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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "geothermal wood wood" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Water Sampling At International Geothermal Area, New Zealand (Wood, 2002) |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

International Geothermal Area, New Zealand (Wood, 2002) International Geothermal Area, New Zealand (Wood, 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At International Geothermal Area New Zealand (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location International Geothermal Area New Zealand Exploration Technique Water Sampling Activity Date Usefulness could be useful with more improvements DOE-funding Unknown Notes Geothermal fluids from hot springs and wells have been sampled from a number of locations, including: 1) the North Island of New Zealand (three sets of samples from three different years) and the South Island of New Zealand (1 set of samples); 2) the Cascades of Oregon; 3) the Harney, Alvord Desert and Owyhee geothermal areas of Oregon; 4) the Dixie Valley

2

Water Sampling At International Geothermal Area, Philippines (Wood, 2002) |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Water Sampling At International Geothermal Area Water Sampling At International Geothermal Area Philippines (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location International Geothermal Area Philippines Exploration Technique Water Sampling Activity Date Usefulness could be useful with more improvements DOE-funding Unknown Notes Geothermal fluids from hot springs and wells have been sampled from a number of locations, including: 1) the North Island of New Zealand (three sets of samples from three different years) and the South Island of New Zealand (1 set of samples); 2) the Cascades of Oregon; 3) the Harney, Alvord Desert and Owyhee geothermal areas of Oregon; 4) the Dixie Valley and Beowawe fields in Nevada; 5) Palinpiiion, the Philippines; 6) the Salton Sea and Heber geothermal fields of southern California; and 7) the

3

Compound and Elemental Analysis At Zim's Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Wood,  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Zim's Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Wood, Zim's Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Wood, 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Compound and Elemental Analysis At Zim's Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Zim's Hot Springs Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Compound and Elemental Analysis Activity Date Usefulness could be useful with more improvements DOE-funding Unknown Notes Geothermal fluids from hot springs and wells have been sampled from a number of locations, including: 1) the North Island of New Zealand (three sets of samples from three different years) and the South Island of New Zealand (1 set of samples); 2) the Cascades of Oregon; 3) the Harney, Alvord Desert and Owyhee geothermal areas of Oregon; 4) the Dixie Valley

4

Honey Lake hybrid geothermal wood residue power plant, Lassen County, California  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The feasibility of a proposed 50 MW (gross) electric power project located near Wendel, California about 25 miles east of Susanville was studied. The project would be the first commercial power plant to combine the use of geothermal energy and wood fuel for power production. Wood fuel consisting primarily of various forms of forest management residues would be processed and partially dehydrated with geothermal energy prior to combustion. Geothermal energy would also be used for boiler feedwater heating and combustion air preheating. The study defines the range of site-specific benefits and economics of using wood fuel and moderate temperature geothermal energy, both of which are abundant and often located in proximity at many locations in the western United States. The study results document conclusively that overall project economics can be very favorable and that in addition to providing an important source of electric power, many benefits to forest land managers, local communities, project developers and the state of the environment can be derived from the combined use of moderate temperature geothermal energy and wood fuel.

Not Available

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Jordan Woods  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Jordan Woods Windows and Envelope Materials Group Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 1 Cyclotron Road MS 90R2000 Berkeley CA 94720 Office Location: 90-2052C (510) 486-4931...

6

Drew Wood  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Wood Indoor Air Quality Research Collaborative drew@iaqrc.org This speaker was a visiting speaker who delivered a talk or talks on the date(s) shown at the links below. This...

7

Water Sampling At Dixie Valley Geothermal Field Area (Wood, 2002) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Water Sampling At Dixie Valley Geothermal Field Area Water Sampling At Dixie Valley Geothermal Field Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Dixie Valley Geothermal Field Area Exploration Technique Water Sampling Activity Date Usefulness could be useful with more improvements DOE-funding Unknown Notes Geothermal fluids from hot springs and wells have been sampled from a number of locations, including: 1) the North Island of New Zealand (three sets of samples from three different years) and the South Island of New Zealand (1 set of samples); 2) the Cascades of Oregon; 3) the Harney, Alvord Desert and Owyhee geothermal areas of Oregon; 4) the Dixie Valley and Beowawe fields in Nevada; 5) Palinpiiion, the Philippines; 6) the Salton Sea and Heber geothermal fields of southern California; and 7) the

8

Identification of environmental issues: Hybrid wood-geothermal power plant, Wendel-Amedee KGRA, Lassen County, California: First phase report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The development of a 55 MWe power plant in Lassen County, California, has been proposed. The proposed power plant is unique in that it will utilize goethermal heat and wood fuel to generate electrical power. This report identifies environmental issues and constraints which may impact the proposed hybrid wood-geothermal power plant. (ACR)

Not Available

1981-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

9

Water Sampling At Zim's Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Wood, 2002) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

2002) 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Zim's Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Zim's Hot Springs Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Water Sampling Activity Date Usefulness could be useful with more improvements DOE-funding Unknown Notes Geothermal fluids from hot springs and wells have been sampled from a number of locations, including: 1) the North Island of New Zealand (three sets of samples from three different years) and the South Island of New Zealand (1 set of samples); 2) the Cascades of Oregon; 3) the Harney, Alvord Desert and Owyhee geothermal areas of Oregon; 4) the Dixie Valley and Beowawe fields in Nevada; 5) Palinpiiion, the Philippines; 6) the

10

Compound and Elemental Analysis At Little Valley Area (Wood,...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Area (Wood, 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Compound and Elemental Analysis At Little Valley Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration...

11

STOICHIOMETRY OF WOOD LIQUEFACTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

co 2 By decomposition to (2) - 0 in H cf 0 in wood TABLE VForced Balance - Wood to Char Output - 55 lbs char lbsuc -61 STOICHIOMETRY OF WOOD LIQUEFACTION Hubert G. Davis

Davis, Hubert G.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Wood Use Across Time  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?Forest products history and use ?Forest resource- the big picture ?Consumption- the big picture ?Trends forest products industry ? pulp & paper ? solid woodBack in Time ?1492 ? Columbus sailed the ocean blue! ? wood use- fuelwood American Indians ?1634: Jean Nicolet

Scott Bowe; United States Wood Use

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Residential Wood Residential wood combustion (RWC) is  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Residential Wood Combustion Residential wood combustion (RWC) is increasing in Europe because PM2.5. Furthermore, other combustion- related sources of OA in Europe may need to be reassessed. Will it affect global OA emission estimates? Combustion of biofuels is globally one of the major OA sources

14

STEO October 2012 - wood  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

More U.S. households burning wood this winter to stay warm, More U.S. households burning wood this winter to stay warm, reversing two-decade decline Burning wood as the primary heating source in U.S. households has risen over the last 10 years, reversing the decline seen in the 1980s and 1990s. About 2.6 million households out of 115 million will rely on wood as the main way to warm their homes this winter. That's up 3 percent from last year, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration's new winter fuels forecast. The West will have the most households using wood as their primary space heating fuel, followed by the Midwest, South and Northeast regions of the United States. Wood is also the second most common backup fuel, after electricity, that households across the U.S. use as a supplemental heating source. Almost half of all rural households use wood this

15

Urban Wood Waste Resource Assessment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study collected and analyzed data on urban wood waste resources in 30 randomly selected metropolitan areas in the United States. Three major categories wood wastes disposed with, or recovered from, the municipal solid waste stream; industrial wood wastes such as wood scraps and sawdust from pallet recycling, woodworking shops, and lumberyards; and wood in construction/demolition and land clearing debris.

Wiltsee, G.

1998-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

16

Wood pellet production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Southern Energy Limited's wood pellet refinery, Bristol, Florida, produces wood pellets for fuel from scrap wood from a nearby sawmill and other hog fuel delivered to the plant from nearby forest lands. The refinery will provide 50,000 tons of pellets per year to the Florida State Hospital at Chattahoochee to fire recently converted boilers in the central power plant. The pellets are densified wood, having a moisture content of about 10% and a heating value of 8000 Btu/lb. They are 0.5 inches in diameter and 2 to 3 inches in length.

Moore, J.W.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

HYDROLYZED WOOD SLURRY FLOW MODELING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LBL-10090 UC-61 HYDROLYZED WOOD SLURRY FLOW MODELING JimLBL-10090 HYDROLYZED WOOD SLURRY FLOW MODELING Jim Wrathallconversion of hydrolyzed wood slurry to fuel oil, Based on

Wrathall, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Water Sampling At Little Valley Area (Wood, 2002) | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Little Valley Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location...

19

Wood Heating Fuel Exemption  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This statute exempts from the state sales tax all wood or "refuse-derived" fuel used for heating purposes. The law does not make any distinctions about whether the qualified fuels are used for...

20

Gregory H. Woods  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Gregory H. Woods was sworn in as the General Counsel of the Department of Energy on April 16, 2012, following the unanimous confirmation of his appointment by the United States Senate.  Mr....

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "geothermal wood wood" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Gregory H. Woods  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

H. Woods H. Woods Department· of Energy Fermi Site Office Post Office Box 2000 Batavia, Illinois 60510 JAN 1 1 2DD Office of the General Counsel GC-1, FORS SUBJECT: FERMI SITE OFFICE (FSO) 2013 ANNUAL NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT (NEPA) PLANNING SUMMARY Section 5(a) (7) of Department Of Energy Order 451.1 B Change 2, NEPA Compliance Program, requires each Secretarial Officer and Head of Field Organization to submit an annual NEPA

22

Finishing Wood Decks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wood decks have become an important part of residential construction in recent years. However, there is considerable confusion regarding how these structures should be protected with finish. This paper summarizes the types, application techniques, and expected service lives of various finishes on both preservative treated and untreated lumber. Recommendations are made on the basis of decades of research on various wood species using a wide variety of finishes.

R. Sam Williams; et al.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Treated Wood Pole Management  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document characterizes similarities and differences in international wood pole and wood pole preservative management. The research team identified practices for selection, regulation, and disposition of utility poles outside the United States. Most information is based on interviews and website and published literature searches. Additional research will clarify regulatory positions in other countries and generate improved understanding, which will support strategic planning for U.S. utilities. Utili...

2008-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

24

Geothermal resource analysis in the Big Wood River Valley, Blaine County, Idaho  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A geochemical investigation of both thermal and nonthermal springs in the Wood River area was conducted to determine possible flowpaths, ages of the waters, and environmental implications. Seven thermal springs and five cold springs were sampled for major cations and anions along with arsenic, lithium, boron, deuterium and oxygen-18. Eight rocks, representative of outcrops at or near the thermal occurrences were sampled and analyzed for major and trace elements. The Wood River area hydrothermal springs are dilute Na-HCO{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} type waters. Calculated reservoir temperatures do not exceed 100{degree}C, except for Magic Hot Springs Landing well (108{degree}C with Mg correction). The isotope data suggest that the thermal water is not derived from present-day precipitation, but from precipitation when the climate was much colder and wetter. Intrusive igneous rocks of the Idaho batholith have reacted with the hydrothermal fluids at depth. The co-location of the thermal springs and mining districts suggests that the structures acting as conduits for the present-day hydrothermal fluids were also active during the emplacement of the ore bodies.

Street, L.V.

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Hybrid wood-geothermal power plant, Wendel-Amedee KGRA, Lassen County, California. Identification of environmental issues, second phase  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

GeoProducts Corporation and the California Department of Water Resources have jointly proposed to develop a 55 MWe power plant in Lassen County, California. The proposed power plant is unique in that it will utilize geothermal heat and wood fuel to generate electrical power, the first attempt to utilize these resources together on a commercial scale. This report identifies requirements for new environmental information that must be generated for permit applications and for preparation of environmental documents required by CEOA and NEPA; presents a schedule for generating new environmental data, for preparing and submitting permit applications, and for obtaining permits; presents a budget for permitting, licensing and environmental assessments as required by applicable laws, regulations and procedures; and investigates the step needed to qualify for a Small Power Plant Exemption by the State Energy Commission.

Not Available

1981-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

26

Principle Wood Scientist  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wood, bark, and the wax-coated seeds from Chinese tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb. syn. Triadica sebifera (L.) Small), an invasive tree species in the southeastern United States, were subjected to extractions and degradative chemical analyses in an effort to better understand the mechanism(s) by which this tree species aggressively competes against native vegetation, and also to facilitate utilization efforts. Analysis of the wood extractives by FTIR spectroscopy showed functionalities analogous to those in hydrolyzable tannins, which appeared to be abundant in the bark; as expected, the seeds had a high wax/oil content (43.1%). Compared to other fast-growing hardwoods, the holocellulose content for the Chinese tallow tree wood was somewhat higher (83.3%). The alpha-cellulose (48.3%) and Klason lignin (20.3%) contents were found to be similar to those for most native North American hardwoods. Results suggest that Chinese tallow tree wood utilization along with commercial wood species should not present any significant processing problems related to the extractives or cell-wall chemistry. Keywords: Cellulose, Chinese tallow tree, extractives, Klason lignin, utilization.

Thomas L. Eberhardt; Usda Forest Service; Xiaobo Li; Chung Y. Hse; Usda Forest Service

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Precision wood particle feedstocks  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Wood particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein: the wood particles are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L; the L.times.H dimensions define two side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers; the W.times.H dimensions define two cross-grain end surfaces characterized individually as aligned either normal to the grain or oblique to the grain; the L.times.W dimensions define two substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces; and, a majority of the W.times.H surfaces in the mixture of wood particles have end checking.

Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

28

The Pitfalls of Realist Analysis of Global Capitalism: A Critique of Ellen Meiksins Wood’s Empire of Capitalism: A Critique of Ellen Meiksins Wood's "Empire of Capital"  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Boulder: Paradigm Press. Wood, Ellen Meiksins 2002, ‘Globalgroups. 13 Indeed, Wood 2003, p. 23. Wood 2003, p. 132.Ibid. Wood 2003, p. 129. Wood 2003, p. 133. Wood 2003, p.

Robinson, William I.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Burls and Other Unusual Woods  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation BURLS AND OTHER UNUSUAL WOODS Wood worked by the hands of skilled craftsmen puts a wealth of quiet beauty into our daily...

30

The Asian Wood Pellet Markets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. 25 p. This study examines the three major wood pellet markets in Asia: China, Japan, and South Korea, South Korea is striving to increase its per- centage of renewable energy, which could benefit the wood pellets industry. We found that China, the largest energy consumer in Asia, has an established wood pellet

31

China: Changing Wood Products Markets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

#12;China: Changing Wood Products Markets less is probably known about the forestry and wood products market in China than most other U.S. trading partners. In the 1980s China emerged as the world,11,12). However, U.S. wood products exports to China declined nearly 93 percent from 1988 to 1996, from $-I%3

Zhang, Daowei

32

The Wood Duck  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Wood Duck Wood Duck Nature Bulletin No. 502-A October 13, 1973 Forest Preserve District of Cook County George W. Dunne, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation THE WOOD DUCK Of all the fowl that swim, the Wood Duck is a most unusual bird. They perch in trees like jaybirds, and nest in tree holes like woodpeckers. The hens do not quack like the females of most ducks, and the drakes are dressed in a riot of gaudy colors. Each summer we see dozens of them -- more than any other kind of wild duck -- rear their families of ducklings on and around the streams, ponds, lakes and sloughs of Cook County's forest preserves. Words can scarcely describe the brilliance of the drake's plumage. The head, crest and back glint with iridescent greens, purples and blues. The eyes are red, the throat white, and the bill orange-red. The breast is wine-colored flecked with white, the belly is white, and the sides are buff. The woodie is about midway in size between the mallard and the blue-winged teal. The drakes weigh about a pound and a half. The hen is smaller and plainer, with a gray-brown head and body, a white throat, and a conspicuous white ring around the eye. Her voice is a shrill, squealing "whoo-eek", while the male's is a mere squeak.

33

Water information bulletin No. 30, part 13: geothermal investigations in Idaho. Preliminary geologic reconnaissance of the geothermal occurrences of the Wood River Drainage Area  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Pre-tertiary sediments of the Milligen and Wood River Formations consisting primarily of argillite, quartzite, shale and dolomite are, for the most part, exposed throughout the area and are cut locally by outliers of the Idaho Batholith. At some locations, Tertiary-age Challis Volcanics overlay these formations. Structurally the area is complex with major folding and faulting visible in many exposures. Many of the stream drainages appear to be fault controlled. Hydrologic studies indicate hot spring occurrences are related to major structural trends, as rock permeabilities are generally low. Geochemical studies using stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen indicate the thermal water in the Wood River region to be depleted by about 10 0/00 in D and by 1 to 2 0/00 in /sup 18/0 relative to cold water. This suggests the water could be meteoric water that fell during the late Pleistocene. The geological data, as well as the chemical data, indicate the geothermal waters are heated at depth, and subsequently migrate along permeable structural zones. In almost all cases the chemical data suggest slightly different thermal histories and recharge areas for the water issuing from the hot springs. Sustained use of the thermal water at any of the identified springs is probably limited to flow rates approximating the existing spring discharge. 28 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

Anderson, J.E.; Bideganeta, K.; Mitchell, J.C.

1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Wood Inspection by Infrared Thermography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wood is used everywhere and for everything. With times, this material presents many adulterations, witch degrade his physical properties. This work present a study of infrared thermography NDT for wood decay detection. The study is based on the difference of moisture content between sound wood and decay. In the first part, moisture content influence on response signal is determine. The second part define the limits of infrared thermography for wood decay detection. Results show that this method could be used, but with many cautions on depth and size of wood defects.

A. Wyckhuyse; X. Maldague; X. Maldague Corresponding

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Inside the guts of wood-eating catfishes: can they digest wood?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the cellulolytic system of the wood-boring marine mollusk2008), how diVerent are the wood-eating catWshes from otherendosymbionts and digest wood, or are these wood- eating

German, Donovan P.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

OpenEI - Wood and Derived Fuels  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

UK Energy Statistics: UK Energy Statistics: Renewables and Waste, Commodity Balances (2010) http://en.openei.org/datasets/node/82 Annual commodity balances (supply, consumption) for renewables and waste in the UK from 1998 to 2009. Published as part of the Digest of UK energy statistics (DUKES), by the UK Department of Energy & Climate Change (DECC). Waste includes: wood waste, farm waste, sewage gas, landfill gas, waste and tyres. Renewables includes: wood, plant-based biomass, geothermal and active solar heat, hydro, wind, wave and tidal, and liquid biofuels.

License
Type of

37

WOOD FLOORING 1. INTRODUCTION TO WARM AND WOOD FLOORING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This chapter describes the methodology used in EPA’s Waste Reduction Model (WARM) to estimate streamlined life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission factors for wood flooring beginning at the waste generation reference point. 1 The WARM GHG emission factors are used to compare the net emissions associated with wood flooring in the following three waste management alternatives: source reduction, combustion, and landfilling.

unknown authors

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

WOOD PRODUCTS 1. INTRODUCTION TO WARM AND WOOD PRODUCTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This chapter describes the methodology used in EPA’s Waste Reduction Model (WARM) to estimate streamlined life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission factors for wood products beginning at the point of waste generation. The WARM GHG emission factors are used to compare the net emissions associated with wood products in the following four materials management alternatives: source

unknown authors

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Energy Basics: Wood and Pellet Heating  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

EERE: Energy Basics Wood and Pellet Heating Wood-burning and pellet fuel appliances use biomass or waste resources to heat homes or buildings. Types of Wood- and Pellet-Burning...

40

Energy Basics: Wood and Pellet Heating  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Heating & Cooling Systems Water Heating Wood and Pellet Heating Wood-burning and pellet fuel appliances use biomass or waste resources to heat homes or buildings. Types of Wood-...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "geothermal wood wood" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

CHEMISTRY AND STOICHIOMETRY OF WOOD LIQUEFACTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

V. , Anderson, Carry, Academic, New York. Pyrolysis of WoodT.J. Elder, E.J. Soltes, Wood and Fiber, 12(4), 1980, "Phenolic Constituents of a Wood Pyrolytic Oil." J.A. Knight,

Davis, H.G.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

GLOBAL WOOD SUPPLY Sten Nilsson  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

· Increasing demand for wood through population and economic growth · More expensive wood · Where should America Expansion potential USA Deficit Canada Deficit #12;RUSSIA Advantages: Raw Materials Source LEAVED ­ EASTERN USA Source: http://www.cas.vanderbilt.edu/bioimages/biohires/ecoregions/h50404bottomland

43

Wood and Derived Fuels | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

1 1 Varnish cache server Browse Upload data GDR 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load) Throttled (bot load) Guru Meditation: XID: 2142288361 Varnish cache server Wood and Derived Fuels Dataset Summary Description Annual commodity balances (supply, consumption) for renewables and waste in the UK from 1998 to 2009. Published as part of the Digest of UK energy statistics (DUKES), by the UK Department of Energy & Climate Change (DECC). Waste includes: wood waste, farm waste, sewage gas, landfill gas, waste and tyres. Renewables includes: wood, plant-based biomass, geothermal and active solar heat, hydro, wind, wave and tidal, and liquid biofuels. Source UK Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) Date Released July 29th, 2010 (4 years ago)

44

Daniel Wood | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Wood Wood About Us Daniel Wood - Data Integration Specialist Daniel Wood Daniel Wood is the Data Visualization and Cartographic Specialist in the Office of Public Affairs at the Department of Energy. He develops creative and interactive ways of viewing the Energy Department's vast array of data. You can check out some of his work here. Prior to joining the Energy.gov team, Daniel worked at a large PR firm in Washington, D.C, doing web development and technical project management. Daniel is a graduate of Boston University but a true Philadelphian at heart. On his off days you are likely to find him exploring new neighborhoods on his bike or hanging out with the awesome kids over at Little Lights Urban Ministries. Most Recent The History of the Light Bulb November 22

45

Weathering and Protection of Wood  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Introduction When wood is exposed outdoors, above ground, a complex combination of chemical, mechanical, and light energy factors contribute to what is described as weathering (38). Weathering is not to be confused with decay, which results from decay organisms (fungi) acting in the presence of excess moisture and air for an extended period of time (34). Under conditions suitable for the development of decay, wood can deteriorate rapidly and the result is far different than that observed for natural outdoor weathering, Outdoor Weathering Process In outdoor weathering of smooth wood, original surfaces become rough as grain raises and the wood checks, and the checks grow into large cracks; grain may loosen, boards cup and warp and pull away from fasteners (Figs. 1 and 2), The roughened surface changes color, gathers dirt and mildew, and may become unsightly; the wood loses its surface coherence and becomes friable, splinters, and frag ments come off. All these e

William C. Feist

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Wood Handbook Wood as an Engineering Material Centennial EditionCentennial Edition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Summarizes information on wood as an engineering material. Presents properties of wood and wood-based products of particular concern to the architect and engineer. Includes discussion of designing with wood and wood-based products along with some pertinent uses.

United States; Forest Service; Wood Handbook; Wood As An Engineering Material

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Wood and energy in connecticut. Staff report  

SciTech Connect

Telephone surveys of Connecticut households conducted in 1979 indicate a transition to wood heating in response to a series of conventional energy price increases and uncertainty in conventional energy supplies. Connecticut households consumed 668,000 cords of wood in the winter of 1978-79. The airtight wood stove has become the most commonly used wood-burning apparatus. Survey data of residential wood cutting, purchasing, and burning were analyzed by household tenure, wood-burning apparatus, and county. Residential use of wood for energy constitutes a new demand on the forest resource, increases local income and employment, displaces fuel oil and electricity, but may compromise household safety.

Bailey, M.R.; Wheeling, P.R.; Lenz, M.I.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Managing Transmission Line Wood Structures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to reduce capital cost by extending life expectancy of overhead transmission wood structures through inspection and assessment procedures and through aging mitigation techniques and tools.

2005-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

49

Treated Wood Planted Post Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Technical Update describes the interim results of a planted post study currently under way at the Austin Cary Memorial Forest (ACMF), operated by The University of Florida, in Gainesville. The purpose of this research is to examine the effectiveness of commercially available prevention methods to reduce preservative migration from treated wood poles, compare the migration of constituents of various wood treatments, and assess the environmental impacts and performance of untreated chestnut.

2009-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

50

Water Sampling At Heber Area (Wood, 2002) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Heber Area (Wood, 2002) Heber Area (Wood, 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Heber Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Heber Area Exploration Technique Water Sampling Activity Date Usefulness could be useful with more improvements DOE-funding Unknown Notes Geothermal fluids from hot springs and wells have been sampled from a number of locations, including: 1) the North Island of New Zealand (three sets of samples from three different years) and the South Island of New Zealand (1 set of samples); 2) the Cascades of Oregon; 3) the Harney, Alvord Desert and Owyhee geothermal areas of Oregon; 4) the Dixie Valley and Beowawe fields in Nevada; 5) Palinpiiion, the Philippines; 6) the Salton Sea and Heber geothermal fields of southern California; and 7) the

51

Table F24: Wood and Biomass Waste Consumption Estimates, 2011  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table F24: Wood and Biomass Waste Consumption Estimates, 2011 State Wood Wood and Biomass Waste a Residential Commercial Industrial Electric Power ...

52

Chromoblastomycosis associated with in a carpenter handling exotic woods  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in a carpenter handling exotic woods Nuno Menezes 1 , Pauloas saprophytes in the soil, wood and vegetation [ 3 ]. Theyare normally made of tropical wood [ 9 ]. The inoculation

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Wood and Pellet Heating | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Wood and Pellet Heating Wood and Pellet Heating Wood and Pellet Heating November 25, 2013 - 2:24pm Addthis A wood stove on a stone hearth. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/King_Louie A wood stove on a stone hearth. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/King_Louie What does this mean for me? Wood or pellets may be an economical and environmentally sound heating fuel choice. If you live in an area where you can cut your own wood for heating, your fuel will be local and inexpensive. Today you can choose from a new generation of wood- and pellet-burning appliances that are cleaner burning, more efficient, and powerful enough to heat many average-sized, modern homes. Pellet fuel appliances burn small pellets that measure 3/8 to 1 inch in length. Choosing and Installing Wood- and Pellet-Burning Appliances

54

Table 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2010;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Table 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2010; Table 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: Selected NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Trillion Btu. Wood Residues and Wood-Related Pulping Liquor Wood Byproducts and NAICS or Biomass Agricultural Harvested Directly from Mill Paper-Related Code(a) Subsector and Industry Black Liquor Total(b) Waste(c) from Trees(d) Processing(e) Refuse(f) Total United States 311 Food 0 44 43 * * 1 311221 Wet Corn Milling 0 1 1 0 0 0 312 Beverage and Tobacco Products 0 1 0 0 1 0 321 Wood Products 0 218 * 13 199 6 321113 Sawmills 0 100 * 5 94 1 3212 Veneer, Plywood, and Engineered Woods 0 95 * 6 87 2 321219 Reconstituted Wood Products 0 52 0 6 46 1 3219 Other Wood Products

55

Wood-Composites Industry Benefits from ALS Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Wood-Composites Industry Benefits from ALS Research Wood-Composites Industry Benefits from ALS Research Print Thursday, 25 October 2012 10:44 paris-wood composites Wood scientist...

56

Categorical Exclusion for Wood Pole  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Wood Pole Wood Pole Replacement at two structures (11/6 & 11/9) located along the Oracle-Tucson 115-kV Transmission Line, in Oro Valley, Pima County, Arizona. RECORD OF CATEGORICAL EXCLUSION DETERMINATION A. Proposed Action: Western plans to replace deteriorated wood poles, cross arms and X-braces at two existing H-frame structures (11/6 & 1119) located along the Oracle Tucson 115-kV Transmission Line in Pima, Arizona (Figure 1). Built in 1943, its aging components are beyond repair and require replacement. These poles performed poorly during structural tests, and we consider them unstable. This replacement project will ensure the safety of Western's workers and the public as well as reliability of the bulk electric system. Western will accomplish the work by clearing vegetation and blading a level pad at

57

Marin County- Wood Stove Replacement Rebate Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The County of Marin has created a rebate program to encourage homeowners to remove or replace non-EPA certified wood-burning heaters (wood stoves and fireplace inserts) with cleaner burning stoves...

58

Structure-Infesting Wood-Boring Beetles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Several kinds of beetles damage stored wood, structural timbers and other wood products. This publication explains how to detect, identify, prevent and control powderpost beetle, old house borer and others.

Jackman, John A.

2006-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

59

Field Guide: Visual Inspection of Wood Structures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Field Guide: Visual Inspection of Wood Structures is a catalog of photographs illustrating various conditions and factors that commonly affect transmission line wood structures, along with their likely causes, a Maintenance Priority Rating, and suggested actions to be taken by utility personnel. Poles, cross-arms, cross-arm braces, X-braces, brackets, anchor rods, guy wires, and direct imbedded foundations are covered. Other sections include types of wood structures, the anatomy of wood ...

2013-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

60

Table 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2002  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2002;" 6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Selected NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." ,,"S e l e c t e d","W o o d","a n d","W o o d -","R e l a t e d","P r o d u c t s" ,,,,,"B i o m a s s" ,,,,,,"Wood Residues" ,,,,,,"and","Wood-Related" " "," ","Pulping Liquor"," "," ","Wood","Byproducts","and","RSE",," " "NAICS"," ","or","Biomass","Agricultural","Harvested Directly","from Mill","Paper-Related","Row"

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "geothermal wood wood" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Table N5.2. Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 1998  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2. Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 1998;" 2. Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 1998;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Selected NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." ,,"S e l e c t e d","W o o d","a n d","W o o d -","R e l a t e d","P r o d u c t s" ,,,,,"B i o m a s s" ,,,,,,"Wood Residues" ,,,,,,"and","Wood-Related" " "," ","Pulping Liquor"," "," ","Wood","Byproducts","and","RSE",," " "NAICS"," ","or","Biomass","Agricultural","Harvested Directly","from Mill","Paper-Related","Row"

62

Autonomous Underwater Gliders Wood, Stephen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

26 Autonomous Underwater Gliders Wood, Stephen Florida Institute of Technology United States underwater vehicles to perform ocean surveys. With these vehicles it is now possible for the scientist substances in the ocean such as chemicals from an underwater vent or toxic algae such as red tide

Wood, Stephen L.

63

James F. Wood | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

James F. Wood James F. Wood About Us James F. Wood - Deputy Assistant Secretary for Clean Coal Photo of James Wood Photo of James Wood James F. Wood is currently Deputy Assistant Secretary for Clean Coal in the Office of Fossil Energy (FE). In this position, he is responsible for the management and direction of the Office's clean coal research and development programs. Chief among these is the Carbon Sequestration program, the Clean Coal Power Initiative, and FE's $3.4 billion portfolio of Recovery Act projects. Wood has over 30 years of experience in the power industry. Most recently, he was president and CEO of Babcock Power Inc. (BPI), one of the major US-based designer/manufacturers of environmental, pressure part, heat exchanger, combustion equipment and after-market

64

Qualifying Wood Stove Deduction | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Qualifying Wood Stove Deduction Qualifying Wood Stove Deduction Qualifying Wood Stove Deduction < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Bioenergy Maximum Rebate 500 Program Info Start Date 1/1/1994 State Arizona Program Type Personal Deduction Rebate Amount Total cost, exclusive of taxes, interest and other finance charges Provider Arizona Department of Revenue This incentive allows Arizona taxpayers to deduct the cost of converting an existing wood fireplace to a qualifying wood stove. The cost to purchase and install all necessary equipment is tax deductible, up to a maximum $500 deduction. Qualifying wood stoves must meet the standards of performance for new wood heaters manufactured after July 1990, or sold after July 1992 pursuant to [http://www.epa.gov/oecaerth/resources/policies/monitoring/caa/woodstover...

65

Managing Transmission Line Wood Structures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Transmission and distribution infrastructures throughout the world are aging. As such, inspection, assessment, and maintenance of existing facilities have become increasingly important topics. This valuable reference provides an in-depth look at all facets of an inspection, assessment, and maintenance program for transmission line wood structures to help utilities develop and refine individual maintenance programs. The report is part of a broader multi-year effort by EPRI to develop a comprehensive handb...

2006-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

66

Distribution Library--Wood Poles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI has sponsored research and published information on a wide variety of topics related to wood poles for overhead lines. Many of these resources, particularly older publications, are difficult for EPRI members to find and use. To help ensure retention of this valuable knowledge base, EPRI sponsored the project reported herein to capture this information and make it accessible in an easy-to-use electronic media (E-Media) repository.

2005-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

67

Wood Poles Population with Testing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI's asset management research focuses on developing a rational basis for selecting repair or replacement options for specific classes of equipment by balancing the risks of equipment failure against the costs of continued maintenance or capital replacement. This Model User Guide is a companion to Guidelines for Intelligent Asset Replacement: Volume 4Wood Poles (Expanded Edition), EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 2006. 1012500, the fourth report on guidelines for asset replacement, which discusses methods for maki...

2006-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

68

EIA Energy Kids - Wood - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

1860: Wood was the primary fuel for heating and cooking in homes and businesses, and was used for steam in industries, trains, and boats.

69

The Bending of Wood With Steam.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Based on experimentation with the steam bending of wood to curved shapes, this thesis describes my involvement with three basic aspects of the process. First… (more)

Cottey Jr., James H.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Successful biomass (wood pellets ) implementation in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Successful biomass (wood pellets ) implementation in Estonia Biomass Utilisation of Local in Estonia in 1995 - 2002 Regional Energy Centres in Estonia http://www.managenergy.net/conference/biomass

71

Life Cycle Assessment of Wood Pellet.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The primary purpose of this project is to assess the environmental impacts associated with the wood pellet production. The study has extended to the entire… (more)

Chen, Siyu

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The technical feasibility of producing methanol from wood is demonstrated and sufficient cost data is provided to allow an assessment of the economic viability.

Fishkind, H.H.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Wood, Wisconsin: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Wood, Wisconsin: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 43.568752, -90.330887 Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlem...

74

Emerging Technologies in Wood Energy Wood can already be used to produce heat and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for extension of wood pellet production is lack of appropriate technology in Slovakia. Several typesOverview 1 Development of Wood Chips and Pellets market in Slovakia Jozef Viglasky, SK systems. · Co-combustion of wood residues in existing coal fired power systems. #12;Overview 3

75

Mathematical simulation of temperature profiles within microwave heated wood made for wood-based nanocomposites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High intensive microwave pretreatment is a new method to modify wood for the fabrication of wood-based nanocomposites. Based on the physical law on heat transfer, a mathematical model to describe the temperature profiles within wood heated by high intensive ...

Xianjun Li, Yongfeng Luo, Hongbin Chen, Xia He, Jianxiong Lv, Yiqiang Wu

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Textile Drying Via Wood Gasification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This project was carried out to investigate the possibility of using wood gas as a direct replacement for natural gas in textile drying. The Georgia Tech updraft gasifier was used for the experimental program. During preliminary tests, the 1 million Btu/hr pilot plant produced clean burning gas which appeared viable for drying textiles. The gasifier was coupled to a modified textile drying oven and a series of tests were carried out to assess product degradation of white, colored, and chemically treated fabrics.

McGowan, T. F.; Jape, A. D.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Treatment of Wood Preserving Wastewater  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The wastewater produced by the wood preserving industry presents a difficult problem to treat economically. A review of the literature indicates the size of the industry has limited the pursuit of an orderly and economic solution. Atmospheric evaporation was one possible means of treatment which had not been studied to any great degree. Two bench scale evaporation units were employed to determine the fundamental relationships affecting wastewater quality during such treatment. In batch evaporation tests, it was repeatedly demonstrated that a constant rate of total organic carbon and chemical oxygen demand removal occurred as the wastewater was evaporated. A procedure for designing atmospheric evaporation ponds was developed and applied to a hypothetical wood preserving plant. From this example design estimates of equivalent hydrocarbon concentrations in the air downwind of the pond are made. Various other design considerations such as the input data, modifications to the design procedure, solids accumulation, and miscellaneous design aspects are discussed. A treatment scheme incorporating atmospheric evaporation ponds after chemical coagulation and settling is proposed.

Reynolds, T. D.; Shack, P. A.

1976-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Management Practices for Used Treated Wood  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pentachlorophenol, creosote, and other chemicals are used to preserve poles, crossarms, and railroad ties for the electric, telecommunications, and railroad industries. Each year, millions of pieces of treated wood are retired. This report provides information on current and potential options for management of used treated wood.

1995-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

79

Modeling and Rendering Physically-Based Wood Combustion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes extensions to existing methods for rendering of the effects of combustion on a wood object, adding considerations for wood grain and moisture content.

Riensche, Roderick M.; Lewis, Robert R.

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Wood3 Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Wood3 Resources Wood3 Resources Jump to: navigation, search Name Wood3 Resources Place Houston, Texas Zip 77056-2409 Product Wood3 Resources is an energy project development firm run by former Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Chairman Pat Wood. Coordinates 29.76045°, -95.369784° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":29.76045,"lon":-95.369784,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "geothermal wood wood" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Wood Energy Production Credit | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Wood Energy Production Credit Wood Energy Production Credit Wood Energy Production Credit < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Savings Category Bioenergy Maximum Rebate Credit may be claimed for a period of five years Program Info Start Date 12/30/1998 (most recent revision) State Missouri Program Type Corporate Tax Credit Rebate Amount $5 per ton of processed materials Provider Missouri Department of Natural Resources Note: No new credits are being issued, effective July 1, 2013. This entry is for informational purposes only. The Wood Energy Tax Credit, as effective January 1, 1997, allows individuals or businesses processing Missouri forestry industry residues into fuels an income tax credit of $5.00 per ton of processed material (e.g., wood pellets). A multiplier of 4 applies to charcoal, based on the

82

Alaska Wood Biomass Energy Project Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Craig Wood Fired Boiler Project is to use waste wood from local sawmilling operations to provide heat to local public buildings, in an effort to reduce the cost of operating those buildings, and put to productive use a byproduct from the wood milling process that otherwise presents an expense to local mills. The scope of the project included the acquisition of a wood boiler and the delivery systems to feed wood fuel to it, the construction of a building to house the boiler and delivery systems, and connection of the boiler facility to three buildings that will benefit from heat generated by the boiler: the Craig Aquatic Center, the Craig Elementary School, and the Craig Middle School buildings.

Jonathan Bolling

2009-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

83

Mutiny on the Bounty or Bountiful Mutants? Diversity and Composition of Wood-Decaying Macrofungi on Hibiscus Tiliaceus Wood in French Polynesia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

B. G. Jonsson. 1995. Wood-inhabiting fungi and substratumand S. C. Watkinson. 1995. Wood decomposition, higher fungi,combative interaction between wood-decaying basidiomycetes.

Wheaton, Felicia

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Solvolytic liquefaction of wood under mild conditions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Conversion of wood to liquid products requires cleavage of bonds which crosslink the wood structure. This study examines a low-severity wood solubilization process utilizing a solvent medium consisting of a small amount of sulfuric acid and a potentially wood-derivable alcohol. In one half hour of reaction time at 250/sup 0/C under 15 psia starting nitrogen pressure, over 95% of the wood (maf) was rendered acetone-soluble. The product is a soft, black, bitumen-like solid at room temperature but readily softens at 140/sup 0/C. Between 25 and 50% of the original wood oxygen, depending on alcohol used, was removed as water. Approximately 2 to 17% of the alcohols were retained in the product. Gel permeation chromatography showed that the product's median molecular weight is around 300. Based on experimental and literature results, a mechanism for wood solubilization is proposed. This involves protonation of the etheric oxygen atoms, leading to subsequent bond scission to form carbonium ions which are stabilized by solvent alkoxylation. At severe conditions, polymerization and condensation reactions result in acetone-insoluble materials.

Yu, S.M.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Supporting rural wood industry through timber utilization research. Research paper  

SciTech Connect

The report evaluates the potential impact of USDA Forest Service wood utilization and wood energy research on rural employment and income. Recent projections suggest employment will decrease in many forest products industries, such as softwood sawmilling, but will eventually increase in softwood plywood and reconstituated panel mills. Forest products industries expected to provide wages exceeding the average manufacturing production wage include logging, softwood sawmills, millwork, softwood plywood--veneer, structural wood members, particle-board, wood partitions, pulp mills, paper mills, and paperboard mills. Industries expected to pay 90 percent of the average manufacturing production wage include wood kitchen cabinets, mobile homes, prefabricated wood buildings, and wood preservatives.

Skog, K.

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Inside the guts of wood-eating catfishes: can they digest wood?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

T (2009) Non-native suckermouth armored catWshes in Florida:Loricariidae), wood-eating armored catWshes from Tropical

German, Donovan P.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Biomass Energy - Focus on Wood Waste  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

application for wood waste as a fuel is in the co-firing of conventional coal-fired boilers, which means using biomass as a supplementary energy source in high- efficiency...

