National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for geothermometry long-wave infrared

  1. Category:Long-Wave Infrared | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Infrared Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleCategory:Long-WaveInfrared&oldid794161" Feedback Contact needs updating Image needs updating Reference...

  2. Hollow Core Fiber Optics for Mid-Wave and Long-Wave Infrared Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kriesel, J.M.; Gat, N.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Erikson, Rebecca L.; Cannon, Bret D.; Myers, Tanya L.; Bledt, Carlos M.; Harrington, J. A.

    2011-06-01

    The development and testing of hollow core glass waveguides (i.e., fiber optics) for use in Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR) spectroscopy systems is described. LWIR fiber optics are a key enabling technology needed to improve the utility and effectiveness of trace chemical detection systems based in the 8 to 12 micron region. This paper focuses on recent developments in hollow waveguide technology geared specifically for LWIR spectroscopy, including a reduction in both the length dependent loss and the bending loss while maintaining relatively high beam quality. Results will be presented from tests conducted with a Quantum Cascade Laser.

  3. Long wave infrared cavity-enhanced sensors using quantum cascade lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taubman, Matthew S.; Scott, David C.; Myers, Tanya L.; Cannon, Bret D.

    2005-12-30

    Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are becoming well known as convenient and stable semiconductor laser sources operating in the mid- to long-wave infrared, and are able to be fabricated to operate virtually anywhere in the 3.5 to 25 micron region. This makes them an ideal choice for infrared chemical sensing, a topic of great interest at present, spanning at least three critical areas: national security, environmental monitoring and protection, and the early diagnosis of disease through breath analysis. There are many different laser-based spectroscopic chemical sensor architectures in use today, from simple direct detection through to more complex and highly sensitive systems. Many current sensor needs can be met by combining QCLs and appropriate sensor architectures, those needs ranging from UAV-mounted surveillance systems, through to larger ultra-sensitive systems for airport security. In this paper we provide an overview of various laser-based spectroscopic sensing techniques, pointing out advantages and disadvantages of each. As part of this process, we include our own results and observations for techniques under development at PNNL. We also present the latest performance of our ultra-quiet QCL control electronics now being commercialized, and explore how using optimized supporting electronics enables increased sensor performance and decreased sensor footprint for given applications.

  4. Systems having optical absorption layer for mid and long wave infrared and methods for making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuzmenko, Paul J

    2013-10-01

    An optical system according to one embodiment includes a substrate; and an optical absorption layer coupled to the substrate, wherein the optical absorption layer comprises a layer of diamond-like carbon, wherein the optical absorption layer absorbs at least 50% of mid wave infrared light (3-5 .mu.m wavelength) and at least 50% of long wave infrared light (8-13 .mu.m wavelength). A method for applying an optical absorption layer to an optical system according to another embodiment includes depositing a layer of diamond-like carbon of an optical absorption layer above a substrate using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, wherein the optical absorption layer absorbs at least 50% of mid wave infrared light (3-5 .mu.m wavelength) and at least 50% of long wave infrared light (8-13 .mu.m wavelength). Additional systems and methods are also presented.

  5. Minority carrier lifetimes in very long-wave infrared InAs/GaInSb superlattices

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Olson, Benjamin Varberg; Haugan, Heather J.; Brown, Gail J.; Kadlec, Emil Andrew; Kim, Jin K.; Shaner, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    Here, significantly improved carrier lifetimes in very-long wave infrared InAs/GaInSb superlattice(SL) absorbers are demonstrated by using time-resolved microwave reflectance (TMR) measurements. A nominal 47.0 Å InAs/21.5 Å Ga0.75In0.25Sb SLstructure that produces an approximately 25 μm response at 10 K has a minority carrier lifetime of 140 ± 20 ns at 18 K, which is markedly long for SL absorber with such a narrow bandgap. This improvement is attributed to the strain-engineered ternary design. Such SL employs a shorter period with reduced gallium in order to achieve good optical absorption and epitaxial advantages, which ultimately leads to the improvements in themore » minority carrier lifetime by reducing Shockley–Read–Hall (SRH) defects. By analyzing the temperature-dependence of TMR decay data, the recombination mechanisms and trap states that currently limit the performance of this SL absorber have been identified. The results show a general decrease in the long-decay lifetime component, which is dominated by the SRH recombination at temperature below ~30 K, and by Auger recombination at temperatures above ~45 K.« less

  6. Minority carrier lifetimes in very long-wave infrared InAs/GaInSb superlattices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, Benjamin Varberg; Haugan, Heather J.; Brown, Gail J.; Kadlec, Emil Andrew; Kim, Jin K.; Shaner, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    Here, significantly improved carrier lifetimes in very-long wave infrared InAs/GaInSb superlattice(SL) absorbers are demonstrated by using time-resolved microwave reflectance (TMR) measurements. A nominal 47.0 Å InAs/21.5 Å Ga0.75In0.25Sb SLstructure that produces an approximately 25 μm response at 10 K has a minority carrier lifetime of 140 ± 20 ns at 18 K, which is markedly long for SL absorber with such a narrow bandgap. This improvement is attributed to the strain-engineered ternary design. Such SL employs a shorter period with reduced gallium in order to achieve good optical absorption and epitaxial advantages, which ultimately leads to the improvements in the minority carrier lifetime by reducing Shockley–Read–Hall (SRH) defects. By analyzing the temperature-dependence of TMR decay data, the recombination mechanisms and trap states that currently limit the performance of this SL absorber have been identified. The results show a general decrease in the long-decay lifetime component, which is dominated by the SRH recombination at temperature below ~30 K, and by Auger recombination at temperatures above ~45 K.

  7. Geothermometry | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    In The Past 20 Years- Geochemistry In Geothermal Exploration Resource Evaluation And Reservoir Management Geothermometry (Powell and Cumming, 2010) Any Spreadsheets for...

  8. Liquid Geothermometry | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Exploration Group: Geochemical Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Geochemical Data Analysis Parent Exploration Technique: Geothermometry Information Provided by Technique...

  9. Gas Geothermometry | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Exploration Group: Geochemical Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Geochemical Data Analysis Parent Exploration Technique: Geothermometry Information Provided by Technique...

  10. Isotope Geothermometry | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Exploration Group: Geochemical Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Geochemical Data Analysis Parent Exploration Technique: Geothermometry Information Provided by Technique...

  11. Category:Geothermometry | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technique Subcategories This category has the following 2 subcategories, out of 2 total. G Gas Geothermometry 1 pages I Isotope Geothermometry 1 pages Pages in...

  12. Category:Gas Geothermometry | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Gas Geothermometry Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Gas Geothermometry page? For detailed information on Gas...

  13. Geothermometry At Yellowstone Region (Fournier, 1979) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Geothermometry Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Enthalpy-Chloride digram. Not exactly cation geothermometry...

  14. Improved Geothermometry Through Multivariate Reaction Path Modeling...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Indicators Improved Geothermometry Through Multivariate Reaction Path Modeling and Evaluation of Geomicrobiological Influences on Geochemical Temperature Indicators ...

  15. Geothermometry At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Shevenell...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermometry At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Shevenell & De Rocher, 2005) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geothermometry...

  16. Geothermometry At Nw Basin & Range Region (Shevenell & De Rocher...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermometry At Nw Basin & Range Region (Shevenell & De Rocher, 2005) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geothermometry At Nw...

  17. Geothermometry At Blackfoot Reservoir Area (Hutsinpiller & Parry...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activity Details Location Blackfoot Reservoir Area Exploration Technique Geothermometry Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown References Amy Hutsinpiller, W. T....

  18. Long-Wave Infrared | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    such as hand portable, truck mounted, airborne, or satellite.3 Physical Properties The electromagnetic spectrum.4 Best Practices Typically, LWIR imaging as a hydrothermal...

  19. Geothermometry At Akutan Fumaroles Area (Kolker, Et Al., 2010...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermometry Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes The chemistry of the hot springs strongly suggests the existence of a neutral chloride reservoir...

  20. Geothermometry At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Shevenell...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (Shevenell & De Rocher, 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Geothermometry Activity Date Usefulness...

  1. Geothermometry At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Laney...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Region (Laney, 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Geothermometry Activity Date Usefulness...

  2. Geothermometry At Mt St Helens Area (Shevenell & Goff, 1995)...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    St Helens Area (Shevenell & Goff, 1995) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geothermometry At Mt St Helens Area (Shevenell & Goff,...

  3. Geothermometry At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geothermometry At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity...

  4. Geothermometry At Alum Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Alum Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geothermometry At Alum Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  5. Geothermometry At The Needles Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    The Needles Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geothermometry At The Needles Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity...

  6. Geothermometry At New River Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    New River Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geothermometry At New River Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details...

  7. Geothermometry At Fort Bliss Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fort Bliss Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geothermometry At Fort Bliss Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity...

  8. Geothermometry At Lassen Volcanic National Park Area (Thompson...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Thompson, 1985) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geothermometry At Lassen Volcanic National Park Area (Thompson, 1985) Exploration...

  9. Geothermometry At Blue Mountain Geothermal Area (Casteel, Et...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Details Location Blue Mountain Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Geothermometry Activity Date 2010 - 2010 Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis A water...

  10. Geothermometry At Upper Hot Creek Ranch Area (Benoit & Blackwell...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activity Details Location Upper Hot Creek Ranch Area Exploration Technique Geothermometry Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Ten water samples were collected...

  11. Geothermometry At Clear Lake Area (Thompson, Et Al., 1992) |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activity Details Location Clear Lake Area Exploration Technique Geothermometry Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Based on the above discussion,...

  12. Geothermometry At Chena Geothermal Area (Kolker, 2008) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1973 - 1974 Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis Masters thesis Norma Biggar, Geophysical Institute University of Alaska Notes Geothermometry...

  13. Geothermometry At Fish Lake Valley Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fish Lake Valley Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geothermometry At Fish Lake Valley Area (DOE GTP) Exploration...

  14. Geothermometry At Desert Queen Area (Garchar & Arehart, 2008...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Desert Queen Area (Garchar & Arehart, 2008) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geothermometry At Desert Queen Area (Garchar &...

  15. Geothermometry At Nevada Test And Training Range Area (Sabin...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Nevada Test And Training Range Area (Sabin, Et Al., 2004) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geothermometry At Nevada Test And...

  16. Improved Geothermometry Through Multivariate Reaction Path Modeling and

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Evaluation of Geomicrobiological Influences on Geochemical Temperature Indicators | Department of Energy Improved Geothermometry Through Multivariate Reaction Path Modeling and Evaluation of Geomicrobiological Influences on Geochemical Temperature Indicators presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado. PDF icon geothermometry_cooper_peer2013.pdf More Documents & Publications track 4: enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) | geothermal 2015 peer review Chemical

  17. New Mexico conservative ion water chemistry data and chalcedony geothermometry

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Shari Kelley

    2015-10-21

    Compilation of boron, lithium, bromine, and silica data from wells and springs throughout New Mexico from a wide variety of sources. The chalcedony geothermometry calculation is included in this file.

  18. Microbial impacts on geothermometry temperature predictions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshiko Fujita; David W. Reed; Kaitlyn R. Nowak; Vicki S. Thompson; Travis L. McLing; Robert W. Smith

    2013-02-01

    Conventional geothermometry approaches assume that the composition of a collected water sample originating in a deep geothermal reservoir still reflects chemical equilibration of the water with the deep reservoir rocks. However, for geothermal prospecting samples whose temperatures have dropped to <120°C, temperature predictions may be skewed by the activity of microorganisms; microbial metabolism can drastically and rapidly change the water’s chemistry. We hypothesize that knowledge of microbial impacts on exploration sample geochemistry can be used to constrain input into geothermometry models and thereby improve the reliability of reservoir temperature predictions. To evaluate this hypothesis we have chosen to focus on sulfur cycling, because of the significant changes in redox state and pH associated with sulfur chemistry. Redox and pH are critical factors in defining the mineral-fluid equilibria that form the basis of solute geothermometry approaches. Initially we are developing assays to detect the process of sulfate reduction, using knowledge of genes specific to sulfate reducing microorganisms. The assays rely on a common molecular biological technique known as quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), which allows estimation of the number of target organisms in a particular sample by enumerating genes specific to the organisms rather than actually retrieving and characterizing the organisms themselves. For quantitation of sulfate reducing genes using qPCR, we constructed a plasmid (a piece of DNA) containing portions of two genes (known as dsrA and dsrB) that are directly involved with sulfate reduction and unique to sulfate reducing microorganisms. Using the plasmid as well as DNA from other microorganisms known to be sulfate reducers or non-sulfate reducers, we developed qPCR protocols and showed the assay’s specificity to sulfate reducers and that a qPCR standard curve using the plasmid was linear over >5 orders of magnitude. As a first test with actual field samples, the assay was applied to DNA extracted from water collected at springs located in and around the town of Soda Springs, Idaho. Soda Springs is located in the fold and thrust belt on the eastern boundary of the track of the Yellowstone Hotspot, where a deep carbon dioxide source believed to originate from Mississippian limestone contacts acidic hydrothermal fluids at depth. Both sulfate and sulfide have been measured in samples collected previously at Soda Springs. Preliminary results indicate that sulfate reducing genes were present in each of the samples tested. Our work supports evaluation of the potential for microbial processes to have altered water chemistry in geothermal exploration samples.

  19. Mineral Selection for Multicomponent Equilibrium Geothermometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plamer, C. D.; Ohly, S. R.; Smith, R. W.; Neupane, G.; McLing, T.; Mattson, E.

    2015-04-01

    Multicomponent geothermometry requires knowledge of the mineral phases in the reservoir with which the geothermal fluids may be equilibrated. These minerals phases are most often alteration products rather than primary minerals. We have reviewed the literature on geothermal systems representing most major geologic environments typically associated with geothermal activity and identified potential alteration products in various environments. We have included this information in RTEst, a code we have developed to estimate reservoir conditions (temperature, CO2 fugacity) from the geochemistry of near-surface geothermal waters. The information has been included in RTEst through the addition of filters that decrease the potential number of minerals from all possibilities based on the basis species to those that are more relevant to the particular conditions in which the user is interested. The three groups of filters include host rock type (tholeiitic, calc-alkaline, silicic, siliciclastic, carbonate), water type (acidic, neutral), and the temperature range over which the alteration minerals were formed (low, medium, high). The user-chosen mineral assemblage is checked to make sure that it does not violate the Gibbs phase rule. The user can select one of three mineral saturation weighting schemes that decrease the chance the optimization from being skewed by reaction stoichiometry or analytical uncertainty.

  20. Mineral Selection for Multicomponent Equilibrium Geothermometry

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Plamer, C. D.; Ohly, S. R.; Smith, R. W.; Neupane, G.; McLing, T.; Mattson, E.

    2015-04-01

    Multicomponent geothermometry requires knowledge of the mineral phases in the reservoir with which the geothermal fluids may be equilibrated. These minerals phases are most often alteration products rather than primary minerals. We have reviewed the literature on geothermal systems representing most major geologic environments typically associated with geothermal activity and identified potential alteration products in various environments. We have included this information in RTEst, a code we have developed to estimate reservoir conditions (temperature, CO2 fugacity) from the geochemistry of near-surface geothermal waters. The information has been included in RTEst through the addition of filters that decrease the potential numbermore » of minerals from all possibilities based on the basis species to those that are more relevant to the particular conditions in which the user is interested. The three groups of filters include host rock type (tholeiitic, calc-alkaline, silicic, siliciclastic, carbonate), water type (acidic, neutral), and the temperature range over which the alteration minerals were formed (low, medium, high). The user-chosen mineral assemblage is checked to make sure that it does not violate the Gibbs phase rule. The user can select one of three mineral saturation weighting schemes that decrease the chance the optimization from being skewed by reaction stoichiometry or analytical uncertainty.« less

  1. Geothermal Exploration with Visible through Long Wave Infrared...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    mapping for geothermal exploration using combined system allows for the complimentary nature of these combined sensors to effective map the surface and reduce costs by only using...

  2. Geochemistry Sampling for Traditional and Multicomponent Equilibrium Geothermometry in Southeast Idaho

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cannon, Cody; Wood, Thomas; Neupane, Ghanashyam; McLing, Travis; Mattson, Earl; Dobson, Patrick; Conrad, Mark

    2014-10-01

    The Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) is an area of high regional heat flux due the movement of the North American Plate over the Yellowstone Hotspot beginning ca.16 Ma. Temperature gradients between 45-60 °C/km (up to double the global average) have been calculated from deep wells that penetrate the upper aquifer system (Blackwell 1989). Despite the high geothermal potential, thermal signatures from hot springs and wells are effectively masked by the rapid flow of cold groundwater through the highly permeable basalts of the Eastern Snake River Plain aquifer (ESRPA) (up to 500+ m thick). This preliminary study is part of an effort to more accurately predict temperatures of the ESRP deep thermal reservoir while accounting for the effects of the prolific cold water aquifer system above. This study combines the use of traditional geothermometry, mixing models, and a multicomponent equilibrium geothermometry (MEG) tool to investigate the geothermal potential of the ESRP. In March, 2014, a collaborative team including members of the University of Idaho, the Idaho National Laboratory, and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory collected 14 thermal water samples from and adjacent to the Eastern Snake River Plain. The preliminary results of chemical analyses and geothermometry applied to these samples are presented herein.

  3. Long-Wave Infrared At Coso Geothermal Area (1968-1971) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Unknown Exploration Basis Fumarolic and hot springs activity Notes 8- to 14-micrometer IR imagery has value in delineating the typical arcuate structural patterns References...

  4. Gas Phase Photoacoustic Spectroscopy in the long-wave IR using Quartz Tuning Forks and Amplitude Modulated Quantum Cascade Lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wojcik, Michael D.; Phillips, Mark C.; Cannon, Bret D.

    2006-12-31

    A paper to accompany a 20 minute talk about the progress of a DARPA funded project called LPAS. ABSTRACT: We demonstrate the performance of a novel long-wave infrared photoacoustic laser absorbance spectrometer for gas-phase species using an amplitude modulated (AM) quantum cascade (QC) laser and a quartz tuning fork microphone. Photoacoustic signal was generated by focusing the output of a Fabry-Perot QC laser operating at 8.41 micron between the legs of a quartz tuning fork which served as a transducer for the transient acoustic pressure wave. The QC laser was modulated at the resonant frequency of the tuning fork (32.8 kHz). This sensor was calibrated using the infrared absorber Freon-134a by performing a simultanious absorption measurement using a 35 cm absorption cell. The NEAS of this instrument was determined to be 2 x 10^-8 W cm^-1 /Hz^1/2 and the fundamental sensitivity of this technique is limited by the noise floor of the tuning fork itself.

  5. Infrared retina

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krishna, Sanjay; Hayat, Majeed M.; Tyo, J. Scott; Jang, Woo-Yong

    2011-12-06

    Exemplary embodiments provide an infrared (IR) retinal system and method for making and using the IR retinal system. The IR retinal system can include adaptive sensor elements, whose properties including, e.g., spectral response, signal-to-noise ratio, polarization, or amplitude can be tailored at pixel level by changing the applied bias voltage across the detector. "Color" imagery can be obtained from the IR retinal system by using a single focal plane array. The IR sensor elements can be spectrally, spatially and temporally adaptive using quantum-confined transitions in nanoscale quantum dots. The IR sensor elements can be used as building blocks of an infrared retina, similar to cones of human retina, and can be designed to work in the long-wave infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum ranging from about 8 .mu.m to about 12 .mu.m as well as the mid-wave portion ranging from about 3 .mu.m to about 5 .mu.m.

  6. Improved Geothermometry Through Multivariate Reaction-path Modeling and Evaluation of Geomicrobiological Influences on Geochemical Temperature Indicators: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattson, Earl; Smith, Robert; Fujita, Yoshiko; McLing, Travis; Neupane, Ghanashyam; Palmer, Carl; Reed, David; Thompson, Vicki

    2015-03-01

    The project was aimed at demonstrating that the geothermometric predictions can be improved through the application of multi-element reaction path modeling that accounts for lithologic and tectonic settings, while also accounting for biological influences on geochemical temperature indicators. The limited utilization of chemical signatures by individual traditional geothermometer in the development of reservoir temperature estimates may have been constraining their reliability for evaluation of potential geothermal resources. This project, however, was intended to build a geothermometry tool which can integrate multi-component reaction path modeling with process-optimization capability that can be applied to dilute, low-temperature water samples to consistently predict reservoir temperature within ±30 °C. The project was also intended to evaluate the extent to which microbiological processes can modulate the geochemical signals in some thermal waters and influence the geothermometric predictions.

  7. FY 2005 Infrared Photonics Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Allen, Paul J.; Ho, Nicolas; Krishnaswami, Kannan; Johnson, Bradley R.; Sundaram, S. K.; Riley, Bradley M.; Martinez, James E.; Qiao, Hong; Schultz, John F.

    2005-12-01

    Research done by the Infrared Photonics team at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is focused on developing miniaturized integrated optics for mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) sensing applications by exploiting the unique optical and material properties of chalcogenide glass. PNNL has developed thin-film deposition capabilities, direct laser writing techniques, infrared photonic device demonstration, holographic optical element design and fabrication, photonic device modeling, and advanced optical metrologyall specific to chalcogenide glass. Chalcogenide infrared photonics provides a pathway to quantum cascade laser (QCL) transmitter miniaturization. QCLs provide a viable infrared laser source for a new class of laser transmitters capable of meeting the performance requirements for a variety of national security sensing applications. The high output power, small size, and superb stability and modulation characteristics of QCLs make them amenable for integration as transmitters into ultra-sensitive, ultra-selective point sampling and remote short-range chemical sensors that are particularly useful for nuclear nonproliferation missions. During FY 2005, PNNLs Infrared Photonics research team made measurable progress exploiting the extraordinary optical and material properties of chalcogenide glass to develop miniaturized integrated optics for mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) sensing applications. We investigated sulfur purification methods that will eventually lead to routine production of optical quality chalcogenide glass. We also discovered a glass degradation phenomenon and our investigation uncovered the underlying surface chemistry mechanism and developed mitigation actions. Key research was performed to understand and control the photomodification properties. This research was then used to demonstrate several essential infrared photonic devices, including LWIR single-mode waveguide devices and waveguide couplers. Optical metrology tools were also developed to characterize optical waveguide structures and LWIR optical components.

  8. Infrared thermography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, C.C. Jr.

    1982-12-01

    Infrared thermography is a useful tool for the diagnosis of problems in building systems. In instances where a building owner has several large buildings, an investment in a typical $30,000 infrared system may be cost effective. In most instances, however, the rental of an infrared system or the hiring of an infrared consulting service is a cost effective alternative. As can be seen from the several applications presented here, any mechanical problem manifesting itself in an atypical temperature pattern can usually be detected. The two primary savings generated from infrared analysis of building systems are maintenance and energy.

  9. Detection range enhancement using circularly polarized light in scattering environments for infrared wavelengths

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    van der Laan, J. D.; Sandia National Lab.; Scrymgeour, D. A.; Kemme, S. A.; Dereniak, E. L.

    2015-03-13

    We find for infrared wavelengths there are broad ranges of particle sizes and refractive indices that represent fog and rain where the use of circular polarization can persist to longer ranges than linear polarization. Using polarization tracking Monte Carlo simulations for varying particle size, wavelength, and refractive index, we show that for specific scene parameters circular polarization outperforms linear polarization in maintaining the intended polarization state for large optical depths. This enhancement with circular polarization can be exploited to improve range and target detection in obscurant environments that are important in many critical sensing applications. Specifically, circular polarization persists bettermore » than linear for radiation fog in the short-wave infrared, for advection fog in the short-wave infrared and the long-wave infrared, and large particle sizes of Sahara dust around the 4 micron wavelength.« less

  10. Detection range enhancement using circularly polarized light in scattering environments for infrared wavelengths

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van der Laan, J. D.; Scrymgeour, D. A.; Kemme, S. A.; Dereniak, E. L.

    2015-03-13

    We find for infrared wavelengths there are broad ranges of particle sizes and refractive indices that represent fog and rain where the use of circular polarization can persist to longer ranges than linear polarization. Using polarization tracking Monte Carlo simulations for varying particle size, wavelength, and refractive index, we show that for specific scene parameters circular polarization outperforms linear polarization in maintaining the intended polarization state for large optical depths. This enhancement with circular polarization can be exploited to improve range and target detection in obscurant environments that are important in many critical sensing applications. Specifically, circular polarization persists better than linear for radiation fog in the short-wave infrared, for advection fog in the short-wave infrared and the long-wave infrared, and large particle sizes of Sahara dust around the 4 micron wavelength.

  11. Geology, hydrothermal petrology, stable isotope geochemistry, and fluid inclusion geothermometry of LASL geothermal test well C/T-1 (Mesa 31-1), East Mesa, Imperial Valley, California, USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, K.R.; Elders, W.A.

    1980-08-01

    Borehole Mesa 31-1 (LASL C/T-1) is an 1899-m (6231-ft) deep well located in the northwestern part of the East Mesa Geothermal Field. Mesa 31-1 is the first Calibration/Test Well (C/T-1) in the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL), Geothermal Log Interpretation Program. The purpose of this study is to provide a compilation of drillhole data, drill cuttings, well lithology, and formation petrology that will serve to support the use of well LASL C/T-1 as a calibration/test well for geothermal logging. In addition, reviews of fluid chemistry, stable isotope studies, isotopic and fluid inclusion geothermometry, and the temperature log data are presented. This study provides the basic data on the geology and hydrothermal alteration of the rocks in LASL C/T-1 as background for the interpretation of wireline logs.

  12. Infrared floodlight

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levin, Robert E.; English, George J.

    1986-08-05

    An infrared floodlight assembly designed particularly for security purposes and including a heat-conducting housing, a lens secured to the housing to provide a closure therefor, and a floodlight located within (and surrounded by) the housing. The floodlight combines the use of a tungsten halogen light source and dichroic hot and cold mirrors for directing substantially only infrared radiation toward the assembly's forward lens. Visible radiation is absorbed by the housing's interior wall(s) and, optionally, by a filter located between the floodlight and lens. An optional means may be used within the floodlight to reflect all forward radiation back toward the paraboloidal hot mirror or, alternatively, to reflect only visible radiation in this direction. The dichroic hot and cold mirrors preferably each comprise a glass substrate having multiple layers of titanium dioxide and silicon dioxide thereon.

  13. Uncooled infrared photon detector and multicolor infrared detection...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A multicolor infrared sensor includes a stack of frequency specific optomechanical ... lattice; strain; multicolor; infrared; sensor; stack; frequency; specific; ...

  14. Infrared microscope inspection apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forman, Steven E. (Framingham, MA); Caunt, James W. (Concord, MA)

    1985-02-26

    Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface.

  15. Infrared microscope inspection apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forman, S.E.; Caunt, J.W.

    1985-02-26

    Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface. 4 figs.

  16. Far infrared supplement: Catalog of infrared observations, second edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gezari, D.Y.; Schmitz, M.; Mead, J.M.

    1988-08-01

    The Far Infrared Supplement: Catalog of Infrared Observations summarizes all infrared astronomical observations at far infrared wavelengths (5 to 1000 microns) published in the scientific literature from 1965 through 1986. The Supplement list contain 25 percent of the observations in the full Catalog of Infrared Observations (CIO), and essentially eliminates most visible stars from the listings. The Supplement is thus more compact than the main catalog, and is intended for easy reference during astronomical observations. The Far Infrared Supplement (2nd Edition) includes the Index of Infrared Source Positions and the Bibliography of Infrared Astronomy for the subset of far infrared observations listed.

  17. Integrated Chemical Geothermometry System for Geothermal Exploration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Develop practical and reliable system to predict geothermal reservoir temperatures from integrated chemical analyses of spring and well fluids.

  18. Geothermometry (Klein, 2007) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    In The Past 20 Years- Geochemistry In Geothermal Exploration Resource Evaluation And Reservoir Management Additional References Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  19. Colorado thermal spring water geothermometry (public dataset...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    chemical geothermometers for Colorado thermal springs. Data citations include Barrett, J. K. and Pearl, R. H. (1976), George, R. D., Curtis, H. A., Lester, O. C., Crook, J. K.,...

  20. Variable waveband infrared imager

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunter, Scott R.

    2013-06-11

    A waveband imager includes an imaging pixel that utilizes photon tunneling with a thermally actuated bimorph structure to convert infrared radiation to visible radiation. Infrared radiation passes through a transparent substrate and is absorbed by a bimorph structure formed with a pixel plate. The absorption generates heat which deflects the bimorph structure and pixel plate towards the substrate and into an evanescent electric field generated by light propagating through the substrate. Penetration of the bimorph structure and pixel plate into the evanescent electric field allows a portion of the visible wavelengths propagating through the substrate to tunnel through the substrate, bimorph structure, and/or pixel plate as visible radiation that is proportional to the intensity of the incident infrared radiation. This converted visible radiation may be superimposed over visible wavelengths passed through the imaging pixel.

  1. Infrared source test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ott, L.

    1994-11-15

    The purpose of the Infrared Source Test (IRST) is to demonstrate the ability to track a ground target with an infrared sensor from an airplane. The system is being developed within the Advance Technology Program`s Theater Missile Defense/Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) section. The IRST payload consists of an Amber Radiance 1 infrared camera system, a computer, a gimbaled mirror, and a hard disk. The processor is a custom R3000 CPU board made by Risq Modular Systems, Inc. for LLNL. The board has ethernet, SCSI, parallel I/O, and serial ports, a DMA channel, a video (frame buffer) interface, and eight MBytes of main memory. The real-time operating system VxWorks has been ported to the processor. The application code is written in C on a host SUN 4 UNIX workstation. The IRST is the result of a combined effort by physicists, electrical and mechanical engineers, and computer scientists.

  2. Infrared Basics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Infrared Basics Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Infrared Basics Author Protherm Published Publisher Not Provided, 2013 DOI Not Provided...

  3. Infrared floodlight assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wierzbicki, Julian J.; Chakrabarti, Kirti B.

    1987-09-22

    An infrared floodlight assembly (10) including a cast aluminum outer housing (11) defining a central chamber (15) therein. A floodlight (14), having a tungsten halogen lamp as the light source, is spacedly positioned within a heat conducting member (43) within chamber (15) such that the floodlight is securedly positioned in an aligned manner relative to the assembly's filter (35) and lens (12) components. The invention also includes venting means (51) to allow air passage between the interior of the member (43) and the adjacent chamber (15), as well as engagement means (85) for engaging a rear surface of the floodlight (14) to retain it firmly against an internal flange of the member (43). A reflector (61), capable of being compressed to allow insertion or removal, is located within the heat conducting member's interior between the floodlight (14) and filter (35) to reflect infrared radiation toward the filter (35) and spaced lens (12).

  4. Near infrared surfaceplasmonpolariton with hyperbolic metamaterials...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Near infrared surfaceplasmonpolariton with hyperbolic metamaterials. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Near infrared surfaceplasmonpolariton with hyperbolic ...

  5. Infrared Sky Imager Handbook

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    80 Infrared Sky Imager (IRSI) Instrument Handbook VR Morris March 2016 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned

  6. Frequency selective infrared sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davids, Paul; Peters, David W

    2013-05-28

    A frequency selective infrared (IR) photodetector having a predetermined frequency band. The exemplary frequency selective photodetector includes: a dielectric IR absorber having a first surface and a second surface substantially parallel to the first surface; an electrode electrically coupled to the first surface of the dielectric IR absorber; and a frequency selective surface plasmonic (FSSP) structure formed on the second surface of the dielectric IR absorber. The FSSP structure is designed to selectively transmit radiation in the predetermined frequency band that is incident on the FSSP structure substantially independent of the angle of incidence of the incident radiation on the FSSP structure.

  7. Frequency selective infrared sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davids, Paul; Peters, David W

    2014-11-25

    A frequency selective infrared (IR) photodetector having a predetermined frequency band. The exemplary frequency selective photodetector includes: a dielectric IR absorber having a first surface and a second surface substantially parallel to the first surface; an electrode electrically coupled to the first surface of the dielectric IR absorber; and a frequency selective surface plasmonic (FSSP) structure formed on the second surface of the dielectric IR absorber. The FSSP structure is designed to selectively transmit radiation in the predetermined frequency band that is incident on the FSSP structure substantially independent of the angle of incidence of the incident radiation on the FSSP structure.

  8. Infrared laser system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cantrell, Cyrus D.; Carbone, Robert J.; Cooper, Ralph S.

    1977-01-01

    An infrared laser system and method for isotope separation may comprise a molecular gas laser oscillator to produce a laser beam at a first wavelength, Raman spin flip means for shifting the laser to a second wavelength, a molecular gas laser amplifier to amplify said second wavelength laser beam to high power, and optical means for directing the second wavelength, high power laser beam against a desired isotope for selective excitation thereof in a mixture with other isotopes. The optical means may include a medium which shifts the second wavelength high power laser beam to a third wavelength, high power laser beam at a wavelength coincidental with a corresponding vibrational state of said isotope and which is different from vibrational states of other isotopes in the gas mixture.

  9. Infrared laser system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cantrell, Cyrus D.; Carbone, Robert J.; Cooper, Ralph

    1982-01-01

    An infrared laser system and method for isotope separation may comprise a molecular gas laser oscillator to produce a laser beam at a first wavelength, Raman spin flip means for shifting the laser to a second wavelength, a molecular gas laser amplifier to amplify said second wavelength laser beam to high power, and optical means for directing the second wavelength, high power laser beam against a desired isotope for selective excitation thereof in a mixture with other isotopes. The optical means may include a medium which shifts the second wavelength high power laser beam to a third wavelength, high power laser beam at a wavelength coincidental with a corresponding vibrational state of said isotope and which is different from vibrational states of other isotopes in the gas mixture.

  10. Lateral conduction infrared photodetector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Jin K.; Carroll, Malcolm S.

    2011-09-20

    A photodetector for detecting infrared light in a wavelength range of 3-25 .mu.m is disclosed. The photodetector has a mesa structure formed from semiconductor layers which include a type-II superlattice formed of alternating layers of InAs and In.sub.xGa.sub.1-xSb with 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5. Impurity doped regions are formed on sidewalls of the mesa structure to provide for a lateral conduction of photo-generated carriers which can provide an increased carrier mobility and a reduced surface recombination. An optional bias electrode can be used in the photodetector to control and vary a cut-off wavelength or a depletion width therein. The photodetector can be formed as a single-color or multi-color device, and can also be used to form a focal plane array which is compatible with conventional read-out integrated circuits.

  11. Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    infrared microspectroscopy at the ALS, with a diffraction-limited infrared beam diameter of less than 10 m, can overcome this hurdle. And while previous studies used...

  12. Synchrotron Infrared Unveils a Mysterious Microbial Community

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synchrotron Infrared Unveils a Mysterious Microbial Community Synchrotron Infrared Unveils a Mysterious Microbial Community Print Tuesday, 22 January 2013 00:00 A cold sulfur...

  13. Probing Organic Transistors with Infrared Beams

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Probing Organic Transistors with Infrared Beams Probing Organic Transistors with Infrared Beams Print Wednesday, 26 July 2006 00:00 Silicon-based transistors are well-understood,...

  14. Forward looking infrared | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    looking infrared Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Forward looking infrared Author Wikipedia Published Publisher Not Provided, 2013...

  15. Mid-infrared tunable metamaterials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brener, Igal; Miao, Xiaoyu; Shaner, Eric A; Passmore, Brandon Scott; Jun, Young Chul

    2015-04-28

    A mid-infrared tunable metamaterial comprises an array of resonators on a semiconductor substrate having a large dependence of dielectric function on carrier concentration and a semiconductor plasma resonance that lies below the operating range, such as indium antimonide. Voltage biasing of the substrate generates a resonance shift in the metamaterial response that is tunable over a broad operating range. The mid-infrared tunable metamaterials have the potential to become the building blocks of chip based active optical devices in mid-infrared ranges, which can be used for many applications, such as thermal imaging, remote sensing, and environmental monitoring.

  16. Electrically tunable infrared metamaterial devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brener, Igal; Jun, Young Chul

    2015-07-21

    A wavelength-tunable, depletion-type infrared metamaterial optical device is provided. The device includes a thin, highly doped epilayer whose electrical permittivity can become negative at some infrared wavelengths. This highly-doped buried layer optically couples with a metamaterial layer. Changes in the transmission spectrum of the device can be induced via the electrical control of this optical coupling. An embodiment includes a contact layer of semiconductor material that is sufficiently doped for operation as a contact layer and that is effectively transparent to an operating range of infrared wavelengths, a thin, highly doped buried layer of epitaxially grown semiconductor material that overlies the contact layer, and a metallized layer overlying the buried layer and patterned as a resonant metamaterial.

  17. Lattice Simulations and Infrared Conformality

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Appelquist, Thomas; Fleming, George T.; Lin, Meifeng; Neil, Ethan T.; Schaich, David A

    2011-09-01

    We examine several recent lattice-simulation data sets, asking whether they are consistent with infrared conformality. We observe, in particular, that for an SU(3) gauge theory with 12 Dirac fermions in the fundamental representation, recent simulation data can be described assuming infrared conformality. Lattice simulations include a fermion mass m which is then extrapolated to zero, and we note that this data can be fit by a small-m expansion, allowing a controlled extrapolation. We also note that the conformal hypothesis does not work well for two theories that are known or expected to be confining and chirally broken, and that itmore » does work well for another theory expected to be infrared conformal.« less

  18. Real time infrared aerosol analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Stanley A.; Reedy, Gerald T.; Kumar, Romesh

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus for analyzing aerosols in essentially real time includes a virtual impactor which separates coarse particles from fine and ultrafine particles in an aerosol sample. The coarse and ultrafine particles are captured in PTFE filters, and the fine particles impact onto an internal light reflection element. The composition and quantity of the particles on the PTFE filter and on the internal reflection element are measured by alternately passing infrared light through the filter and the internal light reflection element, and analyzing the light through infrared spectrophotometry to identify the particles in the sample.

  19. Infrared emitting device and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kurtz, Steven R.; Biefeld, Robert M.; Dawson, L. Ralph; Howard, Arnold J.; Baucom, Kevin C.

    1997-01-01

    An infrared emitting device and method. The infrared emitting device comprises a III-V compound semiconductor substrate upon which are grown a quantum-well active region having a plurality of quantum-well layers formed of a ternary alloy comprising InAsSb sandwiched between barrier layers formed of a ternary alloy having a smaller lattice constant and a larger energy bandgap than the quantum-well layers. The quantum-well layers are preferably compressively strained to increase the threshold energy for Auger recombination; and a method is provided for determining the preferred thickness for the quantum-well layers. Embodiments of the present invention are described having at least one cladding layer to increase the optical and carrier confinement in the active region, and to provide for waveguiding of the light generated within the active region. Examples have been set forth showing embodiments of the present invention as surface- and edge-emitting light emitting diodes (LEDs), an optically-pumped semiconductor laser, and an electrically-injected semiconductor diode laser. The light emission from each of the infrared emitting devices of the present invention is in the midwave infrared region of the spectrum from about 2 to 6 microns.

  20. Sample rotating turntable kit for infrared spectrometers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eckels, Joel Del (Livermore, CA); Klunder, Gregory L. (Oakland, CA)

    2008-03-04

    An infrared spectrometer sample rotating turntable kit has a rotatable sample cup containing the sample. The infrared spectrometer has an infrared spectrometer probe for analyzing the sample and the rotatable sample cup is adapted to receive the infrared spectrometer probe. A reflectance standard is located in the rotatable sample cup. A sleeve is positioned proximate the sample cup and adapted to receive the probe. A rotator rotates the rotatable sample cup. A battery is connected to the rotator.

  1. Solar and Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoffel, T

    2005-07-01

    The Solar Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS) provides continuous measurements of broadband shortwave (solar) and longwave (atmospheric or infrared) irradiances for downwelling and upwelling components. The following six irradiance measurements are collected from a network of stations to help determine the total radiative flux exchange within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility: Direct normal shortwave (solar beam) Diffuse horizontal shortwave (sky) Global horizontal shortwave (total hemispheric) Upwelling shortwave (reflected) Downwelling longwave (atmospheric infrared) Upwelling longwave (surface infrared)

  2. ARM: Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: ARM: Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology (ASSIST): summary data Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology (ASSIST): ...

