National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for geologic storage formations

  1. DOE Manual Studies 11 Major CO2 Geologic Storage Formations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A comprehensive study of 11 geologic formations suitable for permanent underground carbon dioxide (CO2) storage is contained in a new manual issued by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  2. DOE Seeks Applications for Tracking Carbon Dioxide Storage in Geologic Formations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy today issued a Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) to enhance the capability to simulate, track, and evaluate the potential risks of carbon dioxide storage in geologic formations.

  3. Source/Sink Matching for U.S. Ethanol Plants and Candidate Deep Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage Formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahowski, Robert T.; Dooley, James J.

    2008-09-18

    This report presents data on the 140 existing and 74 planned ethanol production facilities and their proximity to candidate deep geologic storage formations. Half of the existing ethanol plants and 64% of the planned units sit directly atop a candidate geologic storage reservoir. While 70% of the existing and 97% of the planned units are within 100 miles of at least one candidate deep geologic storage reservoir. As a percent of the total CO2 emissions from these facilities, 92% of the exiting units CO2 and 97% of the planned units CO2 emissions are accounted for by facilities that are within 100 miles of at least one potential CO2 storage reservoir.

  4. DOE Research Projects to Examine Promising Geologic Formations for CO2 Storage

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy today announced 11 projects valued at $75.5 million aimed at increasing scientific understanding about the potential of promising geologic formations to safely and permanently store carbon dioxide (CO2).

  5. DOE Targets Rural Indiana Geologic Formation for CO2 Storage Field Test

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A U.S. Department of Energy team of regional partners has begun injecting 8,000 tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) to evaluate the carbon storage potential and test the enhanced oil recovery (EOR) potential of the Mississippian-aged Clore Formation in Posey County, Ind.

  6. Site characterization of the highest-priority geologic formations for CO2 storage in Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Surdam, Ronald C.; Bentley, Ramsey; Campbell-Stone, Erin; Dahl, Shanna; Deiss, Allory; Ganshin, Yuri; Jiao, Zunsheng; Kaszuba, John; Mallick, Subhashis; McLaughlin, Fred; Myers, James; Quillinan, Scott

    2013-12-07

    This study, funded by U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory award DE-FE0002142 along with the state of Wyoming, uses outcrop and core observations, a diverse electric log suite, a VSP survey, in-bore testing (DST, injection tests, and fluid sampling), a variety of rock/fluid analyses, and a wide range of seismic attributes derived from a 3-D seismic survey to thoroughly characterize the highest-potential storage reservoirs and confining layers at the premier CO2 geological storage site in Wyoming. An accurate site characterization was essential to assessing the following critical aspects of the storage site: (1) more accurately estimate the CO2 reservoir storage capacity (Madison Limestone and Weber Sandstone at the Rock Springs Uplift (RSU)), (2) evaluate the distribution, long-term integrity, and permanence of the confining layers, (3) manage CO2 injection pressures by removing formation fluids (brine production/treatment), and (4) evaluate potential utilization of the stored CO2

  7. Leveraging Regional Exploration to Develop Geologic Framework for CO2 Storage in Deep Formations in Midwestern United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neeraj Gupta

    2009-09-30

    Obtaining subsurface data for developing a regional framework for geologic storage of CO{sub 2} can require drilling and characterization in a large number of deep wells, especially in areas with limited pre-existing data. One approach for achieving this objective, without the prohibitive costs of drilling costly standalone test wells, is to collaborate with the oil and gas drilling efforts in a piggyback approach that can provide substantial cost savings and help fill data gaps in areas that may not otherwise get characterized. This leveraging with oil/gas drilling also mitigates some of the risk involved in standalone wells. This collaborative approach has been used for characterizing in a number of locations in the midwestern USA between 2005 and 2009 with funding from U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE award: DE-FC26-05NT42434) and in-kind contributions from a number of oil and gas operators. The results are presented in this final technical report. In addition to data collected under current award, selected data from related projects such as the Midwestern Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (MRCSP), the Ohio River Valley CO{sub 2} storage project at and near the Mountaineer Plant, and the drilling of the Ohio Stratigraphic well in Eastern Ohio are discussed and used in the report. Data from this effort are also being incorporated into the MRCSP geologic mapping. The project activities were organized into tracking and evaluation of characterization opportunities; participation in the incremental drilling, basic and advanced logging in selected wells; and data analysis and reporting. Although a large number of opportunities were identified and evaluated, only a small subset was carried into the field stage. Typical selection factors included reaching an acceptable agreement with the operator, drilling and logging risks, and extent of pre-existing data near the candidate wells. The region of study is primarily along the Ohio River Valley corridor in the Appalachian Basin, which underlies large concentrations of CO{sub 2} emission sources. In addition, some wells in the Michigan basin are included. Assessment of the geologic and petrophysical properties of zones of interest has been conducted. Although a large number of formations have been evaluated across the geologic column, the primary focus has been on evaluating the Cambrian sandstones (Mt. Simon, Rose Run, Kerbel) and carbonates layers (Knox Dolomite) as well as on the Silurian-Devonian carbonates (Bass Island, Salina) and sandstones (Clinton, Oriskany, Berea). Factors controlling the development of porosity and permeability, such as the depositional setting have been explored. In northern Michigan the Bass Islands Dolomite appears to have favorable reservoir development. In west central Michigan the St. Peter sandstone exhibits excellent porosity in the Hart and Feuring well and looks promising. In Southeastern Kentucky in the Appalachian Basin, the Batten and Baird well provided valuable data on sequestration potential in organic shales through adsorption. In central and eastern Ohio and western West Virginia, the majority of the wells provided an insight to the complex geologic framework of the relatively little known Precambrian through Silurian potential injection targets. Although valuable data was acquired and a number of critical data gaps were filled through this effort, there are still many challenges ahead and questions that need answered. The lateral extent to which favorable potential injection conditions exist in most reservoirs is still generally uncertain. The prolongation of the characterization of regional geologic framework through partnership would continue to build confidence and greatly benefit the overall CO{sub 2} sequestration effort.

  8. Characterization of Pliocene and Miocene Formations in the Wilmington Graben, Offshore Los Angeles, for Large-Scale Geologic Storage of CO₂

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruno, Michael

    2014-12-08

    Geomechanics Technologies has completed a detailed characterization study of the Wilmington Graben offshore Southern California area for large-scale CO₂ storage. This effort has included: an evaluation of existing wells in both State and Federal waters, field acquisition of about 175 km (109 mi) of new seismic data, new well drilling, development of integrated 3D geologic, geomechanics, and fluid flow models for the area. The geologic analysis indicates that more than 796 MMt of storage capacity is available within the Pliocene and Miocene formations in the Graben for midrange geologic estimates (P50). Geomechanical analyses indicate that injection can be conducted without significant risk for surface deformation, induced stresses or fault activation. Numerical analysis of fluid migration indicates that injection into the Pliocene Formation at depths of 1525 m (5000 ft) would lead to undesirable vertical migration of the CO₂ plume. Recent well drilling however, indicates that deeper sand is present at depths exceeding 2135 m (7000 ft), which could be viable for large volume storage. For vertical containment, injection would need to be limited to about 250,000 metric tons per year per well, would need to be placed at depths greater than 7000ft, and would need to be placed in new wells located at least 1 mile from any existing offset wells. As a practical matter, this would likely limit storage operations in the Wilmington Graben to about 1 million tons per year or less. A quantitative risk analysis for the Wilmington Graben indicate that such large scale CO₂ storage in the area would represent higher risk than other similar size projects in the US and overseas.

  9. Rock Physics of Geologic Carbon Sequestration/Storage (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Rock Physics of Geologic Carbon SequestrationStorage Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Rock Physics of Geologic Carbon SequestrationStorage This report ...

  10. Rock Physics of Geologic Carbon Sequestration/Storage (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Rock Physics of Geologic Carbon SequestrationStorage Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Rock Physics of Geologic Carbon SequestrationStorage This report covers the ...

  11. Rock Physics of Geologic Carbon Sequestration/Storage (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Rock Physics of Geologic Carbon SequestrationStorage Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Rock Physics of Geologic Carbon SequestrationStorage You are accessing a ...

  12. Panel 2, Geologic Storage of Hydrogen

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND2014-3954P Geologic Storage of Hydrogen Anna S. Lord Geologist Geotechnology & Engineering Department & Peter H. Kobos Principal ...

  13. On Leakage from Geologic Storage Reservoirs of CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruess, Karsten

    2006-02-14

    Large amounts of CO2 would need to be injected underground to achieve a significant reduction of atmospheric emissions. The large areal extent expected for CO2 plumes makes it likely that caprock imperfections will be encountered, such as fault zones or fractures, which may allow some CO2 to escape from the primary storage reservoir. Leakage of CO2 could also occur along wellbores. Concerns with escape of CO2 from a primary geologic storage reservoir include (1) acidification of groundwater resources, (2) asphyxiation hazard when leaking CO2 is discharged at the land surface, (3) increase in atmospheric concentrations of CO2, and (4) damage from a high-energy, eruptive discharge (if such discharge is physically possible). In order to gain public acceptance for geologic storage as a viable technology for reducing atmospheric emissions of CO2, it is necessary to address these issues and demonstrate that CO2 can be injected and stored safely in geologic formations.

  14. Method of fracturing a geological formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, James O.

    1990-01-01

    An improved method of fracturing a geological formation surrounding a well bore is disclosed. A relatively small explosive charge is emplaced in a well bore and the bore is subsequently hydraulically pressurized to a pressure less than the formation breakdown pressure and preferably greater than the fracture propagation pressure of the formation. The charge is denoted while the bore is so pressurized, resulting in the formation of multiple fractures in the surrounding formation with little or no accompanying formation damage. Subsequent hydraulic pressurization can be used to propagate and extend the fractures in a conventional manner. The method is useful for stimulating production of oil, gas and possibly water from suitable geologic formations.

  15. Environmental Responses to Carbon Mitigation through Geological Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cunningham, Alfred; Bromenshenk, Jerry

    2013-08-30

    In summary, this DOE EPSCoR project is contributing to the study of carbon mitigation through geological storage. Both deep and shallow subsurface research needs are being addressed through research directed at improved understanding of environmental responses associated with large scale injection of CO{sub 2} into geologic formations. The research plan has two interrelated research objectives.  Objective 1: Determine the influence of CO{sub 2}-related injection of fluids on pore structure, material properties, and microbial activity in rock cores from potential geological carbon sequestration sites.  Objective 2: Determine the Effects of CO{sub 2} leakage on shallow subsurface ecosystems (microbial and plant) using field experiments from an outdoor field testing facility.

  16. DOE Selects Projects to Monitor and Evaluate Geologic CO2 Storage

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy today announced the selection of 19 projects to enhance the capability to simulate, track, and evaluate the potential risks of carbon dioxide (CO2) storage in geologic formations.

  17. Rock Physics of Geologic Carbon Sequestration/Storage Dvorkin...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Rock Physics of Geologic Carbon SequestrationStorage Dvorkin, Jack; Mavko, Gary 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 58 GEOSCIENCES This report covers the results of developing the rock...

  18. Novel Concepts Research in Geologic Storage of CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neeraj Gupta

    2006-09-30

    As part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) initiative on developing new technologies for the storage of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in geologic reservoirs, Battelle has been investigating the feasibility of CO{sub 2} sequestration in the deep saline reservoirs of the Ohio River Valley region. In addition to the DOE, the project is being sponsored by American Electric Power (AEP), BP, Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) of the Ohio Air Quality Development Authority, Schlumberger, and Battelle. The main objective of the project is to demonstrate that CO{sub 2} sequestration in deep formations is feasible from engineering and economic perspectives, as well as being an inherently safe practice and one that will be acceptable to the public. In addition, the project is designed to evaluate the geology of deep formations in the Ohio River Valley region in general and in the vicinity of AEP's Mountaineer Power Plant, in order to determine their potential use for conducting a long-term test of CO{sub 2} disposal in deep saline formations. The current technical progress report summarizes activities completed for the July-September 2006 period of the project. As discussed in the following report, the main accomplishments were reservoir modeling for the Copper Ridge ''B-zone'' and design and feasibility support tasks. Work continued on the development of injection well design options, engineering assessment of CO2 capture systems, permitting, and assessment of monitoring technologies as they apply to the project site. In addition, an integrated risk analysis of the proposed system was completed. Finally, slipstream capture construction issues were evaluated with AEP to move the project toward an integrated carbon capture and storage system at the Mountaineer site. Overall, the current design feasibility phase project is proceeding according to plans.

  19. Novel Concepts Research in Geologic Storage of CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neeraj Gupta

    2007-06-30

    As part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) initiative on developing new technologies for the storage of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in geologic reservoirs, Battelle has been investigating the feasibility of CO{sub 2} sequestration in the deep saline reservoirs of the Ohio River Valley region. In addition to the DOE, the project is being sponsored by American Electric Power (AEP), BP, Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) of the Ohio Air Quality Development Authority, Schlumberger, and Battelle. The main objective of the project is to demonstrate that CO{sub 2} sequestration in deep formations is feasible from engineering and economic perspectives, as well as being an inherently safe practice and one that will be acceptable to the public. In addition, the project is designed to evaluate the geology of deep formations in the Ohio River Valley region in general and in the vicinity of AEP's Mountaineer Power Plant, in order to determine their potential use for conducting a long-term test of CO{sub 2} disposal in deep saline formations. The current technical progress report summarizes activities completed for the April-June 2007 period of the project. As discussed in the report, the main accomplishments related to preparation to move forward with a 100,000-300,000 metric tons CO{sub 2}/year capture and sequestration project at the Mountaineer site. The program includes a 10 to 30-megawatt thermal product validation at the Mountaineer Plant where up to 300,000 metric tons CO{sub 2}/year will be captured and sequestered in deep rock formations identified in this work. Design and feasibility support tasks such as development of injection well design options, engineering assessment of CO{sub 2} capture systems, permitting, reservoir storage simulations, and assessment of monitoring technologies as they apply to the project site were developed for the project. Plans to facilitate the next steps of the project will be the main work remaining in this portion of the project as the program moves toward the proposed capture and sequestration system.

  20. Novel Concepts Research in Geologic Storage of CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neeraj Gupta

    2007-03-31

    As part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) initiative on developing new technologies for the storage of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in geologic reservoirs, Battelle has been investigating the feasibility of CO{sub 2} sequestration in the deep saline reservoirs of the Ohio River Valley region. In addition to the DOE, the project is being sponsored by American Electric Power (AEP), BP, Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) of the Ohio Air Quality Development Authority, Schlumberger, and Battelle. The main objective of the project is to demonstrate that CO{sub 2} sequestration in deep formations is feasible from engineering and economic perspectives, as well as being an inherently safe practice and one that will be acceptable to the public. In addition, the project is designed to evaluate the geology of deep formations in the Ohio River Valley region in general and in the vicinity of AEP's Mountaineer Power Plant, in order to determine their potential use for conducting a long-term test of CO{sub 2} disposal in deep saline formations. The current technical progress report summarizes activities completed for the January-March 2007 period of the project. As discussed in the report, the main accomplishment was an announcement by AEP to move forward with a {approx}100,000 metric tons CO{sub 2}/year capture and sequestration project at the Mountaineer site. This decision was the outcome of last several years of research under the current DOE funded project involving the technology, site-specific characterization, modeling, risk assessment, etc. This news marks a significant accomplishment for DOE's research program to translate the theoretical potential for carbon sequestration into tangible measures and approaches for the region. The program includes a 30-megawatt thermal product validation at the Mountaineer Plant where up to 100,000 metric tons CO{sub 2}/year will be captured and sequestered in deep rock formations identified in this work. Plans include further steps at Mountaineer with capture and storage at a very expedited pace. Work continued on the design and feasibility support tasks such as development of injection well design options, engineering assessment of CO{sub 2} capture systems, permitting, and assessment of monitoring technologies as they apply to the project site. Overall, the current design feasibility phase of the project has reached a major milestone. Plans to facilitate the next steps of the project will be the main work remaining in this portion of the project as the program moves toward the proposed capture and sequestration system.

  1. Projects Selected for Safe and Permanent Geologic Storage of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and conditions related to CO2 storage including faults, fractures, and caprock flaws. ... propagation, and the formation of new fractures. (DOE share: 433,497; recipient share: ...

  2. Predictions of long-term behavior of a large-volume pilot test for CO2 geological storage in a saline formation in the Central Valley, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doughty, Christine; Myer, Larry R.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2008-11-01

    The long-term behavior of a CO{sub 2} plume injected into a deep saline formation is investigated, focusing on mechanisms that lead to plume stabilization. Key measures are plume migration distance and the time evolution of CO{sub 2} phase-partitioning, which are examined by developing a numerical model of the subsurface at a proposed power plant with CO{sub 2} capture in the San Joaquin Valley, California, where a large-volume pilot test of CO{sub 2} injection will be conducted. The numerical model simulates a four-year CO{sub 2} injection period and the subsequent evolution of the CO{sub 2} plume until it stabilizes. Sensitivity studies are carried out to investigate the effect of poorly constrained model parameters permeability, permeability anisotropy, and residual gas saturation.

  3. Investigation of CO2 plume behavior for a large-scale pilot test of geologic carbon storage in a saline formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doughty, C.

    2009-04-01

    The hydrodynamic behavior of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injected into a deep saline formation is investigated, focusing on trapping mechanisms that lead to CO{sub 2} plume stabilization. A numerical model of the subsurface at a proposed power plant with CO{sub 2} capture is developed to simulate a planned pilot test, in which 1,000,000 metric tons of CO{sub 2} is injected over a four-year period, and the subsequent evolution of the CO{sub 2} plume for hundreds of years. Key measures are plume migration distance and the time evolution of the partitioning of CO{sub 2} between dissolved, immobile free-phase, and mobile free-phase forms. Model results indicate that the injected CO{sub 2} plume is effectively immobilized at 25 years. At that time, 38% of the CO{sub 2} is in dissolved form, 59% is immobile free phase, and 3% is mobile free phase. The plume footprint is roughly elliptical, and extends much farther up-dip of the injection well than down-dip. The pressure increase extends far beyond the plume footprint, but the pressure response decreases rapidly with distance from the injection well, and decays rapidly in time once injection ceases. Sensitivity studies that were carried out to investigate the effect of poorly constrained model parameters permeability, permeability anisotropy, and residual CO{sub 2} saturation indicate that small changes in properties can have a large impact on plume evolution, causing significant trade-offs between different trapping mechanisms.

  4. Niagara Falls Storage Site, Lewiston, New York: geologic report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    This report is one of a series of engineering and environmental reports planned for the US Department of Energy's properties at Niagara Falls, New York. It describes the essential geologic features of the Niagara Falls Storage Site. It is not intended to be a definitive statement of the engineering methods and designs required to obtain desired performance features for any permanent waste disposal at the site. Results are presented of a geological investigation that consisted of two phases. Phase 1 occurred during July 1982 and included geologic mapping, geophysical surveys, and a limited drilling program in the vicinity of the R-10 Dike, planned for interim storage of radioactive materials. Phase 2, initiated in December 1982, included excavation of test pits, geophysical surveys, drilling, observation well installation, and field permeability testing in the South Dike Area, the Northern Disposal Area, and the K-65 Tower Area.

  5. Geologic Water Storage in Pre-Columbian Peru

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fairley Jr., Jerry P.

    1997-07-14

    Agriculture in the arid and semi-arid regions that comprise much of present-day Peru, Bolivia, and Northern Chile is heavily dependent on irrigation; however, obtaining a dependable water supply in these areas is often difficult. The precolumbian peoples of Andean South America adapted to this situation by devising many strategies for transporting, storing, and retrieving water to insure consistent supply. I propose that the ''elaborated springs'' found at several Inka sites near Cuzco, Peru, are the visible expression of a simple and effective system of groundwater control and storage. I call this system ''geologic water storage'' because the water is stored in the pore spaces of sands, soils, and other near-surface geologic materials. I present two examples of sites in the Cuzco area that use this technology (Tambomachay and Tipon) and discuss the potential for identification of similar systems developed by other ancient Latin American cultures.

  6. A life cycle cost analysis framework for geologic storage of hydrogen : a user's tool.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kobos, Peter Holmes; Lord, Anna Snider; Borns, David James; Klise, Geoffrey T.

    2011-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has an interest in large scale hydrogen geostorage, which could offer substantial buffer capacity to meet possible disruptions in supply or changing seasonal demands. The geostorage site options being considered are salt caverns, depleted oil/gas reservoirs, aquifers and hard rock caverns. The DOE has an interest in assessing the geological, geomechanical and economic viability for these types of geologic hydrogen storage options. This study has developed an economic analysis methodology and subsequent spreadsheet analysis to address costs entailed in developing and operating an underground geologic storage facility. This year the tool was updated specifically to (1) incorporate more site-specific model input assumptions for the wells and storage site modules, (2) develop a version that matches the general format of the HDSAM model developed and maintained by Argonne National Laboratory, and (3) incorporate specific demand scenarios illustrating the model's capability. Four general types of underground storage were analyzed: salt caverns, depleted oil/gas reservoirs, aquifers, and hard rock caverns/other custom sites. Due to the substantial lessons learned from the geological storage of natural gas already employed, these options present a potentially sizable storage option. Understanding and including these various geologic storage types in the analysis physical and economic framework will help identify what geologic option would be best suited for the storage of hydrogen. It is important to note, however, that existing natural gas options may not translate to a hydrogen system where substantial engineering obstacles may be encountered. There are only three locations worldwide that currently store hydrogen underground and they are all in salt caverns. Two locations are in the U.S. (Texas), and are managed by ConocoPhillips and Praxair (Leighty, 2007). The third is in Teeside, U.K., managed by Sabic Petrochemicals (Crotogino et al., 2008; Panfilov et al., 2006). These existing H{sub 2} facilities are quite small by natural gas storage standards. The second stage of the analysis involved providing ANL with estimated geostorage costs of hydrogen within salt caverns for various market penetrations for four representative cities (Houston, Detroit, Pittsburgh and Los Angeles). Using these demand levels, the scale and cost of hydrogen storage necessary to meet 10%, 25% and 100% of vehicle summer demands was calculated.

  7. Constructing Hydraulic Barriers in Deep Geologic Formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, E.E.; Carter, P.E. [Technologies Co, Texas (United States); Cooper, D.C. [Ph.D. Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Many construction methods have been developed to create hydraulic barriers to depths of 30 to 50 meters, but few have been proposed for depths on the order of 500 meters. For these deep hydraulic barriers, most methods are potentially feasible for soil but not for hard rock. In the course of researching methods of isolating large subterranean blocks of oil shale, the authors have developed a wax thermal permeation method for constructing hydraulic barriers in rock to depths of over 500 meters in competent or even fractured rock as well as soil. The technology is similar to freeze wall methods, but produces a permanent barrier; and is potentially applicable in both dry and water saturated formations. Like freeze wall barriers, the wax thermal permeation method utilizes a large number of vertical or horizontal boreholes around the perimeter to be contained. However, instead of cooling the boreholes, they are heated. After heating these boreholes, a specially formulated molten wax based grout is pumped into the boreholes where it seals fractures and also permeates radially outward to form a series of columns of wax-impregnated rock. Rows of overlapping columns can then form a durable hydraulic barrier. These barriers can also be angled above a geologic repository to help prevent influx of water due to atypical rainfall events. Applications of the technique to constructing containment structures around existing shallow waste burial sites and water shutoff for mining are also described. (authors)

  8. The Rosetta Resources CO2 Storage Project - A WESTCARB GeologicPilot Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trautz, Robert; Benson, Sally; Myer, Larry; Oldenburg, Curtis; Seeman, Ed; Hadsell, Eric; Funderburk, Ben

    2006-01-30

    WESTCARB, one of seven U.S. Department of Energypartnerships, identified (during its Phase I study) over 600 gigatonnesof CO2 storage capacity in geologic formations located in the Westernregion. The Western region includes the WESTCARB partnership states ofAlaska, Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon and Washington and theCanadian province of British Columbia. The WESTCARB Phase II study iscurrently under way, featuring three geologic and two terrestrial CO2pilot projects designed to test promising sequestration technologies atsites broadly representative of the region's largest potential carbonsinks. This paper focuses on two of the geologic pilot studies plannedfor Phase II -referred to-collectively as the Rosetta-Calpine CO2 StorageProject. The first pilot test will demonstrate injection of CO2 into asaline formation beneath a depleted gas reservoir. The second test willgather data for assessing CO2 enhanced gas recovery (EGR) as well asstorage in a depleted gas reservoir. The benefit of enhanced oil recovery(EOR) using injected CO2 to drive or sweep oil from the reservoir towarda production well is well known. EaR involves a similar CO2 injectionprocess, but has received far less attention. Depleted natural gasreservoirs still contain methane; therefore, CO2 injection may enhancemethane production by reservoir repressurization or pressure maintenance.CO2 injection into a saline formation, followed by injection into adepleted natural gas reservoir, is currently scheduled to start inOctober 2006.

  9. Overview of geologic storage of natural gas with an emphasis on assessing the feasibility of storing hydrogen.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lord, Anna Snider

    2009-09-01

    In many regions across the nation geologic formations are currently being used to store natural gas underground. Storage options are dictated by the regional geology and the operational need. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has an interest in understanding theses various geologic storage options, the advantages and disadvantages, in the hopes of developing an underground facility for the storage of hydrogen as a low cost storage option, as part of the hydrogen delivery infrastructure. Currently, depleted gas/oil reservoirs, aquifers, and salt caverns are the three main types of underground natural gas storage in use today. The other storage options available currently and in the near future, such as abandoned coal mines, lined hard rock caverns, and refrigerated mined caverns, will become more popular as the demand for natural gas storage grows, especially in regions were depleted reservoirs, aquifers, and salt deposits are not available. The storage of hydrogen within the same type of facilities, currently used for natural gas, may add new operational challenges to the existing cavern storage industry, such as the loss of hydrogen through chemical reactions and the occurrence of hydrogen embrittlement. Currently there are only three locations worldwide, two of which are in the United States, which store hydrogen. All three sites store hydrogen within salt caverns.

  10. Interplay between microorganisms and geochemistry in geological carbon storage

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Altman, Susan J.; Kirk, Matthew Fletcher; Santillan, Eugenio-Felipe U.; Bennett, Philip C.

    2016-02-28

    Researchers at the Center for Frontiers of Subsurface Energy Security (CFSES) have conducted laboratory and modeling studies to better understand the interplay between microorganisms and geochemistry for geological carbon storage (GCS). We provide evidence of microorganisms adapting to high pressure CO2 conditions and identify factors that may influence survival of cells to CO2 stress. Factors that influenced the ability of cells to survive exposure to high-pressure CO2 in our experiments include mineralogy, the permeability of cell walls and/or membranes, intracellular buffering capacity, and whether cells live planktonically or within biofilm. Column experiments show that, following exposure to acidic water, biomassmore » can remain intact in porous media and continue to alter hydraulic conductivity. Our research also shows that geochemical changes triggered by CO2 injection can alter energy available to populations of subsurface anaerobes and that microbial feedbacks on this effect can influence carbon storage. Our research documents the impact of CO2 on microorganisms and in turn, how subsurface microorganisms can influence GCS. Furthermore, we conclude that microbial presence and activities can have important implications for carbon storage and that microorganisms should not be overlooked in further GCS research.« less

  11. Subtask 2.17 - CO{sub 2} Storage Efficiency in Deep Saline Formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorecki, Charles; Liu, Guoxiang; Braunberger, Jason; Klenner, Robert; Ayash, Scott; Dotzenrod, Neil; Steadman, Edward; Harju, John

    2014-02-01

    As the field of carbon capture and storage (CCS) continues to advance, and large-scale implementation of geologic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage progresses, it will be important to understand the potential of geologic formations to store meaningful amounts of CO{sub 2}. Geologic CO{sub 2} storage in deep saline formations (DSFs) has been suggested as one of the best potential methods for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emission to the atmosphere, and as such, updated storage resource estimation methods will continue to be an important component for the widespread deployment of CCS around the world. While there have been several methodologies suggested in the literature, most of these methods are based on a volumetric calculation of the pore volume of the DSF multiplied by a storage efficiency term and do not consider the effect of site-specific dynamic factors such as injection rate, injection pattern, timing of injection, pressure interference between injection locations, and overall formation pressure buildup. These volumetric methods may be excellent for comparing the potential between particular formations or basins, but they have not been validated through real-world experience or full-formation injection simulations. Several studies have also suggested that the dynamic components of geologic storage may play the most important role in storing CO{sub 2} in DSFs but until now have not directly compared CO{sub 2} storage resource estimates made with volumetric methodologies to estimates made using dynamic CO{sub 2} storage methodologies. In this study, two DSFs, in geographically separate areas with geologically diverse properties, were evaluated with both volumetric and dynamic CO{sub 2} storage resource estimation methodologies to compare the results and determine the applicability of both approaches. In the end, it was determined that the dynamic CO{sub 2} storage resource potential is timedependent and it asymptotically approaches the volumetric CO{sub 2} storage resource potential over very long periods of time in the two systems that were evaluated. These results indicate that the volumetric assessments can be used as long as the appropriate storage efficiency terms are used and it is understood that it will take many wells over very long periods of time to fully realize the storage potential of a target formation. This subtask was funded through the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC)– U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Joint Program on Research and Development for Fossil Energy-Related Resources Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-08NT43291. Nonfederal funding was provided by the IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme.

  12. Adapting Dry Cask Storage for Aging at a Geologic Repository

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Sanders; D. Kimball

    2005-08-02

    A Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Aging System is a crucial part of operations at the proposed Yucca Mountain repository in the United States. Incoming commercial SNF that does not meet thermal limits for emplacement will be aged on outdoor pads. U.S. Department of Energy SNF will also be managed using the Aging System. Proposed site-specific designs for the Aging System are closely based upon designs for existing dry cask storage (DCS) systems. This paper evaluates the applicability of existing DCS systems for use in the SNF Aging System at Yucca Mountain. The most important difference between existing DCS facilities and the Yucca Mountain facility is the required capacity. Existing DCS facilities typically have less than 50 casks. The current design for the aging pad at Yucca Mountain calls for a capacity of over 2,000 casks (20,000 MTHM) [1]. This unprecedented number of casks poses some unique problems. The response of DCS systems to off-normal and accident conditions needs to be re-evaluated for multiple storage casks. Dose calculations become more complicated, since doses from multiple or very long arrays of casks can dramatically increase the total boundary dose. For occupational doses, the geometry of the cask arrays and the order of loading casks must be carefully considered in order to meet ALARA goals during cask retrieval. Due to the large area of the aging pad, skyshine must also be included when calculating public and worker doses. The expected length of aging will also necessitate some design adjustments. Under 10 CFR 72.236, DCS systems are initially certified for a period of 20 years [2]. Although the Yucca Mountain facility is not intended to be a storage facility under 10 CFR 72, the operational life of the SNF Aging System is 50 years [1]. Any cask system selected for use in aging will have to be qualified to this design lifetime. These considerations are examined, and a summary is provided of the adaptations that must be made in order to use DCS technologies successfully at a geologic repository.

  13. Risk Assessment of Geologic Formation Sequestration in The Rocky Mountain Region, USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Si-Yong; McPherson, Brian

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the outcome of a targeted risk assessment of a candidate geologic sequestration site in the Rocky Mountain region of the USA. Specifically, a major goal of the probabilistic risk assessment was to quantify the possible spatiotemporal responses for Area of Review (AoR) and injection-induced pressure buildup associated with carbon dioxide (CO₂) injection into the subsurface. Because of the computational expense of a conventional Monte Carlo approach, especially given the likely uncertainties in model parameters, we applied a response surface method for probabilistic risk assessment of geologic CO₂ storage in the Permo-Penn Weber formation at a potential CCS site in Craig, Colorado. A site-specific aquifer model was built for the numerical simulation based on a regional geologic model.

  14. Microsoft Word - NETL-TRS-1-2013_Geologic Storage Estimates for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Storage Estimates for Carbon Dioxide in Saline Formations G-2 Formation Percentile CSLF: ... Jared Ciferno Director Office of Coal and Power R&D National Energy Technology Laboratory ...

  15. Estimating Plume Volume for Geologic Storage of CO2 in Saline Aquifers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doughty, Christine

    2008-07-11

    Typically, when a new subsurface flow and transport problem is first being considered, very simple models with a minimal number of parameters are used to get a rough idea of how the system will evolve. For a hydrogeologist considering the spreading of a contaminant plume in an aquifer, the aquifer thickness, porosity, and permeability might be enough to get started. If the plume is buoyant, aquifer dip comes into play. If regional groundwater flow is significant or there are nearby wells pumping, these features need to be included. Generally, the required parameters tend to be known from pre-existing studies, are parameters that people working in the field are familiar with, and represent features that are easy to explain to potential funding agencies, regulators, stakeholders, and the public. The situation for geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in saline aquifers is quite different. It is certainly desirable to do preliminary modeling in advance of any field work since geologic storage of CO{sub 2} is a novel concept that few people have much experience with or intuition about. But the parameters that control CO{sub 2} plume behavior are a little more daunting to assemble and explain than those for a groundwater flow problem. Even the most basic question of how much volume a given mass of injected CO{sub 2} will occupy in the subsurface is non-trivial. However, with a number of simplifying assumptions, some preliminary estimates can be made, as described below. To make efficient use of the subsurface storage volume available, CO{sub 2} density should be large, which means choosing a storage formation at depths below about 800 m, where pressure and temperature conditions are above the critical point of CO{sub 2} (P = 73.8 bars, T = 31 C). Then CO{sub 2} will exist primarily as a free-phase supercritical fluid, while some CO{sub 2} will dissolve into the aqueous phase.

  16. Microsoft Word - NETL-TRS-1-2013_Geologic Storage Estimates for Carbon Dioxide_20130312.electronic.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Comparison of Publicly Available Methods for Development of Geologic Storage Estimates for Carbon Dioxide in Saline Formations 12 March 2013 Office of Fossil Energy NETL-TRS-1-2013 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy,

  17. NOVEL CONCEPTS RESEARCH IN GEOLOGIC STORAGE OF CO2 PHASE III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neeraj Gupta

    2006-05-18

    As part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) initiative on developing new technologies for storage of carbon dioxide in geologic reservoirs, Battelle has been investigating the feasibility of CO{sub 2} sequestration in the deep saline reservoirs in the Ohio River Valley region. In addition to the DOE, the project is being sponsored by American Electric Power (AEP), BP, The Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) of the Ohio Air Quality Development Authority, Schlumberger, and Battelle. The main objective of the project is to demonstrate that CO{sub 2} sequestration in deep formations is feasible from engineering and economic perspectives, as well as being an inherently safe practice and one that will be acceptable to the public. In addition, the project is designed to evaluate the geology of deep formations in the Ohio River Valley region in general and in the vicinity of AEP's Mountaineer Power Plant in particular, in order to determine their potential use for conducting a long-term test of CO{sub 2} disposal in deep saline formations. The current technical progress report summarizes activities completed for the January-March 2006 period of the project. As discussed in the following report, the main accomplishments were analysis of Copper Ridge ''B-zone'' reservoir test results from the AEP No.1 well and design and feasibility support tasks. Reservoir test results indicate injection potential in the Copper Ridge ''B-zone'' may be significantly higher than anticipated for the Mountaineer site. Work continued on development of injection well design options, engineering assessment of CO{sub 2} capture systems, permitting, and assessment of monitoring technologies as they apply to the project site. In addition, organizational and scheduling issues were addressed to move the project toward an integrated carbon capture and storage system at the Mountaineer site. Overall, the current design feasibility phase project is proceeding according to plans.

  18. Comparison of methods for geologic storage of carbon dioxide...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    United States Geological Survey (Brennan et al., 2010); ... generated by multiple methods revealed that assessments ... Research Org: National Energy Technology Laboratory - ...

  19. NOVEL CONCEPTS RESEARCH IN GEOLOGIC STORAGE OF CO2 PHASE III THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY CO2 STORAGE PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neeraj Gupta

    2005-05-26

    As part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) initiation on developing new technologies for storage of carbon dioxide in geologic reservoir, Battelle has been awarded a project to investigate the feasibility of CO{sub 2} sequestration in the deep saline reservoirs in the Ohio River Valley region. This project is the Phase III of Battelle's work under the Novel Concepts in Greenhouse Gas Management grant. The main objective of the project is to demonstrate that CO{sub 2} sequestration in deep formations is feasible from engineering and economic perspectives, as well as being an inherently safe practice and one that will be acceptable to the public. In addition, the project is designed to evaluate the geology of deep formations in the Ohio River Valley region in general and in the vicinity of AEP's Mountaineer Power Plant in particular, in order to determine their potential use for conducting a long-term test of CO{sub 2} disposal in deep saline formations and potentially in nearby deep coal seams. The current technical progress report summarizes activities completed for the January through March 2005 period of the project. As discussed in the report, the technical activities focused on development of injection well design, preparing a Class V Underground Injection Control permit, assessment of monitoring technologies, analysis of coal samples for testing the capture system by Mitsubishi Heavy Industry, and presentation of project progress at several venues. In addition, related work has progressed on a collaborative risk assessment project with Japan research institute CREIPI and technical application for the Midwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership.

  20. Maximizing Storage Rate and Capacity and Insuring the Environmental Integrity of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Geological Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L.A. Davis; A.L. Graham; H.W. Parker; J.R. Abbott; M.S. Ingber; A.A. Mammoli; L.A. Mondy; Quanxin Guo; Ahmed Abou-Sayed

    2005-12-07

    Maximizing Storage Rate and Capacity and Insuring the Environmental Integrity of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Geological Formations The U.S. and other countries may enter into an agreement that will require a significant reduction in CO2 emissions in the medium to long term. In order to achieve such goals without drastic reductions in fossil fuel usage, CO2 must be removed from the atmosphere and be stored in acceptable reservoirs. The research outlined in this proposal deals with developing a methodology to determine the suitability of a particular geologic formation for the long-term storage of CO2 and technologies for the economical transfer and storage of CO2 in these formations. A novel well-logging technique using nuclear-magnetic resonance (NMR) will be developed to characterize the geologic formation including the integrity and quality of the reservoir seal (cap rock). Well-logging using NMR does not require coring, and hence, can be performed much more quickly and efficiently. The key element in the economical transfer and storage of the CO2 is hydraulic fracturing the formation to achieve greater lateral spreads and higher throughputs of CO2. Transport, compression, and drilling represent the main costs in CO2 sequestration. The combination of well-logging and hydraulic fracturing has the potential of minimizing these costs. It is possible through hydraulic fracturing to reduce the number of injection wells by an order of magnitude. Many issues will be addressed as part of the proposed research to maximize the storage rate and capacity and insure the environmental integrity of CO2 sequestration in geological formations. First, correlations between formation properties and NMR relaxation times will be firmly established. A detailed experimental program will be conducted to determine these correlations. Second, improved hydraulic fracturing models will be developed which are suitable for CO2 sequestration as opposed to enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Although models that simulate the fracturing process exist, they can be significantly improved by extending the models to account for nonsymmetric, nonplanar fractures, coupling the models to more realistic reservoir simulators, and implementing advanced multiphase flow models for the transport of proppant. Third, it may be possible to deviate from current hydraulic fracturing technology by using different proppants (possibly waste materials that need to be disposed of, e.g., asbestos) combined with different hydraulic fracturing carrier fluids (possibly supercritical CO2 itself). Because current technology is mainly aimed at enhanced oil recovery, it may not be ideally suited for the injection and storage of CO2. Finally, advanced concepts such as increasing the injectivity of the fractured geologic formations through acidization with carbonated water will be investigated. Saline formations are located through most of the continental United States. Generally, where saline formations are scarce, oil and gas reservoirs and coal beds abound. By developing the technology outlined here, it will be possible to remove CO2 at the source (power plants, industry) and inject it directly into nearby geological formations, without releasing it into the atmosphere. The goal of the proposed research is to develop a technology capable of sequestering CO2 in geologic formations at a cost of US $10 per ton.

  1. An Assessment of Geological Carbon Storage Options in the Illinois Basin: Validation Phase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Finley

    2012-12-01

    The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) assessed the options for geological carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage in the 155,400 km{sup 2} (60,000 mi{sup 2}) Illinois Basin, which underlies most of Illinois, western Indiana, and western Kentucky. The region has annual CO{sub 2} emissions of about 265 million metric tonnes (292 million tons), primarily from 122 coal-fired electric generation facilities, some of which burn almost 4.5 million tonnes (5 million tons) of coal per year (U.S. Department of Energy, 2010). Validation Phase (Phase II) field tests gathered pilot data to update the Characterization Phase (Phase I) assessment of options for capture, transportation, and storage of CO{sub 2} emissions in three geological sink types: coal seams, oil fields, and saline reservoirs. Four small-scale field tests were conducted to determine the properties of rock units that control injectivity of CO{sub 2}, assess the total storage resources, examine the security of the overlying rock units that act as seals for the reservoirs, and develop ways to control and measure the safety of injection and storage processes. The MGSC designed field test operational plans for pilot sites based on the site screening process, MVA program needs, the selection of equipment related to CO{sub 2} injection, and design of a data acquisition system. Reservoir modeling, computational simulations, and statistical methods assessed and interpreted data gathered from the field tests. Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting (MVA) programs were established to detect leakage of injected CO{sub 2} and ensure public safety. Public outreach and education remained an important part of the project; meetings and presentations informed public and private regional stakeholders of the results and findings. A miscible (liquid) CO{sub 2} flood pilot project was conducted in the Clore Formation sandstone (Mississippian System, Chesterian Series) at Mumford Hills Field in Posey County, southwestern Indiana, and an immiscible CO{sub 2} flood pilot was conducted in the Jackson sandstone (Mississippian System Big Clifty Sandstone Member) at the Sugar Creek Field in Hopkins County, western Kentucky. Up to 12% incremental oil recovery was estimated based on these pilots. A CO{sub 2} huff ‘n’ puff (HNP) pilot project was conducted in the Cypress Sandstone in the Loudon Field. This pilot was designed to measure and record data that could be used to calibrate a reservoir simulation model. A pilot project at the Tanquary Farms site in Wabash County, southeastern Illinois, tested the potential storage of CO{sub 2} in the Springfield Coal Member of the Carbondale Formation (Pennsylvanian System), in order to gauge the potential for large-scale CO{sub 2} storage and/or enhanced coal bed methane recovery from Illinois Basin coal beds. The pilot results from all four sites showed that CO{sub 2} could be injected into the subsurface without adversely affecting groundwater. Additionally, hydrocarbon production was enhanced, giving further evidence that CO{sub 2} storage in oil reservoirs and coal beds offers an economic advantage. Results from the MVA program at each site indicated that injected CO{sub 2} did not leave the injection zone. Topical reports were completed on the Middle and Late Devonian New Albany Shale and Basin CO{sub 2} emissions. The efficacy of the New Albany Shale as a storage sink could be substantial if low injectivity concerns can be alleviated. CO{sub 2} emissions in the Illinois Basin were projected to be dominated by coal-fired power plants.

  2. Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage Field Projects Supported by DOE...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The program has also been supporting a number of complementary R&D projects investigating the science of storage, simulation, risk assessment, and monitoring the fate of the ...

  3. NOVEL CONCEPTS RESEARCH IN GEOLOGIC STORAGE OF CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neeraj Gupta

    2005-02-02

    As part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) initiative on developing new technologies for storage of carbon dioxide in geologic reservoirs, Battelle has been awarded a project to investigate the feasibility of CO{sub 2} sequestration in the deep saline reservoirs in the Ohio River Valley region. This project is the Phase III of Battelle's work under the Novel Concepts in Greenhouse Gas Management grant. In addition to the DOE, the project is being sponsored by American Electric Power (AEP), BP, The Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) of the Ohio Department of Development, and Schlumberger. The main objective of the project is to evaluate the geology of deep formations in the Ohio River Valley region in general and in the vicinity of AEP's Mountaineer Power Plant in particular, in order to determine their potential use for conducting a long-term test of CO{sub 2} disposal in deep saline formations and potentially in nearby deep coal seams. This work supports the overall project objective of demonstrating that CO{sub 2} sequestration in deep formations is feasible from engineering and economic perspectives, as well as being an inherently safe practice and one that will be acceptable to the public. The current technical progress report summarizes activities completed for the October through December 2004 period of the project. As discussed in the report, the technical activities focused on initial injection well design, completion of the site characterization report, assessment of monitoring technologies, shipment of coal samples for testing the capture system to Mitsubishi Heavy Industry, and presentation of project progress at several venues. In addition, proposals to DOE for continued funding of the project activities under the current contract and potentially a new contract for development of regional framework were being evaluated and processed.

  4. NOVEL CONCEPTS RESEARCH IN GEOLOGIC STORAGE OF CO2 PHASE III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neeraj Gupta

    2006-01-23

    As part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) initiative on developing new technologies for storage of carbon dioxide in geologic reservoirs, Battelle has been investigating the feasibility of CO{sub 2} sequestration in the deep saline reservoirs in the Ohio River Valley region. In addition to the DOE, the project is being sponsored by American Electric Power (AEP), BP, The Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) of the Ohio Air Quality Development Authority, Schlumberger, and Battelle. The main objective of the project is to demonstrate that CO{sub 2} sequestration in deep formations is feasible from engineering and economic perspectives, as well as being an inherently safe practice and one that will be acceptable to the public. In addition, the project is designed to evaluate the geology of deep formations in the Ohio River Valley region in general and in the vicinity of AEP's Mountaineer Power Plant in particular, in order to determine their potential use for conducting a long-term test of CO{sub 2} disposal in deep saline formations. The current technical progress report summarizes activities completed for the October through December 2005 period of the project. As discussed in the following report, the main field activity was reservoir testing in the Copper Ridge ''B-zone'' in the AEP No.1 well. In addition reservoir simulations were completed to assess feasibility of CO{sub 2} injection for the Mountaineer site. These reservoir testing and computer simulation results suggest that injection potential may be substantially more than anticipated for the Mountaineer site. Work also continued on development of injection well design options, engineering assessment of CO{sub 2} capture systems, permitting, and assessment of monitoring technologies as they apply to the project site. Overall, the current design feasibility phase project is proceeding according to plans.

  5. NOVEL CONCEPTS RESEARCH IN GEOLOGIC STORAGE OF CO2 PHASE III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neeraj Gupta

    2005-11-04

    As part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) initiative on developing new technologies for storage of carbon dioxide in geologic reservoirs, Battelle has been investigating the feasibility of CO{sub 2} sequestration in the deep saline reservoirs in the Ohio River Valley region. In addition to the DOE, the project is being sponsored by American Electric Power (AEP), BP, The Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) of the Ohio Air Quality Development Authority, and Schlumberger. The main objective of the project is to demonstrate that CO{sub 2} sequestration in deep formations is feasible from engineering and economic perspectives, as well as being an inherently safe practice and one that will be acceptable to the public. In addition, the project is designed to evaluate the geology of deep formations in the Ohio River Valley region in general and in the vicinity of AEP's Mountaineer Power Plant in particular, in order to determine their potential use for conducting a long-term test of CO{sub 2} disposal in deep saline formations. The current technical progress report summarizes activities completed for the July through September 2005 period of the project. As discussed in the report, the field activities focused on preparations for reservoir testing in the Copper Ridge ''B-zone'' in the AEP No.1 well. In addition work continued on development of injection well design options, engineering assessment of CO{sub 2} capture systems, reservoir simulations, work on a Class V Underground Injection Control permit, and assessment of monitoring technologies as they apply to the project site. Overall, the current design feasibility phase project is proceeding according to plans.

  6. Leakage of CO2 from geologic storage: Role of secondaryaccumulation at shallow depth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruess, K.

    2007-05-31

    Geologic storage of CO2 can be a viable technology forreducing atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases only if it can bedemonstrated that leakage from proposed storage reservoirs and associatedhazards are small or can be mitigated. Risk assessment must evaluatepotential leakage scenarios and develop a rational, mechanisticunderstanding of CO2 behavior during leakage. Flow of CO2 may be subjectto positive feedbacks that could amplify leakage risks and hazards,placing a premium on identifying and avoiding adverse conditions andmechanisms. A scenario that is unfavorable in terms of leakage behavioris formation of a secondary CO2 accumulation at shallow depth. This paperdevelops a detailed numerical simulation model to investigate CO2discharge from a secondary accumulation, and evaluates the role ofdifferent thermodynamic and hydrogeologic conditions. Our simulationsdemonstrate self-enhancing as well as self-limiting feedbacks.Condensation of gaseous CO2, 3-phase flow of aqueous phase -- liquid CO2-- gaseous CO2, and cooling from Joule-Thomson expansion and boiling ofliquid CO2 are found to play important roles in the behavior of a CO2leakage system. We find no evidence that a subsurface accumulation of CO2at ambient temperatures could give rise to a high-energy discharge, aso-called "pneumatic eruption."

  7. Systematic assessment of wellbore integrity for geologic carbon storage projects using regulatory and industry information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moody, Mark; Sminchak, J.R.

    2015-11-01

    Under this three year project, the condition of legacy oil and gas wells in the Midwest United States was evaluated through analysis of well records, well plugging information, CBL evaluation, sustained casing pressure (SCP) field testing, and analysis of hypothetical CO2 test areas to provide a realistic description of wellbore integrity factors. The research included a state-wide review of oil and gas well records for Ohio and Michigan, along with more detailed testing of wells in Ohio. Results concluded that oil and gas wells are clustered along fields in areas. Well records vary in quality, and there may be wells that have not been identified in records, but there are options for surveying unknown wells. Many of the deep saline formations being considered for CO2 storage have few wells that penetrate the storage zone or confining layers. Research suggests that a variety of well construction and plugging approaches have been used over time in the region. The project concluded that wellbore integrity is an important issue for CO2 storage applications in the Midwest United States. Realistic CO2 storage projects may cover an area in the subsurface with several hundred legacy oil and gas wells. However, closer inspection may often establish that most of the wells do not penetrate the confining layers or storage zone. Therefore, addressing well integrity may be manageable. Field monitoring of SCP also indicated that tested wells provided zonal isolation of the reservoirs they were designed to isolate. Most of these wells appeared to exhibit gas pressure originating from intermediate zones. Based on these results, more flexibility in terms of cementing wells to surface, allowing well testing, and monitoring wells may aid operators in completing CO2 storage project. Several useful products were developed under this project for examining wellbore integrity for CO2 storage applications including, a database of over 4 million items on well integrity parameters in the study areas, a systematic CBL evaluation tool for rating cement in boreholes, SCP field testing procedures and analysis methodology, a process for summarizing well integrity at CO2 storage fields, a statistical analysis of well integrity indicators, and an assessment of practical methods and costs necessary to repair/remediate typical wells in the region based on assessment of six test study areas. Project results may benefit both CO2 storage and improved oil recovery applications. This study of wellbore integrity is a useful precursor to support development of geologic storage in the Midwest United States because it sheds more light on the actual well conditions (rather than the perceived condition) of historic oil and gas wells in the region.

  8. Center for Geologic Storage of CO2 (GSCO2) | U.S. DOE Office of Science

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    (SC) Center for Geologic Storage of CO2 (GSCO2) Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers EFRC External Websites Research Science Highlights News & Events Publications History Contact BES Home Centers Center for Geologic Storage of CO2 (GSCO2) Print Text Size: A A A FeedbackShare Page GSCO<sub>2</sub> Director Scott M. Frailey Lead Institution University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Year Established 2014 Mission To generate new conceptual, mathematical,

  9. Geological Carbon Sequestration Storage Resource Estimates for the Ordovician St. Peter Sandstone, Illinois and Michigan Basins, USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, David; Ellett, Kevin; Leetaru, Hannes

    2014-09-30

    The Cambro-Ordovician strata of the Midwest of the United States is a primary target for potential geological storage of CO2 in deep saline formations. The objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive evaluation of the Cambro-Ordovician strata in the Illinois and Michigan Basins above the basal Mount Simon Sandstone since the Mount Simon is the subject of other investigations including a demonstration-scale injection at the Illinois Basin Decatur Project. The primary reservoir targets investigated in this study are the middle Ordovician St Peter Sandstone and the late Cambrian to early Ordovician Knox Group carbonates. The topic of this report is a regional-scale evaluation of the geologic storage resource potential of the St Peter Sandstone in both the Illinois and Michigan Basins. Multiple deterministic-based approaches were used in conjunction with the probabilistic-based storage efficiency factors published in the DOE methodology to estimate the carbon storage resource of the formation. Extensive data sets of core analyses and wireline logs were compiled to develop the necessary inputs for volumetric calculations. Results demonstrate how the range in uncertainty of storage resource estimates varies as a function of data availability and quality, and the underlying assumptions used in the different approaches. In the simplest approach, storage resource estimates were calculated from mapping the gross thickness of the formation and applying a single estimate of the effective mean porosity of the formation. Results from this approach led to storage resource estimates ranging from 3.3 to 35.1 Gt in the Michigan Basin, and 1.0 to 11.0 Gt in the Illinois Basin at the P10 and P90 probability level, respectively. The second approach involved consideration of the diagenetic history of the formation throughout the two basins and used depth-dependent functions of porosity to derive a more realistic spatially variable model of porosity rather than applying a single estimate of porosity throughout the entire potential reservoir domains. The second approach resulted in storage resource estimates of 3.0 to 31.6 Gt in the Michigan Basin, and 0.6 to 6.1 Gt in the Illinois Basin. The third approach attempted to account for the local-scale variability in reservoir quality as a function of both porosity and permeability by using core and log analyses to calculate explicitly the net effective porosity at multiple well locations, and interpolate those results throughout the two basins. This approach resulted in storage resource estimates of 10.7 to 34.7 Gt in the Michigan Basin, and 11.2 to 36.4 Gt in the Illinois Basin. A final approach used advanced reservoir characterization as the most sophisticated means to estimating storage resource by defining reservoir properties for multiple facies within the St Peter formation. This approach was limited to the Michigan Basin since the Illinois Basin data set did not have the requisite level of data quality and sampling density to support such an analysis. Results from this approach led to storage resource estimates of 15.4 Gt to 50.1 Gt for the Michigan Basin. The observed variability in results from the four different approaches is evaluated in the context of data and methodological constraints, leading to the conclusion that the storage resource estimates from the first two approaches may be conservative, whereas the net porosity based approaches may over-estimate the resource.

