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Sample records for geodetic vertical datum

  1. Geodetic Survey | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    At Kilauea Summit Area (Keller, Et Al., 1979) Kilauea Summit Area Results Of An Experimental Drill Hole At The Summit Of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii Geodetic Survey At Long Valley...

  2. Geodetic Survey At Yellowstone Region (Hellman & Ramsey, 2004...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geodetic Survey At Yellowstone Region (Hellman & Ramsey, 2004) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geodetic Survey At Yellowstone...

  3. Geodetic Survey At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Blewitt...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geodetic Survey At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Blewitt Et Al, 2005) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geodetic Survey At...

  4. Geodetic Survey At Nevada Test And Training Range Area (Sabin...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Nevada Test And Training Range Area (Sabin, Et Al., 2004) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geodetic Survey At Nevada Test And...

  5. Geodetic Survey At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Blewitt...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Region (Blewitt Et Al, 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Geodetic Survey Activity Date...

  6. Geodetic Survey At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Laney...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Laney, 2005) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geodetic Survey At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Laney, 2005) Exploration...

  7. Geodetic Survey At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Laney...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Laney, 2005) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geodetic Survey At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Laney, 2005) Exploration...

  8. Geodetic Survey At Nw Basin & Range Region (Laney, 2005) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Laney, 2005) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geodetic Survey At Nw Basin & Range Region (Laney, 2005) Exploration Activity...

  9. Geodetic Survey At Northern Basin & Range Region (Laney, 2005...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Laney, 2005) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geodetic Survey At Northern Basin & Range Region (Laney, 2005) Exploration Activity...

  10. Geodetic Survey At Nw Basin & Range Region (Blewitt Et Al, 2005...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geodetic Survey At Nw Basin & Range Region (Blewitt Et Al, 2005) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geodetic Survey At Nw Basin &...

  11. PREPRINT An Efficient Algorithm for Geocentric to Geodetic Coordinate...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... 1. In this paper the World Geodetic System 1984 (WGSM) is used for the purpose of ... The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, 1984. 24. Rapp, Richard H., Geometric Geodesy - ...

  12. Vertical axis wind turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krivcov, Vladimir (Miass, RU); Krivospitski, Vladimir (Miass, RU); Maksimov, Vasili (Miass, RU); Halstead, Richard (Rohnert Park, CA); Grahov, Jurij (Miass, RU)

    2011-03-08

    A vertical axis wind turbine is described. The wind turbine can include a top ring, a middle ring and a lower ring, wherein a plurality of vertical airfoils are disposed between the rings. For example, three vertical airfoils can be attached between the upper ring and the middle ring. In addition, three more vertical airfoils can be attached between the lower ring and the middle ring. When wind contacts the vertically arranged airfoils the rings begin to spin. By connecting the rings to a center pole which spins an alternator, electricity can be generated from wind.

  13. Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2002-04-01

    Blade fatigue life is an important element in determining the economic viability of the Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT). VAWT-SAL Vertical Axis Wind Turbine- Stochastic Aerodynamic Loads Ver 3.2 numerically simulates the stochastic (random0 aerodynamic loads of the Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) created by the atomspheric turbulence. The program takes into account the rotor geometry, operating conditions, and assumed turbulence properties.

  14. ARM - Measurement - Vertical velocity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsVertical velocity ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Vertical velocity The component of the velocity vector, along the local vertical. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements,

  15. Vertical Velocity Focus Group

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and improving cloud parameterization in global climate models (GCMs) is not straightforward, due to gigantic scale mismatches. Consider this... Looking only vertically...

  16. Micromachined electrostatic vertical actuator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Abraham P.; Sommargren, Gary E.; McConaghy, Charles F.; Krulevitch, Peter A.

    1999-10-19

    A micromachined vertical actuator utilizing a levitational force, such as in electrostatic comb drives, provides vertical actuation that is relatively linear in actuation for control, and can be readily combined with parallel plate capacitive position sensing for position control. The micromachined electrostatic vertical actuator provides accurate movement in the sub-micron to micron ranges which is desirable in the phase modulation instrument, such as optical phase shifting. For example, compact, inexpensive, and position controllable micromirrors utilizing an electrostatic vertical actuator can replace the large, expensive, and difficult-to-maintain piezoelectric actuators. A thirty pound piezoelectric actuator with corner cube reflectors, as utilized in a phase shifting diffraction interferometer can be replaced with a micromirror and a lens. For any very precise and small amplitudes of motion` micromachined electrostatic actuation may be used because it is the most compact in size, with low power consumption and has more straightforward sensing and control options.

  17. Multicolored Vertical Silicon Nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seo, Kwanyong; Wober, Munib; Steinvurzel, P.; Schonbrun, E.; Dan, Yaping; Ellenbogen, T.; Crozier, K. B.

    2011-04-13

    We demonstrate that vertical silicon nanowires take on a surprising variety of colors covering the entire visible spectrum, in marked contrast to the gray color of bulk silicon. This effect is readily observable by bright-field microscopy, or even to the naked eye. The reflection spectra of the nanowires each show a dip whose position depends on the nanowire radii. We compare the experimental data to the results of finite difference time domain simulations to elucidate the physical mechanisms behind the phenomena we observe. The nanowires are fabricated as arrays, but the vivid colors arise not from scattering or diffractive effects of the array, but from the guided mode properties of the individual nanowires. Each nanowire can thus define its own color, allowing for complex spatial patterning. We anticipate that the color filter effect we demonstrate could be employed in nanoscale image sensor devices.

  18. Vertical axis wind turbine airfoil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krivcov, Vladimir; Krivospitski, Vladimir; Maksimov, Vasili; Halstead, Richard; Grahov, Jurij Vasiljevich

    2012-12-18

    A vertical axis wind turbine airfoil is described. The wind turbine airfoil can include a leading edge, a trailing edge, an upper curved surface, a lower curved surface, and a centerline running between the upper surface and the lower surface and from the leading edge to the trailing edge. The airfoil can be configured so that the distance between the centerline and the upper surface is the same as the distance between the centerline and the lower surface at all points along the length of the airfoil. A plurality of such airfoils can be included in a vertical axis wind turbine. These airfoils can be vertically disposed and can rotate about a vertical axis.

  19. Vertical tube liquid pollutant separators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynch, W.M.

    1982-06-08

    A plurality of elongated hollow, circular, foraminous substantially vertical tubes contiguously stacked transversely to the direction flowing liquid such as waste water containing foreign matter, I.E., settable solids and free oil, in a coalescer-separator apparatus provide a filter body providing for significant surface area contact by the liquid on both inside and outside surfaces of the tubes to entrap the foreign matter but defining substantially vertical passages permitting the entrapped foreign matter to be gravity separated with the lighter matter coalescing and floating upwardly and the heavier matter settling downwardly so that substantially clarified effluent flows from the apparatus. The stacked tube filter body is contained within an insulated closed container of a sufficient capacity, and the arrays of holes in the tube walls are coordinated with respect to the intended volumetric capacity of the apparatus, so that turbulence in the liquid flowing through the filter body is minimized.

  20. Vertically Integrated Circuits at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deptuch, Grzegorz; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoff, James; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    The exploration of the vertically integrated circuits, also commonly known as 3D-IC technology, for applications in radiation detection started at Fermilab in 2006. This paper examines the opportunities that vertical integration offers by looking at various 3D designs that have been completed by Fermilab. The emphasis is on opportunities that are presented by through silicon vias (TSV), wafer and circuit thinning and finally fusion bonding techniques to replace conventional bump bonding. Early work by Fermilab has led to an international consortium for the development of 3D-IC circuits for High Energy Physics. The consortium has submitted over 25 different designs for the Fermilab organized MPW run organized for the first time.

  1. Vertically aligned nanostructure scanning probe microscope tips

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guillorn, Michael A.; Ilic, Bojan; Melechko, Anatoli V.; Merkulov, Vladimir I.; Lowndes, Douglas H.; Simpson, Michael L.

    2006-12-19

    Methods and apparatus are described for cantilever structures that include a vertically aligned nanostructure, especially vertically aligned carbon nanofiber scanning probe microscope tips. An apparatus includes a cantilever structure including a substrate including a cantilever body, that optionally includes a doped layer, and a vertically aligned nanostructure coupled to the cantilever body.

  2. Microsoft Word - datuminstr.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Instructions for locating the latitude and longitude of a coal mine or coal preparation plant and determining the datum for the location. A datum is a set of reference latitude and longitude positions of high accuracy placed on a model of the earth as a spheroid. The request for the datum requires you to identify the datum and enter its name. Example responses include: NAD27 (North American Datum 1927) NAD83 (North American Datum 1983) WGS84 (World Geodetic Survey 1984) If you use options 3 or 4

  3. Category:Vertical Flowmeter Test | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Vertical Flowmeter Test Jump to: navigation, search Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Vertical Flowmeter Test page? For detailed information on Vertical Flowmeter Test, click...

  4. Single Packaged Vertical Units | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Single Packaged Vertical Units Single Packaged Vertical Units The Department of Energy (DOE) develops standardized data templates for reporting the results of tests conducted in accordance with current DOE test procedures. Templates may be used by third-party laboratories under contract with DOE that conduct testing in support of ENERGY STAR® verification, DOE rulemakings, and enforcement of the federal energy conservation standards. File Single Packaged Vertical Units -- v2.0 More Documents

  5. ARM - Evaluation Product - Convective Vertical Velocity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ProductsConvective Vertical Velocity ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Documentation Use the Data File Inventory tool to view data availability at the file level. Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Evaluation Product : Convective Vertical Velocity Convective processes play an important role in Earth's energy balance by distributing heat and moisture throughout the atmosphere. In particular, vertical air motions associated with these

  6. Category:Vertical Electrical Sounding Configurations | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Vertical Electrical Sounding Configurations Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Vertical Electrical Sounding...

  7. Vertical Flowmeter Logging | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Logging Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Vertical Flowmeter Logging Author U.S. Geological Survey Published USGS Groundwater...

  8. Vertical Circuits Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and intellectual property for the manufacture of low cost ultra high-speedhigh-density semiconductor components. References: Vertical Circuits, Inc.1 This article is a...

  9. Vertical Flowmeter Test | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Test Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Vertical Flowmeter Test Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration...

  10. Single Packaged Vertical Units | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    standards. File Single Packaged Vertical Units -- v2.0 More Documents & Publications Room Air Conditioners Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Commercial Refrigeration Equipment

  11. Vertical two chamber reaction furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blaugher, R.D.

    1999-03-16

    A vertical two chamber reaction furnace is disclosed. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700 and 800 C) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800 to 950 C to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product. 2 figs.

  12. User's manual for the vertical axis wind turbine performance...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: User's manual for the vertical axis wind turbine performance computer code darter Citation Details In-Document Search Title: User's manual for the vertical axis...

  13. User's manual for the vertical axis wind turbine performance...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    User's manual for the vertical axis wind turbine performance computer code darter Citation Details In-Document Search Title: User's manual for the vertical axis wind turbine...

  14. Herrenknecht Vertical GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Specialized company that builds vertical drilling equipment for the development of geothermal resources. References: Herrenknecht Vertical GmbH1 This article is a stub....

  15. Stabilization of the Vertical Mode in Tokamaks by Localized Nonaxisymm...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Stabilization of the Vertical Mode in Tokamaks by Localized Nonaxisymmetric Fields Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Stabilization of the Vertical Mode in ...

  16. Vertical Seismic Profiling At Rye Patch Area (DOE GTP, 2011)...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Vertical Seismic Profiling At Rye Patch Area (DOE GTP, 2011) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Vertical Seismic Profiling At Rye...

  17. Vertical Seismic Profiling At Snake River Plain Region (DOE GTP...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Vertical Seismic Profiling At Snake River Plain Region (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Vertical Seismic Profiling At...

  18. Electrically floating, near vertical incidence, skywave antenna

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Allen A.; Kaser, Timothy G.; Tremblay, Paul A.; Mays, Belva L.

    2014-07-08

    An Electrically Floating, Near Vertical Incidence, Skywave (NVIS) Antenna comprising an antenna element, a floating ground element, and a grounding element. At least part of said floating ground element is positioned between said antenna element and said grounding element. The antenna is separated from the floating ground element and the grounding element by one or more electrical insulators. The floating ground element is separated from said antenna and said grounding element by one or more electrical insulators.

  19. Vertical deformation at western part of Sumatra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Febriyani, Caroline Prijatna, Kosasih Meilano, Irwan

    2015-04-24

    This research tries to make advancement in GPS signal processing to estimate the interseismic vertical deformation field at western part of Sumatra Island. The data derived by Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) from Badan Informasi Geospasial (BIG) between 2010 and 2012. GPS Analyze at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (GAMIT) software and Global Kalman Filter (GLOBK) software are used to process the GPS signal to estimate the vertical velocities of the CGPS station. In order to minimize noise due to atmospheric delay, Vienna Mapping Function 1 (VMF1) is used as atmospheric parameter model and include daily IONEX file provided by the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) as well. It improves GAMIT daily position accuracy up to 0.8?mm. In a second step of processing, the GLOBK is used in order to estimate site positions and velocities in the ITRF08 reference frame. The result shows that the uncertainties of estimated displacement velocity at all CGPS stations are smaller than 1.5?mm/yr. The subsided deformation patterns are seen at the northern and southern part of west Sumatra. The vertical deformation at northern part of west Sumatra indicates postseismic phase associated with the 2010 and 2012 Northern Sumatra earthquakes and also the long-term postseismic associated with the 2004 and 2005 Northern Sumatra earthquakes. The uplifted deformation patterns are seen from Bukit Tinggi to Seblat which indicate a long-term interseismic phase after the 2007 Bengkulu earthquake and 2010 Mentawai earthquake. GANO station shows a subsidence at rate 12.25?mm/yr, indicating the overriding Indo-Australia Plate which is dragged down by the subducting Southeast Asian Plate.

  20. Long wavelength vertical cavity surface emitting laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choquette, Kent D.; Klem, John F.

    2005-08-16

    Selectively oxidized vertical cavity lasers emitting near 1300 nm using InGaAsN quantum wells are reported for the first time which operate continuous wave below, at and above room temperature. The lasers employ two n-type Al.sub.0.94 Ga.sub.0.06 As/GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors each with a selectively oxidized current aperture adjacent to the active region, and the top output mirror contains a tunnel junction to inject holes into the active region. Continuous wave single mode lasing is observed up to 55.degree. C.

  1. High vertical resolution crosswell seismic imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lazaratos, Spyridon K. (Houston, TX)

    1999-12-07

    A method for producing high vertical resolution seismic images from crosswell data is disclosed. In accordance with one aspect of the disclosure, a set of vertically spaced, generally horizontally extending continuous layers and associated nodes are defined within a region between two boreholes. The specific number of nodes is selected such that the value of a particular characteristic of the subterranean region at each of the nodes is one which can be determined from the seismic data. Once values are established at the nodes, values of the particular characteristic are assigned to positions between the node points of each layer based on the values at node within that layer and without regard to the values at node points within any other layer. A seismic map is produced using the node values and the assigned values therebetween. In accordance with another aspect of the disclosure, an approximate model of the region is established using direct arrival traveltime data. Thereafter, the approximate model is adjusted using reflected arrival data. In accordance with still another aspect of the disclosure, correction is provided for well deviation. An associated technique which provides improvements in ray tracing is also disclosed.

  2. Control system for a vertical axis windmill

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brulle, Robert V. (St. Louis County, MO)

    1983-10-18

    A vertical axis windmill having a rotating structure is provided with a series of articulated vertical blades whose positions are controlled to maintain a constant RPM for the rotating structure, when wind speed is sufficient. A microprocessor controller is used to process information on wind speed, wind direction and RPM of the rotating structure to develop an electrical signal for establishing blade position. The preferred embodiment of the invention, when connected to a utility grid, is designed to generate 40 kilowatts of power when exposed to a 20 mile per hour wind. The control system for the windmill includes electrical blade actuators that modulate the blades of the rotating structure. Blade modulation controls the blade angle of attack, which in turn controls the RPM of the rotor. In the preferred embodiment, the microprocessor controller provides the operation logic and control functions. A wind speed sensor provides inputs to start or stop the windmill, and a wind direction sensor is used to keep the blade flip region at 90.degree. and 270.degree. to the wind. The control system is designed to maintain constant rotor RPM when wind speed is between 10 and 40 miles per hour.

  3. Effective Higgs vertices in the generic MSSM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crivellin, Andreas

    2011-03-01

    In this article we consider chirally enhanced corrections to Higgs vertices in the most general MSSM. We include the contributions stemming from bilinear terms, from the trilinear A terms, and from their nonholomorphic analogues, the A{sup '} terms, which couple squarks to the ''wrong'' Higgs field. We perform a consistent renormalization of the Higgs vertices beyond the decoupling limit (M{sub SUSY{yields}{infinity}}), using a purely diagrammatic approach. The cancellation of the different contributions in and beyond the decoupling limit is discussed and the possible size of decoupling effects which occur if the supersymmetry particles are not much heavier than the electroweak scale are examined. In the decoupling limit we recover the results obtained in the effective-field-theory approach. For the nonholomorphic A{sup '} terms we find the well known tan{beta} enhancement in the down sector similar to the one for terms proportional to {mu}. Because of the a priori generic flavor structure of these trilinear terms large flavor-changing neutral Higgs couplings can be induced. We also discover new tan{beta} enhanced contributions involving the usual holomorphic A terms, which were not discussed before in the literature. These corrections occur only if also flavor-diagonal nonholomorphic corrections to the Higgs couplings are present. This reflects the fact that the A terms, and also the chirality-changing self-energies, are physical quantities and cannot be absorbed into renormalization constants.

  4. Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine Mesh Generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-01-24

    VAWTGen is a mesh generator for creating a finite element beam mesh of arbitrary vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWT). The software accepts input files specifying tower and blade structural and aerodynamic descriptions and constructs a VAWT using a minimal set of inputs. VAWTs with an arbitrary number of blades can be constructed with or without a central tower. Strut connections between the tower and blades can be specified in an arbitrary manner. The software also facilitates specifying arbitrary joints between structural components and concentrated structural tenns (mass and stiffness). The output files which describe the VAWT configuration are intended to be used with the Offshore Wind ENergy Simulation (OWENS) Toolkit software for structural dynamics analysis of VAWTs. Furthermore, VAWTGen is useful for visualizing output from the OWENS analysis software.

  5. Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine Mesh Generator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-01-24

    VAWTGen is a mesh generator for creating a finite element beam mesh of arbitrary vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWT). The software accepts input files specifying tower and blade structural and aerodynamic descriptions and constructs a VAWT using a minimal set of inputs. VAWTs with an arbitrary number of blades can be constructed with or without a central tower. Strut connections between the tower and blades can be specified in an arbitrary manner. The software also facilitatesmore » specifying arbitrary joints between structural components and concentrated structural tenns (mass and stiffness). The output files which describe the VAWT configuration are intended to be used with the Offshore Wind ENergy Simulation (OWENS) Toolkit software for structural dynamics analysis of VAWTs. Furthermore, VAWTGen is useful for visualizing output from the OWENS analysis software.« less

  6. Robotic platform for traveling on vertical piping network

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nance, Thomas A; Vrettos, Nick J; Krementz, Daniel; Marzolf, Athneal D

    2015-02-03

    This invention relates generally to robotic systems and is specifically designed for a robotic system that can navigate vertical pipes within a waste tank or similar environment. The robotic system allows a process for sampling, cleaning, inspecting and removing waste around vertical pipes by supplying a robotic platform that uses the vertical pipes to support and navigate the platform above waste material contained in the tank.

  7. Conventional Energy Forum & Associated Vertical Business Development: Best

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Practices in Indian Country | Department of Energy Conventional Energy Forum & Associated Vertical Business Development: Best Practices in Indian Country Conventional Energy Forum & Associated Vertical Business Development: Best Practices in Indian Country March 1, 2012 Las Vegas, Nevada Mandalay Bay Resort & Casino The Office of Indian Energy Tribal Leader Energy Forum on "Conventional Energy (Oil, Gas, and Coal) Forum & Associated Vertical Business Development: Best

  8. Stabilization of the Vertical Mode in Tokamaks by Localized Nonaxisymmetric

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fields (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Stabilization of the Vertical Mode in Tokamaks by Localized Nonaxisymmetric Fields Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Stabilization of the Vertical Mode in Tokamaks by Localized Nonaxisymmetric Fields Vertical instability of a tokamak plasma can be controlled by nonaxisymmetric magnetic fields localized near the plasma edge at the bottom and top of the torus. The required magnetic fields can be produced by a relatively

  9. Innovative Offshore Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine Rotors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Offshore Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine Rotors - Sandia Energy ... Lab Photovoltaic Systems Evaluation Laboratory PV Regional ... Facility Geomechanics and Drilling Labs National ...

  10. Vertical Electrical Sounding Configurations At Mt Princeton Hot...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Vertical Electrical Sounding Configurations At Mt Princeton Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Zohdy, Et Al.,...

  11. An ultimate storage ring lattice with vertical emittance generated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: An ultimate storage ring lattice with vertical emittance generated by damping wigglers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An ultimate storage ring lattice...

  12. Assessing Cloud Spatial and Vertical Distribution with Infrared...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on assessing cloud spatial and vertical distribution with a recently developed infrared (IR) cloud analyzer, named Nephelo. The experiment took place at the ARM's central facility,...

  13. Engineering design of vertical test stand cryostat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suhane, S.K.; Sharma, N.K.; Raghavendra, S.; Joshi, S.C.; Das, S.; Kush, P.K.; Sahni, V.C.; Gupta, P.D.; Sylvester, C.; Rabehl, R.; Ozelis, J.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    Under Indian Institutions and Fermilab collaboration, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology and Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory are jointly developing 2K Vertical Test Stand (VTS) cryostats for testing SCRF cavities at 2K. The VTS cryostat has been designed for a large testing aperture of 86.36 cm for testing of 325 MHz Spoke resonators, 650 MHz and 1.3 GHz multi-cell SCRF cavities for Fermilab's Project-X. Units will be installed at Fermilab and RRCAT and used to test cavities for Project-X. A VTS cryostat comprises of liquid helium (LHe) vessel with internal magnetic shield, top insert plate equipped with cavity support stand and radiation shield, liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) shield and vacuum vessel with external magnetic shield. The engineering design and analysis of VTS cryostat has been carried out using ASME B&PV Code and Finite Element Analysis. Design of internal and external magnetic shields was performed to limit the magnetic field inside LHe vessel at the cavity surface <1 {micro}T. Thermal analysis for LN{sub 2} shield has been performed to check the effectiveness of LN{sub 2} cooling and for compliance with ASME piping code allowable stresses.

  14. Steerable vertical to horizontal energy transducer for mobile robots

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM); Fischer, Gary J. (Albuquerque, NM); Feddema, John T. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a steerable vertical to horizontal energy transducer for mobile robots that less complex and requires less power than two degree of freedom tilt mechanisms. The present invention comprises an end effector that, when mounted with a hopping actuator, translates along axis (typically vertical) actuation into combined vertical and horizontal motion. The end effector, or foot, mounts with an end of the actuator that moves toward the support surface (typically a floor or the earth). The foot is shaped so that the first contact with the support surface is off the axis of the actuator. Off-axis contact with the support surface generates an on-axis force (typically resulting in vertical motion) and a moment orthogonal to the axis. The moment initiates a horizontal tumbling motion, and tilts the actuator so that its axis is oriented with a horizontal component and continued actuation generates both vertical and horizontal force.

  15. Sidewall containment of liquid metal with vertical alternating magnetic fields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lari, R.J.; Praeg, W.F.; Turner, L.R.; Battles, J.E.; Hull, J.R.; Rote, D.M.

    1988-06-17

    An apparatus for containing molten metal using a magnet producing vertical alternating magnetic field positioned adjacent to the area in which the molten metal is to be confined. This invention can be adapted particularly to the casting of metal between counter-rotating rollers with the vertical alternating magnetic field used to confine the molten metal at the edges of the rollers. Alternately, the vertical alternating magnetic field can be used as a flow regulator in casting molten metal from an opening in a channel. 8 figs.

  16. Sidewall containment of liquid metal with vertical alternating magnetic fields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lari, R.J.; Praeg, W.F.; Turner, L.R.; Battles, J.E.; Hull, J.R.; Rote, D.M.

    1990-12-04

    An apparatus is disclosed for containing molten metal using a magnet producing vertical alternating magnetic field positioned adjacent the area in which the molten metal is to be confined. This invention can be adapted particularly to the casting of metal between counter-rotating rollers with the vertical alternating magnetic field used to confine the molten metal at the edges of the rollers. Alternately, the vertical alternating magnetic field can be used as a flow regulator in casting molten metal from an opening in a channel. 9 figs.

  17. ARM - Evaluation Product - Vertical Air Motion during Large-Scale

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stratiform Rain ProductsVertical Air Motion during Large-Scale Stratiform Rain ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Documentation Use the Data File Inventory tool to view data availability at the file level. Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Evaluation Product : Vertical Air Motion during Large-Scale Stratiform Rain The Vertical Air Motion during Large-Scale Stratiform Rain (VERVELSR) value-added product (VAP) uses the unique

  18. Sidewall containment of liquid metal with vertical alternating magnetic fields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lari, Robert J. (Aurora, IL); Praeg, Walter F. (Palos Park, IL); Turner, Larry R. (Naperville, IL); Battles, James E. (Oak Forest, IL); Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL); Rote, Donald M. (Lagrange, IL)

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus for containing molten metal using a magnet producing vertical alternating magnetic field positioned adjacent the area in which the molten metal is to be confined. This invention can be adapted particularly to the casting of metal between counter-rotating rollers with the vertical alternating magnetic field used to confine the molten metal at the edges of the rollers. Alternately, the vertical alternating magnetic field can be used as a flow regulator in casting molten metal from an opening in a channel.

  19. Doppler Lidar Vertical Velocity Statistics Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newsom, RK; Sivaraman, C; Shippert, TR; Riihimaki, LD

    2015-07-01

    fluctuations are crucial for improved understanding of turbulent mixing and diffusion, convective initiation, and cloud life cycles. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility operates coherent Doppler lidar systems at several sites around the globe. These instruments provide measurements of clear-air vertical velocity profiles in the lower troposphere with a nominal temporal resolution of 1 sec and height resolution of 30 m. The purpose of the Doppler lidar vertical velocity statistics (DLWSTATS) value-added product (VAP) is to produce height- and time-resolved estimates of vertical velocity variance, skewness, and kurtosis from these raw measurements. The VAP also produces estimates of cloud properties, including cloud-base height (CBH), cloud frequency, cloud-base vertical velocity, and cloud-base updraft fraction.