88

Arbuthnott Wood Pellets Ltd | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Arbuthnott Wood Pellets Ltd Arbuthnott Wood Pellets Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name Arbuthnott Wood Pellets Ltd Place Kincardineshire, Scotland, United Kingdom Zip AB30 1PA Product Wood pellet producer. Coordinates 56.932781°, -2.42531° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":56.932781,"lon":-2.42531,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

89

Wood Burning Combined Cycle Power Plant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A combined cycle power plant utilizing wood waste products as a fuel has been designed. This plant will yield a 50% efficiency improvement compared to conventional wood-fueled steam power plants. The power plant features an externally-fired gas turbine combined cycle system that obtains its heat input from a high temperature, high pressure ceramic air heater burning wood waste products as a fuel. This paper presents the results of the design study including the cycle evaluation and a description of the major components of the power plant. The cycle configuration is based on maximum fuel efficiency with minimum capital equipment risk. The cycle discussion includes design point performance of the power plant. The design represents a significant step forward in wood-fueled power plants.

Culley, J. W.; Bourgeois, H. S.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Wood-Burning Heating System Deduction  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This statute allows individual taxpayers a deduction for the purchase and installation of a wood-burning heating system. The deduction is equal to the total cost of purchase and installation for...

91

The Texarkana Wood Preserving Company Superfund site  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is a former wood-treating site located in Texas that treated various wood products with chemical preservatives. These activities left behind contaminated soil and sludge, that led to contaminated groundwater. In 1990 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) selected incineration as the means to clean up contaminated soil at this site. In 1994 Congressman Jim Chapman (D-Texas) asked the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) to review alternative technologies that might be used instead of incineration at the Texarkana site. A second, separate study to assess the safety of incineration was also requested by Representative Chapman. This report reviews technologies available for hazardous waste cleanup at wood-treating sites throughout the United States. OTA found that there are many Superfund wood-treatment sites located in this country that are very similar in terms of the contaminants

Roger C. Herdman; Frank Avvisato

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Chemistry and stoichiometry of wood liquefaction  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The approximate stoichiometry of liquefaction, from data of two PDU runs and a laboratory run is Wood (100 g) + CO (0.1 - 0.4 Mol) ..-->.. CO/sub 2/ (0.5 - 1.0 Mol) + H/sub 2/O (0.4 - 0.8 Mol) + Product (55 - 64 g). Product includes wood oil, water soluble organics and residues. Water is formed by decomposition, carbon dioxide by decomposition and reduction of wood oxygen by CO. Aqueous products include many carboxylic acids plus a roughly equal percentage of non-acids. The wood oil is divided into a neutral fraction and three phenolic fractions of varying molecular weight. Some specific compounds found in water and oil phases are listed.

Davis, H.G.; Kloden, D.J.; Schaleger, L.L.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Short rotation Wood Crops Program  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report synthesizes the technical progress of research projects in the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program for the year ending September 30, 1989. The primary goal of this research program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division, is the development of a viable technology for producing renewable feedstocks for conversion to biofuels. One of the more significant accomplishments was the documentation that short-rotation woody crops total delivered costs could be $40/Mg or less under optimistic but attainable conditions. By taking advantage of federal subsidies such as those offered under the Conservation Reserve Program, wood energy feedstock costs could be lower. Genetic improvement studies are broadening species performance within geographic regions and under less-than-optimum site conditions. Advances in physiological research are identifying key characteristics of species productivity and response to nutrient applications. Recent developments utilizing biotechnology have achieved success in cell and tissue culture, somaclonal variation, and gene-insertion studies. Productivity gains have been realized with advanced cultural studies of spacing, coppice, and mixed-species trials. 8 figs., 20 tabs.

Wright, L.L.; Ehrenshaft, A.R.

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Water Sampling At Hot Lake Area (Wood, 2002) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hot Lake Area (Wood, 2002) Hot Lake Area (Wood, 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Hot Lake Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Hot Lake Area Exploration Technique Water Sampling Activity Date Usefulness could be useful with more improvements DOE-funding Unknown Notes Geothermal fluids from hot springs and wells have been sampled from a number of locations, including: 1) the North Island of New Zealand (three sets of samples from three different years) and the South Island of New Zealand (1 set of samples); 2) the Cascades of Oregon; 3) the Harney, Alvord Desert and Owyhee geothermal areas of Oregon; 4) the Dixie Valley and Beowawe fields in Nevada; 5) Palinpiiion, the Philippines; 6) the Salton Sea and Heber geothermal fields of southern California; and 7) the

95

Compound and Elemental Analysis At Salton Sea Area (Wood, 2002) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Wood, 2002) Wood, 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Compound and Elemental Analysis At Salton Sea Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Salton Sea Area Exploration Technique Compound and Elemental Analysis Activity Date Usefulness not useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Geothermal fluids from hot springs and wells have been sampled from a number of locations, including: 1) the North Island of New Zealand (three sets of samples from three different years) and the South Island of New Zealand (1 set of samples); 2) the Cascades of Oregon; 3) the Harney, Alvord Desert and Owyhee geothermal areas of Oregon; 4) the Dixie Valley and Beowawe fields in Nevada; 5) Palinpiiion, the Philippines; 6) the Salton Sea and Heber geothermal fields of southern California; and 7) the

96

How Wood Chip Size Affects Pretreatment Effectiveness of Woody Biomass for Biological Processing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

explosion pretreatment of wood: effect of chip size, acid,In: Soltes, E.J. (Ed. ), Wood and Agriculture Residues –D. , Wegener, G. , 1984. Wood: Chemistry, Ultrastructure,

Tam, Jerry

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

PATTERNS OF DIFFUSIBILITY OF LIGNIN AND CARBOHYDRATE DEGRADING SYSTEMS IN WOOD-ROTTING FUNGI  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

selected Delignification of wood chips by mutant white-rotTemperature relations of wood-destroying fungi. Kaneshiro.phenoloxidases of selected wood-decaying basidiomycetes. J,

Rosenberg, S. L.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

An assessment of management practices of wood and wood-related wastes in the urban environment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The US Environmental Protection Agency estimates that yard waste{sup 1} accounts for approximately 16% of the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream (US EPA, 1994). Until recently, specific data and related information on this component of the (MSW) stream has been limited. The purposes of this study, phase two of the three-phase assessment of urban wood waste issues, are to assess and describe current alternatives to landfills for urban wood waste management; provide guidance on the management of urban wood waste to organizations that produce or manage wood waste; and clarify state regulatory and policy positions affecting these organizations. For this study, urban wood waste is defined as solid waste generated by tree and landscape maintenance services (public and private). Urban wood waste includes the following materials: unchipped mixed wood, unchipped logs, and unchipped tops and brush; clearing and grubbing waste; fall leaves and grass clippings; and chips and whole stumps. Construction and demolition debris and consumer-generated yard waste are not included in this study. Generators of urban wood waste include various organizations; municipal, county, and commercial tree care divisions; nurseries, orchards, and golf courses; municipal park and recreation departments; and electric and telephone utility power line maintenance, excavator and land clearance, and landscape organizations. (1) US EPA defines yard waste as ''yard trimmings'' which includes ''grass, leaves and tree brush trimmings from residential, institutional, and commercial sources.''

NONE

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Use of Wood Energy in the United States –  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The use of wood for energy – including the burning of solid wood and black liquor from pulping – has been growing at a rate significantly greater than that for all other uses such as lumber, pulp, or particleboard. in the United States, the end of most wood is not lumber or pulp and paper but feed for energy. In 1983, 155. 5 M Mg of wood were used for energy. This could threaten to increase the price of wood for those other uses, or it can stimulate us to seek more creative ways of using untapped wood resources for fuel. on the basis of estimates of heavy wood energy use relative to other uses for wood, and estimates of continuing high costs for fossil fuels, we suggest here the feasibility of meeting the demand for fuelwood through small-scale cooperatives. Such an approach can improve forestry practices and can avoid unduly increasing the cost of wood for other end uses.

John W. Koning; Kenneth E. Skog

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Wood Fuel LP | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Fuel LP Fuel LP Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Wood Fuel LP Name Wood Fuel LP Address 5900 Haynesworth Lane Place Houston, Texas Zip 77034 Sector Biomass Product Wood by-products consulting and marketing Website http://www.woodfuel.com/ Coordinates 29.6221328°, -95.1872605° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":29.6221328,"lon":-95.1872605,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "geothermal wood wood" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Compound and Elemental Analysis At Breitenbush Hot Springs Area (Wood,  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Compound and Elemental Analysis At Breitenbush Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Breitenbush Hot Springs Area Exploration Technique Compound and Elemental Analysis Activity Date Usefulness could be useful with more improvements DOE-funding Unknown Notes Geothermal fluids from hot springs and wells have been sampled from a number of locations, including: 1) the North Island of New Zealand (three sets of samples from three different years) and the South Island of New Zealand (1 set of samples); 2) the Cascades of Oregon; 3) the Harney, Alvord Desert and Owyhee geothermal areas of Oregon; 4) the Dixie Valley and Beowawe fields in Nevada; 5) Palinpiiion, the Philippines; 6) the

102

International Trade of Wood Pellets (Brochure)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The production of wood pellets has increased dramatically in recent years due in large part to aggressive emissions policy in the European Union; the main markets that currently supply the European market are North America and Russia. However, current market circumstances and trade dynamics could change depending on the development of emerging markets, foreign exchange rates, and the evolution of carbon policies. This fact sheet outlines the existing and potential participants in the wood pellets market, along with historical data on production, trade, and prices.

Not Available

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Marin County - Wood Stove Replacement Rebate Program (California...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

DSIRE1 Summary The County of Marin has created a rebate program to encourage homeowners to remove or replace non-EPA certified wood-burning heaters (wood stoves and...

104

A study of the molecular mechanics of wood cell walls  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wood is the original structural material, developed by nature to support tall plants. Every advantageous feature of wood as used in artificial structures is rooted in the plant's evolved capability to withstand the conditions ...

Adler, David, S.M. (David C.). Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Compound and Elemental Analysis At Hot Lake Area (Wood, 2002) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Area (Wood, 2002) Area (Wood, 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Compound and Elemental Analysis At Hot Lake Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Hot Lake Area Exploration Technique Compound and Elemental Analysis Activity Date Usefulness could be useful with more improvements DOE-funding Unknown Notes Geothermal fluids from hot springs and wells have been sampled from a number of locations, including: 1) the North Island of New Zealand (three sets of samples from three different years) and the South Island of New Zealand (1 set of samples); 2) the Cascades of Oregon; 3) the Harney, Alvord Desert and Owyhee geothermal areas of Oregon; 4) the Dixie Valley and Beowawe fields in Nevada; 5) Palinpiiion, the Philippines; 6) the

106

Compound and Elemental Analysis At Mickey Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mickey Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Mickey Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Compound and Elemental Analysis At Mickey Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Mickey Hot Springs Area Exploration Technique Compound and Elemental Analysis Activity Date Usefulness could be useful with more improvements DOE-funding Unknown Notes Geothermal fluids from hot springs and wells have been sampled from a number of locations, including: 1) the North Island of New Zealand (three sets of samples from three different years) and the South Island of New Zealand (1 set of samples); 2) the Cascades of Oregon; 3) the Harney, Alvord Desert and Owyhee geothermal areas of Oregon; 4) the Dixie Valley and Beowawe fields in Nevada; 5) Palinpiiion, the Philippines; 6) the

107

Water Sampling At Breitenbush Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Wood, 2002) Wood, 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Breitenbush Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Breitenbush Hot Springs Area Exploration Technique Water Sampling Activity Date Usefulness could be useful with more improvements DOE-funding Unknown Notes Geothermal fluids from hot springs and wells have been sampled from a number of locations, including: 1) the North Island of New Zealand (three sets of samples from three different years) and the South Island of New Zealand (1 set of samples); 2) the Cascades of Oregon; 3) the Harney, Alvord Desert and Owyhee geothermal areas of Oregon; 4) the Dixie Valley and Beowawe fields in Nevada; 5) Palinpiiion, the Philippines; 6) the

108

Compound and Elemental Analysis At Mccredie Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mccredie Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Mccredie Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Compound and Elemental Analysis At McCredie Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location McCredie Hot Springs Area Exploration Technique Compound and Elemental Analysis Activity Date Usefulness could be useful with more improvements DOE-funding Unknown Notes Geothermal fluids from hot springs and wells have been sampled from a number of locations, including: 1) the North Island of New Zealand (three sets of samples from three different years) and the South Island of New Zealand (1 set of samples); 2) the Cascades of Oregon; 3) the Harney, Alvord Desert and Owyhee geothermal areas of Oregon; 4) the Dixie Valley and Beowawe fields in Nevada; 5) Palinpiiion, the Philippines; 6) the

109

Compound and Elemental Analysis At Heber Area (Wood, 2002) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Compound and Elemental Analysis At Heber Area (Wood, 2002) Compound and Elemental Analysis At Heber Area (Wood, 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Compound and Elemental Analysis At Heber Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Heber Area Exploration Technique Compound and Elemental Analysis Activity Date Usefulness could be useful with more improvements DOE-funding Unknown Notes Geothermal fluids from hot springs and wells have been sampled from a number of locations, including: 1) the North Island of New Zealand (three sets of samples from three different years) and the South Island of New Zealand (1 set of samples); 2) the Cascades of Oregon; 3) the Harney, Alvord Desert and Owyhee geothermal areas of Oregon; 4) the Dixie Valley and Beowawe fields in Nevada; 5) Palinpiiion, the Philippines; 6) the

110

Water Sampling At Crane Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Crane Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Crane Hot Springs Area Exploration Technique Water Sampling Activity Date Usefulness could be useful with more improvements DOE-funding Unknown Notes Geothermal fluids from hot springs and wells have been sampled from a number of locations, including: 1) the North Island of New Zealand (three sets of samples from three different years) and the South Island of New Zealand (1 set of samples); 2) the Cascades of Oregon; 3) the Harney, Alvord Desert and Owyhee geothermal areas of Oregon; 4) the Dixie Valley and Beowawe fields in Nevada; 5) Palinpiiion, the Philippines; 6) the

111

Water Sampling At Mccredie Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mccredie Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Mccredie Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Mccredie Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Mccredie Hot Springs Area Exploration Technique Water Sampling Activity Date Usefulness could be useful with more improvements DOE-funding Unknown Notes Geothermal fluids from hot springs and wells have been sampled from a number of locations, including: 1) the North Island of New Zealand (three sets of samples from three different years) and the South Island of New Zealand (1 set of samples); 2) the Cascades of Oregon; 3) the Harney, Alvord Desert and Owyhee geothermal areas of Oregon; 4) the Dixie Valley and Beowawe fields in Nevada; 5) Palinpiiion, the Philippines; 6) the

112

Water Sampling At Belknap-Foley-Bigelow Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Wood, 2002) Wood, 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Belknap-Foley-Bigelow Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Belknap-Foley-Bigelow Hot Springs Area Exploration Technique Water Sampling Activity Date Usefulness could be useful with more improvements DOE-funding Unknown Notes Geothermal fluids from hot springs and wells have been sampled from a number of locations, including: 1) the North Island of New Zealand (three sets of samples from three different years) and the South Island of New Zealand (1 set of samples); 2) the Cascades of Oregon; 3) the Harney, Alvord Desert and Owyhee geothermal areas of Oregon; 4) the Dixie Valley and Beowawe fields in Nevada; 5) Palinpiiion, the Philippines; 6) the

113

The potential of wood residue streams for industrial wood pellet production in the Baltic Countries and Poland.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Currently most solid biomass in the European Union (EU-27) is made from high grade secondary wood residues, e.g. clean saw dust and wood chips. The… (more)

Jong, B. de

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Availability of wood as a heating fuel for Colorado  

SciTech Connect

As Colorado homeowners turn to wood as an alternative space-heating fuel, supplies--particularly along the heavily populated Front Range--dwindle. The report reexamines the resource base and presents alternatives to wood in the event of a shortage (for instance, many wood stoves can burn coal as well).

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Wood Fuel Future: The Potential Web Text December 2010  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and power, the wood products industry and major independent power producers also have significant production of heat and power. Table 3.1 Canadian Wood Residue Heat & Power Generation - 2003 13 Forest Products SAWMILLS LTD LACRETE 50,000 TONNE WOOD PELLET PRODUCTION IN WESTERN CANADA 2004 / 2005 PINNACLE PEL LET INC

116

The ambient wood journals: replaying the experience  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Ambient Wood project aims to facilitate a learning experience using an adaptive infrastructure in an outdoor environment. This involves sensor technology, virtual world orchestration, and a wide range of devices ranging from hand-held computers to ... Keywords: adaptive infrastructure, consolidation, record and replay, storytelling

Mark J. Weal; Danius T. Michaelides; Mark K. Thompson; David C. DeRoure

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Energie-Cits 2001 BIOMASS-WOOD  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energie-Cités 2001 BIOMASS-WOOD Power plant LIENZ Austria By the year 2010, 12% of the gross inland this goal, intensified use needs to be made of biomass, both for heating purposes and for power generation to this rule. Thus, for instance, the town of Lienz started up the largest biomass facility of Austria

118

Energie-Cits 2001 BIOMASS -WOOD  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energie-Cités 2001 BIOMASS - WOOD Gasification / Cogeneration ARMAGH United Kingdom Gasification is transferring the combustible matters in organic waste or biomass into gas and pure char by burning the fuel via it allows biomass in small-scaled engines and co-generation units ­ which with conventional technologies

119

Successful biomass (wood pellets ) implementation in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Regional Energy centres in Estonia This presentation will cover Regional Energy Centres in Estonia ! Supply Regional Energy Centres in Estonia Supply of primary energy in Estonia Regional Energy Centres in Estonia of primary energy in Estonia ! Wood fuels production ! Pellet firing projects in Estonia ­ SIDA Demo East

120

Wood combustion systems: status of environmental concerns  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This document addresses the uncertainties about environmental aspects of Wood Combustion Systems that remain to be resolved through research and development. The resolution of these uncertainties may require adjustments in the technology program before it can be commercialized. The impacts and concerns presented in the document are treated generically without reference to specific predetermined sites unless these are known. Hence, site-specific implications are not generally included in the assessment. The report consists of two main sections which describe the energy resource base involved, characteristics of the technology, and introduce the environmental concerns of implementing the technology; and which review the concerns related to wood combustion systems which are of significance for the environment. It also examines the likelihood and consequence of findings which might impede wood commercialization such as problems and uncertainties stemming from current or anticipated environmental regulation, or costs of potential environmental controls. This document is not a formal NEPA document. Appropriate NEPA documentation will be prepared after a formal wood combustion commercialization program is approved by DOE.

Dunwoody, J.E.; Takach, H.; Kelley, C.S.; Opalanko, R.; High, C.; Fege, A.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "geothermal wood wood" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Fast Curing of Composite Wood Products  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this program is to develop low temperature curing technologies for UF and PF resins. This will be accomplished by: • Identifying the rate limiting UF and PF curing reactions for current market resins; • Developing new catalysts to accelerate curing reactions at reduced press temperatures and times. In summary, these new curing technologies will improve the strength properties of the composite wood products and minimize the detrimental effects of wood extractives on the final product while significantly reducing energy costs for wood composites. This study is related to the accelerated curing of resins for wood composites such as medium density fiberboard (MDF), particle board (PB) and oriented strandboard (OSB). The latter is frequently manufactured with a phenol-formaldehyde resin whereas ureaformaldehyde (UF) resins are usually used in for the former two grades of composite wood products. One of the reasons that hinder wider use of these resins in the manufacturing of wood composites is the slow curing speed as well as inferior bondability of UF resin. The fast curing of UP and PF resins has been identified as an attractive process development that would allow wood to be bonded at higher moisture contents and at lower press temperatures that currently employed. Several differing additives have been developed to enhance cure rates of PF resins including the use of organic esters, lactones and organic carbonates. A model compound study by Conner, Lorenz and Hirth (2002) employed 2- and 4-hydroxymethylphenol with organic esters to examine the chemical basis for the reported enhanced reactivity. Their studies suggested that the enhance curing in the presence of esters could be due to enhanced quinone methide formation or enhanced intermolecular SN2 reactions. In either case the esters do not function as true catalysts as they are consumed in the reaction and were not found to be incorporated in the polymerized resin product. An alternative approach to accelerated PF curing can be accomplished with the addition amines or amides. The later functionality undergoes base catalyzed hydrolysis yielding the corresponding carboxyl ate and free amine which rapidly reacts with the phenolic methylol groups facilitating polymerization and curing of the PF resin (Pizzi, 1997).

Dr. Arthur J. Ragauskas

2006-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

122

Effect of species and wood to bark ratio on pelleting of southern woods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Six common southern hardwoods and loblolly pine were pelleted in a laboratory pellet mill. The pellet furnishes were blended to test the effect of different wood to bark ratios on pellet durability and production rate. Included was a ratio chosen to simulate the wood to bark ratio found in whole-tree chips. This furnish produced good quality pellets for all species tested. Pelleting of the pure wood of hardwoods was not successful; furnish routinely blocked the pellet mill dies. Pure pine wood, however, did produce acceptable pellets. It was noted that, as lignin and extractive content increased above a threshold level, the precentage of fines produced in a pellet durability test increased. Thus, all pine and tupelo wood/bark mixes produces high fines. This reduces the desirability of the pellets in the marketplace. Further research is necessary to confirm this relationship. This study suggests that both tree species and wood/bark ratio affect the durability of pellets and the rate with which they can be produced in a laboratory pellet mill. 9 references.

Bradfield, J.; Levi, M.P.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Near-term potential of wood as a fuel  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A summary of near-term conversion technologies, which could be used to expand utilization of wood residues and standing forests, is presented. The forest products industry is identified as a principal candidate for expanded wood-fuel use. Sources of wood-fuel are identified and conversion technologies and costs are discussed. Possible near-term incentives to encourage the use of wood as a fuel are examined. These incentives include a retirement tax credit and an investment tax credit. Suppliers of commercial wood conversion systems are identified.

Salo, D.; Gsellman, L.; Medville, D.; Price, G.

1978-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Wood and energy in New Hampshire. Staff report  

SciTech Connect

Telephone surveys of New Hampshire households conducted in 1979 and 1980 indicate a transition to wood heating in response to a series of conventional energy price increases and uncertainty in conventional energy supplies. New Hampshire households consumed 394,000 cords of wood in the winter of 1978-79; 504,000 cords were burnt during the next winter. The airtight wood stove has become the most commonly used wood-burning apparatus. Survey data of residential wood cutting, purchasing, and burning were analyzed by household tenure, wood-burning apparatus, and county. Residential use of wood for energy constitutes a new demand on the forest resource, increases local income and employment, displaces fuel oil and electricity, and may compromise household safety.

Bailey, M.R.; Wheeling, P.R.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Wood power - its potential in our energy crisis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wood is meeting about 2% of total U.S. energy needs and may eventually supply up to 7% of our nation's energy. Many forms of direct combustion equipment are available for residential heating and range from supplemental wood-burning stoves to complete house-heating multi-fuel furnaces. A recent survey conducted in New York indicated that one-third of the people contacted used wood for home heating. The total amount of fuelwood used in New York State in 1978 amounted to 1,716,000 standard cords. A Wisconsin study indicates that more than 1.2 million cords of firewood were burned by Wisconsin households during the 1979-80 heating season. A Pennsylvania survey indicated that 22% of single family households used wood for home heating. Corning Glass Works recently conducted a wood-burning stove market survey and found that 18% of all U.S. households own wood-burning stoves. On the basis of cost per unit of heat, wood heat is cheaper than its next closest commonly available rival (fuel oil) and is also cheaper than anthracite coal and electricity. Industrial wood-burning furnaces are commonly incorporated into boiler systems. Nearly 1700 wood-fired boiler systems are in operation in the United States. The economic value of a wood fuel will depend on its heating value and moisture content. For an indsutry considering use of densified wood for fuel, there is a question of whether the added expense is justified by increased ease of handling and improved burning efficiency. Where high sulfur emissions from coal are a problem, burning sulfur-free pellets in combination with coal may be a solution. In Maine a $3 million pellet-making plant is producing 600 tons of pellets per day. Nationally, the overall generating capacity of all known electrical generating plants using wood and wood derived fuels is about 4500 megawatts. Wood can be processed to produce liquid fuels and other chemicals.

Johnson, W.W.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Furniture wood wastes: Experimental property characterisation and burning tests  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Referring to the industrial wood waste category (as dominant in the provincial district of Pesaro-Urbino, Marche Region, Italy), this paper deals with the experimental characterisation and the carrying out of non-controlled burning tests (at lab- and pilot-scale) for selected 'raw' and primarily 'engineered' ('composite') wood wastes. The property characterisation has primarily revealed the following aspects: potential influence on moisture content of local weather conditions at outdoor wood waste storage sites; generally, higher ash contents in 'engineered' wood wastes as compared with 'raw' wood wastes; and relatively high energy content values of 'engineered' wood wastes (ranging on the whole from 3675 to 5105 kcal kg{sup -1} for HHV, and from 3304 to 4634 kcal kg{sup -1} for LHV). The smoke qualitative analysis of non-controlled lab-scale burning tests has primarily revealed: the presence of specific organic compounds indicative of incomplete wood combustion; the presence exclusively in 'engineered' wood burning tests of pyrroles and amines, as well as the additional presence (as compared with 'raw' wood burning) of further phenolic and containing nitrogen compounds; and the potential environmental impact of incomplete industrial wood burning on the photochemical smog phenomenon. Finally, non-controlled pilot-scale burning tests have primarily given the following findings: emission presence of carbon monoxide indicative of incomplete wood combustion; higher nitrogen oxide emission values detected in 'engineered' wood burning tests as compared with 'raw' wood burning test; and considerable generation of the respirable PM{sub 1} fraction during incomplete industrial wood burning.

Tatano, Fabio [Faculty of Sciences and Technologies, University of Urbino 'Carlo Bo', Campus Scientifico - Sogesta, 61029 Urbino (Italy)], E-mail: fabio.tatano@uniurb.it; Barbadoro, Luca; Mangani, Giovanna; Pretelli, Silvia; Tombari, Lucia; Mangani, Filippo [Faculty of Sciences and Technologies, University of Urbino 'Carlo Bo', Campus Scientifico - Sogesta, 61029 Urbino (Italy)

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

127

Pellet stoves wood energy for all  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

While it`s true that specialized pellet stoves, capable of burning fuels as diverse as reprocessed paper waste and feed corn, are expensive and occasionally clunky, they also represent one of the best hopes for introducing clean burning, reliable renewable energy to those now heating with gas and oil. This article explores the benefits and operation of the stoves including discussions of the following: ecological benefits, combustion, stove venting, ashes, costs, fuels, and the future of wood heat. 1 tab.

NONE

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Bioenergy and Wood Fiber in Virginia and Beyond John F. Munsell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

­ Grayson County and others · Northern Virginia ­ Municipal Waste · Bio-fuels / Ethanol Goals ­ VA Energy energy productiongy p · 9% renewable: 47% biomass: 72% wood-based 17.00% 9.00% 31.00% 2% Wind 45% Hydroelectric 11.00% Petroleum Renewable Energy Nuclear Electric Hydroelectric 5% Geothermal 47% 32.00% Coal

Wynne, Randolph H.

129

Inexpensive solar-wood water heating combinations  

SciTech Connect

A promising batch heater recently built and now being tested consists of lengths of eight-inch galvanized culvert pipe painted with semiselective black coating, hooked in series and tied in as part of a passive closed loop, unpressurized solar-wood water heating combination. One 10-foot length of eight-inch culvert contains 14.6 gallons of water. Eight-inch culvert provides a near optimum surface area per unit volume ratio, resulting in quicker, more efficient solar water heating. Moreover, the proposed arrangement minimizes the mixing of hot with cold water as warm water is used, often a problem with many types of batch heaters. Details for constructing this type of batch heater are provided. The system is an unpressurized, closed loop set-up, which means that the same liquid circulates continually from solar heater to wood heater to storage tank heat exchanger. The collector design is a variation on the inverted batch heater which takes its inspiration from a number of solar designers of similar units and introduces several additional measures to take advantage of the wood heating connection and to improve the design based on operating experience.

Poitras, R.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Leonard Wood and the American Empire  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

During the ten years following the Spanish American War (1898 to 1908), Major General Leonard Wood served as the primary agent of American imperialism. Wood was not only a proconsul of the new American Empire; he was a symbol of the empire and the age in which he served. He had the distinction of directing civil and military government in Cuba and the Philippines where he implemented the imperial policies given to him by the administrations of William McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt. In Cuba, he labored to rebuild a state and a civil society crippled by decades of revolutionary ferment and guided the administration's policy through the dangerous channels of Cuban politics in a way that satisfied – at least to the point of avoiding another revolution – both the Cubans and the United States. In the Philippines, Wood took control of the Moro Province and attempted to smash the tribal-religious leadership of Moro society in order to bring it under direct American rule. His personal ideology, the imperial policies he shepherded, and the guidance he provided to fellow military officers and the administrations he served in matters of colonial administration and defense shaped the American Empire and endowed it with his personal stamp.

Pruitt, James Herman

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Wood and Pellet Heating Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Wood and Pellet Heating Basics Wood and Pellet Heating Basics Wood and Pellet Heating Basics August 16, 2013 - 3:02pm Addthis Wood-burning and pellet fuel appliances use biomass or waste resources to heat homes or buildings. Types of Wood- and Pellet-Burning Appliances The following is a brief overview of the different types of wood and pellet fuel appliances available. High-Efficiency Fireplaces and Fireplace Inserts Designed more for show, traditional open masonry fireplaces should not be considered heating devices. Traditional fireplaces draw in as much as 300 cubic feet per minute of heated room air for combustion, then send it straight up the chimney. Fireplaces also produce significant air pollution. Although some fireplace designs seek to address these issues with dedicated air supplies, glass doors, and heat recovery systems, fireplaces are still

132

Wood as a fuel. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the availability, combustion aspects, economics, and feasibility of using wood as fuel. Topics include wood-fuel power plants, wood waste fuels, district heating systems, wood burning furnaces and appliances, and wood waste generators. (Contains a minimum of 128 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Regeneração de Floresta Secundária Eric A. Davidson Woods...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

299 a 309. 1 Limitaes de Nutrientes para a Regenerao de Floresta Secundria Eric A. Davidson Woods Hole Research Center, Falmouth, Massachusetts, USA Luiz A. Martinelli...

134

Wood County Electric Coop, Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Wood County Electric Coop, Inc Place Texas Utility Id 20927 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes Activity Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes...

135

Wood-boring Insects of Trees and Shrubs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This publication explains how to identify and control wood-boring insects that invade shrubs and shade trees in Texas. 12 pages, 9 figures, 6 photographs, 1 table

Drees, Bastiaan M.; Jackman, John A.; Merchant, Michael E.

2008-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

136

Graphite/Copper Composites from Natural Wood Precursors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Graphite derived from natural wood precursors provides a uniquely anisotropic porous scaffold for the fabrication of graphite/copper composites. The wettability ...

137

The Viscoelastic Properties of Wood Cell Walls after Minimally ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Samples were prepared on dried wood with no embedding resin within the cellular structure. Four types of analysis methods were used; the standard method, ...

138

City of Wood River, Nebraska (Utility Company) | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Nebraska (Utility Company) Jump to: navigation, search Name City of Wood River Place Nebraska Utility Id 20945 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC SPP Yes...

139

Water Sampling At Alvord Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Water Sampling At Alvord Hot Springs Area (Wood, Water Sampling At Alvord Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Alvord Hot Springs Area Exploration Technique Water Sampling Activity Date Usefulness could be useful with more improvements DOE-funding Unknown Notes Geothermal fluids from hot springs and wells have been sampled from a number of locations, including: 1) the North Island of New Zealand (three sets of samples from three different years) and the South Island of New Zealand (1 set of samples); 2) the Cascades of Oregon; 3) the Harney, Alvord Desert and Owyhee geothermal areas of Oregon; 4) the Dixie Valley and Beowawe fields in Nevada; 5) Palinpiiion, the Philippines; 6) the Salton Sea and Heber geothermal fields of southern California; and 7) the Dieng field in Central Java, Indonesia. We have analyzed the samples from

140

Water Sampling At Beowawe Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Water Sampling At Beowawe Hot Springs Area (Wood, Water Sampling At Beowawe Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Beowawe Hot Springs Area Exploration Technique Water Sampling Activity Date Usefulness could be useful with more improvements DOE-funding Unknown Notes Geothermal fluids from hot springs and wells have been sampled from a number of locations, including: 1) the North Island of New Zealand (three sets of samples from three different years) and the South Island of New Zealand (1 set of samples); 2) the Cascades of Oregon; 3) the Harney, Alvord Desert and Owyhee geothermal areas of Oregon; 4) the Dixie Valley and Beowawe fields in Nevada; 5) Palinpiiion, the Philippines; 6) the Salton Sea and Heber geothermal fields of southern California; and 7) the Dieng field in Central Java, Indonesia. We have analyzed the samples from

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "geothermal wood wood" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Water Sampling At Mickey Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mickey Hot Springs Area (Wood, Mickey Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Mickey Hot Springs Area Exploration Technique Water Sampling Activity Date Usefulness could be useful with more improvements DOE-funding Unknown Notes Geothermal fluids from hot springs and wells have been sampled from a number of locations, including: 1) the North Island of New Zealand (three sets of samples from three different years) and the South Island of New Zealand (1 set of samples); 2) the Cascades of Oregon; 3) the Harney, Alvord Desert and Owyhee geothermal areas of Oregon; 4) the Dixie Valley and Beowawe fields in Nevada; 5) Palinpiiion, the Philippines; 6) the Salton Sea and Heber geothermal fields of southern California; and 7) the Dieng field in Central Java, Indonesia. We have analyzed the samples from

142

Water Sampling At Salton Sea Area (Wood, 2002) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Salton Sea Area (Wood, 2002) Salton Sea Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Salton Sea Area Exploration Technique Water Sampling Activity Date Usefulness not useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Geothermal fluids from hot springs and wells have been sampled from a number of locations, including: 1) the North Island of New Zealand (three sets of samples from three different years) and the South Island of New Zealand (1 set of samples); 2) the Cascades of Oregon; 3) the Harney, Alvord Desert and Owyhee geothermal areas of Oregon; 4) the Dixie Valley and Beowawe fields in Nevada; 5) Palinpiiion, the Philippines; 6) the Salton Sea and Heber geothermal fields of southern California; and 7) the Dieng field in Central Java, Indonesia. We have analyzed the samples from all fields for REE except the last two. Our results indicate that

143

Water Sampling At Umpqua Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Umpqua Hot Springs Area (Wood, Umpqua Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Umpqua Hot Springs Area Exploration Technique Water Sampling Activity Date Usefulness could be useful with more improvements DOE-funding Unknown Notes Geothermal fluids from hot springs and wells have been sampled from a number of locations, including: 1) the North Island of New Zealand (three sets of samples from three different years) and the South Island of New Zealand (1 set of samples); 2) the Cascades of Oregon; 3) the Harney, Alvord Desert and Owyhee geothermal areas of Oregon; 4) the Dixie Valley and Beowawe fields in Nevada; 5) Palinpiiion, the Philippines; 6) the Salton Sea and Heber geothermal fields of southern California; and 7) the Dieng field in Central Java, Indonesia. We have analyzed the samples from

144

Wood Pulp Digetster Wall Corrosion Investigation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The modeling of the flow in a wood pulp digester is but one component of the investigation of the corrosion of digesters. This report describes the development of a Near-Wall-Model (NWM) that is intended to couple with a CFD model that determines the flow, heat, and chemical species transport and reaction within the bulk flow of a digester. Lubrication theory approximations were chosen from which to develop a model that could determine the flow conditions within a thin layer near the vessel wall using information from the interior conditions provided by a CFD calculation of the complete digester. The other conditions will be determined by coupled solutions of the wood chip, heat, and chemical species transport and chemical reactions. The NWM was to couple with a digester performance code in an iterative fashion to provide more detailed information about the conditions within the NW region. Process Simulations, Ltd (PSL) is developing the digester performance code. This more detailed (and perhaps more accurate) information from the NWM was to provide an estimate of the conditions that could aggravate the corrosion at the wall. It is intended that this combined tool (NWM-PSL) could be used to understand conditions at/near the wall in order to develop methods to reduce the corrosion. However, development and testing of the NWM flow model took longer than anticipated and the other developments (energy and species transport, chemical reactions and linking with the PSL code) were not completed. The development and testing of the NWM are described in this report. In addition, the investigation of the potential effects of a clear layer (layer reduced in concentration of wood chips) near the wall is reported in Appendix D. The existence of a clear layer was found to enhance the flow near the wall.

Giles, GE

2003-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

145

Section 7.1.3 Wood Products: Greening Federal Facilities; Second...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

wood is being used in a building, there is an opportunity to advance good forest management by specifying certified wood products. When wood is be- ing used for framing-more...

146

How Wood Chip Size Affects Pretreatment Effectiveness of Woody Biomass for Biological Processing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Parameters employed for heating of wood chips employed inParameters employed for heating of wood chips employed inW.T. , 2006. Estimating heating times of wood boards, square

Tam, Jerry

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Life in the woods : production and consumption of the urban forest  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The use of wood is fraught with paradox. Wood as a building material is embraced for its naturalness, while the cutting of trees is indicted as a destruction of nature. Wood is lauded for its structural properties and ...

Volicer, Nadine (Nadine M.)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Wood Pellet Heating Systems: The Earthscan Expert Handbook of Planning, Design and Installation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wood Pellet Heating Systems is a comprehensive handbook covering all aspects of wood pellet heating technology. The use of wood pellets as an alternative heating fuel is already well established in several countries and is becoming widespread as fossil ...

Dilwyn Jenkins

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

My voice shall fill the woods : Lydgate, poetic authority, and the canonization of Philomela  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

My Voice Shall Fill the Woods: Lydgate, Poetic Authority,My Voice Shall Fill the Woods: Lydgate, Poetic Authority,the nightingale fills the woods with song, beautiful and

Gillespie, Mary Elizabeth

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Digestive enzyme activities and gastrointestinal fermentation in wood-eating catfishes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

our data on wild-caught wood-eating catWshes appear to bein the Amazo- nian basin, and the wood-eating species likelyby reducing the particle size of wood from coarse debris to

German, Donovan P.; Bittong, Rosalie A.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

North Woods River: The St. Croix River in Upper Midwest History  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Review: North Woods River: The St. Croix River in Upperand Karamanski, Theodore J. North Woods River: The St. Croixbeauty and splendor. In North Woods River, Eileen M. McMahon

Karalus, Daniel E

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Metagenomic and functional analysis of hindgut microbiota of a wood-feeding higher termite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and western branches of the Wood/Ljungdahl pathway: how the1993). 55. Wood, T. Preparation of crystalline,of hindgut microbiota of a wood-feeding higher termite Falk

Warnecke, Falk

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Daughters of Dissent: Women as Warriors in Sembene Ousmane's God's Bits of Wood  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sembene. Gods Bits of Wood. Heinemann, Soyinka, Wole. Myth,novel, God's Bits of Wood, with particular reference to theOusmane's novel, God's Bits of Wood. It is important to note

Abdurrahman, Umar

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Save the tree of life or get lost in the woods  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of life or get lost in the woods Biology Direct 2010, 5:44of life or get lost in the woods Ruben E Valas* 1 and PhilipOtherwise one gets lost in the woods of neutral evolution.

Valas, Ruben E; Bourne, Philip E

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

The use of a permanent magnet for water content measurements of wood chips  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water Content Measurements of Wood Chips * P. J. Barale, C.measures the water content of wood chips, pulp and brownwater content measurements in wood chips in a magnetic field

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Wood Fired Steam Plants in Georgia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

During the 1970's, Georgia industry experienced problems obtaining fuel for operations on several occasions. In particular, the very cold winter of 1976-77 resulted in natural gas curtailments which virtually shut down many of Georgia's industries. Shortly after that time, Georgia Tech and the Georgia Forestry Commission embarked on a number of projects directed toward providing the use of wood as an industrial energy source. This paper will present an overview of these programs with an emphasis on three demonstration plants that were built with partial financing by state and federal government.

Bulpitt, W. S.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

A Wood-Fired Gas Turbine Plant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper covers the research and development of a wood-fired gas turbine unit that is used for generating electricity. The system uses one large cyclonic combustor and a cyclone cleaning system in series to provide hot gases to drive an Allison T-56 aircraft engine (the industrial version is the 501-k). A Westinghouse 3,000-kW generator is used on the prototype facility with a Philadelphia gear system reducing the 14,000-rpm turbine output speed to the 3,600-rpm generator operating speed. Fuel is fed into the combustor by a rotary valve system. The swirling effect of the cyclone combustor ensures that residence time is adequate to completely burn all solid particles in the combustor ahead of the cyclone filter. Burning of particles on the metal walls of the cyclone filter could cause overheating and deterioration of the walls. This wood-fired gas turbine unit could provide a low cost source of power for areas where conventional methods are now prohibitive and provide a means for recovering energy from a source that now poses disposal problems.

