National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for geothermometers thermal ion

  1. Evaluation Of Chemical Geothermometers For Calculating Reservoir...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Evaluation Of Chemical Geothermometers For Calculating Reservoir Temperatures At Nevada Geothermal Power Plants Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  2. Sensitivity of the interpretation of the experimental ion thermal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    thermal diffusivity to the determination of the ion conductive heat flux A moments equation formalism for the interpretation of the experimental ion thermal diffusivity from...

  3. Chemical Geothermometers And Mixing Models For Geothermal Systems | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmentalBowerbank,CammackFLIR JumpMaine: EnergyEnergy Information Geothermometers And

  4. Ion beam assisted deposition of thermal barrier coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Youchison, Dennis L. (Albuquerque, NM); McDonald, Jimmie M. (Albuquerque, NM); Lutz, Thomas J. (Albuquerque, NM); Gallis, Michail A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-11-23

    Methods and apparatus for depositing thermal barrier coatings on gas turbine blades and vanes using Electron Beam Physical Vapor Deposition (EBPVD) combined with Ion Beam Assisted Deposition (IBAD).

  5. Confined Thermal Multicharged Ions Produced by Synchrotron Radiation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Church, David A.; Kravis, S. D.; Sellin, I. A.; Levin, J. C.; Short, R. T.; Meron, M.; Johnson, B. M.; Jones, K. W.

    1987-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (Received 2 April 1987) Synchrotron x rays have been used to produce a confined multicharged ion gas near room tem- perature. Comparison of charge-state-number observations characteristic of ion... formation and of ion storage, together with measurements of Ar-to-Ar~+ electron-transfer rate coefficients, provide information to estimate time constants for relaxation to thermal equilibrium and other stored-ion properties important to further...

  6. Thermal, chemical and spectral equilibration in heavy-ion collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gįbor Andrįs Almįsi; György Wolf

    2014-07-08

    We have considered the equilibration in a relativistic heavy ion collision using our transport model. We applied periodic boundary conditions to close the system in a box. We found that the thermal equilibration takes place in the first 20-40 fm/c which time is comparable to the duration of a heavy ion collision. The chemical equilibration is a much slower process and the system does not equilibrate in a heavy ion collision. We have also shown that the mass spectra of broad resonances immediately follows their in-medium spectral functions.

  7. UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, Turbulent Transport of Energetic Ions and Thermal Plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heidbrink, William W.

    UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, IRVINE Turbulent Transport of Energetic Ions and Thermal Plasma ............................................................................................................ 1 1.1 Fast Ion Transport in Microturbulence.................................................................................................1 1.2 Thermal Plasma Transport in Electrostatic Waves

  8. Measurements of thermal photons in heavy ion collisions with PHENIX

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torsten Dahms; for the PHENIX Collaboration

    2008-04-29

    Thermal photons are thought to be the ideal probe to measure the temperature of the quark-gluon plasma created in heavy ion collisions. PHENIX has measured direct photons with p_T < 5 GeV/c via their internal conversions into e+e- pairs in Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV and has now provided a baseline measurement from p+p data.

  9. The change of microstructure and thermal properties in ion irradiated carbon nanotube mats as a function of ion penetration depth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aitkaliyeva, A. [Materials Science and Engineering Program, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States)] [Materials Science and Engineering Program, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Shao, L. [Materials Science and Engineering Program, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States) [Materials Science and Engineering Program, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States)

    2013-02-11

    A stack of three carbon nanotube (CNT) mats was irradiated with 3 MeV He ions. The change in structural and thermal properties of individual mats as a function of ion penetration depth was characterized using electron microscopy and laser flash techniques. Ion irradiation can enhance thermal conductivity of the mats by introducing inter-tube displacements, which improve phonon transport across adjacent nanotubes. The enhancement, however, is reduced at higher damage levels due to the increasing phonon-defect scattering within the tubes. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using ion irradiation to manipulate thermal transport in carbon nanotubes.

  10. Graphene-enhanced hybrid phase change materials for thermal management of Li-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graphene-enhanced hybrid phase change materials for thermal management of Li-ion batteries g h l i g h t s We demonstrated that thermal management of Li-ion batteries improves dramatically incorporation leads to significant decrease in the temperature rise in Li-ion batteries. Graphene leads

  11. An analytical electro-thermal model for Lithium-ion Maryam Yazdanpour*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    An analytical electro-thermal model for Lithium-ion Batteries Maryam Yazdanpour* , Peyman Taheri with lithium-ion chemistry are the preferred candidate to power hybrid and electric vehicles (HEVs), due (around 5% per month), and long cycling life [1]. Nonetheless, thermal management of large-scale lithium-ion

  12. Thermal Analysis for Ion-Exchange Column System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Si Y.; King, William D.

    2012-12-20

    Models have been developed to simulate the thermal characteristics of crystalline silicotitanate ion exchange media fully loaded with radioactive cesium either in a column configuration or distributed within a waste storage tank. This work was conducted to support the design and operation of a waste treatment process focused on treating dissolved, high-sodium salt waste solutions for the removal of specific radionuclides. The ion exchange column will be installed inside a high level waste storage tank at the Savannah River Site. After cesium loading, the ion exchange media may be transferred to the waste tank floor for interim storage. Models were used to predict temperature profiles in these areas of the system where the cesium-loaded media is expected to lead to localized regions of elevated temperature due to radiolytic decay. Normal operating conditions and accident scenarios (including loss of solution flow, inadvertent drainage, and loss of active cooling) were evaluated for the ion exchange column using bounding conditions to establish the design safety basis. The modeling results demonstrate that the baseline design using one central and four outer cooling tubes provides a highly efficient cooling mechanism for reducing the maximum column temperature. In-tank modeling results revealed that an idealized hemispherical mound shape leads to the highest tank floor temperatures. In contrast, even large volumes of CST distributed in a flat layer with a cylindrical shape do not result in significant floor heating.

  13. Graphene-enhanced hybrid phase change materials for thermal management of Li-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graphene-enhanced hybrid phase change materials for thermal management of Li-ion batteries to a transformative change in thermal management of Li-ion batteries. a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received September 2013 Keywords: Battery Thermal management Graphene Phase change material a b s t r a c t Li

  14. Derivation and calibration of semi-empirical gas geothermometers for Mahanagdong Geothermal Project, Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchez, D.R.

    1996-12-31

    The dissolved CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, and H{sub 2} gases in Mahanagdong aquifer fluids are controlled by specific gas-mineral equilibria. At temperature range of 250 to 310 {degrees}C, CO{sub 2} is buffered by clinozoisite + K-feldspar + calcite + muscovite (illite) + quartz mineral assemblage. For H{sub 2}S and H{sub 2} dissolved gases, they are more likely buffered by pyrrhotite + pyrite + magnetite mineral assemblage at similar temperature range. Calibration of five Mahanagdong (MG) gas geothermometers is presented, three of which used CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, and H{sub 2} concentration in steam. The remaining two use CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S/H{sub 2} ratios. The calibration is based on the relation between gas content of drillhole discharges and measured aquifer temperatures. After establishing the gas content in the aquifer, gas concentrations were computed in steam after adiabatic boiling to atmospheric condition (100 {degrees}C), to obtain gas geothermometry functions. These functions could also be used in evaluating fraction of steam condensation and temperature of phase separation. A demonstration given the Mahanagdong fumarole data, indicates that there is generally a fair relation between computed temperatures using Mahanagdong gas geothermometers and the actual field trend`s temperatures.

  15. MAXIMUM POWER ESTIMATION OF LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES ACCOUNTING FOR THERMAL AND ELECTRICAL CONSTRAINTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    MAXIMUM POWER ESTIMATION OF LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES ACCOUNTING FOR THERMAL AND ELECTRICAL CONSTRAINTS on the maximum deliverable power is essential to protect lithium-ion batteries from over- charge Terminal voltage Voc Open circuit voltage of a battery 1 INTRODUCTION Lithium-ion batteries have been used

  16. Analysis of Heat Dissipation in Li-Ion Cells & Modules for Modeling of Thermal Runaway (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, G.-H.; Pesaran, A.

    2007-05-15

    The objectives of this study are: (1) To develop 3D Li-Ion battery thermal abuse ''reaction'' models for cell and module analysis; (2) To understand the mechanisms and interactions between heat transfer and chemical reactions during thermal runaway for Li-Ion cells and modules; (3) To develop a tool and methodology to support the design of abuse-tolerant Li-Ion battery systems for PHEVs/HEVs; and (4) To help battery developers accelerate delivery of abuse-tolerant Li-Ion battery systems in support of the FreedomCAR's Energy Storage Program.

  17. Effective versus ion thermal temperatures in the Weizmann Ne Z-pinch: Modeling and stagnation physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zarnitsky, Yuri

    Effective versus ion thermal temperatures in the Weizmann Ne Z-pinch: Modeling and stagnation of Technology, Haifa, Israel 5 National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, Nevada 89144, USA (Received 23 thermal and effective temperatures is investigated through simulations of the Ne gas puff z-pinch reported

  18. Thermal stability of LiPF6EC:EMC electrolyte for lithium ion batteries Gerardine G. Bottea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thermal stability of LiPF6±EC:EMC electrolyte for lithium ion batteries Gerardine G. Bottea , Ralph scanning calorimeter; Lithium ion batteries; Electrolyte; Thermal stability; Decomposition 1. Introduction Despite the improvement and developments in safety of the lithium ion batteries (PTC, CID, shutdown

  19. Ion Thermal Decoupling and Species Separation in Shock-Driven Implosions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rinderknecht, Hans G. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Rosenberg, M. J. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Li, C. K. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Hoffman, N. M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kagan, G. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zylstra, A. B. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Sio, H. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Frenje, J. A, [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Gatu Johnson, M. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Seguin, F. H. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Petrasso, R. D. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Amendt, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bellei, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wilks, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Delettrez, J. [Lab. for Laser Energetics, Rochester, NY (United States); Glebov, V. Yu. [Lab. for Laser Energetics, Rochester, NY (United States); Stoeckl, C. [Lab. for Laser Energetics, Rochester, NY (United States); Sangster, T. C. [Lab. for Laser Energetics, Rochester, NY (United States); Meyerhofer, D. D. [Lab. for Laser Energetics, Rochester, NY (United States); Nikroo, A. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Anomalous reduction of the fusion yields by 50% and anomalous scaling of the burn-averaged ion temperatures with the ion-species fraction has been observed for the first time in DHe3-filled shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions. Two ion kinetic mechanisms are used to explain the anomalous observations: thermal decoupling of the D and He3 populations and diffusive species separation. The observed insensitivity of ion temperature to a varying deuterium fraction is shown to be a signature of ion thermal decoupling in shock-heated plasmas. The burn-averaged deuterium fraction calculated from the experimental data demonstrates a reduction in the average core deuterium density, as predicted by simulations that use a diffusion model. Accounting for each of these effects in simulations reproduces the observed yield trends.

  20. Ion Thermal Decoupling and Species Separation in Shock-Driven Implosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rinderknecht, Hans G.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Li, C. K.; Hoffman, N. M.; Kagan, G.; Zylstra, A. B.; Sio, H.; Frenje, J. A,; Gatu Johnson, M.; Seguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Amendt, P.; Bellei, C.; Wilks, S.; Delettrez, J.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Stoeckl, C.; Sangster, T. C.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Nikroo, A.

    2015-01-01

    Anomalous reduction of the fusion yields by 50% and anomalous scaling of the burn-averaged ion temperatures with the ion-species fraction has been observed for the first time in DHe3-filled shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions. Two ion kinetic mechanisms are used to explain the anomalous observations: thermal decoupling of the D and He3 populations and diffusive species separation. The observed insensitivity of ion temperature to a varying deuterium fraction is shown to be a signature of ion thermal decoupling in shock-heated plasmas. The burn-averaged deuterium fraction calculated from the experimental data demonstrates a reduction in the average core deuterium density, as predicted by simulations that use a diffusion model. Accounting for each of these effects in simulations reproduces the observed yield trends.

  1. Ion Thermal Decoupling and Species Separation in Shock-Driven Implosions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rinderknecht, Hans G.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Li, C. K.; Hoffman, N. M.; Kagan, G.; Zylstra, A. B.; Sio, H.; Johnson, M. Gatu; Seguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.; et al

    2015-01-14

    Anomalous reduction of the fusion yields by 50% and anomalous scaling of the burn-averaged ion temperatures with the ion-species fraction has been observed for the first time in DHe3-filled shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions. Two ion kinetic mechanisms are used to explain the anomalous observations: thermal decoupling of the D and He3 populations and diffusive species separation. The observed insensitivity of ion temperature to a varying deuterium fraction is shown to be a signature of ion thermal decoupling in shock-heated plasmas. The burn-averaged deuterium fraction calculated from the experimental data demonstrates a reduction in the average core deuterium density, asmore »predicted by simulations that use a diffusion model. Accounting for each of these effects in simulations reproduces the observed yield trends.« less

  2. Sheath formation criterion in magnetized electronegative plasmas with thermal ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hatami, M. M. [Physics Department of K N Toosi University of Technology, 15418-49611 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokri, B. [Physics Department and Laser-Plasma Research Institute of Shahid Beheshti University, G. C., Evin, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    Taking into account the effect of collisions and positive ion temperatures, the sheath formation criterion is investigated in a weakly magnetized electronegative plasma consisting of electrons, negative and positive ions by using the hydrodynamics equations. It is assumed that the electron and negative ion density distributions are the Boltzmann distribution with two different temperatures. Also, it is assumed that the velocity of positive ions at the sheath edge is not normal to the wall (oblique entrance). Our results show that a sheath region will be formed when the initial velocity of positive ions or the ion Mach number M lies in a specific interval with particular upper and lower limits. Also, it is shown that the presence of the magnetic field affects both of these limits. Moreover, as an practical application, the density distribution of charged particles in the sheath region is studied for an allowable value of M, and it is seen that monotonically reduction of the positive ion density distribution leading to the sheath formation occurs only when M lies between two above mentioned limits.

  3. Multi-Node Thermal System Model for Lithium-Ion Battery Packs: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Ying; Smith, Kandler; Wood, Eric; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2015-09-14

    Temperature is one of the main factors that controls the degradation in lithium ion batteries. Accurate knowledge and control of cell temperatures in a pack helps the battery management system (BMS) to maximize cell utilization and ensure pack safety and service life. In a pack with arrays of cells, a cells temperature is not only affected by its own thermal characteristics but also by its neighbors, the cooling system and pack configuration, which increase the noise level and the complexity of cell temperatures prediction. This work proposes to model lithium ion packs thermal behavior using a multi-node thermal network model, which predicts the cell temperatures by zones. The model was parametrized and validated using commercial lithium-ion battery packs. neighbors, the cooling system and pack configuration, which increase the noise level and the complexity of cell temperatures prediction. This work proposes to model lithium ion packs thermal behavior using a multi-node thermal network model, which predicts the cell temperatures by zones. The model was parametrized and validated using commercial lithium-ion battery packs.

  4. Heating of thermal non-equilibrium ions by Alfvén wave via nonresonant interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Hai-Feng; Wang, Shi-Qing [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China) [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); The Engineering and Technical College of Chengdu University of Technology, Leshan 614000 (China); Li, Ke-Hua [The Engineering and Technical College of Chengdu University of Technology, Leshan 614000 (China)] [The Engineering and Technical College of Chengdu University of Technology, Leshan 614000 (China)

    2013-10-15

    Pickup of thermal non-equilibrium ions by Alfvén wave via nonresonant wave-particle interaction is investigated by means of analytical test-particle theory. Some interesting and new results are found. No matter what the initial velocity distribution is, if the background magnetic field, the Alfvén speed, and the Alfvén magnetic field are fixed, the average parallel velocity never changes when t??. Heating effects in the perpendicular and parallel direction just depend on the initial temperature, and the perpendicular temperature increase is more prominent. It is noted that the heating effect of thermal non-equilibrium ions (Kappa ions) is weaker than that of the Maxwellian. This phenomenon may be relative to the heating of ions in the solar corona as well as in some toroidal confinement fusion devices.

  5. Electrochemical-thermal modeling and microscale phase change for passive internal thermal management of lithium ion batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuller, Thomas F.; Bandhauer, Todd; Garimella, Srinivas

    2012-01-01

    A fully coupled electrochemical and thermal model for lithium-ion batteries is developed to investigate the impact of different thermal management strategies on battery performance. In contrast to previous modeling efforts focused either exclusively on particle electrochemistry on the one hand or overall vehicle simulations on the other, the present work predicts local electrochemical reaction rates using temperature-dependent data on commercially available batteries designed for high rates (C/LiFePO{sub 4}) in a computationally efficient manner. Simulation results show that conventional external cooling systems for these batteries, which have a low composite thermal conductivity ({approx}1 W/m-K), cause either large temperature rises or internal temperature gradients. Thus, a novel, passive internal cooling system that uses heat removal through liquid-vapor phase change is developed. Although there have been prior investigations of phase change at the microscales, fluid flow at the conditions expected here is not well understood. A first-principles based cooling system performance model is developed and validated experimentally, and is integrated into the coupled electrochemical-thermal model for assessment of performance improvement relative to conventional thermal management strategies. The proposed cooling system passively removes heat almost isothermally with negligible thermal resistances between the heat source and cooling fluid. Thus, the minimization of peak temperatures and gradients within batteries allow increased power and energy densities unencumbered by thermal limitations.

  6. Thermal Radiation from Heavy Ion Collisions at RHIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jan-e Alam

    2007-03-19

    The direct photon spectrum measured by the PHENIX collaboration in Au + Au collisions at sqrt{s_{NN}}=200 GeV has been analyzed. It has been shown that the data can be reproduced reasonably well by assuming a deconfined state of thermalized quarks and gluons. The effects of the equation of state on the value of the initial temperature have been studied. The modifications of hadronic properties at non-zero temperature have been taken in to account.

  7. Cavitation and thermal photon production in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jitesh R. Bhatt; Hiranmaya Mishra; V. Sreekanth

    2010-11-08

    We investigate the thermal photon production-rates using one dimensional boost-invariant second order relativistic hydrodynamics to find proper time evolution of the energy density and the temperature. The effect of bulk-viscosity and non-ideal equation of state are taken into account in a manner consistent with recent lattice QCD estimates. It is shown that the \\textit{non-ideal} gas equation of state i.e $\\epsilon-3 P \

  8. Simplified Electrochemical and Thermal Model of LiFePO4-Graphite Li-Ion Batteries for Fast Charge Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Simplified Electrochemical and Thermal Model of LiFePO4- Graphite Li-Ion Batteries for Fast Charge, a simplified electrochemical and thermal model of LiFePO4-graphite based Li-ion batteries is developed for battery management system (BMS) applications and comprehensive aging investigations. Based on a modified

  9. A Simplified Electrochemical and Thermal Aging Model of LiFePO4-Graphite Li-ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 A Simplified Electrochemical and Thermal Aging Model of LiFePO4-Graphite Li-ion Batteries: Power of a commercial LiFePO4-graphite Li-ion battery. Compared to the isothermal reference, the mechanism of porosity;2 Due to their high power and energy densities, Li-ion technologies are the leading battery systems

  10. Turbulent thermalization process in high-energy heavy-ion collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jürgen Berges; Björn Schenke; Sören Schlichting; Raju Venugopalan

    2014-09-05

    We discuss the onset of the thermalization process in high-energy heavy-ion collisions from a weak coupling perspective, using classical-statistical real-time lattice simulations as a first principles tool to study the pre-equilibrium dynamics. Most remarkably, we find that the thermalization process is governed by a universal attractor, where the space-time evolution of the plasma becomes independent of the initial conditions and exhibits the self-similar dynamics characteristic of wave turbulence. We discuss the consequences of our weak coupling results for the thermalization process in heavy-ion experiments and briefly comment on the use of weak coupling techniques at larger values of the coupling.

  11. Gallium ion implantation greatly reduces thermal conductivity and enhances electronic one of ZnO nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xia, Minggang, E-mail: xiamg@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Laboratory of Nanostructure and its Physics Properties, Department of Optical Information Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics, and MOE Key Laboratory for Non-equilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, School of Science, Xi'an Jiaotong University, 710049 China (China); Department of Physics and Centre for Computational Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Cheng, Zhaofang; Han, Jinyun; Zhang, Shengli [Laboratory of Nanostructure and its Physics Properties, Department of Optical Information Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics, and MOE Key Laboratory for Non-equilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, School of Science, Xi'an Jiaotong University, 710049 China (China); Zheng, Minrui [Department of Physics and Centre for Computational Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Sow, Chorng-Haur [Department of Physics and Centre for Computational Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); National University of Singapore Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Thong, John T. L. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Li, Baowen [Department of Physics and Centre for Computational Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); National University of Singapore Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Center for Phononics and Thermal Energy Science, School of Physics Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2014-05-15

    The electrical and thermal conductivities are measured for individual zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires with and without gallium ion (Ga{sup +}) implantation at room temperature. Our results show that Ga{sup +} implantation enhances electrical conductivity by one order of magnitude from 1.01 × 10{sup 3} ?{sup ?1}m{sup ?1} to 1.46 × 10{sup 4} ?{sup ?1}m{sup ?1} and reduces its thermal conductivity by one order of magnitude from 12.7 Wm{sup ?1}K{sup ?1} to 1.22 Wm{sup ?1}K{sup ?1} for ZnO nanowires of 100 nm in diameter. The measured thermal conductivities are in good agreement with those in theoretical simulation. The increase of electrical conductivity origins in electron donor doping by Ga{sup +} implantation and the decrease of thermal conductivity is due to the longitudinal and transverse acoustic phonons scattering by Ga{sup +} point scattering. For pristine ZnO nanowires, the thermal conductivity decreases only two times when its diameter reduces from 100 nm to 46 nm. Therefore, Ga{sup +}-implantation may be a more effective method than diameter reduction in improving thermoelectric performance.

  12. Rarefactive and compressive soliton waves in unmagnetized dusty plasma with non-thermal electron and ion distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eslami, Esmaeil Baraz, Rasoul

    2014-02-15

    Sagdeev's pseudo potential method is employed to study dust acoustic solitary waves in an unmagnetized plasma containing negatively charged dusts with non-thermal electron and ion. The range of parameters for the existence of solitary waves using the analytical expression of the Sagdeev potential has been found. It is observed that, depending on the values of the plasma parameters like ion to electron temperature ratio ?, non-thermal parameters ? and ?, electron to ion density ratio ?, and the value of the Mach number M, both rarefactive and compressive solitary waves may exist.

  13. Thermalization of color gauge fields in high energy heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iwazaki, Aiichi [International Politics Economics, Nishogakusha University, Ohi Kashiwa Chiba 277-8585 (Japan)

    2008-03-15

    We discuss the quantum mechanical decay of the color magnetic field generated initially during high-energy heavy-ion collisions. The decay is caused by Nielsen-Olesen unstable modes and is accomplished possibly in a period <1 fm/c. We show that the decay products (i.e., incoherent gluons) may be thermalized in a sufficiently short period (<1 fm/c). The precise determination of the period is made by calculating the two-point function of the color magnetic field in a color glass condensate model.

  14. Wettability and thermal stability of fluorocarbon films deposited by deep reactive ion etching

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhuang Yanxin; Menon, Aric [MIC, Department of Micro and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, Building 345 east, DK-2800, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2005-05-01

    Fluorocarbon films have low surface energy and can be used as antistiction coating for microelectromechanical systems. By using the passivation process in a deep reactive ion etcher, the fluorocarbon films can be deposited and integrated with other processes in the clean room. The properties such as wettability, surface energies, and thermal stability, have been investigated in detail. It has been found that the fluorocarbon films deposited have a static water contact angle of 109 deg. and a surface energy around 14.5 mJ/m{sup 2}, whereas as-received and as-deposited single silicon, poly silicon, and silicon nitride have a much lower water contact angle and a higher surface energy. The fluorocarbon films keep their good hydrophobicity up to 300 deg. C, and the degradation temperature depends on the thickness of the fluorocarbon films. Decomposition happens at lower temperatures (100-300 deg. C) even though the decomposition rate is quite slow without affecting the contact angle. The decomposition mechanism at low temperatures (less than 300 deg. C) might be different from that at high temperatures. It has been shown that the fluorocarbon film deposited by a deep reactive ion etcher tool provides very high hydrophobicity, low surface energy, good thermal stability, and antiadhesion behavior for use in nanoimprinting lithography.

  15. Li-Ion polymer cells thermal property changes as a function of cycle-life

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maleki, Hossein; Wang, Hsin; Porter, Wallace D; Hallmark, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    The impact of elevated temperature chargeedischarge cycling on thermal conductivity (K-value) of Lithium Ion Polymer (LIP) cells of various chemistries from three different manufacturers was investigated. These included high voltage (Graphite/LiCoO2:3.0e4.35 V), wide voltage (Si:C/LiCoO2:2.7e4.35 V) and conventional (Graphite/LiCoO2:3.0e4.2 V) chemistries. Investigation results show limited variability within the in-plane and through-plane K-values for the fresh cells with graphite-based anodes from all three suppliers. After 500 cycles at 45 C, in-plane and through-plane K-values of the high voltage cells reduced less vs. those for the wide voltage cells. Such results suggest that high temperature cycling could have a greater impact on thermal properties of Si:C cells than on the LIP cells with graphite (Gr) anode cells we tested. This difference is due to the excess swelling of Si:C-anode based cells vs. Gr-anode cells during cycling, especially at elevated temperatures. Thermal modeling is used to evaluate the impact of K-value changes, due to cycles at 45 C, on the cells internal heat propagation under internal short circuit condition that leads to localized meltdown of the separator.

  16. Three-Dimensional Thermal-Electrochemical Coupled Model for Spirally Wound Large-Format Lithium-Ion Batteries (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, K. J.; Smith K.; Kim, G. H.

    2011-04-01

    This presentation discusses the behavior of spirally wound large-format Li-ion batteries with respect to their design. The objectives of the study include developing thermal and electrochemical models resolving 3-dimensional spirally wound structures of cylindrical cells, understanding the mechanisms and interactions between local electrochemical reactions and macroscopic heat and electron transfers, and developing a tool and methodology to support macroscopic designs of cylindrical Li-ion battery cells.

  17. Turbulent thermalization process in heavy-ion collisions at ultrarelativistic energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Berges; K. Boguslavski; S. Schlichting; R. Venugopalan

    2014-03-02

    The non-equilibrium evolution of heavy-ion collisions is studied in the limit of weak coupling at very high energy employing lattice simulations of the classical Yang-Mills equations. Performing the largest classical-statistical simulations to date, we find that the dynamics of the longitudinally expanding plasma becomes independent of the details of the initial conditions. After a transient regime dominated by plasma instabilities and free streaming, the subsequent space-time evolution is governed by a nonthermal fixed point, where the system exhibits the self-similar dynamics characteristic of wave turbulence. This allows us to distinguish between different kinetic scenarios in the classical regime. Within the accuracy of our simulations, the scaling behavior found is consistent with the ``bottom-up" thermalization scenario.

  18. Irradiation of Nuclear Track Emulsions with Thermal Neutrons, Heavy Ions, and Muons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. A. Artemenkov; V. Bradnova; A. A. Zaitsev; P. I. Zarubin; I. G. Zarubina; R. R. Kattabekov; K. Z. Mamatkulov; V. V. Rusakova

    2015-08-11

    Exposures of test samples of nuclear track emulsion were analyzed. Angular and energy correlations of products originating from the thermal-neutron-induced reaction n$_{th} + ^{10}$B $\\rightarrow ^{7}$Li $+ (\\gamma) + \\alpha$ were studied in nuclear tack emulsions enriched in boron. Nuclear track emulsions were also irradiated with $^{86}$Kr$^{+17}$ and $^{132}$Xe$^{+26}$ of energy about 1.2 MeV per nucleon. Measurements of ranges of heavy ions in nuclear track emulsions made it possible to determine their energies on the basis of the SRIM model. The formation of high-multiplicity nuclear stars was observed upon irradiating nuclear track emulsions with ultrarelativistic muons. Kinematical features studied in this exposure of nuclear track emulsions for events of the muon-induced splitting of carbon nuclei to three alpha particles are indicative of the nuclear-diffraction interaction mechanism.

  19. Formation of charmonium states in heavy ion collisions and thermalization of charm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. L. Thews

    2006-04-06

    We examine the possibility to utilize in-medium charmonium formation in heavy ion interactions at collider energy as a probe of the properties of the medium. This is possible because the formation process involves recombination of charm quarks which imprints a signal on the resulting normalized transverse momentum distribution containing information about the momentum distribution of the quarks. We have contrasted the transverse momentum spectra of J/Psi, characterized by , which result from the formation process in which the charm quark distributions are taken at opposite limits with regard to thermalization in the medium. The first uses charm quark distributions unchanged from their initial production in a pQCD process, appropriate if their interaction with the medium is negligible. The second uses charm quark distributions which are in complete thermal equilibrium with the transversely expanding medium, appropriate if a very strong interaction between charm quarks and medium exists. We find that the resulting of the formed J/Psi should allow one to differentiate between these extremes, and that this differentiation is not sensitive to variations in the detailed dynamics of in-medium formation. We include a comparison of predictions of this model with preliminary PHENIX measurements, which indicates compatibility with a substantial fraction of in-medium formation.

  20. Thermal extraction analysis of five Los Azufres production wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, Paul; Quijano, Luis

    1995-01-26

    Thermal energy extraction from five wells supplying 5-MWe wellhead generators in three zones of the Los Azufres geothermal field has been examined from production and chemical data compiled over 14-years of operation. The data, as annual means, are useful in observing small-scale changes in reservoir performance with continuous production. The chemical components are chloride for quality control and the geothermometer elements for reservoir temperatures. The flowrate and fluid enthalpy data are used to calculate the thermal extraction rates. Integration of these data provides an estimate of the total energy extracted from the zone surrounding the well. The combined production and chemical geothermometer data are used to model the produced fluid as coming from just-penetrating wells for which the annual produced mass originates from a series of concentric hemispheric shells moving out into the reservoir. Estimates are made of the drawdown distance into the reservoir and the far-field conditions.

  1. Effect of Landau damping on alternative ion-acoustic solitary waves in a magnetized plasma consisting of warm adiabatic ions and non-thermal electrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Jayasree; Das, K P

    2015-01-01

    Bandyopadhyay and Das [Phys. Plasmas, 9, 465-473, 2002] have derived a nonlinear macroscopic evolution equation for ion acoustic wave in a magnetized plasma consisting of warm adiabatic ions and non-thermal electrons including the effect of Landau damping. In that paper they have also derived the corresponding nonlinear evolution equation when coefficient of the nonlinear term of the above mentioned macroscopic evolution equation vanishes, the nonlinear behaviour of the ion acoustic wave is described by a modified macroscopic evolution equation. But they have not considered the case when the coefficient is very near to zero. This is the case we consider in this paper and we derive the corresponding evolution equation including the effect of Landau damping. Finally, a solitary wave solution of this macroscopic evolution is obtained, whose amplitude is found to decay slowly with time.

  2. THERMAL MODELING ANALYSIS OF CST MEDIA IN THE SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.

    2010-11-01

    Models have been developed to simulate the thermal characteristics of Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) ion exchange media fully loaded with radioactive cesium in a column configuration and distributed within a waste storage tank. This work was conducted to support the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) program which is focused on processing dissolved, high-sodium salt waste for the removal of specific radionuclides (including Cs-137, Sr-90, and actinides) within a High Level Waste (HLW) storage tank at the Savannah River Site. The SCIX design includes CST columns inserted and supported in the tank top risers for cesium removal. Temperature distributions and maximum temperatures across the column were calculated with a focus on process upset conditions. A two-dimensional computational modeling approach for the in-column ion-exchange domain was taken to include conservative, bounding estimates for key parameters such that the results would provide the maximum centerline temperatures achievable under the design configurations using a feed composition known to promote high cesium loading on CST. One salt processing scenario includes the transport of the loaded (and possibly ground) CST media to the treatment tank floor. Therefore, additional thermal modeling calculations were conducted using a three-dimensional approach to evaluate temperature distributions for the entire in-tank domain including distribution of the spent CST media either as a mound or a flat layer on the tank floor. These calculations included mixtures of CST with HLW sludge or loaded Monosodium Titanate (MST) media used for strontium/actinide sorption. The current full-scale design for the CST column includes one central cooling pipe and four outer cooling tubes. Most calculations assumed that the fluid within the column was stagnant (i.e. no buoyancy-induced flow) for a conservative estimate. A primary objective of these calculations was to estimate temperature distributions across packed CST beds immersed in waste supernate or filled with dry air under various accident scenarios. Accident scenarios evaluated included loss of salt solution flow through the bed (a primary heat transfer mechanism), inadvertent column drainage, and loss of active cooling in the column. The calculation results showed that for a wet CST column with active cooling through one central and four outer tubes and 35 C ambient external air, the peak temperature for the fully-loaded column is about 63 C under the loss of fluid flow accident, which is well below the supernate boiling point. The peak temperature for the naturally-cooled (no active, engineered cooling) wet column is 156 C under fully-loaded conditions, exceeding the 130 C boiling point. Under these conditions, supernate boiling would maintain the column temperature near 130 C until all supernate was vaporized. Without active engineered cooling and assuming a dry column suspended in unventilated air at 35 C, the fully-loaded column is expected to rise to a maximum of about 258 C due to the combined loss-of coolant and column drainage accidents. The modeling results demonstrate that the baseline design using one central and four outer cooling tubes provides a highly efficient cooling mechanism for reducing the maximum column temperature. Results for the in-tank modeling calculations clearly indicate that when realistic heat transfer boundary conditions are imposed on the bottom surface of the tank wall, as much as 450 gallons of ground CST (a volume equivalent to two ion exchange processing cycles) in an ideal hemispherical shape (the most conservative geometry) can be placed in the tank without exceeding the 100 C wall temperature limit. Furthermore, in the case of an evenly-distributed flat layer, the tank wall reaches the temperature limit after the ground CST material reaches a height of approximately 8 inches.

  3. THREE-DIMENSIONAL THERMAL MODELING ANALYSIS OF CST MEDIA FOR THE SMALL ION EXCHANGE PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.; King, W.

    2011-09-12

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) project is designed to accelerate closure of High Level Waste (HLW) tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The SRS tanks store HLW in three forms: sludge, saltcake, and supernate. An in-tank ion exchange process is being designed to treat supernate and dissolved saltcake waste. Through this process, radioactive cesium from the salt solution is adsorbed into Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) ion exchange media packed within a flow-through column. A packed column loaded with radioactive cesium generates significant heat from radiolytic decay. The waste supernate solution within the ion exchange bed will boil around 120 C. Solution superheating above the boiling point within the column could lead to violent hazardous energy releases. System heating from loaded CST is also of concern in other process modules, such as the waste tank. Due to tank structural integrity concerns, the wall temperature limit for the SRS waste tanks is 100 C. The transfer of cesium-loaded CST to the tank could result in localized hot spots on the tank floor and walls which may exceed this limit. As a result, thermal modeling calculations have been conducted to predict the maximum temperatures achievable both in the column and in the waste tank. As specified in the associated Technical Task Plan, one objective of the present work was to compute temperature distributions within the ion exchange column module under accident scenarios including loss of salt solution flow through the bed and loss of coolant system flow. The column modeling domain and the scope of the calculations in this case were broadened relative to previous two-dimensional calculations to include vertical temperature distributions within the packed bed of ion exchange media as well as the upper column plenum region containing only fluid. The baseline design conditions and in-column modeling domain for the ion-exchange column module are shown in Figure 1. These evaluations assumed the maximum bounding cesium loading considered possible based on current knowledge regarding CST media and the anticipated feed compositions. Since this cesium loading was considerably higher than the nominal loading conditions in SRS waste, cases with lower loading were also evaluated. Modeling parameters were the same as those used previously unless otherwise indicated. The current model does not capture multi-phase cooling mechanisms operative when solution boiling occurs. This feature is conservative in the sense that it does not account for the large cooling effects associated with phase transfer. However, the potential transfer of heat to the plenum region associated with vertical bubble ascension through the column during boiling is also neglected. Thermal modeling calculations were also performed for the entire waste storage tank for the case where loaded and ground CST was transferred to the tank. The modeling domain used for the in-tank calculations is provided in Figure 2. The in-tank domain is based on SRS Tank 41, which is a Type-IIIA tank. Temperature distributions were evaluated for cylindrical, ground CST mounds located on the tank floor. Media grinding is required prior to vitrification processing of the CST in the SRS Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The location of the heat source region on the tank floor due to the accumulation of CST material was assumed to be just under the grinder. The shape of the CST mound was assumed to be cylindrical. This shape is believed to be most representative of the actual mound shape formed in the tank, given that submersible mixing pumps will be available for media dispersion. Alternative configurations involving other geometrical shapes for the CST mound were evaluated in the previous work. Sensitivity analysis for the in-tank region was performed for different amounts of CST media. As was the case for the in-column model, the in-tank model does not include multi-phase cooling mechanisms operative when solution boiling occurs. The in-column and the in-tank evaluations incorporated recently updated maximum cesi

  4. Exact evaluation of the rates of electrostatic decay and scattering off thermal ions for an unmagnetized Maxwellian plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Layden, B.; Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, P. A.

    2013-08-15

    Electrostatic decay of Langmuir waves into Langmuir and ion sound waves (L?L?+S) and scattering of Langmuir waves off thermal ions (L+i?L?+i?, also called “nonlinear Landau damping”) are important nonlinear weak-turbulence processes. The rates for these processes depend on the quadratic longitudinal response function ?{sup (2)} (or, equivalently, the quadratic longitudinal susceptibility ?{sup (2)}), which describes the second-order response of a plasma to electrostatic wave fields. Previous calculations of these rates for an unmagnetized Maxwellian plasma have relied upon an approximate form for ?{sup (2)} that is valid where two of the wave fields are fast (i.e., v{sub ?}=?/k?V{sub e} where ? is the angular frequency, k is the wavenumber, and V{sub e} is the electron thermal speed) and one is slow (v{sub ?}?V{sub e}). Recently, an exact expression was derived for ?{sup (2)} that is valid for any phase speeds of the three waves in an unmagnetized Maxwellian plasma. Here, this exact ?{sup (2)} is applied to the calculation of the three-dimensional rates for electrostatic decay and scattering off thermal ions, and the resulting exact rates are compared with the approximate rates. The calculations are performed using previously derived three-dimensional rates for electrostatic decay given in terms of a general ?{sup (2)}, and newly derived three-dimensional rates for scattering off thermal ions; the scattering rate is derived assuming a Maxwellian ion distribution, and both rates are derived assuming arc distributions for the wave spectra. For most space plasma conditions, the approximate rate is found to be accurate to better than 20%; however, for sufficiently low Langmuir phase speeds (v{sub ?}/V{sub e}?3) appropriate to some spatial domains of the foreshock regions of planetary bow shocks and type II solar radio bursts, the use of the exact rate may be necessary for accurate calculations. The relative rates of electrostatic decay and scattering off thermal ions are calculated for a range of parameters using the exact expressions for the rates; electrostatic decay is found to have the larger growth rate over the whole range of parameters, consistent with previous approximate calculations.