  20. Development and application of new methods to retrieve vertical structure

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of precipitation above the ARM CART sites from MMCR measurements (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Development and application of new methods to retrieve vertical structure of precipitation above the ARM CART sites from MMCR measurements Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Development and application of new methods to retrieve vertical structure of precipitation above the ARM CART sites from MMCR measurements The main objective of this project was to develop, validate and apply

  1. Development and application of new methods to retrieve vertical structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of precipitation above the ARM CART sites from MMCR measurements (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Development and application of new methods to retrieve vertical structure of precipitation above the ARM CART sites from MMCR measurements Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Development and application of new methods to retrieve vertical structure of precipitation above the ARM CART sites from MMCR measurements The main objective of this project was to develop,

  2. Weather Research and Forecasting Model with Vertical Nesting Capability

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-08-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with vertical nesting capability is an extension of the WRF model, which is available in the public domain, from www.wrf-model.org. The new code modifies the nesting procedure, which passes lateral boundary conditions between computational domains in the WRF model. Previously, the same vertical grid was required on all domains, while the new code allows different vertical grids to be used on concurrently run domains. This new functionality improvesmore » WRF's ability to produce high-resolution simulations of the atmosphere by allowing a wider range of scales to be efficiently resolved and more accurate lateral boundary conditions to be provided through the nesting procedure.« less

  3. Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hadley, G. Ronald (Albuquerque, NM); Lear, Kevin L. (Albuquerque, NM); Awyoung, Adelbert (Albuquerque, NM); Choquette, Kent D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01

    A vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser device. The vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) device comprises one or more VCSELs with each VCSEL having a mode-control region thereabout, with the mode-control region forming an optical cavity with an effective cavity length different from the effective cavity length within each VCSEL. Embodiments of the present invention can be formed as single VCSELs and as one- or two-dimensional arrays of VCSELs, with either an index-guided mode of operation or an index anti-guided mode of operation being defined by a sign of the difference in the two effective cavity lengths.

  4. Cloud-Scale Vertical Velocity and Turbulent Dissipation Rate Retrievals

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Shupe, Matthew

    2013-05-22

    Time-height fields of retrieved in-cloud vertical wind velocity and turbulent dissipation rate, both retrieved primarily from vertically-pointing, Ka-band cloud radar measurements. Files are available for manually-selected, stratiform, mixed-phase cloud cases observed at the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) site during periods covering the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (MPACE, late September through early November 2004) and the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC, April-early May 2008). These time periods will be expanded in a future submission.

  5. Cloud-Scale Vertical Velocity and Turbulent Dissipation Rate Retrievals

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Shupe, Matthew

    Time-height fields of retrieved in-cloud vertical wind velocity and turbulent dissipation rate, both retrieved primarily from vertically-pointing, Ka-band cloud radar measurements. Files are available for manually-selected, stratiform, mixed-phase cloud cases observed at the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) site during periods covering the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (MPACE, late September through early November 2004) and the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC, April-early May 2008). These time periods will be expanded in a future submission.

  6. Cryogenic vertical test facility for the SRF cavities at BNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Than, R.; Liaw, CJ; Porqueddu, R.; Grau, M.; Tuozzolo, J.; Tallerico, T.; McIntyre, G.; Lederle, D.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Burrill, A.; Pate, D.

    2011-03-28

    A vertical test facility has been constructed to test SRF cavities and can be utilized for other applications. The liquid helium volume for the large vertical dewar is approximate 2.1m tall by 1m diameter with a clearance inner diameter of 0.95m after the inner cold magnetic shield installed. For radiation enclosure, the test dewar is located inside a concrete block structure. The structure is above ground, accessible from the top, and equipped with a retractable concrete roof. A second radiation concrete facility, with ground level access via a labyrinth, is also available for testing smaller cavities in 2 smaller dewars. The cryogenic transfer lines installation between the large vertical test dewar and the cryo plant's sub components is currently near completion. Controls and instrumentations wiring are also nearing completion. The Vertical Test Facility will allow onsite testing of SRF cavities with a maximum overall envelope of 0.9 m diameter and 2.1 m height in the large dewar and smaller SRF cavities and assemblies with a maximum overall envelope of 0.66 m diameter and 1.6 m height.

  7. Aligned vertical fractures, HTI reservoir symmetry, and Thomsenseismic anisotropy parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berryman, James G.

    2007-06-27

    The Sayers and Kachanov (1991) crack-influence parametersare shown to be directly related to Thomsen (1986) weak-anisotropyseismic parameters for fractured reservoirs when the crack density issmall enough. These results are then applied to seismic wave propagationin reservoirs having HTI symmetry due to aligned vertical fractures. Theapproach suggests a method of inverting for fracture density from wavespeed data.

  8. Cryogenic infrastructure for Fermilab's ILC vertical cavity test facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carcagno, R.; Ginsburg, C.; Huang, Y.; Norris, B.; Ozelis, J.; Peterson, T.; Poloubotko, V.; Rabehl, R.; Sylvester, C.; Wong, M.; /Fermilab

    2006-06-01

    Fermilab is building a Vertical Cavity Test Facility (VCTF) to provide for R&D and pre-production testing of bare 9-cell, 1.3-GHz superconducting RF (SRF) cavities for the International Linear Collider (ILC) program. This facility is located in the existing Industrial Building 1 (IB1) where the Magnet Test Facility (MTF) also resides. Helium and nitrogen cryogenics are shared between the VCTF and MTF including the existing 1500-W at 4.5-K helium refrigerator with vacuum pumping for super-fluid operation (125-W capacity at 2-K). The VCTF is being constructed in multiple phases. The first phase is scheduled for completion in mid 2007, and includes modifications to the IB1 cryogenic infrastructure to allow helium cooling to be directed to either the VCTF or MTF as scheduling demands require. At this stage, the VCTF consists of one Vertical Test Stand (VTS) cryostat for the testing of one cavity in a 2-K helium bath. Planning is underway to provide a total of three Vertical Test Stands at VCTF, each capable of accommodating two cavities. Cryogenic infrastructure improvements necessary to support these additional VCTF test stands include a dedicated ambient temperature vacuum pump, a new helium purification skid, and the addition of helium gas storage. This paper describes the system design and initial cryogenic operation results for the first VCTF phase, and outlines future cryogenic infrastructure upgrade plans for expanding to three Vertical Test Stands.

  9. Vertical stability requirements for ARIES-I reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bathke, C.G.; Jardin, S.C.; Leuer, J.A.; Ward, D.J.; Princeton Univ., NJ . Plasma Physics Lab.; General Atomics, San Diego, CA; Princeton Univ., NJ . Plasma Physics Lab.)

    1989-01-01

    The vertical stability of the ARIES-I reactor design is analyzed with the NOVA-W, PSTAB, and TSC codes. A growth rate of {approximately}5.7 s{sup -1} is predicted for a vacuum vessel positioned behind the scrapeoff, first wall, and blanket (0.7 in inboard and 0.9 in outboard thickness) and acting as a passive stabilizer. A reactive power of {approximately}2 MV A would be required for active feedback coils located outside of the TF coils {approximately}3 m to correct a 50-mm vertical displacement of the magnetic axis. A multipolar expansion technique used in the TSC analysis is also used to examine options that minimize stored energy. 10 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Taxel-addressable matrix of vertical nanowire piezotronic transistors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong Lin; Wu, Wenzhuo; Wen, Xiaonan

    2015-05-05

    A tactile sensing matrix includes a substrate, a first plurality of elongated electrode structures, a plurality of vertically aligned piezoelectric members, an insulating layer infused into the piezoelectric members and a second plurality of elongated electrode structures. The first plurality of elongated electrode structures is disposed on the substrate along a first orientation. The vertically aligned piezoelectric members is disposed on the first plurality of elongated electrode structures and form a matrix having columns of piezoelectric members disposed along the first orientation and rows of piezoelectric members disposed along a second orientation that is transverse to the first orientation. The second plurality of elongated electrode structures is disposed on the insulating layer along the second orientation. The elongated electrode structures form a Schottky contact with the piezoelectric members. When pressure is applied to the piezoelectric members, current flow therethrough is modulated.

  11. Friction of partially embedded vertically aligned carbon nanofibers inside elastomers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aksak, Burak; Sitti, Metin; Cassell, Alan; Li, Jun; Meyyappan, Meyya; Callen, Phillip [NanoRobotics Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California 94035 (United States); NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas 77058 (United States)

    2007-08-06

    Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers partially embedded inside polyurethane (eVACNFs) are proposed as a robust high friction fibrillar material with a compliant backing. Carbon nanofibers with 50-150 nm in diameter and 20-30 {mu}m in length are vertically grown on silicon and transferred completely inside an elastomer by vacuum molding. By using time controlled and selective oxygen plasma etching, fibers are partially released up to 5 {mu}m length. Macroscale friction experiments show that eVACNFs exhibit reproducible effective friction coefficients up to 1. Besides high friction, the proposed fabrication method improves fiber-substrate bond strength, and enables uniform height nanofibers with a compliant backing.

  12. Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hadley, G.R.; Lear, K.L.; Awyoung, A.; Choquette, K.D.

    1999-05-11

    A vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser device is disclosed. The vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) device comprises one or more VCSELs with each VCSEL having a mode-control region thereabout, with the mode-control region forming an optical cavity with an effective cavity length different from the effective cavity length within each VCSEL. Embodiments of the present invention can be formed as single VCSELs and as one- or two-dimensional arrays of VCSELs, with either an index-guided mode of operation or an index anti-guided mode of operation being defined by a sign of the difference in the two effective cavity lengths. 10 figs.

  13. Method of fabricating vertically aligned group III-V nanowires

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, George T; Li, Qiming

    2014-11-25

    A top-down method of fabricating vertically aligned Group III-V micro- and nanowires uses a two-step etch process that adds a selective anisotropic wet etch after an initial plasma etch to remove the dry etch damage while enabling micro/nanowires with straight and smooth faceted sidewalls and controllable diameters independent of pitch. The method enables the fabrication of nanowire lasers, LEDs, and solar cells.

  14. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: Modeling the vertical

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    profiles of aerosol characteristics and radiative impacts over the ARM sites Modeling the vertical profiles of aerosol characteristics and radiative impacts over the ARM sites Chuang, Catherine DOE/Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Chin, Steve DOE/Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Atmospheric aerosols play an important role in mediating the radiative balance of the Earth-atmosphere system. A global high-resolution aerosol modeling system developed by the Lawrence Livermore National

  15. Determination of vertical profiles of aerosol extinction, single scatter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    albedo and asymmetry parameter at Barrow. Determination of vertical profiles of aerosol extinction, single scatter albedo and asymmetry parameter at Barrow. Sivaraman, Chitra Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Flynn, Connor Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Turner, David University of Wisconsin-Madison Category: Aerosols Efforts are currently underway to run and evaluate the Broadband Heating Rate Profile project at the ARM North Slope of Alaska (NSA) Barrow site for the time period

  16. Innovative Offshore Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine Rotors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Offshore Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine Rotors - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management

  17. Instrument Development Tethered Balloon Sounding System for Vertical Radiation Profiles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tethered Balloon Sounding System for Vertical Radiation Profiles C. D. Whiteman J. M. Alzheimer G. A. Anderson M. R. Garnich W. J. Shaw Pacific Northwest Laboratory Richland, WA 99352 platform is built on a triangular frame identical to the one on the Sky Platform, but the MSP carries no radiometric sensors, control loop, or leveling motors. Rather. the MSP is instrumented to measure the motions to which the Sky Platform will be subjected; the data provide engineering information to be used in

  18. Electrically injected visible vertical cavity surface emitting laser diodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schneider, Richard P. (Albuquerque, NM); Lott, James A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1994-01-01

    Visible laser light output from an electrically injected vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VSCEL) diode is enabled by the addition of phase-matching spacer layers on either side of the active region to form the optical cavity. The spacer layers comprise InAlP which act as charge carrier confinement means. Distributed Bragg reflector layers are formed on either side of the optical cavity to act as mirrors.

  19. Doppler Lidar Vertical Velocity Statistics Value-Added Product

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    49 Doppler Lidar Vertical Velocity Statistics Value-Added Product RK Newsom C Sivaraman TR Shippert LD Riihimaki July 2015 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or

  20. Electrically injected visible vertical cavity surface emitting laser diodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schneider, R.P.; Lott, J.A.

    1994-09-27

    Visible laser light output from an electrically injected vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VSCEL) diode is enabled by the addition of phase-matching spacer layers on either side of the active region to form the optical cavity. The spacer layers comprise InAlP which act as charge carrier confinement means. Distributed Bragg reflector layers are formed on either side of the optical cavity to act as mirrors. 5 figs.

  1. Low profile, high load vertical rolling positioning stage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shu, Deming (Darien, IL); Barraza, Juan (Aurora, IL)

    1996-01-01

    A stage or support platform assembly for use in a synchrotron accurately positions equipment to be used in the beam line of the synchrotron. The support platform assembly includes an outer housing in which is disposed a lifting mechanism having a lifting platform or stage at its upper extremity on which the equipment is mounted. A worm gear assembly is located in the housing and is adapted to raise and lower a lifting shaft that is fixed to the lifting platform by an anti-binding connection. The lifting platform is moved vertically as the lifting shaft is moved vertically. The anti-binding connection prevents the shaft from rotating with respect to the platform, but does permit slight canting of the shaft with respect to the lifting platform so as to eliminate binding and wear due to possible tolerance mismatches. In order to ensure that the lifting mechanism does not move in a horizontal direction as it is moved vertically, at least three linear roller bearing assemblies are arranged around the outer-periphery of the lifting mechanism. One of the linear roller bearing assemblies can be adjusted so that the roller bearings apply a loading force against the lifting mechanism. Alternatively, a cam mechanism can be used to provide such a loading force.

  2. Vertical feed stick wood fuel burning furnace system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, Richard C.

    1984-01-01

    A new and improved stove or furnace for efficient combustion of wood fuel including a vertical feed combustion chamber for receiving and supporting wood fuel in a vertical attitude or stack, a major upper portion of the combustion chamber column comprising a water jacket for coupling to a source of water or heat transfer fluid and for convection circulation of the fluid for confining the locus of wood fuel combustion to the bottom of the vertical gravity feed combustion chamber. A flue gas propagation delay channel extending from the laterally directed draft outlet affords delayed travel time in a high temperature environment to assure substantially complete combustion of the gaseous products of wood burning with forced air as an actively induced draft draws the fuel gas and air mixture laterally through the combustion and high temperature zone. Active sources of forced air and induced draft are included, multiple use and circuit couplings for the recovered heat, and construction features in the refractory material substructure and metal component superstructure.

  3. Vertical-axis wind turbines -- The current status of an old technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, D.E.

    1996-12-31

    Vertical-axis wind turbine technology is not well understood, even though the earliest wind machines rotated about a vertical axis. The operating environment of a vertical-axis wind turbine is quite complex, but detailed analysis capabilities have been developed and verified over the last 30 years. Although vertical-axis technology has not been widely commercialized, it exhibits both advantages and disadvantages compared to horizontal-axis technology, and in some applications, it appears to offer significant advantages.

  4. Vertical Distribution of Contamination in Ground Water at the Tuba City,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Arizona, Site | Department of Energy Vertical Distribution of Contamination in Ground Water at the Tuba City, Arizona, Site Vertical Distribution of Contamination in Ground Water at the Tuba City, Arizona, Site Vertical Distribution of Contamination in Ground Water at the Tuba City, Arizona, Site PDF icon Vertical Distribution of Contamination in Ground Water at the Tuba City, Arizona, Site More Documents & Publications EA-1268: Final Environmental Assessment Diffusion Multilayer

  5. Hanford Disposal Facility Expands Vertically to Make Room for More Waste |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy Disposal Facility Expands Vertically to Make Room for More Waste Hanford Disposal Facility Expands Vertically to Make Room for More Waste February 11, 2016 - 12:25pm Addthis This photo illustration of the conceptual view shows the vertical expansion of the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. The large area on the right includes the uppermost surface of the vertical expansion, which will be shaped to form a crown and will be covered with a 2 percent grade and

  6. Numerical simulation model for vertical flow in geothermal wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tachimori, M.

    1982-01-01

    A numerical simulation model for vertical flow in geothermal wells is presented. The model consists of equations for the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy, for thermodynamic state of water, for friction losses, for slip velocity relations, and of the criteria for various flow regimes. A new set of correlations and criteria is presented for two-phase flow to improve the accuracy of predictions; bubbly flow - Griffith and Wallis correlation, slug flow - Nicklin et al. one, annular-mist flow - Inoue and Aoki and modified by the author. The simulation method was verified by data from actual wells.

  7. Torque ripple in a Darrieus, vertical axis wind turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reuter, R.C. Jr.

    1980-09-01

    Interaction between a steady wind and a rotating, Darrieus, vertical axis wind turbine produces time periodic aerodynamic loads which cause time dependent torque variations, referred to as torque ripple, to occur in the mechanical link between the turbine and the electrical generator. There is concern for the effect of torque ripple upon fatigue life of drive train components and upon power quality. An analytical solution characterizing the phenomenon of torque ripple has been obtained which is based upon a Fourier expansion of the time dependent features of the problem. Numerical results for torque ripple, some experimental data, determination of acceptable levels and methods of controlling it, are presented and discussed.

  8. VERTICAL RELAXATION OF A MOONLET PROPELLER IN SATURN'S A RING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffmann, H.; Seiss, M.; Spahn, F. [Institute of Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, D-14476 Golm (Germany)

    2013-03-01

    Two images, taken by the Cassini spacecraft near Saturn's equinox in 2009 August, show the Earhart propeller casting a 350 km long shadow, offering the opportunity to watch how the ring height, excited by the propeller moonlet, relaxes to an equilibrium state. From the shape of the shadow cast and a model of the azimuthal propeller height relaxation, we determine the exponential cooling constant of this process to be {lambda} = 0.07 {+-} 0.02 km{sup -1}, and thereby determine the collision frequency of the ring particles in the vertically excited region of the propeller to be {omega}{sub c}/{Omega} = 0.9 {+-} 0.2.

  9. SGP and TWP (Manus) Ice Cloud Vertical Velocities

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kalesse, Heike

    Daily netcdf-files of ice-cloud dynamics observed at the ARM sites at SGP (Jan1997-Dec2010) and Manus (Jul1999-Dec2010). The files include variables at different time resolution (10s, 20min, 1hr). Profiles of radar reflectivity factor (dbz), Doppler velocity (vel) as well as retrieved vertical air motion (V_air) and reflectivity-weighted particle terminal fall velocity (V_ter) are given at 10s, 20min and 1hr resolution. Retrieved V_air and V_ter follow radar notation, so positive values indicate downward motion. Lower level clouds are removed, however a multi-layer flag is included.

  10. SGP and TWP (Manus) Ice Cloud Vertical Velocities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalesse, Heike

    2013-06-27

    Daily netcdf-files of ice-cloud dynamics observed at the ARM sites at SGP (Jan1997-Dec2010) and Manus (Jul1999-Dec2010). The files include variables at different time resolution (10s, 20min, 1hr). Profiles of radar reflectivity factor (dbz), Doppler velocity (vel) as well as retrieved vertical air motion (V_air) and reflectivity-weighted particle terminal fall velocity (V_ter) are given at 10s, 20min and 1hr resolution. Retrieved V_air and V_ter follow radar notation, so positive values indicate downward motion. Lower level clouds are removed, however a multi-layer flag is included.

  11. Vertical distribution of structural components in corn stover

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Johnson, Jane M. F.; Karlen, Douglas L.; Gresham, Garold L.; Cantrell, Keri B.; Archer, David W.; Wienhold, Brian J.; Varvel, Gary E.; Laird, David A.; Baker, John; Ochsner, Tyson E.; et al

    2014-11-17

    In the United States, corn (Zea mays L.) stover has been targeted for second generation fuel production and other bio-products. Our objective was to characterize sugar and structural composition as a function of vertical distribution of corn stover (leaves and stalk) that was sampled at physiological maturity and about three weeks later from multiple USA locations. A small subset of samples was assessed for thermochemical composition. Concentrations of lignin, glucan, and xylan were about 10% greater at grain harvest than at physiological maturity, but harvestable biomass was about 25% less due to stalk breakage. Gross heating density above the earmore » averaged 16.3 ± 0.40 MJ kg⁻¹, but with an alkalinity measure of 0.83 g MJ⁻¹, slagging is likely to occur during gasification. Assuming a stover harvest height of 10 cm, the estimated ethanol yield would be >2500 L ha⁻¹, but it would be only 1000 L ha⁻¹ if stover harvest was restricted to the material from above the primary ear. Vertical composition of corn stover is relatively uniform; thus, decision on cutting height may be driven by agronomic, economic and environmental considerations.« less

  12. Electromagnetic confinement for vertical casting or containing molten metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lari, Robert J. (Aurora, IL); Praeg, Walter F. (Palos Park, IL); Turner, Larry R. (Naperville, IL)

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus and method adapted to confine a molten metal to a region by means of an alternating electromagnetic field. As adapted for use in the present invention, the alternating electromagnetic field given by B.sub.y =(2.mu..sub.o .rho.gy).sup.1/2 (where B.sub.y is the vertical component of the magnetic field generated by the magnet at the boundary of the region; y is the distance measured downward form the top of the region, .rho. is the metal density, g is the acceleration of gravity and .mu..sub.o is the permeability of free space) induces eddy currents in the molten metal which interact with the magnetic field to retain the molten metal with a vertical boudnary. As applied to an apparatus for the continuous casting of metal sheets or rods, metal in liquid form can be continuously introduced into the region defined by the magnetic field, solidified and conveyed away from the magnetic field in solid form in a continuous process.

  13. Vertical distribution of structural components in corn stover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Jane M. F.; Karlen, Douglas L.; Gresham, Garold L.; Cantrell, Keri B.; Archer, David W.; Wienhold, Brian J.; Varvel, Gary E.; Laird, David A.; Baker, John; Ochsner, Tyson E.; Novak, Jeff M.; Halvorson, Ardell D.; Arriaga, Francisco; Lightle, David T.; Hoover, Amber; Emerson, Rachel; Barbour, Nancy W.

    2014-11-17

    In the United States, corn (Zea mays L.) stover has been targeted for second generation fuel production and other bio-products. Our objective was to characterize sugar and structural composition as a function of vertical distribution of corn stover (leaves and stalk) that was sampled at physiological maturity and about three weeks later from multiple USA locations. A small subset of samples was assessed for thermochemical composition. Concentrations of lignin, glucan, and xylan were about 10% greater at grain harvest than at physiological maturity, but harvestable biomass was about 25% less due to stalk breakage. Gross heating density above the ear averaged 16.3 0.40 MJ kg?, but with an alkalinity measure of 0.83 g MJ?, slagging is likely to occur during gasification. Assuming a stover harvest height of 10 cm, the estimated ethanol yield would be >2500 L ha?, but it would be only 1000 L ha? if stover harvest was restricted to the material from above the primary ear. Vertical composition of corn stover is relatively uniform; thus, decision on cutting height may be driven by agronomic, economic and environmental considerations.

  14. Vertical dispersion of inertial waves in the upper ocean

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubenstein, D.M.

    1983-05-20

    A linear model of the vertical dispersion of near-inertial waves is developed. A porosity distribution near the bottom of the computational domain minimizes bottom reflections and simulates an ocean of the infinite depth. The model is used to show that the vertical dispersion of near-inertial waves in the upper ocean may, under certain conditions, contribute significanlty to the observed rapid decay of inertial oscillations in the surface layer. The kinetic energy of inertial oscillations at mid-latitudes decays with an e folding time scale of 10 days or less, when the parameter lambda(km)/N(cph)d(m) is less than or of the order of unity, where lambda is the wavelength of the wind-generated near-inertial waves, N is the Vaeisaelae frequency in the upper pycnocline, and d is the surface layer thickness. At the top of the pycnocline the model predicts a velocity maximum, which develops as energy propagates downward, out of the surface layer. However, when the upper pycnocline is sufficiently peaked, a resonant frequency interference effect is predicted. This effect modulates the dissipation of surface layer inertial oscillations, and their magnitude after a storm need not decay monotonically. We also make qualitative comparisons with deep-ocean current meter observations taken during the Mixed Layer Experiment (MILE) and with shallow water (105 m) observations taken in the Baltic Sea.

  15. Control system for a vertical-axis windmill

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brulle, R.V.

    1981-09-03

    A vertical-axis windmill having a rotating structure is provided with a series of articulated vertical blades whose positions are controlled to maintain a constant RPM for the rotating structure, when wind speed is sufficient. A microprocessor controller is used to process information on wind speed, wind direction and RPM of the rotating structure to develop an electrical signal for establishing blade position. The preferred embodiment of the invention, when connected to a utility grid, is designed to generate 40 kilowatts of power when exposed to a 20 mile per hour wind. The control system for the windmill includes electrical blade actuators that modulate the blades of the rotating structure. Blade modulation controls the blade angle of attack, which in turn controls the RPM of the rotor. In the preferred embodiment, the microprocessor controller provides the operation logic and control functions. A wind speed sensor provides inputs to start or stop the windmill, and a wind direction sensor is used to keep the blade flip region at 90 and 270/sup 0/ to the wind. The control system is designed to maintain constant rotor RPM when wind speed is between 10 and 40 miles per hour.

  16. Vertical feed stick wood fuel burning furnace system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, Richard C.

    1982-01-01

    A stove or furnace for efficient combustion of wood fuel includes a vertical feed combustion chamber (15) for receiving and supporting wood fuel in a vertical attitude or stack. A major upper portion of the combustion chamber column comprises a water jacket (14) for coupling to a source of water or heat transfer fluid for convection circulation of the fluid. The locus (31) of wood fuel combustion is thereby confined to the refractory base of the combustion chamber. A flue gas propagation delay channel (34) extending laterally from the base of the chamber affords delayed travel time in a high temperature refractory environment sufficient to assure substantially complete combustion of the gaseous products of wood burning with forced air prior to extraction of heat in heat exchanger (16). Induced draft draws the fuel gas and air mixture laterally through the combustion chamber and refractory high temperature zone to the heat exchanger and flue. Also included are active sources of forced air and induced draft, multiple circuit couplings for the recovered heat, and construction features in the refractory material substructure and metal component superstructure.

