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1

M-1C.  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

M-1C. M-1C. fTZ. u.s. DEPARTl\IENT OF ENERGY EERE PROJECT MANAGEMENT CENTER NEPA DETERl\IINATION RECIPI ENT:City of Boston PROJECT TITLE: EECBG· City Of Boston (S) Page 1 01'2 STATE:MA Funding Opportunity Announc:ement Number OE-EEOOOO736/ EEC8G Proc:urementlnstrumcnt Number NEPA Control Number cm Number o Based on my review ofthc information (Onc:crning the proposed adion, as NEPA Complianc:c Offic:cr (authorizcd undcr DOE Order 45I.1A), I havc madc the following dctermination: ex, EA, EIS APPENDIX AND NUMBER: Oescription: 85.1 Actions to conserve energy, demonstrate potential energy conservation, and promote energy-efficiency that do not increase the indoor concentrations of potentially harmful substances. These actions may involve financial and technical

2

AOCS Official Method M 1-92  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Determination of Precision of Analytical Methods AOCS Official Method M 1-92 Methods Downloads Methods Downloads Official Methods and Recommended Practices of the AOCS (Methods) aocs applicants certified chemist chemists fats lab laboratories la

3

GaN High Power Devices  

SciTech Connect

A brief review is given of recent progress in fabrication of high voltage GaN and AlGaN rectifiers, GaN/AlGaN heterojunction bipolar transistors, GaN heterostructure and metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistors. Improvements in epitaxial layer quality and in fabrication techniques have led to significant advances in device performance.

PEARTON,S.J.; REN,F.; ZHANG,A.P.; DANG,G.; CAO,X.A.; LEE,K.P.; CHO,H.; GILA,B.P.; JOHNSON,J.W.; MONIER,C.; ABERNATHY,C.R.; HAN,JUNG; BACA,ALBERT G.; CHYI,J.-I.; LEE,C.-M.; NEE,T.-E.; CHUO,C.-C.; CHI,G.C.; CHU,S.N.G.

2000-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

4

M1 Energy | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

M1 Energy M1 Energy Jump to: navigation, search Name M1 Energy Place Chicago, Illinois Zip 60604 Sector Renewable Energy Product M1 Energy invests in renewable energy projects either solely or in partnership. Their project scope is focused on small to medium-sized oil, gas and electricity projects. Coordinates 41.88415°, -87.632409° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.88415,"lon":-87.632409,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

5

GaN Nanopore Arrays: Fabrication and Characterization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

GaN nanopore arrays with pore diameters of approximately 75 nm were fabricated by inductively coupled plasma etching (ICP) using anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) films as etch masks. Nanoporous AAO films were formed on the GaN ...

Wang, Yadong

6

Enex Power Germany | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Enex Power Germany Jump to: navigation, search Name Enex Power Germany Place Geretsried, Germany Sector Geothermal energy Product Germany-based subsidiary of Enex Power, developing...

7

On the nonexistence of $[\\binom{2m}{m-1}, 2m, \\binom{2m-1}{m-1}]$, $m$ odd, complex orthogonal design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Complex orthogonal designs (CODs) are used to construct space-time block codes. COD $\\mathcal{O}_z$ with parameter $[p, n, k]$ is a $p\\times n$ matrix, where nonzero entries are filled by $\\pm z_i$ or $\\pm z^*_i$, $i = 1, 2,..., k$, such that $\\mathcal{O}^H_z \\mathcal{O}_z = (|z_1|^2+|z_2|^2+...+|z_k|^2)I_{n \\times n}$. Adams et al. in "The final case of the decoding delay problem for maximum rate complex orthogonal designs," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 103-122, Jan. 2010, first proved the nonexistence of $[\\binom{2m}{m-1}, 2m, \\binom{2m-1}{m-1}]$, $m$ odd, COD. Combining with the previous result that decoding delay should be an integer multiple of $\\binom{2m}{m-1}$, they solved the final case $n \\equiv 2 \\pmod 4$ of the decoding delay problem for maximum rate complex orthogonal designs. In this paper, we give another proof of the nonexistence of COD with parameter $[\\binom{2m}{m-1}, 2m, \\binom{2m-1}{m-1}]$, $m$ odd. Our new proof is based on the uniqueness of $[\\binom{2m}{m-1}, 2m-1, \\binom{...

Li, Yuan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

GaN: Defect and Device Issues  

SciTech Connect

The role of extended and point defects, and key impurities such as C, O and H, on the electrical and optical properties of GaN is reviewed. Recent progress in the development of high reliability contacts, thermal processing, dry and wet etching techniques, implantation doping and isolation and gate insulator technology is detailed. Finally, the performance of GaN-based electronic and photonic devices such as field effect transistors, UV detectors, laser diodes and light-emitting diodes is covered, along with the influence of process-induced or grown-in defects and impurities on the device physics.

Pearton, S.J.; Ren, F.; Shul, R.J.; Zolper, J.C.

1998-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

9

Micro Raman Spectroscopy of Annealed Erbium Implanted GaN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wurtzite GaN epilayers grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition on sapphire substrates were subsequently ion implanted with Er to a dose of 510? cm?. The implanted samples were annealed in nitrogen atmosphere ...

Vajpeyi, Agam P.

10

Cathodoluminescence Microanalysis of Suspended GaN Nano ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CL from bulk GaN is dominated by the ~3.4 eV near-band-edge emission. In contrast, the suspended nano-membranes emit a broad defect associated emission...

11

ARM MJO Investigation Experiment on Gan Island (AMIE-Gan) Science Plan  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The overarching campaign, which includes the ARM Mobile Facility 2 (AMF2) deployment in conjunction with the Dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (DYNAMO) and the Cooperative Indian Ocean experiment on intraseasonal variability in the Year 2011 (CINDY2011) campaigns, is designed to test several current hypotheses regarding the mechanisms responsible for Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) initiation and propagation in the Indian Ocean area. The synergy between the proposed AMF2 deployment with DYNAMO/CINDY2011, and the corresponding funded experiment on Manus, combine for an overarching ARM MJO Investigation Experiment (AMIE) with two components: AMF2 on Gan Island in the Indian Ocean (AMIE-Gan), where the MJO initiates and starts its eastward propagation; and the ARM Manus site (AMIE-Manus), which is in the general area where the MJO usually starts to weaken in climate models. AMIE-Gan will provide measurements of particular interest to Atmospheric System Research (ASR) researchers relevant to improving the representation of MJO initiation in climate models. The framework of DYNAMO/CINDY2011 includes two proposed island-based sites and two ship-based locations forming a square pattern with sonde profiles and scanning precipitation and cloud radars at both island and ship sites. These data will be used to produce a Variational Analysis data set coinciding with the one produced for AMIE-Manus. The synergy between AMIE-Manus and AMIE-Gan will allow studies of the initiation, propagation, and evolution of the convective cloud population within the framework of the MJO. As with AMIE-Manus, AMIE-Gan/DYNAMO also includes a significant modeling component geared toward improving the representation of MJO initiation and propagation in climate and forecast models. This campaign involves the deployment of the second, marine-capable, AMF; all of the included measurement systems; and especially the scanning and vertically pointing radars. The campaign will include sonde launches at a rate of eight per day for the duration of the deployment. The increased sonde launches for the entire period matches that of the AMIE-Manus campaign and makes possible a far more robust Variational Analysis forcing data set product for the entire campaign, and thus better capabilities for modeling studies and synergistic research using the data from both AMIE sites.

Long, CL; Del Genio, A; Deng, M; Fu, X; Gustafson, W; Houze, R; Jakob, C; Jensen, M; Johnson, R; Liu, X; Luke, E; May, P; McFarlane, S; Minnis, P; Schumacher, C; Vogelmann, A; Wang, Y; Webster, P; Xie, S; Zhang, C

2011-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

12

Vertically aligned GaN nanotubes - Fabrication and current image analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work, we present a one step formation method of nanotubes on GaN film, and then map out local current of nanotubes. GaN nanotubes were formed by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching and found that tops of these nanotubes were hexagonal with ... Keywords: C-AFM, FESEM, GaN, ICP, Nanotubes

Shang-Chao Hung; Yan-Kuin Su; Shoou-Jinn Chang; Y. H. Chen

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Review of M-1 Plugging in Pipeline Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

PIPELINE PLUG PREVENTION: PIPELINE PLUG PREVENTION: Enlightenment Yielded From Initiative M-1 Testing Results Principal Investigator: Adam Poloski Presenter: Harold Adkins May 21, 2009 Outline Test purpose & design Invaluable literature information Stability map concept development Results/sedimentation observations General conclusions 2 M-1 Initiative Testing: Purpose & Design Investigate critical deposition velocity for slurries with wide range of properties to mimic large cross section of Hanford waste to be processed (WTP-RPT-175, Rev 0) Particle density (2.5 g/cc - 8 g/cc) Particle size (10 µm - 100 µm) Rheology (0, 3, 6 Pa) koalin composition Investigate influence of complex piping geometry (WTP- RPT-178, Rev 0) Investigate critical deposition velocity for a representative

14

High Voltage GaN Schottky Rectifiers  

SciTech Connect

Mesa and planar GaN Schottky diode rectifiers with reverse breakdown voltages (V{sub RB}) up to 550V and >2000V, respectively, have been fabricated. The on-state resistance, R{sub ON}, was 6m{Omega}{center_dot} cm{sup 2} and 0.8{Omega}cm{sup 2}, respectively, producing figure-of-merit values for (V{sub RB}){sup 2}/R{sub ON} in the range 5-48 MW{center_dot}cm{sup -2}. At low biases the reverse leakage current was proportional to the size of the rectifying contact perimeter, while at high biases the current was proportional to the area of this contact. These results suggest that at low reverse biases, the leakage is dominated by the surface component, while at higher biases the bulk component dominates. On-state voltages were 3.5V for the 550V diodes and {ge}15 for the 2kV diodes. Reverse recovery times were <0.2{micro}sec for devices switched from a forward current density of {approx}500A{center_dot}cm{sup -2} to a reverse bias of 100V.

CAO,X.A.; CHO,H.; CHU,S.N.G.; CHUO,C.-C.; CHYI,J.-I.; DANG,G.T.; HAN,JUNG; LEE,C.-M.; PEARTON,S.J.; REN,F.; WILSON,R.G.; ZHANG,A.P.

1999-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

15

Perseus (Germany) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Germany) Germany) Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Perseus (Germany) Name Perseus (Germany) Address Schumannstrasse 4 Place Munich, Germany Zip D-81679 Product Private equity fund. Year founded 1995 Phone number +49 (89) 18 90 88 10 Website http://www.perseusllc.com/ Coordinates 48.1407266°, 11.6024184° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":48.1407266,"lon":11.6024184,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

16

Properties of H, O and C in GaN  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The electrical properties of the light ion impurities H, O and C in GaN have been examined in both as-grown and implanted material. H is found to efficiently passivate acceptors such as Mg, Ca and C. Reactivation occurs at {ge} 450 C and is enhanced by minority carrier injection. The hydrogen does not leave the GaN crystal until > 800 C, and its diffusivity is relatively high ({approximately} 10{sup {minus}11} cm{sup 2}/s) even at low temperatures (< 200 C) during injection by wet etching, boiling in water or plasma exposure. Oxygen shows a low donor activation efficiency when implanted into GaN, with an ionization level of 30--40 meV. It is essentially immobile up to 1,100 C. Carbon can produce low p-type levels (3 {times} 10{sup 17} cm{sup {minus}3}) in GaN during MOMBE, although there is some evidence it may also create n-type conduction in other nitrides.

Pearton, S.J.; Abernathy, C.R.; Lee, J.W. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)] [and others

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

AMF Deployment, Black Forest, Germany  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Germany Germany Black Forest Deployment AMF Home Black Forest Home Data Plots and Baseline Instruments CERA COPS Data University of Hohenheim COPS Website COPS Update, April 2009 Experiment Planning COPS Proposal Abstract and Related Campaigns Science Plan (PDF, 12.4M) Outreach COPS Backgrounder (PDF, 306K) Posters AMF Poster, German Vesion Researching Raindrops in the Black Forest News Campaign Images AMF Deployment, Black Forest, Germany Main Site: 48° 32' 24.18" N, 08° 23' 48.72" E Altitude: 511.43 meters In March 2007, the third deployment of the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) will take place in the Black Forest region of Germany, where scientists will study rainfall resulting from atmospheric uplift (convection) in mountainous terrain, otherwise known as orographic precipitation. ARM

18

Immosolar Germany | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Immosolar Germany Immosolar Germany Name Immosolar Germany Address Valentinskamp 24 Place Hamburg, Germany Sector Solar Product Solar energy systems and equipment Phone number (+49) 040 31112-372 Website http://www.immosolar.com/ Coordinates 53.555653°, 9.9843729° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":53.555653,"lon":9.9843729,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

19

Reliability of GaN HEMTs: Electrical and Radiation-induced Failure ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Advanced Materials for Power Electronics, Power Conditioning, and Power Conversion II. Presentation Title, Reliability of GaN HEMTs: Electrical...

20

Intersubband Absorption at 1.55 ?M In Aln/Gan Multi Quantum Wells ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Intersubband Absorption at 1.55 ?M In Aln/Gan Multi Quantum Wells Grown at 770 C by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy using Pulse Injection Method.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "germany gan m1" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Dynamic Model of Hydrogen in GaN  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dynamic Model of Hydrogen in GaN by S. M. Myers and A. F. Wright Motivation-Hydrogen is incorporated into p-type GaN during MOCVD growth, producing highly stable passivation of the Mg acceptors. Complete acceptor activation by thermal H release requires temperatures that threaten material integrity, prompting compromises in device processing. At lower temperatures, forward bias of p-n junctions or electron-beam irradiation produces a metastable, reversible activation without H release. To understand and control such effects, we are developing a mathematical model of H behavior wherein state energies from density-functional theory are employed in diffusion-reaction equations. Previously, we used the greatly simplifying assumptions of local equilibrium among states

22

K8, HVPE Homoepitaxy of p-Type GaN on n-Type Catalyst Free ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present the growth of p-type HVPE GaN using catalyst free GaN nitride nanowires as a lattice matched substrate. The nanowires were grown using plasma...

23

UV-Photoassisted Etching of GaN in KOH  

SciTech Connect

The etch rate of GaN under W-assisted photoelectrochemical conditions in KOH solutions is found to be a strong function of illumination intensity, solution molarity, sample bias and material doping level. At low e-h pair generation rates, grain boundaries are selectively etched, while at higher illumination intensities etch rates for unintentionally doped (n - 3x 10^12Gcm-3) GaN are 2 1000 .min-l. The etching is diffusion limited under our conditions with an activation energy of - 0.8kCal.mol-1. The etched surfaces are rough, but retain their stoichiometry. PEC etching is found to selectively reveal grain boundaries in GaN under low light illumination conditions. At high lamp powers the rates increase with sample temperature and the application of bias to the PEC cell, while they go through a maximum with KOH solution molarity. The etching is diffusion-limited, producing rough surface morphologies that are suitable in a limited number of device fabrication steps. The surfaces however appear to remain relatively close to their stoichiometric composition.

Abernathy, C.R.; Auh, K.H.; Cho, H.; Donovan, S.M.; Han, J.; Lambers, E.S.; Pearton, S.J.; Ren F.; Shul, R.J.

1998-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

24

Effect of gas feeding methods on optical properties of GaN grown by rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition reactor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Keywords: Ga vacancies, GaN growth, gas feeding method, optical property, rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition (RTCVD), yellow luminescence

Sun Jung Kim; Young Hun Seo; Kee Suk Nahm; Yun Bong Hahn; Hyun Wook Shim; Eun-Kyung Suh; Kee Young Lim; Hyung Jae Lee

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Lighting Enhancement of GaN LEDs by Applying p-Type Ni(P):SnO2 ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2013. Symposium, Multifunctional Oxides. Presentation Title, Lighting Enhancement of GaN LEDs...

26

Quantized states in homogenous polarized GaInN GaN quantum wells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Quantized states in homogenous polarized GaInN GaN quantum wells C. Wetzel1, S. Kamiyama1, H. Amano wells is calculated in a single particle model. The act- ing electric eld in the wells and the band gap-dimensional well layers our approach is based on induction from results obtained at the binary GaN barri- ers

Wetzel, Christian M.

27

Cubic GaN Light Emitting Diode Grown by Metalorganic Vapor-Phase Epitaxy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

this paper, we report on the doping characteristics of Si and Mg in the growth of cubic GaN by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE). We also report the growth of a p-n diode structure made of cubic GaN, and its characterization by electron-beam-induced-current (EBIC) and current injection measurements.

Hidenao Tanaka Member; Vapor-phase Epitaxy; Atsushi Nakadaira

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

GaN membrane-supported UV photodetectors manufactured using nanolithographic processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Membrane GaN metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetector structures using nanolithographic techniques have been manufactured for the first time. Very low dark currents and unexpected high values for the responsivity have been obtained. It seems that ... Keywords: GaN, Membrane, Nanolithography, Responsivity, SEM

A. Mller; G. Konstantinidis; M. Dragoman; D. Neculoiu; A. Dinescu; M. Androulidaki; M. Kayambaki; A. Stavrinidis; D. Vasilache; C. Buiculescu; I. Petrini; A. Kostopoulos; D. Dascalu

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Export.gov - Welcome to Germany  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

deutsche Unternehmen deutsche Unternehmen Register | Manage Account Search Our Site Click to Search Our Site Export.gov Home Opportunities By Industry By Country Market Research Trade Events Trade Leads Free Trade Agreements Solutions International Sales & Marketing International Financing International Logistics Licenses & Regulations Trade Data & Analysis Trade Problems Locations Domestic Offices International Offices FAQ Blog Connect Home > Germany Local Time in Germany: Print | E-mail Page Germany Germany Home Doing Business in Germany Market Research on Germany Services for U.S. Companies Trade Events Business Services Providers Links Internship Frequently Asked Questions Contact Us Our Worldwide Network About Us Press Room Other European Markets Other Worldwide Markets Welcome to the U.S. Commercial Service Germany

30

X-Ray Studies of GaN Film Grown on Si Using Electrochemical Deposition Techniques  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reports on the X-ray studies of GaN thin films deposited on Si (111) substrate at different current density using electrochemical deposition technique. The structural properties of GaN films were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD). XRD analysis showed that hexagonal wurtzite and cubic zinc blende GaN phases were both deposited on Si (111). The lattice constants, the average size of h-GaN crystals and the in-plane (along a-axis) and out of plane (along c-axis) strains were calculated from XRD analysis.

Al-Heuseen, K.; Hashim, M. R. [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), 11800 Minden, Penang (Malaysia)

2011-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

31

Comparative study of GaN growth process by MOVPE  

SciTech Connect

A comparative study of two different MOVPE reactors used for GaN growth is presented. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to determine common gas phase and fluid flow behaviors within these reactors. This paper focuses on the common thermal fluid features of these two MOVPE reactors with different geometries and operating pressures that can grow device-quality GaN-based materials. The study clearly shows that several growth conditions must be achieved in order to grow high quality GaN materials. The high-temperature gas flow zone must be limited to a very thin flow sheet above the susceptor, while the bulk gas phase temperature must be very low to prevent extensive pre-deposition reactions. These conditions lead to higher growth rates and improved material quality. A certain range of gas flow velocity inside the high-temperature gas flow zone is also required in order to minimize the residence time and improve the growth uniformity. These conditions can be achieved by the use of either a novel reactor structure such as a two-flow approach or by specific flow conditions. The quantitative ranges of flow velocities, gas phase temperature, and residence time required in these reactors to achieve high quality material and uniform growth are given.

Sun, J.; Redwing, J.M.; Kuech, T.F.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Dielectrics for GaN based MIS-diodes  

SciTech Connect

GaN MIS diodes were demonstrated utilizing AlN and Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}(Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}) as insulators. A 345 {angstrom} of AlN was grown on the MOCVD grown n-GaN in a MOMBE system using trimethylamine alane as Al precursor and nitrogen generated from a wavemat ECR N2 plasma. For the Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}(Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}) growth, a multi MBE chamber was used and a 195 {angstrom} oxide is E-beam evaporated from a single crystal source of Ga{sub 5}Gd{sub 3}O{sub 12}. The forward breakdown voltage of AlN and Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}(Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}) diodes are 5V and 6V, respectively, which are significantly improved from {approximately} 1.2 V of schottky contact. From the C-V measurements, both kinds of diodes showed good charge modulation from accumulation to depletion at different frequencies. The insulator GaN interface roughness and the thickness of the insulator were measured with x-ray reflectivity.

Ren, F.; Abernathy, C.R.; MacKenzie, J.D. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)] [and others

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Correlation of doping, structure, and carrier dynamics in a single GaN nanorod  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the nanoscale optical investigation of a single GaN p-n junction nanorod by cathodoluminescence (CL) in a scanning transmission electron microscope. CL emission characteristic of dopant-related transitions was ...

Zhou, Xiang

34

Millimeter-wave GaN high electron mobility transistors and their integration with silicon electronics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In spite of the great progress in performance achieved during the last few years, GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) still have several important issues to be solved for millimeter-wave (30 ~ 300 GHz) applications. ...

Chung, Jinwook W. (Jinwook Will)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

RF Power Degradation of GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have developed a versatile methodology to systematically investigate the RF reliability of GaN High-Electron Mobility Transistors. Our technique utilizes RF and DC figures of merit to diagnose the degradation of RF ...

Joh, Jungwoo

36

In situ studies of the effect of silicon on GaN growth modes.  

SciTech Connect

We present real-time X-ray scattering studies of the influence of silicon on the homoepitaxial growth mode of GaN grown by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy. Both annealing of Si-doped GaN and surface dosing of GaN with disilane are shown to change the mode of subsequent growth from step-flow to layer-by-layer. By comparing the growth behavior induced by doped layers which have been annealed to that induced by surface dosing, we extract an approximate diffusion coefficient for Si in GaN of 3.5 x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2}/s at 810{sup o}C.

Munkholm, A.; Stephenson, G. B.; Eastman, J. A.; Auciello, O.; Murty, M. V. R.; Thompson, C.; Fini, P.; Speck, J. S.; DenBaars, S. P.; Northern Illinois Univ.; Univ. of California at Santa Barbara

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Light extraction in individual GaN nanowires on Si for LEDs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

GaN-based nanowires hold great promise for solid state lighting applications because of their waveguiding properties and the ability to grow nonpolar GaN nanowire-based heterostructures, which could lead to increased light ...

Zhou, Xiang

38

Geomagnetic observatory GAN Jakub Velimsky K. Chandra Shakar Rao Lars W. Pedersen Ahmed Muslim  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Geomagnetic observatory GAN Jakub Vel´imsk´y K. Chandra Shakar Rao Lars W. Pedersen Ahmed Muslim´imsk´y et al. (ETH,UK,DTU,NGRI,GMO) Geomagnetic observatory GAN 27.4.2011/KG MFF UK 1 / 16 #12;Participating, Univ. Stuttgart) John Riddick (BGS, retired) Vel´imsk´y et al. (ETH,UK,DTU,NGRI,GMO) Geomagnetic

Cerveny, Vlastislav

39

CO2 Emissions - the Former Federal Republic of Germany  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Germany the Former Federal Republic of Germany CO2 Emissions from the Former Federal Republic of Germany Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from the Former Federal Republic of...

40

GaN Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors  

SciTech Connect

A GaN based depletion mode metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) was demonstrated using Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}(Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}) as the gate dielectric. The MOS gate reverse breakdown voltage was > 35V which was significantly improved from 17V of Pt Schottky gate on the same material. A maximum extrinsic transconductance of 15 mS/mm was obtained at V{sub ds} = 30 V and device performance was limited by the contact resistance. A unity current gain cut-off frequency, f{sub {tau}}, and maximum frequency of oscillation, f{sub max} of 3.1 and 10.3 GHz, respectively, were measured at V{sub ds} = 25 V and V{sub gs} = {minus}20 V.

Ren, F.; Pearton, S.J.; Abernathy, C.R.; Baca, A.; Cheng, P.; Shul, R.J.; Chu, S.N.G.; Hong, M.; Lothian, J.R.; Schurman, M.J.

1999-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "germany gan m1" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

GaN directional couplers for integrated quantum photonics  

SciTech Connect

Large cross-section GaN waveguides are proposed as a suitable architecture to achieve integrated quantum photonic circuits. Directional couplers with this geometry have been designed with aid of the beam propagation method and fabricated using inductively coupled plasma etching. Scanning electron microscopy inspection shows high quality facets for end coupling and a well defined gap between rib pairs in the coupling region. Optical characterization at 800 nm shows single-mode operation and coupling-length-dependent splitting ratios. Two photon interference of degenerate photon pairs has been observed in the directional coupler by measurement of the Hong-Ou-Mandel dip [C. K. Hong, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2044 (1987)] with 96% visibility.

Zhang Yanfeng; McKnight, Loyd; Watson, Ian M.; Gu, Erdan; Calvez, Stephane; Dawson, Martin D. [Institute of Photonics, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NW (United Kingdom); Engin, Erman; Cryan, Martin J.; Thompson, Mark G.; O'Brien, Jeremy L. [Centre for Quantum Photonics, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory and Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Bristol, Merchant Venturers Building, Woodland Road, Bristol BS8 1UB (United Kingdom)

2011-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

42

Growth of cubic GaN quantum dots  

SciTech Connect

Zinc-blende GaN quantum dots were grown on 3C-AlN(001) by two different methods in a molecular beam epitaxy system. The quantum dots in method A were fabricated by the Stranski-Krastanov growth process. The quantum dots in method B were fabricated by droplet epitaxy, a vapor-liquid-solid process. The density of the quantum dots was controllable in a range of 10{sup 8} cm{sup -2} to 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2}. Reflection high energy electron diffraction analysis confirmed the zinc-blende crystal structure of the QDs. Photoluminescence spectroscopy revealed the optical activity of the QDs, the emission energy was in agreement with the exciton ground state transition energy of theoretical calculations.

Schupp, T.; Lischka, K.; As, D. J. [Universitaet Paderborn, Department Physik, Warburger Str.100, 33095 Paderborn (Germany); Meisch, T.; Neuschl, B.; Feneberg, M.; Thonke, K. [Institut fuer Quantenmaterie, Universitaet Ulm, 89069 Ulm (Germany)

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

ISSN 1433-0210Germanys Slump Explaining the Unemployment Crisis of the 1990s  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

According to a widespread view, Germanys unemployment crisis is caused by rigid labour markets, low profitability and increasing international competition. We argue that this view does not provide a convincing explanation for the dramatic rise in Germanys unemployment rate since 1989, first because no distinction is drawn between the situation in the Eastern part of Germany and that in the Western part of Germany, and second because supply-side conditions in the Western part of Germany have not generally deteriorated. We argue that Germanys slump is the result of a series of adverse supply and demand shocks since unification. Supply shocks dominated in the East, demand shocks in the West. These shocks were mainly policy-induced. The adoption of an extremely overvalued exchange rate and rapid wage increases in East Germany magnified the general problems of transition, resulting in a loss of employment of more than a third and a sustained structural weakness of its economy. The wage explosion was made possible by the governments failure to create a proper institutional framework for wage negotiations. The unification shock to the East added at least 2.5 percentage

Ludger Lindlar; Wolfgang Scheremet; Ludger Lindlar A; Wolfgang Scheremet C

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Greenpeace Energy Germany | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Greenpeace Energy Germany Greenpeace Energy Germany Jump to: navigation, search Name Greenpeace Energy Germany Place Hamburg, Germany Zip 29357 Product German sustainable energy provider Coordinates 53.553345°, 9.992455° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":53.553345,"lon":9.992455,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

45

Germany Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

now 22.3% of the total. The year 1991 marked the first year the United Nations published energy statistics for unified Germany. Through 1990 statistics were still published for...

46

The Effect of Periodic Silane Burst on the Properties of GaN on Si (111) Substrates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The periodic silane burst technique was employed during metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of epitaxial GaN on AlN buffer layers grown on Si (111). Periodic silicon delta doping during growth of both the AlN and GaN ...

Zang, Keyan

47

RenewableElectricityGenerationinGermany: AMetaAnalysisofMitigationScenarios  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-IFU), Forschungszentrum, Karlsruhe, Germany; (7) Institut für Energiewirtschaft und Rationelle Energieanwendung (IER

Stock, Manfred

48

Low energy electron beam induced vacancy activation in GaN  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Experimental evidence on low energy electron beam induced point defect activation in GaN grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) is presented. The GaN samples are irradiated with a 5-20 keV electron beam of a scanning electron microscope and investigated by photoluminescence and positron annihilation spectroscopy measurements. The degradation of the band-to-band luminescence of the irradiated GaN films is associated with the activation of point defects. The activated defects were identified as in-grown Ga-vacancies. We propose that MOVPE-GaN contains a significant concentration of passive V{sub Ga}-H{sub n} complexes that can be activated by H removal during low energy electron irradiation.

Nykaenen, H.; Suihkonen, S.; Sopanen, M. [Department of Micro- and Nanosciences, Aalto University, P.O. Box 13500, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Kilanski, L. [Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University, P.O. Box 11100, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/56, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Tuomisto, F. [Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University, P.O. Box 11100, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland)

2012-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

49

Spin-flip M1 giant resonance as a challenge for Skyrme forces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Despite a great success of the Skyrme mean-field approach in exploration of nuclear dynamics, it seems to fail in description of the spin-flip M1 giant resonance. The results for different Skyrme parameterizations are contradictory and poorly agree with experiment. In particular, there is no parameterization which simultaneously describes the one-peak gross structure of M1 strength in doubly magic nuclei and two-peak structure in heavy deformed nuclei. The reason of this mismatch could lie in an unsatisfactory treatment of spin correlations and spin-orbit interaction. We discuss the present status of the problem and possible ways of its solution. In particular, we inspect i) the interplay of the collective shift and spin-orbit splitting, ii) the isovector M1 response versus isospin-mixed responses, and iii) the role of tensor and isovector spin-orbit interaction.

V. O. Nesterenko; J. Kvasil; P. Vesely; W. Kleinig; P. -G. Reinhard; V. Yu. Ponomarev

2010-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

50

Realization of compressively strained GaN films grown on Si(110) substrates by inserting a thin AlN/GaN superlattice interlayer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We investigate the strain properties of GaN films grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on Si(110) substrates. It is found that the strain of the GaN film can be converted from a tensile to a compressive state simply by inserting a thin AlN/GaN superlattice structure (SLs) within the GaN film. The GaN layers seperated by the SLs can have different strain states, which indicates that the SLs plays a key role in the strain modulation during the growth and the cooling down processes. Using this simple technique, we grow a crack-free GaN film exceeding 2-{mu}m-thick. The realization of the compressively strained GaN film makes it possible to grow thick GaN films without crack generation on Si substrates for optic and electronic device applications.

Shen, X. Q.; Takahashi, T.; Kawashima, H.; Ide, T.; Shimizu, M. [Advanced Power Electronics Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Umezono 1-1-1, Central 2, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

51

Charge Separation of Wurtzite/Zinc-blende Heterojunction GaN Nanowires  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The electronic properties of wurtzite/zinc-blende (WZ/ZB) heterostructure GaN are investigated using first-principles methods. A small component of ZB stacking formed along the growth direction in the WZ GaN nanowires does not show a significant effect on the electronic property, whereas a charge separation of electrons and holes occurs along the directions perpendicular to the growth direction in the ZB stacking. The later case provides an efficient way to separate the charge through controlling crystal structure. These results should have significant implications for most state of the art excitonic solar cells and the tuning region in tunable laser diodes.

Wang, Zhiguo; Li, Jingbo; Gao, Fei; Weber, William J.

2010-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

52

Lattice location of deuterium in plasma and gas charged Mg doped GaN  

SciTech Connect

The authors have used ion channeling to examine the lattice configuration of deuterium in Mg doped GaN grown by MOCVD. The deuterium is introduced both by exposure to deuterium gas and to ECR plasmas. A density functional approach including lattice relaxation, was used to calculate total energies for various locations and charge states of hydrogen in the wurtzite Mg doped GaN lattice. Computer simulations of channeling yields were used to compare results of channeling measurements with calculated yields for various predicted deuterium lattice configurations.

Wampler, W.R.; Barbour, J.C.; Seager, C.H.; Myers, S.M. Jr.; Wright, A.F.; Han, J.

1999-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

53

On Sojourn Times in the Finite Capacity $M/M/1$ Queue with Processor Sharing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider a processor shared $M/M/1$ queue that can accommodate at most a finite number $K$ of customers. We give an exact expression for the sojourn time distribution in the finite capacity model, in terms of a Laplace transform. We then give the tail behavior, for the limit $K\\to\\infty$, by locating the dominant singularity of the Laplace transform.

Zhen, Qiang

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

GE Wind Energy Germany | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search Jump to: navigation, search Name GE Wind Energy Germany Place Salzbergen, Germany Zip 48499 Sector Wind energy Product Germany-based, division of GE Wind Energy wind turbine manufacturer and supplier. Coordinates 52.323136°, 7.347278° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":52.323136,"lon":7.347278,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

55

Construction advances on gas pipeline in Germany  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reports that construction is well under way on a pipeline to transport gas form the North Sea and Russia into the heart of Germany. Mitte Deutchland Anbindungs Leitung (Midal) gas pipeline, under construction for Winershall AG and partner Gazprom, the Russian state gas company, will extend more than 640 km from the North Sea coast to Ludwigshafen in Southwest Germany. en route, the line will make more than 100 river crossings. Midal will connect with the joint ventures' Sachesen-Thurigen-Erdgas Leitung (Stegal) pipeline, which moves Russian gas into eastern Germany and Wintershall's gas storage site at Rehden. Wintershall Erdgas Handelshaus GmbH, set up to manage the joint venture project, divided the pipeline route into six parts, hiring different contractors to lay each section.

