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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "geosynthetic clay liner" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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1

Coupling Effects during Steady-State Solute Diffusion through a Semipermeable Clay Membrane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Two separate coupling effects are evaluated with respect to steady-state potassium chloride (KCl) diffusion through a bentonite-based geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) that behaves as a semipermeable membrane. Both of the coupling effects are correlated with ...

Michael A. Malusis; Charles D. Shackelford

2002-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

2

Field versus laboratory characterization of clay deposits for use as in situ municipal landfill liners  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

FIELD VERSUS LABORATORY CHARACTERIZATION OF CLAY DEPOSITS FOR USE AS IN SITU MUNICIPAL LANDFILL LINERS A Thesis by SHARON ELIZABETH WECHSLER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies Texas Aa? University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of . KASTER OF SCIENCE Nay 1990 Major Subject: Geology FIELD VERSUS LABORATORY CHARACTERIZATION OF CLAY DEPOSITS FOR USE AS IN SITU MUNICIPAL LANDFILL LINERS A Thesis by SHARON ELIZABETH WECHSLER Approved as to style...

Wechsler, Sharon Elizabeth

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

3

Landfill liner interface strengths from torsional-ring-shear tests  

SciTech Connect

A torsional-ring-shear apparatus and test procedure are described for measuring soil/geosynthetic and geosynthetic/geosynthetic interface strengths. Typical interface strengths are presented for a double-composite liner system and the relevancy of ring-shear strengths is illustrated using the slope failure at the Kettleman Hills Waste Repository, Kettleman City, Calif. The results of undrained ring-shear tests show that for a clay/geomembrane interface: (1) interface strength depends on plasticity and compaction water content of the clay, and the applied normal stress; (2) interface strengths measured with the torsional-ring-shear apparatus are in excellent agreement with back-calculated field strengths; and (3) peak and residual interface failure envelopes are nonlinear, and the nonlinearity should be modeled in stability analyses instead of as a combination of cohesion and friction angle. Design recommendations for interface strengths and stability analyses are also presented.

Stark, T.D. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)); Poeppel, A.R. (Langan Engineering Associates, Inc., New York, NY (United States))

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Geosynthetics in Landfills Prepared by M. Bouazza and J. Zornberg  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Geosynthetics in Landfills Prepared by M. Bouazza and J. Zornberg Geosynthetics are extensively used in the design of both base and cover liner systems of landfill facilities. This includes that can be used as an infiltration/hydraulic barrier; · geopipes, which can be used in landfill

Zornberg, Jorge G.

5

Laboratory measurements of contaminant attenuation of uranium mill tailings leachates by sediments and clay liners  

SciTech Connect

We discuss FY82 progress on the development of laboratory tools to aid in the prediction of migration potential of contaminants present in acidic uranium mill tailings leachate. Further, empirical data on trace metal and radionuclide migration through a clay liner are presented. Acidic uranium mill tailings solution from a Wyoming mill was percolated through a composite sediment called Morton Ranch Clay liner. These laboratory columns and subsequent sediment extraction data show: (1) As, Cr, Pb, Ag, Th and V migrate very slowly; (2) U, Cd, Ni, Zn, Fe, Mn and similar transition metals are initially immobilized during acid neutralization but later are remobilized as the tailings solution exhausts the clay liner's acid buffering capacity. Such metals remain immobilized as long as the effluent pH remains above a pH value of 4 to 4.5, but they become mobile once the effluent pH drops below this range; and (3) fractions of the Se and Mo present in the influent tailings solution are very mobile. Possible controlling mechanisms for the pH-dependent immobilization-mobilization of the trace metals are discussed. More study is required to understand the controlling mechanisms for Se and Mo and Ra for which data were not successfully collected. Using several column lengths (from 4.5 to 65 cm) and pore volume residence times (from 0.8 to 40 days) we found no significant differences in contaminant migration rates or types and extent of controlling processes. Thus, we conclude that the laboratory results may be capable of extrapolation to actual disposal site conditions.

Serne, R.J.; Peterson, S.R.; Gee, G.W.

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

GEOSYNTHETIC REINFORCEMENT IN LANDFILL DESIGN: US PERSPECTIVES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

GEOSYNTHETIC REINFORCEMENT IN LANDFILL DESIGN: US PERSPECTIVES Jorge G. Zornberg1 , M. ASCE Abstract: Geosynthetic reinforcement in landfill applications in the US has involved conventional reinforced soil structures and veneer stabilization with reinforcements placed along the landfill slope

Zornberg, Jorge G.

7

Clay  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Clay Clay Nature Bulletin No. 435-A November 27, 1971 Forest Preserve District of Cook County George W. Dunne, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation CLAY When Nebuchadnezzar was king of Babylon in the 6th century B.C., messages were sent and records kept by writing on little pillow-shaped tablets of soft wet clay. They were baked in the sun. Those clay tablets are still found by the thousands in ruins of ancient cities excavated in that dry climate. The Babylonians also sun-dried bricks of clay and straw for building, as the Israelites did during their captivity in Egypt. This process spread to Spain and Mexico and our American Southwest. Called "adobe", in regions with little rainfall it has the advantages of being cheap, fireproof, cool in summer and warm in winter.

8

1 INTRODUCTION The use of geosynthetics in modern landfills involves  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 INTRODUCTION The use of geosynthetics in modern landfills involves important roles because systems for landfills typically include both geosynthetics and earthen material components, (e-established components of the landfill industry. The state of the art on the use of geosynthetics in waste containment

Zornberg, Jorge G.

9

Radioactive Waste Management Site located in  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

system and double- liner with multiple layers of geosynthetic clay, high-density polyethylene, netted fabric, and screened native soil. How is Approval Granted for Disposal? E...

10

Micromechanical Analysis of Geosynthetic-Soil Interaction Under Cyclic Loading  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

members of KUGS (University of Kansas Geotechnical Society) for their companions, advices, and supports. Similarly, I would like to thank WoanJing, Chris, and George. They were always supportive and never left this author to fall down emotionally... OF THIS DISSERTATION 6 CHAPTER TWO 8 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 8 2.1 TYPES OF GEOSYNTHETICS 8 2.2 GEOSYNTHETIC-SOIL INTERACTION 9 2.3 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF GEOSYNTHETIC-SOIL INTERACTION 11 2.3.1 Direct shear tests 11 2.3.2 Pull-out tests 14 2.3.3 Triaxial tests 16 2...

Bhandari, Anil

2010-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

11

Combustor liner cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A combustor liner is disclosed. The combustor liner includes an upstream portion, a downstream end portion extending from the upstream portion along a generally longitudinal axis, and a cover layer associated with an inner surface of the downstream end portion. The downstream end portion includes the inner surface and an outer surface, the inner surface defining a plurality of microchannels. The downstream end portion further defines a plurality of passages extending between the inner surface and the outer surface. The plurality of microchannels are fluidly connected to the plurality of passages, and are configured to flow a cooling medium therethrough, cooling the combustor liner.

Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Berkman, Mert Enis

2013-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

12

Geosynthetics International, 2010, 17, No.3 Design of a landfill final cover system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Geosynthetics International, 2010, 17, No.3 Design of a landfill final cover system T. D. Stark containment, Strength, Stability, Shearbox test, Failure, Final cover system, Landfill REFERENCE: Stark, T. D. & Newman, E. J. (20 I0). Design of a landfill final cover systcm. Geosynthetics [ntemational17, No.3, 124

13

Sepiolite as an Alternative Liner Material in Municipal Solid Waste Landfills  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sepiolite as an Alternative Liner Material in Municipal Solid Waste Landfills Yucel Guney1 ; Savas in municipal solid waste landfills. However, natural clays may not always provide good contaminant sorption necessitates addition of kaolinite before being used as a landfill material. The valence of the salt solutions

Aydilek, Ahmet

14

Geosynthetics International, 2003, 10, No. 4 Long-term filtration performance of nonwoven  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Geosynthetics International, 2003, 10, No. 4 Long-term filtration performance of nonwoven, Pore constriction size, Sludge REFERENCE: Aydilek, A. H. & Edil, T. B. (2003). Long-term filtration. INTRODUCTION The retirement of large industrial waste storage facilities in accordance with environmental

Aydilek, Ahmet

15

Segmented ceramic liner for induction furnaces  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A non-fibrous ceramic liner for induction furnaces is provided by vertically stackable ring-shaped liner segments made of ceramic material in a light-weight cellular form. The liner segments can each be fabricated as a single unit or from a plurality of arcuate segments joined together by an interlocking mechanism. Also, the liner segments can be formed of a single ceramic material or can be constructed of multiple concentric layers with the layers being of different ceramic materials and/or cellular forms. Thermomechanically damaged liner segments are selectively replaceable in the furnace. 5 figs.

Gorin, A.H.; Holcombe, C.E.

1994-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

16

Organic acid transport through a partially saturated liner system beneath a landfill  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A one-dimensional model was developed to investigate the transport of organic acids (commonly found in landfill leachate) through a partially saturated composite liner system beneath a landfill. Specific attention was paid to the influence of water content distribution on aqueous-phase diffusion process. Composite liner system was investigated, which was consisted of a geomembrane and a compacted clay liner underlain by three kinds of attenuation layer: sand layer, sandy clay loam layer, and clay layer. Volumetric water content profile in soil layers was obtained by Van Genuchten model, and the Millington and Quirk model was employed to describe the non-linear relationship between volumetric water content and diffusion coefficient. Three cases were analyzed and compared, i.e., totally saturated condition, unsaturated condition without considering unsaturated diffusion model, and unsaturated condition considering unsaturated diffusion model. The numerical results show that the unsaturated sand attenuation layer could serve as excellent diffusion barrier to organic contaminant due to its low water retention capacity. When the dependence of diffusion coefficient on volumetric water content is sufficiently considered, the contaminant flux decreases significantly in all the three kinds of attenuation layer. Unsaturated diffusion model capturing the relationship between water content and diffusion coefficient enables a more reasonable prediction of contaminant transport and distribution in soils.

Tingfa Liu; Liming Hu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

F-Area Type IV Tank Liner Life Estimation  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS) is proceeding with closure of the Type IV waste tanks that are located in F-area. These tanks are underground concrete vaults and have been in service since the early 1960's. The interior of the concrete vault is lined with carbon steel plate. The time necessary for the carbon steel plate to disintegrate was estimated. These calculations assumed that the concrete structure was degraded and therefore the exterior of the liner is exposed to the soil conditions. Two corrosion mechanisms were examined: pitting and general corrosion. Data from soil corrosion studies performed by the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) was utilized to estimate the corrosion rate of the carbon steel liner. The following conclusions were made: (1) Cecil Clay Loam in Atlanta, Georgia, a soil tested by the NBS, is representative of the SRS soil conditions near the F-Area Type IV tanks. (2) The time to tank wall disintegration due to general corrosion only was estimated to be 770 years after concrete vault failure. (3) The time to tank wall disintegration due to pitting corrosion was estimated to be 675 years after concrete vault failure. (4) The lower bound estimate for the time to tank wall disintegration is 675 years.

Wiersman, B. J.

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

COUPLED MECHANICAL AND HYDRAULIC MODELING OF GEOSYNTHETIC-REINFORCED COLUMN-SUPPORTED EMBANKMENTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.2.5 Excess Pore Water Pressure 310 CHAPTER SIX COMPARISON OF TWO-DIMENSIONAL AND THREE DIMENSIONAL STUDIES 323 6.1 Verification of Simplified Model 324 6.2 2D and 3D Comparisons 329 6.2.1 Maximum Settlement and Distortion... 330 6.2.2 Maximum Tension Developed in Geosynthetics 342 6.2.3 Maximum Stress Concentration ratio 349 6.2.4 Excess Pore Water Pressure 356 6.2.5 Summary 363 CHAPTER SEVEN CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 367 7.1 Conclusions...

Huang, Jie

2007-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

19

CANMET Gasifier Liner Coupon Material Test Report  

SciTech Connect

This report provides detailed test results consisting of test data and post-test inspections from Task 1 ''Cooled Liner Coupon Development and Test'' of the project titled ''Development of Technologies and Capabilities for Coal Energy Resources--Advanced Gasification Systems Development (AGSD)''. The primary objective of this development and test program is to verify that ceramic matrix composite (CMC) liner materials planned for use in an advanced gasifier pilot plant will successfully withstand the environments in a commercial gasifier. Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) designed and fabricated the cooled liner test assembly article that was tested in a slagging gasifier at CANMET Energy Technology Center (CETC-O) in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. The test program conducted in 2006 met the objective of operating the cooled liner test article at slagging conditions in a small scale coal gasifier at CETC-O for over the planned 100 hours. The test hardware was exposed to at least 30 high temperature excursions (including start-up and shut-down cycles) during the test program. The results of the testing has provided valuable information on gasifier startup and required cooling controls in steady state operation of future advanced gasifiers using similar liners. The test program also provided a significant amount of information in the areas of CMC materials and processing for improved capability in a gasifier environment and insight into CMC liner fabrication that will be essential for near-term advanced gasifier projects.

Mark Fitzsimmons; Dave Grimmett; Bryan McEnerney

2007-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

20

Landfill Instability and Its Implications Operation, Construction, and Design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Landfill Instability and Its Implications for Operation, Construction, and Design By: W. Douglas landfill waste slide, a 300,000 cubic yard landfill failure involving a geosynthetic clay liner, and a 100,000 cubic yard landfill failure involving leachate recirculation. Other failures of lesser magnitude also

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "geosynthetic clay liner" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

MiniBooNE liner integrity study  

SciTech Connect

The civil construction for the MiniBooNE project includes a 50-m decay path and beam absorbers. The decay path is a six-foot diameter corrugated metal pipe (CMP). To prevent activation of the groundwater, the CMP and beam absorbers are surrounded by crushed aggregate, and enclosed in a double-walled geotextile membrane, referred to as the liner. The minimum distance from the beam centerline to the liner is 10 feet. The double-wall construction of the liner forms three regions, the containment volume, the interstitial volume, and the exterior. Each of these volumes is connected to monitoring wells at both the upstream and downstream ends of the decay volume, i.e. a total of six monitoring pipes extend to the surface. To confirm the integrity of the liner system following its placement, the firm Earth Tech was contracted to perform tests. Michael Williams was the primary contact with Earth Tech. The following is the report from Earth Tech, with minor changes in the interest of clarity. A sketch of the decay region is shown; only one of the layers of the liner is shown, and only one monitoring port. At the time of these tests, the excavation in general, but particularly in the vicinity of the monitoring wells had not been backfilled in the final grade, as indicated by the dashed lines.

Ray Stefanski, Phil Martin and Jeff Sims

2001-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

22

Use of fluidized bed combustion by-products for liners and alkali substitutes. Technical report, March 1--May 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

Fluidized Bed Combustion of coal eliminates most emissions of S and N oxides but produces sizable volumes of a solid residue that EPA may require to be placed in capped and lined landfills. Fluidized Bed Combustors are one of the most promising growth markets for Illinois coal and imposing cap and liner requirements may make the technology uneconomic. Fluidized Bed residues are cementlike and when mixed with soil, produce a material as impermeable as the clay liners used at landfills. This project will demonstrate that the residues can be mixed with soils by regular construction equipment and used in place of clays as liner material. The demonstration cap will cover an area of 7 acres and will prevent water infiltration into acid producing material. Baseline studies of Briar Creek indicate that the water is now highly degraded by acid drainage. Construction delays have enhanced the data collected on Briar Creek by allowing monitoring to continue through major seasonal changes without any effects attributable to the FBC ash. Materials needed to place the wells and lysimeters have been obtained. A contractor will build and deliver a mobile foam generator and spray to the field to demonstrate fugitive dust control from FBC fly ash (dust problem is one key barrier to more widespread use of FBC ash).

Paul, B.C.; Esling, S. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States); Pisani, F. [Illinois Abandoned Mined Lands reclamation Council (United States); Wells, T. [Archer-Daniels-Midland Co., Minneapolis, MN (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

23

Influence of atomic processes on the implosion of plasma liners  

SciTech Connect

The influence of atomic physics processes on the implosion of plasma liners for magneto-inertial nuclear fusion has been investigated numerically by using the method of front tracking in spherically symmetric geometry and equation of state models accounting for dissociation and ionization. Simulation studies of the self-collapse of argon liners to be used in the Los Alamos Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX) program have been performed as well as studies of implosion of deuterium and argon liners on plasma targets. Results show that atomic processes in converging liners reduce the temperature of liners and increase the Mach number that results in the increase of the stagnation pressure and the fusion energy gain. For deuterium and argon liners imploding on plasma targets, dissociation and ionization increased the stagnation pressure and the fusion energy gain by the factor of 1.5 (deuterium) and 2 (argon) correspondingly. Similarly, ionization during the self-collapse of argon liners leads to approximately doubling of the Mach number and the stagnation pressure. The influence of the longitudinal density spread of the liner has also been investigated. The self-collapse stagnation pressure decreased by the factor of 8.7 when the initial position of the liner was shifted from the merging radius (33 cm) to the PLX chamber edge (137.2 cm). Simulations with and without the heat conduction demonstrated that the heat conduction has negligible effect on the self-collapse pressure of argon liners.

Kim, Hyoungkeun; Zhang Lina [Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); Samulyak, Roman [Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); Computational Science Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Parks, Paul [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

24

Modified clay sorbents  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A novel modified clay sorbent and method of treating industrial effluents to remove trace pollutants, such as dioxins, biphenyls, and polyaromatics such as benzo(a)pyrene and pentachlorophenol. The novel clay sorbent has a composite structure in which the interlayer space of an expandable clay, such as smectite, is filled with polyvalent or multivalent inorganic cations which forces weaker surfactant cations to locate on the surface of the clay in such an orientation that the resulting composite is hydrophilic in nature. A specific example is cetylpyridinium-hydroxy aluminum-montmorillonite. In certain embodiments, a non-expanding clay, such as kaolinite, is used and surfactant cations are necessarily located on an external surface of the clay. A specific example is cetylpyridinium-kaolinite.

Fogler, H. Scott (Ann Arbor, MI); Srinivasan, Keeran R. (Livonia, MI)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Examination of shaped charge liner shock loading  

SciTech Connect

A series of experiments was conducted for the purpose of achieving a more fundamental understanding of the shaped charge liner shock loading environment. The test configuration, representing the middle portion of a shaped charge, consists of a 50 mm deep, 100 mm tall, and 2 mm thick copper plate driven by 50 mm deep, 100 mm tall, tapered thickness wedge of LX-14. An electrically driven 50 mm square flyer is used to surface initiate the base of the LX-14 causing a plane detonation wave to propagate into the explosive wedge along the liner surface. Fabry-Perot laser velocimetry measures the particle velocity time history of the plate. The CTH and DYNA2D hydrocodes are used to simulate the experiments. Calculations of the velocity profiles are compared to the experimental results. The effects of mesh density, copper material failure and strength models, and explosive detonation models are discussed.

Murphy, M.J.; Moore, T.W.; Lee, C.G.; Breithaupt, R.; Avara, G.R.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Reservoir compaction loads on casings and liners  

SciTech Connect

Pressure drawdown due to production from a reservoir causes compaction of the reservoir formation which induces axial and radial loads on the wellbore. Reservoir compaction loads increase during the production life of a well, and are greater for deviated wells. Presented here are casing and liner loads at initial and final pressure drawdowns for a particular reservoir and at well deviation angles of 0 to 45 degrees.

Wooley, G.R.; Prachner, W.

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Composite liner, multi-megabar shock driver development  

SciTech Connect

A magnetically imploded, cylindrical, multi-layer liner is under development for use as an equation of state shock driver using energetic, pulsed-power sources. The stability and uniformity of the imploding liner has been investigated on the Pegasus pulsed-power facility at liner velocities of >7 mm/usec. Using a thick aluminum driver layer to carry the current and a platinum impactor layer to generate the shock on impact with a target, the expected platinum-on-platinum shock level is 6 to 8 Mbar for operation of the Pegasus capacitor bank at the maximum charge voltage of 90 kV. The initial liner design utilized 8 grams of aluminum with a 1 gram (12-micron thick) layer of platinum on the inside. The inner surface was observed with flash radiography oriented transversely to the axis of the collapsing liner, and with fiber-optic time-of-arrival detectors on the target. Short wavelength perturbations of the inner surface along the axial direction were observed with amplitudes between 200 to 400 microns. A second liner was evaluated with increased aluminum mass and thickness to avoid drive current penetration and the resulting melting and susceptibility to Rayleigh Taylor instabilities. With 10 grams of aluminum at an initial radius of 2.5 cm, the initial liner thickness was almost 50% greater than for the first liner. This liner was observed to be more uniform at impact than the initial design, with perturbed amplitudes less than 100 to 200 microns at wavelengths of a few millimeters. Based on these results a third experiment is being prepared with the 10 gram aluminum liner of the second design and with a 1 gram, 15 micron platinum impactor layer. Liner stability measurements will be presented, application of this liner system to EOS measurement will be discussed, and the evolution to higher energy experiments on ATLAS will be presented.

Bartsch, R.R.; Clark, D.A.; Morgan, D.V. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

28

E-Print Network 3.0 - ablative lithium liner Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9 Defect Analysis of Vehicle Compressed Natural Gas Summary: Process Fitting Internal Plastic Liner External Composite Layer Metal Fitting 12;HDPE Cylinder Liner......

29

High energy imploding liner experiment HEL-1: Experimental results  

SciTech Connect

Magnetically driven imploding liner systems can be used as a source of shock energy for materials equation of state studies, implosion driven magnetized plasma fusion experiments, and other similar applications. The imploding liner is a cylinder of conducting material through which a current is passed in the longitudinal direction. Interaction of the current with its own magnetic field causes the liner to implode. Sources of electrical energy for imploding liner systems are capacitor banks or explosive pulse power systems seeded by capacitor banks. In August, 1996, a high energy liner experiment (HEL-1) was conducted at the All-Russia Scientific Research Institute (VNIIEF) in Sarov, Russia. A 5 tier 1 meter diameter explosive disk generator provided electrical energy to drive a 48 cm outside diameter, 4 mm thick, aluminum alloy liner having a mass of about 11kg onto an 11 cm diameter diagnostic package. The purpose of the experiment was to measure performance of the explosive pulse power generator and the heavy imploding liner. Electrical performance diagnostics included inductive (B-dot) probes, Faraday Rotation current measurement, Rogowski total current measurement, and voltage probes. Flux loss and conductor motion diagnostics included current-joint voltage measurements and motion sensing contact pins. Optical and electrical impact pins, inductive (B-dot) probes, manganin pressure probes, and continuously recording resistance probes in the Central Measuring Unit (CMU) and Piezo and manganin pressure probes, optical beam breakers, and inductive probes located in the glide planes were used as liner symmetry and velocity diagnostics. Preliminary analysis of the data indicate that a peak current of more than 100 MA was attained and the liner velocity was between 6.7 km/sec and 7.5 km/sec. Liner kinetic energy was between 22 MJ and 35 MJ. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Clark, D.A.; Anderson, B.G.; Ekdahl, C.A. [and others

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Liners for ion transport membrane systems  

SciTech Connect

Ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel comprising an interior, an exterior, an inlet, an inlet conduit, an outlet, and an outlet conduit; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein the inlet and the outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; (c) a gas manifold having an interior surface wherein the gas manifold is in flow communication with the interior region of each of the planar ion transport membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel; and (d) a liner disposed within any of the inlet conduit, the outlet conduit, and the interior surface of the gas manifold.

Carolan, Michael Francis (Allentown, PA); Miller, Christopher Francis (Macungie, PA)

2010-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

31

CANMET Gasifier Liner Coupon Material Test Plan  

SciTech Connect

The test plan detailed in this topical report supports Task 1 of the project titled ''Development of Technologies and Capabilities for Coal Energy Resources - Advanced Gasification Systems Development (AGSD)''. The purpose of these tests is to verify that materials planned for use in an advanced gasifier pilot plant will withstand the environments in a commercial gasifier. Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) has developed and designed the cooled liner test assembly article that will be tested at CANMET Energy Technology Centre (CETC-O) in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (CETC-O). The Test Plan TP-00364 is duplicated in its entirety, with formatting changes to comply with the format required for this Topical Report. The table of contents has been modified to include the additional material required by this topical report. Test Request example and drawings of non-proprietary nature are also included as appendices.

Mark Fitzsimmons; Alan Darby; Fred Widman

2005-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

32

Use of fluidized bed combustion by-products for liners and alkali substitutes. Technical report, December 1, 1994--February 28, 1995  

SciTech Connect

Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) of coal eliminates most emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides, but produces sizable volumes of a solid residue that EPA may require to be placed in capped and lined landfills. Fluidized Bed Combustors are one of the most promising growth markets for Illinois coal and imposing cap and liner requirements would render the technology economically inviable. Fluidized Bed residues are cement-like and when mixed with soil produce a material as impermeable as the clay liners used at landfills. This project will demonstrate that Fluidized Bed Combustion Residues can be mixed with soils by regular construction equipment and used in place of clays as a liner material. The demonstration cap will cover an area of seven acres, and will prevent water infiltration into acid producing material. Baseline studies of Briar Creek indicate that the water is now highly degraded by acid drainage. Construction delays have enhanced the data collected on Briar Creek by allowing monitoring to continue through major seasonal changes without any effects attributable to the FBC ash. The materials needed to place the wells and lysimeters as soon as the weather improves this spring have been purchased and delivered. Also experiments suggest that it may be possible to control dust by foam conditioning the FBC ash at the power station.

Paul, B.C.; Esling, S. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States); Pisani, F. [Illinois Abandoned Mined Lands Reclamation Council, IL (United States); Wells, T. [Archer-Daniels-Midland Co., Minneapolis, MN (United States)

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Studies of solid liner stability in electromagnetic implosions  

SciTech Connect

The authors have conducted a series of experiments involving electromagnetic implosion of solid aluminum liners on the Pegasus II capacitor bank. These experiments consisted of liners on which single wavelength perturbations had been cut into the outer surface. Typical liner thickness was 400 mm and the usual material was the 1100 aluminum alloy. This alloy is relatively soft with a high conductivity. Recently comparisons have been made with harder but more resistive alloys. The sinusoidal perturbations ranged in amplitude between 10--100 mm and their wavelength between 0.5 and 2.0 mm. Radiographs of the imploding liners showed that the initial perturbations grew to amplitudes of 2000--4000 mm before completely rupturing and injecting flux into the region interior to the liner. Throughout the growth of the perturbations, there was virtually no coupling to other wavelengths. Even after liner disruption, the series of disk-like structures that resulted remained at the same scale length until impact with a center conductor. Two-dimensional MHD simulations of these experiments with the high conductivity Al-1100 alloy have yielded consistently good agreement, both qualitatively and quantitatively. Because the magnetic diffusion time in this alloy is comparable to or longer than the growth time, they find that the dynamics can be approximated by theories of Rayleigh-Taylor instability for which strength has been included. Recently, the authors have conducted two experiments with other aluminum alloys. These alloys have a significantly higher tensile yield strength than the 1100 alloy, but also somewhat high resistivity. Because the magnetic diffusion, ohmic heating, and loss of strength all occur on shorter times than does the growth, the forces acting on the liner are more distributed throughout the liner thickness than on the previous experiments. Qualitatively different features have been observed in the radiographs of these experiments. Two-dimensional MHD simulations and analysis will be presented of both sets of experiments and interpretations of the effect of conductivity on liner stability will be given.

Atchison, W.L.; Faehl, R.J.; Rienovsky, R.E.; Morgan, D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

34

Comparison of four composite landfill liner systems considering leakage rate and mass flux  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Comparison of four composite landfill liner systems considering leakage rate and mass flux T, Seoul, Republic of Korea ABSTRACT: Performance of four different municipal solid waste landfill liner to evaluate the performance of municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill liner systems. A liner system that allows

35

Resuspension of Clays Under Waves  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Owing to their complex form, very small size and relatively low density, clays freshly deposited in a bay are vulnerable to resuspension when agitated by waves. The model of resuspension of clays under wave motio...

Prida Thimakorn

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

The Clay Minerals Society  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the Ha y-Lacroix Prize rewarded the PhD work of Aur lie Violette and Johan Villeneuve (see Elements, volume 7, number 4...its vibrational spectra Jakub Matusik, Eva Scholtzov , and Daniel Tunega Clay mineralogy of the Zhada sediments: Evidence for...

37

NEPA COMPLIANCE SURVEY Project Information Project Title: Liner Drilling Date:  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Liner Drilling Date: Liner Drilling Date: 4-5-10 DOE Code: 71092 Cont ractor Code: 8067-766 Project Lead: Frank Ingham Project Overview Nothing out of the ordinary for drilling an existing location 1. What are the environmental impacts? NE SW Sec 21 , T39N, R78W (45-3-X-21 well) 2. What is the legal location? 3. What is the duration of the project? Approximately a week 4 . What major equipment will be used if any (work over rig, drilling rig, Drilling Rig etc.)? Will Drill out of 9 5/8 caslng with liner drillng assembly. After drilling approximately 750 to 1000 ft, will test liner hanging assembly set and retrieve multiple times. The table b elow is to be completed by the Project Lead and reviewed by the Environmental Specialis t and the DOE NEPA Compliance Officer. NOTE: If Change of Scope occurs, Project Lead must submit a new NEPA Compliance Survey a

38

Cementing temperatures for deep-well production liners  

SciTech Connect

Temperature of cement is an important factor in properly cementing deep well production liners, yet current methods of determining cement temperatures do not account for all variables. In this paper a computer model predicts temperatures of cement while pumping and while waiting on cement, compares computed and measured temperatures, defines the importance of certain cementing variables on temperatures, and provides an explanation of difficulties encountered while cementing liner tops.

Wooley, G.R.; Galate, J.W.; Giussani, A.P.

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Study on Influence of Cylinder Liner Surface Texture on Lubrication Performance for Cylinder Liner–Piston Ring Components  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A marine diesel engine, where the cylinder liner–piston ... rubbing pairs, is the heart of a marine system. Studying the lubrication characteristics of the ... for rational design of the CLPR to reduce wear and p...

Zhiwei Guo; Chengqing Yuan; Peng Liu; Zhongxiao Peng; Xinping Yan

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Expandable Metal Liner For Downhole Components  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liner for an annular downhole component is comprised of an expandable metal tube having indentations along its surface. The indentations are formed in the wall of the tube either by drawing the tube through a die, by hydroforming, by stamping, or roll forming and may extend axially, radially, or spirally along its wall. The indentations accommodate radial and axial expansion of the tube within the downhole component. The tube is inserted into the annular component and deformed to match an inside surface of the component. The tube may be expanded using a hydroforming process or by drawing a mandrel through the tube. The tube may be expanded in such a manner so as to place it in compression against the inside wall of the component. The tube is useful for improving component hydraulics, shielding components from contamination, inhibiting corrosion, and preventing wear to the downhole component during use. It may also be useful for positioning conduit and insulated conductors within the component. An insulating material may be disposed between the tube and the component in order to prevent galvanic corrosion of the downhole component.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe R. (Provo, UT)

2004-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "geosynthetic clay liner" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Metal liner-driven quasi-isentropic compression of deuterium  

SciTech Connect

Properties of degenerate hydrogen and deuterium (D) at pressures of the order of terapascals are of key interest to Planetary Science and Inertial Confinement Fusion. In order to recreate these conditions in the laboratory, we present a scheme, where a metal liner drives a cylindrically convergent quasi-isentropic compression in a D fill. We first determined an external pressure history for driving a self-similar implosion of a D shell from a fictitious flow simulation [D. S. Clark and M. Tabak, Nucl. Fusion 47, 1147 (2007)]. Then, it is shown that this D implosion can be recreated inside a beryllium liner by shaping the current pulse. For a peak current of 10.8 MA cold and nearly isochoric D is assembled at around 12 500 kg/m{sup 3}. Finally, our two-dimensional Gorgon simulations show the robustness of the implosion method to the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability when using a sufficiently thick liner.

Weinwurm, Marcus; Bland, Simon N.; Chittenden, Jeremy P. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom)] [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom)

2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

42

Surface preparation of the S-1 Spheromak flux core liner  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Different methods of preparing the S-1 Spheromak flux core liner for exposure to plasma (i.e. cleaning and polishing techniques) were studied with the goal of reducing the net impurity resources available for contaminating the plasma during Spheromak formation. The S-1 Inconel 601 liner is described together with an analysis of topography and surface and/or near-surface composition of various Inconel samples subjected to mechanical, electrochemical and chemical preparation techniques. The general conclusion based on the analysis of the samples is that the different techniques are roughly competitive on the basis of surface composition, while less preparation tends to give better results in terms of the criteria mentioned above. This has helped to simplify the liner preparation.

R. Moore; C. Macey; S. Cohen; A. Janos

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Parameters for landfill-liner leak-rate model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PARAMETERS FOR LANDFILL-LINER LEAK-RATE MODEL A Thesis by STEVEN CARLTON BAHRT Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University i n partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1985 Major... Subject: Civil Engineering PARAMETERS FOR LANDFILL-LINER LEAK-RATE MODEL A Thesis by STEVEN CARLTON BAHRT Approved as to style and content by: Rob nt Lytto (Co-Cha' man of C mmittee) ayne Dunl p (Member) Kink W. Brown (Co-Chairman of Committee...

Bahrt, Steven Carlton

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

44

Model to aid the design of composite landfill liners  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MODEL TO AID THE DESI(iN OF COMPOSITE LANDFILL LINERS A Thesis by KIFAYATHULLA MOHAMMED Submitted to the School of Graduate Studies Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1993... Major Subject: Safety Engineering MODEL TO AID THE DESIGN OF COMPOSITE LANDFILL LINERS A Thesis by Kifayathulla Mohammed Approved as to style and content by: Kevin J. Mclnnes (Co-chairman of Committee) Richard P. Kon n (Member John P. Wagner...

Mohammed, Kifayathulla

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

45

Case history of liner veneer instability , B. Queen2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

during installation of a landfill geocomposite liner system led to two slides on a 3H:1V slope during construction. The landfill was being developed for final disposal of flue gas desulfurization by. To stabilize/solidify the by- product, making it suitable for placement in a residual waste landfill, fly ash

46

An analysis of selected factors controlling or affecting the hydraulic conductivity of compacted soil liners  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 19B6 Major Subject: Civil Engineering AM ANALYSIS OF SELECTED FACTORS CONTROLLING OR AFFECTING THE HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY OF COMPACTED SOIL LINERS A Thesis by ROBERT CARY SPEAKE, JR. Approved... Figure 4. Double-liner design for a surface impoundment Figure 5. Schematic of example macrofeatures found in soil liners 21 Figure 6. Parallelopiped showing components of fractured-liner model 23 Figure 7. Head of leachate on liner ver sus flow rate...

Speake, Robert Cary

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

47

Adsorption of surfactant on clays  

SciTech Connect

Surfactants used to enhance remediation of soils by soil washing are often lost in the process. neither the amount nor the cause of this loss is known. It is assumed that clays present in the soil are responsible for the loss of the surfactant. In this paper, adsorption properties of the nonionic surfactant Tergitol 15-S-7 on clays are presented. Of the clays used, montmorillonite not only sorbed the largest quantity of Tergitol 15-S-7 but also held it most strongly. 13 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Ray, A.B.; Ma, J. [Foster Wheeler Environmental Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States); Borst, M. [Environmental Protection Agency, Edison, NJ (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

48

Consideration of liners and covers in performance assessments  

SciTech Connect

On-site disposal cells are in use and being considered at several United States Department of Energy (USDOE) sites as the final disposition for large amounts of waste associated with cleanup of contaminated areas and facilities. These disposal cells are typically regulated by States and/or the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) in addition to having to comply with requirements in DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management due to the radioactive waste. The USDOE-Environmental Management Office of Site Restoration formed a working group to foster improved communication and sharing of information for personnel associated with these CERCLA disposal cells and work towards more consistent assumptions, as appropriate, for technical and policy considerations related to CERCLA risk assessments and DOE Order 435.1 performance assessments in support of a Record of Decision and Disposal Authorization Statement, respectively. One of the issues considered by the working group, which is addressed in this report, was how to appropriately consider the performance of covers and liners/leachate collections systems in the context of a DOE Order 435.1 performance assessment (PA). This same information may be appropriate for consideration within CERCLA risk assessments for these facilities. These OSDCs are generally developed to meet hazardous waste (HW) disposal design standards under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) as well as the DOE Order 435.1 performance based standards for disposal of radioactive waste. To meet the standards for HW, the facilities typically include engineered covers and liner/leachate collection systems. Thus, when considering such facilities in the context of a DOE Order 435.1 PA, there is a need to address the evolution of performance of covers and liner/leachate collection systems in the context of meeting a performance standard considering time frames of 1,000 years for compliance and potentially thousands of years based on the wastes to test the robustness of the system. Experience has shown that there are a range of expectations and perspectives from the different regulators involved at different sites when reviewing assumptions related to cover and liner/leachate collection system performance. However for HW disposal alone under RCRA the design standards are typically considered sufficient by the regulators without a requirement to assess long-term performance thus avoiding the need to consider the details addressed in this report. This report provides suggestions for a general approach to address covers and liners/leachate collection systems in a DOE Order 435.1 PA and how to integrate assessments with defense-in-depth considerations such as design, operations, and waste acceptance criteria to address uncertainties. The emphasis is on water balances and management in such assessments. Specific information and references are provided for details needed to address the evolution of individual components of cover and liner/leachate collection systems. This information was then synthesized into suggestions for best practices for cover and liner system design and examples of approaches to address the performance of covers and liners as part of a performance assessment of the disposal system. Numerous references are provided for sources of information to help describe the basis for performance of individual components of cover and liner systems.

Phifer, Mark A. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States); Seitz, Robert R. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States); Suttora, Linda C. [USDOE Enviromental Management, Washington, DC (United States)

2014-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

49

Jamaican red clay tobacco pipes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

JAMAICAN RED CLAY TOBACCO PIPES A Thesis by KENAN PAUL HEIDTKE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS December 1992 Major Subject...: Anthropology JAMAICAN RED CLAY TOBACCO PIPES A Thesis by KENAN PAUL HEIDTKE Approved as to style and content by: Dorm L. Hamilton (Chair of Committee) Frederick H. van Doorninck, J (Member) enry C. Schmidt (Member) Vaughn M. Bryant (Head...

Heidtke, Kenan Paul

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

50

Liner surface improvements for low friction piston ring packs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The development of engine components in the automotive industry is governed by several constraints such as environmental legislation and customer expectations. About a half of the frictional losses in an internal combustion engine come from the interactions between the piston assembly and cylinder liner surface. The tribological considerations in the contact between the piston ring and cylinder liner have attracted much attention over the past few decades. Many non-conventional cylinder liner finishes have been, and are being, developed with the aim to reduce friction losses and oil consumption, but the effects of the surface finish on piston ring pack performance is not well understood. One way of reducing friction in the cylinder system is to reduce the tangential load from the piston ring pack, focusing on the oil control ring. However, the side-effect of this is a disappointingly increased oil consumption. In this study a number of different cylinder liner surface specifications were developed and implemented in test engines with the aim of maintaining the level for oil consumption when decreasing the tangential load for the piston ring pack. To improve our understanding of the result, the same surfaces were evaluated in elastic and elasto-plastic rough contact and hydrodynamic flow simulation models. It is shown that oil consumption is strongly related to surface texture on the cylinder liners and at lower speeds (900–1200 rpm), a 'rougher surface' with a high core (e.g. Sk) and valley roughness (e.g. Svk) results in higher oil consumption. At the medium speed range (1200–3600 rpm), oil consumption continues to dominate for the 'rough' surfaces but with a visible influence of a lower oil consumption for a decreased roughness within the 'rough' surface group. 'Smooth' surfaces with a 'smooth' core (Sk), irrespective of the valley component (Svk), show similar oil consumption. For engine speeds above 3600 rpms, an increase in plateau roughness results in higher oil consumption. Throughout the study, standard roughness parameters were computed to compare with the results from engine testing and simulation. Future work will be directed to continuous optimization between oil consumption and friction. Improving the understanding of the functional cylinder system surfaces' ability to form oil films in the cylinder system opens up opportunities, not only in reducing the tangential load of piston ring packs but also in optimizing oil viscosity in order to reduce friction.

C Anderberg; Z Dimkovski; B-G Rosén

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

CLAY AND SHALE--1999 18.1 CLAY AND SHALE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is required under the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Program, which was established of hazardous air pollutants. The agency further concluded that there were approximately 20 major sources on the Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) for the clay-products-manufacturing industries. The MACT

52

OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

layer Geosynthetic liner to stop storm water infiltration Historical waste disposal practices of unconfined pits and trenches containing low level radioactive and organic waste. Remediation strategies have

53

Clay Nanoparticle-Supported Single-Molecule FluorescenceSpectroelectr...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Clay Nanoparticle-Supported Single-Molecule Fluorescence Spectroelectrochemistry. Clay Nanoparticle-Supported Single-Molecule Fluorescence Spectroelectrochemistry. Abstract: We...

54

2005 Minerals Yearbook CLAY AND SHALE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

aggregate (16%), and portland cement (15%); for fire clay, heavy-clay products (54%) and refractory products, in decreasing order of tonnage, Georgia, Wyoming, Texas, Alabama, North Carolina, Missouri, South Carolina, Ohio); Imerys (ball clay and kaolin); J.M. Huber Corp. (kaolin); Oil-Dri Corp. (fuller's earth); Thiele Kaolin

55

Comparative Study of Thermomechanical Properties of Indigenous Blended Clay and Clay of Ukraine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper investigates the particle size distribution chemical composition fired modulus of rupture (MOR) and apparent porosity of blended clay utilizing clays available in Bikaner region and comparison with a imported Ukrainian clay. The blended clay B2 presents good white buff fired colour higher fired modulus of rupture and low porosity. The blend is suitable for Traditional Indian ceramic industries and a substitute of Ukrainian clay in India.

M. S. Shekhawat; S. K. Tak; R. Mangal; A. K. Gupta

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

SERVICE LIFE OF A LANDFILL LINER SYSTEM SUBJECTED TO ELEVATED TEMPERATURES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SERVICE LIFE OF A LANDFILL LINER SYSTEM SUBJECTED TO ELEVATED TEMPERATURES Timothy D. Stark, Ph and possible publication in the ASCE Journal of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste Management April 14-Engineered-Components-ServiceLife-Submission_2.pdf #12;2 SERVICE LIFE OF LANDFILL LINER SYSTEMS SUBJECTED TO ELEVATED1 TEMPERATURES2 Timothy D

57

Tank 241-AY-102 Secondary Liner Corrosion Evaluation - 14191  

SciTech Connect

In October 2012, Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) determined that the primary tank of 241-AY-102 (AY-102) was leaking. A number of evaluations were performed after discovery of the leak which identified corrosion from storage of waste at the high waste temperatures as one of the major contributing factors in the failure of the tank. The propensity for corrosion of the waste on the annulus floor will be investigated to determine if it is corrosive and must be promptly removed or if it is benign and may remain in the annulus. The chemical composition of waste, the temperature and the character of the steel are important factors in assessing the propensity for corrosion. Unfortunately, the temperatures of the wastes in contact with the secondary steel liner are not known; they are estimated to range from 45 deg C to 60 deg C. It is also notable that most corrosion tests have been carried out with un-welded, stress-relieved steels, but the secondary liner in tank AY-102 was not stress-relieved. In addition, the cold weather fabrication and welding led to many problems, which required repeated softening of the metal to flatten secondary bottom during its construction. This flame treatment may have altered the microstructure of the steel.