Powell, S. H.; Hamrick, J. T.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Silviculture: growing more wood on less land  

SciTech Connect

Maximizing the production of a concentrated, homogeneous wood supply virtually dictates intensively managed plantations. This management system implies: (1) improving the composite genotype of plantation trees; (2) optimizing their morphological and physiological condition prior to and at planting time; (3) improving the physiological environment of the crop at all stages of development; (4) protecting the plantation from pests and catastrophic events; and (5) modifying the shapes, dimensions, and qualities of crop trees to enhance the utility and value of harvested timber. Beneficiation of forest residuals for fiber and fuel is pushing forest industry relentlessly toward total stand utilization. Relative to the productivity of undisturbed or partially logged humid tropical forests, plantation growth rates represent four-fold to ten-fold increases in volume production. Displacement of some proportion of shifting agriculture and natural forest management systems by intensively managed plantations is desirable and biologically feasible. A key to successful tropical forest management and preservation is population stability, a condition toward which integrated wood conversion facilities supplied by a reliable plantation system can make a major contribution. There are some pressing and many esoteric reasons for conserving forest resources but pressures for utilizing and renewing these resources are immediate and unavoidable.

Gladstone, W.T.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Modelling piloted ignition of wood and plastics  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We model piloted ignition times of wood and plastics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The model is applied on a packed bed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer When the air flow is above a critical level, no ignition can take place. - Abstract: To gain insight in the startup of an incinerator, this article deals with piloted ignition. A newly developed model is described to predict the piloted ignition times of wood, PMMA and PVC. The model is based on the lower flammability limit and the adiabatic flame temperature at this limit. The incoming radiative heat flux, sample thickness and moisture content are some of the used variables. Not only the ignition time can be calculated with the model, but also the mass flux and surface temperature at ignition. The ignition times for softwoods and PMMA are mainly under-predicted. For hardwoods and PVC the predicted ignition times agree well with experimental results. Due to a significant scatter in the experimental data the mass flux and surface temperature calculated with the model are hard to validate. The model is applied on the startup of a municipal waste incineration plant. For this process a maximum allowable primary air flow is derived. When the primary air flow is above this maximum air flow, no ignition can be obtained.

Blijderveen, Maarten van [TNO, Schoemakerstraat 97, 2628 VK Delft (Netherlands); University of Twente, Department of Thermal Engineering, Drienerlolaan 5, 7522 NB Enschede (Netherlands); Bramer, Eddy A. [University of Twente, Department of Thermal Engineering, Drienerlolaan 5, 7522 NB Enschede (Netherlands); Brem, Gerrit, E-mail: g.brem@utwente.nl [University of Twente, Department of Thermal Engineering, Drienerlolaan 5, 7522 NB Enschede (Netherlands)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

160

Trends and Market Effects of Wood Energy Policies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Trends and Market Effects of Wood Energy Policies Bengt Hillring SLU SWEDEN http is the main international energy source · Climate change ­ Energy production ­ CO2 · European Union different the plans to increase #12;#12;Energy Sector Waste Sector Recovered Wood Sawdust Logging Residues Forest

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "geothermal wood wood" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Modeling and Rendering Physically-Based Wood Combustion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rendering of wood combustion has received some attention recently, but prior work has not incorporated effects of internal wood properties such as density variation (i.e. "grain") and pre-combustion processes such as drying. In this paper we present ...

Roderick M. Riensche; Robert R. Lewis

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

NREL: News Feature - Wood-Boring Gribbles Intrigue Researchers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Wood-Boring Gribbles Intrigue Researchers Wood-Boring Gribbles Intrigue Researchers July 24, 2013 This is a light-enhanced close-up of a tiny crustacean's head and torso, with what looks like fluorescent-blue antennae. Three of its legs are showing. Enlarge image A gribble is a tiny wood borer that produces its own enzyme that can devastate wood efficiently. Researchers hope that by studying gribbles they can learn ways to improve the process of turning biomass into liquid fuels. Courtesy Laura Michie, University of Portsmouth, United Kingdom Tiny wood borers known colloquially as gribbles make their own enzymes and use them to eat through docks in harbor towns, earning enmity from fishermen all around the world. Now, researchers from the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and elsewhere are exploring whether that curse can be

163

Steam gasification of wood in the presence of catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Catalytic steam gasification of wood, including sawdust, chipped forest slash, and mill shavings, is being investigated. Results of laboratory, process development unit (PDU), and feasibility studies illustrate attractive processes for conversion of wood to methanol and a substitute natural gas (SNG). Recent laboratory studies developed a long-lived alloy catalyst for generation of a methanol synthesis gas by steam gasification of wood. Modification of the PDU for operation at 10 atm (150 psia) is nearly complete. The modified PDU will be operated at the elevated pressure to confirm yields and design parameters used in process feasibility studies. Feasibility studies were completed on wood-to-methane (SNG) and wood-to-methanol plants with capacities of 2000 and 200 oven dried tons (1800 and 180 metric t) per day using catalytic gasification. The results showed that generation of methanol on the large scale is economically viable today while SNG generation is competitive with future prices.

Mitchell, D.H.; Mudge, L.K.; Baker, E.G.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Effects of wood fuel use on plant management  

SciTech Connect

During the winter of 1979-80, about 20% of homeowners in the New England region relied on wood fuel as their primary source of heat; an additional 30% used wood heat on a supplementary basis. The demand for wood put a great strain on the New England forests. However, experts in forest management believe that with proper management and utilization, national forest growth could replace as much as four billion gpy of oil by 2023. Implications for the forests of the Upper Great Lakes region of increased use of public and private woodlands for fuel are examined. Conflicts that could arise with the tourist and recreation industry, and with wilderness preservation interests, and discussed. Wood wastes generated by timber harvesting, sawmills, and lumber manufacturing could be collected and used as fuel, thus reducing the amount of raw wood resources needed to fill the increasing demand. (6 photos)

Harris, M.; Buckmann, C.A.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Performance of bolted wood connections using supplemental confining devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the aftermath of the 1994 Northridge Earthquake, extensive field investigations revealed damage in wood frame construction in the form of splitting the 2x4 or 2x6 dimension lumber sill plates along the line of anchor bolts which typically connect shear walls to the masonry or concrete foundation. This paper presents an experimental investigation on the performance of bolted wood connections at the yield and ultimate limit states during monotonic and incremental quasi-static reversed cyclic loading and suggests possible retrofit strategies for their improved seismic performance. Proposed retrofit strategies are based on providing confinement to the bolted wood member using metal reinforcing ;traps and reinforcing clamps to increase the deformation capability and energy dissipation capacity of the connection, while maintaining substantial levels of connection strength. Connection types included in the investigation are: (1) double shear wood-to-wood connections; and (2) single shear simulated sill plate-to-concrete foundation connections.

Stromatt, Rebecca Faye

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Biomass plants face wood supply risks Report warns giant new biomass power plants will be hugely reliant on wood chip  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biomass plants face wood supply risks Report warns giant new biomass power plants will be hugely's biomass energy sector could be undermined unless businesses move to resolve the supply chain issues-scale biomass plants will leave generators largely reliant on biomass from overseas such as wood chips, elephant

167

Implementing Strategies for Drying and Pressing Wood Without Emissions Controls  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Drying and pressing wood for the manufacture of lumber, particleboard, oriented strand board (OSB), veneer and medium density fiberboard (MDF) release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere. These emissions require control equipment that are capital-intensive and consume significant quantities of natural gas and electricity. The objective of our work was to understand the mechanisms through which volatile organic compounds are generated and released and to develop simple control strategies. Of the several strategies developed, two have been implemented for OSB manufacture over the course of this study. First, it was found that increasing final wood moisture by about 2-4 percentage points reduced the dryer emissions of hazardous air pollutants by over 70%. As wood dries, the escaping water evaporatively cools the wood. This cooling tapers off wood when the wood is nearly dry and the wood temperature rises. Thermal breakdown of the wood tissue occurs and VOCs are released. Raising the final wood moisture by only a few percentage points minimizes the temperature rise and reduces emissions. Evaporative cooling also impacts has implications for VOC release from wood fines. Flaking wood for OSB manufacture inevitable generates fines. Fines dry out rapidly because of their high surface area and evaporative cooling is lost more rapidly than for flakes. As a result, fines emit a disproportionate quantity of VOCs. Fines can be reduced in two ways: through screening of the green furnish and through reducing their generation during flaking. The second approach is preferable because it also increased wood yield. A procedure to do this by matching the sharpness angle of the flaker knife to the ambient temperature was also developed. Other findings of practical interests are as follows: Dielectric heating of wood under low-headspace conditions removes terpenes and other extractives from softwood; The monoterpene content in trees depend upon temperature and seasonal effects; Method 25A emissions from lumber drying can be modeled from a knowledge of the airflow through the kiln; A heat transfer model shows that VOCs released during hot-pressing mainly originate from the surface of the board; and Boiler ash can be used to adsorb formaldehyde from air streams.

Sujit Banerjee; Terrance Conners

2007-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

168

Homeowners energy conservation and consumption behavior: wood users and non/low wood users  

SciTech Connect

Relationships among energy expenditure, energy consumption, energy-budget share, energy managerial practices, housing, and household-membership factors for non/low wood-user and high wood-user households were examined to explain substitution of fuelwood for primary fuels. Data were from a nationwide representative sample of 1599 homeowners collected by the Department of Energy in 1982-1983 Residential Energy Conservation Survey. In three multivariate regression models, different dependent variables - energy expenditure, energy consumption, and energy budget share, were used. The same independent variables - housing factors, household energy managerial practices, and household membership factors, were used in the three models. Finally, in a fourth model, discriminant analysis with the dichotomous criterion variable of non/low or high wood users and significant variables from the multivariate regressions models were used to explain 34% of the variance. The amount of space heated, their appliance use, whether they had teenage children, and if they were single-earner households were significant explanatory variables in all four models.

Urich, J.R.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Compound and Elemental Analysis At Crane Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Compound and Elemental Analysis At Crane Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Compound and Elemental Analysis At Crane Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Crane Hot Springs Area Exploration Technique Compound and Elemental Analysis Activity Date Usefulness could be useful with more improvements DOE-funding Unknown Notes Geothermal fluids from hot springs and wells have been sampled from a number of locations, including: 1) the North Island of New Zealand (three

170

Prioritizing wood energy crop feedstock qualities for biofuel systems improvement  

SciTech Connect

Knowledge engineering or expert systems is needed in biofuel systems to adequately prioritize wood energy crop traits on which research and development should focus. Objectives at the various stages of the total biofuel process are clarifying the demands that will be placed on feedstock qualities. These objectives are forming more clearly from developments in the growing, handling, and conversion of wood under operational and regulatory circumstances. A process for systematic prioritization of wood qualities for possible improvement is presented in the content of the entire biofuel process.

Ranney, J.W.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Prioritizing wood energy crop feedstock qualities for biofuel systems improvement  

SciTech Connect

Knowledge engineering or expert systems is needed in biofuel systems to adequately prioritize wood energy crop traits on which research and development should focus. Objectives at the various stages of the total biofuel process are clarifying the demands that will be placed on feedstock qualities. These objectives are forming more clearly from developments in the growing, handling, and conversion of wood under operational and regulatory circumstances. A process for systematic prioritization of wood qualities for possible improvement is presented in the content of the entire biofuel process.

Ranney, J.W.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

172

Wood-Polymer composites obtained by gamma irradiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work we impregnate three Peruvian woods (Calycophy spruceanum Be, Aniba amazonica Meiz and Hura crepitans L) with styrene-polyester resin and methyl methacrylate. The polymerization of the system was promoted by gamma radiation and the experimental optimal condition was obtained with styrene-polyester 1:1 and 15 kGy. The obtained composites show reduced water absorption and better mechanical properties compared to the original wood. The structure of the wood-polymer composites was studied by light microscopy. Water absorption and hardness were also obtained.

Gago, J. [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Av. Canada 1470 Lima 41 (Peru); Lopez, A.; Rodriguez, J. [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Av. Canada 1470 Lima 41 (Peru); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Ingenieria, Av. Tupac Amaru 210, Lima 25 (Peru); Santiago, J. [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Av. Canada 1470 Lima 41 (Peru); Facultad de Quimica e Ing. Quimica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima 1 (Peru); Acevedo, M. [Facultad de Ciencias Forestales, Universidad Nacional Agraria la Molina, Lima 12 (Peru)

2007-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

173

Improved Process control of wood waste fired boilers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project's principal aim was the conceptual and feasibility stage development of improved process control methods for wood-waste-fired water-tube boilers operating in industrial manufacturing applications (primarily pulp and paper). The specific objectives put forth in the original project proposal were as follows: (1) fully characterize the wood-waste boiler control inter-relationships and constraints through data collection and analysis; (2) design an improved control architecture; (3) develop and test an appropriate control and optimization algorithm; and (4) develop and test a procedure for reproducing the approach and deriving the benefits on similar pulp and paper wood-waste boilers. Detailed tasks were developed supporting these objectives.

Process Control Solutions, Inc.

2004-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

174

An economical and market analysis of Canadian wood pellets.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study systematically examined the current and future wood pellet market, estimated the cost of Canadian torrefied pellets, and compared the torrefied pellets with the conventional pellets based on literature and industrial data. The results showed that the wood pellet industry has been gaining significant momentum due to the European bioenergy incentives and the rising oil and natural gas prices. With the new bioenergy incentives in USA, the future pellets market may shift to North America, and Canada can potentially become the largest pellet production centre, supported by the abundant wood residues and mountain pine beetle (MPB) infested trees.

Peng, J. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Uses and Desirable Properties of Wood in the 21st Century  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of commercial de- velopment is use of wood pellet fuel to pro- duce heat or electric power. Wood pellets for the pellet Figure 2. Global production of paper and paperboard and wood panels by principal (continental, and production of nano-enabled materials and products are expected to increasingly shape wood use as the 21st

176

Method for lowering the VOCS emitted during drying of wood products  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a method for removal of VOCs from wood products prior to drying the wood products. The method of the invention includes the steps of providing a chamber having an opening for receiving wood and loading the chamber with green wood. The wood is loaded to an extent sufficient to provide a limited headspace in the chamber. The chamber is then closed and the wood is heated in the chamber for a time and at a temperature sufficient to saturate the headspace with moisture and to substantially transfer VOCs from the wood product to the moisture in the headspace.

Banerjee, Sujit (1832 Jacksons Creek Point, Marietta, GA 30068); Boerner, James Robert (154 Junedale Rd., Cincinnati, OH 45218); Su, Wei (2262 Orleans Ave., Marietta, GA 30062)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Contribution of organic carbon to wood smoke particulate matter absorption  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Contribution of organic carbon to wood smoke particulate matter absorption Contribution of organic carbon to wood smoke particulate matter absorption of solar radiation Title Contribution of organic carbon to wood smoke particulate matter absorption of solar radiation Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012 Authors Kirchstetter, Thomas W., and Tracy L. Thatcher Journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Volume 12 Pagination 6067-6072 Abstract A spectroscopic analysis of 115 wintertime partic- ulate matter samples collected in rural California shows that wood smoke absorbs solar radiation with a strong spectral se- lectivity. This is consistent with prior work that has demon- strated that organic carbon (OC), in addition to black car- bon (BC), appreciably absorbs solar radiation in the visible and ultraviolet spectral regions. We apportion light absorp-

178

International WoodFuels LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

WoodFuels LLC WoodFuels LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name International WoodFuels LLC Place Portland, Maine Zip 4101 Product Maine-based pellet producer and installer of commercial wood pellet heating systems. Coordinates 45.511795°, -122.675629° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":45.511795,"lon":-122.675629,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

179

Stanford - Woods Institute for the Environment | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Stanford - Woods Institute for the Environment Stanford - Woods Institute for the Environment Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Stanford- Woods Institute for the Environment Name Stanford- Woods Institute for the Environment Address 473 Via Ortega Place Stanford, California Zip 94305 Region Bay Area Coordinates 37.427774°, -122.175672° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":37.427774,"lon":-122.175672,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

180

Residential Wood Heating Fuel Exemption (New York) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Wood Heating Fuel Exemption (New York) Wood Heating Fuel Exemption (New York) Residential Wood Heating Fuel Exemption (New York) < Back Eligibility Multi-Family Residential Residential Savings Category Bioenergy Maximum Rebate None Program Info State New York Program Type Sales Tax Incentive Rebate Amount 100% exemption Provider New York State Department of Taxation and Finance New York exempts retail sales of wood used for residential heating purposes from the state sales tax. The law also permits local governments (municipalities and counties) to grant an exemption from local sales taxes. If a city with a population of 1 million or more chooses to grant the local exemption, it must enact a specific resolution that appears in the state law. Local sales tax rates in New York range from 1.5% to more than 4% in

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "geothermal wood wood" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Qualifying Wood Stove Deduction (Idaho) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Share this page on Facebook icon Twitter icon Qualifying Wood Stove Deduction (Idaho) This is the approved revision of this page, as well as being the most recent. Jump...

182

John H. Wood Gary R. Long David F. Morehouse Energy ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Long-Term World Oil Supply Scenarios The Future Is Neither as Bleak or Rosy as Some Assert John H. Wood Gary R. Long David F. Morehouse Energy Information Administration

183

Test evaluation of a laminated wood wind turbine blade concept  

SciTech Connect

Because of the high stiffness and fatigue strength of wood (as compared to density) along with the low cost manufacturing techniques available, a laminated wood wind turbine blade application has been studied. This report presents the results of the testing performed on elements of the wood blade-to-hub transition section which uses steel studs cast into a laminated wood spar with a filled epoxy. Individual stud samples were tested for both ultimate load carrying capability and fatigue strength. A one-time pull-out load of 78,000 lb was achieved for a 15 in. long stud with a diameter of 1 in. Tension-tension fatigue indicated that peak loads on the order of 40% of ultimate could be maintained as an endurance limit (mean load = 20,000 lb, cyclic load = +-15,000 lb). Following the individual stud testing, a full-scale inboard blade section (20 ft in length) was tested.

Faddoul, J.R.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

DOE Joint Genome Institute: Rot's Unique Wood Degrading Machinery...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

February 5, 2009 Rot's Unique Wood Degrading Machinery to be Harnessed for Better Biofuels Production WALNUT CREEK, CA-An international team led by scientists from the U.S....

185

Wood Products Marketing And Value-Added Opportunities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Opportunities -MDF- Market Opportunities -MDF- The first MDF plant started up four years ago and now there are 3 the substrate of choice for exotic wood veneer layup. Pressing veneer on MDF will give the most defect

186

Signatures of surface bundles and Milnor Wood inequalities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Let E be a surface bundle over a surface. We use a variant of the Milnor Wood inequality to show that $|3\\sigma(E)|\\leq \\chi(E)$.

Hamenstaedt, Ursula

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Methanol synthesis gas from catalytic steam reforming of wood  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Laboratory studies were successful in developing catalyst systems and operating conditions for generation of a methanol synthesis gas, a mixture of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Some methane remained in the gas mixture. Wood was reacted with steam at a steam-to-wood weight ratio of about 0.9 and a temperature of 750/sup 0/C (1380/sup 0/F) in the presence of several catalysts. Results are presented for two different catalyst systems.

Mudge, L.K.; Mitchell, D.H.; Robertus, R.J.; Weber, S.L.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

The adoption of e-commerce for wood enterprises  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lately, the internet has become a major means in electronic commerce (e-commerce), as it offers various advantages and benefits. In Greece, there are many Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) in the context of the timber ... Keywords: Greece, ICT adoption, PROMETHEE II method, SMEs, e-commerce, electronic commerce, multi-criteria analysis, small and medium-sized enterprises, timber trade, web content, website ranking, wood processing, wood products

Z. S. Andreopoulou; T. Koutroumanidis; B. Manos

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Extracellular oxidative metabolism of wood decay fungi  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Substantial progress has been made toward understanding the fundamental physiology and genetics of wood decay fungi, microbes that are capable of degrading all major components of plant cell walls. Efficient utilization of lignocellulosic biomass has been hampered in part by limitations in our understanding of enzymatic mechanisms of plant cell wall degradation. This is particularly true of woody substrates where accessibility and high lignin content substantially complicate enzymatic 'deconstruction'. The interdisciplinary research has illuminated enzymatic mechanisms essential for the conversion of lignocellulosics to simple carbohydrates and other small molecular weight products. Progress was in large part dependent on substantial collaborations with the Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute (JGI) in Walnut Creek and Los Alamos, as well as the Catholic University, Santiago, Chile, the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, the University of Minnesota, St. Paul, and colleagues at the University of Wisconsin and the Forest Products Laboratory. Early accomplishments focused on the development of experimental tools (2, 7, 22, 24-26, 32) and characterization of individual genes and enzymes (1, 3-5, 8, 9, 11, 14, 15, 17, 18, 23, 27, 33). In 2004, the genome of the most intensively studied lignin-degrading fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, was published (21). This milestone lead to additional progress on this important model system (6, 10, 12, 13, 16, 28-31) and was further complemented by genome analysis of other important cellulose-degrading fungi (19, 20). These accomplishments have been highly cited and have paved the way for whole new research areas.

Daniel Cullen

2010-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

190

Moisture Distribution and Flow During Drying of Wood and Fiber  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

New understanding, theories, and techniques for moisture flow and distribution were developed in this research on wood and wood fiber. Improved understanding of the mechanisms of flake drying has been provided. Observations of flake drying and drying rate curves revealed that rate of moisture loss consisted of two falling rate periods and no constant rate drying period was observed. Convective heat transfer controls the first period, and bound water diffusion controls the second period. Influence of lower drying temperatures on bending properties of wood flakes was investigated. Drying temperature was found to have a significant influence on bending stiffness and strength. A worksheet for calculation of the energy required to dry a single strandboard flake was developed but has not been tested in an industrial setting yet. A more complete understanding of anisotropic transverse shrinkage of wood is proposed based on test results and statistical analysis. A simplified mod el of a wood cell's cross-section was drawn for calculating differential transverse shrinkage. The model utilizes cell wall thickness and microfibrillar packing density and orientation. In spite of some phenomena of cell wall structure not yet understood completely, the results might explain anisotropic transverse shrinkage to a major extent. Boundary layer theory was found useful for evaluating external moisture resistance during drying. Simulated moisture gradients were quire comparable to the actual gradients in dried wood. A mathematical procedure for determining diffusion and surface emission coefficients was also developed. Thermal conductivity models of wood derived from its anatomical structure were created and tested against experimental values. Model estimations provide insights into changes in heat transfer parameters during drying. Two new techniques for measuring moisture gradients created in wood during drying were developed. A new technique that utilizes optical properties of cobalt chloride was developed for nondestructive determination of surface moisture content. Fundamental new understanding of drying characteristics in wood and fiber has been provided that can be used by researchers to improve drying of wood and fiber. The three techniques for measuring moisture content and gradients provided in this study are efficient, practical, and economical - easy to apply by industry and researchers. An energy consumption worksheet is provided as a first step toward reducing energy consumed during drying of lumber and strandboard flakes. However, it will need additional verification and testing.

Zink-Sharp, Audrey; Hanna, Robert B.

2001-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

191

Contesting Governance in the Global Marketplace: A Sociological Assessment of British Efforts to Build New Markets for NGO-Certified Sustainable Wood Products  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Towards Environmentally Sound Wood Products In the Britishof the Earth. 1995. “The Good Wood Guide. ” Friends of theRamachandra. 1990. The Unquiet Woods: Ecological Change and

McNichol, Jason

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

A distributed approach to accounting for carbon in wood products  

SciTech Connect

With an evolving political environment of commitments to limit emissions of greenhouse gases, and of markets to trade in emissions permits, there is growing scientific, political, and economic need to accurately evaluate carbon (C) stocks and flows especially those related to human activities. One component of the global carbon cycle that has been contentious is the stock of carbon that is physically held in harvested wood products. The carbon stored in wood products has been sometimes overlooked, but the amount of carbon contained in wood products is not trivial, it is increasing with time, and it is significant to some Parties. This paper is concerned with accurate treatment of harvested wood products in inventories of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. The methodologies outlined demonstrate a flexible way to expand current methods beyond the assumption of a simple, first-order decay to include the use of more accurate and detailed data while retaining the simplicity of simple formulas. The paper demonstrates that a more accurate representation of decay time can have significant economic implications in a system where emissions are taxed or emissions permits are traded. The method can be easily applied using only data on annual production of wood products and two parameters to characterize their expected lifetime. These methods are not specific to wood products but can be applied to long-lived, carbon-containing products from sources other than wood, e.g. long-lived petrochemical products. A single unifying approach that is both simple and flexible has the potential to be both more accurate in its results, more efficient in its implementation, and economically important to some Parties.

Marland, Eric [Appalachian State University; Stellar, Kirk [Appalachian State University; Marland, Gregg [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Decision-maker's guide to wood fuel for small industrial energy users. Final report. [Includes glossary  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The technology and economics of various wood energy systems available to the small industrial and commercial energy user are considered. This book is designed to help a plant manager, engineer, or others in a decision-making role to become more familiar with wood fuel systems and make informed decisions about switching to wood as a fuel. The following subjects are discussed: wood combustion, pelletized wood, fuel storage, fuel handling and preparation, combustion equipment, retrofitting fossil-fueled boilers, cogeneration, pollution abatement, and economic considerations of wood fuel use. (MHR)

Levi, M. P.; O'Grady, M. J.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Cofiring Wood and Coal to Stoker Boilers in Pittsburgh  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The prime objective of the University of Pittsburgh's overall wood/coal cofiring program is the successful introduction of commercial cofiring of urban wood wastes into the stoker boilers of western Pennsylvania. Central to this objective is the demonstration test at the Pittsburgh Brewing Company. In this test the project team is working to show that two commercially-available clean wood wastes - tub-ground pallet waste and chipped clearance wood - can be included in the fuel fed daily to an industrial stoker boiler. Irrespective of its economic outcome, the technical success of the demonstration at the brewery will allow the local air quality regulation agency to permit a parametric test at the Bellefield Boiler Plant. The objective of this test is to obtain comprehensive data on all key parameters of this operational boiler while firing wood with coal. The data would then be used for thorough generic technical and economic analyses. The technical analysis would be added to the open literature for the general planning and operational guidance for boiler owners and operators. The economic analysis would gage the potential for providing this stoker fuel commercially in an urban setting and for purchasing it regularly for combustion in an urban stoker boiler.

Cobb, J.T., Jr.; Elder, W.W.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

The evolution and ecology of interspecific territoriality: Studies of Anolis lizards and North American wood-warblers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and E. Bermingham. 2002. What is a wood-warbler? Molecularmultilocus phylogeny for the wood-warblers and a revisedplayback experiments with wood warblers. Ecology 82:207-218.

Losin, Neil

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

ENERGY BUDGETS AND MASONRY HOUSES: A PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF THE COMPARATIVE ENERGY PERFORMANCE OF MASONRY AND WOOD-FRAME HOUSES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ENERGY PERFORMANCE OF MASONRY AND WOOD-FRAME HOUSES David B.PERFORMANCE OF MASONRY AND WOOD-FRAME HOUSES David B. Goldsfor those studies used wood- frame construction, The energy

Goldstein, David B.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Understanding wood-pool dynamics using long-term monitoring data from the Gualala River Watershed: What can we learn?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and D. R. Montgomery. 2003. Wood in river rehabilitation andPatterns and process of wood debris accumulation in theand S. V. Gregory. 2002. Large wood and fluvial processes.

Church, Tamara

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Linda Sargent Wood. A More Perfect Union: Holistic Worldviews and the Transformation of American Culture after World War II.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

23 No. 1 Linda Sargent Wood. A More Perfect Union: HolisticCold War era, Linda Sargent Wood argues that the equallyWorld War II period. For Wood, this cultural perspective

Promnitz, Sarah

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Hancock-Wood Electric Coop Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hancock-Wood Electric Coop Inc Hancock-Wood Electric Coop Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name Hancock-Wood Electric Coop Inc Place Ohio Utility Id 8034 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location RFC NERC RFC Yes RTO PJM Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Farm Service-R-107 Commercial Farm Sevice R-207 Commercial Farm Sevice R-207(Transformer Capacity in Excess of 25kVA) Commercial LPS Rate 12 (Mainland) Industrial LPS Rate 12KI (Kelleys Island) Industrial NR Rate GS-8KI (Kelleys Island) Commercial NR Rate GS-8M (Mainland) Commercial NR Rate GS-9KI - Kelleys Island Over 25 kW Commercial

200

Hogged Wood Fuel Supply and Price Analysis : Final Report.  

SciTech Connect

This study discusses the factors that determine the supply and demand for hogged wood in the Pacific Northwest, with particular emphasis on the role of the regional pulp and paper industry and lumber industry. Because hogged wood is often a substitute for conventional fuels, the consumption and price of natural gas, electricity, fuel oil and coal are also addressed. A detailed and comprehensive examination of the indicies relating to the hogged wood market is provided, including analysis and graphing of all time series variables. A spreadsheet- based forecasting model is developed and presented with an emphasis on explaining the process used to arrive at the final model. 42 refs., 46 figs., 14 tabs. (MHB)

Biederman, Richard T.; Blazek, Christopher F.

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "geothermal wood wood" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Wood for energy and rural development: the Philippine experience  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Philippine wood energy programme (dendro-thermal system) was originally developed as a source of energy independent of imported oil, and at a lower cost than oil. It has social benefits: new jobs, land distribution, rural income increment, and reforestation by tree farmers. Tree farming, its administration and organization of farmer institutions are essential to the programme, as are the development of farming techniques to produce energy, trees (growth of ipil-ipil), and an improved tree growth rate. An analysis of the economics of wood energy led to the conclusion that raw wood fuel can be cheaper than oil. In estimated costs of electricity, the dendro-thermal plants can produce power at competitive rates. 36 references.

Denton, F.H.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Comminution process to produce precision wood particles of uniform size and shape with disrupted grain structure from wood chips  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process of comminution of wood chips (C) having a grain direction to produce a mixture of wood particles (P), wherein the wood chips are characterized by an average length dimension (L.sub.C) as measured substantially parallel to the grain, an average width dimension (W.sub.C) as measured normal to L.sub.C and aligned cross grain, and an average height dimension (H.sub.C) as measured normal to W.sub.C and L.sub.C, and wherein the comminution process comprises the step of feeding the wood chips in a direction of travel substantially randomly to the grain direction through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs (D) arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of wood chip travel, wherein the cutting discs have a uniform thickness (T.sub.D), and wherein at least one of L.sub.C, W.sub.C, and H.sub.C is greater than T.sub.D.

Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

203

Compound and Elemental Analysis At Umpqua Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Umpqua Hot Springs Umpqua Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Umpqua Hot Springs Area Exploration Technique Compound and Elemental Analysis Activity Date Usefulness could be useful with more improvements DOE-funding Unknown Notes Geothermal fluids from hot springs and wells have been sampled from a number of locations, including: 1) the North Island of New Zealand (three sets of samples from three different years) and the South Island of New Zealand (1 set of samples); 2) the Cascades of Oregon; 3) the Harney, Alvord Desert and Owyhee geothermal areas of Oregon; 4) the Dixie Valley and Beowawe fields in Nevada; 5) Palinpiiion, the Philippines; 6) the Salton Sea and Heber geothermal fields of southern California; and 7) the Dieng field in Central Java, Indonesia. We have analyzed the samples from

204

Compound and Elemental Analysis At Beowawe Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Compound and Elemental Analysis At Beowawe Hot Compound and Elemental Analysis At Beowawe Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Beowawe Hot Springs Area Exploration Technique Compound and Elemental Analysis Activity Date Usefulness could be useful with more improvements DOE-funding Unknown Notes Geothermal fluids from hot springs and wells have been sampled from a number of locations, including: 1) the North Island of New Zealand (three sets of samples from three different years) and the South Island of New Zealand (1 set of samples); 2) the Cascades of Oregon; 3) the Harney, Alvord Desert and Owyhee geothermal areas of Oregon; 4) the Dixie Valley and Beowawe fields in Nevada; 5) Palinpiiion, the Philippines; 6) the Salton Sea and Heber geothermal fields of southern California; and 7) the

205

Compound and Elemental Analysis At Alvord Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Compound and Elemental Analysis At Alvord Hot Springs Compound and Elemental Analysis At Alvord Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Alvord Hot Springs Area Exploration Technique Compound and Elemental Analysis Activity Date Usefulness could be useful with more improvements DOE-funding Unknown Notes Geothermal fluids from hot springs and wells have been sampled from a number of locations, including: 1) the North Island of New Zealand (three sets of samples from three different years) and the South Island of New Zealand (1 set of samples); 2) the Cascades of Oregon; 3) the Harney, Alvord Desert and Owyhee geothermal areas of Oregon; 4) the Dixie Valley and Beowawe fields in Nevada; 5) Palinpiiion, the Philippines; 6) the Salton Sea and Heber geothermal fields of southern California; and 7) the

206

Clean-Burning Wood Stove Grant Program (Maryland) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Clean-Burning Wood Stove Grant Program (Maryland) Clean-Burning Wood Stove Grant Program (Maryland) Clean-Burning Wood Stove Grant Program (Maryland) < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Bioenergy Program Info Start Date 09/07/2012 State Maryland Program Type State Rebate Program Rebate Amount Stick Burning Stove: $500 Pellet Burning Stove: $700 The Maryland Energy Administration (MEA) now offers the Clean Burning Wood Stove Grant program as part of its Residential Clean Energy Grant Program. The Clean Burning Wood Stove Grant program offers a flat grant award of $500 for stick burning wood stoves and $700 for pellet burning wood stoves that meet program eligibility requirements. Basic requirements for grant funding include: *The property must serve as primary residence *Clean burning wood stove must replace existing electric or non-natural gas

207

Residential Bulk-Fed Wood-Pellet Central Boilers and Furnace...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Bulk-Fed Wood-Pellet Central Boilers and Furnace Rebate Program Residential Bulk-Fed Wood-Pellet Central Boilers and Furnace Rebate Program Eligibility Multi-Family Residential...

208

Name: Qinglin Wu Title: Roy O Martin Sr. Professor, Composites and Engineered Wood Products  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Department: School of Renewable Natural Resources Mailing Address: 107 Renewable-Natural-Resources Building Louisiana Forest Products Development Center (LFPDC) School of Renewable Natural Resources Louisiana State. China. RESEARCH INTERESTS Wood and natural fiber polymer composites, engineered wood products, composite

209

Assessment of existing feuds data base for identification of potential industrial wood users in North Carolina  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The North Carolina Wood Assistance Team's evaluation of the Ultrasystems' computerized methodology for identifying high potential wood conversion facilities is presented. The analysis, methodology, and data are found to be inadequate for the intended use.

Gustashaw, D.H.

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

EA-1850: Flambeau River BioFuels, Inc. Proposed Wood Biomass...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

850: Flambeau River BioFuels, Inc. Proposed Wood Biomass-to-Liquid Fuel Biorefinery, Park Falls, Wisconsin EA-1850: Flambeau River BioFuels, Inc. Proposed Wood Biomass-to-Liquid...

211

EA-1811: NewPage Corporation Wood Biomass to Liquid Fuel, Wisconsin...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

1: NewPage Corporation Wood Biomass to Liquid Fuel, Wisconsin Rapids, Wisconsin EA-1811: NewPage Corporation Wood Biomass to Liquid Fuel, Wisconsin Rapids, Wisconsin Summary This...

212

Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment VIII. The wood-fueled gasification system, Evergreen Energy Corporation's final engineering report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Evergreen Energy Corporation provided projected cost and operating data on the Evergreen/Texaco entrained-bed wood gasification system currently under development as an alternative to the state-of-the-art fixed-bed wood gasification system proposed by Davy McKee. Overall capital costs for the total plant remain about the same at approx. $250 million. The Evergreen/Texaco system will provide significant capital cost savings in the gasifiers, gas cleanup, and waste water treatment sections, and eliminate the need for a large off-site wood-fired power boiler. These reductions are offset by higher investments in the feedstock preparation, drying, and feeding section plus the need for a larger air separation plant and compressor to supply oxygen at high pressure to the gasifier.

Fishkind, H.H.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Field Guide: Visual Inspection of Wood Structures (Optimized for Electronic Viewing)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Field Guide: Visual Inspection of Wood Structures is a catalog of photographs illustrating various conditions and factors that commonly affect transmission line wood structures, along with their likely causes, a Maintenance Priority Rating, and suggested actions to be taken by utility personnel. Poles, cross-arms, cross-arm braces, X-braces, brackets, anchor rods, guy wires, and direct imbedded foundations are covered. Other sections include types of wood structures, the anatomy of wood ...

2011-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

214

Modern Wood Energy Systems and Markets 16-17 September 2008, Timisoara, Romania  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modern Wood Energy Systems and Markets 16-17 September 2008, Timisoara, Romania International Wood Energy Market Developments Ed Pepke Forest Products Marketing Specialist UNECE/FAO Timber Section, Geneva #12;Modern Wood Energy Systems and Markets 16-17 September 2008, Timisoara, Romania Subjects I

215

Development of Wood Chips and Pellets market in Slovakia Jozef Viglasky, SK-BIOM, Slovakia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is supported by the Danish Government. One of the main barriers for extension of wood pellet production is lack1 Development of Wood Chips and Pellets market in Slovakia Jozef Viglasky, SK-BIOM, Slovakia-combustion of wood residues in existing coal fired power systems. #12;3 · Implementation of low cost anaerobic

216

Hydrologic and Water-Quality Conditions During Restoration of the Wood River Wetland,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.S. Geological Survey #12;Front Cover: Aerial view of the lower Wood River Valley showing the Wood River Wetland.S. Geological Survey, January 2003. #12;Hydrologic and Water-Quality Conditions During Restoration of the Wood­5004 U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey #12;U.S. Department of the Interior KEN

217

Discrimination of bark from wood chips through texture analysis by image processing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Utilization of wood chips for bioenergy requires classification and segregation of the constituents of the chipped mass to help optimize energy conversion. Wood chips obtained from processes such as forest thinning can contain a considerable amount of ... Keywords: Bark, Biomass, Image processing, Texture analysis, Wood chip

James R. Wooten; S. D. Filip To; C. Igathinathane; L. O. Pordesimo

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

EFFECTS OF SAMPLE SIZE ON CHARACTERIZATION OF WOOD-PARTICLE LENGTH DISTRIBUTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

EFFECTS OF SAMPLE SIZE ON CHARACTERIZATION OF WOOD-PARTICLE LENGTH DISTRIBUTION Quang V. Cao of sample size on fitting length distribution of wood particles used for manufacturing wood-based composites moments and the ability of the sample distributions to characterize the population represented

219

Woods Hole Research Center Wind Turbine | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hole Research Center Wind Turbine Hole Research Center Wind Turbine Jump to: navigation, search Name Woods Hole Research Center Wind Turbine Facility Woods Hole Research Center Wind Turbine Sector Wind energy Facility Type Small Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner Woods Hole Research Center Developer Sustainable Energy Developments Energy Purchaser Woods Hole Research Center Location Falmouth MA Coordinates 41.548637°, -70.64326° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.548637,"lon":-70.64326,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

220

Wood Waste -A Modern Fuel M. A. SERRELL, P. E.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, designed like the vanes of a fan WOOD BO'LER SACK r-v'"",", __--J DAMF[R · I ... .... .... .... ... ... FAN and provides automatic steam generation on an unattended basis. A flyash arrestor with induced draft fan fashioned boiler design where the boiler shell is pierced by a number of longitudinal fire tubes which run

Columbia University

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "geothermal wood wood" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Production of chemical feedstock by the methanolysis of wood  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is discussed for the production of ethylene, benzene and carbon monoxide from particulated biomass such as wood by reaction with methane at a temperature of from 700/sup 0/C to 1200/sup 0/C, at a pressure of from 20 psi to 100 psi for a period of from 0.2 to 10 seconds.

Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Short rotation wood crops program: Annual progress report for 1986  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes accomplishments in the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program (SRWCP) for the year ending September 30, 1986. The program is sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division and consists of research projects at 29 institutions and corporations. The SRWCP is an integrated program of research and development devoted to a single objective: improving the productivity, cost efficiency, and fuel quality of wood energy crops as feedstocks for conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels. SRWCP directives have shifted from species-screening and productivity evaluations to large-scale viability trials of model species selected for their productivity potential and environmental compatibility. Populus was chosen the lead genera of five model species, and initial steps were taken toward organizing a Populus Research Consortium. Production yields from SRWCP research plots and coppice studies are discussed along with new efforts to model growth results and characteristics on a tree and stand basis. Structural and chemical properties of short-rotation intensive culture wood have been evaluated to determine the desirability of species traits and the potential for genetic improvements. Innovative wood energy crop handling techniques are presented as significant cost reduction measures. The conclusion is that new specialized wood energy crops can be feasible with the advances that appear technically possible over the next 10 years. 34 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.

Ranney, J.W.; Wright, L.L.; Layton, P.A.; McNabb, W.A.; Wenzel, C.R.; Curtin, D.T.