  5. THERMINATOR 2: THERMal heavy IoN generATOR 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mikolaj Chojnacki; Adam Kisiel; Wojciech Florkowski; Wojciech Broniowski

    2011-02-01

    We present an extended version of THERMINATOR, a Monte Carlo event generator dedicated to studies of the statistical production of particles in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The increased functionality of the code contains the following features: The input of any shape of the freeze-out hypersurface and the expansion velocity field, including the 3+1 dimensional profiles, in particular those generated externally with various hydrodynamic codes. The hypersufraces may have variable thermal parameters, which allows for studies departing significantly from the mid-rapidity region, where the baryon chemical potential becomes large. We include a library of standard sets of hypersurfaces and velocity profiles describing the RHIC Au+Au data at sqrt(s_(NN)) = 200 GeV for various centralities, as well as those anticipated for the LHC Pb+Pb collisions at sqrt(s_(NN)) = 5.5 TeV. A separate code, FEMTO-THERMINATOR, is provided to carry out the analysis of femtoscopic correlations which are an important source of information concerning the size and expansion of the system. We also include several useful scripts that carry out auxiliary tasks, such as obtaining an estimate of the number of elastic collisions after the freeze-out, counting of particles flowing back into the fireball and violating causality (typically very few), or visualizing various results: the particle p_T-spectra, the elliptic flow coefficients, and the HBT correlation radii. We also investigate the problem of the back-flow of particles into the hydrodynamic region, as well as estimate the elastic rescattering in terms of trajectory crossings. The package is written in C++ and uses the CERN ROOT environment.

  6. Thermal/Electrical Modeling for Abuse-Tolerant Design of Li-Ion Modules (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Kim, G.-H.; Pesaran, A.; Darcy, E.

    2008-11-01

    To help design safe, high-performing batteries, NREL and NASA created and verified a new multicell math model capturing electrical-thermal interactions of cells with PTC devices during thermal abuse.

  7. Comparison of thermal annealing effects on electrical activation of MBE grown and ion implant Si-doped In0.53Ga0.47As

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Comparison of thermal annealing effects on electrical activation of MBE grown and ion implant Si are metastable and susceptible to deactivation upon subsequent thermal treatments after growth. Active Si doping.47As Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 042113 (2014); 10.1063/1.4892079 Electrically active Er doping in InAs, In0

  8. Microstructure changes and thermal conductivity reduction in UO2 following 3.9 MeV He2+ ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janne Pakrinen; Marat Khafizov; Lingfeng He; Chris Wetland; Jian Gan; Andrew T. Nelson; David H Hurley; Anter El-Azab; Todd R Allen

    2014-11-01

    The microstructural changes and associated effects on thermal conductivity were examined in UO2 after irradiation using 3.9 MeV He2+ ions. Lattice expansion of UO2 was observed in x-ray diffraction after ion irradiation up to 5×1016 He2+/cm2 at low-temperature (< 200 °C). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed homogenous irradiation damage across an 8 µm thick plateau region, which consisted of small dislocation loops accompanied by dislocation segments. Dome-shaped blisters were observed at the peak damage region (depth around 8.5 µm) in the sample subjected to 5×1016 He2+/cm2, the highest fluence reached, while similar features were not detected at 9×1015 He2+/cm2. Laser-based thermo-reflectance measurements showed that the thermal conductivity for the irradiated layer decreased about 55 % for the high fluence sample and 35% for the low fluence sample as compared to an un-irradiated reference sample. Detailed analysis for the thermal conductivity indicated that the conductivity reduction was caused by the irradiation induced point defects.

  9. Designing Safe Lithium-Ion Battery Packs Using Thermal Abuse Models (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A. A.; Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.; Darcy, E.

    2008-12-01

    NREL and NASA developed a thermal-electrical model that resolves PTC and cell behavior under external shorting, now being used to evaluate safety margins of battery packs for spacesuit applications.

  10. Single-Particle Model for a Lithium-Ion Cell: Thermal Godfrey Sikha,b,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in the literature; for example, Newman and Pals1,2 presented cell and battery stack thermal models incorporating inefficient for simu- lating conditions such as cycling behavior and series/parallel con- figuration of stacked cells in battery packs. To improve computational run time without compromising accuracy

  11. Modeling and Experimental Study of Lithium-Ion Battery Thermal Behavior 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lopez, Carlos F

    2015-04-28

    proximity to each other as the released heat from an abused cell can activate the chain of reactions in a neighboring cell, causing an entire module to heat rapidly and vent or ignite. This body of work aims to study LIB thermal behavior using both modeling...

  12. Modeling and Experimental Study of Lithium-Ion Battery Thermal Behavior 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lopez, Carlos F

    2015-04-28

    of particular interest is a scenario called thermal runaway in which several exothermic side-reactions occur at elevated temperature ranges and release heat, which can then trigger the next reaction. This matter worsens when multiple cells are installed in close...

  13. Divalent Ion and Thermally Induced DNA Conformational Polymorphism on Single-walled

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langowski, Jörg

    -particle effects. It is observed that the transition can also be induced thermally over the temperature range systematically decreases; emission exhibits a surfactant concentration-dependent red-shift11 . DNA is highly sulfate (SDS) suspended SWNT below the critical micelle concentration (CMC), the fluorescence energy

  14. Effect of Ca2+ Ion and Temperature on Association of Thermally

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Chi

    with charged polymer chains commonly occurs in different applications of poly- electrolytes, ranging from PNIPAM is a thermally sensitive polymer. In the presence of Ca2+ , the complexation between one Ca2 of static and dynamic laser light scattering, we studied the effect of Ca2+ and temperature as well

  15. Fluorinated Phosphazene Co-solvents for Improved Thermal and Safety Performance in Lithium-Ion Battery Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harry W. Rollins; Mason K. Harrup; Eric J. Dufek; David K. Jamison; Sergiy V. Sazhin; Kevin L. Gering; Dayna L. Daubaras

    2014-10-01

    The safety of lithium-ion batteries is coming under increased scrutiny as they are being adopted for large format applications especially in the vehicle transportation industry and for grid-scale energy storage. The primary short-comings of lithium-ion batteries are the flammability of the liquid electrolyte and sensitivity to high voltage and elevated temperatures. We have synthesized a series of non-flammable fluorinated phosphazene liquids and blended them with conventional carbonate solvents. While the use of these phosphazenes as standalone electrolytes is highly desirable, they simply do not satisfy all of the many requirements that must be met such as high LiPF6 solubility and low viscosity, thus we have used them as additives and co-solvents in blends with typical carbonates. The physical and electrochemical properties of the electrolyte blends were characterized, and then the blends were used to build 2032-type coin cells which were evaluated at constant current cycling rates from C/10 to C/1. We have evaluated the performance of the electrolytes by determining the conductivity, viscosity, flash point, vapor pressure, thermal stability, electrochemical window, cell cycling data, and the ability to form solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) films. This paper presents our results on a series of chemically similar fluorinated cyclic phosphazene trimers, the FM series, which has exhibited numerous beneficial effects on battery performance, lifetimes, and safety aspects.

  16. Boundary Creek thermal areas of Yellowstone National Park: II, thermal water analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, J.M. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA); Hutchinson, R.A.

    1980-09-01

    Water samples from 28 thermal springs, 2 non-thermal springs, and 2 creeks from the Boundary Creek Thermal Areas (BCTA) in the southwestern corner of Yellowstone National Park were analyzed to help establish a chemical water-quality base line prior to possible geothermal exploitation of the Island Park Geothermal Area (IPGA). The springs, situated at the southwestern end of the Madison Plateau, are the Yellowstone Park thermal waters nearest to the IPGA and might respond to geothermal exploitation in the IPGA. Water temperatures ranging from 50/sup 0/ to 90/sup 0/C and low Cl concentrations (< 110 mgL/sup -1/) characterize spring waters in the BCTA. They are chemically distinct from the major geysers and hot springs in Yellowstone Park. The Na-K-Ca and silica geothermometers are in general agreement, usually within 10/sup 0/C, and indicate reservoir temperatures of 150 to 170/sup 0/C.

  17. Thermally Stable Electrolyte For Li-ion Cells. (Conference) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory of rare Kaon and Pion decays CitationConnect Thermally Stable Electrolyte

  18. The Radial Loss of Ions Trapped in the Thermal Barrier Potential and the Design of Divertor Magnetic Field in GAMMA10

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katanuma, I. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Ito, T. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Saimaru, H. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Sasagawa, Y. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Pastukhov, V.P. [I.V.Kuruchatov Atomic Energy Institute (Russian Federation); Ishii, K. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Tatematsu, Y. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Saito, T. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Islam, Md.K. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Nakashima, Y. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Cho, T. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan)

    2005-01-15

    The ion radial loss exists in the presence of a non-axisymmetric electrostatic potential in the end-mirror cells of GAMMA10, which leads to a formation of the thermal barrier potential. The non-axisymmetric electrostatic potential can also exist in the central cell. A design for divertor magnetic field of GAMMA10 is performed, the purpose of which is first to reduce an ion radial transport in the central cell by making electrostatic potential circular and second to assure the macroscopic plasma stability of GAMMA10 without help of non-axisymmetric anchor cells which enhances a neoclassical radial transport.

  19. Multicomponent Geothermometers | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland: EnergyInformationOliver, Pennsylvania:(CTI PFAN) |

  20. Silica Geothermometers | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EIS ReportEurope GmbH Jump to: navigation,ShowSikes Act Jump to:Silcio

  1. Cation Geothermometers | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmentalBowerbank,CammackFLIR Jump to:RAPID RoadmapInformationDM5498 JumpOpen

  2. Enhancement of the helium resonance lines in the solar atmosphere by suprathermal electron excitation I: non-thermal transport of helium ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. R. Smith; C. Jordan

    2002-08-16

    Models of the solar transition region made from lines other than those of helium cannot account for the strength of the helium lines. However, the collisional excitation rates of the helium resonance lines are unusually sensitive to the energy of the exciting electrons. Non-thermal motions in the transition region could drive slowly-ionizing helium ions rapidly through the steep temperature gradient, exposing them to excitation by electrons characteristic of higher temperatures than those describing their ionization state. We present the results of calculations which use a more physical representation of the lifetimes of the ground states of He I and He II than was adopted in earlier work on this process. New emission measure distributions are used to calculate the temperature variation with height. The results show that non-thermal motions can lead to enhancements of the He I and He II resonance line intensities by factors that are comparable with those required. Excitation by non-Maxwellian electron distributions would reduce the effects of non-thermal transport. The effects of non-thermal motions are more consistent with the observed spatial distribution of helium emission than are those of excitation by non-Maxwellian electron distributions alone. In particular, they account better for the observed line intensity ratio I(537.0 A)/I(584.3 A), and its variation with location.

  3. Effects of pyrolysis conditions and ion-exchangeable cations on the thermal decomposition of a Victorian low-rank coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sathe, C.; Pang, Y.; Li, C.Z. [Monash Univ., Clayton, Victoria (Australia)

    1998-12-31

    A Loy Yang brown coal sample was acid-washed and ion-exchanged with Na and Ca to prepare the H-form, Na-form and Ca-form coal samples. These coal samples were pyrolyzed in a wire-mesh reactor where the extraparticle secondary reactions of the evolved volatiles were minimized. The ion-exchanged coal samples were found to give very different tar yields from those of the raw coal samples. The tar yields from the pyrolysis of the raw and H-form coal samples were observed to be very sensitive to changes in heating rate and the tar yields at 600 C were found to increase much more than the corresponding increases in the total volatile yields as the heating rate was increased from 1 to 1,000 K/s. In contrast, the tar yields from the Ca-form and Na-form coal samples showed little heating rate sensitivity. The heating rate sensitivity of pyrolysis yields is believed to be at least partly related to the presence of carboxyl/carboxylate groups and other bulky substitution groups in the coal as well as the rapid pressure buildup within the particles. Re-exchanging Na in the Na-form coal sample and Ca in the Ca-form coal sample with H confirmed the effects of Na and Ca, but also suggested that the irreversible structural changes taking place during ion-exchange should also be considered to evaluate the effects of ion-exchangeable cations during pyrolysis. The major roles of ion-exchangeable cations during pyrolysis are thought to be associated with the transformation of the alkali and alkaline earth metallic species. Some Ca was volatilized during pyrolysis, even at temperatures as low as 600 C.

  4. Determination of thermal and cementation histories from [sup 40]Ar/[sup 39]Ar and ion microprobe stable isotope analyses: A San Joaquin Basin example

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahon, K.I.; Harrison, T.M.; Grove, M.; Lovera, O.M. (UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States))

    1996-01-01

    Knowledge of the temperature and cementation histories of sedimentary basins is key to appraisal of their liquid hydrocarbon potential. Understanding the thermal history permits assessment of whether source rocks have experienced conditions appropriate for petroleum formation. The mobility of hydrocarbons and their storage capacity in sandstone reservoirs are directly related to porosity changes during diagenesis. Recent advances in [sup 40]Ar/[sup 39]Ar dating (stripping of Cl-correlated Ar[sub xs] Multi-Diffusion Domain model) and development of ion micro-probe techniques for precise ([+-]0.6[per thousand]) [mu]m-scale oxygen isotopic analysis provide a basis to quantitatively determine thermal and cementation histories. Arkosic sandstones of the Stevens turbidities, San Joaquin basin, are cemented by carbonates with minor amounts of clay and quartz. Detrital K-spars from depths of 4.12 (A4) and 6.61 km (Al) in the Stevens zone at Elk Hills yield thermal histories via the MDD model. These results indicate a broadly linear temperature rise of 9[+-]3[degrees]C/Ma over the past 10 Ma and predict current peak temperatures that are within error ([+-]25[degrees]C) of the measured values of 200[degrees] (Al) and 150[degrees]C (A4). Previous bulk isotopic analyses of cements from Stevens sands at North Coles Levee indicate that diagenetic pore fluids were modified by the introduction of hydrocarbons and CO[sub 2] from maturing source horizons. In situ O isotopic analyses of 10 [mu]m spots in these cements confirms this heterogeneity. A model cementation history can then be calculated by linking the oxygen isotopic composition of the cements (and temperature-dependent fractionation factor) with the thermal history independently established from thermochronometry.

  5. Determination of thermal and cementation histories from {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar and ion microprobe stable isotope analyses: A San Joaquin Basin example

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahon, K.I.; Harrison, T.M.; Grove, M.; Lovera, O.M. [UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Knowledge of the temperature and cementation histories of sedimentary basins is key to appraisal of their liquid hydrocarbon potential. Understanding the thermal history permits assessment of whether source rocks have experienced conditions appropriate for petroleum formation. The mobility of hydrocarbons and their storage capacity in sandstone reservoirs are directly related to porosity changes during diagenesis. Recent advances in {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar dating (stripping of Cl-correlated Ar{sub xs} Multi-Diffusion Domain model) and development of ion micro-probe techniques for precise ({+-}0.6{per_thousand}) {mu}m-scale oxygen isotopic analysis provide a basis to quantitatively determine thermal and cementation histories. Arkosic sandstones of the Stevens turbidities, San Joaquin basin, are cemented by carbonates with minor amounts of clay and quartz. Detrital K-spars from depths of 4.12 (A4) and 6.61 km (Al) in the Stevens zone at Elk Hills yield thermal histories via the MDD model. These results indicate a broadly linear temperature rise of 9{+-}3{degrees}C/Ma over the past 10 Ma and predict current peak temperatures that are within error ({+-}25{degrees}C) of the measured values of 200{degrees} (Al) and 150{degrees}C (A4). Previous bulk isotopic analyses of cements from Stevens sands at North Coles Levee indicate that diagenetic pore fluids were modified by the introduction of hydrocarbons and CO{sub 2} from maturing source horizons. In situ O isotopic analyses of 10 {mu}m spots in these cements confirms this heterogeneity. A model cementation history can then be calculated by linking the oxygen isotopic composition of the cements (and temperature-dependent fractionation factor) with the thermal history independently established from thermochronometry.

  6. Effect of entropy of lithium intercalation in cathodes and anodes on Li-ion battery thermal management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Donghai; Xu, Wu; Towne, Silas A.; Williford, Ralph E.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhenguo

    2010-06-01

    The entropy changes (?S) in various cathode and anode materials, as well as complete Li-ion batteries, were measured using an electrochemical thermodynamic measurement system (ETMS). LiCoO2 has a much larger entropy change than electrodes based on LiNixCoyMnzO2 and LiFePO4, while lithium titanate based anode has lower entropy change compared to graphite anodes. Reversible heat generation rate was found to be a significant portion of the total heat generation rate. The appropriate combinations of cathode and anode were investigated to minimize reversible heat.

  7. Thermal Stability of LiPF 6 Salt and Li-ion Battery Electrolytes Containing LiPF

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With U.S.Week DayDr. JeffreyThermal Multi-layer Coating

  8. Electric Vehicle Battery Thermal Issues and Thermal Management Techniques (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rugh, J. P.; Pesaran, A.; Smith, K.

    2013-07-01

    This presentation examines the issues concerning thermal management in electric drive vehicles and management techniques for improving the life of a Li-ion battery in an EDV.

  9. Evaluation Of Chemical Geothermometers For Calculating Reservoir

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTIONRobertsdale, AlabamaETEC GmbH JumpEllenville,Power CorpEnergyEunice, Louisiana:Power

  10. Category:Silica Geothermometers | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmentalBowerbank,CammackFLIR Jump to:RAPID Roadmap ContactRock Density JumpSAR

  11. Soft ionization of thermally evaporated hypergolic ionic liquid aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koh, Christine J.

    2013-01-01

    thermal energy from evaporation and the energy imparted by the ionization process.energy imparted into the isolated ion pair upon thermal vaporization and minimizes reactive processes.

  12. Develop & evaluate materials & additives that enhance thermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Additives that Enhance Thermal and Overcharge Abuse Electrolytes - Advanced Electrolyte and Electrolyte Additives Advanced Electrolyte Additives for PHEVEV Lithium-ion Battery...

  13. Catalytic thermal barrier coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulkarni, Anand A. (Orlando, FL); Campbell, Christian X. (Orlando, FL); Subramanian, Ramesh (Oviedo, FL)

    2009-06-02

    A catalyst element (30) for high temperature applications such as a gas turbine engine. The catalyst element includes a metal substrate such as a tube (32) having a layer of ceramic thermal barrier coating material (34) disposed on the substrate for thermally insulating the metal substrate from a high temperature fuel/air mixture. The ceramic thermal barrier coating material is formed of a crystal structure populated with base elements but with selected sites of the crystal structure being populated by substitute ions selected to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a higher rate than would the base compound without the ionic substitutions. Precious metal crystallites may be disposed within the crystal structure to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a lower light-off temperature than would the ceramic thermal barrier coating material without the precious metal crystallites.

  14. Ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA); Ehlers, Kenneth W. (Alamo, CA)

    1984-01-01

    A magnetic filter for an ion source reduces the production of undesired ion species and improves the ion beam quality. High-energy ionizing electrons are confined by the magnetic filter to an ion source region, where the high-energy electrons ionize gas molecules. One embodiment of the magnetic filter uses permanent magnets oriented to establish a magnetic field transverse to the direction of travel of ions from the ion source region to the ion extraction region. In another embodiment, low energy 16 eV electrons are injected into the ion source to dissociate gas molecules and undesired ion species into desired ion species.

  15. Thermoacoustic imaging using heavy ion beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claytor, T.N.; Tesmer, J.R.; Deemer, B.C.; Murphy, J.C.

    1995-10-01

    Ion beams have been used for surface modification, semiconductor device fabrication and for material analysis, which makes ion-material interactions of significant importance. Ion implantation will produce new compositions near the surface by ion mixing or directly by implanting desired ions. Ions exchange their energy to the host material as they travel into the material by several different processes. High energy ions ionize the host atoms before atomic collisions transfer the remaining momentum and stop the incident ion. As they penetrate the surface, the low energy ions ionize the host atoms, but also have a significantly large momentum transfer mechanism near the surface of the material. This leads to atoms, groups of atoms and electrons being ejected from the surface, which is the momentum transfer process of sputtering. This talk addresses the acoustic waves generated during ion implantation using modulated heavy ion beams. The mechanisms for elastic wave generation during ion implantation, in the regimes where sputtering is significant and where implantation is dominant and sputtering is negligible, has been studied. The role of momentum transfer and thermal energy production during ion implantation was compared to laser generated elastic waves in an opaque solid as a reference, since laser generated ultrasound has been extensively studied and is fairly well understood. The thermoelastic response dominated in both high and low ion energy regimes since, apparently, more energy is lost to thermal heat producing mechanisms than momentum transfer processes. The signal magnitude was found to vary almost linearly with incident energy as in the laser thermoelastic regime. The time delays for longitudinal and shear waves-were characteristic of those expected for a purely thermal heating source. The ion beams are intrinsically less sensitive to the albedo of the surface.

  16. Thermal Ion Dispersion | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al., 2013) |InformationThe2009) | Open Energy2008)|Al.,

  17. Thermal engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karnes, T.E.; Trupin, R.J.

    1984-01-03

    A thermal engine utilizing a strip of nitinol material or other thermally responsive shape memory effect material to drive a reciprocating output shaft, said strip of material forming a common wall between two different alternating temperature sources which thermally cycle the material.

  18. Electrothermal Analysis of Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Vlahinos, A.; Bharathan, D.; Duong, T.

    2006-03-01

    This report presents the electrothermal analysis and testing of lithium ion battery performance. The objectives of this report are to: (1) develop an electrothermal process/model for predicting thermal performance of real battery cells and modules; and (2) use the electrothermal model to evaluate various designs to improve battery thermal performance.

  19. Heat transport through ion crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nahuel Freitas; Esteban Martinez; Juan Pablo Paz

    2014-12-09

    We study the thermodynamical properties of crystals of trapped ions which are laser cooled to two different temperatures in two separate regions. We show that these properties strongly depend on the structure of the ion crystal. Such structure can be changed by varying the trap parameters and undergoes a series of phase transitions from linear to zig-zag or helicoidal configurations. Thus, we show that these systems are ideal candidates to observe and control the transition from anomalous to normal heat transport. All structures behave as `heat superconductors', with a thermal conductivity increasing linearly with system size and a vanishing thermal gradient inside the system. However, zig-zag and helicoidal crystals turn out to be hyper sensitive to disorder having a linear temperature profile and a length independent conductivity. Interestingly, disordered 2D ion crystals are heat insulators. Sensitivity to disorder is much smaller in the 1D case.

  20. An ion guide laser ion source for isobar-suppressed rare isotope beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raeder, Sebastian Ames, Friedhelm; Bishop, Daryl; Bricault, Pierre; Kunz, Peter; Mjųs, Anders; Heggen, Henning; Institute of Applied Physics, TU Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstr. 7, 64289 Darmstadt ; Lassen, Jens Teigelhöfer, Andrea; Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2

    2014-03-15

    Modern experiments at isotope separator on-line (ISOL) facilities like ISAC at TRIUMF often depend critically on the purity of the delivered rare isotope beams. Therefore, highly selective ion sources are essential. This article presents the development and successful on-line operation of an ion guide laser ion source (IG-LIS) for the production of ion beams free of isobaric contamination. Thermionic ions from the hot ISOL target are suppressed by an electrostatic potential barrier, while neutral radio nuclides effusing out are resonantly ionized by laser radiation within a quadrupole ion guide behind this barrier. The IG-LIS was developed through detailed thermal and ion optics simulation studies and off-line tests with stable isotopes. In a first on-line run with a SiC target a suppression of surface-ionized Na contaminants in the ion beam of up to six orders of magnitude was demonstrated.

  1. Cation Geothermometers At Lightning Dock Geothermal Area (Witcher, 2006) |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmentalBowerbank,CammackFLIR Jump to:RAPID RoadmapInformationDM5498 JumpOpen Energy

  2. SUBMITTED TO GRL 1 Thermal Anisotropies in the Solar Wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, John

    SUBMITTED TO GRL 1 E Thermal Anisotropies in the Solar Wind: vidence of Heating by Interstellar cyclotron instabilit s generated by newly created pickup ions and heats the thermal solar wind protons TO GRL 2 T Introduction he thermal anisotropy of the solar wind is the ratio between the temperatures p

  3. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    Solar Thermal Collectors .is solar energy. Solar thermal collector arrays can be usedon integrating solar thermal collectors with desalination

  4. Co-current rotation of the bulk ions due to the ion orbit loss at the edge of a tokamak plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Chengkang; Ou, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Flux-surface-averaged momentum loss and parallel rotation of the bulk ions at the edge of a tokamak plasma due to the ion orbit loss are calculated by computing the minimum loss energy of both the trapped and the passing thermal ions. The flux-surface-averaged parallel rotation of the bulk ions is in the co-current direction. The peak of the co-current rotation speed locates inside the last closed flux surface due to the orbit loss of the co-current thermal ions at the very edge of a tokamak plasma. The peaking position moves inward when the ion temperature increases.

  5. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    and thermal energy storage in solar thermal applications,"aided or powered by solar thermal energy. A section is alsoexhaustive review of solar thermal energy systems has been

  6. Advanced Thermal Control

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    thermal models power density cost lifetime Advanced Thermal Interface Materials Advanced Heat Transfer Technologies Air Cooling Thermal System Performance and Integration Thermal...

  7. Improved negative ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Delmore, J.E.

    1984-05-01

    A method and apparatus for providing a negative ion source accelerates electrons away from a hot filament electron emitter into a region of crossed electric and magnetic fields arranged in a magnetron configuration. During a portion of the resulting cycloidal path, the electron velocity is reduced below its initial value. The electron accelerates as it leaves the surface at a rate of only slightly less than if there were no magnetic field, thereby preventing a charge buildup at the surface of the emitter. As the electron traverses the cycloid, it is decelerated during the second, third, and fourth quadrants, then reaccelerated as it approaches the end of the fourth quadrant to regain its original velocity. The minimum velocity occurs during the fourth quadrant, and corresponds to an electron temperature of 200 to 500/sup 0/C for the electric and magnetic fields commonly encountered in the ion sources of magnetic sector mass spectrometers. An ion source using the above-described thermalized electrons is also disclosed.

  8. Negative ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Delmore, James E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1987-01-01

    A method and apparatus for providing a negative ion source accelerates electrons away from a hot filament electron emitter into a region of crossed electric and magnetic fields arranged in a magnetron configuration. During a portion of the resulting cycloidal path, the electron velocity is reduced below its initial value. The electron accelerates as it leaves the surface at a rate of only slightly less than if there were no magnetic field, thereby preventing a charge buildup at the surface of the emitter. As the electron traverses the cycloid, it is decelerated during the second, third, and fourth quadrants, then reeccelerated as it approaches the end of the fourth quadrant to regain its original velocity. The minimum velocity occurs during the fourth quadrant, and corresponds to an electron temperature of 200.degree. to 500.degree. for the electric and magnetic fields commonly encountered in the ion sources of magnetic sector mass spectrometers. An ion source using the above-described thermalized electrons is also disclosed.

  9. Ion acoustic solitons/double layers in two-ion plasma revisited

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lakhina, G. S. Singh, S. V. Kakad, A. P.

    2014-06-15

    Ion acoustic solitons and double layers are studied in a collisionless plasma consisting of cold heavier ion species, a warm lighter ion species, and hot electrons having Boltzmann distributions by Sagdeev pseudo-potential technique. In contrast to the previous results, no double layers and super-solitons are found when both the heavy and lighter ion species are treated as cold. Only the positive potential solitons are found in this case. When the thermal effects of the lighter ion species are included, in addition to the usual ion-acoustic solitons occurring at M?>?1 (where the Mach number, M, is defined as the ratio of the speed of the solitary wave and the ion-acoustic speed considering temperature of hot electrons and mass of the heavier ion species), slow ion-acoustic solitons/double layers are found to occur at low Mach number (M?ion-acoustic mode is actually a new ion-ion hybrid acoustic mode which disappears when the normalized number density of lighter ion species tends to 1 (i.e., no heavier species). An interesting property of the new slow ion-acoustic mode is that at low number density of the lighter ion species, only negative potential solitons/double layers are found whereas for increasing densities there is a transition first to positive solitons/double layers, and then only positive solitons. The model can be easily applicable to the dusty plasmas having positively charged dust grains by replacing the heavier ion species by the dust mass and doing a simple normalization to take account of the dust charge.

  10. Short wavelength ion temperature gradient turbulence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chowdhury, J.; Ganesh, R. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar (India); Brunner, S.; Lapillonne, X.; Villard, L. [CRPP, Association EURATOM-Confederation Suisse, EPFL, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Jenko, F. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    The ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode in the high wavenumber regime (k{sub y}{rho}{sub s}>1), referred to as short wavelength ion temperature gradient mode (SWITG) is studied using the nonlinear gyrokinetic electromagnetic code GENE. It is shown that, although the SWITG mode may be linearly more unstable than the standard long wavelength (k{sub y}{rho}{sub s}<1) ITG mode, nonlinearly its contribution to the total thermal ion heat transport is found to be low. We interpret this as resulting from an increased zonal flow shearing effect on the SWITG mode suppression.

  11. Improved ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1982-05-04

    A magnetic filter for an ion source reduces the production of undesired ion species and improves the ion beam quality. High-energy ionizing electrons are confined by the magnetic filter to an ion source region, where the high-energy electrons ionize gas molecules. One embodiment of the magnetic filter uses permanent magnets oriented to establish a magnetic field transverse to the direction of travel of ions from the ion source region to the ion extraction region. In another embodiment, low energy 16 eV electrons are injected into the ion source to dissociate gas molecules and undesired ion species into desired ion species,

  12. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.-F.

    2011-01-01

    varying solar energy inputs and thermal or power demands. Itusing aquifers for thermal energy storage. Problems outlinedmatical Modeling of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers,"

  13. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    of solar collectors and thermal energy storage in solaraided or powered by solar thermal energy. A section is alsobesides MVC require thermal energy as their primary energy

  14. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    15] O. A. Hamed, "THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF MULTISTAGE FLASHdesa4.aspx. [18] Encon, "Thermal Evaporators," June 2013. [http://www.evaporator.com/thermal-evaporator. [19] Y. Tian

  15. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.-F.

    2011-01-01

    of such an aquifer thermal storage system were studied andusing aquifers for thermal energy storage. Problems outlinedmatical Modeling of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers,"

  16. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    This requires no thermal storage tanks, but can have athe need for large thermal storage equipment, the evaporatorinclude analysis of thermal storage. A way of keeping the

  17. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.-F.

    2011-01-01

    aquifers for thermal energy storage. Problems outlined aboveModeling of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers," Proceed-ings of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Workshop, Lawrence

  18. Cassini observations of the thermal plasma in the vicinity of Saturn's main rings and the F and G rings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gurnett, Donald A.

    Cassini observations of the thermal plasma in the vicinity of Saturn's main rings and the F and G] The ion mass spectrometer on Cassini detected enhanced ion flux near Saturn's main rings are derived from the ion counting data. The ion temperatures over the main rings are a minimum near

  19. Thermal photons to dileptons ratio at LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jajati K. Nayak; Jan-e Alam; Sourav Sarkar; Bikash Sinha

    2007-05-24

    It is shown that the ratio of transverse momentum (p_T) distribution of thermal photons to dileptons produced in heavy ion collisions reaches a plateau above p_T=1 GeV. We argue that the value of the ratio in the plateau region can be used to estimate the initial temperature.

  20. Master Thesis: Fusion Plasma Thermal Transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Master Thesis: Fusion Plasma Thermal Transport Radial and Poloidal Profile Modeling Martin Olesen-axis localised ion cyclotron resonance heating source. 2. Cold pulse shock induction at the plasma edge via laser wave propagation from heat modulation and the fast propagation of a cold pulse, at the same plasma

  1. Optimal Energy Management Strategy including Battery Health through Thermal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Optimal Energy Management Strategy including Battery Health through Thermal Management for Hybrid: Energy management strategy, Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, Li-ion battery aging, thermal management, Pontryagin's Minimum Principle. 1. INTRODUCTION The interest for energy management strategy (EMS) of Hybrid

  2. Thermal Transport in Nanoporous Materials for Energy Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, Jin

    2012-01-01

    Thermal Conductivity Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . .Thermal ConductivityThermal Conductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Thermal

  3. Ion Monitoring

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Orr, Christopher Henry (Calderbridge, GB); Luff, Craig Janson (Calderbridge, GB); Dockray, Thomas (Calderbridge, GB); Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore (Los Alamos, NM)

    2003-11-18

    The apparatus and method provide a technique for significantly reducing capacitance effects in detector electrodes arising due to movement of the instrument relative to the item/location being monitored in ion detection based techniques. The capacitance variations are rendered less significant by placing an electrically conducting element between the detector electrodes and the monitored location/item. Improved sensitivity and reduced noise signals arise as a result. The technique also provides apparatus and method suitable for monitoring elongate items which are unsuited to complete enclosure in one go within a chamber. The items are monitored part by part as the pass through the instrument, so increasing the range of items or locations which can be successfully monitored.

  4. Lithium ion sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roy, Prabir K.

    2014-01-01

    HIFAN 1866 Lithium ion sources by Prabir K. Roy, Wayne G.No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. Lithium ion sources Prabir K. Roya source of ?100 mA lithium ion current for the Neutralized

  5. Ion funnel ion trap and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Belov, Mikhail E [Richland, WA; Ibrahim, Yehia M [Richland, WA; Clowers, Biran H [West Richland, WA; Prior, David C [Hermiston, OR; Smith, Richard D [Richland, WA

    2011-02-15

    An ion funnel trap is described that includes a inlet portion, a trapping portion, and a outlet portion that couples, in normal operation, with an ion funnel. The ion trap operates efficiently at a pressure of .about.1 Torr and provides for: 1) removal of low mass-to-charge (m/z) ion species, 2) ion accumulation efficiency of up to 80%, 3) charge capacity of .about.10,000,000 elementary charges, 4) ion ejection time of 40 to 200 .mu.s, and 5) optimized variable ion accumulation times. Ion accumulation with low concentration peptide mixtures has shown an increase in analyte signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) of a factor of 30, and a greater than 10-fold improvement in SNR for multiply charged analytes.

  6. Ion-acoustic cnoidal waves in plasmas with warm ions and kappa distributed electrons and positrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaladze, T.; I.Vekua Institute of Applied Mathematics, Tbilisi State University, 0186 Georgia ; Mahmood, S.

    2014-03-15

    Electrostatic ion-acoustic periodic (cnoidal) waves and solitons in unmagnetized electron-positron-ion (EPI) plasmas with warm ions and kappa distributed electrons and positrons are investigated. Using the reductive perturbation method, the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation is derived with appropriate boundary conditions for periodic waves. The corresponding analytical and various numerical solutions are presented with Sagdeev potential approach. Differences between the results caused by the kappa and Maxwell distributions are emphasized. It is revealed that only hump (compressive) structures of the cnoidal waves and solitons are formed. It is shown that amplitudes of the cnoidal waves and solitons are reduced in an EPI plasma case in comparison with the ordinary electron-ion plasmas. The effects caused by the temperature variations of the warm ions are also discussed. It is obtained that the amplitude of the cnoidal waves and solitons decreases for a kappa distributed (nonthermal) electrons and positrons plasma case in comparison with the Maxwellian distributed (thermal) electrons and positrons EPI plasmas. The existence of kappa distributed particles leads to decreasing of ion-acoustic frequency up to thermal ions frequency.

  7. A Single-Ion Trap with Minimized Ion-Environment Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nisbet-Jones, P B R; Jones, J M; Godun, R M; Baynham, C F A; Bongs, K; Dole˛al, M; Balling, P; Gill, P

    2015-01-01

    We present a new single-ion endcap trap for high precision spectroscopy that has been designed to minimize ion-environment interactions. We describe the design in detail and then characterize the working trap using a single trapped 171 Yb ion. Excess micromotion has been eliminated to the resolution of the detection method and the trap exhibits an anomalous phonon heating rate of d /dt = 24 +30/-24 per second. The thermal properties of the trap structure have also been measured with an effective temperature rise at the ion's position of 0.14 +/- 0.14 K. The small perturbations to the ion caused by this trap make it suitable to be used for an optical frequency standard with fractional uncertainties below the 10^-18 level.

  8. Microfabricated ion frequency standard

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schwindt, Peter (Albuquerque, NM); Biedermann, Grant (Albuquerque, NM); Blain, Matthew G. (Albuquerque, NM); Stick, Daniel L. (Albuquerque, NM); Serkland, Darwin K. (Albuquerque, NM); Olsson, III, Roy H. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-12-28

    A microfabricated ion frequency standard (i.e. an ion clock) is disclosed with a permanently-sealed vacuum package containing a source of ytterbium (Yb) ions and an octupole ion trap. The source of Yb ions is a micro-hotplate which generates Yb atoms which are then ionized by a ultraviolet light-emitting diode or a field-emission electron source. The octupole ion trap, which confines the Yb ions, is formed from suspended electrodes on a number of stacked-up substrates. A microwave source excites a ground-state transition frequency of the Yb ions, with a frequency-doubled vertical-external-cavity laser (VECSEL) then exciting the Yb ions up to an excited state to produce fluorescent light which is used to tune the microwave source to the ground-state transition frequency, with the microwave source providing a precise frequency output for the ion clock.