Boomer, Kayle D. [Washington River Protection Solutions (United States); Washenfelder, Dennis J. [Washington River Protection Solutions (United States); Johnson, Jeremy M. [Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of River Protection

2014-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

58

Development of improved performance refractory liner materials for slagging gasifiers  

SciTech Connect

Refractory liners for slagging gasifiers used in power generation, chemical production, or as a possible future source of hydrogen for a hydrogen based economy, suffer from a short service life. These liner materials are made of high Cr2O3 and lower levels of Al2O3 and/or ZrO2. As a working face lining in the gasifier, refractories are exposed to molten slags at elevated temperature that originate from ash in the carbon feedstock, including coal and/or petroleum coke. The molten slag causes refractory failure by corrosion dissolution and by spalling. The Albany Research Center is working to improve the performance of Cr2O3 refractories and to develop refractories without Cr2O3 or with Cr2O3 content under 30 wt pct. Research on high Cr2O3 materials has resulted in an improved refractory with phosphate additions that is undergoing field testing. Results to date of field trials, along with research direction on refractories with no or low Cr2O3, will be discussed.

Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Bennett, James P.; Powell, Cynthia; Thomas, Hugh; Krabbe, Rick

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Formation of imploding plasma liners for fundamental HEDP studies and MIF Standoff Driver Concept  

SciTech Connect

The disciplines of High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) and Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) are characterized by hypervelocity implosions and strong shocks. The Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX) is focused on reaching HEDP and/or ICF relevant regimes in excess of 1 Mbar peak pressure by the merging and implosion of discrete plasma jets, as a potentially efficient path towards these extreme conditions in a laboratory. In this work we have presented the first 3D simulations of plasma liner, formation, and implosion by the merging of discrete plasma jets in which ionization, thermal conduction, and radiation are all included in the physics model. The study was conducted by utilizing a smoothed particle hydrodynamics code (SPHC) and was a part of the plasma liner experiment (PLX). The salient physics processes of liner formation and implosion are studied, namely vacuum propagation of plasma jets, merging of the jets (liner forming), implosion (liner collapsing), stagnation (peak pressure), and expansion (rarefaction wave disassembling the target). Radiative transport was found to significantly reduce the temperature of the liner during implosion, thus reducing the thermal leaving more pronounced gradients in the plasma liner during the implosion compared with ideal hydrodynamic simulations. These pronounced gradients lead to a greater sensitivity of initial jet geometry and symmetry on peak pressures obtained. Accounting for ionization and transport, many cases gave higher peak pressures than the ideal hydrodynamic simulations. Scaling laws were developed accordingly, creating a non-dimensional parameter space in which performance of an imploding plasma jet liner can be estimated. It is shown that HEDP regimes could be reached with ~ 5 MJ of liner energy, which would translate to roughly 10 to 20 MJ of stored (capacitor) energy. This is a potentially significant improvement over the currently available means via ICF of achieving HEDP and nuclear fusion relevant parameters.

Cassibry, Jason [Univ. of AL in Huntsville; Hatcher, Richard [Univ. of AL in Huntsville; Stanic, Milos [Univ. of AL in Huntsville

2013-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

60

A competing risk model for the reliability of cylinder liners in marine Diesel engines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, a competing risk model is proposed to describe the reliability of the cylinder liners of a marine Diesel engine. Cylinder liners presents two dominant failure modes: wear degradation and thermal cracking. The wear process is described through a stochastic process, whereas the failure time due to the thermal cracking is described by the Weibull distribution. The use of the proposed model allows performing goodness-of-fit test and parameters estimation on the basis of both wear and failure data. Moreover, it enables reliability estimates of the state of the liners to be obtained and the hierarchy of the failure mechanisms to be determined for any given age and wear level of the liner. The model has been applied to a real data set: 33 cylinder liners of Sulzer RTA 58 engines, which equip twin ships of the Grimaldi Group. Estimates of the liner reliability and of other quantities of interest under the competing risk model are obtained, as well as the conditional failure probability and mean residual lifetime, given the survival age and the accumulated wear. Furthermore, the model has been used to estimate the probability that a liner fails due to one of the failure modes when both of these modes act.

D. Bocchetti; M. Giorgio; M. Guida; G. Pulcini

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "geosynthetic clay liner" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

The use of kaolinite/zeolite mixtures for landfill liners  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The use of kaolinite/zeolite mixtures as alternative landfill materials has been studied. The ratios of kaolinite/zeolite used were K/Z = 0.1, K/Z = 0.2 and K/Z = 0.3. To determine the geotechnical and physicochemical properties of the mixtures, their optimum moisture content, which provides the best compression out in the field, was determined by a compaction test. Also, tests for unconfined compression strength, hydraulic conductivity and consolidation were carried out. As a result, the optimum mixture was found to be K/Z = 0.2. To test the effect of contaminants, this optimum mixture was contaminated with Na, Ca, Pb, and Cu, and tests of the specific gravity, liquid and plastic limits, unconfined compression strength, consolidation, pH, and electrical conductivity were performed. It is concluded that the K/Z = 0.20 mixture has high absorption capacity and can be used in the landfill liner materials.

Yucel Guney; Savas Koparel

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Development of a combustor liner composed of ceramic matrix composite (CMC)  

SciTech Connect

The Research Institute of Advanced Materials Gas-Generator (AMG), which is a joint effort by the Japan Key Technology Center and 14 firms in Japan, has, since fiscal year 1992, been conducting technological studies on an innovative gas generator that will use 20% less fuel, weight 50% less, and emit 70% less NO{sub x} than the conventional gas generator through the use of advanced materials. Within this project, there is an R and D program for applying ceramic matrix composite (CMC) liners to the combustor, which is a major component of the gas generator. In the course of R and D, continuous SiC fiber-reinforced SiC composite (SiC{sup F}/SiC) was selected as the most suitable CMD for the combustor liner because of its thermal stability and formability. An evaluation of the applicability of the SiC{sup F}/SiC composite to the combustor liner on the basis of an evaluation of its mechanical properties and stress analysis of a SiC{sup F}/SiC combustor liner was carried out, and trial SiC{sup F}/SiC combustor liners, the largest of which was 500-mm in diameter, were fabricated by the filament winding and PIP (polymer impregnation and pyrolysis) method. Using a SiC{sup F}/SiC liner built to the actual dimensions, a noncooling combustion test was carried out and even when the gas temperature was raised to 1873K at outlet of the liner, no damage was observed after the test. Through their studies, the authors have confirmed the applicability of the selected SiC{sup F}/SiC composite as a combustor liner. In this paper, the authors describe the present state of the R and D of a CMC combustor liner.

Nishio, K.; Igashira, K.I.; Take, K. [Research Inst. of Advanced Material Gas-Generator, Tokyo (Japan); Suemitsu, T. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries Limited, Hyogo (Japan)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Method and Apparatus for Monitoring the Integrity of a Geomembrane Liner using time Domain Reflectometry  

SciTech Connect

Leaks are detected in a multi-layered geomembrane liner by a two-dimensional time domain reflectometry (TDR) technique. The TDR geomembrane liner is constructed with an electrically conductive detection layer positioned between two electrically non-conductive dielectric layers, which are each positioned between the detection layer and an electrically conductive reference layer. The integrity of the TDR geomembrane liner is determined by generating electrical pulses within the detection layer and measuring the time delay for any reflected electrical energy caused by absorption of moisture by a dielectric layer.

Morris, John L.

1998-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

64

Chromium(III)-doped pillared clays (PILC's)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Chromium(III)-doped pillared clays (PILC's) ... First, calcined Al-PILC was dispersed into an aqueous solution of sodium or ammonium ions. ...

K. A. Carrado; S. L. Suib; N. D. Skoularikis; R. W. Coughlin

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Clay Electric Cooperative, Inc- Solar Thermal Loans  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Clay Electric Cooperative (CEC), a Touchstone Energy Cooperative, covers 14 counties in northern Florida, including Gainesville, Keystone Heights, Lake City, Orange Park, Palatka, and Salt Springs....

66

Formation of Imploding Plasma Liners for HEDP and MIF Application  

SciTech Connect

Plasma jets with high density and velocity have a number of important applications in fusion energy and elsewhere, including plasma refueling, disruption mitigation in tokamaks, magnetized target fusion, injection of momentum into centrifugally confined mirrors, plasma thrusters, and high energy density plasmas (HEDP). In Magneto-Inertial Fusion (MIF), for example, an imploding material liner is used to compress a magnetized plasma to fusion conditions and to confine the resulting burning plasma inertially to obtain the necessary energy gain. The imploding shell may be solid, liquid, gaseous, or a combination of these states. The presence of the magnetic field in the target plasma suppresses thermal transport to the plasma shell, thus lowering the imploding power needed to compress the target to fusion conditions. This allows the required imploding momentum flux to be generated electromagnetically using off-the-shelf pulsed power technology. Practical schemes for standoff delivery of the imploding momentum flux are required and are open topics for research. One approach for accomplishing this, called plasma jet driven magneto-inertial fusion (PJMIF), uses a spherical array of pulsed plasma guns to create a spherically imploding shell of very high velocity, high momentum flux plasma. This approach requires development of plasma jet accelerators capable of achieving velocities of 50-200 km/s with very precise timing and density profiles, and with high total mass and density. Low-Z plasma jets would require the higher velocities, whereas very dense high-Z plasma shells could achieve the goal at velocities of only 50-100 km/s. In this report, we describe our work to develop the pulsed plasma gun technology needed for an experimental scientific exploration of the PJMIF concept, and also for the other applications mentioned earlier. The initial goal of a few hundred of hydrogen at 200 km/s was eventually replaced with accelerating 8000 ?g of argon or xenon to 50 km/s for the Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Initial work used existing computational and analytical tools to develop and refine a specific plasma gun concept having a novel tapered coaxial electromagnetic accelerator contour with an array of symmetric ablative plasma injectors. The profile is designed to suppress the main barrier to success in coaxial guns, namely the blow-by instability in which the arc slips past and outruns the bulk of the plasma mass. Efforts to begin developing a set of annular non-ablative plasma injectors for the coaxial gun, in order to accelerate pure gases, resulted in development of linear parallel-plate MiniRailguns that turned out to work well as plasma guns in their own right and we subsequently chose them for an initial plasma liner experiment on the PLX facility at LANL. This choice was mainly driven by cost and schedule for that particular experiment, while longer term goals still projected use of coaxial guns for reactor-relevant applications for reasons of better symmetry, lower impurities, more compact plasma jet formation, and higher gun efficiency. Our efforts have focused mainly on 1) developing various plasma injection systems for both coax and linear railguns and ensuring they work reliably with the accelerator section, 2) developing a suite of plasma and gun diagnostics, 3) performing computational modeling to design and refine the plasma guns, 4) establishing a research facility dedicated to plasma gun development, and finally, 5) developing plasma guns and associated pulse power systems capable of achieving these goals and installing and testing the first two gun sets on the PLX facility at LANL. During the second funding cycle for this program, HyperV joined in a collaborative effort with LANL, the University of Alabama at Huntsville, and the University of New Mexico to perform a plasma liner experiment (PLX) to investigate the physics and technology of forming spherically imploding plasma liners. HyperV’s tasks focused on developing the plasma guns and associated pulse power syst

Witherspoon, F. Douglas [HyperV Technologies Corp.; Case, Andrew [HyperV Technologies Corp.; Brockington, Samuel [HyperV Technologies Corp.y; Messer, Sarah [HyperV Technologies Corp.; Bomgardner, Richard [HyperV Technologies Corp.; Phillips, Mike [HyperV Technologies Corp.; Wu, Linchun [HyperV Technologies Corp.; Elton, Ray [University of Maryland

2014-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

67

Stochastic Processes for Modeling the Wear of Marine Engine Cylinder Liners  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this chapter, a stochastic process-based approach is adopted to formulate the reliability function for cylinder liners of diesel engines used for marine propulsion, which fail when their wear exceeds a specifi...

Massimiliano Giorgio; Maurizio Guida; Gianpaolo Pulcini

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Tribological behavior of plasma spray coatings for marine diesel engine piston ring and cylinder liner  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High-temperature wear characteristics between plasma spray coated piston rings and cylinder liners were investigated to find the optimum combination of coating materials using the disc-on-plate reciprocating w...

Jong-Hyun Hwang; Myoung-Seoup Han…

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Knowledge sharing within strategic alliance networks and its influence on firm performance: the liner shipping industry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

With increasing ubiquity of globalisation and the knowledge-based economy, the significance of knowledge as a critical firm resource is widely acknowledged, whilst strategic alliances are increasingly employed as instruments for knowledge sharing. The progressive formation of prominent alliance networks has also spurred much research on the effects of alliance networks on firm performance. With scant maritime-related research on such areas and strategic alliances being rampant in liner shipping, it is important to understand the knowledge dynamics within liner shipping alliance networks and examine their impact on firm performance. An exploratory approach, via face-to-face interviews with liner shipping executives, was adopted to obtain detailed insights and understanding for all research objectives. The findings of this study revealed existing mechanisms of knowledge sharing within liner shipping alliance networks, illustrate how information sharing amongst partners enhances firm performance, and demonstrate the positive yet limited moderating effects of geographical proximity on the former relationship.

Beverly S.Y. Tan; Vinh V. Thai

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

On the efficacy of imploding plasma liners for magnetized fusion target compression  

SciTech Connect

A new theoretical model is formulated to study the idea of merging a spherical array of converging plasma jets to form a 'plasma liner' that further converges to compress a magnetized plasma target to fusion conditions [Y. C. F. Thio et al., 'Magnetized target fusion in a spheroidal geometry with standoff drivers', Current Trends in International Fusion Research II, edited by E. Panarella (National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, Canada, 1999)]. For a spherically imploding plasma liner shell with high initial Mach number (M=liner speed/sound speed) the rise in liner density with decreasing radius r goes as {rho}{approx}1/r{sup 2}, for any constant adiabatic index {gamma}=d ln p/d ln {rho}. Accordingly, spherical convergence amplifies the ram pressure of the liner on target by the factor A{approx}C{sup 2}, indicating strong coupling to its radial convergence C=r{sub m}/R, where r{sub m}(R)=jet merging radius (compressed target radius), and A=compressed target pressure/initial liner ram pressure. Deuterium-tritium (DT) plasma liners with initial velocity {approx}100 km/s and {gamma}=5/3, need to be hypersonic M{approx}60 and thus cold in order to realize values of A{approx}10{sup 4} necessary for target ignition. For optically thick DT liners, T<2 eV, n>10{sup 19}-10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}, blackbody radiative cooling is appreciable and may counteract compressional heating during the later stages of the implosion. The fluid then behaves as if the adiabatic index were depressed below 5/3, which in turn means that the same amplification A=1.6x10{sup 4} can be accomplished with a reduced initial Mach number M{approx_equal}12.7({gamma}-0.3){sup 4.86}, valid in the range (10liners assembled by current and anticipated plasma jets is <4%. A new similarity model for fusion {alpha}-particle heating of the collapsed liner indicates that 'spark' ignition of the DT liner fuel does not appear to be possible for magnetized fusion targets with typical threshold values of areal density {rho}R<0.02 g cm{sup -2}.

Parks, P. B. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5688 (United States)

2008-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

71

Intercalation of Trichloroethene by Sediment-Associated Clay...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Intercalation of Trichloroethene by Sediment-Associated Clay Minerals. Intercalation of Trichloroethene by Sediment-Associated Clay Minerals. Abstract: The objective of this...

72

Clay-Oil Droplet Suspensions in Electric Field.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Silicone oil droplets containing synthetic smectite clay submerged in another immiscible organic oil have been studied by observing clay particle movement, oil circulation and… (more)

Kjerstad, Knut Brøndbo

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

TIME DOMAIN REFLECTOMETRY MEASUREMENT AND HIGHLY PLASTIC CLAYS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 TIME DOMAIN REFLECTOMETRY MEASUREMENT AND HIGHLY PLASTIC CLAYS By: J. A. Kuhn1 and J. G. Zornberg for use in highly plastic clay. The clay used for experimentation was taken locally from the Eagle Ford Ford Clay is determined. INTRODUCTION The progression of wetting and drying fronts in highly plastic

Zornberg, Jorge G.

74

CLAYS--2000 19.1 By Robert L. Virta  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Administration (FDA) clarified its guidance document for dioxins in anticaking agents, including clay, used

75

Clay Minerals as Catalysts and Adsorbents  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... largely devoted to a discussion on the use of clay minerals as catalysts and industrial adsorbents ; in the later part of the afternoon some general papers Were also given. ...

D. M. C. MACEWAN

1948-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

76

Mechanics of Polymer?Clay Nanocomposites  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The mechanics of nanocomposites is critical in the design of nanomaterials with desirable properties. In this paper, the mechanics of polymer?clay nanocomposites is studied using a designed polymer and solution nanocomposite synthesis. A copolymer latex, ...

YuanQiao Rao; John M. Pochan

2006-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

77

Neutron Scattering Methods of Investigating Clay Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Of the techniques surveyed in the present proceedings, neutron scattering is probably the least familiar to clay ... a rather simple account of the theory of neutron scattering, while the third section describes ...

D. Keith Ross; Peter L. Hall

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Catalytic Wastewater Treatment Using Pillared Clays  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

After introduction on the use of solid catalysts in wastewater treatment technologies, particularly advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), this review discussed the use of pillared clay (PILC) materials in three ap...

Siglinda Perathoner; Gabriele Centi

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Resin Liner Recovery and Over-Packing at Ontario Power Generation's Western Waste Management Facility  

SciTech Connect

Spent resins generated from Ontario Power Generation (OPG)'s and Bruce Power's Candu reactor operations are stored at OPG's Western Waste Management Facility in Kincardine, Ontario, Canada. The older resins are contained in 3 m{sup 3} epoxy-coated cylindrical carbon steel containers known as resin liners. The liners are stored in a stacked configuration within cylindrical in-ground containers. Previous studies indicated evidence of unacceptable liner wall corrosion and the potential for eventual leakage of resin from the liners. Based on this, OPG elected to re-package the majority of the resin liners into stainless steel over-packs. A contract for this work was awarded to a project team consisting of Duratek of Canada, Kinectrics, Inc. and E.S. Fox. This paper provides an overall summary of project activities focusing on the effectiveness of the equipment utilized and the soundness of the developed programs, plans and procedures. Specific information is provided on key aspects of the project and the overall achievement of project goals. (authors)

Pearson, S.D. [EnergySolutions, Columbia, SC (Colombia); Husain, A. [Kinectrics, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Completion strategy includes clay and precipitate control  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the conditions which are necessary for a successful oil well completion in the Mississippi and Cherokee zones of South Central Kansas. Topics considered include paraffin precipitation, clay swelling and migration, and iron precipitation. Clays in these zones are sensitive to water-base treating fluids and tend to swell and migrate to the well bore, thereby causing permeability damage. The presence of iron in the Mississippi and Cherokee formations has been indicated by cuttings, core samples, and connate water samples.

Sandy, T.; Gardner, G.R.

1985-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "geosynthetic clay liner" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

The Large Scale Structure of LINERs and Seyferts and Implications for their Central Engines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss here the spatial clustering of Seyferts and LINERs and consequences for their central engines. We show that Seyferts are less clustered than LINERs, and that this difference is not driven by the morphology-density relation, but it is related to the difference in clustering as a function of level of activity in these systems and the amount of fuel available for accretion. LINERs, which are the most clustered among AGN, show the lowest luminosities and obscuration levels, and relatively low gas densities, suggesting that these objects harbor black holes that are relatively massive yet weakly active or inefficient in their accretion, probably due to the insufficiency of their fuel supply. Seyferts, which are weakly clustered, are very luminous, show generally high gas densities and large quantities of obscuring material, suggesting that in these systems the black holes are less massive but abundantly fueled and therefore accrete quickly and probably efficiently enough to clearly dominate the ionization.

Anca Constantin; Michael S. Vogeley

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

82

Clay and non-clay minerals in the pharmaceutical industry Part I. Excipients and medical applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Clay and non-clay minerals in the pharmaceutical industry Part I. Excipients and medical in the pharmaceutical industry as lubricants, desiccants, disintegrants, diluents, binders, pigments and opaci ers form 17 July 2009 Accepted 22 July 2009 Available online 29 July 2009 Keywords: Minerals Pharmaceutical

Ahmad, Sajjad

83

Review Article Clay and non-clay minerals in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Review Article Clay and non-clay minerals in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries Part II Pharmaceutical industry Cosmetic industry Active ingredients Physical and physico-chemical properties A wide range and variety of minerals are used in the pharmaceutical industry as active ingredients

Ahmad, Sajjad

84

Minimizing fuel emissions by optimizing vessel schedules in liner shipping with uncertain port times  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We consider the problem of designing an optimal vessel schedule in the liner shipping route to minimize the total expected fuel consumption (and emissions) considering uncertain port times and frequency requirements on the liner schedule. The general optimal scheduling problem is formulated and tackled by simulation-based stochastic approximation methods. For special cases subject to the constraint of 100% service level, we prove the convexity and continuous differentiability of the objective function. Structural properties of the optimal schedule under certain conditions are obtained with useful managerial insights regarding the impact of port uncertainties. Case studies are given to illustrate the results.

Xiangtong Qi; Dong-Ping Song

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Enchanted Clays: 44th Annual Meeting of the Clay Minerals Society (June 2007)  

SciTech Connect

“Enchanted Clays: 44th Annual Meeting of the Clay Minerals Society” was held in early June 2007 in beautiful and historic Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA. Santa Fe provided an idyllic location in the southwestern United States for the attendees to enjoy technical and social sessions while soaking up the diverse culture and wonderful climate of New Mexico—The Land of Enchantment. The meeting included a large and varied group of scientists, sharing knowledge and ideas, benefitting from technical interactions, and enjoying the wonderful historic and enchanted environs of Santa Fe. Including significant number of international scientists, the meeting was attended by approximately two hundred participants. The meeting included three days of technical sessions (oral and poster presentations), three days of field trips to clay and geological sites of northern New Mexico, and a full day workshop on the stabilization of carbon by clays. Details can be found at the meeting web site: www.sandia.gov/clay.

Randall T. Cygan

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Organic or organometallic template mediated clay synthesis  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for incorporating diverse varieties of intercalates or templates directly during hydrothermal synthesis of clays such as hectorite or montmorillonite-type layer-silicate clays. For a hectorite layer-silicate clay, refluxing a gel of silica sol, magnesium hydroxide sol and lithium fluoride for two days in the presence of an organic or organometallic intercalate or template results in crystalline products containing either (a) organic dye molecules such as ethyl violet and methyl green, (b) dye molecules such as alcian blue that are based on a Cu(II)-phthalocyannine complex, or (c) transition metal complexes such as Ru(II)phenanthroline and Co(III)sepulchrate or (d) water-soluble porphyrins and metalloporphyrins. Montmorillonite-type clays are made by the method taught by U.S. Pat. No. 3,887,454 issued to Hickson, Jun. 13, 1975; however, a variety of intercalates or templates may be introduced. The intercalates or templates should have (i) water-solubility, (ii) positive charge, and (iii) thermal stability under moderately basic (pH 9-10) aqueous reflux conditions or hydrothermal pressurized conditions for the montmorillonite-type clays. 22 figures.

Gregar, K.C.; Winans, R.E.; Botto, R.E.

1994-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

87

Centrality and vulnerability in liner shipping networks: revisiting the Northeast Asian port hierarchy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Centrality and vulnerability in liner shipping networks: revisiting the Northeast Asian port@parisgeo.cnrs.fr Sung-Woo LEE Korea Maritime Institute Shipping, Port & Logistics Research Department KBS media Center: revisiting the Northeast Asian port hierarchy Abstract This paper is essentially an empirical investigation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

88

Los Alamos compact toroid, fast-liner, and high-density Z-pinch programs  

SciTech Connect

The Compact Toroid (CT) and High Density Z-Pinch (HDZP) are two of the plasma configurations presently being studied at Los Alamos. The purpose of these two programs, plus the recently terminated (May 1979) Fast Liner (FL) program, is summarized in this section along with a brief description of the experimental facilities. The remaining sections summarize the recent results and the experimental status.

Linford, R.K.; Sherwood, A.R.; Hammel, J.E.

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

The Vessel Schedule Recovery Problem (VSRP) – A MIP model for handling disruptions in liner shipping  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Containerized transport by liner shipping companies is a multi billion dollar industry carrying a major part of the world trade between suppliers and customers. The liner shipping industry has come under stress in the last few years due to the economic crisis, increasing fuel costs, and capacity outgrowing demand. The push to reduce CO2 emissions and costs have increasingly committed liner shipping to slow-steaming policies. This increased focus on fuel consumption, has illuminated the huge impacts of operational disruptions in liner shipping on both costs and delayed cargo. Disruptions can occur due to adverse weather conditions, port contingencies, and many other issues. A common scenario for recovering a schedule is to either increase the speed at the cost of a significant increase in the fuel consumption or delaying cargo. Advanced recovery options might exist by swapping two port calls or even omitting one. We present the Vessel Schedule Recovery Problem (VSRP) to evaluate a given disruption scenario and to select a recovery action balancing the trade off between increased bunker consumption and the impact on cargo in the remaining network and the customer service level. It is proven that the VSRP is NP -hard. The model is applied to four real life cases from Maersk Line and results are achieved in less than 5 seconds with solutions comparable or superior to those chosen by operations managers in real life. Cost savings of up to 58% may be achieved by the suggested solutions compared to realized recoveries of the real life cases.

Berit D. Brouer; Jakob Dirksen; David Pisinger; Christian E.M. Plum; Bo Vaaben

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Sample preparation for isotopic determination of boron in clay sediments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The procedures of sample preparation for isotopic determination of boron in clay sediments is very cumbersome, by ... experiments were carried out. In this paper, boron in clay sediments was extracted with HCl .....

Yanling Zhang; Yingkai Xiao; Yunqi Ma; Qin Zhuge…

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Cation and Anion Exchange Properties of Pillared Clays  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cation and anion pH dependent exchange processes on an Aluminium Pillared Clay (Al-PILC) and Zirconium Pillared Clay (Zr-PILC) were studied by titrating the PILCS with...

A. Dyer; T. Gallardo

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Investigation of corrosion of commercial grade AISI 316L stainless steel liner plates in desalination plant conditions  

SciTech Connect

The corrosion of AISI Type 316L stainless steel (316L SS) liner plates in the flash chambers of a multistage flash (MSF) desalination plant, located on the Arabian Gulf coast was investigated. The 316L SS liner plates developed severe corrosion within six years of operation. This study was conducted to develop an understanding of the mode and causes of corrosion of the liner plates, and to determine the effect of heat treatment (annealing or heat effect during welding) and temperature of salt solution on corrosion of the liner plates. Specimens of the liner plates were studied in as-received (AR) condition and after being heat treated (HT) at 900 C in air and air-cooled to room temperature. Electrochemical techniques were used to measure the corrosion of the specimens. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) installed with energy dispersive (ED) X-ray diffraction capability was used for identification of compositional and structural changes in the specimens during heat treatment and corrosion. The results showed that: (1) Commercial grade 316L SS is susceptible to pitting, crevice and grain boundary corrosion under the operating conditions in the desalination plant. The heat-affected-zone (HAZ) had larger grains and corroded more severely than other parts of the liner plates. (2) The liner plates had randomly distributed inclusions containing Ti, Cr, Mo, Mn, and S in the structure. (3) Measurement of the corrosion rate. (4) Metallographic investigation of the AR and HT samples.

Saricimen, H.; Jarrah, N.R.; Allam, I.M. [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Research Inst.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

93

PROGRAM AND ABSTRACTS FOR CLAY MINERALS SOCIETY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Floridin Company Halliburton Services J. M. Huber Corporation Kentucky-Tennessee Clay Company Marathon Oil of the meeting were made by the following, to whom we offer sincere thanks: Alpha Earth Inc., ARCO Oil and Gas Co., Chevron Oil Field Research Co., CONOCO Inc., Exxon Production Research Co., Siemens X-Ray Analytical

Rathbun, Julie A.

94

Real-time diagnostic system using acoustic emission for a cylinder liner in a large two-stroke diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Damage that originates from abnormal wear in the cylinder liner of marine diesel engines causes a considerable loss of ... anticipate the damage that is caused by abnormal wear, such as scuffing, by investigating...

Jang Kyu Kim; Min Cheol Lee

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

A study on bunker fuel management for the shipping liner services  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, we consider a bunker fuel management strategy study for a single shipping liner service. The bunker fuel management strategy includes three components: bunkering ports selection (where to bunker), bunkering amounts determination (how much to bunker) and ship speeds adjustment (how to adjust the ship speeds along the service route). As these three components are interrelated, it is necessary to optimize them jointly in order to obtain an optimal bunker fuel management strategy for a single shipping liner service. As an appropriate model representing the relationship between bunker fuel consumption rate and ship speed is important in the bunker fuel management strategy, we first study in detail this empirical relationship. We find that the relationship can be different for different sizes of containerships and provide an empirical model to express this relationship for different sizes of containerships based on real data obtained from a shipping company. We further highlight the importance of using the appropriate consumption rate model in the bunker fuel management strategy as using a wrong or aggregated model can result in inferior or suboptimal strategies. We then develop a planning level model to determine the optimal bunker fuel management strategy, i.e. optimal bunkering ports, bunkering amounts and ship speeds, so as to minimize total bunker fuel related cost for a single shipping liner service. Based on the optimization model, we study the effects of port arrival time windows, bunker fuel prices, ship bunker fuel capacity and skipping port options on the bunker fuel management strategy of a single shipping liner service. We finally provide some insights obtained from two case studies.

Zhishuang Yao; Szu Hui Ng; Loo Hay Lee

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Device and method for imploding a microsphere with a fast liner  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device and method for relativistic electron beam heating of a high-density plasma in a small localized region. A relativistic electron beam generator or accelerator produces a high-voltage electron beam which propagates along a vacuum drift tube and is modulated to initiate electron bunching within the beam. The beam is then directed through a low-density gas chamber which provides isolation between the vacuum modulator and the relativistic electron beam target. The relativistic beam is then applied to a high-density target plasma which typically comprises DT, DD, hydrogen boron or similar thermonuclear gas at a density of 10.sup.17 to 10.sup.20 electrons per cubic centimeter. The target gas is ionized prior to application of the electron beam by means of a laser or other preionization source to form a plasma. Utilizing a relativistic electron beam with an individual particle energy exceeding 3 MeV, classical scattering by relativistic electrons passing through isolation foils is negligible. As a result, relativistic streaming instabilities are initiated within the high-density target plasma causing the relativistic electron beam to efficiently deposit its energy and momentum into a small localized region of the high-density plasma target. Fast liners disposed in the high-density target plasma are explosively or ablatively driven to implosion by a heated annular plasma surrounding the fast liner generated by an annular relativistic electron beam. An azimuthal magnetic field produced by axial current flow in the annular plasma, causes the energy in the heated annular plasma to converge on the fast liner to drive the fast liner to implode a microsphere.

Thode, Lester E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Clay Electric Cooperative, Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Clay Electric Cooperative, Inc Clay Electric Cooperative, Inc Place Florida Utility Id 3757 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location FRCC NERC FRCC Yes Activity Distribution Yes Alt Fuel Vehicle Yes Alt Fuel Vehicle2 Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Rate Schedule - FL (Large) Lighting Rate Schedule - FL (Small) Lighting Rate Schedule - GS Commercial Rate Schedule - GS - 1 Commercial Rate Schedule - GSD Commercial Rate Schedule - HLF Industrial Rate Schedule - INT (Primary Metering Voltage) Industrial Rate Schedule - INT (Secondary Metering Voltage) Industrial Rate Schedule - INT (Transmission Metering Voltage) Industrial

98

Clay-based geothermal drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

The rheological properties of fluids based on fibrous clays such as sepiolite and attapulgite have been systematically examined under conditions similar to those of geothermal wells, i.e. at elevated temperatures and pressures in environments with concentrated brines. Attapulgite- and sepiolite-based fluids have been autoclaved at temperatures in the range from 70 to 800/sup 0/F with the addition of chlorides and hydroxides of Na, K, Ca, and Mg. The rheological properties (apparent and plastic viscosity, fluid loss, gel strength, yield point, and cake thickness) of the autoclaved fluids have been studied and correlated with the chemical and physical changes that occur in the clay minerals during the autoclaving process.

Guven, N.; Carney, L.L.; Lee, L.J.; Bernhard, R.P.

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Plasticity of the Dakota Clays of Kansas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as soon as it was removed from the mould. The briquette was allowed to dry and after drying the shrinkage was measured and calculated in percent of the dry length. 28 Experience seems to show that there is a relation between the shtinkage of a clay...'tter Inorganic Colloids Organic Colloids Humus Compounds CHAPTER II - EXPERIMENTS MALACHITE GREEN TEST Method of testing Calculation of Results FEEL TEST Method of Testing SHRINKAGE TEST Method of Testing SUMMARY BIBLIOGRAPHY PLASTICITY OF THE DAKOTA...

Belchic, George

1915-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Tribological evaluation of piston skirt/cylinder liner contact interfaces under boundary lubrication conditions.  

SciTech Connect

The friction and wear between the piston and cylinder liner significantly affects the performance of internal combustion engines. In this paper, segments from a commercial piston/cylinder system were tribologically tested using reciprocating motion. The tribological contact consisted of aluminium alloy piston segments, either uncoated, coated with a graphite/resin coating, or an amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C : H) coating, in contact with gray cast iron liner segments. Tests were conducted in commercial synthetic motor oils and base stocks at temperatures up to 120 C with a 2 cm stroke length at reciprocating speeds up to 0.15 m s{sup -1}. The friction dependence of these piston skirt and cylinder liner materials was studied as a function of load, sliding speed and temperature. Specifically, an increase in the sliding speed led to a decrease in the friction coefficient below approximately 70 C, while above this temperature, an increase in sliding speed led to an increase in the friction coefficient. The presence of a coating played an important role. It was found that the graphite/resin coating wore quickly, preventing the formation of a beneficial tribochemical film, while the a-C : H coating exhibited a low friction coefficient and provided significant improvement over the uncoated samples. The effect of additives in the oils was also studied. The tribological behaviour of the interface was explained based on viscosity effects and subsequent changes in the lubrication regime, formation of chemical and tribochemical films.

Demas, N. G.; Erck, R. A.; Fenske, G. R.; Energy Systems

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "geosynthetic clay liner" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Study of the Plasma Focus as a Driver for the Magnetic Compression of Liners  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Possibilities of plasma focus — type facilities using in investigations on high density energy physics are discussed. The experimental results of studying wire arrays compression by PF?3 plasma focus facility current sheath performed in Kurchatov Institute are given. The technology of manufacturing the liners has been developed at TRINITI. Compression of the tungsten wire arrays having linear mass 0.33–0.6 mg/cm with velocity ?(2÷3)×106 cm/s are shown. A new approach to forming liner load is proposed. Such load represent an ensemble of free fine?disperse particles of substance (dust). A given approach has some advantages related first of all with an opportunity to vary — on a wide scale — the mass configuration and the element structure of a similar liner. In the first experiments at PF?3 facility an efficiency of interaction between the PF?sheath and the dust target has been shown that is manifested in particular in the enhanced MHD?pinch stability.

Vladimir E. Fortov; Mikhail A. Karakin; Edil’girej Yu. Khautiev; Vyacheslav I. Krauz; Stanislav F. Medovschikov; Aleksandr N. Mokeev; Victor V. Myalton; Sergey L. Nedoseev; Valentin P. Smirnov; Valentin P. Vinogradov

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Iodide Sorption to Clays and the Relationship to Surface Charge and Clay Texture - 12356  

SciTech Connect

Iodine is assumed to behave conservatively in clay barriers around nuclear waste repositories and in natural sediments. Batch experiments tend to show little to no sorption, while in column experiments iodine is often retarded relative to tritiated water. Current surface complexation theory cannot account for negatively charged ion sorption to a negatively charged clay particle. Surface protonation and iodide sorption to clay minerals were examined using surface titrations and batch sorption experiments with a suite of clay minerals. Surface titrations were completed spanning a range of both pH values and ionic strengths. For reference, similar titrations were performed on pure forms of an Al-O powder. The titration curves were deconvoluted to attain the pKa distribution for each material at each ionic strength. The pKa distribution for the Al-O shows two distinct peaks at 4.8 and 7.5, which are invariant with ionic strength. The pKa distribution of clays was highly variable between the different minerals and as a function of ionic strength. Iodide sorption experiments were completed at high solid:solution ratios to exacerbate sorption properties. Palygorskite and kaolinite had the highest amount of iodide sorption and montmorillonite had the least. (authors)

Miller, Andrew; Kruichiak, Jessica; Tellez, Hernesto; Wang, Yifeng [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Topochemical Transformation of Phyllosilicate Clay into Chlorite and Brucite  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Topochemical Transformation of Phyllosilicate Clay into Chlorite and Brucite ... The intralayer structure of phyllosilicate clay could be manipulated into chlorite and brucite depending on the degree of leaching by the NaOH content. ... Selective leaching of tetrahedral Si sheets would result in the topochemical transformation of the 2:1 type silicate clay into chlorite, whereas complete removal of tetrahedral Si sheets would lead to the formation of brucite. ...

Jin-Ho Choy; Sung-Reol Lee; Man Park; Gyeong-Su Park

2004-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

104

The need to design and construct roadways on highly plastic clays is common in central and eastern Texas, where expansive clays are prevalent. Roadways constructed on highly plastic clay subgrades may be damaged  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The need to design and construct roadways on highly plastic clays is common in central and eastern Texas, where expansive clays are prevalent. Roadways constructed on highly plastic clay subgrades may the infiltration of water into highly plastic clays under an increased gravity field in a centrifuge. Project

Zornberg, Jorge G.

105

Clay Nanoparticle-Supported Single-Molecule Fluorescence Spectroelectrochemistry  

SciTech Connect

We report single-molecule fluorescence spectroelectrochemistry on a clay-modified ITO electrode using cresyl violet as a redox fluorescent probe. Ensemble averaged experiments show that cresyl violet displays well-defined cyclic voltammograms when adsorbed on the clay-modified electrode. By probing the fluorescence intensity of a single cresyl violet molecule absorbed on clay surface, we can trace the redox reaction of individual molecules induced by the cyclic voltammetric potential scanning. Inhomogeneous interfacial electron transfer dynamics of the immobilized single cresyl violet molecules on the clay-modified surface were observed.

Lei, Chenghong; Hu, Dehong; Ackerman, Eric J.

2009-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

106

LINER/H II "Transition" Nuclei and the Nature of NGC 4569  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Motivated by the discovery of young, massive stars in the nuclei of some LINER/H II ``transition'' nuclei such as NGC 4569, we have computed photoionization models to determine whether some of these objects may be powered solely by young star clusters rather than by accretion-powered active nuclei. The models were calculated with the photoionization code CLOUDY, using evolving starburst continua generated by the the STARBURST99 code of Leitherer et al. (1999). We find that the models are able to reproduce the emission-line spectra of transition nuclei, but only for instantaneous bursts of solar or higher metallicity, and only for ages of ~3-5 Myr, the period when the extreme-ultraviolet continuum is dominated by emission from Wolf-Rayet stars. For clusters younger than 3 Myr or older than 6 Myr, and for models with a constant star-formation rate, the softer ionizing continuum results in an emission spectrum more typical of H II regions. This model predicts that Wolf-Rayet emission features should appear in the spectra of transition nuclei. While such features have not generally been detected to date, they could be revealed in observations having higher spatial resolution. Demographic arguments suggest that this starburst model may not apply to the majority of transition nuclei, particularly those in early-type host galaxies, but it could account for some members of the transition class in hosts of type Sa and later. The starburst models during the Wolf-Rayet-dominated phase can also reproduce the narrow-line spectra of some LINERs, but only under conditions of above-solar metallicity and only if high-density gas is present (n_e >~ 10^5 cm^{-3}). This scenario could be applicable to some ``Type 2'' LINERs which do not show any clear signs of nonstellar activity.

A. J. Barth; J. C. Shields

2000-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

107

The washability of lignites for clay removal  

SciTech Connect

In the washability research of the Seyitomer Lignites (Kutahya-Turkey), with lower calorific value (1,863 kcal/kg) and high ash content (51.91%), by heavy medium separation, it was found out that middling clay in the coal had an effect to change the medium density. To prevent this problem, a trommel sieve with 18 and 5 mm aperture diameter was designed, and the clay in the coal was tried to be removed using it before the coal was released to heavy medium. Following that, the obtained coal in -100 + 18 mm and -18 + 5 mm fractions was subjected to sink and float test having 1.4 gcm{sup -3} and 1.7 gcm{sup -3} medium densities (-5 mm fraction will be evaluated in a separate work). Depending on the raw coal, with the floating of -100 + 18 mm and -18 + 5 mm size fraction in 1.4 gcm{sup -3} medium density, clean coal with 60.10% combustible matter recovery, 19.12% ash, and 3,150 kcal/kg was obtained. Also floating of the samples sinking in 1.4 gcm{sup -3} in the medium density (1.7 gcm{sup -3}), middling with 18.70% combustible matter recovery, 41.93% ash, 2,150 kcal/kg, and tailing having 78.31% ash were obtained.