1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Wood Products Marketing And Value-Added Opportunities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Point, NC, 27261, USA Tel.: (336) 841 8535 Fax.: (336) 841 5435 151 Randall St. Oakville, ON Canada, L6J SituationThe Situation As global populations continue to grow, the demand for wood products will increase in: Cultures Technology Infrastructure #12;Demand: Overall ClimateDemand: Overal

224

Temperature Measurements in Full-Scale Wood Stud Shear Walls  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This report presents the results of 10 full-scale fire resistance tests conducted at the National Fire Laboratory on load-bearing gypsum board protected, wood stud shear wall assemblies with and without resilient channels on the fire-exposed side. The two assembly arrangements studied were: symmetrical installation 1x1 (one layer of gypsum board on each of the exposed and unexposed sides) and asymmetrical installation of the shear membrane (one layer of gypsum board on both the exposed and unexposed sides and a shear wall membrane as a base layer alternating between the exposed (2x1) and unexposed sides (1x2)) on a wood stud frame. The gypsum board was 12.7 mm thick Type X. The insulations used were glass and rock fibres. The shear membranes used were plywood and oriented strand board (OSB). Tests were conducted to determine the effects of the placement of the shear membrane on the exposed/unexposed face, type of shear membrane, insulation type, load intensity and resilient channel installations on the fire resistance of gypsum board protected, wood stud shear wall assemblies. Details of the results, including the temperatures and deflections measured during the fire tests, are presented. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This research is part of a consortium project on the fire resistance and sound performance of wall assemblies - Phase II, among the following partners: . Canadian Wood Council . Canadian Home Builders Association . Canadian Sheet Steel Building Institute . Gypsum Manufacturers of Canada . Owens-Corning Canada . Roxul Inc.

V. K. R. Sultan; M. A. Denham; V. K. R. Kodur; M. A. Sultan; E. M. A. Denham; Canadian Wood Council; Shear Walls; Shear Walls; Shear Walls; Shear Walls

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

An Overview of the Louisiana Secondary Wood Products Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the State of Louisiana. In addition, because the origin of material purchased from in-state suppliers cannot of the development of buying or manufacturing cooperatives that could create purchasing and sales/marketing leverage Secondary Wood Product Manufacturers Number of Employees by Establishment (Percent of respondent companies

226

Production of chemical feedstock by the methanolysis of wood  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the production of ethylene, benzene and carbon monoxide from particulated biomass such as wood by reaction with methane at a temperature of from 700.degree. C. to 1200.degree. C., at a pressure of from 20 psi to 100 psi for a period of from 0.2 to 10 seconds.

Steinberg, Meyer (Melville, NY); Fallon, Peter (East Moriches, NY)

1984-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

227

Vertical feed stick wood fuel burning furnace system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new and improved stove or furnace for efficient combustion of wood fuel including a vertical feed combustion chamber for receiving and supporting wood fuel in a vertical attitude or stack, a major upper portion of the combustion chamber column comprising a water jacket for coupling to a source of water or heat transfer fluid and for convection circulation of the fluid for confining the locus of wood fuel combustion to the bottom of the vertical gravity feed combustion chamber. A flue gas propagation delay channel extending from the laterally directed draft outlet affords delayed travel time in a high temperature environment to assure substantially complete combustion of the gaseous products of wood burning with forced air as an actively induced draft draws the fuel gas and air mixture laterally through the combustion and high temperature zone. Active sources of forced air and induced draft are included, multiple use and circuit couplings for the recovered heat, and construction features in the refractory material substructure and metal component superstructure.

Hill, Richard C. (Orono, ME)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Vertical feed stick wood fuel burning furnace system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A stove or furnace for efficient combustion of wood fuel includes a vertical feed combustion chamber (15) for receiving and supporting wood fuel in a vertical attitude or stack. A major upper portion of the combustion chamber column comprises a water jacket (14) for coupling to a source of water or heat transfer fluid for convection circulation of the fluid. The locus (31) of wood fuel combustion is thereby confined to the refractory base of the combustion chamber. A flue gas propagation delay channel (34) extending laterally from the base of the chamber affords delayed travel time in a high temperature refractory environment sufficient to assure substantially complete combustion of the gaseous products of wood burning with forced air prior to extraction of heat in heat exchanger (16). Induced draft draws the fuel gas and air mixture laterally through the combustion chamber and refractory high temperature zone to the heat exchanger and flue. Also included are active sources of forced air and induced draft, multiple circuit couplings for the recovered heat, and construction features in the refractory material substructure and metal component superstructure.

Hill, Richard C. (Orono, ME)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Wood pellet market and trade: a global perspective  

SciTech Connect

This perspective provides an overview of wood pellet markets in a number of countries of high significance, together with an inventory of market factors and relevant past or existing policies. In 2010, the estimated global wood pellet production and consumption were close to 14.3 Mt (million metric tonnes) and 13.5 Mt, respectively, while the global installed production capacity had reached over 28 Mt. Two types of pellets are mainly traded (i) for residential heating and (ii) for large-scale district heating or co-fi ring installations. The EU was the primary market, responsible for nearly 61% and 85% of global production and consumption, respectively in 2010. EU markets were divided according to end use: (i) residential and district heating, (ii) power plants driven market, (iii) mixed market, and (iv) export-driven countries. North America basically serves as an exporter, but also with signifi cant domestic consumption in USA. East Asia is predicted to become the second-largest consumer after the EU in the near future. The development perspective in Latin America remains unclear. Five factors that determine the market characteristics are: (i) the existence of coal-based power plants, (ii) the development of heating systems, (iii) feedstock availability, (iv) interactions with wood industry, and (v) logistics factor. Furthermore, intervention policies play a pivotal role in market development. The perspective of wood pellets industry was also analyzed from four major aspects: (i) supply potential, (ii) logistics issues, (iii) sustainability considerations, and (iv) technology development.

Chun Sheng Goh; Martin Junginger; Maurizio Cocchi; Didier Marchal; Daniela Thran; Christiane Hennig; Jussi Heinimo; Lars Nikolaisen; Peter-Paul Schouwenberg; Douglas Bradley; J. Richard Hess; Jacob J. Jacobson; Leslie Ovard; Michael Deutmeyer

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Environmental Impacts of Preservative-Treated Wood Conference  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, For decades chromated copper arsenate (CCA) was the primary preservative for treated wood used in residential construction. However, recent label changes submitted by CCA registrants will withdraw CCA from most residential applications. This action has increased interest in arsenic-free preservative systems that have been standardized by the American Wood Preservers ’ Association. These include acid copper chromate (ACC), alkaline copper quat (ACQ), copper azole (CBA-A and CA-B), copper citrate (CC), copper dimethyldithiocarbamate (CDDC), and copper HDO (CX-A). All of these CCA alternatives rely on copper as their primary biocide, although some have co-biocides to help prevent attack by copper-tolerant fungi. They have appearance and handling properties similar to CCA and are likely to be readily accepted by consumers. Prior studies indicate that these CCA alternatives release preservative components into the environment at a rate greater than or equal to that of CCA, but because these components have lower mammalian toxicity they are less likely to cause concern in residential applications. As the treated wood industry evolves it is probable that a wider range of types and retentions of wood preservatives will become available, with the treatment more closely tailored to a specific type of construction application.

Stan Lebow

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Wood Products Marketing And Value-Added Opportunities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

; Vlosky 2002 #12;s The first MDF plant started up four years ago and now there are 3 or 4, so furniture for exotic wood veneer layup. Pressing veneer on MDF will give the most defect-free, flat and smooth surface

232

Scattering of Woods-Saxon Potential in Schrodinger Equation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The scattering solutions of the one-dimensional Schrodinger equation for the Woods-Saxon potential are obtained within the position-dependent mass formalism. The wave functions, transmission and reflection coefficients are calculated in terms of Heun's function. These results are also studied for the constant mass case in detail.

Altug Arda; Oktay Aydogdu; Ramazan Sever

2010-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

233

Mitigation for the Endangered Wood Stork on Savannah River Site  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The wood stork is a recently classified federally endangered species. The species forages throughout the facility. The facility impact was mitigated by replacing the affected area with artificially created impoundment. Studies conducted in conjunction with the mitigation have assisted with the recovery effort for this species.

Bryan, A.L.; Coulter, M.C.; Brisbin, I.L.

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Development of polypropylene/wood flour ecocomposites. Evaluation of silane as coupling agent  

SciTech Connect

The effects of Pinus Sylvestris wood flour as filler in polypropylene matrix was evaluated. The mechanical properties and the morphology of different wood flour/polypropylene composites (WPC) were studied. The composites materials were prepared with several amounts of wood flour from 10 to 30% wt. Mechanical properties show that the wood flour incorporation increases the rigidity of the composites. Morphological analysis indicates that agglomerates are formed, with amounts exceeding 30% of wood flour. For the silane--treated composites, the dispersion of the filler into the polypropylene (PP) matrix improved. Shore D hardness of the composites is decreased with the addition of the coupling agent.

Bouza, R.; Barral, L.; Abad, M. J.; Montero, B. [Grupo de Polimeros, Dpto. de Fisica, E.U.P. Ferrol, Universidad de A Coruna, Avda. 19 de Febrero s/n, 15405 Ferrol (Spain)

2010-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

235

Technical and economic review of wood energy systems for military bases  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report combines two reports dealing with industrial-sized wood combustion technology. As part of its industrial wood combustion effort, SERI's former Industrial Applications and Analysis Branch (IAAB) contracted with the Air Force through the Department of Energy (DOE) to review wood fuels and equipment and to perform an economic sensitivity analysis of small-scale industrial-sized wood combustion investments that might be considered for steam and/or electricity generation at Air Force Bases. Additionally, in 1979, SERI's IAAB contracted with North Carolina State University to produce the Decision Makers' Guide to Wood Fuel for Small Industrial Energy Use. These two reports have been combined to provide the Air Force with a comprehensive guide to wood energy combustion. Discussion is presented under the headings: comparison of wood fuels with conventional boiler fuels; densified biomass; fuel storage; fuel handling and preparation; wood-fired equipment; gasification of wood; retrofitting fossil-fuel boilers; cogeneration; pollution abatement; wood energy system economics and procurement of wood fuels. (DMC)

Flowers, L.; Junge, D.; Levi, M.; O'Grady, M.

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

How Much Wood Would a North Country School Chip | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

How Much Wood Would a North Country School Chip How Much Wood Would a North Country School Chip How Much Wood Would a North Country School Chip November 3, 2011 - 11:19am Addthis This is the North Country School's 32,000-square-foot main building. Aligning with the school's commitment to a simple, sustainable lifestyle, the school is heated with a wood chip boiler that uses wood sourced from their sustainably managed woodlot and local forests. | Courtesy of North Country School This is the North Country School's 32,000-square-foot main building. Aligning with the school's commitment to a simple, sustainable lifestyle, the school is heated with a wood chip boiler that uses wood sourced from their sustainably managed woodlot and local forests. | Courtesy of North Country School Alice Dasek Project Officer, Department of Energy State Energy Program

237

How Much Wood Would a North Country School Chip | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

How Much Wood Would a North Country School Chip How Much Wood Would a North Country School Chip How Much Wood Would a North Country School Chip November 3, 2011 - 11:19am Addthis This is the North Country School's 32,000-square-foot main building. Aligning with the school's commitment to a simple, sustainable lifestyle, the school is heated with a wood chip boiler that uses wood sourced from their sustainably managed woodlot and local forests. | Courtesy of North Country School This is the North Country School's 32,000-square-foot main building. Aligning with the school's commitment to a simple, sustainable lifestyle, the school is heated with a wood chip boiler that uses wood sourced from their sustainably managed woodlot and local forests. | Courtesy of North Country School Alice Dasek Project Officer, Department of Energy State Energy Program

238

URBAN WOOD/COAL CO-FIRING IN THE NIOSH BOILER PLANT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Phase I of this project began by obtaining R&D variances for permits at the NIOSH boilerplant (NBP), Emery Tree Service (ETS) and the J. A. Rutter Company (JARC) for their portions of the project. Wood for the test burn was obtained from the JARC inventory (pallets), Thompson Properties and Seven D Corporation (construction wood), and the Arlington Heights Housing Project (demolition wood). The wood was ground at ETS and JARC, delivered to the Three Rivers Terminal and blended with coal. Three one-day tests using wood/coal blends of 33% wood by volume (both construction wood and demolition wood) were conducted at the NBP. Blends using hammermilled wood were operationally successful. Emissions of SO{sub 2} and NOx decreased and that of CO increased when compared with combusting coal alone. Mercury emissions were measured and evaluated. During the first year of Phase II the principal work focused upon searching for a replacement boilerplant and developing a commercial supply of demolition wood. The NBP withdrew from the project and a search began for another stoker boilerplant in Pennsylvania to replace it on the project. Three potential commercial demolition wood providers were contacted. Two were not be able to supply wood. At the end of the first year of Phase II, discussions were continuing with the third one, a commercial demolition wood provider from northern New Jersey. During the two-and-a-third years of the contract extension it was determined that the demolition wood from northern New Jersey was impractical for use in Pittsburgh, in another power plant in central New Jersey, and in a new wood gasifier being planned in Philadelphia. However, the project team did identify sufficient wood from other sources for the gasifier project. The Principal Investigator of this project assisted a feasibility study of wood gasification in Clarion County, Pennsylvania. As a result of the study, an independent power producer in the county has initiated a small wood gasification project at its site. Throughout much of this total project the Principal Investigator has counseled two small businesses in developing a waxed cardboard pellet business. A recent test burn of this biofuel appears successful and a purchase contract is anticipated soon. During the past two months a major tree-trimming firm has shown an active interest in entering the wood-chip fuel market in the Pittsburgh area and has contacted the NBP, among others, as potential customers. The NBP superintendent is currently in discussion with the facilities management of the Bruceton Research Center about resuming their interest in cofiring this renewable fuel to the stoker there.

James T. Cobb Jr.

2005-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

239

Huntington Woods, Michigan: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Woods, Michigan: Energy Resources Woods, Michigan: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 42.4805913°, -83.1668713° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":42.4805913,"lon":-83.1668713,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

240

Wood-Ridge, New Jersey: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Wood-Ridge, New Jersey: Energy Resources Wood-Ridge, New Jersey: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 40.8456555°, -74.0879195° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":40.8456555,"lon":-74.0879195,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "geothermal wood wood" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Meadow Woods, Florida: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Woods, Florida: Energy Resources Woods, Florida: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 28.3855632°, -81.366459° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":28.3855632,"lon":-81.366459,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

242

Mission Woods, Kansas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mission Woods, Kansas: Energy Resources Mission Woods, Kansas: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 39.0350053°, -94.6085677° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":39.0350053,"lon":-94.6085677,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

243

MEMORANDUM TO: F ROM: GREGORY H. WOODS GENERAL COUNSEL  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

February 4, 2013 February 4, 2013 MEMORANDUM TO: F ROM: GREGORY H. WOODS GENERAL COUNSEL CHRISTOPHER A.SMITH �|=K= ACTING ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR FOSSIL ENERGY SUBJECT: Annual National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Planning Summaries for 2013 ISSUE: DOE Order 451.1B, Section 4.d, requires that an annual planning summary be prepared that briefly describes: {1) any Environmental Assessments (EAs) ongoing or expected to be

244

The morphological development of a wood burl shader  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the field of computer graphics, shaders provide an interface between lights and surfaces, giving the appearance of metal, plastic, wood, etc. As the field progresses, more and more shaders are required to simulate a wider and wider variety of materials. We present a new shader for the simulation of wood burl, a complex material used in furniture, art, car interiors, and a host of other luxury items. This shader was developed through a morphological approach - a study of the original material, its structure, and growth. Consequently, research began with a thorough look at wood burl, polished and unpolished, in an assortment of different species. We discovered the appearance can be broken into three sub-appearances - knots, curl, and a subtle undergrain. These three sub-appearances interact to create the characteristic swirls and whorls of burl. For the subtle undergrain, we used a common oak shader, added noise, and faded it into the background. We then developed a system of randomly placing points through the material to act as knots. Since the knots grow and distort the surrounding grain, we used distance-scaled forces to push the surface coordinates around and between all the knots. When the oak shader is applied, it appears to swirl and curl around the knots, much like a stream between rocks. This created the first level of curl or swirly grained wood, but one level alone appeared flat. To solve this, we procedurally blended levels of curl to give a look of increased depth. Finally, we added reflection, gloss, and other surface properties to give a look of warmth and polish. All of these properties are controlled by a set of parameters in the shader's interface. By adjusting these parameters, the user can emulate a variety of different burl types.

Moyer, Robert Simms

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Wood Gasification: Where It's At, Where It's Going  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper discusses the principles and practice of various designs of biomass/wood gasifiers. In general, the basic principle of gasification is reviewed. A look at existing gasifier schemes, including packed bed updraft, downdraft, and fluidized bed, defines the basic characteristics of each and their advantages and di advantages. The economics of using one type of system - a fluid bed gasifier, on an oil fired boiler is presented to depict a representative, if not conservative, payback time for such an investment.

Murphy, M. L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Quality of Wood Pellets Produced in British Columbia for Export  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wood pellet production and its use for heat and power production are increasing worldwide. The quality of export pellets has to consistently meet certain specifications as stipulated by the larger buyers, such as power utilities or as specified by the standards used for the non-industrial bag market. No specific data is available regarding the quality of export pellets to Europe. To develop a set of baseline data, wood pellets were sampled at an export terminal in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The sampling period was 18 months in 2007-2008 when pellets were transferred from storage bins to the ocean vessels. The sampling frequency was once every 1.5 to 2 months for a total of 9 loading/shipping events. The physical properties of the wood pellets measured were moisture content in the range of 3.5% to 6.5%, bulk density from 728 to 808 kg/m3, durability from 97% to 99%, fines content from 0.03% to 0.87%, calorific value as is from 17 to almost 18 MJ/kg, and ash content from 0.26% to 0.93%.The diameter and length were in the range of 6.4 to 6.5 mm and 14.0 to 19.0 mm, respectively. All of these values met the published non-industrial European grades (CEN) and the grades specified by the Pellet Fuel Institute for the United States for the bag market. The measured values for wood pellet properties were consistent except the ash content values decreased over the test period.

J. S. Tumuluru; S. Sokhansanj; C. J. Lim; T. Bi; A. Lau; S. Melin; T. Sowlati; E. Oveisi

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

QUALITY OF WOOD PELLETS PRODUCED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA FOR EXPORT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wood pellet production and its use for heat and power production are increasing worldwide. The quality of export pellets has to consistently meet certain specifications as stipulated by the larger buyers, such as power utilities or as specified by the standards used for the non-industrial bag market. No specific data is available regarding the quality of export pellets to Europe. To develop a set of baseline data, wood pellets were sampled at an export terminal in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The sampling period was 18 months in 2007-2008 when pellets were transferred from storage bins to the ocean vessels. The sampling frequency was once every 1.5 to 2 months for a total of 9 loading/shipping events. The physical properties of the wood pellets measured were moisture content in the range of 3.5% to 6.5%, bulk density from 728 to 808 kg/m3, durability from 97% to 99%, fines content from 0.03% to 0.87%, calorific value as is from 17 to almost 18 MJ/kg, and ash content from 0.26% to 0.93%.The diameter and length were in the range of 6.4 to 6.5 mm and 14.0 to 19.0 mm, respectively. All of these values met the published non-industrial European grades (CEN) and the grades specified by the Pellet Fuel Institute for the United States for the bag market. The measured values for wood pellet properties were consistent except the ash content values decreased over the test period.

Tumuluru, J.S. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Lim, C. Jim [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Bi, X.T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Lau, A.K. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Melin, Staffan [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Oveisi, E. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sowlati, T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Report on Wood Pole and Crossarm Degradation Modes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report covers the typical types of wood used in transmission line construction. The species can be categorized by their level of corrosion resistance, the type of preservative treatment that is appropriate and the type of decay that is predominant. This market has the benefit of experience and training gained through years of pole maintenance practices, research and the techniques that migrate directly to crossarm maintenance.

2009-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

249

Tectonic Setting of the Wooded Island Earthquake Swarm, Eastern Washington  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic anomalies provide insights into the tectonic implications of a swarm of ?1500 shallow (?1 km deep) earthquakes that occurred in 2009 on the Hanford site,Washington. Epicenters were concentrated in a 2 km2 area nearWooded Island in the Columbia River. The largest earthquake (M 3.0) had first motions consistent with slip on a northwest-striking reverse fault. The swarm was accompanied by 35 mm of vertical surface deformation, seen in satellite interferometry (InSAR), interpreted to be caused by ?50 mm of slip on a northwest-striking reverse fault and associated bedding-plane fault in the underlying Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG). A magnetic anomaly over exposed CRBG at Yakima Ridge 40 km northwest of Wooded Island extends southeastward beyond the ridge to the Columbia River, suggesting that the Yakima Ridge anticline and its associated thrust fault extend southeastward in the subsurface. In map view, the concealed anticline passes through the earthquake swarm and lies parallel to reverse faults determined from first motions and InSAR data. A forward model of the magnetic anomaly near Wooded Island is consistent with uplift of concealed CRBG, with the top surface <200 m below the surface. The earthquake swarm and the thrust and bedding-plane faults modeled from interferometry all fall within the northeastern limb of the faulted anticline. Although fluids may be responsible for triggering the Wooded Island earthquake swarm, the seismic and aseismic deformation are consistent with regional-scale tectonic compression across the concealed Yakima Ridge anticline.

Blakely, Richard J.; Sherrod, Brian; Weaver, Craig; Rohay, Alan C.; Wells, Ray E.

2012-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

250

Best Practices for Biomass Handling in Wood Yard Operations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Utilities are beginning to add wood and other biomass fuels to fire their generating units to enable them to produce carbon-neutral electricity and participate in state or national renewable energy programs. However, because the material handling aspects of biomass differ from those of coal, firing at a significant scale requires new equipment to receive, store, and deliver the biomass to the flame front. This equipment is analogous in function to existing machinery but is quite different in detail, desi...

2011-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

251

Economics of modifying harvesting systems to recover energy wood  

SciTech Connect

Recent interest in the recovery of previously underutilized logging residues for energy has stimulated the development of a variety of technologies for bringing this resource to market. The most promising approach for the independent contractor working the south eastern United States is to incorporate residue recovery equipment into his existing harvesting system. Computer simulation was used to assess the potential impact of adding small chippers or residue balers to three common harvesting systems. The systems are used in pine plantations, and mixed pine hardwood and upland hardwood stands. Changes in both operating costs and capital used were used to measure the effect of moving from conventional products to total energy wood harvests and capturing residues for energy in conjunction with conventional products. Incremental analysis was used to assess the operating cost per ton and capitalization per ton of annual production associated with the addition of the residue recovery capability. In nearly every case the incremental cost per ton and the incremental capitalization per ton associated with adding capability (for recovering wood residues for energy) to conventional harvesting systems were considerably less than for establishing systems of the same configuration (to produce energy wood only). The flow of conventional products must not be interrupted by the residue recovery process. Clearcutting or thinning operations conducted primarily for the production of enery wood did not appear to be economical on any stand, given 1979 residue values, unless a proportion of the large diameter trees are merchandized as conventional products. This statement, of course, must take into account that the cost used for both conventional products and the full tree chips were based upon 1979 pulp chip prices. If the alternative value of this material as fuel rises above its current value for fiber, this situation may change.

Stuart, W.B.; Porter, C.D.; Walbridge, T.A.; Oderwald, R.G.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Particulate matter emissions from combustion of wood in district heating applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The utilization of wood biomass to generate district heat and power in communities that have access to this energy source is increasing. In this paper the effect of wood fuel properties, combustion condition, and flue gas cleaning system on variation in the amount and formation of particles in the flue gas of typical district heating wood boilers are discussed based on the literature survey. Direct measurements of particulate matter (PM) emissions from wood boilers with district heating applications are reviewed and presented. Finally, recommendations are given regarding the selection of wood fuel, combustion system condition, and flue gas cleaning system in district heating systems in order to meet stringent air quality standards. It is concluded that utilization of high quality wood fuel, such as wood pellets produced from natural, uncontaminated stem wood, would generate the least PM emissions compared to other wood fuel types. Particulate matter emissions from grate burners equipped with electrostatic precipitators when using wood pellets can be well below stringent regulatory emission limit such as particulate emission limit of Metro Vancouver, Canada.

Ghafghazi, S. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sowlati, T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Bi, X.T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Melin, Staffan [Delta Research Corporation

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Low VOC drying of lumber and wood panel products. Progress report No. 7  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Green pine blocks (2x1x 1) were dried to different moisture levels at 120 degrees C. They were immersed in D{sub 2}O (greater than 99% isotopic Content) for different periods at room temperature, and were then cut in halves. One piece from each set was then wrapped in plastic, and microwaved at 110 W, for 30 minutes, with the field being cycled to keep the wood surface at 90-100 degrees C. Fibers taken from just inside the wet surface from five regions along the length of the piece were then analysed by mass spectrometry with a direct insertion probe. The m/e profiles of the three isotopic forms of water, namely H{sub 2}O, HOD, and D{sub 2}O, remained unchanged as the wood was heated inside the spectrometer, indicating that they were bound equally strongly to the wood. The water released from the green wood had the same isotopic composition regardless of whether or not the wood was microwaved (Table 1), indicating that the exchangeable protons in wood were not affected by microwaving. However, as the wood progressively dried, the water released from the microwaved wood was of lower isotopic content, which means that microwaving increases access of the exchangeable protons in wood tissue to water. The only exchangeable protons in dried wood are those sited on hydroxyl groups, and the difference in isotopic exchange is the greatest for dried wood. This must mean that as wood dries, internal hydrogen bonding restricts access of D{sub 2}O to the hydroxyl protons. Presumably the energy transferred to water upon microwaving is sufficient to at least partially overcome this barrier. The effect is akin to the hysteresis that occurs for moisture sorption to green and dried wood. Similar isotope exchange work with D{sub 2}O has been previously conducted to determine the accessibility of cellulose to water.

Hui Yan; Hooda, Usha; Banerjee, Sujit [and others

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Water geochemistry of hydrothermal systems, Wood River District, Idaho  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrothermal systems of the Wood River District, central Idaho, have been studied by geologic mapping of thermal spring areas and geochemical investigations of thermal and non-thermal waters. This report summarizes the new geochemical data gathered during the study. Integration of the results of geological and geochemical studies has led to development of a target model for hydrothermal resources on the margin of the Idaho Batholith. Warfield Hot Springs, with temperatures up to 58/sup 0/C, flow from a major shear zone along the margin of an apophysis of the batholith. Hailey Hot Springs, with temperatures up to 60/sup 0/C, occur in an area of multiple thrust faults and newly recognized, closely spaced normal faults in the Paleozoic Milligen and Wood River Formations, 2.5 km from a highly brecciated batholith contact. Other Wood River district hydrothermal systems also occur along the margins of batholith apophyses or in adjacent highly fractured Paleozoic rocks, where there are indications of batholith rocks at shallow depths (100 to 300 m) in water wells.

Zeisloft, J.; Foley, D.; Blackett, R.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Long-term lime pretreatment of poplar wood  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lignocellulosic biomass (e.g., poplar wood) provides a unique and sustainable resource for environmentally safe organic fuels and chemicals. The core of this study is the pretreatment step involved in bioconversion processes. Pretreatment is required to realize high yields vital to commercial success. The focus of the pretreatment step is to methodically change key features of the biomass to favor enzymatic hydrolysis. This work assesses the compositional changes due to oxidative and non-oxidative longterm lime pretreatment of poplar wood (up to 4 weeks of pretreatment) at mild temperatures (25ºC to 65ºC), and their effect on the enzymatic yield of glucan and xylan. The most important pretreatment yield of lignin was 54 g lignin remaining/100 g lignin in raw biomass, and was accomplished for 4-week lime pretreatment at 65ºC in oxidative conditions. The corresponding pretreatment yields of glucan and xylan were 85.9 g glucan recovered/100 g glucan in raw biomass and 80.2 g xylan recovered/100 g xylan in raw biomass respectively. For poplar wood oxidatively pretreated with lime for 4 weeks at 65ºC and enzymatically hydrolyzed with an enzyme loading of 15 FPU/g glucan in raw biomass during a 3-day period, the best overall yields of glucan and xylan, were 80.7 g glucan hydrolyzed/100 g glucan in raw biomass and 66.9 g xylan hydrolyzed/100 g xylan in raw biomass respectively. The corresponding hydrolysis yields were 94.0 g glucan hydrolyzed/100 g glucan in treated biomass and 83.5 g xylan hydrolyzed/100 g xylan in treated biomass respectively. Because there is a previous study of long-term lime pretreatment of corn stover (Kim, 2004), the data obtained in this work show the effect of using woody lignocellulose as substrate. From the comparison, resulted that in the case of poplar wood oxidatively pretreated at 65ºC for 4 weeks, less lignin was removed and more carbohydrates were solubilized, however the hydrolysis yield of glucan was almost equal and the hydrolysis yield of xylan was higher than the reported by Kim for corn stover oxidatively pretreated at 55ºC for 4 weeks. The overall yield of glucan resulted lower in the case of poplar wood because of the lower pretreatment yield of glucan. Thus, it is important to complete the mass balances including an analysis on the pretreatment liquor to determine if the solubilized glucan was degraded.

Sierra Ramirez, Rocio

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Fuels for Schools Program Uses Leftover Wood to Warm Buildings | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Fuels for Schools Program Uses Leftover Wood to Warm Buildings Fuels for Schools Program Uses Leftover Wood to Warm Buildings Fuels for Schools Program Uses Leftover Wood to Warm Buildings May 10, 2010 - 1:11pm Addthis Darby Schools received a woodchip heating system in 2003. Rick Scheele, facilities manager for the Darby schools, shows off the wood firebox | Photo Courtesy USFS Fuels for Schools, Dave Atkins Darby Schools received a woodchip heating system in 2003. Rick Scheele, facilities manager for the Darby schools, shows off the wood firebox | Photo Courtesy USFS Fuels for Schools, Dave Atkins Stephen Graff Former Writer & editor for Energy Empowers, EERE In parts of this country, wood seems like the outsider in the biomass family. New ethanol plants that grind down millions of bushels of corn in the Midwest and breakthroughs in algae along the coasts always garner the

257

Expert Paper for the UNECE, Timber Committee Market Discussions, Geneva, 7-8 October 2003 1 Trends and Market Effects of Wood Energy Policies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is the future direction of electricity production from wood and co-firing of wood in coal power plants and pulp and paper production; ethanol and wood pellets projects have been more directed production from wood and co-firing of wood in coal power plants is the variable with the highest potential

258

Shell-armored wood cobbles as a potential criterion for detrital coal deposits  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Shell-armored wood cobbles occur on detrital-peat beaches along the seaward edge of the Mississippi Delta. Shell material consists exclusively of Mulinia lateralis, a dwarf surf clam. Soft, heavy, waterlogged wood fragments are abraded and become armored by hard shells in response to wave activity on the beach. Although their preservation potential is suspect, fossilized shell-armored wood clasts would probably be recognized as a type of coal ball and might indicate an allochthonous origin for the host coal.

DiMarco, M.J.; Nummedal, D.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Fire safety for your wood-burning appliance: tips for proper installation, operation, and maintenance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A dramatic increase in house fires caused by wood-burning appliances has accompanied the rediscovery of wood as an alternative heating fuel. The National Bureau of Standards attributed the majority of these fires to conditions related to the installation, operation or maintenance of the appliances rather than malfunctions or construction defects. This publication presents guidelines for the proper installation, use, and maintenance of wood-burning appliances in the home. (DMC)

Not Available

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Options for Prevention, Mitigation, and Remediation at Wood Poles Storage Sites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As part of the maintenance of the electrical transmission and distribution networks in the United States, electric utilities store treated wood poles and cross arms at storage facilities. During this storage, chemicals of concern (COCs) used in preservative formulations can drip and leach during precipitation events from the treated wood poles and cross arms, potentially impacting site soils, groundwater, and nearby surface water bodies. These COCs will vary depending on the types of treated wood stored ...

2006-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "geothermal wood wood" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Chemical Pretreatment And Enzymatic Hydrolysis Of Mixed Source-Separated Organic (SSO) And Wood Waste.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This paper examines the effectiveness of two pretreatments on Source-Separated Organic waste (SSO) mixed with wood wastes: long term lime for SSO mixed with forestry… (more)

Faye, Michael

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Modelling of mass transfer during wood fermentation processes to produce bioalcohol.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The aim of this work is to model the bioethanol production by wood degradation, and to check if there is mass transfer limitations in the… (more)

Spalluto, Giorgio

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Microsoft Word - CX-CowlitzTaptoChehalis-CovingtonWoodPoles_WEB...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

8, 2011 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEPR-Covington SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Clay Grande Line Foreman III - TFCF-Covington Proposed Action: Wood pole replacement at...

264

Development of a Financial Model for Wood Pellet Production Costs in New England.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The wood fuel pellet industry has been growing rapidly in recent years. The conversion of a significant proportion of central home heating systems in the… (more)

Lu, Ning

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Wood compost process engineering, properties and its impact on extreme soil characteristics.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The landfilling of biodegradable waste is proven to contribute to environmental degradation. Much wood and lumber is discharged as waste from the cleared fields. These… (more)

Nada, Wael Mohamed Abdel-Rahman

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Planning and setup for the implementation of coal and wood co-fired boilers.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Coal and wood co-fired boiler technology has been significantly advancing in the past years, but many of their capabilities remain unknown to much of the… (more)

Gump, Christopher D.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Finding the light out of Into the Woods : a lighting design.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Designing the lighting for any major theatrical production is comparable to one's own adventure through the woods. From pre-production to finalized design this thesis project… (more)

Groskopf, Kelli Jean

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Techno-economic analysis of wood biomass boilers for the greenhouse industry  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study is to perform a techno-economic analysis on a typical wood pellet and wood residue boiler for generation of heat to an average-sized greenhouse in British Columbia. The variables analyzed included greenhouse size and structure, boiler efficiency, fuel types, and source of carbon dioxide (CO2) for crop fertilization. The net present value (NPV) show that installing a wood pellet or a wood residue boiler to provide 40% of the annual heat demand is more economical than using a natural gas boiler to provide all the heat at a discount rate of 10%. For an assumed lifespan of 25 years, a wood pellet boiler system could generate NPV of C$259,311 without electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and C$74,695 with ESP, respectively. While, installing a wood residue boiler with or without an ESP could provide NPV of C$919,922 or C$1,104,538, respectively. Using a wood biomass boiler could also eliminate over 3000 tonne CO2 equivalents of greenhouse gases annually. Wood biomass combustion generates more particulate matters than natural gas combustion. However, an advanced emission control system could significantly reduce particulate matters emission from wood biomass combustion which would bring the particulate emission to a relatively similar level as for natural gas.

Chau, J. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sowlati, T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Bi, X.T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Preto, F. [Natural Resources Canada; Melin, Staffan [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Particulate emissions from residential wood combustion: Final report: Norteast regional Biomass Program  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to provide a resource document for the Northeastern states when pursuing the analysis of localized problems resulting from residential wood combustion. Specific tasks performed include assigning emission rates for total suspended particulates (TSP) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) from wood burning stoves, estimating the impact on ambient air quality from residential wood combustion and elucidating the policy options available to Northeastern states in their effort to limit any detrimental effects resulting from residential wood combustion. Ancillary tasks included providing a comprehensive review on the relevant health effects, indoor air pollution and toxic air pollutant studies. 77 refs., 11 figs., 25 tabs.

Not Available

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Issues in the use of wood as an energy source in the northeastern US  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report analyzes some of the concerns surrounding the use of wood for energy in the Northeast. It reviews the information on resource availability and ownership patterns in the Northeast, then focuses on New England, to assess the affect of potential resource constraints on the supply of wood available for energy and the effects of wood energy use on land use patterns. Finally, the application of specific technologies in settings that may experience significant wood energy use in the future is considered, including an assessment of the regional employment and income benefits of a major woodfuel installation.

Munson, J.S. (ed.)

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Rapid determination of wood fuel moisture content using a microwave oven for drying  

SciTech Connect

A method of determining moisture content (MC) of wood fuel using a microwave oven for drying the wood was evaluated by drying paired samples of five different wood fuel types in a microwave oven and a conventional oven. When compared to the conventional oven drying method, the microwave technique produces consistently lower MC determinations, although the differences are less than 1 percent. The advantage of the microwave technique is the speed at which MC determinations can be determined (less than 15 minutes). Schedules for drying five wood fuel types are presented. (Refs. 7).

Harris, R.A.

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Riparian forest disturbances by a mountain flood -- the influence of floated wood  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Large floods can have major impacts on riparian forests. Here we examine the variability and spatial distribution of riparian forest responses along eight third- to fifth-order streams following a large flood ( 100 year recurrence interval) in the Cascade Mountain Range of Oregon. We categorized disturbance intensity (physical force) exerted on riparian trees during floods into three classes: (i) purely fluvial (high water flow only); (ii) ¯uvial supplemented by dispersed pieces of floating wood (uncongested wood transport); (iii) fluvial with movement of batches of wood (congested wood transport). These types of material transport and associated classes of disturbance intensity resulted in a gradient of biotic responses of disturbance severity ranging from standing riparian trees inundated by high water, to trees toppled but still partially rooted, to complete removal of trees. High within-stream and among stream responses were inflenced by pre-flood stream and riparian conditions as well as flood dynamics, especially the availability of individual pieces or congested batches of wood. Fluvial disturbance alone toppled fewer riparian trees than in reaches where floodwaters transported substantial amounts of wood. Debris flows delivered additional wood and sediment to parts of reaches of four of these study streams; riparian trees were removed and toppled for up to 1 5 km downstream of the debris flow tributary channel. Congested wood transport resulted in higher frequency of toppled trees and greater deposition of new wood levees along channel margins. The condition of the landscape at the time of a major ¯ood strongly influenced

Sherri L. Johnson; Frederick J. Swanson; Gordon E. Grant; Steven M. Wondzell

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Water-Activated, Shape Memory Twist Effect in Wood Slivers as an ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This shape memory twist effect in wood could inspire new smart materials for a wide range of applications, including sensors, actuators, biomedical devices, and

274

Microsoft Word - CX-BigEddy-RedmondWoodPoles_WEB.doc  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Clearance Memorandum Darrell Aaby Line Foreman III - TFDF-Redmond Proposed Action: Wood pole replacements at select locations along the Big Eddy-Redmond and Redmond-Pilot...

275

Transcriptome and Biochemical Analyses of Fungal Degradation of Wood  

SciTech Connect

Lignocellulosic accounts for a large percentage of material that can be utilized for biofuels. The most costly part of lignocellulosic material processing is the initial hydrolysis of the wood which is needed to circumvent the lignin barrier and the crystallinity of cellulose. Enzymes will play an increased role in this conversion in that they potentially provide an alternative to costly and caustic high temperature and acid treatment. The increasing use of enzymes in biotechnology is facilitated by both continued improvements in enzyme technology but also in the discovery of new and novel enzymes. The present proposal is aimed at identifying the enzymes which are known to depolymerize woody biomass. Fundamental understanding of how nature gains access to cellulose and hemicellulose will impact all applications. Because fungi are the only known microbes capable of circumventing the lignin barrier, knowledge of the enzyme they use is of great potential for biofuel processing. Nature has evolved different fungal mechanisms for enzymatic hydrolysis of wood. Most notable are the white-rot fungi (wrf) and the brown-rot fungi (brf). This proposed research aims at determining the complete transcriptome of three wrf and two brf to determine the enzymes involved in lignocellulose degradation. The transcriptome work will be supported by enzyme characterization (and zymograms) and finally analysis of the lignin component to determine the mode of lignin modification. In this proposed research, we hypothesize that: 1) Determination of the complete transcriptome of closely related white and brown rot fungi will lead to knowledge of the relevant enzymes involved in wood degradation. 2) Knowledge of the extracellular transcriptome and the mechanism of wood decay can only be obtained if the products of the decay are known. As such, characterization of the lignin oxidation products will correlate the enzymes involved (obtained from the transcriptome) to the lignin oxidation products. The Department of Energy has sequenced the P. chrysosporium genome and has approved the sequencing of the genome of the closely-related brown rot fungus P. placenta. This comparative genomics approach will yield important information on differences between these two fungi. Analysis of gene unique to each fungus (which have been lost or gained) can potentially lead to determining the enzymes which are responsible for each type of decay. This comparison, however, would not be complete without comparing the transcriptome and the proteome/enzymes. Comparative genomics may tell us which genes may be important, but it will not tell us when these genes are expressed, at what levels and will not necessarily tell us what these genes do.

Tien, Ming

2009-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

276

Wood-Coal Fired "Small" Boiler Case Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Galaxy Carpet Corporation installed a coal and wood waste fired boiler approximately twelve months ago. Its first year net savings were $195,000.00 Total capital investment was paid off in 1.9 years. 20% investment tax credits were granted by the Federal Government. Galaxy Carpet Corporation has been sufficiently impressed with performance, both economically and technically, to place a follow-up order of $1,500,000.00 for a second solid fuel fired boiler system at its Dalton, Georgia Dye House operation.

Pincelli, R. D.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Urban Wood-Based Bio-Energy Systems in Seattle  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

d.\tFuel Supply Management Plan: Development of plans and specifications for the supply of wood. It will include potential fuel sampling analysis and development of contracts for delivery and management of fuel suppliers and handlers. e.\tIntegrated Fuel Management System Development: Seattle Steam requires a biomass Fuel Management System to track and manage the delivery, testing, processing and invoicing of delivered fuel. This application will be web-based and accessed from a password-protected URL, restricting data access and privileges by user-level.