  3. ARM: Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: ARM: Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology (ASSIST): engineering data Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology (ASSIST): ...

  4. Multi-channel infrared thermometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ulrickson, Michael A.

    1986-01-01

    A device for measuring the two-dimensional temperature profile of a surface comprises imaging optics for generating an image of the light radiating from the surface; an infrared detector array having a plurality of detectors; and a light pipe array positioned between the imaging optics and the detector array for sampling, transmitting, and distributing the image over the detector surfaces. The light pipe array includes one light pipe for each detector in the detector array.

  5. Multi-channel infrared thermometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ulrickson, M.A.

    A device for measuring the two-dimensional temperature profile of a surface comprises imaging optics for generating an image of the light radiating from the surface; an infrared detector array having a plurality of detectors; and optical means positioned between the imaging optics and the detector array for sampling, transmitting, and distributing the image over the detector surfaces. The optical means may be a light pipe array having one light pipe for each detector in the detector array.

  6. Ferroelectric infrared detector and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lashley, Jason Charles; Opeil, Cyril P.; Smith, James Lawrence

    2010-03-30

    An apparatus and method are provided for sensing infrared radiation. The apparatus includes a sensor element that is positioned in a magnetic field during operation to ensure a .lamda. shaped relationship between specific heat and temperature adjacent the Curie temperature of the ferroelectric material comprising the sensor element. The apparatus is operated by inducing a magnetic field on the ferroelectric material to reduce surface charge on the element during its operation.

  7. Infrared emitting device and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kurtz, S.R.; Biefeld, R.M.; Dawson, L.R.; Howard, A.J.; Baucom, K.C.

    1997-04-29

    The infrared emitting device comprises a III-V compound semiconductor substrate upon which are grown a quantum-well active region having a plurality of quantum-well layers formed of a ternary alloy comprising InAsSb sandwiched between barrier layers formed of a ternary alloy having a smaller lattice constant and a larger energy bandgap than the quantum-well layers. The quantum-well layers are preferably compressively strained to increase the threshold energy for Auger recombination; and a method is provided for determining the preferred thickness for the quantum-well layers. Embodiments of the present invention are described having at least one cladding layer to increase the optical and carrier confinement in the active region, and to provide for waveguiding of the light generated within the active region. Examples have been set forth showing embodiments of the present invention as surface- and edge-emitting light emitting diodes (LEDs), an optically-pumped semiconductor laser, and an electrically-injected semiconductor diode laser. The light emission from each of the infrared emitting devices of the present invention is in the midwave infrared region of the spectrum from about 2 to 6 microns. 8 figs.

  8. Infrared Debonding - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Find More Like This Return to Search Infrared Debonding Y-12 National Security Complex Contact Y12 About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Fact Sheet (302 KB) PDF Document Publication Presentation (370 KB) PDF Document Publication Patent (48 KB) <p align="left">&nbsp;</p> <p><em><span style="font-size: x-small;">Y-12 worker elevates object for positioning inside the IR

  9. Passive infrared bullet detection and tracking

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karr, Thomas J.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus and method for passively detecting a projectile such as, for example, a bullet using a passive infrared detector. A passive infrared detector is focused onto a region in which a projectile is expected to be located. Successive images of infrared radiation in the region are recorded. Background infrared radiation present in the region is suppressed such that second successive images of infrared radiation generated by the projectile as the projectile passes through the region are produced. A projectile path calculator determines the path and other aspects of the projectile by using the second successive images of infrared radiation generated by the projectile. The present invention, in certain embodiments, also determines the origin of the path of the projectile and takes a photograph of the area surrounding the origin and/or fires at least one projectile at the area surrounding the origin of the path of the projectile.

  10. Passive infrared bullet detection and tracking

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karr, T.J.

    1997-01-21

    An apparatus and method for passively detecting a projectile such as, for example, a bullet using a passive infrared detector. A passive infrared detector is focused onto a region in which a projectile is expected to be located. Successive images of infrared radiation in the region are recorded. Background infrared radiation present in the region is suppressed such that second successive images of infrared radiation generated by the projectile as the projectile passes through the region are produced. A projectile path calculator determines the path and other aspects of the projectile by using the second successive images of infrared radiation generated by the projectile. The present invention, in certain embodiments, also determines the origin of the path of the projectile and takes a photograph of the area surrounding the origin and/or fires at least one projectile at the area surrounding the origin of the path of the projectile. 9 figs.

  11. Geothermometry At Salt Wells Area (Edmiston & Benoit, 1984) ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and drilled during the early 1980's that had not been documented previously in the literature, (2) summarize and compare chemical and temperature data from known moderate- to...

  12. Geothermometry At Mt Princeton Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Pearl...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Celcius References R.H. Pearl, J.K. Barrett (1976) Geothermal resources of the Upper San Luis and Arkansas valleys, Colorado Additional References Retrieved from "http:...

  13. Geothermometry At Socorro Mountain Area (Owens, Et Al., 2005...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    thermal waters with a minimum of 82oC at depth References Lara Owens, Richard Baars, David Norman, Harold Tobin (2005) New Methods In Exploration At The Socorro Peak Kgra- A...

  14. Geothermometry At Coso Geothermal Area (1980) | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis Fluid temperature of feed water Notes Cation and sulfate isotope geothermometers indicate that the reservoir feeding water to the Coso Hot...

  15. Geothermometry At Coso Geothermal Area (1978) | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    analysis to determine fluid origin. The surface expression of fumarole and acid sulfate pools and shallow steam wells gives a false indication of an extensive vapor...

  16. Geothermometry At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Farrar...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    stages of hydrothermal activity, flow, and recharge in the Long Valley caldera groundwater system. Fluids were sampled from LVEW during flow testing in May 2000, July 2000,...

  17. Geothermometry At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Mariner...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    California R.O. Fournier, Michael L. Sorey, Robert H. Mariner, Alfred H. Truesdell (1979) Chemical and Isotopic Prediction of Aquifer Temperatures in the Geothermal System at Long...

  18. Geothermometry At Lahaina-Kaanapali Area (Thomas, 1986) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes Groundwater temperature and chemistry surveys were similarly unable to identify any detectable thermal influence on...

  19. Geothermometry At Hot Springs Ranch Area (Szybinski, 2006) |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of two distinct waters in this group of samples (Tom Powell of Thermochem Inc., personal communication, 2005). Powell found that MDH, TRS-1 and TRS-6 are the most prospective...

  20. Geothermometry At U.S. Midwest Region (Vugrinovich, 1987) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Michigan "The silica heat flow estimator does provide estimates of surface heat flow which appear to be in good...

  1. Geothermometry At Lualualei Valley Area (Thomas, 1986) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    have been commonly used in Hawaii for identifying geothermal potential (i.e. silica concentration and chloride to magnesium ion ratios) were anomalous in the groundwater of this...

  2. Geothermometry At Lassen Volcanic National Park Area (Janik ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    sample taken had a pH of 8.35 and contained 2100 ppm Cl and 0.55 ppm NH3. Ratios of Na+K+ and Na+Cl remained nearly constant throughout the flow test. Cation geothermometers...

  3. Geochemistry And Geothermometry Of Spring Water From The Blackfoot...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    for eight springs along the Corral Creek drainage. The springs along Corral Creek have Na-K-Ca temperatures that average 354C, a direct result of high potassium concentrations in...

  4. Geothermometry At Kawaihae Area (Thomas, 1986) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    however, the data that are available strongly substantiate the presence of a thermal resource. A measured water temperature of 31 degrees C in one well is clearly above normal...

  5. Geothermometry At Teels Marsh Area (Coolbaugh, Et Al., 2006)...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Follow up (to ASTER satellite imaging) analysis of spring and well waters yielded geothermometer reservoir estimates up to 192C References...

  6. Geothermometry At Rhodes Marsh Area (Coolbaugh, Et Al., 2006...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Follow up (to ASTER satellite imaging) analysis of spring and well waters yielded geothermometer reservoir estimates up to 162C References...

  7. Geothermometry At Northern Basin & Range Region (Cole, 1983)...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fish (Wilson), Twin Peak, Cudahy, Laverkin, Grantsville, Crystal Prison, Arrowhead, Red Hill, Monroe, Joseph, Castilla, Saratoga, Thermo, Crater, Wasatch, Beck, Deseret, Big...

  8. Geothermometry At Roosevelt Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Ward...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Area. References S. H. Ward, W. T. Parry, W. P. Nash, W. R. Sill, K. L. Cook, R. B. Smith, D. S. Chapman, F. H. Brown, J. A. Whelan, J. R. Bowman (1978) A Summary of the...

  9. Geothermometry At Raft River Geothermal Area (1980) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    River geothermal system, Cassia County, Idaho Urban, T.C.; Diment, W.H.; Nathenson, M.; Smith, E.P.; Ziagos, J.P.; Shaeffer, M.H. (1 January 1986) Temperature,...

  10. Geothermometry At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Sorey...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    studies, and seem to prove useful in most cases (Flexser, 1991; Goff et al., 1991; Smith and Suemnicht, 1991). Results from these studies are also summarized in Sorey et al....

  11. Geothermometry At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (McKenzie...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    published in 1976 (Mariner and Willey, 1976). Details of sampling practices and field treatment are detailed in the text. Water samples were passed through a 0.7x4 cm column...

  12. Geothermal Reservoir Temperatures in Southeastern Idaho using Multicomponent Geothermometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neupane, Ghanashyam; Mattson, Earl D.; McLing, Travis L.; Palmer, Carl D.; Smith, Robert W.; Wood, Thomas R.; Podgorney, Robert K.

    2015-03-01

    Southeastern Idaho exhibits numerous warm springs, warm water from shallow wells, and hot water within oil and gas test wells that indicate a potential for geothermal development in the area. Although the area exhibits several thermal expressions, the measured geothermal gradients vary substantially (19 – 61 ºC/km) within this area, potentially suggesting a redistribution of heat in the overlying ground water from deeper geothermal reservoirs. We have estimated reservoir temperatures from measured water compositions using an inverse modeling technique (Reservoir Temperature Estimator, RTEst) that calculates the temperature at which multiple minerals are simultaneously at equilibrium while explicitly accounting for the possible loss of volatile constituents (e.g., CO2), boiling and/or water mixing. Compositions of a selected group of thermal waters representing southeastern Idaho hot/warm springs and wells were used for the development of temperature estimates. The temperature estimates in the the region varied from moderately warm (59 ºC) to over 175 ºC. Specifically, hot springs near Preston, Idaho resulted in the highest temperature estimates in the region.

  13. Geothermometry At Reese River Area (Henkle & Ronne, 2008) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    DOE-funding Unknown Notes Four formation water samples were collected from well 56-4, during an airlift test which took place between November 11 and November 14, 2007....

  14. Geothermometry At Salt Wells Area (Coolbaugh, Et Al., 2006) ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and ICP emission for anions. The hottest sampled spring appears to match the location and temperature of the Borax Spring, first described in 1885, but reportedly inactive in 1981...

  15. Geothermometry At Salt Wells Area (Henkle, Et Al., 2005) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    were carried out in conjunction with geologic mapping to test the application of these ground-based techniques to geothermal exploration at three prospects in Nevada by Henkle...

  16. Geothermometry At Gabbs Alkali Flat Area (Kratt, Et Al., 2008...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mark Coolbaugh, Chris Sladek, Rick Zehner, Robin Penfield, Ben Delwiche (2008) A New Gold Pan For The West- Discovering Blind Geothermal Systems With Shallow Temperature Surveys...

  17. Geothermometry At Columbus Salt Marsh Area (Shevenell, Et Al...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    References Lisa Shevenell, Mark Coolbaugh, Chris Sladek, Rick Zehner, Chris Kratt, James Faulds, Robin Penfield (2008) Our Evolving Knowledge Of Nevada'S Geothermal Resource...

  18. Geothermometry At Teels Marsh Area (Shevenell, Et Al., 2008)...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    References Lisa Shevenell, Mark Coolbaugh, Chris Sladek, Rick Zehner, Chris Kratt, James Faulds, Robin Penfield (2008) Our Evolving Knowledge Of Nevada'S Geothermal Resource...

  19. Geothermometry At Rhodes Marsh Area (Shevenell, Et Al., 2008...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    References Lisa Shevenell, Mark Coolbaugh, Chris Sladek, Rick Zehner, Chris Kratt, James Faulds, Robin Penfield (2008) Our Evolving Knowledge Of Nevada'S Geothermal Resource...

  20. Geothermometry At Northern Basin & Range Region (Laney, 2005...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Nevada, Shevenell and Garside. The objective of this project is to obtain geochemical data from springs (and some wells) for which data are not publicly available, or for which...

  1. Geothermometry At Buffalo Valley Hot Springs Area (Laney, 2005...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Nevada, Shevenell and Garside. The objective of this project is to obtain geochemical data from springs (and some wells) for which data are not publicly available, or for which...

  2. Geothermometry At Nw Basin & Range Region (Laney, 2005) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Nevada, Shevenell and Garside. The objective of this project is to obtain geochemical data from springs (and some wells) for which data are not publicly available, or for which...

  3. Geothermometry At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Laney,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Nevada, Shevenell and Garside. The objective of this project is to obtain geochemical data from springs (and some wells) for which data are not publicly available, or for which...

  4. Isotope Geothermometry At Lightning Dock Geothermal Area (Witcher...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis Part of the Geothermal Resource Evaluation and Definition (GRED) Program administered by DOE-AAO under Cooperative...

  5. Infra-red signature neutron detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bell, Zane William [Oak Ridge, TN; Boatner, Lynn Allen [Oak Ridge, TN

    2009-10-13

    A method of detecting an activator, the method including impinging with an activator a receptor material that includes a photoluminescent material that generates infrared radiation and generation a by-product of a nuclear reaction due to the activator impinging the receptor material. The method further includes generating light from the by-product via the Cherenkov effect, wherein the light activates the photoluminescent material so as to generate the infrared radiation. Identifying a characteristic of the activator based on the infrared radiation.

  6. Infrared trace element detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bien, F.; Bernstein, L.S.; Matthew, M.W.

    1988-11-15

    An infrared trace element detection system includes an optical cell into which the sample fluid to be examined is introduced and removed. Also introduced into the optical cell is a sample beam of infrared radiation in a first wavelength band which is significantly absorbed by the trace element and a second wavelength band which is not significantly absorbed by the trace element for passage through the optical cell through the sample fluid. The output intensities of the sample beam of radiation are selectively detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The intensities of a reference beam of the radiation are similarly detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The sensed output intensity of the sample beam in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other and similarly, the intensity of the reference beam of radiation in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other. The normalized sample beam intensity and normalized reference beam intensity are then compared to provide a signal from which the amount of trace element in the sample fluid can be determined. 11 figs.

  7. Infrared extrapolations of quadrupole moments and transitions...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    quadrupole moments and transitions Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on April 25, 2017 Title: Infrared extrapolations of quadrupole ...

  8. Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    signature, allowing their evolution into the final product to be precisely monitored with infrared spectroscopy. Although other (non-synchrotron) spectroscopic tools have the...

  9. Probing Organic Transistors with Infrared Beams

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Probing Organic Transistors with Infrared Beams Print Silicon-based transistors are well-understood, basic components of contemporary electronic technology. In contrast, there is...

  10. Dynamically Responsive Infrared Window Coatings | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dynamically Responsive Infrared Window Coatings Addthis 1 of 5 An oxygen plasma etcher is ... Kyle Alvine checks on the progress of the plasma etch. Image: Pacific Northwest National ...

  11. Compensated infrared absorption sensor for carbon dioxide and other infrared absorbing gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Owen, Thomas E.

    2005-11-29

    A gas sensor, whose chamber uses filters and choppers in either a semicircular geometry or annular geometry, and incorporates separate infrared radiation filters and optical choppers. This configuration facilitates the use of a single infrared radiation source and a single detector for infrared measurements at two wavelengths, such that measurement errors may be compensated.

  12. Category:Passive Sensors | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Imaging L Long-Wave Infrared M Macrophotography Multispectral Imaging N Near Infrared Surveys O Oblique Aerial & Ground Visible Band & Thermographic Imaging P Passive...

  13. Passive Sensors | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Imaging Long-Wave Infrared Multispectral Imaging Near Infrared Surveys Oblique Aerial & Ground Visible Band & Thermographic Imaging Radiometrics SWIR Stereo Satellite Imagery...

  14. Category:Near Infrared Surveys | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Infrared Surveys Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleCategory:NearInfraredSurveys&oldid794164" Feedback Contact needs updating Image needs updating...

  15. Mushroom plasmonic metamaterial infrared absorbers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogawa, Shinpei Fujisawa, Daisuke; Hata, Hisatoshi; Uetsuki, Mitsuharu; Misaki, Koji; Kimata, Masafumi

    2015-01-26

    There has been a considerable amount of interest in the development of various types of electromagnetic wave absorbers for use in different wavelength ranges. In particular, infrared (IR) absorbers with wavelength selectivity can be applied to advanced uncooled IR sensors, which would be capable of identifying objects through their radiation spectrum. In the present study, mushroom plasmonic metamaterial absorbers (MPMAs) for the IR wavelength region were designed and fabricated. The MPMAs consist of a periodic array of thin metal micropatches connected to a thin metal plate with narrow silicon (Si) posts. A Si post height of 200 nm was achieved by isotropic XeF{sub 2} etching of a thin Si layer sandwiched between metal plates. This fabrication procedure is relatively simple and is consistent with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. The absorption spectra of the fabricated MPMAs were experimentally measured. In addition, theoretical calculations of their absorption properties were conducted using rigorous coupled wave analysis. Both the calculated and measured absorbance results demonstrated that these MPMAs can realize strong selective absorption at wavelengths beyond the period of the array by varying the micropatch width. Absorbance values greater than 90% were achieved. Dual- or single-mode absorption can also be selected by varying the width of the Si posts. Pixel structures using such MPMAs could be used as high responsivity, high resolution and fast uncooled IR sensors.

  16. Rapid infrared heating of a surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Blue, Craig A. (Concord, TN); Ohriner, Evan Keith (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-01-01

    High energy flux infrared heaters are used to treat an object having a surface section and a base section such that a desired characteristic of the surface section is physically, chemically, or phasically changed while the base section remains unchanged.

  17. Rapid infrared heating of a surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Blue, Craig A. (Concord, TN); Ohriner, Evan Keith (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01

    High energy flux infrared heaters are used to treat an object having a surface section and a base section such that a desired characteristic of the surface section is physically, chemically, or phasically changed while the base section remains unchanged.

  18. ARM - Field Campaign - Arctic Cloud Infrared Imaging

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Arctic Cloud Infrared Imaging 2012.07.16 - 2014.07.31 Lead Scientist : Joseph Shaw...

  19. Rapid infrared heating of a surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sikka, Vinod K.; Blue, Craig A.; Ohriner, Evan Keith

    2003-12-23

    High energy flux infrared heaters are used to treat an object having a surface section and a base section such that a desired characteristic of the surface section is physically, chemically, or phasically changed while the base section remains unchanged.

  20. Uncooled infrared photon detector and multicolor infrared detection using microoptomechanical sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Datskos, Panagiotis G. (Knoxville, TN); Rajic, Solobodan (Knoxville, TN); Datskou, Irene C. (Knoxville, TN)

    1999-01-01

    Systems and methods for infrared detection are described. An optomechanical photon detector includes a semiconductor material and is based on measurement of a photoinduced lattice strain. A multicolor infrared sensor includes a stack of frequency specific optomechanical detectors. The stack can include one, or more, of the optomechanical photon detectors that function based on the measurement of photoinduced lattice strain. The systems and methods provide advantages in that rapid, sensitive multicolor infrared imaging can be performed without the need for a cooling subsystem.

  1. Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions Print A pathway to more effective and efficient synthesis of pharmaceuticals and other flow-reactor chemical products has been opened by a study in which, for the first time, the catalytic reactivity inside a microreactor was mapped in high resolution from start to finish. The formation of different chemical products during the reactions was analyzed in situ using infrared microspectroscopy, while the state of the catalyst along the flow

  2. Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions Print A pathway to more effective and efficient synthesis of pharmaceuticals and other flow-reactor chemical products has been opened by a study in which, for the first time, the catalytic reactivity inside a microreactor was mapped in high resolution from start to finish. The formation of different chemical products during the reactions was analyzed in situ using infrared microspectroscopy, while the state of the catalyst along the flow

  3. Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions Print A pathway to more effective and efficient synthesis of pharmaceuticals and other flow-reactor chemical products has been opened by a study in which, for the first time, the catalytic reactivity inside a microreactor was mapped in high resolution from start to finish. The formation of different chemical products during the reactions was analyzed in situ using infrared microspectroscopy, while the state of the catalyst along the flow

  4. Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions Print A pathway to more effective and efficient synthesis of pharmaceuticals and other flow-reactor chemical products has been opened by a study in which, for the first time, the catalytic reactivity inside a microreactor was mapped in high resolution from start to finish. The formation of different chemical products during the reactions was analyzed in situ using infrared microspectroscopy, while the state of the catalyst along the flow

  5. Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions Print Wednesday, 20 August 2014 07:59 A pathway to more effective and efficient synthesis of pharmaceuticals and other flow-reactor chemical products has been opened by a study in which, for the first time, the catalytic reactivity inside a microreactor was mapped in high resolution from start to finish. The formation of different chemical products during the reactions was analyzed in situ

  6. Near infrared surfaceplasmonpolariton with hyperbolic metamaterials.

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Near infrared surfaceplasmonpolariton with hyperbolic metamaterials. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Near infrared surfaceplasmonpolariton with hyperbolic metamaterials. Abstract not provided. Authors: Luk, Ting Shan ; Kim, Iltai ; Sinclair, Michael B. ; Howell, Stephen Wayne ; Subramania, Ganapathi Subramanian ; Fan, Shanhui ; Campione, salvatori Publication Date: 2012-10-01 OSTI Identifier: 1140382 Report Number(s): SAND2012-8551C

  7. Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions Print A pathway to more effective and efficient synthesis of pharmaceuticals and other flow-reactor chemical products has been opened by a study in which, for the first time, the catalytic reactivity inside a microreactor was mapped in high resolution from start to finish. The formation of different chemical products during the reactions was analyzed in situ using infrared microspectroscopy, while the state of the catalyst along the flow

  8. Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions Print A pathway to more effective and efficient synthesis of pharmaceuticals and other flow-reactor chemical products has been opened by a study in which, for the first time, the catalytic reactivity inside a microreactor was mapped in high resolution from start to finish. The formation of different chemical products during the reactions was analyzed in situ using infrared microspectroscopy, while the state of the catalyst along the flow

  9. Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions Print A pathway to more effective and efficient synthesis of pharmaceuticals and other flow-reactor chemical products has been opened by a study in which, for the first time, the catalytic reactivity inside a microreactor was mapped in high resolution from start to finish. The formation of different chemical products during the reactions was analyzed in situ using infrared microspectroscopy, while the state of the catalyst along the flow

  10. Posters Long-Pathlength Infrared Absorption Measurements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 Posters Long-Pathlength Infrared Absorption Measurements in the 8- to 14-µm Atmospheric Window: Self-Broadening Coefficient Data T. J. Kulp (a) and J. Shinn Geophysics and Environmental Research Program Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Livermore, California Introduction The accurate characterization of the latent infrared (IR) absorption in the atmospheric window regions continues to be an area of research interest for the global climate modeling community. In the window between 8 and

  11. Probing Organic Transistors with Infrared Beams

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Probing Organic Transistors with Infrared Beams Probing Organic Transistors with Infrared Beams Print Wednesday, 26 July 2006 00:00 Silicon-based transistors are well-understood, basic components of contemporary electronic technology. In contrast, there is growing need for the development of electronic devices based on organic polymer materials. Organic field-effect transistors (FETs) are ideal for special applications that require large areas, light weight, and structural flexibility. They also

  12. Synchrotron Infrared Unveils a Mysterious Microbial Community

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synchrotron Infrared Unveils a Mysterious Microbial Community Synchrotron Infrared Unveils a Mysterious Microbial Community Print Tuesday, 22 January 2013 00:00 A cold sulfur spring in Germany is the only place where archaea are known to dominate bacteria in a microbial community. How this unique community thrives and the lessons it may hold for understanding global carbon and sulfur cycles are beginning to emerge from research by the University of Regensburg's Christine Moissl-Eichinger and her

  13. PROBING THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM OF z {approx} 1 ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    GALAXIES THROUGH INTERFEROMETRIC OBSERVATIONS OF CO AND SPITZER MID-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect PROBING THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM OF z {approx} 1 ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES THROUGH INTERFEROMETRIC OBSERVATIONS OF CO AND SPITZER MID-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY Citation Details In-Document Search Title: PROBING THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM OF z {approx} 1 ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES THROUGH INTERFEROMETRIC OBSERVATIONS OF CO AND SPITZER MID-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY We

  14. INFRARED STUDIES OF EPSILON AURIGAE IN ECLIPSE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stencel, Robert E.; Kloppenborg, Brian K.; Wall, Randall E.; Hopkins, Jeffrey L.; Howell, Steve B.; Hoard, D. W.; Rayner, John; Bus, Schelte; Tokunaga, Alan; Sitko, Michael L.; Bradford, Suellen; Russell, Ray W.; Lynch, David K.; Hammel, Heidi; Whitney, Barbara; Orton, Glenn; Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma; Hora, Joseph L.; Hinz, Philip; Hoffmann, William; and others

    2011-11-15

    We report here on a series of medium resolution spectro-photometric observations of the enigmatic long period eclipsing binary epsilon Aurigae, during its eclipse interval of 2009-2011, using near-infrared spectra obtained with SpeX on the Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF), mid-infrared spectra obtained with BASS on AOES and IRTF, MIRSI on IRTF, and MIRAC4 on the MMT, along with mid-infrared photometry using MIRSI on IRTF and MIRAC4 on the MMT, plus 1995-2000 timeframe published photometry and data obtained with Denver's TNTCAM2 at WIRO. The goals of these observations included: (1) comparing eclipse depths with prior eclipse data, (2) confirming the re-appearance of CO absorption bands at and after mid-eclipse, associated with sublimation in the disk, (3) seeking evidence for any mid-infrared solid state spectral features from particles in the disk, and (4) providing evidence that the externally irradiated disk has azimuthal temperature differences. IR eclipse depths appear similar to those observed during the most recent (1983) eclipse, although evidence for post-mid-eclipse disk temperature increase is present, due to F star heated portions of the disk coming into view. Molecular CO absorption returned 57 days after nominal mid-eclipse, but was not detected at mid-eclipse plus 34 days, narrowing the association with differentially heated sub-regions in the disk. Transient He I 10830A absorption was detected at mid-eclipse, persisting for at least 90 days thereafter, providing a diagnostic for the hot central region. The lack of solid-state features in Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph, BASS, and MIRAC spectra to date suggests the dominance of large particles (micron-sized) in the disk. Based on these observations, mid-infrared studies out of eclipse can directly monitor and map the disk thermal changes, and better constrain disk opacity and thermal conductivity.

  15. Infrared curing simulations of liquid composites molding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakouzi, S.; Pancrace, J.; Schmidt, F. M.; Le Maoult, Y.; Berthet, F. [Universite de Toulouse (France); INSA, UPS, Mines Albi, ISAE, ICA - Institut Clement Ader, Campus Jarlard, F-81013 Albi cedex 09 (France); Ecole des Mines Albi, Campus Jarlard, F-81013 Albi (France)

    2011-05-04

    Infrared radiation is an effective energy source to cure thermosetting polymers. Its usage is expected to reduce curing time in comparison with thermal heating and mold thermally regulated. In addition, because of the polymerization mechanism and instant on-off control of this power, an improvement in the final properties of the material is also expected. In this paper, we studied the infrared interaction with carbon (or glass) fibers reinforced epoxy matrix, where Liquid resin infusion (LRI) is used to manufacture the composite. Temperature of the composite is a key parameter that affects its mechanical properties and is controlled by the infrared emitters and the exothermic heat released from the polymerization. Radiative heat flux is computed using the in-lab developed software RAYHEAT. Then, the heat flux (or absorbed energy for glass fibers) is exported to the finite element based program COMSOLMULTIPHYSICS where heat balance equation is solved. This equation is coupled with the exothermic heat released during the curing process in order to predict the composite temperature versus time and degree of cure. Numerical simulations will be performed on planar parts (sheet shape) as well as curvilinear shapes. Experimental validations of the infrared curing carbon (glass)-epoxy composite system are presented in this paper Sheet surface temperature distribution are measured thanks to infrared camera. Kinetic parameters were estimated from differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) experimental data.

  16. Infrared light sources with semimetal electron injection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kurtz, Steven R.; Biefeld, Robert M.; Allerman, Andrew A.

    1999-01-01

    An infrared light source is disclosed that comprises a layered semiconductor active region having a semimetal region and at least one quantum-well layer. The semimetal region, formed at an interface between a GaAsSb or GalnSb layer and an InAsSb layer, provides electrons and holes to the quantum-well layer to generate infrared light at a predetermined wavelength in the range of 2-6 .mu.m. Embodiments of the invention can be formed as electrically-activated light-emitting diodes (LEDs) or lasers, and as optically-pumped lasers. Since the active region is unipolar, multiple active regions can be stacked to form a broadband or multiple-wavelength infrared light source.

  17. Line Focus Receiver Infrared Temperature Survey System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2010-06-01

    For ongoing maintenance and performance purposes, solar parabolic trough field operators desire to know that the Heat Collection Elements (HCEs) are performing properly. Measuring their temperature is one way of doing this One 30MW field can contain approximately 10,000 HCE's. This software interfaces with a GPS receiver and an infrared camera. It takes global positioning data from the GPS and uses this information to automate the infrared image capture and temperature analysis of individual solarmore » parabolic HCEs in a solar parabolic trough field With this software system an entire 30MW field can be surveyed in 2-3 days.« less

  18. Transmissive infrared frequency selective surfaces and infrared antennas : final report for LDRD 105749.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendt, Joel Robert; Hadley, G. Ronald; Samora, Sally; Loui, Hung; Cruz-Cabrera, Alvaro Augusto; Davids, Paul; Kemme, Shanalyn A.; Basilio, Lorena I.; Johnson, William Arthur; Peters, David William

    2009-09-01

    Plasmonic structures open up new opportunities in photonic devices, sometimes offering an alternate method to perform a function and sometimes offering capabilities not possible with standard optics. In this LDRD we successfully demonstrated metal coatings on optical surfaces that do not adversely affect the transmission of those surfaces at the design frequency. This technology could be applied as an RF noise blocking layer across an optical aperture or as a method to apply an electric field to an active electro-optic device without affecting optical performance. We also demonstrated thin optical absorbers using similar patterned surfaces. These infrared optical antennas show promise as a method to improve performance in mercury cadmium telluride detectors. Furthermore, these structures could be coupled with other components to lead to direct rectification of infrared radiation. This possibility leads to a new method for infrared detection and energy harvesting of infrared radiation.

  19. Effects of Cosmic Infrared Background on High Energy Delayed...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Effects of Cosmic Infrared Background on High Energy Delayed Gamma-Rays From Gamma-Ray Bursts Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effects of Cosmic Infrared Background on...

  20. Rapid infrared joining takes on the advanced materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blue, C.A.; Warrier, S.G.; Robson, M.T.; Lin, R.Y. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1993-06-01

    Applying the rapid infrared joining technique, the authors have successfully joined steels, Inconel[sup [reg sign

  1. Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology (ASSIST)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Handbook (Dataset) | Data Explorer Data Explorer Search Results Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology (ASSIST) Handbook Title: Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology (ASSIST) Handbook The Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology (ASSIST), like the AERI, measures infrared spectral zenith radiance at high spectral resolution. Authors: Flynn,Connor ; Mendoza,Albert Publication Date: 2016-03-01 OSTI Identifier:

  2. THE INFRARED COLORS OF THE SUN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casagrande, L.; Asplund, M.; Ramirez, I.; Melendez, J.

    2012-12-10

    Solar infrared colors provide powerful constraints on the stellar effective temperature scale, but they must be measured with both accuracy and precision in order to do so. We fulfill this requirement by using line-depth ratios to derive in a model-independent way the infrared colors of the Sun, and we use the latter to test the zero point of the Casagrande et al. effective temperature scale, confirming its accuracy. Solar colors in the widely used Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) JHK{sub s} and WISE W1-4 systems are provided: (V - J){sub Sun} = 1.198, (V - H){sub Sun} = 1.484, (V - K{sub s} ){sub Sun} = 1.560, (J - H){sub Sun} = 0.286, (J - K{sub s} ){sub Sun} = 0.362, (H - K{sub s} ){sub Sun} = 0.076, (V - W1){sub Sun} = 1.608, (V - W2){sub Sun} = 1.563, (V - W3){sub Sun} = 1.552, and (V - W4){sub Sun} = 1.604. A cross-check of the effective temperatures derived implementing 2MASS or WISE magnitudes in the infrared flux method confirms that the absolute calibration of the two systems agrees within the errors, possibly suggesting a 1% offset between the two, thus validating extant near- and mid-infrared absolute calibrations. While 2MASS magnitudes are usually well suited to derive T{sub eff}, we find that a number of bright, solar-like stars exhibit anomalous WISE colors. In most cases, this effect is spurious and can be attributed to lower-quality measurements, although for a couple of objects (3% {+-} 2% of the total sample) it might be real, and may hint at the presence of warm/hot debris disks.

  3. Probing Organic Transistors with Infrared Beams

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Probing Organic Transistors with Infrared Beams Print Silicon-based transistors are well-understood, basic components of contemporary electronic technology. In contrast, there is growing need for the development of electronic devices based on organic polymer materials. Organic field-effect transistors (FETs) are ideal for special applications that require large areas, light weight, and structural flexibility. They also have the advantage of being easy to mass-produce at very low cost. However,

  4. Arctic Clouds Infrared Imaging Field Campaign Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 Arctic Clouds Infrared Imaging Field Campaign Report JA Shaw March 2016 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately

  5. Probing Organic Transistors with Infrared Beams

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Probing Organic Transistors with Infrared Beams Print Silicon-based transistors are well-understood, basic components of contemporary electronic technology. In contrast, there is growing need for the development of electronic devices based on organic polymer materials. Organic field-effect transistors (FETs) are ideal for special applications that require large areas, light weight, and structural flexibility. They also have the advantage of being easy to mass-produce at very low cost. However,

  6. Probing Organic Transistors with Infrared Beams

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Probing Organic Transistors with Infrared Beams Print Silicon-based transistors are well-understood, basic components of contemporary electronic technology. In contrast, there is growing need for the development of electronic devices based on organic polymer materials. Organic field-effect transistors (FETs) are ideal for special applications that require large areas, light weight, and structural flexibility. They also have the advantage of being easy to mass-produce at very low cost. However,

  7. Infrared Images of Shock-Heated Tin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craig W. McCluskey; Mark D. Wilke; William D. Turley; Gerald D. Stevens; Lynn R. Veeser; Michael Grover

    2004-09-01

    High-resolution, gated infrared images were taken of tin samples shock heated to just below the 505 K melting point. Sample surfaces were either polished or diamond-turned, with grain sizes ranging from about 0.05 to 10 mm. A high explosive in contact with a 2-mm-thick tin sample induced a peak sample stress of 18 GPa. Interferometer data from similarly-driven tin shots indicate that immediately after shock breakout the samples spall near the free (imaged) surface with a scab thickness of about 0.1 mm.

  8. Resonator-quantum well infrared photodetectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, K. K. Sun, J.; Olver, K.; Jhabvala, M. D.; Jhabvala, C. A.; Waczynski, A.

    2013-11-11

    We applied a recent electromagnetic model to design the resonator-quantum well infrared photodetector (R-QWIP). In this design, we used an array of rings as diffractive elements to diffract normal incident light into parallel propagation and used the pixel volume as a resonator to intensify the diffracted light. With a proper pixel size, the detector resonates at certain optical wavelengths and thus yields a high quantum efficiency (QE). To test this detector concept, we fabricated a number of R-QWIPs with different quantum well materials and detector geometries. The experimental result agrees satisfactorily with the prediction, and the highest QE achieved is 71%.

  9. Defining the infrared systems for ITER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reichle, R.; Andrew, P.; Drevon, J.-M.; Encheva, A.; Janeschitz, G.; Levesy, B.; Martin, A.; Pitcher, C. S.; Pitts, R.; Thomas, D.; Vayakis, G.; Walsh, M.; Counsell, G.; Johnson, D.; Kusama, Y.

    2010-10-15

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor will have wide angle viewing systems and a divertor thermography diagnostic, which shall provide infrared coverage of the divertor and large parts of the first wall surfaces with spatial and temporal resolution adequate for operational purposes and higher resolved details of the divertor and other areas for physics investigations. We propose specifications for each system such that they jointly respond to the requirements. Risk analysis driven priorities for future work concern mirror degradation, interfaces with other diagnostics, radiation damage to refractive optics, reflections, and the development of calibration and measurement methods for varying optical and thermal target properties.

  10. Infrared spectroscopy study of irradiated PVDF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chappa, Veronica; Grosso, Mariela del; Garcia Bermudez, Gerardo; Behar, Moni

    2007-10-26

    The effects induced by 1 MeV/amu ion irradiations were compared to those induced by 4-12 MeV/amu irradiations. Structural analysis with infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was carried out on PVDF irradiated using C and He beams with different fluences. From these spectra it was observed, as a function of fluence, an overall destruction of the polymer, amorphization of the crystalline regions and the creation of in-chain unsaturations. The track dimensions were determined using a previously developed Monte Carlo simulation code and these results were compared to a semiempirical model.

  11. Oblique Aerial & Ground Visible Band & Thermographic Imaging...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    definition has been provided for this term. Add a Definition Related Techniques Passive Sensors Aerial Photography FLIR Geodetic Survey Hyperspectral Imaging Long-Wave Infrared...

  12. Monthly Energy Review - April 2013

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  13. Monthly Energy Review - August 2014

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  14. Monthly Energy Review - January 2015

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  15. Monthly Energy Review - July 2012

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  16. Monthly Energy Review - December 2011

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  17. Monthly Energy Review - January 2013

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  18. Monthly Energy Review - September 2011

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  19. Monthly Energy Review - July 2014

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  20. Monthly Energy Review - September 2013

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  1. Monthly Energy Review - August 2013

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  2. Monthly Energy Review - December 2014

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  3. Monthly Energy Review - February 2012

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  4. Monthly Energy Review - August 2012

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  5. Monthly Energy Review - September 2015

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  6. Monthly Energy Review - February 2011

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  7. Monthly Energy Review - December 2012

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  8. Monthly Energy Review - November 2010

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  9. Monthly Energy Review - October 2010

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  10. Monthly Energy Review - July 2013

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  11. Monthly Energy Review - October 2011

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  12. Monthly Energy Review - July 2011

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  13. Monthly Energy Review - May 2011

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  14. Monthly Energy Review - March 2014

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  15. Monthly Energy Review - April 2011

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  16. Word Pro - Untitled1

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  17. Monthly Energy Review - May 2013

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  18. Monthly Energy Review - November 2015

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  19. Monthly Energy Review - March 2011

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  20. Monthly Energy Review - May 2012

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  1. Monthly Energy Review - October 2012

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  2. Monthly Energy Review - June 2013

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  3. Monthly Energy Review - August 2011

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  4. Monthly Energy Review - June 2011

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  5. Monthly Energy Review - January 2012

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  6. Monthly Energy Review - Janurary 2011

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  7. Monthly Energy Review - November 2012

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  8. Monthly Energy Review - October 2013

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  9. Monthly Energy Review - April 2012

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  10. Monthly Energy Review - November 2013

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  11. Monthly Energy Review - August 2010

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  12. Monthly Energy Review - February 2014

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  13. Monthly Energy Review - June 2012

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  14. Monthly Energy Review - December 2013

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  15. Monthly Energy Review - October 2015

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  16. Monthly Energy Review - November 2011

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  17. Monthly Energy Review - July 2015

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  18. Monthly Energy Review - September 2010

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  19. Monthly Energy Review - May 2015

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  20. Monthly Energy Review - February 2013

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  1. Monthly Energy Review - June 2015

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  2. Monthly Energy Review - March 2015

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  3. Monthly Energy Review - December 2015

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  4. Monthly Energy Review - August 2015

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  5. Monthly Energy Review - April 2015

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  6. Monthly Energy Review - March 2013

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  7. Monthly Energy Review - December 2010

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  8. Monthly Energy Review - September 2014

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  9. Monthly Energy Review - September 2012

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  10. Doped carbon nanostructure field emitter arrays for infrared imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Korsah, Kofi [Knoxville, TN; Baylor, Larry R [Farragut, TN; Caughman, John B [Oak Ridge, TN; Kisner, Roger A [Knoxville, TN; Rack, Philip D [Knoxville, TN; Ivanov, Ilia N [Knoxville, TN

    2009-10-27

    An infrared imaging device and method for making infrared detector(s) having at least one anode, at least one cathode with a substrate electrically connected to a plurality of doped carbon nanostructures; and bias circuitry for applying an electric field between the anode and the cathode such that when infrared photons are adsorbed by the nanostructures the emitted field current is modulated. The detectors can be doped with cesium to lower the work function.

