiencies as random variables to take on a given value by the integral of their own probability distributions, are updated using best-fit statistical curves to characterize the uncertainties associated with GHG and CAP emissions in life-cycle modeling with GREET.

  7. The impacts of congestion on time-definitive urban freight distribution networks CO2 emission levels: Results from a case study in Portland,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertini, Robert L.

    The impacts of congestion on time-definitive urban freight distribution networks CO2 emission Accepted 29 November 2010 Keywords: Vehicle routing Time-dependent travel time speed GHG or CO2 emissions pressures to limit the impacts associated with CO2 emissions are mounting rapidly. A key challenge

  8. U.S. HDV GHG and Fuel Efficiency Final Rule | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideoStrategic|IndustrialCenterMarchC.DepartmentTexas to CallDepartmentHDV GHG and

  9. Optimal design and allocation of electrified vehicles and dedicated charging infrastructure for minimum life cycle greenhouse gas emissions and cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michalek, Jeremy J.

    for minimum life cycle greenhouse gas emissions and cost Elizabeth Traut a,n , Chris Hendrickson b,1 , Erica and dedicated workplace charging infrastructure in the fleet for minimum life cycle cost or GHG emissions over vehicle and battery costs are the major drivers for PHEVs and BEVs to enter and dominate the cost

  10. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Coal-Fired Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitaker, M.; Heath, G. A.; O'Donoughue, P.; Vorum, M.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessments (LCAs) of utility-scale coal-fired electricity generation systems focuses on reducing variability and clarifying central tendencies in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Screening 270 references for quality LCA methods, transparency, and completeness yielded 53 that reported 164 estimates of life cycle GHG emissions. These estimates for subcritical pulverized, integrated gasification combined cycle, fluidized bed, and supercritical pulverized coal combustion technologies vary from 675 to 1,689 grams CO{sub 2}-equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh) (interquartile range [IQR]= 890-1,130 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh; median = 1,001) leading to confusion over reasonable estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from coal-fired electricity generation. By adjusting published estimates to common gross system boundaries and consistent values for key operational input parameters (most importantly, combustion carbon dioxide emission factor [CEF]), the meta-analytical process called harmonization clarifies the existing literature in ways useful for decision makers and analysts by significantly reducing the variability of estimates ({approx}53% in IQR magnitude) while maintaining a nearly constant central tendency ({approx}2.2% in median). Life cycle GHG emissions of a specific power plant depend on many factors and can differ from the generic estimates generated by the harmonization approach, but the tightness of distribution of harmonized estimates across several key coal combustion technologies implies, for some purposes, first-order estimates of life cycle GHG emissions could be based on knowledge of the technology type, coal mine emissions, thermal efficiency, and CEF alone without requiring full LCAs. Areas where new research is necessary to ensure accuracy are also discussed.

  11. Compressed Air Supply Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph, B.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    COMPRESSED AIR SUPPLY EFFICENCY Babu Joseph, Ph.D., P.E. Engineer Southern California Edison Irwindale, CA ABSTRACT This project, under contract from California Energy Commission, developed the CASE (Compressed Air Supply Efficiency...

  12. A fuel cycle framework for evaluating greenhouse gas emission reduction technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashton, W.B.; Barns, D.W. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Bradley, R.A. (USDOE Office of Policy, Planning and Analysis, Washington, DC (USA). Office of Environmental Analysis)

    1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions arise from a number of fossil fuels, processes and equipment types throughout the full cycle from primary fuel production to end-use. Many technology alternatives are available for reducing emissions based on efficiency improvements, fuel switching to low-emission fuels, GHG removal, and changes in end-use demand. To conduct systematic analysis of how new technologies can be used to alter current emission levels, a conceptual framework helps develop a comprehensive picture of both the primary and secondary impacts of a new technology. This paper describes a broad generic fuel cycle framework which is useful for this purpose. The framework is used for cataloging emission source technologies and for evaluating technology solutions to reduce GHG emissions. It is important to evaluate fuel mix tradeoffs when investigating various technology strategies for emission reductions. For instance, while substituting natural gas for coal or oil in end-use applications to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, natural gas emissions of methane in the production phase of the fuel cycle may increase. Example uses of the framework are given.

  13. Energy efficiency and the cost of GHG abatement: A comparison of bottom-up and hybrid models for the US

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy efficiency and the cost of GHG abatement: A comparison of bottom-up and hybrid models energy­economy models. Using the CIMS hybrid model, we conducted simulations for comparison with the Mc February 2011 Accepted 16 August 2011 Available online 17 September 2011 Keywords: Energy efficiency

  14. Guidelines to Defra's GHG conversion factors for company reporting Annexes updated June 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Exports Last updated: Jun-05 Total emissions (kg CO2) Total electricity produced Total heat produced kg CO2/kWh elecricity Total emissions (kg CO2) Total electricity produced Total heat produced kg CO2/kWh heat Emissions (in kgCO2) per kWh electricity = twice total emissions (in kgCO2) twice total

  15. 2009 Guidelines to Defra / DECC's GHG Conversion Factors for Company Reporting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . OVERSEAS ELECTRICITY EMISSION FACTORS (ANNEX 10) 54 ANNEX: EXTRACT FROM THE CRG PASSENGER TRANSPORT CO2 (ANNEX 6 AND ANNEX 7) 12 Previous Approach 12 New Passenger Air Transport CO2 Emission Factors (Annex 6) 13 New Freight Air Transport CO2 Emission Factors (Annex 7) 18 New Air Transport Emission Factors

  16. 2010 Guidelines to Defra / DECC's GHG Conversion Factors for Company Reporting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    update 44 Passenger Air Transport Direct CO2 Emission Factors (Annex 6) 44 Freight Air Transport Direct CO2 Emission Factors (Annex 7) 49 Air Transport Direct Emission Factors for CH4 and N2O 52 Air. ELECTRICITY CONVERSION FACTORS (ANNEX 3) 10 Summary of changes since previous update 10 Direct Emissions from

  17. Overview of Avista GHG Modeling NPCC Greenhouse Gas and the Regional Power System Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natural Gas CO2 Emissions A Bridge to a Low Carbon Future, or the Future? 815 1,190 lbs/MWh Gas CCCT has 210 CCCT CT Colstrip 3/4 #12;6/5/2013 2 Avista CO2 Emissions Forecast Rising emissions overall 2030 2031 2032 2033 #12;6/5/2013 4 WECC CO2 Emissions Forecast CO2 Prices

  18. U.S. Government Supports Low Emission Economic Growth (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, A.; Sandor, D.; Butheau, M.

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Countries around the world face the challenge of maintaining long-term sustainable economic growth and development under the threat of climate change. By identifying and pursuing a sustainable development pathway now, they are better positioned to reach their economic growth goals while addressing climate change impacts and lowering greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Low emission development strategies - development plans that promote sustainable social and economic development while reducing long-term GHG emissions - provide a pathway to preparing for a global low emission future. Partner country governments are working with the U.S. government through the Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies (EC-LEDS) program to further their national development objectives.

  19. Greenhouse Emission Reductions and Natural Gas Vehicles: A Resource Guide on Technology Options and Project Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orestes Anastasia; NAncy Checklick; Vivianne Couts; Julie Doherty; Jette Findsen; Laura Gehlin; Josh Radoff

    2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accurate and verifiable emission reductions are a function of the degree of transparency and stringency of the protocols employed in documenting project- or program-associated emissions reductions. The purpose of this guide is to provide a background for law and policy makers, urban planners, and project developers working with the many Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission reduction programs throughout the world to quantify and/or evaluate the GHG impacts of Natural Gas Vehicle (NGVs). In order to evaluate the GHG benefits and/or penalties of NGV projects, it is necessary to first gain a fundamental understanding of the technology employed and the operating characteristics of these vehicles, especially with regard to the manner in which they compare to similar conventional gasoline or diesel vehicles. Therefore, the first two sections of this paper explain the basic technology and functionality of NGVs, but focus on evaluating the models that are currently on the market with their similar conventional counterparts, including characteristics such as cost, performance, efficiency, environmental attributes, and range. Since the increased use of NGVs, along with Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFVs) in general, represents a public good with many social benefits at the local, national, and global levels, NGVs often receive significant attention in the form of legislative and programmatic support. Some states mandate the use of NGVs, while others provide financial incentives to promote their procurement and use. Furthermore, Federal legislation in the form of tax incentives or procurement requirements can have a significant impact on the NGV market. In order to implement effective legislation or programs, it is vital to have an understanding of the different programs and activities that already exist so that a new project focusing on GHG emission reduction can successfully interact with and build on the experience and lessons learned of those that preceded it. Finally, most programs that deal with passenger vehicles--and with transportation in general--do not address the climate change component explicitly, and thus there are few GHG reduction goals that are included in these programs. Furthermore, there are relatively few protocols that exist for accounting for the GHG emissions reductions that arise from transportation and, specifically, passenger vehicle projects and programs. These accounting procedures and principles gain increased importance when a project developer wishes to document in a credible manner, the GHG reductions that are achieved by a given project or program. Section four of this paper outlined the GHG emissions associated with NGVs, both upstream and downstream, and section five illustrated the methodology, via hypothetical case studies, for measuring these reductions using different types of baselines. Unlike stationary energy combustion, GHG emissions from transportation activities, including NGV projects, come from dispersed sources creating a need for different methodologies for assessing GHG impacts. This resource guide has outlined the necessary context and background for those parties wishing to evaluate projects and develop programs, policies, projects, and legislation aimed at the promotion of NGVs for GHG emission reduction.

  20. Driving and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: The Evidence Base and How to Learn More

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Driving and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: The Evidence Base and How to Learn;SB 375 GHG Reduc2on Targets · SCAG (greater Los Angeles) ­ 189 ci2es and 6 as underlying data, rela2onships, and calibra2on. 2. Policies and Prac2ces a) Models

  1. Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steve Winkelman; Tim Hargrave; Christine Vanderlan

    1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors conclude in this report that an upstream system would ensure complete regulatory coverage of transportation sector emissions in an efficient and feasible manner, and as such represents a key component of a national least-cost GHG emissions abatement strategy. The broad coverage provided by an upstream system recommends this approach over vehicle-maker based approaches, which would not cover emissions from heavy-duty vehicles and the aviation, marine and off-road sub-sectors. The on-road fleet approach unfairly and inefficiently burdens vehicle manufacturers with responsibility for emissions that they cannot control. A new vehicles approach would exclude emissions from vehicles on the road prior to program inception. The hybrid approach faces significant technical and political complications, and it is not clear that the approach would actually change behavior among vehicle makers and users, which is its main purpose. They also note that a trading system would fail to encourage many land use and infrastructure measures that affect VMT growth and GHG emissions. They recommend that this market failure be addressed by complementing the trading system with a program specifically targeting land use- and infrastructure-related activities. A key issue that must be addressed in designing a national GHG control strategy is whether or not it is necessary to guarantee GHG reductions from the transport sector. Neither an upstream system nor a downstream approach would do so, since both would direct capital to the least-cost abatement opportunities wherever they were found. They review two reasons why it may be desirable to force transportation sector reductions: first, that the long-term response to climate change will require reductions in all sectors; and second, the many ancillary benefits associated with transportation-related, and especially VMT-related, emissions reduction activities. If policy makers find it desirable to establish transportation-specific policies, they recommend (in addition to the land use policies mentioned above), that they combine an upstream trading system with a carbon efficiency standard similar to the current CAFE standard. Under this approach a fuel price signal would be complemented by incentives for manufacturers to produce more carbon efficient vehicles. To prevent vehicle manufacturers from being forced to pay more than other sectors for reducing GHG emissions, they recommend that the vehicle makers be allowed to pay a cash penalty equal to the market price of allowances in lieu of meeting carbon efficiency requirements.

  2. Battery-Powered Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Projects to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Resource for Project Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2002-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The transportation sector accounts for a large and growing share of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Worldwide, motor vehicles emit well over 900 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) each year, accounting for more than 15 percent of global fossil fuel-derived CO2 emissions.1 In the industrialized world alone, 20-25 percent of GHG emissions come from the transportation sector. The share of transport-related emissions is growing rapidly due to the continued increase in transportation activity.2 In 1950, there were only 70 million cars, trucks, and buses on the world’s roads. By 1994, there were about nine times that number, or 630 million vehicles. Since the early 1970s, the global fleet has been growing at a rate of 16 million vehicles per year. This expansion has been accompanied by a similar growth in fuel consumption.3 If this kind of linear growth continues, by the year 2025 there will be well over one billion vehicles on the world’s roads.4 In a response to the significant growth in transportation-related GHG emissions, governments and policy makers worldwide are considering methods to reverse this trend. However, due to the particular make-up of the transportation sector, regulating and reducing emissions from this sector poses a significant challenge. Unlike stationary fuel combustion, transportation-related emissions come from dispersed sources. Only a few point-source emitters, such as oil/natural gas wells, refineries, or compressor stations, contribute to emissions from the transportation sector. The majority of transport-related emissions come from the millions of vehicles traveling the world’s roads. As a result, successful GHG mitigation policies must find ways to target all of these small, non-point source emitters, either through regulatory means or through various incentive programs. To increase their effectiveness, policies to control emissions from the transportation sector often utilize indirect means to reduce emissions, such as requiring specific technology improvements or an increase in fuel efficiency. Site-specific project activities can also be undertaken to help decrease GHG emissions, although the use of such measures is less common. Sample activities include switching to less GHG-intensive vehicle options, such as electric vehicles (EVs) or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). As emissions from transportation activities continue to rise, it will be necessary to promote both types of abatement activities in order to reverse the current emissions path. This Resource Guide focuses on site- and project-specific transportation activities. .

  3. Precision control of high temperature furnaces using an auxiliary power supply and charged practice current flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pollock, George G. (San Ramon, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two power supplies are combined to control a furnace. A main power supply heats the furnace in the traditional manner, while the power from the auxiliary supply is introduced as a current flow through charged particles existing due to ionized gas or thermionic emission. The main power supply provides the bulk heating power and the auxiliary supply provides a precise and fast power source such that the precision of the total power delivered to the furnace is improved.

  4. Precision control of high temperature furnaces using an auxiliary power supply and charged particle current flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pollock, G.G.

    1997-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Two power supplies are combined to control a furnace. A main power supply heats the furnace in the traditional manner, while the power from the auxiliary supply is introduced as a current flow through charged particles existing due to ionized gas or thermionic emission. The main power supply provides the bulk heating power and the auxiliary supply provides a precise and fast power source such that the precision of the total power delivered to the furnace is improved. 5 figs.

  5. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Utility-Scale Wind Power: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dolan, S. L.; Heath, G. A.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of utility-scale wind power systems was performed to determine the causes of and, where possible, reduce variability in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Screening of approximately 240 LCAs of onshore and offshore systems yielded 72 references meeting minimum thresholds for quality, transparency, and relevance. Of those, 49 references provided 126 estimates of life cycle GHG emissions. Published estimates ranged from 1.7 to 81 grams CO{sub 2}-equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh), with median and interquartile range (IQR) both at 12 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh. After adjusting the published estimates to use consistent gross system boundaries and values for several important system parameters, the total range was reduced by 47% to 3.0 to 45 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh and the IQR was reduced by 14% to 10 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh, while the median remained relatively constant (11 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh). Harmonization of capacity factor resulted in the largest reduction in variability in life cycle GHG emission estimates. This study concludes that the large number of previously published life cycle GHG emission estimates of wind power systems and their tight distribution suggest that new process-based LCAs of similar wind turbine technologies are unlikely to differ greatly. However, additional consequential LCAs would enhance the understanding of true life cycle GHG emissions of wind power (e.g., changes to other generators operations when wind electricity is added to the grid), although even those are unlikely to fundamentally change the comparison of wind to other electricity generation sources.

  6. Climate Change Technology Scenarios: Energy, Emissions, and Economic Implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Placet, Marylynn; Humphreys, Kenneth K.; Mahasenan, N Maha

    2004-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes three advanced technology scenarios and various illustrative cases developed by staff of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Climate Change Technology Program. These scenarios and illustrative cases explore the energy, emissions and economic implications of using advanced energy technologies and other climate change related technologies to reduce future emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The cases were modeled using the Mini Climate Assessment Model (MiniCAM) developed by PNNL. The report describes the scenarios, the specifications for the cases, and the results. The report also provides background information on current emissions of GHGs and issues associated with stabilizing GHG concentrations.

  7. LEDS Global Partnership in Action: Advancing Climate-Resilient Low Emission Development Around the World (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many countries around the globe are designing and implementing low emission development strategies (LEDS). These LEDS seek to achieve social, economic, and environmental development goals while reducing long-term greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and increasing resiliency to climate change impacts. The LEDS Global Partnership (LEDS GP) harnesses the collective knowledge and resources of more than 120 countries and international donor and technical organizations to strengthen climate-resilient low emission development efforts around the world.

  8. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    adjustments, minus stock change, minus refinery and blender net inputs, minus exports. Net receipts are added as a component of supply at the PAD District level. Crude oil...

  9. Life cycle GHG emissions from Malaysian oil palm bioenergy development: The impact on transportation sector's energy security

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaramillo, Paulina

    on transportation sector's energy security Mohd Nor Azman Hassan a,n , Paulina Jaramillo a , W. Michael Griffin a sector accounts for 41% of the country's total energy use. The country is expected to become a net oil% of total energy consumption. This is expected to increase to about 1100 PJ in 2015 extrapolat- ing

  10. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Development and Update of Long-Term Energy and GHG Emission Macroeconomic Accounting Tool

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about development and...

  11. The Economic, Energy, and GHG Emissions Impacts of Proposed 2017–2025 Vehicle Fuel Economy Standards in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karplus, Valerie

    2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Increases in the U.S. Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards for 2017 to 2025 model year light-duty vehicles are currently under consideration. This analysis uses an economy-wide model with detail in the passenger ...

  12. Implications of near-term coal power plant retirement for SO2 and NOX, and life cycle GHG emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaramillo, Paulina

    prices of electricity production Plant type Unit Price Nuclear ($/MWh) 16.51 Wind ($/MWh) 201 Hydro Top SO2 100 430 95 440 100 430 Top NOX 105 350 100 380 105 345 Small, inefficient 125 410 125 405 125) Manitoba Hydro Manitoba Hydro Undertaking # 57 http://www.pub.gov.mb.ca/exhibits/mh-83.pdf. (5) Sotkiewicz

  13. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Development and Update of Long-Term Energy and GHG Emission Macroeconomic Accounting Tool

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about the development...

  14. Hydrogen Pathways: Updated Cost, Well-to-Wheels Energy Use, and Emissions for the Current Technology Status of Ten Hydrogen Production, Delivery, and Distribution Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsden, T.; Ruth, M.; Diakov, V.; Laffen, M.; Timbario, T. A.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes a life-cycle assessment conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) of 10 hydrogen production, delivery, dispensing, and use pathways that were evaluated for cost, energy use, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This evaluation updates and expands on a previous assessment of seven pathways conducted in 2009. This study summarizes key results, parameters, and sensitivities to those parameters for the 10 hydrogen pathways, reporting on the levelized cost of hydrogen in 2007 U.S. dollars as well as life-cycle well-to-wheels energy use and GHG emissions associated with the pathways.

  15. Avoiding deforestation in Panamanian protected areas: An analysis of protection effectiveness and implications for reducing emissions from deforestation and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bermingham, Eldredge

    -energy sector GHG emissions and to encourage broader participation in climate change mitigation by generally, Col. Country Club, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Me´xico, C.P. 45010, Mexico 1. Introduction: avoiding deforestation and protected areas In the last decade, climate change mitigation has received much international

  16. Microsoft PowerPoint - FNC NEPA GHG Climate Slides -- 16Jan2015...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY'S REVISED DRAFT GUIDANCE ON CONSIDERATION OF GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS AND THE EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE IN NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT REVIEWS HORST...