Not Available

1992-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

56

Germany: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Germany: Energy Resources Germany: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"TERRAIN","zoom":5,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"390px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":51.5,"lon":10.5,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

57

Critical Voltage for Electrical Reliability of GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors on Si Substrate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have evaluated the electrical reliability of GaN HEMTs on Si by carrying out V[subscript DS] = 0 V step-stress experiments. We have found that these devices show a degradation pattern that is very similar to that of ...

Demirtas, Sefa

58

Electron Beam-induced Light Emission and Transport in GaN Nanowires  

SciTech Connect

We report observations of electron beam-induced light from GaN nanowires grown by chemical vapor deposition. GaN nanowires were modified in-situ with deposited opaque platinum coatings to estimate the extent to which light is channeled to the ends of nanowires. Some evidence of light channeling was found, but wire microstructure and defects play an important role in light scattering and transport, limiting the extent to which light is confined. Optical interconnects are powerful components presently applied for high bandwidth communications among high-performance processors. Future circuits based on nanometer-scale components could similarly benefit from optical information transfer among processing blocks. Strong light channeling (and even lasing) has been observed in GaN nanowires, suggesting that these structures could be useful building blocks in a future networked electro-optical processor. However, the extent to which defects and microstructure control optical performance in nanowire waveguides has not been measured. In this study, we use electron microscopy and in-situ modification of individual nanowires to begin to correlate wire structure with light transport efficiency through GaN nanowires tens of microns long.

Tringe, J W; MoberlyChan, W J; Stevens, C G; Davydov, A V; Motayed, A

2006-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

59

GaN CVD Reactions: Hydrogen and Ammonia Decomposition and the Desorption of Gallium  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Isotopic labeling experiments have revealed correlations between hydrogen reactions, Ga desorption, and ammonia decomposition in GaN CVD. Low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) were used to demonstrate that hydrogen atoms are available on the surface for reaction after exposing GaN(0001) to deuterium at elevated temperatures. Hydrogen reactions also lowered the temperature for Ga desorption significantly. Ammonia did not decompose on the surface before hydrogen exposure. However, after hydrogen reactions altered the surface, N15H3 did undergo both reversible and irreversible decomposition. This also resulted in the desorption of N2 of mixed isotopes below the onset of GaN sublimation, This suggests that the driving force of the high nitrogen-nitrogen bond strength (226 kcal/mol) can lead to the removal of nitrogen from the substrate when the surface is nitrogen rich. Overall, these findings indicate that hydrogen can influence G-aN CVD significantly, being a common factor in the reactivity of the surface, the desorption of Ga, and the decomposition of ammonia.

Bartram, Michael E.; Creighton, J. Randall

1999-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

60

Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution Aurélien David of photonic crystal PhC -assisted gallium nitride light-emitting diodes LEDs to the existence of unextracted a promising but challenging solution towards efficient solid-state lighting. Conventional GaN-based light-emitting

Recanati, Catherine

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "germany gan m1" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

GaN light-emitting diodes with Archimedean lattice photonic crystals Aurlien David,a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

GaN light-emitting diodes with Archimedean lattice photonic crystals Aurélien David,a Tetsuo Fujii 2005; published online 16 February 2006 We study GaN-based light emitting diodes incorporating light- emitting diodes LEDs , as they could extract the emitted light otherwise trapped inside

Recanati, Catherine

62

Tunnel-injection GaN quantum dot ultraviolet light-emitting diodes  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate a GaN quantum dot ultraviolet light-emitting diode that uses tunnel injection of carriers through AlN barriers into the active region. The quantum dot heterostructure is grown by molecular beam epitaxy on AlN templates. The large lattice mismatch between GaN and AlN favors the formation of GaN quantum dots in the Stranski-Krastanov growth mode. Carrier injection by tunneling can mitigate losses incurred in hot-carrier injection in light emitting heterostructures. To achieve tunnel injection, relatively low composition AlGaN is used for n- and p-type layers to simultaneously take advantage of effective band alignment and efficient doping. The small height of the quantum dots results in short-wavelength emission and are simultaneously an effective tool to fight the reduction of oscillator strength from quantum-confined Stark effect due to polarization fields. The strong quantum confinement results in room-temperature electroluminescence peaks at 261 and 340 nm, well above the 365 nm bandgap of bulk GaN. The demonstration opens the doorway to exploit many varied features of quantum dot physics to realize high-efficiency short-wavelength light sources.

Verma, Jai; Kandaswamy, Prem Kumar; Protasenko, Vladimir; Verma, Amit; Grace Xing, Huili; Jena, Debdeep [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States)] [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States)

2013-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

63

LATE NEWS: KK3, Non-Catalytic Synthesis of GaN Nanostructures ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have observed the synthesis of gallium nitride (GaN) nanopowders on boron ... as 400C. The synthesis process is based on the reaction between gallium atoms from the decomposition of gallium acetylacetonate and ammonia gas molecules. ... the crystal structure and growth mechanism of the grown nanostructures.

64

Lifetime estimation of intrinsic silicon nitride MIM capacitors in a gan MMIC process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have studied the reliability of intrinsic SiN MIM capacitors designed for 48 V and 125 [superscript 0]C operation and manufactured in a GaN process flow. It is shown that very small area capacitors (10um x 10um) with a ...

Demirtas, Sefa

65

Ultra High p-doping Material Research for GaN Based Light Emitters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The main goal of the Project is to investigate doping mechanisms in p-type GaN and AlGaN and controllably fabricate ultra high doped p-GaN materials and epitaxial structures. Highly doped p-type GaN-based materials with low electrical resistivity and abrupt doping profiles are of great importance for efficient light emitters for solid state lighting (SSL) applications. Cost-effective hydride vapor phase epitaxial (HVPE) technology was proposed to investigate and develop p-GaN materials for SSL. High p-type doping is required to improve (i) carrier injection efficiency in light emitting p-n junctions that will result in increasing of light emitting efficiency, (ii) current spreading in light emitting structures that will improve external quantum efficiency, and (iii) parameters of Ohmic contacts to reduce operating voltage and tolerate higher forward currents needed for the high output power operation of light emitters. Highly doped p-type GaN layers and AlGaN/GaN heterostructures with low electrical resistivity will lead to novel device and contact metallization designs for high-power high efficiency GaN-based light emitters. Overall, highly doped p-GaN is a key element to develop light emitting devices for the DOE SSL program. The project was focused on material research for highly doped p-type GaN materials and device structures for applications in high performance light emitters for general illumination P-GaN and p-AlGaN layers and multi-layer structures were grown by HVPE and investigated in terms of surface morphology and structure, doping concentrations and profiles, optical, electrical, and structural properties. Tasks of the project were successfully accomplished. Highly doped GaN materials with p-type conductivity were fabricated. As-grown GaN layers had concentration N{sub a}-N{sub d} as high as 3 x 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}. Mechanisms of doping were investigated and results of material studies were reported at several International conferences providing better understanding of p-type GaN formation for Solid State Lighting community. Grown p-type GaN layers were used as substrates for blue and green InGaN-based LEDs made by HVPE technology at TDI. These results proved proposed technical approach and facilitate fabrication of highly conductive p-GaN materials by low-cost HVPE technology for solid state lighting applications. TDI has started the commercialization of p-GaN epitaxial materials.

Vladimir Dmitriev

2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

66

Enhanced oil recovery by micellar polymer flooding: M-1 project status report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Marathon Oil Co. has operated a large micellar-polymer project in S. Illinois. The M-1 Maraflood Project, encompasses ca 407 acres of the Main Robinson sand reservoir. The M-1 Project was developed using 5-spot patterns on 2 different spacing schemes; 248 acres were developed using 2.5-acre spacing; and 159 acres were developed using 5.0-acre spacing. The project utilizes 114 injection wells and 132 oil wells. Objectives of the project are to determine the economic feasibility of large-scale projects in waterflooded reservoirs and to compare the performance of the 2.5- and 5.0-acre patterns. Oil production increased from 150 bopd to a peak of 680 bopd. To date a total 848,000 bbl of tertiary oil have been produced. 11 references.

Hinchman, S.B.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Isovector and isoscalar spin-flip M1 strengths in $^{11}$B  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The $^{11}$B($^3$He$, t$), $^{11}$B($d, d'$), and $^{11}$B($p, p'$) reactions were measured at forward scattering angles including $0^\\circ$ to study the isovector and isoscalar spin-flip M1 strengths in $^{11}$B. The measured $^{11}$B($^3$He$, t$) cross sections were compared with the results of the distorted-wave impulse-approximation (DWIA) calculation, and the Gamow-Teller (GT) strengths for low-lying states in $^{11}$C were determined. The GT strengths were converted to the isovector spin-flip M1 strengths using the isobaric analog relations under the assumption of the isospin symmetry. The isoscalar spin-flip M1 strengths were obtained from the ($d, d'$) analysis by assuming that the shape of the collective transition form factor with the same ${\\Delta}J^\\pi$ is similar in the $^{11}$B($d, d'$) and $^{12}$C($d, d'$) reactions. The obtained isovector and isoscalar strengths were used in the DWIA calculations for the $^{11}$B($p, p'$) reaction. The DWIA calculation reasonably well explains the present $^{11}$B($p, p'$) result. However, the calculated cross section for the 8.92-MeV 3/2$^-_2$ state was significantly smaller than the experimental values. The transition strengths obtained in the shell-model calculations were found to be 20-50% larger than the experimental strengths. The transition strengths for the neutrino induced reactions were estimated by using the isovector and isoscalar spin-flip M1 strengths. The present results are quantitatively in agreement with the theoretical estimation discussing the axial isoscalar coupling in the neutrino scattering process, and are useful in the measurement of the stellar neutrinos using the neutral- and charged-current reactions on $^{11}$B.

T. Kawabata; H. Akimune; H. Fujimura; H. Fujita; Y. Fujita; M. Fujiwara; K. Hara; K. Y. Hara; K. Hatanaka; T. Ishikawa; M. Itoh; J. Kamiya; S. Kishi; M. Nakamura; K. Nakanishi; T. Noro; H. Sakaguchi; Y. Shimbara; H. Takeda; A. Tamii; S. Terashima; H. Toyokawa; M. Uchida; H. Ueno; T. Wakasa; Y. Yasuda; H. P. Yoshida; M. Yosoi

2004-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

68

Emigration and the Foundation of West Germany, 1933-1963  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

University Press, 2009. Feldman, Noah. What We Owe Iraq: WarGermany, 1933-1963 By Noah Benezra Strote A dissertationof West Germany, 1933-1963 By Noah Benezra Strote Doctor of

Strote, Noah Benezra

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

A model for the critical voltage for electrical degradation of GaN high electron mobility transistors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have found that there is a critical drain-to-gate voltage beyond which GaN high-electron mobility transistors start to degrade in electrical-stress experiments. The critical voltage depends on the detailed voltage biasing ...

Joh, Jungwoo

70

Photoluminescence study of the 1.047 eV emission in GaN K. Pressela)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

GaN/ AlGaN blue green light emitting diode, which has a much higher quantum efficiency than the SiC blue light emitting diode, became possible.2 Presently the wide bandgap semi- conductor GaN is intensively. Especially the 1.19 eV is very intense. Thus one can think of developing a light emitting diode in the near

Nabben, Reinhard

71

Ultra-low resistance ohmic contacts to GaN with high Si doping concentrations grown by molecular beam epitaxy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ti/Al/Ni/Au ohmic contacts were formed on heavily doped n{sup +} metal-polar GaN samples with various Si doping concentrations grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The contact resistivity (R{sub C}) and sheet resistance (R{sub sh}) as a function of corresponding GaN free carrier concentration (n) were measured. Very low R{sub C} values (electron mobility transistors.

Afroz Faria, Faiza; Guo Jia; Zhao Pei; Li Guowang; Kumar Kandaswamy, Prem; Wistey, Mark; Xing Huili; Jena, Debdeep [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States)

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

72

Materials physics and device development for improved efficiency of GaN HEMT high power amplifiers.  

SciTech Connect

GaN-based microwave power amplifiers have been identified as critical components in Sandia's next generation micro-Synthetic-Aperture-Radar (SAR) operating at X-band and Ku-band (10-18 GHz). To miniaturize SAR, GaN-based amplifiers are necessary to replace bulky traveling wave tubes. Specifically, for micro-SAR development, highly reliable GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs), which have delivered a factor of 10 times improvement in power performance compared to GaAs, need to be developed. Despite the great promise of GaN HEMTs, problems associated with nitride materials growth currently limit gain, linearity, power-added-efficiency, reproducibility, and reliability. These material quality issues are primarily due to heteroepitaxial growth of GaN on lattice mismatched substrates. Because SiC provides the best lattice match and thermal conductivity, SiC is currently the substrate of choice for GaN-based microwave amplifiers. Obviously for GaN-based HEMTs to fully realize their tremendous promise, several challenges related to GaN heteroepitaxy on SiC must be solved. For this LDRD, we conducted a concerted effort to resolve materials issues through in-depth research on GaN/AlGaN growth on SiC. Repeatable growth processes were developed which enabled basic studies of these device layers as well as full fabrication of microwave amplifiers. Detailed studies of the GaN and AlGaN growth of SiC were conducted and techniques to measure the structural and electrical properties of the layers were developed. Problems that limit device performance were investigated, including electron traps, dislocations, the quality of semi-insulating GaN, the GaN/AlGaN interface roughness, and surface pinning of the AlGaN gate. Surface charge was reduced by developing silicon nitride passivation. Constant feedback between material properties, physical understanding, and device performance enabled rapid progress which eventually led to the successful fabrication of state of the art HEMT transistors and amplifiers.

Kurtz, Steven Ross; Follstaedt, David Martin; Wright, Alan Francis; Baca, Albert G.; Briggs, Ronald D.; Provencio, Paula Polyak; Missert, Nancy A.; Allerman, Andrew Alan; Marsh, Phil F.; Koleske, Daniel David; Lee, Stephen Roger; Shul, Randy John; Seager, Carleton Hoover; Tigges, Christopher P.

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3 and HfO2 on GaN: A comparative study on interfaces and electrical characteristics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Al"2O"3, HfO"2, and composite HfO"2/Al"2O"3 films were deposited on n-type GaN using atomic layer deposition (ALD). The interfacial layer of GaON and HfON was observed between HfO"2 and GaN, whereas the absence of an interfacial layer at Al"2O"3/GaN ... Keywords: Al2O3, Atomic-layer-deposition (ALD), GaN, HfO2, High k dielectric, MOS

Y. C. Chang; M. L. Huang; Y. H. Chang; Y. J. Lee; H. C. Chiu; J. Kwo; M. Hong

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Skyrme-Rpa Description of Spin-Flip M1 Giant Resonance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The spin-flip M1 giant resonance is explored in the framework of Random Phase Approximation on the basis of the Skyrme energy functional. A representative set of eight Skyrme parameterizations (SkT6, SkM*, SLy6, SG2, SkO, SkO', SkI4, and SV-bas) is used. Light and heavy, spherical and deformed nuclei ($^{48}$Ca, $^{158}$Gd, $^{208}$Pb, and $^{238}$U) are considered. The calculations show that spin densities play a crucial role in forming the collective shift in the spectrum. The interplay of the collective shift and spin-orbit splitting determines the quality of the description. None of the considered Skyrme parameterizations is able to describe simultaneously the M1 strength distribution in closed-shell and open-shell nuclei. It is found that the problem lies in the relative positions of proton and neutron spin-orbit splitting. Necessity to involve the tensor and isovector spin-orbit interaction is called for.

P. Vesely; J. Kvasil; V. O. Nesterenko; W. Kleinig; P. -G. Reinhard; V. Yu. Ponomarev

2009-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

75

Skyrme random-phase-approximation description of spin-flip M1 giant resonance  

SciTech Connect

The spin-flip M1 giant resonance is explored in the framework of the random-phase-approximation (RPA) on the basis of the Skyrme energy functional. A representative set of eight Skyrme parametrizations (SkT6, SkM*, SLy6, SG2, SkO, SkO', SkI4, and SV-bas) is used. Light and heavy, spherical and deformed nuclei ({sup 48}Ca, {sup 158}Gd, {sup 208}Pb, and {sup 238}U) are considered. The calculations show that spin densities play a crucial role in forming the collective shift in the spectrum. The interplay of the collective shift and spin-orbit splitting determines the quality of the description. None of the considered Skyrme parametrizations is able to describe simultaneously the M1 strength distribution in closed-shell and open-shell nuclei. It is found that the problem lies in the relative positions of proton and neutron spin-orbit splitting. This calls for a better modeling of the tensor and isovector spin-orbit interaction.

Vesely, P.; Kvasil, J. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Physics, Charles University, CZ-18000, Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Nesterenko, V. O. [Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Moscow region, RU-141980 (Russian Federation); Kleinig, W. [Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Moscow region, RU-141980 (Russian Federation); Technische Universitaet Dresden, Inst. fuer Analysis, D-0106 Dresden (Germany); Reinhard, P.-G. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik II, Universitaet Erlangen, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Ponomarev, V. Yu. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

76

Arnstadt, Germany: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Arnstadt, Germany: Energy Resources Arnstadt, Germany: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia GeoNames ID 2955439 Coordinates 50.83333°, 10.95° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":50.83333,"lon":10.95,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

77

Bonn, Germany: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Bonn, Germany: Energy Resources Bonn, Germany: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia GeoNames ID 2946447 Coordinates 50.7327045°, 7.0963113° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":50.7327045,"lon":7.0963113,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

78

Hamburg, Germany: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hamburg, Germany: Energy Resources Hamburg, Germany: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia GeoNames ID 2911298 Coordinates 53.55°, 10° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":53.55,"lon":10,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

79

Berlin, Germany: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Germany: Energy Resources Germany: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia GeoNames ID 2950159 Coordinates 52.51667°, 13.4° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":52.51667,"lon":13.4,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

80

Hannover, Germany: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hannover, Germany: Energy Resources Hannover, Germany: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia GeoNames ID 2910831 Coordinates 52.37052°, 9.73322° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":52.37052,"lon":9.73322,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

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81

Cologne, Germany: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cologne, Germany: Energy Resources Cologne, Germany: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia GeoNames ID 2886242 Coordinates 50.93333°, 6.95° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":50.93333,"lon":6.95,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

82

Wilhelmshaven, Germany: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Wilhelmshaven, Germany: Energy Resources Wilhelmshaven, Germany: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia GeoNames ID 2808720 Coordinates 53.517063°, 8.119749° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":53.517063,"lon":8.119749,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

83

Munich, Germany: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Munich, Germany: Energy Resources Munich, Germany: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia GeoNames ID 2867714 Coordinates 48.13743°, 11.57549° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":48.13743,"lon":11.57549,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

84

Energy R and D in Germany  

SciTech Connect

Germany's total national (i.e., combined public and private sector) funding for R&D stood at $42 billion in 1997. The private sector accounted for nearly 62% ($24 billion) of the total, while the public sector accounted for approximately 38%. Since the late 1970s, when the public and private sectors each funded roughly half of Germany's R&D, the private sector has steadily assumed a larger and larger role as the dominant supporter of R&D activity, while overall government funding has remained essentially flat for much of the past two decades. In addition to declining relative to private R&D expenditures, public R&D expenditures in Germany declined by 4% in real terms between 1991 and 1997, to approximately $15 billion. The reduction in R&D investments in the public sector can be attributed in large part to the financial challenges associated with German reunification and related shifts in social priorities including efforts to address high unemployment and to rebuild basic infrastructure in the eastern states. R&D expenditures have also declined as a percentage of the total public budget, from a peak of 3.4% in 1985 to 2.7% in 1996. Energy R&D has been the hardest hit of all major socioeconomic areas of R&D expenditure funded by the German government. Between 1981 and 1997, public energy R&D fell from approximately $1.6 billion to $400 million--a 75% real decline. The $850 million reduction in Germany's fission R&D budget (which constituted two-thirds of government R&D investment in 1985) explains some 90% of the funding decline. Negative public perceptions regarding the safety and environmental impacts of nuclear energy have reduced nuclear power's viability as a long-term energy option for Germany. Discussions of a complete nuclear phaseout are now under way. At the same time, the German government has slashed its investments in fossil energy R&D by more than 90%. While energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies have fared relatively well in comparison with other energy technology areas, government support for all areas of energy R&D has declined in absolute terms since 1990. Remaining public and private sector energy R&D investments focus increasingly technology demonstration and commercialization efforts with relatively short time horizons.

Runci, PJ

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Superlattice-like stacking fault array in ion-irradiated GaN  

SciTech Connect

Controlling defects in crystalline solids is of technological importance for realizing desirable materials properties. Irradiation with energetic particles is useful for designing the spatial distribution and concentration of defects in materials. Here, we performed ion irradiation into hexagonal GaN with the wurtzite structure and demonstrated the spontaneous formation of superlattice-like stacking fault arrays. It was found that the modulation period can be controlled by irradiation conditions and post-irradiation heat treatments.

Ishimaru, Dr. Manabu [Osaka University; Usov, Igor Olegovich [ORNL; Zhang, Yanwen [ORNL; Weber, William J [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Customer Equilibrium and Optimal Strategies in an M/M/1 Queue with Dynamic Service Control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider the problem of customer equilibrium strategies in an M/M/1 queue under dynamic service control. The service rate switches between a low and a high value depending on system congestion. Arriving customers do not observe the system state at the moment of arrival. We show that due to service rate variation, the customer equilibrium strategy is not generally unique, and derive an upper bound on the number of possible equilibria. For the problem of social welfare optimization, we numerically analyze the relationship between the optimal arrival rate, which maximizes the overall welfare of the customers, and the equilibrium ones as a function of various parameter values. We finally derive analytic solutions for the special case where the service rate switch occurs when the queue ceases to be empty.

Dimitrakopoulos, Y

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Ohmic contacts to Si-implanted and un-implanted n-type GaN  

SciTech Connect

We report on ohmic contacts to Si-implanted and un-implanted n-type GaN on sapphire. A ring shaped contact design avoids the need to isolate the contact structures by additional implantation or etching. Metal layers of Al and Ti/Al were investigated. On un-implanted GaN, post metalization annealing was performed in an RTA for 30 seconds in N{sub 2} at 700, 800, and 900 C. A minimum specific contact resistance (r{sub c}) of 1.4{times}10{sup -5} {Omega}{minus}cm{sup 2} was measured for Ti/Al at an annealing temperature of 800 C. Although these values are reasonably low, variations of 95% in specific contact resistance were measured within a 500 {mu}m distance on the wafer. These results are most likely caused by the presence of compensating hydrogen. Specific contact resistance variation was reduced from 95 to 10% by annealing at 900 C prior to metalization. On Si-implanted GaN, un-annealed ohmic contacts were formed with Ti/Al metalization. The implant activation anneal of 1120 C generates nitrogen vacancies that leave the surface heavily n-type, which makes un-annealed ohmic contacts with low contact resistivity possible.

Brown, J; Ramer, J.; Zheng, L.F.; Hersee, S.D. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for High Technology Materials; Zolper, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Formation of manganese {delta}-doped atomic layer in wurtzite GaN  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We describe the formation of a {delta}-doped manganese layer embedded within c-plane wurtzite gallium nitride using a special molecular beam epitaxy growth process. Manganese is first deposited on the gallium-poor GaN (0001) surface, forming a {radical}(3) Multiplication-Sign {radical}(3)-R30 Degree-Sign reconstructed phase. This well-defined surface reconstruction is then nitrided using plasma nitridation, and gallium nitride is overgrown. The manganese content of the {radical}(3) Multiplication-Sign {radical}(3)-R30 Degree-Sign phase, namely one Mn per each {radical}(3) Multiplication-Sign {radical}(3)-R30 Degree-Sign unit cell, implies that the MnGaN alloy layer has a Mn concentration of up to 33%. The structure and chemical content of the surface are monitored beginning from the initial growth stage up through the overgrowth of 20 additional monolayers (MLs) of GaN. An exponential-like drop-off of the Mn signal with increasing GaN monolayers, as measured by Auger electron spectroscopy, indicates that the highly concentrated Mn layer remains at the {delta}-doped interface. A model of the resultant {delta}-doped structure is formulated based on the experimental data, and implications for possible spintronic applications are discussed.

Shi Meng; Chinchore, Abhijit; Wang Kangkang; Mandru, Andrada-Oana; Liu Yinghao; Smith, Arthur R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nanoscale and Quantum Phenomena Institute, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701 (United States)

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

The development and evaluation of a sensitive minicolumn assay for the detection of aflatoxin M1 in milk  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The aflatoxins comprise a subgroup of mycotoxins usually produced by Aspergillus parasiticus or Aspergillus flavus. Dairy cattle which ingest aflatoxin-contaminated feed will excrete aflatoxin M1 into the milk. The presence of this metabolite in milk is a concern for humans. At the present time, the best method to prevent ingestion of contaminated milk is by detection and diversion from our food supply. A field-practical method for the chemiselective immobilization and detection of aflatoxin M1 (CSID-M1) in milk has been developed in our laboratory. In this new method, aflatoxin M1 (AfM1) is selectively adsorbed in a small glass minicolumn at the interface of a layer of packed neutral sand and a narrow band of magnesium silicate (or Florisil). AfM1, at a level of 0.5 ppb or greater in contaminated milk, can be easily detected as a band of bright blue fluorescence with this assay. Briefly, whole milk- is diluted with water and passed through a C18 Sep-Pak cartridge. AfM1 is then partitioned by polarity and eluted from the cartridge with 2.5% acetone in methylene chloride. The eluate (containing AfM1) is added to the minicolumn detector. The tube is then washed with 2% methanol in methylene chloride and viewed under longwave UV light for AfM1. The limit o detection for CSID-M1 assay was determined to be 0.2 ppb compared with 0.3 ppb AfM1 using an immunoaffinity column extraction. The CSID-M1 assay was found to accurate, exhibiting no false positives or false negatives under the experimental condition imposed in this study. Also, the CSID-M1 detectors were shown to be chemically stable requiring no refrigeration for storage up to 20 weeks. In summary, the CSID-M1 assay was shown to be rapid, practical, easy to perform, and stable, thus facilitating its use in the prescreening of milk.

Cathey, Carol Grmela

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Migration, Wages, and Tradition: Obstacles to Entrepreneurship in East Germany ?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For the last decade, the East German economy has been suffering from high unemployment and low economic growth. Policy makers often point to the lack of entrepreneurship as one of East Germanys main problems. This paper addresses the question of how East Germanys integration into an established economy, West Germany, may have hindered a fruitful development of entrepreneurship and how this may have affected economic growth. I build a model economy that places Lucass [1978] span-of-control model into an overlapping-generations framework. Following Hassler and Rodrguez Mora [2000] managerial talent is defined as a combination of two factors, intelligence and entrepreneurial parental background, and growth depends on the intelligence of entrepreneurs. In East Germany, the lack of entrepreneurial parental background makes intelligence the decisive factor in occupational choice and more intelligent entrepreneurs should contribute to high growth rates. However, three key aspects of its integration into West Germany inhibit this mechanism: 1) the unrestricted mobility of East Germans to the West, 2) the policy of fixing East German wages as fractions of West German wages, and 3) the importance of family tradition for entrepreneurship in West Germany. Counterfactual experiments show that eliminating any of these three aspects leads to more entrepreneurs, less unemployment, and higher economic growth in East Germany.

Zo Kuehn; Job Market Paper

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Ab initio study on noncompensated CrO codoping of GaN for enhanced solar energy conversion  

SciTech Connect

We describe a novel photocatalyst obtained by codoping GaN with CrO, according to a new "noncompensated" codoping concept based on first-principles calculations. The approach enables controllable narrowing of the GaN band gap with significantly enhanced carrier mobility and photocatalytic activity in the visible light region and thus offers immense potential for application in solar energy conversion, water splitting, and a variety of solar-assisted photocatalysis. Our calculations indicate that the formation energy for the cation doping is greatly reduced by noncompensated codoping with an anion. Although Cr doping alone can split the band gap with the formation of an intermediate band, the mobility is low due to carrier trapping by the localized states. The first-principles calculations also demonstrate that CrO codoping of GaN shifts the Fermi level into the conduction band resulting in high carrier density and mobility.

Pan, Hui [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL; Eres, Gyula [ORNL; Zhang, Zhenyu [ORNL

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Development of a Bulk GaN Growth Technique for Low Defect Density, Large-Area Native Substrates  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

the Electrochemical Solution the Electrochemical Solution Growth (ESG) Technique for Native GaN Substrates DOE Energy Storage & Power Electronics Research Program 30 September 2008 PI: Karen Waldrip Advanced Power Sources R&D, Dept 2546 PM: Stan Atcitty, John Boyes Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, 87185 Sponsor: Gil Bindewald, DOE Power Electronics & Energy Storage Program Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Outline * Motivation * Existing GaN Growth Technique - Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth - Methods for Growing Bulk GaN * Development of the Electrochemical Solution Growth Technique

93

The Effect of Hydrogen Carrier Gas on the Morphological Evolution and Material Properties of GaN on Sapphire  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In-situ optical reflectance is used to monitor the morphological evolution of the two-step GaN growth on sapphire. The amount of H{sub 2} carrier gas used in the growth is observed to strongly influence the morphological evolution of the low temperature buffer layer and the subsequent high temperature nucleation behavior, which in turn affects the structural and electrical properties of the GaN epitaxial films. The optical reflectance transients correlate with the sizes and distributions of nuclei as observed by AFM.

Ng, T.B.; Han, J.; Biefeld, R.M.; Zolper, J.C.; Crawford, M.H.; Follstaell, D.M.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Metallicity of InN and GaN surfaces exposed to NH{sub 3}.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A systematic study of energies and structures of InN and GaN (0001) surfaces exposed to NH{sub 3} and its decomposition products was performed with first-principles methods. A phenomenological model including electron counting contributions is developed based on calculated DFT energies and is used to identify low-energy structures. These predictions are checked with additional DFT calculations. The equilibrium phase diagrams are found to contain structures that violate the electron counting rule. Densities of states for these structures indicate n-type conductivity, consistent with available experimental results.

Walkosz, W.; Zapol, P.; Stephenson, G. B. (Materials Science Division)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Evaluation of GaN substrates grown in supercritical basic ammonia  

SciTech Connect

GaN crystals grown by the basic ammonothermal method were investigated for their use as substrates for device regrowth. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the substrates contained multiple grains while secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) revealed a high concentration of hydrogen, oxygen, and sodium. Despite these drawbacks, the emission from the light emitting diode structures grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition on both the c-plane and m-plane epitaxial wafers was demonstrated. The SIMS depth profiles showed that the diffusion of the alkali metal from the substrate into the epitaxial film was small, especially in the m-direction.

Saito, Makoto; Yamada, Hisashi; Iso, Kenji; Sato, Hitoshi; Hirasawa, Hirohiko; Kamber, Derrick S.; Hashimoto, Tadao; Baars, Steven P. den; Speck, James S.; Nakamura, Shuji [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

2009-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

96

Synthesis and characterization of GaN thin films deposited on different substrates using a low-cost electrochemical deposition technique  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gallium nitride GaN thin films were deposited on three different substrates; Si (111), Si (100) and ITO coated glass using electrochemical deposition technique at 20 Degree-Sign C. A mixture of gallium nitrate, ammonium nitrate was used as electrolyte. The deposited films were investigated at room temperature by a series of material characterization techniques, namely; scanning electron microscopy (SEM), EDX and X-ray diffraction (XRD). SEM images and EDX results indicated that the growth of GaN films varies according to the substrates. XRD analyses showed the presence of hexagonal wurtzite and cubic zinc blende GaN phases with the crystallite size around 18-29 nm.

Al-Heuseen, K.; Hashim, M. R. [Al-Balqa Applied University, Ajloun University College (Jordan); School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800-Penang (Malaysia)

2012-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

97

W and WSi(x) Ohmic Contacts on p- And n-Type GaN  

SciTech Connect

W and WSi ohmic contacts on both p- and n-type GaN have been annealed at temperatures from 300-1000 *C. There is minimal reaction (< 100 ~ broadening of the metal/GaN interface) even at 1000 *C. Specific contact resistances in the 10-5 f2-cm2 range are obtained for WSiX on Si-implanted GaN with a peak doping concentration of- 5 x 1020 cm-3, after annealing at 950 `C. On p-GaN, leaky Schottky diode behavior is observed for W, WSiX and Ni/Au contacts at room temperature, but true ohmic characteristics are obtained at 250 - 300 *C, where the specific contact resistances are typically in the 10-2 K2-cm2 range. The best contacts for W and WSiX are obtained after 700 *C annealing for periods of 30- 120 sees. The formation of &WzN interracial phases appear to be important in determining the contact quality.

Abernathy, C.R.; Cao, X.A.; Eizenberg, M.; Han, J.; Lothian, J.R.; Pearton, S.J.; Ren, F.; Shul, R.J.; Zeitouny, A.; Zolper, J.C.

1998-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

98

Fabrication and characterization of GaN junction field effect transistors  

SciTech Connect

Junction field effect transistors (JFET) were fabricated on a GaN epitaxial structure grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The DC and microwave characteristics, as well as the high temperature performance of the devices were studied. These devices exhibited excellent pinch-off and a breakdown voltage that agreed with theoretical predictions. An extrinsic transconductance (g{sub m}) of 48 mS/mm was obtained with a maximum drain current (I{sub D}) of 270 mA/mm. The microwave measurement showed an f{sub T} of 6 GHz and an f{sub max} of 12 GHz. Both the I{sub D} and the g{sub m} were found to decrease with increasing temperature, possibly due to lower electron mobility at elevated temperatures. These JFETs exhibited a significant current reduction after a high drain bias was applied, which was attributed to a partially depleted channel caused by trapped electrons in the semi-insulating GaN buffer layer.

Zhang, L.; Lester, L.F.; Baca, A.G.; Shul, R.J.; Chang, P.C.; Willison, C.L.; Mishra, U.K.; Denbaars, S.P.; Zolper, J.C.