  11. NREL: Measurements and Characterization - Fourier-Transform Infrared and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Raman Spectroscopy Fourier-Transform Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy Image of FTIR map FTIR mapping capabilities are extremely useful for the quick, nondestructive characterization of heterogeneous free carrier properties of transparent conduction oxides. Infrared spectroscopy is a nondestructive, highly sensitive technique that provides information about impurities, chemical environment, and free-carrier properties. Performing both Fourier transform (FT)-Raman and Fourier transform infrared

  12. SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH DETECTION OF MOLECULAR HYDROGEN ROTATIONAL

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    EMISSION TOWARDS TRANSLUCENT CLOUDS (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH DETECTION OF MOLECULAR HYDROGEN ROTATIONAL EMISSION TOWARDS TRANSLUCENT CLOUDS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH DETECTION OF MOLECULAR HYDROGEN ROTATIONAL EMISSION TOWARDS TRANSLUCENT CLOUDS Using the Infrared Spectrograph on board the Spitzer Space Telescope, we have detected emission in the S(0), S(1), and S(2) pure-rotational (v = 0-0) transitions

  13. ARM: Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (ASSIST): channel 1 data (Dataset) | Data Explorer Data Explorer Search Results ARM: Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology (ASSIST): channel 1 data Title: ARM: Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology (ASSIST): channel 1 data Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology (ASSIST): channel 1 data Authors: Albert Mendoza ; Connor Flynn Publication Date: 2012-12-07 OSTI Identifier: 1095589 DOE Contract Number:

  14. Electrochemical and infrared studies of the reduction of organic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Electrochemical and infrared studies of the reduction of organic carbonates Citation Details ... Publication Date: 2001-06-01 OSTI Identifier: 821009 Report ...

  15. Nanosecond Time Resolved and Steady State Infrared Studies of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nanosecond Time Resolved and Steady State Infrared Studies of Photoinduced Decomposition of TATB at Ambient and Elevated Pressures Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ...

  16. Detecting Drizzle in Marine Warm Clouds Using Visible, Infrared...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Drizzle in Marine Warm Clouds Using Visible, Infrared, and Microwave Satellite Data H. Shao and G. Liu Florida State University Tallahassee, Florida Introduction Determining the ...

  17. Enhancement of Aluminum Alloy Forgings Using Rapid Infrared Heating...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and industry partners, Queen City Forging Company and Infra Red Heating Technologies LLC, have developed a process for forging aluminum parts using infrared (IR) technology. ...

  18. Application Of Airborne Thermal Infrared Imagery To Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Infrared Imagery To Geothermal Exploration Abstract Burlington Northern (BN) conducted TIR surveys using a fixed wing aircraft over 17 different geothermal prospects in...

  19. Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    signatures of many-body interactions in graphene and have demonstrated the potential of graphene for novel applications in optoelectronics. Infrared View of Graphene Graphene's...

  20. Thermal And-Or Near Infrared At Yellowstone Region (Hellman ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activity Details Location Yellowstone Caldera Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Thermal And-Or Near Infrared Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown...

  1. Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    because it is extremely difficult to perform spectroscopic measurements on a single monolayer of graphene. Infrared measurements can probe the dynamical properties of...

  2. Oxidation of carbynes: Signatures in infrared spectra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cinquanta, E. E-mail: p.rudolf@rug.nl; Manini, N.; Caramella, L.; Onida, G.; Ravagnan, L.; Milani, P.; Rudolf, P. E-mail: p.rudolf@rug.nl

    2014-06-28

    We report and solidly interpret the infrared spectrum of both pristine and oxidized carbynes embedded in a pure-carbon matrix. The spectra probe separately the effects of oxidation on sp- and on sp{sup 2}-hybridized carbon, and provide information on the stability of the different structures in an oxidizing atmosphere. The final products are mostly short end-oxidized carbynes anchored with a double bond to sp{sup 2} fragments, plus an oxidized sp{sup 2} amorphous matrix. Our results have important implications for the realization of carbyne-based nano-electronics devices and highlight the active participation of carbynes in astrochemical reactions where they act as carbon source for the promotion of more complex organic species.

  3. Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.H.

    1998-09-22

    Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer ({micro}m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 {micro}m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 {micro}m to about 16 {micro}m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 {micro}m to about 2 {micro}m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments. 4 figs.

  4. Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berdahl, Paul H.

    1998-01-01

    Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer (.mu.m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 .mu.m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 .mu.m to about 16 .mu.m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 .mu.m to about 2 .mu.m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments.

  5. WARM MOLECULAR GAS IN LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, N.; Zhao, Y.; Xu, C. K.; Mazzarella, J. M.; Howell, J.; Appleton, P.; Lord, S.; Schulz, B.; Gao, Y.; Armus, L.; Daz-Santos, T.; Surace, J.; Isaak, K. G.; Petric, A. O.; Charmandaris, V.; Evans, A. S.; Inami, H.; Iwasawa, K.; Leech, J.; Sanders, D. B.; and others

    2014-06-01

    We present our initial results on the CO rotational spectral line energy distribution (SLED) of the J to J1 transitions from J = 4 up to 13 from Herschel SPIRE spectroscopic observations of 65 luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) in the Great Observatories All-Sky LIRG Survey. The observed SLEDs change on average from one peaking at J ? 4 to a broad distribution peaking around J ? 6 to 7 as the IRAS 60-to-100?m color, C(60/100), increases. However, the ratios of a CO line luminosity to the total infrared luminosity, L {sub IR}, show the smallest variation for J around 6 or 7. This suggests that, for most LIRGs, ongoing star formation (SF) is also responsible for a warm gas component that emits CO lines primarily in the mid-J regime (5 ? J ? 10). As a result, the logarithmic ratios of the CO line luminosity summed over CO(54), (65), (76), (87) and (109) transitions to L {sub IR}, log R {sub midCO}, remain largely independent of C(60/100), and show a mean value of 4.13 (?log?R{sub midCO}{sup SF}) and a sample standard deviation of only 0.10 for the SF-dominated galaxies. Including additional galaxies from the literature, we show, albeit with a small number of cases, the possibility that galaxies, which bear powerful interstellar shocks unrelated to the current SF, and galaxies, in which an energetic active galactic nucleus contributes significantly to the bolometric luminosity, have their R {sub midCO} higher and lower than R{sub midCO}{sup SF}, respectively.

  6. Tunable infrared source employing Raman mixing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Byer, Robert L.; Herbst, Richard L.

    1980-01-01

    A tunable source of infrared radiation is obtained by irradiating an assemblage of Raman active gaseous atoms or molecules with a high intensity pumping beam of coherent radiation at a pump frequency .omega..sub.p to stimulate the generation of Stokes wave energy at a Stokes frequency .omega..sub.s and to stimulate the Raman resonant mode at the Raman mode frequency .omega..sub.R within the irradiated assemblage where the pump frequency .omega..sub.p minus the Stokes frequency .omega..sub.s is equal to the Raman mode frequency .omega..sub.R. The stimulated assemblage is irradiated with a tunable source of coherent radiation at a frequency .omega..sub.i to generate the output infrared radiation of the frequency .omega..sub.0 which is related to the Raman mode frequency .omega..sub.R and the input wave .omega..sub.i by the relation .omega..sub.0 =.omega..sub.i .+-..omega..sub.R. In one embodiment the interaction between the pump wave energy .omega..sub.p and the tunable input wave energy .omega..sub.i is collinear and the ratio of the phase velocity mismatch factor .DELTA.k to the electric field exponential gain coefficient T is within the range of 0.1 to 5. In another embodiment the pump wave energy .omega..sub.p and the tunable input wave energy .omega..sub.i have velocity vectors k.sub.p and k.sub.i which cross at an angle to each other to compensate for phase velocity mismatches in the medium. In another embodiment, the Stokes wave energy .omega..sub.s is generated by pump energy .omega..sub.p in a first Raman cell and .omega..sub.s, .omega..sub.i and .omega..sub.p are combined in a second Raman mixing cell to produce the output at .omega..sub.i.

  7. Multivariate classification of infrared spectra of cell and tissue samples

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haaland, David M. (Albuquerque, NM); Jones, Howland D. T. (Albuquerque, NM); Thomas, Edward V. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1997-01-01

    Multivariate classification techniques are applied to spectra from cell and tissue samples irradiated with infrared radiation to determine if the samples are normal or abnormal (cancerous). Mid and near infrared radiation can be used for in vivo and in vitro classifications using at least different wavelengths.

  8. Apparatus and method for transient thermal infrared spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McClelland, John F.; Jones, Roger W.

    1991-12-03

    A method and apparatus for enabling analysis of a material (16, 42) by applying a cooling medium (20, 54) to cool a thin surface layer portion of the material and to transiently generate a temperature differential between the thin surface layer portion and the lower portion of the material sufficient to alter the thermal infrared emission spectrum of the material from the black-body thermal infrared emission spectrum of the material. The altered thermal infrared emission spectrum of the material is detected by a spectrometer/detector (28, 50) while the altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is sufficiently free of self-absorption by the material of the emitted infrared radiation. The detection is effected prior to the temperature differential propagating into the lower portion of the material to an extent such that the altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is no longer sufficiently free of self-absorption by the material of emitted infrared radiation, so that the detected altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is indicative of the characteristics relating to the molecular composition of the material.

  9. Near-infrared spectroscopic tissue imaging for medical applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Demos, Stavros; Staggs, Michael C.

    2006-12-12

    Near infrared imaging using elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence are explored for medical applications. The approach involves imaging using cross-polarized elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence in the Near Infra-Red (NIR) coupled with image processing and inter-image operations to differentiate human tissue components.

  10. Near-infrared spectroscopic tissue imaging for medical applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Demos; Stavros , Staggs; Michael C.

    2006-03-21

    Near infrared imaging using elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence are explored for medical applications. The approach involves imaging using cross-polarized elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence in the Near Infra-Red (NIR) coupled with image processing and inter-image operations to differentiate human tissue components.

  11. Industrial applications of accelerator-based infrared sources: Analysis using infrared microspectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bantignies, J.L.; Fuchs, G.; Wilhelm, C.; Carr, G.L.; Dumas, P.

    1997-09-01

    Infrared Microspectroscopy, using a globar source, is now widely employed in the industrial environment, for the analysis of various materials. Since synchrotron radiation is a much brighter source, an enhancement of an order of magnitude in lateral resolution can be achieved. Thus, the combination of IR microspectroscopy and synchrotron radiation provides a powerful tool enabling sample regions only few microns size to be studied. This opens up the potential for analyzing small particles. Some examples for hair, bitumen and polymer are presented.

  12. Relative Infrared (IR) and Terahertz (THz) Signatures of Common Explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharpe, Steven W.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Sheen, David M.; Atkinson, David A.

    2006-11-13

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has recently recorded the infrared (IR) and far-infrared (sometimes called the terahertz, THz) spectral signatures of four common explosives, in the condensed phase. The signatures of RDX, PETN, TNT and Tetryl were recorded both in the infrared and the THz domains, using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Samples consisted of thin films and were made by depositing and subsequent evaporation of an acetone-explosive mixture. The complete spectrum spanned the range from 4,000 to 8 cm-1 at 2.0 cm-1 spectral resolution. Preliminary results in the infrared agree with those of previous workers, while the THz signatures are one order of magnitude weaker than the strongest IR bands.

  13. Infrared non-destructive evaluation method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baleine, Erwan; Erwan, James F; Lee, Ching-Pang; Stinelli, Stephanie

    2014-10-21

    A method of nondestructive evaluation and related system. The method includes arranging a test piece (14) having an internal passage (18) and an external surface (15) and a thermal calibrator (12) within a field of view (42) of an infrared sensor (44); generating a flow (16) of fluid characterized by a fluid temperature; exposing the test piece internal passage (18) and the thermal calibrator (12) to fluid from the flow (16); capturing infrared emission information of the test piece external surface (15) and of the thermal calibrator (12) simultaneously using the infrared sensor (44), wherein the test piece infrared emission information includes emission intensity information, and wherein the thermal calibrator infrared emission information includes a reference emission intensity associated with the fluid temperature; and normalizing the test piece emission intensity information against the reference emission intensity.

  14. Infrared Land Surface Emissivity in the Vicinity of the ARM SGP...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) funding, a model for the infrared land ... validation product developed under the NASA atmospheric infrared sounder (AIRS) ...

  15. Synchrotron infrared reflectivity measurements of iron at high pressures

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Synchrotron infrared reflectivity measurements of iron at high pressures Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Synchrotron infrared reflectivity measurements of iron at high pressures The infrared reflectance of iron was studied using high-pressure synchrotron radiation methods up to 50 GPa at room temperature in a diamond anvil cell of 1000-8000 cm{sup -1} (1.25-10 {mu}m). The magnitude of the reflectivity shows a weak pressure

  16. Infrared Thermographic Study of Laser Ignition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohler, Jonathan H.; Chow, Charles T. S.

    1986-07-01

    Pyrotechnic ignition has been studied in the past by making a limited number of discrete temperature-time observations during ignition. Present-day infrared scanning techniques make it possible to record thermal profiles, during ignition, with high spacial and temporal resolution. Data thus obtained can be used with existing theory to characterize pyrotechnic materials and to develop more precise kinetic models of the ignition process. Ignition has been studied theoretically and experimentally using various thermal methods. It has been shown that the whole process can, ideally, be divided into two stages. In the first stage, the sample pellet behaves like an inert body heated by an external heat source. The second stage is governed by the chemical reaction in the heated volume produced during the first stage. High speed thermographic recording of the temperature distribution in the test sample during laser ignition makes it possible to calculate the heat content at any instant. Thus, one can actually observe laser heating and the onset of self-sustained combustion in the pellet. The experimental apparatus used to make these observations is described. The temperature distributions recorded are shown to be in good agreement with those predicted by heat transfer theory. Heat content values calculated from the observed temperature distributions are used to calculate thermal and kinetic parameters for several samples. These values are found to be in reasonable agreement with theory.

  17. Infrared thermographic study of laser ignition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohler, J.H.; Chow, C.T.S.

    1986-07-21

    Pyrotechnic ignition has been studied in the past by making a limited number of discrete temperature-time observations during ignition. Present-day infrared scanning techniques make it possible to record thermal profiles, during ignition, with high spacial and temporal resolution. Data thus obtained can be used with existing theory to characterize pyrotechnic materials and to develop more precise kinetic models of the ignition process. Ignition has been studied theoretically and experimentally using various thermal methods. It has been shown that the whole process can, ideally, be divided into two stages. In the first stage, the sample pellet behaves like an inert body heated by an external heat source. The second stage is governed by the chemical reaction in the heated volume produced during the first stage. High speed thermographic recording of the temperature distribution in the test sample during laser ignition makes it possible to calculate the heat content at any instant. Thus, one can actually observe laser heating and the onset of self-sustained combustion in the pellet.

  18. Radiant energy required for infrared neural stimulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, Xiaodong; Rajguru, Suhrud; Young, Hunter; Xia, Nan; Stock, Stuart R.; Xiao, Xianghui; Richter, Claus-Peter

    2015-08-25

    Infrared neural stimulation (INS) has been proposed as an alternative method to electrical stimulation because of its spatial selective stimulation. Independent of the mechanism for INS, to translate the method into a device it is important to determine the energy for stimulation required at the target structure. Custom-designed, flat and angle polished fibers, were used to deliver the photons. By rotating the angle polished fibers, the orientation of the radiation beam in the cochlea could be changed. INS-evoked compound action potentials and single unit responses in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) were recorded. X-ray computed tomography was used to determine the orientation of the optical fiber. Maximum responses were observed when the radiation beam was directed towards the spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs), whereas little responses were seen when the beam was directed towards the basilar membrane. The radiant exposure required at the SGNs to evoke compound action potentials (CAPs) or ICC responses was on average 18.9 ± 12.2 or 10.3 ± 4.9 mJ/cm2, respectively. For cochlear INS it has been debated whether the radiation directly stimulates the SGNs or evokes a photoacoustic effect. The results support the view that a direct interaction between neurons and radiation dominates the response to INS.

  19. Radiant energy required for infrared neural stimulation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tan, Xiaodong; Rajguru, Suhrud; Young, Hunter; Xia, Nan; Stock, Stuart R.; Xiao, Xianghui; Richter, Claus-Peter

    2015-08-25

    Infrared neural stimulation (INS) has been proposed as an alternative method to electrical stimulation because of its spatial selective stimulation. Independent of the mechanism for INS, to translate the method into a device it is important to determine the energy for stimulation required at the target structure. Custom-designed, flat and angle polished fibers, were used to deliver the photons. By rotating the angle polished fibers, the orientation of the radiation beam in the cochlea could be changed. INS-evoked compound action potentials and single unit responses in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) were recorded. X-ray computed tomography wasmore » used to determine the orientation of the optical fiber. Maximum responses were observed when the radiation beam was directed towards the spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs), whereas little responses were seen when the beam was directed towards the basilar membrane. The radiant exposure required at the SGNs to evoke compound action potentials (CAPs) or ICC responses was on average 18.9 ± 12.2 or 10.3 ± 4.9 mJ/cm2, respectively. For cochlear INS it has been debated whether the radiation directly stimulates the SGNs or evokes a photoacoustic effect. The results support the view that a direct interaction between neurons and radiation dominates the response to INS.« less

  20. Negligible sample heating from synchrotron infrared beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Michael C.; Tsvetkova, Nelly M.; Crowe, John H.; McKinney, Wayne R.

    2000-08-30

    The use of synchrotron sources for infrared (IR) spectromicroscopy provides greatly increased brightness enabling high-quality IR measurements at diffraction-limited spatial resolutions. This permits synchrotron-based IR spectromicroscopy to be applied to biological applications at spatial resolutions of the order of the size of a single mammalian cell. The question then arises, ''Does the intense synchrotron beam harm biological samples?'' Mid-IR photons are too low in energy to break bonds directly, however they could cause damage to biological molecules due to heating. In this work, we present measurements showing negligible sample heating effects from a diffraction-limited synchrotron IR source. The sample used is fully hydrated lipid bilayers composed of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine(DPPC), which undergoes a phase transition from a gel into a liquid-crystalline state at about 315 K during heating. Several IR-active vibrational modes clearly shift in frequency when the sample passes through the phase transition. We calibrate and then use these shifting vibrational modes as an in situ temperature sensor.

  1. Nanosecond Time Resolved and Steady State Infrared Studies of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ultrafast time-resolved infrared and steady state Fourier transform IR (FTIR) spectroscopies were used to probe TATB and its products after photoexcitation with a 5 ns pulse of 532 ...

  2. Apparatus and method for transient thermal infrared emission spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McClelland, John F.; Jones, Roger W.

    1991-12-24

    A method and apparatus for enabling analysis of a solid material (16, 42) by applying energy from an energy source (20, 70) top a surface region of the solid material sufficient to cause transient heating in a thin surface layer portion of the solid material (16, 42) so as to enable transient thermal emission of infrared radiation from the thin surface layer portion, and by detecting with a spectrometer/detector (28, 58) substantially only the transient thermal emission of infrared radiation from the thin surface layer portion of the solid material. The detected transient thermal emission of infrared radiation is sufficiently free of self-absorption by the solid material of emitted infrared radiation, so as to be indicative of characteristics relating to molecular composition of the solid material.

  3. Sweetspot: Near-infrared observations of 13 type Ia supernovae...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    We present 13 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observed in the rest-frame near-infrared (NIR) ... Our sample includes two SNe Ia at z 0.09, which represent the most distant rest-frame ...

  4. Posters Preliminary Analysis of Ground-Based Microwave and Infrared...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Shaw, J. A., J. H. Churnside, and E. R. Westwater. 1991. An Infrared Spectrometer for Ground-Based Profiling of Atmospheric Temperature and Humidity. Proc. SPIE Int'l. Symp. on...

  5. Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy Print Graphene-a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice-has very high conductivity that can be tuned...

  6. Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy Print Wednesday, 29 October 2008 00:00 Graphene-a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice-has very high...

  7. INFRARED ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY AND CHEMICAL KINETICS OF FREE RADICALS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    mNAL PERFORMANCE REPORT for INFRARED ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY AND CHEMICAL KINETICS OF FREE RADICALS DE-FG05-85ER13439 1-AUG-1985 to 31-JUL-1994 Robert F. Curl and Graham P. Glass Principal Investigators Introduction This research was directed at the detection, monitoring, and study (by infrared absorption spectroscopy) of the chemical kinetic behavior of small free radical species thought to be important intermediates in combustion. The work typically progressed from the detection and analysis

  8. Tunable Surface Plasmon Infrared Modulator - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tunable Surface Plasmon Infrared Modulator Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (993 KB) Technology Marketing SummaryThere is a need for improved active infrared optical elements such as modulators. Extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) through subwavelength apertures allows for tailored filtering based on plasmon resonance. Until now EOT devices have not fully achieved the need for variable attenuation

  9. Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy Print Graphene-a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice-has very high conductivity that can be tuned by applying a gate voltage. The charge carriers in graphene can travel ballistically over great distances (~1 micron) without scattering. These unusual electronic properties make graphene a promising candidate for future nanoelectronics. Using infrared spectromicroscopy at ALS Beamline 1.4, a group of researchers from

  10. Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy Print Graphene-a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice-has very high conductivity that can be tuned by applying a gate voltage. The charge carriers in graphene can travel ballistically over great distances (~1 micron) without scattering. These unusual electronic properties make graphene a promising candidate for future nanoelectronics. Using infrared spectromicroscopy at ALS Beamline 1.4, a group of researchers from

  11. Optical and infrared properties of glancing angle deposited nanostructured

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    tungsten films (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Optical and infrared properties of glancing angle deposited nanostructured tungsten films Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Optical and infrared properties of glancing angle deposited nanostructured tungsten films Authors: Ungaro, Craig [1] ; Shah, Ankit [1] ; Kravchenko, Ivan I [2] ; Hensley, Dale K [2] ; Gray, Stephen K. [3] ; Gupta, Mool C. [1] + Show Author Affiliations University of Virginia, Charlottesville ORNL Argonne

  12. Accurate, practical simulation of satellite infrared radiometer spectral data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, T.J.

    1982-09-01

    This study's purpose is to determine whether a relatively simple random band model formulation of atmospheric radiation transfer in the infrared region can provide valid simulations of narrow interval satellite-borne infrared sounder system data. Detailed ozonesondes provide the pertinent atmospheric information and sets of calibrated satellite measurements provide the validation. High resolution line-by-line model calculations are included to complete the evaluation.

  13. ARM: Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (ASSIST): channel 2 data (Dataset) | Data Explorer channel 2 data Title: ARM: Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology (ASSIST): channel 2 data Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology (ASSIST): channel 2 data Authors: Albert Mendoza ; Connor Flynn Publication Date: 2012-12-07 OSTI Identifier: 1095590 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC05-00OR22725 Resource Type: Dataset Data Type: Numeric Data Research Org: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM)

  14. ARM: Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (ASSIST): engineering data (Dataset) | Data Explorer engineering data Title: ARM: Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology (ASSIST): engineering data Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology (ASSIST): engineering data Authors: Albert Mendoza ; Connor Flynn Publication Date: 2012-12-07 OSTI Identifier: 1095591 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC05-00OR22725 Resource Type: Dataset Data Type: Numeric Data Research Org: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement

  15. ARM: Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (ASSIST): summary data (Dataset) | Data Explorer summary data Title: ARM: Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology (ASSIST): summary data Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology (ASSIST): summary data Authors: Albert Mendoza ; Connor Flynn Publication Date: 2012-12-07 OSTI Identifier: 1095592 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC05-00OR22725 Resource Type: Dataset Data Type: Numeric Data Research Org: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Archive,

  16. Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy Print Graphene-a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice-has very high conductivity that can be tuned by applying a gate voltage. The charge carriers in graphene can travel ballistically over great distances (~1 micron) without scattering. These unusual electronic properties make graphene a promising candidate for future nanoelectronics. Using infrared spectromicroscopy at ALS Beamline 1.4, a group of researchers from

  17. Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy Print Graphene-a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice-has very high conductivity that can be tuned by applying a gate voltage. The charge carriers in graphene can travel ballistically over great distances (~1 micron) without scattering. These unusual electronic properties make graphene a promising candidate for future nanoelectronics. Using infrared spectromicroscopy at ALS Beamline 1.4, a group of researchers from

  18. Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy Print Graphene-a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice-has very high conductivity that can be tuned by applying a gate voltage. The charge carriers in graphene can travel ballistically over great distances (~1 micron) without scattering. These unusual electronic properties make graphene a promising candidate for future nanoelectronics. Using infrared spectromicroscopy at ALS Beamline 1.4, a group of researchers from

  19. Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy Print Graphene-a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice-has very high conductivity that can be tuned by applying a gate voltage. The charge carriers in graphene can travel ballistically over great distances (~1 micron) without scattering. These unusual electronic properties make graphene a promising candidate for future nanoelectronics. Using infrared spectromicroscopy at ALS Beamline 1.4, a group of researchers from

  20. Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy Print Graphene-a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice-has very high conductivity that can be tuned by applying a gate voltage. The charge carriers in graphene can travel ballistically over great distances (~1 micron) without scattering. These unusual electronic properties make graphene a promising candidate for future nanoelectronics. Using infrared spectromicroscopy at ALS Beamline 1.4, a group of researchers from

  1. Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy Print Wednesday, 29 October 2008 00:00 Graphene-a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice-has very high conductivity that can be tuned by applying a gate voltage. The charge carriers in graphene can travel ballistically over great distances (~1 micron) without scattering. These unusual electronic properties make graphene a promising candidate for future

  2. Far-infrared surface emissivity and climate

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Feldman, Daniel R.; Collins, William D.; Pincus, Robert; Huang, Xianglei; Chen, Xiuhong

    2014-11-03

    Presently, there are no global measurement constraints on the surface emissivity at wavelengths longer than 15 μm, even though this surface property in this far-IR region has a direct impact on the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and infrared cooling rates where the column precipitable water vapor (PWV) is less than 1 mm. Such dry conditions are common for high-altitude and high-latitude locations, with the potential for modeled climate to be impacted by uncertain surface characteristics. This paper explores the sensitivity of instantaneous OLR and cooling rates to changes in far-IR surface emissivity and how this unconstrained property impacts climate modelmore » projections. At high latitudes and altitudes, a 0.05 change in emissivity due to mineralogy and snow grain size can cause a 1.8–2.0 W m⁻² difference in the instantaneous clear-sky OLR. A variety of radiative transfer techniques have been used to model the far-IR spectral emissivities of surface types defined by the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program. Incorporating these far-IR surface emissivities into the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 scenario of the Community Earth System Model leads to discernible changes in the spatial patterns of surface temperature, OLR, and frozen surface extent. The model results differ at high latitudes by as much as 2°K, 10 W m⁻², and 15%, respectively, after only 25 y of integration. The calculated difference in far-IR emissivity between ocean and sea ice of between 0.1 and 0.2, suggests the potential for a far-IR positive feedback for polar climate change.« less

  3. Far-infrared surface emissivity and climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feldman, Daniel R.; Collins, William D.; Pincus, Robert; Huang, Xianglei; Chen, Xiuhong

    2014-11-03

    Presently, there are no global measurement constraints on the surface emissivity at wavelengths longer than 15 μm, even though this surface property in this far-IR region has a direct impact on the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and infrared cooling rates where the column precipitable water vapor (PWV) is less than 1 mm. Such dry conditions are common for high-altitude and high-latitude locations, with the potential for modeled climate to be impacted by uncertain surface characteristics. This paper explores the sensitivity of instantaneous OLR and cooling rates to changes in far-IR surface emissivity and how this unconstrained property impacts climate model projections. At high latitudes and altitudes, a 0.05 change in emissivity due to mineralogy and snow grain size can cause a 1.8–2.0 W m⁻² difference in the instantaneous clear-sky OLR. A variety of radiative transfer techniques have been used to model the far-IR spectral emissivities of surface types defined by the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program. Incorporating these far-IR surface emissivities into the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 scenario of the Community Earth System Model leads to discernible changes in the spatial patterns of surface temperature, OLR, and frozen surface extent. The model results differ at high latitudes by as much as 2°K, 10 W m⁻², and 15%, respectively, after only 25 y of integration. The calculated difference in far-IR emissivity between ocean and sea ice of between 0.1 and 0.2, suggests the potential for a far-IR positive feedback for polar climate change.

  4. Long wave fluorophore sensor compounds and other fluorescent sensor compounds in polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walsh, Joseph C.; Heiss, Aaron M.; Noronha, Glenn; Vachon, David J.; Lane, Stephen M.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Peyser, Thomas A.; Van Antwerp, William Peter; Mastrototaro, John Joseph

    2004-07-20

    Fluorescent biosensor molecules, fluorescent biosensors and systems, as well as methods of making and using these biosensor molecules and systems are described. Embodiments of these biosensor molecules exhibit fluorescence emission at wavelengths greater than about 650 nm. Typical biosensor molecules include a fluorophore that includes an iminium ion, a linker moiety that includes a group that is an anilinic type of relationship to the fluorophore and a boronate substrate recognition/binding moiety, which binds glucose. The fluorescence molecules modulated by the presence or absence of polyhydroxylated analytes such as glucose. This property of these molecules of the invention, as well as their ability to emit fluorescent light at greater than about 650 nm, renders these biosensor molecules particularly well-suited for detecting and measuring in-vivo glucose concentrations.

  5. Femtosecond measurements of near-infrared pulse induced mid-infrared transmission modulation of quantum cascade lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, Hong; Liu, Sheng; Lalanne, Elaine; Guo, Dingkai; Chen, Xing; Choa, Fow-Sen; Wang, Xiaojun; Johnson, Anthony M.

    2014-05-26

    We temporally resolved the ultrafast mid-infrared transmission modulation of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) using a near-infrared pump/mid-infrared probe technique at room temperature. Two different femtosecond wavelength pumps were used with photon energy above and below the quantum well (QW) bandgap. The shorter wavelength pump modulates the mid-infrared probe transmission through interband transition assisted mechanisms, resulting in a high transmission modulation depth and several nanoseconds recovery lifetime. In contrast, pumping with a photon energy below the QW bandgap induces a smaller transmission modulation depth but much faster (several picoseconds) recovery lifetime, attributed to intersubband transition assisted mechanisms. The latter ultrafast modulation (>60?GHz) could provide a potential way to realize fast QCL based free space optical communication.

  6. Multivariate calibration techniques applied to NIRA (near infrared reflectance analysis) and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, C.L.

    1991-02-01

    Multivariate calibration techniques can reduce the time required for routine testing and can provide new methods of analysis. Multivariate calibration is commonly used with near infrared reflectance analysis (NIRA) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Two feasibility studies were performed to determine the capability of NIRA, using multivariate calibration techniques, to perform analyses on the types of samples that are routinely analyzed at this laboratory. The first study performed included a variety of samples and indicated that NIRA would be well-suited to perform analyses on selected materials properties such as water content and hydroxyl number on polyol samples, epoxy content on epoxy resins, water content of desiccants, and the amine values of various amine cure agents. A second study was performed to assess the capability of NIRA to perform quantitative analysis of hydroxyl numbers and water contents of hydroxyl-containing materials. Hydroxyl number and water content were selected for determination because these tests are frequently run on polyol materials and the hydroxyl number determination is time consuming. This study pointed out the necessity of obtaining calibration standards identical to the samples being analyzed for each type of polyol or other material being analyzed. Multivariate calibration techniques are frequently used with FTIR data to determine the composition of a large variety of complex mixtures. A literature search indicated many applications of multivariate calibration to FTIR data. Areas identified where quantitation by FTIR would provide a new capability are quantitation of components in epoxy and silicone resins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in oils, and additives to polymers. 19 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. HERSCHEL OBSERVATIONS OF FAR-INFRARED COOLING LINES IN INTERMEDIATE REDSHIFT (ULTRA)-LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rigopoulou, D.; Magdis, G. E.; Thatte, N.; Hopwood, R.; Clements, D.; Swinyard, B. M.; Pearson, C.; Farrah, D.; Huang, J.-S.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Bock, J. J.; Cooray, A.; Griffin, M. J.; Oliver, S.; Smith, A.; Wang, L.; Riechers, D.; Scott, D.; Vaccari, M.; Valtchanov, I.

    2014-01-20

    We report the first results from a spectroscopic survey of the [C II] 158?m line from a sample of intermediate redshift (0.2 infrared galaxies, (U)LIRGs (L {sub IR} > 10{sup 11.5} L {sub ?}), using the Spectral and Photometric Imaging REceiver-Fourier Transform Spectrometer on board the Herschel Space Observatory. This is the first survey of [C II] emission, an important tracer of star formation, at a redshift range where the star formation rate density of the universe increases rapidly. We detect strong [C II] 158?m line emission from over 80% of the sample. We find that the [C II] line is luminous, in the range (0.8-4) 10{sup 3} of the far-infrared continuum luminosity of our sources, and appears to arise from photodissociation regions on the surface of molecular clouds. The L{sub [C} {sub II]}/L {sub IR} ratio in our intermediate redshift (U)LIRGs is on average ?10times larger than that of local ULIRGs. Furthermore, we find that the L{sub [C} {sub II]}/L {sub IR} and L{sub [CII]}/L{sub CO(1-0)} ratios in our sample are similar to those of local normal galaxies and high-z star-forming galaxies. ULIRGs at z ? 0.5 show many similarities to the properties of local normal and high-z star-forming galaxies. Our findings strongly suggest that rapid evolution in the properties of the star-forming regions of (U)LIRGs is likely to have occurred in the last 5 billion years.

  8. Nova-like cataclysmic variables in the infrared

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoard, D. W.; Long, Knox S.; Howell, Steve B.; Wachter, Stefanie; Brinkworth, Carolyn S.; Knigge, Christian; Drew, J. E.; Szkody, Paula; Kafka, S.; Belle, Kunegunda; Ciardi, David R.; Froning, Cynthia S.; Van Belle, Gerard T.; Pretorius, M. L.

    2014-05-01

    Nova-like (NL) cataclysmic variables have persistently high mass transfer rates and prominent steady state accretion disks. We present an analysis of infrared observations of 12 NLs obtained from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, the Spitzer Space Telescope, and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer All Sky Survey. The presence of an infrared excess at ? ? 3-5 ?m over the expectation of a theoretical steady state accretion disk is ubiquitous in our sample. The strength of the infrared excess is not correlated with orbital period, but shows a statistically significant correlation (but shallow trend) with system inclination that might be partially (but not completely) linked to the increasing view of the cooler outer accretion disk and disk rim at higher inclinations. We discuss the possible origin of the infrared excess in terms of emission from bremsstrahlung or circumbinary dust, with either mechanism facilitated by the mass outflows (e.g., disk wind/corona, accretion stream overflow, and so on) present in NLs. Our comparison of the relative advantages and disadvantages of either mechanism for explaining the observations suggests that the situation is rather ambiguous, largely circumstantial, and in need of stricter observational constraints.

  9. High speed infrared radiation thermometer, system, and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Markham, James R. (Middlefield, CT)

    2002-01-01

    The high-speed radiation thermometer has an infrared measurement wavelength band that is matched to the infrared wavelength band of near-blackbody emittance of ceramic components and ceramic thermal barrier coatings used in turbine engines. It is comprised of a long wavelength infrared detector, a signal amplifier, an analog-to-digital converter, an optical system to collect radiation from the target, an optical filter, and an integral reference signal to maintain a calibrated response. A megahertz range electronic data acquisition system is connected to the radiation detector to operate on raw data obtained. Because the thermometer operates optimally at 8 to 12 .mu.m, where emittance is near-blackbody for ceramics, interferences to measurements performed in turbine engines are minimized. The method and apparatus are optimized to enable mapping of surface temperatures on fast moving ceramic elements, and the thermometer can provide microsecond response, with inherent self-diagnostic and calibration-correction features.

  10. Hard, infrared black coating with very low outgassing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuzmenko, P J; Behne, D M; Casserly, T; Boardman, W; Upadhyaya, D; Boinapally, K; Gupta, M; Cao, Y

    2008-06-02

    Infrared astronomical instruments require absorptive coatings on internal surfaces to trap scattered and stray photons. This is typically accomplished with any one of a number of black paints. Although inexpensive and simple to apply, paint has several disadvantages. Painted surfaces can be fragile, prone to shedding particles, and difficult to clean. Most importantly, the vacuum performance is poor. Recently a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process was developed to apply thick (30 {micro}m) diamond-like carbon (DLC) based protective coatings to the interior of oil pipelines. These DLC coatings show much promise as an infrared black for an ultra high vacuum environment. The coatings are very robust with excellent cryogenic adhesion. Their total infrared reflectivity of < 10% at normal incidence approaches that of black paints. We measured outgas rates of <10{sup -12} Torr liter/sec cm{sup 2}, comparable to bare stainless steel.

  11. Blocked impurity band hybrid infrared focal plane arrays for astronomy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, D.B.; Seib, D.H.; Stetson, S.B.; Herter, T.; Rowlands, N.; Schoenwald, J.

    1989-02-01

    High-performance infrared hybrid focal plane arrays using 10 x 50 element Si:As Blocked-Impurity-Band (BIB) detectors (cut-off wavelength = 28 ..mu..m) and matching switched MOSFET multiplexers have been developed and characterized for space astronomy. Use of impurity band conduction technology provides detectors which are nuclear radiation hard and free of the many anomalies associated with conventional silicon photoconductive detectors. Emphasis in this paper is on recent advances in detector material quality which have led to significantly improved detector and hybrid characteristics. Results demonstrating increase quantum efficiency (particular at short wavelength infrared), obtained by varying the Blocked-Impurity-Band detector properties (infrared active layer thickness and arsenic doping profile), are summarized. Read noise and dark current for different temperatures have been measured and are also described. The hybrid array performance achieved clearly demonstrates that BIB detectors are well suited for use in astronomical instrumentation.

  12. Noise Reduction Efforts for the ALS Infrared Beamlines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scarvie, Tom; Andresen, Nord; Baptiste, Ken; Byrd, John; Chin, Mike; Martin, Michael; McKinney, Wayne; Steier, Christoph

    2004-05-12

    The quality of infrared microscopy and spectroscopy data collected at synchrotron based sources is strongly dependent on signal-to-noise. We have successfully identified and suppressed several noise sources affecting Beamlines 1.4.2, 1.4.3, and 1.4.4 at the Advanced Light Source (ALS), resulting in a significant increase in the quality of FTIR spectra obtained. In this paper, we present our methods of noise source analysis, the negative effect of noise on the infrared beam quality, and the techniques used to reduce the noise. These include reducing the phase noise in the storage ring radio-frequency (RF) system, installing an active mirror feedback system, analyzing and changing physical mounts to better isolate portions of the beamline optics from low-frequency environmental noise, and modifying the input signals to the main ALS RF system. We also discuss the relationship between electron beam energy oscillations at a point of dispersion and infrared beamline noise.