  17. Vertical distribution of structural components in corn stover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jane M. F. Johnson; Douglas L. Karlen; Garold L. Gresham; Keri B. Cantrell; David W. Archer; Brian J. Wienhold; Gary E. Varvel; David A. Laird; John Baker; Tyson E. Ochsner; Jeff M. Novak; Ardell D. Halvorson; Francisco Arriaga; David T. Lightle; Amber Hoover; Rachel Emerson; Nancy W. Barbour

    2014-11-01

    In the United States, corn (Zea mays L.) stover has been targeted for second generation fuel production and other bio-products. Our objective was to characterize sugar and structural composition as a function of vertical distribution of corn stover (leaves and stalk) that was sampled at physiological maturity and about three weeks later from multiple USA locations. A small subset of samples was assessed for thermochemical composition. Concentrations of lignin, glucan, and xylan were about 10% greater at grain harvest than at physiological maturity, but harvestable biomass was about 25% less due to stalk breakage. Gross heating density above the ear averaged 16.3 0.40 MJ kg?, but with an alkalinity measure of 0.83 g MJ?, slagging is likely to occur during gasification. Assuming a stover harvest height of 10 cm, the estimated ethanol yield would be >2500 L ha?, but it would be only 1000 L ha? if stover harvest was restricted to the material from above the primary ear. Vertical composition of corn stover is relatively uniform; thus, decision on cutting height may be driven by agronomic, economic and environmental considerations.

  18. Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofiber Based Biosensor Platform for Glucose Sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mamun, Khandaker Abdullah Al; Tulip, Fahmida S; Macarthur, Kimberly C; McFarlane, Nicole M; Islam, Syed K

    2014-01-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) have recently become an important tool for biosensor design. Carbon nanofibers (CNF) have excellent conductive and structural properties with many irregularities and defect sites in addition to exposed carboxyl groups throughout their surfaces. These properties allow a better immobilization matrix compared to carbon nanotubes and offer better resolution when compared with the FET-based biosensors. VACNFs can be deterministically grown on silicon substrates allowing optimization of the structures for various biosensor applications. Two VACNF electrode architectures have been employed in this study and a comparison of their performances has been made in terms of sensitivity, sensing limitations, dynamic range, and response time. The usage of VACNF platform as a glucose sensor has been verified in this study by selecting an optimum architecture based on the VACNF forest density. Read More: http://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/10.1142/S0129156414500062

  19. Test reports for K Basins vertical fuel handling tools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meling, T.A.

    1995-02-01

    The vertical fuel handling tools, for moving N Reactor fuel elements, were tested in the 305 Building Cold Test Facility (CTF) in the 300 Area. After fabrication was complete, the tools were functionally tested in the CTF using simulated N Reactor fuel rods (inner and outer elements). The tools were successful in picking up the simulated N Reactor fuel rods. These tools were also load tested using a 62 pound dummy to test the structural integrity of each assembly. The tools passed each of these tests, based on the performance objectives. Finally, the tools were subjected to an operations acceptance test where K Basins Operations personnel operated the tool to determine its durability and usefulness. Operations personnel were satisfied with the tools. Identified open items included the absence of a float during testing, and documentation required prior to actual use of the tools in the 100 K fuel storage basin.

  20. 3-D laser patterning process utilizing horizontal and vertical patterning

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Malba, Vincent (Livermore, CA); Bernhardt, Anthony F. (Berkeley, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A process which vastly improves the 3-D patterning capability of laser pantography (computer controlled laser direct-write patterning). The process uses commercially available electrodeposited photoresist (EDPR) to pattern 3-D surfaces. The EDPR covers the surface of a metal layer conformally, coating the vertical as well as horizontal surfaces. A laser pantograph then patterns the EDPR, which is subsequently developed in a standard, commercially available developer, leaving patterned trench areas in the EDPR. The metal layer thereunder is now exposed in the trench areas and masked in others, and thereafter can be etched to form the desired pattern (subtractive process), or can be plated with metal (additive process), followed by a resist stripping, and removal of the remaining field metal (additive process). This improved laser pantograph process is simpler, faster, move manufacturable, and requires no micro-machining.

  1. Vertical air motions over the Tropical Western Pacific for validating cloud resolving and regional models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Christopher R.

    2015-03-16

    The objective of this project was to estimate the vertical air motion using Doppler velocity spectra from two side-by-side vertically pointing radars. The retrieval technique was applied to two different sets of radars. This first set was 50- and 920-MHz vertically pointing radars near Darwin, Australia. The second set was 449-MHz and 2.8-GHz vertically pointing radars deployed at SGP for MC3E. The retrieval technique uses the longer wavelength radar (50 or 449 MHz) to observe both the vertical air motion and precipitation motion while the shorter wavelength radar (920 MHz or 2.8 GHz) observes just the precipitation motion. By analyzing their Doppler velocity spectra, the precipitation signal in the 920 MHz or 2.8 GHz radar is used to mask-out the precipitation signal in the 50 or 449 MHz radar spectra, leaving just the vertical air motion signal.

  2. Integration of photoactive and electroactive components with vertical cavity surface emitting lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bryan, Robert P. (12700 Indian School Rd. NE., Apt. 604, Albuquerque, NM 87112); Esherick, Peter (1105 Sagebrush Trail SE., Albuquerque, NM 87123); Jewell, Jack L. (12 Timberline Dr., Bridgewater, NJ 08807); Lear, Kevin L. (13713 Vic Rd. NE., Albuquerque, NM 87112); Olbright, Gregory R. (3875 Orange Ct., Boulder, CO 80304)

    1997-01-01

    A monolithically integrated optoelectronic device is provided which integrates a vertical cavity surface emitting laser and either a photosensitive or an electrosensitive device either as input or output to the vertical cavity surface emitting laser either in parallel or series connection. Both vertical and side-by-side arrangements are disclosed, and optical and electronic feedback means are provided. Arrays of these devices can be configured to enable optical computing and neural network applications.

  3. Integration of photoactive and electroactive components with vertical cavity surface emitting lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bryan, R.P.; Esherick, P.; Jewell, J.L.; Lear, K.L.; Olbright, G.R.

    1997-04-29

    A monolithically integrated optoelectronic device is provided which integrates a vertical cavity surface emitting laser and either a photosensitive or an electrosensitive device either as input or output to the vertical cavity surface emitting laser either in parallel or series connection. Both vertical and side-by-side arrangements are disclosed, and optical and electronic feedback means are provided. Arrays of these devices can be configured to enable optical computing and neural network applications. 9 figs.

  4. The impact of vertical shear on the sensitivity of tropical cyclogenes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The impact of vertical shear on the sensitivity of tropical cyclogenesis to environmental rotation and thermodynamic state: TROPICAL CYCLOGENESIS AND SHEAR Citation Details ...

  5. ARM - PI Product - Cloud-Scale Vertical Velocity and Turbulent Dissipation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rate Retrievals ProductsCloud-Scale Vertical Velocity and Turbulent Dissipation Rate Retrievals ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : Cloud-Scale Vertical Velocity and Turbulent Dissipation Rate Retrievals Time-height fields of retrieved in-cloud vertical wind velocity and turbulent dissipation rate, both retrieved primarily from vertically-pointing, Ka-band cloud radar measurements. Files

  6. Kink modes and surface currents associated with vertical displacement events

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manickam, Janardhan; Boozer, Allen; Gerhardt, Stefan

    2012-08-15

    The fast termination phase of a vertical displacement event (VDE) in a tokamak is modeled as a sequence of shrinking equilibria, where the core current profile remains constant so that the safety-factor at the axis, q{sub axis}, remains fixed and the q{sub edge} systematically decreases. At some point, the n = 1 kink mode is destabilized. Kink modes distort the magnetic field lines outside the plasma, and surface currents are required to nullify the normal component of the B-field at the plasma boundary and maintain equilibrium at finite pressure. If the plasma touches a conductor, the current can be transferred to the conductor, and may be measurable by the halo current monitors. This report describes a practical method to model the plasma as it evolves during a VDE, and determine the surface currents, needed to maintain equilibrium. The main results are that the onset conditions for the disruption are that the growth-rate of the n = 1 kink exceeds half the Alfven time and the associated surface current needed to maintain equilibrium exceeds one half of the core plasma current. This occurs when q{sub edge} drops below a low integer, usually 2. Application to NSTX provides favorable comparison with non-axisymmetric halo-current measurements. The model is also applied to ITER and shows that the 2/1 mode is projected to be the most likely cause of the final disruption.

  7. Prefabricated vertical drains flow resistance under vacuum conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quaranta, J.D.; Gabr, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    The results of experimental research are presented and discussed with focus on the internal well resistance of prefabricated vertical drains (PVD) under vacuum-induced water flow. Measured results included fluid flow rates for two different cross-sectional hydraulic profiles (Types 1 and 2 PVDs). Experimental results indicated linear relationship, independent of the PVD widths, between extracted fluid velocity and the applied hydraulic gradient. Data showed a laminar flow regime to predominate for test velocities corresponding to hydraulic gradients {lt}0.5. The larger nominal hydraulic radius of the Type 2 PVD is credited with providing a flow rate equal to approximately 3.2 times that of the Type 1 PVD at approximately the same operating total head. There was no apparent dependency of the transmissivity {theta} on the width or lengths (3, 4, and 5 m) of the PVDs tested. In the case of the 100-mm-wide Type 1 PVD, {theta} = 618 mm{sup 2}/s was estimated from the measured data versus {theta} = 1,996 mm{sup 2}/s for Type 2 PVD with the same dimensions.

  8. Visible light emitting vertical cavity surface emitting lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bryan, Robert P. (Boulder, CO); Olbright, Gregory R. (Boulder, CO); Lott, James A. (Albuquerque, NM); Schneider, Jr., Richard P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01

    A vertical cavity surface emitting laser that emits visible radiation is built upon a substrate, then having mirrors, the first mirror on top of the substrate; both sets of mirrors being a distributed Bragg reflector of either dielectrics or other materials which affect the resistivity or of semiconductors, such that the structure within the mirror comprises a plurality of sets, each having a thickness of .lambda./2n where n is the index of refraction of each of the sets; each of the mirrors adjacent to spacers which are on either side of an optically active bulk or quantum well layer; and the spacers and the optically active layer are from one of the following material systems: In.sub.z (Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y).sub.1-z P, InAlGaAs, AlGaAs, InGaAs, or AlGaP/GaP, wherein the optically active region having a length equal to m .lambda./2n.sub.eff where m is an integer and n.sub.eff is the effective index of refraction of the laser cavity, and the spacer layer and one of the mirrors being transmissive to radiation having a wavelength of .lambda./n, typically within the green to red portion of the visible spectrum.

  9. Visible light emitting vertical cavity surface emitting lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bryan, R.P.; Olbright, G.R.; Lott, J.A.; Schneider, R.P. Jr.

    1995-06-27

    A vertical cavity surface emitting laser that emits visible radiation is built upon a substrate, then having mirrors, the first mirror on top of the substrate; both sets of mirrors being a distributed Bragg reflector of either dielectrics or other materials which affect the resistivity or of semiconductors, such that the structure within the mirror comprises a plurality of sets, each having a thickness of {lambda}/2n where n is the index of refraction of each of the sets; each of the mirrors adjacent to spacers which are on either side of an optically active bulk or quantum well layer; and the spacers and the optically active layer are from one of the following material systems: In{sub z}(Al{sub y}Ga{sub 1{minus}y}){sub 1{minus}z}P, InAlGaAs, AlGaAs, InGaAs, or AlGaP/GaP, wherein the optically active region having a length equal to m {lambda}/2n{sub eff} where m is an integer and n{sub eff} is the effective index of refraction of the laser cavity, and the spacer layer and one of the mirrors being transmissive to radiation having a wavelength of {lambda}/n, typically within the green to red portion of the visible spectrum. 10 figs.

  10. 24-CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erik C. Westman

    2003-10-24

    Improved ground-imaging capabilities have enormous potential to increase energy, environmental, and economic benefits by improving exploration accuracy and reducing energy consumption during the mining cycle. Seismic tomography has been used successfully to monitor and evaluate geologic conditions ahead of a mining face. A primary limitation to existing seismic tomography, however, is the placement of sensors. The goal of this project is to develop an array of 24 seismic sensors capable of being mounted in either a vertical or horizontal borehole. Development of this technology reduces energy usage in excavation, transportation, ventilation, and processing phases of the mining operation because less waste is mined and the mining cycle suffers fewer interruptions. This new technology benefits all types of mines, including metal/nonmetal, coal, and quarrying. The primary research tasks focused on sensor placement method, sensor housing and clamping design, and cabling and connector selection. An initial design is described in the report. Following assembly, a prototype was tested in the laboratory as well as at a surface stone quarry. Data analysis and tool performance were used for subsequent design modifications. A final design is described, of which several components are available for patent application. Industry partners have shown clear support for this research and demonstrated an interest in commercialization following project completion.

  11. Rivulet Flow In Vertical Parallel-Wall Channel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. M. McEligot; G. E. Mc Creery; P. Meakin

    2006-04-01

    In comparison with studies of rivulet flow over external surfaces, rivulet flow confined by two surfaces has received almost no attention. Fully-developed rivulet flow in vertical parallel-wall channels was characterized, both experimentally and analytically for flows intermediate between a lower flow limit of drop flow and an upper limit where the rivulets meander. Although this regime is the most simple rivulet flow regime, it does not appear to have been previously investigated in detail. Experiments were performed that measured rivulet widths for aperture spacing ranging from 0.152 mm to 0.914 mm. The results were compared with a simple steadystate analytical model for laminar flow. The model divides the rivulet cross-section into an inner region, which is dominated by viscous and gravitational forces and where essentially all flow is assumed to occur, and an outer region, dominated by capillary forces, where the geometry is determined by the contact angle between the fluid and the wall. Calculations using the model provided excellent agreement with data for inner rivulet widths and good agreement with measurements of outer rivulet widths.

  12. Droplet sizes, dynamics and deposition in vertical annular flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopes, J C.B.; Dukler, A E

    1985-10-01

    The role of droplets in vertical upwards annular flow is investigated, focusing on the droplet size distributions, dynamics, and deposition phenomena. An experimental program was performed based on a new laser optical technique developed in these laboratories and implemented here for annular flow. This permitted the simultaneous measurement of droplet size, axial and radial velocity. The dependence of droplet size distributions on flow conditions is analyzed. The Upper-Log Normal function proves to be a good model for the size distribution. The mechanism controlling the maximum stable drop size was found to result from the interaction of the pressure fluctuations of the turbulent flow of the gas core with the droplet. The average axial droplet velocity showed a weak dependence on gas rates. This can be explained once the droplet size distribution and droplet size-velocity relationship are analyzed simultaneously. The surprising result from the droplet conditional analysis is that larger droplet travel faster than smaller ones. This dependence cannot be explained if the drag curves used do not take into account the high levels of turbulence present in the gas core in annular flow. If these are considered, then interesting new situations of multiplicity and stability of droplet terminal velocities are encountered. Also, the observed size-velocity relationship can be explained. A droplet deposition is formulated based on the particle inertia control. This permitted the calculation of rates of drop deposition directly from the droplet size and velocities data.

  13. Integration of a waveguide self-electrooptic effect device and a vertically coupled interconnect waveguide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vawter, G. Allen (Corrales, NM)

    2008-02-26

    A self-electrooptic effect device ("SEED") is integrated with waveguide interconnects through the use of vertical directional couplers. Light initially propagating in the interconnect waveguide is vertically coupled to the active waveguide layer of the SEED and, if the SEED is in the transparent state, the light is coupled back to the interconnect waveguide.

  14. Design and Analysis of the ITER Vertical Stability Coils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter H. Titus, et. al.

    2012-09-06

    The ITER vertical stability (VS) coils have been developed through the preliminary design phase by Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). Final design, prototyping and construction will be carried out by the Chinese Participant Team contributing lab, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ASIPP). The VS coils are a part of the in-vessel coil systems which include edge localized mode (ELM) coils as well as the VS coils. An overview of the ELM coils is provided in another paper at this conference. 15 The VS design employs four turns of stainless steel jacketed mineral insulated copper (SSMIC) conductors The mineral insulation is Magnesium Oxide (MgO). Joule and nuclear heat is removed by water flowing at 3 m/s through the hollow copper conductor. A key element in the design is that slightly elevated temperatures in the conductor and its support spine during operation impose compressive stresses that mitigate fatigue damage. Away from joints, and break-outs, conductor thermal stresses are low because of the axisymmetry of the winding (there are no corner bends as in the ELM coils).The 120 degree segment joint, and break-out or terminal regions are designed with similar but imperfect constraint compared with the ring coil portion of the VS. The support for the break-out region is made from a high strength copper alloy, CuCrZr. This is needed to conduct nuclear heat to the actively cooled conductor and to the vessel wall. The support "spine" for the ring coil portion of the VS is 316 stainless steel, held to the vessel with preloaded 718 bolts. Lorentz loads resulting from normal operating loads, disruption loads and loads from disruption currents in the support spine shared with vessel, are applied to the VS coil. The transmission of the Lorentz and thermal expansion loads from the "spine" to the vessel rails is via friction augmented with a restraining "lip" to ensure the coil frictional slip is minimal and acceptable. Stresses in the coil, joints, and break-outs are presented. These are compared with static and fatigue allowables. Design for fatigue is much less demanding than for the ELM coils. A total of 30,000 cycles is required for VS design. Loads on the vessel due to the thermal expansion of the coil and spine are significant. Efforts to reduce these by reducing the cross section of the spine have been made but the vessel still must support loads resulting from restraint of thermal expansion.

  15. Vertically-tapered optical waveguide and optical spot transformer formed therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bakke, Thor; Sullivan, Charles T.

    2004-07-27

    An optical waveguide is disclosed in which a section of the waveguide core is vertically tapered during formation by spin coating by controlling the width of an underlying mesa structure. The optical waveguide can be formed from spin-coatable materials such as polymers, sol-gels and spin-on glasses. The vertically-tapered waveguide section can be used to provide a vertical expansion of an optical mode of light within the optical waveguide. A laterally-tapered section can be added adjacent to the vertically-tapered section to provide for a lateral expansion of the optical mode, thereby forming an optical spot-size transformer for efficient coupling of light between the optical waveguide and a single-mode optical fiber. Such a spot-size transformer can also be added to a III-V semiconductor device by post processing.

  16. Sandia Energy - Sandia and Partners Complete Phase I of a Vertical...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Texas A&M University have completed the first phase of a project to explore the feasibility of large-scale vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs) for deep-water offshore...

  17. Category:Geodetic Survey | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Feedback Contact needs updating Image needs updating Reference needed Missing content Broken link Other Additional Comments Cancel Submit Categories: Geothermal Passive Sensors...

  18. Development of bottom-emitting 1300 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    lasers. (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Development of bottom-emitting 1300 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Development of bottom-emitting 1300 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers. No abstract prepared. Authors: Fish, M. A. [1] ; Serkland, Darwin Keith ; Guilfoyle, Peter S. [1] ; Stone, Richard V. [1] ; Klem, John Frederick ; Louderback, Duane A. [1] ; Choquette, Kent D. [2] ; Pickrell, G. W. [1] + Show Author

  19. "Covalent functionalization and electron-transfer properties of vertically

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    aligned carbon nanofibers: The importance of edge-plane sites" (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect "Covalent functionalization and electron-transfer properties of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers: The importance of edge-plane sites" Citation Details In-Document Search Title: "Covalent functionalization and electron-transfer properties of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers: The importance of edge-plane sites" The use of covalently bonded molecular layers

  20. Design and analysis of a vertical axis ocean current power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard, C.C.; Hartzog, J.R.; Sorge, R.V.; Quigley, J.V.; Adams, G.R.

    1981-01-01

    This paper discusses a calculation of the power generated by a vertical axis ocean current power plant. An analytical model is presented and a computer solution described. Results of the calculation show the optimum angles of the blades about the vertical axis to maximize power output, as well as the total extractable power of the plant for various ocean current velocities. Tow tank tests are described for a scale model of the plant.

  1. Three-dimensional Numerical Analysis on Blade Response of Vertical Axis

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Tidal Current Turbine Under Operational Condition (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Three-dimensional Numerical Analysis on Blade Response of Vertical Axis Tidal Current Turbine Under Operational Condition Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Three-dimensional Numerical Analysis on Blade Response of Vertical Axis Tidal Current Turbine Under Operational Condition Tidal power as a large-scale renewable source of energy has been receiving significant attention recently because of its

  2. Electric characteristics of germanium Vertical Multijunction (VMJ) photovoltaic cells under high intensity illumination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unishkov, V.A.

    1997-03-01

    This paper presents the results of the performance evaluation of Vertical Multijunction (VMJ) germanium (Ge) photovoltaic (PV) cells. Vertical Multijunction Germanium Photovoltaic cells offer several advantages for Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) applications such as high intensity light conversion, low series resistance, more efficient coupling to lower temperature sources, high output voltage, simplified heat rejection system as well as potentially simple fabrication technology and low cost photovoltaic converter device. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Method and apparatus for determining vertical heat flux of geothermal field

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poppendiek, Heinz F. (LaJolla, CA)

    1982-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining vertical heat flux of a geothermal field, and mapping the entire field, is based upon an elongated heat-flux transducer (10) comprised of a length of tubing (12) of relatively low thermal conductivity with a thermopile (20) inside for measuring the thermal gradient between the ends of the transducer after it has been positioned in a borehole for a period sufficient for the tube to reach thermal equilibrium. The transducer is thermally coupled to the surrounding earth by a fluid annulus, preferably water or mud. A second transducer comprised of a length of tubing of relatively high thermal conductivity is used for a second thermal gradient measurement. The ratio of the first measurement to the second is then used to determine the earth's thermal conductivity, k.sub..infin., from a precalculated graph, and using the value of thermal conductivity thus determined, then determining the vertical earth temperature gradient, b, from predetermined steady state heat balance equations which relate the undisturbed vertical earth temperature distributions at some distance from the borehole and earth thermal conductivity to the temperature gradients in the transducers and their thermal conductivity. The product of the earth's thermal conductivity, k.sub..infin., and the earth's undisturbed vertical temperature gradient, b, then determines the earth's vertical heat flux. The process can be repeated many times for boreholes of a geothermal field to map vertical heat flux.

  4. Pore-fluid effects on seismic waves in vertically fractured earth with orthotropic symmetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berryman, J.G.

    2010-05-15

    For elastically noninteracting vertical-fracture sets at arbitrary orientation angles to each other, a detailed model is presented in which the resulting anisotropic fractured medium generally has orthorhombic symmetry overall. Some of the analysis methods and ideas of Schoenberg are emphasized, together with their connections to other similarly motivated and conceptually related methods by Sayers and Kachanov, among others. Examples show how parallel vertical-fracture sets having HTI (horizontal transversely isotropic) symmetry transform into orthotropic fractured media if some subsets of the vertical fractures are misaligned with the others, and then the fractured system can have VTI (vertical transversely isotropic) symmetry if all of the fractures are aligned randomly or half parallel and half perpendicular to a given vertical plane. An orthotropic example having vertical fractures in an otherwise VTI earth system (studied previously by Schoenberg and Helbig) is compared with the other examples treated and it is finally shown how fluids in the fractures affect the orthotropic poroelastic system response to seismic waves. The key result is that fracture-influence parameters are multiplied by a factor of (1-B), where 0 {le} B < 1 is Skempton's second coefficient for poroelastic media. Skempton's B coefficient is itself a measurable characteristic of fluid-saturated porous rocks, depending on porosity, solid moduli, and the pore-fluid bulk modulus. For heterogeneous porous media, connections between the present work and earlier related results of Brown and Korringa are also established.

  5. Vertical group III-V nanowires on si, heterostructures, flexible arrays and fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Deli; Soci, Cesare; Bao, Xinyu; Wei, Wei; Jing, Yi; Sun, Ke

    2015-01-13

    Embodiments of the invention provide a method for direct heteroepitaxial growth of vertical III-V semiconductor nanowires on a silicon substrate. The silicon substrate is etched to substantially completely remove native oxide. It is promptly placed in a reaction chamber. The substrate is heated and maintained at a growth temperature. Group III-V precursors are flowed for a growth time. Preferred embodiment vertical Group III-V nanowires on silicon have a core-shell structure, which provides a radial homojunction or heterojunction. A doped nanowire core is surrounded by a shell with complementary doping. Such can provide high optical absorption due to the long optical path in the axial direction of the vertical nanowires, while reducing considerably the distance over which carriers must diffuse before being collected in the radial direction. Alloy composition can also be varied. Radial and axial homojunctions and heterojunctions can be realized. Embodiments provide for flexible Group III-V nanowire structures. An array of Group III-V nanowire structures is embedded in polymer. A fabrication method forms the vertical nanowires on a substrate, e.g., a silicon substrate. Preferably, the nanowires are formed by the preferred methods for fabrication of Group III-V nanowires on silicon. Devices can be formed with core/shell and core/multi-shell nanowires and the devices are released from the substrate upon which the nanowires were formed to create a flexible structure that includes an array of vertical nanowires embedded in polymer.

  6. Large-scale fabrication of vertically aligned ZnO nanowire arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong Lin; Hu, Youfan; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Chen; Zhu, Guang

    2014-09-09

    A generator includes a substrate, a first electrode layer, a dense plurality of vertically-aligned piezoelectric elongated nanostructures, an insulating layer and a second electrode layer. The substrate has a top surface and the first electrode layer is disposed on the top surface of the substrate. The dense plurality of vertically-aligned piezoelectric elongated nanostructures extends from the first electrode layer. Each of the nanostructures has a top end. The insulating layer is disposed on the top ends of the nanostructures. The second electrode layer is disposed on the non-conductive layer and is spaced apart from the nanostructures.

  7. Vertical dispersion methods in x-ray spectroscopy of high temperature plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renner, O.; Missalla, T.; Foerster, E.

    1995-12-31

    General formulae for the applying the vertical dispersion principle in x-ray spectroscopy of multiple charged ions are summarized, the characteristics of the experimental schemes based on flat and bent crystals are discussed. The unique properties of the novel spectroscopic methods, i.e., their extremely high dispersion, high spectral and 1-D spatial resolution and good collection efficiency, make them very attractive for ultrahigh-resolution spectroscopy. The examples of successful use of the vertical dispersion modifications of the double-crystal and the Johann spectrometer in diagnostics of several types of laser-generated plasma are presented.