Stan Gent, Seattle Steam Company

2010-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

278

Making Steel Framing as Thermally Efficient as Wood  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In many world regions like North America and Scandinavia wood framing is dominant technology for residential buildings. During last two decades several companies around the world started to promote a low-gage steel framing for residential and commercial buildings. Steel framing has many advantages over wood framing; strength, low weight, dimensional stability, resistance to termite damage, almost 100% recycleability, etc .. However because of several reasons an application of steel as a framing material in US residential building market is relatively low. Steel industry has noticed much more success on commercial building market which is not as rigorous regarding thermal efficiency and energy conservation. Steel framing has one significant disadvantage over wood; Steel members conduct heat extremely well. This effect is known as thermal bridging, and it can sharply reduce a wall's effective Rvalue. The simplest and most common way to overcome this problem is to block the path of heat flow with rigid foam insulation. Adding rigid foam insulation not only increases the whole wall's R-value, but it also reduces the temperature difference between the center of the cavity and the stud area, which cuts down on the possibility of black stains forming from dirt getting asymmetrically attracted to cold spots on a wall's surface. However, rigid foam insulation is an expensive solution. Several material configurations were developed in the past to increase thermal effectiveness of steel-framed structures. This paper is focused on most common options of thermal improvements of steels framed walls. They were as follow: 1) diminishing the contact area between the studs and exterior sheathing materials, 2) reducing the steel stud web area, 3) replacing the steel web with a less conductive material, and 4) placing foam insulation in locations where the thermal shorts are most critical. Researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have utilized both hot box testing and computer simulations in aim to optimize thermal design of steel stud walls.. While examining several material options, ORNL's BTC was also striving to develop energy-efficient steel stud wall technologies that would enable steel-stud walls to beat the performance of traditional 2 x 6 wood stud walls. Several, most current, ORNL developments in steel framing are presented below.

Kosny, J.; Childs, P.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Environmental Influences on Wood Chemistry and Density of Populus and Loblolly Pine  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of the study are to: (1) determine the degree to which physical and chemical wood properties vary in association with environmental and silvicultural practices in Populus and loblolly pine and (2) develop and verify species-specific empirical models in an effort to create a framework for understanding environmental influences on wood quality.

Tuskan, G.A.

2006-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

280

THE ROLE OF DEAD WOOD IN MAINTAINING ARTHROPOD DIVERSITY ON THE FOREST FLOOR.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract—Dead wood is a major component of forests and contributes to overall diversity, primarily by supporting insects that feed directly on or in it. Further, a variety of organisms benefit by feeding on those insects. What is not well known is how or whether dead wood influences the composition of the arthropod community that is not solely dependent on it as a food resource, or whether woody debris influences prey available to generalist predators. One group likely to be affected by dead wood is ground-dwelling arthropods. We studied the effect of adding large dead wood to unburned and frequently burned pine stands to determine if dead wood was used more when the litter and understory plant community are removed. We also studied the effect of annual removal of dead wood from large (10-ha) plots over a 5-year period on ground-dwelling arthropods. In related studies, we examined the relationships among an endangered woodpecker that forages for prey on live trees, its prey, and dead wood in the forest. The results of these and other studies show that dead wood can influence the abundance and diversity of the ground-dwelling arthropod community and of prey available to generalist predators not foraging directly on dead trees.

Hanula, James L.; Horn, Scott; Wade, Dale D.

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "geothermal wood wood" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Numerical and experimental validation of heat and mass transfer during heat treatment of wood  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the current work, the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations along with the energy and concentration equations for the fluid coupled with the energy and mass conservation equations for the solid (wood) are solved to study the transient heat and ... Keywords: Luikov's model, conjugate problem, heat and mass transfer, high-temperature wood treatment, mathematical modeling, validation

R. Younsi; D. Kocaefe; S. Poncsak; T. Junjun

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

National Woodfuels and Wood Energy Information Analysis Prepared by: Sok Bun Heng  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

supplies. - 90 % of wood energy is consumed by households. - Industry is only a very small consumer of wood % Charcoal 1.2 %, other biomass 1.7 % and imported petroleum product. The most recent national energy supply balance indicates traditional fuels contribute 85 % of the national energy supply, of which 80

283

Wood Pellets for UBC Boilers Replacing Natural Gas Based on LCA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wood Pellets for UBC Boilers Replacing Natural Gas Based on LCA Submitted to Dr. Bi By Bernard Chan Pellets for UBC Boilers Replacing Natural Gas" By Bernard Chan, Brian Chan, and Christopher Young Abstract This report studies the feasibility of replacing natural gas with wood pellets for UBC boilers. A gasification

284

Design of an automatic wood types classification system by using fluorescence spectra  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The classification of wood types is needed in many industrial sectors, since it can provide relevant information concerning the features and characteristics of the final product (appearance, cost,mechanical properties, etc.). This analysis is typical ... Keywords: automatic spectra analysis, automatic wood classification, computational intelligence

Vincenzo Piuri; Fabio Scotti

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Relationships between dead wood and arthropods in the Southeastern United States.  

SciTech Connect

The importance of dead wood to maintaining forest diversity is now widely recognized. However, the habitat associations and sensitivities of many species associated with dead wood remain unknown, making it difficult to develop conservation plans for managed forests. The purpose of this research, conducted on the upper coastal plain of South Carolina, was to better understand the relationships between dead wood and arthropods in the southeastern United States. In a comparison of forest types, more beetle species emerged from logs collected in upland pine-dominated stands than in bottomland hardwood forests. This difference was most pronounced for Quercus nigra L., a species of tree uncommon in upland forests. In a comparison of wood postures, more beetle species emerged from logs than from snags, but a number of species appear to be dependent on snags including several canopy specialists. In a study of saproxylic beetle succession, species richness peaked within the first year of death and declined steadily thereafter. However, a number of species appear to be dependent on highly decayed logs, underscoring the importance of protecting wood at all stages of decay. In a study comparing litter-dwelling arthropod abundance at different distances from dead wood, arthropods were more abundant near dead wood than away from it. In another study, grounddwelling arthropods and saproxylic beetles were little affected by large-scale manipulations of dead wood in upland pine-dominated forests, possibly due to the suitability of the forests surrounding the plots.

Ulyshen, Michael, Darragh

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Characterization and explanation of the sustainability of the European wood manufacturing industries: A quantitative approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper has a twofold purpose. First, to characterize the sustainability of the European wood manufacturing industry. In this way, a ranking of the European countries analyzed in terms of sustainability is established. To undertake this task the sustainability ... Keywords: Econometric models, Goal programming, Indicators, Sustainability, Wood manufacturing industry

Roberto Voces; Luis Diaz-Balteiro; Carlos Romero

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Creosote-Treated Wood Poles and Crossarms: Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

If creosote-treated wood poles and crossarms are classified as hazardous waste by the EPA's revised toxicity characteristic rule, disposal costs will rise dramatically. However, when the rule is applied to data obtained from this EPRI study, creosote-treated utility wood poles and crossarms receive a nonhazardous classification.

1992-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

288

Pentachlorophenol (PCP)-Treated Wood Poles and Crossarms: Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

If pentachlorophenol (PCP)-treated wood poles and crossarms are classified as hazardous waste by the revised toxicity characteristic (TC) rule, disposal costs will rise dramatically. However, when the ruling is applied to data obtained during this study, PCP-treated utility wood poles and crossarms receive a nonhazardous classification.

1991-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

289

Seismic design of a current woodframe structure and study of innovative products and damping systems in wood construction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wood structures have seen resurgence in popularity over the past several decades, especially in Western States of America, such as California. The industry keeps creating new structural wood products of exceptional strength, ...

Mahjoub, Nina A. (Nina Azadeh)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

URBAN WOOD/COAL CO-FIRING IN THE NIOSH BOILERPLANT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During the third quarter, the experimental portion of the project was carried out. Three one-day tests using wood/coal blends of 33% wood by volume (both construction wood and demolition wood) were conducted at the NIOSH Boiler Plant (NBP). Blends using hammer-milled wood were operationally successful and can form the basis of Phase II. Emissions of SO{sub 2} and NOx decreased and that of CO increased when compared with combusting coal alone. Mercury emissions were measured and the mathematical modeling of mercury speciation reactions continued, yielding many interesting results. Material and energy balances for the test periods at the NBP, as well as at the Bellefield Boiler Plant, were prepared. Steps were taken to remove severe constraints from the Pennsylvania Switchgrass Energy and Conservation Project and to organize the supplying of landfill gas to the Bruceton federal complex. Two presentations were made to meetings of the Electric Power Research Institute and the National Energy Technology Laboratory.

James T. Cobb, Jr.; Gene E. Geiger; William W. Elder III; Thomas Stickle; Jun Wang; Hongming Li; William P. Barry

2002-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

291

Terrestrial laser scanning for measuring the solid wood volume, including branches, of adult standing trees in the forest environment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study evaluates the potential of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) to assess the solid wood volume (i.e., stem and branch diameters of more than 7cm) of adult standing trees in the forest environment. The solid wood volume of 42 trees of different ... Keywords: 3D tree modelling, Forestry, LiDAR, Terrestrial laser scanning, Wood volume

Mathieu Dassot; AuréLie Colin; Philippe Santenoise; Meriem Fournier; ThiéRy Constant

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Woodfuel Usage Update 1 I Wood fuel use in Scotland 2011 I Hudson Consulting I September 2011  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recycled fibre Energy crops, forest residues and tree stumps The first reports on wood fuel usage data hadWoodfuel Usage Update 1 I Wood fuel use in Scotland 2011 I Hudson Consulting I September 2011 Woodfuel Demand and Usage in Scotland Report 2011 #12;Woodfuel Usage Update 2 I Wood fuel use in Scotland

293

Commercial Demonstration of Wood Recovery, Recycling, and Value Adding Technologies  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This commercial demonstration project demonstrated the technical feasibility of converting low-value, underutilized and waste stream solid wood fiber material into higher valued products. With a growing need to increase product/production yield and reduce waste in most sawmills, few recovery operations and practically no data existed to support the viability of recovery operations. Prior to our efforts, most all in the forest products industry believed that recovery was difficult, extremely labor intensive, not cost effective, and that recovered products had low value and were difficult to sell. This project provided an opportunity for many within the industry to see through demonstration that converting waste stream material into higher valued products does in fact offer a solution. Our work, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, throughout the project aimed to demonstrate a reasonable approach to reducing the millions of recoverable solid wood fiber tons that are annually treated as and converted into low value chips, mulch and fuel. Consequently sawmills continue to suffer from reduced availability of forest resources, higher raw material costs, growing waste disposal problems, increased global competition, and more pressure to operate in an Environmentally Friendly manner. It is our belief (based upon the experience of this project) that the successful mainstreaming of the recovery concept would assist in alleviating this burden as well as provide for a realistically achievable economic benefit to those who would seriously pursue the concept and tap into the rapidly growing ''GREEN'' building marketplace. Ultimately, with participation and aggressive pursuit of the recovery concept, the public would benefit in that: (1) Landfill/disposal waste volume could be reduced adding greater life to existing municipal landfill sites thereby minimizing the need to prematurely license and open added facilities. Also, there would be a cost avoidance benefit associated to what would have been the added municipal (community) management costs involved with maintaining closed landfills. (2) With greater quantities of recovered material being returned to and integrated into manufacturing and the marketplace, reduced demand upon virgin wood sources could help lead the way to promoting improved relations and environmental balance between producers and consumers further expanding the value of our natural resource without adding environmental burden.

Auburn Machinery, Inc.

2004-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

294

Superheater Tube Corrosion in Wood Gasifier Ash Deposits  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The upper operating temperature of tubes in heat exchangers/steam generators is strongly influenced by the degradation that can occur because of the reaction of the exchanger/generator tubing with the deposits that accumulate on the surface of the tubes. In fact, severe corrosion has been observed in some biomass fired systems, particularly with elevated potassium and chlorine concentrations in the deposits. Wood gasifiers have recently been and are currently being constructed at several sites in North America. In these systems, the syngas is burned to produce steam and the performance of the heat exchanger tubes under ash deposits is of great concern. As temperatures of the heat exchangers are increased in an effort to increase their operating efficiency, the performance of the tubes is of greater interest. The corrosion behavior of alloy steel tubes as a function of temperature has been investigated by exposing samples of selected alloys to ash collected from the steam generator fired by syngas produced in wood gasifiers. This study compares corrosion rates from laboratory exposures of synthesis gas and ash at 500 C and 600 C. This study investigated the material performance of four ferritic steels and one austenitic steel exposed to conditions expected on the fireside of a wood gasifier. The purpose of this study was to identify an effective method for determining material performance for samples exposed to both the process gas and the fly ash that is typically observed within the steam generator for times up to 1000 hours. Mass changes were measured for all of the samples, but this information can be misleading concerning material performance due to the difficulty in sufficiently cleaning the samples after exposure in the ash. Therefore, small cross sections of the samples were collected and imaged using optical microscopy. Oxide thicknesses were measured along with metal losses. The metal loss information provides a clear indication of material performance. The metal loss rates for the ferritic steels at 500 C were almost half of those observed at 600 C and the rates decreased with increasing exposure time. It was also reported that the metal loss rates generally decrease with increasing chromium concentration.

Bestor, Michael A [ORNL; Keiser, James R [ORNL; Meisner, Roberta A [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Warren T. Wood, L. Dale Bibee, Edward F. Braithwaite Introduction  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Deployment of a Deep-water Seafloor Sound Source Deployment of a Deep-water Seafloor Sound Source Warren T. Wood, L. Dale Bibee, Edward F. Braithwaite Introduction With funding from DOE-NETL, the Naval Research Laboratory's deep-towed acoustic geophysics system (DTAGS) was outfitted to be set directly on the seafloor with the intent of more efficiently generating shear wave energy in the seafloor. We altered the existing DTAGS by adding a releasable landing shoe, and a geophone array that used existing data telemetry. The modified system was deployed in March of 2010 in about 900m of water near the site of the University of Mississippi's gas hydrate observatory in lease block

296

Environmental-performance research priorities: Wood products. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes a research plan to establish environmental, energy, and economic performance measures for renewable building materials, and to identify management and technology alternatives to improve environmental performance in a cost-effective manner. The research plan is designed to: (1) collect environmental and economic data on all life-cycle stages of the materials, (2) ensure that the data follows consistent definitions and collection procedures, and (3) develop analytical procedures for life-cycle analysis to address environmental performance questions. The research will be subdivided into a number of individual project modules. The five processing stages of wood used to organize the research plan are: (1) resource management and harvesting; (2) processing; (3) design and construction of structures; (4) use, maintenance, and disposal; and (5) waste recycling. Individual research module descriptions are provided in the report, as well as assessment techniques, research standards and protocol, and research management. 13 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

NONE

1998-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

297

The Honorable John T. 'Gregorio 301 N. Wood Avenue  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Eiergy ; Eiergy ; Washington, DC 20585 -, (, > - .' c ' . FEB 1 7 1995 _ .; , _-, The Honorable John T. 'Gregorio 301 N. Wood Avenue Linden, 'New Jersey 07036 d. \ Dear Mayor Gregorio: ,' ,' .' , Secretary of Energy Hazel O'Leary has announced a new approach to openness, in the'llepartment' of Energy (DDE) and its co,annunications with the .public.', In sup~port of this initiative, we are.pleased to forward.the,enclosed information reiated to the.former Linden Pilot Plant of the Chemical' Construction Company in your jurisdiction that performed work for DOE's.predecessor agencies. This information is provided for your information, use,.and reten,tion. '. , / DOE's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program is responsible for identification of sites used by DOE's predecessor agencies, determining their

298

Microsoft Word - CX-Murray-CusterWoodPoles_WEB.doc  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Covington Covington SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Steve Scott Line Foreman III - TFNF-Snohomish Proposed Action: Wood pole replacement at selected locations along the Murray-Custer #1 transmission line right-of-way (ROW). PP&A Project No.: 1963 Categorical Exclusion Applied (from Subpart D, 10 C.F.R. Part 1021): B1.3 Routine maintenance activities...for structures, rights-of-way, infrastructures such as roads, equipment... routine maintenance activities, corrective...are required to maintain...infrastructures...in a condition suitable for a facility to be used for its designed purpose. Location: The proposed project is located in Snohomish and Skagit Counties, Washington, in Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) Snohomish District.

299

Synthesis of SiC nanorods from bleached wood pulp  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Unbleached and bleached soft wood pulps have been used as templates and carbon precursors to produce SiC nanorods. Hydrolyzed tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS), Silicic acid was infiltrated into the pulps followed by a carbothermal reduction to form SiC nanorods at 1400oC in Ar. Residual carbon formed along with SiC was removed by gasification at 700oC in air. The SiC materials prepared from unbleached pulp were non-uniform SiC with a thick SiO2 coating, while the SiC nanorods prepared from the bleached pulp were uniform and straight with dimensions of 250 nm in diameter and 5.0 mm long. The formation of uniform camelback structure of SiC in the reaction between silica and bleached pulp is attributed to more silica deposited in the amorphous region of cellulose.

Shin, Yongsoon; Wang, Chong M.; Samuels, William D.; Exarhos, Gregory J.

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Fusion-fission reactions with modified Woods-Saxon potential  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A modified Woods-Saxon potential model is proposed for a unified description of the entrance channel fusion barrier and the fission barrier of fusion-fission reactions based on the Skyrme energy-density functional approach. The fusion excitation functions of 120 reactions have been systematically studied. The fusion (capture) cross sections are well described with the calculated potential and an empirical barrier distribution. Incorporating a statistical model (HIVAP code) for describing the decay of the compound nucleus, the evaporation residue (and fission) cross sections of 51 fusion-fission reactions have been systematically investigated. Optimal values of some key parameters of the HIVAP code are obtained based on the experimental data of these reactions. The experimental data are reasonably well reproduced by the calculated results. The upper and lower confidence limits of the systematic errors of the calculated results are given.

Ning Wang; Kai Zhao; Werner Scheid; Xizhen Wu

2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "geothermal wood wood" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Kinetic Modeling and Assessment of Lime Pretreatment of Poplar Wood  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Because of widespread availability, low cost, sustainability, and potential supply far greater than that of food crops, lignocellulosic biomass is one of the most promising feedstocks for producing biofuels through fermentation processes. Among lignocellulose choices, poplar wood is appealing because of high energy potential, above-average carbon mitigation potential, fast growth, and high yields. Lignocellulose structural features limit accessibility of enzymes or microorganisms. To overcome these limitations, pretreatment is required. Among several choices of pretreatment, lime pretreatment is preferred because lime is the cheapest alkali, safest to handle, easy to recover, and compatible with oxidants. The main effect of lime pretreatment is to degrade lignin, which occurs with good carbohydrate preservation and is enhanced with oxidants. Among several choices of oxidant, oxygen and air are preferred because of low cost and widespread availability. This study systematically assesses the effects of lime pretreatment on poplar wood using four different modes: long-term oxidative, long-term non-oxidative, short-term constant pressure, and short-term varying pressure. Long-term pretreatments use temperatures between 25 and 65° C, air if oxidant is used, and last several weeks. Short-term pretreatments use temperatures between 110 and 180° C, pressurized oxygen, and last several minutes to hours. Pretreatment was assessed on the basis of 3-day enzymatic digestibility using enzyme loadings of 15 FPU/g glucan in raw biomass. The results were used to recommend pretreatment conditions based on highest overall yield of glucan (after combined pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis) for each pretreatment mode. For each pretreatment mode, kinetic models for delignification and carbohydrates degradation were obtained and used to determine the conditions (temperature, pressure, and time) that maximize glucan preservation subjected to a target lignin yield. This study led to conclude that the most robust, and selective mode of lime pretreatment is varying pressure.

Sierra Ramirez, Rocio

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Urban Wood-Based Bio-Energy Systems in Seattle  

SciTech Connect

Seattle Steam Company provides thermal energy service (steam) to the majority of buildings and facilities in downtown Seattle, including major hospitals (Swedish and Virginia Mason) and The Northwest (Level I) Regional Trauma Center. Seattle Steam has been heating downtown businesses for 117 years, with an average length of service to its customers of 40 years. In 2008 and 2009 Seattle Steam developed a biomass-fueled renewable energy (bio-energy) system to replace one of its gas-fired boilers that will reduce greenhouse gases, pollutants and the amount of waste sent to landfills. This work in this sub-project included several distinct tasks associated with the biomass project development as follows: a. Engineering and Architecture: Engineering focused on development of system control strategies, development of manuals for start up and commissioning. b. Training: The project developer will train its current operating staff to operate equipment and facilities. c. Flue Gas Clean-Up Equipment Concept Design: The concept development of acid gas emissions control system strategies associated with the supply wood to the project. d. Fuel Supply Management Plan: Development of plans and specifications for the supply of wood. It will include potential fuel sampling analysis and development of contracts for delivery and management of fuel suppliers and handlers. e. Integrated Fuel Management System Development: Seattle Steam requires a biomass Fuel Management System to track and manage the delivery, testing, processing and invoicing of delivered fuel. This application will be web-based and accessed from a password-protected URL, restricting data access and privileges by user-level.

Stan Gent, Seattle Steam Company

2010-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

303

Air emissions from residential heating: The wood heating option put into environmental perspective. Report for June 1997--July 1998  

SciTech Connect

The paper compares the national scale (rather than local) air quality impacts of the various residential space heating options. Specifically, it compares the relative contributions of the space heating options to fine particulate emissions, greenhouse gas emissions, and acid precipitation impacts. The major space heating energy options are natural gas, fuel oil, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), electricity, coal, and wood. Residential wood combustion (RWC) meets 9% of the Nation`s space heating energy needs and utilizes a renewable resource. Wood is burned regularly in about 30 million homes. Residential wood combustion is often perceived as environmentally dirty due to emissions from older wood burners.

Houck, J.E.; Tiegs, P.E.; McCrillis, R.C.; Keithley, C.; Crouch, J.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

304

Economic impacts of wood energy in the Northeast, 1985: Summary report: Northeast Regional Biomass Program  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Wood energy in the Northeast accounts for an estimated average of 1.96 jobs and $46,634 of income for every 1000 tons of wood burned by households and businesses. This translates into an estimated total of over 78,000 jobs and $1.8 billion of personal income for Northeast residents and businesses. In addition, a total of $589 million in state and federal tax revenues are generated by wood energy-related economic activity. By choosing wood over other fuels, Northeast households and businesses saved $1.2 billion in their 1985 fuel bills. In the Northeast in 1985, wood displaced over 1 billion gallons of oil, 37 million tcf of natural gas and propane, 138,000 tons of coal, and 1858 million kilowatt-hours of electricity. Projected growth in wood energy consumption in the industrial and residential sectors indicate that the Northeast wood energy industry will support approximately 165,000 jobs and $3.8 billion of personal and business income by the year 2000, if projected growth continues. 9 figs., 5 tabs.

Chamberlin, R.; High, C.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

PSNH's Northern Wood power project repowers coal-fired plant with new fluidized-bed combustor  

SciTech Connect

The Northern Wood Power project permanently replaced a 50-MW coal-burning boiler (Unit 5) at Public Service of New Hampshire's Schiller station with a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed wood-burning boiler of the same capacity. The project, completed in December 2006, reduced emissions and expanded the local market for low-grade wood. For planning and executing the multiyear, $75 million project at no cost to its ratepayers, PSNH wins Power's 2007 Marmaduke Award for excellence in O & M. The award is named for Marmaduke Surfaceblow, the fictional marine engineer/plant troubleshoot par excellence. 7 figs., 1 tab.

Peltier, R.

2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

306

Continuous On-Line Measurement of Lignin Concentration in Wood Pulp  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We are working toward the development of an instrument for the continuous, on-line measurement of the lignin concentration in wood pulp. The instrument is based on laser induced fluorescence of the wood pulp and is to be used as a primary sensor for both feedback control of the pulping and feedforward control of bleaching. We report here the results of a series of laboratory tests that characterized the fluorescence properties of wood pulp and demonstrated a correlation between various fluorescence functions and the Kappa number of the pulps as determined by TAPPI Procedure T236.

Jeffers, L. A.; Roman, G. W.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Feasibility study of wood-fired cogeneration at a Wood Products Industrial Park, Belington, WV. Phase II  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Customarily, electricity is generated in a utility power plant while thermal energy is generated in a heating/cooling plant; the electricity produced at the power plant is transmitted to the heating/cooling plant to power equipments. These two separate systems waste vast amounts of heat and result in individual efficiencies of about 35%. Cogeneration is the sequential production of power (electrical or mechanical) and thermal energy (process steam, hot/chilled water) from a single power source; the reject heat of one process issued as input into the subsequent process. Cogeneration increases the efficiency of these stand-alone systems by producing these two products sequentially at one location using a small additional amount of fuel, rendering the system efficiency greater than 70%. This report discusses cogeneration technologies as applied to wood fuel fired system.

Vasenda, S.K.; Hassler, C.C.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Digestive enzyme activities and gastrointestinal fermentation in wood-eating catfishes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the neotropical suckermouth armored catWshes (Siluriformes,T (2009) Non-native suckermouth armored catWshes in Florida:Loricariidae), wood-eating armored catWshes from tropical

German, Donovan P.; Bittong, Rosalie A.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Health effects of residential wood combustion: survey of knowledge and research  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Health and safety issues related to residential wood burning are examined. Current research and findings are also described, and research status is assessed in terms of future health and safety requirements. (MHR)

None

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Technical Viability of Biocoke from Mixtures Coal-Wood Charcoal for ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this paper is to replace from 10% to 50% of the coal used in cokemaking by mixing it with a renewable source (wood charcoal). The powder ...

311

Thermal properties of structural details in wood frame homes : analysis and recommendations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The wood platform frame home is the dominant design in the United States when it comes to single family housing. Introduced during the mid-nineteenth century, the scheme is a cheap, fast, and proven design that takes ...

Graybeal, Alexander Kung

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Global Trade of Wood and Paper Products Analysis by: Dr. Ed K. Pepke  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of wood products, such as the United States, have become major net importers. Conversely, China, a country renewable energy sources in light of escalating fossil fuel prices, have created new international trade

313

Lowell L. Wood, 1981 | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Lowell L. Wood, 1981 The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award Lawrence Award Home Nomination & Selection Guidelines Award Laureates 2000's 1990's 1980's 1970's 1960's Ceremony The Life of...

314

SIDA DemoEast programme in Estonia. Supply, delivery and installation of wood pellet burning equipment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

burning equipment SUMMARY DemoEast programme is a part of Baltic Billion Fund 2 with the overall aim and Kiltsi light oil fired boilers have been converted to wood pellets burning. The supplier

315

Microsoft Word - CX-Driscoll-NaselleWood PolesFY12_WEB.doc  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Memorandum Ryan Brady Line Foreman III - TFOK-Chehalis Proposed Action: In-kind wood pole replacements as needed on the Driscoll-Naselle No. 1 115-kV transmission line...

316

Residential Bulk-Fed Wood-Pellet Central Boilers and Furnace Rebate Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Residential Bulk-Fed Wood-Pellet Central Boilers and Furnace Rebate Residential Bulk-Fed Wood-Pellet Central Boilers and Furnace Rebate Program Residential Bulk-Fed Wood-Pellet Central Boilers and Furnace Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Multi-Family Residential Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Maximum Rebate $6,000 Program Info Funding Source New Hampshire Renewable Energy Fund (FY 2013) Start Date 04/14/2010 Expiration Date When progr State New Hampshire Program Type State Rebate Program Rebate Amount 30% Provider New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission The New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission (PUC) is offering rebates of 30% of the installed cost of qualifying new residential bulk-fed, wood-pellet central heating boilers or furnaces. The maximum rebate is $6,000. To qualify, systems must (1) become operational on or after May 1,

317

Good Practice Guidance on the Sustainable Mobilisation of Wood in Europe |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Good Practice Guidance on the Sustainable Mobilisation of Wood in Europe Good Practice Guidance on the Sustainable Mobilisation of Wood in Europe Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Good Practice Guidance on the Sustainable Mobilisation of Wood in Europe Agency/Company /Organization: United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Partner: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Sector: Land Focus Area: Biomass, Forestry Topics: Implementation, Policies/deployment programs Resource Type: Guide/manual, Lessons learned/best practices Website: www.unece.org/publications/oes/Timber_wood-mobilization-good_practice- UN Region: "Western & Eastern Europe" is not in the list of possible values (Eastern Africa, Middle Africa, Northern Africa, Southern Africa, Western Africa, Caribbean, Central America, South America, Northern America, Central Asia, Eastern Asia, Southern Asia, South-Eastern Asia, Western Asia, Eastern Europe, Northern Europe, Southern Europe, Western Europe, Australia and New Zealand, Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia, Latin America and the Caribbean) for this property.

318

Housing 2020: The future of wood in U.S. dwellings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presented at the International Panel and Engineered-Wood Technology Exposition examines the effect that reduced material resources, energy conservation, manufactured dwellings, and construction techniques have had on the use of wood in the housing industry. The topics of the paper include the impact of the energy crisis, financing and affordability crisis, lumber crisis, and a forecast of what the house of the year 2020 will look like, how it will be constructed and of what material will it be constructed.

Wendt, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Energy Div.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

319

Synthesis of SiC ceramics by the carbothermal reduction of mineralized wood with silica  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper describes the synthesis of SiC by the carbothermal reduction of mineralized wood with silica in acidic condition. The biomorphic cellular SiC ceramics were prepared by controlling the amount of silica and the size of SiC nanoparticles. Up to 20wt% of SiO2 was mineralized into wood cellular structures and the hierarchical structures such as cells, lumen, and pits were mainly retained after the thermal treatment at 1400 C.

Shin, Yongsoon; Wang, Chong M.; Exarhos, Gregory J.

2005-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

320

Variations in the Hygrothermal Properties of Several Wood-Based Building Products  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A systematic investigation of the hygrothermal properties of a number of oriented strand boards, plywood products, wood fibreboards and composite wood sidings has resulted in new information on the variations of thermal conductivity, water vapour permeability, moisture diffusivity, sorption- desorption -suction isotherms, water absorption coefficient and air permeability of these classes of products in North America. The experimental and analytical procedures used in the investigation are all based either on International Standards or on well-documented and peer-reviewed approaches.

J.C. Lackey; N. Normandin; D. van Reenen; M. K. Kumaran; J. C. Lackey; N. Norm; F. Tariku; D. Van Reenen

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "geothermal wood wood" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Smoke and toxic species analyses from controlled combustion of wood impregnated with guayule resin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dominant commercial treatments currently used for wood preservation are pentachlorophenols (PCP), creosote, and chromium copper arsenicals. These wood preservatives present many studied and documented environmental and toxicological problems with both use of the products themselves, and with the production of secondary reaction contaminants. Furthermore, several of these preservatives are considered priority pollutants according to the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and are heavily regulated. The need for an environmentally benign combined fire/rot retardant treatment for wood that will effectively reduce both fire and decay is clearly evident. Guayule resin, a co-by-product during rubber extraction from the guayule shrub, is being explored by us as a natural, biodegradable wood rot and fire retardant with potential commercial applications. Wood impregnated with guayule resin has survived over eight years in tropical soils, free of rot, decay, and insect infestations. This study qualitatively analyzed the treated and untreated wood samples for ignitability, flame spread, toxic fumes, and smoke generation. Ignitability of the wood sample of fixed geometry was quantified by measuring the time required for ignition of treated samples vs. untreated samples. Flame spread was measured after ignition with a propane flame by a simple stopwatch-ruler technique. Smoke mass was determined in an Arapahoe Smoke Chamber as per ASTM D-4100. Analysis of the fumes involved continuous CO, C02, NOx, SOx, and 02 analyses using the Bacharach Instrument Model 300. Cascade impaction was used to determine the particle size distribution of the smoke and for smoke mass determination. Respirable particles were assessed by utilizing the Anderson 2000 Inc. 1 AFCM Ambient Particle Fractionating Sampler. Inflections of guayule-impregnated and untreated pine are indeed minor with respect to all aspects investigated. Ignition data indicated guayule-impregnated pine did not ignite as quickly as untreated pine. Evidence conveys favorable consideration for further research of wood preservation with guayule resin.

Smith, Lonnie

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Characterization of Waste Tar Associated with Abandoned Wood Chemical Plant Sites in Northwest Pennsylvania, USA  

SciTech Connect

Over 70 wood chemical plants operated in northern Pennsylvania between ca. 1890 and 1950, all located within 72 km of the New York state border. Their original purpose was to salvage the small unwanted hardwood trees left behind by the lumber mills, and to make charcoal, calcium acetate and methanol for a number of industrial uses via destructive distillation. At many old wood chemical plant sites, unknown quantities of wood tar remain as a residual contaminant and pose a pollution threat to aquatic life in nearby streams. Research on the composition and properties of residual wood tars from five abandoned industrial sites in Pennsylvania are described. Weathered wood tars were more viscous and contained fewer volatile and semivolatile organic compounds than did soil-buried tars. Phenol, 2-methylphenol (o-cresol), 4-methylphenol (p-cresol), and 2, 4-dimethylphenol were found in all sampled tars. These water-soluble phenolic compounds were released quasi-instantaneously in aqueous solution, followed by a slower rate of release, consistent with the behavior of similar compounds in other dense non-aqueous liquids. Air-exposed wood tar deposits developed a hard crust, which contained fewer volatiles and semivolatiles and had a higher softening point than other samples. These tars eroded to form a powdered soil colonized by lichens and mosses. Residual wood tar material found at one site was shown to be thermally altered, likely during the historical destruction of the chemical plant by fire. Recovered wood tar wastes have a relatively high heating value and may have use as a potential, but limited, alternate energy source.

Edendorn, H.M.; Severson, D. (Allegheny Institute of Natural History, Bradford, PA)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Oxidation of volatiles in residential wood burning equipment. Final technical report, September 1980-February 1984  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this project are to measure, through the use of laboratory combustors, those conditions which promote complete combustion of wood volatiles in residential wood burning equipment. The conditions of interest are combustion temperature, residence time, stoichiometry, and air mixing. The project objectives are met through two laboratory approaches: (1) model compound studies: in order to measure the overall rates of oxidative pyrolysis of biomass volatiles, and to determine the types of intermediate organic species which are likely to form as part of this process, model compounds have been reacted in a specialized jet-stirred reactor, which has been developed as part of this research. (2) high-intensity wood combustion: in order to study the clean combustion of wood, that is, to investigate the conceptual design features required for clean burning, and to ascertain the levels and types of pollutant and condensible species which are most difficult to oxidize, a high-intensity, research wood combustor has been developed and examined for the different phases of the wood burning cycle. Although the objectives of the project have been met, it has not been possible, because of support limitations, to thoroughly explore several interesting aspects which have arisen because of this research. For example, a third laboratory system in which wood pyrolysis gas is injected directly into the a well characterized reactor, so that the kinetics and mechanisms of the gas-phase reaction of the actual biomass volatiles can be studied, could not be thoroughly developed. Refinements in the high-intensity wood combustor, which would bring its design features closer to practicality for the industry, could not be considered. 32 references, 37 figures, 10 tables.

Malte, P.C.; Thornton, M.M.; Kamber, P.D.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Assessment of Treated Wood and Alternate Materials for Utility Distribution Poles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides salient facts about common and potential alternative wood pole preservatives and common and potential alternative wood pole materials for use in the electrical distribution setting. Relevant organizations are also discussed. The report presents a brief history of the development and use of each preservative and pole material. It characterizes, qualifies, and quantifies (where possible) the potential impacts of shifts from common preservatives to alternative preservatives and from sou...

2010-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

325

HIGH RESOLUTION MICROTOMOGRAPHY FOR DENSITY AND SPATIAL INFORMATION ABOUT WOOD STRUCTURES.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Microtomography has successfully been used to characterize loss of structural integrity of wood. Tomographic images were generated with the newly developed third generation x-ray computed microtomography (XCMT) instrument at the X27A beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). The beamline is equipped with high-flux x-ray monochromator based on multilayer optics developed for this application. The sample is mounted on a translation stage with which to center the sample rotation, a rotation stage to perform the rotation during data collection and a motorized goniometer head for small alignment motions. The absorption image is recorded by a single-crystal scintillator, an optical microscope and a cooled CCD array detector. Data reconstruction has provided three-dimensional geometry of the heterogeneous wood matrix in microtomographic images. Wood is a heterogeneous material composed of long lignocellulose vessels. Although wood is a strong natural product, fungi have evolved chemical systems that weaken the strength properties of wood by degrading structural vessels. Tomographic images with a resolution of three microns were obtained nonintrusively to characterize the compromised structural integrity of wood. Computational tools developed by Lindquist et al (1996) applied to characterize the microstructure of the tomographic volumes.

ILLMAN,B.

1999-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

326

Wood Residues as Fuel Source for Lime Kilns  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One of the main obstacles to total energy self sufficiency of kraft mills appears to be the fossil fuel requirements of the lime kilns. If an economical technology can be developed which allows fossil fuel to be replaced in whole or in part by wood-based fuel, the savings in fossil fuel by the pulp and paper industry would be very substantial. Our study focuses around the direct in-situ combustion of hog fuel fed from the cold feed end in order to substantially reduce the fossil fuel fired from the hot product discharge end of the lime kiln. Thus far we have carried out two series of tests using two different pilot-scale kilns and dry limestone in the first test series and mill produced lime mud in the second test series. Mill scale trials have just been completed and the preliminary results indicate that our approach is potentially a very cost-effective and simple option to substantially reduce or possibly eliminate fossil-fuel usage in lime kilns.

Azarniouch, M. K.; Philp, R. J.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

A model for the oxidative pyrolysis of wood  

SciTech Connect

A generalized pyrolysis model (Gpyro) is applied to simulate the oxidative pyrolysis of white pine slabs irradiated under nonflaming conditions. Conservation equations for gaseous and solid mass, energy, species, and gaseous momentum (Darcy's law approximation) inside the decomposing solid are solved to calculate profiles of temperature, mass fractions, and pressure inside the decomposing wood. The condensed phase consists of four species, and the gas that fills the voids inside the decomposing solid consists of seven species. Four heterogeneous (gas/solid) reactions and two homogeneous (gas/gas) reactions are included. Diffusion of oxygen from the ambient into the decomposing solid and its effect on local reactions occurring therein is explicitly modeled. A genetic algorithm is used to extract the required material properties from experimental data at 25 kW/m{sup 2} and 40 kW/m{sup 2} irradiance and ambient oxygen concentrations of 0%, 10.5% and 21% by volume. Optimized model calculations for mass loss rate, surface temperature, and in-depth temperatures reproduce well the experimental data, including the experimentally observed increase in temperature and mass loss rate with increasing oxygen concentration. (author)

Lautenberger, Chris; Fernandez-Pello, Carlos [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

328

Wood Energy in Alaska– Case Study Evaluations of Selected Facilities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

multiple use management of the Nation’s forest resources for sustained yields of wood, water, forage, wildlife, and recreation. Through forestry research, cooperation with the States and private forest owners, and management of the National Forests and National Grasslands, it strives—as directed by Congress—to provide increasingly greater service to a growing Nation. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) prohibits discrimination in all its programs and activities on the basis of race, color, national origin, age, disability, and where applicable, sex, marital status, familial status, parental status, religion, sexual orientation, genetic information, political beliefs, reprisal, or because all or part of an individual’s income is derived from any public assistance program. (Not all prohibited bases apply to all programs.) Persons with disabilities who require alternative means for communication of program information (Braille, large print, audiotape, etc.) should contact USDA’s TARGET Center at (202) 720-2600 (voice and TDD). To file a complaint of discrimination, write

United States; Forest Service

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

URBAN WOOD/COAL CO-FIRING IN THE BELLEFIELD BOILERPLANT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An Environmental Questionnaire for the demonstration at the Bellefield Boiler Plant (BBP) was submitted to the national Energy Technology Laboratory. An R&D variance for the air permit at the BBP was sought from the Allegheny County Health Department (ACHD). R&D variances for the solid waste permits at the J. A. Rutter Company (JARC), and Emery Tree Service (ETS) were sought from the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP). Construction wood was acquired from Thompson Properties and Seven D Corporation. Verbal authorizations were received in all cases. Memoranda of understanding were executed by the University of Pittsburgh with BBP, JARC and ETS. Construction wood was collected from Thompson Properties and from Seven D Corporation. Forty tons of pallet and construction wood were ground to produce BioGrind Wood Chips at JARC and delivered to Mon Valley Transportation Company (MVTC). Five tons of construction wood were hammer milled at ETS and half of the product delivered to MVTC. Blends of wood and coal, produced at MVTC by staff of JARC and MVTC, were shipped by rail to BBP. The experimental portion of the project was carried out at BBP in late March and early April 2001. Several preliminary tests were successfully conducted using blends of 20% and 33% wood by volume. Four one-day tests using a blend of 40% wood by volume were then carried out. Problems of feeding and slagging were experienced with the 40% blend. Light-colored fly ash was observed coming from the stack during all four tests. Emissions of SO{sub 2}, NOx and total particulates, measured by Energy Systems Associates, decreased when compared with combusting coal alone. A procedure for calculating material and energy balances on BBP's Boiler No.1 was developed, using the results of an earlier compliance test at the plant. Material and energy balances were then calculated for the four test periods. Boiler efficiency was found to decrease slightly when the fuel was shifted from coal to the 40% blend. Neither commercial production of sized urban waste wood for the energy market in Pittsburgh nor commercial cofiring of wood/coal blends at BBP are anticipated in the near future.