  13. Apparatus for generating coherent infrared energy of selected wavelength

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stevens, Charles G. (Danville, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A tunable source (11) of coherent infrared energy includes a heat pipe (12) having an intermediate region (24) at which cesium (22) is heated to vaporizing temperature and end regions (27, 28) at which the vapor is condensed and returned to the intermediate region (24) for reheating and recirculation. Optical pumping light (43) is directed along the axis of the heat pipe (12) through a first end window (17) to stimulate emission of coherent infrared energy which is transmitted out through an opposite end window (18). A porous walled tubulation (44) extends along the axis of the heat pipe (12) and defines a region (46) in which cesium vapor is further heated to a temperature sufficient to dissociate cesium dimers which would decrease efficiency by absorbing pump light (43). Efficient generation of any desired infrared wavelength is realized by varying the wavelength of the pump light (43).

  14. Chemistry Data for Geothermometry Mapping of Deep Hydrothermal Reservoirs in Southeastern Idaho

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Earl Mattson

    2016-01-18

    This dataset includes chemistry of geothermal water samples of the Eastern Snake River Plain and surrounding area. The samples included in this dataset were collected during the springs and summers of 2014 and 2015. All chemical analysis of the samples were conducted in the Analytical Laboratory at the Center of Advanced Energy Studies in Idaho Falls, Idaho. This data set supersedes #425 submission and is the final submission for AOP 3.1.2.1 for INL. Isotopic data collected by Mark Conrad will be submitted in a separate file.

  15. Antenna-coupled microcavities for enhanced infrared photo-detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nga Chen, Yuk; Todorov, Yanko Askenazi, Benjamin; Vasanelli, Angela; Sirtori, Carlo; Biasiol, Giorgio; Colombelli, Raffaele

    2014-01-20

    We demonstrate mid-infrared detectors embedded into an array of double-metal nano-antennas. The antennas act as microcavities that squeeze the electric field into thin semiconductor layers, thus enhancing the detector responsivity. Furthermore, thanks to the ability of the antennas to gather photons from an area larger than the device's physical dimensions, the dark current is reduced without hindering the photo-generation rate. In these devices, the background-limited performance is improved with a consequent increase of the operating temperature. Our results illustrate how the antenna-coupled microcavity concept can be applied to enhance the performances of infrared opto-electronic devices.

  16. Infrared absorption spectroscopy and chemical kinetics of free radicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curl, R.F.; Glass, G.P.

    1993-12-01

    This research is directed at the detection, monitoring, and study of chemical kinetic behavior by infrared absorption spectroscopy of small free radical species thought to be important intermediates in combustion. During the last year, infrared kinetic spectroscopy using excimer laser flash photolysis and color-center laser probing has been employed to study the high resolution spectrum of HCCN, the rate constant of the reaction between ethynyl (C{sub 2}H) radical and H{sub 2} in the temperature region between 295 and 875 K, and the recombination rate of propargyl (CH{sub 2}CCH) at room temperature.

  17. The COBE Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment search for thecosmic infrared background. I. Limits and detections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauser, M.G.; Arendt, R.G.; Kelsall, T.; Dwek, E.; Odegard, N.; Weiland, J.L.; Freudenreich, H.T.; Reach, W.T.; Silverberg, R.F.; Moseley, S.H.; Pei, Y.C.; Lubin, P.; Mather, J.C.; Shafer, R.A.; Smoot,G.F.; Weiss, R.; Wilkinson, D.T.; Wright, E.L.

    1998-01-06

    The Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) spacecraft was designed primarily to conduct a systematic search for an isotropic cosmic infrared background (CIB) in 10 photometric bands from 1.25 to 240 mu m. The results of that search are presented here. Conservative limits on the CIB are obtained from the minimum observed brightness in all-sky maps at each wavelength, with the faintest limits in the DIRBE spectral range being at 3.5 mu m(nu l nu<64 nW m-2 sr-1, 95 percent confidence level) and at 240 mu m (nu l nu < 28 nW m-1 sr-1, 95 percent confidence level). The bright foregrounds from interplanetary dust scattering and emission, stars, and interstellar dust emission are the principal impediments to the DIRBE measurements of the CIB. These foregrounds have been modeled and removed from the sky maps. Assessment of the random and systematic uncertainties in the residuals and tests for isotropy show that only the 140 and 240 mum data provide candidate detections of the CIB. The residuals and their uncertainties provide CIB upper limits more restrictive than the dark sky limits at wavelengths from 1.25 to 100 mu m. No plausible solar system or Galactic source of the observed 140 and 240 mu m residuals can be identified, leading to the conclusion that the CIB has been detected at levels of nu l nu = 25 +- 7 and 14 +- 3 nW m-2 sr-1 at 140 and 240 mu m, respectively. The integrated energy from 140 to 240 mu m, 10.3 nW m-2sr-1, is about twice the integrated optical light from the galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field, suggesting that star formation might have been heavily enshrouded by dust at high redshift. The detections and upper limits reported here provide new constraints on models of the history of energy-releasing processes and dust production since the decoupling of the cosmic microwave background from matter.

  18. A far-infrared spectroscopic survey of intermediate redshift (ultra) luminous infrared galaxies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magdis, Georgios E.; Rigopoulou, D.; Hopwood, R.; Clements, D.; Huang, J.-S.; Farrah, D.; Pearson, C.; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Bock, J. J.; Cooray, A.; Griffin, M. J.; Oliver, S.; Perez Fournon, I.; Riechers, D.; Swinyard, B. M.; Thatte, N.; Scott, D.; Valtchanov, I.; Vaccari, M.

    2014-11-20

    We present Herschel far-IR photometry and spectroscopy as well as ground-based CO observations of an intermediate redshift (0.21 ? z ? 0.88) sample of Herschel-selected (ultra)-luminous infrared galaxies (L {sub IR} > 10{sup 11.5} L {sub ?}). With these measurements, we trace the dust continuum, far-IR atomic line emission, in particular [C II] 157.7 ?m, as well as the molecular gas of z ? 0.3 luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs and ULIRGs) and perform a detailed investigation of the interstellar medium of the population. We find that the majority of Herschel-selected intermediate redshift (U)LIRGs have L {sub C} {sub II}/L {sub FIR} ratios that are a factor of about 10 higher than that of local ULIRGs and comparable to that of local normal and high-z star-forming galaxies. Using our sample to bridge local and high-z [C II] observations, we find that the majority of galaxies at all redshifts and all luminosities follow an L {sub C} {sub II}L {sub FIR} relation with a slope of unity, from which local ULIRGs and high- z active-galactic-nucleus-dominated sources are clear outliers. We also confirm that the strong anti-correlation between the L {sub C} {sub II}/L {sub FIR} ratio and the far-IR color L {sub 60}/L {sub 100} observed in the local universe holds over a broad range of redshifts and luminosities, in the sense that warmer sources exhibit lower L {sub C} {sub II}/L {sub FIR} at any epoch. Intermediate redshift ULIRGs are also characterized by large molecular gas reservoirs and by lower star formation efficiencies compared to that of local ULIRGs. The high L {sub C} {sub II}/L {sub FIR} ratios, the moderate star formation efficiencies (L {sub IR}/L{sub CO}{sup ?} or L {sub IR}/M{sub H{sub 2}}), and the relatively low dust temperatures of our sample (which are also common characteristics of high-z star-forming galaxies with ULIRG-like luminosities) indicate that the evolution of the physical properties of (U)LIRGs between the present day and z > 1 is already significant by z ? 0.3.

  19. Emissivity corrected infrared method for imaging anomalous structural heat flows

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Del Grande, Nancy K.; Durbin, Philip F.; Dolan, Kenneth W.; Perkins, Dwight E.

    1995-01-01

    A method for detecting flaws in structures using dual band infrared radiation. Heat is applied to the structure being evaluated. The structure is scanned for two different wavelengths and data obtained in the form of images. Images are used to remove clutter to form a corrected image. The existence and nature of a flaw is determined by investigating a variety of features.

  20. Measurement of directional thermal infrared emissivity of vegetation and soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norman, J.M. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Soil Science; Balick, L.K. [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1995-10-01

    A new method has been developed for measuring directional thermal emissivity as a function of view angle for plant canopies and soils using two infrared thermometers each sensitive to a different wavelength band. By calibrating the two infrared thermometers to 0.1C consistency, canopy directional emissivity can be estimated with typical errors less than 0.005 in the 8--14 um wavelength band, depending on clarity of the sky and corrections for CO{sub 2} absorption by the atmosphere. A theoretical justification for the method is developed along with an error analysis. Laboratory measurements were used to develop corrections for CO{sub 2}, absorption and a field calibration method is used to obtain the necessary 0.1C consistency for relatively low cost infrared thermometers. The emissivity of alfalfa (LAI=2.5) and corn (LAI=3.2) was near 0.995 and independent of view angle. Individual corn leaves had an emissivity of 0.97. A wheat (LAI=3.0) canopy had an emissivity of 0.985 at nadir and 0.975 at 75 degree view angle. The canopy emissivity values tend to be higher than values in the literature, and are useful for converting infrared thermometer measurements to kinetic temperature and interpreting satellite thermal observations.

  1. Infrared Spectroscopy of Explosives Residues: Measurement Techniques and Spectral Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, Mark C.; Bernacki, Bruce E.

    2015-03-11

    Infrared laser spectroscopy of explosives is a promising technique for standoff and non-contact detection applications. However, the interpretation of spectra obtained in typical standoff measurement configurations presents numerous challenges. Understanding the variability in observed spectra from explosives residues and particles is crucial for design and implementation of detection algorithms with high detection confidence and low false alarm probability. We discuss a series of infrared spectroscopic techniques applied toward measuring and interpreting the reflectance spectra obtained from explosives particles and residues. These techniques utilize the high spectral radiance, broad tuning range, rapid wavelength tuning, high scan reproducibility, and low noise of an external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL) system developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The ECQCL source permits measurements in configurations which would be either impractical or overly time-consuming with broadband, incoherent infrared sources, and enables a combination of rapid measurement speed and high detection sensitivity. The spectroscopic methods employed include standoff hyperspectral reflectance imaging, quantitative measurements of diffuse reflectance spectra, reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy, microscopic imaging and spectroscopy, and nano-scale imaging and spectroscopy. Measurements of explosives particles and residues reveal important factors affecting observed reflectance spectra, including measurement geometry, substrate on which the explosives are deposited, and morphological effects such as particle shape, size, orientation, and crystal structure.

  2. A JOINT MODEL OF X-RAY AND INFRARED BACKGROUNDS. II. COMPTON...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    X-RAY AND INFRARED BACKGROUNDS. II. COMPTON-THICK ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS ABUNDANCE Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A JOINT MODEL OF X-RAY AND INFRARED BACKGROUNDS. II. ...

  3. FAR-INFRARED FINE-STRUCTURE LINE DIAGNOSTICS OF ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrah, D.; Petty, S. M.; Harris, K.; Lebouteiller, V.; Spoon, H. W. W.; Bernard-Salas, J.; Pearson, C.; Rigopoulou, D.; Smith, H. A.; Gonzlez-Alfonso, E.; Clements, D. L.; Efstathiou, A.; Cormier, D.; Afonso, J.; Hurley, P.; Borys, C.; Verma, A.; Cooray, A.; Salvatelli, V.

    2013-10-10

    We present Herschel observations of 6 fine-structure lines in 25 ultraluminous infrared galaxies at z < 0.27. The lines, [O III]52 ?m, [N III]57 ?m, [O I]63 ?m, [N II]122 ?m, [O I]145 ?m, and [C II]158 ?m, are mostly single Gaussians with widths <600 km s{sup 1} and luminosities of 10{sup 7}-10{sup 9} L{sub ?}. There are deficits in the [O I]63/L{sub IR}, [N II]/L{sub IR}, [O I]145/L{sub IR}, and [C II]/L{sub IR} ratios compared to lower luminosity systems. The majority of the line deficits are consistent with dustier H II regions, but part of the [C II] deficit may arise from an additional mechanism, plausibly charged dust grains. This is consistent with some of the [C II] originating from photodissociation regions or the interstellar medium (ISM). We derive relations between far-IR line luminosities and both the IR luminosity and star formation rate. We find that [N II] and both [O I] lines are good tracers of the IR luminosity and star formation rate. In contrast, [C II] is a poor tracer of the IR luminosity and star formation rate, and does not improve as a tracer of either quantity if the [C II] deficit is accounted for. The continuum luminosity densities also correlate with the IR luminosity and star formation rate. We derive ranges for the gas density and ultraviolet radiation intensity of 10{sup 1} < n < 10{sup 2.5} and 10{sup 2.2} < G{sub 0} < 10{sup 3.6}, respectively. These ranges depend on optical type, the importance of star formation, and merger stage. We do not find relationships between far-IR line properties and several other parameters: active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity, merger stage, mid-IR excitation, and SMBH mass. We conclude that these far-IR lines arise from gas heated by starlight, and that they are not strongly influenced by AGN activity.

  4. Near-infrared photodetector with reduced dark current

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klem, John F; Kim, Jin K

    2012-10-30

    A photodetector is disclosed for the detection of near-infrared light with a wavelength in the range of about 0.9-1.7 microns. The photodetector, which can be formed as either an nBp device or a pBn device on an InP substrate, includes an InGaAs light-absorbing layer, an InAlGaAs graded layer, an InAlAs or InP barrier layer, and an InGaAs contact layer. The photodetector can detect near-infrared light with or without the use of an applied reverse-bias voltage and is useful as an individual photodetector, or to form a focal plane array.

  5. Non-destructive component separation using infrared radiant energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simandl, Ronald F.; Russell, Steven W.; Holt, Jerrid S.; Brown, John D.

    2011-03-01

    A method for separating a first component and a second component from one another at an adhesive bond interface between the first component and second component. Typically the method involves irradiating the first component with infrared radiation from a source that radiates substantially only short wavelengths until the adhesive bond is destabilized, and then separating the first component and the second component from one another. In some embodiments an assembly of components to be debonded is placed inside an enclosure and the assembly is illuminated from an IR source that is external to the enclosure. In some embodiments an assembly of components to be debonded is simultaneously irradiated by a multi-planar array of IR sources. Often the IR radiation is unidirectional. In some embodiments the IR radiation is narrow-band short wavelength infrared radiation.

  6. Emissivity corrected infrared method for imaging anomalous structural heat flows

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Del Grande, N.K.; Durbin, P.F.; Dolan, K.W.; Perkins, D.E.

    1995-08-22

    A method for detecting flaws in structures using dual band infrared radiation is disclosed. Heat is applied to the structure being evaluated. The structure is scanned for two different wavelengths and data obtained in the form of images. Images are used to remove clutter to form a corrected image. The existence and nature of a flaw is determined by investigating a variety of features. 1 fig.

  7. Sensitized near infrared emission from lanthanide-exchanged zeolites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monguzzi, A.; Macchi, G.; Meinardi, F.; Tubino, R.; Burger, M.; Calzaferri, G.

    2008-03-24

    In this work, we present an alternative approach to sensitize the near infrared emission of Er{sup 3+} ions (used in telecom applications) by exploiting the geometrical confinement occurring in porous zeolites structures. The sensitization of the Ln ion is obtained by energy transfer between a suitable organic molecule acting as an antenna and the emitting ion arranged in closed proximity, thus, avoiding the limits imposed by the coordination chemistry.

  8. THE INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF NEUTRAL POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ricca, Alessandra; Bauschlicher, Charles W. Jr.; Allamandola, Louis J. E-mail: Charles.W.Bauschlicher@nasa.gov

    2013-10-10

    The mid-infrared spectra of neutral homogeneous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) clusters have been computed using density functional theory including an empirical correction for dispersion. The C-H out-of-plane bending modes are redshifted for all the clusters considered in this work. The magnitude of the redshift and the peak broadening are dependent on PAH size, shape, and on the PAH arrangement in the cluster.

  9. Tailorable infrared sensing device with strain layer superlattice structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cheng, Li-Jen

    1987-12-08

    An infrared photodetector is formed of a heavily doped p-type Ge.sub.x Si.sub.1-x /Si superlattice in which x is pre-established during manufacture in the range 0 to 100 percent. A custom tailored photodetector that can differentiate among close wavelengths in the range of 2.7 to 50 microns is fabricated by appropriate selection of the alloy constituency value, x, to establish a specific wavelength at which photodetection cut-off will occur.

  10. Deuterium separation by infrared-induced addition reaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marling, John B.

    1977-01-01

    A method for deuterium enrichment by the infrared-induced addition reaction of a deuterium halide with an unsaturated aliphatic compound. A gaseous mixture of a hydrogen halide feedstock and an unsaturated aliphatic compound, particularly an olefin, is irradiated to selectively vibrationally excite the deuterium halide contained therein. The excited deuterium halide preferentially reacts with the unsaturated aliphatic compound to produce a deuterated addition product which is removed from the reaction mixture.

  11. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: Validation of infrared

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cloud radiative transfer simulations and spectral cloud properties retrievals using S-HIS, AERI and HSRL measurements from M-PACE Validation of infrared cloud radiative transfer simulations and spectral cloud properties retrievals using S-HIS, AERI and HSRL measurements from M-PACE Holz, Robert University of Wisconsin, CIMMS DeSlover, Daniel University of Wisconsin Revercomb, Henry University Of Wisconsin-Madison Tobin, David University of Wisconsin-Madison Knuteson, Robert University Of

  12. Assessing Cloud Spatial and Vertical Distribution with Infrared Cloud Analyzer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cloud Spatial and Vertical Distribution with Infrared Cloud Analyzer I. Genkova and C. N. Long Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington T. Besnard ATMOS SARL Le Mans, France D. Gillotay Institute d'Aeronomie Spatiale de Belgique Brussels, Belgium Introduction In the effort to resolve uncertainties about global climate change, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program (www.arm.gov) is improving the treatment of cloud radiative forcing and feedbacks in general

  13. Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology (ASSIST) Handbook

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology (ASSIST) Handbook C Flynn March 2016 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use

  14. Quantitative infrared absorption cross sections of isoprene for atmospheric measurements

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Brauer, C. S.; Blake, T. A.; Guenther, A. B.; Sharpe, S. W.; Sams, R. L.; Johnson, T. J.

    2014-11-19

    Isoprene (C5H8, 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene) is a volatile organic compound (VOC) and is one of the primary contributors to annual global VOC emissions. Isoprene is produced primarily by vegetation as well as anthropogenic sources, and its OH- and O3-initiated oxidations are a major source of atmospheric oxygenated organics. Few quantitative infrared studies have been reported for isoprene, limiting the ability to quantify isoprene emissions via remote or in situ infrared detection. We thus report absorption cross sections and integrated band intensities for isoprene in the 600–6500 cm-1 region. The pressure-broadened (1 atmosphere N2) spectra were recorded at 278, 298, and 323 Kmore » in a 19.94 cm path-length cell at 0.112 cm-1 resolution, using a Bruker IFS 66v/S Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. Composite spectra are derived from a minimum of seven isoprene sample pressures, each at one of three temperatures, and the number densities are normalized to 296 K and 1 atm.« less

  15. Studies of planetary boundary layer by infrared thermal imagery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albina, Bogdan; Dimitriu, Dan Gheorghe Gurlui, Silviu Octavian; Cazacu, Marius Mihai; Timofte, Adrian

    2014-11-24

    The IR camera is a relatively novel device for remote sensing of atmospheric thermal processes from the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) based on measurements of the infrared radiation. Infrared radiation is energy radiated by the motion of atoms and molecules on the surface of aerosols, when their temperature is more than absolute zero. The IR camera measures directly the intensity of radiation emitted by aerosols which is converted by an imaging sensor into an electric signal, resulting a thermal image. Every image pixel that corresponds to a specific radiance is pre-processed to identify the brightness temperature. The thermal infrared imaging radiometer used in this study, NicAir, is a precision radiometer developed by Prata et al. The device was calibrated for the temperature range of 270–320 K and using a calibration table along with image processing software, important information about variations in temperature can be extracted from acquired IR images. The PBL is the lowest layer of the troposphere where the atmosphere interacts with the ground surfaces. The importance of PBL lies in the fact that it provides a finite but varying volume in which pollutants can disperse. The aim of this paper is to analyze the PBL altitude and thickness variations over Iasi region using the IR imaging camera as well as its behavior from day to night and thermal processes occurring in PBL.

  16. Ultraluminous infrared galaxies in the AKARI all-sky survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kilerci Eser, E., E-mail: ecekilerci@dark-cosmology.dk [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Goto, T. [National Tsing Hua University, No. 101, Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Doi, Y., E-mail: tomo@phys.nthu.edu.tw, E-mail: doi@ea.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp [The University of Tokyo, Komaba 3-8-1, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan)

    2014-12-10

    We present a new catalog of 118 ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) and one hyperluminous infrared galaxy (HLIRG) by cross-matching the AKARI all-sky survey with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10 (SDSS DR10) and the final data release of the Two-Degree Field Galaxy Redshift Survey. Forty of the ULIRGs and one HLIRG are new identifications. We find that ULIRGs are interacting pair galaxies or ongoing or postmergers. This is consistent with the widely accepted view: ULIRGs are major mergers of disk galaxies. We confirm the previously known positive trend between the active galactic nucleus fraction and infrared luminosity. We show that ULIRGs have a large offset from the main sequence up to z ? 1; their offset from the z ? 2 'main sequence' is relatively smaller. We find a result consistent with the previous studies showing that, compared to local star-forming SDSS galaxies of similar mass, local ULIRGs have lower oxygen abundances. We demonstrate for the first time that ULIRGs follow the fundamental metallicity relation (FMR). The scatter of ULIRGs around the FMR (0.09 dex-0.5 dex) is comparable to the scatter of z ? 2-3 galaxies. We provide the largest local (0.050

  17. A detailed investigation on the impact of post-growth annealing on the materials and device characteristics of 35-layer In{sub 0.50}Ga{sub 0.50}As/GaAs quantum dot infrared photodetector with quaternary In{sub 0.21}Al{sub 0.21}Ga{sub 0.58}As capping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adhikary, Sourav; Chakrabarti, Subhananda

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: ? We investigated the effect of ex situ annealing on InGaAs/GaAs QDIP with InAlGaAs layer. ? As-grown defect was removed by using post-growth annealing treatment. ? Increase in the compressive strain due to annealing is calculated from XRD curve. ? Three-fold enhancement in responsivity is observed in the QDIPs annealed at 650 C. ? Two-fold enhancement in D* is observed sample annealed at 650 C compared to as grown. -- Abstract: The effect of post-growth rapid thermal annealing on 35-layer In{sub 0.50}Ga{sub 0.50}As/GaAs quantum dot infrared photodetector (QDIP) with quaternary In{sub 0.21}Al{sub 0.21}Ga{sub 0.58}As capping has been investigated. Transmission electron microscopy showed some as-grown defects were removed by post growth annealing treatment. An increase in the compressive strain in the heterostructure due to annealing was identified from X-ray diffraction curve. A two-color photoresponse in the long-wave region (8.5 and 10.2 ?m) was observed in both as-grown device and those annealed at 650 C temperature. A three-fold enhancement in peak responsivity was observed in the QDIPs annealed at 650 C (1.19 A/W) compared to that in the as-grown (0.34 A/W). Detectivity also increased by two fold from as-grown to 650 C annealed device. The changes are attributed to the removal of as-grown defects and dislocations during epitaxial growth. These removals changed the confinement potential profile, which resulted in an improvement in the detectivity and responsivity of the annealed sample.

  18. TESTING THE HYPOTHESIS THAT METHANOL MASER RINGS TRACE CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS: HIGH-RESOLUTION NEAR-INFRARED AND MID-INFRARED IMAGING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Buizer, James M.; Bartkiewicz, Anna; Szymczak, Marian

    2012-08-01

    Milliarcsecond very long baseline interferometry maps of regions containing 6.7 GHz methanol maser emission have lead to the recent discovery of ring-like distributions of maser spots and the plausible hypothesis that they may be tracing circumstellar disks around forming high-mass stars. We aimed to test this hypothesis by imaging these regions in the near- and mid-infrared at high spatial resolution and compare the observed emission to the expected infrared morphologies as inferred from the geometries of the maser rings. In the near-infrared we used the Gemini North adaptive optics system of ALTAIR/NIRI, while in the mid-infrared we used the combination of the Gemini South instrument T-ReCS and super-resolution techniques. Resultant images had a resolution of {approx}150 mas in both the near-infrared and mid-infrared. We discuss the expected distribution of circumstellar material around young and massive accreting (proto)stars and what infrared emission geometries would be expected for the different maser ring orientations under the assumption that the masers are coming from within circumstellar disks. Based upon the observed infrared emission geometries for the four targets in our sample and the results of spectral energy distribution modeling of the massive young stellar objects associated with the maser rings, we do not find compelling evidence in support of the hypothesis that methanol masers rings reside in circumstellar disks.

  19. Apparatus and method for transient thermal infrared spectrometry of flowable enclosed materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McClelland, John F.; Jones, Roger W.

    1993-03-02

    A method and apparatus for enabling analysis of a flowable material enclosed in a transport system having an infrared transparent wall portion. A temperature differential is transiently generated between a thin surface layer portion of the material and a lower or deeper portion of the material sufficient to alter the thermal infrared emission spectrum of the material from the black-body thermal infrared emission spectrum of the material, and the altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is detected through the infrared transparent portion of the transport system while the altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is sufficiently free of self-absorption by the material of emitted infrared radiation. The detection is effected prior to the temperature differential propagating into the lower or deeper portion of the material to an extent such that the altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is no longer sufficiently free of self-absorption by the material of emitted infrared radiation. By such detection, the detected altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is indicative of characteristics relating to molecular composition of the material.

  20. Spectral calibration in the mid-infrared: Challenges and solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sloan, G. C. [Cornell University, Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Herter, T. L.; Houck, J. R. [Cornell University, Astronomy Department, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Charmandaris, V. [Department of Physics and ITCP, University of Crete, GR-71003, Heraklion (Greece); Sheth, K. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Burgdorf, M., E-mail: sloan@isc.astro.cornell.edu [HE Space Operations, Flughafenallee 24, D-28199 Bremen (Germany)

    2015-01-01

    We present spectra obtained with the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope of 33 K giants and 20 A dwarfs to assess their suitability as spectrophotometric standard stars. The K giants confirm previous findings that the strength of the SiO absorption band at 8 ?m increases for both later optical spectral classes and redder (BV){sub 0} colors, but with considerable scatter. For K giants, the synthetic spectra underpredict the strengths of the molecular bands from SiO and OH. For these reasons, the assumed true spectra for K giants should be based on the assumption that molecular band strengths in the infrared can be predicted accurately from neither optical spectral class or color nor synthetric spectra. The OH bands in K giants grow stronger with cooler stellar temperatures, and they are stronger than predicted by synthetic spectra. As a group, A dwarfs are better behaved and more predictable than the K giants, but they are more likely to show red excesses from debris disks. No suitable A dwarfs were located in parts of the sky continuously observable from Spitzer, and with previous means of estimating the true spectra of K giants ruled out, it was necessary to use models of A dwarfs to calibrate spectra of K giants from observed spectral ratios of the two groups and then use the calibrated K giants as standards for the full database of infrared spectra from Spitzer. We also describe a lingering artifact that affects the spectra of faint blue sources at 24 ?m.

  1. Chemical detection using the airborne thermal infrared imaging spectrometer (TIRIS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gat, N.; Subramanian, S.; Sheffield, M.; Erives, H.; Barhen, J.

    1997-04-01

    A methodology is described for an airborne, downlooking, longwave infrared imaging spectrometer based technique for the detection and tracking of plumes of toxic gases. Plumes can be observed in emission or absorption, depending on the thermal contrast between the vapor and the background terrain. While the sensor is currently undergoing laboratory calibration and characterization, a radiative exchange phenomenology model has been developed to predict sensor response and to facilitate the sensor design. An inverse problem model has also been developed to obtain plume parameters based on sensor measurements. These models, the sensors, and ongoing activities are described.

  2. Arrays of SiO(2) Substrate-Free Micromechanical Uncooled THz and Infrared

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Detectors (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Arrays of SiO(2) Substrate-Free Micromechanical Uncooled THz and Infrared Detectors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Arrays of SiO(2) Substrate-Free Micromechanical Uncooled THz and Infrared Detectors We describe the design, fabrication, and characterization of arrays of uncooled infrared and terahertz micromechanical detectors that utilize SiO2 as a main structural material. Materials with highly dissimilar

  3. NEAR-INFRARED CIRCULAR POLARIZATION IMAGES OF NGC 6334-V

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwon, Jungmi; Tamura, Motohide; Hashimoto, Jun; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Kandori, Ryo; Lucas, Phil W.; Hough, James H.; Nakajima, Yasushi; Nagayama, Takahiro; Nagata, Tetsuya

    2013-03-01

    We present results from deep imaging linear and circular polarimetry of the massive star-forming region NGC 6334-V. These observations show high degrees of circular polarization (CP), as much as 22% in the K{sub s} band, in the infrared nebula associated with the outflow. The CP has an asymmetric positive/negative pattern and is very extended ({approx}80'' or 0.65 pc). Both the high CP and its extended size are larger than those seen in the Orion CP region. Three-dimensional Monte Carlo light-scattering models are used to show that the high CP may be produced by scattering from the infrared nebula followed by dichroic extinction by an optically thick foreground cloud containing aligned dust grains. Our results show not only the magnetic field orientation of around young stellar objects, but also the structure of circumstellar matter such as outflow regions and their parent molecular cloud along the line of sight. The detection of the large and extended CP in this source and the Orion nebula may imply the CP origin of the biological homochirality on Earth.

  4. Near-infrared free carrier absorption in heavily doped silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker-Finch, Simeon C.; McIntosh, Keith R.; Yan, Di; Fong, Kean Chern; Kho, Teng C.

    2014-08-14

    Free carrier absorption in heavily doped silicon can have a significant impact on devices operating in the infrared. In the near infrared, the free carrier absorption process can compete with band to band absorption processes, thereby reducing the number of available photons to optoelectronic devices such as solar cells. In this work, we fabricate 18 heavily doped regions by phosphorus and boron diffusion into planar polished silicon wafers; the simple sample structure facilitates accurate and precise measurement of the free carrier absorptance. We measure and model reflectance and transmittance dispersion to arrive at a parameterisation for the free carrier absorption coefficient that applies in the wavelength range between 1000 and 1500 nm, and the range of dopant densities between ∼10{sup 18} and 3 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3}. Our measurements indicate that previously published parameterisations underestimate the free carrier absorptance in phosphorus diffusions. On the other hand, published parameterisations are generally consistent with our measurements and model for boron diffusions. Our new model is the first to be assigned uncertainty and is well-suited to routine device analysis.

  5. THE INFRARED TELESCOPE FACILITY (IRTF) SPECTRAL LIBRARY: COOL STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rayner, John T.; Cushing, Michael C.; Vacca, William D. E-mail: michael.cushing@gmail.com

    2009-12-01

    We present a 0.8-5 {mu}m spectral library of 210 cool stars observed at a resolving power of R {identical_to} {lambda}/{delta}{lambda} {approx} 2000 with the medium-resolution infrared spectrograph, SpeX, at the 3.0 m NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. The stars have well-established MK spectral classifications and are mostly restricted to near-solar metallicities. The sample not only contains the F, G, K, and M spectral types with luminosity classes between I and V, but also includes some AGB, carbon, and S stars. In contrast to some other spectral libraries, the continuum shape of the spectra is measured and preserved in the data reduction process. The spectra are absolutely flux calibrated using the Two Micron All Sky Survey photometry. Potential uses of the library include studying the physics of cool stars, classifying and studying embedded young clusters and optically obscured regions of the Galaxy, evolutionary population synthesis to study unresolved stellar populations in optically obscured regions of galaxies and synthetic photometry. The library is available in digital form from the IRTF Web site.

  6. Tunable ultrasonic phononic crystal controlled by infrared radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Ezekiel; Neogi, Arup, E-mail: zhmwang@gmail.com, E-mail: arup@unt.edu [Institute of Fundamental and Frontier Sciences, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); University of North Texas, Department of Physics, Denton, Texas 76201 (United States); Reyes, Delfino [University of North Texas, Department of Physics, Denton, Texas 76201 (United States); Universidad Autnoma del Estado de Mxico, Toluca 50120 (Mexico); Rojas, Miguel Mayorga [Universidad Autnoma del Estado de Mxico, Toluca 50120 (Mexico); Krokhin, Arkadii [University of North Texas, Department of Physics, Denton, Texas 76201 (United States); Wang, Zhiming, E-mail: zhmwang@gmail.com, E-mail: arup@unt.edu [Institute of Fundamental and Frontier Sciences, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2014-10-06

    A tunable phononic crystal based ultrasonic filter was designed by stimulating the phase of the polymeric material embedded in a periodic structure using infrared radiation. The acoustic filter can be tuned remotely using thermal stimulation induced by the infrared radiation. The filter is composed of steel cylinder scatterers arranged periodically in a background of bulk poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) polymer hydrogel. The lattice structure creates forbidden bands for certain sets of mechanical waves that cause it to behave as an ultrasonic filter. Since the bandstructure is determined by not only the arrangement of the scatterers but also the physical properties of the materials composing the scatterers and background, modulating either the arrangement or physical properties will alter the effect of the crystal on propagating mechanical waves. Here, the physical properties of the filter are varied by inducing changes in the polymer hydrogel using an electromagnetic thermal stimulus. With particular focus on the k{sub 00}-wave, the transmission of ultrasonic wave changes by as much as 20 dBm, and band widths by 22% for select bands.

  7. Thermal And-Or Near Infrared At Railroad Valley Area (Laney,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    phenomena. The second objective relates to testing satellite thermal infrared (TIR) data for locating thermal anomalies that may be related to blind systems. A third...

  8. Thermal And-Or Near Infrared At Coso Geothermal Area (2007) ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and field data is effective for determining geothermal areas Notes Thermal infrared (TIR) data from the spaceborne ASTER instrument was used to detect surface temperature...

  9. Thermal And-Or Near Infrared At Raft River Geothermal Area (1997...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal And-Or Near Infrared At Raft River Geothermal Area (1997) Exploration Activity Details Location Raft River...

  10. Thermal And-Or Near Infrared At Raft River Geothermal Area (1974...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal And-Or Near Infrared At Raft River Geothermal Area (1974-1976) Exploration Activity Details Location Raft River...

  11. Thermal And-Or Near Infrared At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal And-Or Near Infrared At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details...

  12. Thermal And-Or Near Infrared At Akutan Fumaroles Area (Kienholz...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal And-Or Near Infrared At Akutan Fumaroles Area (Kienholz, Et Al., 2009) Exploration...

  13. Thermal And-Or Near Infrared At Fish Lake Valley Area (Deymonaz...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fish Lake Valley Area (Deymonaz, Et Al., 2008) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal And-Or Near Infrared At Fish Lake Valley...

  14. Thermal And-Or Near Infrared At Socorro Mountain Area (Owens...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    And-Or Near Infrared Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes IR remote sensing has located elevated surface temperatures (<12 degrees C above...

  15. Three-dimensional molecular imaging by infrared laser ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vertes, Akos; Nemes, Peter

    2011-06-21

    The field of the invention is atmospheric pressure mass spectrometry (MS), and more specifically a process and apparatus which combine infrared laser ablation with electrospray ionization (ESI).

  16. Three-dimensional molecular imaging by infrared laser ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vertes, Akos; Nemes, Peter

    2013-07-16

    The field of the invention is atmospheric pressure mass spectrometry (MS), and more specifically a process and apparatus which combine infrared laser ablation with electrospray ionization (ESI).

  17. Three-dimensional molecular imaging by infrared laser ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vertes, Akos; Nemes, Peter

    2012-10-30

    The field of the invention is atmospheric pressure mass spectrometry (MS), and more specifically a process and apparatus which combine infrared laser ablation with electrospray ionization (ESI).

  18. THE GALACTIC CENTER IN THE FAR-INFRARED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Etxaluze, M.; Smith, Howard A.; Tolls, V.; Stark, A. A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Gonzalez-Alfonso, E., E-mail: metxaluz@cfa.harvard.edu [CfA and Universidad de Alcala, Alcala de Henares 28801 (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    We analyze the far-infrared dust emission from the Galactic center region, including the circumnuclear disk (CND) and other structures, using Herschel PACS and SPIRE photometric observations. These Herschel data are complemented by unpublished observations by the Infrared Space Observatory Long Wavelength Spectrometer (ISO-LWS), which used parallel mode scans to obtain photometric images of the region with a larger beam than Herschel but with a complementary wavelength coverage and more frequent sampling with 10 detectors observing at 10 different wavelengths in the range from 46 {mu}m to 180 {mu}m, where the emission peaks. We also include data from the Midcourse Space Experiment at 21.3 {mu}m for completeness. We model the combined ISO-LWS continuum plus Herschel PACS and SPIRE photometric data toward the central 2 pc in Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), a region that includes the CND. We find that the far-infrared spectral energy distribution is best represented by a continuum that is the sum of three gray body curves from dust at temperatures of 90, 44.5, and 23 K. We obtain temperature and molecular hydrogen column density maps of the region. We estimate the mass of the inner part of the CND to be {approx}5.0 x 10{sup 4} M{sub sun}, with luminosities: L{sub cavity} {approx} 2.2 x 10{sup 6} L{sub sun} and L{sub CND} {approx} 1.5 x 10{sup 6} L{sub sun} in the central 2 pc radius around Sgr A*. We find from the Herschel and ISO data that the cold component of the dust dominates the total dust mass, with a contribution of {approx}3.2 x 10{sup 4} M{sub sun}; this important cold material had escaped the notice of earlier studies that relied on shorter wavelength observations. The hotter component disagrees with some earlier estimates, but is consistent with measured gas temperatures and with models that imply shock heating or turbulent effects are at work. We find that the dust grain sizes apparently change widely across the region, perhaps in response to the temperature variations, and we map that distribution.

  19. Scattering assisted injection based injectorless mid infrared quantum cascade laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Siddharth Kamoua, Ridha

    2014-06-07

    An injectorless five-well mid infrared quantum cascade laser is analyzed which relies on phonon scattering injection in contrast to resonant tunneling injection, which has been previously used for injectorless designs. A Monte Carlo based self-consistent electron and photon transport simulator is used to analyze the performance of the analyzed design and compare it to existing injectorless designs. The simulation results show that the analyzed design could greatly enhance the optical gain and the characteristic temperatures of injectorless quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) which have typically been hindered by low characteristic temperatures and significant temperature related performance degradation. Simulations of the analyzed device predict threshold current densities of 0.85?kA/cm{sup 2} and 1.95?kA/cm{sup 2} at 77?K and 300?K, respectively, which are comparable to the threshold current densities of conventional injector based QCLs.

  20. Strain-compensated infrared photodetector and photodetector array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Jin K; Hawkins, Samuel D; Klem, John F; Cich, Michael J

    2013-05-28

    A photodetector is disclosed for the detection of infrared light with a long cutoff wavelength in the range of about 4.5-10 microns. The photodetector, which can be formed on a semiconductor substrate as an nBn device, has a light absorbing region which includes InAsSb light-absorbing layers and tensile-strained layers interspersed between the InAsSb light-absorbing layers. The tensile-strained layers can be formed from GaAs, InAs, InGaAs or a combination of these III-V compound semiconductor materials. A barrier layer in the photodetector can be formed from AlAsSb or AlGaAsSb; and a contact layer in the photodetector can be formed from InAs, GaSb or InAsSb. The photodetector is useful as an individual device, or to form a focal plane array.