  9. High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production This...

  10. Stored-Ion Collisional Relaxation to Equilibrium 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Church, David A.

    1988-01-01

    , and page proofs are sent to authors. Stored-ion collisional relaxation to equihbrium D. A. Church Physics Department, Texas AkM Uniuersity, College Station, Texas 77843A242 (Received 10 August 1987) The rate of energy transfer between the radial... and axial degrees of freedom of protons ~ith measured temperature and number stored in a radio-frequency quadrupole ion trap is quanti5ed. The results are discussed in terms of the theory of charged-particle collisional relaxation to thermal equihbrium...

  11. Effects of thermal fluctuations on thermal inflation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takashi Hiramatsu; Yuhei Miyamoto; Jun'ichi Yokoyama

    2014-12-25

    The mechanism of thermal inflation, a relatively short period of accelerated expansion after primordial inflation, is a desirable ingredient for a certain class of particle physics models if they are not to be in contention with the cosmology of the early Universe. Though thermal inflation is most simply described in terms of a thermal effective potential, a thermal environment also gives rise to thermal fluctuations that must be taken into account. We numerically study the effects of these thermal fluctuations using lattice simulations. We conclude that though they do not ruin the thermal inflation scenario, the phase transition at the end of thermal inflation proceeds through phase mixing and is therefore not accompanied by the formations of bubbles nor appreciable amplitude of gravitational waves.

  12. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    storage in solar thermal applications," Applied Energy, pp.of Non-Tracking Solar Thermal Technology," 2011. [26] R.C. Y. Zhao, "A review of solar collectors and thermal energy

  13. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    Evaporator Powered By Solar Thermal Energy 10:00 AM 10:00 AMaided or powered by solar thermal energy. A section is alsoexhaustive review of solar thermal energy systems has been

  14. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    and thermal energy storage in solar thermal applications,"Solar infrastructure should include analysis of thermal storage.storage equipment, the evaporator can be integrated into the current solar

  15. Microfabricated Ion Traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcus D. Hughes; Bjoern Lekitsch; Jiddu A. Broersma; Winfried K. Hensinger

    2011-06-28

    Ion traps offer the opportunity to study fundamental quantum systems with high level of accuracy highly decoupled from the environment. Individual atomic ions can be controlled and manipulated with electric fields, cooled to the ground state of motion with laser cooling and coherently manipulated using optical and microwave radiation. Microfabricated ion traps hold the advantage of allowing for smaller trap dimensions and better scalability towards large ion trap arrays also making them a vital ingredient for next generation quantum technologies. Here we provide an introduction into the principles and operation of microfabricated ion traps. We show an overview of material and electrical considerations which are vital for the design of such trap structures. We provide guidance in how to choose the appropriate fabrication design, consider different methods for the fabrication of microfabricated ion traps and discuss previously realized structures. We also discuss the phenomenon of anomalous heating of ions within ion traps, which becomes an important factor in the miniaturization of ion traps.

  16. Thermal Control & System Integration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The thermal control and system integration activity focuses on issues such as the integration of motor and power control technologies and the development of advanced thermal control technologies....

  17. DNA Engine Thermal Cycler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raizada, Manish N.

    ® Peltier Thermal Cycler PTC-0200 DNA Engine Cycler Operations Manual Version 4.0 #12;ii Tech Support: 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .vi The DNA Engine® Peltier Thermal Cycler Introduction

  18. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    and C. Y. Zhao, "A review of solar collectors and thermalenergy storage in solar thermal applications," Appliedon photovoltaic/thermal hybrid solar technology," Applied

  19. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.-F.

    2011-01-01

    thermal energy becomes apparent with the development of solarsolar energy systems, aquifer energy storage provides a buffer between time-varying solar energy inputs and thermal

  20. Diffusive Acceleration of Ions at Interplanetary Shocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthew G. Baring; Errol J. Summerlin

    2005-06-08

    Heliospheric shocks are excellent systems for testing theories of particle acceleration in their environs. These generally fall into two classes: (1) interplanetary shocks that are linear in their ion acceleration characteristics, with the non-thermal ions serving as test particles, and (2) non-linear systems such as the Earth's bow shock and the solar wind termination shock, where the accelerated ions strongly influence the magnetohydrodynamic structure of the shock. This paper explores the modelling of diffusive acceleration at a particular interplanetary shock, with an emphasis on explaining in situ measurements of ion distribution functions. The observational data for this event was acquired on day 292 of 1991 by the Ulysses mission. The modeling is performed using a well-known kinetic Monte Carlo simulation, which has yielded good agreement with observations at several heliospheric shocks, as have other theoretical techniques, namely hybrid plasma simulations, and numerical solution of the diffusion-convection equation. In this theory/data comparison, it is demonstrated that diffusive acceleration theory can, to first order, successfully account for both the proton distribution data near the shock, and the observation of energetic protons farther upstream of this interplanetary shock than lower energy pick-up protons, using a single turbulence parameter. The principal conclusion is that diffusive acceleration of inflowing upstream ions can model this pick-up ion-rich event without the invoking any seed pre-acceleration mechanism, though this investigation does not rule out the action of such pre-acceleration.

  1. Observation of ion wave decay products of Langmuir waves generated by stimulated Raman scattering in ignition scale plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geddes, Cameron Guy Robinson

    Observation of ion wave decay products of Langmuir waves generated by stimulated Raman scattering the time resolved spectrum of ion wave decay products from two instabilities which can limit the growth of stimulated Raman scattering SRS . This experiment detected ion wave decay products far above the thermal

  2. Investigation of path dependence in commercial lithium-ion cells for pure electric bus applications: Aging mechanism identification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mi, Chunting "Chris"

    Investigation of path dependence in commercial lithium-ion cells for pure electric bus applications dependence of aging of lithium ion batteries. Considered the conditions of path dependence specific October 2014 Available online 13 October 2014 Keywords: Lithium-ion battery Path dependence Thermal aging

  3. Fast Lithium Ion Conduction in Li2SnS3: Synthesis, Physicochemical Characterization, and Electronic Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holzwarth, Natalie

    Fast Lithium Ion Conduction in Li2SnS3: Synthesis, Physicochemical Characterization, and Electronic conduction. The high thermal stability, significant lithium ion conductivity, and environmental stability make Li2SnS3 a promising new solid-state electrolyte for lithium ion batteries. 1. INTRODUCTION

  4. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 21, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 2013 1745 Online Parameterization of Lumped Thermal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    Parameterization of Lumped Thermal Dynamics in Cylindrical Lithium Ion Batteries for Core Temperature Estimation, Yonghua Li, R. Dyche Anderson, Yi Ding, and Matthew P. Castanier Abstract--Lithium ion batteries should identification scheme is designed for a cylindrical lithium ion battery. An adaptive observer of the core

  5. Superconducting microfabricated ion traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Shannon Xuanyue

    We fabricate superconducting ion traps with niobium and niobium nitride and trap single [superscript 88]Sr ions at cryogenic temperatures. The superconducting transition is verified and characterized by measuring the ...

  6. Applications of decelerated ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, B.M.

    1985-03-01

    Many facilities whose sole purpose had been to accelerate ion beams are now becoming decelerators as well. The development and current status of accel-decel operations is reviewed here. Applications of decelerated ions in atomic physics experiments are discussed.

  7. Electron-less negative ion extraction from ion-ion plasmas (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    results showing that continuous negative ion extraction, without co-extracted electrons, is possible from highly electronegative SFsub 6 ion-ion plasma at low gas...

  8. Thermal modeling of electrochemical capacitors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D'Entremont, Anna Leone

    2015-01-01

    storage mechanism of a lithium-ion battery during chargingsingle electrodes in lithium-ion battery,” Journal of Powerseparators in a lithium-ion battery,” Journal of Power

  9. Single Ion Implantation

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Thomas Schenkel

    2010-01-08

    On the equipment needed to implant ions in silicon and other materials. More information: http://newscenter.lbl.gov/f...

  10. Negative ion generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stinnett, R.W.

    1984-05-08

    A negative ion generator is formed from a magnetically insulated transmission line having a coating of graphite on the cathode for producing negative ions and a plurality of apertures on the opposed anode for the release of negative ions. Magnetic insulation keeps electrons from flowing from the cathode to the anode. A transverse magnetic field removes electrons which do escape through the apertures from the trajectory of the negative ions. 8 figs.

  11. Thermal Regimes of Northeast Streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thermal Loading (USGS) Stormwater and Streams ­ Optimizing Stormwater Management to Protect the Thermal

  12. Lithium ion sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roy, Prabir K.

    2014-01-01

    HIFAN 1866 Lithium ion sources by Prabir K. Roy, Wayne G.No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. Lithium ion sources Prabir K. RoyUSA Abstract A 10.9 cm diameter lithium alumino-silicate ion

  13. Material characterization of high-voltage lithium-ion battery models for crashworthiness analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meier, Joseph D. (Joseph David)

    2013-01-01

    A three-phased study of the material properties and post-impact behavior of prismatic pouch lithium-ion battery cells was conducted to refine computational finite element models and explore the mechanisms of thermal runaway ...

  14. It's getting hot in here : temperature gradients in lithium-ion battery packs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niewood, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    A 5 channel, 40A battery cycler was constructed for the purpose of carrying out thermal studies on Lithium-ion battery packs. Boston Power Swing Key 442 battery blocks were tested to determine the magnitude of the temperature ...

  15. Superconducting microfabricated ion traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shannon X. Wang; Yufei Ge; Jaroslaw Labaziewicz; Eric Dauler; Karl Berggren; Isaac L. Chuang

    2010-12-14

    We fabricate superconducting ion traps with niobium and niobium nitride and trap single 88Sr ions at cryogenic temperatures. The superconducting transition is verified and characterized by measuring the resistance and critical current using a 4-wire measurement on the trap structure, and observing change in the rf reflection. The lowest observed heating rate is 2.1(3) quanta/sec at 800 kHz at 6 K and shows no significant change across the superconducting transition, suggesting that anomalous heating is primarily caused by noise sources on the surface. This demonstration of superconducting ion traps opens up possibilities for integrating trapped ions and molecular ions with superconducting devices.

  16. Microfabricated Ion Traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, Marcus D; Broersma, Jiddu A; Hensinger, Winfried K

    2011-01-01

    Ion traps offer the opportunity to study fundamental quantum systems with high level of accuracy highly decoupled from the environment. Individual atomic ions can be controlled and manipulated with electric fields, cooled to the ground state of motion with laser cooling and coherently manipulated using optical and microwave radiation. Microfabricated ion traps hold the advantage of allowing for smaller trap dimensions and better scalability towards large ion trap arrays also making them a vital ingredient for next generation quantum technologies. Here we provide an introduction into the principles and operation of microfabricated ion traps. We show an overview of material and electrical considerations which are vital for the design of such trap structures. We provide guidance in how to choose the appropriate fabrication design, consider different methods for the fabrication of microfabricated ion traps and discuss previously realized structures. We also discuss the phenomenon of anomalous heating of ions with...

  17. Microfabricated ion trap array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blain, Matthew G. (Albuquerque, NM); Fleming, James G. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-12-26

    A microfabricated ion trap array, comprising a plurality of ion traps having an inner radius of order one micron, can be fabricated using surface micromachining techniques and materials known to the integrated circuits manufacturing and microelectromechanical systems industries. Micromachining methods enable batch fabrication, reduced manufacturing costs, dimensional and positional precision, and monolithic integration of massive arrays of ion traps with microscale ion generation and detection devices. Massive arraying enables the microscale ion traps to retain the resolution, sensitivity, and mass range advantages necessary for high chemical selectivity. The reduced electrode voltage enables integration of the microfabricated ion trap array with on-chip circuit-based rf operation and detection electronics (i.e., cell phone electronics). Therefore, the full performance advantages of the microfabricated ion trap array can be realized in truly field portable, handheld microanalysis systems.

  18. Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion gas and other gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.

    2014-08-19

    A novel method and system of separating carbon dioxide from flue gas is introduced. Instead of relying on large temperature or pressure changes to remove carbon dioxide from a solvent used to absorb it from flue gas, the ion pump method, as disclosed herein, dramatically increases the concentration of dissolved carbonate ion in solution. This increases the overlying vapor pressure of carbon dioxide gas, permitting carbon dioxide to be removed from the downstream side of the ion pump as a pure gas. The ion pumping may be obtained from reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, thermal desalination methods, or an ion pump system having an oscillating flow in synchronization with an induced electric field.

  19. Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion gas and other gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA); Bourcier, William L. (Livermore, CA)

    2010-11-09

    A novel method and system of separating carbon dioxide from flue gas is introduced. Instead of relying on large temperature or pressure changes to remove carbon dioxide from a solvent used to absorb it from flue gas, the ion pump method, as disclosed herein, dramatically increases the concentration of dissolved carbonate ion in solution. This increases the overlying vapor pressure of carbon dioxide gas, permitting carbon dioxide to be removed from the downstream side of the ion pump as a pure gas. The ion pumping may be obtained from reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, thermal desalination methods, or an ion pump system having an oscillating flow in synchronization with an induced electric field.

  20. HEATS: Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    HEATS Project: The 15 projects that make up ARPA-E’s HEATS program, short for “High Energy Advanced Thermal Storage,” seek to develop revolutionary, cost-effective ways to store thermal energy. HEATS focuses on 3 specific areas: 1) developing high-temperature solar thermal energy storage capable of cost-effectively delivering electricity around the clock and thermal energy storage for nuclear power plants capable of cost-effectively meeting peak demand, 2) creating synthetic fuel efficiently from sunlight by converting sunlight into heat, and 3) using thermal energy storage to improve the driving range of electric vehicles (EVs) and also enable thermal management of internal combustion engine vehicles.

  1. IonCCD™ for direct position-sensitive charged-particle detection: from electrons and keV ions to hyperthermal biomolecular ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadjar, Omar; Johnson, Grant E.; Laskin, Julia; Kibelka, Gottfried; Shill, Scott M.; Kuhn, Ken; Cameron, Chad; Kassan, Scott

    2011-04-01

    A novel charged-particle sensitive, pixel based detector array is described and its usage is demonstrated for a variety of applications, from detection of elemental particles (electrons) to hyper-thermal large biomolecular positive and negative ions including keV light atomic and molecular ions. The array detector is a modified light-sensitive charged coupled device (CCD). The IonCCDTM was engineered for direct charged particle detection by replacing the semi-conductor part of the CCD pixel by a conductor1. In contrast with the CCD, where the semi-conductive pixel is responsible for electron-hole pair formation upon photon bombardment, the IonCCD uses a capacitor coupled to the conductive electrode for direct charge integration. The detector can be operated from atmospheric pressure to high vacuum since no high voltages are needed. The IonCCD, presented in this work is an array of 2126 active pixels with 21 um pixel width and 3 um pixel gap. The detection area is 1.5x51mm2 where 1.5 mm and 51 mm are pixel and detector array length, respectively. The result is a one-dimensional position-sensitive detector with 24 um spatial resolution and 88 % pixel area ratio (PAR). In this work we demonstrate the capabilities and the performance of the detector. For the first time we show the direct detection of 250 eV electrons providing linearity response and detection efficiency of the IonCCD as function of electron beam current. Using positive ions from and electron impact source (E-I), we demonstrate that the detection efficiency of the IonCCD is virtually independent of particle energy [250 eV, 1250 eV], particle impact angle [45o, 90o] and particle flux. By combining the IonCCD with a double focusing sector field of Mattauch-Herzog geometry (M-H), we demonstrate fast acquisition of mass spectra in direct air sniffing mode. A first step towards fast in vivo breath analysis is presented. Detection of hyper-thermal biomolecular ions produced using an electrospray ionization source (ESI) is presented. The IonCCD was used as beam profiler to characterize the beam shape and intensity of 15 eV protonated and deprotonated biomolecular ions at the exit of an RF only collisional quadrupole. We present simultaneous detection of 140 eV doubly protonated biomolecular ions when the IonCCD is combined with the M-H analyzer. The latter, demonstrates the possibility of simultaneous separation and micro-array deposition of biological material using a miniature sector field.

  2. Thermal and Electrical Transport in Oxide Heterostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ravichandran, Jayakanth

    2011-01-01

    of thermal conductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.4 Thermal transport in2.3.2 Thermal transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  3. Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutberg, Michael; Hastbacka, Mildred; Cooperman, Alissa; Bouza, Antonio

    2013-06-05

    The article discusses thermal energy storage technologies. This article addresses benefits of TES at both the building site and the electricity generation source. The energy savings and market potential of thermal energy store are reviewed as well.

  4. New insights into the decay of ion waves to turbulence, ion heating, and soliton generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapman, T. Banks, J. W.; Berger, R. L.; Cohen, B. I.; Williams, E. A.; Brunner, S.

    2014-04-15

    The decay of a single-frequency, propagating ion acoustic wave (IAW) via two-ion wave decay to a continuum of IAW modes is found to result in a highly turbulent plasma, ion soliton production, and rapid ion heating. Instability growth rates, thresholds, and sensitivities to plasma conditions are studied via fully kinetic Vlasov simulations. The decay rate of IAWs is found to scale linearly with the fundamental IAW potential amplitude ?{sub 1} for ZT{sub e}/T{sub i}?20, beyond which the instability is shown to scale with a higher power of ?{sub 1}, where Z is the ion charge number and T{sub e} (T{sub i}) is the electron (ion) thermal temperature. The threshold for instability is found to be smaller by an order of magnitude than linear theory estimates. Achieving a better understanding of the saturation of stimulated Brillouin scatter levels observed in laser-plasma interaction experiments is part of the motivation for this study.

  5. BERNAS ION SOURCE DISCHARGE SIMULATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RUDSKOY,I.; KULEVOY, T.V.; PETRENKO, S.V.; KUIBEDA, R.P.; SELEZNEV, D.N.; PERSHIN, V.I.; HERSHCOVITCH, A.; JOHNSON, B.M.; GUSHENETS, V.I.; OKS, E.M.; POOLE, H.J.

    2007-08-26

    The joint research and development program is continued to develop steady-state ion source of decaborane beam for ion implantation industry. Bemas ion source is the wide used ion source for ion implantation industry. The new simulation code was developed for the Bemas ion source discharge simulation. We present first results of the simulation for several materials interested in semiconductors. As well the comparison of results obtained with experimental data obtained at the ITEP ion source test-bench is presented.

  6. Thermal Management of Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saadah, Mohammed Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    phonon transmission and interface thermal conductance acrossF. Miao, et al. , "Superior Thermal Conductivity of Single-Advanced Materials for Thermal Management of Electronic

  7. Ion photon emission microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doyle, Barney L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-04-22

    An ion beam analysis system that creates microscopic multidimensional image maps of the effects of high energy ions from an unfocussed source upon a sample by correlating the exact entry point of an ion into a sample by projection imaging of the ion-induced photons emitted at that point with a signal from a detector that measures the interaction of that ion within the sample. The emitted photons are collected in the lens system of a conventional optical microscope, and projected on the image plane of a high resolution single photon position sensitive detector. Position signals from this photon detector are then correlated in time with electrical effects, including the malfunction of digital circuits, detected within the sample that were caused by the individual ion that created these photons initially.

  8. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.-F.

    2011-01-01

    time-varying solar energy inputs and thermal or powerthermal energy becomes apparent with the development of solar

  9. Ion beam generating apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Ian G. (1088 Woodside Rd., Berkeley, CA 94708); Galvin, James (2 Commodore #276, Emeryville, CA 94608)

    1987-01-01

    An ion generating apparatus utilizing a vacuum chamber, a cathode and an anode in the chamber. A source of electrical power produces an arc or discharge between the cathode and anode. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma is directed to an extractor which separates the electrons from the plasma, and accelerates the ions to produce an ion beam.

  10. Ion beam generating apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, I.G.; Galvin, J.

    1987-12-22

    An ion generating apparatus utilizing a vacuum chamber, a cathode and an anode in the chamber. A source of electrical power produces an arc or discharge between the cathode and anode. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma is directed to an extractor which separates the electrons from the plasma, and accelerates the ions to produce an ion beam. 10 figs.

  11. Collection of ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Orr, Christopher Henry (Calderbridge, GB); Luff, Craig Janson (Calderbridge, GB); Dockray, Thomas (Calderbridge, GB); Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore (Los Alamos, NM); Bounds, John Alan (Los Alamos, NM); Koster, James E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2001-01-01

    The apparatus and method provide an improved technique for detecting ions as the area from which ions are attracted to a detector is increased, consequently increasing the number of ions detected. This is achieved by providing the outer electrodes of the detector connected to the electrical potential, together with alternate intermediate electrodes. The other intermediate electrodes and preferably the housing are grounded. The technique renders such detection techniques more sensitive and gives them a lower threshold at which they can function.

  12. Multiwavelength Thermal Emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Multiwavelength Astronomy NASA #12;Thermal Emission #12;Thermal Emission Non-thermal p-p collisions Optical IR Radio/ Microwave sources of emission massive stars, WHIM, Ly many dust, cool objects-ray ~GeV Gamma-ray ~TeV sources of emission AGN, clusters, SNR, binaries, stars AGN (obscured), shocks

  13. Thermal neutron detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peurrung, Anthony J. (Richland, WA); Stromswold, David C. (West Richland, WA)

    2000-01-01

    According to the present invention, a system for measuring a thermal neutron emission from a neutron source, has a reflector/moderator proximate the neutron source that reflects and moderates neutrons from the neutron source. The reflector/moderator further directs thermal neutrons toward an unmoderated thermal neutron detector.

  14. Thermal Performance Benchmarking (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moreno, G.

    2014-11-01

    This project will benchmark the thermal characteristics of automotive power electronics and electric motor thermal management systems. Recent vehicle systems will be benchmarked to establish baseline metrics, evaluate advantages and disadvantages of different thermal management systems, and identify areas of improvement to advance the state-of-the-art.

  15. IMPROVEMENT OF THERMAL STABILITY OF LI-ION BATTERIES BY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    · Overall Technology Assessment · Appendices o Appendix A: Final Report (under separate cover) o Appendix B Funding: $75,000 Term: July 2002 ­ June 2003 PIER Subject Area: Renewable Energy Technologies #12;Page i · Renewable Energy Technologies · Environmentally-Preferred Advanced Generation · Energy-Related Environmental

  16. Polyester Separators for Lithium-ion Cells: Improving Thermal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Research Org: Sandia National Laboratories Sponsoring Org: USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Country of Publication: United States Language: English...

  17. Evidence of ion mixing increasing the thermal boundary conductance...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States) Sponsoring Org: USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Country of Publication: United States Language: English...

  18. Evidence of ion mixing increasing the thermal boundary conductance across

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article) | SciTech(Journal(Patent)pressure in BaSwitching. (Journal

  19. Sensitivity of the interpretation of the experimental ion thermal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail. (Conference) |Janka,Ferrara

  20. Correlation ion mobility spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Kent B. (Los Lunas, NM); Rohde, Steven B. (Corrales, NM)

    2008-08-26

    Correlation ion mobility spectrometry (CIMS) uses gating modulation and correlation signal processing to improve IMS instrument performance. Closely spaced ion peaks can be resolved by adding discriminating codes to the gate and matched filtering for the received ion current signal, thereby improving sensitivity and resolution of an ion mobility spectrometer. CIMS can be used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio even for transient chemical samples. CIMS is especially advantageous for small geometry IMS drift tubes that can otherwise have poor resolution due to their small size.

  1. Chemical Equilibrium in Heavy Ion Collisions: Rapidity Dependence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Becattini; J. Cleymans

    2007-01-05

    Particle yields in heavy ion collisions show an overwhelming evidence for chemical or relative chemical equilibrium at all beam energies. The rapidity dependence of the thermal parameters $T$ and $\\mu_B$ can now be determined over a wide range of rapidities and show a systematic behavior towards an increase in $\\mu_B$ away from mid-rapidity.

  2. Effects of ion abundances on electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave growth rate in the vicinity of the plasmapause

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henning, F. D. Mace, R. L.

    2014-04-15

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves in multi-ion species plasmas propagate in branches. Except for the branch corresponding to the heaviest ion species, which has only a resonance at its gyrofrequency, these branches are bounded below by a cutoff frequency and above by a resonant gyrofrequency. The condition for wave growth is determined by the thermal anisotropies of each ion species, j, which sets an upper bound, ?{sub j}{sup ?}, on the wave frequency below which that ion species contributes positively to the growth rate. It follows that the relative positions of the cutoffs and the critical frequencies ?{sub j}{sup ?} play a crucial role in determining whether a particular wave branch will be unstable. The effect of the magnetospheric ion abundances on the growth rate of each branch of the EMIC instability in a model where all the ion species have kappa velocity distributions is investigated by appealing to the above ideas. Using the variation of the cutoff frequencies predicted by cold plasma theory as a guide, optimal ion abundances that maximise the EMIC instability growth rate are sought. When the ring current is comprised predominantly of H{sup +} ions, all branches of the EMIC wave are destabilised, with the proton branch having the maximum growth rate. When the O{sup +} ion abundance in the ring current is increased, a decrease in the growth rate of the proton branch and cyclotron damping of the helium branch are observed. The oxygen branch, on the other hand, experiences an increase in the maximum growth rate with an increase in the O{sup +} ion abundance. When the ring current is comprised predominantly of He{sup +} ions, only the helium and oxygen branches of the EMIC wave are destabilised, with the helium branch having the maximum growth rate.

  3. Development of ion sources for ion projection lithography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Y.; Gough, R.A.; Kunkel, W.B.; Leung, K.N.; Perkins, L.T.

    1996-05-01

    Multicusp ion sources are capable of generating ion beams with low axial energy spread as required by the Ion Projection Lithography (IPL). Longitudinal ion energy spread has been studied in two different types of plasma discharge: the filament discharge ion source characterized by its low axial energy spread, and the RF-driven ion source characterized by its long source lifetime. For He{sup +} ions, longitudinal ion energy spreads of 1-2 eV were measured for a filament discharge multicusp ion source which is within the IPL device requirements. Ion beams with larger axial energy spread were observed in the RF-driven source. A double-chamber ion source has been designed which combines the advantages of low axial energy spread of the filament discharge ion source with the long lifetime of the RF-driven source. The energy spread of the double chamber source is lower than that of the RF-driven source.

  4. Thermal Shock-resistant Cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugama T.; Pyatina, T.; Gill, S.

    2012-02-01

    We studied the effectiveness of sodium silicate-activated Class F fly ash in improving the thermal shock resistance and in extending the onset of hydration of Secar #80 refractory cement. When the dry mix cement, consisting of Secar #80, Class F fly ash, and sodium silicate, came in contact with water, NaOH derived from the dissolution of sodium silicate preferentially reacted with Class F fly ash, rather than the #80, to dissociate silicate anions from Class F fly ash. Then, these dissociated silicate ions delayed significantly the hydration of #80 possessing a rapid setting behavior. We undertook a multiple heating -water cooling quenching-cycle test to evaluate the cement’s resistance to thermal shock. In one cycle, we heated the 200 and #61616;C-autoclaved cement at 500 and #61616;C for 24 hours, and then the heated cement was rapidly immersed in water at 25 and #61616;C. This cycle was repeated five times. The phase composition of the autoclaved #80/Class F fly ash blend cements comprised four crystalline hydration products, boehmite, katoite, hydrogrossular, and hydroxysodalite, responsible for strengthening cement. After a test of 5-cycle heat-water quenching, we observed three crystalline phase-transformations in this autoclaved cement: boehmite and #61614; and #61543;-Al2O3, katoite and #61614; calcite, and hydroxysodalite and #61614; carbonated sodalite. Among those, the hydroxysodalite and #61614; carbonated sodalite transformation not only played a pivotal role in densifying the cementitious structure and in sustaining the original compressive strength developed after autoclaving, but also offered an improved resistance of the #80 cement to thermal shock. In contrast, autoclaved Class G well cement with and without Class F fly ash and quartz flour failed this cycle test, generating multiple cracks in the cement. The major reason for such impairment was the hydration of lime derived from the dehydroxylation of portlandite formed in the autoclaved cement, causing its volume to expand.

  5. Selective ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A ion source is described wherein selected ions maybe extracted to the exclusion of unwanted ion species of higher ionization potential. Also described is a method of producing selected ions from a compound, such as P.sup.+ from PH.sub.3. The invention comprises a plasma chamber, an electron source, a means for introducing a gas to be ionized by electrons from the electron source, means for limiting electron energy from the electron source to a value between the ionization energy of the selected ion species and the greater ionization energy of an unwanted ion specie, and means for extracting the target ion specie from the plasma chamber. In one embodiment, the electrons are generated in a plasma cathode chamber immediately adjacent to the plasma chamber. A small extractor draws the electrons from the plasma cathode chamber into the relatively positive plasma chamber. The energy of the electrons extracted in this manner is easily controlled. The invention is particularly useful for doping silicon with P.sup.+, AS.sup.+, and B.sup.+ without the problematic presence of hydrogen, helium, water, or carbon oxide ions. Doped silicon is important for manufacture of semiconductors and semiconductor devices.

  6. Selective ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, K.N.

    1996-05-14

    A ion source is described wherein selected ions maybe extracted to the exclusion of unwanted ion species of higher ionization potential. Also described is a method of producing selected ions from a compound, such as P{sup +} from PH{sub 3}. The invention comprises a plasma chamber, an electron source, a means for introducing a gas to be ionized by electrons from the electron source, means for limiting electron energy from the electron source to a value between the ionization energy of the selected ion species and the greater ionization energy of an unwanted ion specie, and means for extracting the target ion specie from the plasma chamber. In one embodiment, the electrons are generated in a plasma cathode chamber immediately adjacent to the plasma chamber. A small extractor draws the electrons from the plasma cathode chamber into the relatively positive plasma chamber. The energy of the electrons extracted in this manner is easily controlled. The invention is particularly useful for doping silicon with P{sup +}, As{sup +}, and B{sup +} without the problematic presence of hydrogen, helium, water, or carbon oxide ions. Doped silicon is important for manufacture of semiconductors and semiconductor devices. 6 figs.

  7. Microfabricated cylindrical ion trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blain, Matthew G.

    2005-03-22

    A microscale cylindrical ion trap, having an inner radius of order one micron, can be fabricated using surface micromachining techniques and materials known to the integrated circuits manufacturing and microelectromechanical systems industries. Micromachining methods enable batch fabrication, reduced manufacturing costs, dimensional and positional precision, and monolithic integration of massive arrays of ion traps with microscale ion generation and detection devices. Massive arraying enables the microscale cylindrical ion trap to retain the resolution, sensitivity, and mass range advantages necessary for high chemical selectivity. The microscale CIT has a reduced ion mean free path, allowing operation at higher pressures with less expensive and less bulky vacuum pumping system, and with lower battery power than conventional- and miniature-sized ion traps. The reduced electrode voltage enables integration of the microscale cylindrical ion trap with on-chip integrated circuit-based rf operation and detection electronics (i.e., cell phone electronics). Therefore, the full performance advantages of microscale cylindrical ion traps can be realized in truly field portable, handheld microanalysis systems.

  8. Fast thermometry for trapped ions using dark resonances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johannes Roßnagel; Karl Nicolas Tolazzi; Ferdinand Schmidt-Kaler; Kilian Singer

    2015-04-09

    We experimentally demonstrate a method to determine the temperature of trapped ions which is suitable for monitoring fast thermalization processes. We show that observing and analyzing the lineshape of dark resonances in the fluorescence spectrum provides a temperature measurement which accurate over a large dynamic range, applied to single ions and small ion crystals. Laser induced fluorescence is detected over a time of only $20\\,\\mu$s allowing for rapid determination of the ion temperature. In the measurement range of $10^{-1}-10^{+2}\\,$mK we reach better than $15\\,\\%$ accuracy. Tuning the cooling laser to selected resonance features allows for controlling the ion temperatures between $0.7\\,$mK and more than $10\\,$mK. Experimental work is supported by a solution of the 8-level optical Bloch equations when including the ions classical motion. This technique paves the way for many experiments comprising heat transport in ion strings, heat engines, non-equilibrium thermodynamics or thermometry of large ion crystals.

  9. Heat generation rate measurement in a Li-ion cell at large C-rates through temperature and heat flux measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Arlington, University of

    Heat generation rate measurement in a Li-ion cell at large C-rates through temperature and heat Keywords: Lithium-ion batteries Heat generation rate measurement Heat flux sensor Thermal conduction Battery safety a b s t r a c t Understanding the rate of heat generation in a Li-ion cell is critical

  10. Ion mobility sensor system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Jun; Watson, David B.; Whitten, William B.

    2013-01-22

    An ion mobility sensor system including an ion mobility spectrometer and a differential mobility spectrometer coupled to the ion mobility spectrometer. The ion mobility spectrometer has a first chamber having first end and a second end extending along a first direction, and a first electrode system that generates a constant electric field parallel to the first direction. The differential mobility spectrometer includes a second chamber having a third end and a fourth end configured such that a fluid may flow in a second direction from the third end to the fourth end, and a second electrode system that generates an asymmetric electric field within an interior of the second chamber. Additionally, the ion mobility spectrometer and the differential mobility spectrometer form an interface region. Also, the first end and the third end are positioned facing one another so that the constant electric field enters the third end and overlaps the fluid flowing in the second direction.

  11. Real-time, noninvasive monitoring of ion energy and ion current at a wafer surface during plasma etching

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sobolewski, Mark A. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

    2006-09-15

    A noninvasive, nonperturbing technique for real-time monitoring of ion energy distributions and total ion current at a wafer surface during plasma processing has been used to monitor rapid changes in CF{sub 4}/Ar etching plasmas in an inductively coupled, rf-biased plasma reactor. To mimic the effects of process recipe steps or reactor malfunctions, perturbations were made in the inductive source power, gas flow, and pressure, and the resulting effects on total ion current, sheath voltage, and ion energy were monitored. During etching of a thermal silicon dioxide film, smaller changes, which are caused by the etch process itself, were also observed. Sheath voltages determined by the noninvasive technique were in good agreement with simultaneous measurements made using a capacitive probe. In addition to providing a demonstration of the speed and accuracy of the technique, the results also provide useful information about the relative importance of different types of equipment malfunctions and suggest methods for minimizing their effects. In particular, operating at constant bias voltage, instead of constant bias power, gave more stable ion energies. The physical mechanisms that cause the observed changes in ion energy are discussed, and a comparison to other process monitoring methods is presented. No other noninvasive, nonperturbing method yields ion current or ion energies as accurately as the technique presented here.

  12. LANL: Ion Beam Materials Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and materials synthesis through ion implantation technology, and radiation damage stud- ies in gases, liquids, and solids. The laboratory's core is a 3.2 MV tandem ion...

  13. Metal-Ion-Mediated Reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metal-Ion-Mediated Reactions Metal-Ion-Mediated Reactions Print Monday, 19 December 2011 18:29 While mononuclear, polynuclear, and polymeric metal complexes are most often...

  14. Microscopic Models of Heavy Ion Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Capella, A

    2003-01-01

    An introduction to dynamical microscopic models of hadronic and nuclear interactions is presented. Special emphasis is put in the relation between multiparticle production and total cross-section contributions. In heavy ion collisions, some observables, considered as signals of the production of a Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP), are studied. It is shown that they can only be described if final state interactions are introduced. It is argued that the cross-sections required are too small to drive the system to thermal equilibrium within the duration time of the final state interaction.

  15. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.-F.

    2011-01-01

    aquifers for thermal energy storage. Problems outlined abovean Aquifer Used for Hot Water Storage: Digital Simulation ofof Aquifer Systems for Cyclic Storage of Water," of the Fall

  16. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    sunshot DOEGO-102012-3669 * September 2012 MOTIVATION All thermal concentrating solar power (CSP) systems use solar tracking, which involves moving large mirror surfaces...

  17. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    pp. 67-73, 2003. [17] "Energy Requirements of Desalinationof solar collectors and thermal energy storage in solarapplications," Applied Energy, pp. 538-553, 2013. [20] P. G.

  18. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    C. Y. Zhao, "A review of solar collectors and thermal energya Passive Flat-Plate Solar Collector," International Journalof Flat Plate Solar Collector Equipped with Rectangular Cell

  19. Relating to ion detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Orr, Christopher Henry (Calderbridge, GB); Luff, Craig Janson (Calderbridge, GB); Dockray, Thomas (Calderbridge, GB); Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore (Los Alamos, NM)

    2001-01-01

    The apparatus and method provide a technique for improving detection of alpha and/or beta emitting sources on items or in locations using indirect means. The emission forms generate ions in a medium surrounding the item or location and the medium is then moved to a detecting location where the ions are discharged to give a measure of the emission levels. To increase the level of ions generated and render the system particularly applicable for narrow pipes and other forms of conduits, the medium pressure is increased above atmospheric pressure. STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT

  20. Origins of ion irradiation-induced Ga nanoparticle motion on GaAs surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, M.; Wu, J. H.; Chen, H. Y.; Thornton, K.; Goldman, R. S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2136 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2136 (United States); Sofferman, D. L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2136 (United States) [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2136 (United States); Department of Physics, Adelphi University, Garden City, New York 11530-0701 (United States); Beskin, I. [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1040 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1040 (United States)

    2013-08-12

    We have examined the origins of ion irradiation-induced nanoparticle (NP) motion. Focused-ion-beam irradiation of GaAs surfaces induces random walks of Ga NPs, which are biased in the direction opposite to that of ion beam scanning. Although the instantaneous NP velocities are constant, the NP drift velocities are dependent on the off-normal irradiation angle, likely due to a difference in surface non-stoichiometry induced by the irradiation angle dependence of the sputtering yield. It is hypothesized that the random walks are initiated by ion irradiation-induced thermal fluctuations, with biasing driven by anisotropic mass transport.

  1. Fast Thermal Simulation for Architecture Level Dynamic Thermal Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tan, Sheldon X.-D.