  10. Determining resistivity of a geological formation using circuitry located within a borehole casing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail III, William Banning

    2006-01-17

    Geological formation resistivity is determined. Circuitry is located within the borehole casing that is adjacent to the geological formation. The circuitry can measure one or more voltages across two or more voltage measurement electrodes associated with the borehole casing. The measured voltages are used by a processor to determine the resistivity of the geological formation. A common mode signal can also be reduced using the circuitry.

  11. Site Characterization of Promising Geologic Formations for CO2 Storage |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Sioux Students Kindle Solar Knowledge Sioux Students Kindle Solar Knowledge July 24, 2013 - 11:30am Addthis Students and instructors at Oglala Lakota College designed, connected and built a mobile solar energy system over the course of two days. | Photo courtesy of Oglala Lakota College. Students and instructors at Oglala Lakota College designed, connected and built a mobile solar energy system over the course of two days. | Photo courtesy of Oglala Lakota College. Minh Le Minh Le Deputy

  12. Geologic Study of the Coso Formation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Coso geothermal field. These studies have provided a wealth of knowledge concerning the geology of the area, including general structural characteristics and kinematic history....

  13. On scale and magnitude of pressure build-up induced by large-scale geologic storage of CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Q.; Birkholzer, J. T.

    2011-05-01

    The scale and magnitude of pressure perturbation and brine migration induced by geologic carbon sequestration is discussed assuming a full-scale deployment scenario in which enough CO{sub 2} is captured and stored to make relevant contributions to global climate change mitigation. In this scenario, the volumetric rates and cumulative volumes of CO{sub 2} injection would be comparable to or higher than those related to existing deep-subsurface injection and extraction activities, such as oil production. Large-scale pressure build-up in response to the injection may limit the dynamic storage capacity of suitable formations, because over-pressurization may fracture the caprock, may drive CO{sub 2}/brine leakage through localized pathways, and may cause induced seismicity. On the other hand, laterally extensive sedimentary basins may be less affected by such limitations because (i) local pressure effects are moderated by pressure propagation and brine displacement into regions far away from the CO{sub 2} storage domain; and (ii) diffuse and/or localized brine migration into overlying and underlying formations allows for pressure bleed-off in the vertical direction. A quick analytical estimate of the extent of pressure build-up induced by industrial-scale CO{sub 2} storage projects is presented. Also discussed are pressure perturbation and attenuation effects simulated for two representative sedimentary basins in the USA: the laterally extensive Illinois Basin and the partially compartmentalized southern San Joaquin Basin in California. These studies show that the limiting effect of pressure build-up on dynamic storage capacity is not as significant as suggested by Ehlig-Economides and Economides, who considered closed systems without any attenuation effects.

  14. SIMULATION FRAMEWORK FOR REGIONAL GEOLOGIC CO{sub 2} STORAGE ALONG ARCHES PROVINCE OF MIDWESTERN UNITED STATES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sminchak, Joel

    2012-09-30

    This report presents final technical results for the project Simulation Framework for Regional Geologic CO{sub 2} Storage Infrastructure along Arches Province of the Midwest United States. The Arches Simulation project was a three year effort designed to develop a simulation framework for regional geologic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage infrastructure along the Arches Province through development of a geologic model and advanced reservoir simulations of large-scale CO{sub 2} storage. The project included five major technical tasks: (1) compilation of geologic, hydraulic and injection data on Mount Simon, (2) development of model framework and parameters, (3) preliminary variable density flow simulations, (4) multi-phase model runs of regional storage scenarios, and (5) implications for regional storage feasibility. The Arches Province is an informal region in northeastern Indiana, northern Kentucky, western Ohio, and southern Michigan where sedimentary rock formations form broad arch and platform structures. In the province, the Mount Simon sandstone is an appealing deep saline formation for CO{sub 2} storage because of the intersection of reservoir thickness and permeability. Many CO{sub 2} sources are located in proximity to the Arches Province, and the area is adjacent to coal fired power plants along the Ohio River Valley corridor. Geophysical well logs, rock samples, drilling logs, and geotechnical tests were evaluated for a 500,000 km{sup 2} study area centered on the Arches Province. Hydraulic parameters and historical operational information was also compiled from Mount Simon wastewater injection wells in the region. This information was integrated into a geocellular model that depicts the parameters and conditions in a numerical array. The geologic and hydraulic data were integrated into a three-dimensional grid of porosity and permeability, which are key parameters regarding fluid flow and pressure buildup due to CO{sub 2} injection. Permeability data were corrected in locations where reservoir tests have been performed in Mount Simon injection wells. The geocellular model was used to develop a series of numerical simulations designed to support CO2 storage applications in the Arches Province. Variable density fluid flow simulations were initially run to evaluate model sensitivity to input parameters. Two dimensional, multiple-phase simulations were completed to evaluate issues related to arranging injection fields in the study area. A basin-scale, multiple-phase model was developed to evaluate large scale injection effects across the region. Finally, local scale simulations were also completed with more detailed depiction of the Eau Claire formation to investigate to the potential for upward migration of CO2. Overall, the technical work on the project concluded that injection large-scale injection may be achieved with proper field design, operation, siting, and monitoring. Records from Mount Simon injection wells were compiled, documenting more than 20 billion gallons of injection into the Mount Simon formation in the Arches Province over the past 40 years, equivalent to approximately 60 million metric tons CO2. The multi-state team effort was useful in delineating the geographic variability in the Mount Simon reservoir properties. Simulations better defined potential well fields, well field arrangement, CO2 pipeline distribution system, and operational parameters for large-scale injection in the Arches Province. Multiphase scoping level simulations suggest that injection fields with arrays of 9 to 50+ wells may be used to accommodate large injection volumes. Individual wells may need to be separated by 3 to 10 km. Injection fields may require spacing of 25 to 40 km to limit pressure and saturation front interference. Basin-scale multiple-phase simulations in STOMP reflect variability in the Mount Simon. While simulations suggest a total injection rate of 100 million metric tons per year (approximately to a 40% reduction of CO2 emissions from large point sources across the Arches Province) may be feasible, some areas are more suitable due to favorable geology. Sustainable injection rates were higher in areas where there was higher thickness and reservoir permeability. Distribution of injection across well fields is an effective method to reduce pressure and CO2 saturation front interference.

  15. SIMULATION FRAMEWORK FOR REGIONAL GEOLOGIC CO{sub 2} STORAGE ALONG ARCHES PROVINCE OF MIDWESTERN UNITED STATES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sminchak, Joel

    2012-09-30

    This report presents final technical results for the project Simulation Framework for Regional Geologic CO{sub 2} Storage Infrastructure along Arches Province of the Midwest United States. The Arches Simulation project was a three year effort designed to develop a simulation framework for regional geologic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage infrastructure along the Arches Province through development of a geologic model and advanced reservoir simulations of large-scale CO{sub 2} storage. The project included five major technical tasks: (1) compilation of geologic, hydraulic and injection data on Mount Simon, (2) development of model framework and parameters, (3) preliminary variable density flow simulations, (4) multi-phase model runs of regional storage scenarios, and (5) implications for regional storage feasibility. The Arches Province is an informal region in northeastern Indiana, northern Kentucky, western Ohio, and southern Michigan where sedimentary rock formations form broad arch and platform structures. In the province, the Mount Simon sandstone is an appealing deep saline formation for CO{sub 2} storage because of the intersection of reservoir thickness and permeability. Many CO{sub 2} sources are located in proximity to the Arches Province, and the area is adjacent to coal fired power plants along the Ohio River Valley corridor. Geophysical well logs, rock samples, drilling logs, and geotechnical tests were evaluated for a 500,000 km{sup 2} study area centered on the Arches Province. Hydraulic parameters and historical operational information was also compiled from Mount Simon wastewater injection wells in the region. This information was integrated into a geocellular model that depicts the parameters and conditions in a numerical array. The geologic and hydraulic data were integrated into a three-dimensional grid of porosity and permeability, which are key parameters regarding fluid flow and pressure buildup due to CO{sub 2} injection. Permeability data were corrected in locations where reservoir tests have been performed in Mount Simon injection wells. The geocellular model was used to develop a series of numerical simulations designed to support CO{sub 2} storage applications in the Arches Province. Variable density fluid flow simulations were initially run to evaluate model sensitivity to input parameters. Two dimensional, multiple-phase simulations were completed to evaluate issues related to arranging injection fields in the study area. A basin-scale, multiple-phase model was developed to evaluate large scale injection effects across the region. Finally, local scale simulations were also completed with more detailed depiction of the Eau Claire formation to investigate to the potential for upward migration of CO{sub 2}. Overall, the technical work on the project concluded that injection large-scale injection may be achieved with proper field design, operation, siting, and monitoring. Records from Mount Simon injection wells were compiled, documenting more than 20 billion gallons of injection into the Mount Simon formation in the Arches Province over the past 40 years, equivalent to approximately 60 million metric tons CO2. The multi-state team effort was useful in delineating the geographic variability in the Mount Simon reservoir properties. Simulations better defined potential well fields, well field arrangement, CO{sub 2} pipeline distribution system, and operational parameters for large-scale injection in the Arches Province. Multiphase scoping level simulations suggest that injection fields with arrays of 9 to 50+ wells may be used to accommodate large injection volumes. Individual wells may need to be separated by 3 to 10 km. Injection fields may require spacing of 25 to 40 km to limit pressure and saturation front interference. Basin-scale multiple-phase simulations in STOMP reflect variability in the Mount Simon. While simulations suggest a total injection rate of 100 million metric tons per year (approximately to a 40% reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions from large point sources across the Arches Province) may be feasible, some areas are more suitable due to favorable geology. Sustainable injection rates were higher in areas where there was higher thickness and reservoir permeability. Distribution of injection across well fields is an effective method to reduce pressure and CO{sub 2} saturation front interference.

  16. Improved understanding of geologic CO{sub 2} storage processes requires risk-driven field experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenburg, C.M.

    2011-06-01

    The need for risk-driven field experiments for CO{sub 2} geologic storage processes to complement ongoing pilot-scale demonstrations is discussed. These risk-driven field experiments would be aimed at understanding the circumstances under which things can go wrong with a CO{sub 2} capture and storage (CCS) project and cause it to fail, as distinguished from accomplishing this end using demonstration and industrial scale sites. Such risk-driven tests would complement risk-assessment efforts that have already been carried out by providing opportunities to validate risk models. In addition to experimenting with high-risk scenarios, these controlled field experiments could help validate monitoring approaches to improve performance assessment and guide development of mitigation strategies.

  17. Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Through Formation of C-H...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Through Formation of C-H Bonds Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Through Formation of C-H Bonds Print Wednesday, 28 June 2006 00:00 Two of...

  18. storage | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Geologic Storage Technologies & Simulation & Risk Assessment The Carbon Storage Program's Geologic Storage and Simulation and Risk Assessment (GSRA) Technology Area supports research to develop technologies that can improve containment and injection operations, increase reservoir storage efficiency, and prevent and mitigate unwanted migration of CO2 in all types of storage formations. Research conducted in the near and long term will augment existing technologies to ensure permanent

  19. Conceptual Model Summary Report Simulation Framework for Regional Geologic CO{sub 2} Storage Along Arches Province of Midwestern United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-06-30

    A conceptual model was developed for the Arches Province that integrates geologic and hydrologic information on the Eau Claire and Mt. Simon formations into a geocellular model. The conceptual model describes the geologic setting, stratigraphy, geologic structures, hydrologic features, and distribution of key hydraulic parameters. The conceptual model is focused on the Mt. Simon sandstone and Eau Claire formations. The geocellular model depicts the parameters and conditions in a numerical array that may be imported into the numerical simulations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage. Geophysical well logs, rock samples, drilling logs, geotechnical test results, and reservoir tests were evaluated for a 500,000 km{sup 2} study area centered on the Arches Province. The geologic and hydraulic data were integrated into a three-dimensional (3D) grid of porosity and permeability, which are key parameters regarding fluid flow and pressure buildup due to CO{sub 2} injection. Permeability data were corrected in locations where reservoir tests have been performed in Mt. Simon injection wells. The final geocellular model covers an area of 600 km by 600 km centered on the Arches Province. The geocellular model includes a total of 24,500,000 cells representing estimated porosity and permeability distribution. CO{sub 2} injection scenarios were developed for on-site and regional injection fields at rates of 70 to 140 million metric tons per year.

  20. New Strategies for Finding Abandoned Wells at Proposed Geologic Storage Sites for CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammack, R.W.; Veloski, G.A.

    2007-09-01

    Prior to the injection of CO2 into geological formations, either for enhanced oil recovery or for CO2 sequestration, it is necessary to locate wells that perforate the target formation and are within the radius of influence for planned injection wells. Locating and plugging wells is necessary because improperly plugged well bores provide the most rapid route for CO2 escape to the surface. This paper describes the implementation and evaluation of helicopter and ground-based well detection strategies at a 100+ year old oilfield in Wyoming where a CO2 flood is planned. This project was jointly funded by the U.S. Department of Energys National Energy Technology Laboratory and Fugro Airborne Surveys.

  1. Geochemical Implications of CO2 Leakage Associated with Geologic Storage: A Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harvey, Omar R.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2012-07-09

    Leakage from deep storage reservoirs is a major risk factor associated with geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2). Different scientific theories exist concerning the potential implications of such leakage for near-surface environments. The authors of this report reviewed the current literature on how CO2 leakage (from storage reservoirs) would likely impact the geochemistry of near surface environments such as potable water aquifers and the vadose zone. Experimental and modeling studies highlighted the potential for both beneficial (e.g., CO2 re sequestration or contaminant immobilization) and deleterious (e.g., contaminant mobilization) consequences of CO2 intrusion in these systems. Current knowledge gaps, including the role of CO2-induced changes in redox conditions, the influence of CO2 influx rate, gas composition, organic matter content and microorganisms are discussed in terms of their potential influence on pertinent geochemical processes and the potential for beneficial or deleterious outcomes. Geochemical modeling was used to systematically highlight why closing these knowledge gaps are pivotal. A framework for studying and assessing consequences associated with each factor is also presented in Section 5.6.

  2. Early opportunities of CO₂ geological storage deployment in coal chemical industry in China

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wei, Ning; Li, Xiaochun; Liu, Shengnan; Dahowski, R. T.; Davidson, C. L.

    2014-12-31

    Carbon dioxide capture and geological storage (CCS) is regarded as a promising option for climate change mitigation; however, the high capture cost is the major barrier to large-scale deployment of CCS technologies. High-purity CO₂ emission sources can reduce or even avoid the capture requirements and costs. Among these high-purity CO₂ sources, certain coal chemical industry processes are very important, especially in China. In this paper, the basic characteristics of coal chemical industries in China is investigated and analyzed. As of 2013 there were more than 100 coal chemical plants in operation. These emission sources together emit 430 million tons CO₂more » per year, of which about 30% are emit high-purity and pure CO₂ (CO₂ concentration >80% and >98.5% respectively). Four typical source-sink pairs are chosen for techno-economic evaluation, including site screening and selection, source-sink matching, concept design, and economic evaluation. The technical-economic evaluation shows that the levelized cost of a CO₂ capture and aquifer storage project in the coal chemistry industry ranges from 14 USD/t to 17 USD/t CO₂. When a 15USD/t CO₂ tax and 20USD/t for CO₂ sold to EOR are considered, the levelized cost of CCS project are negative, which suggests a benefit from some of these CCS projects. This might provide China early opportunities to deploy and scale-up CCS projects in the near future.« less

  3. Early opportunities of CO₂ geological storage deployment in coal chemical industry in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Ning; Li, Xiaochun; Liu, Shengnan; Dahowski, R. T.; Davidson, C. L.

    2014-12-31

    Carbon dioxide capture and geological storage (CCS) is regarded as a promising option for climate change mitigation; however, the high capture cost is the major barrier to large-scale deployment of CCS technologies. High-purity CO₂ emission sources can reduce or even avoid the capture requirements and costs. Among these high-purity CO₂ sources, certain coal chemical industry processes are very important, especially in China. In this paper, the basic characteristics of coal chemical industries in China is investigated and analyzed. As of 2013 there were more than 100 coal chemical plants in operation. These emission sources together emit 430 million tons CO₂ per year, of which about 30% are emit high-purity and pure CO₂ (CO₂ concentration >80% and >98.5% respectively). Four typical source-sink pairs are chosen for techno-economic evaluation, including site screening and selection, source-sink matching, concept design, and economic evaluation. The technical-economic evaluation shows that the levelized cost of a CO₂ capture and aquifer storage project in the coal chemistry industry ranges from 14 USD/t to 17 USD/t CO₂. When a 15USD/t CO₂ tax and 20USD/t for CO₂ sold to EOR are considered, the levelized cost of CCS project are negative, which suggests a benefit from some of these CCS projects. This might provide China early opportunities to deploy and scale-up CCS projects in the near future.

  4. Early opportunities of CO2 geological storage deployment in coal chemical industry in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Ning; Li, Xiaochun; Liu, Shengnan; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.

    2014-11-12

    Abstract: Carbon dioxide capture and geological storage (CCS) is regarded as a promising option for climate change mitigation; however, the high capture cost is the major barrier to large-scale deployment of CCS technologies. High-purity CO2 emission sources can reduce or even avoid the capture requirements and costs. Among these high-purity CO2 sources, certain coal chemical industry processes are very important, especially in China. In this paper, the basic characteristics of coal chemical industries in China is investigated and analyzed. As of 2013 there were more than 100 coal chemical plants in operation or in late planning stages. These emission sources together emit 430 million tons CO2 per year, of which about 30% are emit high-purity and pure CO2 (CO2 concentration >80% and >99% respectively).Four typical source-sink pairs are studied by a techno-economic evaluation, including site screening and selection, source-sink matching, concept design, and experienced economic evaluation. The technical-economic evaluation shows that the levelized cost of a CO2 capture and aquifer storage project in the coal chemistry industry ranges from 14 USD/t to 17 USD/t CO2. When a 15USD/t CO2 tax and 15USD/t for CO2 sold to EOR are considered, the levelized cost of CCS project are negative, which suggests a net economic benefit from some of these CCS projects. This might provide China early opportunities to deploy and scale-up CCS projects in the near future.

  5. Using the Choquet integral for screening geological CO2 storage sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Y.

    2011-03-01

    For geological CO{sub 2} storage site selection, it is desirable to reduce the number of candidate sites through a screening process before detailed site characterization is performed. Screening generally involves defining a number of criteria which then need to be evaluated for each site. The importance of each criterion to the final evaluation will generally be different. Weights reflecting the relative importance of these criteria can be provided by experts. To evaluate a site, each criterion must be evaluated and scored, and then aggregated, taking into account the importance of the criteria. We propose the use of the Choquet integral for aggregating the scores. The Choquet integral considers the interactions among criteria, i.e. whether they are independent, complementary to each other, or partially repetitive. We also evaluate the Shapley index, which demonstrates how the importance of a given piece of information may change if it is considered by itself or together with other available information. An illustrative example demonstrates how the Choquet integral properly accounts for the presence of redundancy in two site-evaluation criteria, making the screening process more defensible than the standard weighted-average approach.

  6. Methods and apparatus for measurement of electronic properties of geological formations through borehole casing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, W.B. III.

    1989-11-21

    Methods and apparatus are provided for measuring electronic properties of geological formations and cement layers adjacent to cased boreholes including resistivities, polarization phenomena and dielectric constants. Current is passed from an electrode in electrical contact with the interior of the borehole casing to an electrode on the surface of the earth. At least three voltage measuring electrodes in electrical contact with the interior of the casing measure the voltage at various points thereon. The voltage differences between discrete pairs of the voltage measuring electrodes provide a measurement of differential current conducted into formation in the vicinity of those electrodes. These measurements facilitate calculation of the resistivities of the adjacent geological formations as well as an indication of whether cement is present. Measurements of the differential voltage response to transient currents provide a measurement of the polarization phenomena in formation as well as the capacitance of the casing in contact with the formation which is useful for determining whether oil and gas are present. Lithological characteristics of the formation such as the presence or absence of clay can also be determined. A calibration procedure is provided for minimizing errors induced by variations in the casing. The device also may be placed within the pipe attached to a drill bit while drilling open holes. 48 figs.

  7. Methods and apparatus for measurement of electronic properties of geological formations through borehole casing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, W.B. III.

    1991-08-27

    Methods and apparatus are provided for measuring electronic properties of geological formations and cement layers adjacent to cased boreholes including resistivities, polarization phenomena and dielectric constants. Current is passed from an electrode in electrical contact with the interior of the borehole casing to an electrode on the surface of the earth. At least three voltage measuring electrodes in electrical contact with the interior of the casing measure the voltage at various points thereon. The voltage differences between discrete pairs of the voltage measuring electrodes provide a measurement of the differential current conducted into the formation in the vicinity of those electrodes. These measurements facilitate calculation of the resistivities of the adjacent geological formations as well as an indication of whether cement is present. Measurements of the differential voltage response to transient currents provide a measurement of the polarization phenomena in formation as well as the capacitance of the casing in contact with the formation which is useful for determining whether oil and gas are present. Lithological characteristics of the formation such as the presence or absence of clay can also be determined. A calibration procedure is provided for minimizing errors induced by variations in the casing. The device also may be placed within the pipe attached to a drill bit while drilling open holes. 48 figures.

  8. Methods and apparatus for measurement of electronic properties of geological formations through borehole casing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, III, William B.

    1991-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for measuring electronic properties of geological formations and cement layers adjacent to cased boreholes including resistivities, polarization phenomena and dielectric constants. Current is passed from an electrode in electrical contact with the interior of the borehole casing to an electrode on the surface of the earth. At least three voltage measuring electrodes in electrical contact with the interior of the casing measure the voltage at various points thereon. The voltage differences between discrete pairs of the voltage measuring electrodes provide a measurement of the differential current conducted into formation in the vicinity of those electrodes. These measurements facilitate calculation of the resistivities of the adjacent geological formations as well as an indication of whether cement is present. Measurements of the differential voltage response to transient currents provide a measurement of the polarization phenomena in formation as well as the capacitance of the casing in contact with the formation which is useful for determining whether oil and gas present. Lithological characteristics of the formation such as the pressence or absence of clay can also be determined. A calibration procedure is provided for minimizing errors induced by variations in the casing. The device also may be placed within the pipe attached to a drill bit while drilling open holes.

  9. Methods and apparatus for measurement of electronic properties of geological formations through borehole casing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, III, William B.

    1989-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for measuring electronic properties of geological formations and cement layers adjacent to cased boreholes including resistivities, polarization phenomena and dielectric constants. Current is passed from an electrode in electrical contact with the interior of the borehole casing to an electrode on the surface of the earth. At least three voltage measuring electrodes in electrical contact with the interior of the casing measure the voltage at various points thereon. The voltage differences between discrete pairs of the voltage measuring electrodes provide a measurement of differential current conducted into formation in the vicinity of those electrodes. These measurements facilitate calculation of the resistivities of the adjacent geological formations as well as an indication of whether cement is present. Measurements of the differential voltage response to transient currents provide a measurement of the polarization phenomena in formation as well as the capacitance of the casing in contact with the formation which is useful for determining whether oil and gas are present. Lithological characteristics of the formation such as the presence or absence of clay can also be determined. A calibration procedure is provided for minimizing errors induced by variations in the casing. The device also may be placed within the pipe attached to a drill bit while drilling open holes.

  10. Methods and apparatus for measurement of the resistivity of geological formations from within cased boreholes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, III, William B.

    1989-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the resistivity of a geological formation through borehole casing which may be surrounded by brine saturated cement. A.C. current is passed from an electrode in electrical contact with the interior of the borehole casing to an electrode on the surface of the earth. The A.C. voltage difference is measured between two additional vertically disposed electrodes on the interior of the casing which provides a measure of the resistivity of the geological formation. A calibration and nulling procedure is presented which minimizes the influence of variations in the thickness of the casing. The procedure also minimizes the influence of inaccurate placements of the additional vertically disposed electrodes.

  11. Methods and apparatus for measurement of the resistivity of geological formations from within cased boreholes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, W.B. III.

    1989-04-11

    Methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the resistivity of a geological formation through borehole casing which may be surrounded by brine saturated cement. A.C. current is passed from an electrode in electrical contact with the interior of the borehole casing to an electrode on the surface of the earth. The A.C. voltage difference is measured between two additional vertically disposed electrodes on the interior of the casing which provides a measure of the resistivity of the geological formation. A calibration and nulling procedure is presented which minimizes the influence of variations in the thickness of the casing. The procedure also minimizes the influence of inaccurate placements of the additional vertically disposed electrodes. 3 figs.

  12. Numerical Modeling of CO2 Sequestration in Geologic Formations -Recent Results and Open Challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruess, Karsten

    2006-03-08

    Rising atmospheric concentrations of CO2, and their role inglobal warming, have prompted efforts to reduce emissions of CO2 fromburning of fossil fuels. An attractive mitigation option underconsideration in many countries is the injection of CO2 from stationarysources, such as fossil-fueled power plants, into deep, stable geologicformations, where it would be stored and kept out of the atmosphere fortime periods of hundreds to thousands of years or more. Potentialgeologic storage reservoirs include depleted or depleting oil and gasreservoirs, unmineable coal seams, and saline formations. While oil andgas reservoirs may provide some attractive early targets for CO2 storage,estimates for geographic regions worldwide have suggested that onlysaline formations would provide sufficient storage capacity tosubstantially impact atmospheric releases. This paper will focus on CO2storage in saline formations.Injection of CO2 into a saline aquifer willgive rise to immiscible displacement of brine by the advancing CO2. Thelower viscosity of CO2 relative to aqueous fluids provides a potentialfor hydrodynamic instabilities during the displacement process. Attypical subsurface conditions of temperature and pressure, CO2 is lessdense than aqueous fluids and is subject to upward buoyancy force inenvironments where pressures are controlled by an ambient aqueous phase.Thus CO2 would tend to rise towards the top of a permeable formation andaccumulate beneath the caprock. Some CO2 will also dissolve in theaqueous phase, while the CO2-rich phase may dissolve some formationwaters, which would tend to dry out the vicinity of the injection wells.CO2 will make formation waters more acidic, and will induce chemicalrections that may precipitate and dissolve mineral phases (Xu et al.,2004). As a consequence of CO2 injection, significant pressurization offormation fluids would occur over large areas. These pressurizationeffects will change effective stresses, and may cause movement alongfaults with associated seismicity and increases in permeability thatcould lead to leakage from the storage reservoir (Rutqvist and Tsang,2005).

  13. Vertical stratification of subsurface microbial community composition across geological formations at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Xueju; Kennedy, David W.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Konopka, Allan

    2012-02-01

    The microbial diversity in subsurface sediments at the Hanford Site's 300 Area in southeastern Washington State was investigated by analyzing 21 samples recovered from depths that ranged from 9 to 52 m. Approximately 8000 non-chimeric Bacterial and Archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences were analyzed across geological strata that contain a natural redox transition zone. These strata included the oxic coarse-grained Hanford formation, fine-grained oxic and anoxic Ringold Formation sediments, and the weathered basalt group. We detected 1233 and 120 unique bacterial and archaeal OTUs (Operational Taxonomic Units, defined at the 97% identity level). Microbial community structure and richness varied substantially across the different geological strata. Bacterial OTU richness (based upon Chao1 estimator) was highest (>700) in the upper Hanford formation, and declined to about 120 at the bottom of the Hanford formation. Just above the Ringold oxic-anoxic transition zone, richness was about 325 and declined to less than 50 in the deeper reduced zones. The Bacterial community in the oxic Hanford and Ringold Formations contained members of 9 major well-recognized phyla as well 30 as unusually high proportions of 3 candidate divisions (GAL15, NC10, and SPAM). The deeper Ringold strata were characterized by low OTU richness and a very high preponderance (ca. 90%) of Proteobacteria. The study has greatly expanded the intralineage phylogenetic diversity within some major divisions. These subsurface sediments have been shown to contain a large number of phylogenetically novel microbes, with substantial heterogeneities between sediment samples from the same geological formation.

  14. Active Management of Integrated Geothermal-CO2 Storage Reservoirs in Sedimentary Formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buscheck, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Active Management of Integrated GeothermalCO2 Storage Reservoirs in Sedimentary Formations: An Approach to Improve Energy Recovery and Mitigate Risk : FY1 Final Report The purpose of phase 1 is to determine the feasibility of integrating geologic CO2 storage (GCS) with geothermal energy production. Phase 1 includes reservoir analyses to determine injector/producer well schemes that balance the generation of economically useful flow rates at the producers with the need to manage reservoir overpressure to reduce the risks associated with overpressure, such as induced seismicity and CO2 leakage to overlying aquifers. This submittal contains input and output files of the reservoir model analyses. A reservoir-model "index-html" file was sent in a previous submittal to organize the reservoir-model input and output files according to sections of the FY1 Final Report to which they pertain. The recipient should save the file: Reservoir-models-inputs-outputs-index.html in the same directory that the files: Section2.1.*.tar.gz files are saved in.

  15. The geomechanics of CO{sub 2} storage in deep sedimentary formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutqvist, J.

    2011-11-01

    This paper provides a review of the geomechanics and modeling of geomechanics associated with geologic carbon storage (GCS), focusing on storage in deep sedimentary formations, in particular saline aquifers. The paper first introduces the concept of storage in deep sedimentary formations, the geomechanical processes and issues related with such an operation, and the relevant geomechanical modeling tools. This is followed by a more detailed review of geomechanical aspects, including reservoir stress-strain and microseismicity, well integrity, caprock sealing performance, and the potential for fault reactivation and notable (felt) seismic events. Geomechanical observations at current GCS field deployments, mainly at the In Salah CO2 storage project in Algeria, are also integrated into the review. The In Salah project, with its injection into a relatively thin, low-permeability sandstone is an excellent analogue to the saline aquifers that might be used for large scale GCS in parts of Northwest Europe, the U.S. Midwest, and China. Some of the lessons learned at In Salah related to geomechanics are discussed, including how monitoring of geomechanical responses is used for detecting subsurface geomechanical changes and tracking fluid movements, and how such monitoring and geomechanical analyses have led to preventative changes in the injection parameters. Recently, the importance of geomechanics has become more widely recognized among GCS stakeholders, especially with respect to the potential for triggering notable (felt) seismic events and how such events could impact the long-term integrity of a CO{sub 2} repository (as well as how it could impact the public perception of GCS). As described in the paper, to date, no notable seismic event has been reported from any of the current CO{sub 2} storage projects, although some unfelt microseismic activities have been detected by geophones. However, potential future commercial GCS operations from large power plants will require injection at a much larger scale. For such largescale injections, a staged, learn-as-you-go approach is recommended, involving a gradual increase of injection rates combined with continuous monitoring of geomechanical changes, as well as siting beneath a multiple layered overburden for multiple flow barrier protection, should an unexpected deep fault reactivation occur.

  16. Estimating the supply and demand for deep geologic CO2 storage capacity over the course of the 21st Century: A meta-analysis of the literature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooley, James J.

    2013-08-05

    Whether there is sufficient geologic CO2 storage capacity to allow CCS to play a significant role in mitigating climate change has been the subject of debate since the 1990s. This paper presents a meta- analysis of a large body of recently published literature to derive updated estimates of the global deep geologic storage resource as well as the potential demand for this geologic CO2 storage resource over the course of this century. This analysis reveals that, for greenhouse gas emissions mitigation scenarios that have end-of-century atmospheric CO2 concentrations of between 350 ppmv and 725 ppmv, the average demand for deep geologic CO2 storage over the course of this century is between 410 GtCO2 and 1,670 GtCO2. The literature summarized here suggests that -- depending on the stringency of criteria applied to calculate storage capacity global geologic CO2 storage capacity could be: 35,300 GtCO2 of theoretical capacity; 13,500 GtCO2 of effective capacity; 3,900 GtCO2, of practical capacity; and 290 GtCO2 of matched capacity for the few regions where this narrow definition of capacity has been calculated. The cumulative demand for geologic CO2 storage is likely quite small compared to global estimates of the deep geologic CO2 storage capacity, and therefore, a lack of deep geologic CO2 storage capacity is unlikely to be an impediment for the commercial adoption of CCS technologies in this century.

  17. Vertical stratification of subsurface microbial community composition across geological formations at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Xueju; Kennedy, David W.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Konopka, Allan

    2011-11-29

    Microbial diversity in subsurface sediments at the Hanford Site 300 Area near Richland, Washington State (USA) was investigated by analyzing samples recovered from depths of 9 to 52 m. Approximately 8000 near full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences were analyzed across geological strata that include a natural redox transition zone. These strata included the oxic coarse-grained Hanford formation, fine-grained oxic and anoxic Ringold Formation sediments, and the weathered basalt group. We detected 1233 and 120 unique bacterial and archaeal OTUs (Operational Taxonomic Units at the 97% identity level), respectively. Microbial community structure and richness varied substantially across the different geological strata. Bacterial OTU richness (Chao1 estimator) was highest (>700) in the upper Hanford formation, and declined to about 120 at the bottom of the Hanford formation. Just above the Ringold oxic-anoxic interface, richness was about 325 and declined to less than 50 in the deeper reduced zones. The deeper Ringold strata were characterized by a preponderance (ca. 90%) of Proteobacteria. The Bacterial community in the oxic sediments contained not only members of 9 well-recognized phyla but also an unusually high proportion of 3 candidate divisions (GAL15, NC10, and SPAM). Additionally, novel phylogenetic orders were identified within the Delta-proteobacteria, a clade rich in microbes that carry out redox transformations of metals that are important contaminants on the Hanford Site.

  18. Intermediate Scale Laboratory Testing to Understand Mechanisms of Capillary and Dissolution Trapping during Injection and Post-Injection of CO2 in Heterogeneous Geological Formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Illangasekare, Tissa; Trevisan, Luca; Agartan, Elif; Mori, Hiroko; Vargas-Johnson, Javier; Gonzalez-Nicolas, Ana; Cihan, Abdullah; Birkholzer, Jens; Zhou, Quanlin

    2015-03-31

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) represents a technology aimed to reduce atmospheric loading of CO2 from power plants and heavy industries by injecting it into deep geological formations, such as saline aquifers. A number of trapping mechanisms contribute to effective and secure storage of the injected CO2 in supercritical fluid phase (scCO2) in the formation over the long term. The primary trapping mechanisms are structural, residual, dissolution and mineralization. Knowledge gaps exist on how the heterogeneity of the formation manifested at all scales from the pore to the site scales affects trapping and parameterization of contributing mechanisms in models. An experimental and modeling study was conducted to fill these knowledge gaps. Experimental investigation of fundamental processes and mechanisms in field settings is not possible as it is not feasible to fully characterize the geologic heterogeneity at all relevant scales and gathering data on migration, trapping and dissolution of scCO2. Laboratory experiments using scCO2 under ambient conditions are also not feasible as it is technically challenging and cost prohibitive to develop large, two- or three-dimensional test systems with controlled high pressures to keep the scCO2 as a liquid. Hence, an innovative approach that used surrogate fluids in place of scCO2 and formation brine in multi-scale, synthetic aquifers test systems ranging in scales from centimeter to meter scale developed used. New modeling algorithms were developed to capture the processes controlled by the formation heterogeneity, and they were tested using the data from the laboratory test systems. The results and findings are expected to contribute toward better conceptual models, future improvements to DOE numerical codes, more accurate assessment of storage capacities, and optimized placement strategies. This report presents the experimental and modeling methods and research results.

  19. Method of detecting leakage from geologic formations used to sequester CO.sub.2

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, Curt; Wells, Arthur; Diehl, J. Rodney; Strazisar, Brian

    2010-04-27

    The invention provides methods for the measurement of carbon dioxide leakage from sequestration reservoirs. Tracer moieties are injected along with carbon dioxide into geological formations. Leakage is monitored by gas chromatographic analyses of absorbents. The invention also provides a process for the early leak detection of possible carbon dioxide leakage from sequestration reservoirs by measuring methane (CH.sub.4), ethane (C.sub.2H.sub.6), propane (C.sub.3H.sub.8), and/or radon (Rn) leakage rates from the reservoirs. The invention further provides a method for branding sequestered carbon dioxide using perfluorcarbon tracers (PFTs) to show ownership.

  20. Simulating Geologic Co-sequestration of Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen Sulfide in a Basalt Formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bacon, Diana H.; Ramanathan, Ramya; Schaef, Herbert T.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2014-01-15

    Co-sequestered CO2 with H2S impurities could affect geologic storage, causing changes in pH and oxidation state that affect mineral dissolution and precipitation reactions and the mobility of metals present in the reservoir rocks. We have developed a variable component, non-isothermal simulator, STOMP-COMP (Water, Multiple Components, Salt and Energy), which simulates multiphase flow gas mixtures in deep saline reservoirs, and the resulting reactions with reservoir minerals. We use this simulator to model the co-injection of CO2 and H2S into brecciated basalt flow top. A 1000 metric ton injection of these supercritical fluids, with 99% CO2 and 1% H2S, is sequestered rapidly by solubility and mineral trapping. CO2 is trapped mainly as calcite within a few decades and H2S is trapped as pyrite within several years.

  1. New Natural Gas Storage and Transportation Capabilities Utilizing Rapid Methane Hydrate Formation Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, T.D.; Taylor, C.E.; Bernardo, M.

    2010-01-01

    Natural gas (methane as the major component) is a vital fossil fuel for the United States and around the world. One of the problems with some of this natural gas is that it is in remote areas where there is little or no local use for the gas. Nearly 50 percent worldwide natural gas reserves of ~6,254.4 trillion ft3 (tcf) is considered as stranded gas, with 36 percent or ~86 tcf of the U.S natural gas reserves totaling ~239 tcf, as stranded gas [1] [2]. The worldwide total does not include the new estimates by U.S. Geological Survey of 1,669 tcf of natural gas north of the Arctic Circle, [3] and the U.S. ~200,000 tcf of natural gas or methane hydrates, most of which are stranded gas reserves. Domestically and globally there is a need for newer and more economic storage, transportation and processing capabilities to deliver the natural gas to markets. In order to bring this resource to market, one of several expensive methods must be used: 1. Construction and operation of a natural gas pipeline 2. Construction of a storage and compression facility to compress the natural gas (CNG) at 3,000 to 3,600 psi, increasing its energy density to a point where it is more economical to ship, or 3. Construction of a cryogenic liquefaction facility to produce LNG, (requiring cryogenic temperatures at <-161 C) and construction of a cryogenic receiving port. Each of these options for the transport requires large capital investment along with elaborate safety systems. The Department of Energy's Office of Research and Development Laboratories at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is investigating new and novel approaches for rapid and continuous formation and production of synthetic NGHs. These synthetic hydrates can store up to 164 times their volume in gas while being maintained at 1 atmosphere and between -10 to -20C for several weeks. Owing to these properties, new process for the economic storage and transportation of these synthetic hydrates could be envisioned for stranded gas reserves. The recent experiments and their results from the testing within NETL's 15-Liter Hydrate Cell Facility exhibit promising results. Introduction of water at the desired temperature and pressure through an NETL designed nozzle into a temperature controlled methane environment within the 15-Liter Hydrate Cell allowed for instantaneous formation of methane hydrates. The instantaneous and continuous hydrate formation process was repeated over several days while varying the flow rate of water, its' temperature, and the overall temperature of the methane environment. These results clearly indicated that hydrates formed immediately after the methane and water left the nozzle at temperatures above the freezing point of water throughout the range of operating conditions. [1] Oil and Gas Journal Vol. 160.48, Dec 22, 2008. [2] http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/servicerpt/natgas/chapter3.html and http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/servicerpt/natgas/pdf/tbl7.pdf [3] U.S. Geological Survey, Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal: Estimates of Undiscovered Oil and Gas North of the Arctic Circle, May 2008.

  2. Research project on CO2 geological storage and groundwaterresources: Large-scale hydrological evaluation and modeling of impact ongroundwater systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birkholzer, Jens; Zhou, Quanlin; Rutqvist, Jonny; Jordan,Preston; Zhang,K.; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2007-10-24

    If carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies areimplemented on a large scale, the amounts of CO2 injected and sequesteredunderground could be extremely large. The stored CO2 then replaces largevolumes of native brine, which can cause considerable pressureperturbation and brine migration in the deep saline formations. Ifhydraulically communicating, either directly via updipping formations orthrough interlayer pathways such as faults or imperfect seals, theseperturbations may impact shallow groundwater or even surface waterresources used for domestic or commercial water supply. Possibleenvironmental concerns include changes in pressure and water table,changes in discharge and recharge zones, as well as changes in waterquality. In compartmentalized formations, issues related to large-scalepressure buildup and brine displacement may also cause storage capacityproblems, because significant pressure buildup can be produced. Toaddress these issues, a three-year research project was initiated inOctober 2006, the first part of which is summarized in this annualreport.

  3. Alabama Injection Project Aimed at Enhanced Oil Recovery, Testing Important Geologic CO2 Storage

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Carbon dioxide injection -- an important part of carbon capture and storage technology -- is underway as part of a pilot study of CO2 enhanced oil recovery in the Citronelle Field of Mobile County, Alabama.

  4. Investigating the Fundamental Scientific Issues Affecting the Long-term Geologic Storage of Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spangler, Lee; Cunningham, Alfred; Barnhart, Elliot; Lageson, David; Nall, Anita; Dobeck, Laura; Repasky, Kevin; Shaw, Joseph; Nugent, Paul; Johnson, Jennifer; Hogan, Justin; Codd, Sarah; Bray, Joshua; Prather, Cody; McGrail, B.; Oldenburg, Curtis; Wagoner, Jeff; Pawar, Rajesh

    2014-12-19

    The Zero Emissions Research and Technology (ZERT) collaborative was formed to address basic science and engineering knowledge gaps relevant to geologic carbon sequestration. The original funding round of ZERT (ZERT I) identified and addressed many of these gaps. ZERT II has focused on specific science and technology areas identified in ZERT I that showed strong promise and needed greater effort to fully develop.

  5. The Potential for Increased Atmospheric CO2 Emissions and Accelerated Consumption of Deep Geologic CO2 Storage Resources Resulting from the Large-Scale Deployment of a CCS-Enabled Unconventional Fossil Fuels Industry in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.

    2009-11-02

    Desires to enhance the energy security of the United States have spurred significant interest in the development of abundant domestic heavy hydrocarbon resources including oil shale and coal to produce unconventional liquid fuels to supplement conventional oil supplies. However, the production processes for these unconventional fossil fuels create large quantities of carbon dioxide (CO2) and this remains one of the key arguments against such development. Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies could reduce these emissions and preliminary analysis of regional CO2 storage capacity in locations where such facilities might be sited within the U.S. indicates that there appears to be sufficient storage capacity, primarily in deep saline formations, to accommodate the CO2 from these industries. Nevertheless, even assuming wide-scale availability of cost-effective CO2 capture and geologic storage resources, the emergence of a domestic U.S. oil shale or coal-to-liquids (CTL) industry would be responsible for significant increases in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. The authors present modeling results of two future hypothetical climate policy scenarios that indicate that the oil shale production facilities required to produce 3MMB/d from the Eocene Green River Formation of the western U.S. using an in situ retorting process would result in net emissions to the atmosphere of between 3000-7000 MtCO2, in addition to storing potentially 900-5000 MtCO2 in regional deep geologic formations via CCS in the period up to 2050. A similarly sized, but geographically more dispersed domestic CTL industry could result in 4000-5000 MtCO2 emitted to the atmosphere in addition to potentially 21,000-22,000 MtCO2 stored in regional deep geologic formations over the same period. While this analysis shows that there is likely adequate CO2 storage capacity in the regions where these technologies are likely to deploy, the reliance by these industries on large-scale CCS could result in an accelerated rate of utilization of the nations CO2 storage resource, leaving less high-quality storage capacity for other carbon-producing industries including electric power generation.

  6. Research Project on CO2 Geological Storage and Groundwater Resources: Water Quality Effects Caused by CO2 Intrusion into Shallow Groundwater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birkholzer, Jens; Apps, John; Zheng, Liange; Zhang, Yingqi; Xu, Tianfu; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2008-10-01

    One promising approach to reduce greenhouse gas emissions is injecting CO{sub 2} into suitable geologic formations, typically depleted oil/gas reservoirs or saline formations at depth larger than 800 m. Proper site selection and management of CO{sub 2} storage projects will ensure that the risks to human health and the environment are low. However, a risk remains that CO{sub 2} could migrate from a deep storage formation, e.g. via local high-permeability pathways such as permeable faults or degraded wells, and arrive in shallow groundwater resources. The ingress of CO{sub 2} is by itself not typically a concern to the water quality of an underground source of drinking water (USDW), but it will change the geochemical conditions in the aquifer and will cause secondary effects mainly induced by changes in pH, in particular the mobilization of hazardous inorganic constituents present in the aquifer minerals. Identification and assessment of these potential effects is necessary to analyze risks associated with geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. This report describes a systematic evaluation of the possible water quality changes in response to CO{sub 2} intrusion into aquifers currently used as sources of potable water in the United States. Our goal was to develop a general understanding of the potential vulnerability of United States potable groundwater resources in the event of CO{sub 2} leakage. This goal was achieved in two main tasks, the first to develop a comprehensive geochemical model representing typical conditions in many freshwater aquifers (Section 3), the second to conduct a systematic reactive-transport modeling study to quantify the effect of CO{sub 2} intrusion into shallow aquifers (Section 4). Via reactive-transport modeling, the amount of hazardous constituents potentially mobilized by the ingress of CO{sub 2} was determined, the fate and migration of these constituents in the groundwater was predicted, and the likelihood that drinking water standards might be exceeded was evaluated. A variety of scenarios and aquifer conditions was considered in a sensitivity evaluation. The scenarios and conditions simulated in Section 4, in particular those describing the geochemistry and mineralogy of potable aquifers, were selected based on the comprehensive geochemical model developed in Section 3.

  7. sRecovery Act: Geologic Characterization of the South Georgia Rift Basin for Source Proximal CO2 Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waddell, Michael

    2014-09-30

    This study focuses on evaluating the feasibility and suitability of using the Jurassic/Triassic (J/TR) sediments of the South Georgia Rift basin (SGR) for CO2 storage in southern South Carolina and southern Georgia The SGR basin in South Carolina (SC), prior to this project, was one of the least understood rift basin along the east coast of the U.S. In the SC part of the basin there was only one well (Norris Lightsey #1) the penetrated into J/TR. Because of the scarcity of data, a scaled approach used to evaluate the feasibility of storing CO2 in the SGR basin. In the SGR basin, 240 km (~149 mi) of 2-D seismic and 2.6 km2 3-D (1 mi2) seismic data was collected, process, and interpreted in SC. In southern Georgia 81.3 km (~50.5 mi) consisting of two 2-D seismic lines were acquired, process, and interpreted. Seismic analysis revealed that the SGR basin in SC has had a very complex structural history resulting the J/TR section being highly faulted. The seismic data is southern Georgia suggest SGR basin has not gone through a complex structural history as the study area in SC. The project drilled one characterization borehole (Rizer # 1) in SC. The Rizer #1 was drilled but due to geologic problems, the project team was only able to drill to 1890 meters (6200 feet) instead of the proposed final depth 2744 meters (9002 feet). The drilling goals outlined in the original scope of work were not met. The project was only able to obtain 18 meters (59 feet) of conventional core and 106 rotary sidewall cores. All the conventional core and sidewall cores were in sandstone. We were unable to core any potential igneous caprock. Petrographic analysis of the conventional core and sidewall cores determined that the average porosity of the sedimentary material was 3.4% and the average permeability was 0.065 millidarcy. Compaction and diagenetic studies of the samples determined there would not be any porosity or permeability at depth in SC. In Georgia there appears to be porosity in the J/TR section based on neutron log porosity values. The only zones in Rizer #1 that appear to be porous were fractured diabase units where saline formation water was flowing into the borehole. Two geocellular models were created for the SC and GA study area. Flow simulation modeling was performed on the SC data set. The injection simulation used the newly acquired basin data as well as the Petrel 3-D geologic model that included geologic structure. Due to the new basin findings as a result of the newly acquired data, during phase two of the modeling the diabase unit was used as reservoir and the sandstone units were used as caprock. Conclusion are: 1) the SGR basin is composed of numerous sub-basins, 2) this study only looked at portions of two sub-basins, 3) in SC, 30 million tonnes of CO2 can be injected into the diabase units if the fracture network is continuous through the units, 4) due to the severity of the faulting there is no way of assuring the injected CO2 will not migrate upward into the overlying Coastal Plain aquifers, 5) in Georgia there appears to porous zones in the J/TR sandstones, 6) as in SC there is faulting in the sub-basin and the seismic suggest the faulting extends upward into the Coastal Plain making that area not suitable for CO2 sequestration, 7) the complex faulting observed at both study areas appear to be associated with transfer fault zones (Heffner 2013), if sub-basins in the Georgia portion of the SGR basin can be located that are far away from the transfer fault zones there is a strong possibility of sequestering CO2 in these areas, and 9) the SGR basin covers area in three states and this project only studied two small areas so there is enormous potential for CO2 sequestration in other portions the basin and further research needs to be done to find these areas.

  8. Sensitivity of storage field performance to geologic and cavern design parameters in salt domes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Park, Byoung Yoon

    2009-03-01

    A sensitivity study was performed utilizing a three dimensional finite element model to assess allowable cavern field sizes for strategic petroleum reserve salt domes. A potential exists for tensile fracturing and dilatancy damage to salt that can compromise the integrity of a cavern field in situations where high extraction ratios exist. The effects of salt creep rate, depth of salt dome top, dome size, caprock thickness, elastic moduli of caprock and surrounding rock, lateral stress ratio of surrounding rock, cavern size, depth of cavern, and number of caverns are examined numerically. As a result, a correlation table between the parameters and the impact on the performance of storage field was established. In general, slower salt creep rates, deeper depth of salt dome top, larger elastic moduli of caprock and surrounding rock, and a smaller radius of cavern are better for structural performance of the salt dome.