  17. Wood Supply Chain Optimisation 2010Forest to Market Innovations to Improve Logistics & Operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood Supply Chain Optimisation 2010Forest to Market ­ Innovations to Improve Logistics & Operations INTERNATIONALTRENDS IN LOGISTICS AND SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT 9.30am Managing Supply Chain Emissions to Gain and GPS tracking to Improve transport logistics. A case study on HVP Plantations implementation of a new

  18. Article published Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology DOI: 10.1002/ghg.1395

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    for pipelines that are robust to a priori uncertainty in CO2 production from industrial sources and CO2 storage emissions from electric power plants that emit CO2 as a consequence of combusting fossil fuels (namely coal% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions,5 whereas steel production emitted approximately 2.7 GtCO2 in 2011.6 CO2 capture

  19. Improving supply chain resilience

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leung, Elsa Hiu Man

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to the global expansion of Company A's supply chain network, it is becoming more vulnerable to many disruptions. These disruptions often incur additional costs; and require time to respond to and recover from these ...

  20. Compressed Air Supply Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph, B.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project, under contract from California Energy Commission, developed the CASE (Compressed Air Supply Efficiency) Index as a stand-alone value for compressor central plant efficiency. This Index captures the overall efficiency of a compressed...

  1. Supply chain dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbosa, Ricardo Wagner Lopes, 1976-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The strong bargaining power of major retailers and the higher requirements for speed, service excellence and customization have significantly contributed to transform the Supply Chain Management. These increasing challenges ...

  2. European supply chain study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Puri, Mohitkumar

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Introduction: Supply chain management has been defined as, "..a set of approaches utilized to efficiently integrate suppliers, manufacturers, warehouses and stores, so that merchandise is produced and distributed at the ...

  3. Risk Management in Biopharmaceutical Supply Chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Yao

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Supply Chain Risk Managementof Recent Work on Supply Chain Risk Management . . . . .M. , Supply chain risk management: Outlining an agenda for

  4. Will Monetized Carbon Emission Reductions Buy Enhanced Building Operations?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millhone, J.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Role in Climate Change #0;z Estimates Vary Depending on Definitions #0;z IPCC WG-3 Latest Estimate (2007) ? Buildings Lead in Emission Reduction Potential ? Buildings Lead in the Certainty of Benefits #0;z Collateral Benefits ? Reduced Industrial..., 2012 ? Enforceable Target: Reduce State’s Kyoto GHG Emissions to 1990 Levels by 2020 ? Advisors Recommend Allocation-Based C&T with 4 Options—EU ETS Type to Broad Coverage ? Advisors Recommend Offsets, e.g. CDMs and JIs #0;z Regional Greenhouse Gas...

  5. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  6. Petroleum supply monthly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blends, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  7. Estimating carbon dioxide emission factors for the California electric power sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marnay, Chris; Fisher, Diane; Murtishaw, Scott; Phadke, Amol; Price, Lynn; Sathaye, Jayant

    2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The California Climate Action Registry (''Registry'') was initially established in 2000 under Senate Bill 1771, and clarifying legislation (Senate Bill 527) was passed in September 2001. The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has been asked to provide technical assistance to the California Energy Commission (CEC) in establishing methods for calculating average and marginal electricity emissions factors, both historic and current, as well as statewide and for sub-regions. This study is exploratory in nature. It illustrates the use of three possible approaches and is not a rigorous estimation of actual emissions factors. While the Registry will ultimately cover emissions of all greenhouse gases (GHGs), presently it is focusing on carbon dioxide (CO2). Thus, this study only considers CO2, which is by far the largest GHG emitted in the power sector. Associating CO2 emissions with electricity consumption encounters three major complications. First, electricity can be generated from a number of different primary energy sources, many of which are large sources of CO2 emissions (e.g., coal combustion) while others result in virtually no CO{sub 2} emissions (e.g., hydro). Second, the mix of generation resources used to meet loads may vary at different times of day or in different seasons. Third, electrical energy is transported over long distances by complex transmission and distribution systems, so the generation sources related to electricity usage can be difficult to trace and may occur far from the jurisdiction in which that energy is consumed. In other words, the emissions resulting from electricity consumption vary considerably depending on when and where it is used since this affects the generation sources providing the power. There is no practical way to identify where or how all the electricity used by a certain customer was generated, but by reviewing public sources of data the total emission burden of a customer's electricity supplier can b e found and an average emissions factor (AEF) calculated. These are useful for assigning a net emission burden to a facility. In addition, marginal emissions factors (MEFs) for estimating the effect of changing levels of usage can be calculated. MEFs are needed because emission rates at the margin are likely to diverge from the average. The overall objective of this task is to develop methods for estimating AEFs and MEFs that can provide an estimate of the combined net CO2 emissions from all generating facilities that provide electricity to California electricity customers. The method covers the historic period from 1990 to the present, with 1990 and 1999 used as test years. The factors derived take into account the location and time of consumption, direct contracts for power which may have certain atypical characteristics (e.g., ''green'' electricity from renewable resources), resource mixes of electricity providers, import and export of electricity from utility owned and other sources, and electricity from cogeneration. It is assumed that the factors developed in this way will diverge considerably from simple statewide AEF estimates based on standardized inventory estimates that use conventions inconsistent with the goals of this work. A notable example concerns the treatment of imports, which despite providing a significant share of California's electricity supply picture, are excluded from inventory estimates of emissions, which are based on geographical boundaries of the state.

  8. MTBE/methanol supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, R.E.

    1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    U.S. methanol production has become economically competitive with imports due to de-escalation of natural gas price from $3.07 mm Btu in January 1985 to $2.07 mm Btu by December 1985. This has reversed the earlier supply outlook when it appeared that additional methanol plants would shutdown due to low cost imports. Current gas cost in conjunction with projections for continued excess supply prompted DuPont to restart their 250 mm gpy plant at Beaumont, Texas. Other former producers are contemplating restarting idle units.

  9. Climate and Transportation Solutions: Findings from the 2009 Asilomar Conference on Transportation and Energy Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Daniel; Cannon, James S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of biofuels. Heavy duty truck GHG emissions are projected toto decline, heavy duty truck GHG emissions are projected toperiod. Heavy duty truck GHG emissions are projected to grow

  10. Fuel-Cycle energy and emission impacts of ethanol-diesel blends in urban buses and farming tractors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.; Saricks, C.; Lee, H.

    2003-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    About 2.1 billion gallons of fuel ethanol was used in the United States in 2002, mainly in the form of gasoline blends containing up to 10% ethanol (E10). Ethanol use has the potential to increase in the U.S. blended gasoline market because methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), formerly the most popular oxygenate blendstock, may be phased out owing to concerns about MTBE contamination of the water supply. Ethanol would remain the only viable near-term option as an oxygenate in reformulated gasoline production and to meet a potential federal renewable fuels standard (RFS) for transportation fuels. Ethanol may also be blended with additives (co-solvents) into diesel fuels for applications in which oxygenation may improve diesel engine emission performance. Numerous studies have been conducted to evaluate the fuel-cycle energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission effects of ethanol-gasoline blends relative to those of gasoline for applications in spark-ignition engine vehicles (see Wang et al. 1997; Wang et al. 1999; Levelton Engineering et al. 1999; Shapouri et al. 2002; Graboski 2002). Those studies did not address the energy and emission effects of ethanol-diesel (E-diesel or ED) blends relative to those of petroleum diesel fuel in diesel engine vehicles. The energy and emission effects of E-diesel could be very different from those of ethanol-gasoline blends because (1) the energy use and emissions generated during diesel production (so-called ''upstream'' effects) are different from those generated during gasoline production; and (2) the energy and emission performance of E-diesel and petroleum diesel fuel in diesel compression-ignition engines differs from that of ethanol-gasoline blends in spark-ignition (Otto-cycle-type) engine vehicles. The Illinois Department of Commerce and Community Affairs (DCCA) commissioned Argonne National Laboratory to conduct a full fuel-cycle analysis of the energy and emission effects of E-diesel blends relative to those of petroleum diesel when used in the types of diesel engines that will likely be targeted first in the marketplace. This report documents the results of our study. The draft report was delivered to DCCA in January 2003. This final report incorporates revisions by the sponsor and by Argonne.

  11. Observation of CH4 and other Non-CO2 Green House Gas Emissions from California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, Marc L.; Zhao, Chuanfeng; Riley, William J.; Andrews, Arlyn C.

    2009-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2006, California passed the landmark assembly bill AB-32 to reduce California's emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) that contribute to global climate change. AB-32 commits California to reduce total GHG emissions to 1990 levels by 2020, a reduction of 25 percent from current levels. To verify that GHG emission reductions are actually taking place, it will be necessary to measure emissions. We describe atmospheric inverse model estimates of GHG emissions obtained from the California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Measurement (CALGEM) project. In collaboration with NOAA, we are measuring the dominant long-lived GHGs at two tall-towers in central California. Here, we present estimates of CH{sub 4} emissions obtained by statistical comparison of measured and predicted atmospheric mixing ratios. The predicted mixing ratios are calculated using spatially resolved a priori CH{sub 4} emissions and surface footprints, that provide a proportional relationship between the surface emissions and the mixing ratio signal at tower locations. The footprints are computed using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) coupled to the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model. Integral to the inverse estimates, we perform a quantitative analysis of errors in atmospheric transport and other factors to provide quantitative uncertainties in estimated emissions. Regressions of modeled and measured mixing ratios suggest that total CH{sub 4} emissions are within 25% of the inventory estimates. A Bayesian source sector analysis obtains posterior scaling factors for CH{sub 4} emissions, indicating that emissions from several of the sources (e.g., landfills, natural gas use, petroleum production, crops, and wetlands) are roughly consistent with inventory estimates, but livestock emissions are significantly higher than the inventory. A Bayesian 'region' analysis is used to identify spatial variations in CH{sub 4} emissions from 13 sub-regions within California. Although, only regions near the tower are significantly constrained by the tower measurements, CH{sub 4} emissions from the south Central Valley appear to be underestimated in a manner consistent with the under-prediction of livestock emissions. Finally, we describe a pseudo-experiment using predicted CH{sub 4} signals to explore the uncertainty reductions that might be obtained if additional measurements were made by a future network of tall-tower stations spread over California. These results show that it should be possible to provide high-accuracy estimates of surface CH{sub 4} emissions for multiple regions as a means to verify future emissions reductions.

  12. Fiber Supply Associate Company Overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazzotti, Frank

    materials acquisition, harvesting, logistics coordination, contract negotiations, and inventory management, Purchasing, Industrial Engineering, Operations management, Materials Management, Supply Chain) Authorized leadership roles such as Fiber Specialist, Fiber Supply Manager, Region Manager, Director, General Manager

  13. Waste management activities and carbon emissions in Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Couth, R. [University of KwaZulu-Natal, CRECHE, School of Civil Engineering, Survey and Construction, Durban 4041 (South Africa); Trois, C., E-mail: troisc@ukzn.ac.za [University of KwaZulu-Natal, CRECHE, School of Civil Engineering, Survey and Construction, Durban 4041 (South Africa)

    2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper summarizes research into waste management activities and carbon emissions from territories in sub-Saharan Africa with the main objective of quantifying emission reductions (ERs) that can be gained through viable improvements to waste management in Africa. It demonstrates that data on waste and carbon emissions is poor and generally inadequate for prediction models. The paper shows that the amount of waste produced and its composition are linked to national Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Waste production per person is around half that in developed countries with a mean around 230 kg/hd/yr. Sub-Saharan territories produce waste with a biogenic carbon content of around 56% (+/-25%), which is approximately 40% greater than developed countries. This waste is disposed in uncontrolled dumps that produce large amounts of methane gas. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from waste will rise with increasing urbanization and can only be controlled through funding mechanisms from developed countries.

  14. Pilot application of PalmGHG, the RSPO greenhouse gas calculator for oil palm products , Chase L.D.C.b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and consumption of sustainable palm oil through a voluntary certification scheme. This certification scheme1 Pilot application of PalmGHG, the RSPO greenhouse gas calculator for oil palm products Bessou C, France b Independent Consultant in Tropical Agriculture, High Trees, Martineau Drive, Dorking, Surrey RH4

  15. 11 2011 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd | Greenhouse Gas Sci Technol. 1:1120 (2011); DOI: 10.1002/ghg3 Perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Quanlin

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com). DOI: 10.1002/ghg3.001 On scale and magnitude of pressure build-up, such as oil produc- tion. Large-scale pressure build-up in response to the injection may limit the dynamic of pressure build-up induced by industrial-scale CO2 storage projects is presented. Also dis- cussed

  16. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial Consumers (NumberThousandby thePricePricetheTable 1. U.S. Supply,

  17. Quantification of greenhouse gas emissions from waste management processes for municipalities - A comparative review focusing on Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedrich, Elena, E-mail: Friedriche@ukzn.ac.za [CRECHE Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Surveying and Construction, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban (South Africa); Trois, Cristina [CRECHE Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Surveying and Construction, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban (South Africa)

    2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The amount of greenhouse gases (GHG) emitted due to waste management in the cities of developing countries is predicted to rise considerably in the near future; however, these countries have a series of problems in accounting and reporting these gases. Some of these problems are related to the status quo of waste management in the developing world and some to the lack of a coherent framework for accounting and reporting of greenhouse gases from waste at municipal level. This review summarizes and compares GHG emissions from individual waste management processes which make up a municipal waste management system, with an emphasis on developing countries and, in particular, Africa. It should be seen as a first step towards developing a more holistic GHG accounting model for municipalities. The comparison between these emissions from developed and developing countries at process level, reveals that there is agreement on the magnitude of the emissions expected from each process (generation of waste, collection and transport, disposal and recycling). The highest GHG savings are achieved through recycling, and these savings would be even higher in developing countries which rely on coal for energy production (e.g. South Africa, India and China) and where non-motorized collection and transport is used. The highest emissions are due to the methane released by dumpsites and landfills, and these emissions are predicted to increase significantly, unless more of the methane is captured and either flared or used for energy generation. The clean development mechanism (CDM) projects implemented in the developing world have made some progress in this field; however, African countries lag behind.

  18. The Challenge of Limiting Greenhouse Gas Emissions Through Activities implemented Jointly in Developing Countries: A Brazilian Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    La Rovere, E.L.

    1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper addresses, from the Brazilian perspective, the main problems with Joint Implementation/Activities Implemented Jointly (JI/AIJ) between industrialized (Annex I) and developing (non-Annex I) countries, as defined by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Four possible GHG emissions abatement measures are presented for Brazil: forest protection, reforestation projects for carbon sequestration or charcoal manufacturing, use of ethanol produced from sugar cane as a car fuel, and electrical energy conservation through an increase in end-use efficiencies. These four case studies form the basis of a discussion regarding the validity of developing countries' concerns about JI/AIJ. Recommendations are offered for overcoming the present shortcomings of JI/AIJ in developing countries. The primary conclusion is that Annex I countries' funding of JI/AIJ projects in developing countries in return for GHG emissions credits is not the best means to implement the UNFCCC. However, JI/AIJ projects can be a productive means of preventing global climate change if combined with other measures, including GHG emissions reduction targets for all countries involved in JI/AIJ projects and limits on the percentage of industrialized countries' emissions reductions that can be met through projects in developing countries.

  19. Multi-period Optimal Procurement and Demand Responses in the Presence of Uncertain Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low, Steven H.

    Smart Grid involves changes in both the demand side and supply side. On the supply side, more renewable energy will be integrated to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and other pollution. On the demand side, smarter demand management systems will be available to respond to the electricity price and improve

  20. Total energy cycle energy use and emissions of electric vehicles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, M. K.

    1999-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A total energy cycle analysis (TECA) of electric vehicles (EV) was recently completed. The EV energy cycle includes production and transport of fuels used in power plants to generate electricity, electricity generation, EV operation, and vehicle and battery manufacture. This paper summarizes the key assumptions and results of the EVTECA. The total energy requirements of EVS me estimated to be 24-35% lower than those of the conventional, gasoline-fueled vehicles they replace, while the reductions in total oil use are even greater: 55-85%. Greenhouse gases (GHG) are 24-37% lower with EVs. EVs reduce total emissions of several criteria air pollutants (VOC, CO, and NO{sub x}) but increase total emissions of others (SO{sub x}, TSP, and lead) over the total energy cycle. Regional emissions are generally reduced with EVs, except possibly SO{sub x}. The limitations of the EVTECA are discussed, and its results are compared with those of other evaluations of EVs. In general, many of the results (particularly the oil use, GHG, VOC, CO, SO{sub x}, and lead results) of the analysis are consistent with those of other evaluations.

  1. Heat Supply Who What Where and -Why

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    ................................................. 6 District-heating (DH) supply: key figures .............................. 6 What is biomass Geothermics ..........................................................................11 Waste for heat supplyHeat Supply in Denmark Who What Where and - Why #12;Title: Heat Supply in Denmark - Who What Where

  2. Switching power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mihalka, A.M.

    1984-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a repratable capacitor charging, switching power supply. A ferrite transformer steps up a dc input. The transformer primary is in a full bridge configuration utilizing power MOSFETs as the bridge switches. The transformer secondary is fed into a high voltage, full wave rectifier whose output is connected directly to the energy storage capacitor. The transformer is designed to provide adequate leakage inductance to limit capacitor current. The MOSFETs are switched to the variable frequency from 20 to 50 kHz to charge a capacitor from 0.6 kV. The peak current in a transformer primary and secondary is controlled by increasing the pulse width as the capacitor charges. A digital ripple counter counts pulses and after a preselected desired number is reached an up-counter is clocked.

  3. NNSA TRITIUM SUPPLY CHAIN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wyrick, Steven [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC, USA; Cordaro, Joseph [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC, USA; Founds, Nanette [National Nuclear Security Administration, Albuquerque, NM, USA; Chambellan, Curtis [National Nuclear Security Administration, Albuquerque, NM, USA

    2013-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Savannah River Site plays a critical role in the Tritium Production Supply Chain for the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The entire process includes: • Production of Tritium Producing Burnable Absorber Rods (TPBARs) at the Westinghouse WesDyne Nuclear Fuels Plant in Columbia, South Carolina • Production of unobligated Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) at the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) in Portsmouth, Ohio • Irradiation of TPBARs with the LEU at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Watts Bar Reactor • Extraction of tritium from the irradiated TPBARs at the Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF) at Savannah River Site • Processing the tritium at the Savannah River Site, which includes removal of nonhydrogen species and separation of the hydrogen isotopes of protium, deuterium and tritium.

  4. Sustainable Biomass Supply Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erin Searcy; Dave Muth; Erin Wilkerson; Shahab Sokansanj; Bryan Jenkins; Peter Titman; Nathan Parker; Quinn Hart; Richard Nelson

    2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) aims to displace 30% of the 2004 gasoline use (60 billion gal/yr) with biofuels by 2030 as outlined in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, which will require 700 million tons of biomass to be sustainably delivered to biorefineries annually. Lignocellulosic biomass will make an important contribution towards meeting DOE’s ethanol production goals. For the biofuels industry to be an economically viable enterprise, the feedstock supply system (i.e., moving the biomass from the field to the refinery) cannot contribute more that 30% of the total cost of the biofuel production. The Idaho National Laboratory in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of California, Davis and Kansas State University are developing a set of tools for identifying economical, sustainable feedstocks on a regional basis based on biorefinery siting.

  5. Reliability Estimates for Power Supplies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee C. Cadwallader; Peter I. Petersen

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Failure rates for large power supplies at a fusion facility are critical knowledge needed to estimate availability of the facility or to set priorties for repairs and spare components. A study of the "failure to operate on demand" and "failure to continue to operate" failure rates has been performed for the large power supplies at DIII-D, which provide power to the magnet coils, the neutral beam injectors, the electron cyclotron heating systems, and the fast wave systems. When one of the power supplies fails to operate, the research program has to be either temporarily changed or halted. If one of the power supplies for the toroidal or ohmic heating coils fails, the operations have to be suspended or the research is continued at de-rated parameters until a repair is completed. If one of the power supplies used in the auxiliary plasma heating systems fails the research is often temporarily changed until a repair is completed. The power supplies are operated remotely and repairs are only performed when the power supplies are off line, so that failure of a power supply does not cause any risk to personnel. The DIII-D Trouble Report database was used to determine the number of power supply faults (over 1,700 reports), and tokamak annual operations data supplied the number of shots, operating times, and power supply usage for the DIII-D operating campaigns between mid-1987 and 2004. Where possible, these power supply failure rates from DIII-D will be compared to similar work that has been performed for the Joint European Torus equipment. These independent data sets support validation of the fusion-specific failure rate values.