Oteyaka, B.; Yamik, A.; Ucar, A.; Sahbaz, O.; Demir, U. [Dumlupinar University, Kutahya (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Experimental Study of Wellbore Instability in Clays Naeem O. Abdulhadi, A.M.ASCE1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in saturated clays. The tests were conducted on resedimented Boston blue clay (RBBC) anisotropically the stability of shallow boreholes drilled in hard clays and poorly lithified rocks (some work on soft shales

Entekhabi, Dara

109

2006 Minerals Yearbook ClaY and Shale  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

%), and lightweight aggregate (17%); for fire clay, heavy clay products and lightweight aggregate (72%) and refractory of tonnage, Georgia, Wyoming, Texas, alabama, north Carolina, Ohio, Missouri, South Carolina, arkansas and kaolin); J.M. huber Corp. (kaolin); Oil-dri Corp. (fuller's earth); Thiele Kaolin Co. (kaolin

110

Water in clay-water systems (1) Philip F. LOW  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water in clay-water systems (1) Philip F. LOW Department of Agronomy, Purdue University. Agric. Exp. Stn., West Lafayette, IN 47907, U.S.A. SUMMARY The swelling of clay-water systems and the thermodynamic, hydrodynamic and spectroscopic properties of water in these systems are discussed. The swelling

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

111

Platte-Clay Electric Cooperative - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebates |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Platte-Clay Electric Cooperative - Residential Energy Efficiency Platte-Clay Electric Cooperative - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebates Platte-Clay Electric Cooperative - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebates < Back Eligibility Commercial Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Heat Pumps Program Info State Missouri Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Room Air Conditioners: $50 Geothermal Heat Pump: $750/ton new installation; $150/ton for replacement Dual Fuel Heat Pump: $150/ton plus $.01 rate reduction (above 200 kWh) Water Heaters: Discounted price Provider Platte-Clay Electric Cooperative Platte-Clay Electric Cooperative offers a variety of rebates to residential and commercial customers who wish to upgrade to energy efficient equipment. Newly installed ground source heat pumps are eligible for a $750 per ton

112

Clay Electric Cooperative, Inc - Energy Smart Solar Water Heater Rebate  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Clay Electric Cooperative, Inc - Energy Smart Solar Water Heater Clay Electric Cooperative, Inc - Energy Smart Solar Water Heater Rebate Program Clay Electric Cooperative, Inc - Energy Smart Solar Water Heater Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Maximum Rebate $600 Program Info State Florida Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount 0.01 per BTU output Provider Clay Electric Co-op Clay Electric Cooperative (CEC) provides a rebate of $0.01 per BTU output to its residential members when they purchase qualified solar water heaters. This rebate is capped at 60,000 BTUs per system, or $600. Eligible solar water heaters can be either passive or active systems. The proposed solar system must meet Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) specifications and be installed by a contractor certified to install solar water heating

113

Macron Formed Liner Compression as a Practical Method for Enabling Magneto-Inertial Fusion  

SciTech Connect

The entry of fusion as a viable, competitive source of power has been stymied by the challenge of finding an economical way to provide for the confinement and heating of the plasma fuel. The main impediment for current nuclear fusion concepts is the complexity and large mass associated with the confinement systems. To take advantage of the smaller scale, higher density regime of magnetic fusion, an efficient method for achieving the compressional heating required to reach fusion gain conditions must be found. The very compact, high energy density plasmoid commonly referred to as a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) provides for an ideal target for this purpose. To make fusion with the FRC practical, an efficient method for repetitively compressing the FRC to fusion gain conditions is required. A novel approach to be explored in this endeavor is to remotely launch a converging array of small macro-particles (macrons) that merge and form a more massive liner inside the reactor which then radially compresses and heats the FRC plasmoid to fusion conditions. The closed magnetic field in the target FRC plasmoid suppresses the thermal transport to the confining liner significantly lowering the imploding power needed to compress the target. With the momentum flux being delivered by an assemblage of low mass, but high velocity macrons, many of the difficulties encountered with the liner implosion power technology are eliminated. The undertaking to be described in this proposal is to evaluate the feasibility achieving fusion conditions from this simple and low cost approach to fusion. During phase I the design and testing of the key components for the creation of the macron formed liner have been successfully carried out. Detailed numerical calculations of the merging, formation and radial implosion of the Macron Formed Liner (MFL) were also performed. The phase II effort will focus on an experimental demonstration of the macron launcher at full power, and the demonstration of megagauss magnetic field compression by a small array of full scale macrons. In addition the physics of the compression of an FRC to fusion conditions will be undertaken with a smaller scale MFL. The timescale for testing will be rapidly accelerated by taking advantage of other facilities at MSNW where the target FRC will be created and translated inside the MFL just prior to implosion of the MFL. Experimental success would establish the concept at the �proof of principle� level and the following phase III effort would focus on the full development of the concept into a fusion gain device. Successful operation would lead to several benefits in various fields. It would have application to high energy density physics, as well as nuclear waste transmutation and alternate fission fuel cycles. The smaller scale device could find immediate application as an intense source of neutrons for diagnostic imaging and non-invasive object interrogation.

Slough, John

2011-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

114

Neutron scattering, a powerful tool to study clay minerals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Of the techniques used to study clay minerals, neutron scattering has become more familiar to clay scientists over the past decade. A brief account of neutron scattering theory is given in this review, followed by a description of measurements that can be made using neutron diffraction and neutron scattering spectroscopy, and especially quasi-elastic neutron scattering. Then recent examples of the application of neutron scattering methods to the study of clay minerals are presented, and finally the potential advantages of such experimental results when combined to molecular dynamics are discussed. To conclude, the potential perspectives that the European Spallation Source brings to this subject are pointed out.

Murillo L. Martins; Will P. Gates; Laurent Michot; Eric Ferrage; Virginie Marry; Heloisa N. Bordallo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Horticultural & Forest crops 2014 Low-Management Crops and Areas: Seedbeds and Liner Beds 7-5  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

be applied only when the pest is pres- ent. Apply nematodes late in the day to avoid expo- sure to UV light from the liner bed to the field, consult the information listed under Christmas trees. 2 Generally most listed under Christmas trees. 2 Generally most soil insects are controlled with fumigants used for weed

Liskiewicz, Maciej

116

Instability of a cracked cylindrical shell reinforced by an elastic liner Y.T. Kim a,1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

liners are used for in situ repair and retrofitting of pipes as a cost effective alternative loading for pipelines and pressurized liquid-retaining structures. Our results show that cracked shell-walled shells are widely employed in pipelines, air- and space-crafts, marine structures, large dams, shell

Vaziri, Ashkan

117

PROPERTIES OF HDPE/CLAY/WOOD NANOCOMPOSITES , C. M. Clemons 2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

stimulated active research. Clay nanocomposites, especially nanoclay/polymer composites, exhibit dramatic

118

On the LINER nuclear obscuration, Compton-thickness and the existence of the dusty torus; Clues from Spitzer/IRS spectra  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Most of the optically classified low ionisation narrow emission-line regions (LINERs) nuclei host an active galactic nuclei (AGN). However, how they fit into the unified model (UM) of AGN is still an open question. The aims of this work are to study at mid-infrared (mid-IR) (1) the Compton-thick nature of LINERs; and (2) the disappearance of the dusty torus in LINERs predicted from theoretical arguments. We have compiled all the available low spectral resolution mid-IR spectra of LINERs from the IRS/Spitzer (40 LINERs). We have complemented this sample with Spitzer/IRS spectra of PGQSOs, S1s, S2s, and SBs nuclei. We have studied the AGN versus the starburst content in our sample using different indicators: the EW(PAH 6.2um), the strength of the silicate feature at 9.7um, and the steepness of the mid-IR spectra. In 25 out of the 40 LINERs (i.e., 62.5%) the mid-IR spectra are not SB-dominated, similar to the comparison S2 sample (67.7%). The average spectra of both SB-dominated LINERs and S2s are very similar t...

Gonzalez-Martin, O; Marquez, I; Rodríguez-Espinosa, J M; Acosta-Pulido, J A; Ramos-Almeida, C; Dultzin, D; Hernandez-Garcia, L; Ruschel-Dutra, D; Alonso-Herrero, A

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

The probability of Mark-I containment failure by melt-attack of the liner  

SciTech Connect

This report is a followup to the work presented in NUREG/CR-5423 addressing early failure of a BWR Mark I containment by melt attack of the liner, and it constitutes a part of the implementation of the Risk-Oriented Accident Analysis Methodology (ROAAM) employed therein. In particular, it expands the quantification to include four independent evaluations carried out at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Argonne National Laboratories, Sandia National Laboratories and ANATECH, Inc. on the various portions of the phenomenology involved. These independent evaluations are included here as Parts II through V. The results, and their integration in Part I, demonstrate the substantial synergism and convergence necessary to recognize that the issue has been resolved.

Theofanous, T.G.; Yan, H. [California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering; Podowski, M.Z. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics] [and others

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Deputy Secretary Clay Sell Touts Georgian Efforts to Advance Regional  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Clay Sell Touts Georgian Efforts to Advance Clay Sell Touts Georgian Efforts to Advance Regional Energy Cooperation and Non-Proliferation Deputy Secretary Clay Sell Touts Georgian Efforts to Advance Regional Energy Cooperation and Non-Proliferation March 16, 2007 - 10:55am Addthis Visits National Nuclear Waste Repository in Mtskheta, Georgia TBILISI, Georgia - U.S. Deputy Secretary of Energy Clay Sell today visited the National Radioactive Waste Repository in Mtskheta, Georgia, and praised Georgia for issuing a license this week to open the facility to consolidate radioactive sources. Deputy Secretary Sell also met with Georgian President Mikheil Saakashvili and other senior government and business leaders to address the importance of diversifying energy sources, increasing the use of energy efficient technologies, and further efforts to

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "geosynthetic clay liner" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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121

Iron supported clay as catalysts for oxidation of cyclooctane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Iron supported bentonite clay catalysts have been prepared by the ion exchange of bentonite with iron2+ and iron3+ solution and immobilization with iron compounds using ligands: acetylacetonate, picolinate, pyraz...

W. Trakarnpruk; P. Dumrongpong

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Constitutive analysis of the mechanical anisotropy of Opalinus Clay  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper aims to analyse the anisotropic features of behaviour of Opalinus Clay using ... directions showed that the mechanical behaviour of this shale is cross-anisotropic. The stiffer samples are those in whi...

Simon Salager; Bertrand François; Mathieu Nuth; Lyesse Laloui

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Limits of isotropic plastic deformation of Bangkok clay  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A model assuming incremental plastic isotropic response has been recently proposed to model the deformation of isotropic packing of grains, in the small-strain range. It is used here on over-consolidated remould clay, to interpret the small-strain range behaviour obtained in [1,2] on Bangkok clay. The data published in [1,2] at constant volume are also used here to measure the size of the domain of validity in the (q/(M'p), p/po) plane, where po is the over-consolidation isotropic pressure, p is the mean stress and q the deviatoric stress, q . So, it is shown that the model works also for clay. This enlarges the application domain of model [3,4] to soft clay with OCR larger than 1.2 to 1.5. Pacs # : 45.70.-n ; 62.20.Fe ; 83.80.Fg, 83.80.Hj

P. Evesque

2005-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

124

Intercalation of Trichloroethene by Sediment-Associated Clay Minerals  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research was to examine the potential for intercalation of trichloroethene (TCE) by clay minerals associated with aquifer sediments. Sediment samples were collected from a field site inTucson, AZ. Two widely used Montmorillonite specimen clays were employed as controls. X-ray diffraction, conducted with a controlled-environment chamber, was used to characterize smectite interlayer dspacing for three treatments (bulk air-dry sample, sample mixed with synthetic groundwater, sample mixed with TCE-saturated synthetic groundwater). The results show that the d-spacing measured for the samples treated with TCE-saturated synthetic groundwater are larger (*26%) than those of the untreated samples for all field samples as well as the specimen clays. These results indicate that TCE was intercalated by the clay minerals, which may have contributed to the extensive elution tailing observed in prior miscible-displacement experiments conducted with this sediment.

Matthieu, Donald E.; Brusseau, Mark; Johnson, G. R.; Artiola, J. L.; Bowden, Mark E.; Curry, J. E.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Atomic Force Microscopy Study of Clay Nanoplatelets and Their Impurities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the nanoclays into various polymers has been shown to result in increases in tensile properties (elastic modulus of nanoclay-polymer composites, based on the layer-by-layer assembly of individual clay nanoplatelets

126

Controlled gas adsorption properties of various pillared clays  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Microporous pillared clays (PILC) were prepared by the intercalation of montmorillonite with particles of titania (Ti-PILC), zirconia (Zr-PILC), alumina (Al-PILC), iron oxide (Fe-PILC) and mixed lanthania/alumina...

A. Molinard; E. F. Vansant

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

X-ray diffraction study of zirconia pillared clays  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and X-ray radial electronic distribution density (RED) of initial and zirconia-pillared interlayered clays (Zr-PILC) were studied. After pillaring, the basal ... under air to 17.7 ...

D.A. Zyuzin; E.M. Moroz; T.G. Kuznetsova…

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

A New Environmentally Friendly AL/ZR-Based Clay Stabilizer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

was used to measure the concentrations of e key cations in the core flood effluent. Three different commercial clay stabilizers (zirconium oxychloride, choline chloride and tetramethyl ammonium chloride) were also tested to validate the new chemical...

El-Monier, Ilham Abdallah

2013-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

129

The adsorption of selected chemical compounds on soil clays  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, California. The Yolo soil series is discussed in the U. S. D. A. Contra Costa County, California Soil Survey, Series 1933, No. 26. Montmorillonite de osit material. The relatively "pure" montmorillonite clay was purchased as Panther Creek Bentonite from..., California. The Yolo soil series is discussed in the U. S. D. A. Contra Costa County, California Soil Survey, Series 1933, No. 26. Montmorillonite de osit material. The relatively "pure" montmorillonite clay was purchased as Panther Creek Bentonite from...

Hoover, William Leroy

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

130

A study of selected chemical admixtures for clay soil stabilization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A STUDY OF SELECTED CHEMICAL ADNIXTURES FOR CI AY SOIL STABILIZATIOJJ A Thesis CHARLES BE GOVER BELEJJDEZ Submitted to the Graduate College of. the Texas AGN University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... LIST OF TABLES Table The Chemicals and Their Properties Particle Size Analysis for the Lufkin Fine Sandy Loam and the Houston Black Clay Atterberg Limit Results for Treated Samples for the Lufkin Fine Sandy Loam and the Houston Black Clay Page...

Gover Belendez, Charles Baker

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

131

Porous Clays and Pillared Clays-Based Catalysts. Part 2: A Review of the Catalytic and Molecular Sieve Applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Metal oxide pillared clay (PILC) possesses several interesting properties, such as ... /metal oxide pillars. These unique characteristics make PILC an attractive material in catalytic reactions. It...5..., 5 1998...

Z. Ding; J.T. Kloprogge; R.L. Frost; G.Q. Lu; H.Y. Zhu

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

LITERATURE REVIEW ON THE SORPTION OF PLUTONIUM, URANIUM, NEPTUNIUM, AMERICIUM AND TECHNETIUM TO CORROSION PRODUCTS ON WASTE TANK LINERS  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS) has conducted performance assessment (PA) calculations to determine the risk associated with closing liquid waste tanks. The PA estimates the risk associated with a number of scenarios, making various assumptions. Throughout all of these scenarios, it is assumed that the carbon-steel tank liners holding the liquid waste do not sorb the radionuclides. Tank liners have been shown to form corrosion products, such as Fe-oxyhydroxides (Wiersma and Subramanian 2002). Many corrosion products, including Fe-oxyhydroxides, at the high pH values of tank effluent, take on a very strong negative charge. Given that many radionuclides may have net positive charges, either as free ions or complexed species, it is expected that many radionuclides will sorb to corrosion products associated with tank liners. The objective of this report was to conduct a literature review to investigate whether Pu, U, Np, Am and Tc would sorb to corrosion products on tank liners after they were filled with reducing grout (cementitious material containing slag to promote reducing conditions). The approach was to evaluate radionuclides sorption literature with iron oxyhydroxide phases, such as hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}), goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH) and ferrihydrite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} {center_dot} 0.5H{sub 2}O). The primary interest was the sorption behavior under tank closure conditions where the tanks will be filled with reducing cementitious materials. Because there were no laboratory studies conducted using site specific experimental conditions, (e.g., high pH and HLW tank aqueous and solid phase chemical conditions), it was necessary to extend the literature review to lower pH studies and noncementitious conditions. Consequently, this report relied on existing lower pH trends, existing geochemical modeling, and experimental spectroscopic evidence conducted at lower pH levels. The scope did not include evaluating the appropriateness of K{sub d} values for the Fe-oxyhydroxides, but instead to evaluate whether it is a conservative assumption to exclude this sorption process of radionuclides onto tank liner corrosion products in the PA model. This may identify another source for PA conservatism since the modeling did not consider any sorption by the tank liner.

Li, D.; Kaplan, D.

2012-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

133

Carboxylic acid sorption on synthetic clays in marine water: in vitro experiments and implications for organo-clay behaviour under marine conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Carboxylic acid sorption on synthetic clays in marine water: in vitro experiments-clay association indicates that, under marine water column conditions, the organic fixation is only a sorption organic carbon m-2 ), demonstrates that the sorption is controlled by the surface properties of clays

134

Constitutive relationships for elastic deformation of clay rock: Data Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Geological repositories have been considered a feasible option worldwide for storing high-level nuclear waste. Clay rock is one of the rock types under consideration for such purposes, because of its favorable features to prevent radionuclide transport from the repository. Coupled hydromechanical processes have an important impact on the performance of a clay repository, and establishing constitutive relationships for modeling such processes are essential. In this study, we propose several constitutive relationships for elastic deformation in indurated clay rocks based on three recently developed concepts. First, when applying Hooke's law in clay rocks, true strain (rock volume change divided by the current rock volume), rather than engineering strain (rock volume change divided by unstressed rock volume), should be used, except when the degree of deformation is very small. In the latter case, the two strains will be practically identical. Second, because of its inherent heterogeneity, clay rock can be divided into two parts, a hard part and a soft part, with the hard part subject to a relatively small degree of deformation compared with the soft part. Third, for swelling rock like clay, effective stress needs to be generalized to include an additional term resulting from the swelling process. To evaluate our theoretical development, we analyze uniaxial test data for core samples of Opalinus clay and laboratory measurements of single fractures within macro-cracked Callovo-Oxfordian argillite samples subject to both confinement and water reduced swelling. The results from this evaluation indicate that our constitutive relationships can adequately represent the data and explain the related observations.

Liu, H.H.; Rutqvist, J.; Birkholzer, J.T.

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

135

Clays and Clay Minerals. Vol. 40. No.3, 355-358, 1992. THE EFFECT OF CLAY DISPERSION ON THE SORPTION OF  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ON THE SORPTION OF ACETONITRILE Key Words-Clay dispersion, Organic sorption, Partition, Sorption mechanism in the two solvents, is a constant. The partition mechanism has been extended to describe the sorption. (1962, ]965), Theng (1972), and Theng and Scharpenseel (1976) proposed that the linear sorption isotherm

Sparks, Donald L.

136

Open apex shaped charge-type explosive device having special disc means with slide surface thereon to influence movement of open apex shaped charge liner during collapse of same during detonation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An open apex shape charge explosive device is disclosed having an inner liner defining a truncated cone, an explosive charge surrounding the truncated inner liner, a primer charge, and a disc located between the inner liner and the primer charge for directing the detonation of the primer charge around the end edge of the disc means to the explosive materials surrounding the inner liner. The disc comprises a material having one or more of: a higher compressive strength, a higher hardness, and/or a higher density than the material comprising the inner liner, thereby enabling the disc to resist deformation until the liner collapses. The disc has a slide surface thereon on which the end edge of the inner liner slides inwardly toward the vertical axis of the device during detonation of the main explosive surrounding the inner liner, to thereby facilitate the inward collapse of the inner liner. In a preferred embodiment, the geometry of the slide surface is adjusted to further control the collapse or [beta] angle of the inner liner. 12 figures.

Murphy, M.J.

1993-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

137

Open apex shaped charge-type explosive device having special disc means with slide surface thereon to influence movement of open apex shaped charge liner during collapse of same during detonation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An open apex shape charge explosive device is disclosed having an inner liner defining a truncated cone, an explosive charge surrounding the truncated inner liner, a primer charge, and a disc located between the inner liner and the primer charge for directing the detonation of the primer charge around the end edge of the disc means to the explosive materials surrounding the inner liner. The disc comprises a material having one or more of: a higher compressive strength, a higher hardness, and/or a higher density than the material comprising the inner liner, thereby enabling the disc to resist deformation until the liner collapses. The disc has a slide surface thereon on which the end edge of the inner liner slides inwardly toward the vertical axis of the device during detonation of the main explosive surrounding the inner liner, to thereby facilitate the inward collapse of the inner liner. In a preferred embodiment, the geometry of the slide surface is adjusted to further control the collapse or .beta. angle of the inner liner.

Murphy, Michael J. (Livermore, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Lifecycle Verification of Polymeric Storage Tank Liners - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

7 7 FY 2012 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Barton Smith (Primary Contact) and Lawrence M. Anovitz Oak Ridge National Laboratory P.O. Box 2008 Oak Ridge, TN 37831 Phone: (865) 574-2196 Email: smithdb@ornl.gov DOE Manager HQ: Ned Stetson Phone: (202) 586-9995 Email: Ned.Stetson@ee.doe.gov Start Date: June 2008 Projected End Date: Project continuation and direction determined annually by DOE Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives Continue temperature cycling and permeation * measurements on tank liner polymers, and use permeation data to assess ability of tank liners to retain a steady-state hydrogen discharge rate that does not exceed 110% of the 75 normal cubic centimeters per minute (Ncc)/min permeation requirement of SAE International

139

Characterization of load bearing metrological parameters in reptilian exuviae in comparison to precision finished cylinder liner surfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Design of precise functional surfaces is essential for many future applications. In the technological realm, the accumulated experience with the construction of such surfaces is not sufficient. Nature provides many examples of dynamic surfaces worthy of study and adoption, at least as a concept, within human engineering. In this work, we probe load-bearing features of the ventral skin of snake surfaces. We examine the structure of two snake species that mainly move by rectilinear locomotion. These are Python regius (pythonidae) and Bittis gabonica (Vipridae). To this end, we focus on the load bearing characteristics of the ventral skin surface (i.e. the Rk family of parameters). Therefore, we draw detailed comparison between the reptilian surfaces and two sets of technological data. The first set pertains to an actual commercial cylinder liner, whereas, the second set is a summary of recommended surface finish metrological values for several commercial cylinder liner manufacturers. The results highlight sever...

Abdel-Aal, H A

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Screen and slotted liner horizontal completion: : correcting for wellbore pressure drop in the inflow performance relationships (IPR)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SCREEN AND SLOTTED LINER HORIZONTAL COMPLETIONS: CORRECTING FOR WELLBORK PRESSURE DROP IN THE INFLOW PERFORMANCE RELATIONSHIPS (IPR) A Thesis by EDDIE OSARENMWIDA AGBONGIATOR Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University...: Correcting for Wellbore Pressure Drop in the Inflow Performance Relationships (IPR). (December 2002) Eddie Osarenmwida Agbongiator, B. S. , University of Benin Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Rosalind A. Archer This thesis presents the development of a...

Agbongiator, Eddie Osarenmwida

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "geosynthetic clay liner" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Clay Electric Cooperative, Inc - Energy Smart Energy Efficiency Rebate  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Smart Energy Efficiency Smart Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Clay Electric Cooperative, Inc - Energy Smart Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Maximum Rebate Ceiling Insulation: $600 Spray Foam Insulation: $600 Heat Pump: $500 Program Info State Florida Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Ceiling Insulation: $0.11 per square foot Spray Foam Insulation: $0.28 per square foot Window Film: $0.44 per square foot Heat Pump Water Heater: $175 Heat Recovery Unit: $200 Heat Pump: $50 to $500 Provider Clay Electric Co-op Rebates are available only to Clay Electric Cooperative (CEC) residential

142

Clay Electric Cooperative, Inc - Energy Conservation Loans | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Conservation Loans Conservation Loans Clay Electric Cooperative, Inc - Energy Conservation Loans < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Sealing Your Home Design & Remodeling Windows, Doors, & Skylights Ventilation Heat Pumps Heating Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Solar Swimming Pool Heaters Buying & Making Electricity Maximum Rebate $5,000 ($7,500 for metal roofs) Program Info State Florida Program Type Utility Loan Program Rebate Amount $1,000 - $7,500 Provider Clay Electric Co-op Clay Electric Cooperative (CEC), a Touchstone Energy Cooperative, covers 14 North Florida counties, including Gainesville, Keystone Heights, Lake City, Orange Park, Palatka, and Salt Springs. It offers loans to help customers

143

Platte-Clay Electric Coop, Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Platte-Clay Electric Coop, Inc Platte-Clay Electric Coop, Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name Platte-Clay Electric Coop, Inc Place Missouri Utility Id 15138 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location SERC NERC SERC Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png DF - Dual Fuel Heating Residential GP - Schedule of Green Power Rate Adder MC3 - Medium Commercial Service Commercial R - Rural and Residential Service Residential R-ETS - Residential ETS Service Residential SL - 100 watt HPS Ornamental Fixture Lighting SL - 100 watt HPS Ornamental Fixture w/Pole Lighting

144

Experimental Demonstration of Fusion-Relevant Conditions in Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This Letter presents results from the first fully integrated experiments testing the magnetized liner inertial fusion concept [S.?A. Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)], in which a cylinder of deuterium gas with a preimposed 10 T axial magnetic field is heated by Z beamlet, a 2.5 kJ, 1 TW laser, and magnetically imploded by a 19 MA, 100 ns rise time current on the Z facility. Despite a predicted peak implosion velocity of only 70??km/s, the fuel reaches a stagnation temperature of approximately 3 keV, with Te?Ti, and produces up to 2×1012 thermonuclear deuterium-deuterium neutrons. X-ray emission indicates a hot fuel region with full width at half maximum ranging from 60 to 120???m over a 6 mm height and lasting approximately 2 ns. Greater than 1010 secondary deuterium-tritium neutrons were observed, indicating significant fuel magnetization given that the estimated radial areal density of the plasma is only 2??mg/cm2.

M.?R. Gomez et al.

2014-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

145

Lateral load test of a drilled shaft in clay  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LATERAL LOAD TEST OF A DRILLED SHAFT IN CLAY A Thesis by VERNON RAY KASCH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1977 Major Subject...: Civil Engineering LATERAL LOAD TEST OF A DRILLED SHAFT IN CLAY A Thesis by VERNON RAY KASCH Approved as to style and content by: Harry M. Coyle - Ch irman of Committee Charles H. Samson, Jr. Head of Department Wayne . Dunlap - Ne er Christop er C...

Kasch, Vernon R

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

RIETVELD REFINEMENT OF REAL STRUCTURE PARAMETERS OF DISORDERED CLAY MINERALS IN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-conventional hydrocarbons in Germany) Germany's potential for shale oil and shale gas NIKO seal gas-rich shale shale: sedimentary rock which contains quartz, carbonates and clay minerals #12;clay minerals in shales quartz

Magee, Joseph W.

147

Viscoelastic Properties of Montmorillonite Clay/Polyimide Composite Membranes and Thin Films  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Montmorillonite clay, cloisite 30B (nanoclay), was successfully dispersed in a polyimide ... the structure of cloisite 30B clay powder and nanoclay/polyimide composites. The WAXD spectra of nanoclay powder and th...

J. O. Iroh; J. Longun

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Numerical simulation of profile control by clay particles after polymer flooding  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A three-dimensional, two-phase, five-component mathematical model has been developed to describe flow characteristics of clay particles and flocs in the profile control process, in which the clay particle susp...

Qihong Feng; Shubin Shi; Sen Wang; Lu Zheng

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Multiscale micromechanical modeling of the thermal/mechanical properties of polymer/clay nanocomposites  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Polymer/clay nanocomposites have been observed to exhibit enhanced thermal/mechanical properties at low weight fractions (We) of clay. Continuum-based composite modeling reveals that the enhanced properties are strongly ...

Sheng, Nuo, 1977-

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

E-Print Network 3.0 - applied clay science Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

science Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: applied clay science Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Atomic Force Microscopy Study of Clay...

151

High-Stable Mesoporous Ni-Ce/Clay Catalysts for Syngas Production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Delaminated-clay was synthesized from a natural smectite using polyvinyl alcohol and microwaves. Ni-Ce catalysts supported on delaminated clay achieved high stability in dry reforming of methane for syngas production

Carlos Enrique Daza; Oscar A. Gamba; Yesid Hernández…

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Uncertainty in the reactive transport model response to an alkaline perturbation in a clay formation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CSH_1.1 Gismondine Gyrolite Ettringite Katoite Straëtlingite2) monosulfoaluminate ? ettringite. In clay, the major paths

Burnol, A.; Blanc, P.; Xu, T.; Spycher, N.; Gaucher, E.C.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Clay Central Everly School Dist Wind Farm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Everly School Dist Wind Farm Everly School Dist Wind Farm Jump to: navigation, search Name Clay Central Everly School Dist Wind Farm Facility Clay Central/Everly School Dist Sector Wind energy Facility Type Small Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner Clay Central/Everly School District Energy Purchaser Clay Central/Everly School District Location IA Coordinates 43.1392°, -95.2644° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":43.1392,"lon":-95.2644,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

154

Toxic element composition of multani mitti clay for nutritional safety  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

elements has exponentially increased over the last few decades due to combustion of fossil fuels and may pose health con- cerns. The data presented in this study can be used as national base level been aware of the beneficial health effects of clays since prehistoric times. Many ancient

Short, Daniel

155

Andrew Cotton-Clay Massachusetts Institute of Technology E-mail: acotton@math.berkeley.edu  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Andrew Cotton-Clay Massachusetts Institute of Technology E-mail: acotton: Gromov's Nonsqueezing Theorem · Advisor: Peter Kronheimer Publications · A. Cotton-Clay. A sharp bound on fixed points of area-preserving surface diffeo- morphisms. In preparation. · A. Cotton-Clay. Symplectic

Cotton-Clay, Andrew

156

A review of microbial redox interactions with structural Fe in clay minerals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...electron shuttle in bicarbonate buffer (pH 7) with Shewanella putrifaciens...Implications for bentonite as backfill material in the disposal of...minerals. Pp. 429-482 in: Handbook of Clay Science (F. Bergaya...iron in clay minerals. In: Handbook of Clay Science , 2nd edition...

L. Pentráková; K. Su; M. Pentrák; J. W. Stucki

157

Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) closure, Savannah River Plant: Clay cap test section construction report  

SciTech Connect

This report contains appendices 3 through 6 for the Clay Cap Test Section Construction Report for the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) closure at the Savannah River Plant. The Clay Cap Test Program was conducted to evaluate the source, lab. permeability, in-situ permeability, and compaction characteristics, representative of kaolin clays from the Aiken, South Carolina vicinity. (KJD)

Not Available

1988-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

158

Device and method for relativistic electron beam heating of a high-density plasma to drive fast liners  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device and method for relativistic electron beam heating of a high-density plasma in a small localized region. A relativistic electron beam generator or accelerator produces a high-voltage electron beam which propagates along a vacuum drift tube and is modulated to initiate electron bunching within the beam. The beam is then directed through a low-density gas chamber which provides isolation between the vacuum modulator and the relativistic electron beam target. The relativistic beam is then applied to a high-density target plasma which typically comprises DT, DD, hydrogen boron or similar thermonuclear gas at a density of 10.sup.17 to 10.sup.20 electrons per cubic centimeter. The target gas is ionized prior to application of the electron beam by means of a laser or other preionization source to form a plasma. Utilizing a relativistic electron beam with an individual particle energy exceeding 3 MeV, classical scattering by relativistic electrons passing through isolation foils is negligible. As a result, relativistic streaming instabilities are initiated within the high-density target plasma causing the relativistic electron beam to efficiently deposit its energy and momentum into a small localized region of the high-density plasma target. Fast liners disposed in the high-density target plasma are explosively or ablatively driven to implosion by a heated annular plasma surrounding the fast liner which is generated by an annular relativistic electron beam. An azimuthal magnetic field produced by axial current flow in the annular plasma, causes the energy in the heated annular plasma to converge on the fast liner.

Thode, Lester E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Sgr A$^*$ and Company Multiwavelength observations of Sgr A$^*$ and VLA search of "Sgr A$^{*'}$s" in LINERs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report first results from a multiwavelength campaign to measure the simultaneous spectrum of Sgr A* from cm to mm wavelengths. The observations confirm that the previously detected submm-excess is not due to variability; the presence of an ultracompact component with a size of a few Schwarzschild radii is inferred. In a VLA survey of LINER galaxies, we found Sgr A*-like nuclei in one quarter of the galaxies searched, suggesting a link between those low-power AGN and the Galactic Center.

Falcke, H; Ho, L C; Matsuo, H; Teuben, P J; Wilson, A S; Zhao, J H; Zylka, R; Falcke, Heino

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Sgr A* and Company - Multiwavelength observations of Sgr A* and VLA search of ``Sgr A*'s'' in LINERs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report first results from a multiwavelength campaign to measure the simultaneous spectrum of Sgr A* from cm to mm wavelengths. The observations confirm that the previously detected submm-excess is not due to variability; the presence of an ultracompact component with a size of a few Schwarzschild radii is inferred. In a VLA survey of LINER galaxies, we found Sgr A*-like nuclei in one quarter of the galaxies searched, suggesting a link between those low-power AGN and the Galactic Center.

Heino Falcke; W. M. Goss; L. C. Ho; H. Matsuo; P. Teuben; A. S. Wilson; J. -H. Zhao; R. Zylka

1997-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "geosynthetic clay liner" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Epoxy-borax-coal tar composition for a radiation protective, burn resistant drum liner and centrifugal casting method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A boron containing burn resistant, low level radiation protection material useful, for example, as a liner for radioactive waste disposal and storage, a component for neutron absorber, and a shield for a neutron source. The material is basically composed of Borax in the range of 25-50%, coal tar in the range of 25-37.5%, with the remainder being an epoxy resin mix. A preferred composition is 50% Borax, 25% coal tar and 25% epoxy resin. The material is not susceptible to burning and is about 1/5 the cost of existing radiation protection material utilized in similar applications.

Taylor, Robert S. (Livermore, CA); Boyer, Norman W. (Livermore, CA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

WRIGHT, MELANIE CLAY. The Effects of Automation on Team Performance and Team Coordination. (Under the direction of David B. Kaber).  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ABSTRACT WRIGHT, MELANIE CLAY. The Effects of Automation on Team Performance and Team Coordination OF AUTOMATION ON TEAM PERFORMANCE AND TEAM COORDINATION By MELANIE CLAY WRIGHT A dissertation submitted #12;BIOGRAPHY Melanie Clay Wright was born Melanie Carol Clay in Bethesda, Maryland in April, 1966

Kaber, David B.

163

City of Clay Center, Kansas (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Clay Center Clay Center Place Kansas Utility Id 3710 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Buying Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Commercial- Rural Commercial Commercial- Urban Commercial Industrial- Rural Industrial Industrial- Urban Industrial Residential- Rural Residential Residential- Urban Residential Average Rates Residential: $0.1050/kWh Commercial: $0.1120/kWh Industrial: $0.0876/kWh References ↑ "EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a"

164

Electrokinetics of natural and mechanically modified ripidolite and beidellite clays  

SciTech Connect

Particles of clay minerals were studied due to their importance in geochemical processes in natural waters, such as adsorption and transfer of ionic contaminants, stabilization by organics, and flocculation and sedimentation phenomena. Information on the behavior of clays was sought by experiments with model systems. Measurements of electrophoretic mobilities in relation to pH, at varying concentrations of well-characterized fulvic acid (FA), were performed on two structurally well defined, representative clay minerals prepared with clean surfaces: ripidolite (a well-known trioctahedral nonswelling chlorite) and beidellite (a typical dioctahedral smectite). Natural ripidolite and beidellite show high negative electrokinetic potentials in the range pH 2 ({minus}10 and {minus}20 mV, respectively) to pH 10 ({minus}60 and {minus}50 mV, respectively). Experiments utilizing mechanical particle disintegration (dry milling), mimicking natural wear and physical weathering, resulted in increases of specific surface area (12.3 and 1.5 times, respectively) and of cation exchange capacity (3.2 and 1.2 times, respectively). Such small-sized particles, shown by SEM figures, retain their crystal structure (X ray) and the nature of their structural bonds (FTIR), exhibiting an IEP (at pH 6.0 and 3.0, respectively). This was interpreted to be the creation of positively charged edge surfaces. Exposed to fulvic acid in solutions of 10{sup {minus}3} NaCl at pH = 6.5, these new surfaces showed an increase in negative {zeta}-potential for ripidolite, and, to a smaller extent, for beidellite. In the interaction of clay mineral particles with aqueous medium, it is concluded that the degree of mechanical wear is more decisive than the type of the mineral.

Sondi, I.; Pravdic, V. [Rudjer Boskovic Inst., Zagreb (Croatia). Center for Marine Research] [Rudjer Boskovic Inst., Zagreb (Croatia). Center for Marine Research

1996-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

165

Compressibility and permeability of clays at high pressure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

consolidation tests indicate that temperature does not seem to affect the compressibi1ity of bentonite and illite. How- ever, the compressibility of kaolinite increases slightly with an increase in temperature. The effect of temperature on the permeability... on the Compressibility and Permeability of Clay EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM Equipment Description of Samples Experimental Procedure Page 14 14 17 17 21 23 26 26 29 29 30 32 32 TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) DISCUSSION OF THE TEST RESULTS Consolidation...

Lee, Honwoo Thomas

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

166

Photocatalytic properties of titania pillared clays by different drying methods  

SciTech Connect

Photocatalysts based on titania pillared clays (TiO{sub 2} PILCs) have been prepared through a sol-gel method. Different drying methods, air drying (AD), air drying after ethanol extraction (EAD), and supercritical drying (SCD) have been employed and found to have significant effects on the photocatalytic efficiency of the resultant catalysts for the oxidation of phenol in water. Titania pillared clay (TiO{sub 2} PILC) obtained by SCD has the highest external and micropore surface area, largest amount and smallest crystallite size of anatase, and exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity. Furthermore, silica titania pillared clay (SiO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} PILC) after SCD, titania coated TiO{sub 2} PILC (SCD) and SiO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} PILC (SCD) were synthesized to study the key factors controlling the photocatalytic activity. It is concluded that the dispersion of nanometer-sized anatase on the surface of the PILC particles and the suspensibility of the particles are the most important factors for high photocatalytic efficiency.

Ding, Z.; Zhu, H.Y.; Lu, G.Q.; Greenfield, P.F. [Univ. of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

The Don-Kay-Clay Cash Foundation The Don-Kay-Clay Cash Foundation was established in 1997 to provide general and operating  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Don-Kay-Clay Cash Foundation The Don-Kay-Clay Cash Foundation was established in 1997. He is currently a cattle rancher and President of the family foundation. In the past, he held other, and the Texas Tech University Foundation. Kay received her degree in Education from Texas Tech in 1967

Rock, Chris

168

Deputy Secretary of Energy Clay Sell to Depart | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Clay Sell to Depart Clay Sell to Depart Deputy Secretary of Energy Clay Sell to Depart January 14, 2008 - 10:23am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - U.S. Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman today released the following statement: "It is with regret that I announce the resignation of Deputy Secretary of Energy Clay Sell. Clay has served with distinction as the Deputy Secretary of Energy for nearly three years and has played a key role in the Administration's efforts to enact landmark energy legislation in 2005 and 2007." "As the Department's Chief Operating Officer, Clay has led and implemented many of the successful Departmental improvements of the last three years, including improving the performance and capability of our nuclear weapons and intelligence organizations, streamlining the management and focus of

169

Clay Sell Sworn in as Deputy Secretary of Energy | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Clay Sell Sworn in as Deputy Secretary of Energy Clay Sell Sworn in as Deputy Secretary of Energy Clay Sell Sworn in as Deputy Secretary of Energy March 21, 2005 - 10:53am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - Jeffrey Clay Sell was sworn in today as Deputy Secretary of Energy at a small ceremony held at the Department of Energy headquarters in Washington, DC. Mr. Sell was sworn in by Energy Secretary Samuel W. Bodman after being unanimously confirmed by the United States Senate on Thursday, March 17, 2005. "Clay brings a tremendous amount of knowledge and experience to the department, which will be critical as we seek to ensure an affordable, reliable energy supply for America's future," Secretary Bodman said. "As Deputy Secretary, Clay will play a critical role in the management of our nuclear stockpile and the effort to continue America's leadership in

170

Co/Pillared Clay Bifunctional Catalyst for Controlling the Product Distribution of Fischer?Tropsch Synthesis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The results indicate that the activities of the catalysts (i.e., CO conversions) increase in the order of Co/Na-Clay ? Co/Si-PILC ? Co/acid-clay ? Co/Al-PILC PILC ? Co/SiO2. ... After calcination at 773 K for 4 h, zirconia-pillared clay (Zr-PILC) was obtained. ... Following the same procedure as used for preparing Zr-PILC, Al-PILC and Si-PILC were obtained. ...

Qing-Qing Hao; Guang-Wei Wang; Zhao-Tie Liu; Jian Lu; Zhong-Wen Liu

2010-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

171

Evaluation of Used Fuel Disposition in Clay-Bearing Rock  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive waste disposal in shale/argillite rock formations has been widely considered given its desirable isolation properties (low permeability), geochemically reduced conditions, anomalous groundwater pressures, and widespread geologic occurrence. Clay/shale rock formations are characterized by their high content of clay minerals such as smectites and illites where diffusive transport and chemisorption phenomena predominate. These, in addition to low permeability, are key attributes of shale to impede radionuclide mobility. Shale host-media has been comprehensively studied in international nuclear waste repository programs as part of underground research laboratories (URLs) programs in Switzerland, France, Belgium, and Japan. These investigations, in some cases a decade or more long, have produced a large but fundamental body of information spanning from site characterization data (geological, hydrogeological, geochemical, geomechanical) to controlled experiments on the engineered barrier system (EBS) (barrier clay and seals materials). Evaluation of nuclear waste disposal in shale formations in the USA was conducted in the late 70’s and mid 80’s. Most of these studies evaluated the potential for shale to host a nuclear waste repository but not at the programmatic level of URLs in international repository programs. This report covers various R&D work and capabilities relevant to disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in shale/argillite media. Integration and cross-fertilization of these capabilities will be utilized in the development and implementation of the shale/argillite reference case planned for FY15. Disposal R&D activities under the UFDC in the past few years have produced state-of-the-art modeling capabilities for coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC), used fuel degradation (source term), and thermodynamic modeling and database development to evaluate generic disposal concepts. The THMC models have been developed for shale repository leveraging in large part on the information garnered in URLs and laboratory data to test and demonstrate model prediction capability and to accurately represent behavior of the EBS and the natural (barrier) system (NS). In addition, experimental work to improve our understanding of clay barrier interactions and TM couplings at high temperatures are key to evaluate thermal effects as a result of relatively high heat loads from waste and the extent of sacrificial zones in the EBS. To assess the latter, experiments and modeling approaches have provided important information on the stability and fate of barrier materials under high heat loads. This information is central to the assessment of thermal limits and the implementation of the reference case when constraining EBS properties and the repository layout (e.g., waste package and drift spacing). This report is comprised of various parts, each one describing various R&D activities applicable to shale/argillite media. For example, progress made on modeling and experimental approaches to analyze physical and chemical interactions affecting clay in the EBS, NS, and used nuclear fuel (source term) in support of R&D objectives. It also describes the development of a reference case for shale/argillite media. The accomplishments of these activities are summarized as follows: ? Development of a reference case for shale/argillite; ? Investigation of Reactive Transport and Coupled THM Processes in EBS: FY14; ? Update on Experimental Activities on Buffer/Backfill Interactions at elevated Pressure and Temperature; ? Thermodynamic Database Development: Evaluation Strategy, Modeling Tools, First-Principles Modeling of Clay, and Sorption Database Assessment; ? ANL Mixed Potential Model For Used Fuel Degradation: Application to Argillite and Crystalline Rock Environments.