  9. Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Through Formation of C-H Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Through Formation of C-H Bonds Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Through Formation of C-H Bonds Print Wednesday, 28 June 2006 00:00 Two of the major challenges for humanity in the next 20 years are the shrinking availability of fossil fuels and the global warming and potential climate changes that result from their ever-increasing use. One possible solution to these problems is to use an energy carrier such as hydrogen, and ways to produce and store

  10. Geo-Chemo-Mechanical Studies for Permanent CO{sub 2} Storage in Geologic Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelemen, Peter; Park, Ah-hyung; Matter, Jurg; Gadikota, Greeshma; Lisabeth, Harrison; Zhu, Wenlu

    2013-09-30

    This two-pronged study investigated the rates and mechanisms of formation of Ca and Mg carbonate minerals via reaction of aqueous fluids with silicate minerals and rocks, and the geomechanical effects of such reactions. The kinetic studies focused on the separation of variables, following from previous studies demonstrating rapid formation of carbonates via reaction of the mineral olivine with aqueous fluids rich in NaHCO{sub 3} (plus KHCO{sub 3} and RbHCO{sub 3}) and NaCl at a high partial pressure of CO{sub 2}. We wished to separate and quantify the effects of NaHCO{sub 3} and NaCl, and to investigate whether bicarbonate-rich, aqueous fluids would also cause rapid formation of carbonates via reaction with other minerals and rocks. Further, we wished to improve upon previous work by adding precise characterization of grain size distributions and surface area, and their changes as a result of reaction. We confirmed previous reports of very rapid olivine carbonation. We found that at a given temperature and CO{sub 2} partial pressure the previously observed rate enhancement in olivine carbonation is due mainly to NaHCO{sub 3}, and not to dissolved NaCl. Further, though reaction of the mineral plagioclase, and two rock compositions, were all faster in the presence of NaHCO{sub 3}-rich fluids, compared with saline and de-ionized water, they were all much slower than reaction of olivine. In the experiments showing the fastest reaction rate, average grain size tended to increase during experiments, presumably due to dissolution of small reactant grains plus growth of product phases on reactant surfaces. Porosity/surface area of grains tended to change with reaction progress, due to the formation of dissolution pits and irregular growth of product phases on reactant grain surfaces. Development of a passivating phase (e.g., a layer of silica) due to incongruent dissolution of solid reactants and/or precipitation of solid products was detected, but was relatively minor and did not have a discernable effect on reaction progress. Geomechanical experiments did not identify pressure-temperature-composition conditions under which porous olivine aggregates undergo reaction driven cracking. Little carbonate formed in these experiments. Though we fulfilled the milestones for this project, a variety of reasons for this remain to be investigated in the future. Reaction of porous olivine aggregates with brines rich in NaHCO{sub 3} caused substantial weakening of samples in compression, due to formation of dissolution pits along olivine-olivine grain boundaries, reducing the solid-solid surface area. A preliminary modeling study funded in part by this grant emphasized potential rate enhancements due to reaction-driven cracking. In related research, not funded by this grant, several additional experimental and modeling studies of reaction-driven cracking are underway.

  11. Developing a Comprehensive Risk Assessment Framework for Geological Storage CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duncan, Ian

    2014-08-31

    The operational risks for CCS projects include: risks of capturing, compressing, transporting and injecting CO₂; risks of well blowouts; risk that CO₂ will leak into shallow aquifers and contaminate potable water; and risk that sequestered CO₂ will leak into the atmosphere. This report examines these risks by using information on the risks associated with analogue activities such as CO2 based enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR), natural gas storage and acid gas disposal. We have developed a new analysis of pipeline risk based on Bayesian statistical analysis. Bayesian theory probabilities may describe states of partial knowledge, even perhaps those related to non-repeatable events. The Bayesian approach enables both utilizing existing data and at the same time having the capability to adsorb new information thus to lower uncertainty in our understanding of complex systems. Incident rates for both natural gas and CO2 pipelines have been widely used in papers and reports on risk of CO2 pipelines as proxies for the individual risk created by such pipelines. Published risk studies of CO2 pipelines suggest that the individual risk associated with CO2 pipelines is between 10-3 and 10-4, which reflects risk levels approaching those of mountain climbing, which many would find unacceptably high. This report concludes, based on a careful analysis of natural gas pipeline failures, suggests that the individual risk of CO2 pipelines is likely in the range of 10-6 to 10-7, a risk range considered in the acceptable to negligible range in most countries. If, as is commonly thought, pipelines represent the highest risk component of CCS outside of the capture plant, then this conclusion suggests that most (if not all) previous quantitative- risk assessments of components of CCS may be orders of magnitude to high. The potential lethality of unexpected CO2 releases from pipelines or wells are arguably the highest risk aspects of CO2 enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR), carbon capture, and storage (CCS). Assertions in the CCS literature, that CO2 levels of 10% for ten minutes, or 20 to 30% for a few minutes are lethal to humans, are not supported by the available evidence. The results of published experiments with animals exposed to CO2, from mice to monkeys, at both normal and depleted oxygen levels, suggest that lethal levels of CO2 toxicity are in the range 50 to 60%. These experiments demonstrate that CO2 does not kill by asphyxia, but rather is toxic at high concentrations. It is concluded that quantitative risk assessments of CCS have overestimated the risk of fatalities by using values of lethality a factor two to six lower than the values estimated in this paper. In many dispersion models of CO2 releases from pipelines, no fatalities would be predicted if appropriate levels of lethality for CO2 had been used in the analysis.

  12. Remote sensing of fugitive methane emissions from oil and gas production in North American tight geologic formations

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Earth's Future Remote sensing of fugitive methane emissions from oil and gas production in North American tight geologic formations Oliver Schneising 1 , John P. Burrows 1,2,3 , Russell R. Dickerson 2 , Michael Buchwitz 1 , Maximilian Reuter 1 , and Heinrich Bovensmann 1 1 Institute of Environmental Physics (IUP), University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany, 2 Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, USA, 3 NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology,

  13. Carbon Storage R&D | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    R&D Carbon Storage R&D Carbon dioxide storage in geologic formations includes oil and gas reservoirs, unmineable coal seams, and deep saline reservoirs. These are structures that have stored crude oil, natural gas, brine and CO2 over millions of years. The primary goal of our carbon storage research is to understand the behavior of CO2 when stored in geologic formations. For example, studies are being conducted to determine the extent to which the CO2 moves within the geologic formation,

  14. CO{sub 2} Geologic Storage: Coupled Hydro-Chemo-Thermo-Mechanical Phenomena - From Pore-scale Processes to Macroscale Implications -

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santamarina, J. Carlos

    2013-05-31

    Global energy consumption will increase in the next decades and it is expected to largely rely on fossil fuels. The use of fossil fuels is intimately related to CO{sub 2} emissions and the potential for global warming. Geological CO{sub 2} storage aims to mitigate the global warming problem by sequestering CO{sub 2} underground. Coupled hydro-chemo-mechanical phenomena determine the successful operation and long term stability of CO{sub 2} geological storage. This research explores coupled phenomena, identifies different zones in the storage reservoir, and investigates their implications in CO{sub 2} geological storage. In particular, the research: Explores spatial patterns in mineral dissolution and precipitation (comprehensive mass balance formulation); experimentally determines the interfacial properties of water, mineral, and CO{sub 2} systems (including CO{sub 2}-water-surfactant mixtures to reduce the CO{sub 2}- water interfacial tension in view of enhanced sweep efficiency); analyzes the interaction between clay particles and CO{sub 2}, and the response of sediment layers to the presence of CO{sub 2} using specially designed experimental setups and complementary analyses; couples advective and diffusive mass transport of species, together with mineral dissolution to explore pore changes during advection of CO{sub 2}-dissolved water along a rock fracture; upscales results to a porous medium using pore network simulations; measures CO{sub 2} breakthrough in highly compacted fine-grained sediments, shale and cement specimens; explores sealing strategies; and experimentally measures CO{sub 2}-CH{sub 4} replacement in hydrate-bearing sediments during. Analytical, experimental and numerical results obtained in this study can be used to identify optimal CO{sub 2} injection and reservoir-healing strategies to maximize the efficiency of CO{sub 2} injection and to attain long-term storage.

  15. Geological parameters used to determine the low enthalpy geothermal potential of sedimentary formations in France

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maget, Ph.; Housse, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    The determination of low enthalpy geothermal potential in sedimentary formations and its exploitation require the solution of two different problems, depending on whether the formations under consideration are calcareous or detrital.

  16. Active Management of Integrated Geothermal-CO2 Storage Reservoirs in Sedimentary Formations

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Buscheck, Thomas A.

    The purpose of phase 1 is to determine the feasibility of integrating geologic CO2 storage (GCS) with geothermal energy production. Phase 1 includes reservoir analyses to determine injector/producer well schemes that balance the generation of economically useful flow rates at the producers with the need to manage reservoir overpressure to reduce the risks associated with overpressure, such as induced seismicity and CO2 leakage to overlying aquifers. This submittal contains input and output files of the reservoir model analyses. A reservoir-model "index-html" file was sent in a previous submittal to organize the reservoir-model input and output files according to sections of the FY1 Final Report to which they pertain. The recipient should save the file: Reservoir-models-inputs-outputs-index.html in the same directory that the files: Section2.1.*.tar.gz files are saved in.

  17. Active Management of Integrated Geothermal-CO2 Storage Reservoirs in Sedimentary Formations

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Buscheck, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of phase 1 is to determine the feasibility of integrating geologic CO2 storage (GCS) with geothermal energy production. Phase 1 includes reservoir analyses to determine injector/producer well schemes that balance the generation of economically useful flow rates at the producers with the need to manage reservoir overpressure to reduce the risks associated with overpressure, such as induced seismicity and CO2 leakage to overlying aquifers. This submittal contains input and output files of the reservoir model analyses. A reservoir-model "index-html" file was sent in a previous submittal to organize the reservoir-model input and output files according to sections of the FY1 Final Report to which they pertain. The recipient should save the file: Reservoir-models-inputs-outputs-index.html in the same directory that the files: Section2.1.*.tar.gz files are saved in.

  18. Active Management of Integrated Geothermal-CO2 Storage Reservoirs in Sedimentary Formations

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Buscheck, Thomas A.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of phase 1 is to determine the feasibility of integrating geologic CO2 storage (GCS) with geothermal energy production. Phase 1 includes reservoir analyses to determine injector/producer well schemes that balance the generation of economically useful flow rates at the producers with the need to manage reservoir overpressure to reduce the risks associated with overpressure, such as induced seismicity and CO2 leakage to overlying aquifers. This submittal contains input and output files of the reservoir model analyses. A reservoir-model "index-html" file was sent in a previous submittal to organize the reservoir-model input and output files according to sections of the FY1 Final Report to which they pertain. The recipient should save the file: Reservoir-models-inputs-outputs-index.html in the same directory that the files: Section2.1.*.tar.gz files are saved in.

  19. GEOLOGIC CHARACTERIZATION AND CARBON STORAGE RESOURCE ESTIMATES FOR THE KNOX GROUP, ILLINOIS BASIN, ILLINOIS, INDIANA, AND KENTUCKY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, David; Ellett, Kevin; Rupp, John; Leetaru, Hannes

    2014-09-30

    Research documented in this report includes (1) refinement and standardization of regional stratigraphy across the 3-state study area in Illinois, Indiana, and Kentucky, (2) detailed core description and sedimentological interpretion of Knox cores from five wells in western Kentucky, and (3) a detailed calculation of carbon storage volumetrics for the Knox using three different methodologies. Seven regional cross sections document Knox formation distribution and thickness. Uniform stratigraphic nomenclature for all three states helps to resolve state-to-state differences that previously made it difficult to evaluate the Knox on a basin-wide scale. Correlations have also refined the interpretation of an important sandstone reservoir interval in southern Indiana and western Kentucky. This sandstone, a CO2 injection zone in the KGS 1 Blan well, is correlated with the New Richmond Sandstone of Illinois. This sandstone is over 350 ft (107 m) thick in parts of southern Indiana. It has excellent porosity and permeability at sufficient depths, and provides an additional sequestration target in the Knox. The New Richmond sandstone interval has higher predictability than vuggy and fractured carbonates, and will be easier to model and monitor CO2 movement after injection.

  20. Regional geological assessment of the Devonian-Mississippian shale sequence of the Appalachian, Illinois, and Michigan basins relative to potential storage/disposal of radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lomenick, T.F.; Gonzales, S.; Johnson, K.S.; Byerly, D.

    1983-01-01

    The thick and regionally extensive sequence of shales and associated clastic sedimentary rocks of Late Devonian and Early Mississippian age has been considered among the nonsalt geologies for deep subsurface containment of high-level radioactive wastes. This report examines some of the regional and basin-specific characteristics of the black and associated nonblack shales of this sequence within the Appalachian, Illinois, and Michigan basins of the north-central and eastern United States. Principal areas where the thickness and depth of this shale sequence are sufficient to warrant further evaluation are identified, but no attempt is made to identify specific storage/disposal sites. Also identified are other areas with less promise for further study because of known potential conflicts such as geologic-hydrologic factors, competing subsurface priorities involving mineral resources and groundwater, or other parameters. Data have been compiled for each basin in an effort to indicate thickness, distribution, and depth relationships for the entire shale sequence as well as individual shale units in the sequence. Included as parts of this geologic assessment are isopach, depth information, structure contour, tectonic elements, and energy-resource maps covering the three basins. Summary evaluations are given for each basin as well as an overall general evaluation of the waste storage/disposal potential of the Devonian-Mississippian shale sequence,including recommendations for future studies to more fully characterize the shale sequence for that purpose. Based on data compiled in this cursory investigation, certain rock units have reasonable promise for radioactive waste storage/disposal and do warrant additional study.

  1. Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Through Formation of C-H Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Through Formation of C-H Bonds Print Two of the major challenges for humanity in the next 20 years are the shrinking availability of fossil fuels and the global warming and potential climate changes that result from their ever-increasing use. One possible solution to these problems is to use an energy carrier such as hydrogen, and ways to produce and store hydrogen in electric power plants and vehicles is a major research focus for materials scientists and

  2. Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Through Formation of C-H Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Through Formation of C-H Bonds Print Two of the major challenges for humanity in the next 20 years are the shrinking availability of fossil fuels and the global warming and potential climate changes that result from their ever-increasing use. One possible solution to these problems is to use an energy carrier such as hydrogen, and ways to produce and store hydrogen in electric power plants and vehicles is a major research focus for materials scientists and

  3. Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Through Formation of C-H Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Through Formation of C-H Bonds Print Two of the major challenges for humanity in the next 20 years are the shrinking availability of fossil fuels and the global warming and potential climate changes that result from their ever-increasing use. One possible solution to these problems is to use an energy carrier such as hydrogen, and ways to produce and store hydrogen in electric power plants and vehicles is a major research focus for materials scientists and

  4. Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Through Formation of C-H Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Through Formation of C-H Bonds Print Two of the major challenges for humanity in the next 20 years are the shrinking availability of fossil fuels and the global warming and potential climate changes that result from their ever-increasing use. One possible solution to these problems is to use an energy carrier such as hydrogen, and ways to produce and store hydrogen in electric power plants and vehicles is a major research focus for materials scientists and

  5. Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Through Formation of C-H Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Through Formation of C-H Bonds Print Two of the major challenges for humanity in the next 20 years are the shrinking availability of fossil fuels and the global warming and potential climate changes that result from their ever-increasing use. One possible solution to these problems is to use an energy carrier such as hydrogen, and ways to produce and store hydrogen in electric power plants and vehicles is a major research focus for materials scientists and

  6. Geological Sequestration of CO2 by Hydrous Carbonate Formation with Reclaimed Slag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Von L. Richards; Kent Peaslee; Jeffrey Smith

    2008-02-06

    The concept of this project is to develop a process that improves the kinetics of the hydrous carbonate formation reaction enabling steelmakers to directly remove CO2 from their furnace exhaust gas. It is proposed to bring the furnace exhaust stream containing CO2 in contact with reclaimed steelmaking slag in a reactor that has an environment near the unit activity of water resulting in the production of carbonates. The CO2 emissions from the plant would be reduced by the amount sequestered in the formation of carbonates. The main raw materials for the process are furnace exhaust gases and specially prepared slag.

  7. Inventory of Shale Formations in the US, Including Geologic, Hydrological, and Mechanical Characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dobson, Patrick; Houseworth, James

    2013-11-22

    The objective of this report is to build upon previous compilations of shale formations within many of the major sedimentary basins in the US by developing GIS data delineating isopach and structural depth maps for many of these units. These data are being incorporated into the LANL digital GIS database being developed for determining host rock distribution and depth/thickness parameters consistent with repository design. Methods were developed to assess hydrological and geomechanical properties and conditions for shale formations based on sonic velocity measurements.

  8. Preliminary Geologic Characterization of West Coast States for Geologic Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larry Myer

    2005-09-29

    Characterization of geological sinks for sequestration of CO{sub 2} in California, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington was carried out as part of Phase I of the West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) project. Results show that there are geologic storage opportunities in the region within each of the following major technology areas: saline formations, oil and gas reservoirs, and coal beds. The work focused on sedimentary basins as the initial most-promising targets for geologic sequestration. Geographical Information System (GIS) layers showing sedimentary basins and oil, gas, and coal fields in those basins were developed. The GIS layers were attributed with information on the subsurface, including sediment thickness, presence and depth of porous and permeable sandstones, and, where available, reservoir properties. California offers outstanding sequestration opportunities because of its large capacity and the potential of value-added benefits from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and enhanced gas recovery (EGR). The estimate for storage capacity of saline formations in the ten largest basins in California ranges from about 150 to about 500 Gt of CO{sub 2}, depending on assumptions about the fraction of the formations used and the fraction of the pore volume filled with separate-phase CO{sub 2}. Potential CO{sub 2}-EOR storage was estimated to be 3.4 Gt, based on a screening of reservoirs using depth, an API gravity cutoff, and cumulative oil produced. The cumulative production from gas reservoirs (screened by depth) suggests a CO{sub 2} storage capacity of 1.7 Gt. In Oregon and Washington, sedimentary basins along the coast also offer sequestration opportunities. Of particular interest is the Puget Trough Basin, which contains up to 1,130 m (3,700 ft) of unconsolidated sediments overlying up to 3,050 m (10,000 ft) of Tertiary sedimentary rocks. The Puget Trough Basin also contains deep coal formations, which are sequestration targets and may have potential for enhanced coal bed methane recovery (ECBM).

  9. Active Management of Integrated Geothermal-CO2 Storage Reservoirs in Sedimentary Formations

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Buscheck, Thomas A.

    The purpose of phase 1 is to determine the feasibility of integrating geologic CO2 storage (GCS) with geothermal energy production. Phase 1 includes reservoir analyses to determine injector/producer well schemes that balance the generation of economically useful flow rates at the producers with the need to manage reservoir overpressure to reduce the risks associated with overpressure, such as induced seismicity and CO2 leakage to overlying aquifers. Based on a range of well schemes, techno-economic analyses of the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) are conducted to determine the economic benefits of integrating GCS with geothermal energy production. In addition to considering CO2 injection, reservoir analyses are conducted for nitrogen (N2) injection to investigate the potential benefits of incorporating N2 injection with integrated geothermal-GCS, as well as the use of N2 injection as a potential pressure-support and working-fluid option. Phase 1 includes preliminary environmental risk assessments of integrated geothermal-GCS, with the focus on managing reservoir overpressure. Phase 1 also includes an economic survey of pipeline costs, which will be applied in Phase 2 to the analysis of CO2 conveyance costs for techno-economics analyses of integrated geothermal-GCS reservoir sites. Phase 1 also includes a geospatial GIS survey of potential integrated geothermal-GCS reservoir sites, which will be used in Phase 2 to conduct sweet-spot analyses that determine where promising geothermal resources are co-located in sedimentary settings conducive to safe CO2 storage, as well as being in adequate proximity to large stationary CO2 sources.

  10. Active Management of Integrated Geothermal-CO2 Storage Reservoirs in Sedimentary Formations

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Buscheck, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of phase 1 is to determine the feasibility of integrating geologic CO2 storage (GCS) with geothermal energy production. Phase 1 includes reservoir analyses to determine injector/producer well schemes that balance the generation of economically useful flow rates at the producers with the need to manage reservoir overpressure to reduce the risks associated with overpressure, such as induced seismicity and CO2 leakage to overlying aquifers. Based on a range of well schemes, techno-economic analyses of the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) are conducted to determine the economic benefits of integrating GCS with geothermal energy production. In addition to considering CO2 injection, reservoir analyses are conducted for nitrogen (N2) injection to investigate the potential benefits of incorporating N2 injection with integrated geothermal-GCS, as well as the use of N2 injection as a potential pressure-support and working-fluid option. Phase 1 includes preliminary environmental risk assessments of integrated geothermal-GCS, with the focus on managing reservoir overpressure. Phase 1 also includes an economic survey of pipeline costs, which will be applied in Phase 2 to the analysis of CO2 conveyance costs for techno-economics analyses of integrated geothermal-GCS reservoir sites. Phase 1 also includes a geospatial GIS survey of potential integrated geothermal-GCS reservoir sites, which will be used in Phase 2 to conduct sweet-spot analyses that determine where promising geothermal resources are co-located in sedimentary settings conducive to safe CO2 storage, as well as being in adequate proximity to large stationary CO2 sources.

  11. Physical Constraints on Geologic CO2 Sequestration in Low-Volume Basalt Formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan M. Pollyea; Jerry P. Fairley; Robert K. Podgorney; Travis L. McLing

    2014-03-01

    Deep basalt formations within large igneous provinces have been proposed as target reservoirs for carbon capture and sequestration on the basis of favorable CO2-water-rock reaction kinetics that suggest carbonate mineralization rates on the order of 102103 d. Although these results are encouraging, there exists much uncertainty surrounding the influence of fracture-controlled reservoir heterogeneity on commercial-scale CO2 injections in basalt formations. This work investigates the physical response of a low-volume basalt reservoir to commercial-scale CO2 injections using a Monte Carlo numerical modeling experiment such that model variability is solely a function of spatially distributed reservoir heterogeneity. Fifty equally probable reservoirs are simulated using properties inferred from the deep eastern Snake River Plain aquifer in southeast Idaho, and CO2 injections are modeled within each reservoir for 20 yr at a constant mass rate of 21.6 kg s1. Results from this work suggest that (1) formation injectivity is generally favorable, although injection pressures in excess of the fracture gradient were observed in 4% of the simulations; (2) for an extensional stress regime (as exists within the eastern Snake River Plain), shear failure is theoretically possible for optimally oriented fractures if Sh is less than or equal to 0.70SV; and (3) low-volume basalt reservoirs exhibit sufficient CO2 confinement potential over a 20 yr injection program to accommodate mineral trapping rates suggested in the literature.

  12. Analysis of Potential Leakage Pathways and Mineralization within Caprocks for Geologic Storage of CO(sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, James

    2012-11-30

    We used a multifaceted approach to investigate the nature of caprocks above, and the interface between, reservoir-?quality rocks that might serve as targets for carbon storage. Fieldwork in southeastern Utah examined the regional-? to m-?scale nature of faults and fractures across the sedimentiological interfaces. We also used microscopic analyses and mechanical modeling to examine the question as to how the contacts between units interact, and how fractures may allow fluids to move from reservoirs to caprock. Regional-?scale analyses using ASTER data enabled us to identify location of alteration, which led to site-?specific studies of deformation and fluid flow. In the Jurassic Carmel Formation, a seal for the Navajo Sandstone, we evaluated mesoscale variability in fracture density and morphology and variability in elastic moduli in the Jurassic Carmel Formation, a proposed seal to the underlying Navajo Sandstone for CO{sub 2} geosequestration. By combining mechano-?stratigraphic outcrop observations with elastic moduli derived from wireline log data, we characterize the variability in fracture pattern and morphology with the observed variability in rock strength within this heterolithic top seal. Outcrop inventories of discontinuities show fracture densities decrease as bed thickness increases and fracture propagation morphology across lithologic interfaces vary with changing interface type. Dynamic elastic moduli, calculated from wireline log data, show that Youngs modulus varies by up to 40 GPa across depositional interfaces, and by an average of 3 GPa across the reservoir/seal interface. We expect that the mesoscale changes in rock strength will affect the distributions of localized stress and thereby influence fracture propagation and fluid flow behavior within the seal. These data provide a means to closely tie outcrop observations to those derived from subsurface data and estimates of subsurface rock strength. We also studied damage zones associated normal faults in the Permian Cedar Mesa Sandstone, southeastern Utah. These faults are characterized by a single slip surfaces and damage zones containing deformation bands, veins, and joints. Field observations include crosscutting relationships, permeability increase, rock strength decrease, and ultraviolet light induced mineral fluorescence within the damage zone. These field observations combined with the interpreted paragenetic sequence from petrographic analysis, suggests a deformation history of reactivation and several mineralization events in an otherwise low-?permeability fault. All deformation bands and veins fluoresce under ultraviolet light, suggesting connectivity and a shared mineralization history. Pre-?existing deformation features act as loci for younger deformation and mineralization events, this fault and its damage zone illustrate the importance of the fault damage zone to subsurface fluid flow. We model a simplified stress history in order to understand the importance of rock properties and magnitude of tectonic stress on the deformation features within the damage zone. The moderate confining pressures, possible variations in pore pressure, and the porous, fine-?grained nature of the Cedar Mesa Sandstone results in a fault damage zone characterized by enhanced permeability, subsurface fluid flow, and mineralization. Structural setting greatly influences fracture spacing and orientation. Three structural settings were examined and include fault proximity, a fold limb of constant dip, and a setting proximal to the syncline hinge. Fracture spacing and dominant fracture orientation vary at each setting and distinctions between regional and local paleo-?stress directions can be made. Joints on the fold limb strike normal to the fold axis/bedding and are interpreted to be sub-?parallel to the maximum regional paleo-?stress direction as there is no fold related strain. Joints proximal to faults and the syncline hinge may have formed under local stress conditions associated with folding and faulting, and

  13. Basin-Scale Leakage Risks from Geologic Carbon Sequestration: Impact on Carbon Capture and Storage Energy Market Competitiveness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, Catherine; Fitts, Jeffrey; Wilson, Elizabeth; Pollak, Melisa; Bielicki, Jeffrey; Bhatt, Vatsal

    2013-03-13

    This three-year project, performed by Princeton University in partnership with the University of Minnesota and Brookhaven National Laboratory, examined geologic carbon sequestration in regard to CO{sub 2} leakage and potential subsurface liabilities. The research resulted in basin-scale analyses of CO{sub 2} and brine leakage in light of uncertainties in the characteristics of leakage processes, and generated frameworks to monetize the risks of leakage interference with competing subsurface resources. The geographic focus was the Michigan sedimentary basin, for which a 3D topographical model was constructed to represent the hydrostratigraphy. Specifically for Ottawa County, a statistical analysis of the hydraulic properties of underlying sedimentary formations was conducted. For plausible scenarios of injection into the Mt. Simon sandstone, leakage rates were estimated and fluxes into shallow drinking-water aquifers were found to be less than natural analogs of CO{sub 2} fluxes. We developed the Leakage Impact Valuation (LIV) model in which we identified stakeholders and estimated costs associated with leakage events. It was found that costs could be incurred even in the absence of legal action or other subsurface interference because there are substantial costs of finding and fixing the leak and from injection interruption. We developed a model framework called RISCS, which can be used to predict monetized risk of interference with subsurface resources by combining basin-scale leakage predictions with the LIV method. The project has also developed a cost calculator called the Economic and Policy Drivers Module (EPDM), which comprehensively calculates the costs of carbon sequestration and leakage, and can be used to examine major drivers for subsurface leakage liabilities in relation to specific injection scenarios and leakage events. Finally, we examined the competiveness of CCS in the energy market. This analysis, though qualitative, shows that financial incentives, such as a carbon tax, are needed for coal combustion with CCS to gain market share. In another part of the project we studied the role of geochemical reactions in affecting the probability of CO{sub 2} leakage. A basin-scale simulation tool was modified to account for changes in leakage rates due to permeability alterations, based on simplified mathematical rules for the important geochemical reactions between acidified brines and caprock minerals. In studies of reactive flows in fractured caprocks, we examined the potential for permeability increases, and the extent to which existing reactive transport models would or would not be able to predict it. Using caprock specimens from the Eau Claire and Amherstburg, we found that substantial increases in permeability are possible for caprocks that have significant carbonate content, but minimal alteration is expected otherwise. We also found that while the permeability increase may be substantial, it is much less than what would be predicted from hydrodynamic models based on mechanical aperture alone because the roughness that is generated tends to inhibit flow.

  14. Well blowout rates and consequences in California Oil and Gas District 4 from 1991 to 2005: Implications for geological storage of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, Preston; Jordan, Preston D.; Benson, Sally M.

    2008-05-15

    Well blowout rates in oil fields undergoing thermally enhanced recovery (via steam injection) in California Oil and Gas District 4 from 1991 to 2005 were on the order of 1 per 1,000 well construction operations, 1 per 10,000 active wells per year, and 1 per 100,000 shut-in/idle and plugged/abandoned wells per year. This allows some initial inferences about leakage of CO2 via wells, which is considered perhaps the greatest leakage risk for geological storage of CO2. During the study period, 9% of the oil produced in the United States was from District 4, and 59% of this production was via thermally enhanced recovery. There was only one possible blowout from an unknown or poorly located well, despite over a century of well drilling and production activities in the district. The blowout rate declined dramatically during the study period, most likely as a result of increasing experience, improved technology, and/or changes in safety culture. If so, this decline indicates the blowout rate in CO2-storage fields can be significantly minimized both initially and with increasing experience over time. Comparable studies should be conducted in other areas. These studies would be particularly valuable in regions with CO2-enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and natural gas storage.

  15. Radioactive Waste Management: Study of Spent Fuel Dissolution Rates in Geological Storage Using Dosimetry Modeling and Experimental Verification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, Brady; Miller, William

    2011-10-28

    This research will provide improved predictions into the mechanisms and effects of radiolysis on spent nuclear fuel dissolution in a geological respository through accurate dosimetry modeling of the dose to water, mechanistic chemistry modeling of the resulting radiolytic reactions and confirmatory experimental measurements. This work will combine effort by the Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute (NSEI) and the Missouri University Research Reactor (MURR) at the University of Missouri-Columbia, and the expertise and facilities at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL).

  16. Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear

  17. Preliminary Analysis of Grande Ronde Basalt Formation Flow Top Transmissivity as it Relates to Assessment and Site Selection Applications for Fluid/Energy Storage and Sequestration Projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spane, Frank A.

    2013-04-29

    Preliminary Analysis of Grande Ronde Basalt Formation Flow Top Transmissivity as it Relates to Assessment and Site Selection Applications for Fluid/Energy Storage and Sequestration Projects

  18. Phased Array Approach To Retrieve Gases, Liquids, Or Solids From Subsurface And Subaqueous Geologic Or Man-Made Formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rynne, Timothy M.; Spadaro, John F.; Iovenitti, Joe L.; Dering, John P.; Hill, Donald G.

    1998-10-27

    A method of enhancing the remediation of contaminated soils and ground water, production of oil and gas, and production of any solid, gas, and/or liquid from subsurface geologic and man-made formations including the steps of estimating the geometric boundaries of the region containing the material to be recovered, drilling a recovery well(s) into subsurface in a strategic location to recover the material of interest, establishing multiple sources of acoustical power in an array about and spaced-apart from the surface or at various depths below the surface in a borehole(s) and/or well(s), directing a volume of acoustical excitation from the sources into the region containing the material to be recovered, the excitation in the form of either controllable sinusoidal, square, pulsed, or various combinations of these three waveforms, and controlling the phasing, frequency, power, duration, and direction of these waveforms from the sources to increase and control the intensity of acoustical excitation in the region of the material to be recovered to enhance. the recovery of said material from the recovery well(s). The invention will augment any technology affecting the removal of materials from the subsurface.

  19. A method for quick assessment of CO2 storage capacity in closedand semi-closed saline formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Q.; Birkholzer, J.; Tsang, C.F.; Rutqvist, J.

    2008-02-10

    Saline aquifers of high permeability bounded by overlying/underlying seals may be surrounded laterally by low-permeability zones, possibly caused by natural heterogeneity and/or faulting. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injection into and storage in such 'closed' systems with impervious seals, or 'semi-closed' systems with nonideal (low-permeability) seals, is different from that in 'open' systems, from which the displaced brine can easily escape laterally. In closed or semi-closed systems, the pressure buildup caused by continuous industrial-scale CO{sub 2} injection may have a limiting effect on CO{sub 2} storage capacity, because geomechanical damage caused by overpressure needs to be avoided. In this research, a simple analytical method was developed for the quick assessment of the CO{sub 2} storage capacity in such closed and semi-closed systems. This quick-assessment method is based on the fact that native brine (of an equivalent volume) displaced by the cumulative injected CO{sub 2} occupies additional pore volume within the storage formation and the seals, provided by pore and brine compressibility in response to pressure buildup. With nonideal seals, brine may also leak through the seals into overlying/underlying formations. The quick-assessment method calculates these brine displacement contributions in response to an estimated average pressure buildup in the storage reservoir. The CO{sub 2} storage capacity and the transient domain-averaged pressure buildup estimated through the quick-assessment method were compared with the 'true' values obtained using detailed numerical simulations of CO{sub 2} and brine transport in a two-dimensional radial system. The good agreement indicates that the proposed method can produce reasonable approximations for storage-formation-seal systems of various geometric and hydrogeological properties.

  20. Rocky Mountain Regional CO{sub 2} Storage Capacity and Significance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laes, Denise; Eisinger, Chris; Esser, Richard; Morgan, Craig; Rauzi, Steve; Scholle, Dana; Matthews, Vince; McPherson, Brian

    2013-08-30

    The purpose of this study includes extensive characterization of the most promising geologic CO{sub 2} storage formations on the Colorado Plateau, including estimates of maximum possible storage capacity. The primary targets of characterization and capacity analysis include the Cretaceous Dakota Formation, the Jurassic Entrada Formation and the Permian Weber Formation and their equivalents in the Colorado Plateau region. The total CO{sub 2} capacity estimates for the deep saline formations of the Colorado Plateau region range between 9.8 metric GT and 143 metric GT, depending on assumed storage efficiency, formations included, and other factors.

  1. Expanding the potential for saline formations : modeling carbon dioxide storage, water extraction and treatment for power plant cooling.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-04-01

    The National Water, Energy and Carbon Sequestration simulation model (WECSsim) is being developed to address the question, 'Where in the current and future U.S. fossil fuel based electricity generation fleet are there opportunities to couple CO{sub 2} storage and extracted water use, and what are the economic and water demand-related impacts of these systems compared to traditional power systems?' The WECSsim collaborative team initially applied this framework to a test case region in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico. Recently, the model has been expanded to incorporate the lower 48 states of the U.S. Significant effort has been spent characterizing locations throughout the U.S. where CO{sub 2} might be stored in saline formations including substantial data collection and analysis efforts to supplement the incomplete brine data offered in the NatCarb database. WECSsim calculates costs associated with CO{sub 2} capture and storage (CCS) for the power plant to saline formation combinations including parasitic energy costs of CO{sub 2} capture, CO{sub 2} pipelines, water treatment options, and the net benefit of water treatment for power plant cooling. Currently, the model can identify the least-cost deep saline formation CO{sub 2} storage option for any current or proposed coal or natural gas-fired power plant in the lower 48 states. Initial results suggest that additional, cumulative water withdrawals resulting from national scale CCS may range from 676 million gallons per day (MGD) to 30,155 MGD depending on the makeup power and cooling technologies being utilized. These demands represent 0.20% to 8.7% of the U.S. total fresh water withdrawals in the year 2000, respectively. These regional and ultimately nation-wide, bottom-up scenarios coupling power plants and saline formations throughout the U.S. can be used to support state or national energy development plans and strategies.

  2. Methods and apparatus for measurement of the resistivity of geological formations from within cased wells in presence of acoustic and magnetic energy sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, III, William B.

    1991-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for measuring the acoustically modulated electronic properties of geological formations and cement layers adjacent to cased boreholes. Current is passed from an electrode in electrical contact with the interior of the borehole casing to an electrode on the surface of the earth. Voltage measuring electrodes in electrical contact with the interior of the casing measure the voltage at various points thereon. The voltage differences between discrete pairs of the voltage measuring electrodes provide a measurement of the leakage current conducted into formation in the vicinity of those electrodes. Simultaneously subjecting the casing and formation to an acoustic source acoustically modulates the leakage current measured thereby providing a measure of the acoustically modulated electronic properties of the adjacent formation. Similarly, methods and apparatus are also described which measure the leakage current into formation while simultaneously subjecting the casing to an applied magnetic field which therefore allows measurement of the magnetically modulated electronic properties of the casing and the adjacent formation.

  3. Methods and apparatus for measurement of the resistivity of geological formations from within cased wells in presence of acoustic and magnetic energy sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, W.B. III.

    1991-08-27

    Methods and apparatus are provided for measuring the acoustically modulated electronic properties of geological formations and cement layers adjacent to cased boreholes. Current is passed from an electrode in electrical contact with the interior of the borehole casing to an electrode on the surface of the earth. Voltage measuring electrodes in electrical contact with the interior of the casing measure the voltage at various points thereon. The voltage differences between discrete pairs of the voltage measuring electrodes provide a measurement of the leakage current conducted into formation in the vicinity of those electrodes. Simultaneously subjecting the casing and formation to an acoustic source acoustically modulates the leakage current measured thereby providing a measure of the acoustically modulated electronic properties of the adjacent formation. Similarly, methods and apparatus are also described which measure the leakage current into formation while simultaneously subjecting the casing to an applied magnetic field which therefore allows measurement of the magnetically modulated electronic properties of the casing and the adjacent formation. 9 figures.

  4. Carbon Capture and Storage, 2008

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08

    The U.S. Department of Energy is researching the safe implementation of a technology called carbon sequestration, also known as carbon capture and storage, or CCS. Based on an oilfield practice, this approach stores carbon dioxide, or CO2 generated from human activities for millennia as a means to mitigate global climate change. In 2003, the Department of Energys National Energy Technology Laboratory formed seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships to assess geologic formations suitable for storage and to determine the best approaches to implement carbon sequestration in each region. This video describes the work of these partnerships.

  5. Carbon Capture and Storage, 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-03-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy is researching the safe implementation of a technology called carbon sequestration, also known as carbon capture and storage, or CCS. Based on an oilfield practice, this approach stores carbon dioxide, or CO2 generated from human activities for millennia as a means to mitigate global climate change. In 2003, the Department of Energys National Energy Technology Laboratory formed seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships to assess geologic formations suitable for storage and to determine the best approaches to implement carbon sequestration in each region. This video describes the work of these partnerships.

  6. Characterization of Most Promising Sequestration Formations in the Rocky Mountain Region (RMCCS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McPherson, Brian; Matthews, Vince

    2013-09-30

    The primary objective of the Characterization of Most Promising Carbon Capture and Sequestration Formations in the Central Rocky Mountain Region project, or RMCCS project, is to characterize the storage potential of the most promising geologic sequestration formations within the southwestern U.S. and the Central Rocky Mountain region in particular. The approach included an analysis of geologic sequestration formations under the Craig Power Station in northwestern Colorado, and application or extrapolation of those local-scale results to the broader region. A ten-step protocol for geologic carbon storage site characterization was a primary outcome of this project.

  7. Preliminary formation analysis for compressed air energy storage in depleted natural gas reservoirs : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardner, William Payton

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an engineering and operational understanding of CAES performance for a depleted natural gas reservoir by evaluation of relative permeability effects of air, water and natural gas in depleted natural gas reservoirs as a reservoir is initially depleted, an air bubble is created, and as air is initially cycled. The composition of produced gases will be evaluated as the three phase flow of methane, nitrogen and brine are modeled. The effects of a methane gas phase on the relative permeability of air in a formation are investigated and the composition of the produced fluid, which consists primarily of the amount of natural gas in the produced air are determined. Simulations of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in depleted natural gas reservoirs were carried out to assess the effect of formation permeability on the design of a simple CAES system. The injection of N2 (as a proxy to air), and the extraction of the resulting gas mixture in a depleted natural gas reservoir were modeled using the TOUGH2 reservoir simulator with the EOS7c equation of state. The optimal borehole spacing was determined as a function of the formation scale intrinsic permeability. Natural gas reservoir results are similar to those for an aquifer. Borehole spacing is dependent upon the intrinsic permeability of the formation. Higher permeability allows increased injection and extraction rates which is equivalent to more power per borehole for a given screen length. The number of boreholes per 100 MW for a given intrinsic permeability in a depleted natural gas reservoir is essentially identical to that determined for a simple aquifer of identical properties. During bubble formation methane is displaced and a sharp N2methane boundary is formed with an almost pure N2 gas phase in the bubble near the borehole. During cycling mixing of methane and air occurs along the boundary as the air bubble boundary moves. The extracted gas mixture changes as a function of time and proximity of the bubble boundary to the well. For all simulations reported here, with a formation radius above 50 m the maximum methane composition in the produced gas phase was less than 0.5%. This report provides an initial investigation of CAES in a depleted natural gas reservoir, and the results will provide useful guidance in CAES system investigation and design in the future.

  8. SIMULATION MODEL ANALYSIS OF THE MOST PROMISING GEOLOGIC SEQUESTRATION FORMATION CANDIDATES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN REGION, USA, WITH FOCUS ON UNCERTAINTY ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Si-Yong; Zaluski, Wade; Will, Robert; Eisinger, Chris; Matthews, Vince; McPherson, Brian

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to report results of reservoir model simulation analyses for forecasting subsurface CO2 storage capacity estimation for the most promising formations in the Rocky Mountain region of the USA. A particular emphasis of this project was to assess uncertainty of the simulation-based forecasts. Results illustrate how local-scale data, including well information, number of wells, and location of wells, affect storage capacity estimates and what degree of well density (number of wells over a fixed area) may be required to estimate capacity within a specified degree of confidence. A major outcome of this work was development of a new workflow of simulation analysis, accommodating the addition of “random pseudo wells” to represent virtual characterization wells.

  9. Advanced Underground Gas Storage Concepts: Refrigerated-Mined Cavern Storage, Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-09-30

    Over the past 40 years, cavern storage of LPG's, petrochemicals, such as ethylene and propylene, and other petroleum products has increased dramatically. In 1991, the Gas Processors Association (GPA) lists the total U.S. underground storage capacity for LPG's and related products of approximately 519 million barrels (82.5 million cubic meters) in 1,122 separate caverns. Of this total, 70 are hard rock caverns and the remaining 1,052 are caverns in salt deposits. However, along the eastern seaboard of the U.S. and the Pacific northwest, salt deposits are not available and therefore, storage in hard rocks is required. Limited demand and high cost has prevented the construction of hard rock caverns in this country for a number of years. The storage of natural gas in mined caverns may prove technically feasible if the geology of the targeted market area is suitable; and economically feasible if the cost and convenience of service is competitive with alternative available storage methods for peak supply requirements. Competing methods include LNG facilities and remote underground storage combined with pipeline transportation to the area. It is believed that mined cavern storage can provide the advantages of high delivery rates and multiple fill withdrawal cycles in areas where salt cavern storage is not possible. In this research project, PB-KBB merged advanced mining technologies and gas refrigeration techniques to develop conceptual designs and cost estimates to demonstrate the commercialization potential of the storage of refrigerated natural gas in hard rock caverns. DOE has identified five regions, that have not had favorable geological conditions for underground storage development: New England, Mid-Atlantic (NY/NJ), South Atlantic (DL/MD/VA), South Atlantic (NC/SC/GA), and the Pacific Northwest (WA/OR). PB-KBB reviewed published literature and in-house databases of the geology of these regions to determine suitability of hard rock formations for siting storage caverns, and gas market area storage needs of these regions.

  10. Modeling CO{sub 2}-Brine-Rock Interaction Including Mercury and H{sub 2}S Impurities in the Context of CO{sub 2} Geologic Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spycher, N.; Oldenburg, C.M.

    2014-01-01

    This study uses modeling and simulation approaches to investigate the impacts on injectivity of trace amounts of mercury (Hg) in a carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) stream injected for geologic carbon sequestration in a sandstone reservoir at ~2.5 km depth. At the range of Hg concentrations expected (7-190 ppbV, or ~ 0.06-1.6 mg/std.m{sup 3}CO{sub 2}), the total volumetric plugging that could occur due to complete condensation of Hg, or due to complete precipitation of Hg as cinnabar, results in a very small porosity change. In addition, Hg concentration much higher than the concentrations considered here would be required for Hg condensation to even occur. Concentration of aqueous Hg by water evaporation into CO{sub 2} is also unlikely because the higher volatility of Hg relative to H{sub 2}O at reservoir conditions prevents the Hg concentration from increasing in groundwater as dry CO{sub 2} sweeps through, volatilizing both H{sub 2}O and Hg. Using a model-derived aqueous solution to represent the formation water, batch reactive geochemical modeling show that the reaction of the formation water with the CO{sub 2}-Hg mixture causes the pH to drop to about 4.7 and then become buffered near 5.2 upon reaction with the sediments, with a negligible net volume change from mineral dissolution and precipitation. Cinnabar (HgS(s)) is found to be thermodynamically stable as soon as the Hg-bearing CO{sub 2} reacts with the formation water which contains small amounts of dissolved sulfide. Liquid mercury (Hg(l)) is not found to be thermodynamically stable at any point during the simulation. Two-dimensional radial reactive transport simulations of CO{sub 2} injection at a rate of 14.8 kg/s into a 400 m-thick formation at isothermal conditions of 106°C and average pressure near 215 bar, with varying amounts of Hg and H{sub 2}S trace gases, show generally that porosity changes only by about ±0.05% (absolute, i.e., new porosity = initial porosity ±0.0005) with Hg predicted to readily precipitate from the CO{sub 2} as cinnabar in a zone mostly matching the single-phase CO{sub 2} plume. The precipitation of minerals other than cinnabar, however, dominates the evolution of porosity. Main reactions include the replacement of primarily Fe-chlorite by siderite, of calcite by dolomite, and of K-feldspar by muscovite. Chalcedony is also predicted to precipitate from the dissolution of feldspars and quartz. Although the range of predicted porosity change is quite small, the amount of dissolution and precipitation predicted for these individual minerals is not negligible. These reactive transport simulations assume that Hg gas behaves ideally. To examine effects of non-ideality on these simulations, approximate calculations of the fugacity coefficient of Hg in CO{sub 2} were made. Results suggest that Hg condensation could be significantly overestimated when assuming ideal gas behavior, making our simulation results conservative with respect to impacts on injectivity. The effect of pressure on Henry’s constant for Hg is estimated to yield Hg solubilities about 10% lower than when this effect is not considered, a change that is considered too small to affect the conclusions of this report. Although all results in this study are based on relatively mature data and modeling approaches, in the absence of experimental data and more detailed site-specific information, it is not possible to fully validate the results and conclusions.

  11. A Review of Hazardous Chemical Species Associated with CO2 Capturefrom Coal-Fired Power Plants and Their Potential Fate in CO2 GeologicStorage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apps, J.A.

    2006-02-23

    Conventional coal-burning power plants are major contributors of excess CO2 to the atmospheric inventory. Because such plants are stationary, they are particularly amenable to CO2 capture and disposal by deep injection into confined geologic formations. However, the energy penalty for CO2 separation and compression is steep, and could lead to a 30-40 percent reduction in useable power output. Integrated gas combined cycle (IGCC) plants are thermodynamically more efficient, i.e.,produce less CO2 for a given power output, and are more suitable for CO2 capture. Therefore, if CO2 capture and deep subsurface disposal were to be considered seriously, the preferred approach would be to build replacement IGCC plants with integrated CO2 capture, rather than retrofit existing conventional plants. Coal contains minor quantities of sulfur and nitrogen compounds, which are of concern, as their release into the atmosphere leads to the formation of urban ozone and acid rain, the destruction of stratospheric ozone, and global warming. Coal also contains many trace elements that are potentially hazardous to human health and the environment. During CO2 separation and capture, these constituents could inadvertently contaminate the separated CO2 and be co-injected. The concentrations and speciation of the co-injected contaminants would differ markedly, depending on whether CO2 is captured during the operation of a conventional or an IGCC plant, and the specific nature of the plant design and CO2 separation technology. However, regardless of plant design or separation procedures, most of the hazardous constituents effectively partition into the solid waste residue. This would lead to an approximately two order of magnitude reduction in contaminant concentration compared with that present in the coal. Potential exceptions are Hg in conventional plants, and Hg and possibly Cd, Mo and Pb in IGCC plants. CO2 capture and injection disposal could afford an opportunity to deliberately capture environmental pollutants in the gaseous state and co-inject them with the CO2, in order to mitigate problems associated with solid waste disposal in surface impoundments. Under such conditions, the injected pollutant concentrations could be roughly equivalent to their concentrations in the coal feed. The fate of the injected contaminants can only be determined through further testing and geochemical modeling. However, the concentrations of inadvertent contaminants in the injected CO2 would probably be comparable to their ambient concentrations in confining shales of the injection zone. In general, the aqueous concentrations of hazardous constituents in distal parts of the injection zone, regardless of source, are likely to be limited by equilibrium with respect to coexisting solid phases under the acid conditions induced by the dissolved high pressure CO2, rather than by the initial concentrations of injected contaminants. Therefore, even if a deliberate policy of contaminant recovery and injection were to be pursued, water quality in USDWs would more likely depend on thermodynamic controls governing aqueous contaminant concentrations in the presence of high pressure CO2 rather than in the injected CO2. The conclusions reached in this report are preliminary, and should be confirmed through more comprehensive data evaluation and supporting geochemical modeling.

  12. Measuring resistivity changes from within a first cased well to monitor fluids injected into oil bearing geological formations from a second cased well while passing electrical current between the two cased wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, W.B. III.

    1993-02-16

    A.C. current is conducted through geological formations separating two cased wells in an oil field undergoing enhanced oil recovery operations such as water flooding operations. Methods and apparatus are disclosed to measure the current leakage conducted into a geological formation from within a first cased well that is responsive to fluids injected into formation from a second cased well during the enhanced oil production activities. The current leakage and apparent resistivity measured within the first cased well are responsive to fluids injected into formation from the second cased well provided the distance of separation between the two cased wells is less than, or on the order of, a Characteristic Length appropriate for the problem.

  13. Measuring resistivity changes from within a first cased well to monitor fluids injected into oil bearing geological formations from a second cased well while passing electrical current between the two cased wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, III, William B.

    1993-01-01

    A.C. current is conducted through geological formations separating two cased wells in an oil field undergoing enhanced oil recovery operations such as water flooding operations. Methods and apparatus are disclosed to measure the current leakage conducted into a geological formation from within a first cased well that is responsive to fluids injected into formation from a second cased well during the enhanced oil production activities. The current leakage and apparent resistivity measured within the first cased well are responsive to fluids injected into formation from the second cased well provided the distance of separation between the two cased wells is less than, or on the order of, a Characteristic Length appropriate for the problem.

  14. Spent Fuel Test-Climax: An evaluation of the technical feasibility of geologic storage of spent nuclear fuel in granite: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patrick, W.C.

    1986-03-30

    In the Climax stock granite on the Nevada Test Site, eleven canisters of spent nuclear reactor fuel were emplaced, and six electrical simulators were energized. When test data indicated that the test objectives were met during the 3-year storage phase, the spent-fuel canisters were retrieved and the thermal sources were de-energized. The project demonstrated the feasibility of packaging, transporting, storing, and retrieving highly radioactive fuel assemblies in a safe and reliable manner. In addition to emplacement and retrieval operations, three exchanges of spent-fuel assemblies between the SFT-C and a surface storage facility, conducted during the storage phase, furthered this demonstration. The test led to development of a technical measurements program. To meet these objectives, nearly 1000 instruments and a computer-based data acquisition system were deployed. Geotechnical, seismological, and test status data were recorded on a continuing basis for the three-year storage phase and six-month monitored cool-down of the test. This report summarizes the engineering and scientific endeavors which led to successful design and execution of the test. The design, fabrication, and construction of all facilities and handling systems are discussed, in the context of test objectives and a safety assessment. The discussion progresses from site characterization and experiment design through data acquisition and analysis of test data in the context of design calculations. 117 refs., 52 figs., 81 tabs.

  15. CO{sub 2} Sequestration Capacity and Associated Aspects of the Most Promising Geologic Formations in the Rocky Mountain Region: Local-Scale Analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laes, Denise; Eisinger, Chris; Morgan, Craig; Rauzi, Steve; Scholle, Dana; Scott, Phyllis; Lee, Si-Yong; Zaluski, Wade; Esser, Richard; Matthews, Vince; McPherson, Brian

    2013-07-30

    The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of individual local-­‐scale CCS site characterization studies conducted in Colorado, New Mexico and Utah. These site-­‐ specific characterization analyses were performed as part of the “Characterization of Most Promising Sequestration Formations in the Rocky Mountain Region” (RMCCS) project. The primary objective of these local-­‐scale analyses is to provide a basis for regional-­‐scale characterization efforts within each state. Specifically, limits on time and funding will typically inhibit CCS projects from conducting high-­‐ resolution characterization of a state-­‐sized region, but smaller (< 10,000 km{sup 2}) site analyses are usually possible, and such can provide insight regarding limiting factors for the regional-­‐scale geology. For the RMCCS project, the outcomes of these local-­‐scale studies provide a starting point for future local-­‐scale site characterization efforts in the Rocky Mountain region.

  16. Dynamic and other secondary benefits of compressed air energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, R.D.; Doherty, T.J.