  6. Industry Supply Chain Development (Ohio)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Supply Chain Development programs are focused on targeted industries that have significant growth opportunities for Ohio's existing manufacturing sector from emerging energy resources and...

  7. Tariffs with Dynamic Supply Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karp, Larry

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Giannini FDN iibrary TARIFFS WITH DYNAMIC SUPPLY RESWNSEpaper studies the optimal tariff in a dynamic framework. Thesellers, the optimal tariff is dynam- ically inconsistent;

  8. Cost of Ownership and Well-to-Wheels Carbon Emissions/Oil Use of Alternative Fuels and Advanced Light-Duty Vehicle Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elgowainy, Mr. Amgad [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Rousseau, Mr. Aymeric [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Wang, Mr. Michael [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Ruth, Mr. Mark [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Andress, Mr. David [David Andress & Associates, Inc.; Ward, Jacob [U.S. Department of Energy; Joseck, Fred [U.S. Department of Energy; Nguyen, Tien [U.S. Department of Energy; Das, Sujit [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne), and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) updated their analysis of the well-to-wheels (WTW) greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions, petroleum use, and the cost of ownership (excluding insurance, maintenance, and miscellaneous fees) of vehicle technologies that have the potential to significantly reduce GHG emissions and petroleum consumption. The analyses focused on advanced light-duty vehicle (LDV) technologies such as plug-in hybrid, battery electric, and fuel cell electric vehicles. Besides gasoline and diesel, alternative fuels considered include natural gas, advanced biofuels, electricity, and hydrogen. The Argonne Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) and Autonomie models were used along with the Argonne and NREL H2A models.

  9. Analysis of potential for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in municipal solid waste in Brazil, in the state and city of Rio de Janeiro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loureiro, S.M., E-mail: saulo@lima.coppe.ufrj.br [Department of Energy Planning, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, C.P. 68565, CEP 21949-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rovere, E.L.L., E-mail: emilio@ppe.ufrj.br [Department of Energy Planning, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, C.P. 68565, CEP 21949-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mahler, C.F., E-mail: mahler0503@yahoo.com [Department of Civil Engineering, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, C.P. 68506, CEP 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: ? We constructed future scenarios of emissions of greenhouse gases in waste. ? Was used the IPCC methodology for calculating emission inventories. ? We calculated the costs of abatement for emissions reduction in landfill waste. ? The results were compared to Brazil, state and city of Rio de Janeiro. ? The higher the environmental passive, the greater the possibility of use of biogas. - Abstract: This paper examines potential changes in solid waste policies for the reduction in GHG for the country of Brazil and one of its major states and cities, Rio de Janeiro, from 2005 to 2030. To examine these policy options, trends in solid waste quantities and associated GHG emissions are derived. Three alternative policy scenarios are evaluated in terms of effectiveness, technology, and economics and conclusions posited regarding optimal strategies for Brazil to implement. These scenarios are been building on the guidelines for national inventories of GHG emissions (IPCC, 2006) and adapted to Brazilian states and municipalities’ boundaries. Based on the results, it is possible to say that the potential revenue from products of solid waste management is more than sufficient to transform the current scenario in this country into one of financial and environmental gains, where the negative impacts of climate change have created a huge opportunity to expand infrastructure for waste management.

  10. Evaluation of Efficiency Activities in the Industrial Sector Undertaken in Response to Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Lu, Hongyou; Horvath, Arpad

    2010-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The 2006 California Global Warming Solutions Act calls for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. Meeting this target will require action from all sectors of the California economy, including industry. The industrial sector consumes 25% of the energy used and emits 28% of the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) produced in the state. Many countries around the world have national-level GHG reduction or energy-efficiency targets, and comprehensive programs focused on implementation of energy efficiency and GHG emissions mitigation measures in the industrial sector are essential for achieving their goals. A combination of targets and industry-focused supporting programs has led to significant investments in energy efficiency as well as reductions in GHG emissions within the industrial sectors in these countries. This project has identified program and policies that have effectively targeted the industrial sector in other countries to achieve real energy and CO{sub 2} savings. Programs in Ireland, France, The Netherlands, Denmark, and the UK were chosen for detailed review. Based on the international experience documented in this report, it is recommended that companies in California's industrial sector be engaged in a program to provide them with support to meet the requirements of AB32, The Global Warming Solution Act. As shown in this review, structured programs that engage industry, require members to evaluate their potential efficiency measures, plan how to meet efficiency or emissions reduction goals, and provide support in achieving the goals, can be quite effective at assisting companies to achieve energy efficiency levels beyond those that can be expected to be achieved autonomously.

  11. SUMMARY FOR POLICYMAKERS Modeling Optimal Transition Pathways to a Low

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    of California Energy and Climate Policies 2 capture and sequestration or increased supplies of wind and solar and trade, the low carbon fuel standard, GHG regulations for cars and trucks). These policies represent transformations of the energy system will be needed to meet the state's long-term goal of reducing GHG emissions

  12. Power Supply Synchronization without Communication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moehlis, Jeff

    1 Power Supply Synchronization without Communication Leonardo A. B. T^orres, Jo~ao P. Hespanha, Jeff Moehlis Abstract--We consider the synchronization of power supplies in an isolated grid with multiple small-to-medium power sources. We show how to achieve a coordinated or synchronized behavior

  13. WATER SUPPLY A Handbook on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    WATER SUPPLY HANDBOOK A Handbook on Water Supply Planning and Resource Management Institute for Water Resources Water Resources Support Center U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 7701 Telegraph Road Studies Division December 1998 Revised IWR Report 96-PS-4 #12;U.S. Army Institute for Water Resources

  14. REGIONAL WATER SUPPLY PLANNING AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mays, Larry W.

    CHAPTER 3 REGIONAL WATER SUPPLY PLANNING AND CAPACITY EXPANSION MODELS Messele Z. Ejeta California Department of Water Resources Sacramento, California Larry W. Mays Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Arizona State University Tempe, Arizona 3.1 INTRODUCTION Water supply planning on a regional scale

  15. GLOBAL WOOD SUPPLY Sten Nilsson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GLOBAL WOOD SUPPLY Sten Nilsson Biomass and Resource Efficiency: the need for a supply led approach the wood come from? Western EU Deficit Eastern EU Deficit Rest of Eastern Europe Balanced Russia Rest of Eastern Europe Balanced Russia Is probably at production ceiling under current conditions Japan

  16. Impact of Component Sizing in Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles for Energy Resource and Greenhouse Emissions Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Widespread use of alternative hybrid powertrains currently appears inevitable and many opportunities for substantial progress remain. The necessity for environmentally friendly vehicles, in conjunction with increasing concerns regarding U.S. dependency on foreign oil and climate change, has led to significant investment in enhancing the propulsion portfolio with new technologies. Recently, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have attracted considerable attention due to their potential to reduce petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the transportation sector. PHEVs are especially appealing for short daily commutes with excessive stop-and-go driving. However, the high costs associated with their components, and in particular, with their energy storage systems have been significant barriers to extensive market penetration of PEVs. In the research reported here, we investigated the implications of motor/generator and battery size on fuel economy and GHG emissions in a medium duty PHEV. An optimization framework is proposed and applied to two different parallel powertrain configurations, pre-transmission and post-transmission, to derive the Pareto frontier with respect to motor/generator and battery size. The optimization and modeling approach adopted here facilitates better understanding of the potential benefits from proper selection of motor/generator and battery size on fuel economy and GHG emissions. This understanding can help us identify the appropriate sizing of these components and thus reducing the PHEV cost. Addressing optimal sizing of PHEV components could aim at an extensive market penetration of PHEVs.

  17. Petroleum Supply Monthly, September 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains detailed statistics on the supply and disposition of petroleum and petroleum products for September 1984. Information on crude oil, finished motor gasoline, distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, liquefied petroleum gases are included. Detailed statistics show production for the current month as well as the year-to-date. Data are also tabulated for the US Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) Districts which include field production, refinery production, imports, stock withdrawal or addition, unaccounted for crude, net receipts, crude losses, refinery inputs, exports, products supplied, and ending stocks. The focus article discusses EIA data series for crude oil imports, motor gasoline supplied, and distillate and residual fuel oil supplied, as well as crude oil production. A companion article, An Evaluation of Crude Oil Production Statistics beginning on page xvii compares crude oil production volumes reported in EIA's petroleum supply publications with those shown in state reports.

  18. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report, (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data presented are divided into Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  19. Carbon Footprint and the Management of Supply Chains: Insights from Simple Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benjaafar, Saifallah

    Carbon Footprint and the Management of Supply Chains: Insights from Simple Models Saif Benjaafar1, we illustrate how carbon emission concerns could be integrated into operational decision-making with regard to procurement, production, and inventory management. We show how, by associating carbon emission

  20. Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in California: The California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenblatt, Jeffery B.

    2013-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) model was developed to explore the impact of combinations of state policies on state greenhouse gas (GHG) and regional criteria pollutant emissions. The model included representations of all GHG- emitting sectors of the California economy (including those outside the energy sector, such as high global warming potential gases, waste treatment, agriculture and forestry) in varying degrees of detail, and was carefully calibrated using available data and projections from multiple state agencies and other sources. Starting from basic drivers such as population, numbers of households, gross state product, numbers of vehicles, etc., the model calculated energy demands by type (various types of liquid and gaseous hydrocarbon fuels, electricity and hydrogen), and finally calculated emissions of GHGs and three criteria pollutants: reactive organic gases (ROG), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and fine (2.5 ?m) particulate matter (PM2.5). Calculations were generally statewide, but in some sectors, criteria pollutants were also calculated for two regional air basins: the South Coast Air Basin (SCAB) and the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). Three scenarios were developed that attempt to model: (1) all committed policies, (2) additional, uncommitted policy targets and (3) potential technology and market futures. Each scenario received extensive input from state energy planning agencies, in particular the California Air Resources Board. Results indicate that all three scenarios are able to meet the 2020 statewide GHG targets, and by 2030, statewide GHG emissions range from between 208 and 396 MtCO2/yr. However, none of the scenarios are able to meet the 2050 GHG target of 85 MtCO2/yr, with emissions ranging from 188 to 444 MtCO2/yr, so additional policies will need to be developed for California to meet this stringent future target. A full sensitivity study of major scenario assumptions was also performed. In terms of criteria pollutants, targets were less well-defined, but while all three scenarios were able to make significant reductions in ROG, NOx and PM2.5 both statewide and in the two regional air basins, they may nonetheless fall short of what will be required by future federal standards. Specifically, in Scenario 1, regional NOx emissions are approximately three times the estimated targets for both 2023 and 2032, and in Scenarios 2 and 3, NOx emissions are approximately twice the estimated targets. Further work is required in this area, including detailed regional air quality modeling, in order to determine likely pathways for attaining these stringent targets.

  1. Opportunity Analysis for Recovering Energy from Industrial Waste Heat and Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viswanathan, Vish V.; Davies, Richard W.; Holbery, Jim D.

    2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    United States industry consumed 32.5 Quads (34,300 PJ) of energy during 2003, which was 33.1% of total U.S. energy consumption (EIA 2003 Annual Energy Review). The U.S. industrial complex yields valuable goods and products. Through its manufacturing processes as well as its abundant energy consumption, it supports a multi-trillion dollar contribution to the gross domestic product and provides millions of jobs in the U.S. each year. Industry also yields waste products directly through its manufacturing processes and indirectly through its energy consumption. These waste products come in two forms, chemical and thermal. Both forms of waste have residual energy values that are not routinely recovered. Recovering and reusing these waste products may represent a significant opportunity to improve the energy efficiency of the U.S. industrial complex. This report was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Industrial Technologies Program (DOE-ITP). It analyzes the opportunity to recover chemical emissions and thermal emissions from U.S. industry. It also analyzes the barriers and pathways to more effectively capitalize on these opportunities. A primary part of this analysis was to characterize the quantity and energy value of the emissions. For example, in 2001, the industrial sector emitted 19% of the U.S. greenhouse gases (GHG) through its industrial processes and emitted 11% of GHG through electricity purchased from off-site utilities. Therefore, industry (not including agriculture) was directly and indirectly responsible for emitting 30% of the U.S. GHG. These emissions were mainly comprised of carbon dioxide (CO2), but also contained a wide-variety of CH4 (methane), CO (carbon monoxide), H2 (hydrogen), NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compound), and other chemicals. As part of this study, we conducted a survey of publicly available literature to determine the amount of energy embedded in the emissions and to identify technology opportunities to capture and reuse this energy. As shown in Table E-1, non-CO2 GHG emissions from U.S. industry were identified as having 2180 peta joules (PJ) or 2 Quads (quadrillion Btu) of residual chemical fuel value. Since landfills are not traditionally considered industrial organizations, the industry component of these emissions had a value of 1480 PJ or 1.4 Quads. This represents approximately 4.3% of the total energy used in the United States Industry.

  2. Development of a local carbon dioxide emissions inventory based on energy demand and waste production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joao Gomes; Joana Nascimento; Helena Rodrigues [Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper describes the study that led to the development of a carbon dioxide emissions matrix for the Oeiras municipality, one of the largest Portuguese municipalities, located in the metropolitan area of Lisbon. This matrix takes into account the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions due to an increase of electricity demand in buildings as well as solid and liquid wastes treatment from the domestic and services sectors. Using emission factors that were calculated from the relationship between the electricity produced and amount of treated wastes, the GHC emissions in the Oeiras municipality were estimated for a time series of 6 yr (1998 - 2003). The obtained results showed that the electricity sector accounts for approximately 75% of the municipal emissions in 2003. This study was developed to obtain tools to base options and actions to be undertaken by local authorities such as energy planning and also public information. 11 refs., 12 tabs.

  3. Improve supply chain resilience by multi-stage supply chain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Jie, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to the global expansion of Company A's supply chain network, it is becoming more vulnerable to many disruptions. These disruptions often incur additional costs; and require time to respond to and recover from these ...

  4. Improving supply chain resilience by multi-stage supply chain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Jingxia, M. Eng, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to the global expansion of Company A's supply chain network, it is becoming more vulnerable to many disruptions. These disruptions often incur additional costs; and require time to respond to and recover from these ...

  5. Water supply and demand in an energy supply model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbey, D; Loose, V

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes a tool for water and energy-related policy analysis, the development of a water supply and demand sector in a linear programming model of energy supply in the United States. The model allows adjustments in the input mix and plant siting in response to water scarcity. Thus, on the demand side energy conversion facilities can substitute more costly dry cooling systems for conventional evaporative systems. On the supply side groundwater and water purchased from irrigators are available as more costly alternatives to unappropriated surface water. Water supply data is developed for 30 regions in 10 Western states. Preliminary results for a 1990 energy demand scenario suggest that, at this level of spatial analysis, water availability plays a minor role in plant siting. Future policy applications of the modeling system are discussed including the evaluation of alternative patterns of synthetic fuels development.

  6. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Welch, M. J.

    1990-01-00T23:59:59.000Z

    Positron emission tomography (PET) assesses biochemical processes in the living subject, producing images of function rather than form. Using PET, physicians are able to obtain not the anatomical information provided by other medical imaging techniques, but pictures of physiological activity. In metaphoric terms, traditional imaging methods supply a map of the body's roadways, its, anatomy; PET shows the traffic along those paths, its biochemistry. This document discusses the principles of PET, the radiopharmaceuticals in PET, PET research, clinical applications of PET, the cost of PET, training of individuals for PET, the role of the United States Department of Energy in PET, and the futures of PET.

  7. Petroleum supply monthly, February 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly presents data describing the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders; operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data are divided into two sections: Summary statistics and Detailed statistics.

  8. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographical regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US.

  9. Assessment of fuel-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas emissions for Fischer-Tropsch diesel from coal and cellulosic biomass.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, X.; Wang, M.; Han, J. (Energy Systems)

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study expands and uses the GREET (Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation) model to assess the effects of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology and cellulosic biomass and coal cofeeding in Fischer-Tropsch (FT) plants on energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of FT diesel (FTD). To demonstrate the influence of the coproduct credit methods on FTD life-cycle analysis (LCA) results, two allocation methods based on the energy value and the market revenue of different products and a hybrid method are employed. With the energy-based allocation method, fossil energy use of FTD is less than that of petroleum diesel, and GHG emissions of FTD could be close to zero or even less than zero with CCS when forest residue accounts for 55% or more of the total dry mass input to FTD plants. Without CCS, GHG emissions are reduced to a level equivalent to that from petroleum diesel plants when forest residue accounts for 61% of the total dry mass input. Moreover, we show that coproduct method selection is crucial for LCA results of FTD when a large amount of coproducts is produced.

  10. The 3He Supply Problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kouzes, Richard T.

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the main uses for 3He is in gas proportional counters for neutron detection. Radiation portal monitors deployed for homeland security and non-proliferation use such detectors. Other uses of 3He are for research detectors, commercial instruments, well logging detectors, dilution refrigerators, for targets or cooling in nuclear research, and for basic research in condensed matter physics. The US supply of 3He comes almost entirely from the decay of tritium used in nuclear weapons by the US and Russia. A few other countries contribute a small amount to the world’s 3He supply. Due to the large increase in use of 3He for homeland security, the supply has dwindled, and can no longer meet the demand. This white paper reviews the problems of supply, utilization, and alternatives.

  11. Effective contracts in supply chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shum, Wanhang

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the past decade, we have seen significant increase in the level of outsourcing in many industries. This increase in the level of outsourcing increases the importance of implementing effective contracts in supply chains. ...

  12. Well-to-wheels energy use and greenhouse gas emissions analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elgowainy, A.; Burnham, A.; Wang, M.; Molburg, J.; Rousseau, A.; Energy Systems

    2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Researchers at Argonne National Laboratory expanded the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model and incorporated the fuel economy and electricity use of alternative fuel/vehicle systems simulated by the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) to conduct a well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis of energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The WTW results were separately calculated for the blended charge-depleting (CD) and charge-sustaining (CS) modes of PHEV operation and then combined by using a weighting factor that represented the CD vehicle-miles-traveled (VMT) share. As indicated by PSAT simulations of the CD operation, grid electricity accounted for a share of the vehicle's total energy use, ranging from 6% for a PHEV 10 to 24% for a PHEV 40, based on CD VMT shares of 23% and 63%, respectively. In addition to the PHEV's fuel economy and type of on-board fuel, the marginal electricity generation mix used to charge the vehicle impacted the WTW results, especially GHG emissions. Three North American Electric Reliability Corporation regions (4, 6, and 13) were selected for this analysis, because they encompassed large metropolitan areas (Illinois, New York, and California, respectively) and provided a significant variation of marginal generation mixes. The WTW results were also reported for the U.S. generation mix and renewable electricity to examine cases of average and clean mixes, respectively. For an all-electric range (AER) between 10 mi and 40 mi, PHEVs that employed petroleum fuels (gasoline and diesel), a blend of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline (E85), and hydrogen were shown to offer a 40-60%, 70-90%, and more than 90% reduction in petroleum energy use and a 30-60%, 40-80%, and 10-100% reduction in GHG emissions, respectively, relative to an internal combustion engine vehicle that used gasoline. The spread of WTW GHG emissions among the different fuel production technologies and grid generation mixes was wider than the spread of petroleum energy use, mainly due to the diverse fuel production technologies and feedstock sources for the fuels considered in this analysis. The PHEVs offered reductions in petroleum energy use as compared with regular hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). More petroleum energy savings were realized as the AER increased, except when the marginal grid mix was dominated by oil-fired power generation. Similarly, more GHG emissions reductions were realized at higher AERs, except when the marginal grid generation mix was dominated by oil or coal. Electricity from renewable sources realized the largest reductions in petroleum energy use and GHG emissions for all PHEVs as the AER increased. The PHEVs that employ biomass-based fuels (e.g., biomass-E85 and -hydrogen) may not realize GHG emissions benefits over regular HEVs if the marginal generation mix is dominated by fossil sources. Uncertainties are associated with the adopted PHEV fuel consumption and marginal generation mix simulation results, which impact the WTW results and require further research. More disaggregate marginal generation data within control areas (where the actual dispatching occurs) and an improved dispatch modeling are needed to accurately assess the impact of PHEV electrification. The market penetration of the PHEVs, their total electric load, and their role as complements rather than replacements of regular HEVs are also uncertain. The effects of the number of daily charges, the time of charging, and the charging capacity have not been evaluated in this study. A more robust analysis of the VMT share of the CD operation is also needed.