  8. Biases of CO2 Storage in Eddy Flux Measurements pertinent to Vertical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Configurations of a Profile System and CO2 Density Averaging (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Biases of CO2 Storage in Eddy Flux Measurements pertinent to Vertical Configurations of a Profile System and CO2 Density Averaging Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Biases of CO2 Storage in Eddy Flux Measurements pertinent to Vertical Configurations of a Profile System and CO2 Density Averaging CO2 storage in a 30-minute period in a tall forest canopy often makes significant

  9. Compact fluorescent lamp using horizontal and vertical insulating septums and convective venting geometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siminovitch, Michael (El Sobrante, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A novel design for a compact fluorescent lamp, including a lamp geometry which will increase light output and efficacy of the lamp in a base down operating position by providing horizontal and vertical insulating septums positioned in the ballast compartment of the lamp to provide a cooler coldspot. Selective convective venting provides additional cooling of the ballast compartment.

  10. Compact fluorescent lamp using horizontal and vertical insulating septums and convective venting geometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siminovitch, M.

    1998-02-10

    A novel design is described for a compact fluorescent lamp, including a lamp geometry which will increase light output and efficacy of the lamp in a base down operating position by providing horizontal and vertical insulating septums positioned in the ballast compartment of the lamp to provide a cooler coldspot. Selective convective venting provides additional cooling of the ballast compartment. 9 figs.

  11. CVD growth of graphene under exfoliated hexagonal boron nitride for vertical hybrid structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Min; Jang, Sung Kyu; Song, Young Jae; Lee, Sungjoo

    2015-01-15

    Graphical abstract: We have demonstrated a novel yet simple method for fabricating graphene-based vertical hybrid structures by performing the CVD growth of graphene at an h-BN/Cu interface. Our systematic Raman measurements combined with plasma etching process indicate that a graphene film is grown under exfoliated h-BN rather than on its top surface, and that an h-BN/graphene vertical hybrid structure has been fabricated. Electrical transport measurements of this h-BN/graphene, transferred on SiO2, show the carrier mobility up to approximately 2250 cm{sup 2} V{sup ?1} s{sup ?1}. The developed method would enable the exploration of the possibility of novel hybrid structure integration with two-dimensional material systems. - Abstract: We have demonstrated a novel yet simple method for fabricating graphene-based vertical hybrid structures by performing the CVD growth of graphene at an h-BN/Cu interface. Our systematic Raman measurements combined with plasma etching process indicate that a graphene film is grown under exfoliated h-BN rather than on its top surface, and that an h-BN/graphene vertical hybrid structure has been fabricated. Electrical transport measurements of this h-BN/graphene, transferred on SiO{sub 2}, show the carrier mobility up to approximately 2250 cm{sup 2} V{sup ?1} s{sup ?1}. The developed method would enable the exploration of the possibility of novel hybrid structure integration with two-dimensional material systems.

  12. Method to estimate the vertical dispersion parameter in a 10 Km range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiaoen, L.; Xinyuan, J.; Jinte, Y.

    1983-12-01

    Based on the Monin-Batchelor Similarity Theory and the concept of effective roughness length, this paper presented an empirical vertical dispersion model in a 10 kilometer range. It could be used under a flat and homogeneous, as well as complex, topographical condition.

  13. Coupled-resonator vertical-cavity lasers with two active gain regions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Arthur J.; Choquette, Kent D.; Chow, Weng W.

    2003-05-20

    A new class of coupled-resonator vertical-cavity semiconductor lasers has been developed. These lasers have multiple resonant cavities containing regions of active laser media, resulting in a multi-terminal laser component with a wide range of novel properties.

  14. Production of vertical arrays of small diameter single-walled carbon nanotubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hauge, Robert H; Xu, Ya-Qiong

    2013-08-13

    A hot filament chemical vapor deposition method has been developed to grow at least one vertical single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT). In general, various embodiments of the present invention disclose novel processes for growing and/or producing enhanced nanotube carpets with decreased diameters as compared to the prior art.

  15. Cryogenic system for the Energy Recovery Linac and vertical test facility at BNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Than, R.; Soria, V.; Lederle, D.; Orfin, P.; Porqueddu, R.; Talty, P.; Zhang, Y.; Tallerico, T.; Masi, L.

    2011-03-28

    A small cryogenic system and warm helium vacuum pumping system provides cooling to either the Energy Recovery Linac's (ERL) cryomodules that consist of a 5-cell cavity and an SRF gun or a large Vertical Test Dewar (VTD) at any given time. The cryogenic system consists of a model 1660S PSI piston plant, a 3800 liter storage dewar, subcooler, a wet expander, a 50 g/s main helium compressor, and a 170 m{sup 3} storage tank. A system description and operating plan of the cryogenic plant and cryomodules is given. The cryogenic system for ERL and the Vertical Test Dewar has a plant that can produce the equivalent of 300W at 4.5K with the addition of a wet expander 350 W at 4.5K. Along with this system, a sub-atmospheric, warm compression system provides pumping to produce 2K at the ERL cryomodules or the Vertical Test Dewar. The cryogenic system for ERL and the Vertical Test Dewar makes use of existing equipment for putting a system together. It can supply either the ERL side or the Vertical Test Dewar side, but not both at the same time. Double valve isolation on the liquid helium supply line allows one side to be warmed to room temperature and worked on while the other side is being held at operating temperature. The cryogenic system maintain the end loads from 4.4K to 2K or colder depending on capacity. Liquid helium storage dewar capacity allows ERL or the VTD to operate above the plant's capacity when required and ERL cryomodules ballast reservoirs and VTD reservoir allows the end loads to operate on full vacuum pump capacity when required.

  16. Report (Vertical)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    death. It is the responsibility of each Eligible Survivor (or the Eligible Survivor's guardian) to keep the LANL Benefits Office advised of any change of address and to...

  17. Report (Vertical)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    LANS 401(k) Savings Plan Summary Plan Description December 1, 2009 This Summary Plan Description (SPD) is intended to provide a summary of the principal features of the LANS 401(k) Savings Plan ("Plan") and is not meant to interpret, extend or change the Plan in any way. This SPD will continue to be updated. Please check back on a regular basis for the most recent version and check with the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Benefits Office for any changes to the Plan that may not

  18. Report (Vertical)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    LANS HR-Benefits Group September 1, 2012 918425-3 LANS 401(k) Retirement Plan Summary Plan Description This Summary Plan Description (SPD) is intended to provide a summary of the principal features of the LANS 401(k) Retirement Plan ("Plan") and is not meant to interpret, extend or change the Plan in any way. This SPD will continue to be updated. Please check back on a regular basis for the most recent version and check with the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Benefits Office for

  19. THE VERTICAL COMPOSITION OF NEUTRINO-DOMINATED ACCRETION DISKS IN GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Tong; Xue, Li; Gu, Wei-Min; Lu, Ju-Fu, E-mail: tongliu@xmu.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)] [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)

    2013-01-10

    We investigate the vertical structure and element distribution of neutrino-dominated accretion flows around black holes in spherical coordinates using the reasonable nuclear statistical equilibrium. According to our calculations, heavy nuclei tend to be produced in a thin region near the disk surface, whose mass fractions are primarily determined by the accretion rate and vertical distribution of temperature and density. In this thin region, we find that {sup 56}Ni is dominant for the flow with a low accretion rate (e.g., 0.05 M {sub Sun} s{sup -1}), but {sup 56}Fe is dominant for the flow with a high accretion rate (e.g., 1 M {sub Sun} s{sup -1}). The dominant {sup 56}Ni in the aforementioned region may provide a clue to understanding the bumps in the optical light curve of core-collapse supernovae.

  20. First measurements of Hiro currents in vertical displacement event in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiong, Hao; Xu, Guosheng; Wang, Huiqian; Zakharov, Leonid E.; Li, Xujing

    2015-06-15

    Specially designed tiles were setup in the 2012 campaign of the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST), to directly measure the toroidal surface currents during the disruptions. Hiro currents with direction opposite to the plasma currents have been observed, confirming the sign prediction by the Wall Touching Vertical Mode (WTVM) theory and numerical simulations. During the initial phase of the disruption, when the plasma begins to touch the wall, the surface currents can be excited by WTVM along the plasma facing tile surface, varying with the mode magnitude. The currents are not observed in the cases when the plasma moves away from the tile surface. This discovery addresses the importance of the plasma motion into the wall in vertical disruptions. WTVM, acting as a current generator, forces the Hiro currents to flow through the gaps between tiles. This effect, being overlooked so far in disruption analysis, may damage the edges of the tiles and is important for the ITER device.

  1. Performance and breakdown characteristics of irradiated vertical power GaN P-i-N diodes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    King, M. P.; Armstrong, A. M.; Dickerson, J. R.; Vizkelethy, G.; Fleming, R. M.; Campbell, J.; Wampler, W. R.; Kizilyalli, I. C.; Bour, D. P.; Aktas, O.; et al

    2015-10-29

    Electrical performance and defect characterization of vertical GaN P-i-N diodes before and after irradiation with 2.5 MeV protons and neutrons is investigated. Devices exhibit increase in specific on-resistance following irradiation with protons and neutrons, indicating displacement damage introduces defects into the p-GaN and n- drift regions of the device that impact on-state device performance. The breakdown voltage of these devices, initially above 1700 V, is observed to decrease only slightly for particle fluence <; 1013 cm-2. Furthermore, the unipolar figure of merit for power devices indicates that while the on-resistance and breakdown voltage degrade with irradiation, vertical GaN P-i-Ns remainmore » superior to the performance of the best available, unirradiated silicon devices and on-par with unirradiated modern SiC-based power devices.« less

  2. Characterization of vertical strain silicon MOSFET incorporating dielectric pocket (SDP-VMOSFET)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Napiah, Z. A. F. M. E-mail: nazirah6969@gmail.com E-mail: idzdihar@utem.edu.my E-mail: yashidar@yahoo.com Makhtar, N. E-mail: nazirah6969@gmail.com E-mail: idzdihar@utem.edu.my E-mail: yashidar@yahoo.com Othman, M. A. E-mail: nazirah6969@gmail.com E-mail: idzdihar@utem.edu.my E-mail: yashidar@yahoo.com Idris, M. I. E-mail: nazirah6969@gmail.com E-mail: idzdihar@utem.edu.my E-mail: yashidar@yahoo.com Arith, F. E-mail: nazirah6969@gmail.com E-mail: idzdihar@utem.edu.my E-mail: yashidar@yahoo.com Yasin, N. Y. M. E-mail: nazirah6969@gmail.com E-mail: idzdihar@utem.edu.my E-mail: yashidar@yahoo.com Taib, S. N. E-mail: nazirah6969@gmail.com E-mail: idzdihar@utem.edu.my E-mail: yashidar@yahoo.com

    2014-02-24

    The vertical Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect-Transistor (MOSFET) leads to a double channel width that can increase the packaging density. The strained silicon MOSFET was introduced to modify the carrier transport properties of silicon in order to enhance transport of both electrons and holes within strained layer. Dielectric pocket was act to control encroachment of the drain doping into the channel and reduce short channel effects (SCE). SDP-VMOSFET which was a combination of those advantages was proposed to overcome the SCE in term of leakage current, threshold voltage roll-off also Drain Induce Barrier Lowering (DIBL). As a result, SDP-VMOSFET produces a better threshold voltage and DIBL compared to related structures. Meanwhile, it gives slightly increased for leakage current compared to Vertical MOSFET Incorporating Dielectric Pocket. The characteristics of the SDP-VMOSFET are analyzed in order to optimize the performance of the device and leading to the next generation of IC technology.

  3. Metrology for x-ray telescope mirrors in a vertical configuration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Haizhang; Li, Xiaodan; Grindel, M.W.

    1995-09-01

    Mirrors used in x-ray telescope systems for observations outside of the earth`s atmosphere are usually made of several thin nested shells, each formed by a pair of paraboloidal and hyperboloidal surfaces. The thin shells are very susceptible to self-weight deflection caused by gravity and are nearly impossible to test by conventional interferometric techniques. The metrology requirements for these mirrors are extremely challenging. This paper presents a prototype of a Vertical Scanning Long Trace Profiler (VSLTP) which is optimized to measure the surface figure of x-ray telescope mirrors in a vertical orientation. The optical system of the VSLTP is described. Experimental results from measurements on an x-ray telescope mandrel and tests of the accuracy and repeatability of the prototype VSLTP are presented. The prototype instrument has achieved a height measurement accuracy of about 50 nanometers with a repeatability of better than 20 nanometers, and a slope measurement accuracy of about 1 microradian.

  4. In situ oil shale retort with a generally T-shaped vertical cross section

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ricketts, Thomas E. (Grand Junction, CO)

    1981-01-01

    An in situ oil shale retort is formed in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. The retort contains a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale and has a production level drift in communication with a lower portion of the fragmented mass for withdrawing liquid and gaseous products of retorting during retorting of oil shale in the fragmented mass. The principal portion of the fragmented mass is spaced vertically above a lower production level portion having a generally T-shaped vertical cross section. The lower portion of the fragmented mass has a horizontal cross sectional area smaller than the horizontal cross sectional area of the upper principal portion of the fragmented mass above the production level.

  5. Structure and Characterization of Vertically Aligned Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Bundles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Márquez, Francisco; López, Vicente; Morant, Carmen; Roque-Malherbe, Rolando; Domingo, Concepción; Elizalde, Eduardo; Zamora, Félix

    2010-01-01

    Arrmore » ays of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotube bundles, SWCNTs, have been synthesized by simple alcohol catalytic chemical vapor deposition process, carried out at 800°C. The formed SWCNTs are organized in small groups perpendicularly aligned and attached to the substrate. These small bundles show a constant diameter of ca. 30 nm and are formed by the adhesion of no more than twenty individual SWCNTs perfectly aligned along their length.« less

  6. Sandia Vertical-Axis Wind-Turbine Research Presented at Science of Making

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Torque from Wind Conference Vertical-Axis Wind-Turbine Research Presented at Science of Making Torque from Wind Conference - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power &

  7. Bistable laser device with multiple coupled active vertical-cavity resonators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Arthur J.; Choquette, Kent D.; Chow, Weng W.

    2003-08-19

    A new class of bistable coupled-resonator vertical-cavity semiconductor laser devices has been developed. These bistable laser devices can be switched, either electrically or optically, between lasing and non-lasing states. A switching signal with a power of a fraction of a milliwatt can change the laser output of such a device by a factor of a hundred, thereby enabling a range of optical switching and data encoding applications.

  8. Proposal for the development of 3D Vertically Integrated Pattern Recognition Associative Memory (VIPRAM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deptuch, Gregory; Hoff, Jim; Kwan, Simon; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Ted; Ramberg, Erik; Todri, Aida; Yarema, Ray; Demarteua, Marcel,; Drake, Gary; Weerts, Harry; /Argonne /Chicago U. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua

    2010-10-01

    Future particle physics experiments looking for rare processes will have no choice but to address the demanding challenges of fast pattern recognition in triggering as detector hit density becomes significantly higher due to the high luminosity required to produce the rare process. The authors propose to develop a 3D Vertically Integrated Pattern Recognition Associative Memory (VIPRAM) chip for HEP applications, to advance the state-of-the-art for pattern recognition and track reconstruction for fast triggering.

  9. Vertical Variability of Aerosols and Water Vapor Over the Southern Great Plains

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vertical Variability of Aerosols and Water Vapor Over the Southern Great Plains R. A. Ferrare National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center Hampton, Virginia D. D. Turner Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington M. Clayton and V. Brackett Science Applications International Corporation National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center Hampton, Virginia T. P. Tooman and J. E. M. Goldsmith Sandia National Laboratories Livermore,

  10. Current Drive for Plasma Via Vertically-Structured Permanent Magnet System.

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Current Drive for Plasma Via Vertically-Structured Permanent Magnet System. This invention uses the rotatoin of permanent magnets to generate a plasma current with toroidal fusion confinement devices. This particular device strategically places two rings of magnets above and below the ferromagnetic core in order to maximize both the efficiency and plasma current. No.: M-872 Inventor(s): Ali Zolfaghari

  11. An after-market, five-port vertical beam line extension for the PETtrace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnhart, T. E.; Engle, J. W.; Severin, G. W.; Valdovinos, H. F.; Gagnon, K.; Nickles, R. J.

    2012-12-19

    Most commercial cyclotrons intended for medical isotope production provide a limited number of beam ports crowded into a minimal vault space. Taking advantage of our new lab construction, we planned and installed a beam-line on port Music-Sharp-Sign 2 of our GEMS PETtrace to bring beam to an additional 5 target positions. These are oriented in the vertical plane, with the downward directed beam well suited for molten target substrates.

  12. Growth and characterization of 4-chloro-3-nitrobenzophenone single crystals using vertical Bridgman technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aravinth, K. Babu, G. Anandha Ramasamy, P.

    2014-04-24

    4-chloro-3-nitrobenzophenone (4C3N) has been grown by using vertical Bridgman technique. The grown crystal was confirmed by Powder X-ray diffraction analysis. The crystalline perfection of the grown crystal was examined by high-resolution X-ray diffraction study. The fluorescence spectra of grown 4C3N single crystals exhibit emission peak at 575 nm. The micro hardness measurements were used to analyze the mechanical property of the grown crystal.

  13. Modification and Application of a New Method for Retrieving Water-Cloud Microphysics Vertical Profile

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Modification and Application of a New Method for Retrieving Water-Cloud Microphysics Vertical Profile F.-L Chang and Z. Li Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center University of Maryland College Park, Maryland Z. Li Department of Meteorology University of Maryland College Park, Maryland X. Dong Department of Atmospheric Sciences University of North Dakota Grand Forks, North Dakota Introduction Low- level boundary layer clouds have the most significant influence on cloud radiative forcing

  14. Characterization of Vertical Velocity and Drop Size Distribution Parameters in Widespread Precipitation at ARM Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giangrande S. E.; Luke, E. P.; Kollias, P.

    2012-02-01

    Extended, high-resolution measurements of vertical air motion and median volume drop diameter D0 in widespread precipitation from three diverse Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) locations [Lamont, Oklahoma, Southern Great Plains site (SGP); Niamey, Niger; and Black Forest, Germany] are presented. The analysis indicates a weak (0-10 cm{sup -1}) downward air motion beneath the melting layer for all three regions, a magnitude that is to within the typical uncertainty of the retrieval methods. On average, the hourly estimated standard deviation of the vertical air motion is 0.25 m s{sup -1} with no pronounced vertical structure. Profiles of D0 vary according to region and rainfall rate. The standard deviation of 1-min-averaged D0 profiles for isolated rainfall rate intervals is 0.3-0.4 mm. Additional insights into the form of the raindrop size distribution are provided using available dual-frequency Doppler velocity observations at SGP. The analysis suggests that gamma functions better explain paired velocity observations and radar retrievals for the Oklahoma dataset. This study will be useful in assessing uncertainties introduced in the measurement of precipitation parameters from ground-based and spaceborne remote sensors that are due to small-scale variability.

  15. VERTICAL STRUCTURE AND CORONAL POWER OF ACCRETION DISKS POWERED BY MAGNETOROTATIONAL-INSTABILITY TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uzdensky, Dmitri A.

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we consider two outstanding intertwined problems in modern high-energy astrophysics: (1) the vertical-thermal structure of an optically thick accretion disk heated by the dissipation of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability (MRI), and (2) determining the fraction of the accretion power released in the corona above the disk. For simplicity, we consider a gas-pressure-dominated disk and assume a constant opacity. We argue that the local turbulent dissipation rate due to the disruption of the MRI channel flows by secondary parasitic instabilities should be uniform across most of the disk, almost up to the disk photosphere. We then obtain a self-consistent analytical solution for the vertical thermal structure of the disk, governed by the balance between the heating by MRI turbulence and the cooling by radiative diffusion. Next, we argue that the coronal power fraction is determined by the competition between the Parker instability, viewed as a parasitic instability feeding off of MRI channel flows, and other parasitic instabilities. We show that the Parker instability inevitably becomes important near the disk surface, leading to a certain lower limit on the coronal power. While most of the analysis in this paper focuses on the case of a disk threaded by an externally imposed vertical magnetic field, we also discuss the zero net flux case, in which the magnetic field is produced by the MRI dynamo itself, and show that most of our arguments and conclusions should be valid in this case as well.

  16. GaAs buffer layer technique for vertical nanowire growth on Si substrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Xiaoqing Parizi, Kokab B.; Huo, Yijie; Kang, Yangsen; Philip Wong, H.-S.; Li, Yang

    2014-02-24

    Gold catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid method is widely applied to IIIV nanowire (NW) growth on Si substrate. However, the easy oxidation of Si, possible Si contamination in the NWs, high defect density in the NWs, and high sensitivity of the NW morphology to growth conditions largely limit its controllability. In this work, we developed a buffer layer technique by introducing a GaAs thin film with predefined polarity as a template. It is found that samples grown on these buffer layers all have high vertical NW yields in general, due to the single-orientation of the buffer layers. Low temperature buffer with smoother surface leads to highest yield of vertical NWs, while high temperature (HT) buffer with better crystallinity results in perfect NW quality. The defect-free property we observed here is very promising for optoelectronic device applications based on GaAs NW. Moreover, the buffer layers can eliminate Si contamination by preventing Si-Au alloy formation and by increasing the thickness of the Si diffusion barrier, thus providing more flexibility to vertical NW growth. The buffer layer technique we demonstrated here could be easily extended to other III-V on Si system for electronic and photonic applications.

  17. Process for mounting a protection diode on a vertical multijunction photovoltaic cell structure and photovoltaic cells obtained

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnould, J.

    1982-09-07

    In a stack of diodes forming a vertical multijunction photovoltaic cell, an inversely connected diode is firmly secured to this stack with possible insertion of a intermediate wafer made from a conducting material.

  18. GRAVITATIONAL INSTABILITY OF ROTATING, PRESSURE-CONFINED, POLYTROPIC GAS DISKS WITH VERTICAL STRATIFICATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Jeong-Gyu; Kim, Woong-Tae; Seo, Young Min; Hong, Seung Soo E-mail: wkim@astro.snu.ac.kr E-mail: sshong@astro.snu.ac.kr

    2012-12-20

    We investigate the gravitational instability (GI) of rotating, vertically stratified, pressure-confined, polytropic gas disks using a linear stability analysis as well as analytic approximations. The disks are initially in vertical hydrostatic equilibrium and bounded by a constant external pressure. We find that the GI of a pressure-confined disk is in general a mixed mode of the conventional Jeans and distortional instabilities, and is thus an unstable version of acoustic-surface-gravity waves. The Jeans mode dominates in weakly confined disks or disks with rigid boundaries. On the other hand, when the disk has free boundaries and is strongly pressure confined, the mixed GI is dominated by the distortional mode that is surface-gravity waves driven unstable under their own gravity and thus incompressible. We demonstrate that the Jeans mode is gravity-modified acoustic waves rather than inertial waves and that inertial waves are almost unaffected by self-gravity. We derive an analytic expression for the effective sound speed c{sub eff} of acoustic-surface-gravity waves. We also find expressions for the gravity reduction factors relative to a razor-thin counterpart that are appropriate for the Jeans and distortional modes. The usual razor-thin dispersion relation, after correcting for c{sub eff} and the reduction factors, closely matches the numerical results obtained by solving a full set of linearized equations. The effective sound speed generalizes the Toomre stability parameter of the Jeans mode to allow for the mixed GI of vertically stratified, pressure-confined disks.

  19. Experimental natural convection on vertical surfaces for building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fossa, M.; Menezo, C.; Leonardi, E.

    2008-02-15

    An experimental study on natural convection in an open channel is carried out in order to investigate the effect of the geometrical configuration of heat sources on the heat transfer behaviour. To this aim, a series of vertical heaters are cooled by natural convection of air flowing between two parallel walls. The objective of the work is to investigate the physical mechanisms which influence the thermal behaviour of a double-skin photovoltaic (PV) facade. This results in a better understanding of the related phenomena and infers useful engineering information for controlling the energy transfers from the environment to the PV surfaces and from the PV surfaces to the building. Furthermore increasing the heat transfer rate from the PV surfaces increases the conversion efficiency of the PV modules since they operate better as their temperature is lower. The test section consists in a double vertical wall, 2 m high, and each wall is constituted by 10 different heating modules 0.2 m high. The heater arrangement simulates, at a reduced scale, the presence of a series of vertical PV modules. The heat flux at the wall ranges from 75 to 200 W/m{sup 2}. In this study, the heated section is 1.6 m in height, preceded by an adiabatic of 0.4 m in height. Different heating configurations are analyzed, including the uniform heating mode and two different configurations of non uniform, alternate heating. The experimental procedure allows the wall surface temperature, local heat transfer coefficient and local and average Nusselt numbers to be inferred. The experimental evidences show that the proper selection of the separating distance and heating configuration can noticeably decrease the surface temperatures and hence enhance the conversion efficiency of PV modules. (author)

  20. Method and apparatus for drilling horizontal holes in geological structures from a vertical bore

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Summers, David A. (Rolla, MO); Barker, Clark R. (Rolla, MO); Keith, H. Dean (Rolla, MO)

    1982-01-01

    This invention is directed to a method and apparatus for drilling horizontal holes in geological strata from a vertical position. The geological structures intended to be penetrated in this fashion are coal seams, as for in situ gasification or methane drainage, or in oil-bearing strata for increasing the flow rate from a pre-existing well. Other possible uses for this device might be for use in the leaching of uranium ore from underground deposits or for introducing horizontal channels for water and steam injections.

  1. The Theory of the Kink Mode during the Vertical Disruption Events in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leonid E. Zakharov

    2008-01-14

    This paper explains the locked m/n = 1/1 kink mode during the vertical disruption event when the plasma has an electrical contact with the plasma facing conducting surfaces. It is shown that the kink perturbation can be in equilibrium state even with a stable safety factor q > 1, if the halo currents, excited by the kink mode, can flow through the conducting structure. This suggests a new explanation of the so-called sideway forces on the tokamak in-vessel components during the disruption event. __________________________________________________

  2. Vertical borehole design and completion practices used to remove methane gas from mineable coalbeds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, S.W.; Trevits, M.A.; Steidl, P.F.

    1980-08-01

    Coalbed gas drainage from the surface in advance of mining has long been the goal of researchers in mine safety. Bureau of Mines efforts to achieve this goal started about 1965 with the initiation of an applied research program designed to test drilling, completion, and production techniques for vertical boreholes. Under this program, over 100 boreholes were completed in 16 different coalbeds. The field methods derived from these tests, together with a basic understanding of the coalbed reservoir, represent an available technology applicable to any gas drainage program whether designed primarily for mine safety or for gas recovery, or both.

  3. Result of MHI 2-Cell Seamless Dumb-Bell Cavity Vertical Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okihira, K.; Hara, H.; Ikeda, N.; Inoue, F.; Sennyu, K.; Geng, Rongli; Rimmer, Robert A.; Kako, E.