2000-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

99

Atomistic simulation of damage production by atomic and molecular ion irradiation in GaN  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have studied defect production during single atomic and molecular ion irradiation having an energy of 50 eV/amu in GaN by molecular dynamics simulations. Enhanced defect recombination is found in GaN, in accordance with experimental data. Instantaneous damage shows non-linearity with different molecular projectile and increasing molecular mass. Number of instantaneous defects produced by the PF{sub 4} molecule close to target surface is four times higher than that for PF{sub 2} molecule and three times higher than that calculated as a sum of the damage produced by one P and four F ion irradiation (P+4 Multiplication-Sign F). We explain this non-linearity by energy spike due to molecular effects. On the contrary, final damage created by PF{sub 4} and PF{sub 2} shows a linear pattern when the sample cools down. Total numbers of defects produced by Ag and PF{sub 4} having similar atomic masses are comparable. However, defect-depth distributions produced by these species are quite different, also indicating molecular effect.

Ullah, M. W.; Kuronen, A.; Nordlund, K.; Djurabekova, F. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Karaseov, P. A.; Titov, A. I. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University, 195251 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

100

Growth of p-type and n-type m-plane GaN by molecular beam epitaxy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cm ?3 corresponding to p-type ?lm conductivi- ties as highOF APPLIED PHYSICS 100, 063707 ?2006? Growth of p-type andn-type m-plane GaN by molecular beam epitaxy M. McLaurin, a?

McLaurin, M; Mates, T E; Wu, F; Speck, J S

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "germany gan m1" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Impact of defects on the electrical transport, optical properties and failure mechanisms of GaN nanowires.  

SciTech Connect

We present the results of a three year LDRD project that focused on understanding the impact of defects on the electrical, optical and thermal properties of GaN-based nanowires (NWs). We describe the development and application of a host of experimental techniques to quantify and understand the physics of defects and thermal transport in GaN NWs. We also present the development of analytical models and computational studies of thermal conductivity in GaN NWs. Finally, we present an atomistic model for GaN NW electrical breakdown supported with experimental evidence. GaN-based nanowires are attractive for applications requiring compact, high-current density devices such as ultraviolet laser arrays. Understanding GaN nanowire failure at high-current density is crucial to developing nanowire (NW) devices. Nanowire device failure is likely more complex than thin film due to the prominence of surface effects and enhanced interaction among point defects. Understanding the impact of surfaces and point defects on nanowire thermal and electrical transport is the first step toward rational control and mitigation of device failure mechanisms. However, investigating defects in GaN NWs is extremely challenging because conventional defect spectroscopy techniques are unsuitable for wide-bandgap nanostructures. To understand NW breakdown, the influence of pre-existing and emergent defects during high current stress on NW properties will be investigated. Acute sensitivity of NW thermal conductivity to point-defect density is expected due to the lack of threading dislocation (TD) gettering sites, and enhanced phonon-surface scattering further inhibits thermal transport. Excess defect creation during Joule heating could further degrade thermal conductivity, producing a viscous cycle culminating in catastrophic breakdown. To investigate these issues, a unique combination of electron microscopy, scanning luminescence and photoconductivity implemented at the nanoscale will be used in concert with sophisticated molecular-dynamics calculations of surface and defect-mediated NW thermal transport. This proposal seeks to elucidate long standing material science questions for GaN while addressing issues critical to realizing reliable GaN NW devices.

Armstrong, Andrew M.; Aubry, Sylvie; Shaner, Eric Arthur; Siegal, Michael P.; Li, Qiming; Jones, Reese E.; Westover, Tyler; Wang, George T.; Zhou, Xiao Wang; Talin, Albert Alec; Bogart, Katherine Huderle Andersen; Harris, C. Thomas; Huang, Jian Yu

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

E-Energy - Implementing Smart Grids in Germany  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

E-Energy - Implementing Smart Grids in Germany E-Energy - Implementing Smart Grids in Germany Speaker(s): Alexander von Scheven Date: February 14, 2011 - 11:30am Location: 90-3075 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Chris Marnay Climate change, the rapid surge in energy demand and dwindling natural resources present Germany with major challenges in the field of energy supply. The E-Energy project is funded by the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi) in an partnership with the Federal Ministry for Environment (BMU) and aims to secure an economical and environmentally compatible supply of power for all public and private sectors. New integral system solutions are called for, in which information and communication technologies (ICTs) will play a key role. Example solutions for an energy Internet will be set up in six model regions in Germany for the first time.

103

Etelligence (Smart Grid Project) (Cuxhaven, Germany) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cuxhaven, Germany) Cuxhaven, Germany) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name Etelligence Country Germany Headquarters Location Cuxhaven, Germany Coordinates 53.861702°, 8.694068° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":53.861702,"lon":8.694068,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

104

Germany's Future Energy Policy - Potential Scope and Areas of...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Germany's Future Energy Policy - Potential Scope and Areas of Action for Rational Energy Use and Renewable Energies Speaker(s): Ole Langniss Date: June 24, 1996 - 12:00pm Location:...

105

Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions from Germany  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

now 22.3% of the total. The year 1991 marked the first year the United Nations published energy statistics for unified Germany. Through 1990 statistics were still published for...

106

The Energy in Western Europe, Spain and Germany: From Renewable...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Energy in Western Europe, Spain and Germany: From Renewable Energies to Energy-Saving Programs Speaker(s): Jose MaCampos Date: November 29, 2007 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122...

107

Westport Germany GmbH | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Innovations that develops and manufactures engines and fuel systems using natural gas, propane and hydrogen. References Westport Germany GmbH1 LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase...

108

Ammothermal Growth of Gan Substrates For Leds: High-Pressure Ammonothermal Process for Bulk Gallium Nitride Crystal Growth for Energy Efficient Commercially Competitive Lighting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: The new GaN crystal growth method is adapted from that used to grow quartz crystals, which are very inexpensive and represent the second-largest market for single crystals for electronic applications (after silicon). More extreme conditions are required to grow GaN crystals and therefore a new type of chemical growth chamber was invented that is suitable for large-scale manufacturing. A new process was developed that grows GaN crystals at a rate that is more than double that of current processes. The new technology will enable GaN substrates with best-in-world quality at lowest-in-world prices, which in turn will enable new generations of white LEDs, lasers for full-color displays, and high-performance power electronics.

None

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Evolution of AlN buffer layers on Silicon and the effect on the property of the expitaxial GaN film  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The morphology evolution of high-temperature grown AlN nucleation layers on (111) silicon has been studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The structure and morphology of subsequently grown GaN film were characterized ...

Zang, Keyan

110

ARM Publications Database  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sites: ARM Instruments: Data Products: AMF - Black Forest, Germany (FKB) AMF - Cape Cod, Massachusetts (PVC) AMF - Gan Island, Maldives (GAN) AMF - Ganges Valley, India (PGH)...

111

Accelerated Publication: Drain current enhancement and negligible current collapse in GaN MOSFETs with atomic-layer-deposited HfO2 as a gate dielectric  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accumulation-type GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors (MOSFET's) with atomic-layer-deposited HfO"2 gate dielectrics have been fabricated; a 4@mm gate-length device with a gate dielectric of 14.8nm in thickness (an equivalent SiO"2 ... Keywords: Atomic layer deposition (ALD), Current collapse, GaN, HfO2, Metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor (MOSFET)

Y. C. Chang; W. H. Chang; Y. H. Chang; J. Kwo; Y. S. Lin; S. H. Hsu; J. M. Hong; C. C. Tsai; M. Hong

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Structural and optical studies of GaN pn-junction with AlN buffer layer grown on Si (111) by RF plasma enhanced MBE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

GaN pn-junction grown on silicon substrates have been the focus in a number of recent reports and further effort is still necessary to improve its crystalline quality for practical applications. GaN has the high n-type background carrier concentration resulting from native defects commonly thought to be nitrogen vacancies. In this work, we present the growth of pn-junction of GaN on Si (111) substrate using RF plasma-enhanced molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Both of the layers show uniformity with an average thickness of 0.709 {mu}m and 0.095 {mu}m for GaN and AlN layers, respectively. The XRD spectra indicate that no sign of cubic phase of GaN are found, so it is confirmed that the sample possessed hexagonal structure. It was found that all the allowed Raman optical phonon modes of GaN, i.e. the E2 (low), E1 (high) and A1 (LO) are clearly visible.

Yusoff, Mohd Zaki Mohd; Hassan, Zainuriah; Woei, Chin Che; Hassan, Haslan Abu; Abdullah, Mat Johar [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia and Department of Applied Sciences Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) 13500 Permatang Pauh, Penang (Malaysia); Department of Applied Sciences Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) 13500 Permatang Pauh, Penang (Malaysia)

2012-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

113

Monolithic single GaN nanowire laser with photonic crystal microcavity on silicon  

SciTech Connect

Optically pumped lasing at room temperature in a silicon based monolithic single GaN nanowire with a two-dimensional photonic crystal microcavity is demonstrated. Catalyst-free nanowires with low density ({approx}10{sup 8} cm{sup -2}) are grown on Si by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. High resolution transmission electron microscopy images reveal that the nanowires are of wurtzite structure and they have no observable defects. A single nanowire laser fabricated on Si is characterized by a lasing transition at {lambda}=371.3 nm with a linewidth of 0.55 nm. The threshold is observed at a pump power density of {approx}120 kW/cm{sup 2} and the spontaneous emission factor {beta} is estimated to be 0.08.

Heo, Junseok; Guo Wei; Bhattacharya, Pallab [Center for Nanoscale Photonics and Spintronics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2122 (United States)

2011-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

114

Magnetically active vacancy related defects in irradiated GaN layers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present the studies of magnetic properties of 2 MeV {sup 4}He{sup +}-irraadiated GaN grown by metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition. Particle irradiation allowed controllable introduction of Ga-vacancy in the samples. The magnetic moments with concentrations changing between 4.3 and 8.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17}cm{sup -3} showing superparamagnetic blocking at room temperature are observed. The appearance of clear hysteresis curve at T=5K with coercive field of about H{sub C} Almost-Equal-To 270 Oe suggests that the formation of more complex Ga vacancy related defects is promoted with increasing Ga vacancy content. The small concentration of the observed magnetically active defects with respect to the total Ga-vacancy concentration suggests that the presence of the oxygen/hydrogen-related vacancy complexes is the source of the observed magnetic moments.

Kilanski, L.; Tuomisto, F. [Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University, P.O. Box 11100, FI-00076 Aalto Espoo (Finland); Szymczak, R. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Kruszka, R. [Institute of Electron Technology, Al. Lotnikow 46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland)

2012-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

115

Influence of the adatom diffusion on selective growth of GaN nanowire regular arrays  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on patterned Si/AlN/Si(111) substrates was used to obtain regular arrays of uniform-size GaN nanowires (NWs). The silicon top layer has been patterned with e-beam lithography, resulting in uniform arrays of holes with different diameters (d{sub h}) and periods (P). While the NW length is almost insensitive to the array parameters, the diameter increases significantly with d{sub h} and P till it saturates at P values higher than 800 nm. A diffusion induced model was used to explain the experimental results with an effective diffusion length of the adatoms on the Si, estimated to be about 400 nm.

Gotschke, T.; Schumann, T.; Limbach, F.; Calarco, R. [Institute of Bio- and Nanosystems (IBN-1), Research Centre Juelich GmbH and JARA-Fundamentals of Future Information Technology (FIT), 52425 Juelich (Germany); Paul-Drude-Institut fuer Festkoerperelektronik, Hausvogteiplatz 5-7, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Stoica, T. [Institute of Bio- and Nanosystems (IBN-1), Research Centre Juelich GmbH and JARA-Fundamentals of Future Information Technology (FIT), 52425 Juelich (Germany)

2011-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

116

Structural Properties of Eu-Doped GaN Investigated by Raman Spectroscopy  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Rare-earth (RE) impurities doped GaN are highly promising candidates for light emitting device applications due to their efficient electroluminescence properties at room temperature. Among those, Eu doped GaN has been identified as an excellent material for the red spectral region due to its strong emission at 620 nm. As a transition internal to the Eu doping atom (4f-4f), light emission originates in a much smaller complex than the more flexibly controllable quantum structures of wells, wires, and dots. This is thought to make the center less susceptible to structural defects and in particular radiation damage in the lattice host. Nevertheless, the lattice host is crucial for providing the excitation in from of free electrons and holes. In this respect, the actual lattice site Eu occupies in the host lattice, i.e. in GaN, is important. A large fraction of Eu atoms are typically inactive which must be attributed to their lattice site and local environment. GaN films implanted with Eu to concentrations of {approx}10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} were subjected to a highly directed beam of 500 keV He{sup +} at a dose of 5 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2}. By means of a shadow mask, irradiated and unexposed regions lie very close to each other on the same sample. We used optical and structural analysis to identify the exerted radiation damage. At the full radiation dose, photoluminescence intensity has decayed to {approx}0.01 of its initial value. From the dose dependence of the radiation decay we previously concluded, that this decay is in part due to the destruction of radiative Eu sites [J.W. Tringe, unpublished (2006)]. Along the transition from virgin to irradiated material we analyze the accumulated damage in terms of surface morphology (atomic force microscopy), crystallinity (x-ray diffraction), and phonon dispersion using micro-Raman spectroscopy. In addition to the well-studied E{sub 2}(high) mode, two new vibrational modes at 659 cm{sup -1} and 201 cm{sup -1} were observed in the Eu implanted and annealed sample, prior to He{sup +} irradiation. These modes are either remnants of the implantation damage or related to the Eu impurity. As such they can be indicative of the actual lattice site the Eu atom resides on. After irradiation, broad Raman modes at 300 cm-1 are being observed. This band indicates disorder activated Raman scattering (DARS) due to the radiation damage. An additional narrow mode appears at 672 cm{sup -1}, which can possibly be due to a nitrogen vacancy related vibrational mode. The continuous transition from irradiated to un-irradiated sample allows the direct evolution of radiation damage and its coordinated effects in structural, optical and vibrational properties. By its systematic correlation we anticipate to be able to elucidate the Eu lattice interaction and the processes of radiation damage.

Senawiratne, J; Xia, Y; Detchprohm, T; Tringe, J W; Stevens, C G; Wetzel, C

2006-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

117

Method of growing GaN films with a low density of structural defects using an interlayer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A dramatic reduction of the dislocation density in GaN was obtained by insertion of a single thin interlayer grown at an intermediate temperature (IT-IL) after the growth of an initial grown at high temperature. A description of the growth process is presented with characterization results aimed at understanding the mechanisms of reduction in dislocation density. A large percentage of the threading dislocations present in the first GaN epilayer are found to bend near the interlayer and do not propagate into the top layer which grows at higher temperature in a lateral growth mode. TEM studies show that the mechanisms of dislocation reduction are similar to those described for the epitaxial lateral overgrowth process, however a notable difference is the absence of coalescence boundaries.

Bourret-Courchesne, Edith D. (Richmond, CA)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Efficient Switches for Solar Power Conversion: Four Quadrant GaN Switch Enabled Three Phase Grid-Tied Microinverters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solar ADEPT Project: Transphorm is developing power switches for new types of inverters that improve the efficiency and reliability of converting energy from solar panels into useable electricity for the grid. Transistors act as fast switches and control the electrical energy that flows in an electrical circuit. Turning a transistor off opens the circuit and stops the flow of electrical current; turning it on closes the circuit and allows electrical current to flow. In this way a transistor can be used to convert DC from a solar panel into AC for use in a home. Transphorms transistors will enable a single semiconductor device to switch electrical currents at high-voltage in both directionsmaking the inverter more compact and reliable. Transphorm is using Gallium Nitride (GaN) as a semiconductor material in its transistors instead of silicon, which is used in most conventional transistors, because GaN transistors have lower losses at higher voltages and switching frequencies.

None

2012-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

119

Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes Aurlien David,a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes Aurélien David,a Tetsuo Fujii,b Brendan March 2006 We report on the fabrication and study of laser lift-off GaN-based light-emitting diodes-state lighting. However, as is the case for any light-emitting diode LED , light tends to be trapped in the high

Recanati, Catherine

120

Transistors for Electric Motor Drives: High-Performance GaN HEMT Modules for Agile Power Electronics  

SciTech Connect

ADEPT Project: Transphorm is developing transistors with gallium nitride (GaN) semiconductors that could be used to make cost-effective, high-performance power converters for a variety of applications, including electric motor drives which transmit power to a motor. A transistor acts like a switch, controlling the electrical energy that flows around an electrical circuit. Most transistors today use low-cost silicon semiconductors to conduct electrical energy, but silicon transistors dont operate efficiently at high speeds and voltage levels. Transphorm is using GaN as a semiconductor material in its transistors because GaN performs better at higher voltages and frequencies, and it is more energy efficient than straight silicon. However, Transphorm is using inexpensive silicon as a base to help keep costs low. The company is also packaging its transistors with other electrical components that can operate quickly and efficiently at high power levelsincreasing the overall efficiency of both the transistor and the entire motor drive.

None

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "germany gan m1" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

EUDEEP (Smart Grid Project) (Germany) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

EUDEEP (Smart Grid Project) (Germany) EUDEEP (Smart Grid Project) (Germany) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name EUDEEP Country Germany Coordinates 51.165691°, 10.451526° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":51.165691,"lon":10.451526,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

122

Characterization of Stress Relaxation, Dislocations and Crystallographic Tilt Via X-ray Microdiffraction in GaN (0001) Layers Grown by Maskless Pendeo-Epitaxy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Intrinsic stresses due to lattice mismatch and high densities of threading dislocations and extrinsic stresses resulting from the mismatch in the coefficients of thermal expansion are present in almost all III-Nitride heterostructures. Stress relaxation in the GaN layers occurs in conventional and in pendeo-epitaxial films via the formation of additional misfit dislocations, domain boundaries, elastic strain and wing tilt. Polychromatic X-ray microdiffraction, high resolution monochromatic X-ray diffraction and finite element simulations have been used to determine the distribution of strain, dislocations, sub-boundaries and crystallographic wing tilt in uncoalesced and coalesced GaN layers grown by maskless pendeo-epitaxy. An important parameter was the width-to-height ratio of the etched columns of GaN from which the lateral growth of the wings occurred. The strain and tilt across the stripes increased with the width-to-height ratio. Tilt boundaries formed in the uncoalesced GaN layers at the column/wing interfaces for samples with a large ratio. Sharper tilt boundaries were observed at the interfaces formed by the coalescence of two laterally growing wings. The wings tilted upward during cooling to room temperature for both the uncoalesced and the coalesced GaN layers. It was determined that finite element simulations that account for extrinsic stress relaxation can explain the experimental results for uncoalesced GaN layers. Relaxation of both extrinsic and intrinsic stress components in the coalesced GaN layers contribute to the observed wing tilt and the formation of sub-boundaries.

Barabash, R.I.; Ice, G.E.; Liu, W.; Einfeldt, S.; Hommel, D.; Roskowski, A.M.; Davis, R.F. (ORNL)

2010-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

123

On Sojourn Times in the $M/M/1$-PS Model, Conditioned on the Number of Other Users  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider the $M/M/1$-PS queue with processor sharing. We study the conditional sojourn time distribution of an arriving customer, conditioned on the number of other customers present. A new formula is obtained for the conditional sojourn time distribution, using a discrete Green's function. This is shown to be equivalent to some classic results of Pollaczeck and Vaulot from 1946. Then various asymptotic limits are studied, including large time and/or large number of customers present, and heavy traffic, where the arrival rate is only slightly less than the service rate.

Zhen, Qiang

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Characterization of GaN nanowires grown on PSi, PZnO and PGaN on Si (111) substrates by thermal evaporation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this research, we used an easy and inexpensive method to synthesize highly crystalline GaN nanowires (NWs); on different substrates such as porous silicon (PSi), porous zinc oxide (PZnO) and porous gallium nitride (PGaN) on Si (111) wafer by thermal evaporation using commercial GaN powder without any catalyst. Micro structural studies by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscope measurements reveal the role of different substrates in the morphology, nucleation and alignment of the GaN nanowires. The degree of alignment of the synthesized nanowires does not depend on the lattice mismatch between wires and their substrates. Further structural and optical characterizations were performed using high resolution X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Results indicate that the nanowires are of single-crystal hexagonal GaN. The quality and density of grown GaN nanowires for different substrates are highly dependent on the lattice mismatch between the nanowires and their substrates and also on the size of the porosity of the substrates. Nanowires grown on PGaN have the best quality and highest density as compared to nanowires on other substrates. By using three kinds of porous substrates, we are able to study the increase in the alignment and density of the nanowires.

Shekari, Leila; Hassan, Haslan Abu; Thahab, Sabah M.; Hassan, Zainuriah [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Materials Engineering Department, College of Engineering, University of Kufa, Najaf (Iraq); Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia)

2012-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

125

Why Are Residential PV Prices in Germany So Much Lower Than in...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Why Are Residential PV Prices in Germany So Much Lower Than in the United States? A Scoping Analysis Title Why Are Residential PV Prices in Germany So Much Lower Than in the United...

126

DOE Solar Decathlon: Team Germany: Starting a Solar Revolution  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

surPLUShome at the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon 2009 with Silo House and the Washington Monument in the background. surPLUShome at the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon 2009 with Silo House and the Washington Monument in the background. Enlarge image Team Germany's surPLUShome took first place in Solar Decathlon 2009. It is now permanently placed on the Technische Universität Darmstadt campus. (Credit: Jim Tetro/U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon) Who: Team Germany What: surPLUShome Where: Technische Universität Darmstadt El-Lissitzky-Str. 3 64287 Darmstadt, Deutschland Map This House Public tours: Not available Solar Decathlon 2009 Team Germany: Starting a Solar Revolution In June 2010, Team Germany's surPLUShome returned to the Technische Universität Darmstadt campus for permanent placement next to Solarhouse, from the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon 2007. As part of the

127

Innovative energy technologies and climate policy in Germany  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Due to the size and structure of its economy, Germany is one of the largest carbon emitters in the European Union. However, Germany is facing a major renewal and restructuring process in electricity generation. Within the next two decades, up to 50% of current electricity generation capacity may retire because of end-of-plant lifetime and the nuclear phase-out pact of 1998. Substantial opportunities therefore exist for deployment of advanced electricity generating technologies in both a projected baseline and in alternative carbon policy scenarios. We simulate the potential role of coal integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), natural gas combined cycle (NGCC), carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS), and wind power within a computable general equilibrium of Germany from the present through 2050. These advanced technologies and their role within a future German electricity system are the focus of this paper. We model the response of greenhouse gas emissions in Germany to various technology and carbon policy assumptions over the next few decades. In our baseline scenario, all of the advanced technologies except CCS provide substantial contributions to electricity generation. We also calculate the carbon price where each fossil technology, combined with CCS, becomes competitive. Constant carbon price experiments are used to characterize the model response to a carbon policy. This provides an estimate of the cost of meeting an emissions target, and the share of emissions reductions available from the electricity generation sector.

Schumacher, Katja; Sands, Ronald D.

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

A survey of environmental needs and innovative technologies in Germany  

SciTech Connect

The International Technology Program (IT?), formerly the international Technology Exchange Program (ITEP), of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) is responsible for promoting: (1) the import of innovative technologies to better address EM`s needs; and (2) the export of US services into foreign markets to enhance US competitiveness. Under this program: (1) the environmental restoration market in Germany was evaluated, including the description of the general types of environmental problems, the environmental regulations, and specific selected contaminated sites; and (2) potentially innovative environmental restoration technologies, either commercially available or under development in Germany, were identified, described and evaluated. It was found that: (1) the environmental restoration market in Germany is very large, on the order of several billion US dollars per year, with a significant portion possibly available to US businesses; and (2) a large number (54) of innovative environmental restoration technologies, which are either commercially available or under development in Germany, may have some benefit to the DOE EM program and should be considered for transfer to the US.

Voss, C.F.; Roberds, W.J. [Golder Associates, Inc., Redmond, WA (United States)

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

EHV lines in the Federal Republic of Germany  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To supply the mounting demand for electricity in the Federal Republic of Germany, a network has been built that consists of 380- and 220-kV multiple bundles. Multitiered towers are used to support the conductors because available land is a limited, expensive ...

J. Jansen

1970-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Modeling the Hydrological Effect on Local Gravity at Moxa, Germany  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A superconducting gravimeter has observed with high accuracy (to within a few nm s?2) and high frequency (1 Hz) the temporal variations in the earths gravity field near Moxa, Germany, since 1999. Hourly gravity residuals are obtained by time ...

Shaakeel Hasan; Peter A. Troch; J. Boll; C. Kroner

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Polarity inversion of N-face GaN using an aluminum oxide interlayer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The polarity of GaN grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy was inverted from N-face to Ga-face by inserting a composite AlN/aluminum oxide (AlO{sub x}) interlayer structure at the inversion interface. The change in polarity was verified in situ by reflection high energy electron diffraction via intensity transients and postgrowth surface reconstructions, and ex situ by convergent beam electron diffraction and etch studies in an aqueous potassium hydroxide solution. The inverted materials showed smooth surfaces and good electrical properties. AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors fabricated on the inverted epilayers showed good dc and high frequency performance. A current-gain cutoff frequency (f{sub T}) of 21 GHz and maximum oscillation frequency (f{sub max}) of 61 GHz were measured in devices with a gate length of 0.7 {mu}m. These data compare favorably to those of Ga-face AlGaN/GaN devices with a similar structure grown on Si-face SiC substrates.

Wong, Man Hoi; Mishra, Umesh K. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-9560 (United States); Wu, Feng; Speck, James S. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-5050 (United States)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

132

Deep traps in nonpolar m-plane GaN grown by ammonia-based molecular beam epitaxy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Deep level defects in nonpolar m-plane GaN grown by ammonia-based molecular beam epitaxy were characterized using deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and deep level optical spectroscopy (DLOS) and compared with polar c-plane GaN that was grown simultaneously in the same growth run. Significant differences in both the levels present and their concentrations were observed upon comparison of both growth orientations. DLTS revealed electron traps with activation energies of 0.14 eV, 0.20 eV, and 0.66 eV in the m-plane material, with concentrations that were {approx}10-50 x higher than traps of similar activation energies in the c-plane material. Likewise, DLOS measurements showed {approx}20 x higher concentrations of both a C{sub N} acceptor-like state at E{sub C} - 3.26 eV, which correlates with a high background carbon concentration observed by secondary ion mass spectroscopy for the m-plane material [A. Armstrong, A. R. Arehart, B. Moran, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. A. Ringel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 374 (2004)], and the V{sub Ga}-related state level at E{sub C} - 2.49 eV, which is consistent with an enhanced yellow luminescence observed by photoluminescence. The findings suggest a strong impact of growth dynamics on the incorporation of impurities and electrically active native point defects as a function of GaN growth plane polarity.

Zhang, Z.; Arehart, A. R. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Hurni, C. A.; Speck, J. S. [Department of Materials, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-5050 (United States); Yang, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Myers, R. C.; Ringel, S. A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

2012-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

133

EM Gains Insight from Germany on Salt-Based Repositories | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Gains Insight from Germany on Salt-Based Repositories Gains Insight from Germany on Salt-Based Repositories EM Gains Insight from Germany on Salt-Based Repositories December 14, 2011 - 12:00pm Addthis Participants in the workshops in Germany toured Asse II, one of Germany’s two salt-based repositories, to gain insights into that facility’s technical challenges and proposed solutions. Pictured, left to right, are an Asse II employee, Bernhard Kienzler of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, CBFO Chief Scientist Roger Nelson, CBFO International Programs Manager Dr. Abraham Van Luik, and Andrew Wolfsberg, Acting Deputy Division Leader for Earth and Environmental Sciences at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Participants in the workshops in Germany toured Asse II, one of Germany's two salt-based repositories, to gain insights into that facility's

134

Fenix (Smart Grid Project) (Germany) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Germany Germany Coordinates 51.165691°, 10.451526° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":51.165691,"lon":10.451526,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

135

Mobil completes deep, tight, horizontal gas well in Germany  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A completion and fracturing program for stimulating a horizontal well in the ultra-tight Rotliegendes sand onshore Germany included casing design, completion fluid selection, overbalanced perforation, analysis of the stimulation treatment, design modification, zone and fracture isolation, well testing and acid stimulation. This paper reviews the field geology, the well design, casing design, describes the completion fluids, perforation techniques, fracture treatment, and methods for zone isolation.

Abou-Sayed, I.S.; Chambers, M.R. [Mobil E and P Technical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Mueller, M.W. [Mobil Erdgas-Erdoel GmbH, Celle (Germany)

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

An evaluation of the Robinson M-1 commercial scale demonstration of enhanced oil recovery by micellar-polymer flood  

SciTech Connect

A commercial scale micellar-polymer project was conducted in the Robinson Sand of the M-1 project in southwestern Illinois. The project utilized a crude oil sulfonate surfactant system to flood the reservoir which, at the time of the project, was in an advanced stage of waterflood depletion. Injected fluids consisted of a 0.10 pore volume crude oil sulfonate slug, a 1.05 pore volume graded mobility slug using Dow Pusher 700, and a drive water slug to depletion. Micellar injection started in 1977. By December, 1986, overall operations in the 2.5-acre pattern area were uneconomical while polymer injection was continuing in the 5.0-acre pattern area. Depletion of the 5.0-acre pattern area is forecast for 1991 or sooner. Ultimate oil recovery is estimated at 1,397,000 barrels with cumulative oil recovery at December, 1986, of 1,299,000 barrels. Although the crude oil sulfonate system successfully mobilized and produced waterflood residual oil, the project was not economic because of both lower than anticipated recovery and higher than expected operating costs. The lower than anticipated recovery is attributed to poor volumetric sweep efficiency and salinity/hardness effects. 7 refs., 54 figs., 25 tabs.

Cole, E.L.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Plasma chemistries for dry etching GaN, AlN, InGaN and InAlN  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Etch rates up to 7,000 {angstrom}/min. for GaN are obtained in Cl{sub 2}/H{sub 2}/Ar or BCl{sub 3}/Ar ECR discharges at 1--3mTorr and moderate dc biases. Typical rates with HI/H{sub 2} are about a factor of three lower under the same conditions, while CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} produces maximum rates of only {approximately}2,000 {angstrom}/min. The role of additives such as SF{sub 6}, N{sub 2}, H{sub 2} or Ar to the basic chlorine, bromine, iodine or methane-hydrogen plasma chemistries are discussed. Their effect can be either chemical (in forming volatile products with N) or physical (in breaking bonds or enhancing desorption of the etch products). The nitrides differ from conventional III-V`s in that bond-breaking to allow formation of the etch products is a critical factor. Threshold ion energies for the onset of etching of GaN, InGaN and InAlN are {ge} 75 eV.

Pearton, S.J.; Vartuli, C.B.; Lee, J.W.; Donovan, S.M.; MacKenzie, J.D.; Abernathy, C.R. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Shul, R.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); McLane, G.F. [Army Research Lab., Fort Monmouth, NJ (United States); Ren, F. [AT and T Bell Labs., Murray Hill, NJ (United States)

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Effect of AlN buffer layer properties on the morphology and polarity of GaN nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy  

SciTech Connect

Low-temperature AlN buffer layers grown via plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on Si (111) were found to significantly affect the subsequent growth morphology of GaN nanowires. The AlN buffer layers exhibited nanowire-like columnar protrusions, with their size, shape, and tilt determined by the AlN V/III flux ratio. GaN nanowires were frequently observed to adopt the structural characteristics of the underlying AlN columns, including the size and the degree of tilt. Piezoresponse force microscopy and polarity-sensitive etching indicate that the AlN films and the protruding columns have a mixed crystallographic polarity. Convergent beam electron diffraction indicates that GaN nanowires are Ga-polar, suggesting that Al-polar columns are nanowire nucleation sites for Ga-polar nanowires. GaN nanowires of low density could be grown on AlN buffers that were predominantly N-polar with isolated Al-polar columns, indicating a high growth rate for Ga-polar nanowires and suppressed growth of N-polar nanowires under typical growth conditions. AlN buffer layers grown under slightly N-rich conditions (V/III flux ratio = 1.0 to 1.3) were found to provide a favorable growth surface for low-density, coalescence-free nanowires.

Brubaker, Matt D. [Physical Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); DARPA Center for Integrated Micro/Nano-Electromechanical Transducers (iMINT), University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Levin, Igor; Davydov, Albert V. [Material Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Rourke, Devin M.; Sanford, Norman A.; Bertness, Kris A. [Physical Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Bright, Victor M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); DARPA Center for Integrated Micro/Nano-Electromechanical Transducers (iMINT), University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Challenges dealing with depleted uranium in Germany - Reuse or disposal  

SciTech Connect

During enrichment large amounts of depleted Uranium are produced. In Germany every year 2.800 tons of depleted uranium are generated. In Germany depleted uranium is not classified as radioactive waste but a resource for further enrichment. Therefore since 1996 depleted Uranium is sent to ROSATOM in Russia. However it still has to be dealt with the second generation of depleted Uranium. To evaluate the alternative actions in case a solution has to be found in Germany, several studies have been initiated by the Federal Ministry of the Environment. The work that has been carried out evaluated various possibilities to deal with depleted uranium. The international studies on this field and the situation in Germany have been analyzed. In case no further enrichment is planned the depleted uranium has to be stored. In the enrichment process UF{sub 6} is generated. It is an international consensus that for storage it should be converted to U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. The necessary technique is well established. If the depleted Uranium would have to be characterized as radioactive waste, a final disposal would become necessary. For the planned Konrad repository - a repository for non heat generating radioactive waste - the amount of Uranium is limited by the licensing authority. The existing license would not allow the final disposal of large amounts of depleted Uranium in the Konrad repository. The potential effect on the safety case has not been roughly analyzed. As a result it may be necessary to think about alternatives. Several possibilities for the use of depleted uranium in the industry have been identified. Studies indicate that the properties of Uranium would make it useful in some industrial fields. Nevertheless many practical and legal questions are open. One further option may be the use as shielding e.g. in casks for transport or disposal. Possible techniques for using depleted Uranium as shielding are the use of the metallic Uranium as well as the inclusion in concrete. Another possibility could be the use of depleted uranium for the blending of High enriched Uranium (HEU) or with Plutonium to MOX-elements. (authors)

Moeller, Kai D. [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz - BFS, Postfach 10 01 49, D-38201 Salzgitter (Germany)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Environmentally advanced refinery nears start-up in Germany  

SciTech Connect

Mitteldeutsche Erdoel-Raffinerie GmbH (Mider), is building a 170,000 b/d, grassroots refinery in Leuna, Germany. The refinery is scheduled to start up in third quarter of this year. At the heart of the new refinery is a new technology called progressive distillation. Other major units include: vacuum distillation, catalytic reforming, alkylation, visbreaking, fluid catalytic cracking (FCC), and hydrodesulfurization (HDS). In addition, an existing partial oxidation (POX)/methanol production unit will be integrated with the new refinery. The paper describes the plant and its major processes.