  13. Environmental decision making: supply-chain considerations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reich-Weiser, Corinne; Dornfeld, David

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    manufacturing environmental impact and enable the reductionthe supply chain (3) environmental impact and cost must bethe supply chain’s environmental impact and flexibility (

  14. Supplying High-Quality, Raw Biomass

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Supplying High-Quality, Raw Biomass The building blocks to supply high-quality raw biomass start with harvesting and collection practices, product storage and recommendations of...

  15. Implications of changing natural gas prices in the United States electricity sector for SO2, NOX and life cycle GHG emissions: Supplementary Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaramillo, Paulina

    % Figure S2. Relationship between regional and U.S. average electricity sector delivered natural gas prices1 Implications of changing natural gas prices in the United States electricity sector for SO2, NOX Griffin, H Scott Matthews Table S1. Base case fuel prices and marginal prices of electricity production

  16. Transportation Energy Futures: Combining Strategies for Deep Reductions in Energy Consumption and GHG Emissions (Brochure), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Toolsearch keywordsclearLIGHT-DUTY

  17. Attributing land-use change carbon emissions to exported biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saikku, Laura, E-mail: laura.saikku@helsinki.fi [University of Helsinki, P.O Box 65, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Soimakallio, Sampo, E-mail: sampo.soimakallio@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, 02044 VTT (Finland); Pingoud, Kim, E-mail: kim.pingoud@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, 02044 VTT (Finland)

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, a simple, transparent and robust method is developed in which land-use change (LUC) emissions are retrospectively attributed to exported biomass products based on the agricultural area occupied for the production. LUC emissions account for approximately one-fifth of current greenhouse gas emissions. Increasing agricultural exports are becoming an important driver of deforestation. Brazil and Indonesia are used as case studies due to their significant deforestation in recent years. According to our study, in 2007, approximately 32% and 15% of the total agricultural land harvested and LUC emissions in Brazil and Indonesia respectively were due to exports. The most important exported single items with regard to deforestation were palm oil for Indonesia and bovine meat for Brazil. To reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions effectively worldwide, leakage of emissions should be avoided. This can be done, for example, by attributing embodied LUC emissions to exported biomass products. With the approach developed in this study, controversial attribution between direct and indirect LUC and amortization of emissions over the product life cycle can be overcome, as the method operates on an average basis and annual level. The approach could be considered in the context of the UNFCCC climate policy instead of, or alongside with, other instruments aimed at reducing deforestation. However, the quality of the data should be improved and some methodological issues, such as the allocation procedure in multiproduct systems and the possible dilution effect through third parties not committed to emission reduction targets, should be considered. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CO{sub 2} emissions from land use changes are highly important. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Attribution of land use changes for products is difficult. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simple and robust method is developed to attribute land use change emissions.

  18. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  19. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  20. Petroleum supply monthly, September 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administrations for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics. 65 tabs.

  1. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  2. A supply chain carbon footprint analysis of the University of California, Berkeley Christopher M. Jones and Daniel M. Kammen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    A supply chain carbon footprint analysis of the University of California, Berkeley Christopher M.S. university to calculate its supply chain carbon footprint. The genesis of this project was an understanding conducted a carbon footprint analysis that combined information from the reported emissions inventory

  3. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  4. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  5. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: Petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  6. Petroleum Supply Monthly, May 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains detailed statistics on the supply and disposition of petroleum and petroleum products through May, 1985. Information on crude oil, finished motor gasoline, distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, liquefied petroleum gases are included. Detailed statistics show production for the current month as well as the year-to-date. Data are also tabulated for the US Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) Districts which include field production, refinery production, imports, stock withdrawal or addition, unaccounted for crude, net receipts, crude losses, refinery inputs, exports, products supplied, and ending stocks. This issue features a ''Mid-Year Petroleum Review'', beginning on page xiii and focusing on major petroleum supply developments in the first half of 1985 and the outlook for the remainder of the year. The article discusses changes in consumption, domestic crude oil production, refinery operations, foreign trade, stocks (including the Strategic Petroleum Reserve) and prices. 33 tabs.

  7. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains detailed statistics on the supply and disposition of petroleum and petroleum products for July 1984. Information on crude oil, finished motor gasoline, distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, liquefied petroleum gases are included. Detailed statistics show production for the current month as well as the year-to-date. Data are also tabulated for the US Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) Districts which include field production, refinery production, imports, stock withdrawal or addition, unaccounted for crude, net receipts, crude losses, refinery inputs, exports, products supplied, and ending stocks. This issue also presents IEA's winter 1984-1985 distillate fuel outlook and an overview of distillate fuel oil. These articles focus on the respective roles of production, imports, and stocks in meeting distillage fuel oil demand. Regional supply patterns, especially for the East Coast are also discussed. 33 tables. (DMC)

  8. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  9. Assessing Reliability in Energy Supply Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan; Ogden, Joan M.; Sperling, Dan

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    total of 15 metrics. Pathway reliability General objectives Adequacy Security Functional zones Primary energy supply

  10. Assessing reliability in energy supply systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan W.; Ogden, Joan M.; Sperling, Daniel

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    total of 15 metrics. Pathway reliability General objectives Adequacy Security Functional zones Primary energy supply

  11. CALCULATING THE CARBON FOOTPRINT SUPPLY CHAIN FOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Su, Xiao

    CALCULATING THE CARBON FOOTPRINT SUPPLY CHAIN FOR THE SEMICONDUCTOR INDUSTRY By: Yasser Dessouky #12;Carbon Footprint Supply Chain Carbon Trust defines carbon footprint of a supply chain as follows: "The carbon footprint of a product is the carbon dioxide emitted across the supply chain for a single

  12. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  13. Petroleum Supply Monthly, March 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains detailed statistics on the supply and disposition of petroleum and petroleum products for March 1985. Information on crude oil, finished motor gasoline, distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, liquefied petroleum gases are included. Detailed statistics show production for the current month as well as the year-to-date. Data are also tabulated for the US Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) Districts which include field production, refinery production, imports, stock withdrawal or addition, unaccounted for crude, net receipts, crude losses, refinery inputs, exports, products supplied, and ending stocks. 13 figs., 33 tabs.

  14. Petroleum Supply Monthly, April 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains detailed statistics on the supply and disposition of petroleum and petroleum products through April, 1985. Information on crude oil, finished motor gasoline, distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, liquefied petroleum gases are included. Detailed statistics show production for the current month as well as the year-to-date. Data are also tabulated for the US Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) Districts which include field production, refinery production, imports, stock withdrawal or addition, unaccounted for crude, net receipts, crude losses, refinery inputs, exports, products supplied, and ending stocks.

  15. Petroleum Supply Monthly, October 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains detailed statistics on the supply and disposition of petroleum and petroleum products for October 1984. Information on crude oil, finished motor gasoline, distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, liquefied petroleum gases are included. Detailed statistics show production for the current month as well as the year-to-date. Data are also tabulated for the US Petroleum Administraction for Defense (PAD) Districts which include field production, refinery production, imports, stock withdrawal or addition, unaccounted for crude, net receipts, crude losses, refinery inputs, exports, products supplied, and ending stocks.

  16. Document Supply Services Quick Guide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , phrase, ISBN/ISSN in the Search Term field (other options are available in the dropdown menu). Note1 Document Supply Services Quick Guide The DSS Portal makes requesting easy! Search for your item and password. If you are having difficulty please read the login help on the main DSS webpage. 2. Enter a word

  17. Fastbus Power Supply Manual University of Washington Seattle, 26 March, 1996 Fastbus Power Supplies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berns, Hans-Gerd

    supplies each have their own built­in cooling fans, and the lower­current supplies are sufficiently cooledFastbus Power Supply Manual University of Washington Seattle, 26 March, 1996 page 1 Fastbus Power Supplies HGB, 03/26/1996 Overview Each of the four Fastbus crates of the SuperK OD DAQ system is supplied

  18. Petroleum supply monthly, March 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas -- the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided from other sources.

  19. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures ih the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas - - the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided firom other sources.

  20. Should We Consider the CoBenefits of Agricultural GHG Levan Elbakidze, Bruce A. McCarl

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    power plant activity would generate additional environmental costs amounting to about 50% of the value discussed case where a coal fired electrical powerplant, which is allocated fewer emission permits than allows both power generation and coal burning by-products, including commonly discussed air pollutants

  1. Petroluem Supply Monthly, May 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  2. Petroleum Supply Monthly, November 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains detailed statistics on the supply and disposition of petroleum and petroleum products for November 1984. Information on crude oil, gasoline, distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, liquefied petroleum gases are included. Summary statistics include data from 1973 to 1984. Detailed statistics show production for the current month as well as the year-to-date. Data are also tabulated for the US Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) Districts which include field production, refinery production, imports, stock withdrawal or addition, unaccounted for crude oil, net receipts, crude losses, refinery inputs, exports, products supplied,and ending stocks. The focus article, US Petroleum Developments - - 1984., summarizes changes in consumption, refinery operations, petroleum stocks, imports, production and prices. The article includes an update on refinery closings.

  3. Petroleum Supply Monthly, January 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains detailed statistics on the supply and disposition of petroleum and petroleum products for January, 1985. Information on crude oil, finished motor gasoline, distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, liquefied petroleum gases are included. Detailed statistics show production for the current month as well as the year-to-date. Data are also tabulated for the US Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) Districts which include field production, refinery production, imports, stock withdrawal or addition, unaccounted for crude, net receipts, crude losses, refinery inputs, exports, products supplied, and ending stocks. This month's issue features Trends in Petroleum Product Consumption. This article describes the changing patterns of US petroleum product consumption in recent years, for the major projects and by end-use sectors.

  4. Petroleum Supply Monthly, December 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains detailed statistics on the supply and disposition of petroleum and petroleum products for December 1984. Information on crude oil, gasoline, distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, and liquefied petroleum gases are included. Summary statistics include data from 1973 through January 1985. Detailed statistics show production for the current month as well as the year-to-date. Data are also tubulated for the US Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District which include field production, refinery production, imports, stock withdrawal or addition, unaccounted for crude oil, net receipts, crude losses, refinery inputs, exports, products supplied, and ending stocks. The featured article, US Petroleum Import/Export Trends, highlights 1984 activities and discusses historical US trade patterns for crude oil and petroleum products. 12 figures, 33 tables.

  5. High voltage DC power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Droege, Thomas F. (Batavia, IL)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high voltage DC power supply having a first series resistor at the output for limiting current in the event of a short-circuited output, a second series resistor for sensing the magnitude of output current, and a voltage divider circuit for providing a source of feedback voltage for use in voltage regulation is disclosed. The voltage divider circuit is coupled to the second series resistor so as to compensate the feedback voltage for a voltage drop across the first series resistor. The power supply also includes a pulse-width modulated control circuit, having dual clock signals, which is responsive to both the feedback voltage and a command voltage, and also includes voltage and current measuring circuits responsive to the feedback voltage and the voltage developed across the second series resistor respectively.

  6. Petroleum Supply Monthly, July 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  7. 1992 Conversion Resources Supply Document

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years conservation of electric power has become an integral part of utility planning. The 1980 Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act (Northwest Power Act) requires that the region consider conservation potential in planning acquisitions of resources to meet load growth. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) developed its first estimates of conservation potential in 1982. Since that time BPA has updated its conservation supply analyses as a part of its Resource Program and other planning efforts. Major updates were published in 1985 and in January 1990. This 1992 document presents updated supply curves, which are estimates of the savings potential over time (cumulative savings) at different cost levels of energy conservation measures (ECMs). ECMs are devices, pieces of equipment, or actions that increase the efficiency of electricity use and reduce the amount of electricity used by end-use equipment.

  8. High voltage DC power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Droege, T.F.

    1989-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A high voltage DC power supply having a first series resistor at the output for limiting current in the event of a short-circuited output, a second series resistor for sensing the magnitude of output current, and a voltage divider circuit for providing a source of feedback voltage for use in voltage regulation is disclosed. The voltage divider circuit is coupled to the second series resistor so as to compensate the feedback voltage for a voltage drop across the first series resistor. The power supply also includes a pulse-width modulated control circuit, having dual clock signals, which is responsive to both the feedback voltage and a command voltage, and also includes voltage and current measuring circuits responsive to the feedback voltage and the voltage developed across the second series resistor respectively. 7 figs.

  9. Coupling Renewable Energy Supply with Deferrable Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papavasiliou, Anthony

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The lattice model of renewable power supply and real-timerenewable power supply, by formulating a unit commitment model.model that can be used for assessing the impact of integrating renewable power

  10. Charlotte Green Supply Chain: Residential Retrofitting | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Charlotte Green Supply Chain: Residential Retrofitting Charlotte Green Supply Chain: Residential Retrofitting July 30, 2010 - 10:50am Addthis Joshua DeLung What does this mean for...

  11. An integrative framework for architecting supply chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cela Díaz, Fernando

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis explores the limitations of classic models of supply chain management, and proposes a new view based on the concept of value-driven supply chains, and a method of analysis and design based on the concepts of ...

  12. Supply chain management in the cement industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agudelo, Isabel

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Traditionally supply chain management has played an operational role within cement and mineral extraction commodity companies. Recently, cost reduction projects have brought supply chain management into the limelight. In ...

  13. Loss of coordination in competitive supply chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teo, Koon Soon

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The loss of coordination in supply chains quantifies the inefficiency (i.e. the loss of total profit) due to the presence of competition in the supply chain. In this thesis, we discuss four models: one model with multiple ...

  14. Agents on the Web Supply Chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almor, Amit

    Agents on the Web Automating Supply Chains 90 JULY · AUGUST 2001 http://computer.org/internet/ 1089

  15. Covered Product Category: Uninterruptible Power Supplies (for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Applications) Covered Product Category: Uninterruptible Power Supplies (for Data Center, Computer, and Telecommunication Applications) The Federal Energy Management...

  16. Coupling Renewable Energy Supply with Deferrable Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papavasiliou, Anthony

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Scale Renewable Energy Integration . . . . . . . . . . .Impacts of Renewable Energy Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.3 Coupling Renewable Energy with Deferrable

  17. Supply Chain and Information Sciences Technology 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guiltinan, Mark

    Supply Chain and Information Sciences Technology 2010 Supply Chain and Information Systems Technology Minor SCIST Minor Application Department of Supply Chain & Information Systems College of Information Sciences and Technology Overview The minor in SCIST is structured to provide students not majoring

  18. Petroleum supply monthly: December 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Data are presented which describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States. Data are presented in two sections: Summary Statistics, presenting a time series of selected petroleum data on a U.S. level, and Detailed Statistics, presenting statistics for the most current month available as well as year to date.

  19. Supply Stores | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you sure you wantJoin us for|Idaho |Energy Supercomputers: ExtremeSupply

  20. Infrared Emission from AGN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. B. Sanders

    1999-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Infrared observations of complete samples of active galactic nuclei (AGN) have shown that a substantial fraction of their bolometric luminosity is emitted at wavelengths ~8-1000microns. In radio-loud and Blazar-like objects much of this emission appears to be direct non-thermal synchrotron radiation. However, in the much larger numbers of radio-quiet AGN it is now clear that thermal dust emission is responsible for the bulk of radiation from the near-infrared through submillimeter wavelengths. Luminous infrared-selected AGN are often surrounded by powerful nuclear starbursts, both of which appear to be fueled by enormous supplies of molecular gas and dust funneled into the nuclear region during the strong interaction/merger of gas rich disks. All-sky surveys in the infrared show that luminous infrared AGN are at least as numerous as optically-selected AGN of comparable bolometric luminosity, suggesting that AGN may spend a substantial fraction of their lifetime in a dust-enshrouded phase. The space density of luminous infrared AGN at high redshift may be sufficient to account for much of the X-Ray background, and for a substantial fraction of the far-infrared background as well. These objects plausibly represent a major epoch in the formation of spheroids and massive black holes (MBH).

  1. Natural Gas Supply SBIR Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shoemaker, H.D.; Gwilliam, W.J.

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program was created in 1982 by Public Law 97-219 and reauthorized in 1992 until the year 2000 by Public Law 102-564. The purposes of the new law are to (1) expand and improve the SBIR program, 2) emphasize the program`s goal of increasing private sector commercialization of technology developed through Federal R&D, (3) increase small business participation in Federal R&D, and (4) improve the Federal Government`s dissemination of information concerning the SBIR program. DOE`s SBIR pro-ram has two features that are unique. In the 1995 DOE SBIR solicitation, the DOE Fossil Energy topics were: environmental technology for natural gas, oil, and coal; advanced recovery of oil; natural gas supply; natural gas utilization; advanced coal-based power systems; and advanced fossil fuels research. The subtopics for this solicitation`s Natural Gas Supply topic are (1) drilling, completion, and stimulation; (2) low-permeability Formations; (3) delivery and storage; and (4) natural gas upgrading.

  2. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Trough and Tower Concentrating Solar Power Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burkhardt, J. J.; Heath, G.; Cohen, E.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In reviewing life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of utility-scale concentrating solar power (CSP) systems, this analysis focuses on reducing variability and clarifying the central tendency of published estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through a meta-analytical process called harmonization. From 125 references reviewed, 10 produced 36 independent GHG emissions estimates passing screens for quality and relevance: 19 for parabolic trough (trough) technology and 17 for power tower (tower) technology. The interquartile range (IQR) of published estimates for troughs and towers were 83 and 20 grams of carbon dioxide equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO2-eq/kWh),1 respectively; median estimates were 26 and 38 g CO2-eq/kWh for trough and tower, respectively. Two levels of harmonization were applied. Light harmonization reduced variability in published estimates by using consistent values for key parameters pertaining to plant design and performance. The IQR and median were reduced by 87% and 17%, respectively, for troughs. For towers, the IQR and median decreased by 33% and 38%, respectively. Next, five trough LCAs reporting detailed life cycle inventories were identified. The variability and central tendency of their estimates are reduced by 91% and 81%, respectively, after light harmonization. By harmonizing these five estimates to consistent values for global warming intensities of materials and expanding system boundaries to consistently include electricity and auxiliary natural gas combustion, variability is reduced by an additional 32% while central tendency increases by 8%. These harmonized values provide useful starting points for policy makers in evaluating life cycle GHG emissions from CSP projects without the requirement to conduct a full LCA for each new project.