  1. Infrared singularities of scattering amplitudes in perturbative QCD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becher, Thomas; Neubert, Matthias

    2013-11-01

    An exact formula is derived for the infrared singularities of dimensionally regularized scattering amplitudes in massless QCD with an arbitrary number of legs, valid at any number of loops. It is based on the conjecture that the anomalous-dimension matrix of n-jet operators in soft-collinear effective theory contains only a single non-trivial color structure, whose coefficient is the cusp anomalous dimension of Wilson loops with light-like segments. Its color-diagonal part is characterized by two anomalous dimensions, which are extracted to three-loop order from known perturbative results for the quark and gluon form factors. This allows us to predict the three-loop coefficients of all 1/epsilon^k poles for an arbitrary n-parton scattering amplitudes, generalizing existing two-loop results.

  2. Three-dimensional infrared metamaterial with asymmetric transmission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenanakis, George; Xomalis, Aggelos; Selimis, Alexandros; Vamvakaki, Maria; Farsari, Maria; Kafesaki, Maria; Soukoulis, Costas M.; Economou, Eleftherios N.

    2015-01-14

    A novel three-dimensional (3D) metallic metamaterial structure with asymmetric transmission for linear polarization is demonstrated in the infrared spectral region. The structure was fabricated by direct laser writing and selective electroless silver coating, a straightforward, novel technique producing mechanically and chemically stable 3D photonic structures. The structure unit cell is composed of a pair of conductively coupled magnetic resonators, and the asymmetric transmission response results from interplay of electric and magnetic responses; this equips the structure with almost total opaqueness along one propagation direction versus satisfying transparency along the opposite one. It also offers easily adjustable impedance, 90° one-way pure optical activity and backward propagation possibility, resulting thus in unique capabilities in polarization control and isolation applications. We show also that scaling down the structure can make it capable of exhibiting its asymmetric transmission and its polarization capabilities in the optical region.

  3. Three-dimensional infrared metamaterial with asymmetric transmission

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kenanakis, George; Xomalis, Aggelos; Selimis, Alexandros; Vamvakaki, Maria; Farsari, Maria; Kafesaki, Maria; Soukoulis, Costas M.; Economou, Eleftherios N.

    2015-01-14

    A novel three-dimensional (3D) metallic metamaterial structure with asymmetric transmission for linear polarization is demonstrated in the infrared spectral region. The structure was fabricated by direct laser writing and selective electroless silver coating, a straightforward, novel technique producing mechanically and chemically stable 3D photonic structures. The structure unit cell is composed of a pair of conductively coupled magnetic resonators, and the asymmetric transmission response results from interplay of electric and magnetic responses; this equips the structure with almost total opaqueness along one propagation direction versus satisfying transparency along the opposite one. It also offers easily adjustable impedance, 90° one-way puremore » optical activity and backward propagation possibility, resulting thus in unique capabilities in polarization control and isolation applications. We show also that scaling down the structure can make it capable of exhibiting its asymmetric transmission and its polarization capabilities in the optical region.« less

  4. Methods and apparatus for mid-infrared sensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Pao Tai; Cai, Yan; Agarwal, Anuradha Murthy; Kimerling, Lionel C.

    2015-06-02

    A chip-scale, air-clad semiconductor pedestal waveguide can be used as a mid-infrared (mid-IR) sensor capable of in situ monitoring of organic solvents and other analytes. The sensor uses evanescent coupling from a silicon or germanium waveguide, which is highly transparent in the mid-IR portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, to probe the absorption spectrum of fluid surrounding the waveguide. Launching a mid-IR beam into the waveguide exposed to a particular analyte causes attenuation of the evanescent wave's spectral components due to absorption by carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and/or nitrogen bonds in the surrounding fluid. Detecting these changes at the waveguide's output provides an indication of the type and concentration of one or more compounds in the surrounding fluid. If desired, the sensor may be integrated onto a silicon substrate with a mid-IR light source and a mid-IR detector to form a chip-based spectrometer.

  5. Active Control of Nitride Plasmonic Dispersion in the Far Infrared.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaner, Eric A.; Dyer, Gregory Conrad; Seng, William Francis; Bethke, Donald Thomas; Grine, Albert Dario,; Baca, Albert G.; Allerman, Andrew A.

    2014-11-01

    We investigate plasmonic structures in nitride-based materials for far-infrared (IR) applications. The two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in the GaN/AlGaN material system, much like metal- dielectric structures, is a patternable plasmonic medium. However, it also permits for direct tunability via an applied voltage. While there have been proof-of-principle demonstrations of plasma excitations in nitride 2DEGs, exploration of the potential of this material system has thus far been limited. We recently demonstrated coherent phenomena such as the formation of plasmonic crystals, strong coupling of tunable crystal defects to a plasmonic crystal, and electromagnetically induced transparency in GaAs/AlGaAs 2DEGs at sub-THz frequencies. In this project, we explore whether these effects can be realized in nitride 2DEG materials above 1 THz and at temperatures exceeding 77 K.

  6. Smart Infrared Inspection System Field Operational Test Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siekmann, Adam; Capps, Gary J; Franzese, Oscar; Lascurain, Mary Beth

    2011-06-01

    The Smart InfraRed Inspection System (SIRIS) is a tool designed to assist inspectors in determining which vehicles passing through the SIRIS system are in need of further inspection by measuring the thermal data from the wheel components. As a vehicle enters the system, infrared cameras on the road measure temperatures of the brakes, tires, and wheel bearings on both wheel ends of commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in motion. This thermal data is then presented to enforcement personal inside of the inspection station on a user friendly interface. Vehicles that are suspected to have a violation are automatically alerted to the enforcement staff. The main goal of the SIRIS field operational test (FOT) was to collect data to evaluate the performance of the prototype system and determine the viability of such a system being used for commercial motor vehicle enforcement. From March 2010 to September 2010, ORNL facilitated the SIRIS FOT at the Greene County Inspection Station (IS) in Greeneville, Tennessee. During the course of the FOT, 413 CMVs were given a North American Standard (NAS) Level-1 inspection. Of those 413 CMVs, 384 were subjected to a SIRIS screening. A total of 36 (9.38%) of the vehicles were flagged by SIRIS as having one or more thermal issues; with brakes issues making up 33 (91.67%) of those. Of the 36 vehicles flagged as having thermal issues, 31 (86.11%) were found to have a violation and 30 (83.33%) of those vehicles were placed out-of-service (OOS). Overall the enforcement personnel who have used SIRIS for screening purposes have had positive feedback on the potential of SIRIS. With improvements in detection algorithms and stability, the system will be beneficial to the CMV enforcement community and increase overall trooper productivity by accurately identifying a higher percentage of CMVs to be placed OOS with minimal error. No future evaluation of SIRIS has been deemed necessary and specifications for a production system will soon be drafted.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF NEW MID-INFRARED ULTRAFAST LASER SOURCES FOR COMPACT COHERENT X-RAY SOURCES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sterling Backus

    2012-05-14

    In this project, we proposed to develop laser based mid-infrared lasers as a potentially robust and reliable source of ultrafast pulses in the mid-infrared region of the spectrum, and to apply this light source to generating bright, coherent, femtosecond-to-attosecond x-ray beams.

  8. Study on the activation of styrene-based shape memory polymer by medium-infrared laser light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leng Jinsong; Yu Kai; Lan Xin; Zhang Dawei; Liu Yanju

    2010-03-15

    This paper demonstrates the feasibility of shape memory polymer (SMP) activation by medium-infrared laser light. Medium-infrared light is transmitted by an optical fiber embedded in the SMP matrix, and the shape recovery process and temperature distribution are recorded by an infrared camera. Light-induced SMP exhibits potential applications in biomedicines and flexible displays.

  9. Computational and experimental research on infrared trace by human being contact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiong Zonglong; Yang Kuntao; Ding Wenxiu; Zhang Nanyangsheng; Zheng Wenheng

    2010-06-20

    The indoor detection of the human body's thermal trace plays an important role in the fields of infrared detecting, scouting, infrared camouflage, and infrared rescuing and tracking. Currently, quantitative description and analysis for this technology are lacking due to the absence of human infrared radiation analysis. To solve this problem, we study the heating and cooling process by observing body contact and removal on an object, respectively. Through finite-element simulation and carefully designed experiments, an analytical model of the infrared trace of body contact is developed based on infrared physics and heat transfer theory. Using this model, the impact of body temperature on material thermal parameters is investigated. The sensitivity of material thermal parameters, the thermal distribution, and the changes of the thermograph's contrast are then found and analyzed. Excellent matching results achieved between the simulation and the experiments demonstrate the strong impact of temperature on material thermal parameters. Conclusively, the new model, simulation, and experimental results are beneficial to the future development and implementation of infrared trace technology.

  10. A JOINT MODEL OF X-RAY AND INFRARED BACKGROUNDS. II. COMPTON-THICK ACTIVE

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    GALACTIC NUCLEUS ABUNDANCE (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect X-RAY AND INFRARED BACKGROUNDS. II. COMPTON-THICK ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS ABUNDANCE Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A JOINT MODEL OF X-RAY AND INFRARED BACKGROUNDS. II. COMPTON-THICK ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS ABUNDANCE We estimate the abundance of Compton-thick (CT) active galactic nuclei (AGNs) based on our joint model of X-ray and infrared backgrounds. At L{sub rest2-10{sub keV}} > 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}, the CT

  11. A REDSHIFT SURVEY OF HERSCHEL FAR-INFRARED SELECTED STARBURSTS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR OBSCURED STAR FORMATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casey, C. M.; Budynkiewicz, J.; Berta, S.; Lutz, D.; Magnelli, B.; Bethermin, M.; Le Floc'h, E.; Magdis, G.; Burgarella, D.; Chapin, E.; Chapman, S. C.; Clements, D. L.; Conley, A.; Conselice, C. J.; Cooray, A.; Farrah, D.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Ivison, R. J.; and others

    2012-12-20

    We present Keck spectroscopic observations and redshifts for a sample of 767 Herschel-SPIRE selected galaxies (HSGs) at 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m, taken with the Keck I Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer and the Keck II DEep Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph. The redshift distribution of these SPIRE sources from the Herschel Multitiered Extragalactic Survey peaks at z = 0.85, with 731 sources at z < 2 and a tail of sources out to z {approx} 5. We measure more significant disagreement between photometric and spectroscopic redshifts (({Delta}z/(1 + z{sub spec})) = 0.29) than is seen in non-infrared selected samples, likely due to enhanced star formation rates and dust obscuration in infrared-selected galaxies. The infrared data are used to directly measure integrated infrared luminosities and dust temperatures independent of radio or 24 {mu}m flux densities. By probing the dust spectral energy distribution (SED) at its peak, we estimate that the vast majority (72%-83%) of z < 2 Herschel-selected galaxies would drop out of traditional submillimeter surveys at 0.85-1 mm. We find that dust temperature traces infrared luminosity, due in part to the SPIRE wavelength selection biases, and partially from physical effects. As a result, we measure no significant trend in SPIRE color with redshift; if dust temperature were independent of luminosity or redshift, a trend in SPIRE color would be expected. Composite infrared SEDs are constructed as a function of infrared luminosity, showing the increase in dust temperature with luminosity, and subtle change in near-infrared and mid-infrared spectral properties. Moderate evolution in the far-infrared (FIR)/radio correlation is measured for this partially radio-selected sample, with q{sub IR}{proportional_to}(1 + z){sup -0.30{+-}0.02} at z < 2. We estimate the luminosity function and implied star formation rate density contribution of HSGs at z < 1.6 and find overall agreement with work based on 24 {mu}m extrapolations of the LIRG, ULIRG, and total infrared contributions. This work significantly increased the number of spectroscopically confirmed infrared-luminous galaxies at z >> 0 and demonstrates the growing importance of dusty starbursts for galaxy evolution studies and the build-up of stellar mass throughout cosmic time.

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and mid-infrared continuum emission in a z

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    > 4 submillimeter galaxy (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and mid-infrared continuum emission in a z > 4 submillimeter galaxy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and mid-infrared continuum emission in a z > 4 submillimeter galaxy We report the detection of 6.2 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and rest-frame 4-7 μm continuum emission in the z = 4.055 submillimeter galaxy GN20, using the Infrared

  13. Design and implementation of a rapid-mixer flow cell for time-resolved infrared microspectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marinkovic, Nebojsa S.; Adzic, Aleksandar R.; Sullivan, Michael; Kovacs, Kevin; Miller, Lisa M.; Rousseau, Denis L.; Yeh, Syun-Ru; Chance, Mark R.

    2000-11-01

    A rapid mixer for the analysis of reactions in the millisecond and submillisecond time domains by Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy has been constructed. The cell was tested by examination of cytochrome-c folding kinetics. The device allows collection of full infrared spectral data on millisecond and faster time scales subsequent to chemical jump reaction initiation. The data quality is sufficiently good such that spectral fitting techniques could be applied to analysis of the data. Thus, this method provides an advantage over kinetic measurements at single wavelengths using infrared laser or diode sources, particularly where band overlap exists.

  14. Enhanced visible and near-infrared capabilities of the JET mirror-linked divertor spectroscopy system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lomanowski, B. A. Sharples, R. M.; Meigs, A. G.; Conway, N. J.; Zastrow, K.-D.; Heesterman, P.; Kinna, D. [EURATOM Collaboration: JET-EFDA Team

    2014-11-15

    The mirror-linked divertor spectroscopy diagnostic on JET has been upgraded with a new visible and near-infrared grating and filtered spectroscopy system. New capabilities include extended near-infrared coverage up to 1875 nm, capturing the hydrogen Paschen series, as well as a 2 kHz frame rate filtered imaging camera system for fast measurements of impurity (Be II) and deuterium D?, D?, D? line emission in the outer divertor. The expanded system provides unique capabilities for studying spatially resolved divertor plasma dynamics at near-ELM resolved timescales as well as a test bed for feasibility assessment of near-infrared spectroscopy.

  15. Sweetspot: Near-infrared observations of 13 type Ia supernovae from a new

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    NOAO survey probing the nearby smooth Hubble flow (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Sweetspot: Near-infrared observations of 13 type Ia supernovae from a new NOAO survey probing the nearby smooth Hubble flow Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Sweetspot: Near-infrared observations of 13 type Ia supernovae from a new NOAO survey probing the nearby smooth Hubble flow We present 13 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observed in the rest-frame near-infrared (NIR) from 0.02 < z < 0.09

  16. Infrared spectroscopy and structure of (NO)n clusters

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hoshina, Hiromichi; Slipchenko, Mikhail; Prozument, Kirill; Verma, Deepak; Schmidt, Michael W.; Ivanic, Joseph; Vilesov, Andrey F.

    2016-01-12

    Nitrogen oxide clusters (NO)n have been studied in He droplets via infrared depletion spectroscopy and by quantum chemical calculations. The ν1 and ν5 bands of cis-ON-NO dimer have been observed at 1868.2 and 1786.5 cm–1, respectively. Furthermore, spectral bands of the trimer and tetramer have been located in the vicinity of the corresponding dimer bands in accord with computed frequencies that place NO-stretch bands of dimer, trimer, and tetramer within a few wavenumbers of each other. In addition, a new line at 1878.1 cm–1 close to the band origin of single molecules was assigned to van der Waals bound dimersmore » of (NO)2, which are stabilized due to the rapid cooling in He droplets. Spectra of larger clusters (n > 5), have broad unresolved features in the vicinity of the dimer bands. As a result, experiments and calculations indicate that trimers consist of a dimer and a loosely bound third molecule, whereas the tetramer consists of two weakly bound dimers.« less

  17. Design, manufacture, and calibration of infrared radiometric blackbody sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byrd, D.A.; Michaud, F.D.; Bender, S.C.

    1996-04-01

    A Radiometric Calibration Station (RCS) is being assembled at the Los Alamos National Laboratories (LANL) which will allow for calibration of sensors with detector arrays having spectral capability from about 0.4-15 {mu}m. The configuration of the LANL RCS. Two blackbody sources have been designed to cover the spectral range from about 3-15 {mu}m, operating at temperatures ranging from about 180-350 K within a vacuum environment. The sources are designed to present a uniform spectral radiance over a large area to the sensor unit under test. The thermal uniformity requirement of the blackbody cavities has been one of the key factors of the design, requiring less than 50 mK variation over the entire blackbody surface to attain effective emissivity values of about 0.999. Once the two units are built and verified to the level of about 100 mK at LANL, they will be sent to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), where at least a factor of two improvement will be calibrated into the blackbody control system. The physical size of these assemblies will require modifications of the existing NIST Low Background Infrared (LBIR) Facility. LANL has constructed a bolt-on addition to the LBIR facility that will allow calibration of our large aperture sources. Methodology for attaining the two blackbody sources at calibrated levels of performance equivalent to present state of the art will be explained in the following.

  18. High-Density Infrared Surface Treatments of Refractories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tiegs, T.N.

    2005-03-31

    Refractory materials play a crucial role in all energy-intensive industries and are truly a crosscutting technology for the Industries of the Future (IOF). One of the major mechanisms for the degradation of refractories and a general decrease in their performance has been the penetration and corrosion by molten metals or glass. Methods and materials that would reduce the penetration, wetting, and corrosive chemistry would significantly improve refractory performance and also maintain the quality of the processed liquid, be it metal or glass. This report presents the results of an R&D project aimed at investigating the use of high-density infrared (HDI) heating to surface treat refractories to improve their performance. The project was a joint effort between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the University of Missouri-Rolla (UMR). HDI is capable of heating the near-surface region of materials to very high temperatures where sintering, diffusion, and melting can occur. The intended benefits of HDI processing of refractories were to (1) reduce surface porosity (by essentially sealing the surface to prevent liquid penetration), (2) allow surface chemistry changes to be performed by bonding an adherent coating onto the underlying refractory (in order to inhibit wetting and/or improve corrosion resistance), and (3) produce noncontact refractories with high-emissivity surface coatings.

  19. Infrared Extraction Change for the NSLS-II Storage Ring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blednykh,A.; Carr, L.; Coburn, D.; Krinsky, S.

    2009-05-04

    The short- and long-range wakepotentials have been studied for the design of the infrared (IR) extraction chamber with large full aperture: 67mm vertical and 134mm horizontal. The IR-chamber will be installed within a 2.6m long wide-gap bending magnet with 25m bend radius. Due to the large bend radius it is difficult to separate the light from the electron trajectory. The required parameters of the collected IR radiation at the extraction mirror are {approx}50mrad horizontal and {approx}25mrad vertical (full radiation opening angles). If the extraction mirror is seen by the beam, resonant modes are generated in the chamber. In this paper, we present the detailed calculated impedance for the design of the far-IR chamber, and show that placing the extraction mirror in the proper position eliminates the resonances. In this case, the impedance reduces to that of a simple tapered structure, which is acceptable in regard to its impact on the electron beam.

  20. Nanosecond Mid-Infrared Detection for Pulse Radiolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grills,D.C.; Preses, J.M.; Wishart, J.F.; Cook, A.R.

    2009-07-12

    Pulse radiolysis, utilizing electron pulses from accelerators, is the definitive method for adding single positive or negative charges to molecules. It is also among the most effective means for creating free radicals. Such species are particularly important in applications such as redox catalysis relevant to solar energy conversion and advanced nuclear energy systems. Coupled with fast UV-visible detection, pulse radiolysis has become an extremely powerful method for monitoring the kinetics of the subsequent reactions of these species on timescales ranging from picoseconds to seconds. However, in many important contexts the radicals formed are difficult to identify due to their broad and featureless UV-visible absorption spectra. Time-resolved infrared (TRIR) absorption spectroscopy is a powerful structural probe of short-lived intermediates, which allows multiple transient species to be clearly identified and simultaneously monitored in a single process. Unfortunately, due to technical challenges the coupling of fast (sub-millisecond) TRIR with pulse radiolysis has received little attention, being confined to gas-phase studies. Taking advantage of recent developments in mid-IR laser technology, we have recently begun developing nanosecond TRIR detection methodologies for condensed-phase samples at our Laser Electron Accelerator Facility (LEAF). The results of preliminary pulse radiolysis-TRIR investigations on the formation of the one-electron reduced forms of CO{sub 2} reduction catalysts (e.g. see above) and their interactions with CO{sub 2} will be presented.

  1. The {ital COBE} Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment Search for the Cosmic Infrared Background. I. Limits and Detections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauser, M.G.; Arendt, R.G.; Kelsall, T.; Dwek, E.; Odegard, N.; Weiland, J.L.; Freudenreich, H.T.; Reach, W.T.; Pei, Y.C.; Lubin, P.; Mather, J.C.; Shafer, R.A.; Smoot, G.F.; Weiss, R.; Wilkinson, D.T.; Wright, E.L.

    1998-11-01

    The Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) on the Cosmic Background Explorer ({ital COBE}) spacecraft was designed primarily to conduct a systematic search for an isotropic cosmic infrared background (CIB) in 10 photometric bands from 1.25 to 240 {mu}m. The results of that search are presented here. Conservative limits on the CIB are obtained from the minimum observed brightness in all-sky maps at each wavelength, with the faintest limits in the DIRBE spectral range being at 3.5 {mu}m ({nu}{ital I}{sub {nu}} {lt} 64 nW m{sup {minus}2} sr{sup {minus}1}, 95{percent} confidence level) and at 240 {mu}m ({nu}{ital I}{sub {nu}} {lt} 28 nW m{sup {minus}2} sr{sup {minus}1}, 95{percent} confidence level). The bright foregrounds from interplanetary dust scattering and emission, stars, and interstellar dust emission are the principal impediments to the DIRBE measurements of the CIB. These foregrounds have been modeled and removed from the sky maps. Assessment of the random and systematic uncertainties in the residuals and tests for isotropy show that only the 140 and 240 {mu}m data provide candidate detections of the CIB. The residuals and their uncertainties provide CIB upper limits more restrictive than the dark sky limits at wavelengths from 1.25 to 100 {mu}m. No plausible solar system or Galactic source of the observed 140 and 240 {mu}m residuals can be identified, leading to the conclusion that the CIB has been detected at levels of {nu}{ital I}{sub {nu}} = 25 {plus_minus} 7 and 14 {plus_minus} 3 nW m{sup {minus}2} sr{sup {minus}1} at 140 and 240 {mu}m, respectively. The integrated energy from 140 to 240 {mu}m, 10.3 nW m{sup {minus}2} sr{sup {minus}1}, is about twice the integrated optical light from the galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field, suggesting that star formation might have been heavily enshrouded by dust at high redshift. The detections and upper limits reported here provide new constraints on models of the history of energy-releasing processes and dust production since the decoupling of the cosmic microwave background from matter. {copyright} {ital {copyright} 1998.} {ital The American Astronomical Society}

  2. Final LDRD report : infrared detection and power generation using self-assembled quantum dots.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cederberg, Jeffrey George; Ellis, Robert; Shaner, Eric Arthur

    2008-02-01

    Alternative solutions are desired for mid-wavelength and long-wavelength infrared radiation detection and imaging arrays. We have investigated quantum dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs) as a possible solution for long-wavelength infrared (8 to 12 {mu}m) radiation sensing. This document provides a summary for work done under the LDRD 'Infrared Detection and Power Generation Using Self-Assembled Quantum Dots'. Under this LDRD, we have developed QDIP sensors and made efforts to improve these devices. While the sensors fabricated show good responsivity at 80 K, their detectivity is limited by high noise current. Following efforts concentrated on how to reduce or eliminate this problem, but with no clear path was identified to the desired performance improvements.

  3. Stacked silicide/silicon mid- to long-wavelength infrared detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maserjian, Joseph

    1990-03-13

    The use of stacked Schottky barriers (16) with epitaxially grown thin silicides (10) combined with selective doping (22) of the barriers provides high quantum efficiency infrared detectors (30) at longer wavelengths that is compatible with existing silicon VLSI technology.

  4. Thermal And-Or Near Infrared At U.S. West Region (Krohn, Et Al...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Infrared Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Over 30 disseminated gold or hot-spring deposits in the western U.S. were sampled for ammonium-bearing minerals...

  5. THE SPITZER MID-INFRARED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS SURVEY. I. OPTICAL AND NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF OBSCURED CANDIDATES AND NORMAL ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI SELECTED IN THE MID-INFRARED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lacy, M.; Ridgway, S. E.; Gates, E. L.; Petric, A. O.; Sajina, A.; Urrutia, T.; Cox Drews, S.; Harrison, C.; Seymour, N.; Storrie-Lombardi, L. J.

    2013-10-01

    We present the results of a program of optical and near-infrared spectroscopic follow-up of candidate active galactic nuclei (AGNs) selected in the mid-infrared. This survey selects both normal and obscured AGNs closely matched in luminosity across a wide range, from Seyfert galaxies with bolometric luminosities L {sub bol} ? 10{sup 10} L {sub ?} to highly luminous quasars (L {sub bol} ? 10{sup 14} L {sub ?}), all with redshifts ranging from 0 to 4.3. Samples of candidate AGNs were selected with mid-infrared color cuts at several different 24 ?m flux density limits to ensure a range of luminosities at a given redshift. The survey consists of 786 candidate AGNs and quasars, of which 672 have spectroscopic redshifts and classifications. Of these, 137 (20%) are type 1 AGNs with blue continua, 294 (44%) are type 2 objects with extinctions A{sub V} ?> 5 toward their AGNs, 96 (14%) are AGNs with lower extinctions (A{sub V} ? 1), and 145 (22%) have redshifts, but no clear signs of AGN activity in their spectra. Of the survey objects 50% have L {sub bol} > 10{sup 12} L {sub ?}, in the quasar regime. We present composite spectra for type 2 quasars and objects with no signs of AGN activity in their spectra. We also discuss the mid-infraredemission-line luminosity correlation and present the results of cross correlations with serendipitous X-ray and radio sources. The results show that: (1) obscured objects dominate the overall AGN population, (2) mid-infrared selected AGN candidates exist which lack AGN signatures in their optical spectra but have AGN-like X-ray or radio counterparts, and (3) X-ray and optical classifications of obscured and unobscured AGNs often differ.

  6. The phase transition in VO2 probed using x-ray, visible and infrared

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    radiations phase transition in VO2 probed using x-ray, visible and infrared radiations The phase transition in VO2 probed using x-ray, visible and infrared radiations Print Thursday, 18 February 2016 10:48 The nearly simultaneous Mott (electronic) and Peierls (structural) transitions in vanadium dioxide are of significant scientific interest and have tremendous technological promise in computing, memory, optics, and micromechanics. The cover features nanoscale-resolution maps of the Mott and

  7. Method of using infrared radiation for assembling a first component with a second component

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Whitson, Barry G. (Corryton, TN); Blue, Craig A. (Knoxville, TN)

    1999-01-01

    A method of assembling a first component for assembly with a second component involves a heating device which includes an enclosure having a cavity for inserting a first component. An array of infrared energy generators is disposed within the enclosure. At least a portion of the first component is inserted into the cavity, exposed to infrared energy and thereby heated to a temperature wherein the portion of the first component is sufficiently softened and/or expanded for assembly with a second component.

  8. Infrared Cloud Imager Deployment at the North Slope of Alaska During Early 2002

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrared Cloud Imager Deployment at the North Slope of Alaska During Early 2002 J. A. Shaw and B. Thurairajah Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Montana State University Bozeman, Montana E. Edqvist National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado K. Mizutani Communications Research Laboratory Koganei, Tokyo, Japan Introduction Starting in February 2002, we deployed a new cloud-radiation sensor called the infrared cloud imager

  9. Multi-spectral Infrared Computed Tomography (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Multi-spectral Infrared Computed Tomography Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Multi-spectral Infrared Computed Tomography Authors: Bingham, Philip R [1] ; Morales Rodriguez, Marissa E [1] ; Datskos, Panos G [1] ; Graham, David E [1] + Show Author Affiliations ORNL Publication Date: 2016-01-01 OSTI Identifier: 1240578 DOE Contract Number: AC05-00OR22725 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: Electronic Imaging, San Francisco, CA, USA, 20160214, 20160214

  10. Self-Assembled ErSb Nanostructures with Optical Applications in Infrared

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and Terahertz (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Self-Assembled ErSb Nanostructures with Optical Applications in Infrared and Terahertz Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Self-Assembled ErSb Nanostructures with Optical Applications in Infrared and Terahertz Authors: Lu, Hong ; Ouellette, Daniel G. ; Preu, Sascha ; Watts, Justin D. ; Zaks, Benjamin ; Burke, Peter G. ; Sherwin, Mark S. ; Gossard, Arthur C. Publication Date: 2014-03-12 OSTI Identifier: 1160953 DOE Contract Number:

  11. Time-resolved far-infrared experiments at the National Synchrotron Light Source. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanner, D.B.; Reitze, D.H.; Carr, G.L.

    1999-10-12

    A facility for time-resolved infrared and far-infrared spectroscopy has been built and commissioned at the National Synchrotron Light Source. This facility permits the study of time dependent phenomena over a frequency range from 2-8000cm{sup {minus}1} (0.25 meV-1 eV). Temporal resolution is approximately 200 psec and time dependent phenomena in the time range out to 100 nsec can be investigated.

  12. A two-parameter model for the infrared/submillimeter/radio spectral energy

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    distributions of galaxies and active galactic nuclei (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect A two-parameter model for the infrared/submillimeter/radio spectral energy distributions of galaxies and active galactic nuclei Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A two-parameter model for the infrared/submillimeter/radio spectral energy distributions of galaxies and active galactic nuclei A two-parameter semi-empirical model is presented for the spectral energy distributions of galaxies with

  13. Thermophotovoltaic conversion using selective infrared line emitters and large band gap photovoltaic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brandhorst, Jr., Henry W.; Chen, Zheng

    2000-01-01

    Efficient thermophotovoltaic conversion can be performed using photovoltaic devices with a band gap in the 0.75-1.4 electron volt range, and selective infrared emitters chosen from among the rare earth oxides which are thermally stimulated to emit infrared radiation whose energy very largely corresponds to the aforementioned band gap. It is possible to use thermovoltaic devices operating at relatively high temperatures, up to about 300.degree. C., without seriously impairing the efficiency of energy conversion.

  14. In-situ infrared spectroscopic studies of hydroxyl in amphiboles at high

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    pressure (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: In-situ infrared spectroscopic studies of hydroxyl in amphiboles at high pressure Citation Details In-Document Search Title: In-situ infrared spectroscopic studies of hydroxyl in amphiboles at high pressure Authors: Thompson, Elizabeth C. ; Campbell, Andrew J. ; Liu, Zhenxian [1] ; CIW) [2] + Show Author Affiliations UC ( Publication Date: 2016-03-08 OSTI Identifier: 1241067 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation:

  15. THE INFRARED SPECTRUM OF URANIUM HOLLOW CATHODE LAMPS FROM 850 nm to 4000

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    nm: WAVENUMBERS AND LINE IDENTIFICATIONS FROM FOURIER TRANSFORM SPECTRA (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect THE INFRARED SPECTRUM OF URANIUM HOLLOW CATHODE LAMPS FROM 850 nm to 4000 nm: WAVENUMBERS AND LINE IDENTIFICATIONS FROM FOURIER TRANSFORM SPECTRA Citation Details In-Document Search Title: THE INFRARED SPECTRUM OF URANIUM HOLLOW CATHODE LAMPS FROM 850 nm to 4000 nm: WAVENUMBERS AND LINE IDENTIFICATIONS FROM FOURIER TRANSFORM SPECTRA We provide new measurements of wavenumbers and line

  16. PROBING THE UNIVERSE'S TILT WITH THE COSMIC INFRARED BACKGROUND DIPOLE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fixsen, D. J.; Kashlinsky, A. E-mail: alexander.kashlinsky@nasa.gov

    2011-06-10

    Conventional interpretation of the observed cosmic microwave background (CMB) dipole is that all of it is produced by local peculiar motions. Alternative explanations requiring part of the dipole to be primordial have received support from measurements of large-scale bulk flows. A test of the two hypotheses is whether other cosmic dipoles produced by collapsed structures later than the last scattering coincide with the CMB dipole. One background is the cosmic infrared background (CIB) whose absolute spectrum was measured to {approx}30% by the COBE satellite. Over the 100-500 {mu}m wavelength range its spectral energy distribution can provide a probe of its alignment with the CMB. This is tested with the COBE FIRAS data set which is available for such a measurement because of its low noise and frequency resolution which are important for Galaxy subtraction. Although the FIRAS instrument noise is in principle low enough to determine the CIB dipole, the Galactic foreground is sufficiently close spectrally to keep the CIB dipole hidden. A similar analysis is performed with DIRBE, which-because of the limited frequency coverage-provides a poorer data set. We discuss strategies for measuring the CIB dipole with future instruments to probe the tilt and apply it to the Planck, Herschel, and the proposed Pixie missions. We demonstrate that a future FIRAS-like instrument with instrument noise a factor of {approx}10 lower than FIRAS would make a statistically significant measurement of the CIB dipole. We find that the Planck and Herschel data sets will not allow a robust CIB dipole measurement. The Pixie instrument promises a determination of the CIB dipole and its alignment with either the CMB dipole or the dipole galaxy acceleration vector.

  17. THE COSMIC NEAR-INFRARED BACKGROUND. II. FLUCTUATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernandez, Elizabeth R.; Komatsu, Eiichiro; Shapiro, Paul R.; Iliev, Ilian T.

    2010-02-20

    The near-infrared background (NIRB) is one of a few methods that can be used to observe the redshifted light from early stars at a redshift of 6 and above, and thus it is imperative to understand the significance of any detection or nondetection of the NIRB. Fluctuations of the NIRB can provide information on the first structures, such as halos and their surrounding ionized regions in the intergalactic medium (IGM). We combine, for the first time, N-body simulations, radiative transfer code, and analytic calculations of luminosity of early structures to predict the angular power spectrum (C{sub l} ) of fluctuations in the NIRB. We study in detail the effects of various assumptions about the stellar mass, the initial mass spectrum of stars, the metallicity, the star formation efficiency (f{sub *}), the escape fraction of ionizing photons (f{sub esc}), and the star formation timescale (t{sub SF}), on the amplitude as well as the shape of C{sub l} . The power spectrum of NIRB fluctuations is maximized when f{sub *} is the largest (as C{sub l} {proportional_to} f {sup 2}{sub *}) and f{sub esc} is the smallest (as more nebular emission is produced within halos). A significant uncertainty in the predicted amplitude of C{sub l} exists due to our lack of knowledge of t{sub SF} of these early populations of galaxies, which is equivalent to our lack of knowledge of the mass-to-light ratio of these sources. We do not see a turnover in the NIRB angular power spectrum of the halo contribution, which was claimed to exist in the literature, and explain this as the effect of high levels of nonlinear bias that was ignored in the previous calculations. This is partly due to our choice of the minimum mass of halos contributing to NIRB ({approx}2 x 10{sup 9} M{sub sun}), and a smaller minimum mass, which has a smaller nonlinear bias, may still exhibit a turnover. Therefore, our results suggest that both the amplitude and shape of the NIRB power spectrum provide important information regarding the nature of sources contributing to the cosmic reionization. The angular power spectrum of the IGM, in most cases, is much smaller than the halo angular power spectrum, except when f{sub esc} is close to unity, t{sub SF} is longer, or the minimum redshift at which the star formation is occurring is high. In addition, low levels of the observed mean background intensity tend to rule out high values of f{sub *} {approx}> 0.2.

  18. Method and apparatus for reducing radiation exposure through the use of infrared data transmission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Austin, Frank S.; Hance, Albert B.

    1989-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for transmitting information, for exae, dosimetry data from a hazardous environment such as a radioactive area to a remote relatively safe location. A radiation detector senses the radiation and generates an electrical signal which is fed as a binary coded decimal signal to an infrared transmitter having a microprocessor. The microprocessor formats the detected information into digits of data and modulates a 40 kHz oscillator, the output of which is fed to and intensity modulates one or more infrared emitting diodes. The infrared signal from the diodes is transmitted to a portable hand-held infrared receiver remote from the hazardous environment. The receiver includes an infrared sensitive diode which decodes the data and generates an electrical signal which is coupled to a microcomputer. The microcomputer synchronizes itself to the transmitter, reads the digits of data as they are received, sums the digits and compares the sum with a checksum signal generated and transmitted from the transmitter. If a match of the checksum signals exists, the received data is displayed, otherwise it is described and the receiver conditions itself for the next transmission of data.

  19. On the Relative Utility of Infrared (IR) versus Terahertz (THz) for Optical Sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Timothy J.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Gassman, Paul L.; Atkinson, David A.; Sharpe, Steven W.; Williams, Stephen D.

    2007-11-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has active programs investigating the optical absorption strengths of several types of molecules including toxic industrial chemicals (TICs), microbiological threats such as bacteria, as well as explosives such as RDX, PETN and TNT. While most of our work has centered on the mid-infrared domain (600 to 6,500 cm-1), more recent work has also included work in the far-infrared, also called the terahertz (THz) region (500 to ~8 cm-1). Using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, we have been able to compare the relative, and in some cases absolute, IR/THz cross sections of a number of species in the solid and liquid phases. The relative band strengths of a number of species of interest are discussed in terms of both experimental and computational results.

  20. Transparent, near-infrared organic photovoltaic solar cells for window and energy-scavenging applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lunt, Richard R; Bulovic, Vladimir

    2011-03-14

    We fabricate near-infrared absorbing organic photovoltaics that are highly transparent to visible light. By optimizing near-infrared optical-interference, we demonstrate power efficiencies of 1.3±0.1% with simultaneous average visible transmission of >65% . Subsequent incorporation of near-infrared distributed-Bragg-reflector mirrors leads to an increase in the efficiency to 1.7±0.1% , approaching the 2.4±0.2% efficiency of the opaque cell, while maintaining high visible-transparency of >55% . Finally, we demonstrate that a series-integrated array of these transparent cells is capable of powering electronic devices under near-ambient lighting. This architecture suggests strategies for high-efficiency power-generating windows and highlights an application uniquely benefiting from excitonic electronics.

  1. The Northwest Infrared (NWIR) gas-phase spectral database of industrial and environmental chemicals: Recent updates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brauer, Carolyn S.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Blake, Thomas A.; Sharpe, Steven W.; Sams, Robert L.; Tonkyn, Russell G.

    2014-05-22

    With continuing improvements in both standoff- and point-sensing techniques, there is an ongoing need for high-quality infrared spectral databases. The Northwest Infrared Database (NWIR) contains quantitative, gas-phase infrared spectra of nearly 500 pure chemical species that can be used for a variety of applications such as atmospheric monitoring, biomass burning studies, etc. The data, recorded at 0.1 cm-1 resolution, are pressure broadened to one atmosphere (N2) in order to mimic atmospheric conditions. Each spectrum is a composite composed of multiple individual measurements. Recent updates to the database include over 60 molecules that are known or suspected biomass-burning effluents. Examples from this set of measurements will be presented and experimental details will be discussed in the context of the utility of NWIR for environmental applications.

  2. EVIDENCE FOR INFRARED-FAINT RADIO SOURCES AS z > 1 RADIO-LOUD ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huynh, Minh T.; Norris, Ray P.; Siana, Brian; Middelberg, Enno

    2010-02-10

    Infrared-Faint Radio Sources (IFRSs) are a class of radio objects found in the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey which have no observable mid-infrared counterpart in the Spitzer Wide-area Infrared Extragalactic (SWIRE) survey. The extended Chandra Deep Field South now has even deeper Spitzer imaging (3.6-70 {mu}m) from a number of Legacy surveys. We report the detections of two IFRS sources in IRAC images. The non-detection of two other IFRSs allows us to constrain the source type. Detailed modeling of the spectral energy distribution of these objects shows that they are consistent with high-redshift (z {approx}> 1) active galactic nuclei.

  3. Infrared and Raman spectra, DFT-calculations and spectral assignments of germacyclohexane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aleksa, V. Ozerenskis, D.; Pucetaite, M.; Sablinskas, V.; Cotter, C.; Guirgis, G. A.