    Fast Thermal Simulation for Architecture Level Dynamic Thermal Management Pu Liu, Zhenyu Qi, Hang temperature by dynamic thermal managements becomes necessary. This paper proposes a novel approach to the thermal analysis at chip architecture level for efficient dynamic thermal management. Our new approach

  2. Thermalization of gluon matter including ggggg interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. El; C. Greiner; Z. Xu

    2006-09-27

    Within a pQCD inspired kinetic parton cascade we simulate the space time evolution of gluons which are produced initially in a heavy ion collision at RHIC energy. The inelastic gluonic interactions $gg \\leftrightarrow ggg$ do play an important role: For various initial conditions it is found that thermalization and the close to ideal fluid dynamical behaviour sets in at very early times. Special emphasis is put on color glass condensate initial conditions and the `bottom up thermalization' scenario. Off-equilibrium $3\\to 2$ processes make up the very beginning of the evolution leading to an initial decrease in gluon number and a temporary avalanche of the gluon momentum distribution to higher transversal momenta.

  3. Thermal regeneration of an electrochemical concentration cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumpelt, M.; Bates, J.K.

    1980-05-09

    A system and method are described for thermally regenerating an electrochemical concentration cell having first and second aluminum electrodes respectively positioned in contact with first and second electrolytes separated by an ion exchange member, the first and second electrolytes being composed of different concentrations of an ionic solvent and a salt, preferably an aluminum halide. The ionic solvent may be either organic or inorganic with a relatively low melting point, the ionic solvent and the salt form a complex wherein the free energy of formation of said complex is less than about -5 kcal/mole. A distillation column using solar heat or low grade industrial waste heat receives the first and second electrolytes and thermally decomposes the salt-solvent complex to provide feed material for the two half cells.

  4. Thermal regeneration of an electrochemical concentration cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Bates, John K. (Plainfield, IL)

    1981-01-01

    A system and method for thermally regenerating an electrochemical concentration cell having first and second aluminum electrodes respectively positioned in contact with first and second electrolytes separated by an ion exchange member, the first and second electrolytes being composed of different concentrations of an ionic solvent and a salt, preferably an aluminum halide. The ionic solvent may be either organic or inorganic with a relatively low melting point, the ionic solvent and the salt form a complex wherein the free energy of formation of said complex is less than about -5 Kcal/mole. A distillation column using solar heat or low grade industrial waste heat receives the first and second electrolytes and thermally decomposes the salt-solvent complex to provide feed material for the two half cells.

  5. Secondary ion collection and transport system for ion microprobe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ward, James W. (Canoga Park, CA); Schlanger, Herbert (Simi Valley, CA); McNulty, Jr., Hugh (Santa Monica, CA); Parker, Norman W. (Camarillo, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A secondary ion collection and transport system, for use with an ion microprobe, which is very compact and occupies only a small working distance, thereby enabling the primary ion beam to have a short focal length and high resolution. Ions sputtered from the target surface by the primary beam's impact are collected between two arcuate members having radii of curvature and applied voltages that cause only ions within a specified energy band to be collected. The collected ions are accelerated and focused in a transport section consisting of a plurality of spaced conductive members which are coaxial with and distributed along the desired ion path. Relatively high voltages are applied to alternate transport sections to produce accelerating electric fields sufficient to transport the ions through the section to an ion mass analyzer, while lower voltages are applied to the other transport sections to focus the ions and bring their velocity to a level compatible with the analyzing apparatus.

  6. Focused ion beam system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA); Gough, Richard A. (Kensington, CA); Ji, Qing (Berkeley, CA); Lee, Yung-Hee Yvette (Berkeley, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A focused ion beam (FIB) system produces a final beam spot size down to 0.1 .mu.m or less and an ion beam output current on the order of microamps. The FIB system increases ion source brightness by properly configuring the first (plasma) and second (extraction) electrodes. The first electrode is configured to have a high aperture diameter to electrode thickness aspect ratio. Additional accelerator and focusing electrodes are used to produce the final beam. As few as five electrodes can be used, providing a very compact FIB system with a length down to only 20 mm. Multibeamlet arrangements with a single ion source can be produced to increase throughput. The FIB system can be used for nanolithography and doping applications for fabrication of semiconductor devices with minimum feature sizes of 0.1 .mu.m or less.

  7. Focused ion beam system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, K.; Gough, R.A.; Ji, Q.; Lee, Y.Y.

    1999-08-31

    A focused ion beam (FIB) system produces a final beam spot size down to 0.1 {mu}m or less and an ion beam output current on the order of microamps. The FIB system increases ion source brightness by properly configuring the first (plasma) and second (extraction) electrodes. The first electrode is configured to have a high aperture diameter to electrode thickness aspect ratio. Additional accelerator and focusing electrodes are used to produce the final beam. As few as five electrodes can be used, providing a very compact FIB system with a length down to only 20 mm. Multibeamlet arrangements with a single ion source can be produced to increase throughput. The FIB system can be used for nanolithography and doping applications for fabrication of semiconductor devices with minimum feature sizes of 0.1 m or less. 13 figs.

  8. HEAVY ION INERTIAL FUSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keefe, D.

    2008-01-01

    Accelerators as Drivers for Inertially Confined Fusion, W.B.LBL-9332/SLAC-22l (1979) Fusion Driven by Heavy Ion Beams,OF CALIFORNIA f Accelerator & Fusion Research Division

  9. Ion exchange phenomena

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bourg, I.C.; Sposito, G.

    2011-05-01

    Ion exchange phenomena involve the population of readily exchangeable ions, the subset of adsorbed solutes that balance the intrinsic surface charge and can be readily replaced by major background electrolyte ions (Sposito, 2008). These phenomena have occupied a central place in soil chemistry research since Way (1850) first showed that potassium uptake by soils resulted in the release of an equal quantity of moles of charge of calcium and magnesium. Ion exchange phenomena are now routinely modeled in studies of soil formation (White et al., 2005), soil reclamation (Kopittke et al., 2006), soil fertilitization (Agbenin and Yakubu, 2006), colloidal dispersion/flocculation (Charlet and Tournassat, 2005), the mechanics of argillaceous media (Gajo and Loret, 2007), aquitard pore water chemistry (Tournassat et al., 2008), and groundwater (Timms and Hendry, 2007; McNab et al., 2009) and contaminant hydrology (Chatterjee et al., 2008; van Oploo et al., 2008; Serrano et al., 2009).

  10. Ion electric propulsion unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Light, Max E; Colestock, Patrick L

    2014-01-28

    An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) thruster is disclosed having a plasma chamber which is electrically biased with a positive voltage. The chamber bias serves to efficiently accelerate and expel the positive ions from the chamber. Electrons follow the exiting ions, serving to provide an electrically neutral exhaust plume. In a further embodiment, a downstream shaping magnetic field serves to further accelerate and/or shape the exhaust plume.

  11. High current ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Ian G. (1088 Woodside Rd., Berkeley, CA 94708); MacGill, Robert A. (645 Kern St., Richmond, CA 94805); Galvin, James E. (2 Commodore Dr. #276, Emeryville, CA 94608)

    1990-01-01

    An ion source utilizing a cathode and anode for producing an electric arc therebetween. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma leaves the generation region and expands through another regon. The density profile of the plasma may be flattened using a magnetic field formed within a vacuum chamber. Ions are extracted from the plasma to produce a high current broad on beam.

  12. Internal Short Circuits in Lithium-Ion Cells for PHEVs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sriramulu, Suresh; Stringfellow, Richard

    2013-05-25

    Development of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) has recently become a high national priority because of their potential to enable significantly reduced petroleum consumption by the domestic transportation sector in the relatively near term. Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are a critical enabling technology for PHEVs. Among battery technologies with suitable operating characteristics for use in vehicles, Li-ion batteries offer the best combination of energy, power, life and cost. Consequently, worldwide, leading corporations and government agencies are supporting the development of Li-ion batteries for PHEVs, as well as the full spectrum of vehicular applications ranging from mild hybrid to all-electric. In this project, using a combination of well-defined experiments, custom designed cells and simulations, we have improved the understanding of the process by which a Li-ion cell that develops an internal short progresses to thermal runaway. Using a validated model for thermal runaway, we have explored the influence of environmental factors and cell design on the propensity for thermal runaway in full-sized PHEV cells. We have also gained important perspectives about internal short development and progression; specifically that initial internal shorts may be augmented by secondary shorts related to separator melting. Even though the nature of these shorts is very stochastic, we have shown the critical and insufficiently appreciated role of heat transfer in influencing whether a developing internal short results in a thermal runaway. This work should lead to enhanced perspectives on separator design, the role of active materials and especially cathode materials with respect to safety and the design of automotive cooling systems to enhance battery safety in PHEVs.

  13. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, G.A.; Elder, M.G.; Kemme, J.E.

    1984-03-20

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus for thermally protecting sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components such as electronics to a heat sink such as ice.

  14. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Gloria A. (Los Alamos, NM); Elder, Michael G. (Los Alamos, NM); Kemme, Joseph E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1985-01-01

    An apparatus which thermally protects sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components to a heat sink such as ice.

  15. Thermal radiation Ron Zevenhoven

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    .00032, similarly for 2·T = 0.7·2500 = 1750 µmK4 this gives f0-2 = 0.03392. Thus for 0.4 - 0.7 µm, f1-2 = 0Thermal radiation revisited Ron Zevenhoven Åbo Akademi University Thermal and Flow Engineering Laboratory / Värme- och strömningsteknik tel. 3223 ; ron.zevenhoven@abo.fi Process Engineering

  16. Mechanical Engineering & Thermal Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    LASP's mechanical analysts also lead mechanical verification testing including: random vibration, forceMechanical Engineering & Thermal Group The Mechanical Engineering (ME) & Thermal Group at LASP has, and ground- based mechanical systems. Instrument Design Building on decades of design experience that has

  17. Thermal treatment wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA); Newmark, Robin L. (Livermore, CA); Knauss, Kevin G. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A thermal treatment wall emplaced to perform in-situ destruction of contaminants in groundwater. Thermal destruction of specific contaminants occurs by hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation at temperatures achievable by existing thermal remediation techniques (electrical heating or steam injection) in the presence of oxygen or soil mineral oxidants, such as MnO.sub.2. The thermal treatment wall can be installed in a variety of configurations depending on the specific objectives, and can be used for groundwater cleanup, wherein in-situ destruction of contaminants is carried out rather than extracting contaminated fluids to the surface, where they are to be cleaned. In addition, the thermal treatment wall can be used for both plume interdiction and near-wellhead in-situ groundwater treatment. Thus, this technique can be utilized for a variety of groundwater contamination problems.

  18. Tunable thermal link

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Chih-Wei; Majumdar, Arunava; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2014-07-15

    Disclosed is a device whereby the thermal conductance of a multiwalled nanostructure such as a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) can be controllably and reversibly tuned by sliding one or more outer shells with respect to the inner core. As one example, the thermal conductance of an MWCNT dropped to 15% of the original value after extending the length of the MWCNT by 190 nm. The thermal conductivity returned when the tube was contracted. The device may comprise numbers of multiwalled nanotubes or other graphitic layers connected to a heat source and a heat drain and various means for tuning the overall thermal conductance for applications in structure heat management, heat flow in nanoscale or microscale devices and thermal logic devices.

  19. Solar thermal aircraft

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Charles L. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-09-18

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  20. Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardin, Corey Lee

    2011-01-01

    and Background Solar thermal energy collection is anThermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal PowerThermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power

  1. Soft ionization of thermally evaporated hypergolic ionic liquid aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    University of California; ERC, Incorporated, Edwards Air Force Base; Air Force Research Laboratory, Edwards Air Force Base; National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center; Koh, Christine J.; Liu, Chen-Lin; Harmon, Christopher W.; Strasser, Daniel; Golan, Amir; Kostko, Oleg; Chambreau, Steven D.; L.Vaghjiani, Ghanshyam; Leone, Stephen R.

    2012-03-16

    Isolated ion pairs of a conventional ionic liquid, 1-Ethyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Emim+][Tf2N?]), and a reactive hypergolic ionic liquid, 1- Butyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Dicyanamide ([Bmim+][Dca?]), are generated by vaporizing ionic liquid submicron aerosol particles for the first time; the vaporized species are investigated by dissociative ionization with tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light, exhibiting clear intact cations, Emim+ and Bmim+, presumably originating from intact ion pairs. Mass spectra of ion pair vapor from an effusive source of the hypergolic ionic liquid show substantial reactive decomposition due to the internal energy of the molecules emanating from the source. Photoionization efficiency curves in the near threshold ionization region of isolated ion pairs of [Emim+][Tf2N?] ionic liquid vapor are compared for an aerosol source and an effusive source, revealing changes in the appearance energy due to the amount of internal energy in the ion pairs. The aerosol source has a shift to higher threshold energy (~;;0.3 eV), attributed to reduced internal energy of the isolated ion pairs. The method of ionic liquid submicron aerosol particle vaporization, for reactive ionic liquids such as hypergolic species, is a convenient, thermally ?cooler? source of isolated intact ion pairs in the gas phase compared to effusive sources.

  2. Soft ionization of thermally evaporated hypergolic ionic liquid aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    University of California; ERC, Incorporated, Edwards Air Force Base; Air Force Research Laboratory, Edwards Air Force Base; National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center; Institute of Chemistry, Hebrew University; Koh, Christine J.; Liu, Chen-Lin; Harmon, Christopher W.; Strasser, Daniel; Golan, Amir; Kostko, Oleg; Chambreau, Steven D.; Vaghjiani, Ghanshyam L.; Leone, Stephen R.

    2011-07-19

    Isolated ion pairs of a conventional ionic liquid, 1-Ethyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Emim+][Tf2N?]), and a reactive hypergolic ionic liquid, 1-Butyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Dicyanamide ([Bmim+][Dca?]), are generated by vaporizing ionic liquid submicron aerosol particles for the first time; the vaporized species are investigated by dissociative ionization with tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light, exhibiting clear intact cations, Emim+ and Bmim+, presumably originating from intact ion pairs. Mass spectra of ion pair vapor from an effusive source of the hypergolic ionic liquid show substantial reactive decomposition due to the internal energy of the molecules emanating from the source. Photoionization efficiency curves in the near threshold ionization region of isolated ion pairs of [Emim+][Tf2N?]ionic liquid vapor are compared for an aerosol source and an effusive source, revealing changes in the appearance energy due to the amount of internal energy in the ion pairs. The aerosol source has a shift to higher threshold energy (~;;0.3 eV), attributed to reduced internal energy of the isolated ion pairs. The method of ionic liquid submicron aerosol particle vaporization, for reactive ionic liquids such as hypergolic species, is a convenient, thermally ?cooler? source of isolated intact ion pairs in the gas phase compared to effusive sources.

  3. Thermally-related safety issues associated with thermal batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, Ronald Armand

    2006-06-01

    Thermal batteries can experience thermal runaway under certain usage conditions. This can lead to safety issues for personnel and cause damage to associated test equipment if the battery thermally self destructs. This report discusses a number of thermal and design related issues that can lead to catastrophic destruction of thermal batteries under certain conditions. Contributing factors are identified and mitigating actions are presented to minimize or prevent undesirable thermal runaway.

  4. Nonlinear stabilization of tokamak microturbulence by fast ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Citrin, J; Garcia, J; Haverkort, J W; Hogeweij, G M D; Jenko, F; Johnson, T; Mantica, P; Pueschel, M J; Told, D; contributors, JET-EFDA

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear electromagnetic stabilization by suprathermal pressure gradients found in specific regimes is shown to be a key factor in reducing tokamak microturbulence, augmenting significantly the thermal pressure electromagnetic stabilization. Based on nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations investigating a set of ion heat transport experiments on the JET tokamak, described by Mantica et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 107 135004 (2011)], this result explains the experimentally observed ion heat flux and stiffness reduction. These findings are expected to improve the extrapolation of advanced tokamak scenarios to reactor relevant regimes.

  5. Predictive modeling of synergistic effects in nanoscale ion track formation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zarkadoula, Eva; Pakarinen, Olli H.; Xue, Haizhou; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.

    2015-08-05

    Molecular dynamics techniques and the inelastic thermal spike model are used to study the coupled effects of inelastic energy loss due to 21 MeV Ni ion irradiation and pre-existing defects in SrTiO3. We determine the dependence on pre-existing defect concentration of nanoscale track formation occurring from the synergy between the inelastic energy loss and the pre-existing atomic defects. We show that the nanoscale ion tracks’ size can be controlled by the concentration of pre-existing disorder. This work identifies a major gap in fundamental understanding concerning the role played by defects in electronic energy dissipation and electron–lattice coupling.

  6. Ion transport through a graphene nanopore

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guohui Hu; Mao Mao; Sandip Ghosal

    2013-01-09

    Molecular dynamics simulation is utilized to investigate the ionic transport of NaCl in solution through a graphene nanopore under an applied electric field. Results show the formation of concentration polarization layers in the vicinity of the graphene sheet. The non-uniformity of the ion distribution gives rise to an electric pressure which drives vortical motions in the fluid if the electric field is sufficiently strong to overcome the influence of viscosity and thermal fluctuations. The relative importance of hydrodynamic transport and thermal fluctuations in determining the pore conductivity is investigated. A second important effect that is observed is the mass transport of water through the nanopore, with an average velocity proportional to the applied voltage and independent of the pore diameter. The flux arises as a consequence of the asymmetry in the ion distribution with respect to reflection about the plane of the graphene sheet. The accumulation of liquid molecules in the vicinity of the nanopore due to reorientation of the water dipoles by the local electric field is seen to result in a local increasein the liquid density. Results confirm that the electric conductance is proportional to the nanopore diameter for the parameter regimes that we simulated. The occurrence of fluid vortices is found to result in an increase in the effective electrical conductance.

  7. Thermal Giant Gravitons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Armas, Jay; Obers, Niels A; Orselli, Marta; Pedersen, Andreas Vigand

    2012-01-01

    We study the giant graviton solution as the AdS_5 X S^5 background is heated up to finite temperature. The analysis employs the thermal brane probe technique based on the blackfold approach. We focus mainly on the thermal giant graviton corresponding to a thermal D3-brane probe wrapped on an S^3 moving on the S^5 of the background at finite temperature. We find several interesting new effects, including that the thermal giant graviton has a minimal possible value for the angular momentum and correspondingly also a minimal possible radius of the S^3. We compute the free energy of the thermal giant graviton in the low temperature regime, which potentially could be compared to that of a thermal state on the gauge theory side. Moreover, we analyze the space of solutions and stability of the thermal giant graviton and find that, in parallel with the extremal case, there are two available solutions for a given temperature and angular momentum, one stable and one unstable. In order to write down the equations of mot...

  8. Multilayer thermal barrier coating systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vance, Steven J. (Orlando, FL); Goedjen, John G. (Oviedo, FL); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL); Sloan, Kelly M. (Longwood, FL)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention generally describes multilayer thermal barrier coating systems and methods of making the multilayer thermal barrier coating systems. The thermal barrier coating systems comprise a first ceramic layer, a second ceramic layer, a thermally grown oxide layer, a metallic bond coating layer and a substrate. The thermal barrier coating systems have improved high temperature thermal and chemical stability for use in gas turbine applications.

  9. Electron thermal conductivity owing to collisions between degenerate electrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. S. Shternin; D. G. Yakovlev

    2006-08-17

    We calculate the thermal conductivity of electrons produced by electron-electron Coulomb scattering in a strongly degenerate electron gas taking into account the Landau damping of transverse plasmons. The Landau damping strongly reduces this conductivity in the domain of ultrarelativistic electrons at temperatures below the electron plasma temperature. In the inner crust of a neutron star at temperatures T electron conductivity due to electron-ion (electron-phonon) scattering and becomes competitive with the the electron conductivity due to scattering of electrons by impurity ions.

  10. Microwave ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani; Thomae, Rainer W.

    2005-07-26

    A compact microwave ion source has a permanent magnet dipole field, a microwave launcher, and an extractor parallel to the source axis. The dipole field is in the form of a ring. The microwaves are launched from the middle of the dipole ring using a coaxial waveguide. Electrons are heated using ECR in the magnetic field. The ions are extracted from the side of the source from the middle of the dipole perpendicular to the source axis. The plasma density can be increased by boosting the microwave ion source by the addition of an RF antenna. Higher charge states can be achieved by increasing the microwave frequency. A xenon source with a magnetic pinch can be used to produce intense EUV radiation.

  11. Radioactive ion detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bower, Kenneth E. (Los Alamos, NM); Weeks, Donald R. (Saratoga, CA)

    1997-01-01

    Apparatus for detecting the presence, in aqueous media, of substances which emit alpha and/or beta radiation and determining the oxidation state of these radioactive substances, that is, whether they are in cationic or anionic form. In one embodiment, a sensor assembly has two elements, one comprised of an ion-exchange material which binds cations and the other comprised of an ion-exchange material which binds anions. Each ion-exchange element is further comprised of a scintillation plastic and a photocurrent generator. When a radioactive substance to which the sensor is exposed binds to either element and emits alpha or beta particles, photons produced in the scintillation plastic illuminate the photocurrent generator of that element. Sensing apparatus senses generator output and thereby indicates whether cationic species or anionic species or both are present and also provides an indication of species quantity.

  12. Radioactive ion detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bower, K.E.; Weeks, D.R.

    1997-08-12

    Apparatus for detecting the presence, in aqueous media, of substances which emit alpha and/or beta radiation and determining the oxidation state of these radioactive substances, that is, whether they are in cationic or anionic form. In one embodiment, a sensor assembly has two elements, one comprised of an ion-exchange material which binds cations and the other comprised of an ion-exchange material which binds anions. Each ion-exchange element is further comprised of a scintillation plastic and a photocurrent generator. When a radioactive substance to which the sensor is exposed binds to either element and emits alpha or beta particles, photons produced in the scintillation plastic illuminate the photocurrent generator of that element. Sensing apparatus senses generator output and thereby indicates whether cationic species or anionic species or both are present and also provides an indication of species quantity. 2 figs.

  13. Negative ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA); Ehlers, Kenneth W. (Alamo, CA)

    1984-01-01

    An ionization vessel is divided into an ionizing zone and an extraction zone by a magnetic filter. The magnetic filter prevents high-energy electrons from crossing from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. A small positive voltage impressed on a plasma grid, located adjacent an extraction grid, positively biases the plasma in the extraction zone to thereby prevent positive ions from migrating from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. Low-energy electrons, which would ordinarily be dragged by the positive ions into the extraction zone, are thereby prevented from being present in the extraction zone and being extracted along with negative ions by the extraction grid. Additional electrons are suppressed from the output flux using ExB drift provided by permanent magnets and the extractor grid electrical field.

  14. Negative ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1984-12-04

    An ionization vessel is divided into an ionizing zone and an extraction zone by a magnetic filter. The magnetic filter prevents high-energy electrons from crossing from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. A small positive voltage impressed on a plasma grid, located adjacent an extraction grid, positively biases the plasma in the extraction zone to thereby prevent positive ions from migrating from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. Low-energy electrons, which would ordinarily be dragged by the positive ions into the extraction zone, are thereby prevented from being present in the extraction zone and being extracted along with negative ions by the extraction grid. Additional electrons are suppressed from the output flux using ExB drift provided by permanent magnets and the extractor grid electrical field. 14 figs.

  15. Negative ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1982-08-06

    An ionization vessel is divided into an ionizing zone and an extraction zone by a magnetic filter. The magnetic filter prevents high-energy electrons from crossing from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. A small positive voltage impressed on a plasma grid, located adjacent an extraction grid, positively biases the plasma in the extraction zone to thereby prevent positive ions from migrating from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. Low-energy electrons, which would ordinarily be dragged by the positive ions into the extraction zone, are thereby prevented from being present in the extraction zone and being extracted along with negative ions by the extraction grid. Additional electrons are suppressed from the output flux using ExB drift provided by permanent magnets and the extractor grid electrical field.

  16. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carter, J. David; Wang, Xiaoping; Vaughey, John; Krumpelt, Michael

    2004-11-23

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  17. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughey, John (Elmhurst, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Wang, Xiaoping (Downers Grove, IL); Carter, J. David (Bolingbrook, IL)

    2003-01-01

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  18. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughey, John; Krumpelt, Michael; Wang, Xiaoping; Carter, J. David

    2005-07-12

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  19. Thermally Polymerized Rylene Nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew, Trisha Lionel

    Rylene dyes functionalized with varying numbers of phenyl trifluorovinyl ether (TFVE) moieties were subjected to a thermal emulsion polymerization to yield shape-persistent, water-soluble chromophore nanoparticles. Perylene ...

  20. Thermal Insulation Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanley, T. F.

    1982-01-01

    Thermal insulation systems are receiving a high degree of attention in view of increasing energy cost. Industrial, commercial and residential energy users are all well aware of energy cost increases and great emphasis is being directed to energy...

  1. Contact thermal lithography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Aaron Jerome, 1979-

    2004-01-01

    Contact thermal lithography is a method for fabricating microscale patterns using heat transfer. In contrast to photolithography, where the minimum achievable feature size is proportional to the wavelength of light used ...

  2. Asymmetric ion trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barlow, S.E.; Alexander, M.L.; Follansbee, J.C.

    1997-12-02

    An ion trap having two end cap electrodes disposed asymmetrically about a center of a ring electrode is disclosed. The inner surface of the end cap electrodes are conformed to an asymmetric pair of equipotential lines of the harmonic formed by the application of voltages to the electrodes. The asymmetry of the end cap electrodes allows ejection of charged species through the closer of the two electrodes which in turn allows for simultaneously detecting anions and cations expelled from the ion trap through the use of two detectors charged with opposite polarity. 4 figs.

  3. Asymmetric ion trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barlow, Stephan E. (Richland, WA); Alexander, Michael L. (Richland, WA); Follansbee, James C. (Pasco, WA)

    1997-01-01

    An ion trap having two end cap electrodes disposed asymmetrically about a center of a ring electrode. The inner surface of the end cap electrodes are conformed to an asymmetric pair of equipotential lines of the harmonic formed by the application of voltages to the electrodes. The asymmetry of the end cap electrodes allows ejection of charged species through the closer of the two electrodes which in turn allows for simultaneously detecting anions and cations expelled from the ion trap through the use of two detectors charged with opposite polarity.

  4. Hydrogen ion microlithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsuo, Y.S.; Deb, S.K.

    1990-10-02

    Disclosed is a hydrogen ion microlithography process for use in microelectronic fabrication and semiconductor device processing. The process comprises the steps of providing a single layer of either an amorphous silicon or hydrogenated amorphous silicon material. A pattern is recorded in a selected layer of amorphous silicon or hydrogenated amorphous silicon materials by preferentially implanting hydrogen ions therein so as to permit the selected layer to serve as a mask-resist wafer suitable for subsequent development and device fabrication. The layer is developed to provide a surface pattern therein adaptable for subsequent use in microelectronic fabrication and semiconductor device processing. 6 figs.

  5. Photovoltaic-thermal collectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cox, III, Charles H. (Carlisle, MA)

    1984-04-24

    A photovoltaic-thermal solar cell including a semiconductor body having antireflective top and bottom surfaces and coated on each said surface with a patterned electrode covering less than 10% of the surface area. A thermal-absorbing surface is spaced apart from the bottom surface of the semiconductor and a heat-exchange fluid is passed between the bottom surface and the heat-absorbing surface.

  6. Thermal Resonance Fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bao-Guo Dong

    2015-07-07

    We first show a possible mechanism to create a new type of nuclear fusion, thermal resonance fusion, i.e. low energy nuclear fusion with thermal resonance of light nuclei or atoms, such as deuterium or tritium. The fusion of two light nuclei has to overcome the Coulomb barrier between these two nuclei to reach up to the interacting region of nuclear force. We found nuclear fusion could be realized with thermal vibrations of crystal lattice atoms coupling with light atoms at low energy by resonance to overcome this Coulomb barrier. Thermal resonances combining with tunnel effects can greatly enhance the probability of the deuterium fusion to the detectable level. Our low energy nuclear fusion mechanism research - thermal resonance fusion mechanism results demonstrate how these light nuclei or atoms, such as deuterium, can be fused in the crystal of metal, such as Ni or alloy, with synthetic thermal vibrations and resonances at different modes and energies experimentally. The probability of tunnel effect at different resonance energy given by the WKB method is shown that indicates the thermal resonance fusion mode, especially combined with the tunnel effect, is possible and feasible. But the penetrating probability decreases very sharply when the input resonance energy decreases less than 3 keV, so for thermal resonance fusion, the key point is to increase the resonance peak or make the resonance sharp enough to the acceptable energy level by the suitable compound catalysts, and it is better to reach up more than 3 keV to make the penetrating probability larger than 10^{-10}.

  7. Thermal Resonance Fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Bao-Guo

    2015-01-01

    We first show a possible mechanism to create a new type of nuclear fusion, thermal resonance fusion, i.e. low energy nuclear fusion with thermal resonance of light nuclei or atoms, such as deuterium or tritium. The fusion of two light nuclei has to overcome the Coulomb barrier between these two nuclei to reach up to the interacting region of nuclear force. We found nuclear fusion could be realized with thermal vibrations of crystal lattice atoms coupling with light atoms at low energy by resonance to overcome this Coulomb barrier. Thermal resonances combining with tunnel effects can greatly enhance the probability of the deuterium fusion to the detectable level. Our low energy nuclear fusion mechanism research - thermal resonance fusion mechanism results demonstrate how these light nuclei or atoms, such as deuterium, can be fused in the crystal of metal, such as Ni or alloy, with synthetic thermal vibrations and resonances at different modes and energies experimentally. The probability of tunnel effect at dif...

  8. Titanate Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca

    2014-01-01

    Company-v3832/Lithium-Ion-Batteries- Outlook-Alternative-Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries Marca M. Doeff * , Jordirechargeable sodium ion batteries, particularly for large-

  9. Titanate Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.

    2014-01-01

    Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries Identification of a suitabledevelopment of sodium ion batteries, because graphite, theanode for lithium ion batteries, does not undergo sodium

  10. Advances in lithium-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerr, John B.

    2003-01-01

    Advances in Lithium-Ion Batteries Edited by Walter A. vanpuzzling mysteries of lithium ion batteries. The book beginssuch importance to lithium ion batteries one is amazed that

  11. Side Reactions in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Maureen Han-Mei

    2012-01-01

    additive for lithium-ion batteries. Elec- trochemistryOptimization of Lithium-Ion Batteries PhD thesis (Universityfor Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries. Journal of The

  12. Coral Thermal Tolerance: Tuning Gene Expression to Resist Thermal Stress

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coral Thermal Tolerance: Tuning Gene Expression to Resist Thermal Stress Anthony J. Bellantuono1 thermal tolerance in the scleractinian coral Acropora millepora, corals preconditioned to a sub under which non-preconditioned corals bleached and preconditioned corals (thermal-tolerant) maintained

  13. Ion polarization in the MEIC figure-8 ion collider ring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V.S. Morozov, Ya.S. Derbenev, Y. Zhang, P. Chevtsov, A.M. Kondratenko, M.A. Kondratenko, Yu.N. Filatov

    2012-07-01

    The nuclear physics program envisaged at the Medium-energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC) currently being developed at the Jefferson Lab calls for collisions of 3-11 GeV/c longitudinally polarized electrons and 20-100 GeV/c, in equivalent proton momentum, longitudinally/ transversely polarized protons/ deuterons/ light ions. We present a scheme that provides the required ion polarization arrangement in the MEIC's ion collider ring.

  14. New Improved Equations For Na-K, Na-Li And Sio2 Geothermometers...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    with the performance of the original equations. The errors in the use of the new NaK equation for temperatures ranging from 80 to 350C vary from about 19 to 34%, which is lower...

  15. A New Improved Na-K Geothermometer By Artificial Neural Networks | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAand Dalton JumpProgram | OpenEnergyEvaluation |Island,Approach

  16. Application Of An Artificial Neural Network Model To A Na-K Geothermometer

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAandAmminex A S Jump to:Angola onAperionCommission |DispersionOf Travale,||

  17. An Empirical Na-K-Ca Geothermometer For Natural Waters | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAandAmminex A S Jump to: navigation,

  18. New Improved Equations For Na-K, Na-Li And Sio2 Geothermometers By Outlier

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsourceII Jump to: navigation,National MarineUSAIDCanaan,InformationTexas:

  19. Photo ion spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, D.M.; Young, C.E.; Pellin, M.J.

    1989-08-08

    A method and apparatus are described for extracting for quantitative analysis ions of selected atomic components of a sample. A lens system is configured to provide a slowly diminishing field region for a volume containing the selected atomic components, enabling accurate energy analysis of ions generated in the slowly diminishing field region. The lens system also enables focusing on a sample of a charged particle beam, such as an ion beam, along a path length perpendicular to the sample and extraction of the charged particles along a path length also perpendicular to the sample. Improvement of signal to noise ratio is achieved by laser excitation of ions to selected auto-ionization states before carrying out quantitative analysis. Accurate energy analysis of energetic charged particles is assured by using a preselected resistive thick film configuration disposed on an insulator substrate for generating predetermined electric field boundary conditions to achieve for analysis the required electric field potential. The spectrometer also is applicable in the fields of SIMS, ISS and electron spectroscopy. 8 figs.

  20. Pulsed ion beam source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenly, J.B.

    1997-08-12

    An improved pulsed ion beam source is disclosed having a new biasing circuit for the fast magnetic field. This circuit provides for an initial negative bias for the field created by the fast coils in the ion beam source which pre-ionize the gas in the source, ionize the gas and deliver the gas to the proper position in the accelerating gap between the anode and cathode assemblies in the ion beam source. The initial negative bias improves the interaction between the location of the nulls in the composite magnetic field in the ion beam source and the position of the gas for pre-ionization and ionization into the plasma as well as final positioning of the plasma in the accelerating gap. Improvements to the construction of the flux excluders in the anode assembly are also accomplished by fabricating them as layered structures with a high melting point, low conductivity material on the outsides with a high conductivity material in the center. 12 figs.

  1. Laser driven ion accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tajima, Toshiki

    2005-06-14

    A system and method of accelerating ions in an accelerator to optimize the energy produced by a light source. Several parameters may be controlled in constructing a target used in the accelerator system to adjust performance of the accelerator system. These parameters include the material, thickness, geometry and surface of the target.

  2. Laser driven ion accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tajima, Toshiki

    2006-04-18

    A system and method of accelerating ions in an accelerator to optimize the energy produced by a light source. Several parameters may be controlled in constructing a target used in the accelerator system to adjust performance of the accelerator system. These parameters include the material, thickness, geometry and surface of the target.

  3. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, Charles Austen (Mesa, AZ); Liu, Changle (Midland, MI); Xu, Kang (Montgomery Village, MD); Skotheim, Terje A. (Tucson, AZ)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to highly conductive alkali-metal ion non-crystalline electrolyte systems, and more particularly to novel and unique molten (liquid), rubbery, and solid electrolyte systems which are especially well suited for use with high current density electrolytic cells such as primary and secondary batteries.

  4. Ion Runaway in Lightning Discharges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landreman, Matt

    Runaway ions can be produced in plasmas with large electric fields, where the accelerating electric force is augmented by the low mean ionic charge due to the imbalance between the number of electrons and ions. Here we ...

  5. Thermal Lens Spectroscopy Mladen Franko

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reid, Scott A.

    Thermal Lens Spectroscopy Mladen Franko Laboratory of Environmental Research, University of Nova-beam Instruments 5 3.3 Differential Thermal Lens Instruments 7 3.4 Multiwavelength and Tunable Thermal Lens Spectrometers 8 3.5 Circular Dichroism TLS Instruments 9 3.6 Miniaturization of Thermal Lens Instruments 9 4

  6. Ion plasma wave and its instability in interpenetrating plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vranjes, J.; Kono, M.

    2014-04-15

    Some essential features of the ion plasma wave in both kinetic and fluid descriptions are presented. The wave develops at wavelengths shorter than the electron Debye radius. Thermal motion of electrons at this scale is such that they overshoot the electrostatic potential perturbation caused by ion bunching, which consequently propagates as an unshielded wave, completely unaffected by electron dynamics. So in the simplest fluid description, the electrons can be taken as a fixed background. However, in the presence of magnetic field and for the electron gyro-radius shorter than the Debye radius, electrons can participate in the wave and can increase its damping rate. This is determined by the ratio of the electron gyro-radius and the Debye radius. In interpenetrating plasmas (when one plasma drifts through another), the ion plasma wave can easily become growing and this growth rate is quantitatively presented for the case of an argon plasma.

  7. Method of fabricating optical waveguides by ion implantation doping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Appleton, B.R.; Ashley, P.R.; Buchal, C.J.

    1987-03-24

    A method for fabricating high-quality optical waveguides in optical quality oxide crystals by ion implantation doping and controlled epitaxial recrystallization is provided. Masked LiNbO/sub 3/ crystals are implanted with high concentrations of Ti dopant at ion energies of about 360 keV while maintaining the crystal near liquid nitrogen temperature. Ion implantation doping produces an amorphous, Ti-rich nonequilibrium phase in the implanted region. Subsequent thermal annealing in a water-saturated oxygen atmosphere at up to 1000/degree/C produces solid-phase epitaxial regrowth onto the crystalline substrate. A high-quality crystalline layer results which incorporates the Ti into the crystal structure at much higher concentrations than is possible by standard diffusion techniques, and this implanted region has excellent optical waveguiding properties.

  8. Novel Boron Based Multilayer Thermal Neutron Detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. SCHIEBER; O. KHAKHAN

    2010-06-09

    The detector contains four or more layers of natural Boron absorbing thermal neutrons. Thickness of a layer is 0.4 - 1.2 mg/cm2. The layers are deposited on one or on both sides of a metal surface used as contacts. Between the absorbing layers there are gas-filled gaps 3 - 6 mm thick. Electric field of 100 - 200 V/cm is applied to the gas-filled gaps. Natural Boron contains almost 20% of 10B isotope. When atoms of 10B capture a thermal neutron, nuclear reaction occurs, as a result of which two heavy particles - alpha particle and ion 7Li - from the thin absorber layer are emitted in opposing sides. One of the two particles penetrates into gas-filled gap between Boron layers and ionizes the gas. An impulse of electric current is created in the gas-filled gap actuated by the applied electric field. The impulse is registered by an electronic circuit. We have made and tested detectors containing from two to sixteen layers of natural Boron with an efficiency of thermal neutron registration from 2.9% to 12.5% accordingly.