  3. Implementation, Enforcement, & Moderator: Benjamin Gramig, Purdue University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in GHG Emissions Trading Debbie marketpaymentsforthesupplyofclimateregulatingecosystemservices. Becausethereareprivatecostsavingstofarmersandsocialbenefitsfrom 23Emissions Trading Workshop #12

  4. Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.; Arons, Samuel M.; Lemoine, Derek M.; Hummel, Holmes

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    lower greenhouse gas emissions from electricity productionAssessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Plug-in Hybridof national greenhouse gas emissions. Both motor vehicle

  5. An Activity-Based Assessment of the Potential Impacts of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles on Energy and Emissions Using One-Day Travel Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Recker, W. W.; Kang, J. E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    internal combustion engine is working, it reasonably can be assumed to have similar emissionInternal Combustion Engine (ICE) supplies additional power for high- speed/power operation. Although some studies capture emission

  6. Uninterruptible power supply (UPS) systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Use of this purchase specification is not mandatory. User should review the document and determine if it meets the user`s purpose. This document contains a fill-in-the-blanks guide specification for the procurement of uninterruptible power supply (UPS) systems greater than 10 kVA, organized as follows: Parts 1 through 7--technical requirements; Appendix A--technical requirements to be included in the proposal; Appendix B--UPS system data sheets to be completed by each bidder (Seller) and submitted with the proposal; Appendix C--general guidelines giving the specifier parameters for selecting a UPS system; it should be read before preparing an actual specification, and is not attached to the specification; Attachment 1--sketches prepared by the purchaser (Owner); Attachment 2--sample title page.

  7. A methodology to estimate greenhouse gases emissions in Life Cycle Inventories of wastewater treatment plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez-Garcia, G., E-mail: gonzalo.rodriguez.garcia@usc.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, Rua Lope Gomez de Marzoa, S/N, 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Hospido, A., E-mail: almudena.hospido@usc.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, Rua Lope Gomez de Marzoa, S/N, 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Bagley, D.M., E-mail: bagley@uwyo.edu [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Wyoming, 82072 Laramie, WY (United States); Moreira, M.T., E-mail: maite.moreira@usc.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, Rua Lope Gomez de Marzoa, S/N, 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Feijoo, G., E-mail: gumersindo.feijoo@usc.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, Rua Lope Gomez de Marzoa, S/N, 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objective of this paper is to present the Direct Emissions Estimation Model (DEEM), a model for the estimation of CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O emissions from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). This model is consistent with non-specific but widely used models such as AS/AD and ASM no. 1 and presents the benefits of simplicity and application over a common WWTP simulation platform, BioWin Registered-Sign , making it suitable for Life Cycle Assessment and Carbon Footprint studies. Its application in a Spanish WWTP indicates direct N{sub 2}O emissions to be 8 times larger than those associated with electricity use and thus relevant for LCA. CO{sub 2} emissions can be of similar importance to electricity-associated ones provided that 20% of them are of non-biogenic origin. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A model has been developed for the estimation of GHG emissions in WWTP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Model was consistent with both ASM no. 1 and AS/AD. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N{sub 2}O emissions are 8 times more relevant than the one associated with electricity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CO{sub 2} emissions are as important as electricity if 20% of it is non-biogenic.

  8. Petroleum supply annual 1995: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The {ital Petroleum Supply Annual} contains information on supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. It reflects data collected from the petroleum industry during 1995 through monthly surveys, and it is divided into 2 volumes. This volume contains three sections: summary statistics, detailed statistics, and selected refinery statistics, each with final annual data. (The other volume contains final statistics for each month and replaces data previously published in the {ital Petroleum Supply Monthly}).

  9. Shock-activated electrochemical power supplies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benedick, W.B.; Graham, R.A.; Morosin, B.

    1988-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A shock-activated electrochemical power supply is provided which is initiated extremely rapidly and which has a long shelf life. Electrochemical power supplies of this invention are initiated much faster than conventional thermal batteries. Power supplies of this invention comprise an inactive electrolyte and means for generating a high-pressure shock wave such that the shock wave is propagated through the electrolytes rendering the electrolyte electrochemically active. 2 figs.

  10. Shock-activated electrochemical power supplies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benedick, W.B.; Graham, R.A.; Morosin, B.

    1987-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A shock-activated electrochemical power supply is provided which is initiated extremely rapidly and which has a long shelf life. Electrochemical power supplies of this invention are initiated much faster than conventional thermal batteries. Power supplies of this invention comprise an inactive electrolyte and means for generating a high-pressure shock wave such that the shock wave is propagated through the electrolyte rendering the electrolyte electrochemically active. 2 figs.

  11. Coupling Renewable Energy Supply with Deferrable Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papavasiliou, Anthony

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    order: cost comparison for the deep-simple, zero wind,expected wind supply, instead of averaging the cost savingsintegration of wind power. Cost, Utilization, Investment

  12. Coupling Renewable Energy Supply with Deferrable Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papavasiliou, Anthony

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    systems absorb large amounts of hydroelectric power. Duringthat snow melts and hydroelectric power supply increases andfrom hydroelectric dams or discards renewable power [53].

  13. GI Self-Supply Pilot Overview

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BPA TRANSMISSION SERVICES Transmission Wind Integration Systems Team GENERATION IMBALANCE SELF SUPPLY PILOT PROJECT OVERVIEW VERSION: 0.1 UPDATED: 7292009 giself-supplypilotov...

  14. Assessing reliability in energy supply systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan W.; Ogden, Joan M.; Sperling, Daniel

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    pathway supplying hydrogen via pipeline from a centralizedgas with pipeline distribution of hydrogen, and 2) on-sitehydrogen is transported to the refueling stations via pipeline

  15. Assessing Reliability in Energy Supply Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan; Ogden, Joan M.; Sperling, Dan

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    pathway supplying hydrogen via pipeline from a centralizedgas with pipeline distribution of hydrogen, and 2) on-sitehydrogen is transported to the refueling stations via pipeline

  16. Assessing reliability in energy supply systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan W.; Ogden, Joan M.; Sperling, Daniel

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    liquefied natural gas (LNG) trading expected to increase insteam reformation production facility using imported LNG.The LNG supplies come primarily from Trinidad and Tobago,

  17. Assessing Reliability in Energy Supply Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan; Ogden, Joan M.; Sperling, Dan

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    liquefied natural gas (LNG) trading expected to increase insteam reformation production facility using imported LNG.The LNG supplies come primarily from Trinidad and Tobago,

  18. California’s Energy Future: Transportation Energy Use in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M; Hwang, Roland; Sperling, Daniel

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    lowering GHG emissions from the heavy-duty truck sector isuse and GHG emissions from long-haul heavy-trucks are likelytrucks, but while these fuels could reduce GHG emissions,

  19. Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.; Arons, Samuel M.; Lemoine, Derek M.; Hummel, Holmes

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    COMPACT EMISSIONS HEV PHEV marginal power plant is a coalpower uses relatively little coal, but in other cases emissions

  20. Extended emission around GPS radio sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Stanghellini; C. P. O'Dea; D. Dallacasa; P. Cassaro; S. A. Baum; R. Fanti; C. Fanti

    2005-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Extended radio emission detected around a sample of GHz Peaked Spectrum (GPS) radio sources is discussed. Evidence for extended emission which is related to the GPS source is found in 6 objects out of 33. Three objects are associated with quasars with core-jet pc-scale morphology, and three are identified with galaxies with symmetric (CSO) radio morphology. We conclude that the core-jet GPS quasars are likely to be beamed objects with a continuous supply of energy from the core to the kpc scale. It is also possible that low surface brightness extended radio emission is present in other GPS quasars but the emission is below our detection limit due to the high redshifts of the objects. On the other hand, the CSO/galaxies with extended large scale emission may be rejuvenated sources where the extended emission is the relic of previous activity. In general, the presence of large scale emission associated with GPS galaxies is uncommon, suggesting that in the context of the recurrent activity model, the time scale between subsequent bursts is in general longer than the radiative lifetime of the radio emission from the earlier activity.

  1. Advanced Accessory Power Supply Topologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marlino, L.D.

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) began December 8, 2000 and ended September 30, 2009. The total funding provided by the Participant (General Motors Advanced Technology Vehicles [GM]) during the course of the CRADA totaled $1.2M enabling the Contractor (UT-Battelle, LLC [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a.k.a. ORNL]) to contribute significantly to the joint project. The initial task was to work with GM on the feasibility of developing their conceptual approach of modifying major components of the existing traction inverter/drive to develop low cost, robust, accessory power. Two alternate methods for implementation were suggested by ORNL and both were proven successful through simulations and then extensive testing of prototypes designed and fabricated during the project. This validated the GM overall concept. Moreover, three joint U.S. patents were issued and subsequently licensed by GM. After successfully fulfilling the initial objective, the direction and duration of the CRADA was modified and GM provided funding for two additional tasks. The first new task was to provide the basic development for implementing a cascaded inverter technology into hybrid vehicles (including plug-in hybrid, fuel cell, and electric). The second new task was to continue the basic development for implementing inverter and converter topologies and new technology assessments for hybrid vehicle applications. Additionally, this task was to address the use of high temperature components in drive systems. Under this CRADA, ORNL conducted further research based on GM’s idea of using the motor magnetic core and windings to produce bidirectional accessory power supply that is nongalvanically coupled to the terminals of the high voltage dc-link battery of hybrid vehicles. In order not to interfere with the motor’s torque, ORNL suggested to use the zero-sequence, highfrequency harmonics carried by the main fundamental motor current for producing the accessory power. Two studies were conducted at ORNL. One was to put an additional winding in the motor slots to magnetically link with the high frequency of the controllable zero-sequence stator currents that do not produce any zero-sequence harmonic torques. The second approach was to utilize the corners of the square stator punching for the high-frequency transformers of the dc/dc inverter. Both approaches were successful. This CRADA validated the feasibility of GM’s desire to use the motor’s magnetic core and windings to produce bidirectional accessory power supply. Three joint U.S. patents with GM were issued to ORNL and GM by the U.S. Patent Office for the research results produced by this CRADA.

  2. 2009 Guidelines to Defra / DECC's GHG Conversion Factors for Company Reporting Produced by AEA for the Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , emissions factors have only been provided for CO2. The 2009 update provides emissions factors for the non-CO to landfill) into kilograms of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2eq). Carbon dioxide equivalent is a universal and refrigeration have been added. v. International electricity emission factors have been added Major changes

  3. Certified Professional in Supply Management (CPSM) Review Series: Exam 2: Effective Supply Management Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    · Materials and Inventory Management · Organization/Department Assessment · Planning · Product and ServiceCertified Professional in Supply Management (CPSM) Review Series: Exam 2: Effective Supply Management Performance Dates: October 28, 2011 Location: Rutgers University­ Livingston Campus, Tillett Hall

  4. Protective supplied breathing air garment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Childers, E.L.; Hortenau, E.F. von.

    1984-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A breathing air garment is disclosed for isolating a wearer from hostile environments containing toxins or irritants includes a suit and a separate head protective enclosure or hood engaging a suit collar in sealing attachment. The hood and suit collar are cylindrically shaped and dimensioned to enable the wearer to withdraw his hands from the suit sleeves to perform manual tasks within the hood interior. Breathing air is supplied from an external air line with an air delivery hose attached to the hood interior. The hose feeds air into an annular halo-like fiber-filled plenum having spaced discharge orifices attached to the hood top wall. A plurality of air exhaust/check valves located at the suit extremities cooperate with the hood air delivery system to provide a cooling flow of circulating air from the hood throughout the suit interior. A suit entry seal provided on the suit rear torso panel permits access into the suit and is sealed with an adhesive sealing flap. 17 figs.

  5. Lead -- supply/demand outlook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schnull, T. [Noranda, Inc., Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As Japan goes--so goes the world. That was the title of a recent lead article in The Economist that soberly discussed the potential of much more severe global economic problems occurring, if rapid and coordinated efforts were not made to stabilize the economic situation in Asia in general, and in Japan in particular. During the first 6 months of last year, commodity markets reacted violently to the spreading economic problems in Asia. More recent currency and financial problems in Russia have exacerbated an already unpleasant situation. One commodity after another--including oil, many of the agricultural commodities, and each of the base metals--have dropped sharply in price. Many are now trading at multiyear lows. Until there is an overall improvement in the outlook for these regions, sentiment will likely continue to be negative, and metals prices will remain under pressure. That being said, lead has maintained its value better than many other commodities during these difficult times, finding support in relatively strong fundamentals. The author takes a closer look at those supply and demand fundamentals, beginning with consumption.

  6. Measuring Conventional and Alternative Exhaust Emissions from a Gas Turbine Engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Jeremiah Andrew

    2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    with food production, should not use fresh water supplies, and should have neutral greenhouse gas emissions after a life cycle analysis (LCA) [7,8]. Biofuels derived from algal biomass feedstocks are generating considerable interest around the world...

  7. What are the likely roles of fossil fuels in the next 15, 50, and 100 years, with or without active controls on greenhouse gas emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kane, R.L. (USDOE Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy, Washington, DC (USA)); South, D.W. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the industrial revolution, the production and utilization of fossil fuels have been an engine driving economic and industrial development in many countries worldwide. However, future reliance on fossil fuels has been questioned due to emerging concerns about greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, particularly carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and its potential contribution to global climate change (GCC). While substantial uncertainties exist regarding the ability to accurately predict climate change and the role of various greenhouse gases, some scientists and policymakers have called for immediate action. As a result, there have been many proposals and worldwide initiatives to address the perceived problem. In many of these proposals, the premise is that CO{sub 2} emissions constitute the principal problem, and, correspondingly, that fossil-fuel combustion must be curtailed to resolve this problem. This paper demonstrates that the worldwide fossil fuel resource base and infrastructure are extensive and thus, will continue to be relied on in developed and developing countries. Furthermore, in the electric generating sector (the focus of this paper), numerous clean coal technologies (CCTs) are currently being demonstrated (or are under development) that have higher conversion efficiencies, and thus lower CO{sub 2} emission rates than conventional coal-based technologies. As these technologies are deployed in new power plant or repowering applications to meet electrical load growth, CO{sub 2} (and other GHG) emission levels per unit of electricity generated will be lower than that produced by conventional fossil-fuel technologies. 37 refs., 14 figs., 11 tabs.

  8. E951 POWER SUPPLY SAFETY REVIEW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    E951 POWER SUPPLY SAFETY REVIEW 9/06/02 IOANNIS MARNERIS Brookhaven National Labs. #12;Project. · To do this we will use 4 existing SCR type dc power supplies from the experimental area in series 3644 Voltage (V) 150 300 300 Peakcurrent (A) 3600 7200 7200 Field (T) 5.0 10.0 14.5 Inductance (mH) 138

  9. SUMMER 2007 ELECTRICITY SUPPLY AND DEMAND OUTLOOK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION SUMMER 2007 ELECTRICITY SUPPLY AND DEMAND OUTLOOK DRAFTSTAFFREPORT May ELECTRICITY ANALYSIS OFFICE Sylvia Bender Acting Deputy Director ELECTRICITY SUPPLY ANALYSIS DIVISION B. B assessment of the capability of the physical electricity system to provide power to meet electricity demand

  10. Biomass Supply and Carbon Accounting for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biomass Supply and Carbon Accounting for Southeastern Forests February 2012 #12;This Biomass Supply and Carbon Accounting for Southeastern Forests study was conducted by the Biomass Energy Resource Center Biomass Energy Resource Center Kamalesh Doshi Biomass Energy Resource Center Hillary Emick Biomass Energy

  11. EXOTIC OPTIONS FOR INTERRUPTIBLE ELECTRICITY SUPPLY CONTRACTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    with different strike prices. Such options allow hedging and valuation of supply curtailment risk, while demand side participation in the mitigation of supply shortages for energy and reserves. Newly curtailment can provide an efficient substitute for generation capacity in providing balancing energy

  12. Proposal for the Cryogenic Supply of a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Proposal for the Cryogenic Supply of a Single TTF / FEL - Cryomodule Test Bench TESLA Report No supply are described. 1. Introduction For the time being, TTF- cryomodules can only be cold tested after will change. The quadrupoles will be cooled in the 2.0 K liquid bath instead by the 4.5K cooling circuit

  13. Transportation Energy: Supply, Demand and the Future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saldin, Dilano

    Transportation Energy: Supply, Demand and the Future http://www.uwm.edu/Dept/CUTS//2050/energy05 as a source of energy. Global supply and demand trends will have a profound impact on the ability to use our) Transportation energy demand in the U.S. has increased because of the greater use of less fuel efficient vehicles

  14. A Supply Chain Network Perspective for Electric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    of New Models "[In recent years] the adequacy of the bulk power transmission system has been challengedA Supply Chain Network Perspective for Electric Power Generation, Supply, Transmission The transformation of the electric power industry from a regulated to a competitive industry In the US, In the EU

  15. Optimal Trading Strategy Supply/Demand Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gabrieli, John

    prices through the changes in their supply/demand.2 Thus, to study how market participants trade can have interesting implications on the observed behavior of intraday volume, volatility and prices: November 15, 2004. This Draft: April 8, 2006 Abstract The supply/demand of a security in the market

  16. Supply Chain Management Faculty Brian Fugate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    University. He has worked in materials management professionally for over 10 years with high tech electronicsSupply Chain Management Faculty Brian Fugate Brian S. Fugate (Ph.D University of Tennessee) is an Associate Professor of Supply Chain Management at Colorado State University. Brian worked in logistics

  17. A Supply Chain Network Perspective for Electric Power Generation, Supply, Transmission, and Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    A Supply Chain Network Perspective for Electric Power Generation, Supply, Transmission, and Consumption Anna Nagurney and Dmytro Matsypura Department of Finance and Operations Management Isenberg School, Berlin, Germany, pp. 3-27. Abstract: A supply chain network perspective for electric power production

  18. Supply Chain Networks, Electronic Commerce, and Supply Side and Demand Side Risk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    Supply Chain Networks, Electronic Commerce, and Supply Side and Demand Side Risk Anna Nagurney as well as demand side risk are included in the formulation. The model consists of three tiers of decision chain network equilibrium model with electronic com- merce and with supply side and demand side risk

  19. Certified Professional in Supply Management (CPSM) & Certified in Supply Management (CSM) Exam Preparation Series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Xiaodong

    -Taking Hints and Tips Exam 2 Content Forecasting Logistics Materials and Inventory Management OrganizationCertified Professional in Supply Management (CPSM) & Certified in Supply Management (CSM) Exam for member companies of the Rutgers Center for Supply Chain Management. $425 for non-members This one day

  20. Forecasting and Capturing Emission Reductions Using Industrial Energy Management and Reporting Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robinson, J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Mandatory 2010 Green House Gas (GHG) Reporting Regulations and pending climate change legislation has increased interest in Energy Management and Reporting Systems (EMRS) as a means of both reducing and reporting GHG ...

  1. Mexico joins the venture: Joint Implementation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Imaz, M.; Gay, C.; Friedmann, R.; Goldberg, B.

    1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Joint Implementation (JI) and its pilot phase of Activities Implemented Jointly (AIJ) are envisioned as an economic way of reducing global emissions of greenhouse gases. This paper draws upon the Mexican experience with AIJ to identify Mexican concerns with AIJ/JI and proposed solutions to these. Three approved Mexican AIJ projects (Ilumex, Scolel Te, and Salicornia) are described in detail. The Ilurnex project promotes the use of compact fluorescent lamps in Mexican homes of the States of Jalisco and Nuevo Leon, to reduce electric demand. Scolel Te is a sustainable forest management project in Chiapas. Salicornia examines the potential for carbon sequestration with a Halophyte-based crop irrigated with saline waters in Sonora. These three projects are reviewed to clarify the issues and concerns that Mexico has with AIJ and JI and propose measures to deal with them. These initial Mexican AIJ projects show that there is a need for creation of standard project evaluation procedures, and criteria and institutions to oversee project design, selection, and implementation. Further JI development will be facilitated by national and international clarification of key issues such as additionality criteria, carbon-credit sharing, and valuation of non-GHG environmental and/or social benefits and impacts for AIJ projects. Mexico is concerned that JI funding could negatively impact official development assistance or that OECD countries will use JI to avoid taking significant GHG mitigation actions in their own countries. The lack of carbon credit trading in the AIJ stage must be removed to provide useful experience on how to share carbon credits. National or international guidelines are needed to ensure that a portion of the carbon credits is allocated to Mexico.