    1984-05-01

    Dynamic benefits of compressed air energy storage include load following, voltage regulation, provision for emergency power, and spinning reserve. Other secondary benefits include environmental acceptability and economic feasibility within the spectrum of potential energy storage methods. Geologic reservoir candidates are salt cavities, hard rock caverns and water-bearing permeable formations occurring as structural traps; the compatibility of solution-mined salt cavities with desired dynamic benefits is illustrated by positive results at Huntorf, West Germany. Air injection into and withdrawal from an aquifer has been conducted successfully at Pittsfield, Illinois. Environmental impacts are believed to be less important than corresponding impacts in rival storage technologies.

  17. Storage Statistics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Storage Trends and Summaries Storage by Scientific Discipline Troubleshooting I/O Resources for Scientific Applications at NERSC Optimizing I/O performance on the Lustre file system I/O Formats Science Databases Sharing Data Transferring Data Unix Groups at NERSC Unix File Permissions Data & Analytics Connecting to NERSC Queues and Scheduling Job Logs & Statistics Application Performance Training & Tutorials Software Policies User Surveys NERSC Users Group User Announcements Help

  18. International Symposium on Site Characterization for CO2Geological...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    International Symposium on Site Characterization for CO2Geological Storage Citation ... Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A ...

  19. United States National Waste Terminal Storage argillaceous rock studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brunton, G.D.

    1981-01-01

    The past and present argillaceous rock studies for the US National Waste Terminal Storage Program consist of: (1) evaluation of the geological characteristics of several widespread argillaceous formations in the United States; (2) laboratory studies of the physical and chemical properties of selected argillaceous rock samples; and (3) two full-scale in situ surface heater experiments that simulate the emplacement of heat-generating radioactive waste in argillaceous rock.

  20. INTEGRATED GEOLOGIC-ENGINEERING MODEL FOR REEF AND CARBONATE SHOAL RESERVOIRS ASSOCIATED WITH PALEOHIGHS: UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER FORMATION, NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2002-09-25

    The University of Alabama in cooperation with Texas A&M University, McGill University, Longleaf Energy Group, Strago Petroleum Corporation, and Paramount Petroleum Company are undertaking an integrated, interdisciplinary geoscientific and engineering research project. The project is designed to characterize and model reservoir architecture, pore systems and rock-fluid interactions at the pore to field scale in Upper Jurassic Smackover reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs associated with varying degrees of relief on pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The project effort includes the prediction of fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs through reservoir simulation modeling which utilizes geologic reservoir characterization and modeling and the prediction of carbonate reservoir architecture, heterogeneity and quality through seismic imaging. The primary objective of the project is to increase the profitability, producibility and efficiency of recovery of oil from existing and undiscovered Upper Jurassic fields characterized by reef and carbonate shoals associated with pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs. The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project has been reservoir characterization, 3-D modeling and technology transfer. This effort has included six tasks: (1) the study of rockfluid interactions, (2) petrophysical and engineering characterization, (3) data integration, (4) 3-D geologic modeling, (5) 3-D reservoir simulation and (6) technology transfer. This work was scheduled for completion in Year 2. Overall, the project work is on schedule. Geoscientific reservoir characterization is essentially completed. The architecture, porosity types and heterogeneity of the reef and shoal reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been characterized using geological and geophysical data. The study of rock-fluid interactions is near completion. Observations regarding the diagenetic processes influencing pore system development and heterogeneity in these reef and shoal reservoirs have been made. Petrophysical and engineering property characterization has been essentially completed. Porosity and permeability data at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been analyzed, and well performance analysis has been conducted. Data integration is up to date, in that, the geological, geophysical, petrophysical and engineering data collected to date for Appleton and Vocation Fields have been compiled into a fieldwide digital database. 3-D geologic modeling of the structures and reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields has been completed. The model represents an integration of geological, petrophysical and seismic data. 3-D reservoir simulation of the reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields has been completed. The 3-D geologic model served as the framework for the simulations. A technology workshop on reservoir characterization and modeling at Appleton and Vocation Fields was conducted to transfer the results of the project to the petroleum industry.

  1. INTEGRATED GEOLOGIC-ENGINEERING MODEL FOR REEF AND CARBONATE SHOAL RESERVOIRS ASSOCIATED WITH PALEOHIGHS: UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER FORMATION, NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2003-09-25

    The University of Alabama in cooperation with Texas A&M University, McGill University, Longleaf Energy Group, Strago Petroleum Corporation, and Paramount Petroleum Company are undertaking an integrated, interdisciplinary geoscientific and engineering research project. The project is designed to characterize and model reservoir architecture, pore systems and rock-fluid interactions at the pore to field scale in Upper Jurassic Smackover reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs associated with varying degrees of relief on pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The project effort includes the prediction of fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs through reservoir simulation modeling that utilizes geologic reservoir characterization and modeling and the prediction of carbonate reservoir architecture, heterogeneity and quality through seismic imaging. The primary objective of the project is to increase the profitability, producibility and efficiency of recovery of oil from existing and undiscovered Upper Jurassic fields characterized by reef and carbonate shoals associated with pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs. The principal research effort for Year 3 of the project has been reservoir characterization, 3-D modeling, testing of the geologic-engineering model, and technology transfer. This effort has included six tasks: (1) the study of seismic attributes, (2) petrophysical characterization, (3) data integration, (4) the building of the geologic-engineering model, (5) the testing of the geologic-engineering model and (6) technology transfer. This work was scheduled for completion in Year 3. Progress on the project is as follows: geoscientific reservoir characterization is completed. The architecture, porosity types and heterogeneity of the reef and shoal reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been characterized using geological and geophysical data. The study of rock-fluid interactions has been completed. Observations regarding the diagenetic processes influencing pore system development and heterogeneity in these reef and shoal reservoirs have been made. Petrophysical and engineering property characterization has been completed. Porosity and permeability data at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been analyzed, and well performance analysis has been conducted. Data integration is up to date, in that, the geological, geophysical, petrophysical and engineering data collected to date for Appleton and Vocation Fields have been compiled into a fieldwide digital database. 3-D geologic modeling of the structures and reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields has been completed. The models represent an integration of geological, petrophysical and seismic data. 3-D reservoir simulation of the reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields has been completed. The 3-D geologic models served as the framework for the simulations. The geologic-engineering models of the Appleton and Vocation Field reservoirs have been developed. These models are being tested. The geophysical interpretation for the paleotopographic feature being tested has been made, and the study of the data resulting from drilling of a well on this paleohigh is in progress. Numerous presentations on reservoir characterization and modeling at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been made at professional meetings and conferences and a short course on microbial reservoir characterization and modeling based on these fields has been prepared.

  2. Carbon Storage Monitoring, Verification and Accounting Research...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Geologic storage of CO2 requires pre-operation, operation, closure, and post-closure monitoring activities at the storage site, as well as risk assessment and development of ...

  3. Pumped storage job is a rocky challenge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Setzer, S.W.

    1994-03-07

    Georgia mountain lives up to its rugged name as excavators fight some unexpected ground conditions. When settlers pushed into the remote valleys of far northwestern Georgia, they had no idea just how apt the name given one odd geologic formation would become to a new generation of pioneers. Rocky Mountain`s 700 ft of diagonally upthrusting limestone, shale and sandstone layers have become the main antagonists in a decade-long struggle to place an 848-Mw pumped storage power project in and around the mountain.

  4. Third Carbon Sequestration Atlas Estimates Up to 5,700 Years of CO2 Storage

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Potential in U.S. and Portions of Canada | Department of Energy Third Carbon Sequestration Atlas Estimates Up to 5,700 Years of CO2 Storage Potential in U.S. and Portions of Canada Third Carbon Sequestration Atlas Estimates Up to 5,700 Years of CO2 Storage Potential in U.S. and Portions of Canada December 1, 2010 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - There could be as much as 5,700 years of carbon dioxide (CO2) storage potential available in geologic formations in the United States and portions

  5. Porous wall hollow glass microspheres as a medium or substrate for storage and formation of novel materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wicks, George G; Serkiz, Steven M.; Zidan, Ragaiy; Heung, Leung K.

    2014-06-24

    Porous wall hollow glass microspheres are provided as a template for formation of nanostructures such as carbon nanotubes, In addition, the carbon nanotubes in combination with the porous wall hollow glass microsphere provides an additional reaction template with respect to carbon nanotubes.

  6. Two Energy Storage Webinars To Be Held in January 2012 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    exploring utility-scale bulk energy storage. Most of the lessons are independent of geology and storage technology. Additional details, including how to register, are available...

  7. INTEGRATED GEOLOGIC-ENGINEERING MODEL FOR REEF AND CARBONATE SHOAL RESERVOIRS ASSOCIATED WITH PALEOHIGHS: UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER FORMATION, NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2004-02-25

    The University of Alabama, in cooperation with Texas A&M University, McGill University, Longleaf Energy Group, Strago Petroleum Corporation, and Paramount Petroleum Company, has undertaken an integrated, interdisciplinary geoscientific and engineering research project. The project is designed to characterize and model reservoir architecture, pore systems and rock-fluid interactions at the pore to field scale in Upper Jurassic Smackover reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs associated with varying degrees of relief on pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The project effort includes the prediction of fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs through reservoir simulation modeling which utilizes geologic reservoir characterization and modeling and the prediction of carbonate reservoir architecture, heterogeneity and quality through seismic imaging. The primary goal of the project is to increase the profitability, producibility and efficiency of recovery of oil from existing and undiscovered Upper Jurassic fields characterized by reef and carbonate shoals associated with pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs. Geoscientific reservoir property, geophysical seismic attribute, petrophysical property, and engineering property characterization has shown that reef (thrombolite) and shoal reservoir lithofacies developed on the flanks of high-relief crystalline basement paleohighs (Vocation Field example) and on the crest and flanks of low-relief crystalline basement paleohighs (Appleton Field example). The reef thrombolite lithofacies have higher reservoir quality than the shoal lithofacies due to overall higher permeabilities and greater interconnectivity. Thrombolite dolostone flow units, which are dominated by dolomite intercrystalline and vuggy pores, are characterized by a pore system comprised of a higher percentage of large-sized pores and larger pore throats. Rock-fluid interactions (diagenesis) studies have shown that although the primary control on reservoir architecture and geographic distribution of Smackover reservoirs is the fabric and texture of the depositional lithofacies, diagenesis (chiefly dolomitization) is a significant factor that preserves and enhances reservoir quality. The evaporative pumping mechanism is favored to explain the dolomitization of the thrombolite doloboundstone and dolostone reservoir flow units at Appleton and Vocation Fields. Geologic modeling, reservoir simulation, and the testing and applying the resulting integrated geologic-engineering models have shown that little oil remains to be recovered at Appleton Field and a significant amount of oil remains to be recovered at Vocation Field through a strategic infill drilling program. The drive mechanisms for primary production in Appleton and Vocation Fields remain effective; therefore, the initiation of a pressure maintenance program or enhanced recovery project is not required at this time. The integrated geologic-engineering model developed for a low-relief paleohigh (Appleton Field) was tested for three scenarios involving the variables of present-day structural elevation and the presence/absence of potential reef thrombolite lithofacies. In each case, the predictions based upon the model were correct. From this modeling, the characteristics of the ideal prospect in the basement ridge play include a low-relief paleohigh associated with dendroidal/chaotic thrombolite doloboundstone and dolostone that has sufficient present-day structural relief so that these carbonates rest above the oil-water contact. Such a prospect was identified from the modeling, and it is located northwest of well Permit No. 3854B (Appleton Field) and south of well No. Permit No.11030B (Northwest Appleton Field).

  8. Formation of lithium fluoride/metal nanocomposites for energy storage through solid state reduction of metal fluorides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amatucci, GG; Pereira, N; Badway, F; Sina, M; Cosandey, F; Ruotolo, M; Cao, C

    2011-12-01

    In order to utilize high energy metal fluoride electrode materials as direct replacement electrode materials for lithium ion batteries in the future, a methodology to prelithiate the cathode or anode must be developed. Herein, we introduce the use of a solid state Li(3)N route to achieve the lithiation and mechanoreduction of metal fluoride based nanocomposites. The resulting prelithiation was found to be effective with the formation of xLiF:Me structures of very fine nanodimensions analogous to what is found by electrochemical lithiation. Physical and electrochemical properties of these nanocomposites for the bismuth and iron lithium fluoride systems are reported. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Carbon Capture and Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedmann, S

    2007-10-03

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is the long-term isolation of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through physical, chemical, biological, or engineered processes. This includes a range of approaches including soil carbon sequestration (e.g., through no-till farming), terrestrial biomass sequestration (e.g., through planting forests), direct ocean injection of CO{sub 2} either onto the deep seafloor or into the intermediate depths, injection into deep geological formations, or even direct conversion of CO{sub 2} to carbonate minerals. Some of these approaches are considered geoengineering (see the appropriate chapter herein). All are considered in the 2005 special report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC 2005). Of the range of options available, geological carbon sequestration (GCS) appears to be the most actionable and economic option for major greenhouse gas reduction in the next 10-30 years. The basis for this interest includes several factors: (1) The potential capacities are large based on initial estimates. Formal estimates for global storage potential vary substantially, but are likely to be between 800 and 3300 Gt of C (3000 and 10,000 Gt of CO{sub 2}), with significant capacity located reasonably near large point sources of the CO{sub 2}. (2) GCS can begin operations with demonstrated technology. Carbon dioxide has been separated from large point sources for nearly 100 years, and has been injected underground for over 30 years (below). (3) Testing of GCS at intermediate scale is feasible. In the US, Canada, and many industrial countries, large CO{sub 2} sources like power plants and refineries lie near prospective storage sites. These plants could be retrofit today and injection begun (while bearing in mind scientific uncertainties and unknowns). Indeed, some have, and three projects described here provide a great deal of information on the operational needs and field implementation of CCS. Part of this interest comes from several key documents written in the last three years that provide information on the status, economics, technology, and impact of CCS. These are cited throughout this text and identified as key references at the end of this manuscript. When coupled with improvements in energy efficiency, renewable energy supplies, and nuclear power, CCS help dramatically reduce current and future emissions (US CCTP 2005, MIT 2007). If CCS is not available as a carbon management option, it will be much more difficult and much more expensive to stabilize atmospheric CO{sub 2} emissions. Recent estimates put the cost of carbon abatement without CCS to be 30-80% higher that if CCS were to be available (Edmonds et al. 2004).

  10. Regional Geologic Map

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Lane, Michael

    Shaded relief base with Hot Pot project area, generalized geology, selected mines, and major topographic features

  11. Regional Geologic Map

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Lane, Michael

    2013-06-28

    Shaded relief base with Hot Pot project area, generalized geology, selected mines, and major topographic features

  12. Hydrogen Energy Storage for Grid and Transportation Services...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Systems, Patrick Balducci, PNNL PDF icon Panel 2, Geologic Storage of Hydrogen, Anna Lord, SNL PDF icon Panel 2, Hydrogen Delivery in the Natural Gas Pipeline Network, ...

  13. Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, based on DrillingInfo Inc., New York State Geological Survey, Ohio State Geological Survey, Pennsylvania Bureau of

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, based on DrillingInfo Inc., New York State Geological Survey, Ohio State Geological Survey, Pennsylvania Bureau of Topographic & Geologic Survey, West Virginia Geological & Economic Survey, and U.S. Geological Survey. Note: Map includes production wells from January 2003 through December 2014. Structure map of the Marcellus Formation Thickness map of the Marcellus Formation Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, based on

  14. New DOE Best Practices Manual Features Top Strategies for Carbon Storage

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wells | Department of Energy DOE Best Practices Manual Features Top Strategies for Carbon Storage Wells New DOE Best Practices Manual Features Top Strategies for Carbon Storage Wells June 7, 2012 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - Best practices for managing wells used to store carbon dioxide (CO2) in geologic formations are the focus of a publication just released by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)'s National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The newest manual in the Department's

  15. Advanced Technologies for Monitoring CO2 Saturation and Pore Pressure in Geologic Formations: Linking the Chemical and Physical Effects to Elastic and Transport Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mavko, G.; Vanorio, T.; Vialle, S.; Saxena, N.

    2014-03-31

    Ultrasonic P- and S-wave velocities were measured over a range of confining pressures while injecting CO2 and brine into the samples. Pore fluid pressure was also varied and monitored together with porosity during injection. Effective medium models were developed to understand the mechanisms and impact of observed changes and to provide the means for implementation of the interpretation methodologies in the field. Ultrasonic P- and S-wave velocities in carbonate rocks show as much as 20-50% decrease after injection of the reactive CO2-brine mixture; the changes were caused by permanent changes to the rock elastic frame associated with dissolution of mineral. Velocity decreases were observed under both dry and fluid-saturated conditions, and the amount of change was correlated with the initial pore fabrics. Scanning Electron Microscope images of carbonate rock microstructures were taken before and after injection of CO2-rich water. The images reveal enlargement of the pores, dissolution of micrite (micron-scale calcite crystals), and pitting of grain surfaces caused by the fluid- solid chemical reactivity. The magnitude of the changes correlates with the rock microtexture – tight, high surface area samples showed the largest changes in permeability and smallest changes in porosity and elastic stiffness compared to those in rocks with looser texture and larger intergranular pore space. Changes to the pore space also occurred from flow of fine particles with the injected fluid. Carbonates with grain-coating materials, such as residual oil, experienced very little permanent change during injection. In the tight micrite/spar cement component, dissolution is controlled by diffusion: the mass transfer of products and reactants is thus slow and the fluid is expected to be close to thermodynamical equilibrium with the calcite, leading to very little dissolution, or even precipitation. In the microporous rounded micrite and macropores, dissolution is controlled by advection: because of an efficient mass transfer of reactants and products, the fluid remains acidic, far from thermodynamical equilibrium and the dissolution of calcite is important. These conclusions are consistent with the lab observations. Sandstones from the Tuscaloosa formation in Mississippi were also subjected to injection under representative in situ stress and pore pressure conditions. Again, both P- and S-wave velocities decreased with injection. Time-lapse SEM images indicated permanent changes induced in the sandstone microstructure by chamosite dissolution upon injection of CO2-rich brine. After injection, the sandstone showed an overall cleaner microstructure. Two main changes are involved: (a) clay dissolution between grains and at the grain contact and (b) rearrangement of grains due to compaction under pressure Theoretical and empirical models were developed to quantify the elastic changes associated with injection. Permanent changes to the rock frame resulted in seismic velocity-porosity trends that mimic natural diagenetic changes. Hence, when laboratory measurments are not available for a candidate site, these trends can be estimated from depth trends in well logs. New theoretical equations were developed to predict the changes in elastic moduli upon substitution of pore-filling material. These equations reduce to Gassmann’s equations for the case of constant frame properties, low seismic frequencies, and fluid changes in the pore space. The new models also predict the change dissolution or precipitation of mineral, which cannot be described with the conventional Gassmann theory.

  16. Geological evolution and analysis of confirmed or suspected gas hydrate localities: Volume 10, Basin analysis, formation and stability of gas hydrates of the Aleutian Trench and the Bering Sea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krason, J.; Ciesnik, M.

    1987-01-01

    Four major areas with inferred gas hydrates are the subject of this study. Two of these areas, the Navarin and the Norton Basins, are located within the Bering Sea shelf, whereas the remaining areas of the Atka Basin in the central Aleutian Trench system and the eastern Aleutian Trench represent a huge region of the Aleutian Trench-Arc system. All four areas are geologically diverse and complex. Particularly the structural features of the accretionary wedge north of the Aleutian Trench still remain the subjects of scientific debates. Prior to this study, suggested presence of the gas hydrates in the four areas was based on seismic evidence, i.e., presence of bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs). Although the disclosure of the BSRs is often difficult, particularly under the structural conditions of the Navarin and Norton basins, it can be concluded that the identified BSRs are mostly represented by relatively weak and discontinuous reflectors. Under thermal and pressure conditions favorable for gas hydrate formation, the relative scarcity of the BSRs can be attributed to insufficient gas supply to the potential gas hydrate zone. Hydrocarbon gas in sediment may have biogenic, thermogenic or mixed origin. In the four studied areas, basin analysis revealed limited biogenic hydrocarbon generation. The migration of the thermogenically derived gases is probably diminished considerably due to the widespread diagenetic processes in diatomaceous strata. The latter processes resulted in the formation of the diagenetic horizons. The identified gas hydrate-related BSRs seem to be located in the areas of increased biogenic methanogenesis and faults acting as the pathways for thermogenic hydrocarbons.

  17. AASG State Geological Survey

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado.Contributions to the NGDSAASG State Geological Survey

  18. Carbon Storage Monitoring, Verification and Accounting Research |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Monitoring, Verification and Accounting Research Carbon Storage Monitoring, Verification and Accounting Research Reliable and cost-effective monitoring, verification and accounting (MVA) techniques are an important part of making geologic sequestration a safe, effective, and acceptable method for greenhouse gas control. MVA of geologic storage sites is expected to serve several purposes, including addressing safety and environmental concerns; inventory verification;

  19. Carbon Storage Newsletter | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Department of Energy Monitoring, Verification and Accounting Research Carbon Storage Monitoring, Verification and Accounting Research Reliable and cost-effective monitoring, verification and accounting (MVA) techniques are an important part of making geologic sequestration a safe, effective, and acceptable method for greenhouse gas control. MVA of geologic storage sites is expected to serve several purposes, including addressing safety and environmental concerns; inventory verification;

  20. File storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    File storage File storage Disk Quota Change Request Form Euclid File Systems Euclid has 3 kinds of file systems available to users: home directories, scratch directories and...

  1. File Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    File Storage File Storage Disk Quota Change Request Form Carver File Systems Carver has 3 kinds of file systems available to users: home directories, scratch directories and...

  2. Underground natural gas storage reservoir management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ortiz, I.; Anthony, R.

    1995-06-01

    The objective of this study is to research technologies and methodologies that will reduce the costs associated with the operation and maintenance of underground natural gas storage. This effort will include a survey of public information to determine the amount of natural gas lost from underground storage fields, determine the causes of this lost gas, and develop strategies and remedial designs to reduce or stop the gas loss from selected fields. Phase I includes a detailed survey of US natural gas storage reservoirs to determine the actual amount of natural gas annually lost from underground storage fields. These reservoirs will be ranked, the resultant will include the amount of gas and revenue annually lost. The results will be analyzed in conjunction with the type (geologic) of storage reservoirs to determine the significance and impact of the gas loss. A report of the work accomplished will be prepared. The report will include: (1) a summary list by geologic type of US gas storage reservoirs and their annual underground gas storage losses in ft{sup 3}; (2) a rank by geologic classifications as to the amount of gas lost and the resultant lost revenue; and (3) show the level of significance and impact of the losses by geologic type. Concurrently, the amount of storage activity has increased in conjunction with the net increase of natural gas imports as shown on Figure No. 3. Storage is playing an ever increasing importance in supplying the domestic energy requirements.

  3. A combined saline formation and gas reservoir CO2 injection pilotin Northern California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trautz, Robert; Myer, Larry; Benson, Sally; Oldenburg, Curt; Daley, Thomas; Seeman, Ed

    2006-04-28

    A geologic sequestration pilot in the Thornton gas field in Northern California, USA involves injection of up to 4000 tons of CO{sub 2} into a stacked gas and saline formation reservoir. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is leading the pilot test in collaboration with Rosetta Resources, Inc. and Calpine Corporation under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy and California Energy Commission's WESTCARB, Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership. The goals of the pilot include: (1) Demonstrate the feasibility of CO{sub 2} storage in saline formations representative of major geologic sinks in California; (2) Test the feasibility of Enhanced Gas Recovery associated with the early stages of a CO{sub 2} storage project in a depleting gas field; (3) Obtain site-specific information to improve capacity estimation, risk assessment, and performance prediction; (4) Demonstrate and test methods for monitoring CO{sub 2} storage in saline formations and storage/enhanced recovery projects in gas fields; and (5) Gain experience with regulatory permitting and public outreach associated with CO{sub 2} storage in California. Test design is currently underway and field work begins in August 2006.

  4. Hydrogen storage compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Wen; Vajo, John J.; Cumberland, Robert W.; Liu, Ping

    2011-04-19

    Compositions for hydrogen storage and methods of making such compositions employ an alloy that exhibits reversible formation/deformation of BH.sub.4.sup.- anions. The composition includes a ternary alloy including magnesium, boron and a metal and a metal hydride. The ternary alloy and the metal hydride are present in an amount sufficient to render the composition capable of hydrogen storage. The molar ratio of the metal to magnesium and boron in the alloy is such that the alloy exhibits reversible formation/deformation of BH.sub.4.sup.- anions. The hydrogen storage composition is prepared by combining magnesium, boron and a metal to prepare a ternary alloy and combining the ternary alloy with a metal hydride to form the hydrogen storage composition.

  5. Hanford Site Guidelines for Preparation and Presentation of Geologic Information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lanigan, David C.; Last, George V.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Thorne, Paul D.; Webber, William D.

    2010-04-30

    A complex geology lies beneath the Hanford Site of southeastern Washington State. Within this geology is a challenging large-scale environmental cleanup project. Geologic and contaminant transport information generated by several U.S. Department of Energy contractors must be documented in geologic graphics clearly, consistently, and accurately. These graphics must then be disseminated in formats readily acceptable by general graphics and document producing software applications. The guidelines presented in this document are intended to facilitate consistent, defensible, geologic graphics and digital data/graphics sharing among the various Hanford Site agencies and contractors.

  6. Progress and new developments in carbon capture and storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plasynski, S.I.; Litynski, J.T.; McIlvried, H.G.; Srivastava, R.D.

    2009-07-01

    Growing concern over the impact on global climate change of the buildup of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere has resulted in proposals to capture carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) at large point sources and store it in geologic formations, such as oil and gas reservoirs, unmineable coal seams, and saline formations, referred to as carbon capture and storage (CCS). There are three options for capturing CO{sub 2} from point sources: post-combustion capture, pre-combustion capture, and oxy-combustion. Several processes are available to capture CO{sub 2}, and new or improved processes are under development. However, CO{sub 2} capture is the most expensive part of CCS, typically accounting for 75% of overall cost. CCS will benefit significantly from the development of a lower cost post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture process that can be retrofitted to existing power plants. Once captured, the CO{sub 2} is compressed to about 150 atm and pipelined at supercritical conditions to a suitable storage site. Oil and gas reservoirs, because they have assured seals and are well characterized, are promising early opportunity sites. Saline formations are much more extensive and have a huge potential storage capacity, but are much less characterized. Several commercial and a number of pilot CCS projects are underway around the world.

  7. Sensitivity study of CO2 storage capacity in brine aquifers withclosed boundaries: Dependence on hydrogeologic properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Q.; Birkholzer, J.; Rutqvist, J.; Tsang, C-F.

    2007-02-07

    In large-scale geologic storage projects, the injected volumes of CO{sub 2} will displace huge volumes of native brine. If the designated storage formation is a closed system, e.g., a geologic unit that is compartmentalized by (almost) impermeable sealing units and/or sealing faults, the native brine cannot (easily) escape from the target reservoir. Thus the amount of supercritical CO{sub 2} that can be stored in such a system depends ultimately on how much pore space can be made available for the added fluid owing to the compressibility of the pore structure and the fluids. To evaluate storage capacity in such closed systems, we have conducted a modeling study simulating CO{sub 2} injection into idealized deep saline aquifers that have no (or limited) interaction with overlying, underlying, and/or adjacent units. Our focus is to evaluate the storage capacity of closed systems as a function of various reservoir parameters, hydraulic properties, compressibilities, depth, boundaries, etc. Accounting for multi-phase flow effects including dissolution of CO{sub 2} in numerical simulations, the goal is to develop simple analytical expressions that provide estimates for storage capacity and pressure buildup in such closed systems.

  8. NETL: Carbon Storage Technology R&D

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbon Storage Technology Carbon Storage Infrastructure Core Research and Development Supporting Activities 1 2 3 slideshow html by WOWSlider.com v5.4 The objective of DOE's Carbon Storage program is to develop and advance the effectiveness of onshore and offshore CCS technologies, reduce the challenges to their implementation, and prepare them for widespread commercial deployment in the 2025-2035 timeframe. Read more about the Carbon Storage Program. Program Technology Areas Geologic Storage,

  9. Carbon Capture and Storage Poster | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Storage Poster Carbon Capture and Storage Poster Educational poster graphically displaying the key components of carbon capture and storage technology. Teachers: If you would like hard copies of this poster sent to you, please contact the FE Office of Communications. PDF icon Carbon Capture and Storage - In Depth (poster) More Documents & Publications Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage Field Projects Supported by DOE's Sequestration Program Training Awards EA-1626: Final Environmental

  10. Energy Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stationary PowerSafety, Security & Resilience of Energy InfrastructureEnergy Storage Energy StorageTara Camacho-Lopez2016-03-25T17:52:38+00:00 ESTP The contemporary grid limits ...

  11. Carbon Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Storage Fact Sheet Research Team Members Key Contacts Carbon Storage Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a key component of the U.S. carbon management portfolio. Numerous studies have shown that CCS can account for up to 55 percent of the emissions reductions needed to stabilize and ultimately reduce atmospheric concentrations of CO2. NETL's Carbon Storage Program is readying CCS technologies for widespread commercial deployment by 2020. The program's goals are: By 2015, develop technologies

  12. CO2 Storage and Enhanced Oil Recovery: Bald Unit Test Site, Mumford Hills Oil Field, Posey County, Indiana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frailey, Scott M.; Krapac, Ivan G.; Damico, James R.; Okwen, Roland T.; McKaskle, Ray W.

    2012-03-30

    The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) carried out a small-scale carbon dioxide (CO2) injection test in a sandstone within the Clore Formation (Mississippian System, Chesterian Series) in order to gauge the large-scale CO2 storage that might be realized from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) of mature Illinois Basin oil fields via miscible liquid CO2 flooding.

  13. Gas hydrate cool storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ternes, M.P.; Kedl, R.J.

    1984-09-12

    The invention presented relates to the development of a process utilizing a gas hydrate as a cool storage medium for alleviating electric load demands during peak usage periods. Several objectives of the invention are mentioned concerning the formation of the gas hydrate as storage material in a thermal energy storage system within a heat pump cycle system. The gas hydrate was formed using a refrigerant in water and an example with R-12 refrigerant is included. (BCS)

  14. ADVANCED UNDERGROUND GAS STORAGE CONCEPTS REFRIGERATED-MINED CAVERN STORAGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-09-01

    Limited demand and high cost has prevented the construction of hard rock caverns in this country for a number of years. The storage of natural gas in mined caverns may prove technically feasible if the geology of the targeted market area is suitable; and economically feasible if the cost and convenience of service is competitive with alternative available storage methods for peak supply requirements. It is believed that mined cavern storage can provide the advantages of high delivery rates and multiple fill-withdrawal cycles in areas where salt cavern storage is not possible. In this research project, PB-KBB merged advanced mining technologies and gas refrigeration techniques to develop conceptual designs and cost estimates to demonstrate the commercialization potential of the storage of refrigerated natural gas in hard rock caverns. Five regions of the U.S.A. were studied for underground storage development and PB-KBB reviewed the literature to determine if the geology of these regions was suitable for siting hard rock storage caverns. Area gas market conditions in these regions were also studied to determine the need for such storage. Based on an analysis of many factors, a possible site was determined to be in Howard and Montgomery Counties, Maryland. The area has compatible geology and a gas industry infrastructure for the nearby market populous of Baltimore and Washington D.C.. As Gas temperature is lowered, the compressibility of the gas reaches an optimum value. The compressibility of the gas, and the resultant gas density, is a function of temperature and pressure. This relationship can be used to commercial advantage by reducing the size of a storage cavern for a given working volume of natural gas. This study looks at this relationship and and the potential for commercialization of the process in a storage application. A conceptual process design, and cavern design were developed for various operating conditions. Potential site locations were considered and a typical plant layout was developed. In addition a geomechanical review of the proposed cavern design was performed, evaluating the stability of the mine rooms and shafts, and the effects of the refrigerated gas temperatures on the stability of the cavern. Capital and operating cost estimates were also developed for the various temperature cases considered. The cost estimates developed were used to perform a comparative market analysis of this type of gas storage system to other systems that are commercially used in the region of the study.

  15. Certification Framework Based on Effective Trapping for Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Bryant, Steven L.; Nicot, Jean-Philippe

    2009-01-15

    We have developed a certification framework (CF) for certifying the safety and effectiveness of geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) sites. Safety and effectiveness are achieved if CO{sub 2} and displaced brine have no significant impact on humans, other living things, resources, or the environment. In the CF, we relate effective trapping to CO{sub 2} leakage risk which takes into account both the impact and probability of leakage. We achieve simplicity in the CF by using (1) wells and faults as the potential leakage pathways, (2) compartments to represent environmental resources that may be impacted by leakage, (3) CO{sub 2} fluxes and concentrations in the compartments as proxies for impact to vulnerable entities, (4) broad ranges of storage formation properties to generate a catalog of simulated plume movements, and (5) probabilities of intersection of the CO{sub 2} plume with the conduits and compartments. We demonstrate the approach on a hypothetical GCS site in a Texas Gulf Coast saline formation. Through its generality and flexibility, the CF can contribute to the assessment of risk of CO{sub 2} and brine leakage as part of the certification process for licensing and permitting of GCS sites around the world regardless of the specific regulations in place in any given country.

  16. Regional Geology: GIS Database for Alternative Host Rocks and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The objective of this work is to develop a spatial database that integrates both geologic data for alternative host-rock formations and information that has been historically used ...

  17. CO{sub 2} Injectivity, Storage Capacity, Plume Size, and Reservoir and Seal Integrity of the Ordovician St. Peter Sandstone and the Cambrian Potosi Formation in the Illnois Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hannes Leetaru; Alan Brown; Donald Lee; Ozgur Senel; Marcia Coueslan

    2012-05-01

    The Cambro-Ordovician strata of the Illinois and Michigan Basins underlie most of the states of Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, and Michigan. This interval also extends through much of the Midwest of the United States and, for some areas, may be the only available target for geological sequestration of CO{sub 2}. We evaluated the Cambro-Ordovician strata above the basal Mt. Simon Sandstone reservoir for sequestration potential. The two targets were the Cambrian carbonate intervals in the Knox and the Ordovician St. Peter Sandstone. The evaluation of these two formations was accomplished using wireline data, core data, pressure data, and seismic data from the USDOE-funded Illinois Basin ?? Decatur Project being conducted by the Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium in Macon County, Illinois. Interpretations were completed using log analysis software, a reservoir flow simulator, and a finite element solver that determines rock stress and strain changes resulting from the pressure increase associated with CO{sub 2} injection. Results of this research suggest that both the St. Peter Sandstone and the Potosi Dolomite (a formation of the Knox) reservoirs may be capable of storing up to 2 million tonnes of CO{sub 2} per year for a 20-year period. Reservoir simulation results for the St. Peter indicate good injectivity and a relatively small CO{sub 2} plume. While a single St. Peter well is not likely to achieve the targeted injection rate of 2 million tonnes/year, results of this study indicate that development with three or four appropriately spaced wells may be sufficient. Reservoir simulation of the Potosi suggest that much of the CO{sub 2} flows into and through relatively thin, high permeability intervals, resulting in a large plume diameter compared with the St. Peter.

  18. Energy Storage

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Paranthaman, Parans

    2014-06-23

    ORNL Distinguished Scientist Parans Paranthaman is discovering new materials with potential for greatly increasing batteries' energy storage capacity and bring manufacturing back to the US.

  19. Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paranthaman, Parans

    2014-06-03

    ORNL Distinguished Scientist Parans Paranthaman is discovering new materials with potential for greatly increasing batteries' energy storage capacity and bring manufacturing back to the US.

  20. Proceedings: Geotechnology workshop on compressed-air energy storage in porous media sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-07-01

    The extensive experience of the natural gas industry with gas storage in underground porous media is directly applicable to the storage of air for compressed-air energy storage plants. In this workshop, natural gas industry representatives provided utility personnel with a basic understanding of the geology of porous media and strategies for developing air storage reservoirs.

  1. Energy storage device with large charge separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holme, Timothy P.; Prinz, Friedrich B.; Iancu, Andrei

    2016-04-12

    High density energy storage in semiconductor devices is provided. There are two main aspects of the present approach. The first aspect is to provide high density energy storage in semiconductor devices based on formation of a plasma in the semiconductor. The second aspect is to provide high density energy storage based on charge separation in a p-n junction.

  2. Particulate Formation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Formation - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy

  3. Geologic Carbon Sequestration: Mitigating Climate Change by Injecting CO2 Underground (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Oldenburg, Curtis M [LBNL Earth Sciences Division

    2011-04-28

    Summer Lecture Series 2009: Climate change provides strong motivation to reduce CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide capture and storage involves the capture, compression, and transport of CO2 to geologically favorable areas, where its injected into porous rock more than one kilometer underground for permanent storage. Oldenburg, who heads Berkeley Labs Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program, will focus on the challenges, opportunities, and research needs of this innovative technology.

  4. Geologic Carbon Sequestration: Mitigating Climate Change by Injecting CO2 Underground (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenburg, Curtis M

    2009-07-21

    Summer Lecture Series 2009: Climate change provides strong motivation to reduce CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide capture and storage involves the capture, compression, and transport of CO2 to geologically favorable areas, where its injected into porous rock more than one kilometer underground for permanent storage. Oldenburg, who heads Berkeley Labs Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program, will focus on the challenges, opportunities, and research needs of this innovative technology.

  5. Assessing the Effect of Timing of Availability for Carbon Dioxide Storage in the Largest Oil and Gas Pools in the Alberta Basin: Description of Data and Methodology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahowski, Robert T.; Bachu, Stefan

    2007-03-05

    Carbon dioxide capture from large stationary sources and storage in geological media is a technologically-feasible mitigation measure for the reduction of anthropogenic emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere in response to climate change. Carbon dioxide (CO2) can be sequestered underground in oil and gas reservoirs, in deep saline aquifers, in uneconomic coal beds and in salt caverns. The Alberta Basin provides a very large capacity for CO2 storage in oil and gas reservoirs, along with significant capacity in deep saline formations and possible unmineable coal beds. Regional assessments of potential geological CO2 storage capacity have largely focused so far on estimating the total capacity that might be available within each type of reservoir. While deep saline formations are effectively able to accept CO2 immediately, the storage potential of other classes of candidate storage reservoirs, primarily oil and gas fields, is not fully available at present time. Capacity estimates to date have largely overlooked rates of depletion in these types of storage reservoirs and typically report the total estimated storage capacity that will be available upon depletion. However, CO2 storage will not (and cannot economically) begin until the recoverable oil and gas have been produced via traditional means. This report describes a reevaluation of the CO2 storage capacity and an assessment of the timing of availability of the oil and gas pools in the Alberta Basin with very large storage capacity (>5 MtCO2 each) that are being looked at as likely targets for early implementation of CO2 storage in the region. Over 36,000 non-commingled (i.e., single) oil and gas pools were examined with effective CO2 storage capacities being individually estimated. For each pool, the life expectancy was estimated based on a combination of production decline analysis constrained by the remaining recoverable reserves and an assessment of economic viability, yielding an estimated depletion date, or year that it will be available for CO2 storage. The modeling framework and assumptions used to assess the impact of the timing of CO2 storage resource availability on the regions deployment of CCS technologies is also described. The purpose of this report is to describe the data and methodology for examining the carbon dioxide (CO2) storage capacity resource of a major hydrocarbon province incorporating estimated depletion dates for its oil and gas fields with the largest CO2 storage capacity. This allows the development of a projected timeline for CO2 storage availability across the basin and enables a more realistic examination of potential oil and gas field CO2 storage utilization by the regions large CO2 point sources. The Alberta Basin of western Canada was selected for this initial examination as a representative mature basin, and the development of capacity and depletion date estimates for the 227 largest oil and gas pools (with a total storage capacity of 4.7 GtCO2) is described, along with the impact on source-reservoir pairing and resulting CO2 transport and storage economics. The analysis indicates that timing of storage resource availability has a significant impact on the mix of storage reservoirs selected for utilization at a given time, and further confirms the value that all available reservoir types offer, providing important insights regarding CO2 storage implementation to this and other major oil and gas basins throughout North America and the rest of the world. For CCS technologies to deploy successfully and offer a meaningful contribution to climate change mitigation, CO2 storage reservoirs must be available not only where needed (preferably co-located with or near large concentrations of CO2 sources or emissions centers) but also when needed. The timing of CO2 storage resource availability is therefore an important factor to consider when assessing the real opportunities for CCS deployment in a given region.

  6. Rapid Gas Hydrate Formation Process - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search Rapid Gas Hydrate Formation Process National Energy Technology Laboratory Contact NETL About This Technology...

  7. Hydrological/Geological Studies

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    .\ .8.2 Hydrological/Geological Studies Book 1. Radiochemical Analyses of Water Samples from SelectedT" Streams Wells, Springs and Precipitation Collected During Re-Entry Drilling, Project Rulison-7, 197 1 HGS 8 This page intentionally left blank . . . ... . . . . . . . . , : . . . . . . . . . ' . r - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . ..... . - x ..:; . , ' , . . ' . . . . . . !' r:.::. _. . : _ . . : . . . . \ . . ' - \ , : , . . . . . . . . . . .

  8. Site Development, Operations, and Closure Plan Topical Report 5 An Assessment of Geologic Carbon Sequestration Options in the Illinois Basin. Phase III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finley, Robert; Payne, William; Kirksey, Jim

    2015-06-01

    The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) has partnered with Archer Daniels Midland Company (ADM) and Schlumberger Carbon Services to conduct a large-volume, saline reservoir storage project at ADM’s agricultural products processing complex in Decatur, Illinois. The Development Phase project, named the Illinois Basin Decatur Project (IBDP) involves the injection of 1 million tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) into a deep saline formation of the Illinois Basin over a three-year period. This report focuses on objectives, execution, and lessons learned/unanticipated results from the site development (relating specifically to surface equipment), operations, and the site closure plan.

  9. Hydrogen Storage

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen storage technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains the different ways in which hydrogen can be stored, as well a

  10. Summary Report on CO{sub 2} Geologic Sequestration & Water Resources Workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varadharajan, C.; Birkholzer, J.; Kraemer, S.; Porse, S.; Carroll, S.; Wilkin, R.; Maxwell, R.; Bachu, S.; Havorka, S.; Daley, T.; Digiulio, D.; Carey, W.; Strasizar, B.; Huerta, N.; Gasda, S.; Crow, W.

    2012-02-15

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) jointly hosted a workshop on CO{sub 2} Geologic Sequestration and Water Resources in Berkeley, June 12, 2011. The focus of the workshop was to evaluate R&D needs related to geological storage of CO{sub 2} and potential impacts on water resources. The objectives were to assess the current status of R&D, to identify key knowledge gaps, and to define specific research areas with relevance to EPAs mission. About 70 experts from EPA, the DOE National Laboratories, industry, and academia came to Berkeley for two days of intensive discussions. Participants were split into four breakout session groups organized around the following themes: Water Quality and Impact Assessment/Risk Prediction; Modeling and Mapping of Area of Potential Impact; Monitoring and Mitigation; Wells as Leakage Pathways. In each breakout group, participants identified and addressed several key science issues. All groups developed lists of specific research needs; some groups prioritized them, others developed short-term vs. long-term recommendations for research directions. Several crosscutting issues came up. Most participants agreed that the risk of CO{sub 2} leakage from sequestration sites that are properly selected and monitored is expected to be low. However, it also became clear that more work needs to be done to be able to predict and detect potential environmental impacts of CO{sub 2} storage in cases where the storage formation may not provide for perfect containment and leakage of CO{sub 2}brine might occur.

  11. Modeling and Risk Assessment of CO2 Sequestration at the Geologic-basin Scale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Juanes, Ruben

    2013-11-30

    The overall objective of this proposal was to develop tools for better understanding, modeling and risk assessment of CO2 permanence in geologic formations at the geologic basin scale.

  12. Geologic map and coal resources of the Easton Gulch Quadrangle, Moffat County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reheis, M.C.

    1981-01-01

    This map of the Easton Gulch Quadrangle, Moffat County, Colorado is color coded to show the location of different age geologic formations. Various thickness coal bed are indicated as are abandoned coal mines or prospects, US Geologic Survey (USGS) test holes, abandoned oil and gas test holes, and USGS Mesozoic fossil localities. Various depth coal beds and other types of geologic structures are indicated on the cross-section geologic map. (BLM)

  13. File storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    File storage File storage Disk Quota Change Request Form Euclid File Systems Euclid has 3 kinds of file systems available to users: home directories, scratch directories and project directories, all provided by the NERSC Global File system. Each file system serves a different purpose. File System Home Scratch Project Environment Variable Definition $HOME $SCRATCH or $GSCRATCH No environment variable /project/projectdirs/ Description Global homes file system shared by all NERSC systems except

  14. Carbon Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Storage - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy

  15. Geological aspects of the nuclear waste disposal problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laverov, N.P.; Omelianenko, B.L.; Velichkin, V.I.

    1994-06-01

    For the successful solution of the high-level waste (HLW) problem in Russia one must take into account such factors as the existence of the great volume of accumulated HLW, the large size and variety of geological conditions in the country, and the difficult economic conditions. The most efficient method of HLW disposal consists in the maximum use of protective capacities of the geological environment and in using inexpensive natural minerals for engineered barrier construction. In this paper, the principal trends of geological investigation directed toward the solution of HLW disposal are considered. One urgent practical aim is the selection of sites in deep wells in regions where the HLW is now held in temporary storage. The aim of long-term investigations into HLW disposal is to evaluate geological prerequisites for regional HLW repositories.

  16. An Assessment of the Commercial Availability of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Technologies as of June 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooley, James J.; Davidson, Casie L.; Dahowski, Robert T.

    2009-06-26

    Currently, there is considerable confusion within parts of the carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technical and regulatory communities regarding the maturity and commercial readiness of the technologies needed to capture, transport, inject, monitor and verify the efficacy of carbon dioxide (CO2) storage in deep, geologic formations. The purpose of this technical report is to address this confusion by discussing the state of CCS technological readiness in terms of existing commercial deployments of CO2 capture systems, CO2 transportation pipelines, CO2 injection systems and measurement, monitoring and verification (MMV) systems for CO2 injected into deep geologic structures. To date, CO2 has been captured from both natural gas and coal fired commercial power generating facilities, gasification facilities and other industrial processes. Transportation via pipelines and injection of CO2 into the deep subsurface are well established commercial practices with more than 35 years of industrial experience. There are also a wide variety of MMV technologies that have been employed to understand the fate of CO2 injected into the deep subsurface. The four existing end-to-end commercial CCS projects Sleipner, Snhvit, In Salah and Weyburn are using a broad range of these technologies, and prove that, at a high level, geologic CO2 storage technologies are mature and capable of deploying at commercial scales. Whether wide scale deployment of CCS is currently or will soon be a cost-effective means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions is largely a function of climate policies which have yet to be enacted and the publics willingness to incur costs to avoid dangerous anthropogenic interference with the Earths climate. There are significant benefits to be had by continuing to improve through research, development, and demonstration suite of existing CCS technologies. Nonetheless, it is clear that most of the core technologies required to address capture, transport, injection, monitoring, management and verification for most large CO2 source types and in most CO2 storage formation types, exist.

  17. Cigeo, the French Geological Repository Project - 13022

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Labalette, Thibaud; Harman, Alain; Dupuis, Marie-Claude; Ouzounian, Gerald

    2013-07-01

    The Cigeo industrial-scale geological disposal centre is designed for the disposal of the most highly-radioactive French waste. It will be built in an argillite formation of the Callovo-Oxfordian dating back 160 million years. The Cigeo project is located near the Bure village in the Paris Basin. The argillite formation was studied since 1974, and from the Meuse/Haute-Marne underground research laboratory since end of 1999. Most of the waste to be disposed of in the Cigeo repository comes from nuclear power plants and from reprocessing of their spent fuel. (authors)

  18. Pre-injection brine production for managing pressure in compartmentalized CO? storage reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buscheck, Thomas A.; White, Joshua A.; Chen, Mingjie; Sun, Yunwei; Hao, Yue; Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Bielicki, Jeffrey M.

    2014-12-31

    We present a reservoir management approach for geologic CO? storage that combines CO? injection with brine extraction. In our approach,dual-mode wells are initially used to extract formation brine and subsequently used to inject CO?. These wells can also be used to monitor the subsurface during pre-injection brine extraction so that key data is acquired and analyzed prior to CO? injection. The relationship between pressure drawdown during pre-injection brine extraction and pressure buildup during CO? injection directly informs reservoir managers about CO? storage capacity. These data facilitate proactive reservoir management, and thus reduce costs and risks. The brine may be used directly as make-up brine for nearby reservoir operations; it can also be desalinated and/or treated for a variety of beneficial uses.

  19. Pre-injection brine production for managing pressure in compartmentalized CO₂ storage reservoirs

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Buscheck, Thomas A.; White, Joshua A.; Chen, Mingjie; Sun, Yunwei; Hao, Yue; Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Bielicki, Jeffrey M.

    2014-12-31

    We present a reservoir management approach for geologic CO₂ storage that combines CO₂ injection with brine extraction. In our approach,dual-mode wells are initially used to extract formation brine and subsequently used to inject CO₂. These wells can also be used to monitor the subsurface during pre-injection brine extraction so that key data is acquired and analyzed prior to CO₂ injection. The relationship between pressure drawdown during pre-injection brine extraction and pressure buildup during CO₂ injection directly informs reservoir managers about CO₂ storage capacity. These data facilitate proactive reservoir management, and thus reduce costs and risks. The brine may be usedmore » directly as make-up brine for nearby reservoir operations; it can also be desalinated and/or treated for a variety of beneficial uses.« less

  20. Assessing Reservoir Depositional Environments to Develop and Quantify Improvements in CO2 Storage Efficiency. A Reservoir Simulation Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okwen, Roland; Frailey, Scott; Leetaru, Hannes; Moulton, Sandy

    2014-09-30

    The storage potential and fluid movement within formations are dependent on the unique hydraulic characteristics of their respective depositional environments. Storage efficiency (E) quantifies the potential for storage in a geologic depositional environment and is used to assess basinal or regional CO2 storage resources. Current estimates of storage resources are calculated using common E ranges by lithology and not by depositional environment. The objectives of this project are to quantify E ranges and identify E enhancement strategies for different depositional environments via reservoir simulation studies. The depositional environments considered include deltaic, shelf clastic, shelf carbonate, fluvial deltaic, strandplain, reef, fluvial and alluvial, and turbidite. Strategies considered for enhancing E include CO2 injection via vertical, horizontal, and deviated wells, selective completions, water production, and multi-well injection. Conceptual geologic and geocellular models of the depositional environments were developed based on data from Illinois Basin oil fields and gas storage sites. The geologic and geocellular models were generalized for use in other US sedimentary basins. An important aspect of this work is the development of conceptual geologic and geocellular models that reflect the uniqueness of each depositional environment. Different injection well completions methods were simulated to investigate methods of enhancing E in the presence of geologic heterogeneity specific to a depositional environment. Modeling scenarios included horizontal wells (length, orientation, and inclination), selective and dynamic completions, water production, and multiwell injection. A Geologic Storage Efficiency Calculator (GSECalc) was developed to calculate E from reservoir simulation output. Estimated E values were normalized to diminish their dependency on fluid relative permeability. Classifying depositional environments according to normalized baseline E ranges ranks fluvial deltaic and turbidite highest and shelf carbonate lowest. The estimated average normalized baseline E of turbidite, and shelf carbonate depositional environments are 42.5% and 13.1%, with corresponding standard deviations of 11.3%, and 3.10%, respectively. Simulations of different plume management techniques suggest that the horizontal well, multi-well injection with brine production from blanket vertical producers are the most efficient E enhancement strategies in seven of eight depositional environments; for the fluvial deltaic depositional environment, vertical well with blanket completions is the most efficient. This study estimates normalized baseline E ranges for eight depositional environments, which can be used to assess the CO2 storage resource of candidate formations. This study also improves the general understanding of depositional environment’s influence on E. The lessons learned and results obtained from this study can be extrapolated to formations in other US basins with formations of similar depositional environments, which should be used to further refine regional and national storage resource estimates in future editions of the Carbon Utilization and Storage Atlas of the United States. Further study could consider the economic feasibility of the E enhancement strategies identified here.