James T. Cobb Jr.; Gene E. Geiger; William W. Elder III; William P. Barry; Jun Wang; Hongming Li

2004-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

330

Home Page > Business > Industrial > Global Trade Of Wood Chips Down 26% In 2009 As Pulpmills Reduce Production Worldwide, Reports Wood Resources International  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Poster Explore Strategies in Technical Analysis from Experienced Brokers. www.Lind-Waldock.com , USA financial crises and the reduced demand for paper products worldwide. This year, only an estimated 25 worldwide, European demand for pellets and biomass chips, outlook for plantation wood chip supply, ocean

331

Quantifying And Predicting Wood Quality Of Loblolly And Slash Pine Under Intensive Forest Management Final Technical Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The forest industry will increasingly rely on fast-growing intensively managed southern pine plantations to furnish wood and fiber. Intensive silvicultural practices, including competition control, stand density control, fertilization, and genetic improvement are yielding tremendous gains in the quantity of wood production from commercial forest land. How these technologies affect wood properties was heretofore unknown, although there is concern about the suitability of fast-grown wood for traditional forest products. A four year study was undertaken to examine the effects of these intensive practices on the properties of loblolly and slash pine wood by applying a common sampling method over 10 existing field experiments. Early weed control gets young pines off to a rapid start, often with dramatically increased growth rates. This response is all in juvenile wood however, which is low in density and strength. Similar results are found with early Nitrogen fertilization at the time of planting. These treatments increase the proportion of juvenile wood in the tree. Later, mid-rotation fertilization with Nitrogen and Phosphorus can have long term (4-8 year) growth gains. Slight reductions in wood density are short-lived (1-2 years) and occur while the tree is producing dense, stiff mature wood. Impacts of mid-rotation fertilization on wood properties for manufacturing are estimated to be minimal. Genetic differences are evident in wood density and other properties. Single family plantings showed somewhat more uniform properties than bulk improved or unimproved seedlots. Selection of genetic sources with optimal wood properties may counter some of the negative impacts of intensive weed control and fertilization. This work will allow forest managers to better predict the effects of their practices on the quality of their final product.

Richard F. Daniels; Alexander Clark III

2006-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

332

Development and Validation of Marker-Aided Selection Methods for Wood Property Traits in Loblolly Pine and Hybrid Poplar  

SciTech Connect

Wood properties influence pulp and paper quality. Certainly, overall pulp yields are directly related to the cellulose content, changes in hemicellulose content are associated with changes in pulp cohesiveness, and pulping efficiency is related to lignin content. Despite the importance of wood properties on product quality, little progress has been made in improving such traits because current methods of assessing wood and fiber characteristics are time-consuming, expensive, and often imprecise. Genetic improvement of wood and fiber properties has been further hampered by the large size of trees, delayed reproductive maturity and long harvest cycles. Recent developments in molecular genetics will help overcome the physical, economic and biological constraints in assessing and improving wood properties. Genetic maps consisting of numerous molecular markers are now available for loblolly pine and hybrid poplar. Such markers/maps may be used as part of a marker-aided selection and breeding effort or to expedite the isolation and characterization of genes and/or promoters that directly control wood properties. The objectives of this project are: (1) to apply new and rapid analytical techniques for assessing component wood properties to segregating F2 progeny populations of loblolly pine and hybrid poplar, (2) to map quantitative trait loci and identify molecular markers associated with wood properties in each of the above species and (3) to validate marker-aided selection methods for wood properties in loblolly pine and hybrid poplar.

Tuskan, G.A.

2001-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

333

Development of British Columbia wood pellet life cycle inventory and its utilization in the evaluation of domestic pellet applications.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??An in-house life cycle inventory (LCI) database for British Columbia (BC) wood pellets is established. The LCI database is used to compare the performance of… (more)

Pa, Ann An

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Torrefied wood pellets as an alternative fuel to coal: Climate benefits and social desirability of production and use.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The objective of this thesis is to study the climate impacts and the social returns and social desirability of torrefied wood pellet production and use… (more)

Happonen, Kiira

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Metagenome of an Anaerobic Microbial Community Decomposing Poplar Wood Chips  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study describes the composition and metabolic potential of a lignocellulosic biomass degrading community that decays poplar wood chips under anaerobic conditions. We examined the community that developed on poplar biomass in a non-aerated bioreactor over the course of a year, with no microbial inoculation other than the naturally occurring organisms on the woody material. The composition of this community contrasts in important ways with biomass-degrading communities associated with higher organisms, which have evolved over millions of years into a symbiotic relationship. Both mammalian and insect hosts provide partial size reduction, chemical treatments (low or high pH environments), and complex enzymatic 'secretomes' that improve microbial access to cell wall polymers. We hypothesized that in order to efficiently degrade coarse untreated biomass, a spontaneously assembled free-living community must both employ alternative strategies, such as enzymatic lignin depolymerization, for accessing hemicellulose and cellulose and have a much broader metabolic potential than host-associated communities. This would suggest that such a community would make a valuable resource for finding new catalytic functions involved in biomass decomposition and gaining new insight into the poorly understood process of anaerobic lignin depolymerization. Therefore, in addition to determining the major players in this community, our work specifically aimed at identifying functions potentially involved in the depolymerization of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin, and to assign specific roles to the prevalent community members in the collaborative process of biomass decomposition. A bacterium similar to Magnetospirillum was identified among the dominant community members, which could play a key role in the anaerobic breakdown of aromatic compounds. We suggest that these compounds are released from the lignin fraction in poplar hardwood during the decay process, which would point to lignin-modification or depolymerization under anaerobic conditions.

van der Lelie, D.; Taghavi, S.; McCorkle, S. M.; Li, L. L.; Malfatti, S. A.; Monteleone, D.; Donohoe, B. S.; Ding, S. Y.; Adney, W. S.; Himmel, M. E.; Tringe, S. G.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Fuel switching from wood to LPG can benefit the environment  

SciTech Connect

The Himalaya in India is one of the world's biodiversity hotspots. Various scientific studies have reported and proven that many factors are responsible for the tremendous decline of the Himalayan forests. Extraction of wood biomass from the forests for fuel is one of the factors, as rural households rely entirely on this for their domestic energy. Efforts continue for both conservation and development of the Himalayan forests and landscape. It has been reported that people are still looking for more viable solutions that could help them to improve their lifestyle as well as facilitate ecosystem conservation and preservation of existing biodiversity. In this direction, we have documented the potential of the introduction of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), which is one of the solutions that have been offered to the local people as a substitute for woodfuel to help meet their domestic energy demand. The results of the current study found dramatic change in per capita woodfuel consumption in the last two decades in the villages where people are using LPG. The outcome showed that woodfuel consumption had been about 475 kg per capita per year in the region, but after introduction of LPG, this was reduced to 285 kg per capita per year in 1990-1995, and was further reduced to 46 kg per capita per year in 2000-2005. Besides improving the living conditions of the local people, this transformation has had great environmental consequences. Empirical evidence shows that this new paradigm shift is having positive external effects on the surrounding forests. Consequently, we have observed a high density of tree saplings and seedlings in adjacent forests, which serves as an assessment indicator of forest health. With the help of the current study, we propose that when thinking about a top-down approach to conservation, better solutions, which are often ignored, should be offered to local people.

Nautiyal, Sunil [Leibniz-Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Institute of Socioeconomics, Eberswalder Str. 84, 15374 Muencheberg (Germany)], E-mail: sunil.nautiyal@zalf.de; Kaechele, Harald [Leibniz-Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Institute of Socioeconomics, Eberswalder Str. 84, 15374 Muencheberg (Germany)

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

337

URBAN WOOD/COAL CO-FIRING IN THE BELLEFIELD BOILERPLANT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During the third quarter, important preparatory work was continued so that the experimental activities can begin early in the fourth quarter. Authorization was awaited in response to the letter that was submitted to the Allegheny County Health Department (ACHD) seeking an R&D variance for the air permit at the Bellefield Boiler Plant (BBP). Verbal authorizations were received from the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP) for R&D variances for solid waste permits at the J. A. Rutter Company (JARC), and Emery Tree Service (ETS). Construction wood was acquired from Thompson Properties and Seven D Corporation. Forty tons of pallet and construction wood were ground to produce BioGrind Wood Chips at JARC and delivered to Mon Valley Transportation Company (MVTC). Five tons of construction wood were milled at ETS and half of the product delivered to MVTC. Discussions were held with BBP and Energy Systems Associates (ESA) about the test program. Material and energy balances on Boiler No.1 and a plan for data collection were prepared. Presentations describing the University of Pittsburgh Wood/Coal Co-Firing Program were provided to the Pittsburgh Chapter of the Pennsylvania Society of Professional Engineers, and the Upgraded Coal Interest Group and the Biomass Interest Group (BIG) of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). An article describing the program appeared in the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. An application was submitted for authorization for a Pennsylvania Switchgrass Energy and Conservation Program.

James T. Cobb, Jr.; Gene E. Geiger; William W. Elder III; William P. Barry; Jun Wang; Hongming Li

2001-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

338

Simple and inexpensive method of wood pellets macro-porosity measurement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel simplified stereometric measurement method for determining the macro-porosity of wood pellets through geometrical approach was successfully developed and tested. The irregular ends of pellets of circular cross-section were sanded flat so that their geometry becomes cylinder and their volumes evaluated using mensuration formula. Such formed cylindrical pellets were loose or tap filled to selected volumes to evaluate the macro-porosity and the constant specific weight. The method was extended to evaluate actual wood pellets properties. Overall macro-porosity of actual wood pellets was determined as 41.0 2.5% and 35.5 2.7%, mean bulk density as and, and classified as Class-3:Medium and Class-3&4:Medium to Low for loose and tapped fills, respectively. Hausner ratio and Carr s compressibility index classify wood pellets as freely flowing. The developed stereometric method can be used as a handy inexpensive laboratory procedure to estimate the macro-porosity of different types and makes of wood pellets and other similar packaged materials.

Igathinathane, C. [North Dakota State University; Tumuluru, J.S. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Bi, X.T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Lim, C. Jim [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Melin, Staffan [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Mohammad, E. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

EA-1850: Flambeau River BioFuels, Inc. Proposed Wood Biomass-to-Liquid Fuel  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

50: Flambeau River BioFuels, Inc. Proposed Wood 50: Flambeau River BioFuels, Inc. Proposed Wood Biomass-to-Liquid Fuel Biorefinery, Park Falls, Wisconsin EA-1850: Flambeau River BioFuels, Inc. Proposed Wood Biomass-to-Liquid Fuel Biorefinery, Park Falls, Wisconsin Summary NOTE: This EA has been cancelled. This EA will evaluate the environmental impacts of a proposal to provide federal funding to Flambeau River Biofuels (FRB) to construct and operate a biomass-to-liquid biorefinery in Park Falls, Wisconsin, on property currently used by Flambeau Rivers Paper, LLC (FRP) for a pulp and paper mill and Johnson Timber Corporation's (JTC) Summit Lake Yard for timber storage. This project would design a biorefinery which would produce up to 1,150 barrels per day (bpd) of clean syncrude. The biorefinery would also supply

340

Assessment of potential wood supply for intermediate scale thermoconversion facilities, Tasks I, II, III  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Department of Energy's Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program has been concerned with the potential of wood biomass to contribute to the Nation's energy supply. One of the factors inhibiting the selection of wood biomass for energy by non-forest industries, especially by those requiring large quantities (500 to 2000 green tons per day), is concern with adequate fuel supply in terms of both a supply system and an adequate resource base. With respect to the latter, this report looks at the gross resource base as has been historically reported and also examines factors other than traditional product removals that could reduce to some degree the amount of resource that is available. The study also examined the conversion of a New England utility from coal to wood chips.

Not Available

1985-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "geothermal wood wood" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Microsoft Word - CX-AlveyDistWoodPoles_FY13_WEB.docx  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Alvey District Wood Pole Replacement Projects Alvey District Wood Pole Replacement Projects PP&A Project No.: 2663 Categorical Exclusion Applied (from Subpart D, 10 C.F.R. Part 1021): B1.3 Routine maintenance Location: Various transmission lines located in Douglas, Linn, and Lane counties, Oregon. Refer to Project Location Attachment for transmission lines and corresponding structure locations. Proposed by: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Description of the Proposed Action: BPA proposes to replace deteriorating wood poles and associated structural/electrical components (e.g. cross arms, insulators, guy anchors, etc.) along the subject transmission lines. Replacement will be in-kind and will utilize the existing holes to minimize ground disturbance. If necessary, an auger will be used to remove any loose soil from

342

Microsoft Word - CX-NorthBendWoodPoles_FY13_WEB.docx  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

North Bend District Wood Pole Replacement Projects North Bend District Wood Pole Replacement Projects PP&A Project No.: 2658 Categorical Exclusion Applied (from Subpart D, 10 C.F.R. Part 1021): B1.3 Routine maintenance Location: Various transmission lines located in Douglas, Linn, and Lane counties, Oregon. Refer to Project Location Attachment for transmission lines and corresponding structure locations. Proposed by: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Description of the Proposed Action: BPA proposes to replace deteriorating wood poles and associated structural/electrical components (e.g. cross arms, insulators, guy anchors, etc.) along the subject transmission lines. Replacement will be in-kind and will utilize the existing holes to minimize ground disturbance. If necessary, an auger will be used to remove any loose soil from

343

Microsoft Word - CX-PilotButte-LaPineWoodPoleFY12_WEB.docx  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

30, 2012 30, 2012 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEPR-4 SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Richard Heredia Project Manager - TEP-TPP-1 Proposed Action: Pilot Butte-La Pine No. 1 Wood Pole Replacement Project PP&A Project No.: 2188 Categorical Exclusion Applied (from Subpart D, 10 C.F.R. Part 1021): B4.6 Additions and modifications to transmission facilities ... include ... replacement of wood poles. Location: Pilot Butte-La Pine No. 1 transmission line located in Deschutes County, Oregon, at the following structures: Mile Structure 5 7 6 5 7 4 16 7 16 8 17 5 18 1 18 3 21 3 21 8 25 3 30 5 Proposed by: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Description of the Proposed Action: BPA is proposing to replace 12 deteriorating wood pole

344

Residential wood burning: Energy modeling and conventional fuel displacement in a national sample  

SciTech Connect

This research studied the natural, built, and behavioral factors predictive of energy consumption for residential space heating with wood or conventional fuels. This study was a secondary analysis of survey data from a nationwide representative sample of 5,682 households collected DOE in the 1984-1985 REC survey. Included were: weather, census division and utility data, interviewer-supplied dwelling measurements and respondent-reported energy-related family behaviors. Linear-regression procedures were used to develop a model that identified key determinants accounting for the variability in wood consumption. A nonlinear-regression model was employed to estimate the amount of conventional fuels used for space heating. The model was also used to estimate the amount of conventional fuels being displaced by wood-heating systems. There was a significant (p {le} .05) linear relationship between the dependent variable, square root of cords burned, various independent variables.

Warsco, K.S.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Renewable wood fuel: Fuel feed system for a pulverized coal boiler. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report evaluates a pilot test program conducted by New York State Gas & Electric Corporation to evaluate the feasibility of co-firing a pulverized coal plant with renewable wood fuels. The goal was to establish that such a co-firing system can reduce air emissions while maintaining good operational procedures and cost controls. The test fuel feed system employed at Greenidge Station`s Boiler 6 was shown to be effective in feeding wood products. Emission results were promising and an economic analysis indicates that it will be beneficial to pursue further refinements to the equipment and systems. The report recommends further evaluation of the generation and emission impacts using woods of varied moisture contents and at varied Btu input rates to determine if a drying system would be a cost-effective option.

NONE

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Nesting ecology of wood thrush (Turdidae: Passeriformes) in hardwood forests of South Carolina  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The nesting success of the Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) in bottomland and upland forests in South Carolina. Twenty-one of 26 nests were located in bottomland sites, and 76.2% of these nests were in narrow (<150-m wide) bottomland corridors. No nests were found in upland sites enclosed by fields. The Mayfield success rate for 20 nests was 35.3%. All nest failures were attributed to predation, no nests were parasitized by Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater). Nest sites were characterized by a dense overstory and a moderately developed understory. Bottomland hardwoods, especially relatively narrow corridors, appear to provide suitable nesting habitat for Wood Thrush in this region. Brood parasitism by Brown-headed Cowbirds does not appear to be a significant factor in the failure of Wood Thrush nests in these sites.

Sargent, Robert, A.; Kilgo, John, C.; Chapman, Brian, R.; Miller, Karl, V.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

The flash pyrolysis and methanolysis of biomass (wood) for production of ethylene, benzene and methanol  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The process chemistry of the flash pyrolysis of biomass (wood) with the reactive gases, H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} and with the non-reactive gases He and N{sub 2} is being determined in a 1 in. downflow tubular reactor at pressures from 20 to 1000 psi and temperatures from 600 to 1000{degrees}C. With hydrogen, flash hydropyrolysis leads to high yields of methane and CO which can be used for SNG and methanol fuel production. With methane, flash methanolysis leads to high yields of ethylene, benzene and CO which can be used for the production of valuable chemical feedstocks and methanol transportation fuel. At reactor conditions of 50 psi and 1000{degrees}C and approximately 1 sec residence time, the yields based on pine wood carbon conversion are up to 25% for ethylene, 25% for benzene, and 45% for CO, indicating that over 90% of the carbon in pine is converted to valuable products. Pine wood produces higher yields of hydrocarbon products than Douglas fir wood; the yield of ethylene is 2.3 times higher with methane than with helium or nitrogen, and for pine, the ratio is 7.5 times higher. The mechanism appears to be a free radical reaction between CH{sub 4} and the pyrolyzed wood. There appears to be no net production or consumption of methane. A preliminary process design and analysis indicates a potentially economical competitive system for the production of ethylene, benzene and methanol based on the methanolysis of wood. 10 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.T.; Sundaram, M.S.

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Fuel selection study for Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri. Volume 2. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the Fuel Selection Study for Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri were: (1) to evaluate specified sources of heating energy - electric or fuel oil, and the necessary associated conversion work for meeting the heating requirements of selected buildings at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri; and (2) to determine the impact on energy usage and cost savings which would result from increasing insulation levels in the building under review. The buildings considered in this study included 2,862 family housing units, 5 Bachelor Officers' Quarters, an Enlisted Women's Barracks, the Medical Detachment Building, and the Heating Plant supporting the main Fort laundry.

1975-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Fuel selection study for Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri. Volume 1. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the Fuel Selection Study for Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri were: (1) to evaluate specified sources of heating energy - electric or fuel oil, and the necessary associated conversion work for meeting the heating requirements of selected buildings at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri; and (2) to determine the impact on energy usage and cost savings which would result from increasing insulation levels in the building under review. The buildings considered in this study included 2,862 family housing units, 5 Bachelor Officers' Quarters, an Enlisted Women's Barracks, the Medical Detachment Building, and the Heating Plant supporting the main Fort laundry.

1975-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Thermal Conductivity of Wood-Derived Graphite and Copper-Graphite  

SciTech Connect

The thermal conductivity of wood-derived graphite and graphite/copper composites was studied both experimentally and using finite element analysis. The unique, naturally-derived, anisotropic porosity inherent to wood-derived carbon makes standard porosity-based approximations for thermal conductivity poor estimators. For this reason, a finite element technique which uses sample microstructure as model input was utilized to determine the conductivity of the carbon phase independent of porosity. Similar modeling techniques were also applied to carbon/copper composite microstructures and predicted conductivities were compared to those determined via experiment.

Johnson, M. T. [Northwestern University, Evanston; Childers, Amanda [Northwestern University, Evanston; Ramírez-Rico, J. [Universidad de Sevilla-CSIC, Spain; Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Faber, K. T. [Northwestern University, Evanston

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Price sensitivity of bioethanol produced in New Zealand from Pinus radiata wood  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an analysis conducted of designs for industry-scale ethanol production facilities that use both hexoses and pentoses to produce 97 to 107 tonnes of anhydrous ethanol per day from 960 tonnes of Pinus radiata wood of 50% moisture content (480 oven-dried tonnes). Various process options and available technologies were considered for cost comparisons. The base case plant design was used to assess the probable importance of not fermenting thee wood pentose fraction. When pentose sugars were not fermented, the ethanol price increased from $0.71/L to $0.75/L. The influence of various economic factors on selling price is assessed.

Manderson, G.J.; Spencer, K.; Paterson, A.H.J. (Massey Univ., Palmerston North (New Zealand). Dept. of Biotechnology); Qureshi, N. (Dept. of Food Sciences, Univ. of Illinois at Urbana, Urbana, IL (US)); Jansen, D.E. (Biochemical Processing Centre, Biotechnology Div., DSIR, Palmerston North (NZ))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Evaluation of Concrete Containing Fly Ash With High Carbon Content and/or Small Amounts of Wood  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides a comprehensive database of information on the impacts of the use of high carbon coal ashes and concretes with small amounts of wood ash on the performance of concretes. It is expected these data will support easing the restrictions on the use of high carbon ashes and any wood ash products in concrete in the ASTM standards.

1998-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

353

DOE/EA-1636: Albany-Burnt Woods and Santiam-Toledo Pole Replacement Project Mitigation Action Plan (March 2009)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Burnt Woods and Santiam-Toledo Pole Replacement Project Burnt Woods and Santiam-Toledo Pole Replacement Project DOE/EA-1636 Summary This Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) is part of the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for the Albany-Burnt Woods and Santiam-Toledo Pole Replacement Project. The project involves replacing wood pole structures on about 26 miles of the Albany-Burnt Woods single-circuit, 115- kilovolt (kV) transmission line and about 21 miles of the Santiam-Toledo single circuit, 230-kV transmission line in Linn, Benton and Lincoln counties, Oregon. This MAP is for the Proposed Action and includes all of the integral elements and commitments made in the Environmental Assessment (EA) to mitigate any potential adverse environmental impacts. The purpose of this MAP is to explain how the mitigation measures will be

354

Final report on the use of wood as a heat source and the quality of insulation in Vermont households  

SciTech Connect

The State of Vermont Energy Office conducted a study to provide the quantitative attitudinal and behavioral information essential to assessing the use of wood as a heat source in the state. General results show that 54% of all home owners in Vermont burn wood to some degree, 47% use wood as a supplementary heat source, 9% use wood as a primary source, and the extent to which wood is used does not differ by geographic area. Results on household uses (cooking and heating) are summarized. A summary of queries on insulation attitudes, awareness, and practices shows that a majority of homeowners believe they have adequate insulation, but are unaware of R factor. In Vermont, about one-fourth of homeowners improved their insulation in the last three years. (MCW)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Wood Cofiring in a Cyclone Boiler at TVA's Allen Fossil Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tests in a 272-MW cyclone boiler show that cofiring wood waste in the form of sawdust and small chips with coal is possible in a stable and routine operation. This report presents biomass data for five series of tests conducted from 1994 through 1996 and an analysis of the NOx reduction achieved.

1997-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

356

Woodfuel community heating at Kielder A wood-fired district heating  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Woodfuel community heating at Kielder A wood-fired district heating system, one of the first of its-fired district heating system was installed in 2004 as a practical low-carbon solution to providing heat and hot 2010. Contact for further information: Graham Gill (graham.gill@forestry.gsi.gov.uk) District heating

357

National Woodfuels and Wood Energy Information Analysis Prepared by: Muhammad Iqbal Sial PhD  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2nd Draft Desk Study on National Woodfuels and Wood Energy Information Analysis PAKISTAN Prepared. FUELWOOD TRANSPORT, TRADE AND MARKETING 14 4.1. Collection 14 4.1.1. For household use 14 4.4.2. Wholesalers 18 4.4.3. Retailers 28 4.5. Woodfuel marketing 19 5. CONTRIBUTION OF WOODFUELS TO COUNTRY'S TOTAL

358

National Woodfuels and Wood Energy Information Analysis Prepared by: Koh Mok Poh  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Desk Study on National Woodfuels and Wood Energy Information Analysis MALAYSIA Prepared by: Koh Mok.(Hoi, 1991) With the urbanisation of the population and an increasing standard of living, the energy shift firewood and charcoal industry. The Firewood Industry and Market The utilisation of bakau (mangrove

359

Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyForPeriodMwhYrWoodChips | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

SPPurchasedEngyForPeriodMwhYrWoodChips SPPurchasedEngyForPeriodMwhYrWoodChips Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type String. Wood chips Pages using the property "Building/SPPurchasedEngyForPeriodMwhYrWoodChips" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0003 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0004 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0005 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0006 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0007 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0008 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0009 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0010 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0011 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0012 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0013 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0014 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0015 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0016 + 0.0 +

360

Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyNrmlYrMwhYrWoodChips | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

SPPurchasedEngyNrmlYrMwhYrWoodChips SPPurchasedEngyNrmlYrMwhYrWoodChips Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type String. Wood chips Pages using the property "Building/SPPurchasedEngyNrmlYrMwhYrWoodChips" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0003 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0004 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0005 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0006 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0007 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0008 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0009 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0010 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0011 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0012 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0013 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0014 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0015 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0016 + 0.0 +

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "geothermal wood wood" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyPerAreaKwhM2WoodChips | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

WoodChips WoodChips Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type String. Wood chips Pages using the property "Building/SPPurchasedEngyPerAreaKwhM2WoodChips" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0003 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0004 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0005 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0006 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0007 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0008 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0009 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0010 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0011 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0012 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0013 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0014 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0015 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0016 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0017 + 0.0 +

362

Metals Concentrations in Soils Below Decks Made of CCA-Treated Wood  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the report titled: New Lines of CCA-Treated Wood Research, In-Service and Disposal Issues Which was finalized 13 Street, Suite D Gainesville, FL 32609 Excerpts from Report #00-12 #12;This page left intentionally.S. Environmental Protection Agency UV Ultra Violet UV/Vis Ultra Violet ­ Visible Light Region WET Waste Extraction

Florida, University of

363

International Conference on Wood-based Bioenergy LIGNA+Hannover, Germany, 17-18 May 2007  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

consumption, e.g. China ­ Nuclear safety #12;International Conference on Wood-based Bioenergy LIGNA ­ European Union & member countries · 20% renewable energy target in 2020 ­ United States' government lagging: NTC Photo: Stora Enso Photo: Stora Enso EU renewable energy 2005 Germany, 4.8% European Union, 6

364

Isolation of levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oil derived from wood or waste newsprint  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is provided for preparing high purity levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oils derived from wood or waste newsprint. The method includes reducing wood or newsprint to fine particle sizes, treating the particles with a hot mineral acid for a predetermined period of time, and filtering off and drying resulting solid wood or newsprint material; pyrolyzing the dried solid wood or newsprint material at temperatures between about 350 and 375 C to produce pyrolysis oils; treating the oils to liquid-liquid extraction with methyl isobutyl ketone to remove heavy tar materials from the oils, and to provide an aqueous fraction mixture of the oils containing primarily levoglucosan; treating the aqueous fraction mixtures with a basic metal salt in an amount sufficient to elevate pH values to a range of about 12 to about 12.5 and adding an amount of the salt in excess of the amount needed to obtain the pH range to remove colored materials of impurities from the oil and form a slurry, and freeze-drying the resulting slurry to produce a dry solid residue; and extracting the levoglucosan from the residue using ethyl acetate solvent to produce a purified crystalline levoglucosan. 2 figs.

Moens, L.

1995-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

365

Where Wood Works Harnessing the Energy of Woody Biomass in Colorado  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Many coal-fired power plants can be adapted to use a blend of wood chips and coal, a process called "co by a central combined heat and power (CHP) power plant fueled by 80% biomass. The system produces up to 25 MW are needed. Heat Energy Measurements. A Btu (British Thermal Unit) is a common measurement of heat. About 1

366

36.258 UE -Woods calibrates instru-ment on NASA's new solar observa-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the stored magnetic energy is converted and released into the heliosphere and geospace in the form of solar University, University of Puerto Rico, University of Wyoming, Virginia Tech, and College of Menominee Nation36.258 UE - Woods calibrates instru- ment on NASA's new solar observa- tory. Photosby

Christian, Eric

367

Economic impacts of wood energy in the Northeast, 1985: State report: Northeast Regional Biomass Program  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the economic impacts of wood energy for the 11 Northeastern states. The report begins with a brief description of the types of economic impacts estimated in the study. The direct economic impacts are the jobs and income directly attributable to wood energy activities. They are referred to as first round impacts since they reflect the economic activity generated by the first spending of the fuelwood dollar, from the consumer to the supplier. Direct impacts include employment in logging, transport, and end-use operations such as chimney sweeping and boiler operating. Direct impacts also include personal income to employees, payments of stumpage fees to landowners, and profits earned by fuelwood enterprises. Indirect employment and income result from purchases made by fuelwood supply businesses, purpose made by the employees of fuelwood supply businesses, and purchases made by wood burning households or companies for wood combustion system installation, construction, and maintenance. They include purchases of equipment, spare parts, supplies, and services, including financial services.

Chamberlin, R.; High, C.

1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Restricted-Orientation Convexity in Higher-Dimensional Spaces Eugene Fink Derick Wood  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Restricted-Orientation Convexity in Higher-Dimensional Spaces Eugene Fink Derick Wood University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ont., Canada N2L3G1 {efink, dwood}@violet.waterloo.edu ABSTRACT A restricted-oriented convex set is a set whose intersection with any line from a fixed set of orientations is either empty

Fink, Eugene

369

Slovak Centre of Biomass Use for Energy Wood Fired Heating Plant in Slovakia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Slovak Centre of Biomass Use for Energy Slovakia 1 Wood Fired Heating Plant in Slovakia Energy energy User behaviour ESCOs Biomass Education Architects and engineers Wind Other Financial institutions;Slovak Centre of Biomass Use for Energy Slovakia 2 Biomass is considered as the most perspective

370

Slovak Centre of Biomass Use for Energy Wood Fired Heating Plant in Slovakia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Slovak Centre of Biomass Use for Energy Slovakia 1 Wood Fired Heating Plant in Slovakia Energy energy User behaviour ESCOs Biomass Education Architects and engineers Wind Other Financial institutions countries it is already implemented for several years. #12;Slovak Centre of Biomass Use for Energy Slovakia

371

Development of a Software System to Facilitate Implementation of Coal and Wood Co-Fired Bilers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Coal and wood co-fired boiler technology has improved significantly over the years. The term "co-firing", when used by members of the biomass or utility communities, has come to mean mixing a modest amount of clean, dry sawdust with coal and burning the sawdust coal mixture in a large, coal-burning, utility boiler. This paper discusses the development of a computer software system that interacts with the user and allows coal-wood co-fired boilers to be sized, priced, implemented, and operated properly. Information about the equipment that is required for the boiler replacement project is provided. Along with these features, the software would allow the user to determine energy and cost savings that would be available upon installation as compared to other types of boilers. The paper outlines how these savings are realized, and the steps that must be taken to ensure the proper operation of the boiler to achieve these savings. A sensitivity analysis has also been performed on the implementation of coal-wood co-fired boilers in order to determine the key factors influencing the project payback period. The key factors that are considered in the analysis are the boiler size, the annual operating hours, and the current fuel cost. Additional analysis has been done on the boiler size and the annual operating hours. This analysis allows the users to determine if their current facility falls into the feasible range for implementing a coal-wood co-fired boiler system.

Gopalakrishnan, B.; Gump, C. D.; Gupta, D. P.; Chaudhari, S.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Design of experiments: production of CO2from aquilariella malaccensis woods via pyrolysis-combustion process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CO2 is the main source used in conventional radiocarbon dating to estimate the age of the archaeological wood. However, the production of CO2 by combustion for conventional radiocarbon dating normally produces minimal amounts of ... Keywords: CO2 production, design of experiment, pyrolysis-combustion

A. Othman; S. K. Kamarudin; Z. Yaakob; S. R. S. Abdullah; A. Zaharim

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Review and analysis of emissions data for residential wood-fired central furnaces  

SciTech Connect

The paper reviews data published over the past 10--15 years on domestic wood-fired central heaters. Emphasis is on stick-fired units, the most common type used in the US, but also presented are data on chip- and pellet-fired units, showing that they are capable of achieving lower emissions.

McCrillis, R.C.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

374

The potential for Eucalyptus as a wood fuel in the UK A.D. Leslie a,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The potential for Eucalyptus as a wood fuel in the UK A.D. Leslie a, , M. Mencuccini b,1 , M. Perks for utilising woody biomass, grown under short rotation forestry management systems, to produce electricity or heat. There are benefits to using biomass in generating heat and power the main environmental benefit

Mencuccini, Maurizio

375

Brazil closes down illegal timber operation, seizes wood Rhett A. Butler, mongabay.com  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Brazil closes down illegal timber operation, seizes wood Rhett A. Butler, mongabay.com April 11 efforts. Deforestation Figures for Brazil, 1978-2005 Brazil's environmental regulations require landowners Newsletter Languages SUPPORT Help support mongabay.com when you buy from Brazil closes down illegal timber

376

Schoenberg, Chang, Pompa, Woods, Xu. Burning Index. 1 RH: Burning index in Los Angeles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Schoenberg, Chang, Pompa, Woods, Xu. Burning Index. 1 RH: Burning index in Los Angeles A Critical Assessment of the Burning Index in Los Angeles County, California Frederic Paik SchoenbergA,E , Chien: The effectiveness of the Burning Index (BI) in predicting wildfire ac- tivity is assessed using 25 years of area

Schoenberg, Frederic Paik (Rick)

377

Schoenberg, Chang, Keeley, Pompa, Woods, Xu. Burning Index. 1 RH: Burning index in Los Angeles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Schoenberg, Chang, Keeley, Pompa, Woods, Xu. Burning Index. 1 RH: Burning index in Los Angeles A Critical Assessment of the Burning Index in Los Angeles County, California Frederic Paik Schoenberg: The effectiveness of the Burning Index (BI) in predicting wildfire ac- tivity is assessed using 25 years of area

Schoenberg, Frederic Paik (Rick)

378

Analytical Modeling of Wood Frame Shear Walls Subjected to Vertical Load  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A nonlinear automated parameter fitted analytical model that numerically predicts the load-displacement response of wood frame shear walls subjected to static monotonic loading with and without vertical load is presented. This analytical model referred to as Analytical Model of wood frame SHEar walls subjected to Vertical load (AMSHEV) is based on the kinematic behavior of wood frame shear walls and captures significant characteristics observed from experimental testing through appropriate modeling of three failure mechanisms that can occur within a shear wall under static monotonic load: 1) failure of sheathing-to-framing connectors, 2) failure of vertical studs, and 3) uplift of end studs from bottom sill. Previous models have not accounted for these failure mechanisms as well as the inclusion of vertical load, which has shown to reveal beneficial effects such as increasing the ultimate load capacity and limiting uplift of the wall as noted in experimental tests. Results from the proposed numerical model capture these effects within 7% error of experimental test data even when different magnitudes of vertical load are applied to predict the ultimate load capacity of wood frame shear walls.

Nguyendinh, Hai

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Approximate eigensolutions of the deformed Woods-Saxon potential via AIM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

By using the Pekeris approximation, the Schr\\"{o}dinger equation is solved for the nuclear deformed Woods-Saxon potential within the framework of the asymptotic iteration method (AIM). The energy levels are worked out and the corresponding normalized eigenfunctions are obtained in terms of hypergeometric function.

Sameer M. Ikhdair; Babatunde James Falaye; Majid Hamzavi

2013-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

380

Isolation of levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oil derived from wood or waste newsprint  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is provided for preparing high purity levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oils derived from wood or waste newsprint. The method includes reducing wood or newsprint to fine particle sizes, treating the particles with a hot mineral acid for a predetermined period of time, and filtering off and drying resulting solid wood or newsprint material; pyrolyzing the dried solid wood or newsprint material at temperatures between about 350.degree. and 375.degree. C. to produce pyrolysis oils; treating the oils to liquid-liquid extraction with methyl isobutyl ketone to remove heavy tar materials from the oils, and to provide an aqueous fraction mixture of the oils containing primarily levoglucosan; treating the aqueous fraction mixtures with a basic metal salt in an amount sufficient to elevate pH values to a range of about 12 to about 12.5 and adding an amount of the salt in excess of the amount needed to obtain the pH range to remove colored materials of impurities from the oil and form a slurry, and freeze-drying the resulting slurry to produce a dry solid residue; and extracting the levoglucosan from the residue using ethyl acetate solvent to produce a purified crystalline levoglucosan.

Moens, Luc (Lakewood, CO)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "geothermal wood wood" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Creosote-treated wood poles and crossarms: Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to develop a quantitative database on leachable concentrations of cresols (i.e., m-, o- and p-cresol isomers) from a population of creosote-treated utility wood poles and crossarms by application of the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). The TCLP was promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in March 1990 (55FR 11798). Data generated in this study indicate that creosote-treated utility poles and crossarms are non-hazardous. Measured concentrations of total cresols and other semi-volatile organic compounds, from wood subjected to TCLP analysis, were an order of magnitude or more below their current Toxicity Characteristic (TC) regulatory levels. The wood analyzed in this study consisted of 54 samples of wood poles and 6 crossarms. Subsamples, removed from full cross sectional slices of poles and crossarms, were prepared according to EPA procedures, subjected to the TCLP, and the resultant leachates analyzed for the presence of cresols and other semi-volatile compounds.

Horn, M.E. (Environmental Management Services, Waupaca, WI (United States)); Holcombe, L.; Owens, J.B. (Radian Corp., Austin, TX (United States))

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

New Lines of CCA-Treated Wood Research: In-Service and Disposal Issues  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and Cr from 1, 100-g Block Figure IV.7 TCLP Extraction Results for As, Cu, and Cr from Sawdust Figure IV.8 TCLP Extraction Results for As, Cu, and Cr from Chipped Wood Figure IV.9 TCLP Extraction Results for As, Cu, and Cr from 5 20-g Blocks Figure IV.10 TCLP Extraction Results for As, Cu, and Cr from 100-g

Florida, University of

383

Assessing Potential Acidification of Marine Archaeological Wood Based on Concentration of Sulfur Species  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The presence of sulfur in marine archaeological wood presents a challenge to conservation. Upon exposure to oxygen, sulfur compounds in waterlogged wooden artifacts are being oxidized, producing sulfuric acid. This speeds the degradation of the wood, potentially damaging specimens beyond repair. Sulfur K-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy was used to identify the species of sulfur present in samples from the timbers of the Mary Rose, a preserved 16th century warship known to undergo degradation through acidification. The results presented here show that sulfur content varied significantly on a local scale. Only certain species of sulfur have the potential to produce sulfuric acid by contact with oxygen and seawater in situ, such as iron sulfides and elemental sulfur. Organic sulfurs, such as the amino acids cysteine and methionine, may produce acid but are integral parts of the wood's structure and may not be released from the organic matrix. The sulfur species contained in the sample reflect the exposure to oxygen while submerged, and this exposure can differ greatly over time and position. A better understanding of the species pathway to acidifications required, along with its location, in order to suggest a more customized and effective preservation strategy. Waterlogged archaeological wood, frequently in the form of shipwrecks, is being excavated for historical purposes in many countries around the world. Even after extensive efforts towards preservation, scientists are discovering that accumulation of sulfate salts results in acidic conditions on the surfaces of the artifacts. Sulfuric acid degrades structural fibers in the wood by acid hydrolysis of cellulose, accelerating the decomposition of the ship timbers. Determining the sulfur content of waterlogged wood is now of great importance in maritime archaeology. Artifact preservation is often more time consuming and expensive than the original excavation; but it is key to the availability of objects for future study as well as maintaining the integrity of historical data and preserving the value of museum pieces. Sulfur occurs in a wide number of oxidation states from -2 to +6, and appears in numerous organic and inorganic compounds in nature. However, it is a very minor component of wood. Sulfur K-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is a valuable technique because it has the ability to detect very low concentrations of sulfur in the specimen. XAS is also sensitive to differences in oxidation states, as well as long and short range order in molecules.