    2014-12-01

    MHI have supplied several 9-cell cavities for STF (R&D of ILC project at KEK) and have been considering production method for stable quality and cost reduction, seamless dumb-bell cavity was one of them. We had fabricated a 2 cell seamless dumb-bell cavity for cost reduction and measured RF performance in collaboration with JLab, KEK and MHI. Surface treatment recipe for ILC was applied for MHI 2-cell cavity and vertical test was performed at JLab. The cavity reached Eacc=32.4MV/m after BCP and EP. Details of the result are reported.

  4. Roles of Wind Shear at Different Vertical Levels, Part I: Cloud System Organization and Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Qian; Fan, Jiwen; Hagos, Samson M.; Gustafson, William I.; Berg, Larry K.

    2015-07-16

    Understanding of critical processes that contribute to the organization of mesoscale convective systems is important for accurate weather forecast and climate prediction. In this study, we investigate the effects of wind shear at different vertical levels on the organization and properties of cloud systems using the Weather Research & Forecasting (WRF) model with a spectral-bin microphysical scheme. The sensitivity experiments are performed by increasing wind shear at the lower (0-5 km), middle (5-10 km), upper (> 10 km) and the entire troposphere, respectively, based on a control run for a mesoscale convective system (MCS) with weak wind shear. We find that increasing wind shear at the both lower and middle vertical levels reduces the domain-accumulated precipitation and the occurrence of heavy rain, while increasing wind shear at the upper levels changes little on precipitation. Although increasing wind shear at the lower-levels is favorable for a more organized quasi-line system which leads to enlarged updraft core area, and enhanced updraft velocities and vertical mass fluxes, the precipitation is still reduced by 18.6% compared with the control run due to stronger rain evaporation induced by the low-level wind shear. Strong wind shear in the middle levels only produces a strong super-cell over a narrow area, leading to 67.3% reduction of precipitation over the domain. By increasing wind shear at the upper levels only, the organization of the convection is not changed much, but the increased cloudiness at the upper-levels leads to stronger surface cooling and then stabilizes the atmosphere and weakens the convection. When strong wind shear exists over the entire vertical profile, a deep dry layer (2-9 km) is produced and convection is severely suppressed. There are fewer very-high (cloud top height (CTH) > 15 km) and very-deep (cloud thickness > 15 km) clouds, and the precipitation is only about 11.8% of the control run. The changes in cloud microphysical properties further explain the reduction of surface rain by strong wind shear especially at the lower- and middle-levels. The insights obtained from this study help us better understand the cloud system organization and provide foundation for better parameterizing organized MCS.

  5. Control of light polarization using optically spin-injected vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frougier, J. Jaffrs, H.; Deranlot, C.; George, J.-M.; Baili, G.; Dolfi, D.; Alouini, M.; Sagnes, I.; Garnache, A.

    2013-12-16

    We fabricated and characterized an optically pumped (100)-oriented InGaAs/GaAsP multiple quantum well Vertical External Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VECSEL). The structure is designed to allow the integration of a Metal-Tunnel-Junction ferromagnetic spin-injector for future electrical injection. We report here the control at room temperature of the electromagnetic field polarization using optical spin injection in the active medium of the VECSEL. The switching between two highly circular polarization states had been demonstrated using an M-shaped extended cavity in multi-modes lasing. This result witnesses an efficient spin-injection in the active medium of the LASER.

  6. Method for accurate growth of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chalmers, Scott A. (Albuquerque, NM); Killeen, Kevin P. (Albuquerque, NM); Lear, Kevin L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01

    We report a method for accurate growth of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). The method uses a single reflectivity spectrum measurement to determine the structure of the partially completed VCSEL at a critical point of growth. This information, along with the extracted growth rates, allows imprecisions in growth parameters to be compensated for during growth of the remaining structure, which can then be completed with very accurate critical dimensions. Using this method, we can now routinely grow lasing VCSELs with Fabry-Perot cavity resonance wavelengths controlled to within 0.5%.

  7. Method for accurate growth of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chalmers, S.A.; Killeen, K.P.; Lear, K.L.

    1995-03-14

    The authors report a method for accurate growth of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). The method uses a single reflectivity spectrum measurement to determine the structure of the partially completed VCSEL at a critical point of growth. This information, along with the extracted growth rates, allows imprecisions in growth parameters to be compensated for during growth of the remaining structure, which can then be completed with very accurate critical dimensions. Using this method, they can now routinely grow lasing VCSELs with Fabry-Perot cavity resonance wavelengths controlled to within 0.5%. 4 figs.

  8. Vertical responses of Atlantic croaker to gas supersaturation and temperature change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chamberlain, G.W.; Neill, W.H.; Romanowsky, P.A.; Strawn, K.

    1980-11-01

    Vertical responses of juvenile Atlantic croakers (Micropogon undulatus) to acute supersaturation of nitrogen and oxygen and to changing temperature were observed in a 2.5-m-tall test cylinder supplied with flowing estuarine water. Supersaturation of nitrogen caused an initial upward movement of fish, although a compensatory downward response seemed to occur after 2 to 4 hours of exposure. Supersaturation of oxygen resulted in an almost immediate downward movement of fish. Abrupt upward displacement of fish followed water-temperature changes, especially increases. Similarities between the behavior of croakers in these experiments and the behavior of other physoclists after swim-bladder volume manipulation suggested that gas supersaturation caused the swim bladders of our fish to inflate, resulting first in upward drift and then in downward swimming to restore neutral buoyancy. A nonlinear response model incorporating this hypothesis accounted for 62% of the variation (over all experiments) in mean vertical displacement of the croakers. Supersaturation-induced inflation of the swim bladder may provide physoclistous fishes a direct mechanism for avoiding gas bubble disease by stimulating the fish to descend to a depth at which no gas has a relative saturation value greater than 100%.

  9. Simulation of winds as seen by a rotating vertical axis wind turbine blade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George, R.L.

    1984-02-01

    The objective of this report is to provide turbulent wind analyses relevant to the design and testing of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWT). A technique was developed for utilizing high-speed turbulence wind data from a line of seven anemometers at a single level to simulate the wind seen by a rotating VAWT blade. Twelve data cases, representing a range of wind speeds and stability classes, were selected from the large volume of data available from the Clayton, New Mexico, Vertical Plane Array (VPA) project. Simulations were run of the rotationally sampled wind speed relative to the earth, as well as the tangential and radial wind speeds, which are relative to the rotating wind turbine blade. Spectral analysis is used to compare and assess wind simulations from the different wind regimes, as well as from alternate wind measurement techniques. The variance in the wind speed at frequencies at or above the blade rotation rate is computed for all cases, and is used to quantitatively compare the VAWT simulations with Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT) simulations. Qualitative comparisons are also made with direct wind measurements from a VAWT blade.

  10. Verification of theoretically computed spectra for a point rotating in a vertical plane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, D.C.; Connell, J.R.; George, R.L.

    1985-03-01

    A theoretical model is modified and tested that produces the power spectrum of the alongwind component of turbulence as experienced by a point rotating in a vertical plane perpendicular to the mean wind direction. The ability to generate such a power spectrum, independent of measurement, is important in wind turbine design and testing. The radius of the circle of rotation, its height above the ground, and the rate of rotation are typical for those for a MOD-OA wind turbine. Verification of this model is attempted by comparing two sets of variances that correspond to individual harmonic bands of spectra of turbulence in the rotational frame. One set of variances is calculated by integrating the theoretically generated rotational spectra; the other is calculated by integrating rotational spectra from real data analysis. The theoretical spectrum is generated by Fourier transformation of an autocorrelation function taken from von Karman and modified for the rotational frame. The autocorrelation is based on dimensionless parameters, each of which incorporates both atmospheric and wind turbine parameters. The real data time series are formed by sampling around the circle of anemometers of the Vertical Plane Array at the former MOD-OA site at Clayton, New Mexico.

  11. Lidar Measurements of the Vertical Distribution of Aerosol Optical and Physical Properties over Central Asia

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chen, Boris B.; Sverdlik, Leonid G.; Imashev, Sanjar A.; Solomon, Paul A.; Lantz, Jeffrey; Schauer, James J.; Shafer, Martin M.; Artamonova, Maria S.; Carmichael, Gregory R.

    2013-01-01

    The vertical structure of aerosol optical and physical properties was measured by Lidar in Eastern Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia, from June 2008 to May 2009. Lidar measurements were supplemented with surface-based measurements of PM 2.5 and PM 10 mass and chemical composition in both size fractions. Dust transported into the region is common, being detected 33% of the time. The maximum frequency occurred in the spring of 2009. Dust transported to Central Asia comes from regional sources, for example, Taklimakan desert and Aral Sea basin, and from long-range transport, for example, deserts of Arabia, Northeast Africa, Iran, and Pakistan. Regionalmore » sources are characterized by pollution transport with maximum values of coarse particles within the planetary boundary layer, aerosol optical thickness, extinction coefficient, integral coefficient of aerosol backscatter, and minimum values of the Ångström exponent. Pollution associated with air masses transported over long distances has different characteristics during autumn, winter, and spring. During winter, dust emissions were low resulting in high values of the Ångström exponent (about 0.51) and the fine particle mass fraction (64%). Dust storms were more frequent during spring with an increase in coarse dust particles in comparison to winter. The aerosol vertical profiles can be used to lower uncertainty in estimating radiative forcing.« less

  12. Lateral and Vertical Transistors Using the AlGaN/GaN Heterostructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chowdhury, S; Mishra, UK

    2013-10-01

    Power conversion losses are endemic in all areas of electricity consumption, including motion control, lighting, air conditioning, and information technology. Si, the workhorse of the industry, has reached its material limits. Increasingly, the lateral AlGaN/GaN HEMT based on gallium nitride (GaN-on-Si) is becoming the device of choice for medium power electronics as it enables high-power conversion efficiency and reduced form factor at attractive pricing for wide market penetration. The reduced form factor enabled by high-efficiency operation at high frequency further enables significant system price reduction because of savings in bulky extensive passive elements and heat sink costs. The high-power market, however, still remains unaddressed by lateral GaN devices. The current and voltage demand for high power conversion application makes the chip area in a lateral topology so large that it becomes more difficult to manufacture. Vertical GaN devices would play a big role alongside of silicon carbide (SiC) to address the high power conversion needs. In this paper, the development, performance, and status of lateral and vertical GaN devices are discussed.

  13. A systematic approach to vertically excited states of ethylene using configuration interaction and coupled cluster techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feller, David, E-mail: dfeller@owt.com; Peterson, Kirk A. [Department of Chemistry, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164-4630 (United States); Davidson, Ernest R. [Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1700 (United States)

    2014-09-14

    A systematic sequence of configuration interaction and coupled cluster calculations were used to describe selected low-lying singlet and triplet vertically excited states of ethylene with the goal of approaching the all electron, full configuration interaction/complete basis set limit. Included among these is the notoriously difficult, mixed valence/Rydberg {sup 1}B{sub 1u} V state. Techniques included complete active space and iterative natural orbital configuration interaction with large reference spaces which led to variational spaces of 1.8 10{sup 9} parameters. Care was taken to avoid unintentionally biasing the results due to the widely recognized sensitivity of the V state to the details of the calculation. The lowest vertical and adiabatic ionization potentials to the {sup 2}B{sub 3u} and {sup 2}B{sub 3} states were also determined. In addition, the heat of formation of twisted ethylene {sup 3}A{sub 1} was obtained from large basis set coupled cluster theory calculations including corrections for core/valence, scalar relativistic and higher order correlation recovery.

  14. Experimental research on heat transfer of natural convection in vertical rectangular channels with large aspect ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Qing; Qiu, Suizheng; Su, Guanghui [State Key Laboratory of Multi Phase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi'an JIaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Tian, Wenxi; Ye, Zhonghao [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710049 (China)

    2010-01-15

    This work presents the experimental research on the steady laminar natural convection heat transfer of air in three vertical thin rectangular channels with different gap clearance. The much higher ratio of width to gap clearance (60-24) and the ratio of length to gap clearance (800-320) make the rectangular channels similar with the coolant flow passage in plate type fuel reactors. The vertical rectangular channels were composed of two stainless steal plates and were heated by electrical heating rods. The wall temperatures were detected with the K-type thermocouples which were inserted into the blind holes drilled in the steal plates. Also the air temperatures at the inlet and outlet of the channel were detected. The wall heat fluxes added to the air flow were calculated by the Fourier heat conduction law. The heat transfer characteristics were analyzed, and the average Nusselt numbers in all the three channels could be well correlated with the Rayleigh number or the modified Rayleigh number in a uniform correlation. Furthermore, the maximum wall temperatures were investigated, which is a key parameter for the fuel's integrity during some accidents. It was found that even the wall heat flux was up to 1500 W/m{sup 2}, the maximum wall temperature was lower than 350 C. All this work is valuable for the plate type reactor's design and safety analysis. (author)

  15. VERTICAL KINK OSCILLATION OF A MAGNETIC FLUX ROPE STRUCTURE IN THE SOLAR CORONA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, S.; Cho, K.-S.; Nakariakov, V. M.

    2014-12-20

    Vertical transverse oscillations of a coronal magnetic rope, observed simultaneously in the 171 and 304 bandpasses of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), are detected. The oscillation period is about 700 s and the displacement amplitude is about 1 Mm. The oscillation amplitude remains constant during the observation. Simultaneous observation of the rope in the bandpasses corresponding to the coronal and chromospheric temperatures suggests that it has a multi-thermal structure. Oscillatory patterns in 171 and 304 are coherent, which indicates that the observed kink oscillation is collective, in which the rope moves as a single entity. We interpret the oscillation as a fundamental standing vertically polarized kink mode of the rope, while the interpretation in terms of a perpendicular fast wave could not be entirely ruled out. In addition, the arcade situated above the rope and seen in the 171 bandpass shows an oscillatory motion with the period of about 1000 s.

  16. The impact of vertical shear on the sensitivity of tropical cyclogenesis to environmental rotation and thermodynamic state

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Wenyu

    2015-11-19

    Here, the impact of vertical wind shear on the sensitivity of tropical cyclogenesis to environmental rotation and thermodynamic state is investigated through idealized cloud-resolving simulations of the intensification of an incipient vortex. With vertical shear, tropical cyclones intensify faster with a higher Coriolis parameter, f, irrespective of the environmental thermodynamic state. The vertical shear develops a vertically tilted vortex, which undergoes a precession process with the midlevel vortices rotating cyclonically around the surface center. With a higher f, the midlevel vortices are able to rotate continuously against the vertical shear, leading to the realignment of the tilted vortex and rapid intensification. With a lower f, the rotation is too slow such that the midlevel vortices are advected away from the surface center and the intensification is suppressed. The parameter, Χb, measuring the effect from the low-entropy downdraft air on the boundary layer entropy, is found to be a good indicator of the environmental thermodynamic favorability for tropical cyclogenesis in vertical shear. Without vertical shear, tropical cyclones are found to intensify faster with a lower f by previous studies. We show this dependency on f is sensitive to the environmental thermodynamic state. The thermodynamical favorability for convection can be measured by Χm, which estimates the time it takes for surface fluxes to moisten the midtroposphere. A smaller Χm not only leads to a faster intensification due to a shorter period for moist preconditioning of the inner region but also neutralizes the faster intensification with a lower f due to enhanced peripheral convection.

  17. The impact of vertical shear on the sensitivity of tropical cyclogenesis to environmental rotation and thermodynamic state

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Wenyu

    2015-11-19

    Here, the impact of vertical wind shear on the sensitivity of tropical cyclogenesis to environmental rotation and thermodynamic state is investigated through idealized cloud-resolving simulations of the intensification of an incipient vortex. With vertical shear, tropical cyclones intensify faster with a higher Coriolis parameter, f, irrespective of the environmental thermodynamic state. The vertical shear develops a vertically tilted vortex, which undergoes a precession process with the midlevel vortices rotating cyclonically around the surface center. With a higher f, the midlevel vortices are able to rotate continuously against the vertical shear, leading to the realignment of the tilted vortex and rapidmore » intensification. With a lower f, the rotation is too slow such that the midlevel vortices are advected away from the surface center and the intensification is suppressed. The parameter, Χb, measuring the effect from the low-entropy downdraft air on the boundary layer entropy, is found to be a good indicator of the environmental thermodynamic favorability for tropical cyclogenesis in vertical shear. Without vertical shear, tropical cyclones are found to intensify faster with a lower f by previous studies. We show this dependency on f is sensitive to the environmental thermodynamic state. The thermodynamical favorability for convection can be measured by Χm, which estimates the time it takes for surface fluxes to moisten the midtroposphere. A smaller Χm not only leads to a faster intensification due to a shorter period for moist preconditioning of the inner region but also neutralizes the faster intensification with a lower f due to enhanced peripheral convection.« less

  18. Aligned vertical fractures, HTI reservoir symmetry, and Thomsenseismic anisotropy parameters for polar media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berryman, James G.

    2007-12-12

    Sayers and Kachanov (1991) defined crack-influence parameters that are shown to be directly related to Thomsen (1986) weak-anisotropy seismic parameters for fractured reservoirs when the crack/fracture density is small enough. These results are then applied to the problem of seismic wave propagation in polar (i.e., non-isotropic) reservoirs having HTI seismic wave symmetry due to the presence of aligned vertical fractures and resulting in azimuthal seismic wave symmetry at the earth's surface. The approach presented suggests one method of inverting for fracture density from wave-speed data. It is also observed that the angular location {theta}{sub ex} of the extreme value (peak or trough) of the quasi-SV-wave speed for VTI occurs at an angle determined approximately by the formula tan{sup 2} {theta}{sub ex} {approx_equal} tan {theta}{sub m} = [(c{sub 33} - c{sub 44})/(c{sub 11}-c{sub 44})]{sup 1/2}, where {theta}{sub m} is an angle determined directly (as shown) from the c{sub ij} elastic stiffnesses, whenever these are known from either quasi-static or seismic wave measurements. Alternatively, {theta}{sub ex} is given in terms of the Thomsen seismic anisotropy parameters by tan {theta}{sub ex} {approx_equal} ([v{sub p}{sup 2}(0)-v{sub s}{sup 2}(0)]/[(1 + 2{epsilon})v{sub p}{sup 2}(0)-v{sub s}{sup 2}(0)]){sup 1/4}, where {epsilon} = (c{sub 11}-c{sub 33})/2c{sub 33}, v{sub p}{sup 2}(0) = c{sub 33}/{rho}, and v{sub s}{sup 2}(0) = c{sub 44}/{rho}, with {rho} being the background inertial mass density. The axis of symmetry is always treated here as the x{sub 3}-axis for either VTI symmetry (due, for example, to horizontal cracks), or HTI symmetry (due to aligned vertical cracks). Then the meaning of the stiffnesses is derived from the fracture analysis in the same way for VTI and HTI media, but for HTI the wave speeds relative to the earth's surface are shifted by 90{sup o} in the plane perpendicular to the aligned vertical fractures. Skempton's (1954) coefficient is used as a general means of quantifying the effects of fluids inside the fractures. Explicit formulas for Thomsen's parameters are also obtained for either drained or undrained fractures resulting in either VTI or HTI symmetry of the reservoir.

  19. Method of design for vertical oil shale retorting vessels and retorting therewith

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reeves, Adam A.

    1978-01-03

    A method of designing the gas flow parameters of a vertical shaft oil shale retorting vessel involves determining the proportion of gas introduced in the bottom of the vessel and into intermediate levels in the vessel to provide for lateral distribution of gas across the vessel cross section, providing mixing with the uprising gas, and determining the limiting velocity of the gas through each nozzle. The total quantity of gas necessary for oil shale treatment in the vessel may be determined and the proportion to be injected into each level is then determined based on the velocity relation of the orifice velocity and its feeder manifold gas velocity. A limitation is placed on the velocity of gas issuing from an orifice by the nature of the solid being treated, usually physical tests of gas velocity impinging the solid.

  20. Vertically aligned gas-insulated transmission line having particle traps at the inner conductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dale, Steinar J. (Monroeville, PA)

    1984-01-01

    Gas insulated electrical apparatus having first and second conductors separated by an insulating support within an insulating gas environment, and particle traps disposed along the surface of the high potential conductor for trapping and inactivating foreign particles which may be present within the insulating gas medium. Several embodiments of the invention were developed which are particularly suited for vertically aligned gas insulated transmission lines. The particle traps are grooves or cavities formed into the walls of the tubular inner conductor, without extending into the hollow portion of the conductor. In other embodiments, the traps are appendages or insert flanges extending from the inner conductor, with the insulator supports contacting the appendages instead of the inner conductor.

  1. Frequency-doubled vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raymond, Thomas D. (Edgewood, NM); Alford, William J. (Albuquerque, NM); Crawford, Mary H. (Albuquerque, NM); Allerman, Andrew A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A frequency-doubled semiconductor vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser (VECSEL) is disclosed for generating light at a wavelength in the range of 300-550 nanometers. The VECSEL includes a semiconductor multi-quantum-well active region that is electrically or optically pumped to generate lasing at a fundamental wavelength in the range of 600-1100 nanometers. An intracavity nonlinear frequency-doubling crystal then converts the fundamental lasing into a second-harmonic output beam. With optical pumping with 330 milliWatts from a semiconductor diode pump laser, about 5 milliWatts or more of blue light can be generated at 490 nm. The device has applications for high-density optical data storage and retrieval, laser printing, optical image projection, chemical-sensing, materials processing and optical metrology.

  2. Investigation of the GaN-on-GaAs interface for vertical power device applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mreke, Janina Uren, Michael J.; Kuball, Martin; Novikov, Sergei V.; Foxon, C. Thomas; Hosseini Vajargah, Shahrzad; Wallis, David J.; Humphreys, Colin J.; Haigh, Sarah J.; Al-Khalidi, Abdullah; Wasige, Edward; Thayne, Iain

    2014-07-07

    GaN layers were grown onto (111) GaAs by molecular beam epitaxy. Minimal band offset between the conduction bands for GaN and GaAs materials has been suggested in the literature raising the possibility of using GaN-on-GaAs for vertical power device applications. I-V and C-V measurements of the GaN/GaAs heterostructures however yielded a rectifying junction, even when both sides of the junction were heavily doped with an n-type dopant. Transmission electron microscopy analysis further confirmed the challenge in creating a GaN/GaAs Ohmic interface by showing a large density of dislocations in the GaN layer and suggesting roughening of the GaN/GaAs interface due to etching of the GaAs by the nitrogen plasma, diffusion of nitrogen or melting of Ga into the GaAs substrate.

  3. On the role of disorder on graphene and graphene nanoribbon-based vertical tunneling transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghobadi, Nayereh; Pourfath, Mahdi E-mail: pourfath@iue.tuwien.ac.at

    2014-11-14

    In this work, the characteristics of vertical tunneling field-effect transistors based on graphene (VTGFET) and graphene nanoribbon heterostructure (VTGNRFET) in the presence of disorder are theoretically investigated. An statistical analysis based on an atomistic tight-binding model for the electronic bandstructure along with the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism are employed. We study the dependence of the averaged density of states, transmission probability, on- and off-state conductances, on/off conductance ratio, and transfer characteristics on the substrate induced potential fluctuations and vacancies. In addition, the variabilities of the device characteristics due to the presence of disorder are evaluated. It can be inferred from the results that while introducing vacancies cause a relatively modest suppression of the transmission probability, potential fluctuations lead to the significant increase of transmission probability and conductance of the device. Moreover, the results show that the transport properties of VTGFET are more robust against disorder compared to VTGNRFET.

  4. Radiation resistance of GaAs-GaAlAs vertical cavity surface emitting lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jabbour, J.; Zazoui, M.; Sun, G.C.; Bourgoin, J.C.; Gilard, O.

    2005-02-15

    The variations of the optical and electrical characteristics of a vertical cavity surface emitting laser based on GaAs quantum wells have been monitored versus irradiation with 1 MeV electrons. The results are understood by the introduction of nonradiative recombination centers in the wells whose characteristics, capture cross section for minority carriers times their introduction rate, can be determined. A similar study performed for proton irradiation shows that the results can be explained in the same way when the introduction rate of the defects is replaced by the proton energy loss into atomic collisions. These results allow us to deduce the equivalence between electron and proton irradiations: A flux of 1 proton cm{sup -2} which loses an energy E{sub nl} (eV) into atomic collisions is equivalent to a fluence of about 9x10{sup -2} E{sub nl} cm{sup -2}, 1 MeV electrons.

  5. Numerical Investigation of Vertical Plunging Jet Using a Hybrid Multifluid–VOF Multiphase CFD Solver

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shonibare, Olabanji Y.; Wardle, Kent E.

    2015-01-01

    A novel hybrid multiphase flow solver has been used to conduct simulations of a vertical plunging liquid jet. This solver combines a multifluid methodology with selective interface sharpening to enable simulation of both the initial jet impingement and the long-time entrained bubble plume phenomena. Models are implemented for variable bubble size capturing and dynamic switching of interface sharpened regions to capture transitions between the initially fully segregated flow types into the dispersed bubbly flow regime. It was found that the solver was able to capture the salient features of the flow phenomena under study and areas for quantitative improvement havemore » been explored and identified. In particular, a population balance approach is employed and detailed calibration of the underlying models with experimental data is required to enable quantitative prediction of bubble size and distribution to capture the transition between segregated and dispersed flow types with greater fidelity.« less

  6. Effect of rolling motion on critical heat flux for subcooled flow boiling in vertical tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, J. S.; Park, I. U.; Park, M. Y.; Park, G. C.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents defining characteristics of the critical heat flux (CHF) for the boiling of R-134a in vertical tube operation under rolling motion in marine reactor. It is important to predict CHF of marine reactor having the rolling motion in order to increase the safety of the reactor. Marine Reactor Moving Simulator (MARMS) tests are conducted to measure the critical heat flux using R-134a flowing upward in a uniformly heated vertical tube under rolling motion. MARMS was rotated by motor and mechanical power transmission gear. The CHF tests were performed in a 9.5 mm I.D. test section with heated length of 1 m. Mass fluxes range from 285 to 1300 kg m{sup -2}s{sup -1}, inlet subcooling from 3 to 38 deg. C and outlet pressures from 13 to 24 bar. Amplitudes of rolling range from 15 to 40 degrees and periods from 6 to 12 sec. To convert the test conditions of CHF test using R-134a in water, Katto's fluid-to-fluid modeling was used in present investigation. A CHF correlation is presented which accounts for the effects of pressure, mass flux, inlet subcooling and rolling angle over all conditions tested. Unlike existing transient CHF experiments, CHF ratio of certain mass flux and pressure are different in rolling motion. For the mass fluxes below 500 kg m{sup -2}s{sup -1} at 13, 16 (region of relative low mass flux), CHF ratio was decreased but was increased above that mass flux (region of relative high mass flux). Moreover, CHF tend to enhance in entire mass flux at 24 bar. (authors)

  7. Impact of photonic crystals on LED light extraction efficiency: approaches and limits to vertical structure designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matioli, Elison; Weisbuch, Claude

    2010-08-19

    The enhancement of the extraction efficiency in light emitting diodes (LEDs) through the use of photonic crystals (PhCs) requires a structure design that optimizes the interaction of the guided modes with the PhCs. The main optimization parameters are related to the vertical structure of the LED, such as the thickness of layers, depth of the PhCs, position of the quantum wells as well as the PhC period and fill factor. We review the impact of the vertical design of different approaches of PhC LEDs through a theoretical and experimental standpoint, assessing quantitatively the competing mechanisms that act over each guided mode. Three approaches are described to overcome the main limitation of LEDs with surface PhCs, i.e. the insufficient interaction of low order guided modes with the PhCs. The introduction of an AlGaN confining layer in such structure is shown to be effective in extracting a fraction of the optical energy of low order modes; however, this approach is limited by the growth of the lattice mismatched AlGaN layer on GaN. The second approach, based on thin-film LEDs with PhCs, is limited by the presence of an absorbing reflective metal layer close to the guided modes that plays a major role in the competition between PhC extraction and metal dissipation. Finally, we demonstrate both experimentally and theoretically the superior extraction of the guided light in embedded PhC LEDs due to the higher interaction between all optical modes and the PhCs, which resulted in a close to unity extraction efficiency for this device. The use of high-resolution angle-resolved measurements to experimentally determine the PhC extraction parameters was an essential tool for corroborating the theoretical models and quantifying the competing absorption and extraction mechanisms in LEDs.