  1. Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage Field Projects Supported by DOE's

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Generic copy of DOE's IDIQ ESPC contract Generic copy of DOE's IDIQ ESPC contract Generic copy of the U.S. Department of Energy's Indefinite Delivery Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) Energy Savings Performance Contracts (ESPCs) contract. PDF icon generic_super_espc.pdf More Documents & Publications DOE IDIQ ESPC Contract Sample DOE ESPC Task Order Request for Proposal (TO-RFP) Template Guide to Government Witnessing and Review of Measurement and Verification Activities Sequestration Program |

  2. Storage containers for radioactive material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Groh, E.F.; Cassidy, D.A.; Dates, L.R.

    1980-07-31

    A radioactive material storage system is claimed for use in the laboratory having a flat base plate with a groove in one surface thereof and a hollow pedestal extending perpendicularly away from the other surface thereof, a sealing gasket in the groove, a cover having a filter therein and an outwardly extending flange which fits over the plate, the groove and the gasket, and a clamp for maintaining the cover and the plate sealed together. The plate and the cover and the clamp cooperate to provide a storage area for radioactive material readily accessible for use or inventory. Wall mounts are provided to prevent accidental formation of critical masses during storage.

  3. Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukundan, Rangachary

    2014-09-30

    Energy storage technology is critical if the U.S. is to achieve more than 25% penetration of renewable electrical energy, given the intermittency of wind and solar. Energy density is a critical parameter in the economic viability of any energy storage system with liquid fuels being 10 to 100 times better than batteries. However, the economical conversion of electricity to fuel still presents significant technical challenges. This project addressed these challenges by focusing on a specific approach: efficient processes to convert electricity, water and nitrogen to ammonia. Ammonia has many attributes that make it the ideal energy storage compound. The feed stocks are plentiful, ammonia is easily liquefied and routinely stored in large volumes in cheap containers, and it has exceptional energy density for grid scale electrical energy storage. Ammonia can be oxidized efficiently in fuel cells or advanced Carnot cycle engines yielding water and nitrogen as end products. Because of the high energy density and low reactivity of ammonia, the capital cost for grid storage will be lower than any other storage application. This project developed the theoretical foundations of N2 catalysis on specific catalysts and provided for the first time experimental evidence for activation of Mo 2N based catalysts. Theory also revealed that the N atom adsorbed in the bridging position between two metal atoms is the critical step for catalysis. Simple electrochemical ammonia production reactors were designed and built in this project using two novel electrolyte systems. The first one demonstrated the use of ionic liquid electrolytes at room temperature and the second the use of pyrophosphate based electrolytes at intermediate temperatures (200 – 300 ºC). The mechanism of high proton conduction in the pyrophosphate materials was found to be associated with a polyphosphate second phase contrary to literature claims and ammonia production rates as high as 5X 10-8 mol/s/cm2 were achieved.

  4. Geological Carbon Sequestration, Spelunking and You | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Geological Carbon Sequestration, Spelunking and You Geological Carbon Sequestration, Spelunking and You August 11, 2010 - 2:45pm Addthis Niketa Kumar Niketa Kumar Public Affairs Specialist, Office of Public Affairs What does this project do? Develops and tests technologies to store CO2 in oil and gas reservoirs, deep saline formations, and basalts Here's a riddle for you: What do spelunkers, mineralogists and the latest Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) awardees have in common? They're all

  5. Underground pumped hydroelectric storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, R.D.; Doherty, T.J.; Kannberg, L.D.

    1984-07-01

    Underground pumped hydroelectric energy storage was conceived as a modification of surface pumped storage to eliminate dependence upon fortuitous topography, provide higher hydraulic heads, and reduce environmental concerns. A UPHS plant offers substantial savings in investment cost over coal-fired cycling plants and savings in system production costs over gas turbines. Potential location near load centers lowers transmission costs and line losses. Environmental impact is less than that for a coal-fired cycling plant. The inherent benefits include those of all pumped storage (i.e., rapid load response, emergency capacity, improvement in efficiency as pumps improve, and capacity for voltage regulation). A UPHS plant would be powered by either a coal-fired or nuclear baseload plant. The economic capacity of a UPHS plant would be in the range of 1000 to 3000 MW. This storage level is compatible with the load-leveling requirements of a greater metropolitan area with population of 1 million or more. The technical feasibility of UPHS depends upon excavation of a subterranean powerhouse cavern and reservoir caverns within a competent, impervious rock formation, and upon selection of reliable and efficient turbomachinery - pump-turbines and motor-generators - all remotely operable.

  6. Establishing MICHCARB, a geological carbon sequestration research...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Western Michigan University 58 GEOSCIENCES Geological carbon sequestration Enhanced oil recovery Characterization of oil, gas and saline reservoirs Geological carbon...

  7. The Ohio River Valley CO2 Storage Project AEP Mountaineer Plant, West Virginia Numerical Simulation and Risk Assessment Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neeraj Gupta

    2008-03-31

    A series of numerical simulations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injection were conducted as part of a program to assess the potential for geologic sequestration in deep geologic reservoirs (the Rose Run and Copper Ridge formations), at the American Electric Power (AEP) Mountaineer Power Plant outside of New Haven, West Virginia. The simulations were executed using the H{sub 2}O-CO{sub 2}-NaCl operational mode of the Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) simulator (White and Oostrom, 2006). The objective of the Rose Run formation modeling was to predict CO{sub 2} injection rates using data from the core analysis conducted on the samples. A systematic screening procedure was applied to the Ohio River Valley CO{sub 2} storage site utilizing the Features, Elements, and Processes (FEP) database for geological storage of CO{sub 2} (Savage et al., 2004). The objective of the screening was to identify potential risk categories for the long-term geological storage of CO{sub 2} at the Mountaineer Power Plant in New Haven, West Virginia. Over 130 FEPs in seven main classes were assessed for the project based on site characterization information gathered in a geological background study, testing in a deep well drilled on the site, and general site conditions. In evaluating the database, it was apparent that many of the items were not applicable to the Mountaineer site based its geologic framework and environmental setting. Nine FEPs were identified for further consideration for the site. These FEPs generally fell into categories related to variations in subsurface geology, well completion materials, and the behavior of CO{sub 2} in the subsurface. Results from the screening were used to provide guidance on injection system design, developing a monitoring program, performing reservoir simulations, and other risk assessment efforts. Initial work indicates that the significant FEPs may be accounted for by focusing the storage program on these potential issues. The screening method was also useful in identifying unnecessary items that were not significant given the site-specific geology and proposed scale of the Ohio River Valley CO{sub 2} Storage Project. Overall, the FEP database approach provides a comprehensive methodology for assessing potential risk for a practical CO{sub 2} storage application. An integrated numerical fate and transport model was developed to enable risk and consequence assessment at field scale. Results show that such an integrated modeling effort would be helpful in meeting the project objectives (such as site characterization, engineering, permitting, monitoring and closure) during different stages. A reservoir-scale numerical model was extended further to develop an integrated assessment framework which can address the risk and consequence assessment, monitoring network design and permitting guidance needs. The method was used to simulate sequestration of CO{sub 2} in moderate quantities at the Mountaineer Power Plant. Results indicate that at the relatively low injection volumes planned for pilot scale demonstration at this site, the risks involved are minor to negligible, owing to a thick, low permeability caprock and overburden zones. Such integrated modeling approaches coupled with risk and consequence assessment modeling are valuable to project implementation, permitting, monitoring as well as site closure.

  8. Energy Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear

  9. Energy Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear

  10. Energy Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear

  11. Energy Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5 - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear

  12. Energy Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Creation of 3D mesh from surface and background meshes using conformal decomposition finite-element method (CDFEM) for a LiCoO2 cathode: (a) reconstructed surface mesh from Avizo for particle phase, (b) background mesh for CDFEM, and (c) resultant 3D mesh for particle and electrolyte phases from CDFEM. Permalink Gallery Sandia Wins Funding for Two DOE-EERE Computer-Aided Battery-Safety R&D Projects Analysis, Capabilities, Computational Modeling & Simulation, Design,

  13. THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY CO2 STORAGE PROJECT - PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF DEEP SALINE RESERVOIRS AND COAL SEAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael J. Mudd; Howard Johnson; Charles Christopher; T.S. Ramakrishnan, Ph.D.

    2003-08-01

    This report describes the geologic setting for the Deep Saline Reservoirs and Coal Seams in the Ohio River Valley CO{sub 2} Storage Project area. The object of the current project is to site and design a CO{sub 2} injection facility. A location near New Haven, WV, has been selected for the project. To assess geologic storage reservoirs at the site, regional and site-specific geology were reviewed. Geologic reports, deep well logs, hydraulic tests, and geologic maps were reviewed for the area. Only one well within 25 miles of the site penetrates the deeper sedimentary rocks, so there is a large amount of uncertainty regarding the deep geology at the site. New Haven is located along the Ohio River on the border of West Virginia and Ohio. Topography in the area is flat in the river valley but rugged away from the Ohio River floodplain. The Ohio River Valley incises 50-100 ft into bedrock in the area. The area of interest lies within the Appalachian Plateau, on the western edge of the Appalachian Mountain chain. Within the Appalachian Basin, sedimentary rocks are 3,000 to 20,000 ft deep and slope toward the southeast. The rock formations consist of alternating layers of shale, limestone, dolomite, and sandstone overlying dense metamorphic continental shield rocks. The Rome Trough is the major structural feature in the area, and there may be some faults associated with the trough in the Ohio-West Virginia Hinge Zone. The area has a low earthquake hazard with few historical earthquakes. Target injection reservoirs include the basal sandstone/Lower Maryville and the Rose Run Sandstone. The basal sandstone is an informal name for sandstones that overlie metamorphic shield rock. Regional geology indicates that the unit is at a depth of approximately 9,100 ft below the surface at the project site and associated with the Maryville Formation. Overall thickness appears to be 50-100 ft. The Rose Run Sandstone is another potential reservoir. The unit is located approximately 1,100 ft above the basal sandstone and is 100-200 ft thick. The storage capacity estimates for a 20-mile radius from the injection well ranged from 39-78 million tons (Mt) for each formation. Several other oil and gas plays have hydraulic properties conducive for injection, but the formations are generally only 5-50 ft thick in the study area. Overlying the injection reservoirs are thick sequences of dense, impermeable dolomite, limestone, and shale. These layers provide containment above the potential injection reservoirs. In general, it appears that the containment layers are much thicker and extensive than the injection intervals. Other physical parameters for the study area appear to be typical for the region. Anticipated pressures at maximum depths are approximately 4,100 psi based on a 0.45 psi/ft pressure gradient. Temperatures are likely to be 150 F. Groundwater flow is slow and complex in deep formations. Regional flow directions appear to be toward the west-northwest at less than 1 ft per year within the basal sandstone. Vertical gradients are downward in the study area. A review of brine geochemistry indicates that formation fluids have high salinity and dissolved solids. Total dissolved solids ranges from 200,000-325,000 mg/L in the deep reservoirs. Brine chemistry is similar throughout the different formations, suggesting extensive mixing in a mature basin. Unconsolidated sediments in the Ohio River Valley are the primary source of drinking water in the study area.

  14. Energy Storage Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy, Energy Storage, Energy Storage Systems, News, News & Events, Partnership, Renewable Energy, Research & Capabilities, Systems Analysis, Water Power Natural Energy ...

  15. Process for structural geologic analysis of topography and point data

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eliason, Jay R.; Eliason, Valerie L. C.

    1987-01-01

    A quantitative method of geologic structural analysis of digital terrain data is described for implementation on a computer. Assuming selected valley segments are controlled by the underlying geologic structure, topographic lows in the terrain data, defining valley bottoms, are detected, filtered and accumulated into a series line segments defining contiguous valleys. The line segments are then vectorized to produce vector segments, defining valley segments, which may be indicative of the underlying geologic structure. Coplanar analysis is performed on vector segment pairs to determine which vectors produce planes which represent underlying geologic structure. Point data such as fracture phenomena which can be related to fracture planes in 3-dimensional space can be analyzed to define common plane orientation and locations. The vectors, points, and planes are displayed in various formats for interpretation.

  16. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2013-02-19

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  17. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2014-11-25

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material, such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  18. Use of seismic attributes in geological description of carbonate rocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castrejon-Vacio, F.; Porres-Luna, A.A.

    1994-12-31

    Seismic attributes have been used widely in order to obtain geological description of petroleum reservoirs, especially as a support for the definition of horizontal continuity of strata, with special emphasis on terrigeneous formations. Nevertheless the application of seismic attributes to the study of carbonate and naturally fractured reservoirs has been limited. This paper shows the application of seismic attributes and seismic inversion to the geological and petrophysical characterization of a naturally fractured reservoir with complex lithology, which is characteristic of the most important producing formations in Mexico. The results from these techniques provide the basis for the definition of a realistic geological model, which is of prime concern for the reservoir`s characterization, numerical studies and EOR applications.

  19. Draft Geologic Disposal Requirements Basis for STAD Specification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilgen, Anastasia G.; Bryan, Charles R.; Hardin, Ernest

    2015-03-25

    This document provides the basis for requirements in the current version of Performance Specification for Standardized Transportation, Aging, and Disposal Canister Systems, (FCRD-NFST-2014-0000579) that are driven by storage and geologic disposal considerations. Performance requirements for the Standardized Transportation, Aging, and Disposal (STAD) canister are given in Section 3.1 of that report. Here, the requirements are reviewed and the rationale for each provided. Note that, while FCRD-NFST-2014-0000579 provides performance specifications for other components of the STAD storage system (e.g. storage overpack, transfer and transportation casks, and others), these have no impact on the canister performance during disposal, and are not discussed here.

  20. Database for Regional Geology, Phase 1: A Tool for Informing Regional Evaluations of Alternative Geologic Media and Decision Making

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perry, Frank Vinton; Kelley, Richard E.; Birdsell, Suzanne M.; Lugo, Alexander Bryan; Dobson, Patrick; Houseworth, James

    2014-11-12

    Reported is progress in the following areas: Phase 1 and 2 websites for the regional geology GIS database; terrane maps of crystalline basement rocks; inventory of shale formations in the US; and rock properties and in-situ conditions for shale estimated from sonic velocity measurements.

  1. Evaluating the Suitability for CO2 Storage at the FutureGen 2.0 Site, Morgan County, Illinois, USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonneville, Alain; Gilmore, Tyler J.; Sullivan, E. C.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Kelley, Mark E.; White, Signe K.; Appriou, Delphine; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Gerst, Jacqueline L.; Gupta, Neeraj; Horner, Jacob A.; McNeil, Caitlin; Moody, Mark A.; Rike, William M.; Spane, Frank A.; Thorne, Paul D.; Zeller, Evan R.; Zhang, Z. F.; Hoffman, Jeffrey; Humphreys, Kenneth K.

    2013-08-05

    FutureGen 2.0 site will be the first near-zero emission power plant with fully integrated long-term storage in a deep, non-potable saline aquifer in the United States. The proposed FutureGen 2.0 CO2 storage site is located in northeast Morgan County, Illinois, U.S.A., forty-eight kilometres from the Meredosia Energy Center where a large-scale oxy-combustion demonstration will be conducted. The demonstration will involve > 90% carbon capture, which will produce more than one million metric tons (MMT) of CO2 per year. The CO2 will be compressed at the power plant and transported via pipeline to the storage site. To examine CO2 storage potential of the site, a 1,467m characterization well (FGA#1) was completed in December 2011. The target reservoir for CO2 storage is the Mt. Simon Sandstone and Elmhurst Sandstone Member of the lower Eau Claire Formation for a combined thickness of 176 m. Confining beds of the overlying Lombard and Proviso Members (upper Eau Claire Formation) reach a thickness of 126 m. Characterization of the target injection zone and the overlying confining zone was based on wellbore data, cores, and geophysical logs, along with surface geophysical (2-D seismic profiles, magnetic and gravity), and structural data collected during the initial stage of the project . Based on this geological model, 3D simulations of CO2 injection and redistribution were conducted using STOMP-CO2, a multiphase flow and transport simulator. After this characterization stage, it appears that the injection site is a suitable geologic system for CO2 sequestration and that the injection zone is sufficient to receive up to 33 MMT of CO2 at a rate of 1.1 MMT/yr. GHGT-11 conference

  2. Chinese Geological Survey | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Chinese Geological Survey Jump to: navigation, search Name: Chinese Geological Survey Place: China Sector: Geothermal energy Product: Chinese body which is involved in surveys of...

  3. Idaho Geological Survey | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    The Idaho Geological Survey is located in Boise, Idaho. About Information on past oil and gas exploration wells in Idaho was transferred to the Idaho Geological Survey in...

  4. Geologic interpretation of gravity anomalies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andreyev, B.A.; Klushin, I.G.

    1990-04-19

    This Russian textbook provides a sufficiently complete and systematic illumination of physico-geologic and mathematical aspect of complex problem of interpretation of gravity anomalies. The rational methods of localization of anomalies are examined in detail. All methods of interpreting gravity anomalies are described which have found successful application in practice. Also given are ideas of some new methods of the interpretation of gravity anomalies, the prospects for further development and industrial testing. Numerous practical examples to interpretation are given. Partial Contents: Bases of gravitational field theory; Physico-geologic bases of gravitational prospecting; Principles of geologic interpretation of gravity anomalies; Conversions and calculations of anomalies; Interpretation of gravity anomalies for bodies of correct geometric form and for bodies of arbitrary form; Geologic interpretation of the results of regional gravitational photographing; Searches and prospecting of oil- and gas-bearing structures and of deposits of ore and nonmetalliferous useful minerals.

  5. Modeling long-term CO2 storage, sequestration and cycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bacon, Diana H.

    2013-11-11

    The application of numerical and analytical models to the problem of storage, sequestration and migration of carbon dioxide in geologic formations is discussed. A review of numerical and analytical models that have been applied to CO2 sequestration are presented, as well as a description of frameworks for risk analysis. Application of models to various issues related to carbon sequestration are discussed, including trapping mechanisms, density convection mixing, impurities in the CO2 stream, changes in formation porosity and permeability, the risk of vertical leakage, and the impacts on groundwater resources if leakage does occur. A discussion of the development and application of site-specific models first addresses the estimation of model parameters and the use of natural analogues to inform the development of CO2 sequestration models, and then surveys modeling that has been done at two commercial-scale CO2 sequestration sites, Sleipner and In Salah, along with a pilot-scale injection sites used to study CO2 sequestration in saline aquifers (Frio) and an experimental site designed to test monitoring of CO2 leakage in the vadose zone (ZERT Release Facility).

  6. Regional Geology: GIS Database for Alternative Host Rocks and Potential Siting Guidelines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The objective of this work is to develop a spatial database that integrates both geologic data for alternative host-rock formations and information that has been historically used for siting...

  7. DOE Releases Report on Techniques to Ensure Safe, Effective Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory has created a comprehensive new document that examines existing and emerging techniques to monitor, verify, and account for carbon dioxide stored in geologic formations.

  8. FAQs about Storage Capacity

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    about Storage Capacity How do I determine if my tanks are in operation or idle or ... Do I have to report storage capacity every month? No, only report storage capacity with ...

  9. Fact Sheet: Energy Storage Database (October 2012) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Database (October 2012) Fact Sheet: Energy Storage Database (October 2012) DOE and Sandia National Laboratories are developing a database of energy storage projects and policies that will present current information about energy storage projects worldwide and U.S. energy storage policy in an easy-to-use and intuitive format. Users will be able to search by region, technology, service territory, benefit stream, and other project or policy statistics. For more information about how OE performs

  10. Soda Lake Well Lithology Data and Geologic Cross-Sections (Dataset) | Data

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Explorer Soda Lake Well Lithology Data and Geologic Cross-Sections Title: Soda Lake Well Lithology Data and Geologic Cross-Sections Comprehensive catalogue of drill-hole data in spreadsheet, shapefile, and Geosoft database formats. Includes XYZ locations of well heads, year drilled, type of well, operator, total depths, well path data (deviations), lithology logs, and temperature data. Plus, 13 cross-sections in Adobe Illustrator format. Authors: Faulds, James E. Publication Date: 2013-12-31

  11. Sandia Energy Energy Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia Participates in Preparation of New Mexico Renewable Energy Storage Report http:energy.sandia.govsandia-participates-in-preparation-of-new-mexico-renewable-energy-storage-...

  12. The consequences of failure should be considered in siting geologic carbon sequestration projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, P.N.; Oldenburg, C.M.

    2009-02-23

    Geologic carbon sequestration is the injection of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} into deep geologic formations where the CO{sub 2} is intended to remain indefinitely. If successfully implemented, geologic carbon sequestration will have little or no impact on terrestrial ecosystems aside from the mitigation of climate change. However, failure of a geologic carbon sequestration site, such as large-scale leakage of CO{sub 2} into a potable groundwater aquifer, could cause impacts that would require costly remediation measures. Governments are attempting to develop regulations for permitting geologic carbon sequestration sites to ensure their safety and effectiveness. At present, these regulations focus largely on decreasing the probability of failure. In this paper we propose that regulations for the siting of early geologic carbon sequestration projects should emphasize limiting the consequences of failure because consequences are easier to quantify than failure probability.

  13. Gas hydrate cool storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ternes, Mark P. (Knoxville, TN); Kedl, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1985-01-01

    This invention is a process for formation of a gas hydrate to be used as a cool storage medium using a refrigerant in water. Mixing of the immiscible refrigerant and water is effected by addition of a surfactant and agitation. The difficult problem of subcooling during the process is overcome by using the surfactant and agitation and performance of the process significantly improves and approaches ideal.

  14. Fresh Water Generation from Aquifer-Pressured Carbon Storage: Annual Report FY09

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolery, T; Aines, R; Hao, Y; Bourcier, W; Wolfe, T; Haussman, C

    2009-11-25

    This project is establishing the potential for using brine pressurized by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) operations in saline formations as the feedstock for desalination and water treatment technologies including reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF). The aquifer pressure resulting from the energy required to inject the carbon dioxide provides all or part of the inlet pressure for the desalination system. Residual brine is reinjected into the formation at net volume reduction, such that the volume of fresh water extracted balances the volume of CO{sub 2} injected into the formation. This process provides additional CO{sub 2} storage capacity in the aquifer, reduces operational risks (cap-rock fracturing, contamination of neighboring fresh water aquifers, and seismicity) by relieving overpressure in the formation, and provides a source of low-cost fresh water to offset costs or operational water needs. This multi-faceted project combines elements of geochemistry, reservoir engineering, and water treatment engineering. The range of saline formation waters is being identified and analyzed. Computer modeling and laboratory-scale experimentation are being used to examine mineral scaling and osmotic pressure limitations. Computer modeling is being used to evaluate processes in the storage aquifer, including the evolution of the pressure field. Water treatment costs are being evaluated by comparing the necessary process facilities to those in common use for seawater RO. There are presently limited brine composition data available for actual CCS sites by the site operators including in the U.S. the seven regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (CSPs). To work around this, we are building a 'catalog' of compositions representative of 'produced' waters (waters produced in the course of seeking or producing oil and gas), to which we are adding data from actual CCS sites as they become available. Produced waters comprise the most common examples of saline formation waters. Therefore, they are expected to be representative of saline formation waters at actual and potential future CCS sites. We are using a produced waters database (Breit, 2002) covering most of the United States compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). In one instance to date, we have used this database to find a composition corresponding to the brine expected at an actual CCS site (Big Sky CSP, Nugget Formation, Sublette County, Wyoming). We have located other produced waters databases, which are usually of regional scope (e.g., NETL, 2005, Rocky Mountains basins).

  15. Assessment of Factors Influencing Effective CO{sub 2} Storage Capacity and Injectivity in Eastern Gas Shales

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Godec, Michael

    2013-06-30

    Building upon advances in technology, production of natural gas from organic-rich shales is rapidly developing as a major hydrocarbon supply option in North America and around the world. The same technology advances that have facilitated this revolution - dense well spacing, horizontal drilling, and hydraulic fracturing - may help to facilitate enhanced gas recovery (EGR) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage in these formations. The potential storage of CO {sub 2} in shales is attracting increasing interest, especially in Appalachian Basin states that have extensive shale deposits, but limited CO{sub 2} storage capacity in conventional reservoirs. The goal of this cooperative research project was to build upon previous and on-going work to assess key factors that could influence effective EGR, CO{sub 2} storage capacity, and injectivity in selected Eastern gas shales, including the Devonian Marcellus Shale, the Devonian Ohio Shale, the Ordovician Utica and Point Pleasant shale and equivalent formations, and the late Devonian-age Antrim Shale. The project had the following objectives: (1) Analyze and synthesize geologic information and reservoir data through collaboration with selected State geological surveys, universities, and oil and gas operators; (2) improve reservoir models to perform reservoir simulations to better understand the shale characteristics that impact EGR, storage capacity and CO{sub 2} injectivity in the targeted shales; (3) Analyze results of a targeted, highly monitored, small-scale CO{sub 2} injection test and incorporate into ongoing characterization and simulation work; (4) Test and model a smart particle early warning concept that can potentially be used to inject water with uniquely labeled particles before the start of CO{sub 2} injection; (5) Identify and evaluate potential constraints to economic CO{sub 2} storage in gas shales, and propose development approaches that overcome these constraints; and (6) Complete new basin-level characterizations for the CO{sub 2} storage capacity and injectivity potential of the targeted eastern shales. In total, these Eastern gas shales cover an area of over 116 million acres, may contain an estimated 6,000 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of gas in place, and have a maximum theoretical storage capacity of over 600 million metric tons. Not all of this gas in-place will be recoverable, and economics will further limit how much will be economic to produce using EGR techniques with CO{sub 2} injection. Reservoir models were developed and simulations were conducted to characterize the potential for both CO{sub 2} storage and EGR for the target gas shale formations. Based on that, engineering costing and cash flow analyses were used to estimate economic potential based on future natural gas prices and possible financial incentives. The objective was to assume that EGR and CO{sub 2} storage activities would commence consistent with the historical development practices. Alternative CO{sub 2} injection/EGR scenarios were considered and compared to well production without CO{sub 2} injection. These simulations were conducted for specific, defined model areas in each shale gas play. The resulting outputs were estimated recovery per typical well (per 80 acres), and the estimated CO{sub 2} that would be injected and remain in the reservoir (i.e., not produced), and thus ultimately assumed to be stored. The application of this approach aggregated to the entire area of the four shale gas plays concluded that they contain nearly 1,300 Tcf of both primary production and EGR potential, of which an estimated 460 Tcf could be economic to produce with reasonable gas prices and/or modest incentives. This could facilitate the storage of nearly 50 Gt of CO{sub 2} in the Marcellus, Utica, Antrim, and Devonian Ohio shales.

  16. Long-term Variations of CO2 Trapped in Different Mechanisms in Deep Saline Formations: A Case Study of the Songliao Basin, China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Wei; Li, Yilian; Xu, Tianfu; Cheng, Huilin; Zheng, Yan; Xiong, Peng

    2008-06-10

    The geological storage of CO{sub 2} in deep saline formations is increasing seen as a viable strategy to reduce the release of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. There are numerous sedimentary basins in China, in which a number of suitable CO{sub 2} geologic reservoirs are potentially available. To identify the multi-phase processes, geochemical changes and mineral alteration, and CO{sub 2} trapping mechanisms after CO{sub 2} injection, reactive geochemical transport simulations using a simple 2D model were performed. Mineralogical composition and water chemistry from a deep saline formation of Songliao Basin were used. Results indicate that different storage forms of CO{sub 2} vary with time. In the CO{sub 2} injection period, a large amount of CO{sub 2} remains as a free supercritical phase (gas trapping), and the amount dissolved in the formation water (solubility trapping) gradually increases. Later, gas trapping decreases, solubility trapping increases significantly due to migration and diffusion of the CO{sub 2} plume, and the amount trapped by carbonate minerals increases gradually with time. The residual CO{sub 2} gas keeps dissolving into groundwater and precipitating carbonate minerals. For the Songliao Basin sandstone, variations in the reaction rate and abundance of chlorite, and plagioclase composition affect significantly the estimates of mineral alteration and CO{sub 2} storage in different trapping mechanisms. The effect of vertical permeability and residual gas saturation on the overall storage is smaller compared to the geochemical factors. However, they can affect the spatial distribution of the injected CO{sub 2} in the formations. The CO{sub 2} mineral trapping capacity could be in the order of ten kilogram per cubic meter medium for the Songliao Basin sandstone, and may be higher depending on the composition of primary aluminosilicate minerals especially the content of Ca, Mg, and Fe.

  17. Storage by Scientific Discipline

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heat & Cool » Water Heating » Storage Water Heaters Storage Water Heaters Consider energy efficiency when selecting a conventional storage water heater to avoid paying more over its lifetime. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/JulNichols. Consider energy efficiency when selecting a conventional storage water heater to avoid paying more over its lifetime. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/JulNichols. Conventional storage water heaters remain the most popular type of water heating system

  18. Simulation of CO2 Sequestration at Rock Spring Uplift, Wyoming: Heterogeneity and Uncertainties in Storage Capacity, Injectivity and Leakage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Hailin; Dai, Zhenxue; Jiao, Zunsheng; Stauffer, Philip H.; Surdam, Ronald C.

    2011-01-01

    Many geological, geochemical, geomechanical and hydrogeological factors control CO{sub 2} storage in subsurface. Among them heterogeneity in saline aquifer can seriously influence design of injection wells, CO{sub 2} injection rate, CO{sub 2} plume migration, storage capacity, and potential leakage and risk assessment. This study applies indicator geostatistics, transition probability and Markov chain model at the Rock Springs Uplift, Wyoming generating facies-based heterogeneous fields for porosity and permeability in target saline aquifer (Pennsylvanian Weber sandstone) and surrounding rocks (Phosphoria, Madison and cap-rock Chugwater). A multiphase flow simulator FEHM is then used to model injection of CO{sub 2} into the target saline aquifer involving field-scale heterogeneity. The results reveal that (1) CO{sub 2} injection rates in different injection wells significantly change with local permeability distributions; (2) brine production rates in different pumping wells are also significantly impacted by the spatial heterogeneity in permeability; (3) liquid pressure evolution during and after CO{sub 2} injection in saline aquifer varies greatly for different realizations of random permeability fields, and this has potential important effects on hydraulic fracturing of the reservoir rock, reactivation of pre-existing faults and the integrity of the cap-rock; (4) CO{sub 2} storage capacity estimate for Rock Springs Uplift is 6614 {+-} 256 Mt at 95% confidence interval, which is about 36% of previous estimate based on homogeneous and isotropic storage formation; (5) density profiles show that the density of injected CO{sub 2} below 3 km is close to that of the ambient brine with given geothermal gradient and brine concentration, which indicates CO{sub 2} plume can sink to the deep before reaching thermal equilibrium with brine. Finally, we present uncertainty analysis of CO{sub 2} leakage into overlying formations due to heterogeneity in both the target saline aquifer and surrounding formations. This uncertainty in leakage will be used to feed into risk assessment modeling.

  19. Conversion of the Big Hill geological site characterization report to a three-dimensional model.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Rautman, Christopher Arthur

    2003-02-01

    The Big Hill salt dome, located in southeastern Texas, is home to one of four underground oil-storage facilities managed by the U. S. Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Program. Sandia National Laboratories, as the geotechnical advisor to the SPR, conducts site-characterization investigations and other longer-term geotechnical and engineering studies in support of the program. This report describes the conversion of two-dimensional geologic interpretations of the Big Hill site into three-dimensional geologic models. The new models include the geometry of the salt dome, the surrounding sedimentary units, mapped faults, and the 14 oil storage caverns at the site. This work provides a realistic and internally consistent geologic model of the Big Hill site that can be used in support of future work.

  20. Conversion of the West Hackberry geological site characterization report to a three-dimensional model.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Snider, Anna C.

    2004-08-01

    The West Hackberry salt dome, in southwestern Louisiana, is one of four underground oil-storage facilities managed by the U. S. Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Program. Sandia National Laboratories, as the geotechnical advisor to the SPR, conducts site-characterization investigations and other longer-term geotechnical and engineering studies in support of the program. This report describes the conversion of two-dimensional geologic interpretations of the West Hackberry site into three-dimensional geologic models. The new models include the geometry of the salt dome, the surrounding sedimentary layers, mapped faults, and a portion of the oil storage caverns at the site. This work provides a realistic and internally consistent geologic model of the West Hackberry site that can be used in support of future work.

  1. Conversion of the Bryan Mound geological site characterization reports to a three-dimensional model.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Rautman, Christopher Arthur

    2005-04-01

    The Bryan Mound salt dome, located near Freeport, Texas, is home to one of four underground crude oil-storage facilities managed by the U. S. Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Program. Sandia National Laboratories, as the geotechnical advisor to the SPR, conducts site-characterization investigations and other longer-term geotechnical and engineering studies in support of the program. This report describes the conversion of two-dimensional geologic interpretations of the Bryan Mound site into three-dimensional geologic models. The new models include the geometry of the salt dome, the surrounding sedimentary units, mapped faults, and the 20 oil-storage caverns at the site. This work provides an internally consistent geologic model of the Bryan Mound site that can be used in support of future work.

  2. Award-Winning DOE Technology Scores Success in Carbon Storage Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The ability to detect and track the movement of carbon dioxide in underground geologic storage reservoirs -- an important component of carbon capture and storage technology -- has been successfully demonstrated at a U.S. Department of Energy New Mexico test site.

  3. CO2 CAPTURE PROJECT - AN INTEGRATED, COLLABORATIVE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROJECT FOR NEXT GENERATION CO2 SEPARATION, CAPTURE AND GEOLOGIC SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Helen Kerr

    2003-08-01

    The CO{sub 2} Capture Project (CCP) is a joint industry project, funded by eight energy companies (BP, ChevronTexaco, EnCana, Eni, Norsk Hydro, Shell, Statoil, and Suncor) and three government agencies (1) European Union (DG Res & DG Tren), (2) Norway (Klimatek) and (3) the U.S.A. (Department of Energy). The project objective is to develop new technologies, which could reduce the cost of CO{sub 2} capture and geologic storage by 50% for retrofit to existing plants and 75% for new-build plants. Technologies are to be developed to ''proof of concept'' stage by the end of 2003. The project budget is approximately $24 million over 3 years and the work program is divided into eight major activity areas: (1) Baseline Design and Cost Estimation--defined the uncontrolled emissions from each facility and estimate the cost of abatement in $/tonne CO{sub 2}. (2) Capture Technology, Post Combustion: technologies, which can remove CO{sub 2} from exhaust gases after combustion. (3) Capture Technology, Oxyfuel: where oxygen is separated from the air and then burned with hydrocarbons to produce an exhaust with high CO{sub 2} for storage. (4) Capture Technology, Pre -Combustion: in which, natural gas and petroleum coke are converted to hydrogen and CO{sub 2} in a reformer/gasifier. (5) Common Economic Model/Technology Screening: analysis and evaluation of each technology applied to the scenarios to provide meaningful and consistent comparison. (6) New Technology Cost Estimation: on a consistent basis with the baseline above, to demonstrate cost reductions. (7) Geologic Storage, Monitoring and Verification (SMV): providing assurance that CO{sub 2} can be safely stored in geologic formations over the long term. (8) Non-Technical: project management, communication of results and a review of current policies and incentives governing CO{sub 2} capture and storage. Technology development work dominated the past six months of the project. Numerous studies are making substantial progress towards their goals. Some technologies are emerging as preferred over others. Pre-combustion Decarbonization (hydrogen fuel) technologies are showing good progress and may be able to meet the CCP's aggressive cost reduction targets for new-build plants. Chemical looping to produce oxygen for oxyfuel combustion shows real promise. As expected, post-combustion technologies are emerging as higher cost options that may have niche roles. Storage, measurement, and verification studies are moving rapidly forward. Hyper-spectral geo-botanical measurements may be an inexpensive and non-intrusive method for long-term monitoring. Modeling studies suggest that primary leakage routes from CO{sub 2} storage sites may be along wellbores in areas disturbed by earlier oil and gas operations. This is good news because old wells are usually mapped and can be repaired during the site preparation process. Many studies are nearing completion or have been completed. Their preliminary results are summarized in the attached report and presented in detail in the attached appendices.

  4. Spent fuel storage alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Connell, R.H.; Bowidowicz, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper compares a small onsite wet storage pool to a dry cask storage facility in order to determine what type of spent fuel storage alternatives would best serve the utilities in consideration of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. The Act allows the DOE to provide a total of 1900 metric tons (MT) of additional spent fuel storage capacity to utilities that cannot reasonably provide such capacity for themselves. Topics considered include the implementation of the Act (DOE away-from reactor storage), the Act's impact on storage needs, and an economic evaluation. The Waste Act mandates schedules for the determination of several sites, the licensing and construction of a high-level waste repository, and the study of a monitored retrievable storage facility. It is determined that a small wet pool storage facility offers a conservative and cost-effective approach for many stations, in comparison to dry cask storage.

  5. Gas Hydrate Storage of Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudy Rogers; John Etheridge

    2006-03-31

    Environmental and economic benefits could accrue from a safe, above-ground, natural-gas storage process allowing electric power plants to utilize natural gas for peak load demands; numerous other applications of a gas storage process exist. A laboratory study conducted in 1999 to determine the feasibility of a gas-hydrates storage process looked promising. The subsequent scale-up of the process was designed to preserve important features of the laboratory apparatus: (1) symmetry of hydrate accumulation, (2) favorable surface area to volume ratio, (3) heat exchanger surfaces serving as hydrate adsorption surfaces, (4) refrigeration system to remove heat liberated from bulk hydrate formation, (5) rapid hydrate formation in a non-stirred system, (6) hydrate self-packing, and (7) heat-exchanger/adsorption plates serving dual purposes to add or extract energy for hydrate formation or decomposition. The hydrate formation/storage/decomposition Proof-of-Concept (POC) pressure vessel and supporting equipment were designed, constructed, and tested. This final report details the design of the scaled POC gas-hydrate storage process, some comments on its fabrication and installation, checkout of the equipment, procedures for conducting the experimental tests, and the test results. The design, construction, and installation of the equipment were on budget target, as was the tests that were subsequently conducted. The budget proposed was met. The primary goal of storing 5000-scf of natural gas in the gas hydrates was exceeded in the final test, as 5289-scf of gas storage was achieved in 54.33 hours. After this 54.33-hour period, as pressure in the formation vessel declined, additional gas went into the hydrates until equilibrium pressure/temperature was reached, so that ultimately more than the 5289-scf storage was achieved. The time required to store the 5000-scf (48.1 hours of operating time) was longer than designed. The lower gas hydrate formation rate is attributed to a lower heat transfer rate in the internal heat exchanger than was designed. It is believed that the fins on the heat-exchanger tubes did not make proper contact with the tubes transporting the chilled glycol, and pairs of fins were too close for interior areas of fins to serve as hydrate collection sites. A correction of the fabrication fault in the heat exchanger fin attachments could be easily made to provide faster formation rates. The storage success with the POC process provides valuable information for making the process an economically viable process for safe, aboveground natural-gas storage.

  6. CO2 CAPTURE PROJECT-AN INTEGRATED, COLLABORATIVE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROJECT FOR NEXT GENERATION CO2 SEPARATION, CAPTURE AND GEOLOGIC SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helen Kerr

    2004-04-01

    The CO{sub 2} Capture Project (CCP) is a joint industry project, funded by eight energy companies (BP, ChevronTexaco, EnCana, Eni, Norsk Hydro, Shell, Statoil, and Suncor) and three government agencies (European Union (DG Res & DG Tren), Norway (Klimatek) and the U.S.A. (Department of Energy)). The project objective is to develop new technologies, which could reduce the cost of CO{sub 2} capture and geologic storage by 50% for retrofit to existing plants and 75% for new-build plants. Technologies are to be developed to ''proof of concept'' stage by the end of 2003. The project budget is approximately $24 million over 3 years and the work program is divided into eight major activity areas: (1) Baseline Design and Cost Estimation--defined the uncontrolled emissions from each facility and estimate the cost of abatement in $/tonne CO{sub 2}. (2) Capture Technology, Post Combustion--technologies, which can remove CO{sub 2} from exhaust gases after combustion. (3) Capture Technology, Oxyfuel--where oxygen is separated from the air and then burned with hydrocarbons to produce an exhaust with wet high concentrations of CO{sub 2} for storage. (4) Capture Technology, Pre-Combustion--in which, natural gas and petroleum coke are converted to hydrogen and CO{sub 2} in a reformer/gasifier. (5) Common Economic Model/Technology Screening--analysis and evaluation of each technology applied to the scenarios to provide meaningful and consistent comparison. (6) New Technology Cost Estimation: on a consistent basis with the baseline above, to demonstrate cost reductions. (7) Geologic Storage, Monitoring and Verification (SMV)--providing assurance that CO{sub 2} can be safely stored in geologic formations over the long term. (8) Non-Technical: project management, communication of results and a review of current policies and incentives governing CO{sub 2} capture and storage. Technology development work dominated the past six months of the project. Numerous studies have completed their 2003 stagegate review and are reported here. Some will proceed to the next stagegate review in 2004. Some technologies are emerging as preferred over others. Pre-combustion De-carbonization (hydrogen fuel) technologies are showing excellent results and may be able to meet the CCP's aggressive cost reduction targets for new-build plants. The workscopes planned for the next key stagegates are under review before work begins based on the current economic assessment of their performance. Chemical looping to produce oxygen for oxyfuel combustion shows real promise. As expected, post-combustion technologies are emerging as higher cost options but even so some significant potential reductions in cost have been identified and will continue to be explored. Storage, measurement, and verification studies are moving rapidly forward and suggest that geologic sequestration can be a safe form of long-term CO{sub 2} storage. Hyper-spectral geo-botanical measurements may be an inexpensive and non-intrusive method for long-term monitoring. Modeling studies suggest that primary leakage routes from CO{sub 2} storage sites may be along old wellbores in areas disturbed by earlier oil and gas operations. This is good news because old wells are usually mapped and can be repaired during the site preparation process. Wells are also easy to monitor and intervention is possible if needed. The project will continue to evaluate and bring in novel studies and ideas within the project scope as requested by the DOE. The results to date are summarized in the attached report and presented in detail in the attached appendices.

  7. A quantitative comparison of the cost of employing EOR-coupled CSS supplemented with secondary DSF storage for two large CO2 point sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, Casie L.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Dooley, James J.

    2011-04-18

    This paper explores the impact of the temporally dynamic demand for CO2 for enhanced hydrocarbon recovery with CO2 storage. Previous evaluations of economy-wide CO2 capture and geologic storage (CCS) deployment have typically applied a simplifying assumption that 100% of the potential storage capacity for a given formation is available on the first day of the analysis, and that the injection rate impacts only the number of wells required to inject a given volume of fluid per year, making it a cost driver rather than a technical one. However, as discussed by Dahowski and Bachu [1], storing CO2 in a field undergoing CO2 flooding for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is subject to a set of constraints to which storage in DSFs is not, and these constraints combined with variable demand for CO2 may strongly influence the ability of an EOR field to serve as a baseload storage formation for commercial scale CCS projects undertaken as a means of addressing climate change mitigation targets. This analysis assumes that CCS is being undertaken in order to reduce CO2 emissions from the industrial sources evaluated and that there is enough of a disincentive associated with venting CO2 to the atmosphere that any CO2 not used within the EOR field will be stored in a suitable nearby deep saline formation (DSF). The authors have applied a CO2 demand profile to two cases chosen to illustrate the differences in cost impacts of employing EOR-based CCS as a part of a given source’s CCS portfolio. The first scenario is a less-than-ideal case in which a single EOR field is used for storage and all CO2 not demanded by the EOR project is stored in a DSF; the second scenario is designed to optimize costs by minimizing storage in the DSF and maximizing lower-cost EOR-based storage. Both scenarios are evaluated for two facilities emitting 3 and 6 MtCO2/y, corresponding to a natural gas processing facility and an IGCC electric power plant, respectively. Annual and lifetime average CO2 transport and storage costs are presented, and the impact of added capture and compression costs on overall project economics is examined.

  8. Transportation Storage Interface | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Storage Interface Transportation Storage Interface Regulation of Future Extended Storage and Transportation. PDF icon Transportation Storage Interface More Documents & Publications...

  9. Storage | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Storage Storage Energy storage isn’t just for AA batteries. Thanks to investments from the Energy Department's <a href="http://arpa-e.energy.gov/">Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E)</a>, energy storage may soon play a bigger part in our electricity grid, making it possible to generate more renewable electricity. <a href="http://energy.gov/articles/energy-storage-key-reliable-clean-electricity-supply">Learn more</a>. Energy storage

  10. Alabama Project Testing Potential for Combining CO2 Storage with Enhanced

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Methane Recovery | Department of Energy Project Testing Potential for Combining CO2 Storage with Enhanced Methane Recovery Alabama Project Testing Potential for Combining CO2 Storage with Enhanced Methane Recovery June 16, 2010 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC -- Field testing the potential for combining geologic carbon dioxide (CO2) storage with enhanced methane recovery is underway at a site in Alabama by a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) team of regional partners. Members of the Southeast

  11. Industrial CO2 Removal: CO2 Capture from Ambient Air and Geological Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooley, James J.

    2011-06-08

    This abstract and its accompanying presentation will provide an overview of two distinct industrial processes for removing carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere as a means of addressing anthropogenic climate change. The first of these is carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) coupled with large scale biomass production (hereafter referred to as bioCCS). The second is CO2 capture from ambient air via industrial systems (hereafter referred to as direct air capture (DAC)). In both systems, the captured CO2 would be injected into deep geologic formations so as to isolate it from the atmosphere. The technical literature is clear that both of these technologies are technically feasible as of today (IPCC, 2005; Keith, 2009; Lackner, 2009; Luckow et al., 2010; Ranjan and Herzog, 2011). What is uncertain is the relative cost of these industrial ambient-air CO2 removal systems when compared to other emissions mitigation measures, the ultimate timing and scale of their deployment, and the resolution of potential site specific constraints that would impact their ultimate commercial deployment.

  12. Transport of Organic Contaminants Mobilized from Coal through Sandstone Overlying a Geological Carbon Sequestration Reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong, Lirong; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Bacon, Diana H.; Shewell, Jesse L.

    2014-02-01

    Column experiments were conducted using a wetted sandstone rock installed in a tri-axial core holder to study the flow and transport of organic compounds mobilized by scCO2 under simulated geologic carbon storage (GCS) conditions. The sandstone rock was collected from a formation overlying a deep saline reservoir at a GCS demonstration site. Rock core effluent pressures were set at 0, 500, or 1000 psig and the core temperature was set at 20 or 50C to simulate the transport to different subsurface depths. The concentrations of the organic compounds in the column effluent and their distribution within the sandstone core were monitored. Results indicate that the mobility though the core sample was much higher for BTEX compounds than for naphthalene. Retention of organic compounds from the vapor phase to the core appeared to be primarily controlled by partitioning from the vapor phase to the aqueous phase. Adsorption to the surfaces of the wetted sandstone was also significant for naphthalene. Reduced temperature and elevated pressure resulted in greater partitioning of the mobilized organic contaminants into the water phase.

  13. Relationship of regional water quality to aquifer thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, R.D.

    1983-11-01

    Ground-water quality and associated geologic characteristics may affect the feasibility of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system development in any hydrologic region. This study sought to determine the relationship between ground-water quality parameters and the regional potential for ATES system development. Information was collected from available literature to identify chemical and physical mechanisms that could adversely affect an ATES system. Appropriate beneficiation techniques to counter these potential geochemical and lithologic problems were also identified through the literature search. Regional hydrology summaries and other sources were used in reviewing aquifers of 19 drainage regions in the US to determine generic geochemical characteristics for analysis. Numerical modeling techniques were used to perform geochemical analyses of water quality from 67 selected aquifers. Candidate water resources regions were then identified for exploration and development of ATES. This study identified six principal mechanisms by which ATES reservoir permeability may be impaired: (1) particulate plugging, (2) chemical precipitation, (3) liquid-solid reactions, (4) formation disaggregation, (5) oxidation reactions, and (6) biological activity. Specific proven countermeasures to reduce or eliminate these effects were found. Of the hydrologic regions reviewed, 10 were identified as having the characteristics necessary for ATES development: (1) Mid-Atlantic, (2) South-Atlantic Gulf, (3) Ohio, (4) Upper Mississippi, (5) Lower Mississippi, (6) Souris-Red-Rainy, (7) Missouri Basin, (8) Arkansas-White-Red, (9) Texas-Gulf, and (10) California.

  14. The role of optimality in characterizing CO2 seepage from geological carbon sequestration sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cortis, Andrea; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Benson, Sally M.

    2008-09-15

    Storage of large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in deep geological formations for greenhouse gas mitigation is gaining momentum and moving from its conceptual and testing stages towards widespread application. In this work we explore various optimization strategies for characterizing surface leakage (seepage) using near-surface measurement approaches such as accumulation chambers and eddy covariance towers. Seepage characterization objectives and limitations need to be defined carefully from the outset especially in light of large natural background variations that can mask seepage. The cost and sensitivity of seepage detection are related to four critical length scales pertaining to the size of the: (1) region that needs to be monitored; (2) footprint of the measurement approach, and (3) main seepage zone; and (4) region in which concentrations or fluxes are influenced by seepage. Seepage characterization objectives may include one or all of the tasks of detecting, locating, and quantifying seepage. Each of these tasks has its own optimal strategy. Detecting and locating seepage in a region in which there is no expected or preferred location for seepage nor existing evidence for seepage requires monitoring on a fixed grid, e.g., using eddy covariance towers. The fixed-grid approaches needed to detect seepage are expected to require large numbers of eddy covariance towers for large-scale geologic CO{sub 2} storage. Once seepage has been detected and roughly located, seepage zones and features can be optimally pinpointed through a dynamic search strategy, e.g., employing accumulation chambers and/or soil-gas sampling. Quantification of seepage rates can be done through measurements on a localized fixed grid once the seepage is pinpointed. Background measurements are essential for seepage detection in natural ecosystems. Artificial neural networks are considered as regression models useful for distinguishing natural system behavior from anomalous behavior suggestive of CO{sub 2} seepage without need for detailed understanding of natural system processes. Because of the local extrema in CO{sub 2} fluxes and concentrations in natural systems, simple steepest-descent algorithms are not effective and evolutionary computation algorithms are proposed as a paradigm for dynamic monitoring networks to pinpoint CO{sub 2} seepage areas.

  15. Geologic Map and Cross Sections of the McGinness Hills Geothermal Area - GIS Data

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Faulds, James E.

    2013-12-31

    Geologic map data in shapefile format that includes faults, unit contacts, unit polygons, attitudes of strata and faults, and surficial geothermal features. 5 cross‐sections in Adobe Illustrator format. Comprehensive catalogue of drill‐hole data in spreadsheet, shapefile, and Geosoft database formats. Includes XYZ locations of well heads, year drilled, type of well, operator, total depths, well path data (deviations), lithology logs, and temperature data. 3D model constructed with EarthVision using geologic map data, cross‐sections, drill‐hole data, and geophysics.

  16. Geologic Map and Cross Sections of the McGinness Hills Geothermal Area - GIS Data

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Faulds, James E.

    2013-12-31

    Geologic map data in shapefile format that includes faults, unit contacts, unit polygons, attitudes of strata and faults, and surficial geothermal features. 5 cross?sections in Adobe Illustrator format. Comprehensive catalogue of drill?hole data in spreadsheet, shapefile, and Geosoft database formats. Includes XYZ locations of well heads, year drilled, type of well, operator, total depths, well path data (deviations), lithology logs, and temperature data. 3D model constructed with EarthVision using geologic map data, cross?sections, drill?hole data, and geophysics.

  17. Hawaii geologic map data | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    geologic map data Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Hawaii geologic map data Published USGS, Date Not Provided DOI Not Provided Check for...

  18. Utah Geological Survey | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Logo: Utah Geological Survey Name: Utah Geological Survey Address: 1594 W. North Temple Place: Salt Lake City, Utah Zip: 84114-6100 Phone Number: 801.537.3300 Website:...

  19. Pumped Storage Hydropower

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In addition to traditional hydropower, pumped-storage hydropower (PSH)—A type of hydropower that works like a battery, pumping water from a lower reservoir to an upper reservoir for storage and...

  20. Hanford Borehole Geologic Information System (HBGIS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Last, George V.; Mackley, Rob D.; Saripalli, Ratna R.

    2005-09-26

    This is a user's guide for viewing and downloading borehold geologic data through a web-based interface.

  1. Energy Storage Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Storage Safety Strategic Plan Now Available Energy Storage Safety Strategic Plan Now Available December 23, 2014 - 10:25am Addthis The Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE) has worked with industry and other stakeholders to develop the Energy Storage Safety Strategic Plan, a roadmap for grid energy storage safety that highlights safety validation techniques, incident preparedness, safety codes, standards, and regulations. The Plan, which is now available for downloading,

  2. Large Scale U.S. Unconventional Fuels Production and the Role of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Technologies in Reducing Their Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.