Carlos F. Jové Colón; Philippe F. Weck; David H. Sassani; Liange Zheng; Jonny Rutqvist; Carl I. Steefel; Kunhwi Kim; Seiji Nakagawa; James Houseworth; Jens Birkholzer; Florie A. Caporuscio; Michael Cheshire; Michael S. Rearick; Mary K. McCarney; Mavrik Zavarin; Ana Benedicto; Annie B. Kersting; Mark Sutton; James Jerden; Kurt E. Frey; Jacqueline M. Copple; William Ebert

2014-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

172

Synthesis, characterisation and application of organic surfactants modified clays for water purification.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis offered a step forward in the development of cheap and effective materials for water treatment. It described the modification of naturally abundant clay… (more)

Park, Yu Ri

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

LOW FLAMMABILITY FOAM-LIKE MATERIALS BASED ON EPOXY, TANNIC ACID, SODIUM MONTMORILLONITE CLAY.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Aerogels based on sodium montmorillonite clay, epoxy polymer, and tannic acid as a flame retardant additive were fabricated through a simple environmentally-friendly freeze drying process… (more)

Lang, Xiaolong

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Controlled Release of Pesticides into Soils from Clay?Polymer Formulations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

By a fairly simple procedure, smectites can be modified into pillared clays (PILC). ... Preparation of PILC. ... (c) Preparation of the Al?PILC. ...

Z. Gerstl; A. Nasser; U. Mingelgrin

1998-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

175

Olive oil Mill Wastewater properties change during infiltration through clay soils  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Olive oil Mill Wastewaters (OMW), are stored in clay basins in the region of Sfax (Tunisia). Field permeability measurements showed that the clay is not completely impermeable and its structure can be modified by the infiltration of OMW. Analysis of chemical composition of soil revealed the presence of phenolic compounds resulting from the percolation of OMW. An infiltration filled with clay and submerged with OMW at a height of 1.5 m was used to study the composition change of the support as OMW percolates through the clay. Compared to the raw OMW, infiltrated effluent showed a decease of its polluting load.

Adel Kharroubi; Raja Jarboui; Habib Abida; Emna Ammar

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Coupled hydro-mechanical processes in crytalline rock and in induratedand plastic clays: A comparative discussion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Term HM Measurements around HADES URF, Proceedings of EUROCKThe extension of the HADES Underground Research facility atin a plastic clay formation: The HADES underground research

Tsang, Chin-Fu; Blumling, Peter; Bernier, Frederic

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Comparison and analysis of reservoir rocks and related clays  

SciTech Connect

A series of instrumental and chemical analyses was made on sedimentary rocks to determine the surface chemical properties of sedimentry rocks and the physical characteristic of the pores. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray analytic capability was used to study the morphology of the samples, surface mineral composition and type and location of clays, and to obtain a qualitative estimate of the pore sizes. A centrifuge was used to determine the pore size distributions which are correlated with SEM observations. An atomic absorption spectrophotometer equipped with an inductively coupled plasma for complete spectral analysis was used to obtain analyses of the rocks, clays, and effluents from ion exchange tests. Two of the results are as follows: (1) Sweetwater gas sands have a bimodal pore size distribution composed of pores with a mean diameter of 0.2 microns which is attributed to intergranular spaces and cracks in the expanded laborboratory sample but which will be close under the pressure of the overburden formations, and these Sweetwater sands have a distribution of pores at 2 microns which are solution vugs rather than intergranular porosity since the sand grains are completely packed together with the cementing material due to the high overburden pressures; and (2) Ion-exchange capacities of two rocks were 5.3 meq/kg and 18.0 meq/kg, and the surface areas were 0.9 m/sup 2//g and 2.30 m/sup 2//g, respectively, even though each had almost identical mineral composition, clay type and quantity, and permeability. 7 references, 12 figures, 3 tables.

Crocker, M.E.; Donaldson, E.C.; Marchin, L.M.

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Risk assessment of failure modes of gas diffuser liner of V94.2 siemens gas turbine by FMEA method  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Failure of welding connection of gas diffuser liner and exhaust casing is one of the failure modes of V94.2 gas turbines which are happened in some power plants. This defect is one of the uncertainties of customers when they want to accept the final commissioning of this product. According to this, the risk priority of this failure evaluated by failure modes and effect analysis (FMEA) method to find out whether this failure is catastrophic for turbine performance and is harmful for humans. By using history of 110 gas turbines of this model which are used in some power plants, the severity number, occurrence number and detection number of failure determined and consequently the Risk Priority Number (RPN) of failure determined. Finally, critically matrix of potential failures is created and illustrated that failure modes are located in safe zone.

H Mirzaei Rafsanjani; A Rezaei Nasab

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Arrested state of clay-water suspensions: gel or glass?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The aging of a charged colloidal system has been studied by Small Angle X-rays Scattering, in the exchanged momentum range Q=0.03 - 5 nm-1, and by Dynamic Light Scattering, at different clay concentrations (Cw =0.6 % - 2.8 %). The static structure factor, S(Q), has been determined as a function of both aging time and concentration. This is the first direct experimental evidence of the existence and evolution with aging time of two different arrested states in a single system simply obtained only by changing its volume fraction: an inhomogeneous state is reached at low concentrations, while a homogenous one is found at high concentrations.

B. Ruzicka; L. Zulian; R. Angelini; M. Sztucki; A. Moussaid; G. Ruocco

2008-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

180

Model of crack propagation in a clay soil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of independent variables for maximum R to determine A for crack de th, 2 Number of variables in model (p) R Variables in model 0. 703913 0. 916176 0. 988151 0. 997207 0. 999328 H*CLrH*M~CL H, H*M, H~M*CL H, CL, H*M, H*M*CL H, CL, H"M, H*CL, H...: Agricultural Engineering MODEL OF CRACK PROPAGATION IN A CLAY SOIL A Thesis by PATRICK EDWIDGE CARRIERE Approved as to style and content by: John L. Nieber (Chairman of Committee) Donald L. Reddell (Member) Kirk W, Brown (Member ) Wilbert H...

Carriere, Patrick Edwidge

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "geosynthetic clay liner" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Field Performance of Three Compacted Clay Landfill Covers  

SciTech Connect

A study was conducted at sites in subtropical Georgia, seasonal and humid Iowa, and arid southeastern California to evaluate the field hydrology of compacted clay covers for final closure of landfills.Water balance of the covers was monitored with large (10 by 20 m), instrumented drainage lysimeters for 2 to 4 yr. Initial drainage at the Iowa and California sites was ,32 mm yr21 (i.e., unit gradient flow for a hydraulic conductivity of 1027 cm s21, the regulatory standard for the clay barriers in this study); initial drainage rate at the Georgia site was about 80 mm yr21. The drainage rate at all sites increased by factors ranging from 100 to 750 during the monitoring periods and in each case the drainage rate exceeded 32 mm yr21 by the end of the monitoring period. The drainage rates developed a rapid response to precipitation events, suggesting that increases in drainage rate were the result of preferential flow. Although no direct observations of preferential flow paths were made, field measurements of water content and temperature at all three sites suggested that desiccation or freeze–thaw cycling probably resulted in formation of preferential flow paths through the barrier layers. Data from all three sites showed the effectiveness of all three covers as hydraulic barriers diminished during the 2 to 4 yr monitoring period, which was short compared with the required design life (often 30 yr) of most waste containment facilities.

Albright, William H.; Benson, Craig H.; Gee, Glendon W.; Abichou, Tarek; Tyler, Scott W.; Rock, Steven

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

E-Print Network 3.0 - artificial fly ash-clay Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

fly ash-clay Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Study of composite cement containing burned oil shale Summary: studied. Context SiO2 CaO Al2O3 OPC BFS Class C fly ash Clays Metakaolin...

183

Dechlorination of Pentachlorophenol by ammonium amended clays: development of field applicable techniques  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

P, CqP, CtP. 14 CB JECTIVE The objective of this research was to develop a field pracfical method to use ammoniated clays for dechlorination of PCP. To do this, techniques need to be developed to process the anunonium-treated clay into water stable...

Lu, Junying

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Porous Materials Prepared from Clays for the Upgrade of Landfill Gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A Portuguese clay from soil deposits in Porto Santo (Madeira archipelago), previously characterized,(47) was used in the preparation of the porous PCH and PILC. ... For comparison purposes, MCM-41, a solid with well-defined mesopores, and a PILC material were used. ... (48) PILC was obtained from the natural clay. ...

Moisés L. Pinto; João Pires; João Rocha

2008-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

185

Probing the Interface of Microscopic Clay Particles in Aqueous Solution by Second Harmonic Generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of catechol (OHC6H4- OH), adsorbed onto the surface of titanium dioxide micropar- ticles in aqueous solution adsorption and the electrostatic properties of clay particles. 1. Introduction The abundance in nature and the unique adsorptive and catalytic properties of clay particles make them a subject of fundamental

Eisenthal, Kenneth B.

186

The Sunclay and Kullavik Projects — Heat Storage in Clay at Low and High Temperature  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The SUNCLAY-project, which was constructed 1979–1980, is one of the first projects were clay is used as heat-storage. The temperature of the clay is raised to 14–15°C by low-temperature solar collectors during...

S. Olsson

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Report on Modeling Coupled Processes in the Near Field of a Clay Repository  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

on Modeling Coupled Processes in the Near Field of a Clay on Modeling Coupled Processes in the Near Field of a Clay Repository Report on Modeling Coupled Processes in the Near Field of a Clay Repository Clay/shale has been considered as potential host rock for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste throughout the world. Coupled thermal, hydrological, mechanical, and chemical (THMC) processes have a significant impact on the long-term safety of a clay repository. This report documents results from three R&D activities: (1) implementation and validation of constitutive relationships, (2) development of a discrete fracture network (DFN) model for investigating coupled processes in the excavation damaged zone, and (3) development of a THM model for the Full-Scale Emplacement Experiment tests at Mont Terri, Switzerland, for the

188

The occurrence of clays and their bearing on evaporite mineralogy in the Salado Formation, Delaware Basin, New Mexico  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-existing minerals resulting in deposition of clays on the last solution front. Although the clay chemistry does not vary, the clay mineralogy differs with respect to its associ- ated evaporite mineralogy. Low-charge corrensite is associated with iv halite... Diagenesfs. Polyhalite-Halite, Massive Langbeinite-Halite . Langbeinite-Loeweite-Halite. Langbei ni te-Syl vite-Halite Langbeinite-Kainite-Halite . Clay Chemistry and Mineralogy. Evolution of Observed Sequence . CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES. APPENDIX I...

Harville, Donald Gene

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

189

Rotating Liner Engine: Improving Efficiency of Heavy Duty Diesels by Significant Friction Reduction, and Extending the Life of Heavy Duty Engines.  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the work on converting a 4 cylinder Cummins ISB engine into a single cylinder Rotating Liner Engine functioning prototype that can be used to measure the friction benefits of rotating the cylinder liner in a high pressure compression ignition engine. A similar baseline engine was also prepared, and preliminary testing was done. Even though the fabrication of the single cylinder prototype was behind schedule due to machine shop delays, the fundamental soundness of the design elements are proven, and the engine has successfully functioned. However, the testing approach of the two engines, as envisioned by the original proposal, proved impossible due to torsional vibration resonance caused by the single active piston. A new approach for proper testing has been proposed,

Dardalis, Dimitrios

2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

190

Lanthanides-clay nanocomposites: Synthesis, characterization and optical properties  

SciTech Connect

Complexes of Europium(III) and Terbium(III) with 2,2-bipyridine and 1,10-phenanthroline were inserted into Na-bentonite by ion exchange reactions at room temperature. The products display interlaminar distances and stoichiometries in agreement with the ion exchange capacity and the interlayer space available in the clay. The optical properties of the intercalates, being qualitatively similar to those of the free complexes, are additionally improved with respect to exchange processes with the medium, especially in a moist environment. The protection again hydrolysis, together with the intensity of the optical transition {sup 5}D{sub 0}-{sup 5}F{sub 2} observed in the nanocomposite, makes these products promising for the development of novel optical materials.

Celedon, Salvador; Quiroz, Carolina [Universidad Tecnologica Metropolitana, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 9845, Santiago (Chile); Gonzalez, Guillermo [Universidad de Chile, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 653, Santiago (Chile); Sotomayor Torres, Clivia M. [University College Cork, Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings, Cork (Ireland); Catalan Institute of Nanotechnology, Campus de Bellaterra, Edifici CM3, ES 08193, Institute of Research and Advanced Studies ICREA, 08010 Barcelona (Spain); Benavente, Eglantina [Universidad Tecnologica Metropolitana, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 9845, Santiago (Chile)], E-mail: ebenaven@utem.cl

2009-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

191

Minimising the global warming potential of clay based geopolymers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Production of Portland cement (PC) binders contributes substantially to global CO2 production and various bodies including the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) have identified geopolymers as alternative binders with the potential to reduce these emissions. The hypothesis of this research is to investigate whether this is a realistic proposition in the light of limited waste materials such as fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag commonly used as geopolymer precursors. The effect of use of natural clay minerals as alternative precursors on global warming potential (GWP) is investigated. Methods of designing mixes with the lowest possible GWP are presented and these are compared to the GWP of PC and currently available metakaolin based geopolymer binders. It is concluded that it is possible to reduce the GWP by approximately 40%, but other impacts may increase.

Andrew Heath; Kevin Paine; Marcelle McManus

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

MATE (Materials for Advanced Turbine Engines) Program, Project 3. Volume 2: Design, fabrication and evaluation of an oxide dispersion strengthened sheet alloy combustor liner. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The suitability of wrought oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) superalloy sheet for gas turbine engine combustor applications was evaluated. Two yttria (Y2O3) dispersion strengthened alloys were evaluated; Incoloy MA956 and Haynes Development Alloy (HDA) 8077 (NiCrAl base). Preliminary tests showed both alloys to be potentially viable combustor materials, with neither alloy exhibiting a significant advantage over the other. MA956 was selected as the final alloy based on manufacturing reproducibility for evaluation as a burner liner. A hybrid PW2037 inner burner liner containing MA956 and Hastelloy X components and using a louvered configuration was designed and constructed. The louvered configuration was chosen because of field experience and compatibility with the bill of material PW2037 design. The simulated flight cycle for the ground based engine tests consisted of 4.5 min idle, 1.5 min takeoff and intermediate conditions in a PW2037 engine with average uncorrected combustor exit temperature of 1527 C. Post test evaluation consisting of visual observations and fluorescent penetrant inspections was conducted after 500 cycles of testing. No loss of integrity in the burner liner was shown.

Bose, S.; Sheffler, K.D.

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Effect of aging of the pillaring reagent on the microstructure and cracking activity of pillared clay  

SciTech Connect

Pillared interlayer clay (PILC) is formed by exchanging large hydroxyaluminum polycations into the interlayer of a smectite clay such as montmorillonite, which is made up of sheet-like silica/alumina layers. Calcination of the exchanged clay gives a well dispersed array of metal oxide clumps (i.e., pillars) bonded top and bottom to the silica/alumina layers of the clay. The permanent separation of the clay layers gives an 8 to 10-fold increase in surface area, from 30 to 250-300 m{sup 2}/g, and a microporous structure similar to but less constrained than that of zeolites. Recently, there has been an increased interest in the use of these clays as cracking catalysts. For example, pillared clays have been shown to be an active cracking catalyst for both single component and gas oil feeds. PILC's also lead to both higher light cycle oil (LCO) and coke yields than conventional cracking catalysts. Commercially available, metal-hydrolyzed hydroxyaluminum solutions containing chlorhydrol, A1{sub 2}(OH){sub 5}C1.2H{sub 2}O, have been used as one source of the polycation solution. The approach of these hydrolyzed polycation solutions to equilibrium is known as aging. During the aging process certain polycationic species disappear from the solution and new species are formed. For this reason, the aging process can have a significant influence on the properties of the pillared clays. The objective of this work was to determine how the physical and catalytic properties of the pillared clay depend on the aging of dilute cholorhydrol solutions.

Harris, J.R. (Phillips Petroleum Company, Bartlesville, OK (USA))

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Electric field induced structuring in clay–oil suspensions: new insights from WAXS, SEM,  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The electric field induced structuring in clay–oil suspensions has been studied by means of wide angle x-ray scattering (WAXS), rheometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), as well as leak current density and dielectric constant measurements. The clay particles' orientation distribution was inferred from the azimuthal changes of the clay diffraction peak intensity. The angular width of that distribution was quantified through an orientational order parameter. Chain and column formation processes were distinguished by comparison of the time evolution of the diffraction peak amplitude with that of the current density. Leak current density was measured for different electric field strengths E and clay particle concentrations ?. The following scaling relation was found: . In addition, the dependence of the yield stress on the electric field and on the particle concentration was measured and shown to scale as: .

Z Rozynek; K D Knudsen; J O Fossum; Y Méheust; B Wang; M Zhou

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Three-dimensional anisotropic swelling model for clay shale —a fabric approach  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A three-dimensional model is developed to quantify the anisotropic swelling behaviour of geological materials. The model considers clay mineral particle swelling, fabric anisotropy and induced stress anisotropy as important fundamentals. The double layer theory is used to describe the relationship between the interactive particle stress and the swelling strain. Continuous functions are introduced to represent the fabric density and the particle stress distributions and to permit continuum analyses of three-dimensional swelling problems. The performance of the model has been evaluated against the experimental data obtained from swell tests on a clay soil and two clay shales. It is found that the model provides reasonable predictions on the swelling behaviour of high-density clay shale in which the swelling is dominated by the microstructural particle swelling rather than the macrostructural matrix deformation.

R.C.K. Wong; E.Z. Wang

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Surface Modification of Smectite Clay Induced by Non-thermal Gliding Arc Plasma at Atmospheric Pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Smectite clay from Sabga (west-Cameroon) was treated in aqueous suspension by gliding arc plasma to modify its surface properties. The evolution of the modifications was followed with the exposure time and pos...

Antoine Tiya Djowe; Samuel Laminsi…

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Detection and Quantification of Expansive Clay Minerals in Geologically-Diverse Texas Aggregate Fines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and asphalt concretes. The Texas Department of Transportation (TXDOT) and Texas A&M Transportation Institute (TTI) evaluated the methylene blue adsorption test for its potential to identify and estimate quantities of expansive clays in aggregate stockpiles...

Russell, George 1983-

2012-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

198

Behavior of 10 full-scale ground anchors installed in stiff clay  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Results from load tests conducted on ten, full-scale instrumented ground anchors installed in stiff clay, illustrated that anchor performance is load-history dependent. Anchors having shorter bonded lengths performed significantly better than...

Powers, William Francis

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Effects of tunneling on groundwater flow and swelling of clay-sulfate rocks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

[1] Swelling of clay-sulfate rocks is a major threat in tunneling. It is triggered by the transformation of the sulfate mineral anhydrite into gypsum as a result of water inflow in anhydrite-containing layers after tunnel ...

Butscher, Christoph

200

K-Ar Dates Of Hydrothermal Clays From Core Hole Vc-2B, Valles...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

zone. Six illitic clays within Quaternary caldera-fill debris flow, tuffaceous sediment, and ash-flow tuff (48 to 587 m depth) yield ages from 0.35 to 1.09 Ma. Illite from...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "geosynthetic clay liner" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Modification of the porosity of pillared clays by carbon deposition. I. Polymer carbonization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In order to use pillared clays (PILC) for selective adsorption, further modifications of ... on the porosity of Ti- and Al-PILC is discussed in terms of pore-blocking, ... resulted in a complete pore-blocking for...

N. Maes; E. F. Vansant

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Monolayer cuprous chloride dispersed on pillared clays for olefin-paraffin separations by ?-complexation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

New adsorbents containing cuprous chloride dispersed on pillared interlayered clays (PILC) have been prepared and studied for olefin-paraffin separations. High surface-area PILC's were synthesized with different ...

Linda S. Cheng; Ralph T. Yang

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Adsorption Behaviour of Basic Dyes on the Humic Acid Immobilized Pillared Clay  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this work, the adsorption of three basic dyes, namely methylene blue (MB), crystal violet (CV) and rhodamine B (RB) on the humic acid (HA) immobilized pillared clay (PILC) (HA-PILC) was studied. The adsorption...

V. P. Vinod; T. S. Anirudhan

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

A comparison of the behavior of intact and Resedimented Boston Blue Clay (BBC)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Resedimented Boston Blue Clay (RBBC) has been used as an analog test material for research at MIT for decades, due to local variability and the high cost of sampling. However, a comprehensive study of the differences in ...

House, Robert Donald

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

E-Print Network 3.0 - aluminosilicate clay minerals Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

clay Jorge Jerez a,b , Markus Flury a,b, , Jianying Shang b , Youjun... August 2005 Abstract The objective of this work was to coat ... Source: Flury, Markus - Department of...

206

The Swelling of Clays: Molecular Simulations of the Hydration of Montmorillonite  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...IVB groups, respectively. To calculate the parental melt compositions, we assumed that the Re and Os abundances in...Clays are important in many applications, such as drug and agrochemical delivery, pu-rification and recycling of water streams...

S. Karaborni; B. Smit; W. Heidug; J. Urai; E. van Oort

1996-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

207

Application of the Modified Methylene Blue Test to Detect Clay Minerals in Coarse Aggregate Fines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

APPLICATION OF THE MODIFIED METHYLENE BLUE TEST TO DETECT CLAY MINERALS IN COARSE AGGREGATE FINES A Thesis by BRANDON THOMAS PITRE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...: Civil Engineering Copyright 2012 Brandon Thomas Pitre ii ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to implement a new, rapid field method to effectively and accurately detect harmful clay minerals in aggregate fines by using the modified...

Pitre, Brandon

2012-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

208

Enthalpy of adsorption and isotherms for adsorption of naphthenic acid onto clays  

SciTech Connect

The enthalpies of adsorption and the isotherms for adsorption of naphthenic acid onto Na-montmorillonite, Na-kaolinite, and Na-illite were studied by means of calorimetry and the static method at 298.15 K. The results show that the enthalpies of adsorption and saturated adsorption amounts of naphthenic acid on different clays change in the order Na-montmorillonite > Na-illite > Na-kaolinite. The interaction between naphthenic acid and clays is discussed.

Zou, L.; Han, B.; Yan, H. [Academia Sinica, Beijing (China). Inst. of Chemistry] [Academia Sinica, Beijing (China). Inst. of Chemistry; Kasperski, K.L.; Xu, Y. [CANMET, Devon, Alberta (Canada). Energy Mines and Resources] [CANMET, Devon, Alberta (Canada). Energy Mines and Resources; Hepler, L.G. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry] [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry

1997-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

209

Field tests and new design procedure for laterally loaded drilled shafts in clay  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

FIELD TESTS AND NEW DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR LATERALLY LOADED DRILLED SHAFTS IN CLAY A Thesis by l1ARK WILLIAM BIERSCHWALE Submitted to ihe Graduate College Texas A8M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1980 Major Subject: Civil Engineering FIELD TESTS AND NEW DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR LATERALLY LOADED DRILLED SHAFTS IN CLAY A Thesis by NARK WILLIAM BIERSCHWALE Approved as to style and content by: Harry M. Coyle - Chairman...

Bierschwale, Mark W.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Smectite clay adsorbents of aflatoxin B1 to amend animal feed  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SMECTITE CLAY ADSORBENTS OF AFLATOXIN B 1 TO AMEND ANIMAL FEED A Thesis by INES KANNEWISCHER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... Science SMECTITE CLAY ADSORBENTS OF AFLATOXIN B 1 TO AMEND ANIMAL FEED A Thesis by INES KANNEWISCHER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...

Kannewischer, Ines

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

211

Mild Hydrocracking of Synthetic Crude Gas Oil over Pt Supported on Pillared and Delaminated Clays  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The modified acidity in PILC materials is conducive to catalyzing mild hydrocracking reactions. ... The differences in catalyst performance were attributed to the more open pore structure of the PILC material and possible aggregation of clay lamellas, which are both expected to enhance diffusion of multi-ring gas oil components. ... Pt-supported pillared clay (Pt/PILC) catalyst was prepared according to published procedures using Accofloc 350, a naturally occurring montmorillonite supplied by the American Colloid Company. ...

Hong Yang; Michael Wilson; Craig Fairbridge; Zbigniew Ring; Josephine M. Hill

2002-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

212

The Effect of Physico-Chemical Factors on the Stability and Transport of Clay Particles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

i THE EFFECT OF PHYSICO-CHEMICAL FACTORS ON THE STABILITY AND TRANSPORT OF CLAY PARTICLES A Thesis by DARYA ALEXANDROVNA MUSHAROVA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... 2012 Darya Alexandrovna Musharova iii THE EFFECT OF PHYSICO-CHEMICAL FACTORS ON THE STABILITY AND TRANSPORT OF CLAY PARTICLES A Thesis by DARYA ALEXANDROVNA MUSHAROVA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A...

Musharova, Darya

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

213

Hyper-aging Dynamics of Nano-clay Suspension  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aqueous suspension of nanoclay Laponite undergoes structural evolution as a function of time, which enhances its elasticity and relaxation time. In this work we employ effective time approach to investigate long term relaxation dynamics by carrying out creep experiments. Typically we observe that the monotonic evolution of elastic modulus shifts to lower aging times while maxima in viscous modulus gets progressively broader for experiments carried out on a later date since preparation (idle time) of nanoclay suspension. Application of effective time theory produces superposition of all the creep curves irrespective of their initial state. The resulting dependence of relaxation time on aging time shows very strong hyper aging dynamics at small idle times, which progressively weakens to demonstrate linear dependence in the limit of very large idle times. Remarkably this behavior of nanoclay suspension is akin to that observed for polymeric glasses. Consideration of aging as a first order process suggests that continued hyper-aging dynamics causes cessation of aging. The dependence of relaxation time on aging time, therefore, must attenuate eventually producing linear or weaker dependence on time in order to approach progressively low energy state in the limit of very large times as observed experimentally. We also develop a simple scaling model based on a concept of aging of an energy well, which qualitatively captures various experimental observations very well leading to profound insight into the hyper-aging dynamics of nano-clay suspensions.

A. Shahin; Yogesh M Joshi

2012-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

214

Hydroconversion reactions catalyzed by highly stable pillared clays  

SciTech Connect

Al-pillared clays (Al-PILC) and Al-X-PILC (X = Ga, Ni), structurally stable at high temperature - in the case of Ga above 800{degrees}C-have been synthesized by controlling intercalation steps and stabilization procedures. New bidimensional materials with an interlaminar distance about 10-12{angstrom} and with different chemical reactivities in the pillars have thus been produced. The analytical techniques employed to characterize the materials and the processes involved during stabilization include N{sub 2} adsorption, AA, XRD, NH{sub 3}-TPD, TGA-DTA, HR- and MAS-NMR (Al, Si, and Ga) and in-situ IR and DRIFTS. Chemical characterization using high pressure reactions with probe molecules such as diphenylmethane and tert-butylbenzene shows selectivity patterns than can be clearly associated with the microstructure of the PILC used, as well as an effect due to the composition of the pillars. Similar studies with zeolites give patterns that differ from those of PILC, probably because of the change in dimensionality of the internal structure. Poisoning studies with metal porphyrins prove that PLIC have improved resistance compared to standard catalysts. Hydrotreatment of Maya crude results a significant reduction in total sulfur under conditions suitable for commercial operation.

Gomez, S.A.; Mosqueira, L.; Espinosa, J.; Fuentes, G.A. [Universidad A. Metropolitana-Iztapalapa (Mexico)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

215

Formation of hydrocarbons from acid-Clay suspensions by gamma irradiation  

SciTech Connect

The adsorption of certain organic compounds by clays gives rise to the transformation of the adsorbate through the action of the clays. This phenomenon can be enhanced using ionizing radiation. In this context, these kinds of reactions play an important role in many natural and industrial processes. For example, in oil and gas exploration, the source and trap of petroleum hydrocarbons is frequently clay-rich rocks. Clay-water-based muds are also seen as environmentally friendly alternatives to toxic oil-based fluids. The principal processes that occur in sediments are usually held to be of bacterial action and thermal transformation, which may include thermally induced catalytic alteration of the organic debris. On the other hand, radioactive materials are widely distributed throughout Earth. They were more abundant in the past, but are present in petroleum reservoirs. Their presence induced radioactive bombardment, which may have altered these sediments. This important subject has not been extensively studied. The aim of this work is to study the behavior of fatty acids-like behenic acid-and dicarboxylic acids-like fumaric acid-as model compounds, which are adsorbed in a clay mineral (Na-montmorillonite) and exposed to gamma radiation. The results show that the radiation-induced decomposition of the clay-acid system goes along a definitive path (oxidation), rather than following several modes of simultaneous decomposition, as happens in radiolysis without clay or by heating the system. The main radiolytic products for fatty acids are their corresponding hydrocarbons, with one C-atom less than the original acid.

Cruz-Castaneda, J.; Negron-Mendoza, A.; Ramos-Bernal, S. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, UNAM. Cd. Universitaria, A. P. 70-543, 04510 Mexico (Mexico)

2013-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

216

Surface Area and Microporosity of a Pillared Interlayered Clay (PILC) from a Hybrid Density Functional Theory (DFT) Method  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Surface Area and Microporosity of a Pillared Interlayered Clay (PILC) from a Hybrid Density Functional Theory (DFT) Method ... Using these models and the experimental isotherm data, the integral equation of adsorption was inverted by a regularization method to yield the micropore and mesopore size distribution of a pillared interlayered clay (PILC). ... In this paper we show how such a deconvolution method can be used for estimating the pore size distribution of a pillared interlayered clay (PILC). ...

James P. Olivier; Mario L. Occelli

2000-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

217

Reduction And Immobilization Of Hexavalent Chromium By Microbially Reduced Fe-bearing Clay Minerals  

SciTech Connect

Hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) is a major contaminant in the environment. As a redox-sensitive element, the fate and toxicity of chromium is controlled by reduction-oxidation (redox) reactions. Previous research has shown the ability of structural Fe(II) in naturally present and chemically reduced clay minerals to reduce Cr6+ to Cr(III) as a way of immobilization and detoxification. However, it is still poorly known whether or not structural Fe(II) in biologically reduced clay minerals exhibits a similar reactivity and if so, what the kinetics and mechanisms of Cr6+ reduction are. The objective of this study was to determine the kinetics and possible mechanisms of Cr6+ reduction by structural Fe(II) in microbially reduced clay minerals and the nature of reduced Cr(III). Structural Fe(III) in nontronite (NAu-2), montmorillonite (SWy-2), chlorite (CCa-2), and clay-rich sediments from the Ringold Formation of the Hanford site of Washington State, USA was first bioreduced to Fe(II) by an iron-reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens with acetate as the sole electron donor and anthraquinone-2,6-disulfate (AQDS) as electron shuttle in synthetic groundwater (pH 7). Biogenic Fe(II) was then used to reduce aqueous Cr6+ at three different temperatures, 10°, 20°, and 30°C, in order to determine the temperature dependence of the redox reaction between Cr6+ and clay-Fe(II). The results showed that nontronite and montmorillonite were most effective in reducing aqueous Cr6+ at all three temperatures. In contrast, most Fe(II) in chlorite was not reactive towards Cr6+ reduction at 10°C, though at 30°C there was some reduction. For all the clay minerals, the ratio of total Fe(II) oxidized to Cr6+ reduced was close to the expected stoichiometric value of 3. Characterization of the Cr-clay reaction product with scanning electron microscopy with focused ion beam and transmission electron microscopy with electron energy loss spectroscopy revealed that reduced chromium was possibly in the form of sub-nanometer Cr2O3 in association with residual clay minerals as micro-aggregates. This textural association was expected to minimize the chance of Cr(III) reoxidation upon exposure to oxidants. These results are important for our understanding of how various clay minerals may be used to reductively immobilize the heavy metal contaminant Cr in the environment.

Bishop, Michael E.; Glasser, Paul; Dong, Hailiang; Arey, Bruce W.; Kovarik, Libor

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

218

Polymer/clay aerogel composites with flame retardant agents: Mechanical, thermal and fire behavior  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Aerogel is a class of material characterized by its high void content and extreme lightness. Different polymer/clay aerogels have been prepared by a simply freeze–thaw process from a suspension with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH) and clay (Na+-MMT). Low density polymer/clay aerogels modified with flame retardant agents were prepared using a similar approach. The addition of flame retardant agents slightly increased the apparent density of the final composites whereas the compression properties were reduced due to the decrease in the polymer/clay interfacial bonding. An exception was the sample containing Al(OH)3 that exhibited higher modulus and stress at maximum deformation. Regarding thermal properties, the presence of ammonium polyphosphate (APP) or silica gel (SG) significantly slowed the rate of aerogel decomposition at the temperature range from 250 °C to 500 °C while the onset of polymer decomposition was not affected. Fire behavior was analyzed through cone calorimeter suggesting that either the presence of Al(OH)3 or APP reduced the heat release rate of PVOH/clay systems.

Liang Wang; Miguel Sánchez-Soto; Maria Lluisa Maspoch

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Ceramics Technology Project database: September 1991 summary report. [Materials for piston ring-cylinder liner for advanced heat/diesel engines  

SciTech Connect

The piston ring-cylinder liner area of the internal combustion engine must withstand very-high-temperature gradients, highly-corrosive environments, and constant friction. Improving the efficiency in the engine requires ring and cylinder liner materials that can survive this abusive environment and lubricants that resist decomposition at elevated temperatures. Wear and friction tests have been done on many material combinations in environments similar to actual use to find the right materials for the situation. This report covers tribology information produced from 1986 through July 1991 by Battelle columbus Laboratories, Caterpillar Inc., and Cummins Engine Company, Inc. for the Ceramic Technology Project (CTP). All data in this report were taken from the project's semiannual and bimonthly progress reports and cover base materials, coatings, and lubricants. The data, including test rig descriptions and material characterizations, are stored in the CTP database and are available to all project participants on request. Objective of this report is to make available the test results from these studies, but not to draw conclusions from these data.

Keyes, B.L.P.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Statement by Deputy Secretary of Energy Clay Sell on NRG's License  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

by Deputy Secretary of Energy Clay Sell on NRG's by Deputy Secretary of Energy Clay Sell on NRG's License Application Statement by Deputy Secretary of Energy Clay Sell on NRG's License Application September 25, 2007 - 2:49pm Addthis "Today marks the most significant and tangible step to date, towards the construction of the first new nuclear power plant in the United States in over 30 years. DOE is confident that with NRG's reactor design selection and cooperation with their partners, General Electric and Toshiba, this project will likely result in the first of many new reactors being constructed and operated in the U.S. This reactor would join an American nuclear industry that is safe, secure and has a strong record to prove it. We look forward to the continued cooperation with industrial partners and

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "geosynthetic clay liner" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

K-Ar Dates Of Hydrothermal Clays From Core Hole Vc-2B, Valles Caldera, New  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » K-Ar Dates Of Hydrothermal Clays From Core Hole Vc-2B, Valles Caldera, New Mexico And Their Relation To Alteration In A Large Hydrothermal System Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: K-Ar Dates Of Hydrothermal Clays From Core Hole Vc-2B, Valles Caldera, New Mexico And Their Relation To Alteration In A Large Hydrothermal System Details Activities (2) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Seventeen K/Ar dates were obtained on illitic clays within Valles caldera (1.13 Ma) to investigate the impact of hydrothermal alteration on Quaternary to Precambrian intracaldera and pre-caldera rocks in a large,

222

Hydration of Clays at the Molecular Scale: The Promising Perspective of Classical Density Functional Theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report here how the hydration of complex surfaces can be efficiently studied thanks to recent advances in classical molecular density functional theory. This is illustrated on the example of the pyrophylite clay. After presenting the most recent advances, we show that the strength of this implicit method is that (i) it is in quantitative or semi-quantitative agreement with reference all-atoms simulations (molecular dynamics here) for both the solvation structure and energetics, and that (ii) the computational cost is two to three orders of magnitude less than in explicit methods. The method remains imperfect, in that it locally overestimates the polarization of water close to hydrophylic sites of the clay. The high numerical efficiency of the method is illustrated and exploited to carry a systematic study of the electrostatic and van der Waals components of the surface-solvant interactions within the most popular force field for clays, CLAYFF. Hydration structure and energetics are found to weakly depend u...

Jeanmairet, Guillaume; Levesque, Maximilien; Rotenberg, Benjamin; Borgis, Daniel

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) closure, Savannah River Plant: Clay cap test section construction report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the information gathered in constructing the clay cap test section. The purpose of the test section was to determine compaction characteristics of four representative kaolin clays and demonstrate in-situ permeability for these clays of 1 {times} 10 {sup {minus}7} cm/sec or less. The final technical specifications with regard to maximum clod size, acceptable ranges of placement water content, lift thickness, and degree of compaction will be based on experience gained from the test section. The data derived from this study will also be used in the development of Quality Assurance (QA) and Quality Control (QC) methods to be used during actual cap construction of the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) Closure project. 7 tabs.

Not Available

1988-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

224

Synthesis and Characterization of the Microporosity of Ion-Exchanged Al2O3-Pillared Clays  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Although most PILC studies have focused on their use for catalytic application, there has also been other work in which PILCs have been studied as potential sorbents for gas separation applications. ... We have chosen Al2O3-pillared clay for this study because of the small pore size and interlayer spacing of this material compared with other types of pillared clays (e.g., TiO2-PILC, SiO2-PILC).1 ... The samples and analytical results are identified by the following convention:? the sample Li+?PILC represents Al2O3-pillared clay which has undergone postsynthesis ion exchange with the Li+ cation (in a solution of LiCl as described earlier). ...

Nick D. Hutson; Donald J. Gualdoni; Ralph T. Yang

1998-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

225

Report on THMC Modeling of the Near Field Evolution of a Generic Clay  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

on THMC Modeling of the Near Field Evolution of a Generic on THMC Modeling of the Near Field Evolution of a Generic Clay Repository: Model Validation and Demonstration Rev 2 Report on THMC Modeling of the Near Field Evolution of a Generic Clay Repository: Model Validation and Demonstration Rev 2 Shale and clay-rich rock formations have been considered as potential host rocks for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste throughout the world. Coupled thermal, hydrological, mechanical, and chemical (THMC) processes have a significant impact on the long-term safety of a repository in this type of rocks. The validity of the two-part Hooke's model (TPHM), a new constitutive relationship, and associated formulations regarding rock hydraulic/mechanical properties is demonstrated by the consistency between observations from a mine-by test at the Mont Terri site

226

Field Performance of A Compacted Clay Landfill Final cover At A Humid Site  

SciTech Connect

A study was conducted in southern Georgia, USA to evaluate how the hydraulic properties of the compacted clay barrier layer in a landfill final cover changed over a 4-yr service life. The cover was part of a test section constructed in a large drainage lysimeter that allowed CE Database subject headings: landfill, hydrogeology, compacted soils, lysimeters, desiccation continuous monitoring of the water balance. Patterns in the drainage (i.e., flow from the bottom of the cover) record suggest that preferential flow paths developed in the clay barrier soon after construction, apparently in response to desiccation cracking. After four years, the clay barrier was excavated and examined for changes in soil structure and hydraulic conductivity. Tests were conducted in situ with a sealed double-ring infiltrometer and two-stage borehole permeameters and in the laboratory on hand-carved blocks taken during construction and after four years of service. The in situ and laboratory tests indicated that the hydraulic conductivity increased approximately three orders of magnitude (from ? 10-7 to ? 10-4 cm s-1) during the service life. A dye tracer test and soil structure analysis showed that extensive cracking and root development occurred throughout the entire depth of the barrier layer. Laboratory tests on undisturbed specimens of the clay barrier indicated that the hydraulic conductivity of damaged clay barriers can be under-estimated significantly if small specimens (e.g., tube samples) are used for hydraulic conductivity assessment. The findings also indicate that clay barriers must be protected from desiccation and root intrusion if they are expected to function as intended, even at sites in warm, humid locations.

Albright, William H.; Benson, Craig H.; Gee, Glendon W.; Abichou, Tarek; Mcdonald, Eric V.; Tyler, Scott W.; Rock, Steven

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Dynamics of confined reactive water in smectite clay-zeolite composites  

SciTech Connect

The dynamics of water confined to mesoporous regions in minerals such as swelling clays and zeolites is fundamental to a wide range of resource management issues impacting many processes on a global scale, including radioactive waste containment, desalination, and enhanced oil recovery. Large-scale atomic models of freely diffusing multilayer smectite particles at low hydration confined in a silicalite cage are used to investigate water dynamics in the composite environment with the ReaxFF reactive force field over a temperature range of 300 647 K. The reactive capability of the force field enabled a range of relevant surface chemistry to emerge, including acid/base equilibria in the interlayer calcium hydrates and silanol formation on the edges of the clay and inner surface of the zeolite housing. After annealing, the resulting clay models exhibit both mono- and bilayer hydration structures. Clay surface hydration redistributed markedly and yielded to silicalite water loading. We find that the absolute rates and temperature dependence of water dynamics compare well to neutron scattering data and pulse field gradient measures from relevant samples of Ca-montmorillonite and silicalite, respectively. Within an atomistic, reactive context, our results distinguish water dynamics in the interlayer Ca(OH)2 nH2O environment from water flowing over the clay surface, and from water diffusing within silicalite. We find that the diffusion of water when complexed to Ca hydrates is considerably slower than freely diffusing water over the clay surface, and the reduced mobility is well described by a difference in the Arrhenius pre-exponential factor rather than a change in activation energy.

Pitman, Michael C. [IBM Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY; Van Duin, Adri C. T. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Dynamics of confined reactive water in Smectic clay-zeolite composites.  

SciTech Connect

The dynamics of water confined to mesoporous regions in minerals such as swelling clays and zeolites is fundamental to a wide range of resource management issues impacting many processes on a global scale, including radioactive waste containment, desalination, and enhanced oil recovery. Large-scale atomic models of freely diffusing multilayer smectite particles at low hydration confined in a silicalite cage are used to investigate water dynamics in the composite environment with the ReaxFF reactive force field over a temperature range of 300 647 K. The reactive capability of the force field enabled a range of relevant surface chemistry to emerge, including acid/base equilibria in the interlayer calcium hydrates and silanol formation on the edges of the clay and inner surface of the zeolite housing. After annealing, the resulting clay models exhibit both mono- and bilayer hydration structures. Clay surface hydration redistributed markedly and yielded to silicalite water loading. We find that the absolute rates and temperature dependence of water dynamics compare well to neutron scattering data and pulse field gradient measures from relevant samples of Ca-montmorillonite and silicalite, respectively. Within an atomistic, reactive context, our results distinguish water dynamics in the interlayer Ca(OH)2 nH2O environment from water flowing over the clay surface, and from water diffusing within silicalite. We find that the diffusion of water when complexed to Ca hydrates is considerably slower than freely diffusing water over the clay surface, and the reduced mobility is well described by a difference in the Arrhenius pre-exponential factor rather than a change in activation energy.