    2015-03-30

    Raman spectra of germacyclohexane in liquid and solid states were recorded and depolarization data obtained. Infrared absorption spectra of the vapor and liquid have been studied. The wavenumbers of the vibrational modes were derived in the harmonic and anharmonic approximation in B3LYP/ccpVTZ calculations. According to the calculations, germacyclohexane exists in the stable chair conformation, whereas a possible twist form should have more than 15 kJ·mol{sup -1} higher enthalpy of formation what makes this conformer experimentally not observable. The 27 A' and 21 A'' fundamentals were assigned on the basis of the calculations and infrared and Raman band intensities, contours of gas phase infrared spectral bands and Raman depolarization measurements. An average discrepancy of ca. 0.77 % was found between the observed and the calculated anharmonic wavenumbers for the 48 modes. Substitution of carbon atom with Ge atom in the cyclohexane ring is reasoning flattening of the ring.

  4. Constraining the Ly? escape fraction with far-infrared observations of Ly? emitters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wardlow, Julie L.; Calanog, J.; Cooray, A.; Malhotra, S.; Zheng, Z.; Rhoads, J.; Finkelstein, S.; Bock, J.; Bridge, C.; Ciardullo, R.; Gronwall, C.; Conley, A.; Farrah, D.; Gawiser, E.; Heinis, S.; Ibar, E.; Ivison, R. J.; Marsden, G.; Oliver, S. J.; Riechers, D.; and others

    2014-05-20

    We study the far-infrared properties of 498 Ly? emitters (LAEs) at z = 2.8, 3.1, and 4.5 in the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South, using 250, 350, and 500 ?m data from the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey and 870 ?m data from the LABOCA ECDFS Submillimeter Survey. None of the 126, 280, or 92 LAEs at z = 2.8, 3.1, and 4.5, respectively, are individually detected in the far-infrared data. We use stacking to probe the average emission to deeper flux limits, reaching 1? depths of ?0.1 to 0.4 mJy. The LAEs are also undetected at ?3? in the stacks, although a 2.5? signal is observed at 870 ?m for the z = 2.8 sources. We consider a wide range of far-infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs), including an M82 and an Sd galaxy template, to determine upper limits on the far-infrared luminosities and far-infrared-derived star formation rates of the LAEs. These star formation rates are then combined with those inferred from the Ly? and UV emission to determine lower limits on the LAEs' Ly? escape fraction (f {sub esc}(Ly?)). For the Sd SED template, the inferred LAEs f {sub esc}(Ly?) are ? 30% (1?) at z = 2.8, 3.1, and 4.5, which are all significantly higher than the global f {sub esc}(Ly?) at these redshifts. Thus, if the LAEs f {sub esc}(Ly?) follows the global evolution, then they have warmer far-infrared SEDs than the Sd galaxy template. The average and M82 SEDs produce lower limits on the LAE f {sub esc}(Ly?) of ?10%-20% (1?), all of which are slightly higher than the global evolution of f {sub esc}(Ly?), but consistent with it at the 2?-3? level.

  5. THE WIRED SURVEY. II. INFRARED EXCESSES IN THE SDSS DR7 WHITE DWARF CATALOG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Debes, John H.; Leisawitz, David T.; Hoard, D. W.; Wachter, Stefanie; Cohen, Martin

    2011-12-01

    With the launch of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), a new era of detecting planetary debris and brown dwarfs (BDs) around white dwarfs (WDs) has begun with the WISE InfraRed Excesses around Degenerates (WIRED) Survey. The WIRED Survey is sensitive to substellar objects and dusty debris around WDs out to distances exceeding 100 pc, well beyond the completeness level of local WDs. In this paper, we present a cross-correlation of the preliminary Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 (DR7) WD catalog between the WISE, Two-Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS), and SDSS DR7 photometric catalogs. From {approx}18,000 input targets, there are WISE detections comprising 344 'naked' WDs (detection of the WD photosphere only), 1020 candidate WD+M dwarf binaries, 42 candidate WD+BD systems, 52 candidate WD+dust disk systems, and 69 targets with indeterminate infrared excess. We classified all of the detected targets through spectral energy distribution model fitting of the merged optical, near-IR, and WISE photometry. Some of these detections could be the result of contaminating sources within the large ( Almost-Equal-To 6'') WISE point-spread function; we make a preliminary estimate for the rates of contamination for our WD+BD and WD+disk candidates and provide notes for each target of interest. Each candidate presented here should be confirmed with higher angular resolution infrared imaging or infrared spectroscopy. We also present an overview of the observational characteristics of the detected WDs in the WISE photometric bands, including the relative frequencies of candidate WD+M, WD+BD, and WD+disk systems.

  6. Maskelynite formation via solid-state transformation: Evidence of infrared and x-ray anisotropy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaret, Steven J.; Ehm, Lars; Woerner, William R.; Phillips, Brian L.; Nekvasil, Hanna; Wright, Shawn P.; Glotch, Timothy D.

    2015-03-24

    We present optical microscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, high-energy X-ray total scattering experiments, and micro-Fourier transform infrared (micro-FTIR) spectroscopy on shocked labradorite from the Lonar Crater, India. We show that maskelynite of shock class 2 is structurally more similar to fused glass than to crystalline plagioclase. However, there are slight but significant differences preservation of original pre-impact igneous zoning, anisotropy at Infrared wavelengths, X-ray anisotropy, and preservation of some intermediate range order which are all consistent with a solid-state transformation formation of maskelynite.

  7. Detection and measurement of electroreflectance on quantum cascade laser device using Fourier transform infrared microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enobio, Eli Christopher I.; Ohtani, Keita; Ohno, Yuzo; Ohno, Hideo

    2013-12-02

    We demonstrate the use of a Fourier Transform Infrared microscope system to detect and measure electroreflectance (ER) from mid-infrared quantum cascade laser (QCL) device. To characterize intersubband transition (ISBT) energies in a functioning QCL device, a microscope is used to focus the probe on the QCL cleaved mirror. The measured ER spectra exhibit resonance features associated to ISBTs under applied electric field in agreement with the numerical calculations and comparable to observed photocurrent, and emission peaks. The method demonstrates the potential as a characterization tool for QCL devices.

  8. Maskelynite formation via solid-state transformation: Evidence of infrared and x-ray anisotropy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jaret, Steven J.; Ehm, Lars; Woerner, William R.; Phillips, Brian L.; Nekvasil, Hanna; Wright, Shawn P.; Glotch, Timothy D.

    2015-03-24

    We present optical microscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, high-energy X-ray total scattering experiments, and micro-Fourier transform infrared (micro-FTIR) spectroscopy on shocked labradorite from the Lonar Crater, India. We show that maskelynite of shock class 2 is structurally more similar to fused glass than to crystalline plagioclase. However, there are slight but significant differences – preservation of original pre-impact igneous zoning, anisotropy at Infrared wavelengths, X-ray anisotropy, and preservation of some intermediate range order – which are all consistent with a solid-state transformation formation of maskelynite.

  9. A JOINT MODEL OF THE X-RAY AND INFRARED EXTRAGALACTIC BACKGROUNDS. I. MODEL

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    CONSTRUCTION AND FIRST RESULTS (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect THE X-RAY AND INFRARED EXTRAGALACTIC BACKGROUNDS. I. MODEL CONSTRUCTION AND FIRST RESULTS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A JOINT MODEL OF THE X-RAY AND INFRARED EXTRAGALACTIC BACKGROUNDS. I. MODEL CONSTRUCTION AND FIRST RESULTS We present an extragalactic population model of the cosmic background light to interpret the rich high-quality survey data in the X-ray and IR bands. The model incorporates star formation

  10. Doping of germanium and silicon crystals with non-hydrogenic acceptors for far infrared lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haller, Eugene E.; Brundermann, Erik

    2000-01-01

    A method for doping semiconductors used for far infrared lasers with non-hydrogenic acceptors having binding energies larger than the energy of the laser photons. Doping of germanium or silicon crystals with beryllium, zinc or copper. A far infrared laser comprising germanium crystals doped with double or triple acceptor dopants permitting the doped laser to be tuned continuously from 1 to 4 terahertz and to operate in continuous mode. A method for operating semiconductor hole population inversion lasers with a closed cycle refrigerator.

  11. Design of the First Infrared Beamline at the Siam Photon Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pattanasiriwisawa, W.; Songsiriritthigul, P.; Dumas, P.

    2010-06-23

    This report presents the optical design and optical simulations for the first infrared beamline at the Siam Photon Laboratory. The beamline collects the edge radiation and bending magnet radiation, producing from the BM4 bending magnet of the 1.2 GeV storage ring of the Siam Photon Source. The optical design is optimized for the far- to mid-infrared spectral range (4000-100 cm{sup -1}) for microspectroscopic applications. The optical performance has been examined by computer simulations.

  12. ON THE VIABILITY OF THE PAH MODEL AS AN EXPLANATION OF THE UNIDENTIFIED INFRARED EMISSION FEATURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yong; Kwok, Sun E-mail: sunkwok@hku.hk

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules are widely considered the preferred candidate for the carrier of the unidentified infrared emission bands observed in the interstellar medium and circumstellar envelopes. In this paper, we report the results of fitting a variety of non-PAH spectra (silicates, hydrogenated amorphous carbon, coal, and even artificial spectra) using the theoretical infrared spectra of PAHs from the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database. We show that these non-PAH spectra can be well fitted by PAH mixtures. This suggests that a general match between astronomical spectra and those of PAH mixtures does not necessarily provide definitive support for the PAH hypothesis.

  13. Mid-infrared followup of cold brown dwarfs: diversity in age, mass and metallicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saumon, Didier; Leggett, Sandy K; Burningham, Ben; Marley, Mark S; Waren, S J; Jones, H R A; Pinfield, D J; Smart, R L

    2009-01-01

    We present new Spitzer IRAC [3.6], [4.5], [5.8] and [8.0] photometry of nine very late-type T dwarfs. Combining this with previously published photometry, we investigate trends with type and color that are useful for both the planning and interpretation of infrared surveys designed to discover the coldest T or Y dwarfs. Brown dwarfs with effective temperature (T{sub eff}) below 700 K emit more than half their flux at wavelengths longer than 3 {micro}m, and the ratio of the mid-infrared flux to the near-infrared flux becomes very sensitive to T{sub eff} at these low temperatures. We confirm that the color H (1.6 {micro}m) - [4.5] is a good indicator of T{sub eff} with a relatively weak dependence on metallicity and gravity. Conversely, the colors H - K (2.2 {micro}m) and [4.5] - [5.8] are sensitive to metallicity and gravity. Thus near- and mid-infrared photometry provide useful indicators of the fundamental properties of brown dwarfs, and if temperature and gravity are known, then mass and age can be reliably determined from evolutionary models. There are twelve dwarfs currently known with H - [4.5] > 3.0, and {approx} 500 < T{sub eff} K {approx}< 800, which we examine in detail. The ages of the dwarfs in the sample range from very young (0.1 - 1.0 Gyr) to relatively old (3 - 12 Gyr). The mass range is possibly as low as 5 Jupiter masses to up to 70 Jupiter masses, i.e. near the hydrogen burning limit. The metallicities also span a large range, from [m/H]= -0.3 to [m/H]= +0.2. The small number of T8 - T9 dwarfs found in the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey to date appear to be predominantly young low-mass dwarfs. Accurate mid-infrared photometry of cold brown dwarfs is essentially impossible from the ground, and extensions to the mid-infrared space missions warm-Spitzer and WISE are desirable in order to obtain the vital mid-infrared data for cold brown dwarfs, and to discover more of these rare objects.

  14. Surface contamination detection by means of near-infrared stimulation of thermal luminescence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carrieri, Arthur H.; Roese, Erik S

    2006-02-01

    A method for remotely detecting liquid chemical contamination on terrestrial surfaces is presented. Concurrent to irradiation by an absorbing near-infrared beam, the subject soil medium liberates radiance called thermal luminescence (TL) comprising middle-infrared energies (numir) that is scanned interferometrically in beam duration tau. Cyclic states of absorption and emission by the contaminant surrogate are rendered from a sequential differential-spectrum measurement [deltaS(numir,tau)] of the scanned TL. Detection of chemical warfare agent simulant wetting soil is performed in this manner, for example, through pattern recognition of its unique, thermally dynamic, molecular vibration resonance bands on display in the deltaS(numir,tau) metric.

  15. Energy levels and far-infrared spectra of oval-shaped nanorings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gutirrez, W.; Garca, L. F.; Mikhailov, I. D.

    2014-05-15

    The evolution of the Aharonov-Bohm oscillation of low-lying states and far infrared spectrum associated to variation of the path curvature for electron motion along nanorings with centerlines in a form of a set of Cassini ovals, whose shape is changed continuously from a single elongated loop to two separated loops is theoretically investigated.

  16. Mid-infrared response of reduced graphene oxide and its high-temperature coefficient of resistance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang, Haifeng

    2014-10-15

    Much effort has been made to study the formation mechanisms of photocurrents in graphene and reduced graphene oxide films under visible and near-infrared light irradiation. A built-in field and photo-thermal electrons have been applied to explain the experiments. However, much less attention has been paid to clarifying the mid-infrared response of reduced graphene oxide films at room temperature. Thus, mid-infrared photoresponse and annealing temperature-dependent resistance experiments were carried out on reduced graphene oxide films. A maximum photocurrent of 75 ?A was observed at room temperature, which was dominated by the bolometer effect, where the resistance of the films decreased as the temperature increased after they had absorbed light. The electrons localized in the defect states and the residual oxygen groups were thermally excited into the conduction band, forming a photocurrent. In addition, a temperature increase of 2 C for the films after light irradiation for 2 minutes was observed using absorption power calculations. This work details a way to use reduced graphene oxide films that contain appropriate defects and residual oxygen groups as bolometer-sensitive materials in the mid-infrared range.

  17. Infra-red detector and method of making and using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Craig, Richard A.; Griffin, Jeffrey W.

    2007-02-20

    A low-cost infra-red detector is disclosed including a method of making and using the same. The detector employs a substrate, a filtering layer, a converting layer, and a diverter to be responsive to wavelengths up to about 1600 nm. The detector is useful for a variety of applications including spectroscopy, imaging, and defect detection.

  18. PROBING INTERSTELLAR DUST WITH INFRARED ECHOES FROM THE Cas A SUPERNOVA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vogt, Frederic P. A.; Besel, Marc-Andre; Krause, Oliver; Dullemond, Cornelis P.

    2012-05-10

    We present the analysis of an Infrared Spectrograph 5-38 {mu}m spectrum and Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer photometric measurements of an infrared echo near the Cassiopeia A (Cas A) supernova (SN) remnant observed with the Spitzer Space Telescope. We have modeled the recorded echo accounting for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), quantum-heated carbon and silicate grains, as well as thermal carbon and silicate particles. Using the fact that optical light-echo spectroscopy has established that Cas A originated from a Type IIb SN explosion showing an optical spectrum remarkably similar to the prototypical Type IIb SN 1993J, we use the latter to construct template data input for our simulations. We are then able to reproduce the recorded infrared echo spectrum by combining the emission of dust heated by the UV burst produced at the shock breakout after the core-collapse and dust heated by optical light emitted near the visual maximum of the SN light curve, where the UV burst and optical light curve characteristics are based on SN 1993J. We find a mean density of {approx}680 H cm{sup -3} for the echo region, with a size of a few light years across. We also find evidence of dust processing in the form of a lack of small PAHs with less than {approx}300 carbon atoms, consistent with a scenario of PAHs destruction by the UV burst via photodissociation at the estimated distance of the echo region from Cas A. Furthermore, our simulations suggest that the weak 11 {mu}m features of our recorded infrared echo spectrum are consistent with a strong dehydrogenated state of the PAHs. This exploratory study highlights the potential of investigating dust processing in the interstellar medium through infrared echoes.

  19. Infrared response of YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7-. delta. films to pulsed, broadband synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carr, G.L.; Quijada, M.; Tanner, D.B. . Dept. of Physics); Hirschmugl, C.J.; Williams, G.P. ); Etemad, S.; DeRosa, F.; Venkatesan, T. ); Dutta, B.; Hemmick, D.; Xi, X. . Dept. of Physics)

    1990-01-01

    We report studies of a thin high {Tc} film operating as a fast bolometric detector of infrared radiation. The film has a response of infrared radiation. The film has a response of several mV when exposed to a 1 W, 1 ns duration broadband infrared pulse. The decay after the pulse was about 4 ns. The temperature dependence of the response accurately tracked dR/dT. A thermal model, in which the film's temperature varies relative to the substrate, provides a good description of the response. We find no evidence for other (non-bolometric) response mechanisms for temperatures near or well below {Tc}. 13 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Evaluation of Miniaturized Infrared Sensors for Process Control of the Palladium Membrane Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lascola, R. J.; Howard, D. W.

    2005-07-31

    We have tested the suitability of a miniaturized infrared sensor for measurements of CO and H{sub 2}O in the inlet stream to the Palladium Membrane Reactor (PMR). We demonstrated that both analytes can be measured with absolute accuracies of 2-4% at the process inlet conditions of 120-140 C and approximately 1 atm of each gas. This accuracy must be improved to 1-1.5% for effective PMR process control. The use of a reference detector and independent temperature and pressure measurements to correct the raw signals will improve the accuracy to a level that will approach, if not meet, this goal. With appropriate bandpass filters, the infrared sensors may be used for other gas analysis applications.

  1. Near-infrared line identification in type Ia supernovae during the transitional phase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friesen, Brian; Baron, E.; Wisniewski, John P.; Miller, Timothy R.; Parrent, Jerod T.; Thomas, R. C.; Marion, G. H.

    2014-09-10

    We present near-infrared synthetic spectra of a delayed-detonation hydrodynamical model and compare them to observed spectra of four normal Type Ia supernovae ranging from day +56.5 to day +85. This is the epoch during which supernovae are believed to be undergoing the transition from the photospheric phase, where spectra are characterized by line scattering above an optically thick photosphere, to the nebular phase, where spectra consist of optically thin emission from forbidden lines. We find that most spectral features in the near-infrared can be accounted for by permitted lines of Fe II and Co II. In addition, we find that [Ni II] fits the emission feature near 1.98 μm, suggesting that a substantial mass of {sup 58}Ni exists near the center of the ejecta in these objects, arising from nuclear burning at high density.

  2. Process of preparing metal parts to be heated by means of infrared radiance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Howard Robinson (Cincinnati, OH); Blue, Craig A. (Knoxville, TN)

    2009-06-09

    A method for preparing metal for heating by infrared radiance to enable uniform and consistent heating. The surface of one or more metal parts, such as aluminum or aluminum alloy parts, is treated to alter the surface finish to affect the reflectivity of the surface. The surface reflectivity is evaluated, such as by taking measurements at one or more points on the surface, to determine if a desired reflectivity has been achieved. The treating and measuring are performed until the measuring indicates that the desired reflectivity has been achieved. Once the treating has altered the surface finish to achieve the desired reflectivity, the metal part may then be exposed to infrared radiance to heat the metal part to a desired temperature, and that heating will be substantially consistent throughout by virtue of the desired reflectivity.

  3. Spectral response of localized surface plasmon in resonance with mid-infrared light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kusa, Fumiya [Department of Applied Physics, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Nakacho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Ashihara, Satoshi, E-mail: ashihara@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan)

    2014-10-21

    We study spectral responses of localized surface plasmons (LSPs) in gold nanorods, which resonate at mid-infrared frequencies, by transmission spectroscopy and electromagnetic field analyses. The resonance linewidth is found to be linearly proportional to the resonance frequency, indicating that the dephasing due to Drude relaxation is suppressed and that the overall dephasing is dominated by radiative damping. Owing to the reduced radiative/non-radiative damping and large geometrical length of the nanorod, near-field intensity enhancement exceeds several hundred times. Nonetheless the resonance linewidth is comparable with or larger than the bandwidth of a 100-fs pulse, and therefore the enhanced near-field as short as 100-fs can be created upon pulsed excitation. The large enhancements with appropriate bandwidths make LSPs promising for enhanced nonlinear spectroscopies, coherent controls, and strong-field light-matter interactions in the mid-infrared range.

  4. Room-temperature near-infrared silicon carbide nanocrystalline emitters based on optically aligned spin defects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muzha, A.; Fuchs, F.; Simin, D.; Astakhov, G. V.; Tarakina, N. V.; Trupke, M.; Soltamov, V. A.; Mokhov, E. N.; Baranov, P. G.; Dyakonov, V.; and others

    2014-12-15

    Bulk silicon carbide (SiC) is a very promising material system for bio-applications and quantum sensing. However, its optical activity lies beyond the near infrared spectral window for in-vivo imaging and fiber communications due to a large forbidden energy gap. Here, we report the fabrication of SiC nanocrystals and isolation of different nanocrystal fractions ranged from 600?nm down to 60?nm in size. The structural analysis reveals further fragmentation of the smallest nanocrystals into ca. 10-nm-size clusters of high crystalline quality, separated by amorphization areas. We use neutron irradiation to create silicon vacancies, demonstrating near infrared photoluminescence. Finally, we detect room-temperature spin resonances of these silicon vacancies hosted in SiC nanocrystals. This opens intriguing perspectives to use them not only as in-vivo luminescent markers but also as magnetic field and temperature sensors, allowing for monitoring various physical, chemical, and biological processes.

  5. Pulsed infrared difference frequency generation in CdGeAs.sub.2

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piltch, Martin S.; Rink, John P.; Tallman, Charles R.

    1977-03-08

    The disclosure relates to a laser apparatus for generating a line-tunable pulsed infrared difference frequency output. The apparatus comprises a CO.sub.2 laser which produces a first frequency, a CO laser which produces a second frequency and a mixer for combining the output of the CO.sub.2 and CO lasers so as to produce a final output comprising a difference frequency from the first and second frequency outputs.

  6. Pulsed infrared difference frequency generation in CdGeAs/sub 2/

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piltch, M.S.; Rink, J.P.; Tallman, C.R.

    1975-11-26

    A laser apparatus for generating a line-tunable pulsed infrared difference frequency output is described. The apparatus comprises a CO/sub 2/ laser which produces a first frequency, a CO laser which produces a second frequency, and a mixer for combining the output of the CO/sub 2/ and CO lasers so as to produce a final output comprising a difference frequency from the first and second frequency outputs.

  7. Infrared Cloud Imager Measurements of Cloud Statistics from the 2003 Cloudiness Intercomparison Campaign

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrared Cloud Imager Measurements of Cloud Statistics from the 2003 Cloudiness Intercomparison Campaign B. Thurairajah and J. A. Shaw Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Montana State University Bozeman, Montana Introduction The Cloudiness Inter-Comparison Intensive Operational Period (CIC IOP) occurred at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM), Southern Great Plains (SGP) central facility site in Lamont, Oklahoma from mid-February to mid-April 2003 (Kassianov et al. 2004).

  8. Tunable Transmittance of Near-infrared and Visible Light in Reconstructed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanocrystal-in-Glass Composite Films | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Tunable Transmittance of Near-infrared and Visible Light in Reconstructed Nanocrystal-in-Glass Composite Films Thursday, October 31, 2013 The bonding arrangement in amorphous materials plays a dominant role in determining their electrochemical, optical and transport properties. However, it remains a challenge to manipulate amorphous structures in a controlled manner. Recently, scientists at the Molecular

  9. Photon sorting in the near field using subwavelength cavity arrays in the near-infrared

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mandel, Isroel M. Lansey, Eli; Gollub, Jonah N.; Sarantos, Chris H.; Akhmechet, Roman; Golovin, Andrii B.; Crouse, David T.

    2013-12-16

    A frequency selective metasurface capable of sorting photons in the near-infrared spectral range is designed, fabricated, and characterized. The metasurface, a periodic array of dielectric cylindrical cavities in a gold film, localizes and transmits light of two spectral frequency bands into spatially separated cavities, resulting in near-field light splitting. The design and fabrication methodologies of the metasurface are discussed. The transmittance and photon sorting properties of the designed structure is simulated numerically and the measured transmission is presented.

  10. Near-infrared radiation curable multilayer coating systems and methods for applying same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowman, Mark P; Verdun, Shelley D; Post, Gordon L

    2015-04-28

    Multilayer coating systems, methods of applying and related substrates are disclosed. The coating system may comprise a first coating comprising a near-IR absorber, and a second coating deposited on a least a portion of the first coating. Methods of applying a multilayer coating composition to a substrate may comprise applying a first coating comprising a near-IR absorber, applying a second coating over at least a portion of the first coating and curing the coating with near infrared radiation.

  11. New Sandia Mirror Isn't Shiny: Instead It Reflects Infrared Light Using a

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metamaterial Sandia Mirror Isn't Shiny: Instead It Reflects Infrared Light Using a Metamaterial - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization

  12. Matrix Infrared Spectroscopic and Computational Investigations of Novel Small Uranium Containing Molecules - Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, Lester

    2014-10-17

    Direct reactions of f-element uranium, thorium and lanthanide metal atoms were investigated with small molecules. These metal atoms were generated by laser ablation and mixed with the reagent molecules then condensed with noble gases at 4K. The products were analyzed by absorption of infrared light to measure vibrational frequencies which were confirmed by quantum chemical calculations. We have learned more about the reactivity of uranium atoms with common molecules, which will aid in the develolpment of further applications of uranium.

  13. Measurements of the Infrared SpectraLines of Water Vapor at Atmospheric Temperatures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Measurements of the Infrared Spectral Lines of Water Vapor at Atmospheric Temperatures P. Varanasi and Q. Zou Institute for Terrestrial and Planetary Atmospheres State University of New York at Stony Brook Stony Brook, New York Introduction Water vapor is undoubtedly the most dominant greenhouse gas in the terrestrial atmosphere. In the two facets of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program research, atmospheric remote sensing (air-borne as well as Cloud and Radiation Testbed [CART]

  14. Multivariate Calibration Models for Sorghum Composition using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolfrum, E.; Payne, C.; Stefaniak, T.; Rooney, W.; Dighe, N.; Bean, B.; Dahlberg, J.

    2013-03-01

    NREL developed calibration models based on near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy coupled with multivariate statistics to predict compositional properties relevant to cellulosic biofuels production for a variety of sorghum cultivars. A robust calibration population was developed in an iterative fashion. The quality of models developed using the same sample geometry on two different types of NIR spectrometers and two different sample geometries on the same spectrometer did not vary greatly.

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and mid-infrared continuum emission in a z > 4 submillimeter galaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riechers, Dominik A.; Pope, Alexandra; Daddi, Emanuele; Elbaz, David; Carilli, Christopher L.; Walter, Fabian; Hodge, Jacqueline; Morrison, Glenn E.; Dickinson, Mark; Dannerbauer, Helmut

    2014-05-01

    We report the detection of 6.2 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and rest-frame 4-7 μm continuum emission in the z = 4.055 submillimeter galaxy GN20, using the Infrared Spectrograph on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. This represents the first detection of PAH emission at z > 4. The strength of the PAH emission feature is consistent with a very high star formation rate of ∼1600 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. We find that this intense starburst powers at least ∼1/3 of the faint underlying 6 μm continuum emission, with an additional, significant (and perhaps dominant) contribution due to a power-law-like hot dust source, which we interpret to likely be a faint, dust-obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN). The inferred 6 μm AGN continuum luminosity is consistent with a sensitive upper limit on the hard X-ray emission as measured by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory if the previously undetected AGN is Compton-thick. This is in agreement with the finding at optical/infrared wavelengths that the galaxy and its nucleus are heavily dust-obscured. Despite the strong power-law component enhancing the mid-infrared continuum emission, the intense starburst associated with the photon-dominated regions that give rise to the PAH emission appears to dominate the total energy output in the infrared. GN20 is one of the most luminous starburst galaxies known at any redshift, embedded in a rich protocluster of star-forming galaxies. This investigation provides an improved understanding of the energy sources that power such exceptional systems, which represent the extreme end of massive galaxy formation at early cosmic times.

  16. Enhanced optical nonlinearities in the near-infrared using III-nitride heterostructures coupled to metamaterials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolf, Omri E-mail: ibrener@sandia.gov; Ma, Xuedan; Brener, Igal E-mail: ibrener@sandia.gov; Allerman, Andrew A.; Wendt, Joel R.; Shaner, Eric A.; Song, Alex Y.

    2015-10-12

    We use planar metamaterial resonators to enhance by more than two orders of magnitude the near infrared second harmonic generation obtained from intersubband transitions in III-Nitride heterostructures. The improvement arises from two factors: employing an asymmetric double quantum well design and aligning the resonators' cross-polarized resonances with the intersubband transition energies. The resulting nonlinear metamaterial operates at wavelengths where single photon detection is available, and represents a different class of sources for quantum photonics related phenomena.

  17. Calculation of infrared plasma reflection spectra of inhomogeneously doped P-type gallium arsenide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CHEN Wei-xi; LI Guo-hua; NIU Jin-zhen; GUO Chang-zhi

    1982-01-01

    The influence of the surface concentration and concentration profile of free carriers, the layer thickness and free carrier concentration of the homogeneous substrate on the infrared plasma reflection spectra of inhomogeneously doped P-type GaAs layers is analyzed by computer solutions of differential equations for the optical admittance. Computed spectra are reported for four different profiles and several substrate concentrations. Methods for evaluation of the measured reflection spectra and the limitation of this technique are discussed.

  18. Non-Destructive Evaluation of Wind Turbine Blades Using an Infrared Camera

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beattie, A.G.; Rumsey, M.

    1998-12-17

    The use of a digital infrared as a non-destructive evaluation thermography camera (NDE) tool was ex- plored in two separate wind turbine blade fatigue tests. The fwst test was a fatigue test of part of a 13.1 meter wood-epoxy-composite blade. The second test was on a 4.25 meter pultruded fiber glass blade section driven at several mechanical resonant frequencies. The digital infrared camera can produce images of either the static temperature distribution on the surface of the specimen, or the dynamic temperature distribution that is in phase with a specific frequency on a vibrating specimen. The dynamic temperature distribution (due to thermoplastic effects) gives a measure of the sum of the principal stresses at each point on the surface. In the wood- epoxy-composite blade fatigue test, the point of ultimate failure was detected long before failure occurred. The mode shapes obtained with the digital infrared camera, from the resonant blade tests, were in very good agree- ment with the finite-element calculations. In addition, the static temperature images of the resonating blade showed two areas that contained cracks. Close-up dy- namic inf%red images of these areas showed the crack structure that agreed with subsequent dye-penetrant analysis.

  19. An improved thin film approximation to accurately determine the optical conductivity of graphene from infrared transmittance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, J. W.; Bol, A. A. [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, Den Dolech 2, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Sanden, M. C. M. van de [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, Den Dolech 2, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research (DIFFER), Nieuwegein (Netherlands)

    2014-07-07

    This work presents an improved thin film approximation to extract the optical conductivity from infrared transmittance in a simple yet accurate way. This approximation takes into account the incoherent reflections from the backside of the substrate. These reflections are shown to have a significant effect on the extracted optical conductivity and hence on derived parameters as carrier mobility and density. By excluding the backside reflections, the error for these parameters for typical chemical vapor deposited (CVD) graphene on a silicon substrate can be as high as 17% and 45% for the carrier mobility and density, respectively. For the mid- and near-infrared, the approximation can be simplified such that the real part of the optical conductivity is extracted without the need for a parameterization of the optical conductivity. This direct extraction is shown for Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) transmittance measurements of CVD graphene on silicon in the photon energy range of 3707000?cm{sup ?1}. From the real part of the optical conductivity, the carrier density, mobility, and number of graphene layers are determined but also residue, originating from the graphene transfer, is detected. FTIR transmittance analyzed with the improved thin film approximation is shown to be a non-invasive, easy, and accurate measurement and analysis method for assessing the quality of graphene and can be used for other 2-D materials.

  20. Alma observations of nearby luminous infrared galaxies with various agn energetic contributions using dense gas tracers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Imanishi, Masatoshi; Nakanishi, Kouichiro

    2014-07-01

    We present the results of our ALMA Cycle 0 observations, using HCN/HCO{sup +}/HNC J = 4-3 lines, of six nearby luminous infrared galaxies with various energetic contributions from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) estimated from previous infrared spectroscopy. These lines are very effective for probing the physical properties of high-density molecular gas around the hidden energy sources in the nuclear regions of these galaxies. We find that HCN to HCO{sup +} J = 4-3 flux ratios tend to be higher in AGN-important galaxies than in starburst-dominated regions, as was seen at the J = 1-0 transition, while there is no clear difference in the HCN-to-HNC J = 4-3 flux ratios among observed sources. A galaxy with a starburst-type infrared spectral shape and very large molecular line widths shows a high HCN-to-HCO{sup +} J = 4-3 flux ratio, which could be due to turbulence-induced heating. We propose that enhanced HCN J = 4-3 emission relative to HCO{sup +} J = 4-3 could be used to detect more energetic activity than normal starbursts, including deeply buried AGNs, in dusty galaxy populations.

  1. Dysprosium-doped cadmium oxide as a gateway material for mid-infrared plasmonics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sachet, Edward; Shelton, Christopher T.; Harris, Joshua S.; Gaddy, Benjamin E.; Irving, Douglas L.; Curtarolo, Stefano; Donovan, Brian F.; Hopkins, Patrick E.; Sharma, Peter A.; Sharma, Ana Lima; et al

    2015-02-16

    The interest in plasmonic technologies surrounds many emergent optoelectronic applications, such as plasmon lasers, transistors, sensors and information storage. Although plasmonic materials for ultraviolet–visible and near-infrared wavelengths have been found, the mid-infrared range remains a challenge to address: few known systems can achieve subwavelength optical confinement with low loss in this range. With a combination of experiments and ab initio modelling, here we demonstrate an extreme peak of electron mobility in Dy-doped CdO that is achieved through accurate ‘defect equilibrium engineering’. In so doing, we create a tunable plasmon host that satisfies the criteria for mid-infrared spectrum plasmonics, and overcomesmore » the losses seen in conventional plasmonic materials. In particular, extrinsic doping pins the CdO Fermi level above the conduction band minimum and it increases the formation energy of native oxygen vacancies, thus reducing their populations by several orders of magnitude. The substitutional lattice strain induced by Dy doping is sufficiently small, allowing mobility values around 500 cm2 V–1 s–1 for carrier densities above 1020 cm–3. As a result, our work shows that CdO:Dy is a model system for intrinsic and extrinsic manipulation of defects affecting electrical, optical and thermal properties, that oxide conductors are ideal candidates for plasmonic devices and that the defect engineering approach for property optimization is generally applicable to other conducting metal oxides.« less

  2. THE SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF THE CARINA NEBULA FROM FAR-INFRARED TO RADIO WAVELENGTHS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salatino, M.; De Bernardis, P.; Masi, S. [Physics Department, Sapienza Universita di Roma, p.le Aldo Moro 2, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Polenta, G., E-mail: maria.salatino@roma1.infn.it [ASI Science Data Center, ESRIN, via G. Galilei, I-00044, Frascati (Italy)

    2012-03-20

    Multi-wavelength observations are necessary for understanding the physical properties of astrophysical sources. In this paper, we use observations in the far-infrared to radio range to derive the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the Carina nebula. To do this, we carefully subtract the irregularly varying diffuse emission from the Galactic plane, which can be of the order of 10% of the nebula flux at these wavelengths. We find that the far-infrared SED can be modeled as emission from a dust population with a single temperature T{sub d} = (34.5{sup +2.0}{sub -1.8}) K and with a spectral index of emissivity {alpha} = -1.37{sup +0.09}{sub -0.08}. We also find a total infrared luminosity of the nebula of (7.4{sup +2.5}{sub -1.4}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} L{sub Sun} and, assuming a single temperature of the dust, a mass of the dust of (9500{sup +4600}{sub -3500}) M{sub Sun }.

  3. Measurement of nitrogen content in a gas mixture by transforming the nitrogen into a substance detectable with nondispersive infrared detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Owen, Thomas E.; Miller, Michael A.

    2007-03-13

    A method of determining the amount of nitrogen in a gas mixture. The constituent gases of the mixture are dissociated and transformed to create a substance that may measured using nondispersive infrared adsorption techniques.

  4. Measurement of nitrogen content in a gas mixture by transforming the nitrogen into a substance detectable with nondispersive infrared detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Owen, Thomas E.; Miller, Michael A.

    2010-08-24

    A method of determining the amount of nitrogen in a gas mixture. The constituent gases of the mixture are dissociated and transformed to create a substance that may measured using nondispersive infrared adsorption techniques.

  5. Room-temperature mid-infrared "M"-type GaAsSb/InGaAs quantum...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Further improvement of the "M"-type QW structure could lead to a cost-effective mid-infrared light source. Authors: Chang, Chia-Hao ; Li, Zong-Lin ; Pan, Chien-Hung ; Lu, Hong-Ting ...

  6. DEEP SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF INFRARED-FAINT RADIO SOURCES: HIGH-REDSHIFT RADIO-LOUD ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norris, Ray P.; Mao, Minnie; Afonso, Jose; Cava, Antonio; Farrah, Duncan; Oliver, Seb; Huynh, Minh T.; Mauduit, Jean-Christophe; Surace, Jason; Ivison, R. J.; Jarvis, Matt; Lacy, Mark; Maraston, Claudia; Middelberg, Enno; Seymour, Nick

    2011-07-20

    Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRSs) are a rare class of objects which are relatively bright at radio wavelengths but very faint at infrared and optical wavelengths. Here we present sensitive near-infrared observations of a sample of these sources taken as part of the Spitzer Extragalactic Representative Volume Survey. Nearly all the IFRSs are undetected at a level of {approx}1 {mu}Jy in these new deep observations, and even the detections are consistent with confusion with unrelated galaxies. A stacked image implies that the median flux density is S{sub 3.6{mu}m} {approx} 0.2 {mu}Jy or less, giving extreme values of the radio-infrared flux density ratio. Comparison of these objects with known classes of object suggests that the majority are probably high-redshift radio-loud galaxies, possibly suffering from significant dust extinction.

  7. A cloud detection algorithm using the downwelling infrared radiance measured by an infrared pyrometer of the ground-based microwave radiometer

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ahn, M. H.; Han, D.; Won, H. Y.; Morris, Victor R.

    2015-02-03

    For better utilization of the ground-based microwave radiometer, it is important to detect the cloud presence in the measured data. Here, we introduce a simple and fast cloud detection algorithm by using the optical characteristics of the clouds in the infrared atmospheric window region. The new algorithm utilizes the brightness temperature (Tb) measured by an infrared radiometer installed on top of a microwave radiometer. The two-step algorithm consists of a spectral test followed by a temporal test. The measured Tb is first compared with a predicted clear-sky Tb obtained by an empirical formula as a function of surface air temperaturemore » and water vapor pressure. For the temporal test, the temporal variability of the measured Tb during one minute compares with a dynamic threshold value, representing the variability of clear-sky conditions. It is designated as cloud-free data only when both the spectral and temporal tests confirm cloud-free data. Overall, most of the thick and uniform clouds are successfully detected by the spectral test, while the broken and fast-varying clouds are detected by the temporal test. The algorithm is validated by comparison with the collocated ceilometer data for six months, from January to June 2013. The overall proportion of correctness is about 88.3% and the probability of detection is 90.8%, which are comparable with or better than those of previous similar approaches. Two thirds of discrepancies occur when the new algorithm detects clouds while the ceilometer does not, resulting in different values of the probability of detection with different cloud-base altitude, 93.8, 90.3, and 82.8% for low, mid, and high clouds, respectively. Finally, due to the characteristics of the spectral range, the new algorithm is found to be insensitive to the presence of inversion layers.« less

  8. A cloud detection algorithm using the downwelling infrared radiance measured by an infrared pyrometer of the ground-based microwave radiometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahn, M. H.; Han, D.; Won, H. Y.; Morris, Victor R.