    2008-11-18

    This paper examines the role that carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies could play in reducing greenhouse gas emissions if a significant unconventional fuels industry were to develop within the United States. Specifically, the paper examines the potential emergence of a large scale domestic unconventional fuels industry based on oil shale and coal-to-liquids (CTL) technologies. For both of these domestic heavy hydrocarbon resources, this paper models the growth of domestic production to a capacity of 3 MMB/d by 2050. For the oil shale production case, we model large scale deployment of an in-situ retorting process applied to the Eocene Green River formation of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming where approximately 75% of the high grade oil shale resources within the United States lies. For the CTL case, we examine a more geographically dispersed coal-based unconventional fuel industry. This paper examines the performance of these industries under two hypothetical climate policies and concludes that even with the wide scale availability of cost effective carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies, these unconventional fuels production industries would be responsible for significant increases in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. The oil shale production facilities required to produce 3MMB/d would result in net emissions to the atmosphere of between 3000-7000 MtCO2 in addition to storing potentially 1000 to 5000 MtCO2 in regional deep geologic formations in the period up to 2050. A similarly sized domestic CTL industry could result in 4000 to 5000 MtCO2 emitted to the atmosphere in addition to potentially 21,000 to 22,000 MtCO2 stored in regional deep geologic formations over the same period up to 2050. Preliminary analysis of regional CO2 storage capacity in locations where such facilities might be sited indicates that there appears to be sufficient storage capacity, primarily in deep saline formations, to accommodate the CO2 from these industries. However, additional analyses plus detailed regional and site characterization is needed, along with a closer examination of competing storage demands.

  3. Physical Hydrogen Storage

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Physical storage is the most mature hydrogen storage technology. The current near-term technology for onboard automotive physical hydrogen storage is 350 and 700 bar (5,000 and 10,000 psi) nominal working-pressure compressed gas vessels—that is, "tanks."

  4. Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology Website | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Web Site: Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology Website Abstract Provides access to digital information on Montana's geology. Author Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology...

  5. CMI Education Course Inventory: Geology Engineering/Geochemistry...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Course Inventory: Geology EngineeringGeochemistry Geology EngineeringGeochemistry Of the six CMI Team members that are educational institutions, five offer courses in Geology....

  6. Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geology and Mineral Industries Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries Name: Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries...

  7. International Collaboration Activities in Different Geologic Disposal

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Environments | Department of Energy Collaboration Activities in Different Geologic Disposal Environments International Collaboration Activities in Different Geologic Disposal Environments This report describes the current status of international collaboration regarding geologic disposal research in the Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Campaign. To date, UFD's International Disposal R&D Program has established formal collaboration agreements with five international initiatives and several

  8. Experimental study of potential wellbore cement carbonation by various phases of carbon dioxide during geologic carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, Hun Bok; Um, Wooyong

    2013-08-16

    Hydrated Portland cement was reacted with carbon dioxide (CO2) in supercritical, gaseous, and aqueous phases to understand the potential cement alteration processes along the length of a wellbore, extending from deep CO2 storage reservoir to the shallow subsurface during geologic carbon sequestration. The 3-D X-ray microtomography (XMT) images displayed that the cement alteration was significantly more extensive by CO2-saturated synthetic groundwater than dry or wet supercritical CO2 at high P (10 MPa)-T (50C) conditions. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) analysis also exhibited a systematic Ca depletion and C enrichment in cement matrix exposed to CO2-saturated groundwater. Integrated XMT, XRD, and SEM-EDS analyses identified the formation of extensive carbonated zone filled with CaCO3(s), as well as the porous degradation front and the outermost silica-rich zone in cement after exposure to CO2-saturated groundwater. The cement alteration by CO2-saturated groundwater for 2-8 months overall decreased the porosity from 31% to 22% and the permeability by an order of magnitude. Cement alteration by dry or wet supercritical CO2 was slow and minor compared to CO2-saturated groundwater. A thin single carbonation zone was formed in cement after exposure to wet supercritical CO2 for 8 months or dry supercritical CO2 for 15 months. Extensive calcite coating was formed on the outside surface of a cement sample after exposure to wet gaseous CO2 for 1-3 months. The chemical-physical characterization of hydrated Portland cement after exposure to various phases of carbon dioxide indicates that the extent of cement carbonation can be significantly heterogeneous depending on CO2 phase present in the wellbore environment. Both experimental and geochemical modeling results suggest that wellbore cement exposure to supercritical, gaseous, and aqueous phases of CO2 during geologic carbon sequestration is unlikely to damage the wellbore integrity because cement alteration by all phases of CO2 is dominated by carbonation reaction. This is consistent with previous field studies of wellbore cement with extensive carbonation after exposure to CO2 for 3 decades. However, XMT imaging indicates that preferential cement alteration by supercritical CO2 or CO2-saturated groundwater can occur along the cement-steel or cement-rock interfaces. This highlights the importance of further investigation of cement degradation along the interfaces of wellbore materials to ensure permanent geologic carbon storage.

  9. The united kingdom's changing requirements for spent fuel storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodgson, Z.; Hambley, D.I.; Gregg, R.; Ross, D.N.

    2013-07-01

    The UK is adopting an open fuel cycle, and is necessarily moving to a regime of long term storage of spent fuel, followed by geological disposal once a geological disposal facility (GDF) is available. The earliest GDF receipt date for legacy spent fuel is assumed to be 2075. The UK is set to embark on a programme of new nuclear build to maintain a nuclear energy contribution of 16 GW. Additionally, the UK are considering a significant expansion of nuclear energy in order to meet carbon reduction targets and it is plausible to foresee a scenario where up to 75 GW from nuclear power production could be deployed in the UK by the mid 21. century. Such an expansion, could lead to spent fuel storage and its disposal being a dominant issue for the UK Government, the utilities and the public. If the UK were to transition a closed fuel cycle, then spent fuel storage should become less onerous depending on the timescales. The UK has demonstrated a preference for wet storage of spent fuel on an interim basis. The UK has adopted an approach of centralised storage, but a 16 GW new build programme and any significant expansion of this may push the UK towards distributed spent fuel storage at a number of reactors station sites across the UK.

  10. CO2 Capture Project-An Integrated, Collaborative Technology Development Project for Next Generation CO2 Separation, Capture and Geologic Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helen Kerr; Linda M. Curran

    2005-04-15

    The CO{sub 2} Capture Project (CCP) was a joint industry project, funded by eight energy companies (BP, ChevronTexaco, EnCana, ENI, Norsk Hydro, Shell, Statoil, and Suncor) and three government agencies (European Union [DG RES & DG TREN], the Norwegian Research Council [Klimatek Program] and the U.S. Department of Energy [NETL]). The project objective was to develop new technologies that could reduce the cost of CO{sub 2} capture and geologic storage by 50% for retrofit to existing plants and 75% for new-build plants. Technologies were to be developed to ''proof of concept'' stage by the end of 2003. Certain promising technology areas were increased in scope and the studies extended through 2004. The project budget was approximately $26.4 million over 4 years and the work program is divided into eight major activity areas: Baseline Design and Cost Estimation--defined the uncontrolled emissions from each facility and estimate the cost of abatement in $/tonne CO{sub 2}. Capture Technology, Post Combustion: technologies, which can remove CO{sub 2} from exhaust gases after combustion. Capture Technology, Oxyfuel: where oxygen is separated from the air and then burned with hydrocarbons to produce an exhaust with high CO{sub 2} for storage. Capture Technology, Pre-Combustion: in which, natural gas and petroleum cokes are converted to hydrogen and CO{sub 2} in a reformer/gasifier. Common Economic Model/Technology Screening: analysis and evaluation of each technology applied to the scenarios to provide meaningful and consistent comparison. New Technology Cost Estimation: on a consistent basis with the baseline above, to demonstrate cost reductions. Geologic Storage, Monitoring and Verification (SMV): providing assurance that CO{sub 2} can be safely stored in geologic formations over the long term. Non-Technical: project management, communication of results and a review of current policies and incentives governing CO{sub 2} capture and storage. Pre-combustion De-carbonization (hydrogen fuel) technologies showed excellent results and may be able to meet the CCP's aggressive cost reduction targets for new-build plants. Chemical looping to produce oxygen for oxyfuel combustion shows real promise. Post-combustion technologies emerged as higher cost options that may only have niche roles. Storage, measurement, and verification studies suggest that geologic sequestration will be a safe form of long-term CO{sub 2} storage. Economic modeling shows that options to reduce costs by 50% exist. A rigorous methodology for technology evaluation was developed. Public acceptance and awareness were enhanced through extensive communication of results to the stakeholder community (scientific, NGO, policy, and general public). Two volumes of results have been published and are available to all. Well over 150 technical papers were produced. All funded studies for this phase of the CCP are complete. The results are summarized in this report and all final reports are presented in the attached appendices.

  11. Reservoir architecture modeling: Nonstationary models for quantitative geological characterization. Final report, April 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerr, D.; Epili, D.; Kelkar, M.; Redner, R.; Reynolds, A.

    1998-12-01

    The study was comprised of four investigations: facies architecture; seismic modeling and interpretation; Markov random field and Boolean models for geologic modeling of facies distribution; and estimation of geological architecture using the Bayesian/maximum entropy approach. This report discusses results from all four investigations. Investigations were performed using data from the E and F units of the Middle Frio Formation, Stratton Field, one of the major reservoir intervals in the Gulf Coast Basin.

  12. Optimizing accuracy of determinations of CO₂ storage capacity and permanence, and designing more efficient storage operations: An example from the Rock Springs Uplift, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bentley, Ramsey; Dahl, Shanna; Deiss, Allory; Duguid, Andrew; Ganshin, Yuri; Jiao, Zunsheng; Quillinan, Scott

    2015-12-01

    At a potential injection site on the Rock Springs Uplift in southwest Wyoming, an investigation of confining layers was undertaken to develop and test methodology, identify key data requirements, assess previous injection scenarios relative to detailed confining layer properties, and integrate all findings in order to reduce the uncertainty of CO₂ storage permanence. The assurance of safe and permanent storage of CO₂ at a storage site involves a detailed evaluation of the confining layers. Four suites of field data were recognized as crucial for determining storage permanence relative to the confining layers; seismic, core and petrophysical data from a wellbore, formation fluid samples, and in-situ formation tests. Core and petrophysical data were used to create a vertical heterogenic property model that defined porosity, permeability, displacement pressure, geomechanical strengths, and diagenetic history. These analyses identified four primary confining layers and multiple redundant confining layers. In-situ formation tests were used to evaluate fracture gradients, regional stress fields, baseline microseismic data, step-rate injection tests, and formation perforation responses. Seismic attributes, correlated with the vertical heterogenic property models, were calculated and used to create a 3-D volume model over the entire site. The seismic data provided the vehicle to transform the vertical heterogenic property model into a horizontal heterogenic property model, which allowed for the evaluation of confining layers across the entire study site without risking additional wellbore perforations. Lastly, formation fluids were collected and analyzed for geochemical and isotopic compositions from stacked reservoir systems. These data further tested primary confining layers, by evaluating the evidence of mixing between target reservoirs (mixing would imply an existing breach of primary confining layers). All data were propagated into a dynamic, heterogenic geologic property model used to test various injection scenarios. These tests showed that the study site could retain 25MT of injected CO₂ over an injection lifespan of 50 years. Major findings indicate that active reservoir pressure management through reservoir fluid production (minimum of three production wells) greatly reduces the risk of breaching a confining layer. To address brine production, a well completion and engineering study was incorporated to reduce the risks of scaling and erosion during injection and production. These scenarios suggest that the dolostone within the Mississippian Madison Limestone is the site’s best injection/production target by two orders of magnitude, and that commercial well equipment would meet all performance requirements. This confirms that there are multiple confining layers in southwest Wyoming that are capable of retaining commercial volumes of CO₃, making Wyoming’s Paleozoic reservoirs ideal storage targets for low-risk injection and long-term storage. This study also indicates that column height retention calculations are reduced in a CO₂-brine system relative to a hydrocarbon-brine system, which is an observation that affects all potential CCS sites. Likewise, this study identified the impacts that downhole testing imparts on reservoir fluids, and the likelihood of introducing uncertainty in baseline site assumptions and later modeling.

  13. Systems Engineering of Chemical Hydrogen Storage, Pressure Vessel and Balance of Plant for Onboard Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Simmons, Kevin L.; Weimar, Mark R.

    2014-09-02

    This is the annual report for the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence project as required by DOE EERE's Fuel Cell Technologies Office. We have been provided with a specific format. It describes the work that was done with cryo-sorbent based and chemical-based hydrogen storage materials. Balance of plant components were developed, proof-of-concept testing performed, system costs estimated, and transient models validated as part of this work.

  14. NREL: Energy Storage - Energy Storage Systems Evaluation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Systems Evaluation Photo of man standing between two vehicles and plugging the vehicle on the right into a charging station. NREL system evaluation has confirmed that extreme climates can have a dramatic impact on batteries and energy storage systems. Graph with numerous plots showing battery capacity and resistance with drive time data spanning a two-year period. An NREL algorithm is being used to extract battery state-of-health information and degradation trends from BMW Mini-E

  15. Evaluating Potential for Large Releases from CO2 StorageReservoirs: Analogs, Scenarios, and Modeling Needs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birkholzer, Jens; Pruess, Karsten; Lewicki, Jennifer; Tsang,Chin-Fu; Karimjee, Anhar

    2005-09-19

    While the purpose of geologic storage of CO{sub 2} in deep saline formations is to trap greenhouse gases underground, the potential exists for CO{sub 2} to escape from the target reservoir, migrate upward along permeable pathways, and discharge at the land surface. Such discharge is not necessarily a serious concern, as CO{sub 2} is a naturally abundant and relatively benign gas in low concentrations. However, there is a potential risk to health, safety and environment (HSE) in the event that large localized fluxes of CO{sub 2} were to occur at the land surface, especially where CO{sub 2} could accumulate. In this paper, we develop possible scenarios for large CO{sub 2} fluxes based on the analysis of natural analogues, where large releases of gas have been observed. We are particularly interested in scenarios which could generate sudden, possibly self-enhancing, or even eruptive release events. The probability for such events may be low, but the circumstances under which they might occur and potential consequences need to be evaluated in order to design appropriate site selection and risk management strategies. Numerical modeling of hypothetical test cases is needed to determine critical conditions for such events, to evaluate whether such conditions may be possible at designated storage sites, and, if applicable, to evaluate the potential HSE impacts of such events and design appropriate mitigation strategies.

  16. The Ohio River Valley CO2 Storage Project AEP Mountaineer Plan, West Virginia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neeraj Gupta

    2009-01-07

    This report includes an evaluation of deep rock formations with the objective of providing practical maps, data, and some of the issues considered for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage projects in the Ohio River Valley. Injection and storage of CO{sub 2} into deep rock formations represents a feasible option for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from coal-burning power plants concentrated along the Ohio River Valley area. This study is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), American Electric Power (AEP), BP, Ohio Coal Development Office, Schlumberger, and Battelle along with its Pacific Northwest Division. An extensive program of drilling, sampling, and testing of a deep well combined with a seismic survey was used to characterize the local and regional geologic features at AEP's 1300-megawatt (MW) Mountaineer Power Plant. Site characterization information has been used as part of a systematic design feasibility assessment for a first-of-a-kind integrated capture and storage facility at an existing coal-fired power plant in the Ohio River Valley region--an area with a large concentration of power plants and other emission sources. Subsurface characterization data have been used for reservoir simulations and to support the review of the issues relating to injection, monitoring, strategy, risk assessment, and regulatory permitting. The high-sulfur coal samples from the region have been tested in a capture test facility to evaluate and optimize basic design for a small-scale capture system and eventually to prepare a detailed design for a capture, local transport, and injection facility. The Ohio River Valley CO{sub 2} Storage Project was conducted in phases with the ultimate objectives of demonstrating both the technical aspects of CO{sub 2} storage and the testing, logistical, regulatory, and outreach issues related to conducting such a project at a large point source under realistic constraints. The site characterization phase was completed, laying the groundwork for moving the project towards a potential injection phase. Feasibility and design assessment activities included an assessment of the CO{sub 2} source options (a slip-stream capture system or transported CO{sub 2}); development of the injection and monitoring system design; preparation of regulatory permits; and continued stakeholder outreach.

  17. Internationally monitored retrievable storage system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hafele, W.

    1996-12-31

    The proposed internationally monitored retrievable storage system (IMRSS) is intended to provide an orderly and secure alternative to continuation of the current individualistic spent-fuel management trends in nuclear-power countries. The IMRSS concept, in its broadest terms, proposes that an international entity undertake the management responsibility for spent fuel after its discharge from power plant cooling ponds. The IMRSS envisages international management of a small number of surface (or near-surface) storage facilities distributed globally (in major nuclear countries and elsewhere) and a transportation system between nuclear plants and the storage facilities. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) would maintain responsibility for adherence to safeguards criteria. The IMRSS operation would be similar to that of an international bank, with each nation maintaining title to its spent fuel and able to withdraw it for peaceful purposes. The system would provide transparency, accountability, and security. The IMRSS would be a step to establishing an inter- national regime for the prudent management of spent fuel and excess civilian plutonium. The IMRSS concept has been studied in three international workshops. Among the major issues that have been addressed are the global distribution of spent fuel if current trends continue, the need for international criteria and management to ensure public health and nonproliferation, the value of spent-fuel retrievability, the future role of a plutonium resource in the fuel cycle, the operating format of a practical IMRSS, and the integration of an IMRSS with existing geopolitical agreements and arrangements.

  18. Regional Opportunities for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage in China: A Comprehensive CO2 Storage Cost Curve and Analysis of the Potential for Large Scale Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage in the People’s Republic of China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahowski, Robert T.; Li, Xiaochun; Davidson, Casie L.; Wei, Ning; Dooley, James J.

    2009-12-01

    This study presents data and analysis on the potential for carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies to deploy within China, including a survey of the CO2 source fleet and potential geologic storage capacity. The results presented here indicate that there is significant potential for CCS technologies to deploy in China at a level sufficient to deliver deep, sustained and cost-effective emissions reductions for China over the course of this century.

  19. Evaluation of experimentally measured and model-calculated pH for rock-brine-CO2 systems under geologic CO2 sequestration conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Hongbo; Thompson, Christopher J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2013-11-14

    pH is an essential parameter for understanding the geochemical reactions that occur in rock-brine-CO2 systems when CO2 is injected into deep geologic formations for long-term storage. Due to a lack of reliable experimental methods, most laboratory studies conducted under geological CO2 sequestration (GCS) conditions have relied on thermodynamic modeling to estimate pH. The accuracy of these model predictions is typically uncertain. In our previous work, we have developed a method for pH determination by in-situ spectrophotometry. In the present work, we expanded the applicable pH range for this method and measured the pH of several rock-brine-CO2 systems at GCS conditions for five rock samples collected from ongoing GCS demonstration projects. Experimental measurements were compared with pH values calculated using several geochemical modeling approaches. The effect of different thermodynamic databases on the accuracy of model prediction was evaluated. Results indicate that the accuracy of model calculations is rock-dependent. For rocks comprised of carbonate and sandstone, model results generally agreed well with experimentally measured pH; however, for basalt, significant differences were observed. These discrepancies may be due to the models’ failure to fully account for certain reaction occurring between the basalt minerals the CO2-saturated brine solutions.

  20. Integrating CO₂ storage with geothermal resources for dispatchable renewable electricity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buscheck, Thomas A.; Bielicki, Jeffrey M.; Chen, Mingjie; Sun, Yunwei; Hao, Yue; Edmunds, Thomas A.; Saar, Martin O.; Randolph, Jimmy B.

    2014-12-31

    We present an approach that uses the huge fluid and thermal storage capacity of the subsurface, together with geologic CO₂ storage, to harvest, store, and dispatch energy from subsurface (geothermal) and surface (solar, nuclear, fossil) thermal resources, as well as energy from electrical grids. Captured CO₂ is injected into saline aquifers to store pressure, generate artesian flow of brine, and provide an additional working fluid for efficient heat extraction and power conversion. Concentric rings of injection and production wells are used to create a hydraulic divide to store pressure, CO₂, and thermal energy. Such storage can take excess power from the grid and excess/waste thermal energy, and dispatch that energy when it is demanded, enabling increased penetration of variable renewables. Stored CO₂ functions as a cushion gas to provide enormous pressure-storage capacity and displaces large quantities of brine, which can be desalinated and/or treated for a variety of beneficial uses.

  1. Integrating CO₂ storage with geothermal resources for dispatchable renewable electricity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Buscheck, Thomas A.; Bielicki, Jeffrey M.; Chen, Mingjie; Sun, Yunwei; Hao, Yue; Edmunds, Thomas A.; Saar, Martin O.; Randolph, Jimmy B.

    2014-12-31

    We present an approach that uses the huge fluid and thermal storage capacity of the subsurface, together with geologic CO₂ storage, to harvest, store, and dispatch energy from subsurface (geothermal) and surface (solar, nuclear, fossil) thermal resources, as well as energy from electrical grids. Captured CO₂ is injected into saline aquifers to store pressure, generate artesian flow of brine, and provide an additional working fluid for efficient heat extraction and power conversion. Concentric rings of injection and production wells are used to create a hydraulic divide to store pressure, CO₂, and thermal energy. Such storage can take excess power frommore » the grid and excess/waste thermal energy, and dispatch that energy when it is demanded, enabling increased penetration of variable renewables. Stored CO₂ functions as a cushion gas to provide enormous pressure-storage capacity and displaces large quantities of brine, which can be desalinated and/or treated for a variety of beneficial uses.« less

  2. Heat storage duration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    Both the amount and duration of heat storage in massive elements of a passive building are investigated. Data taken for one full winter in the Balcomb solar home are analyzed with the aid of sub-system simulation models. Heat storage duration is tallied into one-day intervals. Heat storage location is discussed and related to overall energy flows. The results are interpreted and conclusions drawn.

  3. Carbon Storage Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Illinois | Department of Energy Carbon Storage Partner Completes First Year of CO2 Injection Operations in Illinois Carbon Storage Partner Completes First Year of CO2 Injection Operations in Illinois November 19, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - A project important to demonstrating the commercial viability of carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) technology has completed the first year of injecting carbon dioxide (CO2) from an industrial plant at a large-scale test site in

  4. Storing carbon dioxide in saline formations : analyzing extracted water treatment and use for power plant cooling.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dwyer, Brian P.; Heath, Jason E.; Borns, David James; Dewers, Thomas A.; Kobos, Peter Holmes; Roach, Jesse D.; McNemar, Andrea; Krumhansl, James Lee; Klise, Geoffrey T.

    2010-10-01

    In an effort to address the potential to scale up of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture and sequestration in the United States saline formations, an assessment model is being developed using a national database and modeling tool. This tool builds upon the existing NatCarb database as well as supplemental geological information to address scale up potential for carbon dioxide storage within these formations. The focus of the assessment model is to specifically address the question, 'Where are opportunities to couple CO{sub 2} storage and extracted water use for existing and expanding power plants, and what are the economic impacts of these systems relative to traditional power systems?' Initial findings indicate that approximately less than 20% of all the existing complete saline formation well data points meet the working criteria for combined CO{sub 2} storage and extracted water treatment systems. The initial results of the analysis indicate that less than 20% of all the existing complete saline formation well data may meet the working depth, salinity and formation intersecting criteria. These results were taken from examining updated NatCarb data. This finding, while just an initial result, suggests that the combined use of saline formations for CO{sub 2} storage and extracted water use may be limited by the selection criteria chosen. A second preliminary finding of the analysis suggests that some of the necessary data required for this analysis is not present in all of the NatCarb records. This type of analysis represents the beginning of the larger, in depth study for all existing coal and natural gas power plants and saline formations in the U.S. for the purpose of potential CO{sub 2} storage and water reuse for supplemental cooling. Additionally, this allows for potential policy insight when understanding the difficult nature of combined potential institutional (regulatory) and physical (engineered geological sequestration and extracted water system) constraints across the United States. Finally, a representative scenario for a 1,800 MW subcritical coal fired power plant (amongst other types including supercritical coal, integrated gasification combined cycle, natural gas turbine and natural gas combined cycle) can look to existing and new carbon capture, transportation, compression and sequestration technologies along with a suite of extracting and treating technologies for water to assess the system's overall physical and economic viability. Thus, this particular plant, with 90% capture, will reduce the net emissions of CO{sub 2} (original less the amount of energy and hence CO{sub 2} emissions required to power the carbon capture water treatment systems) less than 90%, and its water demands will increase by approximately 50%. These systems may increase the plant's LCOE by approximately 50% or more. This representative example suggests that scaling up these CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration technologies to many plants throughout the country could increase the water demands substantially at the regional, and possibly national level. These scenarios for all power plants and saline formations throughout U.S. can incorporate new information as it becomes available for potential new plant build out planning.

  5. advanced hydrogen storage materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering ...

  6. electric energy storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering ...

  7. compressed-gas storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage ...

  8. Storage- Challenges and Opportunities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation by Nitin Natesan of Linde was given at the DOE Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Workshop in March 2013.

  9. Hydrogen Storage System Challenges

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    System Challenges Advanced Composite Materials for Cold and Cryogenic Hydrogen Storage Applications in Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles October 29 th , 2015 Mike Veenstra Ford Research ...

  10. Energy Storage Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conover, David R.

    2013-12-01

    Energy Storage Systems – An Old Idea Doing New Things with New Technology article for the International Assoication of ELectrical Inspectors

  11. Transportation Storage Interface

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    transportation * High priority technical information needs have * Overall low level of knowledge * Overall high regulatory impact 12 Extended Spent Fuel Storage and...

  12. Hydrogen Storage Challenges

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    For transportation, the overarching technical challenge for hydrogen storage is how to store the amount of hydrogen required for a conventional driving range (>300 miles) within the vehicular...

  13. NREL: Energy Storage - Awards

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Transportation Research Energy Storage Printable Version Awards R&D 100 2013 NREL's energy storage innovation has been recognized with numerous awards. R&D 100 Awards R&D 100 Awards are known in the research and development community as "the Oscars of Innovation." The work of NREL's energy storage team has been recognized with three of these top honors. Isothermal Battery Calorimeters (2013) NREL Team: Matthew Keyser, Ahmad Pesaran, John Ireland, Dirk Long,

  14. Sorption Storage Technology Summary

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presented at the R&D Strategies for Compressed, Cryo-Compressed and Cryo-Sorbent Hydrogen Storage Technologies Workshops on February 14 and 15, 2011.

  15. Electric Storage Water Heaters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Events Expand News & Events Skip navigation links Residential Residential Lighting Energy Star Appliances Consumer Electronics Heat Pump Water Heaters Electric Storage Water...

  16. Warehouse and Storage Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    belongings. Basic Characteristics See also: Equipment | Activity Subcategories | Energy Use Warehouse and Storage Buildings... While the idea of a warehouse may bring to...

  17. energy storage development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering ...

  18. energy storage deployment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering ...

  19. Storage and Handling

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Records Management Procedures for Storage, Transfer & Retrieval of Records from the Washington National Records Center (WNRC) or Legacy Management Business Center RETIREMENT OF RECORDS:

  20. HEATS: Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    HEATS Project: The 15 projects that make up ARPA-Es HEATS program, short for High Energy Advanced Thermal Storage, seek to develop revolutionary, cost-effective ways to store thermal energy. HEATS focuses on 3 specific areas: 1) developing high-temperature solar thermal energy storage capable of cost-effectively delivering electricity around the clock and thermal energy storage for nuclear power plants capable of cost-effectively meeting peak demand, 2) creating synthetic fuel efficiently from sunlight by converting sunlight into heat, and 3) using thermal energy storage to improve the driving range of electric vehicles (EVs) and also enable thermal management of internal combustion engine vehicles.

  1. Energy Storage Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    have become so wer systems have become so ... Improve T&D stability Maintain quality power and reliability Fossil ... between PV and Electrical Energy Storage * ...

  2. DOE Best Practices Manual Focuses on Site Selection for CO2 Storage |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Best Practices Manual Focuses on Site Selection for CO2 Storage DOE Best Practices Manual Focuses on Site Selection for CO2 Storage January 5, 2011 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - The most promising methods for assessing potential carbon dioxide (CO2) geologic storage sites - a crucial component of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology - is the focus of the latest in a series of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CCS "best practices" manuals. Developed by

  3. Evaluation of residue drum storage safety risks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conner, W.V.

    1994-06-17

    A study was conducted to determine if any potential safety problems exist in the residue drum backlog at the Rocky Flats Plant. Plutonium residues stored in 55-gallon drums were packaged for short-term storage until the residues could be processed for plutonium recovery. These residues have now been determined by the Department of Energy to be waste materials, and the residues will remain in storage until plans for disposal of the material can be developed. The packaging configurations which were safe for short-term storage may not be safe for long-term storage. Interviews with Rocky Flats personnel involved with packaging the residues reveal that more than one packaging configuration was used for some of the residues. A tabulation of packaging configurations was developed based on the information obtained from the interviews. A number of potential safety problems were identified during this study, including hydrogen generation from some residues and residue packaging materials, contamination containment loss, metal residue packaging container corrosion, and pyrophoric plutonium compound formation. Risk factors were developed for evaluating the risk potential of the various residue categories, and the residues in storage at Rocky Flats were ranked by risk potential. Preliminary drum head space gas sampling studies have demonstrated the potential for formation of flammable hydrogen-oxygen mixtures in some residue drums.

  4. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT PHASE 1 SLUDGE STORAGE OPTIONS ASSESSMENT OF T PLANT VERSUS ALTERNATE STORAGE FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RUTHERFORD WW; GEUTHER WJ; STRANKMAN MR; CONRAD EA; RHOADARMER DD; BLACK DM; POTTMEYER JA

    2009-04-29

    The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) has recommended to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) a two phase approach for removal and storage (Phase 1) and treatment and packaging for offsite shipment (Phase 2) of the sludge currently stored within the 105-K West Basin. This two phased strategy enables early removal of sludge from the 105-K West Basin by 2015, allowing remediation of historical unplanned releases of waste and closure of the 100-K Area. In Phase 1, the sludge currently stored in the Engineered Containers and Settler Tanks within the 105-K West Basin will be transferred into sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs). The STSCs will be transported to an interim storage facility. In Phase 2, sludge will be processed (treated) to meet shipping and disposal requirements and the sludge will be packaged for final disposal at a geologic repository. The purpose of this study is to evaluate two alternatives for interim Phase 1 storage of K Basin sludge. The cost, schedule, and risks for sludge storage at a newly-constructed Alternate Storage Facility (ASF) are compared to those at T Plant, which has been used previously for sludge storage. Based on the results of the assessment, T Plant is recommended for Phase 1 interim storage of sludge. Key elements that support this recommendation are the following: (1) T Plant has a proven process for storing sludge; (2) T Plant storage can be implemented at a lower incremental cost than the ASF; and (3) T Plant storage has a more favorable schedule profile, which provides more float, than the ASF. Underpinning the recommendation of T Plant for sludge storage is the assumption that T Plant has a durable, extended mission independent of the K Basin sludge interim storage mission. If this assumption cannot be validated and the operating costs of T Plant are borne by the Sludge Treatment Project, the conclusions and recommendations of this study would change. The following decision-making strategy, which is dependent on the confidence that DOE has in the long term mission for T Plant, is proposed: (1) If the confidence level in a durable, extended T Plant mission independent of sludge storage is high, then the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) would continue to implement the path forward previously described in the Alternatives Report (HNF-39744). Risks to the sludge project can be minimized through the establishment of an Interface Control Document (ICD) defining agreed upon responsibilities for both the STP and T Plant Operations regarding the transfer and storage of sludge and ensuring that the T Plant upgrade and operational schedule is well integrated with the sludge storage activities. (2) If the confidence level in a durable, extended T Plant mission independent of sludge storage is uncertain, then the ASF conceptual design should be pursued on a parallel path with preparation of T Plant for sludge storage until those uncertainties are resolved. (3) Finally, if the confidence level in a durable, extended T Plant mission independent of sludge storage is low, then the ASF design should be selected to provide independence from the T Plant mission risk.

  5. A new storage-ring light source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chao, Alex

    2015-06-01

    A recently proposed technique in storage ring accelerators is applied to provide potential high-power sources of photon radiation. The technique is based on the steady-state microbunching (SSMB) mechanism. As examples of this application, one may consider a high-power DUV photon source for research in atomic and molecular physics or a high-power EUV radiation source for industrial lithography. A less challenging proof-of-principle test to produce IR radiation using an existing storage ring is also considered.

  6. Durable high-density data storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stutz, R.A.; Lamartine, B.C.

    1996-09-01

    This paper will discuss the Focus Ion Beam (FIB) milling process, media life considerations, and methods of reading the micromilled data. The FIB process for data storage provides a new non-magnetic storage method for archiving large amounts of data. The process stores data on robust materials such as steel, silicon, and gold coated silicon. The storage process was developed to provide a method to insure the long term storage life of data. We estimate the useful life of data written on silicon or gold coated silicon to be a few thousand years. The process uses an ion beam to carve material from the surface much like stone cutting. The deeper information is carved into the media the longer the expected life of the information. The process can read information in three formats: (1) binary at densities of 3.5 Gbits/cm{sup 2}, (2) alphanumeric at optical or non-optical density, and (3) graphical at optical and non-optical density. The formats can be mixed on the same media; and thus it is possible to record, in a human readable format, instructions that can be read using an optical microscope. These instructions provide guidance on reading the higher density information.

  7. Regional geophysics, Cenozoic tectonics and geologic resources...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and geologic resources of the Basin and Range Province and adjoining regions Author G.P. Eaton Conference Basin and Range Symposium and Great Basin Field Conference; Denver,...

  8. Wyoming State Geological Survey | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search Name: Wyoming State Geological Survey Abbreviation: WSGS Address: P.O. Box 1347 Place: Laramie, Wyoming Zip: 82073 Year Founded: 1933 Phone Number:...

  9. Subtask – CO2 storage and enhanced bakken recovery research program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorensen, James; Hawthorne, Steven; Smith, Steven; Braunberger, Jason; Liu, Guoxiang; Klenner, Robert; Botnen, Lisa; Steadman, Edward; Harju, John; Doll, Thomas

    2014-05-31

    Small improvements in productivity could increase technically recoverable oil in the Bakken Petroleum System by billions of barrels. The use of CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in tight oil reservoirs is a relatively new concept. The large-scale injection of CO2 into the Bakken would also result in the geological storage of significant amounts of CO2. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has conducted laboratory and modeling activities to examine the potential for CO2 storage and EOR in the Bakken. Specific activities included the characterization and subsequent modeling of North Dakota study areas as well as dynamic predictive simulations of possible CO2 injection schemes to predict the potential CO2 storage and EOR in those areas. Laboratory studies to evaluate the ability of CO2 to remove hydrocarbons from Bakken rocks and determine minimum miscibility pressures for Bakken oil samples were conducted. Data from a CO2 injection test conducted in the Elm Coulee area of Montana in 2009 were evaluated with an eye toward the possible application of knowledge gained to future injection tests in other areas. A first-order estimation of potential CO2 storage capacity in the Bakken Formation in North Dakota was also conducted. Key findings of the program are as follows. The results of the research activities suggest that CO2 may be effective in enhancing the productivity of oil from the Bakken and that the Bakken may hold the ability to geologically store between 120 Mt and 3.2 Gt of CO2. However, there are no clear-cut answers regarding the most effective approach for using CO2 to improve oil productivity or the storage capacity of the Bakken. The results underscore the notion that an unconventional resource will likely require unconventional methods of both assessment and implementation when it comes to the injection of CO2. In particular, a better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms controlling the interactions between CO2, oil, and other reservoir fluids in these unique formations is necessary to develop accurate assessments of potential CO2 storage and EOR in the Bakken. In addition, existing modeling and simulation software packages do not adequately address or incorporate the unique properties of these tight, unconventional reservoirs in terms of their impact on CO2 behavior. These knowledge gaps can be filled by conducting scaled-up laboratory activities integrated with improved modeling and simulation techniques, the results of which will provide a robust foundation for pilot-scale field injection tests. Finally, field-based data on injection, fluid production, and long-term monitoring from pilot-scale CO2 injection tests in the Bakken are necessary to verify and validate the findings of the laboratory- and modeling-based research efforts. This subtask was funded through the EERC–U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Joint Program on Research and Development for Fossil Energy-Related Resources Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-08NT43291. Nonfederal funding was provided by the North Dakota Industrial Commission, Marathon Oil Corporation, Continental Resources Inc., and TAQA North, Ltd.

  10. Underground Natural Gas Storage by Storage Type

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 Jan-16 Feb-16 View History All Operators Natural Gas in Storage 7,988,797 8,317,848 8,305,034 8,039,759 7,308,692 6,905,104 1973-2016 Base Gas 4,364,233 ...

  11. ,"Underground Natural Gas Storage by Storage Type"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sourcekey","N5030US2","N5010US2","N5020US2","N5070US2","N5050US2","N5060US2" "Date","U.S. Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)","U.S. Total Natural Gas in Underground...

  12. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2006-07-06

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission & distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of April 1 to June 30, 2006. Key activities during this time period include: (1) Develop and process subcontract agreements for the eight projects selected for cofunding at the February 2006 GSTC Meeting; (2) Compiling and distributing the three 2004 project final reports to the GSTC Full members; (3) Develop template, compile listserv, and draft first GSTC Insider online newsletter; (4) Continue membership recruitment; (5) Identify projects and finalize agenda for the fall GSTC/AGA Underground Storage Committee Technology Transfer Workshop in San Francisco, CA; and (6) Identify projects and prepare draft agenda for the fall GSTC Technology Transfer Workshop in Pittsburgh, PA.

  13. Electricity storage using a thermal storage scheme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, Alexander

    2015-01-22

    The increasing use of renewable energy technologies for electricity generation, many of which have an unpredictably intermittent nature, will inevitably lead to a greater demand for large-scale electricity storage schemes. For example, the expanding fraction of electricity produced by wind turbines will require either backup or storage capacity to cover extended periods of wind lull. This paper describes a recently proposed storage scheme, referred to here as Pumped Thermal Storage (PTS), and which is based on “sensible heat” storage in large thermal reservoirs. During the charging phase, the system effectively operates as a high temperature-ratio heat pump, extracting heat from a cold reservoir and delivering heat to a hot one. In the discharge phase the processes are reversed and it operates as a heat engine. The round-trip efficiency is limited only by process irreversibilities (as opposed to Second Law limitations on the coefficient of performance and the thermal efficiency of the heat pump and heat engine respectively). PTS is currently being developed in both France and England. In both cases, the schemes operate on the Joule-Brayton (gas turbine) cycle, using argon as the working fluid. However, the French scheme proposes the use of turbomachinery for compression and expansion, whereas for that being developed in England reciprocating devices are proposed. The current paper focuses on the impact of the various process irreversibilities on the thermodynamic round-trip efficiency of the scheme. Consideration is given to compression and expansion losses and pressure losses (in pipe-work, valves and thermal reservoirs); heat transfer related irreversibility in the thermal reservoirs is discussed but not included in the analysis. Results are presented demonstrating how the various loss parameters and operating conditions influence the overall performance.

  14. SRS Geology/Hydrogeology Environmental Information Document

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denham, M.E.

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of the Savannah River Site Geology and Hydrogeology Environmental Information Document (EID) is to provide geologic and hydrogeologic information to serve as a baseline to evaluate potential environmental impacts. This EID is based on a summary of knowledge accumulated from research conducted at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and surrounding areas.

  15. Generic Deep Geologic Disposal Safety Case

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Generic Deep Geologic Disposal Safety Case presents generic information that is of use in understanding potential deep geologic disposal options (e.g., salt, shale, granite, deep borehole) in the U.S. for used nuclear fuel (UNF) from reactors and high-level radioactive waste (HLW).

  16. Total Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Storage Capacity Salt Caverns Storage Capacity Aquifers Storage Capacity Depleted Fields Storage Capacity Total Working Gas Capacity Working Gas Capacity of Salt Caverns Working...

  17. Ultrafine hydrogen storage powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Iver E.; Ellis, Timothy W.; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.; Ting, Jason; Terpstra, Robert; Bowman, Robert C.; Witham, Charles K.; Fultz, Brent T.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.

    2000-06-13

    A method of making hydrogen storage powder resistant to fracture in service involves forming a melt having the appropriate composition for the hydrogen storage material, such, for example, LaNi.sub.5 and other AB.sub.5 type materials and AB.sub.5+x materials, where x is from about -2.5 to about +2.5, including x=0, and the melt is gas atomized under conditions of melt temperature and atomizing gas pressure to form generally spherical powder particles. The hydrogen storage powder exhibits improved chemcial homogeneity as a result of rapid solidfication from the melt and small particle size that is more resistant to microcracking during hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling. A hydrogen storage component, such as an electrode for a battery or electrochemical fuel cell, made from the gas atomized hydrogen storage material is resistant to hydrogen degradation upon hydrogen absorption/desorption that occurs for example, during charging/discharging of a battery. Such hydrogen storage components can be made by consolidating and optionally sintering the gas atomized hydrogen storage powder or alternately by shaping the gas atomized powder and a suitable binder to a desired configuration in a mold or die.

  18. DOE's Carbon Utilization and Storage Atlas Estimates at Least 2,400 Billion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Metric Tons of U.S. CO2 Storage Resource | Department of Energy Carbon Utilization and Storage Atlas Estimates at Least 2,400 Billion Metric Tons of U.S. CO2 Storage Resource DOE's Carbon Utilization and Storage Atlas Estimates at Least 2,400 Billion Metric Tons of U.S. CO2 Storage Resource December 19, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - The United States has at least 2,400 billion metric tons of possible carbon dioxide (CO2) storage resource in saline formations, oil and gas

  19. Partitioning Behavior of Organic Contaminants in Carbon Storage Environments: A Critical Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burant, Aniela; Lowry, Gregory V.; Karamalidis, Athanasios K.

    2013-01-13

    Carbon capture and storage is a promising strategy for mitigating the CO{sub 2} contribution to global climate change. The large scale implementation of the technology mandates better understanding of the risks associated with CO{sub 2} injection into geologic formations and the subsequent interactions with groundwater resources. The injected supercritical CO{sub 2} (sc-CO{sub 2}) is a nonpolar solvent that can potentially mobilize organic compounds that exist at residual saturation in the formation. Here, we review the partitioning behavior of selected organic compounds typically found in depleted oil reservoirs in the residual oilbrinesc-CO{sub 2} system under carbon storage conditions. The solubility of pure phase organic compounds in sc-CO{sub 2} and partitioning of organic compounds between water and sc-CO{sub 2} follow trends predicted based on thermodynamics. Compounds with high volatility and low aqueous solubility have the highest potential to partition to sc-CO{sub 2}. The partitioning of low volatility compounds to sc-CO{sub 2} can be enhanced by cosolvency due to the presence of higher volatility compounds in the sc-CO{sub 2}. The effect of temperature, pressure, salinity, pH, and dissolution of water molecules into sc-CO{sub 2} on the partitioning behavior of organic compounds in the residual oilbrinesc-CO{sub 2} system is discussed. Data gaps and research needs for models to predict the partitioning of organic compounds in brines and from complex mixtures of oils are presented. Models need to be able to better incorporate the effect of salinity and cosolvency, which will require more experimental data from key classes of organic compounds.

  20. Partitioning Behavior of Organic Contaminants in Carbon Storage Environments: A Critical Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burant, Aniela; Lowry, Gregory V; Karamalidis, Athanasios K

    2012-12-04

    Carbon capture and storage is a promising strategy for mitigating the CO{sub 2} contribution to global climate change. The large scale implementation of the technology mandates better understanding of the risks associated with CO{sub 2} injection into geologic formations and the subsequent interactions with groundwater resources. The injected supercritical CO{sub 2} (sc-CO{sub 2}) is a nonpolar solvent that can potentially mobilize organic compounds that exist at residual saturation in the formation. Here, we review the partitioning behavior of selected organic compounds typically found in depleted oil reservoirs in the residual oil–brine–sc-CO{sub 2} system under carbon storage conditions. The solubility of pure phase organic compounds in sc-CO{sub 2} and partitioning of organic compounds between water and sc-CO{sub 2} follow trends predicted based on thermodynamics. Compounds with high volatility and low aqueous solubility have the highest potential to partition to sc-CO{sub 2}. The partitioning of low volatility compounds to sc-CO{sub 2} can be enhanced by co-solvency due to the presence of higher volatility compounds in the sc-CO{sub 2}. The effect of temperature, pressure, salinity, pH, and dissolution of water molecules into sc-CO{sub 2} on the partitioning behavior of organic compounds in the residual oil-brine-sc-CO{sub 2} system is discussed. Data gaps and research needs for models to predict the partitioning of organic compounds in brines and from complex mixtures of oils are presented. Models need to be able to better incorporate the effect of salinity and co-solvency, which will require more experimental data from key classes of organic compounds.

  1. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2007-06-30

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is crucial in meeting the needs of these new markets. To address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of April 1, 2007 through June 30, 2007. Key activities during this time period included: (1) Organizing and hosting the 2007 GSTC Spring Meeting; (2) Identifying the 2007 GSTC projects, issuing award or declination letters, and begin drafting subcontracts; (3) 2007 project mentoring teams identified; (4) New NETL Project Manager; (5) Preliminary planning for the 2007 GSTC Fall Meeting; (6) Collecting and compiling the 2005 GSTC project final reports; and (7) Outreach and communications.

  2. Geological Repository Layout for Radioactive High Level Long Lived Waste in Argilite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaussen, J.L.

    2006-07-01

    In the framework of the 1991 French radioactive waste act, ANDRA has studied the feasibility of a geological repository in the argillite layer of the Bure site for high-level long-lived waste. This presentation is focused on the underground facilities that constitute the specific component of this project. The preliminary underground layout, which has been elaborated, is based on four categories of data: - the waste characteristics and inventory; - the geological properties of the host argillite; - the long term performance objectives of the repository; - the specifications in term of operation and reversibility. The underground facilities consist of two types of works: the access works (shafts and drifts) and the disposal cells. The function of the access works is to permit the implementation of two concurrent activities: the nuclear operations (transfer and emplacement of the disposal packages into the disposal cells) and the construction of the next disposal cells. The design of the drifts network which matches up to this function is also influenced by two other specifications: the minimisation of the drift dimensions in order to limit their influence on the integrity of the geological formation and the necessity of a safe ventilation in case of fire. The resulting layout is a network of 4 parallel drifts (2 of them being dedicated to the operation, the other two being dedicated to the construction activities). The average diameter of these access drifts is 7 meters. 4 shafts ensure the link between the surface and the underground. The most important function of the disposal cells is to contribute to the long-term performance of the repository. In this regard, the thermal and geotechnical considerations play an important role. The B wastes (intermediate level wastes) are not (or not very) exothermic. Consequently, the design of their disposal cells result mainly from geotechnical considerations. The disposal packages (made of concrete) are piled up in big cavities the diameter of which is about 10 meters and the length of which is about 250 meters. On the other hand, the design of the C waste disposal cells (vitrified waste) is mainly derived from their thermal power (about 500 W after a 60 year period of interim storage). The disposal cell is a tunnel the diameter of which is about 0,70 m and the length of which is about 40 m. The number of the disposal packages (made of steel) per cell, the spacing between two adjacent canisters within a given cell and the spacing between two adjacent cells are adjusted to limit the peak of temperature in the host formation at 100 deg. C. The disposal cells are also characterized by favourable design factors that would facilitate the potential retrieval of the wastes. The whole underground layout would represent a surface area of several km{sup 2}. (authors)

  3. Hydrogen Storage Technical Team Roadmap

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Broom, Hydrogen Storage Materials The Characterisation of Their Storage Properties (Springer, London UK, 2011), 48-49. 42 K. Wipke, et al., Evaluation of Range Estimates for ...

  4. EPRI Energy Storage Talking Points

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Storage Highlights * Grid energy storage may improve the reliability, resiliency, and flexibility of the grid, and can reduce the potential for future rate increases. * Because of ...

  5. Energy Storage | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage The challenge of creating new advanced batteries and energy storage ... We develop more robust, safer and higher-energy density lithium-ion batteries, while using ...

  6. Global Warming in Geologic Time

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Archer

    2008-02-27

    The notion is pervasive in the climate science community and in the public at large that the climate impacts of fossil fuel CO2 release will only persist for a few centuries. This conclusion has no basis in theory or models of the atmosphere / ocean carbon cycle, which we review here. The largest fraction of the CO2 recovery will take place on time scales of centuries, as CO2 invades the ocean, but a significant fraction of the fossil fuel CO2, ranging in published models in the literature from 20-60%, remains airborne for a thousand years or longer. Ultimate recovery takes place on time scales of hundreds of thousands of years, a geologic longevity typically associated in public perceptions with nuclear waste. The glacial / interglacial climate cycles demonstrate that ice sheets and sea level respond dramatically to millennial-timescale changes in climate forcing. There are also potential positive feedbacks in the carbon cycle, including methane hydrates in the ocean, and peat frozen in permafrost, that are most sensitive to the long tail of the fossil fuel CO2 in the atmosphere.

  7. Global Warming in Geologic Time

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Archer, David

    2008-02-27

    The notion is pervasive in the climate science community and in the public at large that the climate impacts of fossil fuel CO2 release will only persist for a few centuries. This conclusion has no basis in theory or models of the atmosphere/ ocean carbon cycle, which we review here. The largest fraction of the CO2 recovery will take place on time scales of centuries, as CO2 invades the ocean, but a significant fraction of the fossil fuel CO2, ranging in published models in the literature from 20-60%, remains airborne for a thousand years or longer. Ultimate recovery takes place on time scales of hundreds of thousands of years, a geologic longevity typically associated in public perceptions with nuclear waste. The glacial/interglacial climate cycles demonstrate that ice sheets and sea level respond dramatically to millennial-timescale changes in climate forcing. There are also potential positive feedbacks in the carbon cycle, including methane hydrates in the ocean, and peat frozen in permafrost, that are most sensitive to the long tail of the fossil fuel CO2 in the atmosphere.

  8. Global Warming in Geologic Time

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    David Archer

    2010-01-08

    The notion is pervasive in the climate science community and in the public at large that the climate impacts of fossil fuel CO2 release will only persist for a few centuries. This conclusion has no basis in theory or models of the atmosphere / ocean carbon cycle, which we review here. The largest fraction of the CO2 recovery will take place on time scales of centuries, as CO2 invades the ocean, but a significant fraction of the fossil fuel CO2, ranging in published models in the literature from 20-60%, remains airborne for a thousand years or longer. Ultimate recovery takes place on time scales of hundreds of thousands of years, a geologic longevity typically associated in public perceptions with nuclear waste. The glacial / interglacial climate cycles demonstrate that ice sheets and sea level respond dramatically to millennial-timescale changes in climate forcing. There are also potential positive feedbacks in the carbon cycle, including methane hydrates in the ocean, and peat frozen in permafrost, that are most sensitive to the long tail of the fossil fuel CO2 in the atmosphere.

  9. U.S. China Carbon Capture and Storage Development Project at West Virginia

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    University (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect U.S. China Carbon Capture and Storage Development Project at West Virginia University Citation Details In-Document Search Title: U.S. China Carbon Capture and Storage Development Project at West Virginia University The original overall objective of this activity was to undertake resource evaluation and planning for CCS projects and to describe and quantify the geologic, environmental, and economic challenges to successful development of

  10. Federal Control of Geological Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reitze, Arnold

    2011-04-11

    The United States has economically recoverable coal reserves of about 261 billion tons, which is in excess of a 250-­‐year supply based on 2009 consumption rates. However, in the near future the use of coal may be legally restricted because of concerns over the effects of its combustion on atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. In response, the U.S. Department of Energy is making significant efforts to help develop and implement a commercial scale program of geologic carbon sequestration that involves capturing and storing carbon dioxide emitted from coal-­‐burning electric power plants in deep underground formations. This article explores the technical and legal problems that must be resolved in order to have a viable carbon sequestration program. It covers the responsibilities of the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the Departments of Energy, Transportation and Interior. It discusses the use of the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Clean Air Act, the National Environmental Policy Act, the Endangered Species Act, and other applicable federal laws. Finally, it discusses the provisions related to carbon sequestration that have been included in the major bills dealing with climate change that Congress has been considering in 2009 and 2010. The article concludes that the many legal issues that exist can be resolved, but whether carbon sequestration becomes a commercial reality will depend on reducing its costs or by imposing legal requirements on fossil-­‐fired power plants that result in the costs of carbon emissions increasing to the point that carbon sequestration becomes a feasible option.