  9. Filamentation instability of current-driven dust ion-acoustic waves in a collisional dusty plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niknam, A. R. [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Tehran 19839-63113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Haghtalab, T.; Khorashadizadeh, S. M. [Physics Department, Birjand University, Birjand 97179-63384 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    A theoretical investigation has been made of the dust ion-acoustic filamentation instability in an unmagnetized current-driven dusty plasma by using the Lorentz transformation formulas. The effect of collision between the charged particles with neutrals and their thermal motion on this instability is considered. Developing the filamentation instability of the current-driven dust ion-acoustic wave allows us to determine the period and the establishment time of the filamentation structure and threshold for instability development.

  10. Characterization of an RF plasma ion source for ion implantation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kopalidis, Peter M.; Wan Zhimin

    2012-11-06

    A novel inductively coupled RF plasma ion source has been developed for use in a beamline ion implanter. Ion density data have been taken with an array of four Langmuir probes spaced equally at the source extraction arc slit. These provide ion density uniformity information as a function of source pressure, RF power and gas mixture composition. In addition, total extracted ion beam current data are presented for the same conditions. The comparative advantages of the RF source in terms of higher beam current, reduced maintenance and overall productivity improvement compared to a hot cathode source are discussed.

  11. Laser driven compact ion accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tajima, Toshiki

    2005-03-15

    A laser driven compact ion source including a light source that produces an energy pulse, a light source guide that guides the energy pulse to a target and produces an ion beam. The ion beam is transported to a desired destination.

  12. Article for thermal energy storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

    2000-06-27

    A thermal energy storage composition is provided which is in the form of a gel. The composition includes a phase change material and silica particles, where the phase change material may comprise a linear alkyl hydrocarbon, water/urea, or water. The thermal energy storage composition has a high thermal conductivity, high thermal energy storage, and may be used in a variety of applications such as in thermal shipping containers and gel packs.

  13. Advances in lithium-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerr, John B.

    2003-01-01

    current reviews of the lithium ion battery literature byof view of the lithium ion battery scientist and engineer,

  14. Thermal noise driven computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laszlo B. Kish

    2006-10-28

    The possibility of a new type of computing, where thermal noise is the information carrier and the clock in a computer, is studied. The information channel capacity and the lower limit of energy requirement/dissipation are studied in a simple digital system with zero threshold voltage, for the case of error probability close to 0.5, when the thermal noise is equal to or greater than the digital signal. In a simple hypothetical realization of a thermal noise driven gate, the lower limit of energy needed to generate the digital signal is 1.1*kT/bit. The arrangement has potentially improved energy efficiency and it is free of leakage current, crosstalk and ground plane electromagnetic interference problems. Disadvantage is the large number of redundancy elements needed for low-error operation.

  15. Thermal trim for luminaire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bazydola, Sarah; Ghiu, Camil-Daniel; Harrison, Robert; Jeswani, Anil

    2013-11-19

    A luminaire with a thermal pathway to reduce the junction temperature of the luminaire's light source, and methods for so doing, are disclosed. The luminaire includes a can, a light engine, and a trim, that define a substantially continuous thermal pathway from the light engine to a surrounding environment. The can defines a can cavity and includes a can end region. The light engine is within the can cavity and includes a light source and a heat sink, including a heat sink end region, coupled thereto. The trim is at least partially disposed within the can cavity and includes a first trim end region coupled to the heat sink end region and a second trim end region coupled to the can end region. Thermal interface material may be located between: the heat sink and the trim, the trim and the can, and/or the heat sink and the light source.

  16. Thermal insulated glazing unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, S.E.; Arasteh, D.K.; Hartmann, J.L.

    1988-04-05

    An improved insulated glazing unit is provided which can attain about R5 to about R10 thermal performance at the center of the glass while having dimensions about the same as those of a conventional double glazed insulated glazing unit. An outer glazing and inner glazing are sealed to a spacer to form a gas impermeable space. One or more rigid, non-structural glazings are attached to the inside of the spacer to divide the space between the inner and outer glazings to provide insulating gaps between glazings of from about 0.20 inches to about 0.40 inches. One or more glazing surfaces facing each thermal gap are coated with a low emissivity coating. Finally, the thermal gaps are filled with a low conductance gas such as krypton gas. 2 figs.

  17. Thermal insulated glazing unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, Stephen E. (Piedmont, CA); Arasteh, Dariush K. (Oakland, CA); Hartmann, John L. (Seattle, WA)

    1991-01-01

    An improved insulated glazing unit is provided which can attain about R5 to about R10 thermal performance at the center of the glass while having dimensions about the same as those of a conventional double glazed insulated glazing unit. An outer glazing and inner glazing are sealed to a spacer to form a gas impermeable space. One or more rigid, non-structural glazings are attached to the inside of the spacer to divide the space between the inner and outer glazings to provide insulating gaps between glazings of from about 0.20 inches to about 0.40 inches. One or more glazing surfaces facing each thermal gap are coated with a low emissivity coating. Finally, the thermal gaps are filled with a low conductance gas such as krypton gas.

  18. Highly directional thermal emitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ribaudo, Troy; Shaner, Eric A; Davids, Paul; Peters, David W

    2015-03-24

    A highly directional thermal emitter device comprises a two-dimensional periodic array of heavily doped semiconductor structures on a surface of a substrate. The array provides a highly directional thermal emission at a peak wavelength between 3 and 15 microns when the array is heated. For example, highly doped silicon (HDSi) with a plasma frequency in the mid-wave infrared was used to fabricate nearly perfect absorbing two-dimensional gratings structures that function as highly directional thermal radiators. The absorption and emission characteristics of the HDSi devices possessed a high degree of angular dependence for infrared absorption in the 10-12 micron range, while maintaining high reflectivity of solar radiation (.about.64%) at large incidence angles.

  19. Ion kinetic effects on the ignition and burn in ICF Ion kinetic effects on the ignition and burn of ICF targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and burn of the thermonuclear fuel in inertial confinement fusion pellets at the ion kinetic level to treat fusion products (suprathermal -particles) in a self-consistent manner with the thermal bulk enhancement of fusion products leads to a significant reduction of the fusion yield. I. MOTIVATION AND CONTEXT

  20. Ion aggregation in high salt solutions: Ion network versus ion cluster

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Seongheun; Kim, Heejae; Choi, Jun-Ho; Cho, Minhaeng

    2014-09-28

    The critical aggregation phenomena are ubiquitous in many self-assembling systems. Ions in high salt solutions could also spontaneously form larger ion aggregates, but their effects on hydrogen-bond structures in water have long been controversial. Here, carrying out molecular dynamics (MD) simulation studies of high salt solutions and comparing the MD simulation results with infrared absorption and pump-probe spectroscopy of O–D stretch mode of HDO in highly concentrated salt solutions and {sup 13}C-NMR chemical shift of S{sup 13}CN{sup ?} in KSCN solutions, we find evidence on the onset of ion aggregate and large-scale ion-ion network formation that concomitantly breaks water hydrogen-bond structure in certain salt solutions. Despite that these experimental results cannot provide direct evidence on the three-dimensional morphological structures of ion aggregates, they serve as reference data for verifying MD simulation methods. The MD results suggest that disrupted water hydrogen-bond network is intricately intertwined with ion-ion network. This further shows morphological variation of ion aggregate structures from ion cluster to ion network in high salt solutions that are interrelated to the onset of macroscopic aggregate formation and the water hydrogen-bond structure making and breaking processes induced by Hofmeister ions.

  1. Thermal ignition combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kamo, Roy (Columbus, IN); Kakwani, Ramesh M. (Columbus, IN); Valdmanis, Edgars (Columbus, IN); Woods, Melvins E. (Columbus, IN)

    1988-01-01

    The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m.degree. C. and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg.degree. C. with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber.

  2. Thermal ignition combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kamo, R.; Kakwani, R.M.; Valdmanis, E.; Woods, M.E.

    1988-04-19

    The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m C and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg C with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber. 8 figs.

  3. Cermet fuel thermal conductivity 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvis, John Mark

    1988-01-01

    VITA 36 37 40 40 40 40 44 45 47 48 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Unit cell for derivation of model Page Heat Conduction Solution 22 3 Fission Gas Release Model 26 4A Metal Matrix Thermal Conductivity 4B Ceramic Fuel Thermal Conductivity 5... is based on the simple heat conduction equation. It is assumed that there is a uniform distribution of fuel particles in a regular array. A unit cell consists of a cube of matrix material of side length L, containing a spherical fuel particle of radius, r...

  4. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    "This fact sheet describes a scattering solar thermal concentrators project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. The team, led by the Pennsylvania State University, is working to demonstrate a new, scattering-based approach to concentrating sunlight that aims to improve the overall performance and reliability of the collector field. The research team aims to show that scattering solar thermal collectors are capable of achieving optical performance equal to state-of-the-art parabolic trough systems, but with the added benefits of immunity to wind-load tracking error, more efficient land use, and utilization of stationary receivers."

  5. Efficiency of Gas-Phase Ion Formation in Matrix-Assisted Laser Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 2013, Vol. 34, No. 3 907 http://dx.doi.org/10.5012/bkcs.2013.34.3.907

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Myung Soo

    , in the second group, photo-excitation is simply an instantaneous way of supplying thermal energy to the sample and hence inducing its ablation.6-9 The thermal energy needed for ablation is supplied by photo hypothesis belonging to the first group, while thermal processes such as the pre-formed ion emission have

  6. Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardin, Corey Lee

    2011-01-01

    and Background Solar thermal energy collection is anCHANGE THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE FOR CONCENTRATING SOLAR POWERfor Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal

  7. Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardin, Corey Lee

    2011-01-01

    ENERGY STORAGE FOR CONCENTRATING SOLAR POWER PLANTS,”Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal PowerThermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power

  8. Modeling and Simulation of Lithium-Ion Batteries from a Systems Engineering Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramadesigan, V.; Northrop, P. W. C.; De, S.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Braatz, R. D.; Subramanian, Venkat R.

    2012-01-01

    The lithium-ion battery is an ideal candidate for a wide variety of applications due to its high energy/power density and operating voltage. Some limitations of existing lithium-ion battery technology include underutilization, stress-induced material damage, capacity fade, and the potential for thermal runaway. This paper reviews efforts in the modeling and simulation of lithium-ion batteries and their use in the design of better batteries. Likely future directions in battery modeling and design including promising research opportunities are outlined.

  9. Conceptual design of a fast-ion D-alpha diagnostic on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, J., E-mail: juan.huang@ipp.ac.cn; Wan, B.; Hu, L.; Hu, C. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. 1126, 230031 Hefei, Anhui (China); Heidbrink, W. W.; Zhu, Y. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Hellermann, M. G. von [FOM Institute DIFFER, P.O. BOX 1207, Nieuwegein 3430 BE (Netherlands); Gao, W.; Wu, C.; Li, Y.; Fu, J.; Lyu, B.; Yu, Y.; Ye, M. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Shi, Y. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); WCI for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, 52 Eoeun-Dong, Yusung-Gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    To investigate the fast ion behavior, a fast ion D-alpha (FIDA) diagnostic system has been planned and is presently under development on Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak. The greatest challenges for the design of a FIDA diagnostic are its extremely low intensity levels, which are usually significantly below the continuum radiation level and several orders of magnitude below the bulk-ion thermal charge-exchange feature. Moreover, an overlaying Motional Stark Effect (MSE) feature in exactly the same wavelength range can interfere. The simulation of spectra code is used here to guide the design and evaluate the diagnostic performance. The details for the parameters of design and hardware are presented.

  10. Electron string ion sources for carbon ion cancer therapy accelerators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boytsov, A Yu; Donets, E D; Donets, E E; Katagiri, K; Noda, K; Ponkin, D O; Ramzdorf, A Yu; Salnikov, V V; Shutov, V B

    2015-01-01

    The Electron String type of Ion Sources (ESIS) was developed, constructed and tested first in the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. These ion sources can be the appropriate sources for production of pulsed C4+ and C6+ ion beams which can be used for cancer therapy accelerators. In fact the test ESIS Krion-6T already now at the solenoid magnetic field only 4.6 T provides more than 10^10 C4+ ions per pulse and about 5*10^9 C6+ ions per pulse. Such ion sources could be suitable for application at synchrotrons. It was also found, that Krion-6T can provide more than 10^11 C6+ ions per second at 100 Hz repetition rate, and the repetition rate can be increased at the same or larger ion output per second. This makes ESIS applicable at cyclotrons as well. As for production of 11C radioactive ion beams ESIS can be the most economic kind of ion source. To proof that the special cryogenic cell for pulse injection of gaseous species into electron string was successfully tested using the ESIS Krion-2M.

  11. Thermal photon emission from the pi-rho-omega system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nathan P. M. Holt; Paul M. Hohler; Ralf Rapp

    2015-06-30

    We investigate thermal photon emission rates in hot hadronic matter from a system consisting of pi, rho, and omega mesons. The rates are calculated using both relativistic kinetic theory with Born diagrams as well as thermal field theory at the two-loop level. This enables us to cross-check our calculations and to manage a pole contribution that arises in the Born approximation corresponding to the omega -> pi^0 gamma radiative decay. After implementing hadronic form factors to account for finite-size corrections, we find that the resulting photo-emission rates are comparable to existing results from pi rho -> pi gamma processes in the energy regime of 1-3 GeV. We expect that our new sources will provide a non-negligible contribution to the total hadronic rates, thereby enhancing calculated thermal photon spectra from heavy-ion collisions, which could improve the description of current direct-photon data from experiment.

  12. Thermal photon emission from the pi-rho-omega system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holt, Nathan P M; Rapp, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    We investigate thermal photon emission rates in hot hadronic matter from a system consisting of pi, rho, and omega mesons. The rates are calculated using both relativistic kinetic theory with Born diagrams as well as thermal field theory at the two-loop level. This enables us to cross-check our calculations and to manage a pole contribution that arises in the Born approximation corresponding to the omega -> pi^0 gamma radiative decay. After implementing hadronic form factors to account for finite-size corrections, we find that the resulting photo-emission rates are comparable to existing results from pi rho -> pi gamma processes in the energy regime of 1-3 GeV. We expect that our new sources will provide a non-negligible contribution to the total hadronic rates, thereby enhancing calculated thermal photon spectra from heavy-ion collisions, which could improve the description of current direct-photon data from experiment.

  13. Thermal photon emission from the pi-rho-omega system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nathan P. M. Holt; Paul M. Hohler; Ralf Rapp

    2015-10-27

    We investigate thermal photon emission rates in hot hadronic matter from a system consisting of pi, rho, and omega mesons. The rates are calculated using both relativistic kinetic theory with Born diagrams as well as thermal field theory at the two-loop level. This enables us to cross-check our calculations and to manage a pole contribution that arises in the Born approximation corresponding to the omega -> pi^0 gamma radiative decay. After implementing hadronic form factors to account for finite-size corrections, we find that the resulting photo-emission rates are comparable to existing results from pi rho -> pi gamma processes in the energy regime of 1-3 GeV. We expect that our new sources will provide a non-negligible contribution to the total hadronic rates, thereby enhancing calculated thermal photon spectra from heavy-ion collisions, which could improve the description of current direct-photon data from experiment.

  14. Thermal Reactor Safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Information is presented concerning fire risk and protection; transient thermal-hydraulic analysis and experiments; class 9 accidents and containment; diagnostics and in-service inspection; risk and cost comparison of alternative electric energy sources; fuel behavior and experiments on core cooling in LOCAs; reactor event reporting analysis; equipment qualification; post facts analysis of the TMI-2 accident; and computational methods.

  15. Solar thermal financing guidebook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, T.A.; Cole, R.J.; Brown, D.R.; Dirks, J.A.; Edelhertz, H.; Holmlund, I.; Malhotra, S.; Smith, S.A.; Sommers, P.; Willke, T.L.

    1983-05-01

    This guidebook contains information on alternative financing methods that could be used to develop solar thermal systems. The financing arrangements discussed include several lease alternatives, joint venture financing, R and D partnerships, industrial revenue bonds, and ordinary sales. In many situations, alternative financing arrangements can significantly enhance the economic attractiveness of solar thermal investments by providing a means to efficiently allocate elements of risk, return on investment, required capital investment, and tax benefits. A net present value approach is an appropriate method that can be used to investigate the economic attractiveness of alternative financing methods. Although other methods are applicable, the net present value approach has advantages of accounting for the time value of money, yielding a single valued solution to the financial analysis, focusing attention on the opportunity cost of capital, and being a commonly understood concept that is relatively simple to apply. A personal computer model for quickly assessing the present value of investments in solar thermal plants with alternative financing methods is presented in this guidebook. General types of financing arrangements that may be desirable for an individual can be chosen based on an assessment of his goals in investing in solar thermal systems and knowledge of the individual's tax situation. Once general financing arrangements have been selected, a screening analysis can quickly determine if the solar investment is worthy of detailed study.

  16. Thermal barrier coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowker, Jeffrey Charles (Gibsonia, PA); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL); Goedjen, John G. (Oviedo, FL)

    2001-01-01

    A thermal barrier coating for hot gas path components of a combustion turbine based on a zirconia-scandia system. A layer of zirconium scandate having the hexagonal Zr.sub.3 Sc.sub.4 O.sub.12 structure is formed directly on a superalloy substrate or on a bond coat formed on the substrate.

  17. Collective Phenomena in Heavy Ion Collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Petrovici; A. Pop

    2009-04-23

    A review of the main results of detailed flow analysis in highly central and semi-central heavy ion collisions at SIS energies is presented in the first part of this paper. The influence of the mass of the colliding nuclei and centrality on the collective expansion and the information on the equation of state of compressed and hot baryonic matter is discussed. The second part is dedicated to a similar type of analysis, based on the behaviour of the average transverse momentum as a function of mass of different hadrons, at the other extreme of energy range, where free baryonic fireballs are produced. Information on the partonic and hadronic expansion, temperature and degree of thermal equilibrium in p+p and Au+Au central collisions at 200 A.GeV is presented.

  18. Saturation of multi-laser beams laser-plasma instabilities from stochastic ion heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michel, P.; Williams, E. A.; Divol, L.; Berger, R. L.; Glenzer, S. H.; Callahan, D. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Rozmus, W. [Theoretical Physics Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G2G7 (Canada) [Theoretical Physics Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G2G7 (Canada); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) has been used as a tool on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) since the first energetics experiments in 2009 to control the energy deposition in ignition hohlraums and tune the implosion symmetry. As large amounts of power are transferred between laser beams at the entrance holes of NIF hohlraums, the presence of many overlapping beat waves can lead to stochastic ion heating in the regions where laser beams overlap [P. Michel et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 195004 (2012)]. This increases the ion acoustic velocity and modifies the ion acoustic waves’ dispersion relation, thus reducing the plasma response to the beat waves and the efficiency of CBET. This pushes the plasma oscillations driven by CBET in a regime where the phase velocities are much smaller than both the electron and ion thermal velocities. CBET gains are derived for this new regime and generalized to the case of multi ion species plasmas.

  19. Controlling and measuring quantum transport of heat in trapped-ion crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Bermudez; M. Bruderer; M. B. Plenio

    2013-07-23

    Measuring heat flow through nanoscale systems poses formidable practical difficulties as there is no `ampere meter' for heat. We propose to overcome this problem by realizing heat transport through a chain of trapped ions. Laser cooling the chain edges to different temperatures induces a current of local vibrations (vibrons). We show how to efficiently control and measure this current, including fluctuations, by coupling vibrons to internal ion states. This demonstrates that ion crystals provide a suitable platform for studying quantum transport, e.g., through thermal analogues of quantum wires and quantum dots. Notably, ion crystals may give access to measurements of the elusive large fluctuations of bosonic currents and the onset of Fourier's law. These results are supported by numerical simulations for a realistic implementation with specific ions and system parameters.

  20. Reorientation of the crystalline planes in confined single crystal nickel nanorods induced by heavy ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Misra, Abha; Tyagi, Pawan K.; Rai, Padmnabh; Misra, D. S.; Ghatak, Jay; Satyam, P. V.; Avasthi, D. K.

    2006-08-28

    In a recent letter Tyagi et al. [Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 253110 (2005)] have reported the special orientation of nickel planes inside multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with respect to the tube axis. Heavy ion irradiation has been performed with 1.5 MeV Au{sup 2+} and 100 MeV Au{sup 7+} ions on these nickel filled MWCNTs at fluences ranging from 10{sup 12} to 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2} at room temperature. Ion-induced modifications have been studied using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The diffraction pattern and the lattice imaging showed the presence of ion-induced planar defects on the tube walls and completely amorphized encapsulated nickel nanorods. The results are discussed in terms of thermal spike model.

  1. Giant Thermal Rectification from Polyethylene Nanofiber Thermal Diodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Teng

    2015-01-01

    The realization of phononic computing is held hostage by the lack of high performance thermal devices. Here we show through theoretical analysis and molecular dynamics simulations that unprecedented thermal rectification factors (as large as 1.20) can be achieved utilizing the phase dependent thermal conductivity of polyethylene nanofibers. More importantly, such high thermal rectifications only need very small temperature differences (< 20 oC) across the device, which is a significant advantage over other thermal diodes which need temperature biases on the order of the operating temperature. Taking this into consideration, we show that the dimensionless temperature-scaled rectification factors of the polymer nanofiber diodes range from 12 to 25 - much larger than other thermal diodes (< 8). The polymer nanofiber thermal diode consists of a crystalline portion whose thermal conductivity is highly phase-sensitive and a cross-linked portion which has a stable phase. Nanoscale size effect can be utilized t...

  2. Patterned Exfoliation of GaAs Based on Masked Helium Implantation and Subsequent Rapid Thermal Annealing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woo, H. J.; Choi, H. W.; Kim, G. D.; Hong, W.; Kim, J. K.

    2009-03-10

    A method of patterning single crystal GaAs based on ion implantation induced selective area exfoliation is suggested. Samples were implanted with 200-500 keV helium ions to a fluence range of 2-4x10{sup 16} He{sup +}/cm{sup 2} at room temperature through masks of Ni mesh (40 {mu}m opening) or stainless steel wire (50 {mu}m in diameter), and subsequent rapid thermal annealing at 350-500{open_square} resulted in expulsion of ion beam exposed material. The influences of ion energy, ion fluence, implantation temperature, subsequent annealing conditions (temperature and ramp rate), and mask pattern and its orientation with GaAs lattice on the patterned exfoliation were examined.

  3. Characterization of Electrode Materials for Lithium Ion and Sodium Ion Batteries using Synchrotron Radiation Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.

    2013-01-01

    Alternatives to Current Lithium-Ion Batteries. Adv. EnergyElectrode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries. MaterialsTechniques to the Study of Lithium Ion Batteries. J. Solid

  4. Electron beam ion source and electron beam ion trap (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, Reinard [Scientific Software Service, Kapellenweg 2a, D-63571 Gelnhausen (Germany); Kester, Oliver [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    The electron beam ion source (EBIS) and its trap variant [electron beam ion trap (EBIT)] celebrated their 40th and 20th anniversary, respectively, at the EBIS/T Symposium 2007 in Heidelberg. These technologically challenging sources of highly charged ions have seen a broad development in many countries over the last decades. In contrast to most other ion sources the recipe of improvement was not ''sorcery'' but a clear understanding of the physical laws and obeying the technological constraints. This review will report important achievements of the past as well as promising developments in the future.

  5. A novel planar ion funnel design for miniature ion optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaudhary, A.; Amerom, Friso H. W. van; Short, R. T.

    2014-10-01

    The novel planar ion funnel (PIF) design presented in this article emphasizes simple fabrication, assembly, and operation, making it amenable to extreme miniaturization. Simulations performed in SIMION 8.0 indicate that ion focusing can be achieved by using a gradient of electrostatic potentials on concentric metal rings in a plane. A prototype was fabricated on a 35 × 35 mm custom-designed printed circuit board (PCB) with a center hole for ions to pass through and a series of concentric circular metal rings of increasing diameter on the front side of the PCB. Metal vias on the PCB electrically connected each metal ring to a resistive potential divider that was soldered on the back of the PCB. The PIF was tested at 5.5 × 10?? Torr in a vacuum test setup that was equipped with a broad-beam ion source on the front and a micro channel plate (MCP) ion detector on the back of the PIF. The ion current recorded on the MCP anode during testing indicated a 23× increase in the ion transmission through the PIF when electric potentials were applied to the rings. These preliminary results demonstrate the functionality of a 2D ion funnel design with a much smaller footprint and simpler driving electronics than conventional 3D ion funnels. Future directions to improve the design and a possible micromachining approach to fabrication are discussed in the conclusions.

  6. Thermal Modeling of Lundell Alternators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Sai Chun

    Thermal analysis of Lundell alternators used in automobiles is presented. An analytical thermal model for Lundell alternators is proposed, and procedures for acquiring the model parameters are elucidated. Based on the ...

  7. Wave-Particle Interactions in Electron Acoustic Waves in Pure Ion Plasmas F. Anderegg, C. F. Driscoll, D. H. E. Dubin, and T. M. O'Neil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    Wave-Particle Interactions in Electron Acoustic Waves in Pure Ion Plasmas F. Anderegg, C. F waves (EAW) with a phase velocity less than twice the plasma thermal velocity are observed on pure ion excitation the EAW is more frequency variable than typical Langmuir waves, and at large excitations resonance

  8. Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical Report Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical Report Report about the Ocean Thermal...

  9. Harvesting nanoscale thermal radiation using pyroelectric materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, Jin; Frederich, Hugo; Pilon, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    the other hand, energy transfer by thermal radiation betweenit was shown that energy transfer by thermal radi- ationpyroelectric energy conversion and nanoscale thermal

  10. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE-A SURVEY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin Fu

    2012-01-01

    1978, High temperature underground thermal energy storage,in Proceedings, Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers Workshop:High temperature underground thermal energy storage, in ATES

  11. Modeling thermal comfort in stratified environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, H.; Huizenga, C.; Arens, Edward A; Yu, T.

    2005-01-01

    non-uniform thermal environments", European Journal of7730, 1994, Moderate Thermal Environments – Determination offor assessing complex thermal environments,” Building and

  12. Evolving opportunities for providing thermal comfort

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brager, Gail; Zhang, Hui; Arens, Edward

    2015-01-01

    field measurement of thermal environment and questionnaireand non-uniform thermal environments, PhD Thesis, Center forPerception of transient thermal environments: Pleasure and

  13. Thermal Transport in Graphene Multilayers and Nanoribbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subrina, Samia

    2011-01-01

    1 CHAPTER 2 Thermal transport atvalues of graphene’s thermal conductivity and different1 Thermal conductivity : metals and non - metallic

  14. Evolving opportunities for providing thermal comfort

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brager, Gail; Zhang, Hui; Arens, Edward

    2015-01-01

    control in offices for thermal comfort and energy savings.ANSI/ASHRAE 55-2013: Thermal environmental conditions forA global database of thermal comfort field experiments.

  15. Thermal Conductivity of Polycrystalline Semiconductors and Ceramics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhaojie

    2012-01-01

    35, (3-6), Dames, C. ; Chen, G. , Thermal Conductivity ofProperties of Matter: Thermal conductivity: nonmetallicSociety), Dames, C. ; Chen, G. , Thermal Conductivity of

  16. Thermal Conduction in Graphene and Graphene Multilayers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghosh, Suchismita

    2009-01-01

    1 1.2 Thermal transport atxv Introduction xii 1.1 Thermal conductivity and65 4.13 Thermal conductivity of graphene as a function of

  17. THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE IN AQUIFERS WORKSHOP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2011-01-01

    Energy can be saved and thermal pollution reduced if a totalnatural flow, and thermal pollution caused by simultaneousStored Heat Energy and Thermal Pollution Daily stored heat

  18. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE-A SURVEY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin Fu

    2012-01-01

    Reduction of air and thermal pollution are additionalsubsidence or upliftu thermal pollution, water chemistry,or ponds to avoid thermal pollution. Because periods of heat

  19. THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE IN AQUIFERS WORKSHOP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2011-01-01

    the possibility of thermal stratification, i.e. the tendencyratio is very large. Thermal stratification A simple model (ef- fects of thermal stratification. This ideal- ized model

  20. Power Electronic Thermal System Performance and Integration ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Motor Thermal Control Thermal Stress and Reliability for Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Machines Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management...

  1. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE-A SURVEY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin Fu

    2012-01-01

    the prob- lem of seasonal storage of thermal energy (Matheyto study seasonal storage of thermal energy: winter storagewithin the Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program managed

  2. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE-A SURVEY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin Fu

    2012-01-01

    High temperature underground thermal energy storage, inProceedings, Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers Workshop:underground thermal energy storage, in ATES newsletter:

  3. THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE IN AQUIFERS WORKSHOP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2011-01-01

    Survey of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers Coupled withLow Temperature Thermal Energy Storage Program of Oak Ridgefor Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage: An Overview of the DOE-

  4. THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE IN AQUIFERS WORKSHOP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2011-01-01

    Scale Thermal Energy Storage for Cogeneration and Solarsolar captors, thermal effluents, low cost energy duringSeale Thermal Energy Storage for Cogeneration and Solar

  5. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Basics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A process called ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) uses the heat energy stored in the Earth's oceans to generate electricity.

  6. Liquid metal thermal electric converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbin, Joseph P. (Albuquerque, NM); Andraka, Charles E. (Albuquerque, NM); Lukens, Laurance L. (Albuquerque, NM); Moreno, James B. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1989-01-01

    A liquid metal thermal electric converter which converts heat energy to electrical energy. The design of the liquid metal thermal electric converter incorporates a unique configuration which directs the metal fluid pressure to the outside of the tube which results in the structural loads in the tube to be compressive. A liquid metal thermal electric converter refluxing boiler with series connection of tubes and a multiple cell liquid metal thermal electric converter are also provided.

  7. Mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietrich, Daniel D. (Livermore, CA); Keville, Robert F. (Valley Springs, CA)

    1995-01-01

    An ion trap which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10.sup.9 and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10.sup.4 ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products.

  8. Mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietrich, D.D.; Keville, R.F.

    1995-09-19

    An ion trap is described which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10{sup 9} and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10{sup 4} ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products. 10 figs.

  9. Ion exchange technology assessment report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duhn, E.F.

    1992-01-01

    In the execution of its charter, the SRS Ion Exchange Technology Assessment Team has determined that ion exchange (IX) technology has evolved to the point where it should now be considered as a viable alternative to the SRS reference ITP/LW/PH process. The ion exchange media available today offer the ability to design ion exchange processing systems tailored to the unique physical and chemical properties of SRS soluble HLW's. The technical assessment of IX technology and its applicability to the processing of SRS soluble HLW has demonstrated that IX is unquestionably a viable technology. A task team was chartered to evaluate the technology of ion exchange and its potential for replacing the present In-Tank Precipitation and proposed Late Wash processes to remove Cs, Sr, and Pu from soluble salt solutions at the Savannah River Site. This report documents the ion exchange technology assessment and conclusions of the task team.

  10. Ion exchange technology assessment report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duhn, E.F.

    1992-12-31

    In the execution of its charter, the SRS Ion Exchange Technology Assessment Team has determined that ion exchange (IX) technology has evolved to the point where it should now be considered as a viable alternative to the SRS reference ITP/LW/PH process. The ion exchange media available today offer the ability to design ion exchange processing systems tailored to the unique physical and chemical properties of SRS soluble HLW`s. The technical assessment of IX technology and its applicability to the processing of SRS soluble HLW has demonstrated that IX is unquestionably a viable technology. A task team was chartered to evaluate the technology of ion exchange and its potential for replacing the present In-Tank Precipitation and proposed Late Wash processes to remove Cs, Sr, and Pu from soluble salt solutions at the Savannah River Site. This report documents the ion exchange technology assessment and conclusions of the task team.

  11. Compact ion accelerator source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schenkel, Thomas; Persaud, Arun; Kapadia, Rehan; Javey, Ali

    2014-04-29

    An ion source includes a conductive substrate, the substrate including a plurality of conductive nanostructures with free-standing tips formed on the substrate. A conductive catalytic coating is formed on the nanostructures and substrate for dissociation of a molecular species into an atomic species, the molecular species being brought in contact with the catalytic coating. A target electrode placed apart from the substrate, the target electrode being biased relative to the substrate with a first bias voltage to ionize the atomic species in proximity to the free-standing tips and attract the ionized atomic species from the substrate in the direction of the target electrode.

  12. Ion Beam Materials Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid you notHeat Pumps Heat PumpsfacilityviaGasforVendors Ā»Ion Beam

  13. ,{ MO. REV. NO. THERMAL DESIGN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    ,{ MO. REV. NO. LRRR 300 THERMAL DESIGN FINAL REPORT ATM-931 PAGE i OF iv DATE 1 S Dec 1970 The results of thermal design/analyses performed on the 300 corner Laser Ranging Retro-Reflector (LRRR 300 performance profiles are contained herein, The entire LRRR thermal design effort is des- cribed commendng

  14. Thermal synthesis apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fincke, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Detering, Brent A. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-08-18

    An apparatus for thermal conversion of one or more reactants to desired end products includes an insulated reactor chamber having a high temperature heater such as a plasma torch at its inlet end and, optionally, a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. In a thermal conversion method, reactants are injected upstream from the reactor chamber and thoroughly mixed with the plasma stream before entering the reactor chamber. The reactor chamber has a reaction zone that is maintained at a substantially uniform temperature. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle, which "freezes" the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage, or is discharged through an outlet pipe without the convergent-divergent nozzle. The desired end products are then separated from the gaseous stream.

  15. Thermally stable diamond brazing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radtke, Robert P. (Kingwood, TX)

    2009-02-10

    A cutting element and a method for forming a cutting element is described and shown. The cutting element includes a substrate, a TSP diamond layer, a metal interlayer between the substrate and the diamond layer, and a braze joint securing the diamond layer to the substrate. The thickness of the metal interlayer is determined according to a formula. The formula takes into account the thickness and modulus of elasticity of the metal interlayer and the thickness of the TSP diamond. This prevents the use of a too thin or too thick metal interlayer. A metal interlayer that is too thin is not capable of absorbing enough energy to prevent the TSP diamond from fracturing. A metal interlayer that is too thick may allow the TSP diamond to fracture by reason of bending stress. A coating may be provided between the TSP diamond layer and the metal interlayer. This coating serves as a thermal barrier and to control residual thermal stress.

  16. Thermal reactor safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Information is presented concerning new trends in licensing; seismic considerations and system structural behavior; TMI-2 risk assessment and thermal hydraulics; statistical assessment of potential accidents and verification of computational methods; issues with respect to improved safety; human factors in nuclear power plant operation; diagnostics and activities in support of recovery; LOCA transient analysis; unresolved safety issues and other safety considerations; and fission product transport.

  17. Thermally actuated thermionic switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barrus, D.M.; Shires, C.D.

    1982-09-30

    A thermally actuated thermionic switch which responds to an increase of temperature by changing from a high impedance to a low impedance at a predictable temperature set point. The switch has a bistable operation mode switching only on temperature increases. The thermionic material may be a metal which is liquid at the desired operation temperature and held in matrix in a graphite block reservoir, and which changes state (ionizes, for example) so as to be electrically conductive at a desired temperature.

  18. Methods of forming thermal management systems and thermal management methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gering, Kevin L.; Haefner, Daryl R.

    2012-06-05

    A thermal management system for a vehicle includes a heat exchanger having a thermal energy storage material provided therein, a first coolant loop thermally coupled to an electrochemical storage device located within the first coolant loop and to the heat exchanger, and a second coolant loop thermally coupled to the heat exchanger. The first and second coolant loops are configured to carry distinct thermal energy transfer media. The thermal management system also includes an interface configured to facilitate transfer of heat generated by an internal combustion engine to the heat exchanger via the second coolant loop in order to selectively deliver the heat to the electrochemical storage device. Thermal management methods are also provided.

  19. Sorption of metal ions from multicomponent aqueous solutions by activated carbons produced from waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tikhonova, L.P.; Goba, V.E.; Kovtun, M.F.; Tarasenko, Y.A.; Khavryuchenko, V.D.; Lyubchik, S.B.; Boiko, A.N.

    2008-08-15

    Activated carbons produced by thermal treatment of a mixture of sunflower husks, low-grade coal, and refinery waste were studied as adsorbents of transition ion metals from aqueous solutions of various compositions. The optimal conditions and the mechanism of sorption, as well as the structure of the sorbents, were studied.

  20. Local Measurement of Non-Classical Ion Heating During Magnetic Reconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    particles. Solar observations suggest that hard X-rays from solar flares are produced by reconnection [3" of reconnected field lines, and global ion heating was at- tributed to thermalization of the sheared Alfv measurements 2 #12;remains an open question due to the plasma potential being unknown [11] and the inherent

  1. Local Measurement of NonClassical Ion Heating During Magnetic Reconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    particles. Solar observations suggest that hard X­rays from solar flares are produced by reconnection [3#ect'' of reconnected field lines, and global ion heating was at­ tributed to thermalization of the sheared Alfv measurements 2 #12; remains an open question due to the plasma potential being unknown [11] and the inherent

  2. Thermal Dileptons as Fireball Thermometer and Chronometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ralf Rapp; Hendrik van Hees

    2014-11-17

    Thermal dilepton radiation from the hot fireballs created in high-energy heavy-ion collisions provides unique insights into the properties of the produced medium. We first show how the predictions of hadronic many-body theory for a melting $\\rho$ meson, coupled with QGP emission utilizing a modern lattice-QCD based equation of state, yield a quantitative description of dilepton spectra in heavy-ion collisions at the SPS and the RHIC beam energy scan program. We utilize these results to systematically extract the excess yields and their invariant-mass spectral slopes to predict the excitation function of fireball lifetimes and (early) temperatures, respectively. We thereby demonstrate that future measurements of these quantities can yield unprecedented information on basic fireball properties. Specifically, our predictions quantify the relation between the measured and maximal fireball temperatures, and the proportionality of excess yields and total lifetime. This information can serve as a "caloric" curve to search for a first-order QCD phase transition, and to detect non-monotonous lifetime variations possibly related to critical phenomena.