Rhodes, A.K.

1997-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "germany gan m1" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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141

Mg doping of GaN grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy under nitrogen-rich conditions  

SciTech Connect

Acceptor doping of GaN with Mg during plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy, under N-rich conditions and a relatively high growth temperature of 740 deg. C, was investigated. The p-doping level steadily increases with increasing Mg flux. The highest doping level achieved, determined from Hall measurements, is 2.1x10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}. The corresponding doping efficiency and hole mobility are approx4.9% and 3.7 cm{sup 2}/V s at room temperature. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and photoluminescence measurements confirm good crystalline and optical quality of the Mg-doped layers. An InGaN/GaN quantum dot light emitting diode (lambda{sub peak}=529 nm) with p-GaN contact layers grown under N-rich condition exhibits a low series resistance of 9.8 OMEGA.

Zhang Meng; Bhattacharya, Pallab; Guo Wei; Banerjee, Animesh [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Solid-State Electronics Laboratory, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2122 (United States)

2010-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

142

TENDER: Grants for Partizipation University of Siegen (Germany) and Qafqaz University (Azerbaijan)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

School "Security Issues in the South Caucasus and Central Asia" at Siegen (Germany) from August 12th with participants from Azerbaijan, Georgia, Germany and Kazakhstan will focus on security issues arising from actual and potential conflicts in the South Caucasus and Central Asia region. The political

Siegen, Universität

143

24 Germany 8 58 Pakistan 3 34 Israel 1 68 Saudi Arabia 30  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

24 Germany 8 58 Pakistan 3 34 Israel 1 68 Saudi Arabia 30 COLLEGES (STUDENTS) ACADEMIC LEVELS France 10 57 Oman 1 TOTAL 1283 24 Germany 8 58 Pakistan 3 25 Ghana 5 59 Palestine 1 26 Greece 2 60 Panama

Collins, Gary S.

144

Step-flow anisotropy of the m-plane GaN (1100) grown under nitrogen-rich conditions by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The homoepitaxial growth of m-plane (1100) GaN was investigated by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy under nitrogen-rich conditions. The surface morphologies as a function of sample miscut were studied, providing evidence for a strong growth anisotropy that is a consequence of the anisotropy of Ga adatom diffusion barriers on the m-plane surface recently calculated ab initio[Lymperakis and Neugebauer, Phys. Rev. B 79, 241308(R) (2009)]. We found that substrate miscut toward [0001] implies a step flow toward while substrate miscut toward [0001] causes formation of atomic steps either perpendicular or parallel to the [0001] direction, under N-rich conditions at 730 deg C. We describe the growth conditions for achieving atomically flat m-plane GaN layers with parallel atomic steps.

Sawicka, Marta; Siekacz, Marcin; Skierbiszewski, Czeslaw [Institute of High Pressure Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sokolowska 29/37, PL-01-142 Warszawa (Poland); TopGaN Ltd., Sokolowska 29/37, PL-01-142 Warszawa (Poland); Turski, Henryk; Krysko, Marcin; DziePcielewski, Igor; Grzegory, Izabella [Institute of High Pressure Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sokolowska 29/37, PL-01-142 Warszawa (Poland); Smalc-Koziorowska, Julita [Institute of High Pressure Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sokolowska 29/37, PL-01-142 Warszawa (Poland); TopGaN Ltd., Sokolowska 29/37, PL-01-142 Warszawa (Poland); Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Material Science and Engineering, Woloska 141, PL-02-507 Warszawa (Poland)

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

145

Ultralow nonalloyed Ohmic contact resistance to self aligned N-polar GaN high electron mobility transistors by In(Ga)N regrowth  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ultralow Ohmic contact resistance and a self-aligned device structure are necessary to reduce the effect of parasitic elements and obtain higher f{sub t} and f{sub max} in high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). N-polar (0001) GaN HEMTs, offer a natural advantage over Ga-polar HEMTs, in terms of contact resistance since the contact is not made through a high band gap material [Al(Ga)N]. In this work, we extend the advantage by making use of polarization induced three-dimensional electron-gas through regrowth of graded InGaN and thin InN cap in the contact regions by plasma (molecular beam epitaxy), to obtain an ultralow Ohmic contact resistance of 27 OMEGA mum to a GaN 2DEG.

Dasgupta, Sansaptak; Nidhi,; Brown, David F.; Wu, Feng; Keller, Stacia; Speck, James S.; Mishra, Umesh K. [Department of ECE, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States) and Department of Materials, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

2010-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

146

High electron mobility through the edge states in random networks of c-axis oriented wedge-shaped GaN nanowalls grown by molecular beam epitaxy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Transport and optical properties of random networks of c-axis oriented wedge-shaped GaN nanowalls grown spontaneously on c-plane sapphire substrates through molecular beam epitaxy are investigated. Our study suggests a one dimensional confinement of carriers at the top edges of these connected nanowalls, which results in a blue shift of the band edge luminescence, a reduction of the exciton-phonon coupling, and an enhancement of the exciton binding energy. Not only that, the yellow luminescence in these samples is found to be completely suppressed even at room temperature. All these changes are highly desirable for the enhancement of the luminescence efficiency of the material. More interestingly, the electron mobility through the network is found to be significantly higher than that is typically observed for GaN epitaxial films. This dramatic improvement is attributed to the transport of electrons through the edge states formed at the top edges of the nanowalls.

Bhasker, H. P.; Dhar, S.; Sain, A. [Physics Department, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India); Kesaria, Manoj; Shivaprasad, S. M. [International Centre for Material Science, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore 560064 (India)

2012-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

147

Indium and impurity incorporation in InGaN films on polar, nonpolar, and semipolar GaN orientations grown by ammonia molecular beam epitaxy  

SciTech Connect

The effects of NH{sub 3} flow, group III flux, and substrate growth temperature on indium incorporation and surface morphology have been investigated for bulk InGaN films grown by ammonia molecular beam epitaxy. The incorporation of unintentional impurity elements (H, C, O) in InGaN films was studied as a function of growth temperature for growth on polar (0001) GaN on sapphire templates, nonpolar (1010) bulk GaN, and semipolar (1122), (2021) bulk GaN substrates. Enhanced indium incorporation was observed on both (1010) and (2021) surfaces relative to c-plane, while reduced indium incorporation was observed on (1122) for co-loaded conditions. Indium incorporation was observed to increase with decreasing growth temperature for all planes, while being relatively unaffected by the group III flux rates for a 1:1 Ga:In ratio. Indium incorporation was found to increase at the expense of a decreased growth rate for higher ammonia flows; however, smooth surface morphology was consistently observed for growth on semipolar orientations. Increased concentrations of oxygen and hydrogen were observed on semipolar and nonpolar orientations with a clear trend of increased hydrogen incorporation with indium content.

Browne, David A.; Young, Erin C.; Lang, Jordan R.; Hurni, Christophe A.; Speck, James S. [Materials Department, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

148

As-grown deep-level defects in n-GaN grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on freestanding GaN  

SciTech Connect

Traps of energy levels E{sub c}-0.26 and E{sub c}-0.61 eV have been identified as as-grown traps in n-GaN grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition by using deep level transient spectroscopy of the Schottky contacts fabricated by resistive evaporation. The additional traps of E{sub c}-0.13 and E{sub c}-0.65 eV have been observed in samples whose contacts are deposited by electron-beam evaporation. An increase in concentration of the E{sub c}-0.13 and E{sub c}-0.65 eV traps when approaching the interface between the contact and the GaN film supports our argument that these traps are induced by electron-beam irradiation. Conversely, the depth profiles of as-grown traps show different profiles between several samples with increased or uniform distribution in the near surface below 50 nm. Similar profiles are observed in GaN grown on a sapphire substrate. We conclude that the growth process causes these large concentrations of as-grown traps in the near-surface region. It is speculated that the finishing step in the growth process should be an essential issue in the investigation of the surface state of GaN.

Chen Shang; Ishikawa, Kenji; Hori, Masaru [Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Honda, Unhi; Shibata, Tatsunari; Matsumura, Toshiya; Tokuda, Yutaka [Aichi Institute of Technology, Yakusa, Toyota 470-0392 (Japan); Ueda, Hiroyuki; Uesugi, Tsutomu; Kachi, Tetsu [Toyota Central R and D Laboratories, Inc., Yokomichi, Nagakute 480-1192 (Japan)

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Facing the greenhouse effect: Communication about energy in Germany  

SciTech Connect

Energy policy in Germany has been characterized by an irreconcilable debate about nuclear power and the potentials of renewable energy sources and energy-saving activities for more than 15 years. The question is whether the emerging greenhouse effect has changed or at least influenced this conflict. In this study the authors screened the publications of various stakeholders in the energy debate and investigated their standpoints, values, and attitudes towards energy policy after the emergence of the greenhouse effect. The study reveals that the focus of the communication is no longer nuclear power. Moreover, communication with the public tries to hide the still virulent conflict among the agents. Every agent argues for the protection of the global climate and environment. But despite this superficial consensus and the [open quotes]green[close quotes] arguments, the various agents draw different conclusions. Thus communication not only minimizes clarity, but also fails to produce any consensus on how to realize the ambitious goals of global environmental protection. 14 refs., 2 tabs.

Henschel, C.; Wiedemann, P.M.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

EEnergy Project "MeRegio" (Smart Grid Project) (Ettenheim, Germany) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ettenheim, Germany) Ettenheim, Germany) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name EEnergy Project "MeRegio" Country Germany Headquarters Location Ettenheim, Germany Coordinates 48.252537°, 7.813286° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":48.252537,"lon":7.813286,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

151

EDeMa (Smart Grid Project) (Krefeld, Germany) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

EDeMa (Smart Grid Project) (Krefeld, Germany) EDeMa (Smart Grid Project) (Krefeld, Germany) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name EDeMa Country Germany Headquarters Location Krefeld, Germany Coordinates 50.652943°, 6.339111° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":50.652943,"lon":6.339111,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

152

Disparities in nuclear power plant performance in the United States and the Federal Republic of Germany  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This report presents data comparing the performance of light water reactors in the United States and the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). The comparisons are made for the years 1980-1983 and include 21 Westinghouse ...

Hansen, Kent F.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Kinaesthetic impulses : aesthetic experience, bodily knowledge, and pedagogical practices in Germany, 1871-1918  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This dissertation studies a moment of transition in German aesthetics in the late nineteenth century. Starting in the 1870s, groups of artists, architects, historians, critics, connoisseurs, and museum officials in Germany ...

elik, Zeynep, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

EEnergy Project "MeRegio" (Smart Grid Project) (Freiamt, Germany) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Freiamt, Germany) Freiamt, Germany) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name EEnergy Project "MeRegio" Country Germany Headquarters Location Freiamt, Germany Coordinates 48.170155°, 7.906666° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":48.170155,"lon":7.906666,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

155

The Role of the Green Party in Germany's Renewable Energy Policy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Role of the Green Party in Germany's Renewable Energy Policy A Healthy Serving of Greens, increasing renewable profitability #12;Green Party Development vs. Renewable Energy Policy Advancement Green Renewable Energy Policies #12;

New Hampshire, University of

156

The Field Project CLEOPATRA, MAYJuly 1992 in Southern Germany  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CLEOPATRA (Cloud Experiment Oberpfaffenhofen and Transports) is described. This field program was performed in southern Germany 50 km north of the Alpine foothills, an area of known enhanced thunderstorm activity. The general goal is to quantify ...

P. F. Meischner; M. Hagen; T. Hauf; D. Heimann; H. Hller; U. Schumann; W. Jaeschke; W. Mauser; H. R. Pruppacher

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Why Are Residential PV Prices in Germany So Much Lower Than in...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Why Are Residential PV Prices in Germany So Much Lower Than in the United States? Speaker(s): Joachim Seel Date: April 11, 2013 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar HostPoint of...

158

System transferability of public hospital facility management between Germany and Iran.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The subject of this PhD-thesis is the transferability of Facility Management (FM) by using the example of hospitals in Germany and Iran. The intention is (more)

Banedj-Schafii, Mandana

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

The contemporary International Building Exhibition (IBA) : innovative regeneration strategies in Germany  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Internationale Bauausstellung or International Building Exhibition (IBA) is a planning methodology implemented over the course of the 20th century and into the 21st century in Germany. The IBA is unique and characterized ...

Shay, Alice (Alice Ann)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Using a Self-Learning Algorithm for Single-Station Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting in Germany  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A self-teaming algorithm called goal-orientedpattern detection was used to develop a set of 12 models designed to forecast 24-h precipitation amounts for eight sites in southern Germany. The forecasts of expected precipitation amount valid for ...

Robert E. Dumais; Kenneth C. Young

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "germany gan m1" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Apprentice pay in Britain, Germany, and Switzerland: institutions, market forces and market power  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The pay of metalworking apprentices is high in Britain, middling in Germany and low in Switzerland. We analyse these differences using fieldwork evidence and survey data, drawing on both economic and institutionalist theories. Several institutional...

Ryan, Paul; Backes-Gellner, Uschi; Teuber, Silvia; Wagner, Karin

2013-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

162

Decline in Global Solar Radiation with Increased Horizontal Visibility in Germany between 1964 and 1990  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A statistically significant decrease in mean annual global solar radiation between 1964 and 1990 under completely overcast skies was found at five out of eight studied locations in Germany. A decrease of global solar radiation is also evident in ...

Beate G. Liepert; George J. Kukla

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

U.S. Imports from Germany of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Imports from Germany of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products (Thousand Barrels per Day) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1993: 10: 0: 34: 25: 23 ...

164

A comparative study of the diffusion of antihypertensive and antidepressant medications in Germany in Japan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis analyzes and compares the diffusion of antihypertensive and antidepressant medications in Germany and Japan during the time period of 1992 and 2003. The antihypertensive medications are classified as new, middle ...

Cui, Ling, 1978-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Effects of growth temperature on Mg-doped GaN grown by ammonia molecular beam epitaxy  

SciTech Connect

The hole concentration p in Mg-doped GaN films grown by ammonia molecular beam epitaxy depends strongly on the growth temperature T{sub GR}. At T{sub GR}=760 Degree-Sign C, GaN:Mg films showed a hole concentration of p=1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} for [Mg]=4.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}, while at T{sub GR}=840 Degree-Sign C, p=4.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} cm{sup -3} for [Mg]=7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}. Post-growth annealing did not increase p. The sample grown at 760 Degree-Sign C exhibited a low resistivity of 0.7 {Omega}cm. The mobility for all the samples was around 3-7 cm{sup 2}/V s. Temperature-dependent Hall measurements and secondary ion mass spectroscopy suggest that the samples grown at T{sub GR}>760 Degree-Sign C are compensated by an intrinsic donor rather than hydrogen.

Hurni, Christophe A.; Lang, Jordan R.; Burke, Peter G.; Speck, James S. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, 93106-5050 California (United States)

2012-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

166

Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP): Model AL-M1 nuclear packaging (DOE C of C No. USA/9507/BLF)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) satisfies the request of the US Department of Energy for a formal safety analysis of the shipping container identified as USA/9507/BLF, also called AL-M1, configuration 5. This report makes available to all potential users the technical information and the limits pertinent to the construction and use of the shipping containers. It includes discussions of structural integrity, thermal resistance, radiation shielding and radiological safety, nuclear criticality safety, and quality control. A complete physical and technical description of the package is presented. The package consists of an inner container centered within an insulated steel drum. The configuration-5 package contains tritiated water held on sorbent material. There are two other AL-M1 packages, designated configurations 1 and 3. These use the same insulated outer drum, but licensing of these containers will not be addressed in this SARP. Design and development considerations, the tests and evaluations required to prove the ability of the container to withstand normal transportation conditions, and the sequence of four hypothetical accident conditions (free drop, puncture, thermal, and water immersion) are discussed. Tables, graphs, dimensional sketches, photographs, technical references, loading and shipping procedures, Monsanto Research Corporation-Mound experience in using the containers, and a copy of the DOE/OSD/ALO Certificate of Compliance are included.

Coleman, H.L.; Whitney, M.A.; Williams, M.A.; Alexander, B.M.; Shapiro, A.

1987-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

167

Propane ammoxidation over the Mo-V-Te-Nb-O M1 phase: Reactivity of surface cations in hydrogen abstraction steps  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Density functional theory calculations (GGA-PBE) have been performed to investigate the adsorption of C3 (propane, isopropyl, propene, and allyl) and H species on the proposed active center present in the surface ab planes of the bulk Mo-V-Te-Nb-O M1 phase in order to better understand the roles of the different surface cations in propane ammoxidation. Modified cluster models were employed to isolate the closely spaced V=O and Te=O from each other and to vary the oxidation state of the V cation. While propane and propene adsorb with nearly zero adsorption energy, the isopropyl and allyl radicals bind strongly to V=O and Te=O with adsorption energies, {Delta}E, being {le} -1.75 eV, but appreciably more weakly on other sites, such as Mo=O, bridging oxygen (Mo-O-V and Mo-O-Mo), and empty metal apical sites ({Delta}E > -1 eV). Atomic H binds more strongly to Te = O ({Delta}E {le} -3 eV) than to all the other sites, including V = O ({Delta}E = -2.59 eV). The reduction of surface oxo groups by dissociated H and their removal as water are thermodynamically favorable except when both H atoms are bonded to the same Te=O. Consistent with the strong binding of H, Te=O is markedly more active at abstracting the methylene H from propane (E{sub a} {le} 1.01 eV) than V = O (E{sub a} = 1.70 eV on V{sup 5+} = O and 2.13 eV on V{sup 4+} = O). The higher-than-observed activity and the loose binding of Te = O moieties to the mixed metal oxide lattice of M1 raise the question of whether active Te = O groups are in fact present in the surface ab planes of the M1 phase under propane ammoxidation conditions.

Muthukumar, Kaliappan [University of Cincinnati; Yu, Junjun [University of Cincinnati; Xu, Ye [ORNL; Guliants, Vadim V. [University of Cincinnati

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Search for 14.4-KeV Solar Axions Emitted in the M1-Transition of Fe-57 Nuclei with CAST  

SciTech Connect

We have searched for 14.4 keV solar axions or more general axion-like particles (ALPs), that may be emitted in the M1 nuclear transition of 57Fe, by using the axion-to-photon conversion in the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) with evacuated magnet bores (Phase I). From the absence of excess of the monoenergetic X-rays when the magnet was pointing to the Sun, we set model-independent constraints on the coupling constants of pseudoscalar particles that couple to two photons and to a nucleon g{sub ay}|-1.19g{sub aN}{sup 0}+g{sub aN}{sup 3}| < 1.36 x 10{sup -16} GeV{sup -1} for ma < 0.03 eV at the 95% confidence level.

Andriamonje, S.; Aune, S.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Autiero, D.; /CERN /Lyon, IPN; Barth, K.; /CERN; Belov, A.; /Moscow, INR; Beltran, B.; /Zaragoza U. /Queen's U., Kingston; Brauninger, H.; /Garching, Max Planck Inst., MPE; Carmona, J.M.; Cebrian, S.; /Zaragoza U.; Collar, J.I.; /Chicago U., EFI /Chicago U., KICP; Dafni, T.; /DAPNIA, Saclay /Darmstadt, Tech. Hochsch. /Zaragoza U.; Davenport, M.; /CERN; Di Lella, L.; /CERN /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore; Eleftheriadis, C.; /Aristotle U., Thessaloniki; Englhauser, J.; /Garching, Max Planck Inst., MPE; Fanourakis, G.; /Democritos Nucl. Res. Ctr.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Fischer, H.; Franz, J.; /Freiburg U.; Friedrich, P.; /Garching, Max Planck Inst., MPE; Geralis, T.; /Democritos Nucl. Res. Ctr. /DAPNIA, Saclay /Moscow, INR /Zaragoza U. /British Columbia U. /Freiburg U. /Darmstadt, Tech. Hochsch. /DAPNIA, Saclay /Zaragoza U. /Frankfurt U. /Boskovic Inst., Zagreb /Freiburg U. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Boskovic Inst., Zagreb /Democritos Nucl. Res. Ctr. /Darmstadt, Tech. Hochsch. /Garching, Max Planck Inst., MPE /Boskovic Inst., Zagreb /CERN /Aristotle U., Thessaloniki /Boskovic Inst., Zagreb /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Zaragoza U. /Chicago U., EFI /Chicago U., KICP /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC /Zaragoza U. /CERN /DAPNIA, Saclay /CERN /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Darmstadt, Tech. Hochsch. /Zaragoza U. /Aristotle U., Thessaloniki /Patras U. /Brookhaven /CERN /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /CERN /Chicago U., EFI /Chicago U., KICP /Zaragoza U. /Freiburg U. /CERN /CERN /Patras U.

2011-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

169

STEM HAADF Image Simulation of the Orthorhombic M1 Phase in the Mo-V-Nb-Te-O Propane Oxidation Catalyst  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A full frozen phonon multislice simulation of high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF STEM) images from the M1 phase of the Mo-V-Nb-Te-O propane oxidation catalyst has been performed by using the latest structural model obtained using the Rietveld method. Simulated contrast results are compared with experimental HAADF images. Good agreement is observed at ring sites, however significant thickness dependence is noticed at the linking sites. The remaining discrepancies between the model based on Rietveld refinement and image simulations indicate that the sampling of a small volume element in HAADF STEM and averaging elemental contributions of a disordered site in a crystal slab by using the virtual crystal approximation might be problematic, especially if there is preferential Mo/V ordering near the (001) surface.

D Blom; X Li; S Mitra; T Vogt; D Buttrey

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

170

Photoconduction efficiencies and dynamics in GaN nanowires grown by chemical vapor deposition and molecular beam epitaxy: A comparison study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The normalized gains, which determines the intrinsic photoconduction (PC) efficiencies, have been defined and compared for the gallium nitride (GaN) nanowires (NWs) grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). By excluding the contributions of experimental parameters and under the same light intensity, the CVD-grown GaN NWs exhibit the normalized gain which is near two orders of magnitude higher than that of the MBE-ones. The temperature-dependent time-resolved photocurrent measurement further indicates that the higher photoconduction efficiency in the CVD-GaN NWs is originated from the longer carrier lifetime induced by the higher barrier height ({phi}{sub B} = 160 {+-} 30 mV) of surface band bending. In addition, the experimentally estimated barrier height at 20 {+-} 2 mV for the MBE-GaN NWs, which is much lower than the theoretical value, is inferred to be resulted from the lower density of charged surface states on the non-polar side walls.

Chen, R. S. [Graduate Institute of Applied Science and Technology, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Tsai, H. Y. [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Huang, Y. S. [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Department of Electronic Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Chen, Y. T. [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Chen, L. C. [Center for Condensed Matter Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Chen, K. H. [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Center for Condensed Matter Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

2012-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

171

Why Are Residential PV Prices in Germany So Much Lower Than in the United  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Why Are Residential PV Prices in Germany So Much Lower Than in the United Why Are Residential PV Prices in Germany So Much Lower Than in the United States? Speaker(s): Joachim Seel Date: April 11, 2013 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Ryan Wiser The installed price of residential PV is significantly lower in Germany than in the United States - in Q3 2012 German systems were priced on average at $2.50/W while U.S. systems were priced nearly twice as high around $5.20/W. These pricing differences accumulate to about $13,500 for a 5kW residential system and stem primarily from differences in "soft" costs, but little detail is known about how soft cost components differ between the two countries, or why. In order to better characterize the nature of these differences, LBNL fielded surveys of German PV installers,

172

The Energy in Western Europe, Spain and Germany: From Renewable Energies to  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Energy in Western Europe, Spain and Germany: From Renewable Energies to The Energy in Western Europe, Spain and Germany: From Renewable Energies to Energy-Saving Programs Speaker(s): Jose MaCampos Date: November 29, 2007 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Girish Ghatikar The strong increase in the price of oil, and the dependency on oil from foreign, politically unstable countries has forced the European Union to develop programs to increase the efficiency of energy, not only in the industrial sector but also in residential and transports sectors. With common policies coming from the European Union, two countries with different economical and political conditions adapt these common policies to their reality. Spain, a strong developing country within the Union, and Germany, as a developed country, are approaching the same problems in

173

Comparing Germany's and California's Interconnection Processes for PV Systems (White Paper)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Establishing interconnection to the grid is a recognized barrier to the deployment of distributed energy generation. This report compares interconnection processes for photovoltaic projects in California and Germany. This report summarizes the steps of the interconnection process for developers and utilities, the average length of time utilities take to process applications, and paperwork required of project developers. Based on a review of the available literature, this report finds that while the interconnection procedures and timelines are similar in California and Germany, differences in the legal and regulatory frameworks are substantial.

Tweedie, A.; Doris, E.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Renewable energy research 1995---2009: a case study of wind power research in EU, Spain, Germany and Denmark  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper reports the developments and citation patterns over three time periods of research on Renewable Energy generation and Wind Power 1995---2011 in EU, Spain, Germany and Denmark. Analyses are based on Web of Science and incorporate journal articles ... Keywords: Citation analyses, Collaboration analyses, Denmark, EU, Germany, Publication analyses, Renewable energy research, Spain, Wind Power research

Elias Sanz-Casado; J. Carlos Garcia-Zorita; Antonio Eleazar Serrano-Lpez; Birger Larsen; Peter Ingwersen

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

NORTHEAST OREGON W I L D L I F E M 1 T I G AT I 0 N P R 0 J  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

NORTHEAST OREGON NORTHEAST OREGON W I L D L I F E M 1 T I G AT I 0 N P R 0 J E CT FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT DOE/EA-1160 DEC 1 3 1996 U S T I Northeast Oregon' Wildlife Mitigation Project Environmental Assess men t Table of Contents CHAPTER 1: PURPOSE OF AND NEED FOR ACTION 1 1 . 1.1 Underlying Need for Action 1.2 Purposes 1 CHAPTER 2: ALTERNATIVES, INCLUDING THE PROPOSED ACTION 2 2.1 Proposed Action 2 2.2 No Action 4 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF THE PROPOSED ACTION AND ALTERNATIVES 6 CHAPTER 3: 3.1 Water Quality 7 3.2 Vegetation 8 3.3 Fish and Wildlife 9 3.4 Land Use 10 3.5 Cultural Resources 11 3.6 Air Quality 12 CHAPTER 4: PERSONS AND AGENCIES CONSULTED 13 CHAPTER 5: REFERENCES 13 Table 1: predicted Performance Summary 5 Table 1: predicted Performance Summary 5

176

Adsorption of propane, isopropyl, and hydrogen on cluster models of the M1 phase of Mo-V-Te-Nb-O mixed metal oxide catalyst  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Mo-V-Te-Nb-O mixed metal oxide catalyst possessing the M1 phase structure is uniquely capable of directly converting propane into acrylonitrile. However, the mechanism of this complex eight-electron transformation, which includes a series of oxidative H-abstraction and N-insertion steps, remains poorly understood. We have conducted a density functional theory study of cluster models of the proposed active and selective site for propane ammoxidation, including the adsorption of propane, isopropyl (CH{sub 3}CHCH{sub 3}), and H which are involved in the first step of this transformation, that is, the methylene C-H bond scission in propane, on these active site models. Among the surface oxygen species, the telluryl oxo (Te=O) is found to be the most nucleophilic. Whereas the adsorption of propane is weak regardless of the MO{sub x} species involved, isopropyl and H adsorption exhibits strong preference in the order of Te=O > V=O > bridging oxygens > empty Mo apical site, suggesting the importance of TeO{sub x} species for H abstraction. The adsorption energies of isopropyl and H and consequently the reaction energy of the initial dehydrogenation of propane are strongly dependent on the number of ab planes included in the cluster, which points to the need to employ multilayer cluster models to correctly capture the energetics of surface chemistry on this mixed metal oxide catalyst.

Govindasamy, Agalya [University of Cincinnati; Muthukumar, Kaliappan [University of Cincinnati; Yu, Junjun [University of Cincinnati; Xu, Ye [ORNL; Guliants, Vadim V. [University of Cincinnati

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

THE CRYOGENIC SYSTEM OF TESLA S. Wolff, DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

THE CRYOGENIC SYSTEM OF TESLA S. Wolff, DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany for the TESLA collaboration Abstract TESLA, a 33 km long 500 GeV centre-of-mass energy superconducting linear collider The 33 km long e+ e- linear collider TESLA (Tera eV Energy Superconductiong Linear Accelerator) with 500

178

OPERATIONAL EXPERIENCE WITH THE TEST FACILITIES FOR TESLA H. Weise, DESY, Hamburg, Germany  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

OPERATIONAL EXPERIENCE WITH THE TEST FACILITIES FOR TESLA H. Weise, DESY, Hamburg, Germany Abstract The TESLA superconducting electron-positron linear collider with an integrated X-ray laser laboratory government in matters of science. In preparation of this, the TESLA Test Facility was set up at DESY. More

179

International Conference on Wood-based Bioenergy LIGNA+Hannover, Germany, 17-18 May 2007  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

consumption, e.g. China ­ Nuclear safety #12;International Conference on Wood-based Bioenergy LIGNA ­ European Union & member countries · 20% renewable energy target in 2020 ­ United States' government lagging: NTC Photo: Stora Enso Photo: Stora Enso EU renewable energy 2005 Germany, 4.8% European Union, 6

180

Why Are Residential PV Prices in Germany So Much Lower Than in the United States?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Why Are Residential PV Prices in Germany So Much Lower Than in the United States? A Scoping ­ Project development time ­ Economies of scale in residential system size ­ Chinese module market share · Summary · Bibliography 3 #12;Motivation, Scope, and Limitations · The installed price of residential PV

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "germany gan m1" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Proceedings of Workshop on Uranium Production Environmental Restoration: An exchange between the United States and Germany  

SciTech Connect

Scientists, engineers, elected officials, and industry regulators from the United, States and Germany met in Albuquerque, New Mexico, August 16--20, 1993, in the first joint international workshop to discuss uranium tailings remediation. Entitled ``Workshop on Uranium Production Environmental Restoration: An Exchange between the US and Germany,`` the meeting was hosted by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The goal of the workshop was to further understanding and communication on the uranium tailings cleanup projects in the US and Germany. Many communities around the world are faced with an environmental legacy -- enormous quantities of hazardous and low-level radioactive materials from the production of uranium used for energy and nuclear weapons. In 1978, the US Congress passed the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act. Title I of the law established a program to assess the tailings at inactive uranium processing sites and provide a means for joint federal and state funding of the cleanup efforts at sites where all or substantially all of the uranium was produced for sale to a federal agency. The UMTRA Project is responsible for the cleanup of 24 sites in 10 states. Germany is facing nearly identical uranium cleanup problems and has established a cleanup project. At the workshop, participants had an opportunity to interact with a broad cross section of the environmental restoration and waste disposal community, discuss common concerns and problems, and develop a broader understanding of the issues. Abstracts are catalogued individually for the data base.

Not Available

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

182

17th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition 2009, Hamburg, Germany Lignocellulosic Ethanol: The Path to Market  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

17th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition 2009, Hamburg, Germany Lignocellulosic Ethanol of transport fuels from biomass is essential if the EU aspiration to substitute 10% of transport fuels investment in R&D in the US, Europe and Asia. The production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass

183

Implementing the Espoo Convention in transboundary EIA between Germany and Poland  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Poland and Germany have a long common border which leads to the necessity to cooperate and consult each other in the case of large-scale projects or infrastructure measures likely to cause negative transboundary effects on the environment. There are already binding provisions for transboundary EIA. In the area of the UN Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE), transboundary EIA is intended to be legally binding for the Member States by the Espoo Convention which was ratified by Germany 8.8.2002 and by Poland 12.6.1997. Due to corresponding directives, the same is applicable in the context of the European Union. In German legislation, this issue is regulated by Art. 8 of the Federal EIA Act in regard to transboundary participation of administration and by Art. 9a in respect of transboundary public participation. However, these EIA regulations on transboundary participation do not surpass a certain detail level, as they have to be applied between Germany and all neighbouring states. Therefore both countries decided to agree on more detailed provisions in particular regarding procedural questions. During the 12th German-Polish Environmental Council, Germany and Poland reached an agreement on 11.4.2006 in Neuhardenberg/Brandenburg an agreement upon the implementation of the Espoo Convention, the so called Neuhardenberg Agreement. This article assesses the agreement under consideration of already existing law and discusses major improvements and problems.

Albrecht, Eike [Brandenburg University of Technology of Cottbus (BTU) Centre for Law and Administration, Konrad-Wachsmann-Allee 1, D - 03046 Cottbus (Germany)], E-mail: albrecht@tu-cottbus.de

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

184

The market situation and political framework in Germany for biodiesel and vegetable oil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The final details compiled by the Federal Statistics Office and Federal Office of Economics and Export Control (BAFA) confirmed the drop in sales of biodiesel and vegetable oil in Germany in 2008 in comparison to 2007. Although utilization of biodiesel as

185

Presented at the 21st European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Dresden,Germany, 4-8 September 2006 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF PV ELECTRICITY GENERATION -  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Presented at the 21st European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Dresden,Germany, 4-8 September (Franklin #12;Presented at the 21st European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Dresden,Germany, 4;Presented at the 21st European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Dresden,Germany, 4-8 September 2006 0 5

186

Molecular beam epitaxy of InAlN lattice-matched to GaN with homogeneous composition using ammonia as nitrogen source  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

InAlN lattice-matched to GaN was grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) using ammonia as the nitrogen source. The alloy composition, growth conditions, and strain coherence of the InAlN were verified by high resolution x-ray diffraction {omega}-2{theta} scans and reciprocal space maps. Scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy of the InAlN revealed the absence of lateral composition modulation that was observed in the films grown by plasma-assisted MBE. InAlN/AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistors with smooth surfaces were fabricated with electron mobilities exceeding 1600 cm{sup 2}/Vs and sheet resistances below 244 {Omega}/sq.