  11. Metal Hydride Storage Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Fuel Cell Technologies Office's (FCTO's) metal hydride storage materials research focuses on improving the volumetric and gravimetric capacities, hydrogen adsorption/desorption kinetics, cycle life, and reaction thermodynamics of potential material candidates.

  12. APS Storage Ring Parameters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    next up previous Next: Main Parameters APS Storage Ring Parameters M. Borland, G. Decker, L. Emery, W. Guo, K. Harkay, V. Sajaev, C.-Y. Yao Advanced Photon Source September 8, 2010...

  13. Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutberg, Michael; Hastbacka, Mildred; Cooperman, Alissa; Bouza, Antonio

    2013-06-05

    The article discusses thermal energy storage technologies. This article addresses benefits of TES at both the building site and the electricity generation source. The energy savings and market potential of thermal energy store are reviewed as well.

  14. Monitored Retrievable Storage Background

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    `The U.S. Government is seeking a site for a monitored retrievable storage facility (MRS). Employing proven technologies used in this country and abroad, the MRS will be an Integral part of the...

  15. Analog storage integrated circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, J.T.; Larsen, R.S.; Shapiro, S.L.

    1989-03-07

    A high speed data storage array is defined utilizing a unique cell design for high speed sampling of a rapidly changing signal. Each cell of the array includes two input gates between the signal input and a storage capacitor. The gates are controlled by a high speed row clock and low speed column clock so that the instantaneous analog value of the signal is only sampled and stored by each cell on coincidence of the two clocks. 6 figs.

  16. Analog storage integrated circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, J. T.; Larsen, R. S.; Shapiro, S. L.

    1989-01-01

    A high speed data storage array is defined utilizing a unique cell design for high speed sampling of a rapidly changing signal. Each cell of the array includes two input gates between the signal input and a storage capacitor. The gates are controlled by a high speed row clock and low speed column clock so that the instantaneous analog value of the signal is only sampled and stored by each cell on coincidence of the two clocks.

  17. NREL: Energy Storage - News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage News Keep up-to-date with NREL energy storage activities, research, and developments. May 3, 2016 NREL Convenes Gathering of U.S.-China Electric Vehicle Battery Experts On April 25-26, NREL and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) hosted the 11th United States (U.S.)-China Electric Vehicle and Battery Technology Information Exchange to share insights on battery technology advancements and identify opportunities to collaborate on electric vehicle battery research. The meeting

  18. Materials for Energy Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Energy Storage - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  19. Secure Storage Architectures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aderholdt, Ferrol; Caldwell, Blake A; Hicks, Susan Elaine; Koch, Scott M; Naughton, III, Thomas J; Pogge, James R; Scott, Stephen L; Shipman, Galen M; Sorrillo, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to clarify the challenges associated with storage for secure enclaves. The major focus areas for the report are: - review of relevant parallel filesystem technologies to identify assets and gaps; - review of filesystem isolation/protection mechanisms, to include native filesystem capabilities and auxiliary/layered techniques; - definition of storage architectures that can be used for customizable compute enclaves (i.e., clarification of use-cases that must be supported for shared storage scenarios); - investigate vendor products related to secure storage. This study provides technical details on the storage and filesystem used for HPC with particular attention on elements that contribute to creating secure storage. We outline the pieces for a a shared storage architecture that balances protection and performance by leveraging the isolation capabilities available in filesystems and virtualization technologies to maintain the integrity of the data. Key Points: There are a few existing and in-progress protection features in Lustre related to secure storage, which are discussed in (Chapter 3.1). These include authentication capabilities like GSSAPI/Kerberos and the in-progress work for GSSAPI/Host-keys. The GPFS filesystem provides native support for encryption, which is not directly available in Lustre. Additionally, GPFS includes authentication/authorization mechanisms for inter-cluster sharing of filesystems (Chapter 3.2). The limitations of key importance for secure storage/filesystems are: (i) restricting sub-tree mounts for parallel filesystem (which is not directly supported in Lustre or GPFS), and (ii) segregation of hosts on the storage network and practical complications with dynamic additions to the storage network, e.g., LNET. A challenge for VM based use cases will be to provide efficient IO forwarding of the parallel filessytem from the host to the guest (VM). There are promising options like para-virtualized filesystems to help with this issue, which are a particular instances of the more general challenge of efficient host/guest IO that is the focus of interfaces like virtio. A collection of bridging technologies have been identified in Chapter 4, which can be helpful to overcome the limitations and challenges of supporting efficient storage for secure enclaves. The synthesis of native filesystem security mechanisms and bridging technologies led to an isolation-centric storage architecture that is proposed in Chapter 5, which leverages isolation mechanisms from different layers to facilitate secure storage for an enclave. Recommendations: The following highlights recommendations from the investigations done thus far. - The Lustre filesystem offers excellent performance but does not support some security related features, e.g., encryption, that are included in GPFS. If encryption is of paramount importance, then GPFS may be a more suitable choice. - There are several possible Lustre related enhancements that may provide functionality of use for secure-enclaves. However, since these features are not currently integrated, the use of Lustre as a secure storage system may require more direct involvement (support). (*The network that connects the storage subsystem and users, e.g., Lustre s LNET.) - The use of OpenStack with GPFS will be more streamlined than with Lustre, as there are available drivers for GPFS. - The Manilla project offers Filesystem as a Service for OpenStack and is worth further investigation. Manilla has some support for GPFS. - The proposed Lustre enhancement of Dynamic-LNET should be further investigated to provide more dynamic changes to the storage network which could be used to isolate hosts and their tenants. - The Linux namespaces offer a good solution for creating efficient restrictions to shared HPC filesystems. However, we still need to conduct a thorough round of storage/filesystem benchmarks. - Vendor products should be more closely reviewed, possibly to include evaluation of performance/protection of select products. (Note, we are investigation the option of evaluating equipment from Seagate/Xyratex.) Outline: The remainder of this report is structured as follows: - Section 1: Describes the growing importance of secure storage architectures and highlights some challenges for HPC. - Section 2: Provides background information on HPC storage architectures, relevant supporting technologies for secure storage and details on OpenStack components related to storage. Note, that background material on HPC storage architectures in this chapter can be skipped if the reader is already familiar with Lustre and GPFS. - Section 3: A review of protection mechanisms in two HPC filesystems; details about available isolation, authentication/authorization and performance capabilities are discussed. - Section 4: Describe technologies that can be used to bridge gaps in HPC storage and filesystems to facilitate...

  20. Celebrating a Decade of Carbon Storage Research Through Partnership

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    For the past decade, the Office of Fossil Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory has managed a nationwide network of partnerships that team government, industry, academia, and nonprofit organizations to identify the best approaches for permanently storing CO2 in deep geologic formations.

  1. Safe Advantage on Dry Interim Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romanato, L.S.

    2008-07-01

    This paper aims to present the advantages of dry cask storage in comparison with the wet storage (cooling water pools) for SNF. When the nuclear fuel is removed from the core reactor, it is moved to a storage unit and it wait for a final destination. Generally, the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) remains inside water pools within the reactors facility for the radioactive activity decay. After some period of time in pools, SNF can be sent to a definitive deposition in a geological repository and handled as radioactive waste or to reprocessing facilities, or still, wait for a future solution. Meanwhile, SNF remains stored for a period of time in dry or wet facilities, depending on the method adopted by the nuclear power plant or other plans of the country. Interim storage, up to 20 years ago, was exclusively wet and if the nuclear facility had to be decommissioned another storage solution had to be found. At the present time, after a preliminary cooling of the SNF elements inside the water pool, the elements can be stored in dry facilities. This kind of storage does not need complex radiation monitoring and it is safer then wet one. Casks, either concrete or metallic, are safer, especially on occurrence of earthquakes, like that occurred at Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power plant, in Japan on July 16, 2007. (authors)

  2. Working Gas in Underground Storage Figure

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gas in Underground Storage Figure Working Gas in Underground Storage Compared with 5-Year Range Graph...

  3. Large Releases from CO2 Storage Reservoirs: A Discussion ofNatural Analogs, FEPS, and Modeling Needs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birkholzer, J.; Pruess, K.; Lewicki, J.L.; Rutqvist, J.; Tsang,C-F.; Karimjee, A.

    2005-11-01

    While the purpose of geologic storage in deep saline formations is to trap greenhouse gases underground, the potential exists for CO{sub 2} to escape from the target reservoir, migrate upward along permeable pathways, and discharge at the land surface. In this paper, we evaluate the potential for such CO{sub 2} discharges based on the analysis of natural analogs, where large releases of gas have been observed. We are particularly interested in circumstances that could generate sudden, possibly self-enhancing release events. The probability for such events may be low, but the circumstances under which they occur and the potential consequences need to be evaluated in order to design appropriate site-selection and risk-management strategies. Numerical modeling of hypothetical test cases is suggested to determine critical conditions for large CO{sub 2} releases, to evaluate whether such conditions may be possible at designated storage sites, and, if applicable, to evaluate the potential impacts of such events as well as design appropriate mitigation strategies.

  4. Idaho Geological Survey and University of Idaho Explore for Geothermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Idaho Geological Survey and University of Idaho Explore for Geothermal Energy Idaho Geological Survey and University of Idaho Explore for Geothermal Energy January 11, 2013 -...

  5. Recovery Act: Geologic Sequestration Training and Research (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Recovery Act: Geologic Sequestration Training and Research Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Recovery Act: Geologic Sequestration Training and Research Work under the ...

  6. Summary of geology of Colorado related to geothermal potential...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Journal Article: Summary of geology of Colorado related to geothermal potential Author L.T. Grose Published Journal Colorado Geological Survey Bulletin, 1974 DOI Not Provided...

  7. Standard review plan for dry cask storage systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-01-01

    The Standard Review Plan (SRP) For Dry Cask Storage Systems provides guidance to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff in the Spent Fuel Project Office for performing safety reviews of dry cask storage systems. The SRP is intended to ensure the quality and uniformity of the staff reviews, present a basis for the review scope, and clarification of the regulatory requirements. Part 72, Subpart B generally specifies the information needed in a license application for the independent storage of spent nuclear fuel and high level radioactive waste. Regulatory Guide 3.61 {open_quotes}Standard Format and Content for a Topical Safety Analysis Report for a Spent Fuel Dry Storage Cask{close_quotes} contains an outline of the specific information required by the staff. The SRP is divided into 14 sections which reflect the standard application format. Regulatory requirements, staff positions, industry codes and standards, acceptance criteria, and other information are discussed.

  8. North Carolina Geological Survey | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Address: 1612 Mail Service Center Place: North Carolina Zip: 27699-1612 Website: www.geology.enr.state.nc.us Coordinates: 35.67, -78.66 Show Map Loading map......

  9. Geologic Sequestration Training and Research Projects

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In September 2009, the U.S. Department of Energy announced more than $12.7 million in funding for geologic sequestration training and research projects. The 43 projects will offer training...

  10. DOE Global Energy Storage Database

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The DOE International Energy Storage Database has more than 400 documented energy storage projects from 34 countries around the world. The database provides free, up-to-date information on grid-connected energy storage projects and relevant state and federal policies. More than 50 energy storage technologies are represented worldwide, including multiple battery technologies, compressed air energy storage, flywheels, gravel energy storage, hydrogen energy storage, pumped hydroelectric, superconducting magnetic energy storage, and thermal energy storage. The policy section of the database shows 18 federal and state policies addressing grid-connected energy storage, from rules and regulations to tariffs and other financial incentives. It is funded through DOEs Sandia National Laboratories, and has been operating since January 2012.

  11. DOE Global Energy Storage Database

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The DOE International Energy Storage Database has more than 400 documented energy storage projects from 34 countries around the world. The database provides free, up-to-date information on grid-connected energy storage projects and relevant state and federal policies. More than 50 energy storage technologies are represented worldwide, including multiple battery technologies, compressed air energy storage, flywheels, gravel energy storage, hydrogen energy storage, pumped hydroelectric, superconducting magnetic energy storage, and thermal energy storage. The policy section of the database shows 18 federal and state policies addressing grid-connected energy storage, from rules and regulations to tariffs and other financial incentives. It is funded through DOE’s Sandia National Laboratories, and has been operating since January 2012.

  12. Hydrogen Storage Fact Sheet | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Storage Fact Sheet Hydrogen Storage Fact Sheet Fact sheet produced by the Fuel Cell Technologies Office describing hydrogen storage. PDF icon Hydrogen Storage More Documents & Publications US DRIVE Hydrogen Storage Technical Team Roadmap Hydrogen & Our Energy Future

  13. INTELLIGENT COMPUTING SYSTEM FOR RESERVOIR ANALYSIS AND RISK ASSESSMENT OF THE RED RIVER FORMATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenneth D. Luff

    2002-09-30

    Integrated software has been written that comprises the tool kit for the Intelligent Computing System (ICS). Luff Exploration Company is applying these tools for analysis of carbonate reservoirs in the southern Williston Basin. The integrated software programs are designed to be used by small team consisting of an engineer, geologist and geophysicist. The software tools are flexible and robust, allowing application in many environments for hydrocarbon reservoirs. Keystone elements of the software tools include clustering and neural-network techniques. The tools are used to transform seismic attribute data to reservoir characteristics such as storage (phi-h), probable oil-water contacts, structural depths and structural growth history. When these reservoir characteristics are combined with neural network or fuzzy logic solvers, they can provide a more complete description of the reservoir. This leads to better estimates of hydrocarbons in place, areal limits and potential for infill or step-out drilling. These tools were developed and tested using seismic, geologic and well data from the Red River Play in Bowman County, North Dakota and Harding County, South Dakota. The geologic setting for the Red River Formation is shallow-shelf carbonate at a depth from 8000 to 10,000 ft.

  14. Berkeley Storage Manager

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2007-03-01

    Storage Resource Managers (SRMs) are middleware components whose function is to provide dynamic space allocation and file management of shared storage components on the Grid, They provide storage availability for the planning and execution of a Grid job. SRMs manage two types of resources: space and files. When managing space, SRMs negotiate space allocation with the requesting client, andlor assign default space quotas. When managing files, SRMs allocate space for files, invoke file transfer servicesmore » to move files into the space. phi files for a certain lifetime, release files upon the clients’ request, and use file replacement policies to optimize the use of the shared space. SPMs can be designed to provide effective sharing of files, by monitoring the activity of shared files, and make dynamic decisions on which files to replace when space is needed. In addition, SRMs perform automatic gathage collection of unused files by removing selected files whose lifetime has expired when space is needed. BeStMan is a Java implementation of SRM functionality by the Scientific Data Management Group at LBNL. It manages multiple disks as well as the HPSS mass storage system, and can be adapted to other storage systems. The BeStMan package contains the SRM server, the SRM client tools, and SRM testing tools.« less

  15. Radioactive waste storage issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kunz, D.E.

    1994-08-15

    In the United States we generate greater than 500 million tons of toxic waste per year which pose a threat to human health and the environment. Some of the most toxic of these wastes are those that are radioactively contaminated. This thesis explores the need for permanent disposal facilities to isolate radioactive waste materials that are being stored temporarily, and therefore potentially unsafely, at generating facilities. Because of current controversies involving the interstate transfer of toxic waste, more states are restricting the flow of wastes into - their borders with the resultant outcome of requiring the management (storage and disposal) of wastes generated solely within a state`s boundary to remain there. The purpose of this project is to study nuclear waste storage issues and public perceptions of this important matter. Temporary storage at generating facilities is a cause for safety concerns and underscores, the need for the opening of permanent disposal sites. Political controversies and public concern are forcing states to look within their own borders to find solutions to this difficult problem. Permanent disposal or retrievable storage for radioactive waste may become a necessity in the near future in Colorado. Suitable areas that could support - a nuclear storage/disposal site need to be explored to make certain the health, safety and environment of our citizens now, and that of future generations, will be protected.

  16. Energy storage connection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benedict, Eric L.; Borland, Nicholas P.; Dale, Magdelena; Freeman, Belvin; Kite, Kim A.; Petter, Jeffrey K.; Taylor, Brendan F.

    2012-07-03

    A power system for connecting a variable voltage power source, such as a power controller, with a plurality of energy storage devices, at least two of which have a different initial voltage than the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. The power system includes a controller that increases the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. When such output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a first one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the first one of the energy storage devices. The controller then causes the output voltage of the variable voltage power source to continue increasing. When the output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a second one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the second one of the energy storage devices.

  17. Regional assessment of aquifers for thermal-energy storage. Volume 2. Regions 7 through 12

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-06-01

    This volume contains information on the geologic and hydrologic framework, major aquifers, aquifers which are suitable and unsuitable for annual thermal energy storage (ATES) and the ATES potential of the following regions of the US: Unglaciated Central Region; Glaciated Appalachians, Unglaciated Appalachians; Coastal Plain; Hawaii; and Alaska. (LCL)

  18. New DOE-Sponsored Study Helps Advance Scientific Understanding of Potential CO2 Storage Impacts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In another step forward toward improved scientific understanding of potential geologic carbon dioxide storage impacts, a new U.S. Department of Energy sponsored study has confirmed earlier research showing that proper site selection and monitoring is essential for helping anticipate and mitigate possible risks.

  19. Inertial energy storage device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knight, Jr., Charles E.; Kelly, James J.; Pollard, Roy E.

    1978-01-01

    The inertial energy storage device of the present invention comprises a composite ring formed of circumferentially wound resin-impregnated filament material, a flanged hollow metal hub concentrically disposed in the ring, and a plurality of discrete filament bandsets coupling the hub to the ring. Each bandset is formed of a pair of parallel bands affixed to the hub in a spaced apart relationship with the axis of rotation of the hub being disposed between the bands and with each band being in the configuration of a hoop extending about the ring along a chordal plane thereof. The bandsets are disposed in an angular relationship with one another so as to encircle the ring at spaced-apart circumferential locations while being disposed in an overlapping relationship on the flanges of the hub. The energy storage device of the present invention has the capability of substantial energy storage due to the relationship of the filament bands to the ring and the flanged hub.

  20. An Assessment of Geological Carbon Sequestration Options in the Illinois Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Finley

    2005-09-30

    The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) has investigated the options for geological carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in the 155,400-km{sup 2} (60,000-mi{sup 2}) Illinois Basin. Within the Basin, underlying most of Illinois, western Indiana, and western Kentucky, are relatively deeper and/or thinner coal resources, numerous mature oil fields, and deep salt-water-bearing reservoirs that are potentially capable of storing CO{sub 2}. The objective of this Assessment was to determine the technical and economic feasibility of using these geological sinks for long-term storage to avoid atmospheric release of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel combustion and thereby avoid the potential for adverse climate change. The MGSC is a consortium of the geological surveys of Illinois, Indiana, and Kentucky joined by six private corporations, five professional business associations, one interstate compact, two university researchers, two Illinois state agencies, and two consultants. The purpose of the Consortium is to assess carbon capture, transportation, and storage processes and their costs and viability in the three-state Illinois Basin region. The Illinois State Geological Survey serves as Lead Technical Contractor for the Consortium. The Illinois Basin region has annual emissions from stationary anthropogenic sources exceeding 276 million metric tonnes (304 million tons) of CO{sub 2} (>70 million tonnes (77 million tons) carbon equivalent), primarily from coal-fired electric generation facilities, some of which burn almost 4.5 million tonnes (5 million tons) of coal per year. Assessing the options for capture, transportation, and storage of the CO{sub 2} emissions within the region has been a 12-task, 2-year process that has assessed 3,600 million tonnes (3,968 million tons) of storage capacity in coal seams, 140 to 440 million tonnes (154 to 485 million tons) of capacity in mature oil reservoirs, 7,800 million tonnes (8,598 million tons) of capacity in saline reservoirs deep beneath geological structures, and 30,000 to 35,000 million tonnes (33,069 to 38,580 million tons) of capacity in saline reservoirs on a regional dip >1,219 m (4,000 ft) deep. The major part of this effort assessed each of the three geological sinks: coals, oil reservoirs, and saline reservoirs. We linked and integrated options for capture, transportation, and geological storage with the environmental and regulatory framework to define sequestration scenarios and potential outcomes for the region. Extensive use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and visualization technology was made to convey results to project sponsors, other researchers, the business community, and the general public. An action plan for possible technology validation field tests involving CO{sub 2} injection was included in a Phase II proposal (successfully funded) to the U.S. Department of Energy with cost sharing from Illinois Clean Coal Institute.

  1. A Hydro-mechanical Model and Analytical Solutions for Geomechanical Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Geological Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Zhijie; Fang, Yilin; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Bonneville, Alain

    2012-05-15

    We present a hydro-mechanical model for geological sequestration of carbon dioxide. The model considers the poroelastic effects by taking into account the coupling between the geomechanical response and the fluid flow in greater detail. The simplified hydro-mechanical model includes the geomechanical part that relies on the linear elasticity, while the fluid flow is based on the Darcys law. Two parts were coupled using the standard linear poroelasticity. Analytical solutions for pressure field were obtained for a typical geological sequestration scenario. The model predicts the temporal and spatial variation of pressure field and effects of permeability and elastic modulus of formation on the fluid pressure distribution.

  2. Optimization of Geological Environments for Carbon Dioxide Disposan in Saline Aquifers in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hovorka, Susan

    1999-02-01

    Recent research and applications have demonstrated technologically feasible methods, defined costs, and modeled processes needed to sequester carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in saline-water-bearing formations (aquifers). One of the simplifying assumptions used in previous modeling efforts is the effect of real stratigraphic complexity on transport and trapping in saline aquifers. In this study we have developed and applied criteria for characterizing saline aquifers for very long-term sequestration of CO{sub 2}. The purpose of this pilot study is to demonstrate a methodology for optimizing matches between CO{sub 2} sources and nearby saline formations that can be used for sequestration. This project identified 14 geologic properties used to prospect for optimal locations for CO{sub 2} sequestration in saline-water-bearing formations. For this demonstration, we digitized maps showing properties of saline formations and used analytical tools in a geographic information system (GIS) to extract areas that meet variably specified prototype criteria for CO{sub 2} sequestration sites. Through geologic models, realistic aquifer properties such as discontinuous sand-body geometry are determined and can be used to add realistic hydrologic properties to future simulations. This approach facilitates refining the search for a best-fit saline host formation as our understanding of the most effective ways to implement sequestration proceeds. Formations where there has been significant drilling for oil and gas resources as well as extensive characterization of formations for deep-well injection and waste disposal sites can be described in detail. Information to describe formation properties can be inferred from poorly known saline formations using geologic models in a play approach. Resulting data sets are less detailed than in well-described examples but serve as an effective screening tool to identify prospects for more detailed work.

  3. Storage tracking refinery trends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saunders, J.

    1996-05-01

    Regulatory and marketplace shakeups have made the refining and petrochemical industries highly competitive. The fight to survive has forced refinery consolidations, upgrades and companywide restructurings. Bulk liquid storage terminals are following suit. This should generate a flurry of engineering and construction by the latter part of 1997. A growing petrochemical industry translates into rising storage needs. Industry followers forecasted flat petrochemical growth in 1996 due to excessive expansion in 1994 and 1995. But expansion is expected to continue throughout this year on the strength of several products.

  4. Storage Trends and Summaries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summaries Storage Trends and Summaries Total Bytes Utilized The growth in NERSC's storage systems amounts to roughly 1.7x per year. Total Bytes Utilized Number of Files Stored The growth in the number of files stored is less than the growth in the number of bytes stored as the average file size has increased over time. The average file size as of August 2003 is about 30 MB. The median file size is closer to 1 MB. Number of Files Monthly I/O The growth rate of I/O is roughly the same as the

  5. CHEMICAL STORAGE: MYTHS VERSUS REALITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, F

    2007-03-19

    A large number of resources explaining proper chemical storage are available. These resources include books, databases/tables, and articles that explain various aspects of chemical storage including compatible chemical storage, signage, and regulatory requirements. Another source is the chemical manufacturer or distributor who provides storage information in the form of icons or color coding schemes on container labels. Despite the availability of these resources, chemical accidents stemming from improper storage, according to recent reports (1) (2), make up almost 25% of all chemical accidents. This relatively high percentage of chemical storage accidents suggests that these publications and color coding schemes although helpful, still provide incomplete information that may not completely mitigate storage risks. This manuscript will explore some ways published storage information may be incomplete, examine the associated risks, and suggest methods to help further eliminate chemical storage risks.

  6. The lifetime of carbon capture and storage as a climate-change mitigation technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Juanes, Ruben

    2013-12-30

    In carbon capture and storage (CCS), CO2 is captured at power plants and then injected underground into reservoirs like deep saline aquifers for long-term storage. While CCS may be critical for the continued use of fossil fuels in a carbon-constrained world, the deployment of CCS has been hindered by uncertainty in geologic storage capacities and sustainable injection rates, which has contributed to the absence of concerted government policy. Here, we clarify the potential of CCS to mitigate emissions in the United States by developing a storage-capacity supply curve that, unlike current large-scale capacity estimates, is derived from the fluid mechanics of CO2 injection and trapping and incorporates injection-rate constraints. We show that storage supply is a dynamic quantity that grows with the duration of CCS, and we interpret the lifetime of CCS as the time for which the storage supply curve exceeds the storage demand curve from CO2 production. We show that in the United States, if CO2 production from power generation continues to rise at recent rates, then CCS can store enough CO2 to stabilize emissions at current levels for at least 100 years. This result suggests that the large-scale implementation of CCS is a geologically viable climate-change mitigation option in the United States over the next century.

  7. Underground Natural Gas Storage by Storage Type

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 View History All Operators Net Withdrawals -17,009 -347,562 -7,279 545,848 -252,958 -538,735 1967-2015 Injections 3,291,395 3,421,813 2,825,427 3,155,661 3,838,826 3,638,954 1935-2015 Withdrawals 3,274,385 3,074,251 2,818,148 3,701,510 3,585,867 3,100,219 1944-2015 Salt Cavern Storage Fields Net Withdrawals -58,295 -92,413 -19,528 28,713 -81,890 -56,095 1994-2015 Injections 510,691 532,893 465,005 492,143 634,045 607,160 1994-2015 Withdrawals 452,396 440,480 445,477

  8. Subtask1.10 – CO2 storage and enhanced bakken recovery research program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorensen, James

    2014-05-31

    Small improvements in productivity could increase technically recoverable oil in the Bakken Petroleum System by billions of barrels. The use of CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in tight oil reservoirs is a relatively new concept. The large-scale injection of CO2 into the Bakken would also result in the geological storage of significant amounts of CO2. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has conducted laboratory and modeling activities to examine the potential for CO2 storage and EOR in the Bakken. Specific activities included the characterization and subsequent modeling of North Dakota study areas as well as dynamic predictive simulations of possible CO2 injection schemes to predict the potential CO2 storage and EOR in those areas. Laboratory studies to evaluate the ability of CO2 to remove hydrocarbons from Bakken rocks and determine minimum miscibility pressures for Bakken oil samples were conducted. Data from a CO2 injection test conducted in the Elm Coulee area of Montana in 2009 were evaluated with an eye toward the possible application of knowledge gained to future injection tests in other areas. A first-order estimation of potential CO2 storage capacity in the Bakken Formation in North Dakota was also conducted. Key findings of the program are as follows. The results of the research activities suggest that CO2 may be effective in enhancing the productivity of oil from the Bakken and that the Bakken may hold the ability to geologically store between 120 Mt and 3.2 Gt of CO2. However, there are no clear-cut answers regarding the most effective approach for using CO2 to improve oil productivity or the storage capacity of the Bakken. The results underscore the notion that an unconventional resource will likely require unconventional methods of both assessment and implementation when it comes to the injection of CO2. In particular, a better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms controlling the interactions between CO2, oil, and other reservoir fluids in these unique formations is necessary to develop accurate assessments of potential CO2 storage and EOR in the Bakken. In addition, existing modeling and simulation software packages do not adequately address or incorporate the unique properties of these tight, unconventional reservoirs in terms of their impact on CO2 behavior. These knowledge gaps can be filled by conducting scaled-up laboratory activities integrated with improved modeling and simulation techniques, the results of which will provide a robust foundation for pilot-scale field injection tests. Finally, field-based data on injection, fluid production, and long-term monitoring from pilot-scale CO2 injection tests in the Bakken are necessary to verify and validate the findings of the laboratory- and modeling-based research efforts. This subtask was funded through the EERC–U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Joint Program on Research and Development for Fossil Energy-Related Resources Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-08NT43291. Nonfederal funding was provided by the North Dakota Industrial Commission, Marathon Oil Corporation, Continental Resources Inc., and TAQA North, Ltd.

  9. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed. (ATT)

  10. Sorbent Storage Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Fuel Cell Technologies Office's sorbent storage materials research focuses on increasing the dihydrogen binding energies and improving the hydrogen volumetric capacity by optimizing the material's pore size, pore volume, and surface area, as well as investigating effects of material densification.

  11. Storage Ring Parameters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Storage Ring Parameters Print General Parameters Parameter Value Beam particle electron Beam energy 1.9 GeV (1.0-1.9 GeV possible) Injection energy 1.9 GeV (1.0-1.9 GeV possible)...

  12. Silo Storage Preconceptual Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephanie L. Austad; Patrick W. Bragassa; Kevin M Croft; David S Ferguson; Scott C Gladson; Annette L Shafer; John H Weathersby

    2012-09-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has a need to develop and field a low-cost option for the long-term storage of a variety of radiological material. The storage option’s primary requirement is to provide both environmental and physical protection of the materials. Design criteria for this effort require a low initial cost and minimum maintenance over a 50-year design life. In 1999, Argonne National Laboratory-West was tasked with developing a dry silo storage option for the BN-350 Spent Fuel in Aktau Kazakhstan. Argon’s design consisted of a carbon steel cylinder approximately 16 ft long, 18 in. outside diameter and 0.375 in. wall thickness. The carbon steel silo was protected from corrosion by a duplex coating system consisting of zinc and epoxy. Although the study indicated that the duplex coating design would provide a design life well in excess of the required 50 years, the review board was concerned because of the novelty of the design and the lack of historical use. In 2012, NNSA tasked Idaho National Laboratory (INL) with reinvestigating the silo storage concept and development of alternative corrosion protection strategies. The 2012 study, “Silo Storage Concepts, Cathodic Protection Options Study” (INL/EST-12-26627), concludes that the option which best fits the design criterion is a passive cathotic protection scheme, consisting of a carbon steel tube coated with zinc or a zinc-aluminum alloy encapsulated in either concrete or a cement grout. The hot dipped zinc coating option was considered most efficient, but the flame-sprayed option could be used if a thicker zinc coating was determined to be necessary.

  13. NV Energy Electricity Storage Valuation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellison, James F.; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Samaan, Nader A.; Jin, Chunlian

    2013-06-30

    This study examines how grid-level electricity storage may benet the operations of NV Energy in 2020, and assesses whether those benets justify the cost of the storage system. In order to determine how grid-level storage might impact NV Energy, an hourly production cost model of the Nevada Balancing Authority (\\BA") as projected for 2020 was built and used for the study. Storage facilities were found to add value primarily by providing reserve. Value provided by the provision of time-of-day shifting was found to be limited. If regulating reserve from storage is valued the same as that from slower ramp rate resources, then it appears that a reciprocating engine generator could provide additional capacity at a lower cost than a pumped storage hydro plant or large storage capacity battery system. In addition, a 25-MW battery storage facility would need to cost $650/kW or less in order to produce a positive Net Present Value (NPV). However, if regulating reserve provided by storage is considered to be more useful to the grid than that from slower ramp rate resources, then a grid-level storage facility may have a positive NPV even at today's storage system capital costs. The value of having storage provide services beyond reserve and time-of-day shifting was not assessed in this study, and was therefore not included in storage cost-benefit calculations.

  14. Brine flow in heated geologic salt.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Malama, Bwalya

    2013-03-01

    This report is a summary of the physical processes, primary governing equations, solution approaches, and historic testing related to brine migration in geologic salt. Although most information presented in this report is not new, we synthesize a large amount of material scattered across dozens of laboratory reports, journal papers, conference proceedings, and textbooks. We present a mathematical description of the governing brine flow mechanisms in geologic salt. We outline the general coupled thermal, multi-phase hydrologic, and mechanical processes. We derive these processes' governing equations, which can be used to predict brine flow. These equations are valid under a wide variety of conditions applicable to radioactive waste disposal in rooms and boreholes excavated into geologic salt.

  15. Exploration and mining geology. Second edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, W.C.

    1987-01-01

    Using the concepts and practices of applied geology as its central theme, here is a balanced and comprehensive treatment of the geological, geochemical, geophysical, and economic elements of exploration and mining. The author offers an overview of the methods and aims in mineral exploration and production and gives coverage of the geologic principles of ore deposits and the geomorphic environment. The text deals with ''hard'' minerals and the nonfluid sources of materials and energy in the continental masses and in ocean basins. This edition has been expanded to include recent advances in applications of satellite imagery, lithogeochemical surveys, isotope geochemistry, and other developments in the field. It also covers current uses of computers in mineral exploration programs and features case histories, a current references section, and financial data.

  16. EIA - Natural Gas Storage Data & Analysis

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Storage Weekly Working Gas in Underground Storage U.S. Natural gas inventories held in underground storage facilities by East, West, and Producing regions (weekly). Underground...

  17. Working Gas in Underground Storage Figure

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Working Gas in Underground Storage Figure Working Gas in Underground Storage Figure Working Gas in Underground Storage Compared with 5-Year Range Graph....

  18. Storage Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Storage Water Heaters Storage Water Heaters Consider energy efficiency when selecting a conventional storage water heater to avoid paying more over its lifetime. | Photo courtesy ...

  19. Recommendation 212: Evaluate additional storage and disposal...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    2: Evaluate additional storage and disposal options Recommendation 212: Evaluate additional storage and disposal options The ORSSAB encourages DOE to evaluate additional storage...

  20. Nuclear Fuels Storage & Transportation Planning Project | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nuclear Fuels Storage & Transportation Planning Project Nuclear Fuels Storage & Transportation Planning Project Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) at the shutdown ...

  1. Smart Storage Pty Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Storage Pty Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Smart Storage Pty Ltd Place: Australia Product: Australia-based developer of hybrid battery storage solutions. References: Smart...

  2. EnStorage Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search Name: EnStorage Inc Place: Israel Zip: 30900 Product: Israel-based energy storage technology developer, developing a regenerative fuel cell energy storage...

  3. Storage Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Storage Water Heaters Storage Water Heaters Consider energy efficiency when selecting a conventional storage water heater to avoid paying more over its lifetime. | Photo courtesy...

  4. Joint Center for Energy Storage Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Joint Center for Energy Storage Research Storage at the ... discusses how a next-gen grid needs next-gen storage. ... understand their basic science, accelerate ...

  5. Hydrogen Storage - Current Technology | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Storage - Current Technology Hydrogen Storage - Current Technology Hydrogen storage is a ... for the full platform of light-duty automotive vehicles using fuel cell power plants. ...

  6. Hydrogen Storage Technical Team Roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-06-01

    The mission of the Hydrogen Storage Technical Team is to accelerate research and innovation that will lead to commercially viable hydrogen-storage technologies that meet the U.S. DRIVE Partnership goals.

  7. Storage Ring | Advanced Photon Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Electron Storage Ring The 7-GeV electrons are injected into the 1104-m-circumference storage ring, a circle of more than 1,000 electromagnets and associated equipment, located...

  8. Status of Hydrogen Storage Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The current status in terms of weight, volume, and cost of various hydrogen storage technologies is shown below. These values are estimates from storage system developers and the R&D community...

  9. Hydrogen Storage Materials Database Demonstration

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    * Data includes properties of hydrogen storage materials investigated such as synthesis conditions, sorption and release conditions, capacities, thermodynamics, etc. http:...

  10. Con Edison Energy Storage Activities

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Con Edison Energy Storage Activities June 15, 2015 EIA Conference Con Edison Energy Storage (ES) 2 Presentation Overview * Introduction to Con Edison * Potential benefits of storage on our system * Unique urban challenges * Con Edison storage related activities * Going forward Con Edison: Overview 3 Customers Infrastructure Service Territory Electric 3.4 million One of the worlds largest underground electric systems All 5 boroughs of NYC and Westchester County Gas 1.1 million 4,333 miles of gas

  11. Hydrogen Storage Materials Database Demonstration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation slides from the Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar "Hydrogen Storage Materials Database Demonstration" held December 13, 2011.

  12. Principles of isotope geology. Second edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faure, G.

    1986-01-01

    This is a text in isotope geology/geoscience that integrates material taught in various courses into a unified picture of the earth sciences. It presents an exposition of the principles used in the interpretation of isotopic data and shows how such interpretations apply to the solution of geological problems. References up to 1985 are included with chapters in this edition. New chapters on Sm-Nd, Lu-Hf Re-Os, and K-Ca decay schemes and cosmogenic radionuclides have been added. Data summaries and references have been expanded.

  13. Temperature-package power correlations for open-mode geologic disposal concepts.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardin, Ernest L.

    2013-02-01

    Logistical simulation of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) management in the U.S. combines storage, transportation and disposal elements to evaluate schedule, cost and other resources needed for all major operations leading to final geologic disposal. Geologic repository reference options are associated with limits on waste package thermal power output at emplacement, in order to meet limits on peak temperature for certain key engineered and natural barriers. These package power limits are used in logistical simulation software such as CALVIN, as threshold requirements that must be met by means of decay storage or SNF blending in waste packages, before emplacement in a repository. Geologic repository reference options include enclosed modes developed for crystalline rock, clay or shale, and salt. In addition, a further need has been addressed for open modes in which SNF can be emplaced in a repository, then ventilated for decades or longer to remove heat, prior to permanent repository closure. For each open mode disposal concept there are specified durations for surface decay storage (prior to emplacement), repository ventilation, and repository closure operations. This study simulates those steps for several timing cases, and for SNF with three fuel-burnup characteristics, to develop package power limits at which waste packages can be emplaced without exceeding specified temperature limits many years later after permanent closure. The results are presented in the form of correlations that span a range of package power and peak postclosure temperature, for each open-mode disposal concept, and for each timing case. Given a particular temperature limit value, the corresponding package power limit for each case can be selected for use in CALVIN and similar tools.

  14. Handling encapsulated spent fuel in a geologic repository environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ballou, L.B.

    1983-02-01

    In support of the Spent Fuel Test-Climate at the U.S. Department of Energy`s Nevada Test Site, a spent-fuel canister handling system has been designed, deployed, and operated successfully during the past five years. This system transports encapsulated commercial spent-fuel assemblies between the packaging facility and the test site ({similar_to}100 km), transfers the canisters 420 m vertically to and from a geologic storage drift, and emplaces or retrieves the canisters from the storage holes in the floor of the drift. The spent-fuel canisters are maintained in a fully shielded configuration at all times during the handling cycle, permitting manned access at any time for response to any abnormal conditions. All normal operations are conducted by remote control, thus assuring as low as reasonably achievable exposures to operators; specifically, we have had no measurable exposure during 30 canister transfer operations. While not intended to be prototypical of repository handling operations, the system embodies a number of concepts, now demonstrated to be safe, reliable, and economical, which may be very useful in evaluating full-scale repository handling alternatives in the future. Among the potentially significant concepts are: Use of an integral shielding plug to minimize radiation streaming at all transfer interfaces. Hydraulically actuated transfer cask jacking and rotation features to reduce excavation headroom requirements. Use of a dedicated small diameter (0.5 m) drilled shaft for transfer between the surface and repository workings. A wire-line hoisting system with positive emergency braking device which travels with the load. Remotely activated grapples - three used in the system - which are insensitive to load orientation. Rail-mounted underground transfer vehicle operated with no personnel underground.

  15. Energy Storage Systems 2007 Peer Review- International Energy Storage Program Presentations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    International energy storage program presentations from the 2007 Energy Storage Systems (ESS) peer review.

  16. Energy Storage & Power Electronics 2008 Peer Review- Energy Storage Systems (ESS) Presentations

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Storage Systems (ESS) Presentations from the 2008 Energy Storage and Power Electronics peer review.

  17. Storage Ring Parameters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Storage Ring Parameters Storage Ring Parameters Print General Parameters Parameter Value Beam particle electron Beam energy 1.9 GeV (1.0-1.9 GeV possible) Injection energy 1.9 GeV (1.0-1.9 GeV possible) Beam current (all operation is in top-off with ΔI/I ≤ 0.3%) 500 mA in multibunch mode 2 x 17.5 mA in two-bunch mode Filling pattern (multibunch mode) 256-320 bunches; possibility of one or two 5- to 6-mA "camshaft" bunches in filling gaps Bunch spacing: multibunch mode 2 ns Bunch

  18. Superconducting magnetic energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassenzahl, W.

    1988-08-01

    Recent programmatic developments in Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) have prompted renewed and widespread interest in this field. In mid 1987 the Defense Nuclear Agency, acting for the Strategic Defense Initiative Office, issued a request for proposals for the design and construction of SMES Engineering Test Model (ETM). Two teams, one led by Bechtel and the other by Ebasco, are now engaged in the first phase of the development of a 10 to 20 MWhr ETM. This report presents the rationale for energy storage on utility systems, describes the general technology of SMES, and explains the chronological development of the technology. The present ETM program is outlined; details of the two projects for ETM development are described in other papers in these proceedings. The impact of high T/sub c/ materials on SMES is discussed. 69 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Energy Storage Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear

  20. Energy Storage Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear

  1. Energy Storage Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5 - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear

  2. Transmission and Storage Operations

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Transmission and Storage Operations Natural Gas Infrastructure R&D and Methane Mitigation Workshop Mary Savalle, PMP, LSSGB Compression Reliability Engineer November 12, 2014 Agenda * DTE Gas Snapshot * NOx & CO - Combustion stability * Methane - Packing - Blowdowns * Capture vs Flare 2 SNAPSHOT * DTE Gas - 41 Units * Age Range: 8-59yrs (Average 45yrs) - 118,200HP * 1,000-15,000HP - 7 different manufacturers * Cooper-Bessemer, Solar, Waukesha, DeLaval, IR, CAT, Ariel - Complete Mixture *

  3. Energy Storage Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear

  4. NREL: Energy Storage - Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Publications Explore NREL's most recent and popular publications. A complete collection of NREL's transportation and energy storage publications can be found in the NREL Publications Database. Papers, Presentations, and Posters Fact sheets Papers, Presentations, and Posters 2016 | 2015 | 2014 | 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 | 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 | 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 | 2001 | 2000 | 1999 | 1998 | 1997 | 1996 | 1995 | 1994 2016 NREL Multiphysics Modeling Tools and ISC Device for Designing

  5. Carbon Capture & Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Page 2 - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy

  6. Carbon Capture & Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear

  7. Maui energy storage study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellison, James; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Karlson, Benjamin

    2012-12-01

    This report investigates strategies to mitigate anticipated wind energy curtailment on Maui, with a focus on grid-level energy storage technology. The study team developed an hourly production cost model of the Maui Electric Company (MECO) system, with an expected 72 MW of wind generation and 15 MW of distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation in 2015, and used this model to investigate strategies that mitigate wind energy curtailment. It was found that storage projects can reduce both wind curtailment and the annual cost of producing power, and can do so in a cost-effective manner. Most of the savings achieved in these scenarios are not from replacing constant-cost diesel-fired generation with wind generation. Instead, the savings are achieved by the more efficient operation of the conventional units of the system. Using additional storage for spinning reserve enables the system to decrease the amount of spinning reserve provided by single-cycle units. This decreases the amount of generation from these units, which are often operated at their least efficient point (at minimum load). At the same time, the amount of spinning reserve from the efficient combined-cycle units also decreases, allowing these units to operate at higher, more efficient levels.

  8. Tagging CO2 to Enable Quantitative Inventories of Geological Carbon Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lackner, Klaus; Matter, Juerg; Park, Ah-Hyung; Stute, Martin; Carson, Cantwell; Ji, Yinghuang

    2014-06-30

    In the wake of concerns about the long term integrity and containment of sub-surface CO2 sequestration reservoirs, many efforts have been made to improve the monitoring, verification, and accounting methods for geo-sequestered CO2. Our project aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of a system designed to tag CO2 with carbon isotope 14C immediately prior to sequestration to a level that is normal on the surface (one part per trillion). Because carbon found at depth is naturally free of 14C, this tag would easily differentiate pre-existing carbon from anthropogenic injected carbon and provide an excellent handle for monitoring its whereabouts in the subsurface. It also creates an excellent handle for adding up anthropogenic carbon inventories. Future inventories in effect count 14C atoms. Accordingly, we have developed a 14C tagging system suitable for use at the part-per-trillion level. This system consists of a gas-exchange apparatus to make disposable cartridges ready for controlled injection into a fast flowing stream of pressurized CO2. We built a high-pressure injection and tagging system, and a 14C detection system. The disposable cartridge and injection system have been successfully demonstrated in the lab with a high-pressure flow reactor, as well as in the field at the CarbFix CO2 sequestration site in Iceland. The laser-based 14C detection system originally conceived has been shown to possess inadequate sensitivity for ambient levels. Alternative methods for detecting 14C, such as saturated cavity absorption ringdown spectroscopy and scintillation counting, may still be suitable. KEYWORDS

  9. Integral Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facility conceptual design report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1985-09-01

    In April 1985, the Department of Energy (DOE) selected the Clinch River site as its preferred site for the construction and operation of the monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility (USDOE, 1985). In support of the DOE MRS conceptual design activity, available data describing the site have been gathered and analyzed. A composite geotechnical description of the Clinch River site has been developed and is presented herein. This report presents Clinch River site description data in the following sections: general site description, surface hydrologic characteristics, groundwater characteristics, geologic characteristics, vibratory ground motion, surface faulting, stability of subsurface materials, slope stability, and references. 48 refs., 35 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Geologic repository design and disposal: GNEP spent fuel processing-waste volume

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, T.H.; Wigeland, R.A.

    2007-07-01

    Previous work has shown that removal of key heat generating elements from spent fuel would allow greater utilization of space in a geologic repository such as Yucca Mountain by factors of 100 or more without increasing the estimated peak dose rate to an exposed individual. However, achieving such utilization increases within a repository storage drift requires the density of the remaining fission products, actinide elements, etc. to be increased by roughly the same factor as the utilization increase, itself. This paper analyzes several alternative drift configurations possible within a designated repository area that could: (1) allow greater volume for waste storage and (2) maintain significant utilization benefit. For a representative range of GNEP-generated waste streams, computed results show that increase in repository area space utilization by a factor {approx}100 can be maintained with such configurations as long as waste stream volume can be reduced from that of the original spent fuel by a factor of {approx}10. (authors)

  11. Fact Sheet: Energy Storage Technology Advancement Partnership...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    including batteries, flywheels, electrochemical capacitors, superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES), power electronics, and control systems, visit the Energy Storage page. ...

  12. Damsel: A Data Model Storage Library for Exascale Science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choudhary, Alok; Liao, Wei-keng

    2014-07-11

    Computational science applications have been described as having one of seven motifs (the “seven dwarfs”), each having a particular pattern of computation and communication. From a storage and I/O perspective, these applications can also be grouped into a number of data model motifs describing the way data is organized and accessed during simulation, analysis, and visualization. Major storage data models developed in the 1990s, such as Network Common Data Format (netCDF) and Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) projects, created support for more complex data models. Development of both netCDF and HDF5 was influenced by multi-dimensional dataset storage requirements, but their access models and formats were designed with sequential storage in mind (e.g., a POSIX I/O model). Although these and other high-level I/O libraries have had a beneficial impact on large parallel applications, they do not always attain a high percentage of peak I/O performance due to fundamental design limitations, and they do not address the full range of current and future computational science data models. The goal of this project is to enable exascale computational science applications to interact conveniently and efficiently with storage through abstractions that match their data models. The project consists of three major activities: (1) identifying major data model motifs in computational science applications and developing representative benchmarks; (2) developing a data model storage library, called Damsel, that supports these motifs, provides efficient storage data layouts, incorporates optimizations to enable exascale operation, and is tolerant to failures; and (3) productizing Damsel and working with computational scientists to encourage adoption of this library by the scientific community. The product of this project, Damsel library, is openly available for download from http://cucis.ece.northwestern.edu/projects/DAMSEL. Several case studies and application programming interface reference are also available to assist new users to learn to use the library.

  13. Gemini Series Experiment Data Reduction and Storage Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. A. Berglin

    2011-11-01

    The presentation covers data formats expected from Gemini experiments; data quick look vs. in-depth analysis; iPDV object-oriented data storage; iPDV's traceability of analysis results; optimizing object memory usage in iPDV; and long-term archival of data objects by iPDV.

  14. Reference design description for a geologic repository: Revision 01

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-09-01

    This document describes the current design expectations for a potential geologic repository that could be located at Yucca Mountain in Nevada. This Reference Design Description (RDD) looks at the surface and subsurface repository and disposal container design. Additionally, it reviews the expected long-term performance of the potential repository. In accordance with current legislation, the reference design for the potential repository does not include an interim storage option. The reference design presented allows the disposal of highly radioactive material received from government-owned spent fuel custodian sites; produces high-level waste sites, and commercial spent fuel sites. All design elements meet current federal, state, and local regulations governing the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and protection of the public and the environment. Due to the complex nature of developing a repository, the design will be created in three phases to support Viability Assessment, License Application, and construction. This document presents the current reference design. It will be updated periodically as the design progresses. Some of the details presented here may change significantly as more cost-effective solutions, technical advancements, or changes to requirements are identified.

  15. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joel Morrison; Elizabeth Wood; Barbara Robuck

    2010-09-30

    The EMS Energy Institute at The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) has managed the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC) since its inception in 2003. The GSTC infrastructure provided a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. The GSTC received base funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Oil & Natural Gas Supply Program. The GSTC base funds were highly leveraged with industry funding for individual projects. Since its inception, the GSTC has engaged 67 members. The GSTC membership base was diverse, coming from 19 states, the District of Columbia, and Canada. The membership was comprised of natural gas storage field operators, service companies, industry consultants, industry trade organizations, and academia. The GSTC organized and hosted a total of 18 meetings since 2003. Of these, 8 meetings were held to review, discuss, and select proposals submitted for funding consideration. The GSTC reviewed a total of 75 proposals and committed co-funding to support 31 industry-driven projects. The GSTC committed co-funding to 41.3% of the proposals that it received and reviewed. The 31 projects had a total project value of $6,203,071 of which the GSTC committed $3,205,978 in co-funding. The committed GSTC project funding represented an average program cost share of 51.7%. Project applicants provided an average program cost share of 48.3%. In addition to the GSTC co-funding, the consortium provided the domestic natural gas storage industry with a technology transfer and outreach infrastructure. The technology transfer and outreach were conducted by having project mentoring teams and a GSTC website, and by working closely with the Pipeline Research Council International (PRCI) to jointly host technology transfer meetings and occasional field excursions. A total of 15 technology transfer/strategic planning workshops were held.

  16. Interim storage study report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rawlins, J.K.

    1998-02-01

    High-level radioactive waste (HLW) stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) in the form of calcine and liquid and liquid sodium-bearing waste (SBW) will be processed to provide a stable waste form and prepare the waste to be transported to a permanent repository. Because a permanent repository will not be available when the waste is processed, the waste must be stored at ICPP in an Interim Storage Facility (ISF). This report documents consideration of an ISF for each of the waste processing options under consideration.

  17. Initial results from seismic monitoring at the Aquistore CO2 storage site, Saskatchewan, Canada

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    White, D. J.; Roach, L. A.N.; Roberts, B.; Daley, T. M.