  2. Coal slurry fuel supply and purge system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDowell, Robert E. (Fairview, PA); Basic, Steven L. (Hornell, NY); Smith, Russel M. (North East, PA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A coal slurry fuel supply and purge system for a locomotive engines is disclosed which includes a slurry recirculation path, a stand-by path for circulating slurry during idle or states of the engine when slurry fuel in not required by the engine, and an engine header fluid path connected to the stand-by path, for supplying and purging slurry fuel to and from fuel injectors. A controller controls the actuation of valves to facilitate supply and purge of slurry to and from the fuel injectors. A method for supplying and purging coal slurry in a compression ignition engine is disclosed which includes controlling fluid flow devices and valves in a plurality of fluid paths to facilitate continuous slurry recirculation and supply and purge of or slurry based on the operating state of the engine.

  3. South Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and Reduction...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    from Buildings AgencyCompany Organization United Nations Environment Programme Sector Energy Focus Area Buildings Topics Baseline projection, GHG inventory, Pathways analysis,...

  4. Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) Model AgencyCompany Organization: Argonne National Laboratory Focus Area: GHG Inventory Development Topics: Analysis Tools...

  5. anemia mga1 region: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Plants Websites Summary: 652013 1 Regional GHG Emissions O tlook Greenhouse Gas and the Regional Power System Symposium Regional GHG Emissions - Outlook June 4, 2013...

  6. Land Transport Sector in Bangladesh: An Analysis Toward Motivating...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Motivating GHG Emission Reduction Strategies Jump to: navigation, search Name Land Transport Sector in Bangladesh: An Analysis Toward Motivating GHG Emission Reduction...

  7. Interactions between Electric-drive Vehicles and the Power Sector in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan; Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium GHG emissions rate Variable costand Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium GHG emissions rate (CO 2 -eq/kWh) Cost

  8. CALCULATING THE CARBON FOOTPRINT SUPPLY CHAIN FOR THE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Su, Xiao

    CALCULATING THE CARBON FOOTPRINT SUPPLY CHAIN FOR THE SEMICONDUCTOR INDUSTRY A LEARNING TOOL By a complete supply chain #12;Carbon Footprint Supply Chain Carbon Trust defines carbon footprint of a supply chain as follows: "The carbon footprint of a product is the carbon dioxide emitted across the supply

  9. Petroleum supply annual 1993. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1993 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1993, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Below is a description of each section in Volume 1 of the PSA.

  10. Petroleum supply annual 1994. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1994 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1994, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Below is a description of each section in Volume 1 of the PSA.

  11. Petroleum supply annual, 1997. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1997 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1997, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. 16 figs., 48 tabs.

  12. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN STUDY OF HORN POWER SUPPLY.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ZHANG,W.; SANDBERG,J.; WENG,W.T.

    2003-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A 250 kA pulsed power supply is required for the focusing horn of the proposed Brookhaven AGS Super Neutrino Beam Facility for long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. It is expected to pulse at 2.5 Hz repetition rate. A preliminary study is being conducted to explore the key issues associated with the power supply system design. Advanced technologies used in similar systems as well as new ideas are being examined, simulated and evaluated. This power supply will be a very high stored energy, high average power, and high peak power system.

  13. Segmentation strategies for managing retail supply chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liang, Catherine G. (Catherine Gloria)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-technology manufacturing companies often face rapid price decline and capacity constraints. Especially in the retail side of the business where the supply chain is much longer and revenue is sometimes not recognized ...

  14. Handling Food and Supplies during Power Loss

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication lists foods that are safe to eat without cooking or refrigeration. There is also a list of supplies you will need when gas and electrical service is unavailable....

  15. Advanced Supply System Validation Workshop Agenda

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    List of Assumptions and Draft Workshop Agenda for the Advanced Supply System Validation Workshop, February 3-4, 2014, Golden, Colorado, from the U.S. Department of Energy's Bioenergy Technologies Office.

  16. Supply chain practices in the petroleum downstream

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santos Manzano, Fidel

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis studies current supply chain practices in the petroleum downstream industry, using ExxonMobil as a case study. Based on the analysis of the literature and the interaction with industry experts, this work describes ...

  17. Essays on Married Women Labor Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Xinrong

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the very interesting demographic features in the US over the last three decades of the 20th century is the increase of the married women labor force participation rate. Over the same period, estimated labor supply elasticity varies...

  18. An analysis of oil supply disruption scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mork, Knut Anton

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report brings the results of simulations of some oil supply disruptions on the M.I.T. Energy Laboratory Energy Macro Model. This model has previously been used to study the macroeconomic effects of the 1973-74 and ...

  19. Polynomial policies in supply chain networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Liwei

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis aims to solve the periodic-reviewed inventory control problem in supply chain networks with uncertain demand so as to minimize the overall cost of the system over a fixed planning time horizon. In such problems, ...

  20. Returning Home After a Disaster: Supply List

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norman, Lisa

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    When you return home after a disaster, you will want to have sturdy shoes, proper tools, clothes and medications for several days, and a first-aid kit. This publication also includes a list of necessary cleaning supplies....

  1. Supplies Needed Polyester Fleece (13" x 23")

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Supplies Needed Polyester Fleece (13" x 23") Polyester Thread This one is easy. Really easy inclined, add a drawstring to the top and it will double as a hat. Pretty cool, eh? Texas 4-H Clothing

  2. Supply chain and the executive agenda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peruvankal, James Paul

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years, supply chain pundits and consultants emphasized the importance of strategies such as just-in-time, lean manufacturing, off- shoring or frequent deliveries to retail outlets. However, with significant ...

  3. Global Energy: Supply, Demand, Consequences, Opportunities

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Arun Majumdar

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    July 29, 2008 Berkeley Lab lecture: Arun Majumdar, Director of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division, discusses current and future projections of economic growth, population, and global energy demand and supply, and explores the implications of these trends for the environment.

  4. Risk in the Global Supply Chain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Datta, Shoumen

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon footprints are not on the priority list of risk analysts in operations management for at least half or more of global businesses. What are the other risks in the global supply chain?

  5. Power supply noise in delay testing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Jing

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    As technology scales into the Deep Sub-Micron (DSM) regime, circuit designs have become more and more sensitive to power supply noise. Excessive noise can significantly affect the timing performance of DSM designs and cause ...

  6. Northeast Gasoline Supply Reserve | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    supplements the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve, a one million barrel supply of ultra-low sulfur diesel, which was used for the first time by first-responders and to fill...

  7. Competitive developments in the electric supply industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruder, G.F.; Lively, M.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Competition in the electric supply industry is outlined. The following topics are discussed: six impending major developments in the electric industry; recent and projected developments in the industry; where is the industry headed?; and what the future holds.

  8. Response to changes in demand/supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Response to changes in demand/supply through improved marketing 21.2 #12;#12;111 Impacts of changes operating by some Korean paper companies for acquiring needed pulpwood as a first step for the construction

  9. How to Reduce Energy Supply Costs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swanson, G.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    customers control their supply-side costs of energy. Specific topics include distributive wind power generation and solid fuel boilers. It identities factors to consider in determining whether these technologies are economically viable for customers...

  10. Hierarchical Hybrid Power Supply Networks Farinaz Koushanfar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    management, hybrid power supply, supercapacitors 1. INTRODUCTION AND MOTIVATION Historically, almost all in a hierarchical power sup- ply network would include batteries, supercapacitors, ionic supercapacitors, and future cycle, supercapacitors are advantageous rel- ative to the standard che

  11. The supply chain response to environmental pressures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paquette, Julie Rebecca

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding and shaping the relationship between supply chain management and the natural environment is critical not only to human health and the environment, but to the future success of business. While the cumulative ...

  12. RECYCLING: SUPPLY, ECONOMICS, ENVIRONMENT, AND TECHNOLOGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abubakr, Said

    RECYCLING: SUPPLY, ECONOMICS, ENVIRONMENT, AND TECHNOLOGY Panel Discussion Roundtable Moderator: S, although higher market values for recyclable will certainly stimulate increased interest in collection in recycling and deinking technologies and process design among North American, European, and Pacific Rim

  13. Driving Down Diesel Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harley, Robert

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Turnover on Drayage Truck Emissions at the Port of Oakland,”actions to clean up port truck emissions in Oakland serve asTurnover on Drayage Truck Emissions at the Port of Oakland,”

  14. Impact of demographics on supply chain risk management practices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kanyagui, Kenneth (Kenneth K.)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Do demographic factors play a role in the choice of supply chain risk management practices by supply chain professionals? Are there stronger relationships between certain demographic factors and supply chain risk management ...

  15. Securing the Sustainability of Global Medical Nuclear Supply Chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    Securing the Sustainability of Global Medical Nuclear Supply Chains Through Economic Cost Recovery University of Massachusetts Amherst Securing the Sustainability of Medical Nuclear Supply Chains #12 of Massachusetts Amherst Securing the Sustainability of Medical Nuclear Supply Chains #12;This presentation

  16. Dynamic Electric Power Supply Chains and Transportation Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    Dynamic Electric Power Supply Chains and Transportation Networks: an Evolutionary Variational energy Electric power supply chains, provide the foundations for theElectric power supply chains, provide and societies. Communication, transportation, heating, lighting, cooling,Communication, transportation, heating

  17. Air Handling Unit Supply Air Temperature Optimization During Economizer Cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, K.; Liu, M.; Wang, G.; Wang, Z.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    temperature at supply air temperature setpoint. Mechanical cooling is always required when outside air temperature is higher than the supply air temperature setpoint. Generally the supply air temperature setpoint is set at 55°F for space humidity control...

  18. An engineering approach to improving hospital supply chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Scott Hsiang-Jen

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis explores supply chain management practices that have been implemented, and have improved supply chains in industries outside of healthcare. The presented supply chain practices have been selected because they ...

  19. Integrated Planning and Management for Urban Water Supplies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasternack, Gregory B.

    Positions for Water Supply Reliability ................................. 15 4 Shortage Management Modeling.2: Diagram of Water Supply Reliability Model Structure ..................49 5.3: Steps Used in ShortageIntegrated Planning and Management for Urban Water Supplies Considering Multiple Uncertainties Jay

  20. Seasonal demand and supply analysis of turkeys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blomo, Vito James

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SEASONAL DEMAND AND SUPPLY ANALYSIS OF TURKEYS A Thesis by VITO JAMES BLOMO Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1972 Ma)or Sub...)ect: Agricultural Economics SEASONAL DEMAND AND SUPPLY ANALYSIS OF TURKEYS A Thesis by VITO JAMES BLOMO Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of C mmittee) (Head of Department) (Member) (Member) ( ber) (Memb er) May 1972 ABSTRACT Seasonal...

  1. Energy-efficient uninterruptible power supplies and switchmode power supplies for office technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eyer, J.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are three aspects of energy performance. The first is efficiency, and it specifically affects fuel use and the amount of emissions produced in relation to the amount of energy used and the fuel mix used in generation plants. Heat is rejected into the space with the result being additional air-conditioning to remove the heat. This often affects the capacity of the air-conditioning system. Customer electric bills are higher when more energy is used. The next important aspect of energy performance is peak electric demand. The capital requirements that utilities must put in place to deliver power to the customer affect many decisions made about energy efficiency and reduction of energy use. The capital requirements comprise 70 to 80% of the cost of delivering electricity to customers, while the fuel and variable costs associated with actually generating electricity are relatively small-20 to 30% of the total costs. In many respects, demand-side management programs are focused on reducing the need for increased capital equipment. Another aspect of energy performance is power quality. This is an important ally issue that could be addressed with initiatives similar to those for energy efficiency. Most power quality problems are related to current harmonics. Electronic equipment commonly reflects current harmonics back into the system, producing significant effects on the capacity of the system to deliver power. Immunity to poor power quality may be the most important aspect in receiving the benefits of improved power quality and power-conditioned equipment. Immunity is defined by the Computer and Business Equipment Manufacturers Association curve, which defines how `robust` the power supply must be with particular respect to low voltages. The immunity to different power quality problems could be dramatically improved by using existing technologies.

  2. Updated U.S. Geothermal Supply Curve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Augustine, C.; Young, K. R.; Anderson, A.

    2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper documents the approach used to update the U.S. geothermal supply curve. The analysis undertaken in this study estimates the supply of electricity generation potential from geothermal resources in the United States and the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE), capital costs, and operating and maintenance costs associated with developing these geothermal resources. Supply curves were developed for four categories of geothermal resources: identified hydrothermal (6.4 GWe), undiscovered hydrothermal (30.0 GWe), near-hydrothermal field enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) (7.0 GWe) and deep EGS (15,900 GWe). Two cases were considered: a base case and a target case. Supply curves were generated for each of the four geothermal resource categories for both cases. For both cases, hydrothermal resources dominate the lower cost range of the combined geothermal supply curve. The supply curves indicate that the reservoir performance improvements assumed in the target case could significantly lower EGS costs and greatly increase EGS deployment over the base case.

  3. A greenhouse-gas information system monitoring and validating emissions reporting and mitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonietz, Karl K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dimotakis, Paul E [JPL/CAL TECH; Roman, Douglas A [LLNL; Walker, Bruce C [SNL

    2011-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Current GHG-mitigating regimes, whether internationally agreed or self-imposed, rely on the aggregation of self-reported data, with limited checks for consistency and accuracy, for monitoring. As nations commit to more stringent GHG emissions-mitigation actions and as economic rewards or penalties are attached to emission levels, self-reported data will require independent confirmation that they are accurate and reliable, if they are to provide the basis for critical choices and actions that may be required. Supporting emissions-mitigation efforts and agreements, as well as monitoring energy- and fossil-fuel intensive national and global activities would be best achieved by a process of: (1) monitoring of emissions and emission-mitigation actions, based, in part, on, (2) (self-) reporting of pertinent bottom-up inventory data, (3) verification that reported data derive from and are consistent with agreed-upon processes and procedures, and (4) validation that reported emissions and emissions-mitigation action data are correct, based on independent measurements (top-down) derived from a suite of sensors in space, air, land, and, possibly, sea, used to deduce and attribute anthropogenic emissions. These data would be assessed and used to deduce and attribute measured GHG concentrations to anthropogenic emissions, attributed geographically and, to the extent possible, by economic sector. The validation element is needed to provide independent assurance that emissions are in accord with reported values, and should be considered as an important addition to the accepted MRV process, leading to a MRV&V process. This study and report focus on attributes of a greenhouse-gas information system (GHGIS) needed to support MRV&V needs. These needs set the function of such a system apart from scientific/research monitoring of GHGs and carbon-cycle systems, and include (not exclusively): the need for a GHGIS that is operational, as required for decision-support; the need for a system that meets specifications derived from imposed requirements; the need for rigorous calibration, verification, and validation (CV&V) standards, processes, and records for all measurement and modeling/data-inversion data; the need to develop and adopt an uncertainty-quantification (UQ) regimen for all measurement and modeling data; and the requirement that GHGIS products can be subjected to third-party questioning and scientific scrutiny. This report examines and assesses presently available capabilities that could contribute to a future GHGIS. These capabilities include sensors and measurement technologies; data analysis and data uncertainty quantification (UQ) practices and methods; and model-based data-inversion practices, methods, and their associated UQ. The report further examines the need for traceable calibration, verification, and validation processes and attached metadata; differences between present science-/research-oriented needs and those that would be required for an operational GHGIS; the development, operation, and maintenance of a GHGIS missions-operations center (GMOC); and the complex systems engineering and integration that would be required to develop, operate, and evolve a future GHGIS. Present monitoring systems would be heavily relied on in any GHGIS implementation at the outset and would likely continue to provide valuable future contributions to GHGIS. However, present monitoring systems were developed to serve science/research purposes. This study concludes that no component or capability presently available is at the level of technological maturity and readiness required for implementation in an operational GHGIS today. However, purpose-designed and -built components could be developed and implemented in support of a future GHGIS. The study concludes that it is possible to develop and provide a capability-driven prototype GHGIS, as part of a Phase-1 effort, within three years from project-funding start, that would make use of and integrate existing sensing and system capabilities. As part of a Phase-2 effort, a requirem

  4. ADMINISTRATIVE RECORDS SCHEDULE 3: PROCUREMENT, SUPPLY, AND GRANT...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    RECORDS SCHEDULE 3: PROCUREMENT, SUPPLY, AND GRANT RECORDS ADMINISTRATIVE RECORDS SCHEDULE 3: PROCUREMENT, SUPPLY, AND GRANT RECORDS The basic procurement files reflect a...

  5. Small business success story: Gordon Electric Supply, Inc. |...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Small business success story: Gordon Electric Supply, Inc. May 14, 2013 Tweet EmailPrint Gordon Electric Supply has provided electrical and lighting products and services in the...

  6. ADMINISTRATIVE RECORDS SCHEDULE 3: PROCUREMENT, SUPPLY, AND GRANT...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ADMINISTRATIVE RECORDS SCHEDULE 3: PROCUREMENT, SUPPLY, AND GRANT RECORDS ADMINISTRATIVE RECORDS SCHEDULE 3: PROCUREMENT, SUPPLY, AND GRANT RECORDS The basic procurement files...

  7. EO 13211: Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    1: Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use EO 13211: Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use I am requiring that...

  8. ABSTRACT: Bioenergy Harvesting Technologies to Supply Crop Residues...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ABSTRACT: Bioenergy Harvesting Technologies to Supply Crop Residues In a Densified Large Square Bale Format ABSTRACT: Bioenergy Harvesting Technologies to Supply Crop Residues In a...

  9. Model for Energy Supply System Alternatives and their General...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    for Energy Supply System Alternatives and their General Environmental Impacts (MESSAGE) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Model for Energy Supply System...

  10. Engine Driven Combined Heat and Power: Arrow Linen Supply, December...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engine Driven Combined Heat and Power: Arrow Linen Supply, December 2008 Engine Driven Combined Heat and Power: Arrow Linen Supply, December 2008 This paper describes the Arrow...

  11. Advanced Supply System Validation Workshop | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of biomass to biorefineries annually Advanced supply system concepts, including depots Business models for advanced supply systems Siting and sizing considerations for depots...

  12. Addressing Biomass Supply Chain Challenges With AFEX(tm) Technology...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Addressing Biomass Supply Chain Challenges With AFEX(tm) Technology Addressing Biomass Supply Chain Challenges With AFEX(tm) Technology Plenary IV: Advances in Bioenergy...

  13. angeles water supply: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    it is possible Griffin, Ronald 6 CLIMATE CHANGE AND WATER SUPPLY SECURITY Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization Websites Summary: CLIMATE CHANGE AND WATER SUPPLY...

  14. Hydrogen Supply: Cost Estimate for Hydrogen Pathways-Scoping...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Supply: Cost Estimate for Hydrogen Pathways-Scoping Analysis. January 22, 2002-July 22, 2002 Hydrogen Supply: Cost Estimate for Hydrogen Pathways-Scoping Analysis. January 22,...

  15. Spatial Disaggregation of CO2 Emissions for the State of California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Wenzel, Tom; Fischer, Marc

    2008-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This report allocates California's 2004 statewide carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fuel combustion to the 58 counties in the state. The total emissions are allocated to counties using several different methods, based on the availability of data for each sector. Data on natural gas use in all sectors are available by county. Fuel consumption by power and combined heat and power generation plants is available for individual plants. Bottom-up models were used to distribute statewide fuel sales-based CO2 emissions by county for on-road vehicles, aircraft, and watercraft. All other sources of CO2 emissions were allocated to counties based on surrogates for activity. CO2 emissions by sector were estimated for each county, as well as for the South Coast Air Basin. It is important to note that emissions from some sources, notably electricity generation, were allocated to counties based on where the emissions were generated, rather than where the electricity was actually consumed. In addition, several sources of CO2 emissions, such as electricity generated in and imported from other states and international marine bunker fuels, were not included in the analysis. California Air Resource Board (CARB) does not include CO2 emissions from interstate and international air travel, in the official California greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory, so those emissions were allocated to counties for informational purposes only. Los Angeles County is responsible for by far the largest CO2 emissions from combustion in the state: 83 Million metric tonnes (Mt), or 24percent of total CO2 emissions in California, more than twice that of the next county (Kern, with 38 Mt, or 11percent of statewide emissions). The South Coast Air Basin accounts for 122 MtCO2, or 35percent of all emissions from fuel combustion in the state. The distribution of emissions by sector varies considerably by county, with on-road motor vehicles dominating most counties, but large stationary sources and rail travel dominating in other counties.The CO2 emissions data by county and source are available upon request.