    2015-02-03

    For better utilization of the ground-based microwave radiometer, it is important to detect the cloud presence in the measured data. Here, we introduce a simple and fast cloud detection algorithm by using the optical characteristics of the clouds in the infrared atmospheric window region. The new algorithm utilizes the brightness temperature (Tb) measured by an infrared radiometer installed on top of a microwave radiometer. The two-step algorithm consists of a spectral test followed by a temporal test. The measured Tb is first compared with a predicted clear-sky Tb obtained by an empirical formula as a function of surface air temperature and water vapor pressure. For the temporal test, the temporal variability of the measured Tb during one minute compares with a dynamic threshold value, representing the variability of clear-sky conditions. It is designated as cloud-free data only when both the spectral and temporal tests confirm cloud-free data. Overall, most of the thick and uniform clouds are successfully detected by the spectral test, while the broken and fast-varying clouds are detected by the temporal test. The algorithm is validated by comparison with the collocated ceilometer data for six months, from January to June 2013. The overall proportion of correctness is about 88.3% and the probability of detection is 90.8%, which are comparable with or better than those of previous similar approaches. Two thirds of discrepancies occur when the new algorithm detects clouds while the ceilometer does not, resulting in different values of the probability of detection with different cloud-base altitude, 93.8, 90.3, and 82.8% for low, mid, and high clouds, respectively. Finally, due to the characteristics of the spectral range, the new algorithm is found to be insensitive to the presence of inversion layers.

  9. THE EARLIEST NEAR-INFRARED TIME-SERIES SPECTROSCOPY OF A TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsiao, E. Y.; Phillips, M. M.; Morrell, N.; Contreras, C.; Roth, M.; Marion, G. H.; Kirshner, R. P.; Burns, C. R.; Freedman, W. L.; Persson, S. E.; Winge, C.; Gerardy, C. L.; Hoeflich, P.; Im, M.; Jeon, Y.; Pignata, G.; Stanishev, V.; and others

    2013-04-01

    We present ten medium-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio near-infrared (NIR) spectra of SN 2011fe from SpeX on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) and Gemini Near-Infrared Spectrograph (GNIRS) on Gemini North, obtained as part of the Carnegie Supernova Project. This data set constitutes the earliest time-series NIR spectroscopy of a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia), with the first spectrum obtained at 2.58 days past the explosion and covering -14.6 to +17.3 days relative to B-band maximum. C I {lambda}1.0693 {mu}m is detected in SN 2011fe with increasing strength up to maximum light. The delay in the onset of the NIR C I line demonstrates its potential to be an effective tracer of unprocessed material. For the first time in a SN Ia, the early rapid decline of the Mg II {lambda}1.0927 {mu}m velocity was observed, and the subsequent velocity is remarkably constant. The Mg II velocity during this constant phase locates the inner edge of carbon burning and probes the conditions under which the transition from deflagration to detonation occurs. We show that the Mg II velocity does not correlate with the optical light-curve decline rate {Delta}m{sub 15}(B). The prominent break at {approx}1.5 {mu}m is the main source of concern for NIR k-correction calculations. We demonstrate here that the feature has a uniform time evolution among SNe Ia, with the flux ratio across the break strongly correlated with {Delta}m{sub 15}(B). The predictability of the strength and the onset of this feature suggests that the associated k-correction uncertainties can be minimized with improved spectral templates.

  10. THE INFRARED PROPERTIES OF SOURCES MATCHED IN THE WISE ALL-SKY AND HERSCHEL ATLAS SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bond, Nicholas A.; Benford, Dominic J.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Amblard, Alexandre; Blain, Andrew W.; Dunne, Loretta; Maddox, Steve J.; Hoyos, Carlos; Bourne, Nathan; Smith, Daniel J. B.; Bonfield, David; Baes, Maarten; Bridge, Carrie; Buttiglione, Sara; De Zotti, Gianfranco; Cava, Antonio; Clements, David; Cooray, Asantha; Dariush, Ali; and others

    2012-05-01

    We describe the infrared properties of sources detected over {approx}36 deg{sup 2} of sky in the GAMA 15 hr equatorial field, using data from both the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large-Area Survey (H-ATLAS) and Wide-field Infrared Survey (WISE). With 5{sigma} point-source depths of 34 and 0.048 mJy at 250 {mu}m and 3.4 {mu}m, respectively, we are able to identify 50.6% of the H-ATLAS sources in the WISE survey, corresponding to a surface density of {approx}630 deg{sup -2}. Approximately two-thirds of these sources have measured spectroscopic or optical/near-IR photometric redshifts of z < 1. For sources with spectroscopic redshifts at z < 0.3, we find a linear correlation between the infrared luminosity at 3.4 {mu}m and that at 250 {mu}m, with {+-}50% scatter over {approx}1.5 orders of magnitude in luminosity, {approx}10{sup 9}-10{sup 10.5} L{sub Sun }. By contrast, the matched sources without previously measured redshifts (r {approx}> 20.5) have 250-350 {mu}m flux density ratios which suggest either high-redshift galaxies (z {approx}> 1.5) or optically faint low-redshift galaxies with unusually low temperatures (T {approx}< 20). Their small 3.4-250 {mu}m flux ratios favor a high-redshift galaxy population, as only the most actively star-forming galaxies at low redshift (e.g., Arp 220) exhibit comparable flux density ratios. Furthermore, we find a relatively large active galactic nucleus fraction ({approx}30%) in a 12 {mu}m flux-limited subsample of H-ATLAS sources, also consistent with there being a significant population of high-redshift sources in the no-redshift sample.

  11. Expanding shell and star formation in the infrared dust bubble N6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan, Jing-Hua; Li, Jin Zeng; Liu, Hongli; Wu, Yuefang E-mail: ywu@pku.edu.cn

    2014-12-10

    We have carried out a multiwavelength study of the infrared dust bubble N6 to extensively investigate the molecular environs and star-forming activities therein. Mapping observations in {sup 12}CO J = 1-0 and {sup 13}CO J = 1-0 performed with the Purple Mountain Observatory 13.7 m telescope have revealed four velocity components. Comparison between distributions of each component and the infrared emission suggests that three components are correlated with N6. There are 10 molecular clumps detected. Among them, five have reliable detections in both {sup 12}CO and {sup 13}CO and have similar LTE and non-LTE masses ranging from 200 to higher than 5000 M {sub ?}. With larger gas masses than virial masses, these five clumps are gravitationally unstable and have the potential to collapse to form new stars. The other five clumps are only reliably detected in {sup 12}CO and have relatively small masses. Five clumps are located on the border of the ring structure, and four of them are elongated along the shell. This is well in agreement with the collect-and-collapse scenario. The detected velocity gradient reveals that the ring structure is still under expansion owing to stellar winds from the exciting star(s). Furthermore, 99 young stellar objects (YSOs) have been identified based on their infrared colors. A group of YSOs reside inside the ring, indicating active star formation in N6. Although no confirmative features of triggered star formation are detected, the bubble and the enclosed H II region have profoundly reconstructed the natal cloud and altered the dynamics therein.

  12. Dysprosium-doped cadmium oxide as a gateway material for mid-infrared plasmonics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sachet, Edward; Shelton, Christopher T.; Harris, Joshua S.; Gaddy, Benjamin E.; Irving, Douglas L.; Curtarolo, Stefano; Donovan, Brian F.; Hopkins, Patrick E.; Sharma, Peter A.; Sharma, Ana Lima; Ihlefeld, Jon; Franzen, Stefan; Maria, Jon -Paul

    2015-02-16

    The interest in plasmonic technologies surrounds many emergent optoelectronic applications, such as plasmon lasers, transistors, sensors and information storage. Although plasmonic materials for ultraviolet–visible and near-infrared wavelengths have been found, the mid-infrared range remains a challenge to address: few known systems can achieve subwavelength optical confinement with low loss in this range. With a combination of experiments and ab initio modelling, here we demonstrate an extreme peak of electron mobility in Dy-doped CdO that is achieved through accurate ‘defect equilibrium engineering’. In so doing, we create a tunable plasmon host that satisfies the criteria for mid-infrared spectrum plasmonics, and overcomes the losses seen in conventional plasmonic materials. In particular, extrinsic doping pins the CdO Fermi level above the conduction band minimum and it increases the formation energy of native oxygen vacancies, thus reducing their populations by several orders of magnitude. The substitutional lattice strain induced by Dy doping is sufficiently small, allowing mobility values around 500 cm2 V–1 s–1 for carrier densities above 1020 cm–3. As a result, our work shows that CdO:Dy is a model system for intrinsic and extrinsic manipulation of defects affecting electrical, optical and thermal properties, that oxide conductors are ideal candidates for plasmonic devices and that the defect engineering approach for property optimization is generally applicable to other conducting metal oxides.

  13. Cooperative effect of ultraviolet and near-infrared beams in laser-induced condensation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthews, M.; Henin, S.; Pomel, F.; Kasparian, J.; Wolf, J.-P.; Thberge, F.; Daigle, J.-F.; Lassonde, P.; Kieffer, J.-C.

    2013-12-23

    We demonstrate the cooperative effect of near infrared (NIR) and ultraviolet (UV) beams on laser-induced condensation. Launching a UV laser after a NIR pulse yields up to a 5-fold increase in the production of nanoparticles (25300 nm) as compared to a single NIR beam. This cooperative effect exceeds the sum of those from the individual beams and occurs for delays up to 1 ?s. We attribute it to the UV photolysis of ozone created by the NIR pulses. The resulting OH radicals oxidize NO{sub 2} and volatile organic compounds, producing condensable species.

  14. Approaching total absorption at near infrared in a large area monolayer graphene by critical coupling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yonghao; Chadha, Arvinder; Zhao, Deyin; Shuai, Yichen; Menon, Laxmy; Yang, Hongjun; Zhou, Weidong; Piper, Jessica R.; Fan, Shanhui; Jia, Yichen; Xia, Fengnian; Ma, Zhenqiang

    2014-11-03

    We demonstrate experimentally close to total absorption in monolayer graphene based on critical coupling with guided resonances in transfer printed photonic crystal Fano resonance filters at near infrared. Measured peak absorptions of 35% and 85% were obtained from cavity coupled monolayer graphene for the structures without and with back reflectors, respectively. These measured values agree very well with the theoretical values predicted with the coupled mode theory based critical coupling design. Such strong light-matter interactions can lead to extremely compact and high performance photonic devices based on large area monolayer graphene and other twodimensional materials.

  15. Enhancement of near-infrared absorption in graphene with metal gratings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, B.; Zhang, Z. M., E-mail: zhuomin.zhang@me.gatech.edu [G.W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Zhao, J. M. [G.W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China)

    2014-07-21

    Graphene has been demonstrated as a good candidate for ultrafast optoelectronic devices. However, graphene is essentially transparent in the visible and near infrared with an absorptivity of 2.3%, which has largely limited its application in photon detection. This Letter demonstrates that the absorptance in a monatomic graphene layer can be greatly enhanced to nearly 70%, thanks to the localized strong electric field resulting from magnetic resonances in deep metal gratings. Furthermore, the resonance frequency is essentially not affected by the additional graphene layer. The method presented here may benefit the design of next-generation graphene-based optical and optoelectronic devices.

  16. Development of an L-Band RF Electron Gun for SASE in the Infrared Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kashiwagi, Shigeru; Kato, Ryukou; Isoyama, Goro; Hayano, Hitoshi; Urakawa, Junji

    2010-02-03

    We conduct research on Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) in the infrared region using the 40 MeV, 1.3 GHz L-band linac of Osaka University. The linac equipped with a thermionic electron gun can accelerate a high-intensity single-bunch beam though its normalized emittance is high. In order to advance the research on SASE, we have begun development of an RF gun for the L-band linac in collaboration with KEK. We will report conceptual design of the RF gun and present the status of development of another RF gun for STF at KEK.

  17. Laser Microperforated Biodegradable Microbial Polyhydroxyalkanoate Substrates for Tissue Repair Strategies: An Infrared Microspectroscopy Studey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G Ellis; P Cano; M Jadraque; M Martin; L Lopez; T Nunez; E de la Pena; C Marco; L Garrido

    2011-12-31

    Flexible and biodegradable film substrates prepared by solvent casting from poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBHV) solutions in chloroform were microperforated by ultraviolet laser ablation and subsequently characterized using infrared (IR) microspectroscopy and imaging techniques and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Both transmission synchrotron IR microspectroscopy and attenuated total reflectance microspectroscopy measurements demonstrate variations in the polymer at the ablated pore rims, including evidence for changes in chemical structure and crystallinity. SEM results on microperforated PHBHV substrates after cell culture demonstrated that the physical and chemical changes observed in the biomaterial did not hinder cell migration through the pores.

  18. Identifying clouds over the Pierre Auger Observatory using infrared satellite data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abreu, Pedro; et al.,

    2013-12-01

    We describe a new method of identifying night-time clouds over the Pierre Auger Observatory using infrared data from the Imager instruments on the GOES-12 and GOES-13 satellites. We compare cloud identifications resulting from our method to those obtained by the Central Laser Facility of the Auger Observatory. Using our new method we can now develop cloud probability maps for the 3000 km^2 of the Pierre Auger Observatory twice per hour with a spatial resolution of ~2.4 km by ~5.5 km. Our method could also be applied to monitor cloud cover for other ground-based observatories and for space-based observatories.

  19. Vacuum ultraviolet and infrared spectra of condensed methyl acetate on cold astrochemical dust analogs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sivaraman, B.; Nair, B. G.; Mason, N. J.; Lo, J.-I.; Cheng, B.-M.; Kundu, S.; Davis, D.; Prabhudesai, V.; Krishnakumar, E.; Raja Sekhar, B. N.

    2013-12-01

    Following the recent report of the first identification of methyl acetate (CH{sub 3}COOCH{sub 3}) in the interstellar medium (ISM), we have carried out vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy studies on methyl acetate from 10 K until sublimation in an ultrahigh vacuum chamber simulating astrochemical conditions. We present the first VUV and IR spectra of methyl acetate relevant to ISM conditions. Spectral signatures clearly showed molecular reorientation to have started in the ice by annealing the amorphous ice formed at 10 K. An irreversible phase change from amorphous to crystalline methyl acetate ice was found to occur between 110 K and 120 K.

  20. Thermoelastic investigation of a quartz tuning fork used in infrared spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spajer, M. Cavallier, B.; Euphrasie, S.; Matten, G.; Vacheret, X.; Vairac, P.; Vernier, D.; Jalocha, A.

    2013-11-11

    The performances of quartz tuning forks (QTF) used in infrared spectroscopy for pollutant detection are investigated. The transduction between light and QTF vibration is elucidated, thanks to QTF encapsulation under vacuum. From the sensitivity enhancement which is obtained, we conclude that their interaction is photo-thermoelastic rather than photo-thermoacoustic. A mapping of the local sensitivity of the QTF is obtained by scanning its faces with the excitation probe beam. The comparison between the signal mapping and the theoretical strain mapping indicates that the most efficient areas of the QTF correspond to the areas where the strain or stress is the highest.

  1. A relativistic quark model with infrared confinement and the tetraquark state

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubnicka, S.; Dubnickova, A. Z.; Ivanov, M. A.; Koerner, J. G.; Saidullaeva, G. G.

    2011-05-23

    We explore the consequences of treating the X(3872) meson as a tetraquark bound state. As dynamical framework we employ a relativistic constituent quark model which includes infrared confinement in an effective way. We calculate the decay widths of the observed channels X{yields}J/{psi}+2{pi}(3{pi}) and X{yields}D-bar{sup 0}+D{sup 0}+{pi}{sup 0} via the intermediate off-shell states X{yields}J/{psi}+{rho}({omega}) and X{yields}D-bar+D*. For reasonable values of the size parameter {Lambda}{sub X} of the X(3872) we find consistency with the available experimental data.

  2. Durable silver mirror with ultra-violet thru far infra-red reflection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Jesse D.

    2010-11-23

    A durable highly reflective silver mirror characterized by high reflectance in a broad spectral range of about 300 nm in the UV to the far infrared (.about.10000 nm), as well as exceptional environmental durability. A high absorptivity metal underlayer is used which prevents the formation of a galvanic cell with a silver layer while increasing the reflectance of the silver layer. Environmentally durable overcoat layers are provided to enhance mechanical and chemical durability and protect the silver layer from corrosion and tarnishing, for use in a wide variety of surroundings or climates, including harsh or extreme environments.

  3. Mid infrared optical properties of Ge/Si quantum dots with different doping level

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sofronov, A. N.; Firsov, D. A.; Vorobjev, L. E.; Shalygin, V. A.; Panevin, V. Yu.; Vinnichenko, M. Ya.; Tonkikh, A. A.; Danilov, S. N.

    2013-12-04

    Optical characterization of the Ge/Si quantum dots using equilibrium and photo-induced absorption spectroscopy in the mid-infrared spectral range was performed in this work. Equilibrium absorption spectra were measured in structures with various doping levels for different light polarizations. Photo-induced absorption spectra measured in undoped structure under interband optical excitation of non-equilibrium charge carriers demonstrate the same features as doped sample in equilibrium conditions. Hole energy spectrum was determined from the analysis of experimental data.

  4. Frequency Selective Surfaces as Near Infrared Electro-Magnetic Filters for Thermophotovoltaic Spectral Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RF Kristensen; JF Beausang; DM DePoy

    2004-06-28

    Frequency selective surfaces (FSS) effectively filter electromagnetic radiation in the microwave band (1 mm to 100 mm). Interest exists in extending this technology to the near infrared (1 {micro}m to 10 {micro}m) for use as a filter of thermal radiation in thermophotovoltaic (TPV) direct energy conversion. This paper assesses the ability of FSS to meet the strict spectral performance requirements of a TPV system. Inherent parasitic absorption, which is the result of the induced currents in the FSS metallization, is identified as a significant obstacle to achieving high spectral performance.

  5. Frequency Selective Surfaces as Near Infrared Electro-Magnetic Filters for Thermophotovoltaic Spectral Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan T. Kristensen; John F. Beausang; David M. DePoy

    2003-12-01

    Frequency selective surfaces (FSS) effectively filter electromagnetic radiation in the microwave band (1mm to 100mm). Interest exists in extending this technology to the near infrared (1 {micro}m to 10 {micro}m) for use as a filter of thermal radiation in thermophotovoltaic (TPV) direct energy conversion. This paper assesses the ability of FSS to meet the strict spectral performance requirements of a TPV system. Inherent parasitic absorption, which is the result of the induced currents in the FSS metallization, is identified as a significant obstacle to achieving high spectral performance.

  6. Infrared pulse characterization using four-wave mixing inside a few cycle pulse filament in air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marceau, Claude Thomas, Steven; Kassimi, Yacine; Gingras, Guillaume; Witzel, Bernd

    2014-02-03

    We demonstrate a four-wave mixing (FWM) technique to measure near- and mid-infrared (IR) laser pulse shapes in time domain. Few cycle 800?nm laser pulses were synchronized with the IR pulse and focused colinearly to generate a plasma filament in air. Second harmonic radiation around 400?nm was generated through FWM, with a yield proportional to the IR pulse intensity. Excellent signal to noise ratio was observed from 2.1??m to 18??m. With proper phase stabilization of the IR beam, this technique is a promising step toward direct electric field sensing of near-IR pulses in air.

  7. Application of External-Cavity Quantum Cascade Infrared Lasers to Nanosecond Time-Resolved Infrared Spectroscopy of Condensed-Phase Samples Following Pulse Radiolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grills, D.C.; Cook, A.R.; Fujita, E.; George, M.W.; Miller, J.R.; Preses, J.M.; Wishart, J.F.

    2010-06-01

    Pulse radiolysis, utilizing short pulses of high-energy electrons from accelerators, is a powerful method for rapidly generating reduced or oxidized species and other free radicals in solution. Combined with fast time-resolved spectroscopic detection (typically in the ultraviolet/visible/near-infrared), it is invaluable for monitoring the reactivity of species subjected to radiolysis on timescales ranging from picoseconds to seconds. However, it is often difficult to identify the transient intermediates definitively due to a lack of structural information in the spectral bands. Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy offers the structural specificity necessary for mechanistic investigations but has received only limited application in pulse radiolysis experiments. For example, time-resolved infrared (TRIR) spectroscopy has only been applied to a handful of gas-phase studies, limited mainly by several technical challenges. We have exploited recent developments in commercial external-cavity quantum cascade laser (EC-QCL) technology to construct a nanosecond TRIR apparatus that has allowed, for the first time, TRIR spectra to be recorded following pulse radiolysis of condensed-phase samples. Near single-shot sensitivity of DeltaOD <1 x 10(-3) has been achieved, with a response time of <20 ns. Using two continuous-wave EC-QCLs, the current apparatus covers a probe region from 1890-2084 cm(-1), and TRIR spectra are acquired on a point-by-point basis by recording transient absorption decay traces at specific IR wavelengths and combining these to generate spectral time slices. The utility of the apparatus has been demonstrated by monitoring the formation and decay of the one-electron reduced form of the CO(2) reduction catalyst, [Re(I)(bpy)(CO)(3)(CH(3)CN)](+), in acetonitrile with nanosecond time resolution following pulse radiolysis. Characteristic red-shifting of the nu(CO) IR bands confirmed that one-electron reduction of the complex took place. The availability of TRIR detection with high sensitivity opens up a wide range of mechanistic pulse radiolysis investigations that were previously difficult or impossible to perform with transient UV/visible detection.

  8. A HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION MID-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY OF THE NUCLEI AND STAR-FORMING REGIONS IN LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diaz-Santos, Tanio; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Colina, Luis; Pereira-Santaella, Miguel; Packham, Christopher; Telesco, Charles M.; Levenson, N. A.; Roche, Patrick F.

    2010-03-01

    We present a high spatial (diffraction-limited) resolution ({approx}0.''3) mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopic study of the nuclei and star-forming regions of four local luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) using T-ReCS on the Gemini South telescope. We investigate the spatial variations of the features seen in the N-band spectra of LIRGs on scales of {approx}100 pc, which allow us to resolve their nuclear regions and separate the active galactic nucleus (AGN) emission from that of the star formation (SF). We compare (qualitatively and quantitatively) our Gemini T-ReCS nuclear and integrated spectra of LIRGs with those obtained with Spitzer IRS. Star-forming regions and AGNs show distinct features in the MIR spectra, and we spatially separate these, which is not possible using the Spitzer data. The 9.7 {mu}m silicate absorption feature is weaker in the nuclei of the LIRGs than in the surrounding regions. This is probably due to the either clumpy or compact environment of the central AGN or young, nuclear starburst. We find that the [Ne II]12.81 {mu}m luminosity surface density is tightly and directly correlated with that of Paalpha for the LIRG star-forming regions (slope of 1.00 +- 0.02). Although the 11.3 {mu}m PAH feature shows also a trend with Paalpha, this is not common for all the regions and the slope is significantly lower. We also find that the [Ne II]12.81 {mu}m/Paalpha ratio does not depend on the Paalpha equivalent width (EW), i.e., on the age of the ionizing stellar populations, suggesting that, on the scales probed here, the [Ne II]12.81 {mu}m emission line is a good tracer of the SF activity in LIRGs. On the other hand, the 11.3 {mu}m PAH/Paalpha ratio increases for smaller values of the Paalpha EW (increasing ages), indicating that the 11.3 {mu}m PAH feature can also be excited by older stars than those responsible for the Paalpha emission. Finally, more data are needed in order to address the different physical processes (age of the stellar populations, hardness and intensity of the radiation field, mass of the star-forming regions) affecting the energetics of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon features in a statistical way. Additional high spatial resolution observations are essential to investigating the SF in local LIRGs at the smallest scales and determining ultimately whether they share the same physical properties as high-z LIRGs, ULIRGs, and submillimiter galaxies and therefore belong to the same galaxy population.

  9. Near-infrared spectra of high-albedo outer main-belt asteroids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kasuga, Toshihiro; Shirahata, Mai; Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Ootsubo, Takafumi; Okamura, Natsuko; Hasegawa, Sunao

    2015-02-01

    Most outer main-belt asteroids have low albedos because of their carbonaceouslike bodies. However, infrared satellite surveys have revealed that some asteroids have high albedos, which may suggest the presence of unusual surface minerals for those primitive objects. We present new near-infrared (1.12.5 ?m) spectra of four outer main-belt asteroids with albedos ? 0.1. The C-complex asteroids (555) Norma and (2542) Calpurnia are featureless and have (50%60%) amorphous Mg pyroxenes that might explain the high albedos. Asteroids (701) Oriola (which is a C-complex asteroid) and (2670) Chuvashia (a D/T-type or M-type asteroid) show possible broad absorption bands (1.52.1 ?m). The feature can be reproduced by either Mg-rich amorphous pyroxene (with 50%60% and 80%95% Mg, respectively) or orthopyroxene (crystalline silicate), which might be responsible for the high albedos. No absorption features of water ice (near 1.5 and 2.0 ?m) are detected in the objects. We discuss the origin of high albedo components in the outer main-belt asteroids and their physical relations to comets.

  10. Near infrared spectral imaging of explosives using a tunable laser source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klunder, G L; Margalith, E; Nguyen, L K

    2010-03-26

    Diffuse reflectance near infrared hyperspectral imaging is an important analytical tool for a wide variety of industries, including agriculture consumer products, chemical and pharmaceutical development and production. Using this technique as a method for the standoff detection of explosive particles is presented and discussed. The detection of the particles is based on the diffuse reflectance of light from the particle in the near infrared wavelength range where CH, NH, OH vibrational overtones and combination bands are prominent. The imaging system is a NIR focal plane array camera with a tunable OPO/laser system as the illumination source. The OPO is programmed to scan over a wide spectral range in the NIR and the camera is synchronized to record the light reflected from the target for each wavelength. The spectral resolution of this system is significantly higher than that of hyperspectral systems that incorporate filters or dispersive elements. The data acquisition is very fast and the entire hyperspectral cube can be collected in seconds. A comparison of data collected with the OPO system to data obtained with a broadband light source with LCTF filters is presented.

  11. Quantitative infrared absorption cross-sections of isoprene for atmospheric measurements

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Brauer, C. S.; Blake, T. A.; Guenther, A. B.; Sams, R. L.; Johnson, T. J.

    2014-04-25

    Isoprene (C5H8, 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene) is a volatile organic compound (VOC) that is one of the primary contributors to annual global VOC emissions. Produced by vegetation as well as anthropogenic sources, the OH- and O3-initiated oxidations of isoprene are a major source of atmospheric oxygenated organics. Few quantitative infrared studies have been reported for isoprene, however, limiting the ability to quantify isoprene emissions via stand-off infrared or in situ detection. We thus report absorption coefficients and integrated band intensities for isoprene in the 600–6500 cm−1 region. The pressure-broadened (1 atmosphere N2) spectra were recorded at 278, 298 and 323 K in amore » 19.94 cm path length cell at 0.112 cm−1 resolution, using a Bruker 66v FTIR. Composite spectra are derived from a minimum of seven isoprene sample pressures at each temperature and the number densities are normalized to 296 K and 1 atmosphere.« less

  12. NGC 4102: HIGH-RESOLUTION INFRARED OBSERVATIONS OF A NUCLEAR STARBURST RING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beck, Sara C.; Lacy, John H.; Turner, Jean L.

    2010-10-20

    The composite galaxy NGC 4102 hosts a LINER nucleus and a starburst. We mapped NGC 4102 in the 12.8 {mu}m line of [Ne II], using the echelon spectrometer TEXES on the NASA IRTF, to obtain a data cube with 1.''5 spatial, and 25 km s{sup -1} spectral, resolution. Combining near-infrared, radio, and the [Ne II] data shows that the extinction to the starburst is substantial, more than 2 mag at the K band, and that the neon abundance is less than half solar. We find that the star formation in the nuclear region is confined to a rotating ring or disk of 4.''3 ({approx}300 pc) diameter, inside the inner Lindblad resonance. This region is an intense concentration of mass, with a dynamical mass {approx}3 x 10{sup 9} M{sub sun}, and of star formation. The young stars in the ring produce the [Ne II] flux reported by Spitzer for the entire galaxy. The mysterious blue component of line emission detected in the near-infrared is also seen in [Ne II]; it is not a normal active galactic nucleus outflow.

  13. Discovery of GeV emission from the direction of the luminous infrared galaxy NGC 2146

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Qing-Wen; Wang, Xiang-Yu [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093 (China); Thomas Tam, Pak-Hin, E-mail: xywang@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: phtam@phys.nthu.edu.tw [Institute of Astronomy and Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2014-10-10

    Recent detections of high-energy gamma-ray emission from starburst galaxies M82 and NGC 253 suggest that starburst galaxies are huge reservoirs of cosmic rays and these cosmic rays convert a significant fraction of their energy into gamma-rays by colliding with the dense interstellar medium. In this paper, we report the search for high-energy gamma-ray emission from several nearby star-forming and starburst galaxies using the 68 month data obtained with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. We found a ?5.5? detection of gamma-ray emission above 200 MeV from a source spatially coincident with the location of the luminous infrared galaxy NGC 2146. Also taking into account the temporal and spectral properties of the gamma-ray emission, we suggest that the gamma-ray source is likely to be the counterpart of NGC 2146. The gamma-ray luminosity suggests that cosmic rays in NGC 2146 convert most of their energy into secondary pions, so NGC 2146 is a 'proton calorimeter'. It is also found that NGC 2146 obeys the quasi-linear scaling relation between gamma-ray luminosity and total infrared luminosity for star-forming galaxies, strengthening the connection between massive star formation and gamma-ray emission of star-forming galaxies. Possible TeV emission from NGC 2146 is predicted and the implications for high-energy neutrino emission from starburst galaxies are discussed.

  14. THE MID-INFRARED ENVIRONMENTS OF HIGH-REDSHIFT RADIO GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galametz, Audrey; Stern, Daniel; De Breuck, Carlos; Vernet, Joeel; Hatch, Nina; Mayo, Jack; Miley, George; Rettura, Alessandro; Seymour, Nick; Adam Stanford, S.

    2012-04-20

    Taking advantage of the impressive sensitivity of Spitzer to detect massive galaxies at high redshift, we study the mid-infrared environments of powerful, high-redshift radio galaxies at 1.2 < z < 3. Galaxy cluster member candidates were isolated using a single Spitzer/IRAC mid-infrared color criterion, [3.6]-[4.5] > -0.1 (AB), in the fields of 48 radio galaxies at 1.2 < z < 3. Using a counts-in-cell analysis, we identify a field as overdense when 15 or more red IRAC sources are found within 1' (i.e., 0.5 Mpc at 1.2 < z < 3) of the radio galaxy to the 5{sigma} flux density limits of our IRAC data (f{sub 4.5} = 13.4 {mu}Jy). We find that radio galaxies lie preferentially in medium to dense regions, with 73% of the targeted fields denser than average. Our (shallow) 120 s data permit the rediscovery of previously known clusters and protoclusters associated with radio galaxies as well as the discovery of new promising galaxy cluster candidates at z > 1.2.

  15. Spitzer IRAC mid-infrared photometry of 500-750 brown dwarf

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saumon, Didier; Leggett, Sandy K; Albert, Loic; Artigau, Etienne; Burningham, Ben; Delfosse, Xavier; Delorme, Philippe; Forveille, Thierry; Lucas, Philip W; Marley, Mark S; Pinfield, David J; Reyle, Celine; Smart, Richard L; Warren, Stephen J

    2010-10-26

    Mid-infrared data, including Spitzer warm-IRAC [3.6] and [4.5] photometry, is critical for understanding the cold population of brown dwarfs now being found, objects which have more in common with planets than stars. As effective temperature (T{sub eff}) drops from 800K to 400K, the fraction of flux emitted beyond 3 {mu}m increases rapidly, from about 40% to > 75%. This rapid increase makes a color like H-[4.5] a very sensitive temperature indicator, and it can be combined with a gravity- and metallicity-sensitive color like H-K to constrain all three of these fundamental properties, which in turn gives us mass and age for these slowly cooling objects. Determination of mid-infrared color trends also allows better exploitation of the WISE mission by the community. We use new Spitzer Cycle 6 IRAC photometry, together with published data, to present trends of color with type for L0 to T10 dwarfs. We also use the atmospheric and evolutionary models of Saumon and Marley to investigate the masses and ages of 13 very late-type T dwarfs, which have H-[4.5] > 3.2 and T{sub eff} {approx} 500K to 750K.

  16. Wide-angle ITER-prototype tangential infrared and visible viewing system for DIII-D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lasnier, C. J. Allen, S. L.; Ellis, R. E.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; McLean, A. G.; Meyer, W. H.; Morris, K.; Seppala, L. G.; Crabtree, K.; Van Zeeland, M. A.

    2014-11-15

    An imaging system with a wide-angle tangential view of the full poloidal cross-section of the tokamak in simultaneous infrared and visible light has been installed on DIII-D. The optical train includes three polished stainless steel mirrors in vacuum, which view the tokamak through an aperture in the first mirror, similar to the design concept proposed for ITER. A dichroic beam splitter outside the vacuum separates visible and infrared (IR) light. Spatial calibration is accomplished by warping a CAD-rendered image to align with landmarks in a data image. The IR camera provides scrape-off layer heat flux profile deposition features in diverted and inner-wall-limited plasmas, such as heat flux reduction in pumped radiative divertor shots. Demonstration of the system to date includes observation of fast-ion losses to the outer wall during neutral beam injection, and shows reduced peak wall heat loading with disruption mitigation by injection of a massive gas puff.

  17. NEAR-INFRARED CIRCULAR POLARIZATION SURVEY IN STAR-FORMING REGIONS: CORRELATIONS AND TRENDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwon, Jungmi; Tamura, Motohide; Hough, James H.; Lucas, Phil W.; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Kandori, Ryo; Nagata, Tetsuya; Nakajima, Yasushi; Nagayama, Takahiro

    2014-11-01

    We have conducted a systematic near-infrared circular polarization (CP) survey in star-forming regions, covering high-mass, intermediate-mass, and low-mass young stellar objects. All the observations were made using the SIRPOL imaging polarimeter on the Infrared Survey Facility 1.4m telescope at the South African Astronomical Observatory. We present the polarization properties of 10 sub-regions in 6 star-forming regions. The polarization patterns, extents, and maximum degrees of linear and circular polarizations are used to determine the prevalence and origin of CP in the star-forming regions. Our results show that the CP pattern is quadrupolar in general, the CP regions are extensive, up to 0.65pc, the CP degrees are high, up to 20%, and the CP degrees decrease systematically from high- to low-mass young stellar objects. The results are consistent with dichroic extinction mechanisms generating the high degrees of CP in star-forming regions.

  18. Near-infrared detection of WD 0806-661 B with the Hubble space telescope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luhman, K. L.; Esplin, T. L.; Morley, C. V.; Burgasser, A. J.; Bochanski, J. J.

    2014-10-10

    WD 0806-661 B is one of the coldest known brown dwarfs (T {sub eff} = 300-345 K) based on previous mid-infrared photometry from the Spitzer Space Telescope. In addition, it is a benchmark for testing theoretical models of brown dwarfs because its age and distance are well constrained via its primary star (2 0.5 Gyr, 19.2 0.6 pc). We present the first near-infrared detection of this object, which has been achieved through F110W imaging (?Y + J) with the Wide Field Camera 3 on board the Hubble Space Telescope. We measure a Vega magnitude of m {sub 110} = 25.70 0.08, which implies J ? 25.0. When combined with the Spitzer photometry, our estimate of J helps to better define the empirical sequence of the coldest brown dwarfs in M {sub 4.5} versus J [4.5]. The positions of WD 0806-661 B and other Y dwarfs in that diagram are best matched by the cloudy models of Burrows et al. and the cloudless models of Saumon et al., both of which employ chemical equilibrium. The calculations by Morley et al. for 50% cloud coverage differ only modestly from the data. Spectroscopy would enable a more stringent test of the models, but based on our F110W measurement, such observations are currently possible only with Hubble, and would require at least ?10 orbits to reach a signal-to-noise ratio of ?5.

  19. CATCHING QUENCHING GALAXIES: THE NATURE OF THE WISE INFRARED TRANSITION ZONE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alatalo, Katherine; Appleton, Philip N.; Rich, Jeffrey A.; Cales, Sabrina L.; Kewley, Lisa J.; Lacy, Mark; Lisenfeld, Ute; Nyland, Kristina

    2014-10-10

    We present the discovery of a prominent bifurcation between early-type galaxies and late-type galaxies, in [4.6]-[12] μm colors from the Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). We then use an emission-line diagnostic comparison sample to explore the nature of objects found both within and near the edges of this WISE infrared transition zone (IRTZ). We hypothesize that this bifurcation might be due to the presence of hot dust and polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission features in late-type galaxies. Using a sample of galaxies selected through the Shocked Poststarburst Galaxy Survey (SPOGS), we are able to identify galaxies with strong Balmer absorption (EW(Hδ) > 5 Å) as well as emission lines inconsistent with star formation (deemed SPOG candidates, or SPOGs*) that lie within the optical green valley. Seyferts and low-ionization nuclear emission line regions, whose u – r colors tend to be red, are strongly represented within IRTZ, whereas SPOGs* tend to sit near the star-forming edge. Although active galactic nuclei are well represented in the IRTZ, we argue that the dominant IRTZ population is composed of galaxies that are in late stages of transitioning across the optical green valley, shedding the last of their remnant interstellar media.

  20. Characterization of high proper motion objects from the wide-field infrared survey explorer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luhman, K. L.; Sheppard, Scott S.

    2014-06-01

    We present an analysis of high proper motion objects that we have found in a recent study and in this work with multi-epoch astrometry from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using photometry and proper motions from the Two Micron All-Sky Survey and WISE, we have identified the members of this sample that are likely to be late-type, nearby, or metal-poor. We have performed optical and near-infrared spectroscopy on 41 objects, from which we measure spectral types that range from M4-T2.5. This sample includes 11 blue L dwarfs and 5 subdwarfs; the latter were also classified as such in the recent study by Kirkpatrick and coworkers. Based on their spectral types and photometry, several of our spectroscopic targets may have distances of <20 pc with the closest at ?12 pc. The tangential velocities implied by the spectrophotometric distances and proper motions indicate that four of the five subdwarfs are probably members of the Galactic halo while several other objects, including the early-T dwarf WISE J210529.08623558.7, may belong to the thick disk.

  1. Strong transmittance above the light line in mid-infrared two-dimensional photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kraeh, Christian; Martinez-Hurtado, J. L.; Zeitlmair, Martin; Finley, Jonathan J.; Popescu, Alexandru; Hedler, Harry

    2015-06-14

    The mid-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum between 3 and 8 μm hosts absorption lines of gases relevant for chemical and biological sensing. 2D photonic crystal structures capable of guiding light in this region of the spectrum have been widely studied, and their implementation into miniaturized sensors has been proposed. However, light guiding in conventional 2D photonic crystals is usually restricted to a frequency range below the light line, which is the dispersion relation of light in the media surrounding the structures. These structures rely on total internal reflection for confinement of the light in z-direction normal to the lattice plane. In this work, 2D mid-infrared photonic crystals consisting of microtube arrays that mitigate these limitations have been developed. Due to their high aspect ratios of ∼1:30, they are perceived as semi-infinite in the z-direction. Light transmission experiments in the 5–8 μm range reveal attenuations as low as 0.27 dB/100 μm, surpassing the limitations for light guiding above the light line in conventional 2D photonic crystals. Fair agreement is obtained between these experiments, 2D band structure and transmission simulations.

  2. Object detection utilizing a linear retrieval algorithm for thermal infrared imagery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsey, M.S. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Thermal infrared (TIR) spectroscopy and remote sensing have been proven to be extremely valuable tools for mineralogic discrimination. One technique for sub-pixel detection and data reduction, known as a spectral retrieval or unmixing algorithm, will prove useful in the analysis of data from scheduled TIR orbital instruments. This study represents the first quantitative attempt to identify the limits of the model, specifically concentrating on the TIR. The algorithm was written and applied to laboratory data, testing the effects of particle size, noise, and multiple endmembers, then adapted to operate on airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner data of the Kelso Dunes, CA, Meteor Crater, AZ, and Medicine Lake Volcano, CA. Results indicate that linear spectral unmixmg can produce accurate endmember detection to within an average of 5%. In addition, the effects of vitrification and textural variations were modeled. The ability to predict mineral or rock abundances becomes extremely useful in tracking sediment transport, decertification, and potential hazard assessment in remote volcanic regions. 26 refs., 3 figs.

  3. The ? infrared search for extraterrestrial civilizations with large energy supplies. I. Background and justification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, J. T.; Mullan, B.; Sigurdsson, S.; Povich, M. S.