  8. Estimating nocturnal ecosystem respiration from the vertical turbulent flux and change in storage of CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Lianhong; Van Gorsel, Eva; Leuning, Ray; Delpierre, Nicolas; Black, Andy; Chen, Baozhang; Munger, J. William; Wofsy, Steve; Aubinet, M.

    2009-11-01

    Micrometeorological measurements of nighttime ecosystem respiration can be systematically biased when stable atmospheric conditions lead to drainage flows associated with decoupling of air flow above and within plant canopies. The associated horizontal and vertical advective fluxes cannot be measured using instrumentation on the single towers typically used at micrometeorological sites. A common approach to minimize bias is to use a threshold in friction velocity, u*, to exclude periods when advection is assumed to be important, but this is problematic in situations when in-canopy flows are decoupled from the flow above. Using data from 25 flux stations in a wide variety of forest ecosystems globally, we examine the generality of a novel approach to estimating nocturnal respiration developed by van Gorsel et al. (van Gorsel, E., Leuning, R., Cleugh, H.A., Keith, H., Suni, T., 2007. Nocturnal carbon efflux: reconciliation of eddy covariance and chamber measurements using an alternative to the u*-threshold filtering technique. Tellus 59B, 397 403, Tellus, 59B, 307-403). The approach is based on the assumption that advection is small relative to the vertical turbulent flux (FC) and change in storage (FS) of CO2 in the few hours after sundown. The sum of FC and FS reach a maximum during this period which is used to derive a temperature response function for ecosystem respiration. Measured hourly soil temperatures are then used with this function to estimate respiration RRmax. The new approach yielded excellent agreement with (1) independent measurements using respiration chambers, (2) with estimates using ecosystem light-response curves of Fc + Fs extrapolated to zero light, RLRC, and (3) with a detailed process-based forest ecosystem model, Rcast. At most sites respiration rates estimated using the u*-filter, Rust, were smaller than RRmax and RLRC. Agreement of our approach with independent measurements indicates that RRmax provides an excellent estimate of nighttime ecosystem respiration

  9. Supercritical binary geothermal cycle experiments with mixed-hydrocarbon working fluids and a vertical, in-tube, counterflow condenser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demuth, O.J.; Bliem, C.J.; Mines, G.L.; Swank, W.D.

    1985-12-01

    The objective is improved utilization of moderate temperature geothermal resources. Current testing involves supercritical vaporization and counterflow in-tube condensing in an organic Rankine cycle. This report presents a description of the test facility and results from a part of the program in which the condenser was oriented in a vertical attitude. Results of the experiments for the supercritical heaters and the countercurrent, vertical, in-tube condenser are given for both pure and mixed-hydrocarbon working fluids. The heater and condenser behavior predicted by the Heat Transfer Research, Inc. computer codes used for correlation of the data was in excellent agreement with experimental results. A special series of tests, conducted with propane and up to approximately 40% isopentane concentration, indicated that a close approach to ''integral'' condensation was occurring in the vertically-oriented condenser.

  10. Three-dimensional Numerical Analysis on Blade Response of Vertical Axis Tidal Current Turbine Under Operational Condition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Ye; Karri, Naveen K.; Wang, Qi

    2014-04-30

    Tidal power as a large-scale renewable source of energy has been receiving significant attention recently because of its advantages over the wind and other renewal energy sources. The technology used to harvest energy from tidal current is called a tidal current turbine. Though some of the principles of wind turbine design are applicable to tidal current turbines, the design of latter ones need additional considerations like cavitation damage, corrosion etc. for the long-term reliability of such turbines. Depending up on the orientation of axis, tidal current turbines can be classified as vertical axis turbines or horizontal axis turbines. Existing studies on the vertical axis tidal current turbine focus more on the hydrodynamic aspects of the turbine rather than the structural aspects. This paper summarizes our recent efforts to study the integrated hydrodynamic and structural aspects of the vertical axis tidal current turbines. After reviewing existing methods in modeling tidal current turbines, we developed a hybrid approach that combines discrete vortex method -finite element method that can simulate the integrated hydrodynamic and structural response of a vertical axis turbine. This hybrid method was initially employed to analyze a typical three-blade vertical axis turbine. The power coefficient was used to evaluate the hydrodynamic performance, and critical deflection was considered to evaluate the structural reliability. A sensitivity analysis was also conducted with various turbine height-to-radius ratios. The results indicate that both the power output and failure probability increase with the turbine height, suggesting a necessity for optimal design. An attempt to optimize a 3-blade vertical axis turbine design with hybrid method yielded a ratio of turbine height to radius (H/R) about 3.0 for reliable maximum power output.

  11. Using computerized tomography to determine ionospheric structures. Part 2, A method using curved paths to increase vertical resolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vittitoe, C.N.

    1993-08-01

    A method is presented to unfold the two-dimensional vertical structure in electron density by using data on the total electron content for a series of paths through the ionosphere. The method uses a set of orthonormal basis functions to represent the vertical structure and takes advantage of curved paths and the eikonical equation to reduce the number of iterations required for a solution. Curved paths allow a more thorough probing of the ionosphere with a given set of transmitter and receiver positions. The approach can be directly extended to more complex geometries.

  12. Two-stage epitaxial growth of vertically-aligned SnO2 nano-rods on (001)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ceria (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Two-stage epitaxial growth of vertically-aligned SnO2 nano-rods on (001) ceria Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Two-stage epitaxial growth of vertically-aligned SnO2 nano-rods on (001) ceria Growth of high-aspect ratio oriented tin oxide, SnO2, nano-rods is complicated by a limited choice of matching substrates. We show that a (001) cerium oxide, CeO2, surface uniquely enables epitaxial growth of tin-oxide nano-rods via a two-stage process.

  13. Vertically aligned P(VDF-TrFE) core-shell structures on flexible pillar arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Yoon-Young; Yun, Tae Gwang; Qaiser, Nadeem; Paik, Haemin; Roh, Hee Seok; Hong, Jongin; Hong, Seungbum; Han, Seung Min; No, Kwangsoo

    2015-06-04

    PVDF and P(VDF-TrFE) nano- and micro- structures are widely used due to their potential applications in several fields, including sensors, actuators, vital sign transducers, and energy harvesters. In this study, we developed vertically aligned P(VDF-TrFE) core-shell structures using high modulus polyurethane acrylate (PUA) pillars as the support structure to maintain the structural integrity. In addition, we were able to improve the piezoelectric effect by 1.85 times from 40 ± 2 to 74 ± 2 pm/V when compared to the thin film counterpart, which contributes to the more efficient current generation under a given stress, by making an effective use of the P(VDF-TrFE) thin top layer as well as the side walls. We attribute the enhancement of piezoelectric effects to the contributions from the shell component and the strain confinement effect, which was supported by our modeling results. We envision that these organic-based P(VDF-TrFE) core-shell structures will be used widely as 3D sensors and power generators because they are optimized for current generations by utilizing all surface areas, including the side walls of core-shell structures.

  14. Buoyant instabilities in downward flow in a symmetrically heated vertical channel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, G.; Greif, R.

    1996-07-01

    This study of the downward flow of nitrogen in a tall, partially heated vertical channel (upstream isothermal at T{sub in}*, heated region isothermal at T{sub s}* downstream adiabatic) shows the strong effects of buoyancy even for small temperature differences. Time-dependent oscillations including periodic flow reversals occur along the channel walls. Although the flow and heat transfer are asymmetric, the temperature and axial component of velocity show symmetric reflections at two times that are half a period apart and the lateral component of velocity shows antisymmetric reflections at the two times. There is strong interaction between the downward flow in the central region of the channel and the upward flow along the heated channel walls. At the top of the heated region, the upward buoyant flow turns toward the center of the channel and is incorporated into the downward flow. Along the channel centerline there are nonmonotonic variations of the axial component of velocity and temperature and a large lateral component of velocity that reverses direction periodically. Results are presented for Re = 219.7 and Gr/Re{sup 2} = 1.83, 8.0, and 13.7. The heat transfer and the frequency of the oscillations increases and the flow and temperature fields become more complex as Gr/Re{sup 2} increases. The results have applications to fiber drying, food processing, crystal growth, solar energy collection, cooling of electronic circuits, ventilation, etc.

  15. Vertically aligned crystalline silicon nanowires with controlled diameters for energy conversion applications: Experimental and theoretical insights

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Razek, Sara Abdel; Swillam, Mohamed A.; Allam, Nageh K.

    2014-05-21

    Vertically orientated single crystalline silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays with controlled diameters are fabricated via a metal-assisted chemical etching method. The diameter of the fabricated nanowires is controlled by simply varying the etching time in HF/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} electrolytes. The fabricated SiNWs have diameters ranging from 117 to 650?nm and lengths from 8 to 18??m. The optical measurements showed a significant difference in the reflectance/absorption of the SiNWs with different diameters, where the reflectance increases with increasing the diameter of the SiNWs. The SiNWs showed significant photoluminescence (PL) emission spectra with peaks lying between 380 and 670?nm. The PL intensity increases as the diameter increases and shows red shift for peaks at ?670?nm. The increase or decrease of reflectivity is coincident with PL intensity at wavelength ?660?nm. The x-ray diffraction patterns confirm the high crystallinity of the fabricated SiNWs. In addition, the Raman spectra showed a shift in the first order transverse band toward lower frequencies compared to that usually seen for c-Si. Finite difference time domain simulations have been performed to confirm the effect of change of diameter on the optical properties of the nanowires. The simulation results showed good agreement with the experimental results for the SiNWs of different diameters.

  16. Water Velocity Measurements on a Vertical Barrier Screen at the Bonneville Dam Second Powerhouse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, James S.; Deng, Zhiqun; Weiland, Mark A.; Martinez, Jayson J.; Yuan, Yong

    2011-11-22

    Fish screens at hydroelectric dams help to protect rearing and migrating fish by preventing them from passing through the turbines and directing them towards the bypass channels by providing a sweeping flow parallel to the screen. However, fish screens may actually be harmful to fish if they become impinged on the surface of the screen or become disoriented due to poor flow conditions near the screen. Recent modifications to the vertical barrier screens (VBS) at the Bonneville Dam second powerhouse (B2) intended to increase the guidance of juvenile salmonids into the juvenile bypass system (JBS) have resulted in high mortality and descaling rates of hatchery subyearling Chinook salmon during the 2008 juvenile salmonid passage season. To investigate the potential cause of the high mortality and descaling rates, an in situ water velocity measurement study was conducted using acoustic Doppler velocimeters (ADV) in the gatewell slot at Units 12A and 14A of B2. From the measurements collected the average approach velocity, sweep velocity, and the root mean square (RMS) value of the velocity fluctuations were calculated. The approach velocities measured across the face of the VBS varied but were mostly less than 0.3 m/s. The sweep velocities also showed large variances across the face of the VBS with most measurements being less than 1.5 m/s. This study revealed that the approach velocities exceeded criteria recommended by NOAA Fisheries and Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife intended to improve fish passage conditions.

  17. Characterization of heat loads from mitigated and unmitigated vertical displacement events in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hollmann, E. M.; Moyer, R. A.; Commaux, N.; Jernigan, T. J.; Eidietis, N. W.; Humphreys, D. A.; Strait, E. J.; Wesley, J. C.; Lasnier, C. J.; Pitts, R. A.; Sugihara, M.; Watkins, J.

    2013-06-15

    Experiments have been conducted on the DIII-D tokamak to study the distribution and repeatability of heat loads and vessel currents resulting from vertical displacement events (VDEs). For unmitigated VDEs, the radiated power fraction appears to be of order 50%, with the remaining power dominantly conducted to the vessel walls. Shot-to-shot scatter in heat loads measured at one toroidal location is not large (<50%), suggesting that toroidal asymmetries in conducted heat loads are not large. Conducted heat loads are clearly observed during the current quench (CQ) of both mitigated and unmitigated disruptions. Significant poloidal asymmetries in heat loads and radiated power are often observed in the experiments but are not yet understood. Energy dissipated resistively in the conducting walls during the CQ appears to be small (<5%). The mitigating effect of neon massive gas injection (MGI) as a function of MGI trigger delay has also been studied. Improved mitigation is observed as the MGI trigger delay is decreased. For sufficiently early MGI mitigation, close to 100% radiated energy and a reduction of roughly a factor 2 in vessel forces is achieved.

  18. Temperature-insensitive vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and method for fabrication thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chow, Weng W.; Choquette, Kent D.; Gourley, Paul L.

    1998-01-01

    A temperature-insensitive vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) and method for fabrication thereof. The temperature-insensitive VCSEL comprises a quantum-well active region within a resonant cavity, the active region having a gain spectrum with a high-order subband (n.gtoreq.2) contribution thereto for broadening and flattening the gain spectrum, thereby substantially reducing any variation in operating characteristics of the VCSEL over a temperature range of interest. The method for forming the temperature-insensitive VCSEL comprises the steps of providing a substrate and forming a plurality of layers thereon for providing first and second distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) mirror stacks with an active region sandwiched therebetween, the active region including at least one quantum-well layer providing a gain spectrum having a high-order subband (n.gtoreq.2) gain contribution, and the DBR mirror stacks having predetermined layer compositions and thicknesses for providing a cavity resonance within a predetermined wavelength range substantially overlapping the gain spectrum.

  19. Temperature-insensitive vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and method for fabrication thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chow, W.W.; Choquette, K.D.; Gourley, P.L.

    1998-01-27

    A temperature-insensitive vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) and method for fabrication thereof are disclosed. The temperature-insensitive VCSEL comprises a quantum-well active region within a resonant cavity, the active region having a gain spectrum with a high-order subband (n {>=} 2) contribution thereto for broadening and flattening the gain spectrum, thereby substantially reducing any variation in operating characteristics of the VCSEL over a temperature range of interest. The method for forming the temperature-insensitive VCSEL comprises the steps of providing a substrate and forming a plurality of layers thereon for providing first and second distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) mirror stacks with an active region sandwiched therebetween, the active region including at least one quantum-well layer providing a gain spectrum having a high-order subband (n {>=} 2) gain contribution, and the DBR mirror stacks having predetermined layer compositions and thicknesses for providing a cavity resonance within a predetermined wavelength range substantially overlapping the gain spectrum. 12 figs.

  20. Vertically aligned P(VDF-TrFE) core-shell structures on flexible pillar arrays

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Choi, Yoon-Young; Yun, Tae Gwang; Qaiser, Nadeem; Paik, Haemin; Roh, Hee Seok; Hong, Jongin; Hong, Seungbum; Han, Seung Min; No, Kwangsoo

    2015-06-04

    PVDF and P(VDF-TrFE) nano- and micro- structures are widely used due to their potential applications in several fields, including sensors, actuators, vital sign transducers, and energy harvesters. In this study, we developed vertically aligned P(VDF-TrFE) core-shell structures using high modulus polyurethane acrylate (PUA) pillars as the support structure to maintain the structural integrity. In addition, we were able to improve the piezoelectric effect by 1.85 times from 40 ± 2 to 74 ± 2 pm/V when compared to the thin film counterpart, which contributes to the more efficient current generation under a given stress, by making an effective use ofmore » the P(VDF-TrFE) thin top layer as well as the side walls. We attribute the enhancement of piezoelectric effects to the contributions from the shell component and the strain confinement effect, which was supported by our modeling results. We envision that these organic-based P(VDF-TrFE) core-shell structures will be used widely as 3D sensors and power generators because they are optimized for current generations by utilizing all surface areas, including the side walls of core-shell structures.« less

  1. Design parameters and commissioning of vertical inserts used for testing the XFEL superconducting cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schaffran, J.; Bozhko, Y.; Petersen, B.; Meissner, D.; Chorowski, M.; Polinski, J.

    2014-01-29

    The European XFEL is a new research facility currently under construction at DESY in the Hamburg area in Germany. From 2015 on, it will generate extremely intense X-ray flashes that will be used by researchers from all over the world. The superconducting XFEL linear accelerator consists of 100 accelerator modules with more than 800 RF-cavities inside. The accelerator modules, superconducting magnets and cavities will be tested in the accelerator module test facility (AMTF). This paper gives an overview of the design parameters and the commissioning of the vertical insert, used in two cryostats (XATC) of the AMTF-hall. The Insert serves as a holder for 4 nine-cell cavities. This gives the possibility to cool down 4 cavities to 2K in parallel and, consequently, to reduce the testing time. The following RF measurement, selected as quality check, will be done separately for each cavity. Afterwards the cavities will be warmed up again and will be sent to the accelerator module assembly.

  2. Design and commissioning of vertical test cryostats for XFEL superconducting cavities measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polinski, J.; Chorowski, M.; Duda, P.; Bozhko, Y.; Petersen, B.; Schaffran, J.

    2014-01-29

    The European X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL), now under construction at DESY in Hamburg, will make an extensive use of 1.3 GHz superconducting cavities aimed at accelerating the electrons to the energy of 17.5 GeV. The cavities will be operated at 2 K with the use of saturated HeII. Prior to their assembly in accelerator cryomodules, the RF performance of the cavities will be cold-tested in two dedicated vertical cryostats. Each cryostat allows a simultaneous testing of 4 cavities mounted on a dedicated insert. The cryostats are equipped with external lines allowing their supply with liquid helium and further conversion of the helium into superfluid He II. The paper describes the test stand flow scheme, the technical key elements, including a recuperative heat exchanger, and the cold commissioning. The thermodynamic analysis of the cryostat cool down and steady-state operation is given. A Second Law of Thermodynamics based theoretical model of the heat exchanger performance, and the model experimental validation, is presented.

  3. Development of substrate-removal-free vertical ultraviolet light-emitting diode (RefV-LED)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurose, N. Aoyagi, Y.; Shibano, K.; Araki, T.

    2014-02-15

    A vertical ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diode (LED) that does not require substrate removal is developed. Spontaneous via holes are formed in n-AlN layer epitaxially grown on a high conductive n+Si substrate and the injected current flows directly from the p-electrode to high doped n{sup +} Si substrate through p-AlGaN, multi-quantum wells, n-AlGaN and spontaneous via holes in n-AlN. The spontaneous via holes were formed by controlling feeding-sequence of metal-organic gas sources and NH{sub 3} and growth temperature in MOCVD. The via holes make insulating n-AlN to be conductive. We measured the current-voltage, current-light intensity and emission characteristics of this device. It exhibited a built-in voltage of 3.8 V and emission was stated at 350 nm from quantum wells with successive emission centered at 400 nm. This UV LED can be produced, including formation of n and p electrodes, without any resist process.

  4. Condensation of Refrigerant-11 on the outside of vertical enhanced tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Domingo, N.

    1981-08-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine heat transfer performance of single vertical tubes with Refrigerant-11 condensing on its outside surface. Twelve enhanced (fluted, spiraled, roped, and corrugated) tubes of 2.54-cm (1-in.) nominal outside diameter and 1.2-m (4-ft) length were tested. Several of the tested tubes featured internal enhanced geometries. A previously tested smooth tube served as the basis for comparison. Composite heat transfer coefficients (coefficients that include the resistances of both the condensing film and the tube wall), based on the total tube outside surface area, ranged from 850 to 6530 W/m/sup 2/ . K (150 to 1150 Btu/h . ft/sup 2/ . /sup 0/F) over the heat flux range of 5675 to 31,375 W/m/sup 2/ (1800 to 9950 Btu/h . ft/sup 2/). The primary conclusions from this study are: (1) for a given heat flux, an external fluted tube can increase composite condensing heat transfer coefficients by up to 5.5 times the smooth tube values, giving better condensing performance than any of the other geometries tested; (2) further increase in composite condensing coefficients can be achieved by using skirts to divide the fluted tube into equal condensing lengths; and (3) for a given overall temperature difference and water flow rate, internal flutes can increase the overall performance by up to 17% over that for a tube with identical outside flutes and a smooth inside surface.

  5. Vertical GaN power diodes with a bilayer edge termination

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dickerson, Jeramy R.; Allerman, Andrew A.; Bryant, Benjamin N.; Fischer, Arthur J.; King, Michael P.; Moseley, Michael W.; Armstrong, Andrew M.; Kaplar, Robert J.; Kizilyalli, Isik C.; Aktas, Ozgur; et al

    2015-12-07

    Vertical GaN power diodes with a bilayer edge termination (ET) are demonstrated. The GaN p-n junction is formed on a low threading dislocation defect density (104 - 105 cm-2) GaN substrate, and has a 15-μm-thick n-type drift layer with a free carrier concentration of 5 × 1015 cm-3. The ET structure is formed by N implantation into the p+-GaN epilayer just outside the p-type contact to create compensating defects. The implant defect profile may be approximated by a bilayer structure consisting of a fully compensated layer near the surface, followed by a 90% compensated (p) layer near the n-type driftmore » region. These devices exhibit avalanche breakdown as high as 2.6 kV at room temperature. In addition simulations show that the ET created by implantation is an effective way to laterally distribute the electric field over a large area. This increases the voltage at which impact ionization occurs and leads to the observed higher breakdown voltages.« less

  6. Film condensation of saturated and superheated vapors along isothermal vertical surfaces in mixed convection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winkler, C.M.; Chen, T.S.; Minkowycz, W.J.

    1999-09-01

    An analysis for condensation from an isothermal vertical flat plate in mixed convection is reported. The entire mixed convection regime is divided into two regions. One region covers the forced-convection-dominated regime, and the other covers the free-convection-dominated regime. The governing system of equations is first transformed into a dimensionless form by the nonsimilar transformation, separately for each regime, and then solved using the local nonsimilarity method along with a finite difference scheme. Two nonsimilarity parameters are introduced. The parameter {xi}{sub f} = Gr{sub x}/Re{sub x}{sup 2} characterizes the effect of buoyancy force on forced convection, while the parameter {xi}{sub n} = Re{sub x}/Gr{sub x}{sup 1/2} characterizes the effect of forced flow on free convection. Numerical results for pure steam and refrigerant R-134a are presented for both saturated and superheated cases. It is found that the buoyancy force significantly increases the wall shear stress and condensate mass flux. To a lesser degree, the buoyancy force also increases the wall heat flux. Superheating is found to have an insignificant effect on wall heat flux for a pure vapor.

  7. Reduced graphene oxide and vertically aligned carbon nanotubes superhydrophilic films for supercapacitors devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zanin, H.; Saito, E.; Ceragioli, H.J.; Baranauskas, V.; Corat, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Graphene nanosheets were produced onto wire rods. RGO and VACNT-O were evaluated and compared as supercapacitor electrode. RGO and VACNT-O have structural and electrochemical properties quite similars. The materials present good specific capacitance, energy storage and power delivery. - Abstract: Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNT) superhydrophilic films were prepared by chemical vapor deposition techniques for electrical energy storage investigations. These electrodes were characterized in terms of their material and electrochemical properties by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), surface wettability, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy dispersive and Raman spectroscopies, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic chargedischarge. We observed several physical structural and electrochemical similarities between these carbon-based materials with particular attention to very good specific capacitance, ultra-high energy storage and fast power delivery. Our results showed that the main difference between specific capacitance values is attributed to pseudocapacitive contribution and high density of multiwall nanotubes tips. In this work we have tested a supercapacitor device using the VACNT electrodes.

  8. Passive recovery of DNAPL from clayey soil via vertical collection wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tease, B.; Gagnon, D.

    1995-12-01

    A release of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL) from two underground storage tanks (USTs), created a contaminant plume that extended approximately 30 feet into lacustrine sediments comprised mainly of varved clay. Subsurfaces investigations indicated that the release was comprised primarily of the chlorinated solvent Trichloroethene which had migrated horizontally approximately 250 feet cross-gradient to groundwater flow. A relatively narrow zone of free phase product extended from the UST area approximately 150-200 feet along the plume of migration at a depth of 20-30 feet below the ground surface. Since clay varves interconnected by vertical fractures is believed to have facilitated the DNAPL migration, 4{close_quotes} diameter stainless steel collection recovery of 10-20 quarts of DNAPL per each collection event, over a 4 month period supported what is believed to be preferential DNAPL migration. DNAPL recovery continued for a total of 6 months before the point of diminimus return (1-2 quarts/month) resulted in adopting a quarterly recovery schedule. To date, 201 quarts of free phase DNAPL have been recovered. DNAPL mobility, delineation, well installation and collection techniques are discussed. Compared to conventional remediation alternatives, this passive recovery system provides an innovative approach to a difficult and costly problem; recovery of DNAPL isolated within clay.

  9. Vertical GaN power diodes with a bilayer edge termination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickerson, Jeramy R.; Allerman, Andrew A.; Bryant, Benjamin N.; Fischer, Arthur J.; King, Michael P.; Moseley, Michael W.; Armstrong, Andrew M.; Kaplar, Robert J.; Kizilyalli, Isik C.; Aktas, Ozgur; Wierer, Jr., Jonathan J.