    2014-12-31

    The Aquistore Project, located near Estevan, Saskatchewan, is one of the first integrated commercial-scale CO2 storage projects in the world that is designed to demonstrate CO2 storage in a deep saline aquifer. Starting in 2014, CO2 captured from the nearby Boundary Dam coal-fired power plant will be transported via pipeline to the storage site and to nearby oil fields for enhanced oil recovery. At the Aquistore site, the CO2 will be injected into a brine-filled sandstone formation at ~3200 m depth using the deepest well in Saskatchewan. The suitability of the geological formations that will host the injected CO2 hasmore » been predetermined through 3D characterization using high-resolution 3D seismic images and deep well information. These data show that 1) there are no significant faults in the immediate area of the storage site, 2) the regional sealing formation is continuous in the area, and 3) the reservoir is not adversely affected by knolls on the surface of the underlying Precambrian basement. Furthermore, the Aquistore site is located within an intracratonic region characterized by extremely low levels of seismicity. This is in spite of oil-field related water injection in the nearby Weyburn-Midale field where a total of 656 million m3 of water have been injected since the 1960`s with no demonstrable related induced seismicity. A key element of the Aquistore research program is the further development of methods to monitor the security and subsurface distribution of the injected CO2. Toward this end, a permanent areal seismic monitoring array was deployed in 2012, comprising 630 vertical-component geophones installed at 20 m depth on a 2.5x2.5 km regular grid. This permanent array is designed to provide improved 3D time-lapse seismic imaging for monitoring subsurface CO2. Prior to the onset of CO2 injection, calibration 3D surveys were acquired in May and November of 2013. Comparison of the data from these surveys relative to the baseline 3D survey data from 2012 shows excellent repeatability (NRMS less than 10%) which will provide enhanced monitoring sensitivity to smaller amounts of CO2. The permanent array also provides continuous passive monitoring for injection-related microseismicity. Passive monitoring has been ongoing since the summer of 2012 in order to establish levels of background seismicity before CO2 injection starts in 2014. Microseismic monitoring was augmented in 2013 by the installation of 3 broadband seismograph stations surrounding the Aquistore site. These surface installations should provide a detection capability of seismic events with magnitudes as low as ~0. Downhole seismic methods are also being utilized for CO2 monitoring at the Aquistore site. Baseline crosswell tomographic images depict details (meters-scale) of the reservoir in the 150-m interval between the observation and injection wells. This level of resolution is designed to track the CO2 migration between the wells during the initial injection period. A baseline 3D vertical seismic profile (VSP) was acquired in the fall of 2013 to provide seismic images with resolution on a scale between that provided by the surface seismic array and the downhole tomography. The 3D VSP was recorded simultaneously using both a conventional array of downhole geophones (60-levels) and an optical fibre system. The latter utilized an optical fiber cable deployed on the outside of the monitor well casing and cemented in place. A direct comparison of these two methodologies will determine the suitability of using the fiber cable for ongoing time-lapse VSP monitoring.« less

  18. ORS 516 - Department of Geology and Mineral Industries | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    6 - Department of Geology and Mineral Industries Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: ORS 516 - Department of Geology...

  19. FMI Borehole Geology, Geomechanics and 3D Reservoir Modeling...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    FMI Borehole Geology, Geomechanics and 3D Reservoir Modeling Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: FMI Borehole Geology, Geomechanics and 3D...

  20. Subsurface geology of the Raft River geothermal area, Idaho ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    geology of the Raft River geothermal area, Idaho Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Proceedings: Subsurface geology of the Raft River...

  1. Nonaqueous electrolyte for electrical storage devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwen, Alan B. (Melrose, MA); Yair, Ein-Eli (Waltham, MA)

    1999-01-01

    Improved nonaqueous electrolytes for application in electrical storage devices such as electrochemical capacitors or batteries are disclosed. The electrolytes of the invention contain salts consisting of alkyl substituted, cyclic delocalized aromatic cations, and their perfluoro derivatives, and certain polyatomic anions having a van der Waals volume less than or equal to 100 .ANG..sup.3, preferably inorganic perfluoride anions and most preferably PF.sub.6.sup.-, the salts being dissolved in organic liquids, and preferably alkyl carbonate solvents, or liquid sulfur dioxide or combinations thereof, at a concentration of greater than 0.5M and preferably greater than 1.0M. Exemplary electrolytes comprise 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate dissolved in a cyclic or acylic alkyl carbonate, or methyl formate, or a combination therof. These improved electrolytes have useful characteristics such as higher conductivity, higher concentration, higher energy storage capabilities, and higher power characteristics compared to prior art electrolytes. Stacked capacitor cells using electrolytes of the invention permit high energy, high voltage storage.

  2. Flywheel energy storage workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Kain, D.; Carmack, J.

    1995-12-31

    Since the November 1993 Flywheel Workshop, there has been a major surge of interest in Flywheel Energy Storage. Numerous flywheel programs have been funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), by the Department of Energy (DOE) through the Hybrid Vehicle Program, and by private investment. Several new prototype systems have been built and are being tested. The operational performance characteristics of flywheel energy storage are being recognized as attractive for a number of potential applications. Programs are underway to develop flywheels for cars, buses, boats, trains, satellites, and for electric utility applications such as power quality, uninterruptible power supplies, and load leveling. With the tremendous amount of flywheel activity during the last two years, this workshop should again provide an excellent opportunity for presentation of new information. This workshop is jointly sponsored by ARPA and DOE to provide a review of the status of current flywheel programs and to provide a forum for presentation of new flywheel technology. Technology areas of interest include flywheel applications, flywheel systems, design, materials, fabrication, assembly, safety & containment, ball bearings, magnetic bearings, motor/generators, power electronics, mounting systems, test procedures, and systems integration. Information from the workshop will help guide ARPA & DOE planning for future flywheel programs. This document is comprised of detailed viewgraphs.

  3. Map of Geologic Sequestration Training and Research Projects

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A larger map of FE's Geologic Sequestration Training and Research Projects awarded as part of the Recovery Act.

  4. License for the Konrad Deep Geological Repository

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biurrun, E.; Hartje, B.

    2003-02-24

    Deep geological disposal of long-lived radioactive waste is currently considered a major challenge. Until present, only three deep geological disposal facilities have worldwide been operated: the Asse experimental repository (1967-1978) and the Morsleben repository (1971-1998) in Germany as well as the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the USA (1999 to present). Recently, the licensing procedure for the fourth such facility, the German Konrad repository, ended with a positive ''Planfeststellung'' (plan approval). With its plan approval decision, the licensing authority, the Ministry of the Environment of the state of Lower Saxony, approved the single license needed pursuant to German law to construct, operate, and later close down this facility.

  5. The Modular Borehole Monitoring Program. A research program to optimize well-based monitoring for geologic carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freifeld, Barry; Daley, Tom; Cook, Paul; Trautz, Robert; Dodds, Kevin

    2014-12-31

    Understanding the impacts caused by injection of large volumes of CO2 in the deep subsurface necessitates a comprehensive monitoring strategy. While surface-based and other remote geophysical methods can provide information on the general morphology of a CO2 plume, verification of the geochemical conditions and validation of the remote sensing data requires measurements from boreholes that penetrate the storage formation. Unfortunately, the high cost of drilling deep wellbores and deploying instrumentation systems constrains the number of dedicated monitoring borings as well as limits the technologies that can be incorporated in a borehole completion. The objective of the Modular Borehole Monitoring (MBM) Program was to develop a robust suite of well-based tools optimized for subsurface monitoring of CO2 that could meet the needs of a comprehensive well-based monitoring program. It should have enough flexibility to be easily reconfigured for various reservoir geometries and geologies. The MBM Program sought to provide storage operators with a turn-key fully engineered design that incorporated key technologies, function over the decades long time-span necessary for post-closure reservoir monitoring, and meet industry acceptable risk profiles for deep-well installations. While still within the conceptual design phase of the MBM program, the SECARB Anthropogenic Test in Citronelle, Alabama, USA was identified as a deployment site for our engineered monitoring systems. The initial step in designing the Citronelle MBM system was to down-select from the various monitoring tools available to include technologies that we considered essential to any program. Monitoring methods selected included U-tube geochemical sampling, discrete quartz pressure and temperature gauges, an integrated fibre-optic bundle consisting of distributed temperature and heat-pulse sensing, and a sparse string of conventional 3C-geophones. While not originally planned within the initial MBM work scope, the fibre-optic cable was able to also be used for the emergent technology of distributed acoustic sensing. The MBM monitoring string was installed in March, 2012. To date, the Citronelle MBM instruments continue to operate reliably. Results and lessons learned from the Citronelle MBM deployment are addressed along with examples of data being collected.

  6. The Modular Borehole Monitoring Program. A research program to optimize well-based monitoring for geologic carbon sequestration

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Freifeld, Barry; Daley, Tom; Cook, Paul; Trautz, Robert; Dodds, Kevin

    2014-12-31

    Understanding the impacts caused by injection of large volumes of CO2 in the deep subsurface necessitates a comprehensive monitoring strategy. While surface-based and other remote geophysical methods can provide information on the general morphology of a CO2 plume, verification of the geochemical conditions and validation of the remote sensing data requires measurements from boreholes that penetrate the storage formation. Unfortunately, the high cost of drilling deep wellbores and deploying instrumentation systems constrains the number of dedicated monitoring borings as well as limits the technologies that can be incorporated in a borehole completion. The objective of the Modular Borehole Monitoring (MBM)more » Program was to develop a robust suite of well-based tools optimized for subsurface monitoring of CO2 that could meet the needs of a comprehensive well-based monitoring program. It should have enough flexibility to be easily reconfigured for various reservoir geometries and geologies. The MBM Program sought to provide storage operators with a turn-key fully engineered design that incorporated key technologies, function over the decades long time-span necessary for post-closure reservoir monitoring, and meet industry acceptable risk profiles for deep-well installations. While still within the conceptual design phase of the MBM program, the SECARB Anthropogenic Test in Citronelle, Alabama, USA was identified as a deployment site for our engineered monitoring systems. The initial step in designing the Citronelle MBM system was to down-select from the various monitoring tools available to include technologies that we considered essential to any program. Monitoring methods selected included U-tube geochemical sampling, discrete quartz pressure and temperature gauges, an integrated fibre-optic bundle consisting of distributed temperature and heat-pulse sensing, and a sparse string of conventional 3C-geophones. While not originally planned within the initial MBM work scope, the fibre-optic cable was able to also be used for the emergent technology of distributed acoustic sensing. The MBM monitoring string was installed in March, 2012. To date, the Citronelle MBM instruments continue to operate reliably. Results and lessons learned from the Citronelle MBM deployment are addressed along with examples of data being collected.« less

  7. geologic-sequestration | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Geological Sequestration Training and Research Program in Capture and Transport: Development of the Most Economical Separation Method for CO2 Capture Project No.: DE-FE0001953 NETL has partnered with Tuskegee University (TU) to provide fundamental research and hands-on training and networking opportunities to undergraduate students at TU in the area of CO2 capture and transport with a focus on the development of the most economical separation methods for pre-combustion CO2 capture. The bulk of

  8. Article for thermal energy storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O.

    2000-06-27

    A thermal energy storage composition is provided which is in the form of a gel. The composition includes a phase change material and silica particles, where the phase change material may comprise a linear alkyl hydrocarbon, water/urea, or water. The thermal energy storage composition has a high thermal conductivity, high thermal energy storage, and may be used in a variety of applications such as in thermal shipping containers and gel packs.

  9. Geological problems in radioactive waste isolation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witherspoon, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    The problem of isolating radioactive wastes from the biosphere presents specialists in the fields of earth sciences with some of the most complicated problems they have ever encountered. This is especially true for high level waste (HLW) which must be isolated in the underground and away from the biosphere for thousands of years. Essentially every country that is generating electricity in nuclear power plants is faced with the problem of isolating the radioactive wastes that are produced. The general consensus is that this can be accomplished by selecting an appropriate geologic setting and carefully designing the rock repository. Much new technology is being developed to solve the problems that have been raised and there is a continuing need to publish the results of new developments for the benefit of all concerned. The 28th International Geologic Congress that was held July 9--19, 1989 in Washington, DC provided an opportunity for earth scientists to gather for detailed discussions on these problems. Workshop W3B on the subject, Geological Problems in Radioactive Waste Isolation -- A World Wide Review'' was organized by Paul A Witherspoon and Ghislain de Marsily and convened July 15--16, 1989 Reports from 19 countries have been gathered for this publication. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  10. Energy Storage Components and Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering ...

  11. Energy Storage Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This fact sheet describes the purpose, lab specifications, applications scenarios, and information on how to partner with NREL's Energy Storage Laboratory at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. At NREL's Energy Storage Laboratory in the Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF), research focuses on the integration of energy storage systems (both stationary and vehicle-mounted) and interconnection with the utility grid. Focusing on battery technologies, but also hosting ultra-capacitors and other electrical energy storage technologies, the laboratory will provide all resources necessary to develop, test, and prove energy storage system performance and compatibility with distributed energy systems. The laboratory will also provide robust vehicle testing capability, including a drive-in environmental chamber, which can accommodate commercial-sized hybrid, electric, biodiesel, ethanol, compressed natural gas, and hydrogen fueled vehicles. The Energy Storage Laboratory is designed to ensure personnel and equipment safety when testing hazardous battery systems or other energy storage technologies. Closely coupled with the research electrical distribution bus at ESIF, the Energy Storage Laboratory will offer megawatt-scale power testing capability as well as advanced hardware-in-the-loop and model-in-the-loop simulation capabilities. Some application scenarios are: The following types of tests - Performance, Efficiency, Safety, Model validation, and Long duration reliability. (2) Performed on the following equipment types - (a) Vehicle batteries (both charging and discharging V2G); (b) Stationary batteries; (c) power conversion equipment for energy storage; (d) ultra- and super-capacitor systems; and (e) DC systems, such as commercial microgrids.

  12. Energy Storage | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    around the clock. Some of the major issues concerning energy storage include cost, efficiency, and size. Benefits Make Renewable Energy Viable Allow for intermittent energy...

  13. The Petascale Data Storage Institute

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibson, Garth; Long, Darrell; Honeyman, Peter; Grider, Gary; Kramer, William; Shalf, John; Roth, Philip; Felix, Evan; Ward, Lee

    2013-07-01

    Petascale computing infrastructures for scientific discovery make petascale demands on information storage capacity, performance, concurrency, reliability, availability, and manageability.The Petascale Data Storage Institute focuses on the data storage problems found in petascale scientific computing environments, with special attention to community issues such as interoperability, community buy-in, and shared tools.The Petascale Data Storage Institute is a collaboration between researchers at Carnegie Mellon University, National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, University of Michigan, and the University of California at Santa Cruz.

  14. Non-Treaty Storage Agreement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Doing Business Skip navigation links Initiatives Columbia River Treaty Non Treaty Storage Agreement 2012 Long Term NTSA Previous Agreements NEPA Planning and Review Documents...

  15. Automotive Energy Storage Systems 2015

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Automotive Energy Storage Systems 2015, the ITB Group’s 16th annual technical conference, was held from March 4–5, 2015, in Novi, Michigan.

  16. Grid Applications for Energy Storage

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Joe Eto, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, at the Flow Cells for Energy Storage Workshop held March 7-8, 2012, in Washington, DC.

  17. LPG storage vessel cracking experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cantwell, J.E. )

    1988-10-01

    In order to evaluate liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) handling and storage hazards, Caltex Petroleum Corp. (Dallas) surveyed several installations for storage vessel cracking problems. Cracking was found in approximately one-third of the storage vessels. In most cases, the cracking appeared to be due to original fabrication problems and could be removed without compromising the pressure containment. Several in-service cracking problems found were due to exposure to wet hydrogen sulfide. Various procedures were tried in order to minimize the in-service cracking potential. One sphere was condemned because of extensive subsurface cracking. This article's recommendations concern minimizing cracking on new and existing LPG storage vessels.

  18. LPG storage vessel cracking experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cantwell, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    As part of an overall company program to evaluate LPG handling and storage hazards the authors surveyed several installations for storage vessel cracking problems. Cracking was found in approximately one third of the storage vessels. In most cases the cracking appeared due to original fabrication problems and could be removed without compromising the pressure containment. Several in-service cracking problems due to exposure to wet hydrogen sulfide were found. Various procedures were tried in order to minimize the in-service cracking potential. One sphere was condemned because of extensive subsurface cracking. Recommendations are made to minimize cracking on new and existing LPG storage vessels.

  19. Energy Storage | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Thus, energy storage and power electronics hold substantial promise for transforming the electric power industry. High voltage power electronics, such as switches, inverters, and ...

  20. Powertech: Hydrogen Expertise Storage Needs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation by Angela Das of Powertech was given at the DOE Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Workshop in March 2013.

  1. Energy Storage | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Developing technology to store electrical energy ... magnetic energy storage (SMES), power electronics, and control systems. ... customers; Improved stability and reliability of ...

  2. Chemical Hydrogen Storage Materials | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Storage » Materials-Based Storage » Chemical Hydrogen Storage Materials Chemical Hydrogen Storage Materials The Fuel Cell Technologies Office's (FCTO's) chemical hydrogen storage materials research focuses on improving the volumetric and gravimetric capacity, transient performance, and efficient, cost-effective regeneration of the spent storage material. Technical Overview The category of chemical hydrogen storage materials generally refers to covalently bound hydrogen in either solid or

  3. Potential hazards of compressed air energy storage in depleted natural gas reservoirs.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, Paul W.; Grubelich, Mark Charles; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2011-09-01

    This report is a preliminary assessment of the ignition and explosion potential in a depleted hydrocarbon reservoir from air cycling associated with compressed air energy storage (CAES) in geologic media. The study identifies issues associated with this phenomenon as well as possible mitigating measures that should be considered. Compressed air energy storage (CAES) in geologic media has been proposed to help supplement renewable energy sources (e.g., wind and solar) by providing a means to store energy when excess energy is available, and to provide an energy source during non-productive or low productivity renewable energy time periods. Presently, salt caverns represent the only proven underground storage used for CAES. Depleted natural gas reservoirs represent another potential underground storage vessel for CAES because they have demonstrated their container function and may have the requisite porosity and permeability; however reservoirs have yet to be demonstrated as a functional/operational storage media for compressed air. Specifically, air introduced into a depleted natural gas reservoir presents a situation where an ignition and explosion potential may exist. This report presents the results of an initial study identifying issues associated with this phenomena as well as possible mitigating measures that should be considered.

  4. Superconducting energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giese, R.F.

    1993-10-01

    This report describes the status of energy storage involving superconductors and assesses what impact the recently discovered ceramic superconductors may have on the design of these devices. Our description is intended for R&D managers in government, electric utilities, firms, and national laboratories who wish an overview of what has been done and what remains to be done. It is assumed that the reader is acquainted with superconductivity, but not an expert on the topics discussed here. Indeed, it is the author`s aim to enable the reader to better understand the experts who may ask for the reader`s attention, support, or funding. This report may also inform scientists and engineers who, though expert in related areas, wish to have an introduction to our topic.

  5. Reversible hydrogen storage materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ritter, James A.; Wang, Tao; Ebner, Armin D.; Holland, Charles E.

    2012-04-10

    In accordance with the present disclosure, a process for synthesis of a complex hydride material for hydrogen storage is provided. The process includes mixing a borohydride with at least one additive agent and at least one catalyst and heating the mixture at a temperature of less than about 600.degree. C. and a pressure of H.sub.2 gas to form a complex hydride material. The complex hydride material comprises MAl.sub.xB.sub.yH.sub.z, wherein M is an alkali metal or group IIA metal, Al is the element aluminum, x is any number from 0 to 1, B is the element boron, y is a number from 0 to 13, and z is a number from 4 to 57 with the additive agent and catalyst still being present. The complex hydride material is capable of cyclic dehydrogenation and rehydrogenation and has a hydrogen capacity of at least about 4 weight percent.

  6. Storage Ring Parameters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Storage Ring Parameters Print General Parameters Parameter Value Beam particle electron Beam energy 1.9 GeV (1.0-1.9 GeV possible) Injection energy 1.9 GeV (1.0-1.9 GeV possible) Beam current (all operation is in top-off with ΔI/I ≤ 0.3%) 500 mA in multibunch mode 2 x 17.5 mA in two-bunch mode Filling pattern (multibunch mode) 256-320 bunches; possibility of one or two 5- to 6-mA "camshaft" bunches in filling gaps Bunch spacing: multibunch mode 2 ns Bunch spacing: two-bunch mode 328

  7. Core assembly storage structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Jr., Charles E.; Brunings, Jay E.

    1988-01-01

    A structure for the storage of core assemblies from a liquid metal-cooled nuclear reactor. The structure comprises an enclosed housing having a substantially flat horizontal top plate, a bottom plate and substantially vertical wall members extending therebetween. A plurality of thimble members extend downwardly through the top plate. Each thimble member is closed at its bottom end and has an open end adjacent said top plate. Each thimble member has a length and diameter greater than that of the core assembly to be stored therein. The housing is provided with an inlet duct for the admission of cooling air and an exhaust duct for the discharge of air therefrom, such that when hot core assemblies are placed in the thimbles, the heat generated will by convection cause air to flow from the inlet duct around the thimbles and out the exhaust duct maintaining the core assemblies at a safe temperature without the necessity of auxiliary powered cooling equipment.

  8. Storage Ring Parameters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Storage Ring Parameters Print General Parameters Parameter Value Beam particle electron Beam energy 1.9 GeV (1.0-1.9 GeV possible) Injection energy 1.9 GeV (1.0-1.9 GeV possible) Beam current (all operation is in top-off with ΔI/I ≤ 0.3%) 500 mA in multibunch mode 2 x 17.5 mA in two-bunch mode Filling pattern (multibunch mode) 256-320 bunches; possibility of one or two 5- to 6-mA "camshaft" bunches in filling gaps Bunch spacing: multibunch mode 2 ns Bunch spacing: two-bunch mode 328

  9. Storage Ring Parameters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Storage Ring Parameters Print General Parameters Parameter Value Beam particle electron Beam energy 1.9 GeV (1.0-1.9 GeV possible) Injection energy 1.9 GeV (1.0-1.9 GeV possible) Beam current (all operation is in top-off with ΔI/I ≤ 0.3%) 500 mA in multibunch mode 2 x 17.5 mA in two-bunch mode Filling pattern (multibunch mode) 256-320 bunches; possibility of one or two 5- to 6-mA "camshaft" bunches in filling gaps Bunch spacing: multibunch mode 2 ns Bunch spacing: two-bunch mode 328

  10. Storage Ring Parameters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photon Source Parameters Storage Ring Parameters Print General Parameters Parameter Value Beam particle electron Beam energy 1.9 GeV (1.0-1.9 GeV possible) Injection energy 1.9 GeV (1.0-1.9 GeV possible) Beam current (all operation is in top-off with ΔI/I ≤ 0.3%) 500 mA in multibunch mode 2 x 17.5 mA in two-bunch mode Filling pattern (multibunch mode) 256-320 bunches; possibility of one or two 5- to 6-mA "camshaft" bunches in filling gaps Bunch spacing: multibunch mode 2 ns Bunch

  11. Storage Ring Parameters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Storage Ring Parameters Print General Parameters Parameter Value Beam particle electron Beam energy 1.9 GeV (1.0-1.9 GeV possible) Injection energy 1.9 GeV (1.0-1.9 GeV possible) Beam current (all operation is in top-off with ΔI/I ≤ 0.3%) 500 mA in multibunch mode 2 x 17.5 mA in two-bunch mode Filling pattern (multibunch mode) 256-320 bunches; possibility of one or two 5- to 6-mA "camshaft" bunches in filling gaps Bunch spacing: multibunch mode 2 ns Bunch spacing: two-bunch mode 328

  12. Leakage and Sepage of CO2 from Geologic Carbon SequestrationSites: CO2 Migration into Surface Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenburg, Curt M.; Lewicki, Jennifer L.

    2005-06-17

    Geologic carbon sequestration is the capture of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and its storage in deep geologic formations. One of the concerns of geologic carbon sequestration is that injected CO{sub 2} may leak out of the intended storage formation, migrate to the near-surface environment, and seep out of the ground or into surface water. In this research, we investigate the process of CO{sub 2} leakage and seepage into saturated sediments and overlying surface water bodies such as rivers, lakes, wetlands, and continental shelf marine environments. Natural CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} fluxes are well studied and provide insight into the expected transport mechanisms and fate of seepage fluxes of similar magnitude. Also, natural CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} fluxes are pervasive in surface water environments at levels that may mask low-level carbon sequestration leakage and seepage. Extreme examples are the well known volcanic lakes in Cameroon where lake water supersaturated with respect to CO{sub 2} overturned and degassed with lethal effects. Standard bubble formation and hydrostatics are applicable to CO{sub 2} bubbles in surface water. Bubble-rise velocity in surface water is a function of bubble size and reaches a maximum of approximately 30 cm s{sup -1} at a bubble radius of 0.7 mm. Bubble rise in saturated porous media below surface water is affected by surface tension and buoyancy forces, along with the solid matrix pore structure. For medium and fine grain sizes, surface tension forces dominate and gas transport tends to occur as channel flow rather than bubble flow. For coarse porous media such as gravels and coarse sand, buoyancy dominates and the maximum bubble rise velocity is predicted to be approximately 18 cm s{sup -1}. Liquid CO{sub 2} bubbles rise slower in water than gaseous CO{sub 2} bubbles due to the smaller density contrast. A comparison of ebullition (i.e., bubble formation) and resulting bubble flow versus dispersive gas transport for CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} at three different seepage rates reveals that ebullition and bubble flow will be the dominant form of gas transport in surface water for all but the smallest seepage fluxes or shallowest water bodies. The solubility of the gas species in water plays a fundamental role in whether ebullition occurs. We used a solubility model to examine CO{sub 2} solubility in waters with varying salinity as a function of depth below a 200 m-deep surface water body. In this system, liquid CO{sub 2} is stable between the deep regions where supercritical CO{sub 2} is stable and the shallow regions where gaseous CO{sub 2} is stable. The transition from liquid to gaseous CO{sub 2} is associated with a large change in density, with corresponding large change in bubble buoyancy. The solubility of CO{sub 2} is lower in high-salinity waters such as might be encountered in the deep subsurface. Therefore, as CO{sub 2} migrates upward through the deep subsurface, it will likely encounter less saline water with increasing capacity to dissolve CO{sub 2} potentially preventing ebullition, depending on the CO{sub 2} leakage flux. However, as CO{sub 2} continues to move upward through shallower depths, CO{sub 2} solubility in water decreases strongly leading to greater likelihood of ebullition and bubble flow in surface water. In the case of deep density-stratified lakes in which ebullition is suppressed, enhanced mixing and man-made degassing schemes can alleviate the buildup of CO{sub 2} and related risk of dangerous rapid discharges. Future research efforts are needed to increase understanding of CO{sub 2} leakage and seepage in surface water and saturated porous media. For example, we recommend experiments and field tests of CO{sub 2} migration in saturated systems to formulate bubble-driven water-displacement models and relative permeability functions that can be used in simulation models.

  13. Lessons from Iowa : development of a 270 megawatt compressed air energy storage project in midwest Independent System Operator : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holst, Kent; Huff, Georgianne; Schulte, Robert H.; Critelli, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    The Iowa Stored Energy Park was an innovative, 270 Megawatt, $400 million compressed air energy storage (CAES) project proposed for in-service near Des Moines, Iowa, in 2015. After eight years in development the project was terminated because of site geological limitations. However, much was learned in the development process regarding what it takes to do a utility-scale, bulk energy storage facility and coordinate it with regional renewable wind energy resources in an Independent System Operator (ISO) marketplace. Lessons include the costs and long-term economics of a CAES facility compared to conventional natural gas-fired generation alternatives; market, legislative, and contract issues related to enabling energy storage in an ISO market; the importance of due diligence in project management; and community relations and marketing for siting of large energy projects. Although many of the lessons relate to CAES applications in particular, most of the lessons learned are independent of site location or geology, or even the particular energy storage technology involved.

  14. Nanostructured materials for hydrogen storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williamson, Andrew J.; Reboredo, Fernando A.

    2007-12-04

    A system for hydrogen storage comprising a porous nano-structured material with hydrogen absorbed on the surfaces of the porous nano-structured material. The system of hydrogen storage comprises absorbing hydrogen on the surfaces of a porous nano-structured semiconductor material.

  15. Commercial potential of natural gas storage in lined rock caverns (LRC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-11-01

    The geologic conditions in many regions of the United States will not permit the development of economical high-deliverability gas storage in salt caverns. These regions include the entire Eastern Seaboard; several northern states, notably Minnesota and Wisconsin; many of the Rocky Mountain States; and most of the Pacific Northwest. In late 1997, the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) Federal Energy Technology Center engaged Sofregaz US to investigate the commercialization potential of natural gas storage in Lined Rock Caverns (LRC). Sofregaz US teamed with Gaz de France and Sydkraft, who had formed a consortium, called LRC, to perform the study for the USDOE. Underground storage of natural gas is generally achieved in depleted oil and gas fields, aquifers, and solution-mined salt caverns. These storage technologies require specific geologic conditions. Unlined rock caverns have been used for decades to store hydrocarbons - mostly liquids such as crude oil, butane, and propane. The maximum operating pressure in unlined rock caverns is limited, since the host rock is never entirely impervious. The LRC technology allows a significant increase in the maximum operating pressure over the unlined storage cavern concept, since the gas in storage is completely contained with an impervious liner. The LRC technology has been under development in Sweden by Sydkraft since 1987. The development process has included extensive technical studies, laboratory testing, field tests, and most recently includes a storage facility being constructed in southern Sweden (Skallen). The LRC development effort has shown that the concept is technically and economically viable. The Skallen storage facility will have a rock cover of 115 meters (375 feet), a storage volume of 40,000 cubic meters (250,000 petroleum barrels), and a maximum operating pressure of 20 MPa (2,900 psi). There is a potential for commercialization of the LRC technology in the United States. Two regions were studied in some detail - the Northeast and the Southeast. The investment cost for an LRC facility in the Northeast is approximately $182 million and $343 million for a 2.6-billion cubic foot (bcf) working gas facility and a 5.2-bcf working gas storage facility, respectively. The relatively high investment cost is a strong function of the cost of labor in the Northeast. The labor union-related rules and requirements in the Northeast result in much higher underground construction costs than might result in Sweden, for example. The LRC technology gas storage service is compared to other alternative technologies. The LRC technology gas storage service was found to be competitive with other alternative technologies for a variety of market scenarios.

  16. Electrochemical hydrogen Storage Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Digby Macdonald

    2010-08-09

    As the global need for energy increases, scientists and engineers have found a possible solution by using hydrogen to power our world. Although hydrogen can be combusted as a fuel, it is considered an energy carrier for use in fuel cells wherein it is consumed (oxidized) without the production of greenhouse gases and produces electrical energy with high efficiency. Chemical storage of hydrogen involves release of hydrogen in a controlled manner from materials in which the hydrogen is covalently bound. Sodium borohydride and aminoborane are two materials given consideration as chemical hydrogen storage materials by the US Department of Energy. A very significant barrier to adoption of these materials as hydrogen carriers is their regeneration from 'spent fuel,' i.e., the material remaining after discharge of hydrogen. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) formed a Center of Excellence for Chemical Hydrogen Storage, and this work stems from that project. The DOE has identified boron hydrides as being the main compounds of interest as hydrogen storage materials. The various boron hydrides are then oxidized to release their hydrogen, thereby forming a 'spent fuel' in the form of a lower boron hydride or even a boron oxide. The ultimate goal of this project is to take the oxidized boron hydrides as the spent fuel and hydrogenate them back to their original form so they can be used again as a fuel. Thus this research is essentially a boron hydride recycling project. In this report, research directed at regeneration of sodium borohydride and aminoborane is described. For sodium borohydride, electrochemical reduction of boric acid and sodium metaborate (representing spent fuel) in alkaline, aqueous solution has been investigated. Similarly to literature reports (primarily patents), a variety of cathode materials were tried in these experiments. Additionally, approaches directed at overcoming electrostatic repulsion of borate anion from the cathode, not described in the previous literature for electrochemical reduction of spent fuels, have been attempted. A quantitative analytical method for measuring the concentration of sodium borohydride in alkaline aqueous solution has been developed as part of this work and is described herein. Finally, findings from stability tests for sodium borohydride in aqueous solutions of several different compositions are reported. For aminoborane, other research institutes have developed regeneration schemes involving tributyltin hydride. In this report, electrochemical reduction experiments attempting to regenerate tributyltin hydride from tributyltin chloride (a representative by-product of the regeneration scheme) are described. These experiments were performed in the non-aqueous solvents acetonitrile and 1,2-dimethoxyethane. A non-aqueous reference electrode for electrolysis experiments in acetonitrile was developed and is described. One class of boron hydrides, called polyhedral boranes, became of interest to the DOE due to their ability to contain a sufficient amount of hydrogen to meet program goals and because of their physical and chemical safety attributes. Unfortunately, the research performed here has shown that polyhedral boranes do not react in such a way as to allow enough hydrogen to be released, nor do they appear to undergo hydrogenation from the spent fuel form back to the original hydride. After the polyhedral boranes were investigated, the project goals remained the same but the hydrogen storage material was switched by the DOE to ammonia borane. Ammonia borane was found to undergo an irreversible hydrogen release process, so a direct hydrogenation was not able to occur. To achieve the hydrogenation of the spent ammonia borane fuel, an indirect hydrogenation reaction is possible by using compounds called organotin hydrides. In this process, the organotin hydrides will hydrogenate the spent ammonia borane fuel at the cost of their own oxidation, which forms organotin halides. To enable a closed-loop cycle, our task was then to be able to hydrogenate the organotin halides back to their hydride form. In addition to this experimental work, a parallel project was carried out to develop a new model of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) that could be used to define the mechanisms of the electrochemical hydrogenation reactions. The EIS technique is capable of probing complex chemical and electrochemical reactions, and our model was written into a computer code that allowed the input of experimental EIS data and the extraction of kinetic parameters based on a best-fit analysis of theoretical reaction schemes. Finally, electrochemical methods for hydrogenating organic and metallo-organic materials have been explored.

  17. Geology of the Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnett, D. Brent; Fecht, Karl R.; Reidel, Stephen P.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Lanigan, David C.; Rust, Colleen F.

    2007-05-11

    In 2006, the U.S. Department of Energy initiated the Seismic Boreholes Project (SBP) to emplace boreholes at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site in order to obtain direct shear wave velocity (Vs) measurements and other physical property measurements in Columbia River basalt and interbedded sediments of the Ellensburg Formation. The goal was to reduce the uncertainty in the response spectra and seismic design basis, and potentially recover design margin for the WTP. The characterization effort within the deep boreholes included 1) downhole measurements of the velocity properties of the suprabasalt, basalt, and sedimentary interbed sequences, 2) downhole measurements of the density of the subsurface basalt and sediments, and 3) geologic studies to confirm the geometry of the contact between the various basalt and interbedded sediments through examination of retrieved core from the core hole and data collected through geophysical logging of each borehole. This report describes the results of the geologic studies from three mud-rotary boreholes and one cored borehole at the WTP. All four boreholes penetrated the entire Saddle Mountains Basalt and the upper part of the Wanapum Basalt where thick sedimentary interbeds occur between the lava flows. The basalt flows penetrated in Saddle Mountains Basalt included the Umatilla Member, Esquatzel Member, Pomona Member, and the Elephant Mountain Member. The underlying Priest Rapids Member of the Wanapum Basalt also was penetrated. The Ellensburg Formation sediments consist of the Mabton Interbed, the Cold Creek Interbed, the Selah Interbed, and the Rattlesnake Ridge Interbed; the Byron Interbed occurs between two flows of the Priest Rapids Member. The Mabton Interbed marks the contact between the Wanapum and Saddle Mountains Basalts. The thicknesses of the basalts and interbedded sediments were within expected limits. However, a small reverse fault was found in the Pomona Member flow top. This fault has three periods of movement and less than 15 ft of repeated section. Most of the movement on the fault appears to have occurred before the youngest lava flow, the 10.5-million-year-old Elephant Mountain Member, was emplaced above the Pomona Member.

  18. Modeling of fate and transport of co-injection of H2S with CO2 in deep saline formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, W.; Xu, T.; Li, Y.

    2010-12-15

    The geological storage of CO{sub 2} in deep saline formations is increasing seen as a viable strategy to reduce the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. However, costs of capture and compression of CO{sub 2} from industrial waste streams containing small quantities of sulfur and nitrogen compounds such as SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S and N{sub 2} are very expensive. Therefore, studies on the co-injection of CO{sub 2} containing other acid gases from industrial emissions are very important. In this paper, numerical simulations were performed to study the co-injection of H{sub 2}S with CO{sub 2} in sandstone and carbonate formations. Results indicate that the preferential dissolution of H{sub 2}S gas (compared with CO{sub 2} gas) into formation water results in the delayed breakthrough of H{sub 2}S gas. Co-injection of H{sub 2}S results in the precipitation of pyrite through interactions between the dissolved H{sub 2}S and Fe{sup 2+} from the dissolution of Fe-bearing minerals. Additional injection of H{sub 2}S reduces the capabilities for solubility and mineral trappings of CO{sub 2} compared to the CO{sub 2} only case. In comparison to the sandstone (siliciclastic) formation, the carbonate formation is less favorable to the mineral sequestration of CO{sub 2}. Different from CO{sub 2} mineral trapping, the presence of Fe-bearing siliciclastic and/or carbonate is more favorable to the H{sub 2}S mineral trapping.

  19. Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System Description Document

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E.F. Loros

    2000-06-29

    The Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System provides supervisory control, monitoring, and selected remote control of primary and secondary repository operations. Primary repository operations consist of both surface and subsurface activities relating to high-level waste receipt, preparation, and emplacement. Secondary repository operations consist of support operations for waste handling and treatment, utilities, subsurface construction, and other selected ancillary activities. Remote control of the subsurface emplacement operations, as well as, repository performance confirmation operations are the direct responsibility of the system. In addition, the system monitors parameters such as radiological data, air quality data, fire detection status, meteorological conditions, unauthorized access, and abnormal operating conditions, to ensure a safe workplace for personnel. Parameters are displayed in a real-time manner to human operators regarding surface and subsurface conditions. The system performs supervisory monitoring and control for both important to safety and non-safety systems. The system provides repository operational information, alarm capability, and human operator response messages during emergency response situations. The system also includes logic control to place equipment, systems, and utilities in a safe operational mode or complete shutdown during emergency response situations. The system initiates alarms and provides operational data to enable appropriate actions at the local level in support of emergency response, radiological protection response, evacuation, and underground rescue. The system provides data communications, data processing, managerial reports, data storage, and data analysis. This system's primary surface and subsurface operator consoles, for both supervisory and remote control activities, will be located in a Central Control Center (CCC) inside one of the surface facility buildings. The system consists of instrument and control equipment and components necessary to provide human operators with sufficient information to monitor and control the operation of the repository in an efficient and safe manner. The system consists of operator consoles and workstations, multiple video display terminals, communications and interfacing equipment, and instrument and control software with customized configuration to meet the needs of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Process and logic controllers and the associated input/output units of each system interfaced with this system will be configured into Remote Terminal Units (RTU) and located close to the systems to be monitored and controlled. The RTUs are configured to remain operational should communication with CCC operations be lost. The system provides closed circuit television to selectively view systems, operations, and equipment areas and to aid in the operation of mechanical systems. Control and monitoring of site utility systems will be located in the CCC. Site utilities include heating, ventilation, and air conditioning equipment; plant compressed air; plant water; firewater; electrical systems; and inert gases, such as nitrogen, if required. This system interfaces with surface and subsurface systems that either generate output data or require remote control input. The system interfaces with the Site Communications System for bulk storage of operational data, on-site and off-site communication, and a plant-wide public announcement system. The system interfaces with the Safeguards and Security System to provide operational status and emergency alarm indications. The system interfaces with the Site Operation System to provide site wide acquisition of data for analysis and reports, historical information for trends, utility information for plant operation, and to receive operating plans and procedures.

  20. Demonstrating the Safety of Long-Term Dry Storage - 13468

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCullum, Rod; Brookmire, Tom; Kessler, John; Leblang, Suzanne; Levin, Adam; Martin, Zita; Nesbit, Steve; Nichol, Marc; Pickens, Terry

    2013-07-01

    Commercial nuclear plants in the United States were originally designed with the expectation that used nuclear fuel would be moved directly from the reactor pools and transported off site for either reprocessing or direct geologic disposal. However, Federal programs intended to meet this expectation were never able to develop the capability to remove used fuel from reactor sites - and these programs remain stalled to this day. Therefore, in the 1980's, with reactor pools reaching capacity limits, industry began developing dry cask storage technology to provide for additional on-site storage. Use of this technology has expanded significantly since then, and has today become a standard part of plant operations at most US nuclear sites. As this expansion was underway, Federal programs remained stalled, and it became evident that dry cask systems would be in use longer than originally envisioned. In response to this challenge, a strong technical basis supporting the long term dry storage safety has been developed. However, this is not a static situation. The technical basis must be able to address future challenges. Industry is responding to one such challenge - the increasing prevalence of high burnup (HBU) used fuel and the need to provide long term storage assurance for these fuels equivalent to that which has existed for lower burnup fuels over the past 25 years. This response includes a confirmatory demonstration program designed to address the aging characteristics of HBU fuel and set a precedent for a learning approach to aging management that will have broad applicability across the used fuel storage landscape. (authors)

  1. State and Regional Control of Geological Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reitze, Arnold; Durrant, Marie

    2011-03-31

    The United States has economically recoverable coal reserves of about 261 billion tons, which is in excess of a 250-­‐year supply based on 2009 consumption rates. However, in the near future the use of coal may be legally restricted because of concerns over the effects of its combustion on atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. Carbon capture and geologic sequestration offer one method to reduce carbon emissions from coal and other hydrocarbon energy production. While the federal government is providing increased funding for carbon capture and sequestration, recent congressional legislative efforts to create a framework for regulating carbon emissions have failed. However, regional and state bodies have taken significant actions both to regulate carbon and facilitate its capture and sequestration. This article explores how regional bodies and state government are addressing the technical and legal problems that must be resolved in order to have a viable carbon sequestration program. Several regional bodies have formed regulations and model laws that affect carbon capture and storage, and three bodies comprising twenty-­‐three states—the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, the Midwest Regional Greenhouse Gas Reduction Accord, and the Western Climate initiative—have cap-­‐and-­‐trade programs in various stages of development. State property, land use and environmental laws affect the development and implementation of carbon capture and sequestration projects, and unless federal standards are imposed, state laws on torts and renewable portfolio requirements will directly affect the liability and viability of these projects. This paper examines current state laws and legislative efforts addressing carbon capture and sequestration.

  2. Executive Summaries for the Hydrogen Storage Materials Center...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    storage materials in the areas of Chemical Hydrogen Storage Materials, Hydrogen ... Storage Materials Center of Excellence - Chemical Hydrogen Storage CoE, Hydrogen Sorption ...

  3. Energy Storage Systems 2007 Peer Review - International Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    International Energy Storage Program Presentations Energy Storage Systems 2007 Peer Review - International Energy Storage Program Presentations The U.S. DOE Energy Storage Systems ...

  4. Texas Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (Million Cubic Feet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Underground Storage Volume (Million Cubic Feet) Texas Natural Gas Underground Storage ... Underground Natural Gas in Storage - All Operators Texas Underground Natural Gas Storage - ...

  5. Grid Storage and the Energy Frontier Research Centers | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Grid Storage and the Energy Frontier Research Centers Grid Storage and the Energy Frontier Research Centers DOE: Grid Storage and the Energy Frontier Research Centers Grid Storage...

  6. Hopper File Storage and I/O

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    File Storage and IO File Storage and IO Disk Quota Change Request Form Hopper File Systems Hopper has 5 user file systems which provide different degrees of storage, performance...

  7. File Storage and I/O

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    File Storage and IO File Storage and IO Disk Quota Change Request Form Hopper File Systems Hopper has 5 user file systems which provide different degrees of storage, performance...

  8. Storage Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Storage Water Heaters Storage Water Heaters June 15, 2012 - 6:00pm Addthis Consider energy efficiency when selecting a conventional storage water heater to avoid paying more over...

  9. FE Carbon Capture and Storage News

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DC 20585202-586-6660 en NETL's 2015 Carbon Storage Atlas Shows Increase in U.S. CO2 Storage Potential http:energy.govfearticlesnetl-s-2015-carbon-storage-atlas-shows-...

  10. Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Geological hazards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staub, W.P.; Reed, R.M.

    1995-03-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on geologic hazards during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The US Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice withdrawing its Notice of Intent to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. This report presents a review of current information on geologic hazards in the Hawaiian Islands. Interrelationships among these hazards are discussed. Probabilities of occurrence of given geologic hazards are provided in various regions where sufficient geologic or historical data are available. Most of the information contained herein is compiled from recent US Geological Survey (USGS) publications and USGS open-file reports related to this project. This report describes the natural geologic hazards present in the area and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts. Geologic hazards originate both onshore and offshore. Onshore geologic hazards such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, surface rupture, landslides, uplift and subsidence occur mainly on the southern third of the island of Hawaii (hereinafter referred to as Hawaii). Offshore geologic hazards are more widely distributed throughout the Hawaiian Islands. Examples of offshore geologic hazards are submarine landslides, turbidity currents, and seismic sea waves (tsunamis).

  11. Thermal energy storage apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thoma, P.E.

    1980-04-22

    A thermal energy storage apparatus and method employs a container formed of soda lime glass and having a smooth, defectfree inner wall. The container is filled substantially with a material that can be supercooled to a temperature greater than 5* F., such as ethylene carbonate, benzophenone, phenyl sulfoxide, di-2-pyridyl ketone, phenyl ether, diphenylmethane, ethylene trithiocarbonate, diphenyl carbonate, diphenylamine, 2benzoylpyridine, 3-benzoylpyridine, 4-benzoylpyridine, 4methylbenzophenone, 4-bromobenzophenone, phenyl salicylate, diphenylcyclopropenone, benzyl sulfoxide, 4-methoxy-4prmethylbenzophenone, n-benzoylpiperidine, 3,3pr,4,4pr,5 pentamethoxybenzophenone, 4,4'-bis-(Dimethylamino)-benzophenone, diphenylboron bromide, benzalphthalide, benzophenone oxime, azobenzene. A nucleating means such as a seed crystal, a cold finger or pointed member is movable into the supercoolable material. A heating element heats the supercoolable material above the melting temperature to store heat. The material is then allowed to cool to a supercooled temperature below the melting temperature, but above the natural, spontaneous nucleating temperature. The liquid in each container is selectively initiated into nucleation to release the heat of fusion. The heat may be transferred directly or through a heat exchange unit within the material.

  12. Conductive lithium storage electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Chung, Sung-Yoon; Bloking, Jason T; Andersson, Anna M

    2014-10-07

    A compound comprising a composition A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z. In the compound, A is at least one of an alkali metal and hydrogen, M' is a first-row transition metal, X is at least one of phosphorus, sulfur, arsenic, molybdenum, and tungsten, M'' any of a Group IIA, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA, VIIIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB, VB, and VIB metal, D is at least one of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, or a halogen, 0.0001storage batteries.

  13. Precise rare earth analysis of geological materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laul, J.C.; Wogman, N.A.

    1982-01-01

    Rare earth element (REE) concentrations are very informative in revealing chemical fractionation processs in geological systems. The REE's (La-Lu) behavior is characteristic of various primary and secondary minerals which comprise a rock. The REE's contents and their patterns provide a strong fingerprint in distinguishing among various rock types and in understanding the partial melting and/or fractional crystallization of the source region. The REE contents in geological materials are usually at trace levels. To measure all the REE at such levels, radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) has been used with a REE group separation scheme. To maximize detection sensitivites for individual REE, selective ..gamma..-ray/x-ray measurements have been made using normal Ge(Li) and low-energy photon detectors (LEPD), and Ge(Li)-NaI(Tl) coincidence-noncoincidence spectrometer systems. Using these detection methods an individual REE can be measured at or below the ppB levels; chemical yields of the REE are determined by reactivation.

  14. A Feasibility Study of Non-Seismic Geophysical Methods forMonitoring Geologic CO2 Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gasperikova, Erika; Hoversten, G. Michael

    2006-07-01

    Because of their wide application within the petroleumindustry it is natural to consider geophysical techniques for monitoringof CO2 movement within hydrocarbon reservoirs, whether the CO2 isintroduced for enhanced oil/gas recovery or for geologic sequestration.Among the available approaches to monitoring, seismic methods are by farthe most highly developed and applied. Due to cost considerations, lessexpensive techniques have recently been considered. In this article, therelative merits of gravity and electromagnetic (EM) methods as monitoringtools for geological CO2 sequestration are examined for two syntheticmodeling scenarios. The first scenario represents combined CO2 enhancedoil recovery (EOR) and sequestration in a producing oil field, theSchrader Bluff field on the north slope of Alaska, USA. The secondscenario is a simplified model of a brine formation at a depth of 1,900m.

  15. High energy storage capacitor by embedding tunneling nano-structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holme, Timothy P; Prinz, Friedrich B; Van Stockum, Philip B

    2014-11-04

    In an All-Electron Battery (AEB), inclusions embedded in an active region between two electrodes of a capacitor provide enhanced energy storage. Electrons can tunnel to/from and/or between the inclusions, thereby increasing the charge storage density relative to a conventional capacitor. One or more barrier layers is present in an AEB to block DC current flow through the device. The AEB effect can be enhanced by using multi-layer active regions having inclusion layers with the inclusions separated by spacer layers that don't have the inclusions. The use of cylindrical geometry or wrap around electrodes and/or barrier layers in a planar geometry can enhance the basic AEB effect. Other physical effects that can be employed in connection with the AEB effect are excited state energy storage, and formation of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC).

  16. Canister Storage Building and Interim Storage Area - Hanford...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    300 Area 324 Building 325 Building 400 AreaFast Flux Test Facility 618-10 and 618-11 Burial Grounds 700 Area B Plant B Reactor C Reactor Canister Storage Building and Interim ...

  17. ,"Minnesota Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals ...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Minnesota Natural Gas Underground Storage Net ... 7:00:48 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Minnesota Natural Gas Underground Storage Net ...

  18. ,"Minnesota Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Minnesota Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity ... 7:00:58 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Minnesota Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity ...

  19. ,"Minnesota Natural Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (MMcf...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Minnesota Natural Gas Underground Storage ... 7:00:37 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Minnesota Natural Gas Underground Storage ...

  20. ,"Minnesota Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...282016 11:29:41 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Total Underground Storage" ... Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (MMcf)","Minnesota Natural Gas in ...

  1. ,"Michigan Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...282016 11:29:40 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Total Underground Storage" ... Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (MMcf)","Michigan Natural Gas in ...

  2. ,"Louisiana Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...282016 11:29:38 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Total Underground Storage" ... Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (MMcf)","Louisiana Natural Gas in ...

  3. ,"Oklahoma Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...282016 11:29:50 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Total Underground Storage" ... Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (MMcf)","Oklahoma Natural Gas in ...

  4. ,"Tennessee Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...282016 11:29:54 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Total Underground Storage" ... Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (MMcf)","Tennessee Natural Gas in ...

  5. ,"Alaska Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...282016 11:29:26 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Total Underground Storage" ... Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (MMcf)","Alaska Natural Gas in ...

  6. ,"Missouri Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...282016 11:29:43 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Total Underground Storage" ... Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (MMcf)","Missouri Natural Gas in ...

  7. ,"Arkansas Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...282016 11:29:28 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Total Underground Storage" ... Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (MMcf)","Arkansas Natural Gas in ...

  8. ,"Maryland Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...282016 11:29:40 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Total Underground Storage" ... Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (MMcf)","Maryland Natural Gas in ...

  9. ,"Kansas Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...282016 11:29:36 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Total Underground Storage" ... Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (MMcf)","Kansas Natural Gas in ...

  10. ,"Ohio Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...282016 11:29:49 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Total Underground Storage" ... Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (MMcf)","Ohio Natural Gas in ...

  11. ,"Illinois Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...282016 11:29:34 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Total Underground Storage" ... Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (MMcf)","Illinois Natural Gas in ...

  12. ,"Nebraska Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...282016 11:29:46 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Total Underground Storage" ... Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (MMcf)","Nebraska Natural Gas in ...

  13. ,"Wyoming Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...282016 11:30:00 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Total Underground Storage" ... Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (MMcf)","Wyoming Natural Gas in ...

  14. ,"Utah Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...282016 11:29:56 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Total Underground Storage" ... Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (MMcf)","Utah Natural Gas in ...

  15. ,"Kentucky Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...282016 11:29:37 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Total Underground Storage" ... Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (MMcf)","Kentucky Natural Gas in ...

  16. ,"Virginia Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...282016 11:29:57 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Total Underground Storage" ... Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (MMcf)","Virginia Natural Gas in ...

  17. ,"California Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...282016 11:29:29 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Total Underground Storage" ... Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (MMcf)","California Natural Gas in ...

  18. ,"Mississippi Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...282016 11:29:44 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Total Underground Storage" ... Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (MMcf)","Mississippi Natural Gas in ...

  19. Analytic Challenges to Valuing Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Ookie; O'Malley, Mark; Cheung, Kerry; Larochelle, Philippe; Scheer, Rich

    2011-10-25

    Electric grid energy storage value. System-level asset focus for mechanical and electrochemical energy storage. Analysis questions for power system planning, operations, and customer-side solutions.

  20. Overview of Gridscale Rampable Intermittent Dispatchable Storage...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rampable Intermittent Dispatchable Storage (GRIDS) Program Presentation by Mark Johnson, Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy, at the Flow Cells for Energy Storage...