Not Available

2011-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

384

Minnesota wood energy scale-up project 1994 establishment cost data  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Minnesota Wood Energy Scale-up Project began in late 1993 with the first trees planted in the spring of 1994. The purpose of the project is to track and monitor economic costs of planting, maintaining and monitoring larger scale commercial plantings. For 15 years, smaller scale research plantings of hybrid poplar have been used to screen for promising, high-yielding poplar clones. In this project 1000 acres of hybrid poplar trees were planted on Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) land near Alexandria, Minnesota in 1994. The fourteen landowners involved re-contracted with the CRP for five-year extensions of their existing 10-year contracts. These extended contracts will expire in 2001, when the plantings are 7 years old. The end use for the trees planted in the Minnesota Wood Energy Scale-up Project is undetermined. They will belong to the owner of the land on which they are planted. There are no current contracts in place for the wood these trees are projected to supply. The structure of the wood industry in the Minnesota has changed drastically over the past 5 years. Stumpage values for fiber have risen to more than $20 per cord in some areas raising the possibility that these trees could be used for fiber rather than energy. Several legislative mandates have forced the State of Minnesota to pursue renewable energy including biomass energy. These mandates, a potential need for an additional 1700 MW of power by 2008 by Northern States Power, and agricultural policies will all affect development of energy markets for wood produced much like agricultural crops. There has been a tremendous amount of local and international interest in the project. Contractual negotiations between area landowners, the CRP, a local Resource Conservation and Development District, the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources and others are currently underway for additional planting of 1000 acres in spring 1995.

Downing, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Pierce, R. [Champion International, Alexandria, MN (United States)] [Champion International, Alexandria, MN (United States); Kroll, T. [Minnesota Department of Natural Resources-Forestry, St. Cloud, MN (United States)] [Minnesota Department of Natural Resources-Forestry, St. Cloud, MN (United States)

1996-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

385

Effects of Headspace and Oxygen Level on Off-gas Emissions from Wood Pellets in Storage  

SciTech Connect

Few papers have been published in the open literature on the emissions from biomass fuels, including wood pellets, during the storage and transportation and their potential health impacts. The purpose of this study is to provide data on the concentrations, emission factors, and emission rate factors of CO2, CO, and CH4 from wood pellets stored with different headspace to container volume ratios with different initial oxygen levels, in order to develop methods to reduce the toxic off-gas emissions and accumulation in storage spaces. Metal containers (45 l, 305 mm diameter by 610 mm long) were used to study the effect of headspace and oxygen levels on the off-gas emissions from wood pellets. Concentrations of CO2, CO, and CH4 in the headspace were measured using a gas chromatograph as a function of storage time. The results showed that the ratio of the headspace ratios and initial oxygen levels in the storage space significantly affected the off-gas emissions from wood pellets stored in a sealed container. Higher peak emission factors and higher emission rates are associated with higher headspace ratios. Lower emissions of CO2 and CO were generated at room temperature under lower oxygen levels, whereas CH4 emission is insensitive to the oxygen level. Replacing oxygen with inert gases in the storage space is thus a potentially effective method to reduce the biomass degradation and toxic off-gas emissions. The proper ventilation of the storage space can also be used to maintain a high oxygen level and low concentrations of toxic off-gassing compounds in the storage space, which is especially useful during the loading and unloading operations to control the hazards associated with the storage and transportation of wood pellets.

Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Kuang, Xingya [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Shankar, T.S. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Lim, C. Jim [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Bi, X.T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Melin, Staffan [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Use of a region of the visible and near infrared spectrum to predict mechanical properties of wet wood and standing trees  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a method for determining the dry mechanical strength for a green wood, the improvement comprising: (a) illuminating a surface of the wood to be determined with a reduced range of wavelengths in the VIS-NIR spectra 400 to 1150 nm, said wood having a green moisture content; (b) analyzing the surface of the wood using a spectrometric method, the method generating a first spectral data of a reduced range of wavelengths in VIS-NIR spectra; and (c) using a multivariate analysis technique to predict the mechanical strength of green wood when dry by comparing the first spectral data with a calibration model, the calibration model comprising a second spectrometric method of spectral data of a reduced range of wavelengths in VIS-NIR spectra obtained from a reference wood having a green moisture content, the second spectral being correlated with a known mechanical strength analytical result obtained from the reference wood when dried and a having a dry moisture content.

Meglen, Robert R. (Boulder, CO); Kelley, Stephen S. (Evergreen, CO)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

DOE/EA-1636: Albany-Burnt Woods and Santiam-Toledo Pole Replacement Project Preliminary Environmental Assessment (March 2009)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Albany-Burnt Woods and Albany-Burnt Woods and Santiam-Toledo Pole Replacement Project Preliminary Environmental Assessment DOE/EA-1636 March 2009 B O N N E V I L L E P O W E R A D M I N I S T R A T I O N Albany-Burnt Woods and Santiam-Toledo Pole Replacement Project Preliminary Environmental Assessment DOE/EA-1636 Bonneville Power Administration March 2009 Bonneville Power Administration i Table of Contents Chapter 1 Need for and Purpose of Action ............................................................... 1-1 1.1 Introduction .....................................................................................................

388

Cavity availability and use in hardwood forests with emphasis on wood ducks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The availability and use of cavities were examined on Tony Houseman State Park and Wildlife Management Area at Blue Elbow Swamp (HWMA), Orange County, Texas, during 1999. Random 0.25-ha plots were used to inventory cavities by size and estimate cavity use by vertebrates. Tree species, number of cavities by entrance size, stems per ha, basal area, and total cavities were recorded in 23, 15, and 15 plots in the cypress-tupelo (Taxodium distichum-Nyssa aquatica), mixed hardwood, and pine-oak (Pinus spp.-Quercus spp.) forest stands, respectively. Cavities with entrance dimensions suitable for entry by wood ducks (Aix sponsa) were inspected for suitability as wood duck nesting sites. Total cavity densities were similar between forest stands, but cypress-tupelo contained significantly (P = 0.000) more large-size cavities and mixed hardwoods produced the greatest density of small cavities. Tree species important for cavity production varied by forest stand. Regardless of species or stand, larger diameter and dead trees provided cavities in greater proportions than their availability in forest stands. Suitable wood duck nesting cavities were found at densities (0.0-26.7 cavities/100 ha) comparable to other forest stands at similar latitudes. Wood ducks were captured using grain-baited, swim-in traps. Backpack (n = 13) and implant (n = 20) radio-transmitters were attached to wood duck hens in 1999 and 2000, respectively. A combined total of 404 hen locations was obtained over 1,352 days. No active nests were located at HWMA during this study and hens used forest stands differently between years. Seasonal activity ranges were 246.1 ha ± 187.9 ha and 437.0 ha ± 117.6 ha in 1999 and 2000, respectively, and were different between years (P = 0.032). Water levels were significantly (P = 0.000) different between years and were suspected to have influenced hen activity. This study proposes that managers inventory cavity availability in forest stands to identify important cavity producing trees. Low cavity densities exist in forest stands at lower latitudes and sound management must be implemented to promote and retain cavity trees. Additional research is needed to quantify the effect of water levels and habitat conditions on wood duck use of forest stands.

Wolter, Derrick Wayne

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Palm Oil: Production, Processing, Uses, and CharacterizationChapter 21 Oil Palm Biomass for Various Wood-based Products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Palm Oil: Production, Processing, Uses, and Characterization Chapter 21 Oil Palm Biomass for Various Wood-based Products Food Science Health Nutrition Biochemistry Processing eChapters Food Science & Technology Health - Nutrition - Bioc

390

Wood-Producing Sunflower? Mining Genetic Diversity in Desert-Dwelling Wild Species (2010 JGI User Meeting)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Steve Knapp from Monsanto on "Wood-Producing Sunflower? Mining Genetic Diversity in Desert-Dwelling Wild Species" on March 25, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

Knapp, Steve

2010-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

391

Comminution process to produce engineered wood particles of uniform size and shape with disrupted grain structure from veneer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Comminution process of wood veneer to produce wood particles, by feeding wood veneer in a direction of travel substantially normal to grain through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of veneer travel, wherein the cutting discs have a uniform thickness (Td), to produce wood particles characterized by a length dimension (L) substantially equal to the Td and aligned substantially parallel to grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) substantially equal to the veneer thickness (Tv) and aligned normal to W and L, wherein the W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces with end checking between crosscut fibers.

Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

392

Microsoft Word - DOE-ID-13-053 Woods Hole EC B3-16.doc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 3 SECTION A. Project Title: Advances in the Recovery of Uranium from Seawater: Studies under Real Ocean Conditions - Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution SECTION B. Project Description Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution proposes to study the effectiveness of uranium adsorbents using different field testing designs. Objectives include: 1) To test the extraction efficiency of the uranium adsorbents under changing environmental conditions in a controlled laboratory setting and then in the field. 2) To collect and measure radium extracted onto manganese oxide coated fibers to quantify the volume of water passing through the uranium adsorbents. 3) To determine by field-tests the most efficient methods for collecting and the best platform to expose, in high current regimes,

393

Microsoft Word - CX-Redmond-PilotButte-WoodPoleFY12_WEB.doc  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

3, 2012 3, 2012 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEPR-4 SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Richard Heredia Project Manager - TEP-TPP-1 Proposed Action: Redmond-Pilot Butte No. 1 Wood Pole Replacement Project PP&A Project No.: 2189 Categorical Exclusion Applied (from Subpart D, 10 C.F.R. Part 1021): B4.6 Additions and modifications to transmission facilities Location: Redmond-Pilot Butte No. 1 transmission line in Deschutes County, Oregon at structures 4/7 and 11/6. Proposed by: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Description of the Proposed Action: BPA is proposing to replace two deteriorating wood pole structures along its Redmond-Pilot Butte No. 1 230-kV transmission line located in Deschutes County, Oregon. The two structures

394

Microsoft Word - CX-TheDalles-DiscoveryWoodPolesFY12_WEB.doc  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

3, 2012 3, 2012 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEP-Alvey SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Richard Heredia Project Manager - TEP-TPP-1 Proposed Action: Wood Pole Replacement on The Dalles-Discovery #1 transmission line PP&A Project No.: 2323 Categorical Exclusion Applied (from Subpart D, 10 C.F.R. Part 1021): B1.3 Routine maintenance Location: Project activities would take place in Wasco County, Oregon Line Corridor Structures TRS County, State The Dalles-Discovery #1 2/4, 2/5, 2/6, 2/9, 2/10 2N, 13E, Section 28 Wasco, Oregon Proposed by: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Description of the Proposed Action: BPA proposes to replace deteriorating wood poles and associated structural/electrical components (e.g. cross arms, insulators, guy anchors, etc.) along the

395

Microsoft Word - CX-FY10_Ross-VanShip_Wood_Pole_Replacement_WEB.doc  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Clearance Memorandum Clearance Memorandum Troy Dalrymple Lineman Foreman I - TFVK-LMT Proposed Action: Wood pole replacement of Ross-Vancouver Shipyard No. 1, Structure 2/3 in Fog Chamber Dump Area #2 PP&A Project No: 1721 Categorical Exclusion Applied (from Subpart D, 10 C.F.R. Part 1021): B1.3 Routine maintenance activities...for structures, rights-of-way, infrastructures such as roads, equipment... routine maintenance activities, corrective....are required to maintain...infrastructures...in a condition suitable for a facility to be used for its designed purpose. Location: Ross Complex, Vancouver, WA. Proposed by: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Description of the Proposed Action: BPA proposes to replace deteriorating wood poles and associated structural/electrical components (e.g. cross arms, insulators, guy anchors) on

396

Microsoft Word - CX Mid Way - Grand View Wood Pole Replacement-KEP.doc  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

27, 2010 27, 2010 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEP-4 SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Terry Kugler Lineman Foreman III - TFWF/Schultz Proposed Action: Replacing 11 wood pole structures on the Midway - Grandview transmission line and 12 wood pole structures on the Grandview - Red Mountain transmission line. PP&A Project No.: 1522 Categorical Exclusion Applied (from Subpart D, 10 C.F.R. Part 1021): * B1.3 Routine maintenance activities for structures, rights-of-way, infrastructures (such as roads), are required to maintain infrastructures in a condition suitable for a facility to be used for its designed purpose. Routine maintenance may result in replacement to the extent that replacement is in kind and is not a substantial upgrade or improvement. In kind

397

Microsoft Word - CX-ChemawaDistrictWoodPoles2013_FY13.doc  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

3 3 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEP-Alvey SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Chad Hamel Project Manager - TEP-TPP-1 Proposed Action: 2013 Chemawa District Wood Pole Replacement Projects PP&A Project No.: 2736 Categorical Exclusion Applied (from Subpart D, 10 C.F.R. Part 1021): B1.3 Routine maintenance Location: Various transmission lines located in Douglas, Linn and Lane counties, Oregon. Refer to Project Location Attachment for transmission lines and corresponding structure locations. Proposed by: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Description of the Proposed Action: BPA proposes to replace deteriorating wood poles and associated structural/electrical components (e.g. cross arms, insulators, guy anchors, etc.) along the

398

Microsoft Word - CX-HillsCreek-LookoutPointWoodPolesFY12_WEB.docx  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEP-Alvey SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Chad Hamel Project Manager - TEP-TPP-1 Proposed Action: Hills Creek-Lookout Point No. 1 wood pole replacements PP&A Project No.: 2315 (WO# 297311) Categorical Exclusion Applied (from Subpart D, 10 C.F.R. Part 1021): B1.3 Routine maintenance Location: Lane County, Oregon Proposed by: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Alvey District Description of the Proposed Action: BPA proposes to replace four deteriorating wood pole structures and associated structural/electrical components (e.g. cross arms, insulators, guy anchors) along the subject transmission line. The poles are located on private residential and US Forest Service land. Landowners will be notified prior to replacement activities. Replacement will be in-

399

Microsoft Word - CX-PilotButte-LaPine-WoodPoles-FY13_WEB.doc  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

3, 2013 3, 2013 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEPR-4 SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Richard Heredia Project Manager - TEP-TPP-1 Proposed Action: Wood pole replacements on Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) Pilot Butte-La Pine No. 1 transmission line PP&A Project No.: 2484 Categorical Exclusion Applied (from Subpart D, 10 C.F.R. Part 1021): B1.3 Routine Maintenance Location: Deschutes County, Oregon, at the following structures: Mile Structure 3 1 3 2 7 3 7 5 9 2 11 3 13 5 13 8 14 1 15 1 16 3 16 5 21 7 21 9 22 2 22 4 22 5 23 5 27 2 Proposed by: BPA Description of the Proposed Action: BPA is proposing to replace 19 deteriorating wood pole structures along its Pilot Butte-La Pine No. 1, 230-kilovolt transmission line located in Deschutes County, Oregon. The 19 structures

400

Using the sun and waste wood to heat a central Ohio home. Final technical report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The description of a house in Ohio built on a south facing slope with two levels above ground on the north, east, and west sides and three levels exposed to the southern winter Sun is presented. The floor plan, a general history of the project, the operation of the system, the backup heat source (wood), the collection of data, and the procedure for determining actual heat loss are described. Additionally, the calculation of the solar contribution percentage and the amount of mass to be included in the greenhouse and problems with an indirect gain wall are discussed. The location of the wood stove in the system is noted. The east wall temperature data are given. Soil temperature, air infiltration, thermal comfort, and energy usage are discussed. (MCW).

Not Available

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "geothermal wood wood" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Economic feasibility study of a wood gasification-based methanol plant: A subcontract report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents an economic feasibility study for a wood-gasification-based methanol plant. The objectives were to evaluate the current commercial potential of a small-scale, wood-fed methanol plant using the SERI oxygen-blown, pressurized, down-draft gasifier technology and to identify areas requiring further R and D. The gasifier gas composition and material balance were based on a computer model of the SERI gasifier since acceptable test data were not available. The estimated capital cost was based on the Nth plant constructed. Given the small size and commercial nature of most of the equipment, N was assumed to be between 5 and 10. Only large discrepancies in gasifier output would result in significant charges in capital costs. 47 figs., 55 tabs.

Not Available

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Ethanol production using corn, switchgrass, and wood; Biodiesel production using soybean and sunflower  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy outputs from ethanol produced using corn, switchgrass, and wood biomass were each less than the respective fossil energy inputs. The same was true for producing biodiesel using soybeans and sunflower, however, the energy cost for producing soybean biodiesel was only slightly negative compared with ethanol production. Findings in terms of energy outputs compared with the energy inputs were: • Ethanol production using corn grain required 29% more fossil energy than the ethanol fuel produced. • Ethanol production using switchgrass required 50 % more fossil energy than the ethanol fuel produced. • Ethanol production using wood biomass required 57 % more fossil energy than the ethanol fuel produced. • Biodiesel production using soybean required 27 % more fossil energy than the biodiesel fuel produced (Note, the energy yield from soy oil per hectare is far lower than the ethanol yield from corn). • Biodiesel production using sunflower required 118 % more fossil energy than the biodiesel fuel produced.

David Pimentel; Tad W. Patzek

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Microsoft Word - CX-RossDistrictWoodPolesFY13_WEB.doc  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

9, 2013 9, 2013 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEP-Alvey SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Stacie Hensley Realty Specialist - TEP-TPP-4 Proposed Action: 2013 Ross District Wood Pole Replacement Projects PP&A Project No.: 2737 Categorical Exclusion Applied (from Subpart D, 10 C.F.R. Part 1021): B1.3 Routine maintenance Location: Various transmission lines located in Clark and Cowlitz counties, Washington, and , Columbia, Clatsop, and Washington counties, Oregon. Refer to Project Location Attachment for transmission lines and corresponding structure locations. Proposed by: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Description of the Proposed Action: BPA proposes to replace deteriorating wood poles and associated structural/electrical components (e.g. cross arms, insulators, guy anchors, etc.) along the

404

Profile of the wood furniture and fixtures industry. EPA Office of Compliance sector notebook project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The furniture and fixtures industry encompasses companies that manufacture household, office, store, public building, and restaurant furniture and fixtures. The second section provides background information on the size, geographic distribution, employment, production, sales, and economic condition of the Wood Furniture and Fixtures industry. The type of facilities described within the document are also described in terms of their Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes. Additionally, this section contains a list of the largest companies in terms of sales.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Baseline effects on carbon footprints of biofuels: The case of wood  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As biofuel usage has boomed over the past decade, so has research and regulatory interest in its carbon accounting. This paper examines one aspect of that carbon accounting: the baseline, i.e. the reference case against which other conditions or changes can be compared. A literature search and analysis identified four baseline types: no baseline; reference point; marginal fossil fuel; and biomass opportunity cost. The fourth one, biomass opportunity cost, is defined in more detail, because this is not done elsewhere in the literature. The four baselines are then applied to the carbon footprint of a wood-fired power plant. The footprint of the resulting wood-fired electricity varies dramatically, according to the type of baseline. Baseline type is also found to be the footprint's most significant sensitivity. Other significant sensitivities are: efficiency of the power plant; the growth (or re-growth) rate of the forest that supplies the wood; and the residue fraction of the wood. Length of the policy horizon is also an important factor in determining the footprint. The paper concludes that because of their significance and variability, baseline choices should be made very explicit in biofuel carbon footprints. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Four baseline types for biofuel footprinting are identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer One type, 'biomass opportunity cost', is defined mathematically and graphically. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Choice of baseline can dramatically affect the footprint result. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The 'no baseline' approach is not acceptable. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Choice between the other three baselines depends on the question being addressed.

Johnson, Eric, E-mail: johnsonatlantic@gmail.com [Atlantic Consulting, 8136 Gattikon (Switzerland); Tschudi, Daniel [ETH, Berghaldenstrasse 46, 8800 Thalwil (Switzerland)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

406

Development and testing of an automated wood-burning heating system. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An improved wood continuous, automated combustion system has been developed using a tunnel burner. The tunnel burner implemented into a boiler heating system has proven to be very efficient. The prototype was tested and evaluated. A second generation tunnel system was designed and fabricated. Work performed between April 1980 and April 1981 is summarized. The most important results of the project are: the finalized tunnel burner design; high combustion efficiency; and low air pollution emissions. 3 tables. (DMC)

Not Available

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Flash polymerization of silicone oils using gamma radiation for conserving waterlogged wood  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A series of experiments were designed to develop a collection of irradiation parameters for polymerizing a variety of molecular weights of polymer siloxanes for the purpose of bulking and conserving waterlogged archaeological organic materials. Waterlogged wooden tongue depressors (Betula spp) were bulked with five different silicone oils of varying molecular weights, denoted as PS340, PS341, PS343, SFD-1, and an equal mix of SFD-1 and SFD-5. The lightest weight oil being PS340 and the heaviest being the SFD-I /SFD-5 mix. These bulked samples were exposed to gamma radiation emitted from a nuclear research reactor and received gamma doses ranging from 30 Gy to 228 Gy with dose rates ranging from 0.6 Gy/min to 5.1 Gy/min. Following irradiation, thin cross sections of each tongue depressor were analyzed and photographed using a photomicroscope. The results of the irradiation indicated that the heavier molecular weights of siloxanes fully bulked the wood cells. For these fully bulked samples, large radiation doses induced polymerization in the oil to such an extent the cells swelled and became extremely distorted. However, for the same fully bulked samples, small radiation doses produced little to moderate polymerization of the oil in the wood cells. For the tongue depressors bulked with the lighter weight siloxanes, low radiation doses produced very little polymerization, whereas the higher doses induced substantially more polymerization within the wood cells but not to the point of distortion. With these lighter weight siloxanes, the wood cells were not as fully bulked nor looked as natural as those cells bulked with the heavier weight oils. The best combination of molecular weight and radiation dose occurred with the samples bulked in PS343 and irradiated with gamma-rays to a dose of 150 Gy.

Gidden, Richmond Paul

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

On-line measurement of lignin in wood pulp by color shift of fluorescence  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Lignin concentrations from wood pulp samples are measured by applying an excitation light at a selected wavelength to the samples in order to cause the lignin to emit fluorescence. A spectral distribution of the fluorescence emission is then determined. The lignin concentration is then calculated based on the spectral distribution signal. The spectral distribution is quantified by either a wavelength centroid method or a band ratio method. 6 figs.

Jeffers, L.A.; Malito, M.L.

1996-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

409

Efficient Evaluation of Doubly Periodic Green Functions in 3D Scattering, Including Wood Anomaly Frequencies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present efficient methods for computing wave scattering by diffraction gratings that exhibit two-dimensional periodicity in three dimensional (3D) space. Applications include scattering in acoustics, electromagnetics and elasticity. Our approach uses boundary-integral equations. The quasi-periodic Green function is a doubly infinite sum of scaled 3D free-space outgoing Helmholtz Green functions. Their source points are located at the nodes of a periodicity lattice of the grating. For efficient numerical computation of the lattice sum, we employ a smooth truncation. Super-algebraic convergence to the Green function is achieved as the truncation radius increases, except at frequency-wavenumber pairs at which a Rayleigh wave is at exactly grazing incidence to the grating. At these "Wood frequencies", the term in the Fourier series representation of the Green function that corresponds to the grazing Rayleigh wave acquires an infinite coefficient and the lattice sum blows up. At Wood frequencies, we modify the Green function by adding two types of terms to it. The first type adds weighted spatial shifts of the Green function to itself with singularities below the grating; this yields algebraic convergence. The second-type terms are quasi-periodic plane wave solutions of the Helmholtz equation. They reinstate (with controlled coefficients) the grazing modes, effectively eliminated by the terms of first type. These modes are needed in the Green function for guaranteeing the well-posedness of the boundary-integral equation that yields the scattered field. We apply this approach to acoustic scattering by a doubly periodic 2D grating near and at Wood frequencies and scattering by a doubly periodic array of scatterers away from Wood frequencies.

Oscar P. Bruno; Stephen P. Shipman; Catalin Turc; Stephanos Venakides

2013-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

410

On-line measurement of lignin in wood pulp by color shift of fluorescence  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Lignin concentrations from wood pulp samples are measured by applying an excitation light at a selected wavelength to the samples in order to cause the lignin to emit fluorescence. A spectral distribution of the fluorescence emission is then determined. The lignin concentration is then calculated based on the spectral distribution signal. The spectral distribution is quantified by either a wavelength centroid method or a band ratio method.

Jeffers, Larry A. (Washington Township, Stark County, OH); Malito, Michael L. (Liberty Township, Trumbull County, OH)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Electricity displacement by wood used for space heating in PNWRES (Pacific Northwest Residential Energy Survey) (1983) households  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report evaluates the amount of electricity for residential space heating displaced by the use of wood in a sample of single-family households that completed the 1983 Pacific Northwest Residential Energy Survey. Using electricity bills and daily weather data from the period of July 1981 to July 1982, it was determined that the average household used 21,800 kWh per year, normalized with respect to weather. If no households had used any wood, electricity use would have increased 9%, to 23,700 kWh; space heating electricity use would also have increased, by 21%, to 47% of total electricity use. In the unlikely event that all households had used a great deal of wood for space heating, electricity use could have dropped by 23.5% from the average use, to 16,700 kWh; space heating electricity use would have dropped by 56%, to 24% of total electricity use. Indications concerning future trends regarding the displacement of electricity by wood use are mixed. On one hand, continuing to weatherize homes in the Pacific Northwest may result in less wood use as households find using electricity more economical. On the other hand, historical trends in replacement decisions regarding old space heating systems show a decided preference for wood. 11 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

White, D.L.; Tonn, B.E.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Sources of heavy metal contamination in Swedish wood waste used for combustion  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, wood waste (RWW) recovered for heat production in Sweden was studied. Previous research has concluded that RWW contains elevated amounts of heavy metals, causing environmental problems during waste management. This study extends previous work on RWW by analysing which pollution sources cause this contamination. Using existing data on the metal contents in various materials, and the amounts of these materials in RWW, the share of the elevated amounts of metals in RWW that these materials explain was quantified. Six different materials occurring in RWW were studied and the results show that they explain from 70% to 100% of the amounts of arsenic, chromium, lead, copper and zinc in RWW. The most important materials contributing to contamination of RWW are surface-treated wood, industrial preservative-treated wood, plastic and galvanised fastening systems. These findings enable the development and evaluation of strategies aiming to decrease pollution and resource loss from handling RWW. It is argued that source separation and measures taken further downstream from the generation site, such as treatment, need to be combined to substantially decrease the amount of heavy metals in RWW.

Krook, J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden)]. E-mail: joakr@ikp.liu.se; Martensson, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden); Eklund, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Development and demonstration of a wood-fired gas turbine system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Power Generating Inc. (PGI) has developed and patented a unique direct-fired gas turbine power system (PGI Power System) that operates on solid wood-based fuels. The PGI Power System is designed to generate from 500 kilowatts to 3.5 megawatts of electrical power and up to 30 million Btu per hour of thermal energy for various industrial and utility applications. The system is expected to operate at thermal efficiency levels greater than 70% through full utilization of both the electrical and thermal energy it generates at a specific host facility. PGI and WRI built a 450-kW prototype system at the Western Research Institute (WRI) facilities in Laramie, Wyoming, to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of the PGI Power System. The plant has undergone a brief shakedown, and is presently being operated on white wood. In previous attempts to develop similar systems, the major technical hindrance to long-term operation of a gas turbine power system has been degradation of the hot section in the gas turbine. This problem is overcome in the PGI Power System through its unique design, by closely controlling fuel specifications, and by developing specialized operating procedures. In wood-fired testing conducted to date, no degradation in the engine performance is obvious.

Sethi, V.

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Ionic liquid pretreatment of poplar wood at room temperature: swelling and incorporation of nanoparticles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Lignocellulosic biomass represents a potentially sustainable source of liquid fuels and commodity chemicals. It could satisfy the energy needs for transportation and electricity generation, while contributing substantially to carbon sequestration and limiting the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Potential feedstocks are abundant and include crops, agricultural wastes, forest products, grasses, and algae. Among those feedstocks, wood is mainly constituted of three components: cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The conversion process of lignocellulosic biomass typically consists of three steps: (1) pretreatment; (2) hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose into fermentable sugars; and (3) fermentation of the sugars into liquid fuels (ethanol) and other commodity chemicals. The pretreatment step is necessary due to the complex structure of the plant cell wall and the chemical resistance of lignin. Most current pretreatments are energy-intensive and/or polluting. So it is imperative to develop new pretreatments that are economically viable and environmentally friendly. Recently, ionic liquids have attracted considerable interest, due to their ability to dissolve biopolymers, such as cellulose, lignin, native switchgrass, and others. Ionic liquids are also considered green solvents, since they have been successfully recycled at high yields for further use with limited efficiency loss. Also, a few microbial cellulases remain active at high ionic liquid concentration. However, all studies on the dissolution of wood in ionic liquids have been conducted so far at high temperatures, typically above 90 C. Development of alternative pretreatments at room temperature is desirable to eliminate the additional energy cost. In this study, thin sections of poplar wood were swollen at room temperature by a 3 h ionic liquid (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate or EMIMAc) pretreatment. The pretreated sample was then exposed to an aqueous suspension of nanoparticles that resulted in the sample contraction and the deposition of nanoparticles onto the surface and embedded into the cell wall. To date, both silver and gold particles ranging in size from 40-100 nm have been incorporated into wood. Penetration of gold nanoparticles of 100 nm diameter in the cell walls was best confirmed by near-infrared confocal Raman microscopy, since the deposition of gold nanoparticles induces a significant enhancement of the Raman signal from the wood in their close proximity, an enhancement attributed to the surface-enhanced Raman effect (SERS). After rinsing with water, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman images of the same areas show that most nanoparticles remained on the pretreated sample. Raman images at different depths reveal that a significant number of nanoparticles were incorporated into the wood sample, at depths up to 4 {micro}m, or 40 times the diameter of the nanoparticles. Control experiments on an untreated wood sample resulted in the deposition of nanoparticles only at the surface and most nanoparticles were removed upon rinsing. This particle incorporation process enables the development of new pretreatments, since the nanoparticles have a high surface-to-volume ratio and could be chemically functionalized. Other potential applications for the incorporated nanoparticles include isotope tracing, catalysis, imaging agents, drug-delivery systems, energy-storage devices, and chemical sensors.

Lucas, Marcel [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Macdonald, Brian A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wagner, Gregory L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Joyce, Steven A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rector, Kirk D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Experimental and theoretical investigation of heat and mass transfer processes during wood pyrolysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thermal decomposition of 25.4 mm diameter dry wood spheres is studied both experimentally and theoretically. Wood spheres were pyrolyzed in a vertical tube furnace at temperatures ranging from 638 K to 879 K. Mass loss and temperatures of the sample were measured during pyrolysis. Center temperature measurements showed two distinct thermal events consisting of sequential endothermic and exothermic reactions. A numerical investigation of these endo/exothermic reactions using various pyrolysis kinetics models was conducted to determine the pyrolysis mechanism and the heats of the pyrolysis reactions. A comparison of the experimental and numerical results showed that (i) Contrary to the suggestions in the literature, the contributions of the secondary tar decomposition and lignin decomposition to the center temperature exothermic peak are small. (ii) Exothermic decomposition of the intermediate solid is responsible for the center temperature peak. (iii) The center temperature plateau is caused by the endothermic decomposition of cellulose. (iv) Internal pressure generation was found to be quite important because it controls the pyrolyzate mass transfer and thus affects both the heat transfer and the residence time of the pyrolysis gases for secondary decomposition. Based on the experimental and numerical results, a new wood pyrolysis model is proposed. The model consists of three endothermic parallel reactions producing tar, gas and intermediate solid and subsequent exothermic decomposition of the intermediate solid to char and exothermic decomposition of tar to char and gas. The proposed pyrolysis model shows good agreement with the experiments. Pressure calculations based on the new pyrolysis model revealed that high pressure is generated inside the biomass particle during pyrolysis and sample splitting was observed during the experiments. The splitting is due to both weakening of the structure and internal pressure generation during pyrolysis. At low heating rates, structural weakness is the primary factor, whereas at high heating rates, internal pressure is the determining factor. It is expected that moisture, while not considered in this work will have a similar effect, but at lower temperatures. (author)

Park, Won Chan; Atreya, Arvind [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2158 GGBL 2350 Hayward St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Baum, Howard R. [Department of Fire Protection Engineering, University of Maryland, 3106-D J.M. Patterson Building, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

416

Nuclear Car Wash sensitivity in varying thicknesses of wood and steel cargo  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The influence of incident neutron attenuation on signal strengths in the Nuclear Car Wash has been observed experimentally for both wood and steel-pipe mock cargos. Measured decay curves are presented for {beta}-delayed high-energy {gamma}-rays and thermalized neutrons following neutron-induced fission of HEU through varying irradiation lengths. Error rates are extracted for delayed-{gamma} and delayed-n signals integrated to 30 seconds, assuming Gaussian distributions for the active background. The extrapolation to a field system of 1 mA deuterium current and to a 5 kg sample size is discussed.

Church, J; Slaughter, D; Asztalos, S; Biltoft, P; Descalle, M; Hall, J; Manatt, D; Mauger, J; Norman, E; Petersen, D; Prussin, S

2006-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

417

Development and demonstration of a wood-fired gas turbine system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of the test program were to obtain some preliminary information regarding the nature of particulate and vapor phase alkali compounds produced and to assess any deleterious impact they might have on materials of construction. Power Generating Incorporated (PGI) is developing a wood-fired gas turbine system for specialized cogeneration applications. The system is based on a patented pressurized combustor designed and tested by PGI in conjunction with McConnell Industries. The other components of the system are fuel receiving, preparation, storage and feeding system, gas clean-up equipment, and a gas turbine generator.

Smith, V.; Selzer, B.; Sethi, V.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Microsoft Word - CX-AlveyWoodPolesA-LE-AE-LH-AC-TBRT-FY12_WEB.doc  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2012 Alvey District Wood Pole Replacement Projects 2012 Alvey District Wood Pole Replacement Projects PP&A Project No.: 2307 (Albany-Lebanon #1), 2309 (Blue River Tap), 2311 (Cougar- Thurston #1), 2312 (Eugene-Alvey #2), 2313 (Eugene-Lane #1), 2314 (Hawkins-Alvey #1) Categorical Exclusion Applied (from Subpart D, 10 C.F.R. Part 1021): B1.3 Routine maintenance Location: Various transmission lines located in Linn and Lane counties, Oregon. Refer to Project Location Attachment for transmission lines and corresponding structure locations. Proposed by: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Description of the Proposed Action: BPA proposes to replace deteriorating wood poles and associated structural/electrical components (e.g. cross arms, insulators, guy anchors, etc.) along the subject transmission lines. Replacement will be in-kind and will utilize the existing holes to

419

Microsoft Word - CX-ChemawaWoodPolesCT-KFG12-KOCFGT-FY12_WEB.doc  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2012 Chemawa District Wood Pole Replacement Projects 2012 Chemawa District Wood Pole Replacement Projects PP&A Project No.: 2325 (Carlton-Tillamook #1, Keeler-Forest Grove #2, Keeler-Oregon City #2, Keeler-Forest Grove #1, Forest Grove-Tillamook #1) Categorical Exclusion Applied (from Subpart D, 10 C.F.R. Part 1021): B1.3 Routine maintenance Location: Various transmission lines located in Washington, Yamhill, and Tillamook counties, Oregon. Refer to Project Location Attachment for transmission lines and corresponding structure locations. Proposed by: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Description of the Proposed Action: BPA proposes to replace deteriorating wood poles and associated structural/electrical components (e.g. cross arms, insulators, guy anchors, etc.) along the subject transmission lines. Replacement will be in-kind and will utilize the existing holes to

420

Changes in composition and sugar release across the annual rings of Populus wood and implications on recalcitrance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

composition composition and sugar release across the annual rings of Populus wood and implications on recalcitrance Jaclyn D. DeMartini, Charles E. Wyman ⇑ Center for Environmental Research and Technology, Bourns College of Engineering, University of California Riverside, 1084 Columbia Avenue, Riverside, CA 92507, United States a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 9 July 2010 Received in revised form 30 August 2010 Accepted 31 August 2010 Available online xxxx Keywords: Pretreatment Enzymatic hydrolysis Biomass recalcitrance Age effects Populus wood a b s t r a c t Understanding structural characteristics that are responsible for biomass recalcitrance by identifying why it is more difficult for some plants, or portions of plants, to release their sugars would be extremely valuable in overcoming this barrier. With this in mind, this study investigated the recalcitrance of wood

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "geothermal wood wood" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Microsoft Word - CX-Alvey-FairviewAlvey-MartinCreek-DrainWoodPolesFY12_WEB.doc  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Wood pole replacements on the Alvey-Fairview No. 1 230-kV, Alvey- Wood pole replacements on the Alvey-Fairview No. 1 230-kV, Alvey- Martin Creek 115-kV, and Martin Creek-Drain #1 115-kV transmission line rights-of-way (ROW) PP&A Project No.: 2308 (WO# 297303), 2310 (WO# 297305), 2319 (WO# 297996) Categorical Exclusion Applied (from Subpart D, 10 C.F.R. Part 1021): B1.3 Routine maintenance Location: Alvey and Douglas counties, Oregon Proposed by: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Description of the Proposed Action: BPA proposes to replace 18 deteriorating wood poles and associated structural/electrical components (e.g. cross arms, insulators, guy anchors, etc.) as well as cross arms on three other structures along the subject transmission lines. Replacement will be in-kind and will utilize the existing holes to minimize ground disturbance. If necessary, an auger

422

Health assessment for Cape Fear Wood Preserving, Fayetteville, North Carolina, Region 4. CERCLIS No. NCD003188828. Preliminary report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Cape Fear Wood Preserving site is listed on the National Priorities List. The site is located in Cumberland County, North Carolina, on the western side of Fayetteville near Highway 401. The site consists of 41 acres of which less than 10 acres were developed by the facility. Wood preserving operations began at the facility in 1953 and continued until 1983. Wood was treated using both creosote and the chromium-copper-arsenic process. Contaminants detected in water samples from on-site monitoring wells included benzene, chromium, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. During earlier investigations, 7 nearby domestic wells in the area were sampled for contamination. The site is considered to be of potential health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of exposure to hazardous substances.

Not Available

1989-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

423

Chemical, ultrastructural and supramolecular analysis of tension wood in Populus tremula x alba as a model substrate for reduced recalcitrance  

SciTech Connect

Biomass is one of the most abundant potential sustainable sources for fuel and material production, however to fully realize this potential an improved understanding of lignocellulosic recalcitrance must be developed. In an effort to appreciate the underlying phenotypic, biochemical and morphological properties associated with the reduced recalcitrance observed in tension stress-induced reaction wood, we report the increased enzymatic sugar yield and corresponding chemical and ultrastructural properties of Populus tension wood. Populus tremula x alba (PTA) was grown under tension and stem segments containing three different wood types: normal wood (NW), tension wood (TW) from the elongated stem side and opposite wood (OW) from the compressed stem side were collected. A variety of analytical techniques were used to describe changes occurring as a result of the tension stress-induced formation of a gelatinous cell wall layer (G-layer). For example, gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and 13C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) revealed that the molecular weight and crystallinity of cellulose in TW is greater than that of cellulose acquired from NW. Whole cell ionic liquid and other solid-state NMR analysis detailed the structure of lignin and hemicellulose in the samples, detecting the presence of variations in lignin and hemicellulose sub-units, linkages and semi-quantitatively estimating the relative amounts of syringyl (S), guaiacyl (G) and p-hydroxybenzoate (PB) monolignol units. It was confirmed that TW displayed an increase in PB or H-like lignin and S to G ratio from 1.25 to 1.50 when compared to the NW sample. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) were also used to evaluate the morphology and corresponding spatial distribution of the major lignocellulosic components. We found changes in a combination of cell wall properties appear to influence recalcitrance more than any single factor alone.

Foston, Marcus B [ORNL; Hubbell, Christopher A [ORNL; Samuel, Reichel [ORNL; Jung, Seung-Yong [ORNL; Ding, Shi-You [ORNL; Zeng, Yining [ORNL; Jawdy, Sara [ORNL; Sykes, Virginia R [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Kalluri, Udaya C [ORNL; Ragauskas, Arthur J [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Research into the pyrolysis of pure cellulose, lignin, and birch wood flour in the China Lake entrained-flow reactor  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This experimental program used the China Lake entrained-flow pyrolysis reactor to briefly investigate the pyrolysis of pure cellulose, pure lignin, and birch wood flour. The study determined that the cellulose and wood flour do pyrolyze to produce primarily gaseous products containing significant amounts of ethylene and other useful hydrocarbons. During attempts to pyrolyze powdered lignin, the material melted and bubbled to block the reactor entrance. The pure cellulose and wood flour produced C/sub 2/ + yields of 12% to 14% by weight, which were less than yields from an organic feedstock derived from processed municipal trash. The char yields were 0.1% by weight from cellulose and 1.5% from birch wood flour - one to two orders of magnitude less than were produced from the trash-derived feedstock. In scanning electron microscope photographs, most of the wood flour char had a sintered and agglomerated appearance, although some particles retained the gross cell characteristics of the wood flour. The appearance of the char particles indicated that the material had once been molten and possibly vapor before it formed spheroidal particles about 1 ..mu..m diameter which agglomerated to form larger char particles. The ability to completely melt or vaporize lignocellulosic materials under conditions of high heating rates has now been demonstrated in a continuous flow reactor and promises new techniques for fast pyrolysis. This char was unexpectedly attracted by a magnet, presumably because of iron contamination from the pyrolysis reactor tube wall. The production of water-insoluble tars was negligible compared to the tars produced from trash-derived feedstock. The production of water-soluble organic materials was fairly low and qualitatively appeared to vary inversely with temperature. This study was of a preliminary nature and additional studies are necessary to optimize ethylene production from these feedstocks.