    2015-12-07

    Vertical GaN power diodes with a bilayer edge termination (ET) are demonstrated. The GaN p-n junction is formed on a low threading dislocation defect density (104 - 105 cm-2) GaN substrate, and has a 15-?m-thick n-type drift layer with a free carrier concentration of 5 1015 cm-3. The ET structure is formed by N implantation into the p+-GaN epilayer just outside the p-type contact to create compensating defects. The implant defect profile may be approximated by a bilayer structure consisting of a fully compensated layer near the surface, followed by a 90% compensated (p) layer near the n-type drift region. These devices exhibit avalanche breakdown as high as 2.6 kV at room temperature. In addition simulations show that the ET created by implantation is an effective way to laterally distribute the electric field over a large area. This increases the voltage at which impact ionization occurs and leads to the observed higher breakdown voltages.

  10. A Block-Structured KIVA Program for Engines with Vertical or Canted Valves

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1999-08-23

    KIVA3VRELEASE2 is a computer program for the numerical calculation of transient, two and three-dimensional, chemically reactive flows with sprays. It is a newer version of the earlier KIVA3 (1993) that has now been extended to model vertical of canted valves in the cylinder head of a gasoline or diesel engine. KIVA3, in turn, was based on the earlier KIVA2 (1989) and uses the same numerical solution procedure and solves the same sort of equations. KIVA3VRELEASE2more » uses a block-structured mesh with connectivity defined through indirect addressing. The departure from a single rectangular structure in logical space allows complex geometries to be modeled with significantly greater efficiency because large regions of deactivated cells are no longer necessary. Cell-face boundary conditions permit greater flexibility and simplification in the application of boundary conditions. KIVA3VRELEASE2 contains a number of significant changes. New features enhance the robustness, efficiency, and usefullness of the overall program for engine modeling. Automatic restart of the cycle with a reduced timestep in case of iteration limit or temperature overflow will reduce code crashes. A new option provides automatic deactivation of a port region when it is closed from the cylinder and reactivation when it communicates with the cylinder. Corrections in the code improve accuracy; extensions to the particle-based liquid wall film model makes the model more complete and a spli injection option has been added. A new subroutine monitors the liquid and gaseous fuel phases and energy balance data and emissions are monitored and printed. New features have been added to the grid generator K3PREP and the graphics post processor, K3POST.« less

  11. Route to polarization switching induced by optical injection in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sciamanna, M.; Panajotov, K.

    2006-02-15

    We perform a theoretical investigation of the polarization dynamics in a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) subject to orthogonal optical injection, i.e., the injected field has a linear polarization (LP) orthogonal to that of the free-running VCSEL. In agreement with previous experiments [Z. G. Pan et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2999 (1993)], an increase of the injection strength may lead to a polarization switching accompanied by an injection locking. We find that this route to polarization switching is typically accompanied by a cascade of bifurcations to wave-mixing dynamics and time-periodic and possibly chaotic regimes. A detailed mapping of the polarization dynamics in the plane of the injection parameters (detuning, injection strength) unveils a large richness of dynamical scenarios. Of particular interest is the existence of another injection-locked solution for which the two LP modes both lock to the master laser frequency, i.e., an elliptically polarized injection-locked (EPIL) steady state. Modern continuation techniques allow us to unveil an unfolding mechanism of the EPIL solution as the detuning varies and also to link the existence of the EPIL solution to a resonance condition between the master laser frequency and the free-running frequency of the normally depressed LP mode in the slave laser. We furthermore report an additional case of bistability, in which the EPIL solution may coexist with the second injection-locked solution (the one being locked to the master polarization). This case of bistability is a result of the interaction between optical injection and the two-polarization-mode characteristics of VCSEL devices.

  12. Code System Calculate One-Dimensional Vertical Transport Unsaturated Soil Zone

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1989-03-01

    SESOIL, as an integrated screening-level soil compartment model, is designed to simultaneously model water transport, sediment transport, and pollutant fate. SESOIL is a one-dimensional vertical transport model for the unsaturated soil zone. Only one compound at a time can be considered. The model is based on mass balance and equilibrium partitioning of the chemical between different phases (dissolved, sorbed, vapor, and pure). The SESOIL model was designed to perform long-term simulations of chemical transport andmore » transformations in the soil and uses theoretically derived equations to represent water transport, sediment transport on the land surface, pollutant transformation, and migration of the pollutant to the atmosphere and groundwater. Climatic data, compartment geometry, and soil and chemical property data are the major components used in the equations. SESOIL was developed as a screening-level model, utilizing less soil, chemical, and meteorological values as input than most other similar models. Output of SESOIL includes time-varying pollutant concentrations at various soil depths and pollutant loss from the unsaturated zone in terms of surface runoff, percolation to the groundwater, volatilization, and degradation. The February 1995 release corrects an error that caused the code to fail when average monthly air temperature was -10C and includes an improved iteration procedure for the mass balance equations in the model. PLEASE NOTE: The RISKPRO information management software (see OTHER PROG/OPER SYS INFO) was used by the developers of the New SESOIL User''s Guide in their study and revisions of SESOIL. Using RISKPRO in conjunction with SESOIL is an option, and it may provide the easiest way to use SESOIL. The other option, use of SESOIL in stand-alone mode, has been tested and used. The stand-alone option is covered in ''Instructions for Running Stand-Alone SESOIL Code'', and in ''A Seasonal Soil Compartment Model''.« less

  13. Air-injection testing in vertical boreholes in welded and nonwelded Tuff, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LeCain, G.D.

    1997-12-31

    Air-injection tests, by use of straddle packers, were done in four vertical boreholes (UE-25 UZ-No.16, USW SD-12, USW NRG-6, and USW NRG-7a) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The geologic units tested were the Tiva Canyon Tuff, nonwelded tuffs of the Paintbrush Group, Topopah Spring Tuff, and Calico Hills Formation. Air-injection permeability values of the Tiva Canyon Tuff ranged from 0.3 x 10{sup -12} to 54.0 x 10{sup -12} m{sup 2}(square meter). Air-injection permeability values of the Paintbrush nonwelded tuff ranged from 0.12 x 10{sup -12} to 3.0 x 10{sup -12} m{sup 2}. Air-injection permeability values of the Topopah Spring Tuff ranged from 0.02 x 10{sup -12} to 33.0 x 10{sup -12} m{sup 2}. The air-injection permeability value of the only Calico Hills Formation interval tested was 0.025 x 10{sup -12} m{sup 2}. The shallow test intervals of the Tiva Canyon Tuff had the highest air-injection permeability values. Variograms of the air-injection permeability values of the Topopah Spring Tuff show a hole effect; an initial increase in the variogram values is followed by a decrease. The hole effect is due to the decrease in permeability with depth identified in several geologic zones. The hole effect indicates some structural control of the permeability distribution, possibly associated with the deposition and cooling of the tuff. Analysis of variance indicates that the air-injection permeability values of borehole NRG-7a of the Topopah Spring Tuff are different from the other boreholes; this indicates areal variation in permeability.

  14. Mixed convection heat transfer from thermal sources mounted on horizontal and vertical surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, S.S.; Jaluria, Y. )

    1990-11-01

    An experimental study is carried out on the fundamental aspects of the conjugate, mixed convective heat transfer from two finite width heat sources, which are of negligible thickness, have a uniform heat flux input at the surface, and are located on a flat plate in a horizontal or the vertical orientation. The heat sources are wide in the transverse direction and, therefore, a two-dimensional flow circumstance is simulated. The mixed convection parameter is varied over a fairly wide range to include the buoyancy-dominated and the mixed convection regimes. The circumstances of pure natural convection are also investigated. The convective mechanisms have been studied in detail by measuring the surface temperatures and determining the heat transfer coefficients for the two heated strips, which represent isolated thermal sources. Experimental results indicate that a stronger upstream heat source causes an increase in the surface temperature of a relatively weaker heat source, located downstream, by reducing it convective heat transfer coefficient. The influence of the upstream source is found to be strongly dependent on the surface orientation, especially in the pure natural convection and the buoyancy dominated regimes. The two heat sources are found to be essentially independent on the surface orientation, especially in the pure natural convection and the buoyancy dominated regimes. The two heat sources are found to be essentially independent of each other, in terms of thermal effects, at a separation distance of more than about three strip widths for both the orientations. The results obtained are relevant to many engineering applications, such as the cooling of electronic systems, positioning of heating elements in furnaces, and safety considerations in enclosure fires.

  15. Two-stage epitaxial growth of vertically-aligned SnO2 nano-rods on (001) ceria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solovyov, VF; Wu, LJ; Rupich, MW; Sathyamurthy, S; Li, XP; Li, Q

    2014-12-15

    Growth of high-aspect ratio oriented tin oxide, SnO2, nano-rods is complicated by a limited choice of matching substrates. We show that a (001) cerium oxide, CeO2, surface uniquely enables epitaxial growth of tin-oxide nano-rods via a two-stage process. First, (100) oriented nano-wires coat the ceria surface by lateral growth, forming a uniaxially-textured SnO2 deposit. Second, vertical SnO2 nano-rods nucleate on the deposit by homoepitaxy. We demonstrate growth of vertically oriented 1-2 mu m long nano-rods with an average diameter of approximate to 20 nm. 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Two-stage epitaxial growth of vertically-aligned SnO2 nano-rods on(001) ceria

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Solovyov, Vyacheslav F.; Wu, Li-jun; Rupich, Martin W.; Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan; Li, Xiaoping; Li, Qiang

    2014-09-20

    Growth of high-aspect ratio oriented tin oxide, SnO2, nano-rods is complicated by a limited choice of matching substrates. We show that a (001) cerium oxide, CeO2, surface uniquely enables epitaxial growth of tin-oxide nano-rods via a two-stage process. First, (100) oriented nano-wires coat the ceria surface by lateral growth, forming a uniaxially-textured SnO2 deposit. Second, vertical SnO2nano-rods nucleate on the deposit by homoepitaxy. We demonstrate growth of vertically oriented 1-2 μm long nano-rods with an average diameter of ≈20 nm.

  17. Room temperature continuous wave InGaAsN quantum well vertical cavity lasers emitting at 1.3 um

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CHOQUETTE,KENT D.; KLEM,JOHN F.; FISCHER,ARTHUR J.; SPAHN,OLGA B.; ALLERMAN,ANDREW A.; FRITZ,IAN J.; KURTZ,STEVEN R.; BREILAND,WILLIAM G.; SIEG,ROBERT M.; GEIB,KENT M.; SCOTT,J.W.; NAONE,R.L.

    2000-06-05

    Selectively oxidized vertical cavity lasers emitting at 1294 nm using InGaAsN quantum wells are reported for the first time which operate continuous wave at and above room temperature. The lasers employ two n-type Al{sub 0.94}Ga{sub 0.06}As/GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors each with a selectively oxidized current aperture adjacent to the optical cavity, and the top output mirror contains a tunnel junction to inject holes into the active region. Continuous wave single mode lasing is observed up to 55 C. These lasers exhibit the longest wavelength reported to date for vertical cavity surface emitting lasers grown on GaAs substrates.

  18. Comparison of practical vertical ground heat exchanger sizing methods to a Fort Polk data/model benchmark

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornton, J.W.; McDowell, T.P.; Hughes, P.J.

    1997-09-01

    The results of five practical vertical ground heat exchanger sizing programs are compared against a detailed simulation model that has been calibrated to monitored data taken from one military family housing unit at Fort Polk, Louisiana. The calibration of the detailed model to data is described in a companion paper. The assertion that the data/detailed model is a useful benchmark for practical sizing methods is based on this calibration. The results from the comparisons demonstrate the current level of agreement between vertical ground heat exchanger sizing methods in common use. It is recommended that the calibration and comparison exercise be repeated with data sets from additional sites in order to build confidence in the practical sizing methods.

  19. Performance and breakdown characteristics of irradiated vertical power GaN P-i-N diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, M. P.; Armstrong, A. M.; Dickerson, J. R.; Vizkelethy, G.; Fleming, R. M.; Campbell, J.; Wampler, W. R.; Kizilyalli, I. C.; Bour, D. P.; Aktas, O.; Nie, H.; Disney, D.; Wierer, Jr., J.; Allerman, A. A.; Moseley, M. W.; Kaplar, R. J.

    2015-10-29

    Electrical performance and defect characterization of vertical GaN P-i-N diodes before and after irradiation with 2.5 MeV protons and neutrons is investigated. Devices exhibit increase in specific on-resistance following irradiation with protons and neutrons, indicating displacement damage introduces defects into the p-GaN and n- drift regions of the device that impact on-state device performance. The breakdown voltage of these devices, initially above 1700 V, is observed to decrease only slightly for particle fluence <; 1013 cm-2. Furthermore, the unipolar figure of merit for power devices indicates that while the on-resistance and breakdown voltage degrade with irradiation, vertical GaN P-i-Ns remain superior to the performance of the best available, unirradiated silicon devices and on-par with unirradiated modern SiC-based power devices.

  20. Geodetic Survey At Nw Basin & Range Region (Blewitt, Et Al.,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Unknown References Geoffrey Blewittl, Mark F. Coolbaugh, Don Sawatzky, William Holt, James Davis, Richard A. Bennett (2003) Targeting Of Potential Geothermal Resources In The...

  1. Geodetic Survey At Northern Basin & Range Region (Blewitt, Et...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Unknown References Geoffrey Blewittl, Mark F. Coolbaugh, Don Sawatzky, William Holt, James Davis, Richard A. Bennett (2003) Targeting Of Potential Geothermal Resources In The...

  2. Geodetic Survey At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Blewitt...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Unknown References Geoffrey Blewittl, Mark F. Coolbaugh, Don Sawatzky, William Holt, James Davis, Richard A. Bennett (2003) Targeting Of Potential Geothermal Resources In The...

  3. Geodetic Survey At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Newman...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and slip across the South Moat fault (SMF) in late 1997. We extend the spherical VE shell model of Newman et al. (Newman, A.V., Dixon, T.H., Ofoegbu, G., Dixon, J.E., 2001....

  4. Geodetic Constraints on Contemporary Deformation in the Northern...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Analysis- In: Late Cenozoic Structure and Evolution of the Great Basin-Sierra Nevada Transition Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Book Section:...

  5. Geodetic Survey At Medicine Lake Area (Poland, Et Al., 2006)...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown References Michael Poland, Roland Burgmann, Daniel Dzurisin, Michael Lisowski, Timothy Masterlark, Susan Owen, Jonathan Fink (2006)...

  6. Experimental determination of lateral vibration of the 708 MVA Westinghouse vertical hydro generators at Grand Coulee Dam, Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, R.L.

    1981-09-01

    The damped rotor bearing system of large vertical shaft systems presents special problems for high speed storage installations. The results of the first test of its kind have given experimental data contributing to this technology. Synchronous and non-synchronous vibrations were found to contribute to runout loading. Measurements on the pivot pad hydrodynamic bearings gave stiffness characteristics. Measurements showed that balancing the rotor reduced vibration levels. 1 ref.

  7. Method of varying a characteristic of an optical vertical cavity structure formed by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hou, Hong Q. (Albuquerque, NM); Coltrin, Michael E. (Albuquerque, NM); Choquette, Kent D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01

    A process for forming an array of vertical cavity optical resonant structures wherein the structures in the array have different detection or emission wavelengths. The process uses selective area growth (SAG) in conjunction with annular masks of differing dimensions to control the thickness and chemical composition of the materials in the optical cavities in conjunction with a metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) process to build these arrays.

  8. Computation of Domain-Averaged Irradiance with a Simple Two-Stream Radiative Transfer Model Including Vertical Cloud Property Correlations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Computation of Domain-Averaged Irradiance with a Simple Two-Stream Radiative Transfer Model Including Vertical Cloud Property Correlations S. Kato Center for Atmospheric Sciences Hampton University Hampton, Virginia Introduction Recent development of remote sensing instruments by Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM?) Program provides information of spatial and temporal variability of cloud structures. However it is not clear what cloud properties are required to express complicated cloud

  9. Conventional Energy (Oil, Gas, and Coal) Forum & Associated Vertical Business Development Best Practices in Indian Country

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    CONVENTIONAL ENERGY (OIL, GAS & COAL) FORUM & ASSOCIATED VERTICAL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT BEST PRACTICES IN INDIAN COUNTRY March 1, 2012 MANDALAY BAY RESORT AND CASINO NORTH CONVENTION CENTER 3950 Las Vegas Blvd. South, Las Vegas, NV 89119 The dynamic world of conventional energy (focusing on oil, gas and coal energy) is a critical piece of the American energy portfolio. This strategic energy forum will focus on recent trends, existing successful partnerships, and perspectives on the future

  10. Design, fabrication, and performance analysis of GaN vertical electron transistors with a buried p/n junction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeluri, Ramya Lu, Jing; Keller, Stacia; Mishra, Umesh K.; Hurni, Christophe A.; Browne, David A.; Speck, James S.; Chowdhury, Srabanti

    2015-05-04

    The Current Aperture Vertical Electron Transistor (CAVET) combines the high conductivity of the two dimensional electron gas channel at the AlGaN/GaN heterojunction with better field distribution offered by a vertical design. In this work, CAVETs with buried, conductive p-GaN layers as the current blocking layer are reported. The p-GaN layer was regrown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition and the subsequent channel regrowth was done by ammonia molecular beam epitaxy to maintain the p-GaN conductivity. Transistors with high ON current (10.9?kA/cm{sup 2}) and low ON-resistance (0.4 m? cm{sup 2}) are demonstrated. Non-planar selective area regrowth is identified as the limiting factor to transistor breakdown, using planar and non-planar n/p/n structures. Planar n/p/n structures recorded an estimated electric field of 3.1 MV/cm, while non-planar structures showed a much lower breakdown voltage. Lowering the p-GaN regrowth temperature improved breakdown in the non-planar n/p/n structure. Combining high breakdown voltage with high current will enable GaN vertical transistors with high power densities.

  11. Developement of 3D Vertically Integrated Pattern Recognition Associative Memory (VIPRAM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deputch, G.; Hoff, J.; Lipton, R.; Liu, T.; Olsen, J.; Ramberg, E.; Wu, Jin-Yuan; Yarema, R.; Shochet, M.; Tang, F.; Demarteau, M.; /Argonne /INFN, Padova

    2011-04-13

    Many next-generation physics experiments will be characterized by the collection of large quantities of data, taken in rapid succession, from which scientists will have to unravel the underlying physical processes. In most cases, large backgrounds will overwhelm the physics signal. Since the quantity of data that can be stored for later analysis is limited, real-time event selection is imperative to retain the interesting events while rejecting the background. Scaling of current technologies is unlikely to satisfy the scientific needs of future projects, so investments in transformational new technologies need to be made. For example, future particle physics experiments looking for rare processes will have to address the demanding challenges of fast pattern recognition in triggering as detector hit density becomes significantly higher due to the high luminosity required to produce the rare processes. In this proposal, we intend to develop hardware-based technology that significantly advances the state-of-the-art for fast pattern recognition within and outside HEP using the 3D vertical integration technology that has emerged recently in industry. The ultimate physics reach of the LHC experiments will crucially depend on the tracking trigger's ability to help discriminate between interesting rare events and the background. Hardware-based pattern recognition for fast triggering on particle tracks has been successfully used in high-energy physics experiments for some time. The CDF Silicon Vertex Trigger (SVT) at the Fermilab Tevatron is an excellent example. The method used there, developed in the 1990's, is based on algorithms that use a massively parallel associative memory architecture to identify patterns efficiently at high speed. However, due to much higher occupancy and event rates at the LHC, and the fact that the LHC detectors have a much larger number of channels in their tracking detectors, there is an enormous challenge in implementing pattern recognition for a track trigger, requiring about three orders of magnitude more associative memory patterns than what was used in the original CDF SVT. Significant improvement in the architecture of associative memory structures is needed to run fast pattern recognition algorithms of this scale. We are proposing the development of 3D integrated circuit technology as a way to implement new associative memory structures for fast pattern recognition applications. Adding a 'third' dimension to the signal processing chain, as compared to the two-dimensional nature of printed circuit boards, Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), etc., opens up the possibility for new architectures that could dramatically enhance pattern recognition capability. We are currently performing preliminary design work to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach. In this proposal, we seek to develop the design and perform the ASIC engineering necessary to realize a prototype device. While our focus here is on the Energy Frontier (e.g. the LHC), the approach may have applications in experiments in the Intensity Frontier and the Cosmic Frontier as well as other scientific and medical projects. In fact, the technique that we are proposing is very generic and could have wide applications far beyond track trigger, both within and outside HEP.

  12. Time-resolved observation of fast domain-walls driven by vertical spin currents in short tracks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sampaio, Joao; Lequeux, Steven; Chanthbouala, Andre; Cros, Vincent; Grollier, Julie; Matsumoto, Rie; Yakushiji, Kay; Kubota, Hitoshi; Fukushima, Akio; Yuasa, Shinji; Nishimura, Kazumasa; Nagamine, Yoshinori; Maehara, Hiroki; Tsunekawa, Koji

    2013-12-09

    We present time-resolved measurements of the displacement of magnetic domain-walls (DWs) driven by vertical spin-polarized currents in track-shaped magnetic tunnel junctions. In these structures, we observe very high DW velocities (600 m/s) at current densities below 10{sup 7} A/cm{sup 2}. We show that the efficient spin-transfer torque combined with a short propagation distance allows avoiding the Walker breakdown process and achieving deterministic, reversible, and fast (≈1 ns) DW-mediated switching of magnetic tunnel junction elements, which is of great interest for the implementation of fast DW-based spintronic devices.

  13. Development of vertically aligned ZnO-nanowires scintillators for high spatial resolution x-ray imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kobayashi, Masakazu Komori, Jun; Shimidzu, Kaiji; Izaki, Masanobu; Uesugi, Kentaro; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Suzuki, Yoshio

    2015-02-23

    Newly designed scintillator of (0001)-oriented ZnO vertical nanowires (vnws) for X-ray imaging was prepared on a Ga-doped ZnO/soda-lime glass by electrodeposition, and the light emission feature was estimated in a synchrotron radiation facility. The ZnO-vnws scintillator revealed a strong light emission and improved resolution on CMOS image compared with that for the ZnO-layer scintillator, although the light emission performance was deteriorated in comparison to the Lu{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12:}Ce{sup 3+}. The light emission property closely related to the nanostructure and the resultant photoluminescence characteristic.

  14. Hyperfine-induced hysteretic funnel structure in spin blockaded tunneling current of coupled vertical quantum dots at low magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leary, A.; Wicha, A.; Harack, B.; Coish, W. A.; Hilke, M.; Yu, G.; Gupta, J. A.; Payette, C.; Austing, D. G.

    2013-12-04

    We outline the properties of the hyperfine-induced funnel structure observed in the two-electron spin blockade region of a weakly coupled vertical double quantum dot device. Hysteretic steps in the leakage current occur due to dynamic nuclear polarization when either the bias voltage or the magnetic field is swept up and down. When the bias voltage is swept, an intriguing ?3 mT wide cusp near 0 T appears in the down-sweep position, and when the magnetic field is swept, the current at 0 T can be switched from 'low' to 'high' as the bias is increased.

  15. GaN-based vertical-cavity laser performance improvements using tunnel-junction-cascaded active regions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piprek, Joachim

    2014-07-07

    This Letter investigates the output power enhancement achieved by tunnel junction insertion into the InGaN multi-quantum well (MQW) active region of a 410?nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser which enables the repeated use of carriers for light generation (carrier recycling). While the number of quantum wells remains unchanged, the tunnel junction eliminates absorption caused by the non-uniform MQW carrier distribution. The thermal resistance drops and the excess bias lead to a surprisingly small rise in self-heating.

  16. Assessment of CCFL model of RELAP5/MOD3 against simple vertical tubes and rod bundle tests. International Agreement Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, S.; Arne, N.; Chung, B.D.; Kim, H.J.

    1993-06-01

    The CCFL model used in RELAP5/MOD3 version 5m5 has been assessed against simple vertical tubes and bundle tests performed at a facility of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. The effect of changes in tube diameter and nodalization of tube section were investigated. The roles of interfacial drags on the flooding characteristics are discussed. Differences between the calculation and the experiment are also discussed. A comparison between model assessment results and the test data showed that the calculated value lay well on the experimental flooding curve specified by user, but the pressure jump before onset of flooding was not calculated.

  17. Phase transformations during the Ag-In plating and bonding of vertical diode elements of multijunction solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klochko, N. P. Khrypunov, G. S.; Volkova, N. D.; Kopach, V. R.; Lyubov, V. N.; Kirichenko, M. V.; Momotenko, A. V.; Kharchenko, N. M.; Nikitin, V. A.

    2013-06-15

    The conditions of the bonding of silicon multijunction solar cells with vertical p-n junctions using Ag-In solder are studied. The compositions of electrodeposited indium films on silicon wafers silver plated by screen printing and silver and indium films fabricated by layer-by-layer electrochemical deposition onto the surface of silicon vertical diode cells silver plated in vacuum are studied. Studying the electrochemical-deposition conditions, structure, and surface morphology of the grown layers showed that guaranteed bonding is provided by 8-min heat treatment at 400 Degree-Sign C under the pressure of a stack of metallized silicon wafers; however, the ratio of the indium and silver layer thicknesses should not exceed 1: 3. As this condition is satisfied, the solder after wafer bonding has the InAg{sub 3} structure (or InAg{sub 3} with an Ag phase admixture), due to which the junction melting point exceeds 700 Degree-Sign C, which guarantees the functioning of such solar cells under concentrated illumination.