Wong, Man Hoi; Wu Feng; Hurni, Christophe A.; Choi, Soojeong; Speck, James S.; Mishra, Umesh K. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

2012-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

187

Influence of V/III growth flux ratio on trap states in m-plane GaN grown by ammonia-based molecular beam epitaxy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and deep level optical spectroscopy (DLOS) were utilized to investigate the behavior of deep states in m-plane, n-type GaN grown by ammonia-based molecular beam epitaxy (NH{sub 3}-MBE) as a function of systematically varied V/III growth flux ratios. Levels were detected at E{sub C} - 0.14 eV, E{sub C} - 0.21 eV, E{sub C} - 0.26 eV, E{sub C} - 0.62 eV, E{sub C} - 0.67 eV, E{sub C} - 2.65 eV, and E{sub C} - 3.31 eV, with the concentrations of several traps exhibiting systematic dependencies on V/III ratio. The DLTS spectra are dominated by traps at E{sub C} - 0.14 eV and E{sub C} - 0.67 eV, whose concentrations decreased monotonically with increasing V/III ratio and decreasing oxygen impurity concentration, and by a trap at E{sub C} - 0.21 eV that revealed no dependence of its concentration on growth conditions, suggestive of different physical origins. Higher concentrations of deeper trap states detected by DLOS with activation energies of E{sub C} - 2.65 eV and E{sub C} - 3.31 eV in each sample did not display measureable sensitivity to the intentionally varied V/III ratio, necessitating further study on reducing these deep traps through growth optimization for maximizing material quality of NH{sub 3}-MBE grown m-plane GaN.

Zhang, Z.; Arehart, A. R. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Hurni, C. A.; Speck, J. S. [Department of Materials, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-5050 (United States); Ringel, S. A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Institute for Materials Research, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

2012-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

188

Germany's Future Energy Policy - Potential Scope and Areas of Action for  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Germany's Future Energy Policy - Potential Scope and Areas of Action for Germany's Future Energy Policy - Potential Scope and Areas of Action for Rational Energy Use and Renewable Energies Speaker(s): Ole Langniss Date: June 24, 1996 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3148 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Judy Jennings Energy efficiency is defined as matter of obtaining balance between the energy gained and the sacrifices necessary to bring about this gain . A building in Sweden, now in the designing stage, will be testing a new design process to reach the highest possible level of energy efficiency. (Construction to take place in 1997, and commissioning in 1998.).All major services and systems for this building will be optimized, via marginal profitability analysis, in order to give maximum contribution to the integrated energy efficiency (both electricity and heat). Energy

189

G4V Grid for Vehicles (Smart Grid Project) (Germany) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Germany Germany Coordinates 51.165691°, 10.451526° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":51.165691,"lon":10.451526,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

190

Cross-border transfer of climate change mitigation technologies : the case of wind energy from Denmark and Germany to India  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This research investigated the causal factors and processes of international development and diffusion of wind energy technology by examining private sector cross-border technology transfer from Denmark and Germany to India ...

Mizuno, Emi, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Using Vehicle Taxes to Reduce Carbon Dioxide Emissions Rates of New Passenger Vehicles: Evidence from France, Germany, and Sweden  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

France, Germany, and Sweden link vehicle taxes to the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions rates of passenger vehicles. Based on new vehicle registration data from 20052010, a vehicles tax is negatively correlated with its ...

Klier, Thomas

192

Does it take one or two to tango? : language skills, physical appearance, and immigrant integration in Germany  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Breaking with a long-held political stance that Germany is, despite a sizeable share of permanent immigrant residents, not a country of immigration, the German legislature has drawn up a new immigration law, which entered ...

Wickboldt, Anne-Katrin, 1970-

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Orographic Enhancement of Precipitation over Low Mountain Ranges. Part II: Simulations of Heavy Precipitation Events over Southwest Germany  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A diagnostic precipitation model that combines linear theory of hydrostatic flow with parameterized microphysics is applied to several stratiform heavy precipitation events over the low mountain ranges of southwestern Germany. Model-simulated ...

Michael Kunz; Christoph Kottmeier

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Corporate governance under stress : an institutional perspective on the transformation of corporate governance in France and Germany  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This work contributes to the study of comparative political economy by examining the impact of financial deregulation on corporate governance in the two main continental European economies, France and Germany. It investigates ...

Goyer, Michel, 1964-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

High-Resolution Climate Change Impact Analysis on Medium-Sized River Catchments in Germany: An Ensemble Assessment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The impact of climate change on three small- to medium-sized river catchments (Ammer, Mulde, and Ruhr) in Germany is investigated for the near future (202150) following the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on ...

Irena Ott; Doris Duethmann; Joachim Liebert; Peter Berg; Hendrik Feldmann; Juergen Ihringer; Harald Kunstmann; Bruno Merz; Gerd Schaedler; Sven Wagner

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

International monetary relations between the United States, France, and West Germany in the 1970s  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The United States acted unilaterally to terminate the Bretton Woods monetary system in August 1971, and international exchange rate management went from a regime of fixed to floating parities, much to the displeasure of the membership of the European Community. The Nixon, Ford, and Carter administrations adopted policies that heavily benefited U.S. reform objectives and domestic economic goals, which frequently clashed with allied concerns, and damaged American monetary relations with France and West Germany. Yet, the inability of France and the Federal Republic of Germany to form cohesive economic and monetary policies throughout international negotiations or within the European Community (EC), allowed American desires to dictate the path and pace of European integration. France and Germany attempted, with limited success, to influence U.S. monetary policy through bilateral diplomacy during years of exchange rate fluctuations, dollar devaluations, oil shocks, and payments deficits. Finally, President Valery Giscard d'Estaing and Chancellor Helmut Schmidt created the European Monetary System (EMS) in 1979, reversing the trend of half-hearted attempts at European integration so relevant the decade before. The EMS detached the EC's currencies from the dollar's control, was compatible with the reformed international monetary system, advanced a more independent European monetary identity, and formed the base for future monetary integration. As a result, the EMS, as the birthplace of the Euro, the single European currency launched in 2002, may soon rival the dollar's position as the primary reserve currency. American monetary policies designed to improve the health of the dollar during the 1970s were a catalyst for European integration. However, as the European Union deepens its economic integration and the Euro grows in strength, it seems that U.S. policies created a regime and a currency that will challenge its dominant position in international monetary affairs.

Rae, Michelle Frasher

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Radionuclide deposition and exposure in the Federal Republic of Germany after the Chernobyl accident  

SciTech Connect

Analyses of air, water, and foodstuff samples, together with in situ gamma spectrometric measurements in the Federal Republic of Germany, have documented the deposition and exposure consequences of the Chernobyl accident. In some cases, exposure values are significantly higher than background levels. Data compiled for the period from the initial identification of excess atmospheric radioactivity to the present, represent a unique resource for testing and validating models of environmental transport and human exposure. These data will serve as the bases for future studies of organism response, both somatic and genetic, to nuclear radiation. They will also prove useful in suggesting modifications to environmental sampling and monitoring systems. 14 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

Winkelmann, I.; Haubelt, R.; Neumann, P.; Fields, D.E. (Bundesgesundheitsamt, Neuherberg (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Strahlenhygiene; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

The Cutting Edge of Modernity: Machine Tools in the United States and Germany 1930-1945  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

): Germany see Figures 1 & 2; US American Machinist (1930 and 1931, 1940, and 1945) and United States, Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Handbook 1951, p. 10, Table A-3. Of course, a simple comparison of the total machine tool stock may... .71 Forging machines 32,598 18,602 0.78 Milling machines 116,978 71,474 0.83 Pipe cutting and threading machines + Thread machines 42,142 27,531 0.89 Lathes 308,170 225,749 1.00 Presses (not forging presses) 174,379 130,303 1.02 Cutting-off machines 39,719 29...

Ristuccia, Cristiano A; Tooze, J Adam

2004-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

199

Operating experiences and measurements on turbo sets of CCGT-cogeneration plants in Germany  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Five closed-cycle gas turbine cogeneration plants have been built and commissioned in the Federal Republic of Germany. In all cases the working fluid was air. The facilities were designed as cogeneration plants to supply electricity as well as heat to electrical and heating networks. Each of the plants accumulated more than 100,000 operating hours. One of them, which has exceeded 160,000 hours of operation, is still working. An account has already been given of the experience with the air heaters of these plants, which were fired with coal, oil, gas, or combinations of these. This paper records the experience obtained with the turbo sets.

Bammert, K.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Radiation Protection at Industrial Radiography in Germany Exposures and Unusual Events  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. In the Federal Republic of Germany safety related events in the use and transportation of radioactive materials as well as in the operation of accelerators are registered. The analysis of these events reveals their causation and allows this conclusions on avoidable errors. In this paper, a special insight is given into events in the field of gamma radiography which is a technical application of ionising radiation for non destructive testing of materials. Conclusions from analysis are drawn. In addition, the occupational radiation exposure of workers is presented taking into account that industrial radiography is performed under particular working conditions with different risks. 1.

Renate Czarwinski; Uwe Husler; Gerhard Frasch; Bundesamt Fr; Strahlenschutz Fachbereich Strahlenschutz Und Gesundheit

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "germany gan m1" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

www.elsevier.com/locate/jue Poverty and crime in 19th century Germany  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We estimate the impact of poverty on crime in 19th century Bavaria, Germany. Rainfall is used as an instrumental variable for grain (rye) prices to address econometric identification problems in the existing literature. The rye price was a major determinant of living standards during this period. The rye price has a positive effect on property crime: a one standard deviation increased property crime by 8%. OLS estimates are twice as large as instrumental variable estimates, highlighting the value of our empirical approach. Higher rye prices lead to significantly less violent crime, though, and we argue that higher beer prices, caused by the higher rye prices, are a likely explanation.

Halvor Mehlum A; Edward Miguel B; Ragnar Torvik D

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Transition between the 1 x 1 and ({radical}3 x 2{radical}3)R30{degree} surface structures of GaN in the vapor-phase environment  

SciTech Connect

Out-of-plane structures of the GaN(0001) surface in the metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) environment have been determined using in situ grazing-incidence X-ray scattering. The authors measured 11{bar 2}{ell} crystal truncation rod intensities at a variety of temperatures and ammonia partial pressures on both sides of the 1 x 1 to ({radical}3 x 2{radical}3)R30{degree} surface phase transition. The out-of-plane structure of the ({radical}3 x 2{radical}3)R30{degree} phase appears to be nearly independent of temperature below the transition, while the structure of the 1 x 1 phase changes increase rapidly as the phase transition is approached from above. A model for the structure of the 1 x 1 phase with a partially-occupied top Ga layer agrees well with the data. The observed temperature dependence is consistent with a simple model of the equilibrium between the vapor phase and the surface coverage of Ga and N. In addition, the authors present results on the kinetics of reconstruction domain coarsening following a quench into the ({radical}3 x 2{radical}3)R30{degree} phase field.

Munkholm, A.; Thompson, C.; Stephenson, G. B.; Eastman, J. A.; Auciello, O.; Fini, P.; Speck, J. S.; DenBaars, S. P.

2000-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

203

Thermal carrier emission and nonradiative recombinations in nonpolar (Al,Ga)N/GaN quantum wells grown on bulk GaN  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We investigate, via time-resolved photoluminescence, the temperature-dependence of charge carrier recombination mechanisms in nonpolar (Al,Ga)N/GaN single quantum wells (QWs) grown via molecular beam epitaxy on the a-facet of bulk GaN crystals. We study the influence of both QW width and barrier Al content on the dynamics of excitons in the 10-320 K range. We first show that the effective lifetime of QW excitons {tau} increases with temperature, which is evidence that nonradiative mechanisms do not play any significant role in the low-temperature range. The temperature range for increasing {tau} depends on the QW width and Al content in the (Al,Ga)N barriers. For higher temperatures, we observe a reduction in the QW emission lifetime combined with an increase in the decay time for excitons in the barriers, until both exciton populations get fully thermalized. Based on analysis of the ratio between barrier and QW emission intensities, we demonstrate that the main mechanism limiting the radiative efficiency in our set of samples is related to nonradiative recombination in the (Al,Ga)N barriers of charge carriers that have been thermally emitted from the QWs.

Corfdir, P.; Dussaigne, A.; Giraud, E.; Ganiere, J.-D.; Grandjean, N.; Deveaud-Pledran, B. [Institute of Condensed Matter Physics, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Teisseyre, H. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of High Pressure Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 01-142 Warsaw (Poland); Suski, T.; Grzegory, I. [Institute of High Pressure Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 01-142 Warsaw (Poland); Lefebvre, P. [Laboratoire Charles Coulomb - UMR5221 - CNRS - Universite Montpellier 2, 34095 Montpellier (France)

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Relaxation and critical strain for maximum In incorporation in AlInGaN on GaN grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Quaternary AlInGaN layers were grown on conventional GaN buffer layers on sapphire by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy at different surface temperatures and different reactor pressures with constant precursor flow conditions. A wide range in compositions within 30-62% Al, 5-29% In, and 23-53% Ga was covered, which leads to different strain states from high tensile to high compressive. From high-resolution x-ray diffraction and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, we determined the compositions, strain states, and crystal quality of the AlInGaN layers. Atomic force microscopy measurements were performed to characterize the surface morphology. A critical strain value for maximum In incorporation near the AlInGaN/GaN interface is presented. For compressively strained layers, In incorporation is limited at the interface as residual strain cannot exceed an empirical critical value of about 1.1%. Relaxation occurs at about 15 nm thickness accompanied by strong In pulling. Tensile strained layers can be grown pseudomorphically up to 70 nm at a strain state of 0.96%. A model for relaxation in compressively strained AlInGaN with virtual discrete sub-layers, which illustrates the gradually changing lattice constant during stress reduction is presented.

Reuters, Benjamin; Finken, M.; Wille, A.; Kalisch, H.; Vescan, A. [RWTH Aachen University, GaN Device Technology, Sommerfeldstrasse 24, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Juelich Aachen Research Alliance, JARA-FIT, Wilhelm-Johnen-Strasse, 52428 Juelich (Germany); Hollaender, B. [Juelich Aachen Research Alliance, JARA-FIT, Wilhelm-Johnen-Strasse, 52428 Juelich (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, PGI9-IT, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Heuken, M. [RWTH Aachen University, GaN Device Technology, Sommerfeldstrasse 24, 52074 Aachen (Germany); AIXTRON SE, Kaiserstr. 98, 52134 Herzogenrath (Germany)

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Communism and Communion Religious Policy, Church-Based Opposition and Free Space Development| A Comparative Study of East Germany, Poland and Yugoslavia from 1945 to 1989.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? The goal of religious policy as executed in communist Poland, East Germany and Yugoslavia aimed to marginalize national churches. However, by the 1960s, these (more)

Mirescu, Alexander

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Brine migration test report: Asse Salt Mine, Federal Republic of Germany: Technical report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents a summary of Brine Migration Tests which were undertaken at the Asse mine of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) under a bilateral US/FRG agreement. This experiment simulates a nuclear waste repository at the 800-m (2624-ft) level of the Asse salt mine in the Federal Republic of Germany. This report describes the Asse salt mine, the test equipment, and the pretest properties of the salt in the mine and in the vicinity of the test area. Also included are selected test data (for the first 28 months of operation) on the following: brine migration rates, thermomechaical behavior of the salt (including room closure, stress reading, and thermal profiles), borehole gas pressures, and borehole gas analyses. In addition to field data, laboratory analyses of pretest salt properties are included in this report. The operational phase of these experiments was completed on October 4, 1985, with the commencement of cooldown and the start of posttest activities. 7 refs., 68 figs., 48 tabs.

Coyle, A.J.; Eckert, J.; Kalia, H.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Detection of $^{133}$Xe from the Fukushima nuclear power plant in the upper troposphere above Germany  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

After the accident in the Japanese Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in March 2011 large amounts of radioactivity were released and distributed in the atmosphere. Among them were also radioactive noble gas isotopes which can be used as tracers to probe global atmospheric circulation models. This work presents unique measurements of the radionuclide $^{133}$Xe from Fukushima in the upper troposphere above Germany. The measurements involve air sampling in a research jet aircraft followed by chromatographic xenon extraction and ultra-low background gas counting with miniaturized proportional counters. With this technique a detection limit of the order of 100 $^{133}$Xe atoms in liter-scale air samples (corresponding to about 100 mBq/m$^3$) is achievable. Our results proof that the $^{133}$Xe-rich ground level air layer from Fukushima was lifted up to the tropopause and distributed hemispherically. Moreover, comparisons with ground level air measurements indicate that the arrival of the radioactive plume in Germany in high altitude is several days earlier than on ground.

Hardy Simgen; Frank Arnold; Heinfried Aufmhoff; Robert Baumann; Florian Kaether; Sebastian Lindemann; Ludwig Rauch; Hans Schlager; Clemens Schlosser; Ulrich Schumann

2013-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

208

ARM - VAP Product - 30smplcmask1zwang  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Airport, Gan Island, Maldives GRW M1 Browse Data Graciosa Island, Azores, Portugal HFE M1 Browse Data Shouxian, Anhui, China PVC M1 Browse Data Highland Center, Cape Cod MA; AMF 1...

209

Analyzing the growth of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N/GaN superlattices in self-induced GaN nanowires by x-ray diffraction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Self-induced GaN nanowires are grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy, with In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N quantum wells inserted to form an axial superlattice. From the {omega}-2{theta} scans of a laboratory x-ray diffraction experiment, we obtain the superlattice period, the thickness of the quantum wells, and the In content in this layer. The axial growth rate of the In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N quantum wells is significantly enhanced, which we attribute to increased Ga diffusion along the nanowire sidewalls in the presence of In.

Woelz, M.; Kaganer, V. M.; Brandt, O.; Geelhaar, L.; Riechert, H.

2011-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

210

G. Vlad et al. 10th IAEA TM on Energetic Particles -Kloster Seeon, Germany, 8-10/10/2007 1 Particle Simulations of Alfvn Modes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

G. Vlad et al. 10th IAEA TM on Energetic Particles - Kloster Seeon, Germany, 8-10/10/2007 1 General Atomics, San Diego, California, USA #12;G. Vlad et al. 10th IAEA TM on Energetic Particles sensitivity) · Conclusions #12;G. Vlad et al. 10th IAEA TM on Energetic Particles - Kloster Seeon, Germany, 8

Vlad, Gregorio

211

Electric storage heating: the experience in England and Wales and in the Federal Republic of Germany  

SciTech Connect

Electric storage heating, a space-heating system for buildings, incorporates a resistively heated storage medium to store energy during off-peak hours for use during peak-load hours. The system, which is widely used in Europe, smooths the utility's daily load curve and retards the growth of the winter peak by displacing new space-heating loads into the off-peak ''valleys'' of the load curve. The most extensive application of this form of space heating has occurred in England and Wales and in the Federal Republic of Germany. This report reviews the policies, methods, and circumstances under which electric storage heating was commercialized in these two market regions, and provides background information for evaluating the feasibility of commercial applications in the United States.

Asbury, J.G.; Kouvalis, A.

1976-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Wind-Power Development in Germany and the U.S.: Multiple Streams, Advocacy Coalitions, and Turning Points  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wind-Power Development in Germany and the U.S.: Multiple Streams, Advocacy Coalitions, and Turning). Of the various forms of renewable energy, wind-generated electricity has a unique set of advantages, which make especially large. Wind power produces relatively low levels of environmental damage over its life cycle (like

Qiu, Weigang

213

Presented at the 21th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Dresden, Germany, 4-8 September 2006  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Presented at the 21th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Dresden, Germany, 4-8 September 2006 A COST AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT COMPARISON OF GRID-CONNECTED ROOFTOP AND GROUND-BASED PV Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Unit Solar Energy, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG PETTEN, the Netherlands E.A. Alsema

214

A Top-down and Bottom-up look at Emissions Abatement in Germany in response to the EU ETS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper uses top-down trend analysis and a bottom-up power sector model to define upper and lower boundaries on abatement in Germany in the first phase of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (2005-2007). Long-term trend ...

Feilhauer, Stephan M. (Stephan Marvin)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

3rd Workshop on System-level Virtualization for High Performance Computing (HPCVirt) 2009, Nuremberg, Germany, March 30, 2009  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

3rd Workshop on System-level Virtualization for High Performance Computing (HPCVirt) 2009 for High Performance Computing (HPCVirt) 2009, Nuremberg, Germany, March 30, 2009 Outline · Background work #12;3/193rd Workshop on System-level Virtualization for High Performance Computing (HPCVirt) 2009

Engelmann, Christian

216

Virtual architectural 3d model of the imperial cathedral (kaiserdom) of knigslutter, germany through terrestrial laser scanning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The imperial cathedral (Kaiserdom) of Knigslutter, Germany, is one of the most important examples of Romanesque architecture north of the Alps. In April 2010 complex conservation and restoration works were finished to celebrate the 875th ... Keywords: 3D, CAD, laser scanning, modelling, terrestrial, visualisation

Thomas P. Kersten; Maren Lindstaedt

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Energy-Optimised Building- Experience and Future Perspectives from a Demonstration Programme in Germany  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In 1995, the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology launched an intensive research and demonstration programme on energy-optimised construction of new buildings as well as retrofitting the building stock. Beside research on materials and components, approximately 50 demonstration buildings covering various building typologies have been realized and monitored within the programme (www.enob.info). Accompanying research was conducted to systemise the results and lessons learned. The programme led to a set of prominent research results in the fields of e.g. daylighting, passive cooling, energy efficiency and renewable energy use in commercial buildings, user behaviour and user satisfaction. Many of the demonstration projects have reached energy savings of 50% and more compared to current practice in Germany, without exceeding conventional investment costs. A number of these projects have been awarded architectural prizes. This paper summarises key findings and explains the strategies for new projects on the route toward net zero-energy buildings. These strategies are based on a further decrease in energy demand and increased renewable energy utilization in conjunction with intensified use of building-integrated power generation interacting with the public grid.

Hans, O.

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Does the market value R&D investment by European firms? Evidence from a panel of manufacturing firms in France, Germany, and Italy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

J. , Procter, S. (Eds. ), R&D Decisions: Strategy, Policy925 954. Belcher, A. , 1996. R&D disclosure: theory andReenen J. 2003b. Corporate R&D and productivity in Germany

Hall, Bronwyn H.; Oriani, R

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Reply to Guy et al.: Support for a bottleneck in the 2011 Escherichia coli O104:H4 outbreak in Germany  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In our paper (1), we analyzed isolates from the Escherichia coli O104:H4 outbreaks in Germany and France in May to July 2011. We concluded that, although the German outbreak was larger, the German isolates represent a clade ...

Grad, Y. H.

220

An integrated energy simulation model of the Federal Republic of Germany as a decision aid for analyzing and planning the energy system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As a decision aid for planning the national energy system the Programme Group of Systems Analysis and Technological Development (STE) of the Nuclear Research Centre (KFA) at Jlich (Federal Republic of Germany) has developed a simulation model which ...

Hans-Paul Schwefel; Kurt Schmitz

1977-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "germany gan m1" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Gas reactor international cooperative program interim report: United States/Federal Republic of Germany nuclear licensing comparison  

SciTech Connect

In order to compare US and FRG Nuclear Licensing, a summary description of United States Nuclear Licensing is provided as a basis. This is followed by detailed information on the participants in the Nuclear Licensing process in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). FRG licensing procedures are described and the rules and regulations imposed are summarized. The status of gas reactor licensing in both the U.S. and the FRG is outlined and overall conclusions are drawn as to the major licensing differences. An appendix describes the most important technical differences between US and FRG criteria.

1978-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Electricity Market reforms in New Zealand and Germany: A Comparative Study of the History, Development and Future of These Both Countries' Markets with a Special Focus on the Approach to Renewable energy.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This dissertation will show why Germany is overall on a better way to deliver secure and sustainable electricity to its population at the moment. Though, (more)

Holder, Florian

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Evaluation of the computerized utilities energy monitoring and control system installed at the US Military Community at Goeppingen, Germany  

SciTech Connect

Under the provisions of an Interagency Agreement between the US Army and the Department of Energy, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is evaluating the Utilities and Energy Monitoring and Control System (UEMCS) installed at the US Military Community Activity at Goeppingen, Germany. This evaluation relies on examination of existing data and information to determine the effectiveness of the UEMCS. The Goeppingen UEMCS is an integral part of a combined UEMCS/district heating system which includes the UEMCS at Schwaebisch Gmuend, Germany. The system was installed during 1985 and 1986. The UEMCS at Goeppingen and Schwaebisch Gmuend are both well designed, implemented, and maintained. The UEMCS is operated in a supervisory mode with distributed intelligence in local controllers. At present, the UEMCS is operated in a supervisory mode with distributed intelligence in local controllers. At present, the UEMCS at Schwaebisch Gmuend does not have a central computer, but requires only a dedicated phone line to couple with the one at Goeppingen. Though the conversion to district heat has produced the majority of energy savings, the UEMCS day/night setback program also contributes substantially, with additional savings from start/stop programs, such as seasonal switchover, and various temperature control programs. Further opportunities for savings exist in increasing monitoring and control of water usage and connecting the community`s electrical network to the UEMCS, permitting demand limiting and increased power factor control.

Purucker, S.L.; Gettings, M.B.

1991-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

225

The Disarmament School: US Policy for the Disarmament and Demobilization of the Germany Army, November-December 1944  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

World War II was waged on an unprecedented scale, and the peace which followed was equally unprecedented. The Allies did more than simply call for an armistice; they made their goal the complete destruction of the German Wehrmacht and the German Military Tradition. This demilitarization of Germany was the chief goal of victory and means of ensuring lasting peace in Europe. In November and December of 1944, the US Army hosted the Disarmament School, a series of lectures by experts in the field of demilitarization planning. Based in London, these lectures familiarized US staff officers with the history of planning for the disarmament, demobilization, and final disposal of the Wehrmacht, as well as the current state of those plans. By accessing the transcripts of these lectures as well as original documents and memoranda of US post-hostilities planning staffs, I demonstrate that these groups at the SHAEF and USGCC levels were caught between the need for post-war security and the call for unconditional surrender as they planned for the control and disposal of the doomed German military machine. Though much would change between the time of the Disarmament School and the final defeat of Nazi Germany, the lectures of the Disarmament School nonetheless provide a valuable insight into the assumptions upon which Allied planning rested during a crucial stage of the war in Europe.

Wilkerson, Joseph Jr

2009-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

226

Comparison of the incentives used to stimulate energy production in Japan, France, West Germany, and the United States  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The conclusions of each of three previous non-US incentives volumes and the conclusions of the comparisons volume which looks at incentives in four countries including the United States are summarized. Summaries of the patterns of incentive actions in France, West Germany, and Japan are presented first, followed by a summary of the four-country comparisons volume itself. Suggestions for solar policy which are based on the comparison of incentive actions in the four countries are presented. The definitions and methods used in each of the single-country studies are explained in detail in those volumes. A brief explanation of the procedures is offered. Each volume was divided into three parts: a survey of current thought about incentives for solar energy production; a view of the energy incentive landscape for one particular year; and an analysis of the major energy forms (nuclear, hydro, coal, electricity, oil, and gas) along the path from exploration to waste management, including the costs of incentives at each step in constant national currency. Following the theoretical approach developed for studying US energy incentives, the researchers in each country classified incentives into the following six categories: taxation, disbursements, requirements traditional services, nontraditional services, and market activities.

Cole, R.J.; Cone, B.W.; Sommers, P.; Eschbach, C.; Sheppard, W.J.; Lenerz, D.E.; Huelshoff, M.; Marcus, A.A.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Impacts of anisotropic lattice relaxation on crystal mosaicity and luminescence spectra of m-plane Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N films grown on m-plane freestanding GaN substrates by NH{sub 3} source molecular beam epitaxy  

SciTech Connect

In-plane anisotropic lattice relaxation was correlated with the crystal mosaicity and luminescence spectra for m-plane Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N films grown on a freestanding GaN substrate by NH{sub 3}-source molecular beam epitaxy. The homoepitaxial GaN film exhibited A- and B-excitonic emissions at 8 K, which obeyed the polarization selection rules. For Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N overlayers, the m-plane tilt mosaic along c-axis was the same as the substrate as far as coherent growth was maintained (x{<=}0.25). However, it became more severe than along the a-axis for lattice-relaxed films (x{>=}0.52). The results are explained in terms of anisotropic lattice and thermal mismatches between the film and the substrate. Nonetheless, all the Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N films exhibited a near-band-edge emission peak and considerably weak deep emission at room temperature.

Hoshi, T.; Hazu, K.; Ohshita, K.; Kagaya, M.; Onuma, T.; Chichibu, S. F. [CANTech, Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Fujito, K. [Optoelectronics Laboratory, Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation, 1000 Higashi-Mamiana, Ushiku 300-1295 (Japan); Namita, H. [Mitsubishi Chemical Group Science and Technology Research Center, Inc., 8-3-1 Chuo, Ami, Inashiki 300-0332 (Japan)

2009-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

228

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Black Forest Germany for the Convective and Orographically Induced Precipitation Study (COPS)  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

ARM maintains three major, permanent sites for data collection and deploys the ARM Mobile Facility to other sites as determined. In 2007 the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) operated in the Black Forest region of Germany as part of the Convective and Orographically Induced Precipitation Study (COPS). Scientists studied rainfall resulting from atmospheric uplift (convection) in mountainous terrain, otherwise known as orographic precipitation. This was part of a six -year duration of the German Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting (QPF) Program. See the COPS home at https://www.uni-hohenheim.de/spp-iop/index.htm and the QPF homepage at http://www.meteo.uni-bonn.de/projekte/SPPMeteo/ Information obtained during COPS will not only aid regional weather forecasts to help protect people and land, but will also help scientists determine how clouds affect the climate in complex terrain around the world. Because of its relevance to society, COPS has been endorsed as a Research and Development Project by the World Weather Research Program. This program was established by the World Meteorological Organization to develop improved and cost-effective forecasting techniques, with an emphasis on high-impact weather. [Taken from http://www.arm.gov/sites/amf/blackforest/] A large collection of data plots based on data streams from specific instruments used at Black Forest are available via a link from ARM's Black Forest site information page. Users will be requested to create a password, but the plots and the data files in the ARM Archive are free for viewing and downloading. The URL to go directly to the ARM Archive, bypassing the information pages, is http://www.archive.arm.gov/ The Office of Biological and Environmental Research in DOE's Office of Science is responsible for the ARM Program. The ARM Archive physically resides at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

229

Revised 8/24/2010 Cooper, S.M. 1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for Research on Adolescence, San Francisco. Kizzie, K. & Cooper, S.M. (2006). Perceived discrimination, racial

Almor, Amit

230

CULHAM LOCAL LIAISON COMMITTEE Meeting Reference CLLC(12)M1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Publication Mail: 40062527 Meet Memorial's newest female electrical apprentice 2 Discover Delores Wheeler in electrical pursuits, excelling in math and science. That led her to a nine- month industrial electrician a job here at Memorial in November 2007 as one of two industrial electrician apprentices with Facilities

231

Good-bye, Germany!  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nicht die Bevlkerung, sondern das deutsche Volk! ).semantic distinction between Volk and Bevlkerung that hadthe Reichstag itselfwith Volk suggesting the romantic ideal

Sollors, Werner

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Energy Incentives in Germany  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Incentives for the development of renewable energy have increasingly become an instrument of climate policy, that is, as a means to reduce GHG emissions. This research analyzes the German experience in promoting renewable energy over the past decade to identify the ex post cost of reducing CO2 emissions through the promotion of renewable energy, specifically, wind and solar. To this propose, we calculated the annual CO2 abatement cost for the years 2006-2010 as the ratio of the net cost over the CO2 emission reductions resulting from the use of renewable energy. The net cost is the sum of the costs and cost savings due to the injection of renewable energy into the electric power system. Results show that CO2 abatement cost of wind are relatively low, of the order of tens of Euro per tonne of CO2, while CO2 abatement cost of solar are very high, of the order of hundreds of Euro per tonne of CO2. CO2 abatement cost has changed considerably over the years due to variations of fossil fuels prices, carbon price and the amount of generated renewable energy.

Claudio Marcantonini; A. Denny Ellerman; Claudio Marcantonini; A. Denny Ellerman

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Best of Germany 2008  

SciTech Connect

This supplement discusses German mining equipment and technology under the following sections: mining experience and machinery export; underground mining technology; surface mining technology; materials handling technology; coal and minerals processing technology; power technology; and automation, specialized components and materials. Manufacturers of the different equipment and their contact details are given. 4 figs.

Casteel, K.

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Best of Germany 2007  

SciTech Connect

This supplement, sponsored by the German Engineering Federation, VDMA, includes a seven page article on the German mining industry, a two-page article on occupational health and safety; a three-page article on collaboration, consulting and finance in the German mining industry; and a 27 page article on German mining technology and its mining. A buyers guide gives details of German companies selling equipment for the mining industry.

NONE

2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

235

Made in Germany  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This supplement was prepared in collaboration with the Association of German Mining Machine Manufacturers within VDMA to give an overview of German manufacturers' contribution to the coal industry. It has 18 short papers and a VDMA vendor matrix and directory. Papers include details of MAN Takraf's surface mining equipment, hydraulic shovels and excavators from Komatsu, Liebherr and Terex O & K, Siemens motors and electric control technology in trucks, shovels etc., new technology from DBT, IBS and Wirth, and low emission engines and drives from Deutz and DaimlerCrysler. 2 figs.