Pitman, Michael C. [IBM Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY; Van Duin, Adri C. T. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Structural, textural and catalytic properties of Al-, Ti-pillared clays  

SciTech Connect

Al-, Ti- and Zr-pillared clays were characterized and NiMo/Pilc`s were tested in HDS reactions. The combination of activity measurements with Moessbauer Spectroscopy and x-ray microanalysis at microscopical scale give insight in the metal phases migration during pillaring, reaction and regeneration steps. {Alpha}-Fe phase in free Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} islands predominate together with structural Fe{sup 3+} phase, but during the catalytic reaction Fe{sup 2+} forms. Delamination of the Ti- and Zr-Clay supports, together with high Lewis acidity might enhance their catalytic properties.

Ramos-Galvan, C.E.; Dominguez, J.M.; Sandoval-Robles, G.; Castillo-Mares, A.; Nava E, N.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

230

Salinity: effect on germination of native plants and leaching in clay soil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

study consisted of 2 main parts: (1) the effect of different salinity levels on the germination of various grasses and forbs; and (2) determining if salts present in saline clay soil can be leached to a level permitting easier establishment of salt... the style of the Journal of Ran e Mana ement. the feasibility of reducing salt in saline clay soil by leaching. The objectives of the study were: (1) to measure the germination of various grasses and forbs under different salinity levels; (2...

Neighbors, James Olen

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

231

How clay grain coats inhibit quartz cement and preserve porosity in deeply buried sandstones: Observations and experiments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Clay-Removal Methods The HCl-H2O2-dispersant clay-removal method effectively cleaned...sequential sonication in HCl, H2O2, a dispersant, and alcohol. (A) The shallowest...sands without it. Interpretation of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and sonic...

Joanna M. Ajdukiewicz; Richard E. Larese

232

Formation of Replicating Saponite from a Gel in the Presence of Oxalate: Implications for the Formation of Clay Minerals in Carbonaceous Chondrites and the Origin of Life  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The potential role of clay minerals in the abiotic origin of life has been the subject of ongoing debate for the past several decades. At issue are the clay minerals found in a class of meteorites known as carbonaceous ...

Schumann, Dirk

233

PII S0016-7037(98)00136-7 The kinetics of mixed Ni-Al hydroxide formation on clay and aluminum oxide minerals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PII S0016-7037(98)00136-7 The kinetics of mixed Ni-Al hydroxide formation on clay and aluminum. This finding indicates that the dissolution of clay and aluminum oxide minerals can be promoted by metal ions

Sparks, Donald L.

234

(Data in thousand metric tons unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 2004, clay and shale production was reported in 41 States. About 240  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

million tons. The 49 million tons probably includes crude clay production tonnages which contain E Recycling: Insignificant. Import Sources (2000-03): Brazil, 68%; Mexico, 9%; United Kingdom, 8 probably includes crude clay production which contains significant water content. Compensating

235

The application of a neural network to map clay zones in crystalline rock  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......order to be able to plan effective stimulation...clay-bearing zones based on standard geophysical data...After a rough review of the available...been logged by the standard logs, that is...incorporates the standard gamma ray (SGR...thorium (Th) and uranium (U) logs. The......

Carola Meller; Albert Genter; Thomas Kohl

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Clay-filled Polymer Nanocomposite Thin Films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A variety of functional thin films can be produced using the layer-by-layer assembly technique. In this work, assemblies of anionic clay and cationic polymer were studied with regard to film growth and gas barrier properties. A simple, yet flexible...

Jang, Woo-Sik

2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

237

Validation of Coupled Simulation of Excavations in Saturated Clay: Camboinhas Case History  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Validation of Coupled Simulation of Excavations in Saturated Clay: Camboinhas Case History)GM .1943-5622.0000077. © 2011 American Society of Civil Engineers. CE Database subject headings: Excavation history. Introduction Excavations in soft soils are becoming more common to construct underground

Zornberg, Jorge G.

238

Pillared clays as superior catalysts for selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide with ammonia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A series of innovative Ce–Mn/Ti-pillared-clay (Ce–Mn/Ti-PILC) catalysts combining the advantages of PILCs and Ce–Mn were investigated for elemental mercury (Hg0) capture at 100–350 °C in the absence of HCl in the flue gas. ...

R. T. Yang; J. P. Chen; E. S. Kikkinides; L. S. Cheng; J. E. Cichanowicz

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Spectral induced polarization of partially saturated clay-rocks: a mechanistic approach  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Agency for Radioactive Waste Management (ANDRA...Evaluation of transport and storage properties in the soils...2006. Clays and nuclear waste management, in Handbook...implications for monitoring long-term barrier performance...context of radioactive waste disposal, Int. J......

D. Jougnot; A. Ghorbani; A. Revil; P. Leroy; P. Cosenza

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Engineering Geology 54 (1999) 159165 Mechanical interaction between swelling compacted clay and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a a EnvirosQuantiSci Ltd., 45 Station Road, Henley-On-Thames RG9 1AT, UK b University of Bath, Bath, UK. We show that such mass loss is limited as a mechanism for leaching away the emplaced barrier, yet may Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Clay barrier; Colloids; Fractured rock; Leaching

Peletier, Mark

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "geosynthetic clay liner" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Evaluating the Effects of Environmentally Acceptable Clay Stabilizer on Bandera Sandstone  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

it possible for large areas of the formation to be effectively treated. 3.2.1.1 BENTONITE Bentonite is impure clay consisting mainly of montmorillonite. It is an absorbent aluminum phyllosilicate (Casás, L. M., M. Pozo, et al. 2013). Bentonite...

Emecheta, Akunna C

2013-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

242

Anisotropy of Water Dynamics in Clays: Insights from Molecular Simulations for Experimental QENS Analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This charge has been chosen because it is similar to the charge of the natural MX80 montmorillonite, reference clay in France for the studies of the radioactive waste storage. ... However, it gives qualitative information about how much the molecules are linked to their environment. ... Environmental Science & Technology (2011), 45 (7), 2850-2855 CODEN: ESTHAG; ISSN:0013-936X. ...

V. Marry; E. Dubois; N. Malikova; J. Breu; W. Haussler

2013-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

243

Evalutaion of Multi-Stage Sandstone Acidizing Uging an Organic Mud Acid and a Clay Stabalizer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and clay particles. The purpose of this study is to present and evaluate multi-stage acid injection into the Bandera sandstone cores to remove formation damage. In this study, coreflood experiments were conducted on Bandera sandstone cores (1.5 in. x 6 in...

Sakipour, Armin

2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

244

Sorption of organic matter on clay minerals in aquatic system and influence on sedimentary organic preservation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sorption of organic matter on clay minerals in aquatic system and influence on sedimentary organic, 45067 Orléans Cedex 2, France (E-mail : Sylvain.Drouin@univ-orleans.fr). Sorption of organic molecules that mineral sorption affects transport of natural organic matter to bottom water and to sediments

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

245

INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE ON NICKEL SORPTION ON CLAY MINERAL AND OXIDE SURFACES. K. G. Scheckel1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE ON NICKEL SORPTION ON CLAY MINERAL AND OXIDE SURFACES. K. G. Scheckel1. Introduction: Many kinetic studies have shown that sorption of metals on natural materials results in the for- tions ranged from 59 to 67 kJ mol-1 [2] while pesticide sorption on humic acid had an Ea value of 6.7 k

Sparks, Donald L.

246

SMECTITE CLAY ADSORPTION OF AFLATOXIN vs. OCTAHEDRAL COMPOSITION AS INDICATED BY FTIR  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...on HSCAS clay. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry , 46 , 599-605. Gonzalez-Pradas, E., Socias-Viciana M., Saifi, M.D., Urena-Amate F., Flores Cespedes, M., Fernandez-Perez, M., and Villafrance-Sanchez, M. (2003) Adsoption...

M. G. Tenorio Arvide; I. Mulder; A. L. Barrientos Velazquez; J. B. Dixon

247

Release of Nanoclay and Surfactant from Polymer-Clay Nanocomposites into a Food Simulant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Release assessment of organo-modified montmorillonite (O-MMT) nanoclay and the organo-modifiers (surfactants) was performed on two types of polymer-clay nanocomposites: polypropylene (PP) and polyamide 6 (PA6) with O-MMT. In accordance with ASTM D4754-11, ...

Yining Xia; Maria Rubino; Rafael Auras

2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

248

In situ testing to determination field-saturated hydraulic conductivity of UMTRA Project disposal cell covers, liners, and foundation areas. Special study  

SciTech Connect

This special study was conducted to prepare a guidance document for selecting in situ hydraulic conductivity (K) tests, comparing in situ testing methods, and evaluating the results of such tests. This report may be used as a practical decision-making tool by the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project staff to determine which testing method will most efficiently achieve the field-saturated K results needed for long-term planning. A detailed section on near-surface test methods discusses each method which may be applicable to characterization of UMTRA disposal cell covers, liners and foundation materials. These potentially applicable test methods include the sealed double-ring infiltrometer (SDRI), the air-entry permeameter (AEP), the guelph permeameter, the two-stage borehole technique (TSB), the pressure infiltrometer, and the disk permeameter. Analytical solutions for these methods are provided, and limitations of these solutions are discussed, and a description of testing equipment design and installation are provided.

Not Available

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Improving clay content measurement in oxidic and volcanic ash soils of Hawaii by increasing dispersant concentration and ultrasonic energy levels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Quantifying clay content is a fundamental step in predicting and managing soil behaviors such as nutrient and water retention. However, clay measurements are underestimated when using standard methods of dispersion in soils rich in oxides and volcanic ash-derived non-crystalline minerals. Increasing levels of the chemical dispersant and ultrasonic energy are two simple techniques found to increase dispersion and clay measurements in temperate soils, but their effects are less known for oxidic and volcanic ash soils. In this study we investigated the effects of increasing dispersion concentration and ultrasonic energy on clay measurements for a range of oxidic and volcanic ash soils from Hawaii. While doubling and tripling the standard sodium hexametaphosphate concentration of 0.441 g L? 1 did not increase estimates of clay content, increasing levels of ultrasonic energy up to 1600 J mL? 1 significantly increased measured clay content for all oxide and volcanic ash soils. The response to ultrasonication was dependent on soil carbon, oxide content, and surface charge, with more energy needed to disperse soils higher in carbon, oxides, and positive charge. Scanning electron microscopy revealed damage to the sand fraction in some soils when ultrasonicated, but the extent of this damage was viewed as negligible. Porous sand-sized particles resembling pumice grains were also observed in some soils, suggesting that conventional particle size analysis and clay interpretations may not adequately describe surface related behaviors.

Joshua H.S. Silva; Jonathan L. Deenik; Russell S. Yost; Gregory L. Bruland; Susan E. Crow

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Sorption kinetics for phenol and nitro-substituted toxic phenols from aqueous solution using clay as sorbent material  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study examined the effectiveness of less-expensive sorbent clay in removing phenols from wastewater by sorption. Batch kinetic experiment showed that phenol and nitro-substituted phenols (o-, m- and p-) sorption on clay was rapid and equilibrium was achieved within 2 h. The kinetics of sorption was found to be of pseudo-second order reaction. The influences of various factors, such as particle size, pH, concentration and temperature on the sorption capacity have been studied. This study showed that clay could be used as an efficient sorbent material for the sorption of phenols from aqueous solution.

Preeti Sagar Nayak; B.K. Singh

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

A new class of non-zeolitic sorbents for air separations: Lithium ion exchanged pillared clays  

SciTech Connect

Zeolites are the only known sorbents that adsorb N{sub 2} selectively over O{sub 2}, and are used for industrial air separation. Pillared clays (PILCs) have a high Broensted acidity (k.e., high proton density). It is found in this study that when the protons are exchanged by alkali metal ions, in particular Li{sup +}, the ion exchanged pillared clays can exhibit a high N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} adsorption selectivity that rivals that of the zeolites. The first result shows a pure-component adsorption ratio of N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} = 3.2 (at 25 C and 1 atm) for Li{sup +}-exchanged PILC. The N{sub 2} capacity, however, is only 20% that of the zeolite, and remains to be improved. A systematic investigation is conducted on the effects of three factors on the N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} selectivity: (1) starting clays (tetrahedral vs octahedral isomorphous substitution and clays with different charge densities), (2) different metal oxides as pillars, and (3) different ion exchange alkali metal cations (Li{sup +}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Rb{sup +}, and Cs{sup +}). The highest N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} selectivities are achieved by using clays with the highest charge densities, metal oxides forming pillars with the narrowest gallery spaces, and ion exchange cations with the smallest ionic radii. Effects by all three factors are qualitatively understood. The high N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} selectivity on the Li{sup +} exchanged PILC is the result of the small ionic radius (and hence high polarizing power) of Li{sup +} and the strong quadrupole moment of the N{sub 2} molecule. Moreover, a technique is developed with which the amount of the exchanged cations can exceed that allowed by the original cation exchange capacity of the clay by using a high pH value in the ion exchange solution.

Cheng, L.S.; Yang, R.T. [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

488-4D ASH LANDFILL CLOSURE CAP HELP MODELING  

SciTech Connect

At the request of Area Completion Projects (ACP) in support of the 488-4D Landfill closure, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has performed Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) modeling of the planned 488-4D Ash Landfill closure cap to ensure that the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) limit of no more than 12 inches of head on top of the barrier layer (saturated hydraulic conductivity of no more than 1.0E-05 cm/s) in association with a 25-year, 24-hour storm event is not projected to be exceeded. Based upon Weber 1998 a 25-year, 24-hour storm event at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is 6.1 inches. The results of the HELP modeling indicate that the greatest peak daily head on top of the barrier layer (i.e. geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) or high density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane) for any of the runs made was 0.079 inches associated with a peak daily precipitation of 6.16 inches. This is well below the SCDHEC limit of 12 inches.

Phifer, M.

2014-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

253

Effect coal ash on some refractory properties of alumino-silicate (Kankara) clay for furnace lining  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The work aimed on the improving the refractory properties of Kankara clay (alumino-silicate) found in Kankara Village, Katsina State, Nigeria by blending with coal ash for the production of refractory bricks was investigated. Coal ash additions were varied from 5 to 25 wt% in the blend. Refractory properties such as: linear shrinkage, apparent porosity, bulk density, cold crushing strength and thermal shock resistance were tested. The results were compared with standard refractory properties for fireclay bricks. All the values obtained from the blends are within the recommended values for medium fireclay bricks. Hence, addition of coal ash to Kankara clay enhanced the refractory properties; the bricks were used in the production of heat treatment furnace with good thermal resistance.

S.B. Hassan; V.S. Aigbodion

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Development of Biodegradable Foamlike Materials Based on Casein and Sodium Montmorillonite Clay  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(1-4) The current generation of biobased polymers are produced primarily from renewable resources, such as sugar cane, proteins, and starches; such materials for packaging, adhesives, coatings, and biomedical applications can be produced with less overall energy consumption than their petrochemical counterparts and tend to be less toxic to the environment. ... (5-7) Due to its random coil conformation with a high degree of molecular flexibility and large amount of polar groups, casein shows good film-forming and coating properties as well as excellent barrier properties to nonpolar substances (oxygen, carbon dioxide, and aromas). ... (11-20) Because the clay aerogels are relatively fragile, the incorporation of either a polymeric component or natural or synthetic fibers into the clay aerogel sample is required to improve their mechanical rigidity and to produce the foamlike structures that reflect the thermal/mechanical properties of the matrix polymers themselves. ...

Tassawuth Pojanavaraphan; Rathanawan Magaraphan; Bor-Sen Chiou; David A. Schiraldi

2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

255

Long-term modeling of glass waste in portland cement- and clay-based matrices  

SciTech Connect

A set of ``templates`` was developed for modeling waste glass interactions with cement-based and clay-based matrices. The templates consist of a modified thermodynamic database, and input files for the EQ3/6 reaction path code, containing embedded rate models and compositions for waste glass, cement, and several pozzolanic materials. Significant modifications were made in the thermodynamic data for Th, Pb, Ra, Ba, cement phases, and aqueous silica species. It was found that the cement-containing matrices could increase glass corrosion rates by several orders of magnitude (over matrixless or clay matrix systems), but they also offered the lowest overall solubility for Pb, Ra, Th and U. Addition of pozzolans to cement decreased calculated glass corrosion rates by up to a factor of 30. It is shown that with current modeling capabilities, the ``affinity effect`` cannot be trusted to passivate glass if nuclei are available for precipitation of secondary phases that reduce silica activity.

Stockman, H.W.; Nagy, K.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Morris, C.E. [Wollongong Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Civil and Mining Engineering

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Numerical simulation of ground movements and structural forces in lining for Earth Pressure Balance (EPB) tunneling in clay  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis describes the development of a 3D finite element model for representing mechanized tunnel construction using an Earth Pressure Balance (EPB) machine in clay. The model uses the commercial FE code, Plaxis 3D, ...

Founta, Vasiliki

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Oxygen isotope fractionation effects in soil water via interaction with cations (Mg, Ca, K, Na) adsorbed to phyllosilicate clay minerals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) adsorbed to phyllosilicate clay minerals Erik Oerter a, , Kari Finstad a , Justin Schaefer b , Gregory R approaches to the measurement of the d18 O value of soil water. The adsorbed cation isotope effect may bear

Goldsmith, Greg

258

Molecular dynamics simulation of complex molecules at interfaces: dendritic surfactants in clay and amyloid peptides near lipid bilayers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We apply a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation technique to complex molecules at interfaces. Partitioning of dendritic surfactants into clay gallery and Ab protein behavior near hydrated lipids are chosen for the purpose. Using a full atomistic model...

Han, Kunwoo

2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

259

Application of a montmorillonite clay modified with iron in photo-Fenton process. Comparison with goethite and nZVI  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Iron pillared clay (Fe-PILC) was prepared from a montmorillonite and was ... electron microscopy and X-ray fluorescence. Fe-PILC catalytic activity was evaluated in photo-Fenton ... Different catalyst loads were ...

María A. De León; Marta Sergio; Juan Bussi…

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Investigations of Near-Field Thermal-Hydrologic-Mechanical-Chemical Models for Radioactive Waste Disposal in Clay/Shale Rock  

SciTech Connect

Clay/shale has been considered as potential host rock for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste throughout the world, because of its low permeability, low diffusion coefficient, high retention capacity for radionuclides, and capability to self-seal fractures. For example, Callovo-Oxfordian argillites at the Bure site, France (Fouche et al., 2004), Toarcian argillites at the Tournemire site, France (Patriarche et al., 2004), Opalinus Clay at the Mont Terri site, Switzerland (Meier et al., 2000), and Boom clay at the Mol site, Belgium (Barnichon and Volckaert, 2003) have all been under intensive scientific investigation (at both field and laboratory scales) for understanding a variety of rock properties and their relationships to flow and transport processes associated with geological disposal of radioactive waste. Figure 1-1 presents the distribution of clay/shale formations within the USA.

Liu, H.H.; Li, L.; Zheng, L.; Houseworth, J.E.; Rutqvist, J.

2011-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "geosynthetic clay liner" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Effect of the organic groups of difunctional silanes on the preparation of coated clays for olefin polymer modification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...phase behavior of polymer-clay composites. Macromolecules , 31 , 6676-6680...of high density polyethylene composites based on poly(diphenyl-siloxanes...Fracture studies of polypropylene/nanoclay composite. Part I: Effect of loading...

F. E. Monasterio; M. L. Dias; V. J. R. R. Pita; E. Erdmann; H. A. Destéfanis

262

Significance of the microstructure of Pacific red clays to nuclear waste disposal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for geotechnical laboratory testing simulating in situ conditions for the approximate porosities investigated. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I wish to express my deep appreciation, respect, and friendship to Dr . Richar d Bennett of NORDA for his guidance and counsel... Technical- METHODS AND MATERIALS- -14 Coring and Subsampling- -14 Geotechnical and Thermal Probes-- ? ? ? ? ? ? - ? ? 14 Grain-Size Determination- Clay Fabric Preparation Techniques ? ? ? ? -- ? ? ? 19 Tr ansmission electron micr oscopy only...

Burkett, Patti Jo

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

263

Effect of Clay Amounts on Morphology and Mechanical Performances in Multiscale PET Composites  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This work presents an investigation of the properties of poly(ethylene terephthalate)/glass fibres/nanoclay multiscale composites. The aim is to demonstrate the effect of adding various clay amounts on the morphology and mechanical performance of multiscale PET composites. Multiscale composites were prepared by adding 0.5 1.0 3.0 and 5.0 wt% of Cloisite15A montmorillonite: Initially a masterbatch of pure PET blended with 10 wt% of Cloisite15A was obtained in a co?rotating twin screw extruder. The multiscale composites were then blended via mechanical mixing and injection moulded by adding the masterbatch to the glass fibre reinforced matrix. The morphological and mechanical characterizations of all compounds are discussed. X?ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the characteristic (001) peak of the nanocomposite obtained by extrusion (masterbatch) shifted to the lower angle region stating an intercalated structure. However the subsequent injection moulding process changed the morphological structure of the multiscale nanocomposites reducing the basal distance mostly for small loadings of nanoclay. The addition of nanoclay to PET matrices increases the degree of crystallinity the clay platelets possibly playing the role of nucleating agent as revealed by DSC and FTIR. The time relaxation spectra broaden as seen by DMA as the ratio of clay/polymer interfaces increases. The yield stress of composites with 0.5 and 1 wt% of C15A content are enhanced. For more than 3% of nanoclay the yield stress decreases. The Young’s modulus is increased when adding C15 nanoclay. Indeed clay exfoliation was not attained but the intercalated particle dispersion improved the stiffness properties of PET/glass fibres/nanoclay composites.

C. N. Barbosa; F. Chabert; V. Nassiet; J. C. Viana; P. Pereira

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Identification of Pore Structure and Clay Content from Seismic Data within an Argillaceous Sandstone Reservoir  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

IDENTIFICATION OF PORE STRUCTURE AND CLAY CONTENT FROM SEISMIC DATA WITHIN AN ARGILLACEOUS SANDSTONE RESERVOIR A Thesis by ROBERT LELAND SCHELSTRATE Submitted to the Office of Graduate and Professional Studies of Texas A&M University... Ds Compressibility of the rock matrix Dd Compressibility of the dry rock frame Df Compressibility of the pore-filling fluid F, FK Frame flexibility factors kd Bulk modulus of dry rock Ks Bulk modulus of the rock...

Schelstrate, Robert

2014-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

265

Electrode kinetic and electro-kinetic effects in electroosmotic dewatering of clay suspensions  

SciTech Connect

Lockhart`s remarks on the author`s previous interpretation of the electrochemical aspects of the electroosmotic dewatering (EOD) of clay suspensions are analyzed to provide some further clarification. Based on Lockhart`s excellent work, the authors put forward here novel electrochemical interpretations of some features of the following experimental observations: (1) Galvani dewatering; (2) the dewatering efficiency; and (3) high voltage needed for dewatering Al-kaolinite and aluminum electrode effect.

Vijh, A.K. [Inst. de Recherche d`Hydro-Quebec, Varennes, Quebec (Canada)

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Kinetics of Mixed Ni-Al Precipitate Formation on a Soil Clay Fraction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Kinetics of Mixed Ni-Al Precipitate Formation on a Soil Clay Fraction D A R R Y L R . R O B E R Management Laboratory, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI, Switzerland The kinetics of mixed Ni-Al Ni- Al LDH formation. The initial Ni concentration was 3 mM with a solid/solution ratio of 10 g L-1

Sparks, Donald L.

267

Preliminary design of drilled shafts in clay for supporting precast panel retaining walls  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Leon Holloway, B. S. , Texas A&M University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Harry M. Coyle The behavior of a laterally loaded drilled shaft in clay has been investigated by conducting a second lateral load test on an instrumented shaft. For each... increment of the applied lateral load, the shaft: rota- tion, the soil resistance, and the lateral deflection were measured. The soil resistance along the shaft was measured using a series of pneumatic pressure cells. The lateral deflection was measured...

Holloway, George Leon

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Interfacial reactions between humic-like substances and lateritic clay: Application to the preparation of “geomimetic” materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The aim of this study was to understand the mechanisms responsible for the strengthening of “geomimetic” materials, especially the chemical bonding between clay and humic substances. The mineral matter is lateritic clay which mainly consists in kaolinite, goethite, hematite and quartz. The other starting products are fulvic acid (FA) and lime. The preparation of these geomimetic materials is inspired from the natural stabilization of soils by humic substances occurring over thousands of years. The present process involves acidic and alkaline reactions followed by a curing period of 18 days at 60 °C under a water saturated atmosphere. The acceleration of the strengthening process usually observed in soils makes this an original process for treatment of soils. The consolidation of the “geomimetic” materials could result from two major phenomena: (i) chemical bonding at the interface between the clay particles and iron compounds and the functional groups of the fulvic acid, (ii) a partial dissolution of the clay grains followed by the precipitation of the cementitious phases, namely calcium silicate hydrates, calcium aluminate hydrates and mixed calcium silicum and aluminum hydrates. Indeed, the decrease of the BET specific area of the lateritic clay after 24 h of reaction with FA added to the structural reorganization observed between 900 and 1000 °C in the “geomimetic” material, and to the results of adsorption measurements, confirm the formation of organo-ferric complexes [1]. The presence of iron oxides in clay, in the form of goethite, appears to be another parameter in favor of a ligand exchange process and the creation of binding bridges between FA and the mineral matter. Indeed all faces of goethite are likely to be involved in complexation reactions whereas in lateritic clay only lateral faces could be involved [2]. The results of the adsorption experiments realized at a local scale will improve our understandings about the process of adsorption of FA on lateritic clays and its involvement in the strengthening process of materials.

Herve Goure-Doubi; Céline Martias; Gisèle Laure Lecomte-Nana; Benoît Nait-Ali; Agnès Smith; Elsa Thune; Nicolas Villandier; Vincent Gloaguen; Marilyne Soubrand; Léon koffi Konan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Fine particle clay catalysts for coal liquefaction. Quarterly technical progress report, November 9, 1991--February 8, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The investigation of methods for the production and testing of iron-pillared clay catalysts was continued in this quarter. The surface area of the mixed alumina/iron pillared clay catalyst decreased to 51 m{sup 2}/g on sulfidation. Thus the stability of the alumina pillars during the sulfidation and thermal treatments prevented the total collapse that occurred in the case of the iron-pillared clays. Previously the mixed alumina/iron pillared clays were tested for hydrocracking activities with bibenzyl. This testing was extended to a determination of activity with a second model compound substrate (pyrene), representative of the polynuclear aromatic systems present in coal. Testing of the mixed alumina/iron-pillared catalysts with 1-methylnaphthalene gave interesting results that demonstrate shape selectivity. The clay-supported iron hydroxyoxide catalysts prepared by impregnation of iron species on acidic clays were further investigated. Sulfidation of these catalysts using the carbon disulfide in situ method gave hydrocracking activities with bibenzyl that were somewhat less than those obtained by presulfidation with H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}S mixtures. Liquefaction of Wyodak subbituminous coal was very successful with the iron impregnated clay catalyst, giving a highly soluble product. High conversions were also obtained with the mixed alumina/iron-pillared clay catalyst, but the yield of oil-solubles was considerably lower. Several new catalysts were synthesized with the idea of decreasing the pillar density and thereby increasing the micropore volume. These catalysts were prepared by first pillaring with an organic ammonium pillaring agent, then introducing a lower number of silica or alumina pillars. Finally the iron component was added either before or after thermal removal of organic pillars.

Olson, E.S.

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

The stratigraphy and environment of deposition of productive Wilcox clays in west central Freestone and southeast Limestone Counties, Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

THE STRATIGRAPHY AND ENVIRONMENT OF DEPOSITION OF PRODUCTIVE WILCOX CLAYS IN WEST CENTRAL FREESTONE AND SOUTHEAST LIMESTONE COUNTIES, TEXAS A Thesis by STEPHANIE ANNE SHELVEY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University... in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1986 Major Subject: Geology THE STRATIGRAPHY AND ENVIRONMENT OF DEPOSITION OF PRODUCTIVE WILCOX CLAYS IN WEST CENTRAL FREESTONE AND SOUTHEAST LIMESTONE COUNTIES, TEXAS A...

Shelvey, Stephanie Anne

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

271

Geochemical study of evaporite and clay mineral-oxyhydroxide samples from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site  

SciTech Connect

Samples of clay minerals, insoluble oxyhydroxides, and their host evaporites from the WIPP site have been studied for their major and minor elements abundances, x-ray diffraction characteristics, K-Ar ages, and Rb-Sr ages. This study was undertaken to determine their overall geochemical characteristics and to investigate possible interactions between evaporates and insoluble constituents. The evaporite host material is water-soluble, having Cl/Br ratios typical of marine evaporites, although the Br content is low. Insoluble material (usually a mixture of clay minerals and oxyhydroxide phases) yields very high Cl/Br ratios, possibly because of Cl from admixed halide minerals. This same material yields K/Rb and Th/U ratios in the normal range for shales; suggesting little, if any, effect of evaporite-induced remobilization of U, K, or Rb in the insoluble material. The rare-earth element (REE) data also show normal REE/chondrite (REE/CHON) distribution patterns, supporting the K/Rb and Th/U data. Clay minerals yield K-Ar dates in the range 365 to 390 Ma and a Rb-Sr isochron age of 428 {+-} 7 Ma. These ages are well in excess of the 220- to 230-Ma formational age of the evaporites, and confirm the detrital origin of the clays. The ages also show that any evaporite or clay mineral reactions that might have occurred at or near the time of sedimentation and diagenesis were not sufficient to reset the K-Ar and Rb-Sr systematics of the clay minerals. Further, x-ray data indicate a normal evaporitic assemblage of clay minerals and Fe-rich oxyhydroxide phases. The clay minerals and other insoluble material appear to be resistant to the destructive effects of their entrapment in the evaporites, which suggests that these insoluble materials would be good getters for any radionuclides (hypothetically) released from the storage of radioactive wastes in the area.

Brookins, D.G. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (US). Dept. of Geology

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

The Use of Renewable and Alternative Fuel in the Heavy Clay Industry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The heavy clay industry brick is in many countries a very important economic factor with far reaching financial and environmental impacts. In the industrialized countries the use of alternative fuels in the heavy clay industry is rather limited.The European brick industries common current research activity is mainly focused on synthgas from waste streams. In-house research activity by single brick companies does, at least in Europe, not take place at the moment. The situation in the developing and industrializing countries is far different: The use of alternative,fossil and renewable, fuels in these countries is still wide spread. The use of such fuels does sometimes have severe negative impacts on the environment. This paper gives an overview of the use of various renewable and alternative fuels in the heavy clay industry in several countries and the environmental and financial impacts these fuels have or might have on the operation of a typical installation in various parts of the world (Maghreb, Europe, USA, Australia,India, Vietnam). Two examples in which alternative fuels have been or are used, one in an industrializing and one in an industrialized country, are briefly presented. A comparative product life cycle analysis, LCA, is presented.

F. Moedinger; F. Ast; M. Ragazzi; E.C. Rada; C. Callegati

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Continuum–discontinuum analysis of failure mechanisms around unsupported circular excavations in anisotropic clay shales  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The stability of circular excavations in clay shales is a key issue in the drilling and tunnelling industries as well as in the field of deep geological waste storage. A large body of experimental evidence indicates that the damaged zone around these cavities is influenced by strong mechanical anisotropy induced by the layered material structure. The vast majority of numerical models adopted to date to analyse the stability of openings in layered rocks have been based on continuum mechanics principles using classic shear failure theory for elasto-plastic materials. However, a number of experimental observations demonstrate that clay shales may fail in a brittle manner under low-confinement conditions such as those characterizing the near-field of the excavation. Therefore, an alternative numerical approach based on non-linear fracture mechanics principles and the discrete element method is adopted to gain new insight into the failure process of this class of geomaterials. In order to account for the influence of clay shale microstructure on its mechanical behaviour a newly developed approach to capture the anisotropy of strength is proposed. With this numerical approach, the cohesive strength parameters of the fracture model are assumed to be a function of the relative orientation between the element bonds and the layering orientation. The effectiveness of the numerical technique is quantitatively demonstrated by simulating standard rock mechanics tests on an indurated claystone, namely Opalinus Clay. Emergent strength and deformation properties, together with the simulated fracture mechanisms, are shown to be in good agreement with experimental observations. The modelling technique is then applied to the simulation of the Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ) around a circular tunnel in horizontally bedded Opalinus Clay. The simulated fracturing process is mainly discussed in the context of the damage mechanisms observed at the Mont Terri URL. Furthermore, the influence of in situ stress on resulting EDZ geometry is analysed together with possible implications for ground support and tunnel constructability. Modelling results highlight the importance of shear strength mobilization along bedding planes in controlling the EDZ formation process. In particular, slippage of bedding planes is shown to cause rock mass deconfinement which in turn promotes brittle failure processes in the form of spalling. The numerical technique is currently limited to two-dimensional analyses without any thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling.

A. Lisjak; G. Grasselli; T. Vietor

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Materials for Advanced Turbine Engines (MATE). Project 3: design, fabrication and evaluation of an oxide dispersion strengthened sheet alloy combustor liner. Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The suitability of wrought oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) superalloy sheet for gas turbine engine combustor applications was evaluated. Incoloy MA 956 (FeCrAl base) and Haynes Developmental Alloy (HDA) 8077 (NiCrAl base) were evaluated. Preliminary tests showed both alloys to be potentially viable combustor materials, with neither alloy exhibiting a significant advantage over the other. Both alloys demonstrated a +167C (300 F) advantage of creep and oxidation resistance with no improvement in thermal fatigue capability compared to a current generation combustor alloy (Hastelloy X). MA956 alloy was selected for further demonstration because it exhibited better manufacturing reproducibility than HDA8077. Additional property tests were conducted on MA956. To accommodate the limited thermal fatigue capability of ODS alloys, two segmented, mechanically attached, low strain ODS combustor design concepts having predicted fatigue lives or 10,000 engine cycles were identified. One of these was a relatively conventional louvered geometry, while the other involved a transpiration cooled configuration. A series of 10,000 cycle combustor rig tests on subscale MA956 and Hastelloy X combustor components showed no cracking, thereby confirming the beneficial effect of the segmented design on thermal fatigue capability. These tests also confirmed the superior oxidation and thermal distortion resistance of the ODS alloy. A hybrid PW2037 inner burner liner containing MA956 and Hastelloy X components was designed and constructed.

Henricks, R.J.; Sheffler, K.D.

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Evaluation of X-ray Diffraction of Bit Cuttings as a Proxy for Core Data in Determining Bulk Mineralogy and Clay Species, Bakken Formation, Williston Basin.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The principal question addressed in this study concerns the applicability of x-ray diffractometry to determine bulk rock mineralogy and clay species in the absence of… (more)

Barnes, Stuart Lee

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

LESSONS LEARNED FROM AN IMPOUNDMENT SLOPE FAILURE INVOLVING GEOSYNTHETICS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Shearbox test, Failure, Landfill, Sedimentation pond AUTHORS: Kyle E. Nay, Environmental Specialist, Ohio of the Case The municipal solid waste landfill occupies about 5.7 ha (14 acres) in Ohio, USA. The landfill underwent final closure construction in the summer of 1994. The landfill previously accepted an average

277

Pillared clays as superior catalysts for selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide. Second semiannual report, 1996  

SciTech Connect

During the first six months of the program, the work has progressed as planned. We have constructed a reactor system and assembled all laboratory essentials for conducting the three-year project. First, the catalytic activities of the Cu(2+) ion exchanged alumina-pillared clay for the selective catalytic reduction of NO by ethylene were measured. The temperature range was 250-500{degrees}C. The activities of this catalyst were substantially higher than the catalyst that has been extensively studied in the literature, Cu-ZSM-5. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to study the acidity of the catalyst. The second part of the work was an in-depth FTIR study of the NO decomposition mechanism on the catalyst. This was planned as the first and the key step to obtain an understanding of the reaction mechanism. Key surface intermediates were identified from the FTIR spectra, and a redox type Eley-Rideal mechanism was proposed for the NO decomposition on this catalyst. This report will be divided into two parts. In Part One, we report results on the catalytic activities of the Cu-alumina-pillared clay and a direct comparison with other known catalysts. In Part two, we focus on the FTIR study and from the results, we propose a NO decomposition mechanism on this new catalyst. Plans for the next six months include tests of different pillared clays as well as the catalytic mechanism. The micro reactor will continue to be the key equipment for measuring the catalytic activities. FTIR will continue to be the major technique for identifying surface species and hence understanding the reaction mechanism.

Yang, R.T.; Li, W.B.; Sirilumpen, M.; Tharapiwattananon, N.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Effect of Nanoclay Hydrophilicity on the Poly(lactic acid)/Clay Nanocomposites Properties  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The main objectives of this study were to prepare PLA/nanoclay composites using a melt mixing method and to investigate the effect of the hydrophilicity of nanoclay on the mechanical, rheological, and thermal properties and bulk and surface morphology as well as antimicrobial activity of the PLA-based composite films. ... The surface impact fracture morphology of composites was influenced by the nature of the nanoclay, composites with more hydrophilic nanoclays presenting a more homogeneous surface due to the improved compatibility between PLA and clays. ...

Raluca N. Darie; Elena Pâslaru; Anamaria Sdrobis; Gina M. Pricope; Gabriela E. Hitruc; Antoniea Poiat?; Apostolos Baklavaridis; Cornelia Vasile

2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

279

Salient experimental observations on the electroosmotic dewatering (EOD) of clays and sludges and their interpretation  

SciTech Connect

An attempt is made to summarize the salient experimental observations on electroosmotic dewatering (EOD), as reported extensively but diffusely in the previous literature. The effects of the following factors on EOD have been examined: voltage; current magnitude and type (i.e., interrupted or continuous DC); salts; acids; flocculants; clay types; electrode materials, etc. This whole range of experimental data has been encapsulated as thirteen factual observations. The possible theoretical interpretation of each of the thirteen observations is proposed either by developing suitable arguments here or by referring to the author`s previous theoretical papers on the subject.

Vijh, A.K. [Inst. de Recherche d`Hydro-Quebec, Varennes, Quebec (Canada)

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Development of Novel Pillared Clays for the Encapsulation of Inorganic Complexes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The main objective of this procedure is to increase the interlayer spacing, allowing the synthesis of materials with larger pore widths than those obtained with the more usual methodology of PILC preparation. ... 20 Nevertheless, these complexes are easy to prepare and characterize and thus can be used as molecular probes for the characterization of matrix porosity and host?guest interactions within the PILC. ... The preparation of materials has involved two main phases:? (i) preparation of a series of the pillared clays and (ii) encapsulation of copper Schiff base complexes in the PILC which has exhibited the most suitable porous system. ...

João Pires; Joana Francisco; Ana Carvalho; M. Brotas de Carvalho; Ana Rosa Silva; Cristina Freire; Baltazar de Castro

2004-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "geosynthetic clay liner" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Hydrothermal formation of Clay-Carbonate alteration assemblages in the Nili Fossae region of Mars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) has returned observations of the Nili Fossae region indicating the presence of Mg- carbonate in small (carbonate-bearing units. We applied absorption band mapping techniques to investigate a range of possible phyllosilicate and carbonate minerals that could be present in the Nili Fossae region. We also describe a clay-carbonate hydrothermal alteration mineral assemblage in the Archean Warrawoona Group of Western Australia that is a potential Earth analog to the Nili Fossae carbonate-bearing rock units. We discuss the geological and biological implications for hydrothermal processes on Noachian Mars.

Brown, Adrian J; Baldridge, Alice M; Crowley, James K; Bridges, Nathan T; Thomson, Bradley J; Marion, Giles M; Filho, Carlos R de Souza; Bishop, Janice L

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Soil damping constants related to common soil properties in sands and clays  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for the Granular Materials Tested 83 V ITA 88 Vii LIST OP TABLES Table. Results of Tests on Ottawa Sand Page 22 Result. s of Tests on Arkansas Sand 23 Results of Tests on Victoria Sand 24 VI VII Error Resulting from Approximations Study of Void Ratio... Sand Nohr's Circle Diagram for Victoria Sand 65 82 N0TATION The following symbols are used in this study: CE 35 EA 62 EA 60 EA 55 EA 50 fps a viscous damping constant, Eall pit sandy clay at an approximate moisture content of 35 percent...

Gibson, Gary Clive

1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Quantification of the Interaction of Tc with Dissolved Boom Clay Humic Substances  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To elucidate the Tc geochemical behavior in reducing environments relevant to geological disposal and in the presence of humic substances (HS), experiments were set up that resulted for the first time in the determination of an interaction constant for Tc with dissolved humic substances. ... A number of lab-scale Boom Clay (a possible geological underground High-Level Radioactive Waste storage site in Mol, Belgium) batch experiments were set up, combining both different initial Tc(VII) concentrations and different solid/liquid ratios. ... Appendix:? Reactions and Stability Constants for Tc in a Reducing Environment ...

A. Maes; C. Bruggeman; K. Geraedts; J. Vancluysen

2003-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

284

Clay mineralogy and depositional history of the Frio Formation in two geopressured wells, Brazoria County, Texas  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-three shale samples ranging in depth from 5194 ft to 13,246 ft from Gulf Oil Corporation No. 2 Texas State Lease 53034 well and 33 shale samples ranging in depth from 2185 ft to 15,592 ft from General Crude Oil Company/Department of Energy No. 1 Pleasant Bayou well were examined by x-ray techniques to determine the mineralogy of the geopressured zone in the Brazoria Fairway. Both wells have similar weight-percent trends with depth for a portion of the mineralogy. Calcite decreases, and plagioclase, quartz and total clay increase slightly. Within the clays, illite in mixed-layer illite/smectite (I/S) increases and smectite in mixed-layer I/S decreases. Four minerals have distinctly different trends with depth for each well. In the No. 2 Texas State Lease 53034 well, potassium feldspar and mixed-layer I/S decrease, kaolinite increases, and discrete illite is constant. In the No. 1 Pleasant Bayou well, potassium feldspar and kaolinite are constant, mixed-layer I/S increases, and discrete illite decreases.