    2014-09-01

    We motivate the ? infrared search for extraterrestrial civilizations with large energy supplies. We discuss some philosophical difficulties of the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), and how communication SETI circumvents them. We review 'Dysonian SETI', the search for artifacts of alien civilizations, and find that it is highly complementary to traditional communication SETI; the two together might succeed where either one alone has not. We discuss the argument of Hart that spacefaring life in the Milky Way should be either galaxy-spanning or non-existent, and examine a portion of his argument that we call the 'monocultural fallacy'. We discuss some rebuttals to Hart that invoke sustainability and predict long Galaxy colonization timescales. We find that the maximum Galaxy colonization timescale is actually much shorter than previous work has found (<10{sup 9} yr), and that many 'sustainability' counter-arguments to Hart's thesis suffer from the monocultural fallacy. We extend Hart's argument to alien energy supplies and argue that detectably large energy supplies can plausibly be expected to exist because life has the potential for exponential growth until checked by resources or other limitations, and intelligence implies the ability to overcome such limitations. As such, if Hart's thesis is correct, then searches for large alien civilizations in other galaxies may be fruitful; if it is incorrect, then searches for civilizations within the Milky Way are more likely to succeed than Hart argued. We review some past Dysonian SETI efforts and discuss the promise of new mid-infrared surveys, such as that of WISE.

  4. Dispersion properties and low infrared optical losses in epitaxial AlN on sapphire substrate in the visible and infrared range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soltani, A. Stolz, A.; Gerbedoen, J.-C.; Rousseau, M.; Bourzgui, N.; De Jaeger, J.-C.; Charrier, J.; Mattalah, M.; Barkad, H. A.; Mortet, V.

    2014-04-28

    Optical waveguiding properties of a thick wurtzite aluminum nitride highly [002]-textured hetero-epitaxial film on (001) basal plane of sapphire substrate are studied. The physical properties of the film are determined by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, microRaman, and photocurrent spectroscopy. The refractive index and the thermo-optic coefficients are determined by m-lines spectroscopy using the classical prism coupling technique. The optical losses of this planar waveguide are also measured in the spectral range of 4501553?nm. The lower value of optical losses is equal to 0.7 dB/cm at 1553?nm. The optical losses due to the surface scattering are simulated showing that the contribution is the most significant at near infrared wavelength range, whereas the optical losses are due to volume scattering and material absorption in the visible range. The good physical properties and the low optical losses obtained from this planar waveguide are encouraging to achieve a wide bandgap optical guiding platform from these aluminum nitride thin films.

  5. THE REINCARNATION OF INTERSTELLAR DUST: THE IMPORTANCE OF ORGANIC REFRACTORY MATERIAL IN INFRARED SPECTRA OF COMETARY COMAE AND CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimura, Hiroshi

    2013-09-20

    We consider the reincarnation of interstellar dust to be reborn in protoplanetary disks as aggregates consisting of submicron-sized grains with a crystalline or amorphous silicate core and an organic-rich carbonaceous mantle. We find that infrared spectra of reincarnated interstellar dust reproduce emission peaks at correct wavelengths where the peaks were observed in cometary comae, debris disks, and protoplanetary disks if the volume fraction of organic refractory meets the constraints on elemental abundances. We discuss what we can learn from the infrared spectra of reincarnated interstellar dust in cometary comae and circumstellar disks.

  6. A POPULATION OF z > 2 FAR-INFRARED HERSCHEL-SPIRE-SELECTED STARBURSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casey, C. M.; Berta, S.; Lutz, D.; Magnelli, B.; Bethermin, M.; Floc'h, E. le; Magdis, G.; Burgarella, D.; Chapin, E.; Chapman, S. C.; Clements, D. L.; Conley, A.; Conselice, C. J.; Farrah, D.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Ivison, R. J.; Oliver, S. J.; and others

    2012-12-20

    We present spectroscopic observations for a sample of 36 Herschel-SPIRE 250-500 {mu}m selected galaxies (HSGs) at 2 < z < 5 from the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey. Redshifts are confirmed as part of a large redshift survey of Herschel-SPIRE-selected sources covering {approx}0.93 deg{sup 2} in six extragalactic legacy fields. Observations were taken with the Keck I Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer and the Keck II DEep Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph. Precise astrometry, needed for spectroscopic follow-up, is determined by identification of counterparts at 24 {mu}m or 1.4 GHz using a cross-identification likelihood matching method. Individual source luminosities range from log (L{sub IR}/L{sub Sun }) = 12.5-13.6 (corresponding to star formation rates (SFRs) 500-9000 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, assuming a Salpeter initial mass function), constituting some of the most intrinsically luminous, distant infrared galaxies discovered thus far. We present both individual and composite rest-frame ultraviolet spectra and infrared spectral energy distributions. The selection of these HSGs is reproducible and well characterized across large areas of the sky in contrast to most z > 2 HyLIRGs in the literature, which are detected serendipitously or via tailored surveys searching only for high-z HyLIRGs; therefore, we can place lower limits on the contribution of HSGs to the cosmic star formation rate density (SFRD) at (7 {+-} 2) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} h {sup 3} Mpc{sup -3} at z {approx} 2.5, which is >10% of the estimated total SFRD of the universe from optical surveys. The contribution at z {approx} 4 has a lower limit of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} h {sup 3} Mpc{sup -3}, {approx}>20% of the estimated total SFRD. This highlights the importance of extremely infrared-luminous galaxies with high SFRs to the buildup of stellar mass, even at the earliest epochs.

  7. DETECTION OF THE COSMIC FAR-INFRARED BACKGROUND IN AKARI DEEP FIELD SOUTH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsuura, S.; Shirahata, M.; Kawada, M.; Matsuhara, H.; Nakagawa, T.; Oyabu, S.; Takagi, T.; Takeuchi, T. T.; Burgarella, D.; Clements, D. L.; Jeong, W.-S.; Hanami, H.; Khan, S. A.; Pearson, C. P.; White, G. J.; Pollo, A.; Serjeant, S.

    2011-08-10

    We report new limits on the absolute brightness and spatial fluctuations of the cosmic infrared background (CIB) via the AKARI satellite. We carried out observations at 65, 90, 140, and 160 {mu}m as a cosmological survey in AKARI Deep Field South, which is one of the lowest cirrus regions with a contiguous area of the sky. After removing bright galaxies and subtracting zodiacal and Galactic foregrounds from the measured sky brightness, we successfully measured the CIB brightness and its fluctuations across a wide range of angular scales, from arcminutes to degrees. The measured CIB brightness is consistent with previous results reported from COBE data, but significantly higher than the lower limits at 70 and 160 {mu}m obtained via Spitzer from the stacking analysis of selected 24 {mu}m sources. The discrepancy with the Spitzer result is possibly due to a new galaxy population at high redshift obscured by hot dust or unknown diffuse emission. From a power spectrum analysis at 90 {mu}m, two components were identified: the CIB fluctuations with shot noise due to individual galaxies in a small angular scale from the beam size up to 10 arcminutes, and Galactic cirrus emission dominating at the largest angular scales of a few degrees. The overall shape of the power spectrum at 90 {mu}m is very similar to that at longer wavelengths, as observed by Spitzer and the Balloon-borne Large-Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST). Our power spectrum, with an intermediate angular scale of 10-30 arcminutes, gives a firm upper limit for galaxy clustering, which was found by Spitzer and BLAST. Moreover, the color of the CIB fluctuations, which is obtained by combining our data with the previous results, is as red as ultra-luminous infrared galaxies at high redshift. These galaxies are not likely to provide the majority of the CIB emission at 90 {mu}m, but are responsible for the fluctuations. Our results provide new constraints on the evolution and clustering properties of distant infrared galaxies and any diffuse emission from the early universe.

  8. Synchrotron Infrared Microspectroscopy Study of Film Formation and Breakdown on Copper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melendres, C. A.; Hahn, F.

    2010-02-03

    This work demonstrates the utility of synchrotron infrared reflectance microspectroscopy (SIRM), in the far and mid IR, for the determination of the composition of electrogenerated surface films formed during the general and localized corrosion of copper in bicarbonate solution. The back-reflection geometry was used. The anodic passivation film formed on copper at 0.2 V, in 0.01 M NaHCO{sub 3} solution consisted mainly of bicarbonate, copper carbonate dihydroxide or malachite [CuCO{sub 3}.Cu(OH){sub 2}], Cu(OH){sub 2}, and possibly some CuO. At higher potentials, the passive film breaks down and localized corrosion occurs leading to the formation of pits. The composition of the surface films inside the pits formed at 0.6 V was found to be essentially the same as that outside but the relative amount of Cu(OH){sub 2} is higher.

  9. Reflection-Absorption Infrared Spectroscopy of Thin Films Using an External Cavity Quantum Cascade Laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, Mark C.; Craig, Ian M.; Blake, Thomas A.

    2013-02-04

    We present experimental demonstrations using a broadly tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL) to perform Reflection-Absorption InfraRed Spectroscopy (RAIRS) of thin layers and residues on surfaces. The ECQCL compliance voltage was used to measure fluctuations in the ECQCL output power and improve the performance of the RAIRS measurements. Absorption spectra from self-assembled monolayers of a fluorinated alkane thiol and a thiol carboxylic acid were measured and compared with FTIR measurements. RAIRS spectra of the explosive compounds PETN, RDX, and tetryl deposited on gold substrates were also measured. Rapid measurement times and low noise were demonstrated, with < 1E-3 absorbance noise for a 10 second measurement time.

  10. Infrared characteristics of VO{sub 2} thin films for smart window and laser protection applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang Zhangli; Chen Sihai; Lv Chaohong; Huang Ying; Lai Jianjun

    2012-11-05

    Vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) films with a low semiconductor-to-metal transition temperature of 45 Degree-Sign C were fabricated through direct current magnetron sputtering followed by a post-annealing. Atomic force microscopy measurements show that the VO{sub 2} grain size is about one hundred of nanometers. Infrared (IR) characteristic is well investigated by applying a He-Ne laser power intensity measurement, and the result reveals that the VO{sub 2} film exhibits excellent IR switching property. Furthermore, solar smart window and laser protection experiments demonstrate that the obtained VO{sub 2} thin film is a promising material for the application in related fields.

  11. Optical Strong Coupling between near-Infrared Metamaterials and Intersubband Transitions in III-Nitride Heterostructures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Benz, Alexander; Campione, Salvatore; Moseley, Michael W.; Wierer, Jonathan J.; Allerman, Andrew A.; Wendt, Joel R.; Brener, Igal

    2014-08-25

    We present the design, realization, and characterization of optical strong light–matter coupling between intersubband transitions within a semiconductor heterostructures and planar metamaterials in the near-infrared spectral range. The strong light–matter coupling entity consists of a III-nitride intersubband superlattice heterostructure, providing a two-level system with a transition energy of ~0.8 eV (λ ~1.55 μm) and a planar “dogbone” metamaterial structure. Furthermore, as the bare metamaterial resonance frequency is varied across the intersubband resonance, a clear anticrossing behavior is observed in the frequency domain. We found that this strongly coupled entity could enable the realization of electrically tunable optical filters, a newmore » class of efficient nonlinear optical materials, or intersubband-based light-emitting diodes.« less

  12. Shifting of infrared radiation using rotational raman resonances in diatomic molecular gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kurnit, Norman A.

    1980-01-01

    A device for shifting the frequency of infrared radiation from a CO.sub.2 laser by stimulated Raman scattering in either H.sub.2 or D.sub.2. The device of the preferred embodiment comprises an H.sub.2 Raman laser having dichroic mirrors which are reflective for 16 .mu.m radiation and transmittive for 10 .mu.m, disposed at opposite ends of an interaction cell. The interaction cell contains a diatomic molecular gas, e.g., H.sub.2, D.sub.2, T.sub.2, HD, HT, DT and a capillary waveguide disposed within the cell. A liquid nitrogen jacket is provided around the capillary waveguide for the purpose of cooling. In another embodiment the input CO.sub.2 radiation is circularly polarized using a Fresnel rhomb .lambda./4 plate and applied to an interaction cell of much longer length for single pass operation.

  13. Initiation time of near-infrared laser-induced slip on the surface of silicon wafers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Sungho; Jhang, Kyung-Young

    2014-06-23

    We have determined the initiation time of laser-induced slip on a silicon wafer surface subjected to a near-infrared continuous-wave laser by numerical simulations and experiments. First, numerical analysis was performed based on the heat transfer and thermoelasticity model to calculate the resolved shear stress and the temperature-dependent yield stress. Slip initiation time was predicted by finding the time at which the resolved shear stress reached the yield stress. Experimentally, the slip initiation time was measured by using a laser scattering technique that collects scattered light from the silicon wafer surface and detects strong scattering when the surface slip is initiated. The surface morphology of the silicon wafer surface after laser irradiation was also observed using an optical microscope to confirm the occurrence of slip. The measured slip initiation times agreed well with the numerical predictions.

  14. Terahertz and infrared transmission of an organic/inorganic hybrid thermoelectric material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heyman, J. N. Alebachew, B. A.; Kaminski, Z. S.; Nguyen, M. D.; Coates, N. E.; Urban, J. J.

    2014-04-07

    We report terahertz and infrared transmission measurements of a high-performance thermoelectric material containing tellurium nanowires in a conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) matrix. The DC electrical conductivity of the hybrid material (41?S/cm) is approximately one hundred times that of pure PEDOT:PSS and more than 400 times that of a film of pure tellurium nanowires, while the terahertz-frequency (THz) conductivity of PEDOT:PSS and the hybrid material are comparable at f???2THz. A frequency-dependent conductivity model indicates that the increased DC conductivity of the hybrid material results from an increase in the DC charge mobility rather than in the free charge density. We suggest that the increased DC conductivity of the hybrid material results from an increase in linkage between PEDOT domains by the tellurium nanowires.

  15. THREE NEW GALACTIC CENTER X-RAY SOURCES IDENTIFIED WITH NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeWitt, Curtis; Bandyopadhyay, Reba M.; Eikenberry, Stephen S.; Sarajedini, Ata; Sellgren, Kris; Blum, Robert; Olsen, Knut; Bauer, Franz E.

    2013-11-01

    We have conducted a near-infrared spectroscopic survey of 47 candidate counterparts to X-ray sources discovered by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory near the Galactic center (GC). Though a significant number of these astrometric matches are likely to be spurious, we sought out spectral characteristics of active stars and interacting binaries, such as hot, massive spectral types or emission lines, in order to corroborate the X-ray activity and certify the authenticity of the match. We present three new spectroscopic identifications, including a Be high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) or a ? Cassiopeiae (Cas) system, a symbiotic X-ray binary, and an O-type star of unknown luminosity class. The Be HMXB/? Cas system and the symbiotic X-ray binary are the first of their classes to be spectroscopically identified in the GC region.

  16. CdS/PbSe heterojunction for high temperature mid-infrared photovoltaic detector applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weng, Binbin E-mail: shi@ou.edu; Qiu, Jijun; Zhao, Lihua; Chang, Caleb; Shi, Zhisheng E-mail: shi@ou.edu

    2014-03-24

    n-CdS/p-PbSe heterojunction is investigated. A thin CdS film is deposited by chemical bath deposition on top of epitaxial PbSe film by molecular beam epitaxy on Silicon. Current-voltage measurements demonstrate very good junction characteristics with rectifying ratio of ∼178 and ideality factor of 1.79 at 300 K. Detectors made with such structure exhibit mid-infrared spectral photoresponse at room temperature. The peak responsivity R{sub λ} and specific detectivity D{sup *} are 0.055 A/W and 5.482 × 10{sup 8} cm·Hz{sup 1/2}/W at λ = 4.7 μm under zero-bias photovoltaic mode. Temperature-dependent photoresponse measurements show abnormal intensity variation below ∼200 K. Possible reasons for this phenomenon are also discussed.

  17. Minimum Fisher regularization of image reconstruction for infrared imaging bolometer on HL-2A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, J. M.; Liu, Y.; Li, W.; Lu, J.; Dong, Y. B.; Xia, Z. W.; Yi, P.; Yang, Q. W.

    2013-09-15

    An infrared imaging bolometer diagnostic has been developed recently for the HL-2A tokamak to measure the temporal and spatial distribution of plasma radiation. The three-dimensional tomography, reduced to a two-dimensional problem by the assumption of plasma radiation toroidal symmetry, has been performed. A three-dimensional geometry matrix is calculated with the one-dimensional pencil beam approximation. The solid angles viewed by the detector elements are taken into account in defining the chord brightness. And the local plasma emission is obtained by inverting the measured brightness with the minimum Fisher regularization method. A typical HL-2A plasma radiation model was chosen to optimize a regularization parameter on the criterion of generalized cross validation. Finally, this method was applied to HL-2A experiments, demonstrating the plasma radiated power density distribution in limiter and divertor discharges.

  18. Mid-infrared intersubband polaritons in dispersive metal-insulator-metal resonators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manceau, J.-M. Ongarello, T.; Colombelli, R.; Zanotto, S.; Sorba, L.; Tredicucci, A.; Biasiol, G.

    2014-08-25

    We demonstrate room-temperature strong coupling between a mid-infrared (λ = 9.9 μm) intersubband transition and the fundamental cavity mode of a metal-insulator-metal resonator. Patterning of the resonator surface enables surface-coupling of the radiation and introduces an energy dispersion which can be probed with angle-resolved reflectivity. In particular, the polaritonic dispersion presents an accessible energy minimum at k = 0 where—potentially—polaritons can accumulate. We also show that it is possible to maximize the coupling of photons into the polaritonic states and—simultaneously—to engineer the position of the minimum Rabi splitting at a desired value of the in-plane wavevector. This can be precisely accomplished via a simple post-processing technique. The results are confirmed using the temporal coupled mode theory formalism and their significance in the context of the strong critical coupling concept is highlighted.

  19. A Radiometric All-Sky Infrared Camera (RASICAM) for DES/CTIO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, Peter M.; Rogers, Howard; Schindler, Rafe H.; /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    A novel radiometric all-sky infrared camera [RASICAM] has been constructed to allow automated real-time quantitative assessment of night sky conditions for the Dark Energy Camera [DECam] located on the Blanco Telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile. The camera is optimized to detect the position, motion and optical depth of thin, high (8-10km) cirrus clouds and contrails by measuring their apparent temperature above the night sky background. The camera system utilizes a novel wide-field equiresolution catadioptic mirror system that provides sky coverage of 2{pi} azimuth and 14-90{sup o} from zenith. Several new technological and design innovations allow the RASICAM system to provide unprecedented cloud detection and IR-based photometricity quantification. The design of the RASICAM system is presented.

  20. Si?-implanted Si-wire waveguide photodetectors for the mid-infrared

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Souhan, Brian; Lu, Ming; Grote, Richard R.; Chen, Christine P.; Huang, Hsu-Cheng; Driscoll, Jeffrey B.; Stein, Aaron; Bakhru, Hassaram; Bergman, Keren; Green, William M. J.; et al

    2014-10-28

    CMOS-compatible Si?-implanted Si-waveguide p-i-n photodetectors operating at room temperature and at mid-infrared wavelengths from 2.2 to 2.3 m are demonstrated. Responsivities of 9.9 2.0 mA/W are measured at a 5 V reverse bias with an estimated internal quantum efficiency of 2.7 4.5%. The dark current is found to vary from a few microamps down to less than a nanoamp after a post-implantation annealing of 350C. The measured photocurrent dependence on input power shows a linear correspondence over more than three decades, and the frequency response of a 250 m-length p-i-n device is measured to be ~1.7 GHz formorea wavelength of ? = 2.2 m, thus potentially opening up new communication bands for photonic integrated circuits.less

  1. Coupling mid-infrared light from a photonic crystal waveguide to metallic transmission lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanco-Redondo, Andrea E-mail: r.hillenbrand@nanogune.eu; Dpto. Electronica y Telecom., E.T.S. Ingeniera Bilbao, UPV Sarriugarte, Paulo; Garcia-Adeva, Angel; Zubia, Joseba; IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, 48011 Bilbao, Bizkaia

    2014-01-06

    We propose and theoretically study a hybrid structure consisting of a photonic crystal waveguide (PhC-wg) and a two-wire metallic transmission line (TL), engineered for efficient transfer of mid-infrared (mid-IR) light between them. An efficiency of 32% is obtained for the coupling from the transverse magnetic (TM) photonic mode to the symmetric mode of the TL, with a predicted intensity enhancement factor of 53 at the transmission line surface. The strong coupling is explained by the small phase velocity mismatch and sufficient spatial overlapping between the modes. This hybrid structure could find applications in highly integrated mid-IR photonic-plasmonic devices for biological and gas sensing, among others.

  2. Modeling of the quantum dot filling and the dark current of quantum dot infrared photodetectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ameen, Tarek A.; El-Batawy, Yasser M.; Abouelsaood, A. A.

    2014-02-14

    A generalized drift-diffusion model for the calculation of both the quantum dot filling profile and the dark current of quantum dot infrared photodetectors is proposed. The confined electrons inside the quantum dots produce a space-charge potential barrier between the two contacts, which controls the quantum dot filling and limits the dark current in the device. The results of the model reasonably agree with a published experimental work. It is found that increasing either the doping level or the temperature results in an exponential increase of the dark current. The quantum dot filling turns out to be nonuniform, with a dot near the contacts containing more electrons than one in the middle of the device where the dot occupation approximately equals the number of doping atoms per dot, which means that quantum dots away from contacts will be nearly unoccupied if the active region is undoped.

  3. Examination of the technical potential of near-infrared switching thermochromic windows for commercial building applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffmann, Sabine; Lee, Eleanor S.; Clavero, Cesar

    2013-12-01

    Current thermochromic windows modulate solar transmission primarily within the visible range, resulting in reduced space-conditioning energy use but also reduced daylight, thereby increasing lighting energy use compared to conventional static, near-infrared selective, low-emittance windows. To better understand the energy savings potential of improved thermochromic devices, a hypothetical near-infrared switching thermochromic glazing was defined based on guidelines provided by the material science community. EnergyPlus simulations were conducted on a prototypical large office building and a detailed analysis was performed showing the progression from switching characteristics to net window heat flow and perimeter zone loads and then to perimeter zone heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) and lighting energy use for a mixed hot/cold climate and a hot, humid climate in the US. When a relatively high daylight transmission is maintained when switched (Tsol = 0.10-0.50, Tvis = 0.30-0.60) and if coupled with a low-e inboard glazing layer (e = 0.04), the hypothetical thermochromic window with a low critical switching temperature range (14-20°C) achieved reductions in total site annual energy use of 14.0-21.1 kWh/m2-floor-yr or 12-14%2 for moderate- to large-area windows (WWR≥0.30) in Chicago and 9.8-18.6 kWh/m2-floor-yr or 10-17%3 for WWR≥0.45 in Houston compared to an unshaded spectrally-selective, low-e window (window E1) in south-, east-, and west-facing perimeter zones. If this hypothetical thermochromic window can be offered at costs that are competitive to conventional low-e windows and meet aesthetic requirements defined by the building industry and end users, then the technology is likely to be a viable energy-efficiency option for internal load dominated commercial buildings.

  4. Structurally Integrated Coatings for Wear and Corrosion (SICWC): Arc Lamp, InfraRed (IR) Thermal Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackiewicz-Ludtka, G.; Sebright, J.

    2007-12-15

    The primary goal of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) betwe1311 UT-Battelle (Contractor) and Caterpillar Inc. (Participant) was to develop the plasma arc lamp (PAL), infrared (IR) thermal processing technology 1.) to enhance surface coating performance by improving the interfacial bond strength between selected coatings and substrates; and 2.) to extend this technology base for transitioning of the arc lamp processing to the industrial Participant. Completion of the following three key technical tasks (described below) was necessary in order to accomplish this goal. First, thermophysical property data sets were successfully determined for composite coatings applied to 1010 steel substrates, with a more limited data set successfully measured for free-standing coatings. These data are necessary for the computer modeling simulations and parametric studies to; A.) simulate PAL IR processing, facilitating the development of the initial processing parameters; and B.) help develop a better understanding of the basic PAL IR fusing process fundamentals, including predicting the influence of melt pool stirring and heat tnmsfar characteristics introduced during plasma arc lamp infrared (IR) processing; Second, a methodology and a set of procedures were successfully developed and the plasma arc lamp (PAL) power profiles were successfully mapped as a function of PAL power level for the ORNL PAL. The latter data also are necessary input for the computer model to accurately simulate PAL processing during process modeling simulations, and to facilitate a better understand of the fusing process fundamentals. Third, several computer modeling codes have been evaluated as to their capabilities and accuracy in being able to capture and simulate convective mixing that may occur during PAL thermal processing. The results from these evaluation efforts are summarized in this report. The intention of this project was to extend the technology base and provide for transitioning of the arc lamp processing to the industrial Participant.

  5. The infrared medium-deep survey. II. How to trigger radio AGNs? Hints from their environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karouzos, Marios; Im, Myungshin; Kim, Jae-Woo; Lee, Seong-Kook; Jeon, Yiseul; Choi, Changsu; Hong, Jueun; Hyun, Minhee; Jun, Hyunsung David; Kim, Dohyeong; Kim, Yongjung; Kim, Ji Hoon; Kim, Duho; Park, Won-Kee; Taak, Yoon Chan; Yoon, Yongmin; Chapman, Scott; Pak, Soojong; Edge, Alastair

    2014-12-10

    Activity at the centers of galaxies, during which the central supermassive black hole is accreting material, is nowadays accepted to be rather ubiquitous and most probably a phase of every galaxy's evolution. It has been suggested that galactic mergers and interactions may be the culprits behind the triggering of nuclear activity. We use near-infrared data from the new Infrared Medium-Deep Survey and the Deep eXtragalactic Survey of the VIMOS-SA22 field and radio data at 1.4 GHz from the FIRST survey and a deep Very Large Array survey to study the environments of radio active galactic nuclei (AGNs) over an area of ?25 deg{sup 2} and down to a radio flux limit of 0.1 mJy and a J-band magnitude of 23 mag AB. Radio AGNs are predominantly found in environments similar to those of control galaxies at similar redshift, J-band magnitude, and (M{sub u} M{sub r} ) rest-frame color. However, a subpopulation of radio AGNs is found in environments up to 100 times denser than their control sources. We thus preclude merging as the dominant triggering mechanism of radio AGNs. By fitting the broadband spectral energy distribution of radio AGNs in the least and most dense environments, we find that those in the least dense environments show higher radio-loudness, higher star formation efficiencies, and higher accretion rates, typical of the so-called high-excitation radio AGNs. These differences tend to disappear at z > 1. We interpret our results in terms of a different triggering mechanism for these sources that is driven by mass loss through winds of young stars created during the observed ongoing star formation.

  6. Motion Tracking Of A Handheld Scanner With An Infrared Vision System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seppi, Jeremy H.; Hatchell, Brian K.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2011-08-07

    Handheld scanners are used in a large number of applications to inspect walls, floors, tanks, and other large structures. Measurements are made to characterize physical properties, uncover defects, detect evidence of tampering, quantify surface contamination, and so forth. Handheld scanning suffers from a number of drawbacks. The relationship between the data collected and scanned location is difficult or impossible to track. Humans using handheld scanners can unintentionally scan the same area multiple times or entirely overlook an area of interest. An automated scanner tracking system could improve upon current inspection practices with a handheld scanner in terms of efficiency, accuracy, and quality. The authors have developed a handheld scanner tracking system that will allow users to visualize previously scanned areas, highlight areas where important or unusual data are acquired, and store scanning location with acquired data. The scanned regions are saved in real time and projected back on the scanned area using a projector. The system currently utilizes the Smoothboard software, which has already been designed to interpret the location of a captured infrared source from a Wii Remote controller to create an interactive whiteboard. This software takes advantage of the Wii Remotes ability to track the location of an infrared source, and when proper calibration of the Wii Remote orientation is complete, any surface can become a virtual whiteboard. In addition to recording and projecting scan pathways, the system developed by the authors can be used to make notes on the scanning process and project acquired data on top of the scanned area. This latter capability can be used to guide sample acquisition or demolition activities. This paper discusses development of the system and potential benefits to wall scanning with handheld scanners.

  7. Sensitive Multi-Species Emissions Monitoring: Infrared Laser-Based Detection of Trace-Level Contaminants.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steill, Jeffrey D

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes our development of spectroscopic chemical analysis techniques and spectral modeling for trace-gas measurements of highly-regulated low-concentration species present in flue gas emissions from utility coal boilers such as HCl under conditions of high humidity. Detailed spectral modeling of the spectroscopy of HCl and other important combustion and atmospheric species such as H 2 O, CO 2 , N 2 O, NO 2 , SO 2 , and CH 4 demonstrates that IR-laser spectroscopy is a sensitive multi-component analysis strategy. Experimental measurements from techniques based on IR laser spectroscopy are presented that demonstrate sub-ppm sensitivity levels to these species. Photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy is used to detect and quantify HCl at ppm levels with extremely high signal-to-noise even under conditions of high relative humidity. Additionally, cavity ring-down IR spectroscopy is used to achieve an extremely high sensitivity to combustion trace gases in this spectral region; ppm level CH 4 is one demonstrated example. The importance of spectral resolution in the sensitivity of a trace-gas measurement is examined by spectral modeling in the mid- and near-IR, and efforts to improve measurement resolution through novel instrument development are described. While previous project reports focused on benefits and complexities of the dual-etalon cavity ring-down infrared spectrometer, here details on steps taken to implement this unique and potentially revolutionary instrument are described. This report also illustrates and critiques the general strategy of IR- laser photodetection of trace gases leading to the conclusion that mid-IR laser spectroscopy techniques provide a promising basis for further instrument development and implementation that will enable cost-effective sensitive detection of multiple key contaminant species simultaneously.

  8. GALAXY EVOLUTION IN THE MID-INFRARED GREEN VALLEY: A CASE OF THE A2199 SUPERCLUSTER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Gwang-Ho; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Sohn, Jubee; Hwang, Ho Seong; Ko, Jongwan; Shim, Hyunjin; Diaferio, Antonaldo E-mail: mglee@astro.snu.ac.kr

    2015-02-20

    We study the mid-infrared (MIR) properties of the galaxies in the A2199 supercluster at z = 0.03 to understand the star formation activity of galaxy groups and clusters in the supercluster environment. Using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer data, we find no dependence of mass-normalized integrated star formation rates of galaxy groups/clusters on their virial masses. We classify the supercluster galaxies into three classes in the MIR color-luminosity diagram: MIR blue cloud (massive, quiescent, and mostly early-type), MIR star-forming sequence (mostly late-type), and MIR green valley galaxies. These MIR green valley galaxies are distinguishable from the optical green valley galaxies in the sense that they belong to the optical red sequence. We find that the fraction of each MIR class does not depend on the virial mass of each group/cluster. We compare the cumulative distributions of surface galaxy number density and cluster/group-centric distance for the three MIR classes. MIR green valley galaxies show the distribution between MIR blue cloud and MIR star-forming (SF) sequence galaxies. However, if we fix galaxy morphology, early- and late-type MIR green valley galaxies show different distributions. Our results suggest a possible evolutionary scenario of these galaxies: (1) late-type MIR SF sequence galaxies → (2) late-type MIR green valley galaxies → (3) early-type MIR green valley galaxies → (4) early-type MIR blue cloud galaxies. In this sequence, the star formation of galaxies is quenched before the galaxies enter the MIR green valley, and then morphological transformation occurs in the MIR green valley.

  9. Characterizing Wolf-Rayet stars in the near- and mid-infrared

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Shara, Michael M.; Zurek, David; Kanarek, Graham; Moffat, Anthony F. J.

    2014-05-01

    We present refined color-color selection criteria for identifying Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars using available mid-infrared (MIR) photometry from WISE in combination with near-infrared (NIR) photometry from the Two Micron All Sky Survey. Using a sample of spectrally classified objects, we find that WR stars are well distinguished from the field stellar population in the (W1 W2) versus (J K{sub s} ) color-color diagram, and further distinguished from other emission line objects such as planetary nebulae, Be, and cataclysmic variable stars using a combination of NIR and MIR color constraints. As proof of concept we applied the color constraints to a photometric sample in the Galactic plane, located WR star candidates, and present five new spectrally confirmed and classified WC (1) and WN (4) stars. Analysis of the 0.8-5.0 ?m spectral data for a subset of known, bright WC and WN stars shows that emission lines (primarily He I) extend into the 3.0-5.0 ?m spectral region, although their strength is greatly diminished compared to the 0.8-2.5 ?m region. The WR population stands out relative to background field stars at NIR and MIR colors due to an excess continuum contribution, likely caused by free-free scattering in dense winds. Mean photometric properties of known WRs are presented and imply that reddened late-type WN and WC sources are easier to detect than earlier-type sources at larger Galactic radii. WISE W3 and W4 images of 10 WR stars show evidence of circumstellar shells linked to mass ejections from strong stellar winds.

  10. TRANSITIONAL DISKS AND THEIR ORIGINS: AN INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY OF ORION A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, K. H.; Watson, Dan M.; Manoj, P.; Forrest, W. J.; Arnold, Laura; Najita, Joan; Furlan, Elise; Sargent, Benjamin; Espaillat, Catherine; Muzerolle, James; Megeath, S. T.; Calvet, Nuria; Green, Joel D.

    2013-06-01

    Transitional disks are protoplanetary disks around young stars, with inner holes or gaps which are surrounded by optically thick outer, and often inner, disks. Here we present observations of 62 new transitional disks in the Orion A star-forming region. These were identified using the Spitzer Space Telescope's Infrared Spectrograph and followed up with determinations of stellar and accretion parameters using the Infrared Telescope Facility's SpeX. We combine these new observations with our previous results on transitional disks in Taurus, Chamaeleon I, Ophiuchus, and Perseus, and with archival X-ray observations. This produces a sample of 105 transitional disks of ''cluster'' age 3 Myr or less, by far the largest hitherto assembled. We use this sample to search for trends between the radial structure in the disks and many other system properties, in order to place constraints on the possible origins of transitional disks. We see a clear progression of host-star accretion rate and the different disk morphologies. We confirm that transitional disks with complete central clearings have median accretion rates an order of magnitude smaller than radially continuous disks of the same population. Pre-transitional disks-those objects with gaps that separate inner and outer disks-have median accretion rates intermediate between the two. Our results from the search for statistically significant trends, especially related to M-dot , strongly support that in both cases the gaps are far more likely to be due to the gravitational influence of Jovian planets or brown dwarfs orbiting within the gaps, than to any of the photoevaporative, turbulent, or grain-growth processes that can lead to disk dissipation. We also find that the fraction of Class II YSOs which are transitional disks is large, 0.1-0.2, especially in the youngest associations.

  11. NEAR-INFRARED DETECTION OF A SUPER-THIN DISK IN NGC 891

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schechtman-Rook, Andrew; Bershady, Matthew A.

    2013-08-10

    We probe the disk structure of the nearby, massive, edge-on spiral galaxy NGC 891 with subarcsecond resolution JHK{sub s}-band images covering {approx} {+-}10 kpc in radius and {+-}5 kpc in height. We measure intrinsic surface brightness (SB) profiles using realistic attenuation corrections constrained from near- and mid-infrared (Spitzer) color maps and three-dimensional Monte Carlo radiative-transfer models. In addition to the well-known thin and thick disks, a super-thin disk with 60-80 pc scale-height-comparable to the star-forming disk of the Milky Way-is visibly evident and required to fit the attenuation-corrected light distribution. Asymmetries in the super-thin disk light profile are indicative of young, hot stars producing regions of excess luminosity and bluer (attenuation-corrected) near-infrared color. To fit the inner regions of NGC 891, these disks must be truncated within {approx}3 kpc, with almost all their luminosity redistributed in a bar-like structure 50% thicker than the thin disk. There appears to be no classical bulge but rather a nuclear continuation of the super-thin disk. The super-thin, thin, thick, and bar components contribute roughly 30%, 42%, 13%, and 15% (respectively) to the total K{sub s}-band luminosity. Disk axial ratios (length/height) decrease from 30 to 3 from super-thin to thick components. Both exponential and sech{sup 2} vertical SB profiles fit the data equally well. We find that the super-thin disk is significantly brighter in the K{sub s}-band than typically assumed in integrated spectral energy distribution models of NGC 891: it appears that in these models the excess flux, likely produced by young stars in the super-thin disk, has been mistakenly attributed to the thin disk.

  12. Topographical and Chemical Imaging of a Phase Separated Polymer Using a Combined Atomic Force Microscopy/Infrared Spectroscopy/Mass Spectrometry Platform

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tai, Tamin; Karácsony, Orsolya; Bocharova, Vera; Van Berkel, Gary J.; Kertesz, Vilmos

    2016-02-18

    This article describes how the use of a hybrid atomic force microscopy/infrared spectroscopy/mass spectrometry imaging platform was demonstrated for the acquisition and correlation of nanoscale sample surface topography and chemical images based on infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry.

  13. Amplitude and phase-resolved measurements of optical metamaterials in the mid-infrared by phase matched electro-optic sampling.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinclair, Michael B.; Brener, Igal; Passmore, Brandon Scott; Wendt, Joel Robert; Bender, Daniel A.; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.

    2010-03-01

    We describe a time-domain spectroscopy system in the thermal infrared used for complete transmission and reflection characterization of metamaterials in amplitude and phase. The system uses a triple-output near-infrared ultrafast fiber laser, phase-locked difference frequency generation and phase-matched electro-optic sampling. We will present measurements of several metamaterials designs.

  14. Method And Apparatus For Examining A Tissue Using The Spectral Wing Emission Therefrom Induced By Visible To Infrared Photoexcitation.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alfano, Robert R.; Demos, Stavros G.; Zhang, Gang

    2003-12-16

    Method and an apparatus for examining a tissue using the spectral wing emission therefrom induced by visible to infrared photoexcitation. In one aspect, the method is used to characterize the condition of a tissue sample and comprises the steps of (a) photoexciting the tissue sample with substantially monochromatic light having a wavelength of at least 600 nm; and (b) using the resultant far red and near infrared spectral wing emission (SW) emitted from the tissue sample to characterize the condition of the tissue sample. In one embodiment, the substantially monochromatic photoexciting light is a continuous beam of light, and the resultant steady-state far red and near infrared SW emission from the tissue sample is used to characterize the condition of the tissue sample. In another embodiment, the substantially monochromatic photoexciting light is a light pulse, and the resultant time-resolved far red and near infrared SW emission emitted from the tissue sample is used to characterize the condition of the tissue sample. In still another embodiment, the substantially monochromatic photoexciting light is a polarized light pulse, and the parallel and perpendicular components of the resultant polarized time-resolved SW emission emitted from the tissue sample are used to characterize the condition of the tissue sample.

  15. Hot Pot Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Replacement Wells: Average Temperature of Geofluid: Sanyal Classification (Wellhead): Reservoir Temp (Geothermometry): Reservoir Temp (Measured): Sanyal Classification...

  16. Tungsten Mountain Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Replacement Wells: Average Temperature of Geofluid: Sanyal Classification (Wellhead): Reservoir Temp (Geothermometry): Reservoir Temp (Measured): Sanyal Classification...

  17. McGuinness Hills Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Replacement Wells: Average Temperature of Geofluid: Sanyal Classification (Wellhead): Reservoir Temp (Geothermometry): Reservoir Temp (Measured): Sanyal Classification...

  18. Dixie Meadows Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Geofluid: Sanyal Classification (Wellhead): Reservoir Temp (Geothermometry): Reservoir Temp (Measured): Sanyal Classification (Reservoir): Depth to Top of Reservoir:...

  19. Jersey Valley Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Replacement Wells: Average Temperature of Geofluid: Sanyal Classification (Wellhead): Reservoir Temp (Geothermometry): Reservoir Temp (Measured): Sanyal Classification...

  20. Drum Mountain Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Geofluid: Sanyal Classification (Wellhead): Reservoir Temp (Geothermometry): Reservoir Temp (Measured): Sanyal Classification (Reservoir): Depth to Top of Reservoir:...