  3. Multiscale thermal transport.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, Samuel Jr. (; .); Wong, C. C.; Piekos, Edward Stanley

    2004-02-01

    A concurrent computational and experimental investigation of thermal transport is performed with the goal of improving understanding of, and predictive capability for, thermal transport in microdevices. The computational component involves Monte Carlo simulation of phonon transport. In these simulations, all acoustic modes are included and their properties are drawn from a realistic dispersion relation. Phonon-phonon and phonon-boundary scattering events are treated independently. A new set of phonon-phonon scattering coefficients are proposed that reflect the elimination of assumptions present in earlier analytical work from the simulation. The experimental component involves steady-state measurement of thermal conductivity on silicon films as thin as 340nm at a range of temperatures. Agreement between the experiment and simulation on single-crystal silicon thin films is excellent, Agreement for polycrystalline films is promising, but significant work remains to be done before predictions can be made confidently. Knowledge gained from these efforts was used to construct improved semiclassical models with the goal of representing microscale effects in existing macroscale codes in a computationally efficient manner.

  4. Characterization of ultrathin Si02 films formed by direct low-energy ion-beam c. F. Yu, S. S. Todorov, and E. R. Fossum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fossum, Eric R.

    temperature processes are already replacing many thermal fabrication steps in an attempt to minimize damage to the substrate. Many processes have been proposed as low-tem perature alternatives to thermal oxidationCharacterization of ultrathin Si02 films formed by direct low-energy ion-beam oxidation c. F. Yu, S

  5. Stress map for ion irradiation: Depth-resolved dynamic competition between radiation-induced viscoelastic phenomena in SiO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polman, Albert

    doping technology in integrated circuit manufacturing and is used to locally modify and tailor optical of the highly anisotropic ion-induced thermal spike, causes anisotropic strain that freezes in as the thermal or electronic energy loss (stopping), which are both highly depth dependent. In this letter we evaluate

  6. QGP time formation in holographic shock waves model of heavy ion collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aref'eva, Irina Ya

    2015-01-01

    We estimate the thermalization time in two colliding shock waves holographic model of heavy-ion collisions. For this purpose we model the process by the Vaidya metric with a horizon defined by the trapped surface location. We consider two bottom-up AdS/QCD models that give, within the colliding shock waves approach, the dependence of multiplicity on the energy compatible with RHIC and LHC results. One model is a bottom-up AdS/QCD confining model and the other is related to an anisotropic thermalization. We estimate the thermalization time and show that increasing the confining potential decreases the thermalization time as well as an anisotropy accelerates the thermalization.

  7. QGP time formation in holographic shock waves model of heavy ion collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Irina Ya. Aref'eva

    2015-03-07

    We estimate the thermalization time in two colliding shock waves holographic model of heavy-ion collisions. For this purpose we model the process by the Vaidya metric with a horizon defined by the trapped surface location. We consider two bottom-up AdS/QCD models that give, within the colliding shock waves approach, the dependence of multiplicity on the energy compatible with RHIC and LHC results. One model is a bottom-up AdS/QCD confining model and the other is related to an anisotropic thermalization. We estimate the thermalization time and show that increasing the confining potential decreases the thermalization time as well as an anisotropy accelerates the thermalization.

  8. Thermal control structure and garment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James W. (Knoxville, TN); Cameron, Christopher Stan (Sanford, NC)

    2012-03-13

    A flexible thermally conductive structure. The structure generally includes a plurality of thermally conductive yarns, at least some of which are at least partially disposed adjacent to an elastomeric material. Typically, at least a portion of the plurality of thermally conductive yarns is configured as a sheet. The yarns may be constructed from graphite, metal, or similar materials. The elastomeric material may be formed from urethane or silicone foam that is at least partially collapsed, or from a similar material. A thermal management garment is provided, the garment incorporating a flexible thermally conductive structure.

  9. Investigation of an ion-ion hybrid Alfven wave resonator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vincena, S. T.; Farmer, W. A.; Maggs, J. E.; Morales, G. J. [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    A theoretical and experimental investigation is made of a wave resonator based on the concept of wave reflection along the confinement magnetic field at a spatial location where the wave frequency matches the local value of the ion-ion hybrid frequency. Such a situation can be realized by shear Alfven waves in a magnetized plasma with two ion species because this mode has zero parallel group velocity and experiences a cut-off at the ion-ion hybrid frequency. Since the ion-ion hybrid frequency is proportional to the magnetic field, it is expected that a magnetic well configuration in a two-ion plasma can result in an Alfven wave resonator. Such a concept has been proposed in various space plasma studies and could have relevance to mirror and tokamak fusion devices. This study demonstrates such a resonator in a controlled laboratory experiment using a H{sup +}-He{sup +} mixture. The resonator response is investigated by launching monochromatic waves and impulses from a magnetic loop antenna. The observed frequency spectra are found to agree with predictions of a theoretical model of trapped eigenmodes.

  10. Tools for Designing Thermal Management of Batteries in Electric Drive Vehicles (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Keyser, M.; Kim, G. H.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Smith, K.

    2013-02-01

    Temperature has a significant impact on life, performance, and safety of lithium-ion battery technology, which is expected to be the energy storage of choice for electric drive vehicles (xEVs). High temperatures degrade Li-ion cells faster while low temperatures reduce power and energy capabilities that could have cost, reliability, range, or drivability implications. Thermal management of battery packs in xEVs is essential to keep the cells in the desired temperature range and also reduce cell-to-cell temperature variations, both of which impact life and performance. The value that the battery thermal management system provides in reducing battery life and improving performance outweighs its additional cost and complexity. Tools that are essential for thermal management of batteries are infrared thermal imaging, isothermal calorimetry, thermal conductivity meter and computer-aided thermal analysis design software. This presentation provides details of these tools that NREL has used and we believe are needed to design right-sized battery thermal management systems.

  11. A thermal spike model of grain growth under irradiation D. Kaoumi,1,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Motta, Arthur T.

    A thermal spike model of grain growth under irradiation D. Kaoumi,1,a A. T. Motta,1 and R. C The experimental study of grain growth in nanocrystalline metallic foils under ion irradiation showed the existence of a low-temperature regime below about 0.15­0.22Tm , where grain growth is independent of the irradiation

  12. Coupled Electro-Thermal Simulations of Single Event Burnout in Power Diodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, D. Greg

    indicate that catastrophic failures result from local heating caused by ion-generated carriers. #12 Arabia. #12;Abstract Power diodes may undergo destructive failures when they are struck by high energy particles during the off state (high reverse-biased voltage). This failure is a result of thermal runaway

  13. Thermal management systems and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gering, Kevin L.; Haefner, Daryl R.

    2006-12-12

    A thermal management system for a vehicle includes a heat exchanger having a thermal energy storage material provided therein, a first coolant loop thermally coupled to an electrochemical storage device located within the first coolant loop and to the heat exchanger, and a second coolant loop thermally coupled to the heat exchanger. The first and second coolant loops are configured to carry distinct thermal energy transfer media. The thermal management system also includes an interface configured to facilitate transfer of heat generated by an internal combustion engine to the heat exchanger via the second coolant loop in order to selectively deliver the heat to the electrochemical storage device. Thermal management methods are also provided.

  14. Rate dependence of swelling in lithium-ion cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oh, KY; Siegel, JB; Secondo, L; Kim, SU; Samad, NA; Qin, JW; Anderson, D; Garikipati, K; Knobloch, A; Epureanu, BI; Monroe, CW; Stefanopoulou, A

    2014-12-01

    Swelling of a commercial 5 Ah lithium-ion cell with a nickel/manganese/cobalt-oxide cathode is investigated as a function of the charge state and the charge/discharge rate. In combination with sensitive displacement measurements, knowledge of the electrode configuration within this prismatic cell's interior allows macroscopic deformations of the casing to be correlated to electrochemical and mechanical transformations in individual anode/separator/cathode layers. Thermal expansion and interior charge state are both found to cause significant swelling. At low rates, where thermal expansion is negligible, the electrode sandwich dilates by as much as 1.5% as the charge state swings from 0% to 100% because of lithium-ion intercalation. At high rates a comparably large residual swelling was observed at the end of discharge. Thermal expansion caused by joule heating at high discharge rate results in battery swelling. The changes in displacement with respect to capacity at low rate correlate well with the potential changes known to accompany phase transitions in the electrode materials. Although the potential response changes minimally with the C-rate, the extent of swelling varies significantly, suggesting that measurements of swelling may provide a sensitive gauge for characterizing dynamic operating states. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Thermal and non-thermal energies in solar flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pascal Saint-Hilaire; Arnold O. Benz

    2005-03-03

    The energy of the thermal flare plasma and the kinetic energy of the non-thermal electrons in 14 hard X-ray peaks from 9 medium-sized solar flares have been determined from RHESSI observations. The emissions have been carefully separated in the spectrum. The turnover or cutoff in the low-energy distribution of electrons has been studied by simulation and fitting, yielding a reliable lower limit to the non-thermal energy. It remains the largest contribution to the error budget. Other effects, such as albedo, non-uniform target ionization, hot target, and cross-sections on the spectrum have been studied. The errors of the thermal energy are about equally as large. They are due to the estimate of the flare volume, the assumption of the filling factor, and energy losses. Within a flare, the non-thermal/thermal ratio increases with accumulation time, as expected from loss of thermal energy due to radiative cooling or heat conduction. Our analysis suggests that the thermal and non-thermal energies are of the same magnitude. This surprising result may be interpreted by an efficient conversion of non-thermal energy to hot flare plasma.

  16. A velocity map imaging spectrometer for electron?ion and ion?ion coincidence experiments with synchrotron radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rolles, D.; Advanced Light Source

    2008-01-01

    map imaging (VMI) spectrometer optimized for angle-resolved photoionization experiments with synchrotron radiation (map imaging spectrometer for electron-ion and ion-ion coincidence experiments with synchrotron radiation

  17. Characterization of Electrode Materials for Lithium Ion and Sodium Ion Batteries using Synchrotron Radiation Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum is used for lithium ion battery cathodes and alland copper is used for lithium ion battery anodes. After the

  18. Equilibrium Statistical-Thermal Models in High-Energy Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdel Nasser Tawfik

    2014-10-25

    We review some recent highlights from the applications of statistical-thermal models to different experimental measurements and lattice QCD thermodynamics, that have been made during the last decade. We start with a short review of the historical milestones on the path of constructing statistical-thermal models for heavy-ion physics. We discovered that Heinz Koppe formulated in 1948 an almost complete recipe for the statistical-thermal models. In 1950, Enrico Fermi generalized this statistical approach, in which he started with a general cross-section formula and inserted into it simplifying assumptions about the matrix element of the interaction process that likely reflects many features of the high-energy reactions dominated by density in the phase space of final states. In 1964, Hagedorn systematically analysed the high-energy phenomena using all tools of statistical physics and introduced the concept of limiting temperature based on the statistical bootstrap model. It turns to be quite often that many-particle systems can be studied with the help of statistical-thermal methods. The analysis of yield multiplicities in high-energy collisions gives an overwhelming evidence for the chemical equilibrium in the final state. The strange particles might be an exception, as they are suppressed at lower beam energies. However, their relative yields fulfill statistical equilibrium, as well. We review the equilibrium statistical-thermal models for particle production, fluctuations and collective flow in heavy-ion experiments. We also review their reproduction of the lattice QCD thermodynamics at vanishing and finite chemical potential. During the last decade, five conditions have been suggested to describe the universal behavior of the chemical freeze out parameters.

  19. TPC-like readout for thermal neutron detection using a GEM-detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flierl, Bernhard; Hertenberger, Ralf; Zeitelhack, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Spatial resolution of less than 200 um is challenging for thermal neutron detection. A novel readout scheme based on the time-projection-chamber (TPC) concept is used in a gaseous electron multiplier (GEM) detector. Thermal neutrons are captured in a single 2 um thick Boron-10 converter cathode and secondary Helium and Lithium ions are produced with a combined energy of 2.8 MeV. These ions have sufficient energy to form straight tracks of several mm length. With a time resolving 2-dimensional readout of 400 um pitch in both directions, based on APV25 chips, the ions are tracked and their respective origin in the cathode converter foil is reconstructed. Using an Ar-CO2 93:7% gas mixture, a resolution of 100 um (FWHM 235 um) has been observed with a triple GEM-detector setup at the Garching neutron source (FRMII) for neutrons of 4.7 Angstrom.

  20. TPC-like readout for thermal neutron detection using a GEM-detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernhard Flierl; Otmar Biebel; Ralf Hertenberger; Karl Zeitelhack

    2015-09-08

    Spatial resolution of less than 200 um is challenging for thermal neutron detection. A novel readout scheme based on the time-projection-chamber (TPC) concept is used in a gaseous electron multiplier (GEM) detector. Thermal neutrons are captured in a single 2 um thick Boron-10 converter cathode and secondary Helium and Lithium ions are produced with a combined energy of 2.8 MeV. These ions have sufficient energy to form straight tracks of several mm length. With a time resolving 2-dimensional readout of 400 um pitch in both directions, based on APV25 chips, the ions are tracked and their respective origin in the cathode converter foil is reconstructed. Using an Ar-CO2 93:7% gas mixture, a resolution of 100 um (FWHM 235 um) has been observed with a triple GEM-detector setup at the Garching neutron source (FRMII) for neutrons of 4.7 Angstrom.

  1. Nanofabrication using focused ion beam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Latif, Adnan

    Focused ion beam (FIB) technique uses a focused beam of ions to scan the surface of a specimen, analogous to the way scanning electron microscope (SEM) utilizes electrons. Recent developments in the FIB technology have led to beam spot size below...

  2. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, J.G.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1998-02-10

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li{sub 2}O--CeO{sub 2}--SiO{sub 2} system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications. 12 figs.

  3. Thin film ion conducting coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldner, Ronald B. (Lexington, MA); Haas, Terry (Sudbury, MA); Wong, Kwok-Keung (Watertown, MA); Seward, George (Arlington, MA)

    1989-01-01

    Durable thin film ion conducting coatings are formed on a transparent glass substrate by the controlled deposition of the mixed oxides of lithium:tantalum or lithium:niobium. The coatings provide durable ion transport sources for thin film solid state storage batteries and electrochromic energy conservation devices.

  4. Laser acceleration of ion beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. A. Egorova; A. V. Filatov; A. V. Prozorkevich; S. A. Smolyansky; D. B. Blaschke; M. Chubaryan

    2007-02-01

    We consider methods of charged particle acceleration by means of high-intensity lasers. As an application we discuss a laser booster for heavy ion beams provided, e.g. by the Dubna nuclotron. Simple estimates show that a cascade of crossed laser beams would be necessary to provide additional acceleration to gold ions of the order of GeV/nucleon.

  5. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Ji-Guang (Golden, CO); Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li.sub.2 O--CeO.sub.2 --SiO.sub.2 system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications.

  6. Photo ion spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, D.M.; Young, C.E.; Pellin, M.J.

    1989-12-26

    A charged particle spectrometer is described for performing ultrasensitive quantitative analysis of selected atomic components removed from a sample. Significant improvements in performing energy and angular refocusing spectroscopy are accomplished by means of a two dimensional structure for generating predetermined electromagnetic field boundary conditions. Both resonance and non-resonance ionization of selected neutral atomic components allow accumulation of increased chemical information. A multiplexed operation between a SIMS mode and a neutral atomic component ionization mode with EARTOF analysis enables comparison of chemical information from secondary ions and neutral atomic components removed from the sample. An electronic system is described for switching high level signals, such as SIMS signals, directly to a transient recorder and through a charge amplifier to the transient recorder for a low level signal pulse counting mode, such as for a neutral atomic component ionization mode. 12 figs.

  7. Review of ion accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alonso, J.

    1990-06-01

    The field of ion acceleration to higher energies has grown rapidly in the last years. Many new facilities as well as substantial upgrades of existing facilities have extended the mass and energy range of available beams. Perhaps more significant for the long-term development of the field has been the expansion in the applications of these beams, and the building of facilities dedicated to areas outside of nuclear physics. This review will cover many of these new developments. Emphasis will be placed on accelerators with final energies above 50 MeV/amu. Facilities such as superconducting cyclotrons and storage rings are adequately covered in other review papers, and so will not be covered here.

  8. Photo ion spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL); Young, Charles E. (Westmont, IL); Pellin, Michael J. (Naperville, IL)

    1989-01-01

    A charged particle spectrometer for performing ultrasensitive quantitative analysis of selected atomic components removed from a sample. Significant improvements in performing energy and angular refocusing spectroscopy are accomplished by means of a two dimensional structure for generating predetermined electromagnetic field boundary conditions. Both resonance and non-resonance ionization of selected neutral atomic components allow accumulation of increased chemical information. A multiplexed operation between a SIMS mode and a neutral atomic component ionization mode with EARTOF analysis enables comparison of chemical information from secondary ions and neutral atomic components removed from the sample. An electronic system is described for switching high level signals, such as SIMS signals, directly to a transient recorder and through a charge amplifier to the transient recorder for a low level signal pulse counting mode, such as for a neutral atomic component ionization mode.

  9. Vitrification of lead-based paint using thermal spray

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, A.; Covey, S.W.; Lattimore, J.L.; Boy, J.H.

    1996-12-31

    Lead-based paint (LBP) primers have been used to protect steel structures from corrosion. Abrasive blasting is currently used to remove old LBP. During abrasive blasting a containment structure is required to keep the hazardous lead dust from contaminating air, soil, or water. A thermal spray vitrification (TSV) process to remove LBP was developed. Dried glass powder is melted in the high temperature flame of the thermal spray torch. When the glass strikes the substrate it is molten and reacts with the paint on the substrate. The organic components of the paint are pyrolyzed, while the lead ions are trapped on the surface of glass. The quenching stresses in the glass cause the glass to crack and spall off the substrate. The crumbled glass fragments can be collected and remelted, immobilizing the lead ions within the glass network, thereby preventing leaching. The resulting glass can be disposed of as non-hazardous waste. The process is dust-free, eliminating the need for containment. The volume of residue waste is less than for abrasive blasting and is nonhazardous. The concept and techniques of using the thermal spray vitrification process for the removal and the containment of lead from a section of a bridge containing lead-based paint have been successfully demonstrated.

  10. Solenoid and monocusp ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brainard, John Paul (Albuquerque, NM); Burns, Erskine John Thomas (Albuquerque, NM); Draper, Charles Hadley (Albuquerque, NM)

    1997-01-01

    An ion source which generates hydrogen ions having high atomic purity incorporates a solenoidal permanent magnets to increase the electron path length. In a sealed envelope, electrons emitted from a cathode traverse the magnetic field lines of a solenoid and a monocusp magnet between the cathode and a reflector at the monocusp. As electrons collide with gas, the molecular gas forms a plasma. An anode grazes the outer boundary of the plasma. Molecular ions and high energy electrons remain substantially on the cathode side of the cusp, but as the ions and electrons are scattered to the aperture side of the cusp, additional collisions create atomic ions. The increased electron path length allows for smaller diameters and lower operating pressures.

  11. Solenoid and monocusp ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brainard, J.P.; Burns, E.J.T.; Draper, C.H.

    1997-10-07

    An ion source which generates hydrogen ions having high atomic purity incorporates a solenoidal permanent magnets to increase the electron path length. In a sealed envelope, electrons emitted from a cathode traverse the magnetic field lines of a solenoid and a monocusp magnet between the cathode and a reflector at the monocusp. As electrons collide with gas, the molecular gas forms a plasma. An anode grazes the outer boundary of the plasma. Molecular ions and high energy electrons remain substantially on the cathode side of the cusp, but as the ions and electrons are scattered to the aperture side of the cusp, additional collisions create atomic ions. The increased electron path length allows for smaller diameters and lower operating pressures. 6 figs.

  12. Ion chamber based neutron detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derzon, Mark S; Galambos, Paul C; Renzi, Ronald F

    2014-12-16

    A neutron detector with monolithically integrated readout circuitry, including: a bonded semiconductor die; an ion chamber formed in the bonded semiconductor die; a first electrode and a second electrode formed in the ion chamber; a neutron absorbing material filling the ion chamber; and the readout circuitry which is electrically coupled to the first and second electrodes. The bonded semiconductor die includes an etched semiconductor substrate bonded to an active semiconductor substrate. The readout circuitry is formed in a portion of the active semiconductor substrate. The ion chamber has a substantially planar first surface on which the first electrode is formed and a substantially planar second surface, parallel to the first surface, on which the second electrode is formed. The distance between the first electrode and the second electrode may be equal to or less than the 50% attenuation length for neutrons in the neutron absorbing material filling the ion chamber.

  13. Introducing thermally stable inter-tube defects to assist off-axial phonon transport in carbon nanotube films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jing [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Chen, Di; Wallace, Joseph; Gigax, Jonathan; Wang, Xuemei [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas, 77843 (United States); Shao, Lin, E-mail: lshao@tamu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas, 77843 (United States)

    2014-05-12

    Through integrated molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and experimental studies, we demonstrated the feasibility of an ion-irradiation-and-annealing based phonon engineering technique to enhance thermal conductivity of carbon nanotube (CNT) films. Upon ion irradiation of CNT films, both inter-tube defects and intra-tube defects are introduced. Our MD simulations show that inter-tube defects created between neighboring tubes are much more stable than intra-tube defects created on tube graphitic planes. Upon thermal annealing, intra-tube defects are preferentially removed but inter-tube defects stay. Consequently, axial phonon transport increases due to reduced phonon scattering and off-axial phonon transport is sustained due to the high stability of inter-tube defects, leading to a conductivity enhancement upon annealing. The modeling predictions agree with experimental observations that thermal conductivities of CNT films were enhanced after 2?MeV hydrogen ion irradiations and conductivities were further enhanced upon post irradiation annealing.

  14. MULTISPECTRAL THERMAL IMAGER - OVERVIEW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. WEBER

    2001-03-01

    The Multispectral Thermal Imager satellite fills a new and important role in advancing the state of the art in remote sensing sciences. Initial results with the full calibration system operating indicate that the system was already close to achieving the very ambitious goals which we laid out in 1993, and we are confident of reaching all of these goals as we continue our research and improve our analyses. In addition to the DOE interests, the satellite is tasked about one-third of the time with requests from other users supporting research ranging from volcanology to atmospheric sciences.

  15. Response microcantilever thermal detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cunningham, Joseph P.; Rajic, Slobodan; Datskos, Panagiotis G.; Evans III, Boyd M.

    2004-10-19

    A "folded leg" thermal detector microcantilever constructed of a substrate with at least one leg interposed between a fixed end and a deflective end, each leg having at least three essentially parallel leg segments interconnected on alternate opposing ends and aligned in a serpentine pattern with only the first leg segment attached to the fixed end and only the last leg segment attached to the deflective end. Alternate leg segment are coated on the pentalever with coating applied to the top of the first, third, and fifth leg segments of each leg and to the bottom of the second and fourth leg segments of each leg.

  16. Thermally cleavable surfactants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McElhanon, James R. (Manteca, CA); Simmons, Blake A. (San Francisco, CA); Zifer, Thomas (Manteca, CA); Jamison, Gregory M. (Albuquerque, NM); Loy, Douglas A. (Albuquerque, NM); Rahimian, Kamyar (Albuquerque, NM); Long, Timothy M. (Urbana, IL); Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Staiger, Chad L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-11-24

    Two new surfactant molecules are reported which contain thermally labile Diels-Alder adducts connecting the polar and non-polar sections of each molecule. The two surfactants possess identical non-polar dodecyl tail segments but exhibit different polar headgroups. The surfactants become soluble in water when anionic salts are formed through the deprotonation of the surfactant headgroups by the addition of potassium hydroxide. When either surfactant is exposed to temperature above about 60.degree. C., the retro Diels-Alder reaction occurs, yielding hydrophilic and hydrophobic fragments or the aqueous solutions of the surfactants subsequently exhibit loss of all surface-active behavior.

  17. Thermally cleavable surfactants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McElhanon, James R. (Manteca, CA); Simmons, Blake A. (San Francisco, CA); Zifer, Thomas (Manteca, CA); Jamison, Gregory M. (Albuquerque, NM); Loy, Douglas A. (Albuquerque, NM); Rahimian, Kamyar (Albuquerque, NM); Long, Timothy M. (Urbana, IL); Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Staiger, Chad L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-09-29

    Two new surfactant molecules are reported which contain thermally labile Diels-Alder adducts connecting the polar and non-polar sections of each molecule. The two surfactants possess identical non-polar dodecyl tail segments but exhibit different polar headgroups. The surfactants become soluble in water when anionic salts are formed through the deprotonation of the surfactant headgroups by the addition of potassium hydroxide. When either surfactant is exposed to temperature above about 60.degree. C., the retro Diels-Alder reaction occurs, yielding hydrophilic and hydrophobic fragments or the aqueous solutions of the surfactants subsequently exhibit loss of all surface-active behavior.

  18. Thermally cleavable surfactants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McElhanon, James R. (Manteca, CA); Simmons, Blake A. (San Francisco, CA); Zifer, Thomas (Manteca, CA); Jamison, Gregory M. (Albuquerque, NM); Loy, Douglas A. (Albuquerque, NM); Rahimian, Kamyar (Albuquerque, NM); Long, Timothy M. (Urbana, IL); Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Staiger, Chad L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-04-04

    Two new surfactant molecules are reported which contain thermally labile Diels-Alder adducts connecting the polar and non-polar sections of each molecule. The two surfactants possess identical non-polar dodecyl tail segments but exhibit different polar headgroups. The surfactants become soluble in water when anionic salts are formed through the deprotonation of the surfactant headgroups by the addition of potassium hydroxide. When either surfactant is exposed to temperature above about 60.degree. C., the retro Diels-Alder reaction occurs, yielding hydrophilic and hydrophobic fragments and the aqueous solutions of the surfactants subsequently exhibit loss of all surface-active behavior.

  19. Thermal network reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    A method is presented for reducing the number of elements required in a thermal network representation of a building. The method is based on matching the actual building response at two frequencies, the diurnal response and 3-day response. The procedure provides a straightforward methodology for combining all the various materials inside a discrete building zone into a few nodes while retaining a high degree of accuracy in the dynamic response. An example is given showing a comparison between a large network and the reduced network.

  20. Thermal network reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1983-06-01

    A method is presented for reducing the number of elements required in a thermal network representation of a building. The method is based on matching the actual building response at two frequencies, the diurnal response and 3-day response. The procedure provides a straightforward methodology for combining all the various materials inside a discrete building zone into a few nodes while retaining a high degree of accuracy in the dynamic response. An example is given showing a comparison between a large network and the reduced network.

  1. Thermal indicator for wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaven, Jr., Joseph V. (Oakton, VA); Bak, Chan S. (Newbury Park, CA)

    1983-01-01

    Minute durable plate-like thermal indicators are employed for precision measuring static and dynamic temperatures of well drilling fluids. The indicators are small enough and sufficiently durable to be circulated in the well with drilling fluids during the drilling operation. The indicators include a heat resistant indicating layer, a coacting meltable solid component and a retainer body which serves to unitize each indicator and which may carry permanent indicator identifying indicia. The indicators are recovered from the drilling fluid at ground level by known techniques.

  2. Solid state thermal engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wayman, C.M.

    1981-01-27

    An improved solid state thermal engine utilizes as a drive member a braided belt fabricated from a memory alloy such as nickel-titanium and nickel-titanium ternary alloys, copper-zinc and copper-zinc ternary alloys, and the like. The braided belt is mounted on a set of pulleys to provide passage through a hot zone where the belt contracts and develops tension, and through a cold zone where it relaxes and stretches. Since more energy is delivered by contraction than is required for relaxation, positive work output results with an efficiency of between onefifth and one-third of the carnot cycle.

  3. Thermally switchable dielectrics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dirk, Shawn M.; Johnson, Ross S.

    2013-04-30

    Precursor polymers to conjugated polymers, such as poly(phenylene vinylene), poly(poly(thiophene vinylene), poly(aniline vinylene), and poly(pyrrole vinylene), can be used as thermally switchable capacitor dielectrics that fail at a specific temperature due to the non-conjugated precursor polymer irreversibly switching from an insulator to the conjugated polymer, which serves as a bleed resistor. The precursor polymer is a good dielectric until it reaches a specific temperature determined by the stability of the leaving groups. Conjugation of the polymer backbone at high temperature effectively disables the capacitor, providing a `built-in` safety mechanism for electronic devices.

  4. Thermally Oxidized Silicon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With U.S.Week DayDr. JeffreyThermal Multi-layer4 Anneli Munkholm

  5. Advances in lithium-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerr, John B.

    2003-01-01

    current reviews of the lithium ion battery literature byof view of the lithium ion battery scientist and engineer,lithium ion batteries. The chapter on aging summarizes the effects of the chemistry on the battery

  6. Side Reactions in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Maureen Han-Mei

    2012-01-01

    Model for Aging of Lithium-Ion Battery Cells. Journal of TheSalts Formed on the Lithium-Ion Battery Negative Electrodeion batteries In a lithium ion battery, positively charged

  7. Challenges for Na-ion Negative Electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chevrier, Vincent L.

    Na-ion batteries have been proposed as candidates for replacing Li-ion batteries. In this paper we examine the viability of Na-ion negative electrode materials based on Na alloys or hard carbons in terms of volumetric ...

  8. Aluminum ion batteries: electrolytes and cathodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Luke

    2015-01-01

    in High-Power Lithium-Ion Batteries for Use in Hybridas Cathodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries. Chem. Mater. 2011,seen in magnesium or lithium ion batteries would operate at

  9. 4th Generation ECR Ion Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyneis, Claude M.

    2010-01-01

    4th Generation ECR Ion Sources Claude M Lyneis, D. Leitner,to developing a 4 th generation ECR ion source with an RFover current 3 rd generation ECR ion sources, which operate

  10. Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Alexandratos, Spiro D. (Knoxville, TN); Gatrone, Ralph C. (Naperville, IL); Chiarizia, Ronato (Oak Park, IL)

    1994-01-01

    An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene disphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.

  11. Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.

    1996-07-23

    An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 10 figs.

  12. Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Alexandratos, Spiro D. (Knoxville, TN); Gatrone, Ralph C. (Naperville, IL); Chiarizia, Ronato (Oak Park, IL)

    1996-01-01

    An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.

  13. Side Reactions in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Maureen Han-Mei

    2012-01-01

    experimental data from plastic lithium ion cells. Journal ofelectrolyte additive for lithium-ion batteries. Elec-Model for Aging of Lithium-Ion Battery Cells. Journal of The

  14. Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.

    1994-01-25

    An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 9 figures.

  15. Searching for Jets in Heavy Ion Collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salur, Sevil

    2008-01-01

    measurements with full jet reconstruction in heavy ionDirect measurement of jets in s N N = 200 GeV Heavy Ion5–12, 2008 Searching for Jets in Heavy Ion Collisions Sevil

  16. Ion heating and energy partition at the heliospheric termination shock: hybrid simulations and analytical model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary, S Peter; Winske, Dan; Wu, Pin; Schwadron, N A; Lee, M

    2009-01-01

    The Los Alamos hybrid simulation code is used to examine heating and the partition of dissipation energy at the perpendicular heliospheric termination shock in the presence of pickup ions. The simulations are one-dimensional in space but three-dimensional in field and velocity components, and are carried out for a range of values of pickup ion relative density. Results from the simulations show that because the solar wind ions are relatively cold upstream, the temperature of these ions is raised by a relatively larger factor than the temperature of the pickup ions. An analytic model for energy partition is developed on the basis of the Rankine-Hugoniot relations and a polytropic energy equation. The polytropic index {gamma} used in the Rankine-Hugoniot relations is varied to improve agreement between the model and the simulations concerning the fraction of downstream heating in the pickup ions as well as the compression ratio at the shock. When the pickup ion density is less than 20%, the polytropic index is about 5/3, whereas for pickup ion densities greater than 20%, the polytropic index tends toward 2.2, suggesting a fundamental change in the character of the shock, as seen in the simulations, when the pickup ion density is large. The model and the simulations both indicate for the upstream parameters chosen for Voyager 2 conditions that the pickup ion density is about 25% and the pickup ions gain the larger share (approximately 90%) of the downstream thermal pressure, consistent with Voyager 2 observations near the shock.

  17. MeV Au Ion Irradiation in Silicon and Nanocrystalline Zirconia Film Deposited on Silicon Substrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Yongqin; Zhang, Yanwen; Zhu, Zihua; Edmondson, Philip D.; Weber, William J.

    2012-09-01

    Nanocrystalline zirconia (ZrO2) film with thickness of 305 nm deposited on a silicon substrate was irradiated with 2 MeV Au ions to different fluences at different temperatures. The implanted ion profiles were measured by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and simulated using the stopping and range of ions inmatter (SRIM) code, respectively. The experimental results show that a large fraction of the incident Au ions penetrates through the ZrO2 film and are deposited into the Si substrate. At the interface of ZrO2 and Si, a sudden decrease of Au concentration is observed due to the much larger scattering cross section of Au in ZrO2 than in Si. The depth profile of the Au ions is measured in both the ZrO2 films and the Si substrates, and the results show that the Au distribution profiles do not exhibit a dependence on irradiation temperature. The local Au concentration increases proportionally with the irradiation fluence, suggesting that no thermal or irradiation-induced redistribution of the implanted Au ions. However, the Au concentration in the ZrO2 films, as determined by SIMS, is considerably lower than that predicted by the SRIM results, and the penetration depth from the SIMS measurements is much deeper than that from the SRIM predictions. These observations can be explained by an overestimation of the electronic stopping power, used in the SRIM program, for heavy incident ions in light targets. Over-estimation of the heavy-ion electronic stopping power may lead to errors in local dose calculation and underestimation of the projected range of slow heavy ions in targets that contain light elements. A quick estimate based on a reduced target density may be used to compensate the overestimation of the electronic stopping power in the SRIM program to provide better ion profile prediction.

  18. MeV Au Ion Irradiation in Silicon and Nanocrystalline Zirconia Film Deposited on Silicon Substrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Yongqin; Zhang, Yanwen; Zhu, Zihua; Edmondson, Dr. Philip; Weber, William J

    2012-01-01

    Nanocrystalline zirconia (ZrO2) film with thickness of 305 nm deposited on a silicon substrate was irradiated with 2 MeV Au ions to different fluences at different temperatures. The implanted ion profiles were measured by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and simulated using the stopping and range of ions in matter (SRIM) code, respectively. The experimental results show that a large fraction of the incident Au ions penetrates through the ZrO2 film and are deposited into the Si substrate. At the interface of ZrO2 and Si, a sudden decrease of Au concentration is observed due to the much larger scattering cross section of Au in ZrO2 than in Si. The depth profile of the Au ions is measured in both the ZrO2 films and the Si substrates, and the results show that the Au distribution profiles do not exhibit a dependence on irradiation temperature. The local Au concentration increases proportionally with the irradiation fluence, suggesting that no thermal or irradiation-induced redistribution of the implanted Au ions. However, the Au concentration in the ZrO2 films, as determined by SIMS, is considerably lower than that predicted by the SRIM results, and the penetration depth from the SIMS measurements is much deeper than that from the SRIM predictions. These observations can be explained by an overestimation of the electronic stopping power, used in the SRIM program, for heavy incident ions in light targets. Overestimation of the heavy-ion electronic stopping power may lead to errors in local dose calculation and underestimation of the projected range of slow heavy ions in targets that contain light elements. A quick estimate based on a reduced target density may be used to compensate the overestimation of the electronic stopping power in the SRIM program to provide better ion profile prediction.

  19. Ion Rings for Magnetic Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenly, John, B.

    2005-07-31

    This Final Technical Report presents the results of the program, Ion Rings for Magnetic Fusion, which was carried out under Department of Energy funding during the period August, 1993 to January, 2005. The central objective of the program was to study the properties of field-reversed configurations formed by ion rings. In order to reach this objective, our experimental program, called the Field-reversed Ion Ring Experiment, FIREX, undertook to develop an efficient, economical technology for the production of field-reversed ion rings. A field-reversed configuration (FRC) in which the azimuthal (field-reversing) current is carried by ions with gyro-radius comparable to the magnetic separatrix radius is called a field-reversed ion ring. A background plasma is required for charge neutralization of the ring, and this plasma will be confined within the ring's closed magnetic flux. Ion rings have long been of interest as the basis of compact magnetic fusion reactors, as the basis for a high-power accelerator for an inertial fusion driver, and for other applications of high power ion beams or plasmas of high energy density. Specifically, the FIREX program was intended to address the longstanding question of the contribution of large-orbit ions to the observed stability of experimental FRCs to the MHD tilt mode. Typical experimental FRCs with s {approx} 2-4, where s is the ratio of separatrix radius to ion gyro-radius, have been stable to tilting, but desired values for a fusion reactor, s > 20, should be unstable. The FIREX ring would consist of a plasma with large s for the background ions, but with s {approx} 1 for the ring ions. By varying the proportions of these two populations, the minimum proportion of large-orbit ions necessary for stability could be determined. The incorporation of large-orbit ions, perhaps by neutral-beam injection, into an FRC has been advanced for the purpose of stabilizing, heating, controlling angular momentum, and aiding the formation of a reactor-scale FRC, and the FIREX program was intended to test the ideas behind this approach. We will describe in this report the technological development path and advances in physics understanding that allowed FIREX to reach a regime in which ion rings were reproducibly created with up to about half the current necessary to produce field reversal. Unfortunately, the experiments were limited to this level by a fundamental, unanticipated aspect of the physics of strong ion rings in plasma. The FIREX ring is a strongly anisotropic, current-carrying population of ions moving faster than the Alfven speed in the background plasma. The rapidly changing ring current excites very large-amplitude Alfven waves in the plasma, and these waves strongly affect the ring, causing rapid energy loss in a way that is not compatible with the success of the ring trapping scenario around which FIREX was designed. The result was that FIREX rings were always very short-lived. We will discuss the implication of these results for possible future use of large-orbit ions in FRCs. In short, it appears that a certain range of the parameters characterizing the ring Alfven mach number and distribution function must be avoided to allow the existence of a long-lived energetic ion component in an FRC. This report will explain why FIREX experimental results cannot be directly scaled to quantitatively predict this range for a particular FRC configuration. This will require accurate, three-dimensional simulations. FIREX results do constitute a very good dataset for validating such a code, and simulations already carried out during this program provide a guide to the important physics involved.