Freed, R.L.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Redox Properties of Structural Fe in Clay Minerals. 1. Electrochemical Quantification of Electron-Donating and -Accepting Capacities of Smectites  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Fe2+/Fe3+ redox couple is an important redox buffer in the environment that affects biogeochemical element and nutrient cycling and controls the partitioning and redox transformations of organic and inorganic contaminants. ... (14-18) These changes can alter the fate and (bio)availability of redox-inactive contaminants and nutrients (e.g., K+, Ca2+)(18) as well as dictate the viability of clay minerals in engineered systems (e.g., clay mineral backfill in radioactive waste repositories). ... In this approach, an electrochemical cell containing a pH-buffered solution is set to a constant EH-value while the current is measured over time. ...

Christopher A. Gorski; Michael Aeschbacher; Daniela Soltermann; Andreas Voegelin; Bart Baeyens; Maria Marques Fernandes; Thomas B. Hofstetter; Michael Sander

2012-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

286

Growth of Iron(III)-Reducing Bacteria on Clay Minerals as the Sole Electron Acceptor and Comparison of Growth Yields on a Variety of Oxidized Iron Forms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...was used which was isolated from the anoxic sediments of Lake Oneida, NY, and has been the subject of many physiological and genetic...2-mum fraction of the ferruginous smectite SWa-1 from Grant County, Wash. (Source Clays Repository, The Clay Minerals Society...

Joel E. Kostka; Dava D. Dalton; Hayley Skelton; Sherry Dollhopf; Joseph W. Stucki

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

(Data in thousand metric tons, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 1996, clays were produced in most States except Alaska, Delaware, Hawaii, Rhode  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

46 CLAYS (Data in thousand metric tons, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use% kiln furniture, 6% fiberglass, 4% paint, and 3% rubber; ball clay--25% floor and wall tile, 21 Statistics--United States: 1992 1993 1994 1995 19961 e Production, mine: Kaolin 8,740 8,830 8,770 9,480 9

288

Influence of the Operating Parameters on the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO with Hydrocarbons Using Cu-Ion-Exchanged Titanium-Pillared Interlayer Clays (Ti-PILCs)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

General Ti-PILC Characterization. Figure 1 shows the XRD patterns of the parent Ti-PILC calcined at different temperatures and of the original clay. ... Figure 1 X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns for the Ti-PILC catalyst calcined at different temperatures. ... Figure 2 N2 adsorption?desorption isotherms for the Ti-PILC catalyst and the original clay. ...

José L. Valverde; Antonio de Lucas; Fernando Dorado; Amaya Romero; Prado B. García

2005-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

289

Effect of Residence Time on Ni-Sorption Mechanisms on Clay and Oxide Minerals: An X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effect of Residence Time on Ni-Sorption Mechanisms on Clay and Oxide Minerals: An X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) Study A. M. Scheidegger and G. M. Lamble Metal sorption on clay and oxide in reaction rate has been attributed to metal sorption onto sites of lower reactivity, diffusion

Sparks, Donald L.

290

A single hardening elasto-plastic model for Kaolin clay with loading-history-dependent plastic potential function  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A single hardening elasto-plastic model for Kaolin clay with loading-history- dependent plastic and failure criteria are found to be strongly dependent on the principal stress rotation angle () and plastic work. A unique plastic potential function determined solely by the current stress state

Prashant, Amit

291

Stable isotope geochemistry of sulfur bearing minerals and clay mineralogy of some soils and sediments in Loot Desert, central Iran  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and sediments in Loot Desert, central Iran M.H. Farpoor a, , H.R. Krouse b a Soil Sci. Dept., Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Bahonar Univ. of Kerman, Kerman, Iran b Department of Physics and Astronomy, the Univ technique and clay mineralogy were studied in different landforms in Loot Desert, central Iran. Four

Ahmad, Sajjad

292

Ni Sorption/Release on Soil Clay Fractions A Kinetic and EXAFS Study D. R. Roberts, and A. M. Scheidegger  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ni Sorption/Release on Soil Clay Fractions A Kinetic and EXAFS Study D. R. Roberts, and A. M is necessary to successfully determine their fate in the environment. Mechanisms of metal sorption reactions approach. However, it is necessary to understand metal sorption mechanisms on natural, mixed systems

Sparks, Donald L.

293

Environ. Sci. Technol. 1994,28,2330-2335 Sorption of Pentachlorophenol to HDTMA-Clay as a Function of Ionic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Environ. Sci. Technol. 1994,28,2330-2335 Sorption of Pentachlorophenol to HDTMA-Clay as a Function oradeprotonated species. The objectivesof this studywere to determine differences in the sorption and solubility of the two species and to model the sorption as a function of pH. We developed a modelthatdescribed

Sparks, Donald L.

294

EUROPIUM RETENTION ONTO CLAY MINERALS FROM 25 TO 150C: EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENTS, SPECTROSCOPIC FEATURES AND SORPTION MODELLING.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

FEATURES AND SORPTION MODELLING. Tertre E.1,2 , Berger G.1 , Simoni E.3 , Castet S.1 , Giffaut E.2 , Loubet.Tertre@univ-lille1.fr Keywords: europium, sorption, clays, experimental, temperature, Time-Resolved Laser Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TRLFS) #12;2 Abstract The sorption of Eu (III) onto kaolinite and montmorillonite

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

295

99 Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Geology Today,Vol. 24, No. 3, MayJune 2008 Clay as sealing material in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

99© Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Geology Today,Vol. 24, No. 3, May­June 2008 FEATURE Feature Clay of the initial uranium or plutonium fuel and the products of their decay. The radioactivity of this mixture for at least a hundred thousand years, when its radioactivity will reach that of natural uranium. The most

Kammer, Thomas

296

Microsoft Word - Clay Memo PMC Coburn Obama 11_9_06.doc  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

November 9, 2006 MEMORANDUM FOR THE PRESIDENT'S MANAGEMENT COUNCIL FROM: Clay Johnson Deputy Director for Management SUBJECT: Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act (Pub. L. No. 109-282) Implementation This memorandum establishes an interagency task force to ensure effective implementation of the Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act (the Act). I have asked OMB Associate Director for Management Robert Shea to lead the task force. The first meeting of the task force will take place on Thursday, November 16, 2006 at 2:00 p.m. in Room 248 of the Old Executive Office Building. Please appoint a senior level official from your agency that can contribute to the development of the website required by the Act as well as

297

Adsorption of probe molecules in pillared interlayered clays: Experiment and computer simulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper we investigate the adsorption of various probe molecules in order to characterize the porous structure of a series of pillared interlayered clays (PILC). To that aim volumetric and microcalorimetric adsorption experiments were performed on various Zr PILC samples using nitrogen toluene and mesitylene as probe molecules. For one of the samples neutron scattering experiments were also performed using toluene as adsorbate. Various structural models are proposed and tested by means of a comprehensive computer simulation study using both geometric and percolation analysis in combination with Grand Canonical Monte Carlo simulations in order to model the volumetric and microcalorimetric isotherms. On the basis of this analysis we propose a series of structural models that aim at accounting for the adsorption experimental behavior and make possible a microscopic interpretation of the role played by the different interactions and steric effects in the adsorption processes in these rather complex disordered microporous systems.

A. Gallardo; J. M. Guil; E. Lomba; N. G. Almarza

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

PILLARED CLAYS AS SUPERIOR CATALYSTS FOR SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF NITRIC OXIDE  

SciTech Connect

Removal of NO{sub x} (NO + NO{sub 2}) from exhaust gases is a challenging subject. V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-based catalysts are commercial catalysts for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) with NH{sub 3} for stationary sources. However, for diesel and lean-burn gasoline engines in vehicles, hydrocarbons would be the preferred reducing agents over NH{sub 3} because of the practical problems associated with the use of NH{sub 3} (i.e., handling and slippage through the reactor). The noble-metal three-way catalysts are not effective under these conditions. The first catalyst found to be active for selective catalytic reduction of NO by hydrocarbons in the presence of excess oxygen was copper exchanged ZSM-5 and other zeolites, reported in 1990 by Iwamoto in Japan and Held et al. in Germany. Although Cu-ZSM-5 is very active and the most intensively studied catalyst, it suffers from severe deactivation in engine tests, mainly due to H{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2}. In this project, we found that ion-exchanged pillared clays and MCM-41 catalysts showed superior SCR activities of NO with hydrocarbon. All Cu{sup 2+}-exchanged pillared clays showed higher SCR activities than Cu-ZSM-5 reported in the literature. In particular, H{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2} only slightly deactivated the SCR activity of Cu-TiO{sub 2}-PILC, whereas severe deactivation was observed for Cu-ZSM-5. Moreover, Pt/MCM-41 provided the highest specific NO reduction rates as compared with other Pt doped catalysts, i.e., Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Pt/SiO{sub 2} and Pt/ZSM-5. The Pt/MCM-41 catalyst also showed a good stability in the presence of H{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2}.

R.Q. Long; N. Tharappiwattananon; W.B. Li; R.T. Yang

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Adsorption of Volatile Organic Compounds in Pillared Clays:? Estimation of the Separation Factor by a Method Derived from the Dubinin?Radushkevich Equation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Figure 1 Adsorption isotherms (nitrogen at 77 K and other vapors at 298 K) in the aluminum oxide pillared clay (Al-PILC). ... Figure 2 Adsorption isotherms (nitrogen at 77 K and other vapors at 298 K) in the zirconium oxide pillared clay (Zr-PILC). ... Figure 3 Separation factors versus coverage for the aluminum oxide pillared clay (Al-PILC) with the values of ? estimated from the parachors (closed symbols) or the molar polarizations (open symbols) using benzene (squares) or carbon tetrachloride (triangles) as standard vapor. ...

João Pires; Moisés L. Pinto; Ana Carvalho; M. B. de Carvalho

2003-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

300

Highly exfoliated eco-friendly thermoplastic starch (TPS)/poly (lactic acid)(PLA)/clay nanocomposites using unmodified nanoclay  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Highly exfoliated, biodegradable thermoplastic starch (TPS)/polylactic acid (PLA)/sodium montmorillonite (NaMMT) nanocomposites were prepared by an eco-friendly approach, involving in-situ gelatinization of potato starch in presence of dispersed nanoclay followed by melt mixing with PLA. The morphological analysis revealed that the NaMMT was selectively dispersed into the TPS in a highly delaminated manner. An increase in mechanical as well as thermomechanical properties was evident in the presence of PLA and more influenced in the presence of clay. The water absorption was significantly decreased in the presence of PLA (?8%) itself and both PLA and clay (?8–12%) in the nanocomposites. The improved mechanical properties along with its biodegradability might lead to a new green material in the area of packaging.

Ayana B.; Supratim Suin; B.B. Khatua

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "geosynthetic clay liner" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Damage initiation and propagation assessed from stress-induced microseismic events during a mine-by test in the Opalinus Clay  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......facies-sandy and shaly-both anisotropic and with contrasting mechanical...study of brittle behavior of clay shale in rapid triaxial compression...acoustic investigation of a damaged anisotropic shale during a gallery excavation. Int......

Y. Le Gonidec; J. Sarout; J. Wassermann; C. Nussbaum

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Phosphomolybdic acid dispersed in Al-pillared clay (PMA/Al-PILC) as heterogeneous catalyst for the benign synthesis of benzoxanthenes under solvent free conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Phosphomolybdic acid dispersed in the micropores of Al-pillared clay (PMA/Al-PILC) was prepared by the impregnation method and ... found to be retained in the PMA/Al-PILC catalyst which displays high surface area...

Mallari A. Naik; S. Samantaray…

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Values of Mineral Modulus of Clay Manika Prasad, Ronny Hofmann, Mike Batzle, Colorado School of Mines; M. Kopycinska-Mller, U. Rabe, and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the atomic force microscope (AFM) technique and its principles are described in details elsewhere (Rabe et associated with elastic properties measurements of clay minerals with standard pulse transmission techniques

304

Innovative Carbon Dioxide Sequestration from Flue Gas Using an In-Duct Scrubber Coupled with Alkaline Clay Mineralization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Innovative Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Innovative Carbon Dioxide Sequestration from Flue Gas Using an In-Duct Scrubber Coupled with Alkaline Clay Mineralization Background The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is leading an effort to find novel approaches to reduce carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions from industrial sources. The Industrial Carbon Capture and Sequestration (ICCS) program is funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) to encourage development of processes that

305

Geohydromechanical Processes in the Excavation Damaged Zone in Crystalline Rock, Rock Salt, and Indurated and Plastic Clays  

SciTech Connect

The creation of an excavation disturbed zone or excavation damaged zone is expected around all man-made openings in geologic formations. Macro- and micro-fracturing, and in general a redistribution of in situ stresses and rearrangement of rock structures, will occur in this zone, resulting in drastic changes of permeability to flow, mainly through the fractures and cracks induced by excavation. Such an EDZ may have significant implications for the operation and long-term performance of an underground nuclear waste repository. Various issues of concern need to be evaluated, such as processes creating fractures in the excavation damaged zone, the degree of permeability increase, and the potential for sealing or healing (with permeability reduction) in the zone. In recent years, efforts along these lines have been made for a potential repository in four rock types-crystalline rock, salt, indurated clay, and plastic clay-and these efforts have involved field, laboratory, and theoretical studies. The present work involves a synthesis of the ideas and issues that emerged from presentations and discussions on EDZ in these four rock types at a CLUSTER Conference and Workshop held in Luxembourg in November, 2003. First, definitions of excavation disturbed and excavation damaged zones are proposed. Then, an approach is suggested for the synthesis and intercomparison of geohydromechanical processes in the EDZ for the four rock types (crystalline rock, salt, indurated clay, and plastic clay). Comparison tables of relevant processes, associated factors, and modeling and testing techniques are developed. A discussion of the general state-of-the-art and outstanding issues are also presented. A substantial bibliography of relevant papers on the subject is supplied at the end of the paper.

Tsang, Chin-Fu; Bernier, Frederic; Davies, Christophe

2004-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

306

Influence of Operational Parameters in the Heterogeneous Photo-Fenton Discoloration of Wastewaters in the Presence of an Iron-Pillared Clay  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An iron-pillared Tunisian clay (Fe-PILC) was prepared and used as the catalyst in the heterogeneous photo-Fenton oxidation of Red Congo and Malachite Green in aqueous solution. ... The catalyst Fe-PILC was characterized by XRF, XRD, BET, and FTIR methods. ... The resulting solid material was calcined at 300 °C for 24 h, and subsequently ground to 100 mesh, to obtain a pillared clay catalyst named Fe-PILC. ...

Haithem Bel Hadjltaief; Patrick Da Costa; M. Elena Galvez; Mourad Ben Zina

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Recycling non-hazardous industrial wastes and petroleum contaminated soils into structural clay ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Cherokee Environmental Group (CEG)--a subsidiary of the Cherokee Sanford Group, Inc. (CSG)--has developed a system to beneficially reuse non-hazardous industrial wastes and petroleum contaminated soils into the recycling process of CSG`s structural clay ceramics manufacturing operation. The wastes and soils are processed, screened, and blended with brickmaking raw materials. The resulting material is formed and fired in such a way that the bricks still exceed American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) quality standards. Prior to usage, recycled materials are rigorously tested for ceramic compatibility and environmental compliance. Ceramic testing includes strength, shrinkage, and aesthetics. Environmental compliance is insured by testing for both organic and inorganic constituents. This recycling process has been fully permitted by all required state regulatory agencies in North Carolina, Maryland, and South Carolina where facilities are located. This inter-industrial synergy has eliminated landfill reliance and liability for many companies and property owners. The recycling volume of wastes and soils is high because CSG is one of the largest brick manufacturers in the nation. Together, CEG and CSG have eliminated more than 1 billion pounds of material from landfills by beneficially reusing the non-hazardous wastes.

MacRunnels, Z.D.; Miller, H.B. Jr. [Cherokee Environmental Group, Sanford, NC (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

308

The Characterization of Micropore Structures in Pillared Clay Materials (PILC) using Adsorption Isotherms.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A new method for the characterization of the micropore structures of pillared clay materials based on adsorption isotherms is proposed. From the isotherms, a plot of In P/Po vs Vads can be derived. These plots show a few inflection points. Around these points there is an important increase in Vads by small changes of the chemical potential ?s. Therefore, each point is related to a type of micropores. These points can be used to calculate the pore size distribution (PSD) of the sample. For the N2 adsorption at 77K, the micropore range can be divided in 5 regions corresponding to the pores filled by N2 molecules in 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 layers, respectively. This is because the N2 molecules have a kinetic diameter of 3.64 Å and the upper limit of the pore size in the micropores is about 20 Å. Several PILC samples with known slit widths (XRD analysis) were selected to correlate the inflection points with the pore sizes of the five types of pores. A correction for the adsorption on the external surface area was made since the adsorption on the surface at low relative pressures is also significant. Without the correction, the PSD results of the samples move to smaller pores and unreasonable results are obtained. Comparing with other methods, this new method can give more information in the characterization of porous solids with pores of several molecular diameters, and it gives even better results in the supermicropore range.

Huai Yong Zhu; N. Maes; E.F. Vansant

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Analysis of lipophilic compounds of tea coated on the surface of clay teapots  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The surface of a clay teapot tends to be coated with a waterproof film after constant use for tea preparation. The waterproof films of two kinds of teapots (zisha and zhuni) used for preparing oolong tea and old oolong tea were extracted and subjected to gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis. The results showed that comparable constituents were detected in these films; they were primarily fatty acids and linear hydrocarbons that were particularly rich in palmitic acid and stearic acid. To explore the source of these two abundant fatty acids, the fatty acid compositions of fresh tea leaves, granules, infusion, and vapor of infusion were analyzed by gas chromatography. Fresh tea leaves were rich in palmitic acid (C-16:0), unsaturated linolenic acid (C-18:3), linoleic acid (C-18:2), and oleic acid (C-18:1), which were presumably from the phospholipid membrane. During the process of manufacturing oolong tea, the three unsaturated fatty acids may be substantially degraded or oxidized to stearic acid (C-18:0), which was enriched with palmitic acid in the tea granules and in the infusion. The vapor of the tea infusion is primarily composed of palmitic acid and stearic acid. Thus, the coated films of teapots mostly originated from the lipophilic compounds of the tea infusions.

Tse-Yu Chung; Ping-Chung Kuo; Zih-Hui Liao; Yu-En Shih; Mei-Ling Cheng; Chia-Chang Wu; Jason T.C. Tzen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Efficient conversion of carbohydrates into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural catalyzed by the chromium-exchanged montmorillonite K-10 clay  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract An efficient process was developed for the conversion of carbohydrates into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). A series of cation-exchanged montmorillonite K-10 clay were prepared as the heterogeneous catalysts for the conversion of carbohydrates into HMF, and chromium-exchanged K-10 clay (K-10 clay-Cr) was found to be the best catalyst for this transformation. A high HMF yield around 95% was obtained from the dehydration of fructose either in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or in [BMIM]Cl. Results demonstrated [BMIM]Cl was superior to DMSO for the conversion of glucose into HMF, and HMF yield of 51.9% was obtained from the dehydration of glucose at 120 °C after 2 h in [BMIM]Cl. Furthermore, the developed methods were also effective for the synthesis of HMF from other carbohydrates. Particularly, a satisfied HMF yield of 48.7% could be obtained from the inedible and abundant cellulose. In addition, the catalyst was effectively recycled six times without significant loss of activity.

Zhongfeng Fang; Bing Liu; Jinju Luo; Yongshen Ren; Zehui Zhang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Iron oxide and chromia supported on titania-pillared clay for selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide with ammonia  

SciTech Connect

TiO{sub 2}-pillard clay (PILC) with high surface area, large pore volume, and large interlayer spacing was used as the support for mixed Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} as the catalyst for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with NH{sub 3}. The Fe/Cr ratio was varied at a fixed total amount of oxide dopant of 10% (wt). The Fe-Cr/TiO{sub 2}-PILC with Fe/Cr=3 showed the highest activity. Compared with commercial V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/TiO{sub 2} catalysts, the activity (on a per gram basis) of the doped pillared clay was approximately twice as high under H{sub 2}O- and SO{sub 2}-free conditions and was approximately 40% higher under conditions with H{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2}. In addition, its activity for SO{sub 2} oxidation was only 20%-25% of that of the V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-based catalysts. TPD of NH{sub 3} on the Fe-Cr/TiO{sub 2}-PILC catalyst showed that both M=O and M-OH (M=Fe or Cr) were necessary for the SCR reaction. In situ IR spectra of NH{sub 3} showed that there was a higher Bronsted acidity than the Lewis acidity on the surface under reaction conditions and that there existed a direct correlation between the SCR activity and the Bronsted acidity among pillared clays with different Fe/Cr ratios. These results, along with the transient response to O{sub 2}, indicated that a similar mechanism to that on the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} catalyst was operative. The TiO{sub 2}-pillared clay used as the support also contributed to the high activity of the Fe-Cr catalyst. The TiO{sub 2} pillars combined with the tetrahedral SiO{sub 2} surfaces of the clay apparently gave rise to a high dispersion of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. 52 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

Cheng, L.S.; Yang, R.T. [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States)] [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States); Ning Chen [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)] [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This Corrective Action Plan provides methods for implementing the approved corrective action alternative as provided in the Corrective Action Decision Document for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA), Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417 (DOE/NV, 1999). The CNTA is located in the Hot Creek Valley in Nye County, Nevada, approximately 137 kilometers (85 miles) northeast of Tonopah, Nevada. The CNTA consists of three separate land withdrawal areas commonly referred to as UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4, all of which are accessible to the public. CAU 417 consists of 34 Corrective Action Sites (CASs). Results of the investigation activities completed in 1998 are presented in Appendix D of the Corrective Action Decision Document (DOE/NV, 1999). According to the results, the only Constituent of Concern at the CNTA is total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). Of the 34 CASs, corrective action was proposed for 16 sites in 13 CASs. In fiscal year 1999, a Phase I Work Plan was prepared for the construction of a cover on the UC-4 Mud Pit C to gather information on cover constructibility and to perform site management activities. With Nevada Division of Environmental Protection concurrence, the Phase I field activities began in August 1999. A multi-layered cover using a Geosynthetic Clay Liner as an infiltration barrier was constructed over the UC-4 Mud Pit. Some TPH impacted material was relocated, concrete monuments were installed at nine sites, signs warning of site conditions were posted at seven sites, and subsidence markers were installed on the UC-4 Mud Pit C cover. Results from the field activities indicated that the UC-4 Mud Pit C cover design was constructable and could be used at the UC-1 Central Mud Pit (CMP). However, because of the size of the UC-1 CMP this design would be extremely costly. An alternative cover design, a vegetated cover, is proposed for the UC-1 CMP.

K. Campbell

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Reinforcement Mechanism Of Polyurethane-Urea/Clay Nanocomposites Probed By Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy And Dynamic Mechanical Analysis  

SciTech Connect

A basis for quantitative analysis of the reinforcement mechanism of polyurethane-urea/clay nanocomposites using two characterization methods, positron annihilation life time spectroscopy (PALS) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) is provided. DMA was used to measure the constrained volume fraction of amorphous soft segments induced by nanoclay and the storage modulus of the nanocomposites. The interfacial interactions in the nanocomposites were investigated by PALS. The modulus enhancement of the organoclay nanocomposites was found to have a good correlation with the volume fraction of the constrained region and the interfacial interactions.

Rath, S. K.; Patri, M. [Naval Materials Research Laboratory, Shil-Badlapur Road, Ambernath 421506, Maharastra (India); Sudarshan, K.; Pujari, P. K. [Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India); Khakhar, D. V. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Powai-76 (India)

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Effect of the Platinum Content on the Microstructure and Micropore Size Distribution of Pt/Alumina-Pillared Clays  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cheng and Yang23 also studied the N2 and O2 adsorption capacities of alkali metal ion-exchanged pillared clays showing for Li+/Zr-PILC better results than those obtained by Molinard and Vansant. ... The resulting slurries were evaporated slowly under reduced pressure in a rotavapor, and the obtained solids were calcined in air at 500 °C for 5 h to give the Pt/Al-PILC catalysts. ... The samples will be referred to in wt %-Pt/Al-PILC notation. ...

M. Barrera-Vargas; J. Valencia-Rios; M. A. Vicente; S. A. Korili; A. Gil

2005-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

315

Proportions of coarse and fine clay across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in Milam, Falls, and Travis Counties, Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and are of little value. It is concluded that the method proposed in this thesis is capable of detecting small differences between clay sampi es at a = ingle locai ity, but prob. bly cannot be used to correlate samples f'rom one locality to another. i&1tlloagh... making dispersion and I'rac- tionation difficult. The efficiency of the X-ray diffraction t, echniques is also improved when these constituents are removed. As a simplified means of comp:rison, the various procedures performed on each sample...

Smith, John Charles

1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Biomass/energy crops grown on phosphatic clay in central Florida  

SciTech Connect

In January 1992 plots of 0.081 ha (0.2 A) were planted on phosphatic clay soil. Cultivars included: US78-1009, and CP72-1210 sugarcane; US56-9, L79-1002, and US72-1153 energycane; 1K-7647 Erianthus; plus N-51 Elephantgrass. Enough planting material of US67-2022 sugarcane was available to plant only 10 m (33 ft.) of row. Planting of US67-2022 was increased each of the next 2 years. Three-year average dry yield of sugarcane was 32.3 Mg ha{sup -1} (14.4 ton A{sup -1}) for US78-1009, 29.6 Mg ha{sup -1} (1 3.2 ton A{sup -1}) for CP72-1210, and 49.1 Mg ha{sup -1} (21.9 ton A{sup -1}) for US67-2022. Two-year average yield for energycane was observed to be 36.5 Mg ha{sup -1} (16.3 ton A{sup -1}) for US56-9, 34.9 Mg ha{sup -1} (15.6 ton A{sup -1}) for L79-1002, and 37.2 Mg ha{sup -1} (16.6 ton A{sup -1}) for US72-1153. The observed Erianthus yield was 17.9 Mg ha{sup -1} (8.0 ton A{sup -1}) for 1K-7647 and for N-51 Elephantgrass was 19.0 Mg ha{sup -1} (8.5 ton A{sup -1}). Yield of both Erianthus and elephantgrass were severely hampered by a poor stand. Other cultivars were also affected but to a lesser degree. Sugar content was highest in the three sugarcane cultivars averaging 13.1 degrees brix. Energycane cultivars had an average of 8.6 degrees brix; elephantgrass and Erianthus were lowest with 5.5 and 5.6{degrees} brix, respectively. Sugar yield was highest in US67-2022 at 12.3 Mg ha{sup -1} (5.5 ton A{sup -1}) and more than 2.5 times higher than the next highest cultivar. Chemical composition of the various cultivars in terms of NDF, ADF, hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin, and in vitro digestible dry matter are also reported.

Stricker, J.A.; Prine, G.M. [UF Agronomy Dept., Gainesville, FL (United States); Anderson, D.L. [UF Everglades REC, Belle Glade, FL (United States)] [and others

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

317

DOE/EA-1083; Environmental Assessment and Plan for New Silt/Clay Source Development and Use at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (and FONSI)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

83 83 April 1997 Environmental Assessment and Plan for New Silt/Clay Source Development and Use at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY FINDING OF NO SIGNIFICANT IMPACT FOR A NEW SILT/CLAY SOURCE DEVELOPMENT AND USE AT THE IDAHO NATIONAL ENGINEERING AND ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORY Agency: U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Action: Finding of No Significant Impact SUMMARY: The DOE-Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) to analyze the environmental impacts of closing its current silt/clay source and opening as many as three new sources with volumes sufficient to support potential Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) projects through 2005. The current source, Spreading Area B

318

173. NICKEL SORPTION KINETICS ON THE CLAY FRACTION OF A SOIL. D.R. Roberts and D.L. Sparks, Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

173. NICKEL SORPTION KINETICS ON THE CLAY FRACTION OF A SOIL. D.R. Roberts and D.L. Sparks the fate of heavy metal contaminants in the soil environment. Past studies of heavy metal sorption kinetics. This study exannines Ni(II) sorption and desorption kinetics on the clay fraction (

Sparks, Donald L.

319

Houlsby, G. T., Kelly, R. B., Huxtable, J. & Byrne, B. W. (2005). Geotechnique 55, No. 4, 287296 Field trials of suction caissons in clay for offshore wind turbine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Houlsby, G. T., Kelly, R. B., Huxtable, J. & Byrne, B. W. (2005). Ge´otechnique 55, No. 4, 287. B. KELLY*, J. HUXTABLE and B. W. BYRNE* A programme of testing of caisson foundations in clay-scale model testing (Byrne & Houlsby, 2002, 2004; Byrne et al., 2003; Kelly et al., 2003, 2004

Byrne, Byron

320

Sulfonated nanoClay minerals as a recyclable eco-friendly catalyst for the synthesis of quinoxaline derivatives in green media  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Sulfonated nanoClay was prepared by reacting a mixture of nanoClay mineral particles with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) in dry toluene under N2 and subsequent treatment with propane sultone. The synthesized sulfonated nanoClay was characterized with FTIR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, thermogravimeteric analysis (TGA), SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The result showed particle sizes between 30 and 38 nm. TGA indicated a 70% loading of SO3? group which was confirmed by elemental analysis. Synthesized sulfonated nanoClay was tested in the synthesis of quinoxaline derivatives via the condensation of 1,2-diamines with 1,2-diketones in ethyl alcohol as a green medium at room temperature. Using this method, the title compounds were prepared in high yields and short reaction times. The catalyst was recovered and reused several times without significant loss of catalytic activity. AFM and SEM of recycled catalyst showed a uniform distribution with a particle size of 40 nm and little aggregation.

Mahgol Tajbakhsh; Maasoomeh Bazzar; Seideh Fatemeh Ramzanian; Mahmood Tajbakhsh

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "geosynthetic clay liner" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitric oxide (NO) with ammonia over vanadia-based and pillared interlayer clay-based catalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitric oxide (NO) with ammonia over vanadia-based (V2O5-WO3/TiO2) and pillared interlayer clay-based (V2O5/Ti-PILC) monolithic honeycomb catalysts using a laboratory laminar-flow reactor was investigated...

Oh, Hyuk Jin

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

322

Clay Templeton, Kenneth R. Fleischmann, and Jordan Boyd-Graber. Comparing Values and Sentiment Using Mechanical Turk. iConference, 2011.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Clay Templeton, Kenneth R. Fleischmann, and Jordan Boyd-Graber. Comparing Values and Sentiment Using Mechanical Turk. iConference, 2011. @inproceedings{Templeton:Fleischmann:Boyd-Graber-2011, Title and Kenneth R. Fleischmann and Jordan Boyd-Graber}, Year = {2011}, Location = {Seattle, Washington}, } 1 #12

Boyd-Graber, Jordan

323

3.1 $?$m H$_{2}$O Ice Absorption in LINER-Type Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies with Cool Far-Infrared Colors: the Centrally-Concentrated Nature of Their Deeply Buried Energy Sources  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ground-based 2.8--4.1 $\\mu$m slit spectra of the nuclei of seven ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) that are classified optically as LINERs and have cool far-infrared colors are presented. All the nuclei show 3.3 $\\mu$m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission, with equivalent widths that are systematically lower than those in starburst galaxies. Strong 3.1 $\\mu$m H$_{2}$O ice absorption, with optical depth greater than 0.6, is also detected in five nuclei, and 3.4 $\\mu$m carbonaceous dust absorption is detected clearly in one of the five nuclei. It is quantitatively demonstrated that the large optical depths of the H$_{2}$O ice absorption in the five sources, and the 3.4 $\\mu$m absorption in one source, are incompatible with a geometry in which the energy sources are spatially mixed with dust and molecular gas, as is expected for a typical starburst, but instead require that a large amount of nuclear dust (including ice-covered grains) and molecular gas be distributed in a screen in front of the 3--4 $\\mu$m continuum-emitting sources. This geometrical requirement can naturally be met if the energy sources are more centrally concentrated than the nuclear dust and molecular gas. The low equivalent widths of the PAH emission compared to starbursts and the central concentration of the nuclear energy sources in these five ULIRGs are best explained by the presence of energetically important active galactic nuclei deeply buried in dust and molecular gas.

Masatoshi Imanishi; Philip R. Maloney

2003-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

324

Study of surface acid–base properties of natural clays and zeolites by the conversion of 2-methylbut-3-yn-2-ol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Surface acid–base properties of natural clays and non-clay minerals from Jordanian (J) and Russian (R) deposits as well as H-ZSM-5 were studied applying catalytic reaction of 2-methylbut-3-yn-2-ol (MBOH) conversion. Products of both acidic and basic pathways of the reaction were formed involving surface acid/basic sites of clay minerals. Specific conversions of MBOH decreased in the following order: kaolinite-R > hydromica-R > bentonite-J > red-kaolinite-J = palygorskite-R = H-ZSM-5 > zeolite-J > white-kaolinite-J > diatomite-J, which fairly correlated with TPD-NH3 acidity assessment for a majority of samples. However, a contribution of basic sites to the reaction should be taken into account, especially for hydromica-R and kaolinite-R. The strength of acid sites of natural aluminosilicates was compared based on surface acidity and reaction product yields. After 116 min of MBOH conversion, the strength of acid sites changed in the following order: kaolinite-R > palygorskite-R > bentonite-J > red- kaolinite-J > white-kaolinite-J > zeolite-J > diatomite-J > H-ZSM-5. At an early (17 min) stage of the reaction, the strength of active sites for natural zeolite-J and H-ZSM-5 were comparable, while the latter underwent significant deactivation due to its microporous structure. The rise of activation temperature from 500 °C to 700 °C for montmorillonite containing sample increased the conversion of MBOH due to the formation of stronger or additional number of basic sites as a result of mineral dehydroxylation. Natural clay samples with a higher content of montmorillonite (30–80%) altered the acid–base properties of the surface and observed higher ability to convert MBOH over acid and basic pathways.

Lyudmila Novikova; Frank Roessner; Larisa Belchinskaya; Murad AlSawalha; Victoriya Krupskaya

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

From detrital heritage to diagenetic transformations, the message of clay minerals contained within shales of the Palaeoproterozoic Francevillian basin (Gabon)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Unmetamorphosed and undeformed marine siliciclastics rocks of the FB, FC and FD of the Francevillian series (Gabon) were deposited in an epicontinental basin. Clay minerals found in black shale, siltstone and sandstone are dominantly illite and chlorite except in two levels of the FB formation, which contain smectite-rich randomly ordered mixed layers. Their survival in a 2.1 Ga old sedimentary series is not related to the abundance of organic matter (total organic carbon or TOC), nor redox conditions at the time of deposition as indicated by the Fe speciation (FeHR/FeT and FePy/FeHR ratios). Rather it results from an incomplete illitization reaction that reflects potassium deficiency. The K2O/Al2O3 ratio of shale, siltstone and sandstone vary along the series, and appear to conserve the signature of the original chemical composition of the rocks. K-feldspars which are present in the FC and FD formations are missing in the FB formation. Consequently, the smectite layers do not appear to be inherited from a detrital input in the basin but must be considered as representative of an intermediate stage of the illitization reaction reached during diagenesis.

Lauriss Ngombi-Pemba; Abderrazak El Albani; Alain Meunier; Olivier Grauby; François Gauthier-Lafaye

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Ion-exchanged pillared clays: A new class of catalysts for selective catalytic reduction of NO by hydrocarbons and by ammonia  

SciTech Connect

Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by NH{sub 3} is presently performed with vanadia-based catalysts for flue gas applications. Hydrocarbons would be the preferred reducing agents over NH{sub 3} because of the practical problems associated with the use of NH{sub 3} (i.e., handling and slippage through the reactor). SCR of NO by hydrocarbons can also find important applications for lean-burn (i.e., O{sub 2}-rich) gasoline and diesel engines where the noble-metal three-way catalysts are not effective in the presence of excess oxygen. Pillared interlayered clays (PILCs) have been studied extensively for a number of catalyzed reactions. We have found high activities of PILCs for SCR of NO by NH{sub 3} (26.28). Pillared clays have considerable Bronsted acidity (27, 28), and the protons can be exchanged with metal cations. The Bronsted acidity of TiO{sub 2}-PILC, in particular, remains high after heat treatment at temperatures as high as 400{degrees}C (27-29). In this note, we report first results on the activities of cation-exchanged pillared clays for SCR of NO by both hydrocarbon and NH{sub 3}. 37 refs., 3 figs.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

The use of atomic force microscopy (AFM) to study the surface topography of commercial fluid cracking catalysts (FCCs) and pillared interlayered clay (PILC) catalysts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An atomic force microscope operating in contact or Tapping ModeTM has been used to study the surface morphology, nanostructure, clay plates packing and conformation while providing nanometer-scale features of \\{FCCs\\} surfaces not readily accessible by other microscopic techniques. Contact mode micrometer-scale (15?m x 15?m) AFM images have revealed that the topography and molecular organization of the surface of several commercial \\{FCCs\\} are fairly heterogenous in nature, frequently containing discontinuities represented by deep trenches, valleys and crater-like openings with micrometer dimensions. Surfaces are in general, composed of short stacks of plates with voids or pores between these stacks resulting from materials occlusion between plates, from missing plates, missing stacks of plates and from misaligned stacks of plates. Gross structural differences between fresh and equilibrium FCCs, were not observed. However surfaces of equilibrium \\{FCCs\\} may contain debris possibly representing NiO and V2O5 deposits, in agreement with chemical analysis. Not all equilibrium microspheres contain surface debris. Thus AFM images allow the distinction of old and young FCC fractions in equilibrium FCC samples. Coke deposits during gas oil cracking at MAT conditions, are imaged as raised surface features representing molecules or cluster of molecules. Contact-mode AFM images of pillared interlayered clays (PILCs) cracking catalysts having alumina clusters as the structure supporting pillars, represent the catalyst surface as a collection of white spots in an hexagonal arrangements having nearest neighbor and lateral distances in agreement with the repeat distances of the clay siloxane layer; evidenced of surface alumina debris was not observed an all the extraframework alumina introduced by the pillaring reaction is located in the clay interlamellar space. After exposure for 5h to 100% steam at 760° C and 1 atm, the structural parameters of the surface disappear when the PILC was prepared using montmorillonite and were retained when the PILC was prepared from rectorite. Thus \\{PILCs\\} collapse is the result of the clay (single) silicate layer hydrothermal instability and it occurs irrespective of the hydrothermal stability of the pillars used. In contrast to FCCs, coke deposition from gas oil cracking at MAT conditions, form on the surface of pillared rectorites a layer geometrically similar to graphite that can be easily removed by heating in air at 600°C without affecting the PILC's structure or cracking activity.

Mario L. Occelli; Scot A.C. Gould

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Organic liner for thermoset composite tank  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cryogenic tank that is made leak-proof under cryogenic conditions by successive layers of epoxy lining the interior of the tank.

Garvey, Raymond E. (Knoxville, TN)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Heat dissipating nuclear reactor with metal liner  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a nuclear reactor containment including a reactor vessel disposed within a cavity with capability for complete inherent decay heat removal in the earth and surrounded by a cast steel containment member which surrounds the vessel. The member has a thick basemat in contact with metal pilings. The basemat rests on a bed of porous particulate material, into which water is fed to produce steam which is vented to the atmosphere. There is a gap between the reactor vessel and the steel containment member. The containment member holds any sodium or core debris escaping from the reactor vessel if the core melts and breaches the vessel.

Gluekler, Emil L. (San Jose, CA); Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Lazarus, Jonathan D. (Sunnyvale, CA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Early containment of high-alkaline solution simulating low-level radioactive waste stream in clay-bearing blended cement  

SciTech Connect

Portland cement blended with fly ash and attapulgite clay was mixed with high-alkaline solution simulating low-level radioactive waste stream at a one-to-one weight ratio. Mixtures were adiabatically and isothermally cured at various temperatures and analyzed for phase composition, total alkalinity, pore solution chemistry, and transport properties as measured by impedance spectroscopy. Total alkalinity is characterized by two main drops. The early one corresponds to a rapid removal of phosphorous, aluminum, sodium, and to a lesser extent potassium solution. The second drop from about 10 h to 3 days is mainly associated with the removal of aluminum, silicon, and sodium. Thereafter, the total alkalinity continues descending, but at a lower rate. All pastes display a rapid flow loss that is attributed to an early precipitation of hydrated products. Hemicarbonate appears as early as one hour after mixing and is probably followed by apatite precipitation. However, the former is unstable and decomposes at a rate that is inversely related to the curing temperature. At high temperatures, zeolite appears at about 10 h after mixing. At 30 days, the stabilized crystalline composition Includes zeolite, apatite and other minor amounts of CaCO{sub 3}, quartz, and monosulfate Impedance spectra conform with the chemical and mineralogical data. The normalized conductivity of the pastes shows an early drop, which is followed by a main decrease from about 12 h to three days. At three days, the permeability of the cement-based waste as calculated by Katz-Thompson equation is over three orders of magnitude lower than that of ordinary portland cement paste. However, a further decrease in the calculated permeability is questionable. Chemical stabilization is favorable through incorporation of waste species into apatite and zeolite.

Kruger, A.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Olson, R.A.; Tennis, P.D. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Center for Advanced Cement-Based Materials] [and others

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Long-term leaching of trace elements in a heavily sludge-amended silty clay loam soil  

SciTech Connect

Analysis by ICP-MS of shallow groundwater collected at a field site in New York that had been heavily loaded with sewage sludge more than 15 years earlier revealed elevated concentrations of Cu, Zn, Sr, Rb, Mo, Cd, As, Cr, Ni, Sb, W, Ag, Hg, and Sn compared with a nearby control site. Enhanced leaching of some elements from this near-neutral, fine-textured (silty clay loam) soil could be explained by exchange of soil-bound elements by components of the added sludge. For most of the heavy metals, however, increased leaching was a response to the high metal loadings in the soil, probably facilitated by higher dissolved organic matter in the leachate. Laboratory-determined distribution coefficients, K{sub D}, for the metals in newly prepared sludge/soil mixtures were lower than K{sub D} values of the field-aged sludge-treated soil, suggesting that metal mobility may have been substantially higher shortly after sludge application than many years later. Cumulative losses of certain trace elements from the topsoil have been estimated relative to Cr, a comparatively immobile element. These suggest that relative long-term losses range from 20 to 80%, with the order being: Sr, Mo, Sb {gt} Ni, Cd, Cu {gt} Zn, Ag. Generally, those elements with the smallest K{sub D} values (most soluble) measured recently in the soil had the largest loss estimates. However, present leaching loss rates are too slow to explain the estimated relative losses of several of these elements from the topsoil over the 15 or more years since sludge application.

McBride, M.B.; Richards, B.K.; Steenhuis, T.; Spiers, G.