Diebold, J.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Microsoft Word - CX-LaPine-ChiloquinWoodPoleFY12_WEB.doc  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2 2 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEPR-4 SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Richard Heredia Project Manager - TEP-TPP-1 Proposed Action: La Pine-Chiloquin No. 1 Wood Pole Replacement Project PP&A Project No.: 2236 Categorical Exclusion Applied (from Subpart D, 10 C.F.R. Part 1021): B4.6, Additions and modifications to transmission facilities Location: La Pine-Chiloquin No. 1 230-kV transmission line in Klamath County, Oregon, at the following structure locations: 11/5, 16/1, 16/4, 17/3, 17/8, 18/2, 18/3, 20/4, 22/2, 22/5, 28/1, 42/3, 43/6, 44/4, and 45/1. Proposed by: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Description of the Proposed Action: BPA is proposing to replace 15 deteriorating wood pole structures along its La Pine-Chiloquin 230-kV transmission line located in Klamath County,

426

Experience with improved charcoal and wood stoves for households and institutions in Kenya  

SciTech Connect

Efforts at promoting more fuel-efficient charcoal stoves to replace traditional charcoal stoves in Kenya offer some lessons for the dissemination of appropriate technologies. This paper looks at the market-based approach which has made the Kenyan charcoal stoves project a success. Trends in woodfuels (wood and charcoal) consumption in Kenya are identified; the traditional technology for charcoal combustion and the upgraded traditional technologies are described; production achievement and the dissemination and promotion strategy used are examined; and a financial and economic analysis is performed with social, health and environmental effects assessed. Other ways to achieve a more favourable balance between woodfuels consumption and supply are then discussed looking at more efficient charcoal kilns and household woodstoves, improved institutional stoves and increased wood production. The replication potential of the Kenya experiment in other countries is also explored. The lessons learnt from the the Kenya experience concern the relationship between technology, choice and delivery systems as they interact with, economic, institutional, and policy factors. In this case, the design work accepted the traditional technology as a starting point which helped ensure widespread acceptance by households. The potential desirability of relying on local artisans to manufacture consumer durables using existing private sector channels to market these goods is also shown. It also highlights the importance of going beyond a laissez-faire approach and supporting training, demonstration, and publicity to faciliate the workings of the private sector. In the Kenyan case, technology choice was relatively unsubsidized and left ot the preferences of consumers.

Hyman, E.L.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Thermal Impact of Fasteners in High-Performance Wood-Framed Walls: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Buildings are heavy consumers of energy, and residential building design is rapidly addressing topics to maximize energy conservation en route to net-zero energy consumption. Annual energy analysis of a building informs the choice among disparate energy measures, for cost, durability, occupant comfort, and whole-house energy use. Physics-based and empirical models of elements of a building are used in such analyses. High-performance wood-framed walls enable builders to construct homes that use much less than 40% of the energy consumed by similar homes built to minimum code. Modeling for these walls has considered physical features such as framing factor, insulation and framing properties, roughness and convective effects, and air leakage. The thermal effects of fasteners used to construct these walls have not been fully evaluated, even though their thermal conductivity is orders of magnitudes higher than that of other building materials. Drywall screws and siding nails are considered in this finite element thermal conductivity analysis of wall sections that represent wood-framed walls that are often used in high-performance homes. Nails and screws reduce even the best walls' insulating performance by approximately 3% and become increasingly significant as the framing factor increases.

Christensen, D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Thermal Impact of Fasteners in High-Performance Wood-Framed Walls: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Buildings are heavy consumers of energy, and residential building design is rapidly addressing topics to maximize energy conservation en route to net-zero energy consumption. Annual energy analysis of a building informs the choice among disparate energy measures, for cost, durability, occupant comfort, and whole-house energy use. Physics-based and empirical models of elements of a building are used in such analyses. High-performance wood-framed walls enable builders to construct homes that use much less than 40% of the energy consumed by similar homes built to minimum code. Modeling for these walls has considered physical features such as framing factor, insulation and framing properties, roughness and convective effects, and air leakage. The thermal effects of fasteners used to construct these walls have not been fully evaluated, even though their thermal conductivity is orders of magnitudes higher than that of other building materials. Drywall screws and siding nails are considered in this finite element thermal conductivity analysis of wall sections that represent wood-framed walls that are often used in high-performance homes. Nails and screws reduce even the best walls' insulating performance by approximately 3% and become increasingly significant as the framing factor increases.

Christensen, D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Growth responses of mature loblolly pine to dead wood.manipulations.  

SciTech Connect

Large-scale manipulations of dead wood in mature Pinus taeda L. stands in the southeastern United States included a major one-time input of logs (fivefold increase in log volume) created by felling trees onsite, annual removals of all dead wood above >10 cm in diameter and >60 cm in length, and a reference in which no manipulations took place. We returned over a decade later to determine how these treatments affected tree growth using increment cores. There were no significant differences in tree density, basal area or tree diameters among treatments at the time of sampling. Although tree growth was consistently higher in the log-input plots and lower in the removal plots, this was true even during the 5 year period before the experiment began. When growth data from this initial period were included in the model as a covariate, no differences in post-treatment tree growth were detected. It is possible that treatment effects will become apparent after more time has passed, however.

Ulyshen, Michael D.; Horn, Scott; Hanula, James L.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

URBAN WOOD/COAL CO-FIRING IN THE BELLEFIELD BOILERPLANT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During the second quarter, important preparatory work was continued so that the experimental activities can begin toward the end of the third quarter or early in the fourth quarter. The Environmental Questionnaire was submitted to the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), after thorough review by the Bellefield Boiler Plant (BBP). Letters were submitted to the Allegheny County Health Department (ACHD) and the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP) to seek R and D variances for permits at the BBP, the J. A. Rutter Company (JARC), and Emery Tree Service (ETS) for their portion of the project. Memoranda of understanding were executed by the University of Pittsburgh (University) with the BBP, JARC and ETS. Construction wood was collected from Thompson Properties. Discussions were held with the BBP and Energy Systems Associates (ESA), the BBP's engineering consultant. Presentations describing the University of Pittsburgh Wood/Coal Co-Firing Program were provided to the American Chemical Society (ACS), the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), the Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the Engineering Center for Environment and Energy (ECEE) of the University of Pittsburgh, the Pittsburgh Coal Conference (PCC), the Pennsylvania Ethanol Workshop, BioEnergy 2000 and the Kick-Off Meeting of the Biomass Cofiring Opportunities Solicitation Projects.

James T. Cobb, Jr.; Gene E. Geiger; William W. Elder III

2001-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

431

Method of regulating the amount of underfire air for combustion of wood fuels in spreader-stroke boilers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of metering underfire air for increasing efficiency and reducing particulate emissions from wood-fire, spreader-stoker boilers is disclosed. A portion of the combustion air, approximately one pound of air per pound of wood, is fed through the grate into the fuel bed, while the remainder of the combustion air is distributed above the fuel in the furnace, and the fuel bed is maintained at a depth sufficient to consume all oxygen admitted under fire and to insure a continuous layer of fresh fuel thereover to entrap charred particles inside the fuel bed.

Tuttle, Kenneth L. (Federal Way, WA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Any l-state solutions of the Woods-Saxon potential in arbitrary dimensions within the new improved quantization rule  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The approximated energy eigenvalues and the corresponding eigenfunctions of the spherical Woods-Saxon effective potential in $D$ dimensions are obtained within the new improved quantization rule for all $l$-states. The Pekeris approximation is used to deal with the centrifugal term in the effective Woods-Saxon potential. The inter-dimensional degeneracies for various orbital quantum number $l$ and dimensional space $D$ are studied. The solutions for the Hulth\\'{e}n potential, the three-dimensional (D=3), the $% s$-wave ($l=0$) and the cases are briefly discussed.

Sameer M/ Ikhdair; Ramazan Sever

2010-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

433

CCA-Treated wood disposed in landfills and life-cycle trade-offs with waste-to-energy and MSW landfill disposal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) regulations, it produces energy and does not emit fossil carbonCCA-Treated wood disposed in landfills and life-cycle trade-offs with waste-to-energy and MSW in waste-to-energy (WTE) facilities. In other countries, the predominant disposal option for wood

Florida, University of

434

Syngas production by plasma treatments of alcohols, bio-oils and wood This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Syngas production by plasma treatments of alcohols, bio-oils and wood This article has been Contact us My IOPscience #12;Syngas production by plasma treatments of alcohols, bio-oils and wood K to recover energy from biomass. The Syngas produced from biomass can be used to power internal combustion

435

DOE/EA-1636: Finding of No Significant Impact for the Albany-Burnt Woods and Santiam-Toledo Pole Replacement Project EA (March 2009)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Albany-Burnt Woods and Santiam-Toledo Pole Replacement Project Albany-Burnt Woods and Santiam-Toledo Pole Replacement Project Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) and Floodplain Statement of Findings DOE/EA-1636 Summary The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) announces its environmental findings on the Albany- Burnt Woods and Santiam-Toledo Pole Replacement Project. This project involves replacing wood pole structures on the existing Albany-Burnt Woods single-circuit, 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line and along a portion of the existing Santiam-Toledo single circuit, 230-kV transmission line. BPA has prepared an environmental assessment (DOE/EA-1636) evaluating the proposed project and its alternative. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the Proposed Action is not a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the

436

Compound and Elemental Analysis At International Geothermal Area,  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Philippines (Wood, 2002) Philippines (Wood, 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Compound and Elemental Analysis At International Geothermal Area Philippines (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location International Geothermal Area Philippines Exploration Technique Compound and Elemental Analysis Activity Date Usefulness could be useful with more improvements DOE-funding Unknown Notes Geothermal fluids from hot springs and wells have been sampled from a number of locations, including: 1) the North Island of New Zealand (three sets of samples from three different years) and the South Island of New Zealand (1 set of samples); 2) the Cascades of Oregon; 3) the Harney, Alvord Desert and Owyhee geothermal areas of Oregon; 4) the Dixie Valley

437

Investigations on catalyzed steam gasification of biomass: feasibility study of methane production via catalytic gasification of 200 tons of wood per day  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report is a result of an additional study made of the economic feasibility of producing substitute natural gas (SNG) from wood via catalytic gasification with steam. The report has as its basis the original 2000 tons of wood per day study generated from process development unit testing performed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The goal of this additional work was to determine the feasibility of a smaller scale plant one-tenth the size of the original or 200 tons of dry wood feed per day. Plant production based on this wood feed is 2.16 MM Scfd of SNG with a HHV of 956 Btu per Scf. All process and support facilities necessary to convert wood to SNG are included in this study. The plant location is Newport, Oregon. The capital cost for the plant is $26,680,000 - September 1980 basis. Gas production costs which allow for return on capital have been calculated for various wood prices for both utility and private investor financing. These wood prices represent the cost of unchipped wood delivered to the plant site. For utility financing, the gas production costs are, respectively, $14.34, $14.83, $15.86, and $17.84 per MM Btu for wood costs of $5, $10, $20, and $40 per dry ton. For private investor financing, the corresponding product costs are $18.76, $19.26, $20.28, and $22.31 per MM Btu for the corresponding wood costs. The costs calculated by the utility financing method includes a return on equity of 15% and an interest rate of 10% on the debt. The private investor financing method, which is 100% equity financing, incorporates a discounted cash flow (DCF) return on equity of 12%. The thermal efficiency without taking an energy credit for char is 57.4%.

Mudge, L.K.; Weber, S.L.; Mitchell, D.H.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Robertus, R.J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

A Prospectus For Advancing Biomass Thermal Energy In Maryland Developed By the Maryland Wood Energy Coalition The Maryland Wood Energy Coalition was organized by the University of Maryland Extension and the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Department of Natural Resources Forest Service in April 2010 with the goal to increase the use of woody biomass for high?efficiency wood energy technologies. Woody biomass is an overlooked renewable energy source that produces green jobs locally, is sustainable, has low emissions due to new technological advances, and is affordable and price stable. The efforts of all those involved has resulted in the Prospectus that can serve as a concise research?based information source and roadmap for decision makers. The attached prospectus provides research?based information and policy recommendations (Pages 2 & 3) that will increase the adoption of advanced wood energy technology, and help Maryland reach targets for the Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS). Wood is the fastest growing residential heating fuel in Maryland, increasing 33 % between 2000 and 2010. Residential and institutional applications will reduce fossil fuel and electric use. Best of all, using woody biomass from forests and urban sources is truly renewable and sustainable, while providing green jobs locally. Advances in wood burning technology have created a well?deserved image of woody biomass as a low emission renewable fuel. Finally, woody biomass has proven to be affordable and price stable, with significant fuel saving compared to fossil fuels and electricity. For more information about the Coalition and/or the Prospectus please contact Jonathan Kays at 301? 432?2767 x323 or by

Alliance For Green Heat; John Ackerly

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Process designs and cost estimates for a medium Btu gasification plant using a wood feedstock  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A gasification plant to effect the conversion of wood to medium-Btu gas has been designed. The Purox gasifier and associated equipment were selected as a prototype, since this system is nearer to commercialization than others considered. The object was to determine the cost of those processing steps common to all gasification schemes and to identify specific research areas. A detailed flowsheet and mass-balance are presented. Capital investment statements for three plant sizes (400, 800, 1,600 oven-dry tons per day) are included along with manufacturing costs for each of these plants at three feedstock prices: $10, $20, $30 per green ton (or $20, $40, $60 per dry ton). The design incorporates a front-end handling system, package cryogenic oxygen plant, the Purox gasifier, a gas-cleaning train consisting of a spray scrubber, ionizing wet scrubber, and condenser, and a wastewater treatment facility including a cooling tower and a package activated sludge unit. Cost figures for package units were obtained from suppliers and used for the oxygen and wastewater treatment plants. The gasifier is fed with wood chips at 20% moisture (wet basis). For each pound of wood, 0.32 lb of oxygen are required, and 1.11 lb of gas are produced. The heating value of the gas product is 300 Btu/scf. For each Btu of energy input (feed + process energy) to the plant, 0.91 Btu exists with the product gas. Total capital investments required for the plants considered are $9, $15, and $24 million (1978) respectively. In each case, the oxygen plant represents about 50% of the total investment. For feedstock prices from $10 to $30 per green ton ($1.11 to $3.33 per MM Btu), break-even costs of fuel gas range from $3 to $7 per MM Btu. At $30/ton, the feedstock cost represents approximately 72% of the total product cost for the largest plant size; at $10/ton, it represents only 47% of product cost.

Desrosiers, R. E.

1979-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Woodfuel Use Update 1 I Wood fuel use in Scotland 2009 I Hudson Consulting I August 2009  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

energy generation, was paramount in the initial survey and remains so. Total woodfuel usage in financial Demand and Usage in Scotland Update Report to March 2009 #12;Woodfuel Use Update 2 I Wood fuel use in Scotland 2009 I Hudson Consulting I August 2009 Woodfuel Demand and Usage in Scotland 2009 www

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "geothermal wood wood" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Woodfuel Usage Update 1 I Wood fuel use in Scotland 2010 I Hudson Consulting I October 2010  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

woodfuel usage in the commercial, industrial and electrical energy sectors of the Scottish market) to 30 of electrical energy generation, was paramount in the initial survey and remains so. Total woodfuel usageWoodfuel Usage Update 1 I Wood fuel use in Scotland 2010 I Hudson Consulting I October 2010

442

Early maturation processes in coal.1 Part 1: Pyrolysis mass balances and structural evolution of coalified wood from the2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Early maturation processes in coal.1 Part 1: Pyrolysis mass balances and structural evolution of coalified wood from the2 Morwell Brown Coal seam3 4 Elodie Salmon a, c , Françoise Behar a , François Lorant force21 field to simulate the thermal stress. The Morwell coal has been selected to study the thermal22

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

443

Methods of predicting milk yield in dairy cows-Predictive capabilities of Wood's lactation curve and artificial neural networks (ANNs)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The study is focused on the capability of artificial neural networks to forecast milk yield for both full and standardised lactations. We used a dataset of 108,931 daily milk yields (dataset A) collected from three lactations of dairy cows managed in ... Keywords: 305-d lactation, Artificial neural networks, Daily yields, Dairy cows, Wood's model

Wilhelm Grzesiak; Piotr B?aszczyk; René Lacroix

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Continuing Medical Education (CME) www.princetonhcs.org A University Hospital Affiliate of UMDNJ Robert Wood Johnson Medical School  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Continuing Medical Education (CME) www.princetonhcs.org A University Hospital Affiliate of UMDNJ ­ Robert Wood Johnson Medical School The Office of Continuing Medical Education presents the Department shall be able to: 1. Review the history of medical marijuana advocacy and legislation in New Jersey. 2

Rowley, Clarence W.

445

NEW EDITION! The most comprehensive review of international trade in wood fiber, for the pulp, MDF and biomass industries.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and biomass industries. The International Pulpwood Trade Review has long been the standard for those in the business of international trade of woodchips, pulplogs and biomass fiber. This annual report examines the international market for biomass wood fiber and provides projections for the Asian woodchip markets in 2010

446

Biofuels6a.doc Woods Institute for the Environment 429 Arguello Way, Encina Modular C Stanford, CA 94305  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biofuels6a.doc Woods Institute for the Environment · 429 Arguello Way, Encina Modular C · Stanford, CA 94305 · http://environment.stanford.edu/ideas/biofuels.html The Impacts of Large-Scale Biofuel Use practices can significantly influence the environmental effects of biofuels. The choices farmers make

Nur, Amos

447

Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Working document I. The Florida Eucalyptus energy farm: silvicultural methods and considerations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The silvicultural matrix within which the nation's first large scale wood energy plantation will develop is described in detail. The relevant literature reviewed is identified and distilled. The plantation history, site preparation, planting, species selection, maintenance and management, harvesting, and the Eucalyptus biomass production estimates are presented.

Fishkind, H.H.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Deformed Woods-Saxon Potential in the Frame of Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics for Any l-State  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A novel analytically solvable deformed Woods-Saxon potential is investigated by means of the Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics. Hamiltonian hierarchy method and the shape invariance property are used in the calculations. The energy levels are obtained for any l-state. The interrelations for some nuclear scattering processes are also discussed

Cuneyt Berkdemir; Ayse Berkdemir; Ramazan Sever

2005-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

449

Microsoft Word - CX-Big Eddy-Redmond-WoodPolesFY13_WEB.doc  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

4, 2013 4, 2013 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEPR-4 SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Richard Heredia Project Manager - TEP-TPP-1 Proposed Action: Big Eddy-Redmond No. 1 Wood Pole Replacement Project PP&A Project No.: 2500 Categorical Exclusion Applied (from Subpart D, 10 C.F.R. Part 1021): B1.3 Routine maintenance Location: Big Eddy-Redmond No. 1 transmission line in Deschutes County, Oregon, at the following locations: Mile Structure Township Range Section 35 6 5 14 24 36 6 5 14 25 36 7 5 14 25 36 8 5 14 25 37 6 5 14 36 40 9 6 15 18 43 2 6 15 29 48 4 7 1 21 49 1 7 1 21 50 6 7 15 33 51 8 8 15 5 52 8 8 15 8 53 3 8 15 8 54 2 8 15 17 56 1 8 1 30 58 2 9 14 1

450

Microsoft Word - CX-Drummond-MacksInn-WoodPoleReplacementFY13_WEB.doc  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

29, 2012 29, 2012 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEP-CELILO SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Mark Hadley Lineman Foreman III - TFIF-Idaho Falls Proposed Action: Wood pole replacements along the Drummond-Macks Inn, Macks Inn- Madison, and Swan Valley-Teton 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line rights-of-way. PP&A Project Number: 2486 Categorical Exclusion Applied (from Subpart D, 10 C.F.R. Part 1021): B1.3 Routine maintenance activities Location: The project area is located in Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) Idaho Falls District. Project locations are listed below: Project Location Township Range Section(s) County Line Name Structures Use Ownership 3N 44E 28 Teton Swan Valley - Teton 10/6 Forest Forest Service 14S 5E 19 Fremont

451

Microsoft Word - CX-AlveyDistrict_2011WoodPoles_No1957_WEB.doc  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

0, 2011 0, 2011 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEP-Alvey SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Nick Wenzl John Carter Line Foreman III-TFE-Alvey Line Foreman I-TFE-Alvey Proposed Action: Wood pole replacements and minor access road maintenance along portions of the Eugene-Lane #1, Eugene-Alvey #2, and Hawkins-Alvey #1 transmission line rights-of- way (ROW) PP&A Project No: 1957 Categorical Exclusion Applied (from Subpart D, 10 C.F.R. Part 1021): B1.3 Routine maintenance activities...for structures, rights of way, infrastructures such as roads, equipment... routine maintenance activities, corrective....are required to maintain...infrastructures...in a condition suitable for a facility to be used for its designated purpose. Location: The project area is located in Lane County, Oregon, in Bonneville Power

452

Microsoft Word - CX-FY11PascoDistrictWoodPoleReplacement_WEB.doc  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

1, 2011 1, 2011 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEPR-PASCO SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Toby Cossairt Lineman Foreman III - TFPF-PASCO Proposed Action: Wood pole replacement and minor access road maintenance along various transmission line rights-of-way (ROW) in the Pasco District. The following lines will have pole change-outs in 2011: Benton-Scooteney #1, Benton-Othello #1, Franklin-Hedges #1, Franklin-Walla Walla #1, Grandview-Red Mountain #1, Franklin-Badger Canyon #2, Kennewick Tap to Franklin- Badger Canyon #2, McNary-Franklin #2, and White Bluffs-Richland #1. Categorical Exclusion Applied (from Subpart D, 10 C.F.R. Part 1021): B1.3 Routine maintenance activities...for structures, rights-of-way, infrastructures such as roads,

453

Why sequence microbial symbionts of New Zealand's endemic wood-degrading  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

microbial symbionts of microbial symbionts of New Zealand's endemic wood-degrading insects? New Zealand was separated from other land masses eight million years ago when the Gondwana supercontinent split up and the only mammals found there were bats and marine mammals. This isolation has led to the evolution of native species that may not be found anywhere else in the world such as the huhu grub, a traditional food source for the Maori tribe, and the cricket-like weta. Many behavioral and physical traits have resulted from various species adapting to particular climatic and environmental features in the region. When humans arrived approximately 1,000 years ago, they brought more mammals, significantly impacting the nation's ecosystems. Today New Zealand is considered one of the world's 25 biodiversity

454

Microsoft Word - CX-Brasada-Harney-WoodPoles_FY13_WEB.doc  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2, 2013 2, 2013 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEPR-4 SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Richard Heredia Project Manager - TEP-TPP-1 Proposed Action: Brasada-Harney No. 1 Wood Pole Replacement Project PP&A Project No.: 2187 Categorical Exclusion Applied (from Subpart D, 10 C.F.R. Part 1021): B1.3 Routine maintenance Location: Brasada-Harney No. 1 transmission line in Deschutes and Harney counties, Oregon, at the following locations: Mile Structure Landowner Township Range Section 23 8 Private 19 16 22 26 6 BLM 19 17 30 28 1 BLM 19 17 32 29 2 Private 19 17 4 29 5 Private 19 17 4 29 7 BLM 19 17 4 30 8 Private 19 17 10 31 5 BLM 19 17 11 46 5 DSL 21 19 13 49 8 BLM 21 20 21

455

Microsoft Word - CX-KalispellTLMDistrictFY11WoodPoleReplacement_WEB.doc  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cleareance Memorandum Cleareance Memorandum Michael Stolfus Lineman Foreman III - TFKF-Kalispell Kurt Marsh Lineman Foreman I - TFKF-Kalispell Proposed Action: Wood pole replacement and minor access road maintenance along various transmission line rights-of-way in Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) Kalispell District. PP&A Project No: 1839 (Garrison-Anaconda #1), 1840 (Hot Springs-Rattlesnake #1), 1841 (Rattlesnake-Garrison #1), 1842 (Columbia Falls-Kalispell #1), 1843 (Kalispell-Kerr #1), 1844 (Libby-Bonners Ferry #1), 1845 (Columbia Falls-Trego #1) Categorical Exclusion Applied (from Subpart D, 10 C.F.R. Part 1021): B1.3 Routine maintenance activities...for structures, rights of way, infrastructures such as roads, equipment... routine maintenance activities, corrective....are required to maintain...infrastructures...in a

456

Microsoft Word - CX-ForestGrove-McMinnvilleWoodPolesFY12_WEB.docx  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

5, 2012 5, 2012 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEP-Alvey SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum James Semrau Project Manager - TEP-TPP-1 Proposed Action: Forest Grove-McMinnville #1 Wood Pole Replacement Projects PP&A Project No.: 2326 Categorical Exclusion Applied (from Subpart D, 10 C.F.R. Part 1021): B1.3 Routine maintenance Proposed by: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Location: The project is located in Washington and Yamhill counties, Oregon, in BPA's Salem District. Structure locations are as follows: Structure Legal Description County, State 2\5 1S, 3W, Sec. 6 Washington, OR 3\3 1S, 3W, Sec. 7 Washington, OR 3\6, 4\3 1S. 4W, Sec. 12 Washington, OR 4\8, 4\9, 5\3 1S, 4W, Sec. 14 Washington, OR 6\2, 6\5 1S, 4W, Sec. 23 Washington, OR

457

Microsoft Word - CX-Cardwell-Cowlitz2011WoodPoles_WEB.doc  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

1 1 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEP-4 SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Erich Orth Project Manager - TEP-TPP-3 Proposed Action: Replacement of all aging wood pole transmission line support structures along the Cardwell-Cowlitz No. 1, 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line Budget Information: Work Order #00279267 PP&A Project No.: 2021 Categorical Exclusion Applied (from Subpart D, 10 C.F.R. Part 1021): B1.3 Routine maintenance activities... for...rights of way, infrastructures (e.g.. structures)... routine maintenance activities, corrective...are required to maintain and preserve infrastructures...in a condition suitable for the facility to be used for its designated purpose. Location: The project area is located along Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA)

458

Microsoft Word - CX-NBendFY11WoodPolesWEND-TAHK_TAHK-RDSPT_WEB.doc  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

1 1 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEP-Alvey SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Andy Crosby Todd Stringer Line Foreman III - TFEP-North Bend Line Foreman I - TFEP-North Bend Proposed Action: Wood pole replacement and minor access road maintenance along the Wendson-Tahkenitch #1 and the Tahkenitch-Reedsport #1 transmission line rights-of-way. PP&A Project No: 1960 Categorical Exclusion Applied (from Subpart D, 10 C.F.R. Part 1021): B1.3 Routine maintenance activities...for structures, rights-of-way, infrastructures such as roads, equipment... routine maintenance activities, corrective....are required to maintain...infrastructures...in a condition suitable for a facility to be used for its designated purpose. Location: The project area is located in Lane and Coos counties, Oregon, in Bonneville Power

459

Microsoft Word - CX-Drummond-MacksInn_WoodPoleReplacementFY12_WEB.doc  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

10, 2012 10, 2012 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEP-CELILO SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Mark Hadley Lineman Foreman III - TFIF-Idaho Falls Proposed Action: Wood pole replacements along the Drummond-Macks Inn, Macks Inn- Madison, and Targhee Tap 115-kV transmission line rights-of-way. PP&A Project Number: 2191 Categorical Exclusion Applied (from Subpart D, 10 C.F.R. Part 1021): B1.3 Routine maintenance activities... Location: The project area is located in Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) Idaho Falls District. Project locations are listed below: Project Location Township Range Section(s) County Line Name Structures Use Ownership 4N 45E 11 Teton Targhee Tap 8/8 Agriculture Private 14N 44E 22 Fremont Macks Inn- Madison

460

Microsoft Word - CX-GrandCoulee-ChiefJoseph_ARandWood Poles_WEB.doc  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEPR-Bell-1 SUBJECT: Environmental Cleareance Memorandum Todd Wehner Road Engineer - TELF-TPP-3 Robert Keudell Line Foreman III - TFWK-Grand Coulee Robert Zellar Line Foreman I - TFWK-Grand Coulee Proposed Action: Wood pole replacement, equipment landing construction and access road construction/maintenance along portions of the Grand Coulee-Chief Joseph #1 and #2 230-kV transmission line rights-of-way. PP&A Project No: 1777 Work Order No.: 275582 and 275583 Categorical Exclusion Applied (from Subpart D, 10 C.F.R. Part 1021):  B1.13 Construction, acquisition, and relocation of onsite pathways and short onsite access roads and railroads.  B1.3 Routine maintenance activities...for structures, rights-of-way, infrastructures such

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461

Microsoft Word - CX-Chehalis-CentraliaNo2WoodPolesFY12_WEB.doc  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

0, 2012 0, 2012 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEPR/Olympia SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Ryan Brady Line Foreman III - TFOK-Chehalis Proposed Action: Wood pole structure replacements on the Chehalis-Centralia No. 2 115-kV transmission line PP&A Project No.: 2372, WO# 298136 Categorical Exclusion Applied (from Subpart D, 10 C.F.R. Part 1021): B1.3 Routine maintenance activities... Location: The subject transmission line is located in Lewis County, Washington, in Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) Olympia Maintenance District. The transmission line ROW corridors cross public and privately-owned lands that are mostly rural residential property. No U.S. Forest service or tribal lands are within the project boundaries.

462

Microsoft Word - CX-Shelton-Fairmount-WoodPolesFY12_WEB.doc  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

4, 2012 4, 2012 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEPR/Olympia SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Lee Web Line Foreman III - TFOF-Olympia Proposed Action: Wood pole replacements as needed on the Shelton-Fairmount No. 1, 115-kV transmission line PP&A Project No.: 2371; Work Order # 298004 Categorical Exclusion Applied (from Subpart D, 10 C.F.R. Part 1021): B1.3 Routine maintenance activities Location: The subject transmission line is located in Mason and Jefferson counties, Washington, in Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) Olympia Maintenance District. The transmission line ROW corridors cross public and privately-owned lands that include industrial forestlands and rural residential property. Four structures requiring replacement including 43/1,

463

Microsoft Word - CX-EllensburgTLMDistrictFY11WoodPoleReplacement_WEB.doc  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Clearance Memorandum Clearance Memorandum Terry Kugler Lineman Foreman III - TFWF-Schultz Joe Lauer Line Foreman I - TFWF-Schultz Proposed Action: Wood pole replacement and minor access road maintenance along portions of the Columbia-Valhalla #1 and #2 transmission line rights-of-way. PP&A Project No: 1851 (Columbia-Valhalla #1), 1852 (Columbia-Valhalla #2) Categorical Exclusion Applied (from Subpart D, 10 C.F.R. Part 1021): B1.3 Routine maintenance activities...for structures, rights of way, infrastructures such as roads, equipment... routine maintenance activities, corrective....are required to maintain...infrastructures...in a condition suitable for a facility to be used for its designed purpose. Location: The project area is located in Douglas and Chelan counties, Washington. Project

464

Microsoft Word - CX-CentraliaTap_Chehalis-Covington_TransAlta_WoodPoles_WEB.doc  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

6, 2011 6, 2011 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEP-4 SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Chad Caldwell Customer Service Engineer - TPC-Olympia Proposed Action: Replace aging wood poles on Trans Alta's Centralia Tap to Chehalis- Covington No. 1 230-kV transmission line. Budget Information: As per agreement with Trans Alta PP&A Project No.: N/A Categorical Exclusion Applied (from Subpart D, 10 C.F.R. Part 1021): B1.3 Routine maintenance activities... for...rights-of-way, infrastructures (e.g.. roads)... routine maintenance activities, corrective...are required to maintain and preserve infrastructures...in a condition suitable for the facility to be used for its designated purpose. Location: The project is located on Trans Alta's Centralia Tap to Chehalis-Covington No. 1

465

Microsoft Word - CX-FY11WenatcheeDistrictWoodPoleReplacement_WEB.doc  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

4, 2011 4, 2011 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEPR-PASCO SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Terry Kugler Lineman Foreman III - TFWF-SCHULTZ Proposed Action: Wood pole replacement and minor access road maintenance along various transmission line rights-of-way (ROW) in the Wenatchee District. The following lines will have pole change-outs in 2011: Chandler Tap, Grandview-Red Mt. #1 and Midway-Moxee #1. Categorical Exclusion Applied (from Subpart D, 10 C.F.R. Part 1021): B1.3 Routine maintenance activities...for structures, rights-of-way, infrastructures such as roads, equipment... routine maintenance activities, corrective....are required to maintain... infrastructures...in a condition suitable for a facility to be used for its designed purpose.

466

Microsoft Word - CX-FY10_Kalispell_District_Wood_Pole_Replacement_WEB.doc  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

6, 2010 6, 2010 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEPR-Bell-1 SUBJECT: Environmental Cleareance Memorandum Michael Stolfus Lineman Foreman III - TFKF-Kalispell Proposed Action: Wood pole replacement and minor access road maintenance along various transmission line right-of-ways in the Kalispell District PP&A Project No: 1536 (Columbia Falls-Kalispell #1), 1537 (Anaconda-Silver Bow #1), 1538 (Columbia Falls-Trego #1), 1541 (Libby-Bonners Ferry #1), 1542 (Rattlesnake-Garrison #1) Categorical Exclusion Applied (from Subpart D, 10 C.F.R. Part 1021): B1.3 Routine maintenance activities...for structures, rights-of-way, infrastructures such as roads, equipment... routine maintenance activities, corrective....are required to maintain...infrastructures...in a

467

Microsoft Word - CX-SpokaneDistrictWoodPoleReplacementsFY13_WEB.doc  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

1, 2013 1, 2013 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEPR-Bell-1 SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Amanda Williams Project Manager - TEP-TPP-1 Proposed Action: 2013 Spokane District Wood Pole Replacement Projects PP&A Project No.: 2131 (Albeni Falls-Sand Creek No. 1), 2132 (Bronx-Sand Creek No. 1), 2492 (Albeni Falls-Pine Street No. 1), 2133 (Bell-Boundary No. 3), 2134 (Bell-Addy No. 1), 2135 (Bell-Trentwood No. 1), 2136 (Bell-Trentwood No. 2), 2137 (Libby-Bonners Ferry No. 1), 2493 (Boundary-Nelway #1), 2494 (Colville-Boundary #1), 1547 (Four Lakes Tap), 2138 (Green Bluff Tap), 2495 (Sand Creek-Bonners Ferry No. 1 and No. 2), and 1929 (Spirit Tap) Categorical Exclusion Applied (from Subpart D, 10 C.F.R. Part 1021): B1.3 Routine maintenance

468

Microsoft Word - CX-BadgerCanyon-RichlandNo1_WoodPoles_FY13.docx  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

7, 2013 7, 2013 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEPR/Pasco SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Walker Miller Electrical Engineer - TPCF-W RICHLAND Proposed Action: Wood pole replacements on the Badger Canyon-Richland #1 transmission line PP&A Project No.: 2670 Categorical Exclusion Applied (from Subpart D, 10 C.F.R. Part 1021): B1.3 Routine maintenance activities. Location: City of Richland, Benton County, WA Transmission Line/ROW Structure # Township Range Section County, State Badger Canyon-Richland #1 4/9 and 4/10 9N 28E 26 Benton, WA Proposed by: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Description of the Proposed Action: BPA, at the expense of the City of Richland, proposes to raise structures 4/9 and 4/10 of the Badger Canyon-Richland #1 115-kilovolt transmission line to

469

Microsoft Word - CX-Minidoka-Unity_Wood PoleReplacementFY12_WEB.doc  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

, 2012 , 2012 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEP-CELILO SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Mark Hadley Lineman Foreman III - TFIF-Idaho Falls Proposed Action: Wood pole replacement along the Minidoka Power House-Unity No. 1 and Unity-Heyburn No. 1, 138-kV transmission line rights-of-way. PP&A Project No.: 2192 Categorical Exclusion Applied (from Subpart D, 10 C.F.R. Part 1021): B1.3 Routine maintenance activities...for structures, rights-of-way, infrastructures such as roads, equipment... routine maintenance activities, corrective....are required to maintain... infrastructures...in a condition suitable for a facility to be used for its designated purpose. Location: The project area is located in Cassia County, Idaho, in Bonneville Power

470

Residential electricity use, wood use, and indoor temperature; An econometric model  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A lagged-dependent variable, simultaneous-equation system model of residential electricity use for space heating and other uses, wood use, and indoor temperature is presented. The model is specified by means of a five-element model-building framework developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Data were collected from 100 households that had end-use metering installed as part of the Hood River Conservation Project. The most important finding is that the dependent variables are relatively independent of each other. Model results also indicate that houses with central heating use more electricity for space heating and that households with favorable attitudes toward conservation prefer lower indoor temperatures and use less energy.

Tonn, B.E.; White, D.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Energy Engineering Analysis Program (EEAP), Laundry Plant Study, Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri. Volume II. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this energy engineering analysis program (EEAP), Laundry Plant Study at Ft. Leonard Wood, Missouri is to develop energy saving type projects for funding through the energy conservation investment program (ECIP) or other applicable funding source. The following outlines the tasks performed in this study. The complete scope of work is included in Appendix G of this report. (1) Review of previously completed energy engineering analysis program (EEAP) studies applicable to the laundry facilities. (2) Perform a detailed survey of the laundry facility and associated energy using equipment. (3) Perform a complete energy audit and analysis of the laundry facilities. (4) Identify energy conservation opportunities including low cost/no cost items. (5) Provide complete programming and implementation documentation for all recommended ECO`s. (6) Prepare a comprehensive report documenting the work accomplished and the results of the study.

1992-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

472

Carbon-centered free radicals in particulate matter emissions from wood and coal combustion  

SciTech Connect

Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used to measure the free radicals in the particulate matter (PM) emissions from wood and coal combustion. The intensity of radicals in PM dropped linearly within two months of sample storage and stabilized after that. This factor of storage time was adjusted when comparing radical intensities among different PM samples. An inverse relationship between coal rank and free radical intensities in PM emissions was observed, which was in contrast with the pattern of radical intensities in the source coals. The strong correlation between intensities of free radical and elemental carbon in PM emissions suggests that the radical species may be carbon-centered. The increased g-factors, 2.0029-2.0039, over that of purely carbon-centered radicals may indicate the presence of vicinal oxygen heteroatom. The redox and biology activities of these carbon-centered radicals are worthy of evaluation. 22 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Linwei Tian; Catherine P. Koshland; Junko Yano; Vittal K. Yachandra; Ignatius T.S. Yu; S.C. Lee; Donald Lucas [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China). School of Public Health

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

473

Microsoft Word - CX-RedmondWoodPoles_multiSub_WEB.doc  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

15, 2011 15, 2011 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEP-Celilo SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Darrell Aaby Line Foreman III - TFDF-Redmond Proposed Action: Wood pole replacement at selected locations along the La Pine - Chiloquin and Brasada - Harney No. 1 transmission line right-of-ways. PP&A Project No.: 1930 Categorical Exclusion Applied (from Subpart D, 10 C.F.R. Part 1021): B1.3 Routine maintenance activities...for structures, rights-of-way, infrastructures such as roads, equipment... routine maintenance activities, corrective...are required to maintain...infrastructures...in a condition suitable for a facility to be used for its designed purpose. Location: The proposed project is located in Klamath, Deschutes, and Harney counties,

474

Fate of Cu, Cr, and As during combustion of impregnated wood with and without peat additive  

SciTech Connect

The EU Directive on incineration of waste regulates the harmful emissions of particles and twelve toxic elements, including copper, chromium, and arsenic. Using a 15 kW pellets-fueled grate burner, experiments were performed to determine the fate of copper, chromium, and arsenic during combustion of chromate copper arsenate (CCA) preservative wood. The fate and speciation of copper, chromium, and arsenic were determined from analysis of the flue gas particles and the bottom ash using SEM-EDS, XRD, XPS, and ICP-AES. Chemical equilibrium model calculations were performed to interpret the experimental findings. The results revealed that about 5% copper, 15% chromium, and 60% arsenic were volatilized during combustion of pure CCA-wood, which is lower than predicted volatilization from the individual arsenic, chromium, and copper oxides. This is explained by the formation of more stable refractory complex oxide phases for which the stability trends and patterns are presented. When co-combusted with peat, an additional stabilization of these phases was obtained and thus a small but noteworthy decrease in volatilization of all three elements was observed. The major identified phases for all fuels were CuCrO{sub 2}(s), (Fe,Mg,Cu)(Cr,Fe,Al)O{sub 4}(s), Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}(s), and Ca{sub 3}(AsO{sub 4}){sub 2}(s). Arsenic was also identified in the fine particles as KH{sub 2}AsO{sub 4}(s) and As{sub 2}O{sub 3}). A strong indication of hexavalent chromium in the form of K{sub 2}CrO{sub 4} or as a solid solution between K{sub 3}Na(CrO{sub 4}){sub 2} and K{sub 3}Na(SO{sub 4}){sub 2} was found in the fine particles. Good qualitative agreement was observed between experimental data and chemical equilibrium model calculations. 38 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Karin Lundholm; Dan Bostroem; Anders Nordin; Andrei Shchukarev [Umeaa University, Umeaa (Sweden). Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z