NONE

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Tritium Activities in Germany  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Plenary / Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Tritium Science and Technology Tsukuba, Japan November 12-16, 2001

Sigurd Gross

237

Photoluminescence from GaN Nanowires  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... into commercial light emitting diodes and commercial laser diodes that operate from ultraviolet (UV) to green wavelengths. ... Phys 103, 124309 (2008 ...

2011-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

238

Bright Future for GaN Nanowires  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Recently they found that by creating a grid-like pattern of openings on the order of ... "That's an advantage for high electrical power applications." The ...

2011-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

239

CLIMATE CHANGE FUEL CELL PROGRAM 200 kW - PC25C FUEL CELL POWER PLANT FOR THE ST.-AGNES-HOSPITAL, BOCHOLT, GERMANY  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Since the beginning of the Year 2001, the Saint-Agnes-Hospital in Bocholt, Germany, operates a phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) to provide the base load of electrical power as well as heat in Winter and air conditioning in Summer. The project was made possible by federal funding from the U.S. Department of Energy as well as by a strategic alliance with the local utility company, the Bocholter Energie- und Wasserversorgung GmbH (BEW), and with the gas supplier of BEW, the Thyssengas GmbH. The fuel cell power plant is combined with an absorption chiller. It is highly efficient and has an excellent power to heat ratio. The operation during the first Year went smoothly and nearly free of trouble.

Dipl.-Ing. Knut Stahl

2002-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

240

Evaluation of the utility and energy monitoring and control system installed at the US Army, Europe, 409th Base Support Battalion, Military Community at Grafenwoehr, Germany  

SciTech Connect

Under the provisions of Interagency Agreement DOE 1938-B090-A1 between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Army Europe (USAREUR), Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., is providing technical assistance to USAREUR in the areas of computer science, information engineering, energy studies, and engineering and systems development. One of the initial projects authorized under this interagency agreement is the evaluation of utility and energy monitoring and control systems (UEMCSs) installed at selected US Army installations in Europe. This report is an evaluation of the overall energy-conservation effectiveness and use of the UEMCS at the 409th Base Support Battalion located in Grafenwoehr, Germany. The 409th Base Support Battalion is a large USAREUR military training facility that comprises a large training area, leased housing, the main post area, and the camp areas that include Camps Aachen, Algier, Normandy, Cheb, and Kasserine. All of these facilities are consumers of electrical and thermal energy. However, only buildings and facilities in the main post area and Camps Aachen, Algier, and Normandy are under the control of the UEMCS. The focus of this evaluation report is on these specific areas. Recommendations to further increase energy and cost savings and to improve operation of the UEMCS are proposed.

Broders, M.A.; Ruppel, F.R.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "germany gan m1" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Evaluation of the computerized utilities and energy monitoring and control system installed at the US Army, Europe, 222D Base Support Battalion, Baumholder, Germany  

SciTech Connect

ORNL the utilities and energy monitoring and control systems (UEMCSs) installed at the 222D Base Support Battalion (BSB) at Baumholder, Germany. This evaluation relies on examination of existing data and information to determine the effectiveness of the UEMCSs. The Baumholder BSB consists of numerous installations located as far as 63 miles from the principal installation at Baumholder. Only five facilities within these installations currently have support from four essentially separate UEMCSs A Messner/Miles and two Honeywell systems, which combined have 4600 points serving 200 buildings, perform traditional UEMCS functions associated with district heating, while a Landis & Gyr UEMCS is used exclusively for electrical demand limiting and exterior lighting control. Total energy consumption at the community has steadily decreased since 1986 because of the implementation of UEMCS and the conversion to district heat. However, lack of annual energy consumption data by individual installation makes direct association of energy reductions to the implementation of specific UEMCSs difficult. Engineering estimates predict approximately a 6% annual energy savings associated with the UEMCSs of DM 1.9 million. However, less than 40% of the total community building area is connected. Opportunities for additional savings are available through (1) expanded use of demand limiting, (2) increased memory for the older Honeywell system to allow extending its application at the Smith Barracks facility and facilities nearby, (3) use of available UEMCS equipment to shut off the domestic hot water circulation pumps at night, (4) extension of UEMCS control at the Neubruecke Hospital complex, and (5) installation and utilization of heating hot water and potable hot water leak detection equipment. A moderate effort to track energy consumption by facility should be undertaken and data transmission lines associated with the UEMCS inspected and repaired.

Gettings, M.B.; Purucker, S.L.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Evaluation of the computerized utilities and energy monitoring and control system installed at the US Army, Europe, 222D Base Support Battalion, Baumholder, Germany  

SciTech Connect

ORNL the utilities and energy monitoring and control systems (UEMCSs) installed at the 222D Base Support Battalion (BSB) at Baumholder, Germany. This evaluation relies on examination of existing data and information to determine the effectiveness of the UEMCSs. The Baumholder BSB consists of numerous installations located as far as 63 miles from the principal installation at Baumholder. Only five facilities within these installations currently have support from four essentially separate UEMCSs A Messner/Miles and two Honeywell systems, which combined have 4600 points serving 200 buildings, perform traditional UEMCS functions associated with district heating, while a Landis Gyr UEMCS is used exclusively for electrical demand limiting and exterior lighting control. Total energy consumption at the community has steadily decreased since 1986 because of the implementation of UEMCS and the conversion to district heat. However, lack of annual energy consumption data by individual installation makes direct association of energy reductions to the implementation of specific UEMCSs difficult. Engineering estimates predict approximately a 6% annual energy savings associated with the UEMCSs of DM 1.9 million. However, less than 40% of the total community building area is connected. Opportunities for additional savings are available through (1) expanded use of demand limiting, (2) increased memory for the older Honeywell system to allow extending its application at the Smith Barracks facility and facilities nearby, (3) use of available UEMCS equipment to shut off the domestic hot water circulation pumps at night, (4) extension of UEMCS control at the Neubruecke Hospital complex, and (5) installation and utilization of heating hot water and potable hot water leak detection equipment. A moderate effort to track energy consumption by facility should be undertaken and data transmission lines associated with the UEMCS inspected and repaired.

Gettings, M.B.; Purucker, S.L.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Germany`s path towards a sustainable economy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Brennstoffe: 1,7 % biogene Festbrennstoffe: 11,4 % Biogas: 12,9 %Klärgas: 1,1 % Windenergie: 36 Windenergie Angaben für 2009 und 2010 Abschätzungen; Abweichungen in den Summen durch Rundungen; Quelle: OCost efficient extention of renewables uIncrease of Offshore Wind uIncrease of Onshore Wind u

Reich, Peter B.

244

The Challenges of Germany's "Energiewende"  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to the "Energiewende" were made in 2011, in the aftermath of the melt-down of the nuclear power plant in Fukushima, Japan. German policy-makers are now facing the challenge...

245

Advanced Dielectric Integration in GaN High Frequency Devices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Advanced Materials for Power Electronics, Power Conditioning, and Power Conversion ... Potential Ceramic Dielectrics for Air Force Applications.

246

Y2, Threading Defect Elimination in GaN Nanostructures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

DD3, A New Approach to Make ZnO-Cu2O Heterojunctions for Solar Cells ... E2, AlGaAs/GaAs/GaN Wafer Fused HBTs with Ar Implanted Extrinsic Collectors.

247

Anisotropic Evaporation of GaN Nanowires Analyzed Using Atom ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Development of ZnO/MgO/p-Si Heterostructures for Pure UV Light Emitting Diode with Carrier Blocking Layer Effect of Annealing and Additives on Defects and...

248

Orthodox etching of HVPE-grown GaN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

orthodox etching in molten salts (KOH [9], eutectic alloy ofnot only to etching in molten salts (KOH, KOH+NaOH eutectic)important for etching in molten salts of morphologically

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Fabrication of Photonic Crystal Patterns on Gan-Based Light ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Energy Efficient Sintering of Al/Cu Nanocomposites Using Different Microwave ... of Powder-based Metals via Current Activated Tip-Based Sintering (CATS).

250

BB2, Novel Cs-Free GaN Photocathodes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

L6, PECVD-SiN, Si or Si/Al2O3-Capped ED-Mode AlN/GaN Inverters Hide details for [

251

M1L11OR04020102 IASCC initial Assessment Results Rev2  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

0/346 0/346 Assessment of Initial Test Conditions for Experiments to Assess Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking Mechanisms December 2010 Prepared by J.T. Busby and M.N. Gussev Oak Ridge National Laboratory This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or

252

Water/Wastewater Engineering Report (Storm Sewer/Infiltration Sanitary Sewage Separation-M1 Model)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In some cities, the municipal sewer system collects both storm water and sanitary sewage in the same pipes. During dry weather these sewers carry all the sanitary sewage to the wastewater treatment plant for treatment. However, when rainstorms or snow melt increase the amount of runoff, the combined flow of sanitary sewage and storm water can exceed the capacity of the sewer system, which can cause serious problems like the storm water and sewage mix are discharged untreated into the river or the sewage backs up into streets and basement. Storm water treated in the sewage treatment plant also causes unnecessary energy use. Sewer systems can also have unintended ground water entering the network, which occurs because of hydraulic pressure on the buried sewer lines infiltration. Therefore, separating the storm water/infiltration and sanitary sewage reduces the possibility of sewage discharge during heavy rain periods, and saves energy.

Liu, Z.; Brumbelow, K.; Haberl, J. S.

2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

253

C:\MYDOCS\FBSS-M~1\HATTIE\LAYOUT94.TXT  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1993 Federal Buildings Supplemental Survey 1993 Federal Buildings Supplemental Survey Survey Data File Documentation Energy Information Administration August 1997 Overview of Survey Data File Documentation This document contains only the file layouts and variable codes for use with the 1993 Public Use files. For information on the FBSS and the organization and use of these files, please go to http://www/eia.doe.gov/emeu/cbecs/contents.html and click on: "1993 Micro-Data Files." Layout of Data Files A file layout is provided here for each of the 22 files. Column 1 is the variable name that is found in the files; column 2 is a brief description of the variable; column 3 is the variable position on the files.

254

31.02.09.M1 Optional Retirement Program Page 1 of 3 UNIVERSITY RULE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the employee's total compensation to the Optional Retirement Program (ORP). Percentages for both the em- ployee in ORP is allowed to withdraw onlythe contributions the employee made to the Teacher Retirement System (TRS) plus any accrued interest. Moneyrefunded byTRS to ORP participants is subject to the normal

255

u.s. DEPARIMENT OF ENERGY EERE PROJECT M~'1AGEMENT ...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

energy, demonstrate potential energy conservation, and promote energy-efficiency thai do not increase the indoor concentrations of potentially harmful substances. These...

256

Correlations between charge radii, E0 transitions, and M1 strength  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the framework of the interacting boson model, relations are derived between nuclear charge radii, electric monopole transition rates, and summed magnetic dipole transition in even-even nuclei. The proposed correlations are tested in the rare-earth region.

Van Isacker, P

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Correlations between charge radii, E0 transitions, and M1 strength  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the framework of the interacting boson model, relations are derived between nuclear charge radii, electric monopole transition rates, and summed magnetic dipole transition in even-even nuclei. The proposed correlations are tested in the rare-earth region.

P. Van Isacker

2013-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

258

SI}M!1ARY REPORT ON SITE nnTESTIGATION AND REMOVAL ACTIVITIES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

du.ring the removal operations on the site.. The Response, Engineering! and &!'1alytical Contractor codes') . In 1987, CSMRI contracted with Jacobs Engineering, Inc. (Jacobs) to provide a site assessment State Engineers office inspected the dam and recommended the repairs be initiated immediately to prevent

259

Mechanics and Dynamics of the Strain-induced M1-M2 Structural ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, O. Advanced Neutron and Synchrotron Studies of Materials .... Status of China Spallation Neutron Source and Perspectives of Neutron Research in...

260

M1L11OR04020102 IASCC initial Assessment Results Rev2  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy Light Water Reactor Sustainability Materials Aging and Degradation Pathway Prepared by OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY Oak Ridge, Tennessee...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "germany gan m1" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

M-1: Acid Cleaning of Titanium Based Scales Formed on Preheaters ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reports an acid formulation which is best suited for titanium based scales. ... Extracting Alumina from Coal Fly Ash Using Acid Sintering-Leaching...

262

Feedback suppression of the internal m = 1 helical mode in a tokamak  

SciTech Connect

A stabilization system that measures the boundary of the plasma filament and controls the perturbation of the magnetic field outside the plasma is discussed. (AIP)

Mikhailovskii, A.B.

1979-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

M1, Material and Electronic Properties of CVD Graphene Grown on ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

GG6, Thermomagnetic Transport Properties of (AgxSbTex/2+1)15(GeTe)85 Thermoelectric Materials GG7, Thermoelectric Properties of Sn-Rich Pb1?xSnx

264

Radiative Heat Transfer in a Hydrous Mantle Transition Zone Thomas, S.-M.1,2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, USA 3 Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC 20015, USA craig spectra reveals an energy transmission "window" in the IR-VIS spectral range, as for both mineral phases-3260 [15] F.C. Marton, T.J. Shankland, D.C. Rubie and Y. Xu (2005) "Effect of variable thermal con

Bina, Craig R.

265

M1: Fabrication of Bulk Nanocrystalline Ni-W with Plastic ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, The 8th Pacific Rim International Congress on Advanced Materials and Processing. Symposium, M. Bulk Metallic Glasses,...

266

Mobile Facility  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Facility Facility AMF Information Science Architecture Baseline Instruments AMF1 AMF2 AMF3 Data Operations AMF Fact Sheet Images Contacts AMF Deployments Hyytiälä, Finland, 2014 Manacapuru, Brazil, 2014 Oliktok Point, Alaska, 2013 Los Angeles, California, to Honolulu, Hawaii, 2012 Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 2012 Gan Island, Maldives, 2011 Ganges Valley, India, 2011 Steamboat Springs, Colorado, 2010 Graciosa Island, Azores, 2009-2010 Shouxian, China, 2008 Black Forest, Germany, 2007 Niamey, Niger, 2006 Point Reyes, California, 2005 Mobile Facilities Pictured here in Gan, the second mobile facility is configured in a standard layout. Pictured here in Gan, the second mobile facility is configured in a standard layout. To explore science questions beyond those addressed by ARM's fixed sites at

267

DOE Solar Decathlon: 2009 Team Germany  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

is slightly less efficient than the silicon but will perform better in cloudy weather. The faade's highly insulating, custom vacuum insulation panels plus phase-change...

268

OPEN 4:30p.m. 1:00a.m. daily (except University holidays)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.79 Gatorade: Red, Yellow, Orange, Light Blue, Medium Blue; G2: Red, Orange, Purple, Dark Blue Canned Soda, 12 Wings and 2 Large Wedges $49.99 Three Sbarro Cheese Pizzas $37.99 Pizza and Wing Special: One Topping Pizza and 20 Wings $29.99 Specials Sbarro Pizza Made with all-natural ingredients, including dough made

Raina, Ramesh

269

SampleID: 53051 Test Date: 4/17/2010 mean,std_dev,n,m1 ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... 233.2,48238 231.57,3.09294762322286,5,233.2,230.49,227.77,230.49,235.91, 48241 240.5,3.92874025611264,5,238.7,242.2,241.1,245.5,235 ...

2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

270

A.E. K.Ris Ris -M -1 i34b Title and author(s)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

UBHUUTINt PLOTOLtY.P.IA.AA.BB»TITLE) C C 1) XX(L> · L « MAXIMUM NUMBER OF CHANNELS OINENSIUN r(ft00) HEAL TITLE(20HULINE · 37M ·40H SUM«0. DO V01 I»VI .V.3 SUM-SUM.h

271

Z5, Effect of Traps Spatial Localization on GaN HEMT Static ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Conference Tools for 2010 Electronic Materials Conference ... In this work we discuss how trap state formation during reverse gate-source and ... by means of the commercial DESSIS-ISE (Synopsis Inc.) simulator showed that acceptor traps

272

Ferromagnetism in GaN: Gd: A density functional theory study  

SciTech Connect

First principle calculations of the electronic structure and magnetic interaction of GaN:Gd have been performed within the Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA) of the density functional theory (DFT) with the on-site Coulomb energy U taken into account (also referred to as GGA+U). The ferromagnetic p-d coupling is found to be over two orders of magnitude larger than the s-d exchange coupling. The experimental colossal magnetic moments and room temperature ferromagnetism in GaN:Gd reported recently are explained by the interaction of Gd 4f spins via p-d coupling involving holes introduced by intrinsic defects such as Ga vacancies.

Stevenson, Cynthia; Stevenson, Cynthia

2008-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

273

Effect of Oxidation on GaN Studied by Photoluminescence and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Advanced Materials for Power Electronics, Power Conditioning, and Power Conversion ... Potential Ceramic Dielectrics for Air Force Applications.

274

Development of a Bulk GaN Growth Technique for Low Defect Density...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Enabling Next-Generation Power Electronics: Electrochemical Solution Growth (ESG) Technique for Bulk Gallium Nitride Substrates Karen Waldrip Dept. 2546, Advanced Power Sources R&D...

275

A17: Morphology Variations of GaN Nanowires and Devices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

B7: Synthesis and Electrical Properties of K2NiF4-Type (Ca2-xLnx)MnO4 (Ln=Nd and Sm) B8: Monitoring Oxygen Diffusion in Gd-Doped Ceria by Null...

276

Development of a Bulk GaN Growth Technique for Low Defect Density...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Technique: Electrochemical Solution Growth (ESG) Use salt flow to deliver precursors Increase growth rate through flux of reactants (increase spin rate) Precursors can be...

277

Optimal Decentralized Protocol for Electric Vehicle Charging Lingwen Gan Ufuk Topcu Steven Low  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

day according to the price profile broadcast by the utility, and the utility updates the price profile is implemented, even a 10% pene- tration of EVs may cause unacceptable variations in the volt- age profiles of the integration challenges, defer infrastructure investment needed otherwise, and even stabilize the grid

Low, Steven H.

278

Effect of trapping on the critical voltage for degradation in gan high electron mobility transistors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have performed V[subscript DS] = 0 V and OFF-state step-stress experiments on GaN-on-Si and GaN-on-SiC high electron mobility transistors under UV illumination and in the dark. We have found that for both stress conditions, ...

Demirtas, Sefa

279

Polarized Emission from Single GaN Quantum Dots Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Polarization resolved microphotoluminescence measurements of single MBE-grown GaN/Al(Ga)N quantum dots (QDs) have been performed. The exciton and biexciton peaks with full width at half maximum as narrow as dots, resulting in different built-in electric field. Moreover, a strongly linearly polarized emission is observed for the investigated dots with a degree of linear polarization of about 0.9, interpreted as the valence-band mixing induced by in-plane anisotropy due to strain and/or QD shape.

Amloy, S. [Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology (IFM), Linkoeping University, S-58183 Linkoeping (Sweden); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Thaksin University, 93110 Phattalung (Thailand); Yu, K. H.; Karlsson, K. F.; Holtz, P. O. [Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology (IFM), Linkoeping University, S-58183 Linkoeping (Sweden); Farivar, R.; Andersson, T. G. [Applied Semiconductor Physics, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, S-41296 Goeteborg (Sweden)

2011-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

280

II5, Electrical Tuning of InGaN Quantum Dots in GaN Photonic ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, 2011 Electronic Materials Conference. Symposium, 2011 Electronic Materials Conference. Presentation Title, II5, Electrical Tuning...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "germany gan m1" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Searching for room temperature ferromagnetism in transition metal implanted ZnO and GaN  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Significant progress in the field of wide-gap dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS) depends on the discovery of a material system which not only shows high-temperature ferromagnetism but is also simple to prepare and thus easy to reproduce. In this context

L. M. C. Pereira; J. P. Arajo; U. Wahl; S. Decoster; M. J. Van Bael; K. Temst; A. Vantomme

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Holographic Optical Disc Gan Zhou, Xin An, Allen Pu, Demetri Psaltis, and Fai Mok  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in turbine applica- tions has a radial compressor/ pump having radially disposed spaced apart fins forming fluid from the radial compressor/pump flows. The rotor can, in some applications, be used to produce) An Antibody Recognizing Sulfation as a Post-translational Modification Bradley, Johnathan (CCS) Storage

Psaltis, Demetri

283

Photonic bands in two-dimensionally patterned multimode GaN waveguides for light extraction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

have emerged as a reference blue-green solid-state light source. As for any light emitting diode LED

Recanati, Catherine

284

HH4, Comparison of Ga-Polar and N-Polar GaN by KOH ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, III-nitride materials have made huge progress in optical devices, such as light emitting diode (LEDs), and laser diode(LDs). Wet chemical etch...

285

TOWARDS THE DEVELOPMENT OF DEFECT-FREE GaN SUBSTRATES ...  

Department of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering University of California at Berkeley ... known to result in considerable wafer bending currently

286

Seamless On-Wafer Integration of Si(100) MOSFETs and GaN HEMTs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The first on-wafer integration of Si(100) MOSFETs and AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) is demonstrated. To enable a fully Si-compatible process, we fabricated a novel Si(100)-GaN-Si(100) virtual substrate ...

Piner, Edwin L.

287

Electric field engineering in GaN high electron mobility transistors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the last few years, AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) have become the top choice for power amplification at frequencies up to 20 GHz. Great interest currently exists in industry and academia to increase ...

Zhao, Xu, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

A20: Growth of Freestanding GaN by HVPE on 3 Sapphire Substrate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Catalytic Properties of Ni3Al Foils for Methane Steam Reforming Characterization of the Crystallographic Textures and Mechanical Anisotropy Factors in Two...

289

On-wafer seamless integration of GaN and Si (100) electronics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The high thermal stability of nitride semiconductors allows for the on-wafer integration of (001)Si CMOS electronics and electronic devices based on these semiconductors. This paper describes the technology developed at ...

Chung, Jinwook

290

Effect of charged dislocation walls on mobility in GaN epitaxial layers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A theoretical model in the context of a conventional representation on traditional notion concerning Read cylinders for interpretation of mobility collapse as a function of the concentration of free carriers in GaN-based films is suggested. Along with phonon and impurity scattering mechanisms, electron scattering due to charged dislocations embedded into the walls is taken into account in the model. An expression is obtained for the height of the drift barrier depending on the concentration of free carriers. Based on the derived equations, the dependence of the location of the mobility minimum on the dislocation structure is interpreted.

Krasavin, S. E., E-mail: krasavin@theor.jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

291

JJ3, Anisotropic Carrier Mobility in GaN Quantum Well  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

L6, PECVD-SiN, Si or Si/Al2O3-Capped ED-Mode AlN/GaN Inverters Hide details for [

292

Y5, Electrochemical Etching of GaN and Its Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

L6, PECVD-SiN, Si or Si/Al2O3-Capped ED-Mode AlN/GaN Inverters Hide details for [

293

Collapse for Higher Gate Voltages in N-Polar GaN  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

L6, PECVD-SiN, Si or Si/Al2O3-Capped ED-Mode AlN/GaN Inverters Hide details for [

294

N7, Olefin Metathesis Reaction on GaN (0001) Surfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

L6, PECVD-SiN, Si or Si/Al2O3-Capped ED-Mode AlN/GaN Inverters Hide details for [

295

Superstructure of self-aligned hexagonal GaN nanorods formed on nitrided Si(111) surface  

SciTech Connect

We present here the spontaneous formation of catalyst-free, self-aligned crystalline (wurtzite) nanorods on Si(111) surfaces modified by surface nitridation. Nanorods grown by molecular beam epitaxy on bare Si(111) and non-stoichiometric silicon nitride interface are found to be single crystalline but disoriented. Those grown on single crystalline Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} intermediate layer are highly dense c-oriented hexagonal shaped nanorods. The morphology and the self-assembly of the nanorods shows an ordered epitaxial hexagonal superstructure, suggesting that they are nucleated at screw dislocations at the interface and grow spirally in the c-direction. The aligned nanorod assembly shows high-quality structural and optical emission properties.

Kumar, Praveen; Tuteja, Mohit; Kesaria, Manoj; Waghmare, U. V.; Shivaprasad, S. M. [Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur, Bangalore 560 064 (India)

2012-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

296

EWIS European wind integration study (Smart Grid Project) (Germany...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jun 2007 Oct 2009 References EU Smart Grid Projects Map1 Overview The project aims to work with all the relevant stakeholders especially representatives of wind generation...

297

CLIMATE POLICY OUTCOMES IN GERMANY Environmental Performance and Environmental Damage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, 130g CO2 standard for cars) ­ 16.0 4 percent Agricultural policies on biogas, biomass, and organic or climate change, together with a biogas ordi- nance in 2000, it reduced emissions by an estimated 30 Mt

Qiu, Weigang

298

Down syndrome clusters in Germany after the Chernobyl accident  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In two independent studies using different approaches and covering West Berlin and Bavaria, respectively, highly significant temporal clusters of Down syndrome were found. Both sharp increases occurred in areas receiving relatively low Chernobyl fallout and concomitant radiation exposures. Only for the Berlin cluster was fallout present at the time of the affected meiosis, whereas the Nuremberg cluster preceded the radioactive contamination by 1 month. Hypotheses on possible causal relationships are compared. Radiation from the Chernobyl accident is an unlikely factor, because the associated cumulative dose was so low in comparison with natural background. Microdosimetric considerations would indicate that fewer than 1 in 200 oocyte nuclei would have experienced an ionizing event from Chernobyl radioactivity. Given the lack of understanding of what causes Down syndrome, other than factors associated with increased maternal age, additional research into environmental and infectious risk factors is warranted. 23 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Burkart, W.; Grosche, B.; Schoetzau, A. [Institute for Radiation Hygiene, Oberschleissheim (Germany)

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Emigration and the Foundation of West Germany, 1933-1963  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Preuss, Hugo. Das deutsche Volk und die Politik. Jena: E.1934. . Staat, Bewegung, Volk. Die Dreigliederung derof his book Das deutsche Volk und die Politik (1915).

Strote, Noah Benezra

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Tom Cremins Speech in Bremen, Germany, Sept. 15, 2008  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the space age has continued to evolve. The ability to access and use space continues to expand at the same spending and near monopolistic utilization of space-based resources by government. Today, however, we the pioneers ­ governments invested in technology, pushed boundaries, and created infrastructure. But for those

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Index
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "germany gan m1" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


Index
301

Corporate Ownership and Initial Training in Britain, Germany and Switzerland  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

/PR URL: http://www.dotomi.com Job Titles: Engineering/IT Apprentice, Client Development/Sales Apprentice, Media Apprentice, Account Management Apprentice, Quality Assurance Apprentice Majors: Business: Business. - BS, Engineering: Contract Major, Engineering: Electrical, Engineering: Industrial, Engineering

Davies, Christopher

302

Germany - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Includes hydropower, solar, wind, geothermal, biomass and ethanol. Nuclear & Uranium. Uranium fuel, nuclear reactors, generation, spent fuel. ...

303

Germany - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Following the Fukushima accident in March 2011, the German government decided to close eight reactors launched before 1980 because of public protests, ...

304

U.S. Imports from Germany - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: *Countries listed under ...

305

Germany Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by Destination  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Crude oil exports are ...

306

Industrial heat pumps in Germany -potentials, technological development  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

jet nozzle Closed Cycles: Absorption/Adsorption heat pump thermal compressor driven by waste heat to 80 COP heating 2.5 to 5.8 Cooling function 50% of manufacturers offer cooling functions Cooling capacity [kW] 20 to 2500 COP cooling 1 to 6 #12;ACHEMA 2012 - Industrial heat pumps 21st June 2012

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

307

Germany - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Almost all natural gas imports come from Russia via the Nord Stream system (completed in 2011), Norway via Norpipe and Europipe systems, ...

308

Decontamination of hot cells K-1, K-3, M-1, M-3, and A-1, M-Wing, Building 200: Project final report Argonne National Laboratory-East  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project was to remove radioactively contaminated materials and equipment from the hot cells, to decontaminate the hot cells, and to dispose of the radioactive waste. The goal was to reduce stack releases of Rn-220 and to place the hot cells in an emptied, decontaminated condition with less than 10 {micro}Sv/h (1 mrem/h) general radiation background. The following actions were needed: organize and mobilize a decontamination team; prepare decontamination plans and procedures; perform safety analyses to ensure protection of the workers, public, and environment; remotely size-reduce, package, and remove radioactive materials and equipment for waste disposal; remotely decontaminate surfaces to reduce hot cell radiation background levels to allow personnel entries using supplied air and full protective suits; disassemble and package the remaining radioactive materials and equipment using hands-on techniques; decontaminate hot cell surfaces to remove loose radioactive contaminants and to attain a less than 10 {micro}Sv/h (1 mrem/h) general background level; document and dispose of the radioactive and mixed waste; and conduct a final radiological survey.

Cheever, C.L.; Rose, R.W.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

State Selective Electron Capture Studies:The Contribution of M1-and E2-Transitions to the Lyman Radiation of H-like Uranium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radiation of H-like Uranium Th. Sto« hlker,1;2 F. Bosch,2 R. W. Dunford,3 C. Kozhuharov,2 T. Ludziejewski,2 to decelerate highly charged ions up to bare uranium to energies which are far below the energy required for decelerated bare uranium ion are discussed and their relevance for Lamb shift investigations on high

310

M-1 N-Reactor fuel development. Excerpts from N-Reactor Department Research and Development Budget for FY-1967 and Revision of Budget for FY-1966  

SciTech Connect

The use of metallic uranium fuel elements on a large scale in a pressurized water cooled graphite moderated power reactor environment in N-Reactor not only represents an extrapolation from previous Hanford fuel technology but it represents the only production-scale application of this concept in this country or abroad. Provision of a supporting technology is and will continue to be a major activity at Hanford as only a limited amount of directly applicable R&D will be available from other sites. The major benefit to be achieved through an extensive and continuing fuel program is attainment of the full capabilities of the N-Reactor at much reduced fuel cycle costs. The current N-Reactor fuel design represents the best engineering judgment of what is required for adequate performance. While the design is intentionally conservative, some features may not fully provide the level of performance required to sustain efficient reactor operation. Results of production-scale irradiation experience and special test irradiations will provide direction to a continuing program to correct any excesses or deficiencies in the initial fuel design. Reduction of unwarranted conservatism in the design will lower fuel fabrication costs, and correction of deficiencies will lower irradiation costs through increased time operated efficiency. Costs of this program are summarized for 1965, 66, and 67. The paper describes the scope of the program, its relationship to other programs, and technical progress in FY-1965 which included improved performance of the fuel elements even with the large number of rapid shutdowns of the reactor.

1965-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

311

High Level ab initio Predictions of the Energetics of mCO2(H2O)n (n = 1-3, m = 1-12) Clusters  

SciTech Connect

Electronic structure calculations at the correlated molecular orbital theory and density functional theory levels have been used to generate a reliable set of clustering energies for up to three water molecules in carbon dioxide clusters up to n = 12. The structures and energetics are dominated by Lewis acid-base interactions with hydrogen bonding interactions playing a lesser energetic role. The actual binding energies are somewhat larger than might be expected. The correlated molecular orbital MP2 method and density functional theory with the ?B97X exchange-correlation functional provide good results for the energetics of the clusters but the B3LYP and ?B97X-D functionals do not. Seven CO2 molecules form the first solvent shell about a single H2O with four CO2 molecules interacting with the H2O via Lewis acid-base interactions, two CO2 interacting with the H2O by hydrogen bonds, and the seventh CO2 completing the shell. The Lewis acid-base and weak hydrogen bond interactions between the water molecules and the CO2 molecules are strong enough to disrupt the trimer ring configuration for as few as seven CO2 molecules. Calculated 13C NMR chemical shifts for mCO2(H2O)n show little change with respect to the number of H2O or CO2 molecules in the cluster. The O-H stretching frequencies do exhibit shifts that can provide information about the interactions between water and CO2 molecules.

Thanthiriwatte, Sahan; Duke, Jessica R.; Jackson, Virgil E.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Dixon, David A.

2012-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

312

ARM - Facility News Article  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Facility News Data Collection from Mobile Facility on Gan Island Suspended Local weather balloon launch volunteers pose with the AMF team on Gan Island after completing their...

313

Plasma Enhanced ALD of High-k Dielectrics on GaN and AlGaN  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent efforts to improve performance of high power devices have focused on the ... Characterization of Degradation for MLCC under Thermal and Electrical...

314

Behavior of W and WSi(x) Contact Metallization on n- and p- Type GaN  

SciTech Connect

Sputter-deposited W-based contacts on p-GaN (N{sub A} {approximately} 10{sup 18} cm{sup {minus}3}) display non-ohmic behavior independent of annealing temperature when measured at 25 C. The transition to ohmic behavior occurs above {approximately} 250 C as more of the acceptors become ionized. The optimum annealing temperature is {approximately} 700 C under these conditions. These contacts are much more thermally stable than the conventional Ni/Au metallization, which shows a severely degraded morphology even at 700 C. W-based contacts may be ohmic as-deposited on very heavily doped n-GaN, and the specific contact resistance improves with annealing up to {approximately} 900 C.

Abernathy, C.R.; Cao, X.A.; Cole, M.W.; Eizenberg, M.; Lothian, J.R.; Pearton, S.J.; Ren, F.; Shul, R.J.; Zeitouny, A.; Zolper, J.C.

1999-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

315

Development of a Bulk GaN Growth Technique for Low Defect Density, Large-Area Native Substrates  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Next-Generation Power Electronics: Next-Generation Power Electronics: Electrochemical Solution Growth (ESG) Technique for Bulk Gallium Nitride Substrates Karen Waldrip Dept. 2546, Advanced Power Sources R&D Sandia National Labs, Albuquerque, NM knwaldr@sandia.gov, (505) 844-1619 Acknowledgements: Mike Soboroff, Stan Atcitty, Nancy Clark, and John Boyes David Ingersoll, Frank Delnick, and Travis Anderson 2010 DOE Peer Review, Nov. 2-4, Washington, DC Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Funded by the Energy Storage Systems Program of the U.S. Department Of Energy through Sandia National Laboratories Project Objective

316

Yu Gan, Godfrey Miller, Carl Boettiger 1.1.ReachReach SuperfluidSuperfluid StateState  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Design plate 2.2.Run wires through brassRun wires through brass connectors and fill connectors withconnectors

317

P2.13 Characterization of a-Plane GaN Layers Grown on Patterned r ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... attracted significant attention for optoelectronic device applications covering .... Growth of Ingaas on Si(111) with Reduced Size of Selective Growth Window.