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Copper-pillared clays (Cu-PILC) for agro-food wastewater purification with H2O2  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Copper-pillared clays (Cu-PILC) are effective and stable catalysts for the wet hydrogen peroxide catalytic oxidation (WHPCO) of waste in water. They are studied both in the conversion of model molecules (p-coumaric acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid) and in the treatment of various real wastewaters from agro-food production: (i) deriving from citrus juice production, (ii) extracted concentrated polyphenolics fraction from olive oil milling (OMW) and (iii) OMW derived from three different sources. In the latter cases, tests were made both in a lab-scale reactor and in a larger volume (about 10 l) reactor. The results showed that Cu-PILC layered materials might be used to treat real wastewater from agro-food production, and not only simple model chemicals as typically made in the literature. In all cases, using a semi-batch slurry-type reactor with a continuous feed of H2O2, the behaviour both in TOC (total organic carbon) and in polyphenols abatement may be described using pseudo-first-order reaction rates. Using real wastewater the rate constants are one–two-orders of magnitude lower than using model molecules, and a decrease in the ratio between rate constant of phenols conversion and rate constant of TOC abatement is observed. However, this ratio maintains over one in all cases. A typical value is around two, but the composition of wastewater and reaction conditions influences this ratio. Scaling-up to a larger volume semi-continuous slurry-type reactor causes a further lowering of one-order of magnitude in the rate constants of TOC and polyphenols depletion, due to fouling of the catalyst related to the preferential coupling of the organic radicals and deposition over the catalyst with respect to their further degradation by hydroxyl radicals generated from H2O2 activation on the copper ions of the catalyst. The use of a different reactor to overcome this problem is suggested.

Simona Caudo; Chiara Genovese; Siglinda Perathoner; Gabriele Centi

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

A comparison of fracture properties of selected geosynthetic products using pseudo strain damage theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of reflective cracking in HMA overlays. To accomplish this objective, laboratory specimens were fabricated and tested to failure using a fatigue-testing machine called the TTI Overlay Tester. This investigation used elementary engineering fracture mechanics...

Cleveland, Gregory Scott

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

334

Importance of Strong Connection Between Geosynthetic Reinforcement and Facing for GRS Integral Bridge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A new bridge system, called the GRS integral bridge, is proposed. This consists of an integral bridge, which integrates a pair of RC abutment and a continuous girder without using girder supports, and a pair o...

F. Tatsuoka; D. Hirakawa; H. Aizawa…

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

The effect of clay catalyst on the chemical composition of bio-oil obtained by co-pyrolysis of cellulose and polyethylene  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: • Non-catalytic and catalytic fast pyrolysis of cellulose/polyethylene blend was carried out in a laboratory scale reactor. • Optimization of process temperature was done. • Optimization of clay catalyst type and amount for co-pyrolysis of cellulose and polyethylene was done. • The product yields and the chemical composition of bio-oil was investigated. - Abstract: Cellulose/polyethylene (CPE) mixture 3:1, w/w with and without three clay catalysts (K10 – montmorillonite K10, KSF – montmorillonite KSF, B – Bentonite) addition were subjected to pyrolysis at temperatures 400, 450 and 500 °C with heating rate of 100 °C/s to produce bio-oil with high yield. The pyrolytic oil yield was in the range of 41.3–79.5 wt% depending on the temperature, the type and the amount of catalyst. The non-catalytic fast pyrolysis at 500 °C gives the highest yield of bio-oil (79.5 wt%). The higher temperature of catalytic pyrolysis of cellulose/polyethylene mixture the higher yield of bio-oil is. Contrarily, increasing amount of montmorillonite results in significant, almost linear decrease in bio-oil yield followed by a significant increase of gas yield. The addition of clay catalysts to CPE mixture has a various influence on the distribution of bio-oil components. The addition of montmorillonite K10 to cellulose/polyethylene mixture promotes the deepest conversion of polyethylene and cellulose. Additionally, more saturated than unsaturated hydrocarbons are present in resultant bio-oils. The proportion of liquid hydrocarbons is the highest when a montmorillonite K10 is acting as a catalyst.

Solak, Agnieszka; Rutkowski, Piotr, E-mail: piotr.rutkowski@pwr.wroc.pl

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

336

Construction quality assurance report  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a summary of the construction quality assurance (CQA) observation and test results, including: The results of the geosynthetic and soil materials conformance testing. The observation and testing results associates with the installation of the soil liners. The observation and testing results associated with the installation of the HDPE geomembrane liner systems. The observation and testing results associated with the installation of the leachate collection and removal systems. The observation and testing results associated with the installation of the working surfaces. The observation and testing results associated with in-plant manufacturing process. Summary of submittal reviews by Golder Construction Services, Inc. The submittal and certification of the piping material specifications. The observation and verification associated of the Acceptance Test Procedure results of the operational equipment functions. Summary of the ECNs which are incorporated into the project.

Roscha, V.

1994-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

337

Intercalated Clay Catalysts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...positions in the oxy-gen framework. Aluminum, magnesium, iron, or lithium may occupy octahedral sites. M" * xH20 represents...montmorillon-ite with silicic acid by hydrolysis of silicon acetylacetonate cations in the in-terlayer region (82, 83): Si(acac...

Thomas J. Pinnavaia

1983-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

338

Clay mineral evolution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...and largely preserved) rock record of Mars. The successful landing of NASAs Curiosity rover in Gale Crater, coupled with observations...chondritic meteorites. In A.M. Davis, Ed., Meteorites, Comets, and Planets, 1, 201-246. Treatise on Geochemistry...

Robert M. Hazen; Dimitri A. Sverjensky; David Azzolini; David L. Bish; Stephen C. Elmore; Linda Hinnov; Ralph E. Milliken

339

Bentonites - Versatile Clays:  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...to come, whether for energy production, human health, nanotechnology, or some yet-to-be-identified application. We thank...Reinbacher WR (2003) Healing Earths: The Third Leg of Medicine. 1stBooks, USA, 244 pp Robertson RHS (1986) Fuller's...

Don D. Eisenhour; Richard K. Brown

340

Bentonites - Versatile Clays:  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...calorimetry and radiative gasification. Certain PCNs have...nitrogen atmosphere gasification data shown in Figure...during radiative gasification at 50, 90, and 240...the food-packaging industry, plastics have replaced...environmental impact of plastic waste, biopolymers are replacing...

Kathleen A. Carrado; Peter Komadel

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "geosynthetic clay liner" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Intercalated Clay Catalysts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...oc-cur in the conversion of thiols...acetic acid to ethylene and propylene, respectively...in his studies of oleic...expected size of an Al13...the form of small clusters...comparable to zeolite cat-alysts...pillars and pores in the interlayer...range of pore sizes, particularly...

Thomas J. Pinnavaia

1983-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

342

Bentonites - Versatile Clays:  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Cloisite and Nanofil ( www.nanoclay.com ). These organically...polyester resin-fiberglass composite. Polymers and fillers are...on a microscopic level in composites, especially at very high...organisms produce natural composites mainly as structural materials...

Kathleen A. Carrado; Peter Komadel

343

Evaluation of the hazardous waste landfill cap system design and clay layer thickness criteria of the Turkish Regulation on the Control of Hazardous Waste (RCHW) using the Hydrological Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The hazardous waste landfill design criteria of the Turkish Regulation on the Control of Hazardous Waste (RCHW) was evaluated in this study. In the first part of the study, Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model was used to determine the significance of different components of the hazardous waste landfill cap system as required by the Turkish RCHW. In the second part of the study, the top and bottom clay layer thickness requirement of the Turkish RCHW was evaluated by running the HELP model for different top/bottom clay different layer thicknesses and comparing the corresponding leachate amounts produced.

F. Yalcin Piskin; G.N. Demirer

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Whether the 3D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations can develop a finite time singularity from smooth initial data with finite energy is one of the Seven Millennium Problems posted by the Clay Mathematical Institute. We review  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

smooth initial data with finite energy is one of the Seven Millennium Problems posted by the Clay.m., Lees-Kubota Lecture Hall California Institute of Technology For information please Contact: Cheryl phenomena, fish swimming and bird flight, microorganism locomotion, geo- and bio-dynamics, mathematics

Low, Steven H.

345

Dual phase polymer gel electrolyte based on non-woven poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene)–layered clay nanocomposite fibrous membranes for lithium ion batteries  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? P(VdF-co-HFP)–clay nanocomposite based electrospun membranes are prepared. ? The membranes are used as polymer gel electrolyte (PGE) in lithium ion batteries. ? The composite PGE shows ionic conductivity of 5.5 mS cm{sup ?1} at room temperature. ? Li/PGE/LiFePO{sub 4} cell delivers initial discharge capacity of 160 mAh g{sup ?1}. ? The use of prepared electrolyte significantly improved the cell performance. -- Abstract: A new approach for fabricating polymer gel electrolytes (PGEs) based on electrospun poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (P(VdF-co-HFP)) incorporated with layered nanoclay has been employed to enhance the ionic conductivity and electrochemical properties of P(VdF-co-HFP) without compromising its mechanical strength. The effect of layered nanoclay on properties of membranes has been evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Surface morphology of the membranes has been studied using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Polymer gel electrolytes are prepared by soaking the fibrous membrane into 1 M LiPF{sub 6} in EC/DEC. The electrochemical studies show that incorporation of layered nanoclay into the polymer matrix greatly enhanced the ionic conductivity and compatibility with lithium electrodes. The charge–discharge properties and cycling performance of Li/LiFePO{sub 4} cells comprising nanocomposite polymer gel electrolytes have been evaluated at room temperature.

Shubha, Nageswaran [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Block N4.1, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)] [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Block N4.1, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Prasanth, Raghavan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Block N4.1, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore) [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Block N4.1, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Energy Research Institute - NTU (ERI-N) Research Techno Plaza, 50 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637553 (Singapore); TUM-CREATE Center for Electromobility, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637553 (Singapore); Hoon, Hng Huey [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Block N4.1, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)] [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Block N4.1, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Srinivasan, Madhavi, E-mail: madhavi@ntu.edu.sg [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Block N4.1, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore) [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Block N4.1, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Energy Research Institute - NTU (ERI-N) Research Techno Plaza, 50 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637553 (Singapore); TUM-CREATE Center for Electromobility, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637553 (Singapore)

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

346

On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems: Evapotranspiration Bed  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Two-compartment septic tank Loam soil Crushed stone Evapotranspiration bed Wick On-site wastewater treatment systems Evapotranspiration bed Bruce Lesikar Extension Agricultural Engineering Specialist The Texas A&M University System ET systems..., synthetic or concrete liner. A liner is required if the surrounding soil is very permeable, such as in sandy gravel or karst limestone. Unlined systems can be used in highly impermeable soils such as heavy clays. In unlined systems, wastewater is disposed...

Lesikar, Bruce J.

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Performance evaluation of synthetically lined landfills  

SciTech Connect

Landfill design and performance standards for new facilities frequently require the use of geomembrane composite and double liners. Performance data from synthetically lined landfill sites have not been widely available. This report presents data obtained by monitoring three recently constructed synthetically lined landfill sites. Quantities of leachate removed by the primary and secondary collection systems from these landfills were tabulated. The data show that properly designed and constructed synthetic landfill liners provide effective containment of leachate. The environmental protection provided by synthetic liners is equivalent or superior to that of typical clay-lined facilities.

Maule, J. [Champion International Corp., Norway, MI (United States); Lowe, R.K. [STS Consultants Ltd., Green Bay, WI (United States); McCulloch, J.L. [Cross Pointe Paper Co., Park Falls, WI (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides by ammonia over Fe{sup 3+}-exchanged TiO{sub 2}-pillared clay catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Fe-exchanged TiO{sub 2}-pillared clay (PILC) catalysts were prepared and used for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO{sub x} by ammonia. They were also characterized for surface area, pore size distribution, and by XRD, H{sub 2}-TPR, and FT-IR methods. The Fe-TiO{sub 2}-PILC catalysts showed high activities in the reduction of NO{sub x} by NH{sub 3} in the presence of excess oxygen. SO{sub 2} further increased the catalytic activities at above 350 C, whereas H{sub 2}O decreased the activity slightly. The catalysts were about twice as active as commercial-type V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} catalyst in the presence of H{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2}. Moreover, compared to the commercial catalyst, the Fe-TiO{sub 2}-PILC catalysts had higher N{sub 2}/N{sub 2}O product selectivities (e.g., 0--1% vs 9% N{sub 2}O at 400 C) and substantially lower activities (by 74--88%) for SO{sub 2} oxidation to SO{sub 3} under the same reaction conditions. The activity was further increased to over three times that of the vanadia-based catalyst when Ce was added. The high activity and low N{sub 2}O selectivity for the Fe-TiO{sub 2}-PILC catalysts were attributed to their low activity in the oxidation of ammonia, as compared with vanadia catalysts. XRD patterns of Fe-TiO{sub 2}-PILC were similar to those of TiO{sub 2}-PILC, showing no peaks due to iron oxide, even when the iron content reached 20.1%. The TPR results indicated that iron in the Fe-TiO{sub 2}-PILC catalysts with lower iron contents existed in the form of isolated Fe{sup 3+} ions. The activities of Fe-TiO{sub 2}-PILC catalysts were consistent with their surface acidities, which were identified by FT-IR of the NH{sub 3}-adsorbed samples. The enhancement of activities by H{sub 2}O + SO{sub 2} was attributed to the increase of surface acidity resulting from the formation of surface sulfate species of iron.

Long, R.Q.; Yang, R.T. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1999-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

349

Simulation of thermal stress influence on the Boom Clay kerogen (Oligocene, Belgium) in relation to long-term storage of high activity nuclear waste: I. Study of generated soluble compounds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Closed pyrolyses were performed on the Boom Clay kerogen to simulate the weak thermal stress applied during the in situ CERBERUS heating experiment (80 °C for 5 a). Two stronger thermal stresses, encompassing the range generally considered for the long-term disposal of high-activity nuclear waste (80 °C for 1 ka and 120 °C for 3 ka), were also simulated. Quantitative and qualitative studies were carried out on the products thus generated with a focus on the C12+ fraction, especially on its polar components. It thus appeared that the soluble C12+ fractions generated during these simulation experiments comprise a wide variety of polar O- and/or N-containing compounds, including carboxylic acids and phenols. The nature and/or the relative abundance of these polar compounds exhibit strong variations, with the extent of the thermal stress, reflecting the primary cracking of different types of structures with different thermal stability and the occurrence of secondary degradation reactions. These observations support the idea that the compounds, generated upon exposure of the Boom Clay kerogen to a low to moderate thermal stress, may affect the effectiveness of the geological barrier upon long-term storage of high-activity nuclear waste.

I. Deniau; S. Derenne; C. Beaucaire; H. Pitsch; C. Largeau

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Rubber membrane liner confines low level radioactive material  

SciTech Connect

One of the most sophisticated membrane lining projects in the world was undertaken in 1979 by the Cotter Corporation, Canon City, Colorado, producers of vanadium and uranium, when a new tailings pond was built to handle mill tailings and effluents. To comply with local, state and federal regulations, Cotter sought maximum protection for downstream residents. The lining was designed to keep leakage near zero and withstand tailings and water pressure at the deepest part of the pond. Other considerations were compatibility with alkalis and acids and durability and effectiveness of the lining beyond the life of the mill. ''We had to be sure the impoundment would outlast the mill because of the need for long-term isolation of the tailings,'' said Joseph McCluskey, Cotter's executive vice presient. Gotter chose an industrial grade sheeting made of Hypalon synthetic rubber, a chlorosulfonated polyethylene, that has an exposed life expectancy of 40 years; however, once covered with earth and tailings, it will last much longer. The sheeting consists of a reinforced scrim sandwiched between two sheets of Hypalon. The rubber comprises nearly 50 percent of the total linear weight, and the reinforcement is a 10' x 10' 1000D polyester scrim whose open weave allows the rubber to penetrate the fabric and create excellent adhesion between the layers. After two years, the impoundment contains approximately 1400 acre feet of liquid. Currently, about one half of the pond consists of run-off with tailings and liquids from the new mill making up the difference.

Not Available

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

High efficiency proportional neutron detector with solid liner internal structures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A tube-style neutron detector, a panel-style neutron detector incorporating a plurality of tube-style neutron detectors, and a panel-style neutron detector including a plurality of anode wires are provided. A plurality of channels is provided in a neutron detector such that each channel has an inner surface of a coating layer including a neutron-absorbing material. A wire anode is provided at end of each channel so that electrons generated by a charged daughter particle generated by a neutron are collected to detect a neutron-matter interaction. Moderator units can be incorporated into a neutron detector to provide improved detection efficiencies and/or to determine neutron energy spectrum. Gas-based proportional response from the neutron detectors can be employed for special nuclear material (SNM) detection. This neutron detector can provide similar performance to .sup.3He-based detectors without requiring .sup.3He and without containing toxic, flammable, or high-pressure materials.

Kisner, Roger Allen; Holcomb, David Eugene; Brown, Gilbert M.

2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

352

Landfill site selection and landfill liner design for Ankara, Turkey  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Considering the high population growth rate of Ankara, it is inevitable that landfill(s) will be required in the area ... scope of this study is to select alternative landfill sites for Ankara based on the growin...

Gözde P?nar Yal; Haluk Akgün

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Equipment pressure applied to geomembrane in composite liner system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

presents the results of a test pad at an operating municipal solid waste landfill that measured pressures at most landfill sites. In particular, a dozer is usually used to place the leachate collection the results of a test pad at an operating landfill used to measure the pressures applied to the primary

354

Effect of the modification of ZrO2-containing pillared clay with Pt and Cu atoms on the properties of inorganic complex intermediates in the selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides with propylene according to in situ IR-spectroscopic data  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It was found that only bridging and bidentate nitrate complexes were formed on the surface of Pt,Cu/ZrO2-pillared interlayered clay (ZrO2-PILC) upon the interaction with a flow of...2)/N2 mixture, whereas monoden...

V. A. Matyshak; V. F. Tret’yakov; T. N. Burdeinaya…

355

Intern experience with William F. Guyton & Associates: an internship report  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, organics, and radioactive properties were desired. However, no wells in or near the area had been analyzed to this degree, so as much information as possible was collected. Because the TDH filed the chemical analysis by owner, the additional problem... liner selected from the pilot hole phase were set in place. The blank liner provided protection from clays and fine-grained sand that a gravel pack could not restrict from entering the well. Finally, the gravel pack was pumped into the annul us...

Stevens, William Scott, 1953-

2013-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

356

FTIR and kinetic studies of the mechanism of Fe{sup 3+}-exchanged TiO{sub 2}-pillared clay catalyst for selective catalytic reduction of NO with ammonia  

SciTech Connect

A series of FTIR spectroscopic and kinetic studies of the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitric oxide by ammonia were conducted on Fe{sup 3+}-exchanged TiO{sub 2}-pillared clay (Fe-TiO{sub 2}-PILC) catalyst. It was found that No molecules were absorbed on the fresh Fe-TiO{sub 2}-PILC catalyst and then oxidized by O{sub 2} to adsorbed NO{sub 2} and nitrate species. These NO{sub x} adspecies could be reduced by NH{sub 3} at high temperatures. NH{sub 3} molecules could also be adsorbed on the Broensted acid and Lewis acid sites on the Fe-TiO{sub 2}-PILC catalyst to generate, respectively, NH{sup +}{sub 4} ions and coordinated NH{sub 3} species. These NH{sub 3} adspecies were active in reacting with NO, NO + O{sub 2} and NO{sub 2}, but the reaction rates of NH{sub 3} + NO + O{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} + NO{sub 2} were much higher than that of NNO + NH{sub 3}. However, under reaction conditions, the surface of Fe-TiO{sub 2}-PILC was mainly covered by NH{sup +}{sub 4} ions and coordinated NH{sub 3}, and no NO{sub x} adspecies were detected. This is in agreement with the zero-order for the SCR reaction with respect to NH{sub 3}. A possible reaction scheme for the SCR reaction on Fe-TiO{sub 2}-PILC was proposed. NO reduction initially involved the reaction between NO{sub 2} and pairs of NH{sub 3} adspecies to form an active intermediate, which finally reacted with gaseous or weakly adsorbed NO to produce N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O.

Long, R.Q.; Yang, R.T.

2000-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

357

Polycarbonate-Clay Nanocomposite (Sumsung Project)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

NEI Corporation NEI Corporation 1 Nanophase Electrode Materials for Fast Rate Li-based Energy Storage Devices Dr. Amit Singhal, Chief Scientist NEI Corporation, Somerset, NJ N. Pereira, F. Badway and G. Amatucci Energy Storage Research Group, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ NEI Corporation Presentation at: DOE Peer Review Meeting NEI Corporation 2 Program Overview * Goals - Develop low cost & non-toxic nanostructured anodes with fast rate capability for Li-based energy storage devices - Fabricate prototype asymmetric cells with fast rate capabilities and long cycle life * Phase II Start date: July 2003 * Accomplished So Far - Synthesized nanostructured WO 2 powders and performed detailed electrochemical and structural characterization - Synthesized and characterized nanostructured W

358

Clay mineralogy of onshore UK Carboniferous mudrocks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...structures, geochemistry and mineralogy (Wright et al., 1991) is that there was a climatic change from a predominantly dry-type monsoonal system to a strongly seasonal wet monsoonal-type climate. Under these conditions primary smectite was transformed...

D. A. SPEARS

359

Structural Characterization of Chitosan?Clay Nanocomposite  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Novel materials originating from renowable sources mainly consist of biopolymers and their composites or nanocomposites. A typical material belonging to this group is chitosane (CS) which is a cationic natural polysaccharide that can be produced by alkaline N?deacetylation of chitine. Chitosane has a variety of applications in biomedical products cosmetics and food processing [1 2].Organic?inorganic hybrid materials basing on chitosane and nanoclay (montmoryllonite MMT) were characterized by the vibrational spectrocopy methods (Micro?Raman spectroscopy and FT?Raman spectroscopy) and the thermal analysis methods (TG DSC). It was shown that small amount on a nanofiller (MMT 3 wt.%) used to modify the polymer matrix influences the structure of its polymeric chains.

C. Paluszkiewicz; A. Weselucha?Birczynska; E. Stodolak

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

E-Print Network 3.0 - apparent layered structure Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cylinder Liner... of Plastic Cylinder Liner 1. HPDE Liner Layer Cavities 12;Quality of Plastic Cylinder Liner 2. Crazing Source: DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "geosynthetic clay liner" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Fracture characterization of clays and clay-like materials using flattened Brazilian Test  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fracture mechanics has been used for many years to study the mechanical behavior of brittle and quasi-brittle materials like concrete, rock, wood, and ceramics. To date, the application of fracture mechanics to soils has ...

Agaiby, Shehab Sherif Wissa

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Competitive sorption of pyrene and pyridine to natural clay minerals and reference clay standards.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Sorption processes are known to be the controlling factors in mobility of organic contaminants in soils and sediments. It has been generally assumed that the… (more)

Lee, Lai Man

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Competitive sorption of pyrene and pyridine to natural clay minerals and reference clay standards  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sorption processes are known to be the controlling factors in mobility of organic contaminants in soils and sediments. It has been generally assumed that the organic matter fraction is the dominant sorbent of organic compounds. Mineral...

Lee, Lai Man

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

364

80 YEARS OF FUSION80 YEARS OF FUSION E.E.VelikhovVelikhov  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Rostoker Plasma FocusPlasma Focus Filippov Maiser Maisonnier Sadovski Krauz LinerLiner Sakharov Pavlovski

365

Investigation of wall friction in noncircular ducts with a rough liner  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

phenomena in circular rough ducts and. these test data are discussed. 2. The test data of this research are similar to that shown by Nikuradse for fluid flow in pipes having artifi- cially roughened, inside surfaces. It is doubtful if Golebrook... in the relative roughness of the duct. The curves of Reynolds number versus friction factor are somewhat similar to those plotted by Nikuradse for fluid flow in artificially roughened round pipe. The shape of the curves is quite similar, but there is a...

Tyler, John Charles

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

366

Dynamic determination of vessel speed and selection of bunkering ports for liner shipping under stochastic environment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We obtain the speed and refueling decisions given by the stationary model, direct solving of the dynamic model and dynamic model solved by the modified rolling horizon approach, respectively, under all three cases

Xiaoming Sheng; Loo Hay Lee; Ek Peng Chew

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Sub-bituminous coal handling problems solved with bunker liner retrofit  

SciTech Connect

After switching to low-sulfur sub-bituminous coal, Northern States Power Co. (NSP) experience several fires and an explosion in the coal storage bunkers of its two-unit, 384-MW Riverside plant located in Minneapolis, Minn. The most recent incident occurred in November 1993 when a blast rocked Unit 7`s coal storage bunker. The spontaneous combustion explosion was touched off when coal dust from the dust collection system was being conveyed back into the bunker and came into contact with hot coal. Reaction to the incident was swift and NSP management established a task force known as ``Operation Cease Fire`` to investigate the situation and develop a solution to eliminate fires and explosions at all of its coal-fired plants. This article describes the problems found in the coal handling systems and the steps taken to correct them.

Steppling, K.P.; McAtee, K.L.; Huggins, J.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

High?frequency imaging of thickness degradation in steel containment vessels and liners  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An area of concern in some nuclear power plants is thickness degradation of embedded steel containments just below the interface where the steel enters concrete. This is an area which cannot be examined by traditional UT testing due to the inaccessibility imposed by the concrete. In this numerical feasibility study high?frequency vibrational sources placed above the interface are used to excite elastic waves in the steel which propagate into the embedded area. The waves that reflect and scatter from the surface roughness caused by thickness degradation are detected and used to determine and map the degradation of the steel. A range?dependent stratified layer wave?number integration based numerical model (OASES) is used to calculate the field in the scenario. Decomposition of the field into longitudinal shear and surface waves is used to determine the optimal transducer orientations for transmit and receive. [Work supported by the Nuclear Regulatory Commision.

Joseph E. Bondaryk

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Computations and modeling of oil transport between piston lands and liner in internal combustion engines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The consumption of lubricating oil in internal combustion engines is a continuous interest for engine developers and remains to be one of the least understood areas. A better understanding on oil transport is critical to ...

Fang, Tianshi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

POST CLOSURE INSPECTION AND MONITORING REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 417: CENTRAL NEVADA TEST AREA - SURFACE, HOT CREEK VALLEY, NEVADA; FOR CALENDAR YEAR 2005  

SciTech Connect

Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417, Central Nevada Test Area - Surface, is located in Hot Creek Valley in northern Nye County, Nevada, and consists of three areas commonly referred to as UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4. CAU 417 consists of 34 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) which were closed in 2000 (U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office, 2001). Three CASs at UC-1 were closed in place with administrative controls. At CAS 58-09-01, Central Mud Pit (CMP), a vegetated soil cover was constructed over the mud pit. At the remaining two sites CAS 58-09-02, Mud Pit and 58-09-05, Mud Pits (3), aboveground monuments and warning signs were installed to mark the CAS boundaries. Three CASs at UC-3 were closed in place with administrative controls. Aboveground monuments and warning signs were installed to mark the site boundaries at CAS 58-09-06, Mud Pits (5), CAS 58-25-01, Spill and CAS 58-10-01, Shaker Pad Area. Two CASs that consist of five sites at UC-4 were closed in place with administrative controls. At CAS 58-09-03, Mud Pits 9, an engineered soil cover was constructed over Mud Pit C. At the remaining three sites in CAS 58-09-03 and at CAS 58-10-05, Shaker Pad Area, aboveground monuments and warning signs were installed to mark the site boundaries. The remaining 26 CASs at CAU 417 were either clean-closed or closed by taking no further action. Quarterly post-closure inspections are performed at the CASs that were closed in place at UC-I, UC-3, and UC-4. During calendar year 2005, site inspections were performed on March 15, June 16, September 22, and December 7. The inspections conducted at the UC-1 CMP documented that the site was in good condition and continued to show integrity of the cover unit. No new cracks or fractures were observed until the December inspection. A crack on the west portion of the cover showed evidence of lateral expansion; however, it is not at an actionable level. The crack will be sealed by filling with bentonite during the first quarter of 2006 and monitored during subsequent inspections. The cover vegetation was healthy and well established. No issues were identified with the CMP fence, gate, or subsidence monuments. No issues were identified with the warning signs and monuments at the other two UC-1 locations. The inspections at UC-3 indicated that the sites are in excellent condition. All monuments and signs showed no displacement, damage, or removal. A small erosion gully from spring rain runoff was observed during the June inspection, but it did not grow to an actionable level during 2005. No other issues or concerns were identified. Inspections performed at UC-4 Mud Pit C cover revealed that erosion rills were formed during March and September exposing the geosynthetic clay liner. Both erosion rills were repaired within 90 days of reporting. Sparse vegetation is present on the cover. The overall condition of the monuments, fence, and gate are in good condition. No issues were identified with the warning signs and monuments at the other four UC-4 locations. Subsidence surveys were conducted at UC-1 CMP and UC-4 Mud Pit C in March and September of 2005. The results of the subsidence surveys indicate that the covers are performing as expected, and no unusual subsidence was observed. The June vegetation survey of the UC-1 CMP cover and adjacent areas indicated that the revegetation has been very successful. The vegetation should continue to be monitored to document any changes in the plant community and identify conditions that could potentially require remedial action in order to maintain a viable vegetative cover on the site. Vegetation surveys should be conducted only as required. Precipitation during 2005 was above average, with an annual rainfall total of 21.79 centimeters (8.58 inches). Soil moisture content data show that the UC-1 CMP cover is performing as designed, with evapotranspiration effectively removing water from the cover. It is recommended to continue quarterly site inspections and the collection of soil moisture data for the UC-1 CMP cove

NONE

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Influence of plasticizer molecular weight on plasticizer retention in PVC geomembranes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, the repeating unit is the vinyl chloride monomer. The chemical and structural Geosynthetics In. Geosynthetics International, 12, No. 2, 000- 000. 1. INTRODUCTION Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is one of the oldest by a series of small and simple repeating chemical units. These repeating units are called monomers. In PVC

372

Clay County, Georgia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

6447931°, -85.0025539° 6447931°, -85.0025539° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":31.6447931,"lon":-85.0025539,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

373

Clay County, Kansas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

7.179026° 7.179026° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":39.34792,"lon":-97.179026,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

374

Clay County, Missouri: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

176186°, -94.479976° 176186°, -94.479976° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":39.3176186,"lon":-94.479976,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

375

Clay County, Alabama: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

5.8486236° 5.8486236° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":33.279527,"lon":-85.8486236,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

376

Clay County, Illinois: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

8.556531° 8.556531° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":38.7279431,"lon":-88.556531,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

377

Clay County, Florida: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

1.7787021° 1.7787021° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":29.9943564,"lon":-81.7787021,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

378

Clay County, Arkansas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

44°, -90.3748354° 44°, -90.3748354° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":36.3492244,"lon":-90.3748354,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

379

Clay County, Iowa: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

38°, -95.1432068° 38°, -95.1432068° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":43.1368038,"lon":-95.1432068,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

380

Clay Center, Ohio: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

33831°, -83.3618725° 33831°, -83.3618725° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.5633831,"lon":-83.3618725,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "geosynthetic clay liner" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Clay County, Kentucky: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

.7199136° .7199136° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":37.1738044,"lon":-83.7199136,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

382

Clay County Electric Coop Corp | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Arkansas Arkansas Utility Id 3712 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location SERC NERC SERC Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Agriculture Service-Off Peak Commercial Commercial Service Commercial Commercial Service- Optional Commercial General Service Residential Industrial Service Industrial Industrial Service Optional Industrial Irrigation-Off Peak Commercial Irrigation-Radio Controlled Commercial Irrigation-Regular Service Commercial Security Light: 150 Watt High Pressure Sodium Lighting Security Light: 175 Watt Metal Halide Lighting

383

Clay County, North Carolina: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

North Carolina: Energy Resources North Carolina: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 35.0964003°, -83.7199136° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":35.0964003,"lon":-83.7199136,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

384

Clay County, Indiana: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Indiana: Energy Resources Indiana: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 39.368622°, -87.1422895° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":39.368622,"lon":-87.1422895,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

385

Potassium Fixation and Supply by Soils with Mixed Clay Minerals.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

supplied onl!. Studies were made on three agriculturally important me/me of exchangeable K. The capacity of all a soils of South Texas and Northern Mexico to determine soils to fix K increased with increasing remo\\dl i their potassium (K)-supplying power...- T east and Southeast United States has been investigated. Little work has been done, however, on soils of the Southwest. Soils of the West and Southwest are generally quite high in K, and responses are not usually obtained from the addition of K...

Hipp, Billy W.

1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Use of Clays as Drilling Fluids and Filters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In geotechnical engineering, drilling fluid is a fluid used to drill boreholes into the earth. In drilling rigs, drilling fluids help to do drill for exploration of oil and natural gas. Liquid drilling fluid is o...

Swapna Mukherjee

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

A simplified formulation for moisture diffusion through partly saturated clays  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to infiltration of moisture from the ground surface can induce sloughing and shallow slide failures. This issue creates a significant maintenance problem for the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT). The postulated mechanism for these slope failures is: 1...

Tang, Dina V

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Upper bound analysis for drag anchors in soft clay  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This study presents an upper bound plastic limit analysis for predicting drag anchor trajectory and load capacity. The shank and fluke of the anchor are idealized as simple plates. The failure mechanism involves the motion of the anchor about a...

Kim, Byoung Min

2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

389

Conductive two-dimensional titanium carbide clay with high...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

This capacitance is almost twice that of our previous report 8 , and our synthetic method also offers a much faster route to film production as well as the avoid- ance of...

390

Influence of loading rate on axially loaded piles in clay  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Haas and Saxe Yong and Japp. Arulanandan and Shen 4 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 4 5 5 6 6 13 13 21 21 22 22 23 23 24 24 Ladd, Hi11iams, Connell and Edgars Berre and Bjerrum. Stevenson. King Vaid and Campanella. Lacasse. Rigqins. CHAPTER V... of the Gain in Strength versus Shearing Rate Plots 4. Select Regression, PI, LI, W, SO(REF) 76 Cases for 152 Laboratory Tests 5. Collected Data for Pile Load Test Results. 6. Data Set References for Pile Load Tests. Page 14 36 54 61 7. Semi...

Garland Ponce, Enrique Eduardo

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

391

Sandstone Acidizing Using Chelating Agents and their Interaction with Clays  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sandstone acidizing has been carried out with mud acid which combines hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid at various ratios. The application of mud acid in sandstone formations has presented quite a large number of difficulties like corrosion...

George, Noble Thekkemelathethil 1987-

2013-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

392

Preparation and Properties of Recycled HDPE/Clay Hybrids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

source of raw materials. The impressive enhancement of material properties achieved with the inclusion, flammability resistance, and heat resistance compared to conventional com- posites.2­8 Because PE

393

Deputy Secretary Clay Sell Touts Georgian Efforts to Advance...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Deputy Secretary visited senior government officials and business leaders in Moscow, Russia and Kyiv, Ukraine. Media contact(s): Craig Stevens, (202) 586-4940 Addthis Related...

394

EXTENDING THE PREDICTION OF THE THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF CLAY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

O=MZ+ (ox) (J/mol.K) Interlayer cations TOT cations + brucitic sheet Fig. 1 - Development of predictive

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

395

By HENRY CLAY WEBSTER Posted: December 6, 2010  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

be quite high. Education and preparation: To enter the field, candidates can obtain a master's degree who is too extroverted might not be good at that." Suggested job searches: Counselor jobs | Clinical reserved. Use of this Web site constitutes acceptance of our Terms and Conditions of Use and Privacy Policy

Rhode Island, University of

396

Diagenesis of clay minerals from early Eocene shales of Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

depth 38 Mole percent CaO, K 0 and Ng 0 of selected silt (2 ? 63 )an) fraction samples. Clustering of points reflects composition of feldspars in this fraction 39 12 Temperature versus depth for samples studied. Geothermal gradients show higher... meters (Table 1) and a wide range of geographic locations (Fig. 1), were chosen for analyses. Temperatures were obtained from logs, or if this information was not available, were estimated from Gulf Coast geothermal gradients (Moses, 1961...

Whynot, John David

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

397

Characterization of Gulf of Mexico Clay Using Automated Triaxial Testing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, consolidations tests) and the stress history of the deposit is evaluated. The SHANSEP reconsolidation technique was used for a comprehensive program of Koconsolidated-undrained (CKoU) triaxial compression and extension tests at overconsolidation ratios (OCR...

Murali, Madhuri

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

398

Effect of sample disturbance in opalinus clay shales  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The sample disturbance problem for different geomaterials is reviewed in this thesis. A general discussion on the disturbance sources and complexities of the disturbance problem is followed by detailed reviews on disturbance ...

Pei, Jianyong, 1975-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

An engineering geology analysis of home foundations on expansive clays  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

temperature associated with the wetting of dry kaolinite 113 Thermal and isothermal di f f us ivity values versus soil water content in accord with the theory of Philip and de Vries 113 APPENDIX C C-1 Probable general form of the rela- tionship between... limited treatment from three disciplines. The soils engineer has developed a broad understanding of expansive soils based on practical experience, but has only recently becun to apply classical soil mechanics theory to this area. Within the tield...

Castleberry, Joe Patterson

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

400

A Peculiar Clay from near the City of Mexico  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...with a solution of 'malachite green' merely showed the fine discrete...that greatl in excess of the lime presentlTherent reationshp to ie saponite or sepiolite group of minerals, but the extremely ready decom...treatment, instead of that with lime, were the only possible effective...

E. W. Hilgard

1916-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "geosynthetic clay liner" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Controlled Doping of Transition Metal Cations in Alumina Pillared Clays  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

First, calcined Al-PILC was dispersed into an aqueous solution of sodium or ammonium ions. ... The ion-doped Al-PILC was then exchanged with an aqueous solution of transition metal salt at a pH of ?4.5 to replace Na+ or NH4+ ions by transition metal cations. ... Analytical techniques such as atomic absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance?ultraviolet?visible spectroscopy, as well as N2 adsorption were used to characterize the PILC products with and without the loading of metal ions. ...

H. Y. Zhu; Z. H. Zhu; G. Q. Lu

2000-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

402

Compaction characteristics of clay soil using the gyratory testing machine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

xagijk;:M ~t &Sr; &?+a~t~ . kel4?. , g @'w:, 4j, . t'@%%jr'. e', 0 ~~ ~?'tkx $4ie444f, ' L~ kg& , ri~ iigaf~ f4. ~'~'~"~Q' ~~~jjj gjjjjp%g4. ";, ':& ?qere0sm'ft 5%?jr''sk E'aa "~ yjig$y ?~~. Q~?'. ~'~ ~gqg$f~, ?: ', - :?'??''??'&~::?id~'4'j..., f)P, )& . 4 . I!~g)ti +. % ? I 'ill ? ~~a W?}. :?'?W ri??i ~:jJ, ??i;:. }le . ! f??}I~ ~ jgy}?? lq &!i)~'fg~5 +g?e "?PB?f}N&::+ '. w-:. ~'e. 9;g' Jf~ A -. w~Wm ?:?'i&?'. . '??) 48' &%WE~&'. &:-'+yjHi!??!}?)} , ;+i?g "ps% ~??'. m~4. g...

Al-Khafaji, Abbas Nasir

1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Experimental and numerical study of primary consolidation of soft clay  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This research investigates, experimentally and numerically, the three main factors that differentiate predictions based on Terzaghi's one-dimensional consolidation theory from those observed in the laboratory and field. ...

Korchaiyapruk, Attasit, 1977-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Conductive two-dimensional titanium carbide clay with high...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

MAX phases, which comprise a .70-member family of layered, hexagonal early-transition-metal carbides and nitrides 13 . To date, all MXenes have been produced by etching MAX...

405

THE DYNAMIC SHEAR MODULUS AND DAMPING RATIO OF CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...vinyl acrylic in nanoclay composites, the secant shear...properties of nanoclay filled sisal fibre reinforced epoxy composites. Composites...nanocomposites. Composites Science and Technology...P. (2006) Nanoclay reinforced bio-based...

Z. Nese Kurt; Suat Akbulut

406

Clay County, Nebraska: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

98.0465185° 98.0465185° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":40.5975479,"lon":-98.0465185,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

407

Clay County, South Dakota: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

344°, -97.0068393° 344°, -97.0068393° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":42.8829344,"lon":-97.0068393,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

408

Clay County, Mississippi: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

°, -88.8263006° °, -88.8263006° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":33.6567838,"lon":-88.8263006,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

409

Clay County, Minnesota: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

6.4257589° 6.4257589° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":46.878186,"lon":-96.4257589,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

410

Clay County, Tennessee: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

5.56121° 5.56121° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":36.5701766,"lon":-85.56121,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

411

Clay County, West Virginia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

7°, -81.1196075° 7°, -81.1196075° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":38.4417717,"lon":-81.1196075,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

412

Clay County, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

7900416°, -98.2212979° 7900416°, -98.2212979° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":33.7900416,"lon":-98.2212979,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

413

Evaluation Of Used Fuel Disposition In Clay-Bearing Rock  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Radioactive waste disposal in shale/argillite rock formations has been widely considered given its desirable isolation properties, e.g., low permeability, potential geochemically reduced conditions...

414

Date Stamped/Typed Centered  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2-C 2-C NEPA ID No.: PXP-10-0004 Deactivation & Decommissioning of the North Compost Tent Application of DOE NEPA Procedure: Categorical Exclusion B1.23, Applicable to Facility Operations (10 CFR Part 1021, Subpart D, Appendix B), applies to the proposed activity. Rationale: The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), proposes to demolish Environmental Restoration's (ER) North Compost Tent, which was damaged by a storm in 2003 and has not been fully operational since then. It is considered unsalvageable by the Facility & Systems Design Department. Demolition will consist of: Removal of clay soil (approximately 1 foot deep) and two liners (polyvinylchloride and

415

Definitive design report: Design report project W-025, Radioactive Mixed Waste (RMW) Land Disposal Facility NON-DRAG-OFF. Revision 1, Volume 1 and 2  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to describe the definitive design of the Radioactive Mixed Waste (RMW) Non-Drag-Off disposal facility, Project W-025. This report presents a n of the major landfill design features and a discussion of how each of the criteria is addressed in the design. The appendices include laboratory test results, design drawings, and individual analyses that were conducted in support of the design. Revision 1 of this document incorporates design changes resulting from an increase in the required operating life of the W-025 landfill from 2 to 20 years. The rationale for these design changes is described in Golder Associates Inc. 1991a. These changes include (1) adding a 1.5-foot-thick layer of compacted admix directory-under the primary FML on the floor of the landfill to mitigate the effects of possible stress cracking in the primary flexible membrane liner (FML), and (2) increasing the operations layer thickness from two to three feet over the entire landfill area, to provide additional protection for the secondary admix layer against mechanical damage and the effects of freezing and desiccation. The design of the W-025 Landfill has also been modified in response to the results of the EPA Method 9090 chemical compatibility testing program (Golder Associates Inc. 1991b and 1991c), which was completed after the original design was prepared. This program consisted of testing geosynthetic materials and soil/bentonite admix with synthetic leachate having the composition expected during the life of the W-025 Landfill., The results of this program indicated that the polyester geotextile originally specified for the landfill might be susceptible to deterioration. On this basis, polypropylene geotextiles were substituted as a more chemically-resistant alternative. In addition, the percentage of bentonite in the admix was increased to provide sufficiently low permeability to the expected leachate.