  16. GHG Management Institute GHG MRV Curriculum | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdf Jump1946865°, -86.0529604°Wisconsin:FyreStorm IncLSE COMP POSTGHD Inc

  17. Eco-efficiency for greenhouse gas emissions mitigation of municipal solid waste management: A case study of Tianjin, China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao Wei, E-mail: zhaowei.tju@gmail.com [College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Liaoning University of Technology, 121000 Jinzhou (China); Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300RA Leiden (Netherlands); Huppes, Gjalt, E-mail: huppes@cml.leidenuniv.nl [Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300RA Leiden (Netherlands); Voet, Ester van der, E-mail: Voet@cml.leidenuniv.nl [Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The issue of municipal solid waste (MSW) management has been highlighted in China due to the continually increasing MSW volumes being generated and the limited capacity of waste treatment facilities. This article presents a quantitative eco-efficiency (E/E) analysis on MSW management in terms of greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. A methodology for E/E analysis has been proposed, with an emphasis on the consistent integration of life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC). The environmental and economic impacts derived from LCA and LCC have been normalized and defined as a quantitative E/E indicator. The proposed method was applied in a case study of Tianjin, China. The study assessed the current MSW management system, as well as a set of alternative scenarios, to investigate trade-offs between economy and GHG emissions mitigation. Additionally, contribution analysis was conducted on both LCA and LCC to identify key issues driving environmental and economic impacts. The results show that the current Tianjin's MSW management system emits the highest GHG and costs the least, whereas the situation reverses in the integrated scenario. The key issues identified by the contribution analysis show no linear relationship between the global warming impact and the cost impact in MSW management system. The landfill gas utilization scenario is indicated as a potential optimum scenario by the proposed E/E analysis, given the characteristics of MSW, technology levels, and chosen methodologies. The E/E analysis provides an attractive direction towards sustainable waste management, though some questions with respect to uncertainty need to be discussed further.

  18. 2011 Guidelines to Defra / DECC's GHG Conversion Factors for Company Reporting Produced by AEA for the Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that allows the global warming potential of different GHGs to be compared. Values for CH4 and N2O are presented as CO2 equivalents (CO2e) using Global Warming Potential (GWP) factors*, consistent with reporting resulting from electricity supplied to the consumer that are counted in both Scope 2 (electricity GENERATED

  19. Multiwavelength Thermal Emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Multiwavelength Astronomy NASA #12;Thermal Emission #12;Thermal Emission Non-thermal p-p collisions Optical IR Radio/ Microwave sources of emission massive stars, WHIM, Ly many dust, cool objects-ray ~GeV Gamma-ray ~TeV sources of emission AGN, clusters, SNR, binaries, stars AGN (obscured), shocks

  20. International Oil Supplies and Demands. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world`s dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group`s thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  1. Petroleum supply annual, 1997. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1997 through monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1997, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary. 35 tabs.

  2. Petroleum supply annual 1998: Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1998 through monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. This second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1998, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary. 35 tabs.

  3. Petroleum supply annual 1994, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1994 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1994, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary.

  4. Petroleum supply annual 1996: Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1996 through monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Capacity; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1996, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary. 35 tabs.

  5. Petroleum supply annual 1995: Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1995 through monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and selected Refinery Statistics each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1995, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary.

  6. International Oil Supplies and Demands. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world`s dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group`s thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  7. Greenhouse Gas Return on Investment: A New Metric for Energy Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reich-Weiser, Corinne; Dornfeld, David; Horne, Steve

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to GHG/kWh of the USA electricity supply chain are coalTurbine Nuclear (USA) Coal 3.3 Electricity Marginal GHG/kWhNet GHG/kWh of Electricity – example based on USA. Figure 2:

  8. Power-Supply-Network Design in 3D Integrated Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Sung Kyu

    Power-Supply-Network Design in 3D Integrated Systems Michael B. Healy and Sung Kyu Lim School power-supply noise in a layout- level 3D design prototype, and the impact of possible 3D-specific changes to the power-supply network design and topology. Our results show that distributing power-supply

  9. Evaluate Supply and Recovery of Woody Biomass for Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gray, Matthew

    Biomass Recovery DataContrasting Woody Biomass Recovery Data Forest Biomass Supply in the Southeastern4/11/2011 1 Evaluate Supply and Recovery of Woody Biomass for Energy Production from Natural. Other studies of biomass supply have supply have assumedassumed a technical recovery rate

  10. A Supply Chain Generalized Network Oligopoly Model for Pharmaceuticals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    dollars in drugs, vaccines, and other medical supplies were found spoiled, stolen, or unaccounted for

  11. BS Major in Supply Chain and Marketing Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Xiaodong

    Industry Week's 2010 Salary Survey, the average supply chain manager in the manufacturer sector was $98,130, up slightly from 2009. In another salary survey from the Institute for Supply Management (ISM. What is a Supply Chain? CROCS MFG Supply Chain Management is the way business gets done! #12;U

  12. Petroleum supply annual 1998: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ``Petroleum Supply Annual`` (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1998 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1998, and replaces data previously published in the PSA. The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. 16 figs., 59 tabs.

  13. Updated U.S. Geothermal Supply Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petty, S.; Porro, G.

    2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper documents the approach taken to characterize and represent an updated assessment of U.S. geothermal supply for use in forecasting the penetration of geothermal electrical generation in the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). This work is motivated by several factors: The supply characterization used as the basis of several recent U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) forecasts of geothermal capacity is outdated; additional geothermal resource assessments have been published; and a new costing tool that incorporates current technology, engineering practices, and associated costs has been released.

  14. The impact of municipal solid waste treatment methods on greenhouse gas emissions in Lahore, Pakistan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batool, Syeda Adila [Department of Space Science, Punjab University, Lahore 54600 (Pakistan)], E-mail: aadila_batool@yahoo.com; Chuadhry, Muhammad Nawaz [College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan)], E-mail: muhammadnawazchaudhry@yahoo.com

    2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The contribution of existing municipal solid waste management to emission of greenhouse gases and the alternative scenarios to reduce emissions were analyzed for Data Ganj Bukhsh Town (DGBT) in Lahore, Pakistan using the life cycle assessment methodology. DGBT has a population of 1,624,169 people living in 232,024 dwellings. Total waste generated is 500,000 tons per year with an average per capita rate of 0.84 kg per day. Alternative scenarios were developed and evaluated according to the environmental, economic, and social atmosphere of the study area. Solid waste management options considered include the collection and transportation of waste, collection of recyclables with single and mixed material bank container systems (SMBCS, MMBCS), material recovery facilities (MRF), composting, biogasification and landfilling. A life cycle inventory (LCI) of the six scenarios along with the baseline scenario was completed; this helped to quantify the CO{sub 2} equivalents, emitted and avoided, for energy consumption, production, fuel consumption, and methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions. LCI results showed that the contribution of the baseline scenario to the global warming potential as CO{sub 2} equivalents was a maximum of 838,116 tons. The sixth scenario had a maximum reduction of GHG emissions in terms of CO{sub 2} equivalents of -33,773 tons, but the most workable scenario for the current situation in the study area is scenario 5. It saves 25% in CO{sub 2} equivalents compared to the baseline scenario.

  15. Pacific Northwest Power Supply Adequacy Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Based on an assessment prepared by the Resource Adequacy Forum, the plan noted that relying only that this assessment is not a substitute for a comprehensive resource acquisition plan. The optimal amount and mixPacific Northwest Power Supply Adequacy Assessment for 2017 Final Report November 21, 2012 Council

  16. Capacity additions ease tight methanol supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greek, B.F. (C and EN, Houston, TX (US))

    1988-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Two menthanol plants now in operation - one in the U.S., the other in Chile - will boost global supplies of methanol more than 375 million gal annually. This large capacity addition and smaller expansions in other parts of the world will exceed demand growth during 1988 and 1989, easing the squeeze on supplies. As the result of increased supplies, methanol prices could slip slightly in the fourth quarter. They are more likely to decline next year, however. The two plants, which started up in August, are owned and operated by Tenneco Oil Co. Processing and Marketing and by Cape Horn Methanol (CHM). The Tenneco plant, located in Pasadena, Tex., was restarted after a shutdown in 1982 when prices for methanol were low. It now is running at full capacity of 125 million gal per year. The plant uses the low-pressure process technology of Lurgi, reportedly requiring for feedstock and energy between 100,000 and 125,000 cu ft of methane per gallon. Global trade in methanol smooths out the supply and demand inconsistencies. Surging methanol demand in the U.S. and in Western Europe has been met by imports from areas where methanol production is most economical - that is, where natural gas is readily available and has no other application as high in value. Canada, Chile, and Trinidad are examples of those areas.

  17. Petroleum supply annual 1996: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1996 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Capacity; each with final annual data. The summary statistics section show 16 years of data depicting the balance between supply, disposition and ending stocks for various commodities including crude oil, motor gasoline, distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, jet fuel propane/propylene, and liquefied petroleum gases. The detailed statistics section provide 1996 detailed statistics on supply and disposition, refinery operations, imports and exports, stocks, and transportation of crude oil and petroleum products. The refinery capacity contain listings of refineries and associated crude oil distillation and downstream capacities by State, as of January 1, 1997, as well as summaries of corporate refinery capacities and refinery storage capacities. In addition, refinery receipts of crude oil by method of transportation for 1996 are provided. Also included are fuels consumed at refineries, and lists of shutdowns, sales, reactivations, and mergers during 1995 and 1996. 16 figs., 59 tabs.

  18. Petroleum supply annual 1993. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1993 through annual and monthly surveys. This second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1993.

  19. Petroleum Supply Monthly, June 1984. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This issue features a mid-year petroleum review. The article discusses changes in consumption, domestic crude oil production, exploration and development activity, refinery operations, foreign trade, stocks (including the Strategic Petroleum Reserve), and prices. A special summary of changes in petroleum imports is included. The Petroleum Supply Reporting System is reviewed.

  20. Solar Supply Chain and Market Driver Analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martinez, Nicholas 1990-

    2012-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This study aims to explore the evolution of the photovoltaic supply chain in the United States and the drivers which foster growth of the solar market. The study will gather knowledge on the growth of the solar market and roles of different firms...

  1. Supply Chain Analysis Center for Transportation Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Distribution network configuration, Reverse logistics, and Inventory levels and positioning. Integration configuration of the supply chain? What should be the modal configuration for the distribution network? How operations of the Defense Distribution Center. The analysis included a review of suppliers, distribution

  2. University of North Florida Logistics and Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asaithambi, Asai

    AST&L University of North Florida Logistics and Supply Chain Management Logistics and distribution skills training to begin and advance your career #12;Certification in Transportation and Logistics Cohort Program The UNF Certification in Transportation and Logistics (CTL) Cohort Program is a jointly sponsored

  3. Fossil fuels supplies modeling and research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leiby, P.N.

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The fossil fuel supplies modeling and research effort focuses on models for US Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) planning and management. Topics covered included new SPR oil valuation models, updating models for SPR risk analysis, and fill-draw planning. Another task in this program area is the development of advanced computational tools for three-dimensional seismic analysis.

  4. International Experience with Key Program Elements of IndustrialEnergy Efficiency or Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Target-SettingPrograms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Kramer, Klaas Jan

    2008-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Target-setting agreements, also known as voluntary ornegotiated agreements, have been used by a number of governments as amechanism for promoting energy efficiency within the industrial sector. Arecent survey of such target-setting agreement programs identified 23energy efficiency or GHG emissions reduction voluntary agreement programsin 18 countries. International best practice related to target-settingagreement programs calls for establishment of a coordinated set ofpolicies that provide strong economic incentives as well as technical andfinancial support to participating industries. The key program elementsof a target-setting program are the target-setting process,identification of energy-saving technologies and measures usingenergy-energy efficiency guidebooks and benchmarking as well as byconducting energy-efficiency audits, development of an energy-savingsaction plan, development and implementation of energy managementprotocols, development of incentives and supporting policies, monitoringprogress toward targets, and program evaluation. This report firstprovides a description of three key target-setting agreement programs andthen describes international experience with the key program elementsthat comprise such programs using information from the three keytarget-setting programs as well as from other international programsrelated to industrial energy efficiency or GHG emissionsreductions.

  5. BP's Perspective on Emissions Purdue Emissions Trading Workshop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BP's Perspective on Emissions Trading Purdue Emissions Trading Workshop April 30, 2010 Mark - Government policies can create a carbon price via three primary mechanisms: - Emissions trading (BP's strong

  6. Japan's Long-term Energy Demand and Supply Scenario to 2050 - Estimation for the Potential of Massive CO2 Mitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Komiyama, Ryoichi; Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael; Lai, Judy; Borgeson, Sam; Coffey, Brian; Azevedo, Ines Lima

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this analysis, the authors projected Japan's energy demand/supply and energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions to 2050. Their analysis of various scenarios indicated that Japan's CO{sub 2} emissions in 2050 could be potentially reduced by 26-58% from the current level (FY 2005). These results suggest that Japan could set a CO{sub 2} emission reduction target for 2050 at between 30% and 60%. In order to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by 60% in 2050 from the present level, Japan will have to strongly promote energy conservation at the same pace as an annual rate of 1.9% after the oil crises (to cut primary energy demand per GDP (TPES/GDP) in 2050 by 60% from 2005) and expand the share of non-fossil energy sources in total primary energy supply in 2050 to 50% (to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions per primary energy demand (CO{sub 2}/TPES) in 2050 by 40% from 2005). Concerning power generation mix in 2050, nuclear power will account for 60%, solar and other renewable energy sources for 20%, hydro power for 10% and fossil-fired generation for 10%, indicating substantial shift away from fossil fuel in electric power supply. Among the mitigation measures in the case of reducing CO{sub 2} emissions by 60% in 2050, energy conservation will make the greatest contribution to the emission reduction, being followed by solar power, nuclear power and other renewable energy sources. In order to realize this massive CO{sub 2} abatement, however, Japan will have to overcome technological and economic challenges including the large-scale deployment of nuclear power and renewable technologies.

  7. Comparative Analysis of Modeling Studies on China's Future Energy and Emissions Outlook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The past decade has seen the development of various scenarios describing long-term patterns of future Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions, with each new approach adding insights to our understanding of the changing dynamics of energy consumption and aggregate future energy trends. With the recent growing focus on China's energy use and emission mitigation potential, a range of Chinese outlook models have been developed across different institutions including in China's Energy Research Institute's 2050 China Energy and CO2 Emissions Report, McKinsey & Co's China's Green Revolution report, the UK Sussex Energy Group and Tyndall Centre's China's Energy Transition report, and the China-specific section of the IEA World Energy Outlook 2009. At the same time, the China Energy Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has developed a bottom-up, end-use energy model for China with scenario analysis of energy and emission pathways out to 2050. A robust and credible energy and emission model will play a key role in informing policymakers by assessing efficiency policy impacts and understanding the dynamics of future energy consumption and energy saving and emission reduction potential. This is especially true for developing countries such as China, where uncertainties are greater while the economy continues to undergo rapid growth and industrialization. A slightly different assumption or storyline could result in significant discrepancies among different model results. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the key models in terms of their scope, methodologies, key driver assumptions and the associated findings. A comparative analysis of LBNL's energy end-use model scenarios with the five above studies was thus conducted to examine similarities and divergences in methodologies, scenario storylines, macroeconomic drivers and assumptions as well as aggregate energy and emission scenario results. Besides directly tracing different energy and CO{sub 2} savings potential back to the underlying strategies and combination of efficiency and abatement policy instruments represented by each scenario, this analysis also had other important but often overlooked findings.

  8. MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    regulation and have gained attention recently within the context of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading

  9. Analysis of natural gas supply strategies at Fort Drum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stucky, D.J.; Shankle, S.A.; Anderson, D.M.

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This analysis investigates strategies for Fort Drum to acquire a reliable natural gas supply while reducing its gas supply costs. The purpose of this study is to recommend an optimal supply mix based on the life-cycle costs of each strategy analyzed. In particular, this study is intended to provide initial guidance as to whether or not the building and operating of a propane-air mixing station is a feasible alternative to the current gas acquisition strategy. The analysis proceeded by defining the components of supply (gas purchase, gas transport, supplemental fuel supply); identifying alternative options for each supply component; constructing gas supply strategies from different combinations of the options available for each supply component and calculating the life-cycle costs of each supply strategy under a set of different scenarios reflecting the uncertainty of future events.

  10. Excess Emissions (New Mexico)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This regulation establishes requirements for a source whose operation results in an excess emission and to establish criteria for a source whose operation results in an excess emission to claim an...

  11. Emissions Trading and Social Justice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farber, Daniel A

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    David  M.  Driesen,  Does  Emissions  Trading  Encourage  Jason  Coburn,  Emissions  Trading   and   Environmental  Szambelan,  U.S.  Emissions  Trading  Markets  for  SO 2  

  12. Contribution of cooperative sector recycling to greenhouse gas emissions reduction: A case study of Ribeirão Pires, Brazil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, Megan F., E-mail: mfking@uvic.ca [The Community-Based Research Laboratory, Department of Geography, University of Victoria, PO Box 3060 STN CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 3R4 (Canada); Gutberlet, Jutta, E-mail: gutber@uvic.ca [Department of Geography, University of Victoria, PO Box 3060 STN CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 3R4 (Canada)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • Cooperative recycling achieves environmental, economic and social objectives. • We calculate GHG emissions reduction for a recycling cooperative in São Paulo, Brazil. • The cooperative merits consideration as a Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) project. • A CDM project would enhance the achievements of the recycling cooperative. • National and local waste management policies support the recycling cooperative. - Abstract: Solid waste, including municipal waste and its management, is a major challenge for most cities and among the key contributors to climate change. Greenhouse gas emissions can be reduced through recovery and recycling of resources from the municipal solid waste stream. In São Paulo, Brazil, recycling cooperatives play a crucial role in providing recycling services including collection, separation, cleaning, stocking, and sale of recyclable resources. The present research attempts to measure the greenhouse gas emission reductions achieved by the recycling cooperative Cooperpires, as well as highlight its socioeconomic benefits. Methods include participant observation, structured interviews, questionnaire application, and greenhouse gas accounting of recycling using a Clean Development Mechanism methodology. The results show that recycling cooperatives can achieve important energy savings and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, and suggest there is an opportunity for Cooperpires and other similar recycling groups to participate in the carbon credit market. Based on these findings, the authors created a simple greenhouse gas accounting calculator for recyclers to estimate their emissions reductions.

  13. Petroleum Supply Monthly, September 1990. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whited, D.; Jacobus, P. (eds.)

    1990-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Data presented in this PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. 12 figs., 46 tabs.

  14. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1991. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Data presented in this report describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importer, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics 14 figs., 56 tabs.

  15. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1990. [Contains Glossary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Data presented in this report describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. 12 figs., 54 tabs.

  16. Procurement Options for New Renewable Electricity Supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kreycik, C. E.; Couture, T. D.; Cory, K. S.

    2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    State renewable portfolio standard (RPS) policies require utilities and load-serving entities (LSEs) to procure renewable energy generation. Utility procurement options may be a function of state policy and regulatory preferences, and in some cases, may be dictated by legislative authority. Utilities and LSEs commonly use competitive solicitations or bilateral contracting to procure renewable energy supply to meet RPS mandates. However, policymakers and regulators in several states are beginning to explore the use of alternatives, namely feed-in tariffs (FITs) and auctions to procure renewable energy supply. This report evaluates four procurement strategies (competitive solicitations, bilateral contracting, FITs, and auctions) against four main criteria: (1) pricing; (2) complexity and efficiency of the procurement process; (3) impacts on developers access to markets; and (4) ability to complement utility decision-making processes. These criteria were chosen because they take into account the perspective of each group of stakeholders: ratepayers, regulators, utilities, investors, and developers.