318

Thermodynamics and Enzymatic Polymerization of Artificial Metallo-Nucleic Acids AND Investigation of Duplex Formation between GAN and RNA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

nanodevices. Angewandte Chemie- International Edition 2003,artificial DNA. Angewandte Chemie-International Editionpair for DNA. Angewandte Chemie-International Edition 2005,

Kim, Eun Kyong

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Thermodynamics and Enzymatic Polymerization of Artificial Metallo-Nucleic Acids AND Investigation of Duplex Formation between GAN and RNA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of RNA on GNA Templates and Thermodynamics of Inosine GNA I.132 III. Thermodynamics of InosineOF CALIFORNIA RIVERSIDE Thermodynamics and Enzymatic

Kim, Eun Kyong

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

II3, 2?m Thick Device Quality GaN on Si(111) Using AlGaN Graded ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

I4, Electrical Spin Injection in a Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Spin-Polarized Light Emitting Diode (Spin-LED) I5, Properties of MnAs/GaMnAs/MnAs Magnetic...

Index
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "germany gan m1" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


Index
321

Analisi dei processi di ricombinazione in diodi LED basati su GaN: caratterizzazione ottica e misure DLTS.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In questo lavoro vengono analizzati i processi di ricombinazione nei diodi LED basati su GaN/InGaN mediante caratterizzazione ottica dei dispositivi e misure DLTS. In particolare (more)

La Grassa, Marco

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Highly mismatched crystalline and amorphous GaN(1-x)As(x) alloys in the whole composition range  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

material system has many unique features in the electronic band structure that make it a good candidate for photovolatic

Yu, K. M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Highly mismatched crystalline and amorphous GaN(1-x)As(x) alloys in the whole composition range  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

fraction of the solar spectrum, and band edges straddlingperfect fit to the solar spectrum offering the opportunity

Yu, K. M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

ARM - Mobile Aerosol Observing System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

FacilitiesMobile Aerosol Observing System FacilitiesMobile Aerosol Observing System AMF Information Science Architecture Baseline Instruments AMF1 AMF2 AMF3 Data Operations AMF Fact Sheet Images Contacts AMF Deployments Hyytiälä, Finland, 2014 Manacapuru, Brazil, 2014 Oliktok Point, Alaska, 2013 Los Angeles, California, to Honolulu, Hawaii, 2012 Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 2012 Gan Island, Maldives, 2011 Ganges Valley, India, 2011 Steamboat Springs, Colorado, 2010 Graciosa Island, Azores, 2009-2010 Shouxian, China, 2008 Black Forest, Germany, 2007 Niamey, Niger, 2006 Point Reyes, California, 2005 Mobile Aerosol Observing System Intensive aerosol observations conducted on the campus of Brookhaven National Laboratory on Long Island, New York, using the ARM Mobile Aerosol Observing System. Intensive aerosol observations conducted on the campus of Brookhaven

325

ARM - AMF2 Architecture  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Architecture Architecture AMF Information Science Architecture Baseline Instruments AMF1 AMF2 AMF3 Data Operations AMF Fact Sheet Images Contacts AMF Deployments Hyytiälä, Finland, 2014 Manacapuru, Brazil, 2014 Oliktok Point, Alaska, 2013 Los Angeles, California, to Honolulu, Hawaii, 2012 Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 2012 Gan Island, Maldives, 2011 Ganges Valley, India, 2011 Steamboat Springs, Colorado, 2010 Graciosa Island, Azores, 2009-2010 Shouxian, China, 2008 Black Forest, Germany, 2007 Niamey, Niger, 2006 Point Reyes, California, 2005 AMF2 Architecture The core AMF2 instrumentation is designed to operate out of modules; small independent climate controlled systems that house instrument computers, data loggers and other support equipment. This design feature sets the AMF2 apart in its flexibility and mobility at deployment sites.

326

ARM - AMF2 Organization and Contact Information  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Organization and Contact Information Organization and Contact Information AMF Information Science Architecture Baseline Instruments AMF1 AMF2 AMF3 Data Operations AMF Fact Sheet Images Contacts AMF Deployments Hyytiälä, Finland, 2014 Manacapuru, Brazil, 2014 Oliktok Point, Alaska, 2013 Los Angeles, California, to Honolulu, Hawaii, 2012 Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 2012 Gan Island, Maldives, 2011 Ganges Valley, India, 2011 Steamboat Springs, Colorado, 2010 Graciosa Island, Azores, 2009-2010 Shouxian, China, 2008 Black Forest, Germany, 2007 Niamey, Niger, 2006 Point Reyes, California, 2005 AMF2 Organization and Contact Information The Argonne AMF2 Operations Office manages the operation of the second ARM mobile facility. Basic contact information, phone numbers, email, and shipping information to personnel in this office is available on this page.

327

ARM - Surface Aerosol Observing System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

FacilitiesSurface Aerosol Observing System FacilitiesSurface Aerosol Observing System AMF Information Science Architecture Baseline Instruments AMF1 AMF2 AMF3 Data Operations AMF Fact Sheet Images Contacts AMF Deployments Hyytiälä, Finland, 2014 Manacapuru, Brazil, 2014 Oliktok Point, Alaska, 2013 Los Angeles, California, to Honolulu, Hawaii, 2012 Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 2012 Gan Island, Maldives, 2011 Ganges Valley, India, 2011 Steamboat Springs, Colorado, 2010 Graciosa Island, Azores, 2009-2010 Shouxian, China, 2008 Black Forest, Germany, 2007 Niamey, Niger, 2006 Point Reyes, California, 2005 Surface Aerosol Observing System The ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) is equipped to quantify the interaction between clouds and aerosol particles. A counter-flow virtual impactor (CVI) is used to selectively sample cloud drops. The CVI takes advantage of the

328

Making and Unmaking Money: Economic Planning and the Collapse of East Germany  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

circumvent the use of money in their own work by calculatingMaking and Unmaking Money: Economic Planning and thethe peculiar problem of money in Soviet-style regimes. Two

Zatlin, Jonathan R

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

German and American Higher Education in Comparison: Is the American System Relevant for Germany?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

prestigious part of the higher education spectrum. Race-for Studies in Higher Education UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA,GERMAN AND AMERICAN HIGHER EDUCATION IN COMPARISON: IS THE

Heyman, I. Michael

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Debating the lessons of history : the politics of the Nazi past in Germany and Austria  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This dissertation argues that public deliberation is a transformative force in democratic politics. I build a framework for analyzing public debates in advanced industrial societies, and then use it to illuminate the ...

Art, David C., 1972-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

ISPRS Joint Workshop "High Resolution Mapping from Space 2001", Hanover, Germany, 19-21 September  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Ikonos one-metre earth observation satellite system offers the photogrammetric and remote sensing communities a significant new means for geospatial information collection, with the potential of pixel-level geopositioning precision. This paper addresses the subject of the metric accuracy potential of Ikonos Geo imagery for both 2D and 3D geopositioning. Photogrammetric approaches to metric accuracy evaluation of line scanner imagery typically involve application of collinearity-based restitution models which require sensor calibration data and possibly also information related to exterior orientation. With Ikonos data, however, both the camera model and precise satellite ephemeris data are withheld from the user of Geo imagery, leaving only two practical alternatives for multi-image triangulation. The first is use of rational functions and the second involves the employment of sensor orientation models which do not rely on knowledge of the camera model, but do require ground control. Two such candidate approaches are the affine projection model and an extended direct linear transformation (DLT). A test field of precisely measured ground control points within the city of Melbourne has been imaged with 3-fold Ikonos 1m Geo coverage comprising a stereopair and a near nadir-looking image. In order to quantify the metric potential of this imagery, both 2D and 3D geopositioning have been investigated, the former primarily to verify sensor integrity (linearity) and the latter to ascertain accuracy in the presence of a modest provision of ground control. In both instances sub-pixel accuracy was attained, with planimetric positioning to 0.3m and heighting reaching 0.7m accuracy. The paper describes the Melbourne testfield, discusses the 2D and 3D geopositioning approaches ad...

Sub-Metre Geopositioning With; C. S. Fraser; H. B. Hanley; T. Yamakawa

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

"In the Name of the Folk": Women and Nation in the New Germany  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Demokratische Partei Schutzbund ffir das deutsche Volkor Lebenskraft of the German Volk" would face capi- tal

De Soto, Hermine G.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Living well on less energy: what America can learn from West Germany  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The West Germans maintain a high standard of living with much lower per-capita energy consumption than the US. The railroad network provides good service at low-enough rates to attract patronage. Cities like Karlsruhe maintain a successful streetcar and bus network, which are aided by a shortage of parking facilities. Gasoline is not subsidized so that prices and taxes are high enough to encourage fuel economy and a national attitude that smaller is better. Bicycle riding has been integrated into city life. Other conservation efforts are evident in home appliances and shopping habits. The use of curtains, water heaters, and other equipment to save energy represent simple adjustments that lower consumption. (DCK)

Aubrecht, G.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Release and disposal of materials during decommissioning of Siemens MOX fuel fabrication plant at Hanau, Germany  

SciTech Connect

In September 2006, decommissioning and dismantling of the Siemens MOX Fuel Fabrication Plant in Hanau were completed. The process equipment and the fabrication buildings were completely decommissioned and dismantled. The other buildings were emptied in whole or in part, although they were not demolished. Overall, the decommissioning process produced approximately 8500 Mg of radioactive waste (including inactive matrix material); clearance measurements were also performed for approximately 5400 Mg of material covering a wide range of types. All the equipment in which nuclear fuels had been handled was disposed of as radioactive waste. The radioactive waste was conditioned on the basis of the requirements specified for the projected German final disposal site 'Schachtanlage Konrad'. During the pre-conditioning, familiar processes such as incineration, compacting and melting were used. It has been shown that on account of consistently applied activity containment (barrier concept) during operation and dismantling, there has been no significant unexpected contamination of the plant. Therefore almost all the materials that were not a priori destined for radioactive waste were released without restriction on the basis of the applicable legal regulations (chap. 29 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance), along with the buildings and the plant site. (authors)

Koenig, Werner [TUEV NORD EnSys Hannover GmbH and Co. KG (Germany); Baumann, Roland [Siemens AG, Power Generation (Germany)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Implications of Parameter Uncertainty on Soil Moisture Drought Analysis in Germany  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simulated soil moisture is increasingly used to characterize agricultural droughts but its parametric uncertainty, which essentially affects all hydrological fluxes and state variables, is rarely considered for identifying major drought events. In ...

Luis Samaniego; Rohini Kumar; Matthias Zink

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

The Chemistry of Dependence: Cars, Chemical and Technological Change in the US, Germany and Japan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

engaged in large- scale electric car development projectspress the development of electric cars (discussed in Sectioninstead, will be to sell the electric cars: While Chrysler

Hodges, David; Tulder, Rob van

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Microsoft Word - MOU Between DOE and Germany 9-15-11.doc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Washington TRU Solutions LLC, Sandia National Laboratories and Los Alamos National Laboratory joined Mhl and the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) in signing the agreement at DOE...

338

Trade-Off Between Consumption Growth and Inequality: Theory and Evidence for Germany  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper examines the structure and evolution of consumption inequality. Once heterogeneous agents relate their neighbors consumption to their own, consumption volatility and inequality are affected. The model predicts a positive relationship between the group specific average consumption growth and within-group inequality, which is empirically confirmed using survey data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) covering the period 1984-2005. Age and household size are crucial for within-group inequality, as young and/or small households are more sensitive to income and consumption shocks. The data also shows increases of within-group inequality directly after the reunification and the introduction of the euro. Preliminary! Keywords: consumption inequality, consumption growth, German Socio-Economic Panel,

Runli Xie; Jel Codes E

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

The Regional Atmospheric Water Budget over Southwestern Germany under Different Synoptic Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study addresses the question of how complex topography in a low-mountain region affects the partitioning and the variability of the atmospheric water budget components (WBCs) as a function of synoptic-scale flow conditions. The WBCs are ...

Romi Sasse; Gerd Schdler; Christoph Kottmeier

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Why Are Residential PV Prices in Germany So Much Lower Than in...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

as Minh Le and Christina Nichols (U.S. DOE). This analysis was funded by the Solar Energy Technologies Program, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy of the U.S....

Index
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "germany gan m1" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


Index
341

Consumption, Social Capital, and the 'Industrious Revolution' in Early Modern Germany  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

because he set his servant girl behind the loom and had her weave.36 In principle, textile proto-industries created opportunities for women to increase their industriousness, in relatively low-skilled and physically undemanding work such as wool...

Ogilvie, Sheilagh

342

SUSTAINABLE ENERGY STRATEGIES AND GREEN ELECTRICITY MARKET DEVELOPMENT: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM GERMANY.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Human misuse of environmental assets especially energy is causing environmental degradation, which hampers social and economic welfare for present as well as for future generations. (more)

KNUTZEN, DORIS

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

A culture of appropriation : strategies of temporary reuse in East Germany  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis examines the possibilities of creative appropriation of existing spaces. It defines interstitial practices as both critical and imaginative forces that actively participate in the production of social space. ...

Heinemann, Michaela

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

13Name ________________________________ In 2004, astronomer Immo Appenzeller and his colleagues from Germany and the United  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a Deep Field image of a small piece of the sky. The goal of this research was to find the most distant-back time you found for a galaxy in Question 3? How long after the Big Bang did this galaxy form? Exploring Space Mathematics http://image.gsfc.nasa.gov/poetry #12;Teacher's Guide A Glimpse of the Most Distant

345

Germany and the Euroland Crisis: The Making of a Vulnerable Haven by  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

* I thank Jesse Hurwitz for his valuable research assistance as well as comments. I thank the participants at the

Jrg Bibow

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Old-Age Mortality in Germany prior to and after Reunification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Demographic Research a free, expedited, online journal of peer-reviewed research and commentary in the population sciences published by the

Arjan Gjona; Hilke Brockmann; Heiner Maier; Arjan Gjona; Hilke Brockmann; Heiner Maier

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

A High-Resolution Simulation of the Year 2003 for Germany Using the Regional Model COSMO  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this article, the authors examine the effect of a high-resolution grid (grid resolution lower than 3 km) in the context of a realistic climate simulation. For this purpose global simulation results of the German Weather Service were dynamically ...

Martin Kcken; Detlef Hauffe; Hermann sterle

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Germany Net Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products into the U.S.  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: *Countries listed under ...

349

Adolf Loos and theories of architecture and the practical arts in nineteenth century Austria and Germany  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This dissertation investigates changes that occurred in architectural culture in respect to conditions of modernity. Large-scale industrialization and urbanization caused dramatic ruptures with traditional social and ...

Schwarzer, Mitchell William

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Aircraft Observation of Convection Waves over Southern GermanyA Case Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A vertical cross section of 100 km 10 km through a daytime midlatitude troposphere is analyzed using aircraft turbulence data with 1.5-m spatial resolution. Convectively forced internal gravity waves, also referred to as convection waves, ...

Thomas Hauf

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

U.S. Imports from Germany of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1993: 321: 5: 1,054: 739: 713: 623: 682: 555: 60: 1,094: 743: 671: 1994: 341: 856: 10: 350: 714: 718: 682: 362 ...

352

Urban infill housing in a post-WWII landscape : housing in the City of Dresden, Germany  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The goal of this thesis is to develop an approach to reconfigure a district of former socialist housing with two intentions. The first, to create a stronger urban framework in the form of a master plan that is based on the ...

Shoaff, Robert Harrison, 1973-

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Cover picture: Courtesy of Solarenergiefrderverein Bayern e.V., Germany INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-connected PV generation systems. This market expansion requires the availability of and access to reliable MEASURED ON SITE: EVALUATION OF THE ACHIEVABLE ACCURACY 10 1.4 COMMENTS AND FURTHER STEPS 17 2. PV SYSTEM PERFORMANCE PREDICTION .................................................18 2.1 POLYNOMIAL REGRESSION MODEL 18

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

354

The search for 'Kulturpalast' in the historic core of Dresden, Germany  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Kulturpalast is located in the middle of Dresden's historic core, the result of socialist expressions of monumentality and modernity. It has served as a major congress center in Dresden for more than thirty years. As ...

Kim, Ho-Jeong, 1972-

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Britain's exploitation of Occupied Germany for scientific and technical intelligence on the Soviet Union  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ol), and Development oj Rocket and Missile Technology; G. B. Carter, POIton Down: Seventy-Jive Years oj Chemical and Biological Research ; and E. Spiers, Chemical Weapon I) ': A Continuing Challenge. 7The first three of these are often called 'ABC weapons... successes are smaller and fewer today' and 'we have seen that at the present time AFSA's efforts in certain important parts of the cryptanalytic field have not been crowned with success to say the least' . 25 So long as the 'one-time pads' used...

Maddrell, John Paul

1999-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

356

Atmospheric CO2 Records fFrom Sites Operated by the Fraunhofer...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the Fraunhofer Institute for Atmospheric Environment Research Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany Wank Peak, Germany Zugspitze, Germany Fraunhofer Institute for Atmospheric...

357

Dependence of local electronic structure in p-type GaN on crystal polarity and presence of inversion domain boundaries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

V. Smith, E. T. Yu, J. M. Redwing, and K. S. Boutros, Appl.Miller, E. T. Yu, and J. M. Redwing, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78,

Zhou, X; Yu, E T; Green, D S; Speck, J S

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

[1/2013] High efficiency GaN current-mode class-D amplifier at 2.6 GHz using pure differential trans-mission line filters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gbit/s Veigel, T.; Hipp, T.; Grözing, M.; Berroth, M. Kleinheubacher Tagung 2010, Miltenberg, KH2010-D Technology Schmidt, M.; Veigel, T.; Haug, S.; Grözing, M.; Berroth, M. Kleinheubacher Tagung 2010, Miltenberg Wandlerraten bis 28 GS/s Grözing, M; Digel, J; Ferenci, D; Berroth, M. Kleinheubacher Tagung 2009, Miltenberg

Möbius, Bernd

359

Transmission Electron Microscopy Study of Nonpolar a-Plane GaN Grown by Pendeo-Epitaxy on (112_0) 4H-SiC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by Pendeo-Epitaxy on (1120) 4H-SiC. D.N. Zakharov 1 , Z.phase epitaxy on (1120) 4H-SiC substrates with AlN bufferPE layers were grown on 4H- SiC (1120) substrates previously

Zakharov, D.N.; Liliental-Weber, Z.; Wagner, B.; Reitmeier, Z.J.; Preble, E.A.; Davis, R.F.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

A Web-Based Platform for Experimental Investigation of Electric Power Auctions Ray D. Zimmerman Robert J. Thomas Deqiang Gan Carlos Murillo-Snchez  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 A Web-Based Platform for Experimental Investigation of Electric Power Auctions Ray D. Zimmerman This paper describes the architecture and uses of an Internet based software platform called PowerWeb. PowerWeb a web-based user interface. The PowerWeb environment is meant to be flexible so as to allow

Index
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "germany gan m1" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


Index
361

Importance of excitonic effects and the question of internal electric fields in stacking faults and crystal phase quantum discs: The model-case of GaN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi ze #2; zh2 q2 q ) Uex EexUex; 1 a)Electronic mail: pmc53@cam.ac.uk. 0021-8979/2012/112(5)/053512/5/$30.00 VC 2012 American Institute of Physics112, 053512-1 JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS 112, 053512 (2012) where ze, zh, and qqe#2;qh...

Corfdir, Pierre; Lefebvre, Pierre

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Temperature-Dependence of Exciton Radiative Recombination in (Al,Ga)N/GaN Quantum Wells Grown on a-Plane GaN Substrates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

5221, 34095 Montpellier, France E-mail: pmc53@cam.ac.uk Received October 12, 2012; accepted November 22, 2012; published online May 20, 2013 This article presents the dynamics of excitons in a-plane (Al,Ga)N/GaN single quantum wells of various...

Corfdir, Pierre; Dussaigne, Amlie; Teisseyre, Henryk; Suski, Tadeusz; Grzegory, Izabella; Lefebvre, Pierre; Giraud, Etienne; Shahmohammadi, Mehran; Phillips, Richard; Ganire, Jean-Daniel; Grandjean, Nicolas; Deveaud, Benot

363

Properties of In-Doped ZnO Films Grown by Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition on GaN(0001) Templates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

TCO is amor- phous indium tin oxide (ITO), most commonlythe properties of indium-doped zinc oxide layers grown byoxide, doping, n-type, MOCVD, metalorganic chemical vapor deposition, ZnO: In, indium

Ben-Yaacov, Tammy; Ive, Tommy; Walle, Chris G.; Mishra, Umesh K.; Speck, James S.; Denbaars, Steven P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Magnetic Co-doping of Niobium-doped Strontium Titanate Thin ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lighting Enhancement of GaN LEDs by Applying p-Type Ni(P):SnO2 TCO on p- GaN Epitaxial Layer Localized Temperature Stability in Multilayer LTCC.

365

Self-biased 215MHz Magnetoelectric NEMS Resonator for Ultra ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lighting Enhancement of GaN LEDs by Applying p-Type Ni(P):SnO2 TCO on p- GaN Epitaxial Layer Localized Temperature Stability in Multilayer LTCC.

366

Multifunctional Oxides  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lighting Enhancement of GaN LEDs by Applying p-Type Ni(P):SnO2 TCO on p- GaN Epitaxial Layer Localized Temperature Stability in Multilayer LTCC.

367

Electronic properties of gallium nitride nanowires  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis presents a systematic study of the electrical transport in GaN nanowires. Particularly, the effect of the surrounding dielectric on the conductivity of GaN nanowires is experimentally shown for the first time. ...

Yoon, Joonah

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Experimental Characterization of Radiation Damage in Uranium ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 13, 2012 ... Program Organizers: Peng Xu, University of Wisconsin; Jian Gan, Idaho National Laboratory; Ram Devanathan , Pacific Northwest National...

369

ARM - Datastreams - twrcam3m  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Datastreamstwrcam3m Datastreamstwrcam3m Documentation Data Quality Plots Citation DOI: 10.5439/1025311 [ What is this? ] Generate Citation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Datastream : TWRCAM3M Three Meter Tower: video camera Active Dates 2002.03.25 - 2013.07.09 Measurement Categories Surface Properties Originating Instrument Tower Camera (TWRCAM) Measurements The measurements below provided by this product are those considered scientifically relevant. Measurement Variable Surface condition jpg Locations North Slope Alaska NSA C2 Browse Data Central Facility, Atqasuk AK ARM Mobile Facility FKB M1 Browse Data Black Forest, Germany GRW M1 Browse Data Graciosa Island, Azores, Portugal NIM M1 Browse Data Niamey, Niger

370

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NUCLEAR SCIENCE, VOL. 55, NO. 6, DECEMBER 2008 3633 Radiation Effects on InGaN Quantum Wells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

GaN Quantum Wells and GaN Simultaneously Probed by Ion Beam-Induced Luminescence J. W. Tringe, Member, IEEE, A. Stevens, and C. Wetzel, Member, IEEE Abstract--InGaN quantum well structures on GaN epilayers were exposed of the epilayer and wells. Performance was estimated by the intensity of ion-beam induced luminescence. Two

Wetzel, Christian M.

371

Modelling regional input markets with numerous processing plants: The case of green maize for biogas production in Germany  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The location of first generation processing plants for biogas using bulky inputs is a prominent example of locational decisions of plants that face high per unit transport costs of feedstock and simultaneously depend to a large extent on feedstock availability. ... Keywords: Biogas, Biomass transportation, Competitive facility location, Modelling, Transport costs

Ruth Delzeit; Wolfgang Britz; Karin Holm-Mller

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Naming the pain in requirements engineering: design of a global family of surveys and first results from Germany  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Context: For many years, we have observed industry struggling in defining a high quality requirements engineering (RE) and researchers trying to understand industrial expectations and problems. Although we are investigating the discipline with ... Keywords: family of studies, requirements engineering, survey research

Daniel Mndez Fernndez; Stefan Wagner

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

First evidence of asymmetric cost pass-through of Eu emissions allowances : examining wholesale electricity prices in Germany  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper applies the literature on asymmetric price transmission to the emerging commodity market for EU emissions allowances (EUA). We utilize an error correction model and an autoregressive distributed lag model to ...

Zachmann, Georg

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Wegelerstrae 6 53115 Bonn Germany phone +49 228 73-3427 fax +49 228 73-7527  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Moreover, future electric cars need efficient and lightweight batteries. Therefore, there is a great demand. In this context, special challenges appear with the strong non-linear coupling of the ions' electric field

Bartels, Soeren

375

A Comparison of Continuous Soil Moisture Simulations Using Different Soil Hydraulic Parameterizations for a Site in Germany  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Continuous time series of soil water content over a period of more than 9 months for a midlatitude sandy loam soil covered by grass are calculated with the Campbell and the van Genuchten soil hydraulic functions and the ClappHornberger, Cosby et ...

Gerd Schdler

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

World Renewable Energy Congress VII, Cologne, Germany, 29 June -5 July, 2002 SOLAR RESOURCE ASSESSMENT AND SITE EVALUATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-\\ Illlt t l e lllachine-llOt enough clearance between shuttle a nd \\ hu ttl c cradl e. lower thread

Heinemann, Detlev

377

Radical Cosmopolitanism: W. E. B. Du Bois, Germany, and African American Pragmatist Visions for Twenty-First Century Europe  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Beck, Ulrich. The Cosmopolitan Society and Itsmultiandintercultural,cosmopolitandynamicsofAfricansawBerlinasawideopen,cosmopolitancityofthe Weimar

Lenz, Gnter H.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Foreign travel report: Visits to UK, Belgium, Germany, and France to benchmark European spent fuel and waste management technology  

SciTech Connect

The ICPP WINCO Spent Fuel and Waste Management Development Program recently was funded by DOE-EM to develop new technologies for immobilizing ICPP spent fuels, sodium-bearing liquid waste, and calcine to a form suitable for disposal. European organizations are heavily involved, in some cases on an industrial scale in areas of waste management, including spent fuel disposal and HLW vitrification. The purpose of this trip was to acquire first-hand European efforts in handling of spent reactor fuel and nuclear waste management, including their processing and technical capabilities as well as their future planning. Even though some differences exist in European and U.S. DOE waste compositions and regulations, many aspects of the European technologies may be applicable to the U.S. efforts, and several areas offer potential for technical collaboration.

Ermold, L.F.; Knecht, D.A.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Artist's Statement My Grandparents were Jews who were forced from Germany during the Second World War. Mexico  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

War. Mexico welcomed them ambivalently, and they, in turn, spent their lives in permanent nostalgia. My work combines an obsessive dedication to technical precision and to traditional materials simply, paint that has been cut into with line. Paint is an organic substance with an animated tactile

Peterson, Blake R.

380

German Politics and the Burden of Kultur. Mann, Meinecke and the Psychology of the Vernunftrepublikaner in Early Weimar Germany  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Neither the state nor the Volk [people] had lived up to hiswould more fuUy integrate the Volk and conflict, become he

Parsons, Gregory S.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Index
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "germany gan m1" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


Index
381

Multilingual Development in Germany in the Crossfire of Ideology and Politics: Monolingual and Multilingual Expectations, Polylingual Practices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

150. Klieme, Eckhard u.a. (Hrsg. ). PISA 2009. Bilanz nachRoth and Marion Dll (Hrsg. ): Von der Sprachdiagnose zur

Pfaff, Carol W.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Regulating chemical hazards in Japan, West Germany, France, the United Kingdom, and the European community: a comparative examination. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is an outgrowth of a National Research Council program initiative to gain a cross-national perspective on the role scientific information has played in hazardous chemical regulation. Although this study is not meant to be evaluative, it is designed to help assess by comparison the decision-making and regulatory mechanisms in U.S. hazard assessment. The chapters on the individual countries are divided into three components: (1) relevant political and administrative traditions that influence expectations about and mechanisms of hazard regulation; (2) a compilation of the relevant statuatory instruments; and (3) the scope of the regulatory jurisdiction. The last category divides the laws into those which govern industrial plants, emmissions and discharges, worker protection, industrial substances, poisons, agricultural chemicals, food additives, and contaminants, consumer products, transport, chemical waste, and victim compensation. The study concludes with a discussion of ways in which such multinational perspectives might be used to strengthen the regulatory process of the U.S.

Coppock, R.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Comparison of the incentives used to stimulate energy production in Japan, France, West Germany, and the United States  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This volume represents the culmination of a five-year research effort examining the incentives used to stimulate energy production in four countries, and the incentives used to stimulate energy consumption in one country. Following the theoretical approach developed for studying US energy incentives, the researchers in each country classified incentives into the following six categories: (1) Taxation, including exemption from or reduction of existing taxes; (2) Disbursements, in which the national government distributes money without requiring anything in return; (3) Requirements, including demands made by the government, backed by civil or criminal sanctions; (4) Traditional Services, including those almost always provided exclusively by a governmental entity; (5) Nontraditional Services, including those sometimes performed by non-governmental entities, as well as governmental entities (e.g., research and development); and (6) Market Activities, including government involvement in the market under conditions similar to those faced by non-governmental producers or consumers. A complete list of research reports prepared in the Federal Incentives series is provided in the Appendix.

Cole, R.J.; Sommers, P.; Eschbach, C.; Sheppard, W.J.; Lenerz, D.E.; Huelshoff, M.; Marcus, A.A.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Cross-border transfer of climate change mitigation technologies : the case of wind energy from Denmark and Germany to India.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This research investigated the causal factors and processes of international development and diffusion of wind energy technology by examining private sector cross-border technology transfer from (more)

Mizuno, Emi, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

of LaborWhich Program for Whom? Evidence on the Comparative Effectiveness of Public Sponsored Training Programs in Germany  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Any opinions expressed here are those of the author(s) and not those of the institute. Research disseminated by IZA may include views on policy, but the institute itself takes no institutional policy positions. The Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in Bonn is a local and virtual international research center and a place of communication between science, politics and business. IZA is an independent nonprofit company supported by Deutsche Post World Net. The center is associated with the University of Bonn and offers a stimulating research environment through its research networks, research support, and visitors and doctoral programs. IZA engages in (i) original and internationally competitive research in all fields of labor economics, (ii) development of policy concepts, and (iii) dissemination of research results and concepts to the interested public. IZA Discussion Papers often represent preliminary work and are circulated to encourage discussion. Citation of such a paper should account for its provisional character. A revised version may be

Martin Biewen; Bernd Fitzenberger; Aderonke Osikominu; Marie Waller; Martin Biewen; Bernd Fitzenberger; Aderonke Osikominu; Marie Waller

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

An Assessment of Experience with Selective Catalytic Reduction in Germany and Denmark: A Report from the EPRI / Utility SCR Mission  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The limit on nitrogen oxides (NOx) of 0.15 lb/MBtu identified in a September 24, 1998 notice issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) could mandate selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on the majority of coal-fired generators in the 22 states designated by the EPA, as well as in the District of Columbia. Proponents of the 0.15 lb/Btu limit claim that significant experience with SCR in both Europe and Japan eliminates any uncertainty with regard to the design, installation, and operation of...

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Discussion of the gradual progress of automobile industry - take the United States , Japan and Germany as an example.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The nature of range automobile has high technology and traditional science both together. It expands living habit and areas for the human beings (more)

Lin, Yun-tiao

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

A Squall Line in Southern Germany: Kinematics and Precipitation Formation as Deduced by Advanced Polarimetric and Doppler Radar Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A multiscale analysis of a squall line system is reported in this paper. It is shown that the squall line was initiated as part of a synoptic-scale frontal zone. The main emphasis then is on the polarimetric and Doppler radar measurements which ...

P. F. Meischner; V. N. Bringi; D. Heimann; H. Hller

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Complete Refurbishment Of An Existing Hazardous Waste Incinerator In Eastern Germany On a Tum-Key Contract Basis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by intentional addition of silica and lime. Fluxes such as calcium fluoride may be added to make the slag more Systems ..................................4-9 4.7.5 Off-site Recycle by Reuse as a Construction Material separate from those of pollution prevention assessment.) Reclamation - Denotes internal reuse of materials

Columbia University

390

An Empirical Analysis of the 2000 Corporate Tax Reform in Germany: Effects on Ownership and Control in Listed Companies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to this view, it can be expected that the corporate tax reform induced banks to reduce these equity stakes because they no longer faced a large tax bill when selling them. Non-financial firms also have an essential role as owners and there exist plausible... .59 Electronic and Electrical Equipment 14 3.08 33 4.38 Energy 14 3.08 17 2.26 Engineering and Machinery 32 7.05 38 5.05 Food Producers and Processors 7 1.54 11 1.46 Forestry and Paper 5 1.10 4 0.53 General Retailing 16 3.52 22 2.92 Health 7 1.54 21 2...

Weber, Anke

2006-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

391

Comparison of Pressure Vessel Design and Inspection Requirements as Defined by ASME Code and Germany's TRD Code  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report compares the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Code with the German TRD Code for pressure vessel engineering, fabrication, inspection, and other pressure vessel processes. The report compares calculations of minimum required wall thickness for pressure vessels such as boiler tubes, pipes, headers, and drums. It also compares material allowable stress values and reviews the major materials permitted by both codes for use in pressure vessel engineering and manufacturing. The repor...

1994-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

392

Browse wiki | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Wind energy + , Founded in 1990 by the Federal State of Lower Saxony to support the wind energy industry in Germany. + , Wilhelmshaven + , Germany + Place Wilhelmshaven, Germany +...

393

EEnergy Project "MeRegio" (Smart Grid Project) (Baden-Wrttemberg...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Baden-Wrttemberg, Germany) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name EEnergy Project "MeRegio" Country Germany Headquarters Location Baden-Wrttemberg, Germany Coordinates...