  20. Microstructure evolution in carbon-ion implanted sapphire

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orwa, J. O.; McCallum, J. C.; Jamieson, D. N.; Prawer, S.; Peng, J. L.; Rubanov, S.

    2010-01-15

    Carbon ions of MeV energy were implanted into sapphire to fluences of 1x10{sup 17} or 2x10{sup 17} cm{sup -2} and thermally annealed in forming gas (4% H in Ar) for 1 h. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy results obtained from the lower dose implant showed retention of implanted carbon and accumulation of H near the end of range in the C implanted and annealed sample. Three distinct regions were identified by transmission electron microscopy of the implanted region in the higher dose implant. First, in the near surface region, was a low damage region (L{sub 1}) composed of crystalline sapphire and a high density of plateletlike defects. Underneath this was a thin, highly damaged and amorphized region (L{sub 2}) near the end of range in which a mixture of i-carbon and nanodiamond phases are present. Finally, there was a pristine, undamaged sapphire region (L{sub 3}) beyond the end of range. In the annealed sample some evidence of the presence of diamond nanoclusters was found deep within the implanted layer near the projected range of the C ions. These results are compared with our previous work on carbon implanted quartz in which nanodiamond phases were formed only a few tens of nanometers from the surface, a considerable distance from the projected range of the ions, suggesting that significant out diffusion of the implanted carbon had occurred.

  1. Solar thermal power system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2010-06-15

    A solar thermal power generator includes an inclined elongated boiler tube positioned in the focus of a solar concentrator for generating steam from water. The boiler tube is connected at one end to receive water from a pressure vessel as well as connected at an opposite end to return steam back to the vessel in a fluidic circuit arrangement that stores energy in the form of heated water in the pressure vessel. An expander, condenser, and reservoir are also connected in series to respectively produce work using the steam passed either directly (above a water line in the vessel) or indirectly (below a water line in the vessel) through the pressure vessel, condense the expanded steam, and collect the condensed water. The reservoir also supplies the collected water back to the pressure vessel at the end of a diurnal cycle when the vessel is sufficiently depressurized, so that the system is reset to repeat the cycle the following day. The circuital arrangement of the boiler tube and the pressure vessel operates to dampen flow instabilities in the boiler tube, damp out the effects of solar transients, and provide thermal energy storage which enables time shifting of power generation to better align with the higher demand for energy during peak energy usage periods.

  2. Universal collisional activation ion trap mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLuckey, Scott A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Goeringer, Douglas E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Glish, Gary L. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1993-01-01

    A universal collisional activation ion trap comprises an ion trapping means containing a bath gas and having connected thereto a noise signal generator. A method of operating a universal collisional activation ion trap comprises the steps of: providing an ion trapping means; introducing into the ion trapping means a bath gas; and, generating a noise signal within the ion trapping means; introducing into the ion trapping means a substance that, when acted upon by the noise signal, undergoes collisional activation to form product ions.

  3. Sodium Titanate Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.

    2014-01-01

    for  Sodium  Ion  Batteries   One   of   the   challenges  of   sodium   ion   batteries   is   identification   of  for   use   in   batteries.   Our   recent   work   has  

  4. Ion transport through cell membrane channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jan Gomulkiewicz; Jacek Miekisz; Stanislaw Miekisz

    2007-06-05

    We discuss various models of ion transport through cell membrane channels. Recent experimental data shows that sizes of ion channels are compared to those of ions and that only few ions may be simultaneously in any single channel. Theoretical description of ion transport in such channels should therefore take into account interactions between ions and between ions and channel proteins. This is not satisfied by macroscopic continuum models based on Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations. More realistic descriptions of ion transport are offered by microscopic Brownian and molecular dynamics. One should also take into account a dynamical character of the channel structure. This is not yet addressed in the literature

  5. Universal collisional activation ion trap mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLuckey, S.A.; Goeringer, D.E.; Glish, G.L.

    1993-04-27

    A universal collisional activation ion trap comprises an ion trapping means containing a bath gas and having connected thereto a noise signal generator. A method of operating a universal collisional activation ion trap comprises the steps of: providing an ion trapping means; introducing into the ion trapping means a bath gas; and, generating a noise signal within the ion trapping means; introducing into the ion trapping means a substance that, when acted upon by the noise signal, undergoes collisional activation to form product ions.

  6. Perspective on the Role of Negative Ions and Ion-Ion Plasmas in Heavy Ion Fusion Science, Magnetic Fusion Energy, and Related Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kwan, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    ion drivers for inertial confinement fusion, was achieved.ion driver beams for inertial confinement fusion, they weredriver beams for inertial confinement fusion were successful

  7. Nanocomposite Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    abuse tolerant lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries is an important step in electrifying the drive train and facilitating widespread adoption of HEVs and PHEVs. Nanocomposite...

  8. Thermal Flipping of Interstellar Grains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph C. Weingartner

    2008-08-27

    In interstellar dust grains, internal processes dissipate rotational kinetic energy. The dissipation is accompanied by thermal fluctuations, which transfer energy from the vibrational modes to rotation. Together, these processes are known as internal relaxation. For the past several years, internal relaxation has been thought to give rise to thermal flipping, with profound consequences for grain alignment theory. I show that thermal flipping is not possible in the limit that the inertia tensor does not vary with time.

  9. Thermal desorption for passive dosimeter 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Wen-Chen

    1981-01-01

    recovery of styrene and improved precision when compared with thermal desorption. In addition, thermal desorption tended to breakdown sty- rene, which is vulnerable to heat. The breakdown product may interfere with the analysis results if thermal desorp... of the activation processes. (12, 1&) The first step in the production of activated carbon is carbonization, which is the formation of a char from a source material. The source materials may be coconut shells, peach pits, sawdust, wood char, etc ~ Carbonization...

  10. Electrically Switched Cesium Ion Exchange

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JPH Sukamto; ML Lilga; RK Orth

    1998-10-23

    This report discusses the results of work to develop Electrically Switched Ion Exchange (ESIX) for separations of ions from waste streams relevant to DOE site clean-up. ESIX combines ion exchange and electrochemistry to provide a selective, reversible method for radionuclide separation that lowers costs and minimizes secondary waste generation typically associated with conventional ion exchange. In the ESIX process, an electroactive ion exchange film is deposited onto. a high surface area electrode, and ion uptake and elution are controlled directly by modulating the potential of the film. As a result, the production of secondary waste is minimized, since the large volumes of solution associated with elution, wash, and regeneration cycles typical of standard ion exchange are not needed for the ESIX process. The document is presented in two parts: Part I, the Summary Report, discusses the objectives of the project, describes the ESIX concept and the approach taken, and summarizes the major results; Part II, the Technology Description, provides a technical description of the experimental procedures and in-depth discussions on modeling, case studies, and cost comparisons between ESIX and currently used technologies.

  11. Multi-source ion funnel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tang, Keqi; Belov, Mikhail B.; Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Udseth, Harold R.; Smith, Richard D.

    2005-12-27

    A method for introducing ions generated in a region of relatively high pressure into a region of relatively low pressure by providing at least two electrospray ion sources, providing at least two capillary inlets configured to direct ions generated by the electrospray sources into and through each of the capillary inlets, providing at least two sets of primary elements having apertures, each set of elements having a receiving end and an emitting end, the primary sets of elements configured to receive a ions from the capillary inlets at the receiving ends, and providing a secondary set of elements having apertures having a receiving end and an emitting end, the secondary set of elements configured to receive said ions from the emitting end of the primary sets of elements and emit said ions from said emitting end of the secondary set of elements. The method may further include the step of providing at least one jet disturber positioned within at least one of the sets of primary elements, providing a voltage, such as a dc voltage, in the jet disturber, thereby adjusting the transmission of ions through at least one of the sets of primary elements.

  12. Development of negative ion extractor in the high-power and long-pulse negative ion source for fusion application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kashiwagi, M., E-mail: kashiwagi.mieko@jaea.go.jp; Umeda, N.; Tobari, H.; Kojima, A.; Yoshida, M.; Taniguchi, M.; Dairaku, M.; Maejima, T.; Yamanaka, H.; Watanabe, K.; Inoue, T.; Hanada, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka 311-0193 (Japan)] [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka 311-0193 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    High power and long-pulse negative ion extractor, which is composed of the plasma grid (PG) and the extraction grid (EXG), is newly developed toward the neutral beam injector for heating and current drive of future fusion machines such as ITER, JT-60 Super Advanced and DEMO reactor. The PG is designed to enhance surface production of negative ions efficiently by applying the chamfered aperture. The efficiency of the negative ion production for the discharge power increased by a factor of 1.3 against that of the conventional PG. The EXG is also designed with the thermal analysis to upgrade the cooling capability for the long pulse operation of >1000 s required in ITER. Though the magnetic field for electron suppression is reduced to 0.75 of that in the conventional EXG due to this upgrade, it was experimentally confirmed that the extracted electron current can be suppressed to the allowable level for the long pulse operation. These results show that newly developed extractor has the high potential for the long pulse extraction of the negative ions.

  13. High-efficiency ion-implanted silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spitzer, M.B.; Tobin, S.P.

    1984-05-01

    The development of solar cells with AM1 coversion efficiency of 18 percent is reported. The cells comprise an n/sup +/-p-p/sup +/ structure fabricated from float zone silicon having resistivity of 0.3 ..cap omega.. cm. The n/sup +/ and p/sup +/ regions are formed by low energy ion implantation and thermal annealing. An important feature of cell fabrication is the growth of SiO/sub 2/ passivation for reduction of surface recombination velocity. Details of both cell fabrication and testing are reported.

  14. Non-linear Ion-wake Excitation by Ultra-relativistic Electron Wakefields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sahai, Aakash A

    2015-01-01

    The excitation of a non-linear ion-wake by a train of ultra-relativistic plasmons is modeled and its use for a novel regime of positron acceleration is explored. Its channel-like structure is independent of the energy-source driving the bubble-shaped slowly-propagating high phase-velocity electron density waves. The back of the bubble electron compression sucks-in the ions and the space-charge within the bubble expels them, forming a near-void channel with on-axis and bubble-edge density-spikes. The channel-edge density-spike is driven radially outwards as a non-linear ion acoustic-wave by the wake electron thermal pressure. OSIRIS PIC simulations are used to study the ion-wake structure, its evolution and its use for positron acceleration.

  15. Thermal Management of Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saadah, Mohammed Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    cell. The solar cell’s power conversion efficiency, ? is theEfficiency ..5 Thermal Managements of SolarTemperature on Efficiency Photons incident on a solar cell

  16. Actively driven thermal radiation shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, Norman W. (Livermore, CA); Cork, Christopher P. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Becker, John A. (Alameda, CA); Knapp, David A. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A thermal radiation shield for cooled portable gamma-ray spectrometers. The thermal radiation shield is located intermediate the vacuum enclosure and detector enclosure, is actively driven, and is useful in reducing the heat load to mechanical cooler and additionally extends the lifetime of the mechanical cooler. The thermal shield is electrically-powered and is particularly useful for portable solid-state gamma-ray detectors or spectrometers that dramatically reduces the cooling power requirements. For example, the operating shield at 260K (40K below room temperature) will decrease the thermal radiation load to the detector by 50%, which makes possible portable battery operation for a mechanically cooled Ge spectrometer.

  17. Overview of solar thermal technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The solar-thermal overview section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes the technical and economic status of this emerging renewable energy option for electricity supply.

  18. Underfloor air distribution: thermal stratification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webster, T.; Bauman, Fred; Reese, J.

    2002-01-01

    Air Distribution: Thermal Stratification By Tom Webster, Pthermal bypassing of convective loads that occurs above the stratificationthermal plumes that develop over heat sources in the room. A stratification

  19. Reducing ion beam noise of vacuum arc ion sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anders, Andre; Hollinger, Ralph

    2001-01-01

    in the expanding vacuum arc plasma and operating in the ion3 Schematic of the vacuum arc plasma generator (arc cathodeUnfortunately, vacuum arc plasmas are rapidly fluctuating

  20. Shuttling of ions for characterization of a microfabricated ion trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Zachary (Zachary Kenneth)

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, I present experimental results demonstrating the characterization of a planar Paul trap. I discuss the theory of ion trapping and analyze the voltages required for shuttling. Next, the characteristics of a ...

  1. Three chamber negative ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.; Hiskes, J.R.

    1983-11-10

    It is an object of this invention provide a negative ion source which efficiently provides a large flux of negatively ionized particles. This invention provides a volume source of negative ions which has a current density sufficient for magnetic fusion applications and has electrons suppressed from the output. It is still another object of this invention to provide a volume source of negative ions which can be electrostatically accelerated to high energies and subsequently neutralized to form a high energy neutral beam for use with a magnetically confined plasma.

  2. New thermal model with distinct freeze-out temperatures for baryons and mesons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Assis, Leonardo P. G.; Duarte, Sergio B.; Chiapparini, Marcelo; Hirsch, Luciana R.; Delfino, Antonio Jr.

    2013-05-06

    A significant amount of experimental data for particle production in high-energy heavy ion collisions (10 - 200 GeV/A at center of mass) has been accumulated during last years. Many different theoretical attempts have tried to describe these data using thermal models in the approximation of global thermal equilibrium considering only one freeze-out temperature. However the thermal models often are not able to describe adequately the whole multiplicities of hadrons. For instance, the abundance of strange particles is overestimate and the pion yields are underestimated. In this work is presented a thermal hadronic model with two different temperatures in order to describe the baryonic and mesonic chemical freeze-out in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. The model is used to fit the particle population ratios of the hadrons produced in the reaction. The proposal is not merely to incorporate one additional degree of freedom in the adjustment procedure of data, but to present and alternative scenario for the freeze out stage in the collisional proces s. This new reformulated version of thermal model was applied to a set of data, offering a rather good improvement in the fitting of the calculated particle ratios to the data. The results suggest that the introduced model makes the thermal approach more robust to handle with a larger number of colliding systems and a more comprehensive set of reaction observables.

  3. Guide to Setting Thermal Comfort Criteria and Minimizing Energy Use in Delivering Thermal Comfort

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Regnier, Cindy

    2014-01-01

    including cost, energy and thermal comfort analysis, whichfor greatest energy benefits, prioritize thermal comfortMinimizing Energy Use in Delivering Thermal Comfort Cindy

  4. Human thermal sensation and comfort in transient and non-uniform thermal environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, H.

    2003-01-01

    the Human and the Thermal Environment." ASHRAE TransactionA field Study of Thermal Environment and Comfort in OfficeISO 7730 - Moderate Thermal Environments - Determination of

  5. Thermal sensation and comfort in transient non-uniform thermal environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Hui; Huizenga, Charlie; Arens, Edward; Wang, Danni

    2004-01-01

    for assessing complex thermal environments. Building andand non-uniform thermal environment. ” Ph.D. thesis,Non-Uniform Thermal Environments Hui Zhang, Charlie

  6. Evaluating thermal environments by using a thermal manikin with controlled skin surface temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanabe, S.; Arens, Edward A; Bauman, Fred; Zhang, H.; Madsen, T.

    1994-01-01

    betweenhumans their thermal and environment. WinslowandErgonomics of the thermal environment--Estimation of theSymposium on Man-Thermal Environment System, Tokyo. Olesen,

  7. Thermal Properties of Graphene and Applications for Thermal Management of High-Power Density Electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yan, Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Raman Spectroscopy and Thermal Properties of Graphenegraphite heat spreaders for thermal management of high-powerthe Raman spectroscopy and thermal properties of a novel

  8. Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardin, Corey Lee

    2011-01-01

    well a molten salt thermal storage system could be utilizedof Solar Two [2] Thermal storage in these plants is anper kilowatt goes towards thermal storage[3]. Considering a

  9. Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardin, Corey Lee

    2011-01-01

    Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants A ThesisStorage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants by Coreysystems for concentrated solar thermal power (CSP) systems.

  10. Thermally stabilized heliostat

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Alfred J. (Littleton, CO)

    1983-01-01

    An improvement in a heliostat having a main support structure and pivoting and tilting motors and gears and a mirror module for reflecting solar energy onto a collector, the improvement being characterized by an internal support structure within each mirror module and front and back sheets attached to the internal support structure, the front and back sheets having the same coefficient of thermal expansion such that no curvature is induced by temperature change, and a layer of adhesive adhering the mirror to the front sheet. The adhesive is water repellent and has adequate set strength to support the mirror but has sufficient shear tolerance to permit the differential expansion of the mirror and the front sheet without inducing stresses or currature effect. The adhesive also serves to dampen fluttering of the mirror and to protect the mirror backside against the adverse effects of weather. Also disclosed are specific details of the preferred embodiment.

  11. Thermal barrier coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alvin, Mary Anne (Pittsburg, PA)

    2010-06-22

    This disclosure addresses the issue of providing a metallic-ceramic overlay coating that potentially serves as an interface or bond coat layer to provide enhanced oxidation resistance to the underlying superalloy substrate via the formation of a diffusion barrier regime within the supporting base material. Furthermore, the metallic-ceramic coating is expected to limit the growth of a continuous thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer that has been primarily considered to be the principal cause for failure of existing TBC systems. Compositional compatibility of the metallic-ceramic with traditional yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) top coats is provided to further limit debond or spallation of the coating during operational use. A metallic-ceramic architecture is disclosed wherein enhanced oxidation resistance is imparted to the surface of nickel-based superalloy or single crystal metal substrate, with simultaneous integration of the yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) within the metallic-ceramic overlayer.

  12. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Smith; M. Deo; E. Eddings; A. Sarofim; K. Gueishen; M. Hradisky; K. Kelly; P. Mandalaparty; H. Zhang

    2011-10-30

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coalā??s carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO{sub 2} sequestration. Efforts focused on: ā?¢ Constructing a suite of three different coal pyrolysis reactors. These reactors offer the ability to gather heat transfer, mass transfer and kinetic data during coal pyrolysis under conditions that mimic in situ conditions (Subtask 6.1). ā?¢ Studying the operational parameters for various underground thermal treatment processes for oil shale and coal and completing a design matrix analysis for the underground coal thermal treatment (UCTT). This analysis yielded recommendations for terms of targeted coal rank, well orientation, rubblization, presence of oxygen, temperature, pressure, and heating sources (Subtask 6.2). ā?¢ Developing capabilities for simulating UCTT, including modifying the geometry as well as the solution algorithm to achieve long simulation times in a rubblized coal bed by resolving the convective channels occurring in the representative domain (Subtask 6.3). ā?¢ Studying the reactive behavior of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) with limestone, sandstone, arkose (a more complex sandstone) and peridotite, including mineralogical changes and brine chemistry for the different initial rock compositions (Subtask 6.4). Arkose exhibited the highest tendency of participating in mineral reactions, which can be attributed to the geochemical complexity of its initial mineral assemblage. In experiments with limestone, continuous dissolution was observed with the release of CO{sub 2} gas, indicated by the increasing pressure in the reactor (formation of a gas chamber). This occurred due to the lack of any source of alkali to buffer the solution. Arkose has the geochemical complexity for permanent sequestration of CO{sub 2} as carbonates and is also relatively abundant. The effect of including NH{sub 3} in the injected gas stream was also investigated in this study. Precipitation of calcite and trace amounts of ammonium zeolites was observed. A batch geochemical model was developed using Geochemists Workbench (GWB). Degassing effect in the experiments was corrected using the sliding fugacity model in GWB. Experimental and simulation results were compared and a reasonable agreement between the two was observed.

  13. Effects of quark chemical equilibration on thermal photon elliptic flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akihiko Monnai

    2014-12-25

    Large hadronic elliptic flow $v_2$ is considered as an evidence for the existence of a strongly-coupled QGP fluid in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. On the other hand, direct photon $v_2$ has recently been found to be much larger than hydrodynamic estimations, which is recognized as "photon $v_2$ puzzle". In this study, I discuss the implication of late production of quarks in an initially gluon-rich medium because photons are coupled to quarks. Numerical analyses imply that thermal photon $v_2$ can be visibly enhanced. This indicates that interplay of equilibration processes and collective expansion would be important.

  14. Thermalization of heavy quarks in the quark-gluon plasma 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Hees, H.; Rapp, Ralf.

    2005-01-01

    the BNL Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) indicate the possibility that the D-meson v2 could be similar in magnitude to the one of light hadrons [10,11]. Since the c quark is rather heavy, this would be quite remarkable and could provide important... temperature) has been suggested as a mechanism to enhance partonic cross sections [12?14] to facilitate rapid thermalization of the bulk matter at RHIC as required in hy- drodynamical models. The notion of charmonium resonances in the QGP [15,16] has been...

  15. On the thermal expansion of composite materials and cross-property connection between thermal expansion and thermal conductivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sevostianov, Igor

    On the thermal expansion of composite materials and cross-property connection between thermal expansion and thermal conductivity Igor Sevostianov Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, New: Composite material Thermal expansion Cross-property Microstructure Thermal conductivity a b s t r a c

  16. Improved ion optics for introduction of ions into a 9.4-T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Yu; Leach, Franklin E.; Kaiser, Nathan K.; Dang, Xibei; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Norheim, Randolph V.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.; Marshall, Alan G.

    2015-01-01

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry provides unparalleled mass accuracy and resolving power.[1],[2] With electrospray ionization (ESI), ions are typically transferred into the mass spectrometer through a skimmer, which serves as a conductance-limiting orifice. However, the skimmer allows only a small fraction of incoming ions to enter the mass spectrometer. An ion funnel, originally developed by Smith and coworkers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)[3-5] provides much more efficient ion focusing and transfer. The large entrance aperture of the ion funnel allows almost all ions emanating from a heated capillary to be efficiently captured and transferred, resulting in nearly lossless transmission.

  17. Neon Ion Beam Lithography (NIBL)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winston, Donald

    Existing techniques for electron- and ion-beam lithography, routinely employed for nanoscale device fabrication and mask/mold prototyping, do not simultaneously achieve efficient (low fluence) exposure and high resolution. ...

  18. Surface trap for ytterbium ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Campbell, Jonathan A. (Jonathan Alan)

    2006-01-01

    We conducted an experiment to load a shallow planar ion trap from a cold atom source of Ytterbium using photoionization. The surface trap consisted of a three-rod radio frequency Paul trap fabricated using standard printed ...

  19. Ion bombardment in RF photoguns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pozdeyev,E.; Kayran, D.; Litvinenko, V. N.

    2009-05-04

    A linac-ring eRHIC design requires a high-intensity CW source of polarized electrons. An SRF gun is viable option that can deliver the required beam. Numerical simulations presented elsewhere have shown that ion bombardment can occur in an RF gun, possibly limiting lifetime of a NEA GaAs cathode. In this paper, we analytically solve the equations of motion of ions in an RF gun using the ponderomotive potential of the Rf field. We apply the method to the BNL 1/2-cell SRF photogun and demonstrate that a significant portion of ions produced in the gun can reach the cathode if no special precautions are taken. Also, the paper discusses possible mitigation techniques that can reduce the rate of ion bombardment.

  20. Continuous Bed Ion Exchange Column

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lebendiker, Mario

    UNOTM Q&S Continuous Bed Ion Exchange Column Instruction Manual Catalog Numbers 720-0001, 720 with 5 column volumes of water. Elevated backpressures may occur when wash- ing with deionized water. Do

  1. Quantum logic with molecular ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolf, Fabian; Heip, Jan C; Gebert, Florian; Shi, Chunyan; Schmidt, Piet O

    2015-01-01

    Laser spectroscopy of cold and trapped molecular ions is a powerful tool for fundamental physics, including the determination of fundamental constants, the laboratory test for their possible variation, and the search for a possible electric dipole moment of the electron. Optical clocks based on molecular ions sensitive to some of these effects are expected to achieve uncertainties approaching the $10^{-18}$ level. While the complexity of molecular structure facilitates these applications, the absence of cycling transitions poses a challenge for direct laser cooling, quantum state control, and detection. Previously employed state detection techniques based on photo-dissociation or chemical reactions are destructive and therefore inefficient. Here we experimentally demonstrate non-destructive state detection of a single trapped molecular ion through its strong Coulomb coupling to a well-controlled co-trapped atomic ion. An algorithm based on a state-dependent optical dipole force(ODF) changes the internal state...

  2. Heavy ion medical accelerator options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gough, R.A.; Alonso, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    This paper briefly explores the accelerator technology available for heavy ion medical accelerators in the mass range of 1 to 40 (protons through argon). Machines that are designed to produce the required intensities of a particular design ion, such as silicon (mass 28), can satisfy the intensity requirements for all lighter ions, and can produce beams with higher mass, such as argon, at somewhat reduced, but still useful intensity levels. They can also provide beams of radioactive ions, such as carbon-11 and neon-19, which are useful in diagnostic imaging and for directly verifiable treatments. These accelerators are all based on proven technology, and can be built at predictable costs. It is the conclusion of several design studies that they can be operated reliably in a hospital-based environment. 8 refs., 22 figs.

  3. Vitrification of ion exchange resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cicero-Herman, Connie A. (Aiken, SC); Workman, Rhonda Jackson (North Augusta, SC)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates to vitrification of ion exchange resins that have become loaded with hazardous or radioactive wastes, in a way that produces a homogenous and durable waste form and reduces the disposal volume of the resin. The methods of the present invention involve directly adding borosilicate glass formers and an oxidizer to the ion exchange resin and heating the mixture at sufficient temperature to produce homogeneous glass.

  4. Advanced Surface and Microstructural Characterization of Natural Graphite Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallego, Nidia C [ORNL] [ORNL; Contescu, Cristian I [ORNL] [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL] [ORNL; Howe, Jane Y [ORNL] [ORNL; Meisner, Roberta Ann [ORNL] [ORNL; Payzant, E Andrew [ORNL] [ORNL; Lance, Michael J [ORNL] [ORNL; Yoon, Steve [A123 Systems, Inc.] [A123 Systems, Inc.; Denlinger, Matthew [A123 Systems, Inc.] [A123 Systems, Inc.; Wood III, David L [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Natural graphite powders were subjected to a series of thermal treatments in order to improve the anode irreversible capacity loss (ICL) and capacity retention during long-term cycling of lithium ion batteries. A baseline thermal treatment in inert Ar or N2 atmosphere was compared to cases with a proprietary additive to the furnace gas environment. This additive substantially altered the surface chemistry of the natural graphite powders and resulted in significantly improved long-term cycling performance of the lithium ion batteries over the commercial natural graphite baseline. Different heat-treatment temperatures were investigated ranging from 950-2900 C with the intent of achieving the desired long-term cycling performance with as low of a maximum temperature and thermal budget as possible. A detailed summary of the characterization data is also presented, which includes X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, and temperature-programed desorption mass spectroscopy (TPD-MS). This characterization data was correlated to the observed capacity fade improvements over the course of long-term cycling at high charge-discharge rates in full lithium-ion coin cells. It is believed that the long-term performance improvements are a result of forming a more stable solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer on the anode graphite surfaces, which is directly related to the surface chemistry modifications imparted by the proprietary gas environment during thermal treatment.

  5. Sympathetic cooling and detection of a hot trapped ion by a cold one

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guggemos, M; Herrera-Sancho, O A; Blatt, R; Roos, C F

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of an ion sympathetically cooled by another laser-cooled ion or small ion crystal. To this end, we develop simple models of the cooling dynamics in the limit of weak Coulomb interactions. Experimentally, we create a two-ion crystal of Ca$^+$ and Al$^+$ by photo-ionization of neutral atoms produced by laser ablation. We characterize the velocity distribution of the laser-ablated atoms crossing the trap by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. We observe neutral atom velocities much higher than the ones of thermally heated samples and find as a consequence long sympathethic cooling times before crystallization occurs. Our key result is a new technique for detecting the loading of an initially hot ion with energy in the eV range by monitoring the motional state of a Doppler-cooled ion already present in the trap. This technique not only detects the ion but also provides information about dynamics of the sympathetic cooling process.

  6. Sympathetic cooling and detection of a hot trapped ion by a cold one

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Guggemos; D. Heinrich; O. A. Herrera-Sancho; R. Blatt; C. F. Roos

    2015-08-11

    We investigate the dynamics of an ion sympathetically cooled by another laser-cooled ion or small ion crystal. To this end, we develop simple models of the cooling dynamics in the limit of weak Coulomb interactions. Experimentally, we create a two-ion crystal of Ca$^+$ and Al$^+$ by photo-ionization of neutral atoms produced by laser ablation. We characterize the velocity distribution of the laser-ablated atoms crossing the trap by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. We observe neutral atom velocities much higher than the ones of thermally heated samples and find as a consequence long sympathethic cooling times before crystallization occurs. Our key result is a new technique for detecting the loading of an initially hot ion with energy in the eV range by monitoring the motional state of a Doppler-cooled ion already present in the trap. This technique not only detects the ion but also provides information about dynamics of the sympathetic cooling process.

  7. The effect of turbulent kinetic energy on inferred ion temperature from neutron spectra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, T. J., E-mail: tjmurphy@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Measuring the width of the energy spectrum of fusion-produced neutrons from deuterium (DD) or deuterium-tritium (DT) plasmas is a commonly used method for determining the ion temperature in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions. In a plasma with a Maxwellian distribution of ion energies, the spread in neutron energy arises from the thermal spread in the center-of-mass velocities of reacting pairs of ions. Fluid velocities in ICF are of a similar magnitude as the center-of-mass velocities and can lead to further broadening of the neutron spectrum, leading to erroneous inference of ion temperature. Motion of the reacting plasma will affect DD and DT neutrons differently, leading to disagreement between ion temperatures inferred from the two reactions. This effect may be a contributor to observations over the past decades of ion temperatures higher than expected from simulations, ion temperatures in disagreement with observed yields, and different temperatures measured in the same implosion from DD and DT neutrons. This difference in broadening of DD and DT neutrons also provides a measure of turbulent motion in a fusion plasma.

  8. Thermal Evolution of Strange Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou Xia; Wang Lingzhi; Zhou Aizhi

    2007-09-03

    We investigated the thermal evolution of rotating strange stars with the deconfinement heating due to magnetic braking. We consider the stars consisting of either normal quark matter or color-flavor-locked phase. Combining deconfinement heating with magnetic field decay, we find that the thermal evolution curves are identical to pulsar data.

  9. Thermal entanglement of bosonic modes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Asoudeh

    2006-07-21

    We study the change of entanglement under general linear transformation of modes in a bosonic system and determine the conditions under which entanglement can be generated under such transformation. As an example we consider the thermal entanglement between the vibrational modes of two coupled oscillators and determine the temperature above which quantum correlations are destroyed by thermal fluctuations.

  10. Peg supported thermal insulation panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nowobilski, J.J.; Owens, W.J.

    1985-04-30

    A thermal insulation panel which is lightweight, load bearing, accommodates thermal stress, and has excellent high temperature insulation capability comprises high performance insulation between thin metal walls supported by high density, high strength glass pegs made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure. 2 figs.

  11. Orthogonal ion injection apparatus and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kurulugama, Ruwan T; Belov, Mikhail E

    2014-04-15

    An orthogonal ion injection apparatus and process are described in which ions are directly injected into an ion guide orthogonal to the ion guide axis through an inlet opening located on a side of the ion guide. The end of the heated capillary is placed inside the ion guide such that the ions are directly injected into DC and RF fields inside the ion guide, which efficiently confines ions inside the ion guide. Liquid droplets created by the ionization source that are carried through the capillary into the ion guide are removed from the ion guide by a strong directional gas flow through an inlet opening on the opposite side of the ion guide. Strong DC and RF fields divert ions into the ion guide. In-guide orthogonal injection yields a noise level that is a factor of 1.5 to 2 lower than conventional inline injection known in the art. Signal intensities for low m/z ions are greater compared to convention inline injection under the same processing conditions.

  12. Lens system for a photo ion spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, D.M.; Young, C.E.; Pellin, M.J.

    1990-11-27

    A lens system in a photo ion spectrometer for manipulating a primary ion beam and ionized atomic component is disclosed. The atomic components are removed from a sample by a primary ion beam using the lens system, and the ions are extracted for analysis. The lens system further includes ionization resistant coatings for protecting the lens system. 8 figs.

  13. Lens system for a photo ion spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL); Young, Charles E. (Westmont, IL); Pellin, Michael J. (Napersville, IL)

    1990-01-01

    A lens system in a photo ion spectrometer for manipulating a primary ion beam and ionized atomic component. The atomic components are removed from a sample by a primary ion beam using the lens system, and the ions are extracted for analysis. The lens system further includes ionization resistant coatings for protecting the lens system.

  14. Overview of Light-Ion Beam Therapy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chu, William T.

    2006-01-01

    measurements using various dosimeters. Discussions of theseamong ion-beam centers • Dosimeter calibrations • Do you

  15. LMFBR thermal-striping evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brunings, J.E.

    1982-10-01

    Thermal striping is defined as the fluctuating temperature field that is imposed on a structure when fluid streams at different temperatures mix in the vicinity of the structure surface. Because of the uncertainty in structural damage in LMFBR structures subject to thermal striping, EPRI has funded an effort for the Rockwell International Energy Systems Group to evaluate this problem. This interim report presents the following information: (1) a Thermal Striping Program Plan which identifies areas of analytic and experimental needs and presents a program of specific tasks to define damage experienced by ordinary materials of construction and to evaluate conservatism in the existing approach; (2) a description of the Thermal Striping Test Facility and its operation; and (3) results from the preliminary phase of testing to characterize the fluid environment to be applied in subsequent thermal striping damage experiments.

  16. 303:20130618.1036 Thermal Engineering Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    303:20130618.1036 Thermal Engineering Group LASP's Thermal Engineering Group is involved in all of the component, as well as on-orbit trending and operations planning. Design Experience The Thermal Engineering Systems Engineering The group has formulated general thermal design and thermal interface requirements

  17. Structural modifications in InP nanostructures prepared by Ar{sup +}-ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohanta, S. K.; Soni, R. K.; Gosvami, N. N.; Vajpeyi, A. P.; Tripathy, S.

    2007-10-01

    The evolution of nanopatterned InP surfaces by low-energy Ar{sup +}-ion irradiation and their dependence on incidence angle were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and Raman scattering. Ordered surface nanodots of high aspect ratio were created. At large ion incidence angle the dot density decreases and the size varies in the range of 65-130 nm with height of around 25-30 nm. Rapid thermal annealing of the patterned surface shows cluster formation at annealing temperatures of 400 deg. C and above, with some micro-cracks at ion incidence angle of 45 deg. C . With increasing ion incidence angle, the optical phonon Raman modes display systematic downward shift and large asymmetric broadening associated with increased contribution of disorder activated LO and TO modes from the patterned surface. The lowering of phonon frequencies, induced by the phonon wave function confinement, signifies the presence of embedded nanocrystallites in the large sized nanodot patterned surface. The surface damage recovery is achieved by rapid thermal annealing of the samples as reflected in the increased optical phonon frequencies and reduced line shape broadening with annealing temperature. For large ion incident angle, the strain relaxation in the irradiated surface region leads to micro-crack formation in the patterned surface and further hardening of the phonon frequencies.

  18. Beyond Conventional Cathode Materials for Li-ion Batteries and Na-ion Batteries Nickel fluoride conversion materials and P2 type Na-ion intercalation cathodes /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Dae Hoe

    2013-01-01

    Electrode for Sodium Ion Batteries. Chemistry of Materialsnickel fluoride in Li ion batteries. Electrochimica Actafor advanced lithium ion batteries. Materials Science and

  19. Beyond Conventional Cathode Materials for Li-ion Batteries and Na-ion Batteries Nickel fluoride conversion materials and P2 type Na-ion intercalation cathodes /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Dae Hoe

    2013-01-01

    for advanced lithium ion batteries. Materials Science andin high voltage lithium ion batteries: A joint experimentalof rechargeable lithium-ion batteries after prolonged

  20. Thermal to electricity conversion using thermal magnetic properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    West, Phillip B [Idaho Falls, ID; Svoboda, John [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-04-27

    A system for the generation of Electricity from Thermal Energy using the thermal magnetic properties of a Ferromagnetic, Electrically Conductive Material (FECM) in one or more Magnetic Fields. A FECM is exposed to one or more Magnetic Fields. Thermal Energy is applied to a portion of the FECM heating the FECM above its Curie Point. The FECM, now partially paramagnetic, moves under the force of the one or more Magnetic Fields. The movement of the FECM induces an electrical current through the FECM, generating Electricity.

  1. Thermal Stress and Reliability for Advanced Power Electronics...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Thermal Stress and Reliability for Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Machines Power Electronic Thermal System Performance and Integration Thermal...

  2. Fiber-optic thermometer application of thermal radiation from rare-earth end-doped SiO{sub 2} fiber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katsumata, Toru, E-mail: katsumat@toyo.jp; Morita, Kentaro; Komuro, Shuji; Aizawa, Hiroaki [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Toyo University, 2100 Kujirai, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    Visible light thermal radiation from SiO{sub 2} glass doped with Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu were studied for the fiber-optic thermometer application based on the temperature dependence of thermal radiation. Thermal radiations according to Planck's law of radiation are observed from the SiO{sub 2} fibers doped with Y, La, Ce, Pr, Eu, Tb, and Lu at the temperature above 1100 K. Thermal radiations due to f-f transitions of rare-earth ions are observed from the SiO{sub 2} fibers doped with Nd, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, and Yb at the temperature above 900 K. Peak intensities of thermal radiations from rare-earth doped SiO{sub 2} fibers increase sensitively with temperature. Thermal activation energies of thermal radiations by f-f transitions seen in Nd, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, and Yb doped SiO{sub 2} fibers are smaller than those from SiO{sub 2} fibers doped with Y, La, Ce, Pr, Eu, Tb, and Lu. Thermal radiation due to highly efficient f-f transitions in Nd, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, and Yb ions emits more easily than usual thermal radiation process. Thermal radiations from rare-earth doped SiO{sub 2} are potentially applicable for the fiber-optic thermometry above 900 K.