Roscha, V.

1994-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

416

Modeling of contact between liner finish and piston ring in internal combustion engines based on 3D measured surface  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

When decreasing of fossil fuel supplies and air pollution are two major society problems in the 21st century, rapid growth of internal combustion (IC) engines serves as a main producer of these two problems. In order to ...

Zhao, Qing, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

A Seven-Year Water Balance Study of an Evapotranspiration Landfill Cover Varying in Slope for Semiarid Regions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...determinations of saturated hydraulic conductivity and pressure...tanks housed in instrument trailers. This involved hourly measurements...landfill covers containing hydraulic barriers to limit seepage...of hydrating liquid on the hydraulic properties of geosynthetic...

J. W. Nyhan

418

Bioreactor Landfill Research and Demonstration Project Northern Oaks Landfill, Harrison, MI  

SciTech Connect

A bioreactor landfill cell with 1.2-acre footprint was constructed, filled, operated, and monitored at Northern Oaks Recycling and Disposal Facility (NORDF) at Harrison, MI. With a filled volume of 74,239 cubic yards, the cell contained approximately 35,317 tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) and 20,777 tons of cover soil. It was laid on the slope of an existing cell but separated by a geosynthetic membrane liner. After the cell reached a design height of 60 feet, it was covered with a geosynthetic membrane cap. A three-dimensional monitoring system to collect data at 48 different locations was designed and installed during the construction phase of the bioreactor cell. Each location had a cluster of monitoring devices consisting of a probe to monitor moisture and temperature, a leachate collection basin, and a gas sampling port. An increase in moisture content of the MSW in the bioreactor cell was achieved by pumping leachate collected on-site from various other cells, as well as recirculation of leachate from the bioreactor landfill cell itself. Three types of leachate injection systems were evaluated in this bioreactor cell for their efficacy to distribute pumped leachate uniformly: a leachate injection pipe buried in a 6-ft wide horizontal stone mound, a 15-ft wide geocomposite drainage layer, and a 60-ft wide geocomposite drainage layer. All leachate injection systems were installed on top of the compacted waste surface. The distribution of water and resulting MSW moisture content throughout the bioreactor cell was found to be similar for the three designs. Water coming into and leaving the cell (leachate pumped in, precipitation, snow, evaporation, and collected leachate) was monitored in order to carry out a water balance. Using a leachate injection rate of 26 – 30 gal/yard3, the average moisture content increased from 25% to 35% (wet based) over the period of this study. One of the key aspects of this bioreactor landfill study was to evaluate bioreactor start up and performance in locations with colder climate. For lifts filled during the summer months, methane generation started within three months after completion of the lift. For lifts filled in winter months, very little methane production occurred even eight months after filling. The temperature data indicated that subzero or slightly above zero (oC) temperatures persisted for unusually long periods (more than six months) in the lifts filled during winter months. This was likely due to the high thermal insulation capability of the MSW and the low level of biological activity during start up. This observation indicates that bioreactor landfills located in cold climate and filled during winter months may require mechanisms to increase temperature and initiate biodegradation. Thus, besides moisture, temperature may be the next important factor controlling the biological decomposition in anaerobic bioreactor landfills. Spatial and temporal characterization of leachate samples indicated the presence of low levels of commonly used volatile organic compounds (including acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, and toluene) and metals (including arsenic, chromium, and zinc). Changes and leachate and gaseous sample characteristics correlated with enhanced biological activity and increase in temperature. Continued monitoring of this bioreactor landfill cell is expected to yield critical data needed for start up, design, and operation of this emerging process.

Zhao, Xiando; Voice, Thomas; and Hashsham, Syed A.

2006-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

419

Wheat interactions with Italian ryegrass; forage production and quality in pure and mixed stands of wheat, oats, and ryegrass; and halosulfuron interaction with soils  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

loam, (C) Harney silty clay loam, (D) Houston Black clay, (E) Ships clay, and (F)Victoria silty clay loam.......................................................................................... 34 3 Freundlich adsorption and desorption... of halosulfuron from (A) Acuff Estacado sandy clay, (B) Bernard clay loam, (C) Harney silty clay loam, (D) Houston Black clay, (E) Ships clay, and (F)Victoria silty clay loam...

Carpenter, Alexandra Cathryn

2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

420

Probabilistic aerothermal design of gas turbine combustors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis presents a probability-based framework for assessing the impact of manufacturing variability on combustor liner durability. Simplified models are used to link combustor liner life, liner temperature variability, ...

Bradshaw, Sean D. (Sean Darien), 1978-

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "geosynthetic clay liner" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Polyethylene Terephthalate / clay nanocomposites. Compounding, fabrication and characterisation of the thermal, rheological, barrier and mechanical properties of Polyethylene Terephthalate / clay nanocomposites.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) is one of the most important polymers in use today for packaging due to its outstanding properties. The usage of PET has… (more)

Al-Fouzan, Abdulrahman M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Transnational Multimedia: Fortunato Depero’s Impressions of New York City (1928-1930)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

metonymic complexity that a transatlantic departure entails:control, he details the transatlantic liner in an extremeseries of photos of transatlantic liners into this chapter,

Chiesa, Laura

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

CX-001232: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

32: Categorical Exclusion Determination 32: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-001232: Categorical Exclusion Determination Test Reactor Area-609 Compressed Air System Drain Line Modification and Valve Replacement CX(s) Applied: B2.5 Date: 03/18/2010 Location(s): Idaho Office(s): Idaho Operations Office, Nuclear Energy Due to periods of insufficient water flow to the sewer ponds, the clay liners in the ponds can dry out and crack. This proposed action is to add an additional drain line, which will allow clean well water that has been used to cool compressors to then be drained into the sewer system ponds during low flow periods in order to maintain a higher, more consistent water level. There are no chemicals added to the water. DOCUMENT(S) AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD CX-001232.pdf More Documents & Publications

424

DATE  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

7 7 SECTION A. Project Title: TRA-609 Compressed Air System Drain Line Modification and Valve Replacement SECTION B. Project Description: Due to periods of insufficient water flow to the sewer ponds, the clay liners in the ponds can dry out and crack. This proposed action is to add an additional drain line, which will allow clean well water that has been used to cool compressors to then be drained into the sewer system ponds during low flow periods in order to maintain a higher, more consistent water level. There are no chemicals added to the water. This project will replace the 1.5" compressor oil cooling water solenoid valves with ball valves on M-6, M-7 and M-8; replace the 2" compressor oil and air cooling system flow control valves on M-6, M-8 and M-9; install a new check valve in the compressed air system auxiliary compressor line; install a drain line

425

DATE  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

7 7 SECTION A. Project Title: TRA-609 Compressed Air System Drain Line Modification and Valve Replacement SECTION B. Project Description: Due to periods of insufficient water flow to the sewer ponds, the clay liners in the ponds can dry out and crack. This proposed action is to add an additional drain line, which will allow clean well water that has been used to cool compressors to then be drained into the sewer system ponds during low flow periods in order to maintain a higher, more consistent water level. There are no chemicals added to the water. This project will replace the 1.5" compressor oil cooling water solenoid valves with ball valves on M-6, M-7 and M-8; replace the 2" compressor oil and air cooling system flow control valves on M-6, M-8 and M-9; install a new check valve in the compressed air system auxiliary compressor line; install a drain line

426

The Composition of the Soils of South Texas.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Loam ......................................................................................................................... I 7Frio SiIty Clay Loam... .................................................................................................................... 19Houston Gravelly Clay.................................................................................................. 19Houston Black Clay Loam.......................................................................................... 19Houston...

Fraps, G. S.

1913-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

An analytical and numerical model to determine stresses in a Rock Melt Drill produced glass liner for potential use on Mars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

information on the history of Mars. To access the hydrosphere some device must be used to penetrate the surface to depths of 3-5 kilometers. On Earth these depths are routinely achieved in petroleum and natural gas applications by drilling rigs. By far... the most common type of drilling employed on Earth is rotary drilling. Rotary drilling involves the uses of a rotating drill bit, attached to the surface by a long string of steel pipe, that grinds or cuts the rock, and forms a hole in the formation...

McConnell, Joshua B

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Piezocone profiling of clays for maritime site investigations Paul W. Mayne  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

locations with freestanding water over the seabed. The utilization of piezocone penetration tests (CPTu. The CPTu obtains the measured cone tip resistance (qt), sleeve friction (fs), and induced penetration, the penetrometers are pushed vertically at a constant rate of 20 mm/s. This is normally accomplished using hydraulic

Mayne, Paul W.

429

Jurassic and Cretaceous clays of the northern and central North Sea  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of which is controlled by the availability of detrital mica to act as a nucleus, and the composition meteoric flushing associated with lower Cretaceous uplift and erosion, though it is found in fault blocks' that has been dated by the K-Ar method may therefore actually be I-S. The factors that control

Haszeldine, Stuart

430

Elastic anisotropy of Opalinus Clay under variable saturation and triaxial stress  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......can be due to (i) anisotropic stress fields generated...geological history of the shale layer; (ii) anthropogenic...anisotropy in brine saturated shale. Geophys. J. Int...transmission experiments yield anisotropic group or phase velocities...and stress field on shale anisotropy. Geophys......

Joel Sarout; Lionel Esteban; Claudio Delle Piane; Bruce Maney; David N. Dewhurst

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Investigating the pore-water chemistry effects on the volume change behaviour of Boom clay  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as that for the site water: 5.037 g/L for core Ess83 and 5.578 g/L for core Ess96. Mechanical loading was then carried not induce significant volume change. For Ess83, hydro-mechanical behaviour was found to be slightly-mechanical behaviour of Ess96. This can be attributed to the higher smectite content in Ess83 than in Ess96. Keywords

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

432

GLADY CASSIT Y VANDALIA MURPHY CR EEK BU CKHN-CENT URY CLAY  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

ABBOTT-FREN CH CR EEK AU BURN DAGU E BEASON RU N ELLAMORE RUSSET GAULEY MOUNTAIN JORDAN RUN OVERHI LL HANNIBAL BU FFALO FETT ERMAN ETAM AR MBRUST LOR EN TZ ORM A LINDEN FALL...

433

Processing, Structure and Properties in Layered Films and Clay Aerogel Composites.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Single component polymeric materials processed into simple structures will find difficulty in satisfying the increasing complex demand for multifunction and smart use required today.… (more)

Wang, Yuxin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Synthesis of CFB-Coal Fly Ash Clay Bricks and Their Characterisation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The aim of this work was to test CFB-derived fly ash for its potential to ... . Results showed that large-scale production of CFB FA-containing bricks is feasible, as their...

Nikolaos Koukouzas; Chrisovalantis Ketikidis…

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Investigation on the bond behavior of clay bricks reinforced with SRP and SRG strengthening systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The present paper deals with an investigation of the mechanical response of steel reinforced polymers (SRP) and steel reinforced grout (SRG) as strengthening systems for existing constructions. SRP together with ...

Ernesto Grande; Maura Imbimbo; Elio Sacco

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Upper Bound Analysis of Bearing and Overturning Capacities of Shallow Foundations in Soft Clay  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Miller, 1977-1) and numerical analyses (such as FEM). API RP 2GEO: LINEARLY INCREASING UNDRAINED SHEAR STRENGTH PROFILES API RP 2GEO (American Petroleum Institute, 2011) outlines geotechnical design considerations for offshore structures. Specific... of an eccentrically loaded mudmat foundation, though considerations should be made when significant torsion or overturning moments in multiple directions are expected. iii NOMENCLATURE Area of foundation Effective area of foundation Width...

Hartsfield, Randal James

2013-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

437

Clay mineralogy and its effect on physical properties in the Gulf of Mexico northwestern continental slope  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

plastic limit, only occur below 10-15 m of sediments. Another observation that emerges from the plots of fig. 6 is that Atterberg limits and liquid limit in particular, change considerably between sedi- ments of different units. For instance, Unit C... plastic limit, only occur below 10-15 m of sediments. Another observation that emerges from the plots of fig. 6 is that Atterberg limits and liquid limit in particular, change considerably between sedi- ments of different units. For instance, Unit C...

Berti, Debora

2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

438

E-Print Network 3.0 - applied clay mineralogy Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3. Thin... from Utah, United States) were used to evaluate the effect of mineralogy on permeability. The choice... of three different types of sandstones that differ in grain...

439

Retention of anhydrous ammonia as influenced by clay mineral types, cations, temperature and moisture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to various temperature levels . . . . . ~ 20 5a 6. 70 Ammoni. a retained sxuressed as psr cent of cation-exchange capacity for olays treated with anhydrous ammonia prior to heating to various temperature levels . ~. . . . . . ~ ~ . 21 Ammonia retained... encountered in the use of anhydrous ammoni. . . REVIEW OF LITER4TURE Some of the early work with anhydx ous ammonia was done by anderson, et al. (2), and Enderson and Eattson (3). St that t1ms anhydrous ammonia as sn inorganic source of nitrogen fertiliaer...

McBee, George G

1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Coupled thermohydromechanical analysis of a heater test in unsaturated clay and fractured rock at Kamaishi Mine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

injection and hydraulic fracturing stress measurements inlevel measured with hydraulic fracturing (reproduced from

Rutqvist, J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "geosynthetic clay liner" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Clay minerals of recent marine sediments to the west of the Mississippi Delta  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. They envisioned the formation of a primitive brucite layer as the platelets of montmorillonite fixed 11 magnesium on the surface of the sheets and as the magnesium combined with hydroxyl ions to form brucite. Illite formed in a similar manner by adsorption...

McAllister, Raymond Francis

2013-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

442

Novel Anionic Clay Adsorbents for Boiler-Blow-Down Waters Reclaim and Reuse  

SciTech Connect

Arsenic (As) and Selenium (Se) are found in water in the form of oxyanions. Relatively high concentrations of As and Se have been reported both in power plant discharges, as well as, in fresh water supplies. The International Agency for Research on Cancer currently classifies As as a group 1 chemical, that is considered to be carcinogenic to humans. In Phase I of this project we studied the adsorption of As and Se by uncalcined and calcined layered double hydroxide (LDH). The focus of the present work is a systematic study of the adsorption of As and Se by conditioned LDH adsorbents. Conditioning the adsorbent significantly reduced the Mg and Al dissolution observed with uncalcined and calcined LDH. The adsorption rates and isotherms have been investigated in batch experiments using particles of four different particle size ranges. As(V) adsorption is shown to follow a Sips-type adsorption isotherm. The As(V) adsorption rate on conditioned LDH increases with decreasing adsorbent particle size; the adsorption capacity, on the other hand, is independent of the particle size. A homogeneous surface diffusion model (HSDM) and a bi-disperse pore model (BPM) - the latter viewing the LDH particles as assemblages of microparticles and taking into account bulk diffusion in the intraparticle pore space, and surface diffusion within the microparticles themselves - were used to fit the experimental kinetic data. The HSDM estimated diffusivity values dependent on the particle size, whereas the BPM predicted an intracrystalline diffusivity, which is fairly invariant with particle size. The removal of As(V) on conditioned LDH adsorbents was also investigated in flow columns, where the impact of important solution and operational parameters such as influent As concentration, pH, sorbent particle size and flow rate were studied. An early breakthrough and saturation was observed at higher flow rates and at higher influent concentrations, whereas a decrease in the sorbent particle size and a decrease in influent pH resulted in an increase in the bed volumes treated at breakthrough. Both the HSDM and BPM were shown capable of predicting the column behavior.

Muhammad Sahimi; Theodore Tsotsis

2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

443

A prediction of meander migration based on large-scale flume tests in clay  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Scour Depth, d, and Different Lengths of the Project Life, L t (Briaud et al. 2003) ......... 47 3.31 Time-Sequence Maps and Extrapolations (Lagasse et al. 2004b).............. 48 3.32 Predicted Position and Radius of Curvature... of the Circle that Defines the Outer Bank of the Hypothetical Channel in Year 4 (Lagasse et al. 2004b)................................................................................. 48 3.33 Cumulative Percentage of Extension Migration (Lagasse et...

Park, Namgyu

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

444

Safety and efficacy of NovaSil clay as a dietary supplement to prevent aflatoxicosis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

suggested that NSP binds AFB1 with high capacity, affinity, and specificity in aqueous solution and further indicated that NSP does not appear to interact with VA. Subsequent short-term studies in Sprague-Dawley (S-D) rats and broiler chicks indicated...

Afriyie-Gyawu, Evans

2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

445

Clay minerals for nanocomposites and biotechnology: surface modification, dynamics and responses to stimuli  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...cosmetics, and medicine. This article reviews...more recently, in nanotechnology and biotechnology...are widely used in nanotechnology and biotechnology...2008) Polymer nanotechnology: Nanocomposites...cosmetics, and medicine. This article reviews...

H. Heinz

446

HYBRID FILMS CONSISTING OF A CLAY AND A DIACETYLENIC, TWO-PHOTON ABSORPTIVE DYE  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Two-photon photodynamic therapy. Journal of Clinical Laser Medicine and Surgery , 15 , 201-204. Bujdak, J. and Iyi, N...Langmuir-Blod gett films. Journal of Nano science and Nanotechnology , 6 , 1620-1624. Kawamata, J., Seike, R., Higashi...

Yasutaka Suzuki; Shoichiro Hirakawa; Yusuke Sakamoto; Jun Kawamata; Kenji Kamada; Koji Ohta

447

Preferential nanoreinforcement of thermoplastic polyurethane elastomers with dispersed nano-clay  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is difficult for scientists to engineer elastomeric materials that are both strong and tough like spider dragline silk. Inspired by the morphology of spider dragline silk and motivated to develop strong, tough, elastomeric ...

Liff, Shawna M. (Shawna Marie)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Polymer/Clay Nanocomposites as Barrier Materials Used for VOC Removal.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The objective of this study was to determine if the method of incorporation of a silicate layered nanoclay into a polymer matrix can affect the… (more)

Herrera-Alonso, Jose M

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Report on Modeling Coupled Processes in the Near Field of a Clay Repository  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

J.W. (2001) Hydraulic Fracturing during the Formation andconditions can cause hydraulic fracturing if Report oncases evidence of hydraulic fracturing has been preserved by

Liu, H.-H.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Laboratory development of reconsolidation cycle for settlement analysis of precompressed clays  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

IN ORDER TO REPRODUCE THE VO' D RAT I '0 PRESSURE RELW r ONSH P v HAT E)i S1 S, N NATURE I S NECESSAR'i' TO ESTAB L' SH vHE MAX Ml&M RECONSOL i DAT "' ON PRESSURE WHICH OCCURED N NATURE BV I'BEANS OF THE STANDARD (I7) CONSOL'DATION TEST ANO FASAGRANDE... IN ORDER TO REPRODUCE THE VO' D RAT I '0 PRESSURE RELW r ONSH P v HAT E)i S1 S, N NATURE I S NECESSAR'i' TO ESTAB L' SH vHE MAX Ml&M RECONSOL i DAT "' ON PRESSURE WHICH OCCURED N NATURE BV I'BEANS OF THE STANDARD (I7) CONSOL'DATION TEST ANO FASAGRANDE...

Buchanan, Philip Norton

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

451

Geology and kinematics of a clay-rich landslide with an undulatory slip surface  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

channel slopes decrease from 20' to 7' across a sharp hinge. The slide mass in the neck region maintains a near steady-state profile throughout the 9-year period, despite episodic cumulative displacements of 12 meters. Surface profiles reflect both... con- trolled by the basal slip-surface morphology. The slide exhibits primarily plug-flow displacements except where influenced by channel protrusions. Internal deformation is mostly pervasive, except for a thin (30-50 cm) rooted veneers which...

Lantz, James Robert

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

452

Anion Sequestering by the Formation of Anionic Clays:? Lime Treatment of Fly Ash Slurries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Given a source of calcium from the dissolution of hydrated lime; magnesium and carbonate from dolomite dissolution; and alumina from lime-induced leach ing of fly ash particlesboth minerals are probable products of the dolomite/lime-added runs. ... Clearly, precipitation of secondary aluminosilica mineral phases is the highlight of the reaction of lime with fly ash. ... Two important ones are pyroaurite, Mg6Fe2CO3(OH)16·4H2O, formed in kimberlites and as an alteration product of mafic rocks (15) and green rust, Fe6Fe2(SO4,CO3)(OH)16·4H2O), formed in soil weathering, in iron corrosion, and in the alteration of sulfidic mine tailings (16, 17). ...

E. J. Reardon; S. Della Valle

1997-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

453

Remobilization of toxic heavy metals adsorbed to bacterial wall-clay composites.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...also is apparent that plans to utilize fine-grain...high-level radioactive- waste facilities to immobilize...organo-particu- lates during waste migration for a proper nuclear fuel waste management program...ecologic processes: a review and potential application...

C A Flemming; F G Ferris; T J Beveridge; G W Bailey

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Modification of the Porosity of Pillared Clays by Carbon Deposition II. Hydrocarbon Cracking  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The carbon deposition results in a decrease in pore volume due to pore-filling (Ti-PILC) and pore-blocking (Al-PILC) without achieving a controlled pore-narrowing but...

N. Maes; E.F. Vansant

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Application of the Electrochemical Impedance Technique to Study of Pillared Clays  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

If we consider, for instance, that only the Al13 precursor species, [Al13O4(OH)24(H2O)12]7+, are present in the interlayer region of the silicate before the calcination step, it is assumed that alumina pillars are formed according to eq 1: This equation assumes a model based on the simplistic case of a unique oxyhydroxy-Al species, although it is generally admitted that this polycation predominates over other forms of hydroxylated and hydrated Al3+ cations that are also present in the Al-PILC precursors (Al-pre-PILCs). ... Finally, the Al-pre-PILC material was recovered by filtration and air-dried at 50 °C. ... The specific surface area and porosity analyses (Coulter, Omnisorp 100 model) and solid-state NMR spectroscopy (Bruker MSL-400) were also used to characterize pre-PILC and PILC materials. ...

J. C. Galván; A. Jiménez-Morales; R. Jiménez; J. Merino; A. Villanueva; M. Crespin; P. Aranda; E. Ruiz-Hitzky

1998-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

456

New CoO?SiO2-Sol Pillared Clays as Catalysts for NOx Conversion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For this purpose, codoped SiO2 sol PILC (CoSi?PILC) is prepared via an organic template route and the interlayer pillar structure is systematically investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and nitrogen adsorption isotherm measurement, along with a preliminary test on the de-NOx catalytic activity. ... The steady-state selective catalytic reduction of NO with CO over CoSi?PILC catalyst was carried out in an isothermal fixed-bed continuous flow quartz reactor (o.d. ... The elemental composition of CoSi?PILC was analyzed to estimate the pillar content of SiO2 and CoO. ...

Jin-Ho Choy; Hyun Jung; Yang-Su Han; Joo-Byoung Yoon; Yong-Gun Shul; Hyun-Jong Kim

2002-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

457

Studies on Selective Adsorption of Biogas Components on Pillared Clays: Approach for Biogas Improvement  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The adsorption isotherms for pure component gases were determined for each PILC, up to 103 kPa. ... Among the four PILCs, a ZrO2 PILC was found to be the most suitable material, in terms of separation possibility. ... Pure gas isotherms, viz., those for carbon dioxide, ethane (Air Liquide, 99.995%), methane (Matheson, 99.995%), and nitrogen (99.99%), were measured on each PILC. ...

João Pires; Vipin K. Saini; Moisés L. Pinto

2008-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

458

Natural iodine in a clay formation: Implications for iodine fate in geological disposals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a significant contribution to potential overall long-term dose resulting from the waste storage (Altmann, 2008 Laboratory of Environmental Geology, Research Group of Geoenvironmental/Engineering Division of Solid Waste problematic radioisotopes in the context of nuclear waste geological disposal due to its high mobility

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

459

ORIGINAL PAPER On the origin of mixed-layered clay minerals from the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

coring at three key locations along the San Andreas Fault Observatory at depth (SAFOD) drill hole flattening fabrics defined largely by kinked and fractured mica grains. Adopting available kinetic models for the crystallization of I­S in burial sedimentary envi- ronments and the current borehole depths and thermal structure

460

A study of electro-osmosis as a means of volumetric control of clays  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

oonduetor of sleet rieity. Pure water is also a very poor eon4uotor, However, most soil water contains 41ssolved salts whish ionise and sorry oonsidsrable ourrent ~ When soil an4 water are mixed, a solution results whioh has vary good oonduotivityi so... oonduetor of sleet rieity. Pure water is also a very poor eon4uotor, However, most soil water contains 41ssolved salts whish ionise and sorry oonsidsrable ourrent ~ When soil an4 water are mixed, a solution results whioh has vary good oonduotivityi so...

Hudson, William Ronald

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "geosynthetic clay liner" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Mesoscale properties of clay aggregates from potential of mean force representation of interactions between nanoplatelets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Face-to-face and edge-to-edge free energy interactions of Wyoming Na-montmorillonite platelets were studied by calculating potential of mean force along their center to center reaction coordinate using explicit solvent ...

Ebrahimi, Davoud

462

On the dynamics of subaqueous clay rich gravity mass flows--the giant Storegga slide, Norway  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ulleva°l Stadion, 0806 Oslo, Norway c Norsk Hydro ASA, 0246 Oslo, Norway Received 10 November 2003 the path, extremely small yield strength must be attributed to the material. This finding is incompatible., 2004b). There are several reasons for this. Small events are easier to survey completely

463

Alternate stabilizers: solution towards reducing sulfate swell in expansive clay subgrades in Dallas district  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Research in this area, points to the reaction between alumna and Ca~ ions, in the presence of sulfates released by sulfate minerals and water, which leads to the formation of ettringite. The presence of excessive sulfates slows down the formation of CSH... due to a drop in pH and promotes the formation of ettringite (1). Ettirngite is stable in both wet and dry conditions and can expand to a volume equal to 227?o of the total volume of reactant solids (2). Ettringite can be transformed into thaumasite...

Rajendran, Deepa

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

464

Volcanogenic clays in Jurassic and Cretaceous strata of England and the North Sea Basin  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...subsequent precipitation. This precipitation could have taken place in the...coincidence that the most active phase of North Sea volcanism was...Sandra Last and Pat cassidy for typing illegible manuscripts, and...Chamosite ooliths from the Winter Gill Ironstone (Jurassic...

C. V. JEANS; D. S. WRAY; R. J. MERRIMAN; M. J. FISHER

465

Assessment of radiological hazards of clay bricks fabricated in the Punjab province of Pakistan  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......saddar, Shujabad, Jalalpur Pirwala 3.117 Pakpatan Pakpatan, Arifwala 1.287 Sahiwal Sahiwal, Chichawatni 1.843 Vihari Vehari, Burewala, Mailsi 2.090 Rawalpindi Attack Attock, Hassanabdal, Fateh Jang, Pindi Gheb, Jand, Hazro 1.275 Chakwal......

M. Asghar; M. Tufail; K. Khan; A. Mahmood

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Kathryn Clay, Ph.D. Vice President of Policy Strategy American...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

so, are an integral part of the communities they serve. Every operational, maintenance, repair, integrity and safety testing, replacement, and expansion project activity, big or...

467

The effect of fault relayand clay smearing on groundwater flow patterns in the Lower Rhine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the unconsolidated sediments of the Lower Rhine Embayment. Hydraulic head maps show that many individual faults form unconsolidated sediments at shal- low depth is likely to be di¡erent from that of faults at depths where rocks

Bense, Victor

468

CLAY POULTICES IN SALT EXTRACTION FROM ORNAMENTAL STONES: A STATISTICAL APPROACH  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...solubil. M. Nimmo-ICR, Roma 13/83, Italy. Simon, S., Herm, C., Porst, A. and Pursche, J. (1996) Desa-lination and control of salt transport phenomena experienc-es with compress renderings in the ring crypt of St. Em-meram...

Maria Angeles Vicente; Santiago Vicente-Tavera

469

Preliminary Study of Strong-Sludge Gas Retention and Release Mechanisms in Clay Simulants  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site has 28 double-shell tanks (DSTs) and 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) containing radioactive wastes that are complex mixes of radioactive and chemical products. The mission of the Department of Energy’s River Protection Project is to retrieve and treat the Hanford tank waste for disposal and close the tank farms. A key aspect of the mission is to retrieve and transfer waste from the SSTs, which are at greater risk for leaking, into DSTs for interim storage until the waste is transferred to and treated in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. There is, however, limited space in the existing DSTs to accept waste transfers from the SSTs, and approaches to overcoming the limited DST space will benefit the overall mission. The purpose of this study is to summarize and analyze the key previous experiment that forms the basis for the relaxed controls and to summarize initial progress and results on new experiments focused on understanding the conditions that result in low gas retention. The work is ongoing; this report provides a summary of the initial findings. The previous large-scale test used about 50 m3 of sediment, which would be unwieldy for doing multiple parametric experiments. Accordingly, experiments will begin with smaller-scale tests to determine whether the desired mechanisms can be studied without the difficulty of conducting very large experiments.

Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Buchmiller, William C.; Probert, Samuel G.; Owen, Antionette T.

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

470

Muffle furnace evaluation of FGD sludge-coal-clay mixtures as potential synthetic aggregates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

reserve locations as they are utilized for housing and industrial requirements of land (8) . Space that was once available for aggregate mining, handling and storage is becoming more and more limited. Lastly and perhaps more important, synthetic...), High-lime fl, y ashes (those resulting from the combustion of lignite or other subbi tuminous coals) may contain up to 30 percent calcium oxide. Total alkalies (sodium and potassium oxides) approach 5 percent. Particles may range in size from 2 x 10...

Pettit, Jesse William

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

471

CONFORMATIONAL EFFECTS OF ADSORBED POLYMER ON THE SWELLING BEHAVIOR OF ENGINEERED CLAY MINERALS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...on many factors such as mineral composition, grain size, aggregate size...exchange capacity, and chemical composition and concentration of the bulk...release of potassium nitrate as agrochemical. Carbohydrate Polymers , 53...

Sungho Kim; Michael A. Motyka; Angelica M. Palomino; Nikolas J. Podraza

472

Monitoring the Excavation Damaged Zone in Opalinus clay by three dimensional reconstruction of the electrical resistivity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the electrical resistivity in the Mont Terri gallery G-04 Authors: Lesparre N., Adler A., Nicollin F., Gibert D ; Thovert et al., 2011). Here the three dimensional reconstruction of the electrical resistivity aims on the physico-chemical properties of the rock. The study of electrical properties furnishes information

Adler, Andy

473

CLAY?NANOCOMPOSITES POLYURETHANE ADHESIVES : ANALYSIS OF THE RIGID AMORPHOUS FRACTION  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this work nanocomposite adhesives for flexible packaging obtained using an organically modified montmorillonite (OMM) in a polyurethane matrix were synthesized and characterized. The microstructure of the composites was investigated by X?ray diffraction. The glass transition temperature of PU nanocomposites measured using differential scanning calorimeter increases with increasing volume fraction of OMM. On the other hand the specifc heat increment ? C P normalized to the weight of the organic fraction decreases as nanoclay was added. Therefore a corresponding increase of the rigid amorphous fraction of PU nanocomposites with nanoclay was observed.

C. Esposito Corcione; A. Greco; A. Maffezzoli

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

The bearing capacity of a strip footing on clay under combined loading  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...for cases where the lower- bound theorem does not strictly apply. These solutions will...applied to solutions with m0 = 0, but this does not have to be the case. In the geotechnical...foundations. In Foundation engineering handbook (ed. H. F. Winterkorn & H. Y. Fang...

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Investigating the time-dependent behaviour of Boom clay under thermo-mechanical loading  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

disposal of radioactive waste in Belgium. The underground research facility HADES has been constructed as a host formation. Among the various laboratory studies performed on samples extracted from the HADES (HLLW). An underground facility called HADES (High-Activity Disposal Experimental Site) excavated at 223

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

476

Evaluation of Canal Lining Projects in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas: 2011 Ratings and Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

changes using a lining evaluation form which we developed. For analysis purposes, we grouped all the projects into two general categories: liners with a protective barrier, and liners without a protective barrier. The projects with a protective... barrier performed very well. The synthetic liner significantly reduces seepage, while the shotcrete layer protects the liner from damage. This lining system needs little to no maintenance. There were two types of liners used: PVC and polyester. Each...

Bonaiti, Gabriele; Karimov, Askar; Fipps, Guy

477

UV degradation of hdpe and pvc geomembranes in laboratory exposure So Paulo State University (UNESP) -Ilha Solteira (Brazil)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

University (UNESP) - Ilha Solteira (Brazil) Bueno, B.S. University of State of São Paulo (USP) at São Carlos (Brazil) Zornberg, J.G. University of Texas (UT) at Austin (USA) Keywords: UV degradation, weathering International Conference on Geosynthetics, Brazil, 2010 821 3 #12;were used like a guide: ASTM D638 (Standard

Zornberg, Jorge G.

478

Study of the catalytic activity of Al-Fe pillared clays in the Baeyer-Villiger oxidation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...homogeneous phase by dissolution of iron out of the solid. Fig. 6...reaction medium. The amount of iron present in the solution at...insolubility. By contrast, Fe acetylacetonate shows better solubility in...observed that 5.8 mg of Fe acetylacetonate (2.8 10-5 mol) were...

L. S. Belaroui; A. Bengueddach

479

Authigenic clay minerals in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group: Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon Formations, Waha Field, West Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

feldspars dominate over the plagioclases. Calcite is the dominant cementing mineral, though sulfate and halite cements have been observed. Hays (1992) showed that a diverse suite of authigenic minerals occurs in these sandstones, including silicate...

Walling, Suzette Denise

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

480

An investigation of some of the effects of anhydrous ammonia on the clay minerals montmorillonite and illite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with various dominant ions on the exchange complex. 2. The effect of heat in an atmosphere of steam on the (001) spacing of montmorillonite saturated with various ions and treated with anhydrous ammonia. 3. The effect of drying at 110?C. for 24. hours... on the (001) spacing of montmorillonite saturated with various dominant ions and treated with anhydrous ammonia? 4.. The effect of relative humidity and anhydrous ammonia on the (001) spacing of illite with various dominant ions on the exchange complex...

Whiteley, Eli Lamar

2013-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "geosynthetic clay liner" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Effect of composite microstructure on electrical and mechanical properties of poly(vinyl acetate) composites with carbon black and clay.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The electrical and mechanical behavior of carbon black filled poly(vinyl acetate) latex-based and solution-based polymer composites was examined. A set of experiments were performed to distinguish composites with a segregated network (emulsion...

Miriyala, Sethu M.

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

482

Preparation of TEM samples by focused ion beam (FIB) techniques: applications to the study of clays and phyllosilicates in meteorites  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...focused ion beam (FIB) instrument (Overwijk et al., 1993; Giannuzzi et al...and illustrated previously (e.g. Overwijk et al., 1993; Giannuzzi et al...Planetary Science Letters , 93 , 299-313. Overwijk, M.H.F., van den Heuvel, F...

M. R. Lee; P. A. Bland; G. Graham

483

Performance evaluation of polymer/clay nanocomposite thermal protection systems based on polyethylene glycol phase change material  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Phase change materials (PCMs) are substances with a high ... can be utilized in designing the heat protective materials as well as in the thermal energy...

Ahmad Reza Bahramian; Leila Sadat Ahmadi; Mehrdad Kokabi

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Electrical Properties of SandClay Mixtures Containing Trichloroethylene and Ethanol Jeffery J. Roberts and Dorthe Wildenschild*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and soils and that it is feasible to remotely detect the presence and follow the transport of contaminants and pore fluid. Electrical conduction is also a function of the prevailing fluid saturation. For brine

Wildenschild, Dorthe

485

The effect of cropping systems on the organic matter content and on certain physical properties of Miller clay  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

J~~s F. %$1). s A'0'6~ ~l86 SS tie 8 8'glB Gal QQKuG'"P' t &~J 5 f jl '2 ~+mw artcc. ". t cZ P~mc~ if' t~ Xllhs Suhaitted to the Graduate Sc-'sDG1 oi the Agricultural cud 'bkehauieal College of Texas in partial fulfil~seat oi" the rendu... and Methods Rqerhaentai Results . ~ f t 7 12 D::?;oussion of Results ~ snd Gonolusions . Literature Cited . ~ 32 37 39 Xs? s s ~ ~ ~ s s ~ e ~ ~ ~ e ~ ~ ~ e + e e ~ 11 Selabo XX. Aterage yereenta8s of air spsoe porosity i. n fie14 sexes unAer six...

Mills, Jim Frank

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

486

Clay mineralogy of surface sediments as a tool for deciphering river contributions to the Cariaco Basin (Venezuela)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Basin (Venezuela) V. Bout-Roumazeilles,1 A. Riboulleau,1 E. Armynot du Châtelet,1 L. Lorenzoni,3 N for deciphering river contributions to the Cariaco Basin (Venezuela), J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 118, doi:10

Meyers, Steven D.

487

DIVISION S-2--SOIL CHEMISTRY Dissolution Kinetics of Nickel Surface Precipitates on Clay Mineral and Oxide Surfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

sorption under ambient environmental conditions. in brucite-like octahedral sheets with anions in the inter, brucite-like metal hydroxide precipi-percentage of total Ni sorption, decreased from 96 to 30% and 23 at pH 4 and 6. Nickel de-brucite-like hydroxide layers, (ii) Si-for-NO3 exchange in the interlay

Sparks, Donald L.

488

Efficiency of clay-TiO2 nanocomposites on the photocatalytic elimination of a model hydrophobic air pollutant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Environment Department, Environmental Energy Technologies Division Arizona State University, Department of Civil, Environmental and SustainableEnvironment Department, Environmental Energy Technologies Division Arizona State University, Department of Civil, Environmental and Sustainable

Kibanova, Daria

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Processing Research snd Development of ‘Green’ Polymer Nanoclay Composites Containing a Polyhydroxybutyrate, Vinyl Acetates, and Modified Montmorillonite Clay.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The purpose of this research was to determine the feasibility of direct melt-blending (intercalation) montmorillonite nanoclay to polyhydroxybutyrate along with vinyl acetate, at different weight… (more)

McKirahan, James N. Jr.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Gluten Biopolymer and Nanoclay-Derived Structures in Wheat Gluten–Urea–Clay Composites: Relation to Barrier and Mechanical Properties  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The aim of this work was to study the structure of the WG–urea–nanoclay composites using two types of nanoclays, natural MMT and modified C15A. ... Present review article explain about different categories of nanoclay and natural fiber based composite with particular regard to its applications as packaging materials and also gives an overview of the most recent advances and emerging new aspects of nanotechnol. ...

Ramune Kuktaite; Hasan Türe; Mikael S. Hedenqvist; Mikael Gällstedt; Tomás S. Plivelic

2014-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

491

Report on THMC Modeling of the Near Field Evolution of a Generic Clay Repository: Model Validation and Demonstration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

J.W. (2001). Hydraulic Fracturing during the Formation andreactivation and hydraulic fracturing. Geologic evidenceepisodes of natural hydraulic fracturing over its 250

Liu, H. H.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

MODELING OF THE THERMOHYDRODYNAMIC AND REACTIVE BEHAVIOR OF COMPACTED CLAY FOR HIGH-LEVEL RADIONUCLIDE WASTE-MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...proposed as an engineered-buffer material in high-level radionuclide...regarding the stability of benonite backfill in a high-level (HLW) repository...pp. Lide, D.R. (1997) Handbook of Chemistry and Physics...proposed as an engineered-buffer material in high-level radionuclide...

Ricardo Juncosa; Vicente Navarro; Jordi Delgado; Ana Vázquez

493

Report on THMC Modeling of the Near Field Evolution of a Generic Clay Repository: Model Validation and Demonstration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

map showing the underground facilities of the laboratory.carried out in an underground facility, located adjacent tomap showing the underground facilities of the laboratory.

Liu, H. H.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

Shape selective cracking ofn-octane and 2,2,4-trimethylpentane over an alumina-pillared clay  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A mixture ofn-octane (nC8...) and 2, 2, 4-trimethylpentane (224-TMP) was cracked over an alumina-pillared montmorillonite (Al-PILC) acid catalyst as a means of characterising...8...remaining)/log (fraction of 224...

Christian Doblin; Joseph F. Mathews; Terence W. Turney

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

Heats of adsorption from the Dubinin-Astakhov model applied to the characterization of pillared interlayered clays (PILCs)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Heats of adsorption of organic molecules are a useful tool for the characterization of porosity and surface chemistry of microporous materials. This work describes the possibility of using heats of adsorption ...

João Pires; Moisés L. Pinto; José M. Guil

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

An Experimental Study on the Secondary Deformation of Boom Clay1 Y.F. Deng1, 2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, has been selected as a possible host material of29 nuclear waste disposal. In this context, the long-term storage system. In this31 study, low and high pressure oedometer tests are carried out; the e-log 'v (void selected as a possible host material of nuclear waste disposal in Belgium. In this context, its48 volume

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

497

A review of "Bernini: Sculpting in Clay" by C.D. Dickerson III, Anthony Sigel, and Ian Wardropper  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

but also from London's Victoria and Albert Museum and the renowned Hermitage Museum in Saint Petersburg. Out of such strong seedpearl grew this remarkable exhibition, #15;fty-two objects in all (only three did not travel), each one documented with color...

Silver, Larry

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

A Major Meteorite Impact on the Earth 65 Million Years Ago: Evidence from the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary Clay  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...and are normally depleted on the terrestrial...ISOTOPIC COMPOSITION OF URANIUM IN CHONDRITIC METEORITES...GRAZING ANIMALS, HEALTH PHYSICS 30 : 345...and are normally depleted on the terrestrial...since Pd is not depleted to the same extent...elements such as uranium in certain meteorites...

R. GANAPATHY

1980-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

499

Scaling behaviour of clay-rich submarine debris flows D. Isslera,b,*, F.V. De Blasioa,b  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

3930 Ulleva°l Stadion, N-0806 Oslo, Norway c Norsk Hydro ASA, N-0246 Oslo, Norway Received 27 February described as a power-law function of the volume. For small to moderate volumes, visco-plastic models mixing of the shear layer with ambient water or hydro-planing must be invoked in order to explain

500

CO2 Sorption to Subsingle Hydration Layer Montmorillonite Clay Studied by Excess Sorption and Neutron Diffraction Measurements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Neutron diffraction data and excess sorption isotherms were measured at 35 and 50 °C and pressure ranges of 0–200 bar, mimicking conditions of temperature and pressure in some of the currently active carbon storage sites (Kevin dome, Sleipner, Ketzin, Otway, Teapot dome). ...

Gernot Rother; Eugene S. Ilton; Dirk Wallacher; Thomas Hau?; Herbert T. Schaef; Odeta Qafoku; Kevin M. Rosso; Andrew R. Felmy; Elizabeth G. Krukowski; Andrew G. Stack; Nico Grimm; Robert J. Bodnar

2012-08-23T23:59:59.000Z