  17. Evaluating greenhouse gas emissions from hydropower complexes on large rivers in Eastern Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arntzen, Evan V.; Miller, Benjamin L.; O'Toole, Amanda C.; Niehus, Sara E.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Water bodies, such as freshwater lakes, are known to be net emitters of carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4). In recent years, significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from tropical, boreal, and mid-latitude reservoirs have been reported. At a time when hydropower is increasing worldwide, better understanding of seasonal and regional variation in GHG emissions is needed in order to develop a predictive understanding of such fluxes within man-made impoundments. We examined power-producing dam complexes within xeric temperate locations in the northwestern United States. Sampling environments on the Snake (Lower Monumental Dam Complex) and Columbia Rivers (Priest Rapids Dam Complex) included tributary, mainstem, embayment, forebay, and tailrace areas during winter and summer 2012. At each sampling location, GHG measurement pathways included surface gas flux, degassing as water passed through dams during power generation, ebullition within littoral embayments, and direct sampling of hyporheic pore-water. Measurements were also carried out in a free-flowing reach of the Columbia River to estimate unaltered conditions. Surface flux resulted in very low emissions, with reservoirs acting as a sink for CO2 (up to –262 mg m-2 d-1, which is within the range previously reported for similarly located reservoirs). Surface flux of methane remained below 1 mg CH4 m-2d-1, a value well below fluxes reported previously for temperate reservoirs. Water passing through hydroelectric projects acted as a sink for CO2 during winter and a small source during summer, with mean degassing fluxes of –117 and 4.5 t CO2 d-1, respectively. Degassing of CH4 was minimal, with mean fluxes of 3.1 × 10-6 and –5.6 × 10-4 t CH4 d-1 during winter and summer, respectively. Gas flux due to ebullition was greater in coves located within reservoirs than in coves within the free flowing Hanford Reach–and CH4 flux exceeded that of CO2. Methane emissions varied widely across sampling locations, ranging from 10.5 to 1039 mg CH4 m-2 d-1, with mean fluxes of 324 mg CH4 m-2 d-1in Lower Monumental Dam reservoir and 482 mg CH4 m-2d-1 in the Priest Rapids Dam reservoir. The magnitude of methane flux due to ebullition was unexpectedly high, and falls within the range recently reported for other temperate reservoirs around the world, further suggesting that this methane source should be considered in estimates of global greenhouse gas emissions. Methane flux from sediment pore-water within littoral embayments averaged 4.2 mg m-2 d-1 during winter and 8.1 mg m-2 d-1 during summer, with a peak flux of 19.8 mg m-2d-1 (at the same location where CH4 ebullition was also the greatest). Carbon dioxide flux from sediment pore-water averaged approximately 80 mg m-2d-1 with little difference between winter and summer. Similar to emissions from ebullition, flux from sediment pore-water was higher in reservoirs than in the free flowing reach.

  18. CREATING THE NORTHEAST GASOLINE SUPPLY RESERVE

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2012, Superstorm Sandy made landfall in the northeastern United States and caused heavy damage to two refineries and left more than 40 terminals in New York Harbor closed due to water damage and loss of power. This left some New York gas stations without fuel for as long as 30 days. As part of the Obama Administration’s ongoing response to the storm, the Department of Energy created the first federal regional refined product reserve, the Northeast Gasoline Supply Reserve.

  19. A single power supply optoelectronic differential amplifier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Youngmin Albert

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coinmittee: Henry F. Taylor This thesis presents an approach to optoelectronic differential amplifier (ODA) design in which two avalanche photodiodes and two laser diodes are used instead of a rriatched pair of transistors. The approach is demonstrated... by the design and realization oi' a complete system which includes direct intensity modulation of laser diodes and a novel single power supply optical receiver. The ODA shows better than 25 dB common-mode rejection ratio (CMRR) over a bandwidth of greater...

  20. Electrochemical chlorination for purifying domestic water supplies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Joseph Ludwig

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    system for small zural watez supplies, This puzifica- tion system is being studied in the Department of Agricultural Engineezing under Texas Agricultural Experiment Station Pzoject H-1874M Pilot Plant Studies of Electrical Water Treatment for Small... and relatively maintenance-fzee has been considered in this thesis. This is a process in which natural chlorides in the raw water are subjected to electrolysis, thereby releasing free chlorine and hence disinfecting the water. An investigation was made...

  1. QER- Comment of Natural Gas Supply Association

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    TO: Quadrennial Energy Review Task Force In response to the Department of Energy’s August 25, 2014 Federal Register Notice seeking input on the Quadrennial Energy Review, attached are comments from the Natural Gas Supply Association. Thank you for this opportunity to share our views on the important issue of energy infrastructure. If we can be of further assistance, please let me know. Regards,

  2. Development of the Integrated Biomass Supply Analysis and Logistics Model (IBSAL)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Webb, Erin [ORNL; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL

    2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Integrated Biomass Supply & Logistics (IBSAL) model is a dynamic (time dependent) model of operations that involve collection, harvest, storage, preprocessing, and transportation of feedstock for use at a biorefinery. The model uses mathematical equations to represent individual unit operations. These unit operations can be assembled by the user to represent the working rate of equipment and queues to represent storage at facilities. The model calculates itemized costs, energy input, and carbon emissions. It estimates resource requirements and operational characteristics of the entire supply infrastructure. Weather plays an important role in biomass management and thus in IBSAL, dictating the moisture content of biomass and whether or not it can be harvested on a given day. The model calculates net biomass yield based on a soil conservation allowance (for crop residue) and dry matter losses during harvest and storage. This publication outlines the development of the model and provides examples of corn stover harvest and logistics.

  3. Transforming trash: reuse as a waste management and climate change mitigation strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vergara, Sintana Eugenia

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    10: GHG emission sensitivity to landfill gas collectionfollowed by incineration, then landfill gas combustion), andthrough increased landfill gas collection; and avoided GHG

  4. Using Dashboards to Improve Energy and Comfort in Federal Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marini, Kyle

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gases (GHG) or carbon footprint, and public education onand lowering the carbon footprint or GHG emissions forby reducing carbon footprint. • Compare buildings’ energy

  5. actor-partner interdependence models: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    sixth in the US for total GHG emissions. The agricultural a comprehensive greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory, which the Florida Department of Environmental Protection will develop over...

  6. Property Tax Exemption for Machinery, Equipment, Materials, and Supplies (Kansas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Property Tax Exemption for Machinery, Equipment, Materials, and Supplies exists for low-dollar items of machinery, equipment, materials and supplies used for business purposes, or in activities...

  7. How Markets Slowly Digest Changes in Supply and Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CHAPTER 2 How Markets Slowly Digest Changes in Supply and Demand Jean-Philippe Bouchaud Science-Holland, Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved. 57 #12;58 Chapter 2 · How Markets Slowly Digest Changes in Supply

  8. Hydrogen storage of energy for small power supply systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monaghan, Rory F. D. (Rory Francis Desmond)

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Power supply systems for cell phone base stations using hydrogen energy storage, fuel cells or hydrogen-burning generators, and a backup generator could offer an improvement over current power supply systems. Two categories ...

  9. Advanced Supply System Validation Workshop | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Supply System Validation Workshop Advanced Supply System Validation Workshop February 3, 2015 12:00PM MST to February 4, 2015 2:15PM MST National Renewable Energy...

  10. Designing a flexible supply chain for new product launch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ha, Wei-Kwan Benjamin

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis examines how companies tactically design flexible supply chains for new product launches. The research focus is on different strategies and tactics used by original equipment manufacturers to improve supply ...

  11. Supply chain design: a conceptual model and tactical simulations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brann, Jeremy Matthew

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In current research literature, supply chain management (SCM) is a hot topic breaching the boundaries of many academic disciplines. SCM-related work can be found in the relevant literature for many disciplines. Supply chain ...

  12. Vulnerability assessment of water supply systems for insufficient fire flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kanta, Lufthansa Rahman

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    supply systems are vulnerable to many forms of terrorist acts, most of the vulnerability analysis studies on these systems have been for chemical and biological threats. Because of the interdependency of water supply infrastructure and emergency fire...

  13. Effects of the drought on California electricity supply and demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benenson, P.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fossil fuel for thermal electric generation. This will beThermal-Electric Energy Supply The shortfall in hydroelectric energy supply will be made up prim- arily by greater reliance upon thermal generation

  14. Future Sulfur Dioxide Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Steven J.; Pitcher, Hugh M.; Wigley, Tom M.

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The importance of sulfur dioxide emissions for climate change is now established, although substantial uncertainties remain. This paper presents projections for future sulfur dioxide emissions using the MiniCAM integrated assessment model. A new income-based parameterization for future sulfur dioxide emissions controls is developed based on purchasing power parity (PPP) income estimates and historical trends related to the implementation of sulfur emissions limitations. This parameterization is then used to produce sulfur dioxide emissions trajectories for the set of scenarios developed for the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). We use the SRES methodology to produce harmonized SRES scenarios using the latest version of the MiniCAM model. The implications, and requirements, for IA modeling of sulfur dioxide emissions are discussed. We find that sulfur emissions eventually decline over the next century under a wide set of assumptions. These emission reductions result from a combination of emission controls, the adoption of advanced electric technologies, and a shift away from the direct end use of coal with increasing income levels. Only under a scenario where incomes in developing regions increase slowly do global emission levels remain at close to present levels over the next century. Under a climate policy that limits emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide emissions fall in a relatively narrow range. In all cases, the relative climatic effect of sulfur dioxide emissions decreases dramatically to a point where sulfur dioxide is only a minor component of climate forcing by the end of the century. Ecological effects of sulfur dioxide, however, could be significant in some developing regions for many decades to come.

  15. Effects of the drought on California electricity supply and demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benenson, P.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DEMAND . . . .Demand for Electricity and Power PeakDemand . . • . . ELECTRICITY REQUIREMENTS FOR AGRICULTUREResults . . Coriclusions ELECTRICITY SUPPLY Hydroelectric

  16. Supplying Renewable Energy to Deferrable Loads: Algorithms and Economic Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oren, Shmuel S.

    in renewable power supply may take hours, lead to additional air pollution, result in wear and the need

  17. Look at natural gas supplies: room for cautious optimism. [USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teitelbaum, D.F.

    1981-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Projections of natural gas availability made only on a national level tend to mask major changes in regional reserves and production, resulting in overly optimistic estiamtes of future supplies. The Zinder annual gas-supply report - based on regional analyses - projects that conventional production will decline more than 50% below current levels by 2000. The development of alternative sources of natural gas (through unconventional production and importation) could maintain a constant level of total gas supplies despite the falling supply of conventional gas.

  18. Direct current uninterruptible power supply method and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinha, Gautam

    2003-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and system are described for providing a direct current (DC) uninterruptible power supply with the method including, for example: continuously supplying fuel to a turbine; converting mechanical power from the turbine into alternating current (AC) electrical power; converting the AC electrical power to DC power within a predetermined voltage level range; supplying the DC power to a load; and maintaining a DC load voltage within the predetermined voltage level range by adjusting the amount of fuel supplied to the turbine.

  19. Interactions between Electric-drive Vehicles and the Power Sector in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan; Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    electricity marginal generation mix in California’s Low Carbon Fueland Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium Table 1: Summary of California electricity supply (2005) Capacity, Generation,and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium GHG emissions rate Variable cost Demand/Generation (MW) Figure 1: Representative California-wide electricity

  20. NATURAL GAS FOR TRANSPORTATION OR ELECTRICITY? CLIMATE CHANGE IMPLICATIONS Date: 27-Oct-11

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGaughey, Alan

    , W. Michael Griffin, H. Scott Matthews Projections of increased domestic supply, low prices, reduced gases (GHGs) when it displaces gasoline and diesel. However, in reality, the amount of GHG emissions failure: The use of compressed natural gas (CNG) instead of gasoline in cars and instead of diesel

  1. J Regul Econ (2011) 40:237260 DOI 10.1007/s11149-011-9161-4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oren, Shmuel S.

    et al. 1 Introduction In 2009, the electric power sector accounted for 40% of US energy consumption, of which 70% was supplied by fossil fuels such as natural gas, coal, and petroleum (Energy Information Administration 2010). A major change in regulation of green- house gas (GHG) emissions from the sector will

  2. Determining Air Quality and Greenhouse Gas Impacts of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dabdub, Donald

    Determining Air Quality and Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Hydrogen Infrastructure and Fuel Cell of hydrogen infrastructure and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCVs) to replace gasoline internal combustion) to characterize the pollutant and GHG emissions associated with a comprehensive hydrogen supply infrastructure

  3. Energy and Society Section Handout Week of October 13, 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    opportunities available in an economy. For energy-related CO2 emissions, the opportunities usually revolve around some form of efficiency or cleaner energy production. For other CO2 and non-CO2 GHG's (like CH4) Services (e.g., banking) System LCA examples Electricity supply system Transportation system Internet

  4. "Greening" Industrial Steam Generation via On-demand Steam Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, J. P.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    impact have not kept pace with other industrialized nations. The U.S. is confronted with looming tipping points with respect to energy supply and GHG emissions that represent very tangible constraints on future economic growth and quality of life. A...

  5. STANDARD TERMS OF PURCHASE APPLICABLE TO SUPPLY AND SERVICES CONTRACTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chamroukhi, Faicel

    STANDARD TERMS OF PURCHASE APPLICABLE TO SUPPLY AND SERVICES CONTRACTS ENTERED INTO BY SUD TOULON and its co-contracting parties for all government supplies and services contracts entered into pursuant supply and services contracts in its version annexed to the Decree of 19 January 2009 approving

  6. Simulating the Afghanistan-Pakistan opium supply chain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watkins, Jennifer H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; MacKerrow, Edward P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Merritt, Terence M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper outlines an opium supply chain using the Hilmand province of Afghanistan as exemplar. The opium supply chain model follows the transformation of opium poppy seed through cultivation and chemical alteration to brown heroin base. The purpose of modeling and simulating the Afghanistan-Pakistan opium supply chain is to discover and test strategies that will disrupt this criminal enterprise.

  7. Supply Regulation Techniques for Phase-Locked Loops

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palermo, Sam

    Supply Regulation Techniques for Phase-Locked Loops Vivekananth Gurumoorthy and Samuel Palermo-- Phase-locked loops (PLLs) which employ voltage regulators for low supply-noise sensitivity often rely. This paper compares various supply regulation techniques on the basis of their ability to reject noise from

  8. Departmentof SupplyChainManagement andMarketingSciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Xiaodong

    Solutions with ERP/SAP II[1] (3) 22:799:661 Introduction to Project Management (3) 22:799:677 Fundamentals Resource Planning Systems 22:799:659 Supply Chain Solutions with ERP/SAP I 22:799:660 Supply Chain:799:650 Supply Chain Management Industry Project (required for full-time students; elective for part

  9. Securing the Sustainability of Global Medical Nuclear Supply Chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    Securing the Sustainability of Global Medical Nuclear Supply Chains Through Economic Cost Recovery-17, 2012 University of Massachusetts Amherst Securing the Sustainability of Medical Nuclear Supply Chains-2013. University of Massachusetts Amherst Securing the Sustainability of Medical Nuclear Supply Chains #12;This

  10. Mo Supply Chain for Nuclear Medicine Ladimer S. Nagurney

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    The 99 Mo Supply Chain for Nuclear Medicine Ladimer S. Nagurney Department of Electrical November 13, 2012 #12;Nuclear Medicine: Meeting Patient Needs with 99 Mo Ladimer S. Nagurney The 99 Mo Supply Chain #12;Background and Motivation Study of Nuclear Medicine Supply Chains is a combination

  11. Alberta's Energy Reserves 2007 and Supply/Demand Outlook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    Alberta's Energy Reserves 2007 and Supply/Demand Outlook 2008-2017 0 ST98-2008 Energy Resources RESOURCES CONSERVATION BOARD ST98-2008: Alberta's Energy Reserves 2007 and Supply/Demand Outlook 2008: Reserves Andy Burrowes, Rick Marsh, Nehru Ramdin, and Curtis Evans; Supply/Demand and Economics

  12. Hybrid Heterogeneous Energy Supply Networks Farinaz Koushanfar and Azalia Mirhoseini

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hybrid Heterogeneous Energy Supply Networks Farinaz Koushanfar and Azalia Mirhoseini Department--Efficient energy supply, storage, and distribution are key technical challenges for design and operation of electronic systems. In particular, energy supply is the most scarce resource and constraint for mobile

  13. Optimization of California's Water Supply System: Results and Insights

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasternack, Gregory B.

    headings: Optimization; California; Water supply; Water shortage. Introduction Water is scarceOptimization of California's Water Supply System: Results and Insights Marion W. Jenkins1 ; Jay R-engineering optimization model of California's water supply system. The results of this 4-year effort illustrate the value

  14. Risk management in Chemical Supply Chains Rajagopalan Srinivasana,b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarado, Matías

    an agent-based framework for modeling and simulating the supply chain activities in a refinery, and operations in the refinery. Other external agents emulate the crude exchange, oil suppliers, and 3PLs attention. As an example, consider a petroleum refinery supply chain. 1.1. Petroleum Refinery Supply Chain

  15. THE JET PULSE POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM J. B. HICKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    between the two major components of the power supply (flywheel-generator-convertors (FGC) and transformer between the two possible components of the power supply, i. e. flywheel. generator-convertors and transformer-controlled-convertors. The proposed JET power supply system is described, together with an outline

  16. Supply chain management (SCM) involves the management of materials and information across the entire supply chain. This includes raw material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calgary, University of

    Supply chain management (SCM) involves the management of materials and information across this concentration will be required to take three core courses: Materials and Supply Chain Management, Transportation Purchasing identify global sources of materials, select vendors, and manage negotiati

  17. This event is part of a semester-long lecture and panel series focused on how to meet rising energy demand while simultaneously bringing GHG emissions under control. It is intended to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    Initiative and the CIRES Center for Science and Technology Policy Research For more information see http://ei, October 30 7:00 PM - 9:00 PM CU-Boulder, Eaton Humanities 150 Free and Open to the Public PANELISTS

  18. Global and regional emission estimates for HCFC-22

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saikawa, Eri

    HCFC-22 (CHClF[subscript 2], chlorodifluoromethane) is an ozone-depleting substance (ODS) as well as a significant greenhouse gas (GHG). HCFC-22 has been used widely as a refrigerant fluid in cooling and air-conditioning ...

  19. Supply Chain Logistics Post Recovery Landscape

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    #12;6 Rail Rebirth.... ....Key Realities · More Energy Efficient · Lower Emissions · Lower Cost Changes · Green Logistics · Green measures, Certifications, Urban Heat Island, Stormwater, Energy 2,267$ Other Carriers Railroads 63 210$ Water 39 130$ Oil Pipeline 10 33$ Air 40 133$ Forwarders 32

  20. U.S. Natural Gas System Methane Emissions: State of Knowledge from LCAs, Inventories, and Atmospheric Measurements (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, G.

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural gas (NG) is a potential "bridge fuel" during transition to a decarbonized energy system: It emits less carbon dioxide during combustion than other fossil fuels and can be used in many industries. However, because of the high global warming potential of methane (CH4, the major component of NG), climate benefits from NG use depend on system leakage rates. Some recent estimates of leakage have challenged the benefits of switching from coal to NG, a large near-term greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction opportunity. During this presentation, Garvin will review evidence from multiple perspectives - life cycle assessments (LCAs), inventories and measurements - about NG leakage in the US. Particular attention will be paid to a recent article in Science magazine which reviewed over 20 years of published measurements to better understand what we know about total methane emissions and those from the oil and gas sectors. Scientific and policy implications of the state of knowledge will be discussed.