  3. Observations of strong ion-ion correlations in dense plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, T., E-mail: ma8@llnl.gov; Pak, A.; Landen, O. L.; Le Pape, S.; Turnbull, D.; Döppner, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Fletcher, L.; Galtier, E.; Hastings, J.; Lee, H. J.; Nagler, B.; Glenzer, S. H. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)] [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Chapman, D. A. [Plasma Physics Group, AWE plc, Reading RG7 4PR (United Kingdom) [Plasma Physics Group, AWE plc, Reading RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Falcone, R. W. [Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)] [Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Fortmann, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States) [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Gericke, D. O. [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)] [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Gregori, G.; White, T. G. [University of Oxford, Clarendon Laboratory, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom)] [University of Oxford, Clarendon Laboratory, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Neumayer, P. [Extreme Matter Institute, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)] [Extreme Matter Institute, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Vorberger, J. [Max Planck Institut für Physik komplexer Systeme, Nötthnizer Straße 38, 01187 Dresden (Germany)] [Max Planck Institut für Physik komplexer Systeme, Nötthnizer Straße 38, 01187 Dresden (Germany); and others

    2014-05-15

    Using simultaneous spectrally, angularly, and temporally resolved x-ray scattering, we measure the pronounced ion-ion correlation peak in a strongly coupled plasma. Laser-driven shock-compressed aluminum at ?3× solid density is probed with high-energy photons at 17.9?keV created by molybdenum He-? emission in a laser-driven plasma source. The measured elastic scattering feature shows a well-pronounced correlation peak at a wave vector of k=4Å{sup ?1}. The magnitude of this correlation peak cannot be described by standard plasma theories employing a linear screened Coulomb potential. Advanced models, including a strong short-range repulsion due to the inner structure of the aluminum ions are however in good agreement with the scattering data. These studies have demonstrated a new highly accurate diagnostic technique to directly measure the state of compression and the ion-ion correlations. We have since applied this new method in single-shot wave-number resolved S(k) measurements to characterize the physical properties of dense plasmas.

  4. Summary of Testing of SuperLig 639 at the TFL Ion Exchange Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steimke, J.L.

    2000-12-19

    A pilot scale facility was designed and built in the Thermal Fluids Laboratory at the Savannah River Technology Center to test ion exchange resins for removing technetium and cesium from simulated Hanford Low Activity Waste (LAW). The facility supports the design of the Hanford River Protection Project for BNFL, Inc. The pilot scale system mimics the full-length of the columns and the operational scenario of the planned ion exchange system. Purposes of the testing include confirmation of the design, evaluation of methods for process optimization and developing methods for waste volume minimization. This report documents the performance of the technetium removal resin.

  5. Solar Thermal Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biesinger, K.; Cuppett, D.; Dyer, D.

    2012-01-30

    HVAC Retrofit and Energy Efficiency Upgrades at Clark High School, Las Vegas, Nevada The overall objectives of this project are to increase usage of alternative/renewable fuels, create a better and more reliable learning environment for the students, and reduce energy costs. Utilizing the grant resources and local bond revenues, the District proposes to reduce electricity consumption by installing within the existing limited space, one principal energy efficient 100 ton adsorption chiller working in concert with two 500 ton electric chillers. The main heating source will be primarily from low nitrogen oxide (NOX), high efficiency natural gas fired boilers. With the use of this type of chiller, the electric power and cost requirements will be greatly reduced. To provide cooling to the information technology centers and equipment rooms of the school during off-peak hours, the District will install water source heat pumps. In another measure to reduce the cooling requirements at Clark High School, the District will replace single pane glass and metal panels with ā??Kalwallā?? building panels. An added feature of the ā??Kalwallā?¯ system is that it will allow for natural day lighting in the student center. This system will significantly reduce thermal heat/cooling loss and control solar heat gain, thus delivering significant savings in heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) costs.

  6. Microelectromechanical (MEM) thermal actuator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garcia, Ernest J. (Albuquerque, NM); Fulcher, Clay W. G. (Sandia Park, NM)

    2012-07-31

    Microelectromechanical (MEM) buckling beam thermal actuators are disclosed wherein the buckling direction of a beam is constrained to a desired direction of actuation, which can be in-plane or out-of-plane with respect to a support substrate. The actuators comprise as-fabricated, linear beams of uniform cross section supported above the substrate by supports which rigidly attach a beam to the substrate. The beams can be heated by methods including the passage of an electrical current through them. The buckling direction of an initially straight beam upon heating and expansion is controlled by incorporating one or more directional constraints attached to the substrate and proximal to the mid-point of the beam. In the event that the beam initially buckles in an undesired direction, deformation of the beam induced by contact with a directional constraint generates an opposing force to re-direct the buckling beam into the desired direction. The displacement and force generated by the movement of the buckling beam can be harnessed to perform useful work, such as closing contacts in an electrical switch.

  7. Thermal energy storage apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thoma, P.E.

    1980-04-22

    A thermal energy storage apparatus and method employs a container formed of soda lime glass and having a smooth, defectfree inner wall. The container is filled substantially with a material that can be supercooled to a temperature greater than 5* F., such as ethylene carbonate, benzophenone, phenyl sulfoxide, di-2-pyridyl ketone, phenyl ether, diphenylmethane, ethylene trithiocarbonate, diphenyl carbonate, diphenylamine, 2benzoylpyridine, 3-benzoylpyridine, 4-benzoylpyridine, 4methylbenzophenone, 4-bromobenzophenone, phenyl salicylate, diphenylcyclopropenone, benzyl sulfoxide, 4-methoxy-4prmethylbenzophenone, n-benzoylpiperidine, 3,3pr,4,4pr,5 pentamethoxybenzophenone, 4,4'-bis-(Dimethylamino)-benzophenone, diphenylboron bromide, benzalphthalide, benzophenone oxime, azobenzene. A nucleating means such as a seed crystal, a cold finger or pointed member is movable into the supercoolable material. A heating element heats the supercoolable material above the melting temperature to store heat. The material is then allowed to cool to a supercooled temperature below the melting temperature, but above the natural, spontaneous nucleating temperature. The liquid in each container is selectively initiated into nucleation to release the heat of fusion. The heat may be transferred directly or through a heat exchange unit within the material.

  8. Medical heavy ion accelerator proposals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gough, R.A.

    1985-05-01

    For several decades, accelerators designed primarily for research in nuclear and high energy physics have been adapted for biomedical research including radiotherapeutic treatment of human diseases such as pituitary disorders, cancer, and more recently, arteriovascular malformations. The particles used in these treatments include pions, protons and heavier ions such as carbon, neon, silicon and argon. Maximum beam energies must be available to penetrate into an equivalent of about 30 cm of water, requiring treatment beams of 250 to 1000 MeV/nucleon. Certain special treatments of superficial melanoma, however, require that beam energies as low as 70 MeV/nucleon also be available. Intensities must be adequate to complete a 100 rad treatment fraction in about 1 minute. For most heavy ion treatments, this corresponds to 10/sup 7/-10/sup 9/ ions/second at the patient. Because this research is best conducted in a dedicated, hospital-based facility, and because of the clinical need for ultra-high reliability, the construction of new and dedicated facilities has been proposed. Heavy ion accelerators can provide a variety of ions and energies, permitting treatment plans that exploit the properties of the ion best suited to each individual treatment, and that employ radioactive beams (such as /sup 11/C and /sup 19/Ne) to precisely confirm the dose localization. The favored technical approach in these proposals utilizes a conventional, strong-focusing synchrotron capable of fast switching between ions and energies, and servicing multiple treatment rooms. Specialized techniques for shaping the dose to conform to irregularly-shaped target volumes, while simultaneously sparing surrounding, healthy tissue and critical structures, are employed in each treatment room, together with the sophisticated dosimetry necessary for verification, monitoring, and patient safety. 3 refs., 8 figs.

  9. THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE IN AQUIFERS WORKSHOP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2011-01-01

    the arrival Stored Heat Energy and Thermal Pollution DailyAn Answer to Energy Conservation and Thermal validity of ourWells for Conserving Energy and Reducing Thermal Pollution,"

  10. THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE IN AQUIFERS WORKSHOP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2011-01-01

    Resources Res. 14: 273-280. THERMAL STORAGE OF COLD WATER INR.C. HARE, 1972. Thermal Storage for Eco-Energy Utilities,W.J. MASICA, 1977. "Thermal Storage for Electric Utilities,"

  11. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE-A SURVEY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin Fu

    2012-01-01

    R. C. 1 1972 1 Thermal storage for eco=energy utilities: GE-and Harris, w. B. 0 1978 0 Thermal storage of cold water induration EXPERIMENTS Thermal storage radius (m) thickness

  12. Lake thermal structure influences macroinvertebrate predation on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnott, Shelley

    . KEYWORDS: thermal stratification; climate warming; Chaoborus; notonectid; Boreal Shield; mesocosm INTRODUCTION Climate change is expected to alter the timing, strength and depth of thermal stratificationLake thermal structure influences macroinvertebrate predation on crustacean zooplankton SHANNON A

  13. Thermal properties of soils and soils testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-02-17

    The thermal properties of soils are reviewed with reference to the use of soils as heat sources, heat sinks, or thermal storage. Specific heat and thermal conductivity are discussed. (ACR)

  14. THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE IN AQUIFERS WORKSHOP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2011-01-01

    20) E. B. Quale. Seasonal storage of thermal energy in waterE.B. , 1976. "Seasonal Storage of Thermal Energy in Water ina truly worthwhile goal. Seasonal Storage of Thermal Energy

  15. Advanced nanofabrication of thermal emission devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hurley, Fergus (Fergus Gerard)

    2008-01-01

    Nanofabricated thermal emission devices can be used to modify and modulate blackbody thermal radiation. There are many areas in which altering thermal radiation is extremely useful, especially in static power conversion, ...

  16. Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Hyuck

    2011-01-01

    ocean thermal energy, distributed solar thermal energy,heat source can be solar thermal energy, biological thermaland concentrated solar thermal energy farms. They demand

  17. Thermoelectrics Combined with Solar Concentration for Electrical and Thermal Cogeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Philip Robert

    2012-01-01

    significant challenge for solar thermal energy generation issolar thermal, cogeneration of electrical and thermal energy, andfor efficient energy production. Solar thermal plants, such

  18. Thermoelectrics Combined with Solar Concentration for Electrical and Thermal Cogeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Philip Robert

    2012-01-01

    significant challenge for solar thermal energy generation issolar thermal, cogeneration of electrical and thermal energy,for efficient energy production. Solar thermal plants, such

  19. Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Hyuck

    2011-01-01

    heat source can be solar thermal energy, biological thermaland concentrated solar thermal energy farms. They demandsources include solar thermal energy, geo-thermal energy,

  20. Modeling the ion density distribution in collisional cooling RF multipole ion guides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Udseth, Harold R.; Smith, Richard D.

    2003-01-01

    Collisional cooling radio frequency (RF) multipoles are widely used in mass spectrometry, as ion guides and two-dimensional (2D) ion traps. Understanding the behavior of ions in these devices is important in choosing a multipole configuration. We have developed a computer model based on ion trajectory calculations in the RF multipole electric field, taking into account ion-ion and ion-neutral interactions. The two-dimensional model for idealized infinite RF multipoles gives accurate description of the ion density distribution. We consider first a basic case of a single m/z ion cloud in the 2D RF quadrupole after equilibrium is reached. Approximate theoretical relationships for the ion cloud configuration in the 2D ion trap are tested based on simulations results. Next we proceed with a case of an ion cloud consisting of several different m/z ion species. The ion relaxation dynamics and the process of establishing the stratified ion density distribution are followed. Simulations reveal a different relaxation dynamics for the axial and radial ion kinetic energy components. The kinetic energy relaxation rate is dependent on ion population and bath gas pressure. The equilibrium distribution agrees well with the ion stratification theory, as demonstrated by simulations for RF quadrupole and octupole 2D ion traps.

  1. Maskless, resistless ion beam lithography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ji, Qing

    2003-03-10

    As the dimensions of semiconductor devices are scaled down, in order to achieve higher levels of integration, optical lithography will no longer be sufficient for the needs of the semiconductor industry. Alternative next-generation lithography (NGL) approaches, such as extreme ultra-violet (EUV), X-ray, electron-beam, and ion projection lithography face some challenging issues with complicated mask technology and low throughput. Among the four major alternative NGL approaches, ion beam lithography is the only one that can provide both maskless and resistless patterning. As such, it can potentially make nano-fabrication much simpler. This thesis investigates a focused ion beam system for maskless, resistless patterning that can be made practical for high-volume production. In order to achieve maskless, resistless patterning, the ion source must be able to produce a variety of ion species. The compact FIB system being developed uses a multicusp plasma ion source, which can generate ion beams of various elements, such as O{sub 2}{sup +}, BF{sub 2}{sup +}, P{sup +} etc., for surface modification and doping applications. With optimized source condition, around 85% of BF{sub 2}{sup +}, over 90% of O{sub 2}{sup +} and P{sup +} have been achieved. The brightness of the multicusp-plasma ion source is a key issue for its application to maskless ion beam lithography. It can be substantially improved by optimizing the source configuration and extractor geometry. Measured brightness of 2 keV He{sup +} beam is as high as 440 A/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} Sr, which represents a 30x improvement over prior work. Direct patterning of Si thin film using a focused O{sub 2}{sup +} ion beam has been investigated. A thin surface oxide film can be selectively formed using 3 keV O{sub 2}{sup +} ions with the dose of 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}. The oxide can then serve as a hard mask for patterning of the Si film. The process flow and the experimental results for directly patterned poly-Si features are presented. The formation of shallow pn-junctions in bulk silicon wafers by scanning focused P{sup +} beam implantation at 5 keV is also presented. With implantation dose of around 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2}, the electron concentration is about 2.5 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} and electron mobility is around 200 cm{sup 2}/V{center_dot}s. To demonstrate the suitability of scanning FIB lithography for the manufacture of integrated circuit devices, SOI MOSFET fabrication using the maskless, resistless ion beam lithography is demonstrated. An array of microcolumns can be built by stacking multi-aperture electrode and insulator layers. Because the multicusp plasma source can achieve uniform ion density over a large area, it can be used in conjunction with the array of microcolumns, for massively parallel FIB processing to achieve reasonable exposure throughput.

  2. Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ascari, Matthew

    2012-10-28

    The Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization (OTEEV) project focuses on assessing the Maximum Practicably Extractable Energy (MPEE) from the world’s ocean thermal resources. MPEE is defined as being sustainable and technically feasible, given today’s state-of-the-art ocean energy technology. Under this project the OTEEV team developed a comprehensive Geospatial Information System (GIS) dataset and software tool, and used the tool to provide a meaningful assessment of MPEE from the global and domestic U.S. ocean thermal resources.

  3. Rapid thermal processing by stamping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stradins, Pauls; Wang, Qi

    2013-03-05

    A rapid thermal processing device and methods are provided for thermal processing of samples such as semiconductor wafers. The device has components including a stamp (35) having a stamping surface and a heater or cooler (40) to bring it to a selected processing temperature, a sample holder (20) for holding a sample (10) in position for intimate contact with the stamping surface; and positioning components (25) for moving the stamping surface and the stamp (35) in and away from intimate, substantially non-pressured contact. Methods for using and making such devices are also provided. These devices and methods allow inexpensive, efficient, easily controllable thermal processing.

  4. Characterization of Electrode Materials for Lithium Ion and Sodium Ion Batteries using Synchrotron Radiation Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.

    2013-01-01

    Rechargeable Sodium-Ion Batteries: Potential Alternatives toCurrent Lithium-Ion Batteries. Adv. Energy Mater. 2 (2012):J. , Rojo, T. Na-ion Batteries, Recent Advances and Present

  5. Voltage, Stability and Diffusion Barrier Differences between Sodium-ion and Lithium-ion Intercalation Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ong, Shyue Ping

    To evaluate the potential of Na-ion batteries, we contrast in this work the difference between Na-ion and Li-ion based intercalation chemistries in terms of three key battery properties—voltage, phase stability and diffusion ...

  6. Characterization of Electrode Materials for Lithium Ion and Sodium Ion Batteries using Synchrotron Radiation Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.

    2013-01-01

    Alternatives to Current Lithium-Ion Batteries. Adv. EnergyMaterials for Lithium Ion Batteries. Materials Matters. 7 4.to the Study of Lithium Ion Batteries. J. Solid State

  7. Characterization of an iodine-based ionic liquid ion source and studies on ion fragmentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fedkiw, Timothy Peter

    2010-01-01

    Electrosprays are a well studied source of charged droplets and ions. A specific subclass is the ionic liquid ion source (ILIS), which produce ion beams from the electrostatically stressed meniscus of ionic liquids. ILIS ...

  8. Three chamber negative ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA); Ehlers, Kenneth W. (Alamo, CA); Hiskes, John R. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A negative ion vessel is divided into an excitation chamber, a negative ionization chamber and an extraction chamber by two magnetic filters. Input means introduces neutral molecules into a first chamber where a first electron discharge means vibrationally excites the molecules which migrate to a second chamber. In the second chamber a second electron discharge means ionizes the molecules, producing negative ions which are extracted into or by a third chamber. A first magnetic filter prevents high energy electrons from entering the negative ionization chamber from the excitation chamber. A second magnetic filter prevents high energy electrons from entering the extraction chamber from the negative ionizing chamber. An extraction grid at the end of the negative ion vessel attracts negative ions into the third chamber and accelerates them. Another grid, located adjacent to the extraction grid, carries a small positive voltage in order to inhibit positive ions from migrating into the extraction chamber and contour the plasma potential. Additional electrons can be suppressed from the output flux using ExB forces provided by magnetic field means and the extractor grid electric potential.

  9. Categorical ExclusIon DeterminatIon Fornl

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B LReportsDeterminatIon Fornl ProjectDeterminatIon Fornl Project

  10. Anomalous Electron Transport Due to Multiple High Frequency Beam Ion Driven Alfven Eigenmode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorelenkov, N. N.; Stutman, D.; Tritz, K.; Boozer, A.; Delgardo-Aparicio, L.; Fredrickson, E.; Kaye, S.; White, R.

    2010-07-13

    We report on the simulations of recently observed correlations of the core electron transport with the sub-thermal ion cyclotron frequency instabilities in low aspect ratio plasmas of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). In order to model the electron transport of the guiding center code ORBIT is employed. A spectrum of test functions of multiple core localized Global shear Alfven Eigenmode (GAE) instabilities based on a previously developed theory and experimental observations is used to examine the electron transport properties. The simulations exhibit thermal electron transport induced by electron drift orbit stochasticity in the presence of multiple core localized GAE.

  11. Integrated External Aerodynamic and Underhood Thermal Analysis...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    External Aerodynamic and Underhood Thermal Analysis for Heavy Vehicles Integrated External Aerodynamic and Underhood Thermal Analysis for Heavy Vehicles 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel...

  12. Develop & Evaluate Materials & Additives that Enhance Thermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Evaluate Materials & Additives that Enhance Thermal & Overcharge Abuse Develop & Evaluate Materials & Additives that Enhance Thermal & Overcharge Abuse 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel...

  13. Continuous Processing of High Thermal Conductivity Polyethylene...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Processing of High Thermal Conductivity Polyethylene Fibers and Sheets Continuous Processing of High Thermal Conductivity Polyethylene Fibers and Sheets Massachusetts Institute of...

  14. Thermally Activated Technologies Technology Roadmap, May 2003...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermally Activated Technologies Technology Roadmap, May 2003 Thermally Activated Technologies Technology Roadmap, May 2003 The purpose of this Technology Roadmap is to outline a...

  15. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giebink, Noel C.

    2015-01-31

    This program set out to explore a scattering-based approach to concentrate sunlight with the aim of improving collector field reliability and of eliminating wind loading and gross mechanical movement through the use of a stationary collection optic. The approach is based on scattering sunlight from the focal point of a fixed collection optic into the confined modes of a sliding planar waveguide, where it is transported to stationary tubular heat transfer elements located at the edges. Optical design for the first stage of solar concentration, which entails focusing sunlight within a plane over a wide range of incidence angles (>120 degree full field of view) at fixed tilt, led to the development of a new, folded-path collection optic that dramatically out-performs the current state-of-the-art in scattering concentration. Rigorous optical simulation and experimental testing of this collection optic have validated its performance. In the course of this work, we also identified an opportunity for concentrating photovoltaics involving the use of high efficiency microcells made in collaboration with partners at the University of Illinois. This opportunity exploited the same collection optic design as used for the scattering solar thermal concentrator and was therefore pursued in parallel. This system was experimentally demonstrated to achieve >200x optical concentration with >70% optical efficiency over a full day by tracking with <1 cm of lateral movement at fixed latitude tilt. The entire scattering concentrator waveguide optical system has been simulated, tested, and assembled at small scale to verify ray tracing models. These models were subsequently used to predict the full system optical performance at larger, deployment scale ranging up to >1 meter aperture width. Simulations at an aperture widths less than approximately 0.5 m with geometric gains ~100x predict an overall optical efficiency in the range 60-70% for angles up to 50 degrees from normal. However, the concentrator optical efficiency was found to decrease significantly with increasing aperture width beyond 0.5 m due to parasitic waveguide out-coupling loss and low-level absorption that become dominant at larger scale. A heat transfer model was subsequently implemented to predict collector fluid heat gain and outlet temperature as a function of flow rate using the optical model as a flux input. It was found that the aperture width size limitation imposed by the optical efficiency characteristics of the waveguide limits the absolute optical power delivered to the heat transfer element per unit length. As compared to state-of-the-art parabolic trough CPV system aperture widths approaching 5 m, this limitation leads to an approximate factor of order of magnitude increase in heat transfer tube length to achieve the same heat transfer fluid outlet temperature. The conclusion of this work is that scattering solar thermal concentration cannot be implemented at the scale and efficiency required to compete with the performance of current parabolic trough CSP systems. Applied within the alternate context of CPV, however, the results of this work have likely opened up a transformative new path that enables quasi-static, high efficiency CPV to be implemented on rooftops in the form factor of traditional fixed-panel photovoltaics.

  16. Method for reduction of selected ion intensities in confined ion beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eiden, Gregory C. (Richland, WA); Barinaga, Charles J. (Richland, WA); Koppenaal, David W. (Richland, WA)

    1998-01-01

    A method for producing an ion beam having an increased proportion of analyte ions compared to carrier gas ions is disclosed. Specifically, the method has the step of addition of a charge transfer gas to the carrier analyte combination that accepts charge from the carrier gas ions yet minimally accepts charge from the analyte ions thereby selectively neutralizing the carrier gas ions. Also disclosed is the method as employed in various analytical instruments including an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer.

  17. Apparatus for reduction of selected ion intensities in confined ion beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eiden, Gregory C. (Richland, WA); Barinaga, Charles J. (Richland, WA); Koppenaal, David W. (Richland, WA)

    2001-01-01

    An apparatus for producing an ion beam having an increased proportion of analyte ions compared to carrier gas ions is disclosed. Specifically, the apparatus has an ion trap or a collision cell containing a reagent gas wherein the reagent gas accepts charge from the analyte ions thereby selectively neutralizing the carrier gas ions. Also disclosed is the collision cell as employed in various locations within analytical instruments including an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer.

  18. Method for reduction of selected ion intensities in confined ion beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eiden, G.C.; Barinaga, C.J.; Koppenaal, D.W.

    1998-06-16

    A method for producing an ion beam having an increased proportion of analyte ions compared to carrier gas ions is disclosed. Specifically, the method has the step of addition of a charge transfer gas to the carrier analyte combination that accepts charge from the carrier gas ions yet minimally accepts charge from the analyte ions thereby selectively neutralizing the carrier gas ions. Also disclosed is the method as employed in various analytical instruments including an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. 7 figs.

  19. High Resolution Ion Mobility Spectrometry with Increased Ion Transmission: Exploring the Analytical Utility of Periodic-Focusing DC Ion Guide Drift Cells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blase, Ryan Christopher

    2012-02-14

    Drift tube ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) is a powerful, post-ionization separation that yields structural information of ions through an ion-neutral collision cross section. The ion-neutral collision cross section is governed by the collision...

  20. Pseudo ribbon metal ion beam source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stepanov, Igor B. Ryabchikov, Alexander I.; Sivin, Denis O.; Verigin, Dan A.

    2014-02-15

    The paper describes high broad metal ion source based on dc macroparticle filtered vacuum arc plasma generation with the dc ion-beam extraction. The possibility of formation of pseudo ribbon beam of metal ions with the parameters: ion beam length 0.6 m, ion current up to 0.2 A, accelerating voltage 40 kV, and ion energy up to 160 kV has been demonstrated. The pseudo ribbon ion beam is formed from dc vacuum arc plasma. The results of investigation of the vacuum arc evaporator ion-emission properties are presented. The influence of magnetic field strength near the cathode surface on the arc spot movement and ion-emission properties of vacuum-arc discharge for different cathode materials are determined. It was shown that vacuum-arc discharge stability can be reached when the magnetic field strength ranges from 40 to 70 G on the cathode surface.

  1. Optimal charging profiles for mechanically constrained lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suthar, B; Ramadesigan, V; De, S; Braatz, RD; Subramanian, VR

    2014-01-01

    The cost and safety related issues of lithium-ion batteries require intelligent charging profiles that can efficiently utilize the battery. This paper illustrates the application of dynamic optimization in obtaining the optimal current profile for charging a lithium-ion battery using a single-particle model while incorporating intercalation-induced stress generation. In this paper, we focus on the problem of maximizing the charge stored in a given time while restricting the development of stresses inside the particle. Conventional charging profiles for lithium-ion batteries (e.g., constant current followed by constant voltage) were not derived by considering capacity fade mechanisms. These charging profiles are not only inefficient in terms of lifetime usage of the batteries but are also slower since they do not exploit the changing dynamics of the system. Dynamic optimization based approaches have been used to derive optimal charging and discharging profiles with different objective functions. The progress made in understanding the capacity fade mechanisms has paved the way for inclusion of that knowledge in deriving optimal controls. While past efforts included thermal constraints, this paper for the first time presents strategies for optimally charging batteries by guaranteeing minimal mechanical damage to the electrode particles during intercalation. In addition, an executable form of the code has been developed and provided. This code can be used to identify optimal charging profiles for any material and design parameters.

  2. Photoionization of FE3+ Ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ovchinnikov, O.; Schlachter, F.

    2003-01-01

    Photoionization of Fe3+ ions was studied for the first time using synchrotron radiation from the Advanced Light Source (ALS) and the merged-beams technique. Fe3+ ions were successfully produced using ferrocene in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECR). The measured yield of Fe4+ photoions as a function of photon energy revealed the presence of resonances that correspond to excitation of autoionizing states. These resonances are superimposed upon the photoion yield produced by direct photoionization, which is a smooth, slowly decreasing function of energy. The spectra for the photoionization of Fe3+ will be analyzed and compared with theory. The data collected will also serve to test models for the propagation of light through ionized matter.

  3. Microscale ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramsey, J. Michael (Knoxville, TN); Witten, William B. (Lancing, TN); Kornienko, Oleg (Lansdale, PA)

    2002-01-01

    An ion trap for mass spectrometric chemical analysis of ions is delineated. The ion trap includes a central electrode having an aperture; a pair of insulators, each having an aperture; a pair of end cap electrodes, each having an aperture; a first electronic signal source coupled to the central electrode; a second electronic signal source coupled to the end cap electrodes. The central electrode, insulators, and end cap electrodes are united in a sandwich construction where their respective apertures are coaxially aligned and symmetric about an axis to form a partially enclosed cavity having an effective radius r.sub.0 and an effective length 2z.sub.0, wherein r.sub.0 and/or z.sub.0 are less than 1.0 mm, and a ratio z.sub.0 /r.sub.0 is greater than 0.83.

  4. Trapped-ion Lissajous trajectories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. F. Rossetti; G. D. de Moraes Neto; J. Carlos Egues; M. H. Y. Moussa

    2015-02-25

    Here we present a protocol for generating Lissajous curves with a trapped ion by engineering Rashba- and the Dresselhaus-type spin-orbit interactions in a Paul trap. The unique anisotropic Rashba $\\alpha_{x}$, $\\alpha_{y}$ and Dresselhaus $\\beta_{x}$, $\\beta_{y}$ couplings afforded by our setup also enables us to obtain an "unusual" Zitterbewegung, i.e., the semiconductor analog of the relativistic trembling motion of electrons, with cycloidal trajectories in the absence of magnetic fields. We have also introduced bounded SO interactions, confined to an upper-bound vibrational subspace of the Fock states, as an additional mechanism to manipulate the Lissajous motion of the trapped ion. Finally, we accounted for dissipative effects on the vibrational degrees of freedom of the ion and find that the Lissajous trajectories are still robust and well defined for realistic parameters.

  5. Acknowledgments Hard and Thermal Photon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Acknowledgments Hard and Thermal Photon Absorption in a QGP Eric Palmerduca 1,2 Advisor: Dr. Rainer Fries 2 1 Colgate University 2 Cyclotron Institute, Department of Physics and...

  6. Local laser induced rapid thermal oxidation of SOI substrates , R.A. Deutschmann, R. Neumann, K. Brunner, G. Abstreiter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deutschmann, Rainer

    Local laser induced rapid thermal oxidation of SOI substrates M. Huber* , R.A. Deutschmann, R by a focused laser beam. By focusing the cw light of an argon ion laser at a wavelength of 458 nm (514 nm) we achieve a diffraction limited laser spot of 315 nm (350 nm). The laser spot is scanned over the surface

  7. Ion Sources for High Energy Ion Implantation at BNL | U.S. DOE...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Ion Sources for High Energy Ion Implantation at BNL Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Applications of Nuclear Science...

  8. A double-plasma source of continuous bipolar ion-ion beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudin, S. V.; Scientific Center of Physical Technologies, Svobody sq. 6, 61022 Kharkiv ; Rafalskyi, D. V.

    2013-01-21

    A double-plasma source capable of the generation of a continuous bipolar ion-ion beam is described. The quasi-neutral ion-ion flow to an extraction electrode is formed in the system containing primary inductively coupled plasma separated from a secondary plasma by an electrostatic grid-type filter. The total current of each ion species to the 250 mm diameter extraction electrode is about 80 mA; the electron current does not exceed 30% of the ion current. Method of positive/negative ion current ratio control is proposed, allowing the ion currents ratio variation in wide range.

  9. Elliptic flow of thermal photons in chemically non-equilibrated QCD medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akihiko Monnai

    2014-10-31

    Heavy-ion experiments have recently revealed that azimuthal momentum anisotropy -- elliptic flow -- of direct photons from a QCD medium is a few times larger than hydrodynamic predictions. I present a possible explanation for the enhancement based on late quark chemical equilibration. The color glass theory indicates that the medium is initially gluon-rich. Thermal photons are then mainly produced after quarks are produced, at which point large flow anisotropy is developed. The numerical estimations indicate that slow chemical equilibration visibly enhances the elliptic flow of thermal photons.

  10. Thermal expansion of multiwall carbon nanotube reinforced nanocrystalline silver matrix composite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, Manjula Sharma, Vimal; Pal, Hemant

    2014-04-24

    Multiwall carbon nanotube reinforced silver matrix composite was fabricated by novel molecular level mixing method, which involves nucleation of Ag ions inside carbon nanotube dispersion at the molecular level. As a result the carbon nanotubes get embedded within the powder rather than on the surfaces. Micro structural characterization by X- ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy reveals that the nanotubes are homogeneously dispersed and anchored within the matrix. The thermal expansion of the composite with the multiwall nanotube content (0, 1.5 vol%) were investigated and it is found that coefficient of thermal expansion decreases with the addition of multiwall nanotube content and reduce to about 63% to that of pure Ag.

  11. Advanced Thermally Stable Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Boehman; C. Song; H. H. Schobert; M. M. Coleman; P. G. Hatcher; S. Eser

    1998-01-01

    The Penn State program in advanced thermally stable jet fuels has five components: 1) development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; 2) quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles during thermal stressing; 3) characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; 4) elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; and 5) assessment of the potential of producing high yields of cycloalkanes and hydroaromatics from coal.

  12. Thermally activated technologies: Technology Roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2003-05-01

    The purpose of this Technology Roadmap is to outline a set of actions for government and industry to develop thermally activated technologies for converting America’s wasted heat resources into a reservoir of pollution-free energy for electric power, heating, cooling, refrigeration, and humidity control. Fuel flexibility is important. The actions also cover thermally activated technologies that use fossil fuels, biomass, and ultimately hydrogen, along with waste heat.

  13. Power Electronics Thermal Control (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narumanchi, S.

    2010-05-05

    Thermal management plays an important part in the cost of electric drives in terms of power electronics packaging. Very promising results have been obtained by using microporous coatings and skived surfaces in conjunction with single-phase and two-phase flows. Sintered materials and thermoplastics with embedded fibers show significant promise as thermal interface materials, or TIMs. Appropriate cooling technologies depend on the power electronics package application and reliability.

  14. Lih thermal energy storage device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olszewski, Mitchell (Knoxville, TN); Morris, David G. (Knoxville, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A thermal energy storage device for use in a pulsed power supply to store waste heat produced in a high-power burst operation utilizes lithium hydride as the phase change thermal energy storage material. The device includes an outer container encapsulating the lithium hydride and an inner container supporting a hydrogen sorbing sponge material such as activated carbon. The inner container is in communication with the interior of the outer container to receive hydrogen dissociated from the lithium hydride at elevated temperatures.

  15. The TFTR E Parallel B Spectrometer for Mass and Energy Resolved Multi-Ion Charge Exchange Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.L. Roquemore; S.S. Medley

    1998-01-01

    The Charge Exchange Neutral Analyzer diagnostic for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor was designed to measure the energy distributions of both the thermal ions and the supra thermal populations arising from neutral-beam injection and ion cyclotron radio-frequency heating. These measurements yield the plasma ion temperature, as well as several other plasma parameters necessary to provide an understanding of the plasma condition and the performance of the auxiliary heating methods. For this application, a novel charge-exchange spectrometer using a dee-shaped region of parallel electric and magnetic fields was developed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The design and performance of this spectrometer is described in detail, including the effects of exposure of the microchannel plate detector to magnetic fields, neutrons, and tritium.

  16. Relating to monitoring ion sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Orr, Christopher Henry (Calderbridge, GB); Luff, Craig Janson (Calderbridge, GB); Dockray, Thomas (Calderbridge, GB); Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore (Los Alamos, NM); Bounds, John Alan (Los Alamos, NM)

    2002-01-01

    The apparatus and method provide techniques for monitoring the position on alpha contamination in or on items or locations. The technique is particularly applicable to pipes, conduits and other locations to which access is difficult. The technique uses indirect monitoring of alpha emissions by detecting ions generated by the alpha emissions. The medium containing the ions is moved in a controlled manner frog in proximity with the item or location to the detecting unit and the signals achieved over time are used to generate alpha source position information.

  17. Ion exchange purification of scandium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Herchenroeder, Laurie A. (Noblesville, IN); Burkholder, Harvey R. (Ames, IA)

    1990-10-23

    An improvement in purification of scandium through ion exchange chromatography is disclosed in which the oxidation potential of the eluting solution is altered by the addition of potassium chlorate or ammonium chloride so that removal of contaminants is encouraged. The temperature, pH and concentration of the eluent HEDTA are controlled in order to maintain the scandium in the column while minimizing dilution of the scandium band. Recovery of scandium is improved by pumping dilute scandium over the column prior to stripping the scandium and precipitation. This eliminates the HEDTA ion and other monovalent cations contaminating the scandium band. This method maximizes recovery of scandium while maintaining purity.

  18. Thermal Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-11-21

    HEATS Project: UT Austin will demonstrate a high-energy density and low-cost thermal storage system that will provide efficient cabin heating and cooling for EVs. Compared to existing HVAC systems powered by electric batteries in EVs, the innovative hot-and-cold thermal batteries-based technology is expected to decrease the manufacturing cost and increase the driving range of next-generation EVs. These thermal batteries can be charged with off-peak electric power together with the electric batteries. Based on innovations in composite materials offering twice the energy density of ice and 10 times the thermal conductivity of water, these thermal batteries are expected to achieve a comparable energy density at 25% of the cost of electric batteries. Moreover, because UT Austin’s thermal energy storage systems are modular, they may be incorporated into the heating and cooling systems in buildings, providing further energy efficiencies and positively impacting the emissions of current building heating/cooling systems.

  19. Multiscale modeling and characterization for performance and safety of lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pannala, Sreekanth; Turner, John A; Allu, Srikanth; Elwasif, Wael R; Kalnaus, Sergiy; Simunovic, Srdjan; Kumar, Abhishek; Billings, Jay Jay; Wang, Hsin; Nanda, Jagjit

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are highly complex electrochemical systems whose performance and safety are governed by coupled nonlinear electrochemical-electrical-thermal-mechanical processes over a range of spatiotemporal scales. In this paper we describe a new, open source computational framework for Lithium-ion battery simulations that is designed to support a variety of model types and formulations. This framework has been used to create three-dimensional cell and battery pack models that explicitly simulate all the battery components (current collectors, electrodes, and separator). The models are used to predict battery performance under normal operations and to study thermal and mechanical safety aspects under adverse conditions. The model development and validation are supported by experimental methods such as IR-imaging, X-ray tomography and micro-Raman mapping.

  20. Transition Region Emission and Energy Input to Thermal Plasma During the Impulsive Phase of Solar Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. C. Raymond; G. Holman; A. Ciaravella; A. Panasyuk; Y. -K. Ko; J. Kohl

    2007-01-12

    The energy released in a solar flare is partitioned between thermal and non-thermal particle energy and lost to thermal conduction and radiation over a broad range of wavelengths. It is difficult to determine the conductive losses and the energy radiated at transition region temperatures during the impulsive phases of flares. We use UVCS measurements of O VI photons produced by 5 flares and subsequently scattered by O VI ions in the corona to determine the 5.0 thermal energy and the conductive losses deduced from RHESSI and GOES X-ray data using areas from RHESSI images to estimate the loop volumes, cross-sectional areas and scale lengths. The transition region luminosities during the impulsive phase exceed the X-ray luminosities for the first few minutes, but they are smaller than the rates of increase of thermal energy unless the filling factor of the X-ray emitting gas is ~ 0.01. The estimated conductive losses from the hot gas are too large to be balanced by radiative losses or heating of evaporated plasma, and we conclude that the area of the flare magnetic flux tubes is much smaller than the effective area measured by RHESSI during this phase of the flares. For the 2002 July 23 flare, the energy deposited by non-thermal particles exceeds the X-ray and UV energy losses and the rate of increase of the thermal energy.