394

Immigration Control in the Age of Migration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Finland France ix Germany Greece Hungary Ireland ItalyFinland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy,There Country U.S. UK Greece Spain Germany Italy France

Wong, Tak Kei

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Lowest Q2 Measurement of the gamma*p-> Delta Reaction: Probing the Pionic Contribution  

SciTech Connect

The first excited state of the proton, the Delat, can be reached through a magnetic dipole spin flip of one of the quarks (M1) or through electric and Coulomb quadrupole terms (E2 and C2) which indicate a deviation from spherical symmetry. The quark models using the color hyperfine interaction underestimate the size of the quadrupole terms by more than an order of magnitude. Models using the pion cloud do a much better job of describing the data. This is expected due to the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry which leads to a cloud of virtual p wave pions which introduce the non-spherical amplitudes. The data presented in this work fill gaps in the low Q, long distance region where the pion cloud is expected to dominate and to produce significant Q2 variation. The p(?, p)?? reaction was measured in the ? region at Q = 0.060 (GeV/c), the lowest Q to date for pion electroproduction, utilizing out-of-plane magnetic spectrometers at the Mainz Microtron in Germany. This work reports results for the dominant transition magnetic dipole amplitude and the quadrupole to dipole ratios obtained from fitting the new data with models using a three parameter, resonant multipole fit: M/1+ = (40.33 +- 0.63stat+syst +-model)(10-/m?+), E2/M1=Re(E/1+M/1+) = (-2.28+- 0.29stat+syst +- 0.20model)%, and C2/M1 =Re(S/1+/M/1+) poles disagree with predictions of the quark models but are in reasonable agreement with a chiral extrapolation of lattice QCD, chiral effective field theory and dynamical model results confirming the dominance and general Q variation of the long range pionic contribution. While there is qualitative agreement with the models, there is no quantitative agreement thus indicating the need for further improvement of the models.

Sean Stave

2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

396

Committees  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Satz, Germany W-Q. Shen, China E. Shuryak, USA B. Sinha, India J. Stachel, Germany R. Stock, Germany H. Stcker, Germany I. Tserruya, Israel G. Young, USA About us headline K....

397

Electrochemical Solution Growth: Gallium Nitride Crystal ...  

... and economical bulk gallium nirtide (GaN) substrates needed to meet the performance requirements of high-efficiency LED and high-power transistors.

398

Manufacturing Consumption of Energy 1991  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

West Virginia. 3. Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michi- gan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dako- ta, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin. 4. West: Alaska,...

399

ANOMA TERIALS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... and evaluation of two key nanowire device structures: a GaN NW based field-effect-transistor (NWFET) and a novel light-emitting diode (LED). ...

2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

400

Semiconductor Nanowire Metrology: Electronics, Photonics ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... to recent demonstration of two key nanowire device structures: GaN NW based field-effect-transistor (NWFET) and a NW light-emitting diode (LED). ...

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

Index
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "germany gan m1" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


Index
401

NIST Manuscript Publication Search  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Abstract: Although the efficiency of the Gallium Nitride (GaN) Light Emitting-Diode (LED) has improved in the past decade, a great opportunity ...

2013-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

402

ARM - AMF Data  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2014 Oliktok Point, Alaska, 2013 Los Angeles, California, to Honolulu, Hawaii, 2012 Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 2012 Gan Island, Maldives, 2011 Ganges Valley, India, 2011 Steamboat...

403

ARM - AMF3 Baseline Instruments  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2014 Oliktok Point, Alaska, 2013 Los Angeles, California, to Honolulu, Hawaii, 2012 Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 2012 Gan Island, Maldives, 2011 Ganges Valley, India, 2011 Steamboat...

404

ARM - AMF Operations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2014 Oliktok Point, Alaska, 2013 Los Angeles, California, to Honolulu, Hawaii, 2012 Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 2012 Gan Island, Maldives, 2011 Ganges Valley, India, 2011 Steamboat...

405

ARM - AMF1 Baseline Instrument  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2014 Oliktok Point, Alaska, 2013 Los Angeles, California, to Honolulu, Hawaii, 2012 Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 2012 Gan Island, Maldives, 2011 Ganges Valley, India, 2011 Steamboat...

406

ARM - AMF Architecture  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2014 Oliktok Point, Alaska, 2013 Los Angeles, California, to Honolulu, Hawaii, 2012 Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 2012 Gan Island, Maldives, 2011 Ganges Valley, India, 2011 Steamboat...

407

ARM - AMF Contacts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2014 Oliktok Point, Alaska, 2013 Los Angeles, California, to Honolulu, Hawaii, 2012 Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 2012 Gan Island, Maldives, 2011 Ganges Valley, India, 2011 Steamboat...

408

ARM - AMF Science  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2014 Oliktok Point, Alaska, 2013 Los Angeles, California, to Honolulu, Hawaii, 2012 Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 2012 Gan Island, Maldives, 2011 Ganges Valley, India, 2011 Steamboat...

409

ARM - AMF2 Baseline Instruments  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2014 Oliktok Point, Alaska, 2013 Los Angeles, California, to Honolulu, Hawaii, 2012 Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 2012 Gan Island, Maldives, 2011 Ganges Valley, India, 2011 Steamboat...

410

ARM - Site Instruments  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2014 Oliktok Point, Alaska, 2013 Los Angeles, California, to Honolulu, Hawaii, 2012 Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 2012 Gan Island, Maldives, 2011 Ganges Valley, India, 2011 Steamboat...

411

Electrically driven nanopyramid green light emitting diode  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An electrically driven nanopyramid green light emitting diode(LED) was demonstrated. The nanopyramid arrays were fabricated from a GaN substrate by patterned nanopillar etch

S.-P. Chang; Y.-C. Chen; J.-K. Huang; Y.-J. Cheng; J.-R. Chang; K.-P. Sou; Y.-T. Kang; H.-C. Yang; T.-C. Hsu; H.-C. Kuo; C.-Y. Chang

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

FCRC348Hawlfraint y Goron Crown Copyright 2013 Ydych chi'n chwilio am hwyl i'r teulu cyfan?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, gan eu symud ychydig yn nes at y canol bob tro. Daliwch ati nes byddwch wedi defnyddio'ch brigau i gyd

413

L1, Formation of Structural Defects in AlGaN/GaN High Electron ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Transmission electron microscope (TEM) cross sectional image has shown that electrical degradation is closely related to structural damage in the GaN cap and ...

414

Strengthening Sintering of Refractory Iron Ore with Biomass Fuel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Strengthening Sintering of Refractory Iron Ore with Biomass Fuel. Author(s), Xiaohui Fan, Zhiyun Ji, Min Gan, Xuling Chen, Wenqi Li. On-Site

415

Structure and Composition Peculiarities of GaN/AlN Multiple ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thickness of AlN and GaN layers in MQWs (multiple quantum wells) were ... InAs Quantum Dots by Ballistic Electron Emission Microscopy and Spectroscopy.

416

Functional Imprinting Structures on GaN-Based Light-Emitting ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Keywords: GaN, light-emitting diode (LED), imprinting technology, far-field pattern modulation, light extraction. 1. Introduction. GaN-based light-emitting diodes...

417

NETL F 451.1-1/1 Categorical Exclusion (CX) Designation Form  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

MIT OE DE-OE0000121 NETL 2012 Brian Mollohan 9302009 - 9302014 Cambridge, MA GaN Electronics for Grid Applications Development of silicon transistors for grid applications...

418

NETL F 451.1-1/1 Categorical Exclusion (CX) Designation Form  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

MITLincoln Labs OE DE-OE0000121 NETL 2012 Brian Mollohan 9302009 - 9302014 Lexington, Middlesex, MA GaN Electronics for Grid Applications Development of silicon transistors...

419

Semiconductor Nanowire Metrology: Electronics, Photonics ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Government agencies following this work include DARPA, DOE, and DTRA. The work of NIST team on GaN nanowire-based ...

2012-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

420

Part of the Climate Change Problem . . . and the Solution? Chinese-Made Wind Power Technology and Opportunities for Dissemination  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lin Gan. 2002. Wind energy development in China:4. 24 Canadian Wind Energy Association (CanWEA). ofOxford;XinjiangWind EnergyCompanywebsite:http://

Lewis, Joanna I.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Index
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "germany gan m1" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


Index
421

Ole Langniss  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Engineering German Aerospace Research Establishment Institute for Technical Thermodynamics, Stuttgart, Germany This Speaker's Seminars Germany's Future Energy Policy -...

422

Download the Flyer (PDF)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gunter Gottstein, Aachen University, Germany. Peter Gumbsch, Fraunhofer Institute, Germany. Elizabeth Holm, Sandia National Laboratories, USA. Greg Olson...

423

XXXXXXX XXXXXXX XXXXXXX Xxxxxxxxx pXX Xxxxxxxx  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Headline news solar cells gan LedS IR accuses former CEO of stealing GaN technology p5 record efficiencies images. Several companies are pioneering these systems and in 2011 the Japanese broadcasting corporation Systems' highestcapacity version for core networks, the CRS1, weighs more than 50,000kg and uses 1152

Kolner, Brian H.

424

Structural TEM study of nonpolar a-plane gallium nitride grown on (112_0) 4H-SiC by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

nitride grown on (1120) 4H-SiC by organometallic vapor phasea-plane GaN grown on a 4H-SiC substrate with an AlN buffergrown on (0001) Al 2 O 3 , 6H-SiC or free- standing GaN

Zakharov, Dmitri N.; Liliental-Weber, Zuzanna; Wagner, Brian; Reitmeier, Zachary J.; Preble, Edward A.; Davis, Robert F.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Cr-Ga-N materials for negative electrodes in Li rechargeable batteries : structure, synthesis and electrochemical performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electrochemical performances of two ternary compounds (Cr2GaN and Cr3GaN) in the Cr-Ga-N system as possible future anode materials for lithium rechargeable batteries were studied. Motivation for this study was dealt in ...

Kim, Miso

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Gallium-Nitride Transistors for High-Efficiency Industrial Power Supplies, Phase 1: State of Semiconductor Development and Industrial Power Supply Market  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This white paper describes recent advancements in the development of Gallium-Nitride (GaN) transistors for power conversion applications. This wide bandgap semiconductor has the potential to reduce losses and improve performance of power converters. The industrial power supply market is described and the application of GaN to power conversion in this segment is introduced for future work.

2013-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

427

May 19, 2010 Student author  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-off in high-quality green light- emitting diodes on free-standing GaN substrates. Applied Physics Letters. 94 efficiency of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes on sapphire and GaN substrates. Physical Status Solidi (a currents in microperforated blue light-emitting diodes. Applied Physics Letters. 95: 011109. (LCSEE) Yang

Mohaghegh, Shahab

428

Semiconductor Nanoclusters as Potential Photocatalysts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

0001 0001 Transport and Kinetic Processes in GaN Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth M. E. Coltrin and C. C. Mitchell Motivation-GaN is a wide band gap semi- conductor with a broad range of potential appli- cations, e.g., high-temperature electronics, op- telectronics, chemical or biological sensors. GaN thin films usually have a high defect den- sity, leading to poor performance. Epitaxial Lat- eral Overgrowth (ELO) has been shown to greatly reduce defect densities, often by factors of 100 or more. We are conducting fundamental studies of GaN growth kinetics during ELO. Accomplishment-In ELO, a mask pattern of dielectric material is deposited on top of a GaN buffer layer. Further growth of GaN occurs se- lectively on exposed areas of the underlying buffer layer, and not on the dielectric material.

429

Role of defects in III-nitride based electronics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The LDRD entitled ``Role of Defects in III-Nitride Based Devices'' is aimed to place Sandia National Laboratory at the forefront of the field of GaN materials and devices by establishing a scientific foundation in areas such as material growth, defect characterization/modeling, and processing (metalization and etching) chemistry. In this SAND report the authors summarize their studies such as (1) the MOCVD growth and doping of GaN and AlGaN, (2) the characterization and modeling of hydrogen in GaN, including its bonding, diffusion, and activation behaviors, (3) the calculation of energetic of various defects including planar stacking faults, threading dislocations, and point defects in GaN, and (4) dry etching (plasma etching) of GaN (n- and p-types) and AlGaN. The result of the first AlGaN/GaN heterojunction bipolar transistor is also presented.

HAN,JUNG; MYERS JR.,SAMUEL M.; FOLLSTAEDT,DAVID M.; WRIGHT,ALAN F.; CRAWFORD,MARY H.; LEE,STEPHEN R.; SEAGER,CARLETON H.; SHUL,RANDY J.; BACA,ALBERT G.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Understanding the differences in the development and use of advanced traveler information systems for vehicles (ATIS/V) in the U.S., Germany, and Japan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Traffic congestion is becoming a serious problem. As a solution, advanced traveler information systems (ATIS) mitigate traffic congestion by providing real-time traffic information to travelers. ATIS includes various ...

Sugawara, Yoshihiko

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Basinwide Integrated Volume Transports in an Eddy-Filled Ocean Ozeanzirkulation und Klimadynamik, Leibniz-Institut fur Meereswissenschaften an der Universitat Kiel, Kiel, Germany, and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

such as electronics hardware, documented in reliability manuals such as US MIL-HDBK-217 [8]. However, the mean time. 7-17. 8. US MIL-HDBK-217: Reliability prediction for electronic systems. Available from the National

Johnson, Helen

432

A Case Study of High-Impact Wet Snowfall in Northwest Germany (2527 November 2005): Observations, Dynamics, and Forecast Performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurate numerical weather prediction of intense snowfall events requires the correct representation of dynamical and physical processes on various scales. In this study, a specific event of high-impact wet snowfall is examined that occurred in ...

Claudia Frick; Heini Wernli

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

The Centre for Statistics at Goettingen University, Germany, is inviting applications for 1 PhD Position in Forest Inventory and Remote Sensing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

D Position in Forest Inventory and Remote Sensing (75 % E 13 TV-L) within the Research Training Group (RTG, ecology, econometrics, genetics, and remote sensing by means of statistical methods, Ecosystem Modelling, Forest Inventory and Remote Sensing, Genetic Epidemiology, Mathematical Stochastics

Munk, Axel

434

Does the market value R&D investment by European firms? Evidence from a panel of manufacturing firms in France, Germany, and Italy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in their financial statements, creating problems in sampledatabase including financial statements of about 40,000

Hall, Bronwyn H.; Oriani, R

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

The early and influential role of science fantasy in sixteenth-, seventeenth-, and eighteenth-century England, France, and Germany| A selected account.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Science fiction critics have dueled over definitions of sixteenth-, seventeenth-, and eighteenth-century science fiction, often classifying early science fiction as mere prototype. Chapter One (more)

Downing, Lisa

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Steam Chemistry: Interaction of Chemical Species with Water, Steam and Materials During Evaporation, Superheating and Condensation: June 22-25, 1999, Frieburg, Germany  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The continued protection of the steam turbine in the phase transition zone (PTZ) is vital to the reliability of power generating and other energy-related equipment. This conference was dedicated to the fundamental aspects of the corrosion processes and efficiency improvements that involve the formation of moisture droplets, liquid films, and deposits on turbine surfaces.

2000-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

437

Does the market value R&D investment by European firms? Evidence from a panel of manufacturing firms in France, Germany, and Italy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and the UK: a comparison using company panel data. Review ofF. , 1998. Why do companies go public? An empirical1996. R&D in UK quoted companies: the effects of disclosure

Hall, Bronwyn H.; Oriani, R

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Effect of buffer structures on AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor reliability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) with three different types of buffer layers, including a GaN/AlGaN composite layer, or 1 or 2 lm GaN thick layers, were fabricated and their reliability compared. The HEMTs with the thick GaN buffer layer showed the lowest critical voltage (Vcri) during off-state drain step-stress, but this was increased by around 50% and 100% for devices with the composite AlGaN/GaN buffer layers or thinner GaN buffers, respectively. The Voff - state for HEMTs with thin GaN and composite buffers were 100 V, however, this degraded to 50 60V for devices with thick GaN buffers due to the difference in peak electric field near the gate edge. A similar trend was observed in the isolation breakdown voltage measurements, with the highest Viso achieved based on thin GaN or composite buffer designs (600 700 V), while a much smaller Viso of 200V was measured on HEMTs with the thick GaN buffer layers. These results demonstrate the strong influence of buffer structure and defect density on AlGaN/GaN HEMT performance and reliability.

Liu, L. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Xi, Y. Y. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Ren, F. [University of Florida; Pearton, S. J. [University of Florida; Laboutin, O. [Kopin Corporation, Taunton, MA; Cao, Yu [Kopin Corporation, Taunton, MA; Johnson, Wayne J. [Kopin Corporation, Taunton, MA; Kravchenko, Ivan I [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Regional definitions Regional definitions The six basic country groupings used in this report (Figure M1) are defined as follows: OECD (18 percent of the 2011 world population): OECD Americas-United States, Canada, Chile, and Mexico; OECD Europe-Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, and the United Kingdom; OECD Asia-Japan, South Korea, Australia, and New Zealand. Non-OECD (82 percent of the 2011 world population): - Non-OECD Europe and Eurasia (5 percent of the 2011 world population)-Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan,

440

Dynamics of Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Adult Humans  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hippocampal Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Adult Humans Kirsty L. Spalding, 1,8 Olaf Bergmann, 1,8 Kanar Alkass, 1,2 Samuel Bernard, 3 Mehran Salehpour, 4 Hagen B. Huttner, 1,5 Emil Bostro ¨ m, 1 Isabelle Westerlund, 1 Ce ´ line Vial, 3 Bruce A. Buchholz, 6 Go ¨ ran Possnert, 4 Deborah C. Mash, 7 Henrik Druid, 2 and Jonas Frise ´ n 1, * 1 Department of Cell and Molecular Biology 2 Department of Oncology-Pathology Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden 3 Institut Camille Jordan, CNRS UMR 5208, University of Lyon, 69622 Villeurbanne, France 4 Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ion Physics, Uppsala University, 751 20 Sweden 5 Department of Neurology, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Schwabachanlage 6, 91054 Erlangen, Germany 6 Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue L-397, Livermore, CA 94550, USA 7 Department of Neurology,

Index
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "germany gan m1" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


Index
441

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Regional definitions Regional definitions The six basic country groupings used in this report (Figure M1) are defined as follows: OECD (18 percent of the 2011 world population): OECD Americas-United States, Canada, Chile, and Mexico; OECD Europe-Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, and the United Kingdom. Israel is reported in OECD Europe for statistical purposes. OECD Asia-Japan, South Korea, Australia, and New Zealand. Non-OECD (82 percent of the 2013 world population): - Non-OECD Europe and Eurasia (5 percent of the 2013 world population)-Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bosnia and

442

Electrochemical investigation of the gallium nitride-aqueous electrolyte interface  

SciTech Connect

GaN (E{sub g} = {approximately}3.4 eV) was photoelectrochemically characterized and the energetic position of its bandedges determined with respect to SHE. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was employed to analyze the interface, determine the space charge layer capacitance, and, subsequently obtain the flatband potential of GaN in different aqueous electrolytes. The flatband potential of GaN varied at an approximately Nernstian rate in aqueous buffer electrolytes of different pHs indicating acid-base equilibria at the interface.

Kocha, S.S.; Peterson, M.W.; Arent, D.J.; Turner, J.A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States). Photoconversion Branch; Redwing, J.M.; Tischler, M.A. [Advanced Technology Materials, Inc., Danbury, CT (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Browse wiki | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

in wholesale and retail and in providing services. The company is also active in the biofuel and solar sectors. + , Munich + , Germany + Place Munich, Germany + Product...

444

Wirth-PMI.100803.ppt  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

for Plasma Physics, Garching, Germany Materials issues in Magnetic Fusion Energy (ITERDEMO)* *Ref: H. Bolt, Max-Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Garching, Germany * He...

445

Enbion | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

to: navigation, search Name Enbion Place Germany Sector Solar Product Germany-based biogas and solar project developer. References Enbion1 LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase...

446

Alexander von Scheven  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

, PhD student at the Department for Renewable Energy Resources, Darmstadt University of Technology, Germany This Speaker's Seminars E-Energy - Implementing Smart Grids in Germany...

447

Genotypic variation for cellular thermotolerance in Aegilops tauschii ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Azerbaijan. IPK Gatersleben, Germany. Supplier's acc. no. AE 267. 73.16. 6. 14191 strangulata. Afghanistan. IPK Gatersleben, Germany. Supplier's acc. no.

448

Jura Energija | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Energija Place Germany Sector Wind energy Product German company active in developing wind farms in Germany, Croatia and Greece. References Jura Energija1 LinkedIn...

449

DOE Solar Decathlon: 2009 Final Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the Team Germany Solar Decathlon 2009 house. First Place: Team Germany (Technische Universitt Darmstadt) Photo the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Solar Decathlon 2009...

450

Colorado State University Center for Geosciences/Atmospheric Research (CG/AR)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

; Prufgeratewerk Medingen GmbH, Germany; Dr. Lange GmbH, Germany; STIP Isco GmbH, Ger- many; Kelma, Belgium; LAR

451

Analytica Chimica Acta 568 (2006) 200210 Microbial biosensors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

; Prufgeratewerk Medingen GmbH, Germany; Dr. Lange GmbH, Germany; STIP Isco GmbH, Ger- many; Kelma, Belgium; LAR

Chen, Wilfred

452

L L Rotorservice | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Rotorservice Place Basdahl, Germany Zip 27432 Sector Wind energy Product Wind turbine tower and rotor blade repair, servicing and installation company active in Germany, Spain...

453

Algatec Solar AG | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ortsteil Prsen, Brandenburg, Germany Zip D-04932 Sector Solar Product Germany-based PV solar module manufacturer. References Algatec Solar AG1 LinkedIn Connections...

454

ENRO Energie | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ENRO Energie Place Essen, Germany Zip 45128 Sector Geothermal energy Product Germany-based company engaged in the design and construction of geothermal power plants. References...

455

Browse wiki | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

, Renewable Energy + , Biovision only invests in renewable energy with a focus on sustainability. + , Hamburg + , Germany + Place Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany + Product Biovision...

456

Ties That Do Not Bind: Russia and the International Liberal Order  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

pp 752-767, Jeffrey E. Garten, Japan and Germany: AmericanSpring 2008 Jeffrey E. Garten, Japan and Germany: American

Krickovic, Andrej

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Sunselex | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

to: navigation, search Name Sunselex Place Munchen, Bavaria, Germany Zip D-81829 Sector Solar Product Germany based provider in the area of assembly and construction of solar...

458

Browse wiki | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

+ , Energy Company + , Wind energy + , Germany-based + , division of GE Wind Energy wind turbine manufacturer and supplier. + , Salzbergen + , Germany + Place Salzbergen,...

459

Browse wiki | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

+ , Germany + Place Enge-Sande, Germany + Product Wind farm developer and on-grid generator + Sector Wind energy + Zip 25917 + Categories Clean Energy Organizations + ,...

460

BASF Linde Group JV | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

search Name BASF & Linde Group JV Place Germany Sector Carbon Product Germany-based carbon capture projects joint venture. References BASF & Linde Group JV1 LinkedIn...

Index
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "germany gan m1" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


Index
461

Enovos Group | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Enovos Group Jump to: navigation, search Name Enovos Group Place Germany Sector Solar Product Germany-based utility. The utility has interests in solar energy. References Enovos...

462

Schoenfeldt Kutzeer MDP GmbH | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search Name Schoenfeldt & Kutzeer (MDP) GmbH Place Drohndorf, Germany Zip D-06456 Sector Wind energy Product Germany-based, specialist in planning, project...

463

SITIZN Group Holding AG | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Holding AG Jump to: navigation, search Name SITIZN Group Holding AG Place Riederich, Germany Zip 72585 Sector Solar Product Germany-based solar technology and consultancy firm....

464

Nobel Prize in Physics 1919  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

rays and the splitting of spectral lines in electric fields" Johannes Stark Button Germany Button born 1874, died 1957 Button CA - Physikalisch Technische Reichsanwalt, Germany...

465

Nobel Prize in Physics 1905  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5 "for his work on cathode rays" Philipp Eduard Anton von Lenard Button Germany Button born 1862 (Pozsony (Pressburg), Hungary), died 1947 Button Kiel University, Kiel, Germany...

466

Solare AG | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AG Jump to: navigation, search Name Solare AG Place Cologne, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany Zip 50678 Sector Solar Product Germany-based equipment manufacturer and developer of...

467

Geysir Europe | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Geysir Europe Jump to: navigation, search Name Geysir Europe Place Germany Sector Geothermal energy Product Germany-based European subsidiary of Geysir Green Energy focusing on...

468

Nobel Prize in Physics 1911  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

laws governing the radiation of heat" Wilhelm Carl Werner Otto Fritz Franz Wien Button Germany Button born 1864, died 1928 Button CA - University of Munich, Munich, Germany Button...

469

Nobel Prize in Physics 1985  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5 "for the discovery of the quantized Hall effect" Klaus Von Klitzing Button Germany Button born 1943 Button CA - Max-Plank-Institut fur Festkorperforschung, Stuttgart, Germany...

470

Geothermeon | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

to: navigation, search Name Geothermeon Place Landau i.d. Pfalz, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany Zip 76829 Sector Geothermal energy Product Germany-based geothermal project...

471

ADAPT Elektronik GmbH | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GmbH Jump to: navigation, search Name ADAPT Elektronik GmbH Place Grobheubach, Germany Zip 63920 Sector Solar Product Germany-based manufacturer of electronic connector...

472

The extreme points of QSTAB(G) and its implications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Jun 2, 2006 ... 7, 14195 Berlin, Germany, koster@zib.de. Otto-von-Guericke-Universitt ... mierung (IMO), Universittsplatz 2, 39106 Magdeburg, Germany,...

473

Schoeller Renewables | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Schoeller Renewables Jump to: navigation, search Name Schoeller Renewables Place Germany Sector Solar, Wind energy Product Germany-based subsidiary of Schoeller Industries that...

474

ARM - Facility News Article  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ARM Kiosk Joins International Science Exhibit in Germany Outdoor pavilions on the Isle of Mainau in Germany feature energy-related science and technology exhibits from May through...

475

Microsoft PowerPoint - 090326_stm_poster_IWV.pptx  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pal 1 , Tammy Weckwerth 2 , and Martin Hagen 3 1: University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany; 2: National Center for Atmospheric Research, USA, 3: DLR Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany...

476

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

(865) 241-5470 balken@ornl.gov Publication Education Technical University Darmstadt, Germany Materials Science Diploma, 2003 Technical University Darmstadt, Germany Materials...

477

DOE to Host Prominent German Scientists for Technical Conference  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Germany's government and commercial operations will attend the three-day conference. "Germany is the only other nation in the world focusing principally on salt repositories. The...

478

Globalization and taste convergence: The cases of wine and beer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Brazil, Chile, France, Greece, Italy, Luxembourg, Mexico,France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg,Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland,

Aizenman, Joshua; Brooks, Eileen

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Browse wiki | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

development and other engineering services in wind + , biomass + , biogas and passive energy savings. + , Bremen + , Germany + Place Bremen, Germany + Product Bremen-based...

480

German Wind Energy Association | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Wind Energy Association Place Osnabrck, Germany Zip 49074 Sector Wind energy Product Assocation for the promotion of wind energy in Germany. References German Wind Energy...

Index
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "germany gan m1" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


Index
481

Patterning of the Ciona intestinalis Motor Ganglion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pitx2 as markers for fast motor neurons and partition cells.for the specification of motor neuron identity. Cell Gans,Tsuda, M. (2010). Simple motor system of the ascidian larva:

Stolfi, Alberto Sunao

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Solid-State Lighting: Cantilever Epitaxy Process Wins R&D 100...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

growth process begins with etching trenches into the sapphire substrate, leaving stripes of mesas in the surface. Vertical growth of the GaN overlayer is then initiated on...

483

 

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Defect-Driven Magnetism in Mn-doped GaN Defect-Driven Magnetism in Mn-doped GaN Semiconductors doped with magnetic elements are very interesting materials. In these materials, the magnetic impurities interact with and induce magnetism in the semiconductor host. Thus, they have the potential for combining magnetism with the rich electronic behavior of semiconductors, which may lead to new generations of low-power-consumption electronics, non-volatile memories, and field-configurable logic devices. Gallium nitride doped with Mn is particularly interesting because it is one of the few materials for which magnetism above room temperature has been reported, making it a candidate room-temperature magnetic semiconductor. Photo: Gan Molecules Illustration of the crystal structures derived from x-ray results and calculations. In ideal GaN (left), a Mn atom substitutes

484

Semiconductor Nanoclusters as Potential Photocatalysts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High Power Electronics Based on the 2-Dimensional Electron Gas in GaN High Power Electronics Based on the 2-Dimensional Electron Gas in GaN Heterostructures by S. R. Kurtz, A. A. Allerman, and D. Koleski Motivation-GaN-based electronics offer miniaturization potential of radical proportions for microwave power amplifiers. GaN's large bandgap, high breakdown field, high electron velocity, and excellent thermal properties have led to high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) with up to 10x the power density of GaAs and other traditional semiconductors at frequencies up to 20 GHz. Further contributing to the outstanding performance of GaN-based amplifiers is the highly conducting, 2-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) used for the HEMT channel. Intrinsic polarization and piezoelectric properties of GaN materials can produce a 2DEG at an

485

Semiconductor Nanoclusters as Potential Photocatalysts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Development of Cantilever Epitaxy to Produce High Quality GaN with Reduced Development of Cantilever Epitaxy to Produce High Quality GaN with Reduced Threading Dislocation Densities by C. C. Mitchell, A. A. Allerman, C. I. H. Ashby, R. D. Briggs, D. M. Follstadt, S. L. Lee, D. D. Koleske Motivation-GaN grown on any currently available substrates has an inherent problem of having to overcome a large lattice mismatch with the substrate. As a result typical planar GaN includes anywhere from 10 8 - 10 10 threading dislocations per square centimeter. Cantilever epitaxy (CE) is a technique developed to produce areas of GaN with a reduced number of vertical threading dislocations (VTDs) over large areas. Low defect materials are required to reduce leakage and breakdown of both electronic and opto- electronic devices. Accomplishment-This

486

JEM Table of Contents: March 1997  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

266-271] A.T. Ping, A.C. Schmitz, I. Adesida, M. Asif Khan, Q. Chen, and J.W. Yang. In Situ Control of GaN Growth by Molecular Beam Epitaxy [pp. 272-280

487

BB5, Nearly Ideal Current-Voltage Characteristics of Schottky Barrier ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recently, high-quality GaN free-standing substrates are available by various methods. ... Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics and capacitance-voltage (C-V)...

488

K4, Improved Microstructure and Ohmic Contact of Nb Electrode on ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Obtained results showed the formation of niobium carbide and niobium silicide ..... W1, Shape Transformation of Nanoporous GaN by Annealing: Buried Cavities ... X9, Solution-Processed Zirconium Oxide and Integration with Zinc-Tin Oxide...

489

CX-010974: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

CX-010974: Categorical Exclusion Determination Advanced Low-Cost Silicon Carbide (SiC) and Gallium Nitride (GaN) Wide Bandgap Inverters for Under-the-Hood Electric Vehicle...

490

Power Electronics Reliability Kick Off Meeting ? Silicon Power...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

failure modes of post-silicon power electronic (PE) devices such as silicon carbide (SiC) and gallium nitride (GaN) switches. * Seek opportunities for condition monitoring (CM)...

491

NETL F 451.1/1-1, Categorical Exclusion Designation Form  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

PVTD FY14-15 1012013 to 9302015 John Tabacchi Fayetteville, AR Advanced Low-Cost SiC and GaN Wide Bandgap Inverters for Under-the-Hood Electric Vehicle Traction... Develop...

492

STATEMENT OF CONSIDERATIONS PETITION FOR ADVANCE WAIVER OF PATENT...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

is the design, manufacture and sale of commercial semiconductor products utilizing SiC and GaN technologies. CREE has a business unit devoted solely to the development of...

493

NETL F 451.1/1-1, Categorical Exclusion Designation Form  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

12013 to 9302015 John Tabacchi 535W Research Ctr B, Fayettevile,AR Advanced Low-Cost SiC and GaN Wide Bandgap Inverters for Under-the-Hood Electric Vehicle Traction... To...

494

CX-010973: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

CX-010973: Categorical Exclusion Determination Advanced Low-Cost Silicon Carbide (SiC) and Gallium Nitride (GaN) Wide Bandgap Inverters for Under-the-Hood Electric Vehicle...

495

ARM - AMIE Field Campaign  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

climate models have difficulty predicting its effects and its interactions with the monsoon and El Nio. AMIE-Gan will measure the area where the MJO begins its eastward...

496

HH5, Antiferromagnetic Interlayer Exchange Couplings in Ga  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Author(s), Sun Jae Chung, Sanghoon Lee, Brian J. Kirby, Julie A. Borchers, ... LATE NEWS: KK3, Non-Catalytic Synthesis of GaN Nanostructures at Low...

497

the DRIP XIII Conference  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sep 14, 2009 ... Fundamental studies of how localized charged defects affect current transport .... To resolve this question, we studied a series of GaN films with thicknesses ...... Handbook of Silicon Wafer Cleaning Technology, 2nd edition.

498

Enabling LowCost LargeArea OPV Solar Power - Programmaster ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Plextronics, Inc. is helping seed the renewable energy OPV market by .... Stress Relaxation in GaN Epilayers Grown by MOCVD with Indium Surfactant ... Tight Binding and LCAO Methods for Tin Oxide Deposited by Chemical Vapour...

499

MSTC - Microsystems Science, Technology, and Components - RF...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

band RF input and supplies N identical outputs (N4 or 8). SiGe, GaAs, GaN RFICs. Passive RF detectors - Pyroelectric microdetectors that produce a DC output proportional to...

500

I I  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

six points. BaCKground external ganLna readings ranged from 3 to 6 uRh and averaged 4.5 JARh (Ref. 1). Background radiation rates and radionuclide concentrations in soil are...

Index