  18. Perovskite solar cells with near 100% internal quantum efficiency based on large single crystalline grains and vertical bulk heterojunctions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yang, Bin; Dyck, Ondrej; Poplawsky, Jonathan; Keum, Jong; Puretzky, Alexander; Das, Sanjib; Ivanov, Ilia; Rouleau, Christopher; Duscher, Gerd; Geohegan, David; et al

    2015-07-09

    Grain boundaries (GBs) as defects in the crystal lattice detrimentally impact the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of polycrystalline solar cells, particularly in recently emerging hybrid perovskites where non-radiative recombination processes lead to significant carrier losses. Here, the beneficial effects of activated vertical GBs are demonstrated by first growing large, vertically-oriented methylammonium lead tri-iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) single-crystalline grains. We show that infiltration of p-type doped 2 -7,7 -tetrakis(N,Ndi-p-methoxyphenylamine)-9,9-spirobifluorene (Spiro-OMeTAD) into CH3NH3PbI3 films along the GBs creates space charge regions to suppress non-radiative recombination and enhance carrier collection efficiency. Solar cells with such activated GBs yielded average PCE of 16.3 ± 0.9%, whichmore » are among the best solution-processed perovskite devices. As an important alternative to growing ideal CH3NH3PbI3 single crystal films, which is difficult to achieve for such fast-crystallizing perovskites, activating GBs paves a way to design a new type of bulk heterojunction hybrid perovskite photovoltaics toward theoretical maximum PCE.« less

  19. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E): Multi-Frequency Profilers, Vertical Air Motion (williams-vertair)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Williams, Christopher; Jensen, Mike

    2012-11-06

    This data was collected by the NOAA 449-MHz and 2.8-GHz profilers in support of the Department of Energy (DOE) and NASA sponsored Mid-latitude Continental Convective Cloud Experiment (MC3E). The profiling radars were deployed in Northern Oklahoma at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Mission (ARM) Southern Great Plans (SGP) Central Facility from 22 April through 6 June 2011. NOAA deployed three instruments: a Parsivel disdrometer, a 2.8-GHz profiler, and a 449-MHz profiler. The parasivel provided surface estimates of the raindrop size distribution and is the reference used to absolutely calibrate the 2.8 GHz profiler. The 2.8-GHz profiler provided unattenuated reflectivity profiles of the precipitation. The 449-MHz profiler provided estimates of the vertical air motion during precipitation from near the surface to just below the freezing level. By using the combination of 2.8-GHz and 449-MHz profiler observations, vertical profiles of raindrop size distributions can be retrieved. The profilers are often reference by their frequency band: the 2.8-GHz profiler operates in the S-band and the 449-MHz profiler operates in the UHF band. The raw observations are available as well as calibrated spectra and moments. This document describes how the instruments were deployed, how the data was collected, and the format of the archived data.

  20. Locating interfaces in vertically-layered materials and determining concentrations in mixed materials utilizing acoustic impedance measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Langlois, Gary N.

    1983-09-13

    Measurement of the relative and actual value of acoustic characteristic impedances of an unknown substance, location of the interfaces of vertically-layered materials, and the determination of the concentration of a first material mixed in a second material. A highly damped ultrasonic pulse is transmitted into one side of a reference plate, such as a tank wall, where the other side of the reference plate is in physical contact with the medium to be measured. The amplitude of a return signal, which is the reflection of the transmitted pulse from the interface between the other side of the reference plate and the medium, is measured. The amplitude value indicates the acoustic characteristic impedance of the substance relative to that of the reference plate or relative to that of other tested materials. Discontinuities in amplitude with repeated measurements for various heights indicate the location of interfaces in vertically-layered materials. Standardization techniques permit the relative acoustic characteristic impedance of a substance to be converted to an actual value. Calibration techniques for mixtures permit the amplitude to be converted to the concentration of a first material mixed in a second material.

  1. Locating interfaces in vertically-layered materials and determining concentrations in mixed materials utilizing acoustic impedance measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Langlois, G.N.

    1983-09-13

    Measurement of the relative and actual value of acoustic characteristic impedances of an unknown substance, location of the interfaces of vertically-layered materials, and the determination of the concentration of a first material mixed in a second material are disclosed. A highly damped ultrasonic pulse is transmitted into one side of a reference plate, such as a tank wall, where the other side of the reference plate is in physical contact with the medium to be measured. The amplitude of a return signal, which is the reflection of the transmitted pulse from the interface between the other side of the reference plate and the medium, is measured. The amplitude value indicates the acoustic characteristic impedance of the substance relative to that of the reference plate or relative to that of other tested materials. Discontinuities in amplitude with repeated measurements for various heights indicate the location of interfaces in vertically-layered materials. Standardization techniques permit the relative acoustic characteristic impedance of a substance to be converted to an actual value. Calibration techniques for mixtures permit the amplitude to be converted to the concentration of a first material mixed in a second material. 6 figs.

  2. Locating interfaces in vertically-layered materials and determining concentrations in mixed materials utilizing acoustic-impedance measurements. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1981-06-10

    Measurement of the relative and actual value of acoustic characteristic impedances of an unknown substance, location of the interfaces of vertically-layered materials, and the determination of the concentration of a first material mixed in a second material are presented. A highly damped ultrasonic pulse is transmitted into one side of a reference plate, such as a tank wall, where the other side of the reference plate is in physical contact with the medium to be measured. The amplitude of a return signal, which is the reflection of the transmitted pulse from the interface between the other side of the reference plate and the medium, is measured. The amplitude value indicates the acoustic characteristic impedance of the substance relative to that of the reference plate or relative to that of other tested materials. Discontinuities in amplitude with repeated measurements for various heights indicate the location of interfaces in vertically-layered materials. Standardization techniques permit the relative acoustic characteristic impedance of a substance to be converted to an actual value. Calibration techniques for mixtures permit the amplitude to be converted to the concentration of a first material mixed in a second material.

  3. Perovskite solar cells with near 100% internal quantum efficiency based on large single crystalline grains and vertical bulk heterojunctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Bin; Dyck, Ondrej; Poplawsky, Jonathan; Keum, Jong; Puretzky, Alexander; Das, Sanjib; Ivanov, Ilia; Rouleau, Christopher; Duscher, Gerd; Geohegan, David; Xiao, Kai

    2015-07-09

    Grain boundaries (GBs) as defects in the crystal lattice detrimentally impact the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of polycrystalline solar cells, particularly in recently emerging hybrid perovskites where non-radiative recombination processes lead to significant carrier losses. Here, the beneficial effects of activated vertical GBs are demonstrated by first growing large, vertically-oriented methylammonium lead tri-iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) single-crystalline grains. We show that infiltration of p-type doped 2 -7,7 -tetrakis(N,Ndi-p-methoxyphenylamine)-9,9-spirobifluorene (Spiro-OMeTAD) into CH3NH3PbI3 films along the GBs creates space charge regions to suppress non-radiative recombination and enhance carrier collection efficiency. Solar cells with such activated GBs yielded average PCE of 16.3 0.9%, which are among the best solution-processed perovskite devices. As an important alternative to growing ideal CH3NH3PbI3 single crystal films, which is difficult to achieve for such fast-crystallizing perovskites, activating GBs paves a way to design a new type of bulk heterojunction hybrid perovskite photovoltaics toward theoretical maximum PCE.

  4. Comparison of the properties of AlGaInN light-emitting diode chips of vertical and flip-chip design using silicon as the a submount

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markov, L. K., E-mail: l.markov@mail.ioffe.ru; Smirnova, I. P.; Pavlyuchenko, A. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Kukushkin, M. V.; Vasil'eva, E. D. [ZAO Innovation 'Tetis' (Russian Federation); Chernyakov, A. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Science-and-Technology Microelectronics Center (Russian Federation); Usikov, A. S. [De Core Nanosemiconductors Ltd. (India)

    2013-03-15

    Vertical and flip-chip light-emitting diode (LED) chips are compared from the viewpoint of the behavior of current spreading in the active region and the distribution of local temperatures and thermal resistances of chips. AlGaInN LED chips of vertical design are fabricated using Si as a submount and LED flipchips were fabricated with the removal of a sapphire substrate. The latter are also mounted on a Si submount. The active regions of both chips are identical and are about 1 mm{sup 2} in size. It is shown that both the emittance of the crystal surface in the visible range and the distribution of local temperatures estimated from radiation in the infrared region are more uniform in crystals of vertical design. Heat removal from flip-chips is insufficient in regions of the n contact, which do not possess good thermal contact with the submount. As a result, the total thermal resistances between the p-n junction and the submount both for the vertical chips and for flip-chips are approximately 1 K/W. The total area of the flip-chips exceeds that of the vertical design chips by a factor of 1.4.

  5. Magnetotransport properties of a few-layer graphene-ferromagnetic metal junctions in vertical spin valve devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Entani, Shiro Naramoto, Hiroshi; Sakai, Seiji

    2015-05-07

    Magnetotransport properties were studied for the vertical spin valve devices with two junctions of permalloy electrodes and a few-layer graphene interlayer. The graphene layer was directly grown on the bottom electrode by chemical vapor deposition. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that the permalloy surface fully covered with a few-layer graphene is kept free from oxidation and contamination even after dispensing and removing photoresist. This enabled fabrication of the current perpendicular to plane spin valve devices with a well-defined interface between graphene and permalloy. Spin-dependent electron transport measurements revealed a distinct spin valve effect in the devices. The magnetotransport ratio was 0.8% at room temperature and increased to 1.75% at 50?K. Linear current-voltage characteristics and resistance increase with temperature indicated that ohmic contacts are realized at the relevant interfaces.

  6. Lead-chalcogenide mid-infrared vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers with improved threshold: Theory and experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fill, Matthias; Phocone AG, 8005 Zurich ; Debernardi, Pierluigi; Felder, Ferdinand; Zogg, Hans

    2013-11-11

    Mid-infrared Vertical External Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VECSEL) based on narrow gap lead-chalcogenide (IV-VI) semiconductors exhibit strongly reduced threshold powers if the active layers are structured laterally for improved optical confinement. This is predicted by 3-d optical calculations; they show that lateral optical confinement is needed to counteract the anti-guiding features of IV-VIs due to their negative temperature dependence of the refractive index. An experimental proof is performed with PbSe quantum well based VECSEL grown on a Si-substrate by molecular beam epitaxy and emitting around 3.3 μm. With proper mesa-etching, the threshold intensity is about 8-times reduced.

  7. A high intensity solar cell invention: The edge-illuminated vertical multi-junction (VNJ) solar cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sater, B.L.

    1992-08-07

    This report contains a summary of a High Intensity Solar Cell (HI Cell) development carried out under the NIST/DOE Energy-Related Invention Program. The HI Cell, or Edge-Illuminated vertical Multi-junction Solar Cell, eliminates most major problems encountered with other concentrator solar cell designs. Its high voltage and low series resistance features make it ideally suited for efficient operation at high intensities. Computer modeling shows efficiencies near 30% at 500 suns intensity are possible with state-of-art processing. Development of a working model was largely successful before encountering an unexpected problem during the last fabrication step with the anti-reflection coating. Unfortunately, funding was exhausted before its resolution. Recommendations are made to resolve the AR coating problem and to integrate all the knowledge gained during this development into a viable prototype model. The invention will provide the technical and economic performance needed to make photovoltaic systems cost-effective for wide use.

  8. A high intensity solar cell invention: The edge-illuminated vertical multi-junction (VNJ) solar cell. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sater, B.L.

    1992-08-07

    This report contains a summary of a High Intensity Solar Cell (HI Cell) development carried out under the NIST/DOE Energy-Related Invention Program. The HI Cell, or Edge-Illuminated vertical Multi-junction Solar Cell, eliminates most major problems encountered with other concentrator solar cell designs. Its high voltage and low series resistance features make it ideally suited for efficient operation at high intensities. Computer modeling shows efficiencies near 30% at 500 suns intensity are possible with state-of-art processing. Development of a working model was largely successful before encountering an unexpected problem during the last fabrication step with the anti-reflection coating. Unfortunately, funding was exhausted before its resolution. Recommendations are made to resolve the AR coating problem and to integrate all the knowledge gained during this development into a viable prototype model. The invention will provide the technical and economic performance needed to make photovoltaic systems cost-effective for wide use.

  9. Self-aligned process for forming microlenses at the tips of vertical silicon nanowires by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dan, Yaping, E-mail: yaping.dan@sjtu.edu.cn; Chen, Kaixiang [University of MichiganShanghai Jiao Tong University Joint Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Crozier, Kenneth B. [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The microlens is a key enabling technology in optoelectronics, permitting light to be efficiently coupled to and from devices such as image sensors and light-emitting diodes. Their ubiquitous nature motivates the development of new fabrication techniques, since existing methods face challenges as microlenses are scaled to smaller dimensions. Here, the authors demonstrate the formation of microlenses at the tips of vertically oriented silicon nanowires via a rapid atomic layer deposition process. The nature of the process is such that the microlenses are centered on the nanowires, and there is a self-limiting effect on the final sizes of the microlenses arising from the nanowire spacing. Finite difference time domain electromagnetic simulations are performed of microlens focusing properties, including showing their ability to enhance visible-wavelength absorption in silicon nanowires.

  10. High blue-near ultraviolet photodiode response of vertically stacked graphene-MoS{sub 2}-metal heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wi, Sungjin; Chen, Mikai; Nam, Hongsuk; Liu, Amy C.; Meyhofer, Edgar; Liang, Xiaogan

    2014-06-09

    We present a study on the photodiode response of vertically stacked graphene/MoS{sub 2}/metal heterostructures in which MoS{sub 2} layers are doped with various plasma species. In comparison with undoped heterostructures, such doped ones exhibit significantly improved quantum efficiencies in both photovoltaic and photoconductive modes. This indicates that plasma-doping-induced built-in potentials play an important role in photocurrent generation. As compared to indium-tin-oxide/ MoS{sub 2}/metal structures, the presented graphene/MoS{sub 2}/metal heterostructures exhibit greatly enhanced quantum efficiencies in the blue-near ultraviolet region, which is attributed to the low density of recombination centers at graphene/MoS{sub 2} heterojunctions. This work advances the knowledge for making photo-response devices based on layered materials.

  11. Fabrication of FCC-SiO{sub 2} colloidal crystals using the vertical convective self-assemble method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castaeda-Uribe, O. A.; Salcedo-Reyes, J. C.; Mndez-Pinzn, H. A.; Pedroza-Rodrguez, A. M.

    2014-05-15

    In order to determine the optimal conditions for the growth of high-quality 250 nm-SiO{sub 2} colloidal crystals by the vertical convective self-assemble method, the Design of Experiments (DoE) methodology is applied. The influence of the evaporation temperature, the volume fraction, and the pH of the colloidal suspension is studied by means of an analysis of variance (ANOVA) in a 3{sup 3} factorial design. Characteristics of the stacking lattice of the resulting colloidal crystals are determined by scanning electron microscopy and angle-resolved transmittance spectroscopy. Quantitative results from the statistical test show that the temperature is the most critical factor influencing the quality of the colloidal crystal, obtaining highly ordered structures with FCC stacking lattice at a growth temperature of 40C.

  12. Numerical modeling of a 2K J-T heat exchanger used in Fermilab Vertical Test Stand VTS-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Prabhat Kumar; Rabehl, Roger

    2014-07-01

    Fermilab Vertical Test Stand-1 (VTS-1) is in operation since 2007 for testing the superconducting RF cavities at 2 K. This test stand has single layer coiled finned tubes heat exchanger before J-T valve. A finite difference based thermal model has been developed in Engineering Equation Solver (EES) to study its thermal performance during filling and refilling to maintain the constant liquid level of test stand. The model is also useful to predict its performance under other various operating conditions and will be useful to design the similar kind of heat exchanger for future needs. Present paper discusses the different operational modes of this heat exchanger and its thermal characteristics under these operational modes. Results of this model have also been compared with the experimental data gathered from the VTS-1 heat exchanger and they are in good agreement with the present model.

  13. An estimate for the sum of a Dirichlet series in terms of the minimum of its modulus on a vertical line segment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaisin, Ahtyar M; Rakhmatullina, Zhanna G

    2011-12-31

    The behaviour of the sum of an entire Dirichlet series is analyzed in terms of the minimum of its modulus on a system of vertical line segments. Also a more general problem, connected with the Polya conjecture is posed and solved. It concerns the minimum modulus of an entire function with Fabri gaps and its growth along curves going to infinity. Bibliography: 33 titles.

  14. On the Ramsey numbers for complete distance graphs with vertices in {l_brace}0,1{r_brace}{sup n}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mikhailov, Kirill A; Raigorodskii, Andrei M [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-12-31

    A new problem of Ramsey type is posed for complete distance graphs in R{sup n} with vertices in the Boolean cube. This problem is closely related to the classical Nelson-Erdos-Hadwiger problem on the chromatic number of a space. Several quite sharp estimates are obtained for certain numerical characteristics that appear in the framework of the problem. Bibliography: 15 titles.

  15. Experimental investigation on heat transfer and frictional characteristics of vertical upward rifled tube in supercritical CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Dong; Pan, Jie; Zhu, Xiaojing; Bi, Qincheng; Chen, Tingkuan; Zhou, Chenn Q.

    2011-02-15

    Water wall design is a key issue for supercritical Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boiler. On account of the good heat transfer performance, rifled tube is applied in the water wall design of a 600 MW supercritical CFB boiler in China. In order to investigate the heat transfer and frictional characteristics of the rifled tube with vertical upward flow, an in-depth experiment was conducted in the range of pressure from 12 to 30 MPa, mass flux from 230 to 1200 kg/(m{sup 2} s), and inner wall heat flux from 130 to 720 kW/m{sup 2}. The wall temperature distribution and pressure drop in the rifled tube were obtained in the experiment. The normal, enhanced and deteriorated heat transfer characteristics were also captured. In this paper, the effects of pressure, inner wall heat flux and mass flux on heat transfer characteristics are analyzed, the heat transfer mechanism and the frictional resistance performance are discussed, and the corresponding empirical correlations are presented. The experimental results show that the rifled tube can effectively prevent the occurrence of departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) and keep the tube wall temperature in a permissible range under the operating condition of supercritical CFB boiler. (author)

  16. Distribution of air-water mixtures in parallel vertical channels as an effect of the header geometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marchitto, Annalisa; Fossa, Marco; Guglielmini, Giovanni

    2009-07-15

    Uneven phase distribution in heat exchangers is a cause of severe reductions in thermal performances of refrigeration equipment. To date, no general design rules are available to avoid phase separation in manifolds with several outlet channels, and even predicting the phase and mass distribution in parallel channels is a demanding task. In the present paper, measurements of two-phase air-water distributions are reported with reference to a horizontal header supplying 16 vertical upward channels. The effects of the operating conditions, the header geometry and the inlet port nozzle were investigated in the ranges of liquid and gas superficial velocities of 0.2-1.2 and 1.5-16.5 m/s, respectively. Among the fitting devices used, the insertion of a co-axial, multi-hole distributor inside the header confirmed the possibility of greatly improving the liquid and gas flow distribution by the proper selection of position, diameter and number of the flow openings between the supplying distributor and the system of parallel channels connected to the header. (author)

  17. Particle image velocimetry measurements for opposing flow in a vertical channel with a differential and asymmetric heating condition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez-Suastegui, L. [Graduate Student, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, C.U., Mexico 04510 D.F. (Mexico); Trevino, C. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, C.U., Mexico 04510 D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-10-15

    Particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements were carried out in an experimental investigation of laminar mixed convection in a vertical duct with a square cross-section. The main downward water-flow is driven by gravity while a portion of a lateral side is heated, and buoyancy forces produce non-stationary vortex structures close to the heated region. Various ranges of the Grashof number, Gr are studied in combination with the Reynolds number, Re varying from 300 to 700. The values of the generalized buoyancy parameter or Richardson number, Ri = Gr/Re{sup 2} parallel to the Grashof number are included in the results. The influence of these nondimensional parameters and how they affect the fluid flow structure and vortex sizes and locations are reported. The flow patterns are nonsymmetric, periodic, and exhibit increasing complexity and frequency for increasing buoyancy. For the averaged values of the resulting vortex dimensions, it was found that a better and more congruent representation occurs when employing the Grashof and Reynolds numbers as independent parameters. (author)

  18. A study of the minimum wetting rate of isothermal films flowing down on outer surface of vertical pipes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koizumi, Yasuo; Ohtake, Hiroyasu; Ueda, Tatsuhiro

    1999-07-01

    The minimum wetting rate (MWR) was investigated experimentally with an isothermal water film flowing down on the outer surface of test pipes arranged vertically. A dry patch was generated by blowing a small air jet onto the film temporally, and observation was made to discriminate whether the dry patch was rewetted or not. The contact angle of the film at the top edge of the dry patch and the amplitude, length and velocity of large waves on the film were measured. The MWR decreased rapidly as the film flowed down and reached a nearly constant value at a position around 0.6 m down from the film inlet. There were large waves on the film. The tendency of the variation of MWR with the distance coincided well with the growth of the amplitude of large waves with the distance. The contact angle at the top edge of the dry patch varied periodically in a range synchronizing with the arrival of the waves. When the contact angle exceeded the maximum advancing contact angle, the rewetting of the dry patch was initiated. The existing correlations where the smooth surface film was assumed considerably over-predicted the MWR. The MWR was properly given by supposing that the dry patch is rewetted when the maximum of the fluctuating dynamic pressure of the film exceeds the upward component of the surface tension corresponding to the maximum advancing contact angle at the top edge of the dry patch.

  19. Vertical microphysical profiles of convective clouds as a tool for obtaining aerosol cloud-mediated climate forcings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenfeld, Daniel

    2015-12-23

    Quantifying the aerosol/cloud-mediated radiative effect at a global scale requires simultaneous satellite retrievals of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations and cloud base updraft velocities (Wb). Hitherto, the inability to do so has been a major cause of high uncertainty regarding anthropogenic aerosol/cloud-mediated radiative forcing. This can be addressed by the emerging capability of estimating CCN and Wb of boundary layer convective clouds from an operational polar orbiting weather satellite. Our methodology uses such clouds as an effective analog for CCN chambers. The cloud base supersaturation (S) is determined by Wb and the satellite-retrieved cloud base drop concentrations (Ndb), which is the same as CCN(S). Developing and validating this methodology was possible thanks to the ASR/ARM measurements of CCN and vertical updraft profiles. Validation against ground-based CCN instruments at the ARM sites in Oklahoma, Manaus, and onboard a ship in the northeast Pacific showed a retrieval accuracy of ±25% to ±30% for individual satellite overpasses. The methodology is presently limited to boundary layer not raining convective clouds of at least 1 km depth that are not obscured by upper layer clouds, including semitransparent cirrus. The limitation for small solar backscattering angles of <25º restricts the satellite coverage to ~25% of the world area in a single day. This methodology will likely allow overcoming the challenge of quantifying the aerosol indirect effect and facilitate a substantial reduction of the uncertainty in anthropogenic climate forcing.

  20. Single Packaged Vertical Units

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy (DOE) develops standardized data templates for reporting the results of tests conducted in accordance with current DOE test procedures. Templates may be used by third-party laboratories under contract with DOE that conduct testing in support of ENERGY STAR® verification, DOE rulemakings, and enforcement of the federal energy conservation standards.

  1. Vertical counterflow evaporative cooler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourne, Richard C.; Lee, Brian Eric; Callaway, Duncan

    2005-01-25

    An evaporative heat exchanger having parallel plates that define alternating dry and wet passages. A water reservoir is located below the plates and is connected to a water distribution system. Water from the water distribution system flows through the wet passages and wets the surfaces of the plates that form the wet passages. Air flows through the dry passages, mixes with air below the plates, and flows into the wet passages before exiting through the top of the wet passages.

  2. Extracting and Applying SV-SV Shear Modes from Vertical Vibrator Data Across Geothermal Prospects Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardage, Bob

    2013-07-01

    This 3-year project was terminated at the end of Year 1 because the DOE Geothermal project-evaluation committee decided one Milestone was not met and also concluded that our technology would not be successful. The Review Panel recommended a ?no-go? decision be implemented by DOE. The Principal Investigator and his research team disagreed with the conclusions reached by the DOE evaluation committee and wrote a scientifically based rebuttal to the erroneous claims made by the evaluators. We were not told if our arguments were presented to the people who evaluated our work and made the ?no-go? decision. Whatever the case regarding the information we supplied in rebuttal, we received an official letter from Laura Merrick, Contracting Officer at the Golden Field Office, dated June 11, 2013 in which we were informed that project funding would cease and instructed us to prepare a final report before September 5, 2013. In spite of the rebuttal arguments we presented to DOE, this official letter repeated the conclusions of the Review Panel that we had already proven to be incorrect. This is the final report that we are expected to deliver. The theme of this report will be another rebuttal of the technical deficiencies claimed by the DOE Geothermal Review Panel about the value and accomplishments of the work we did in Phase 1 of the project. The material in this report will present images made from direct-S modes produced by vertical-force sources using the software and research findings we developed in Phase 1 that the DOE Review Panel said would not be successful. We made these images in great haste when we were informed that DOE Geothermal rejected our rebuttal arguments and still regarded our technical work to be substandard. We thought it was more important to respond quickly rather than to take additional time to create better quality images than what we present in this Final Report.

  3. Vertical and lateral morphology effects on solar cell performance for a thiophene–quinoxaline copolymer:PC 70BM blend

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hansson, Rickard; Ericsson, Leif K. E.; Holmes, Natalie P.; Rysz, Jakub; Opitz, Andreas; Campoy-Quiles, Mariano; Wang, Ergang; Barr, Matthew G.; Kilcoyne, A. L. David; Zhou, Xiaojing; et al

    2015-02-13

    The distribution of electron donor and acceptor in the active layer is known to strongly influence the electrical performance of polymer solar cells for most of the high performance polymer:fullerene systems. The formulation of the solution from which the active layer is spincoated plays an important role in the quest for morphology control. We have studied how the choice of solvent and the use of small amounts of a low vapour pressure additive in the coating solution influence the film morphology and the solar cell performance for blends of poly[2,3-bis-(3-octyloxyphenyl)quinoxaline-5,8-diyl-alt-thiophene-2,5-diyl] (TQ1) and [6,6]-phenyl C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC70BM). We havemore » investigated the lateral morphology using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), the vertical morphology using dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry (d-SIMS) and variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE), and the surface composition using near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS). The lateral phase-separated domains observed in films spincoated from single solvents, increase in size with increasing solvent vapour pressure and decreasing PC70BM solubility, but are not observed when 1-chloronaphthalene (CN) is added. A strongly TQ1-enriched surface layer is formed in all TQ1:PC70BM blend films and rationalized by surface energy differences. The photocurrent and power conversion efficiency strongly increased upon the addition of CN, while the leakage current decreased by one to two orders of magnitude. The higher photocurrent correlates with the finer lateral structure and stronger TQ1-enrichment at the interface with the electron-collecting electrode. This indicates that the charge transport and collection are not hindered by this polymer-enriched surface layer. Neither the open-circuit voltage nor the series resistance of the devices are sensitive to the differences in morphology.« less

  4. A comparison of experimental and numerical results on convective thermal mixing of three vertical, quasi-planar jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tokuhiro, A.T.; Kimura, N.; Nishimura, M.; Kobayashi, J.; Miyakoshi, H.

    1999-07-01

    The thermal-hydraulic mixing of three quasi-planar vertical water jets was experimentally and numerically investigated. The central jet was initially 5 C lower in temperature than the other two. The hydraulic diameter and average exit velocity-based Reynolds and Richardson numbers were, Re{sub D} = 2 x 10{sup 4}, Ri{sub D} = 0.002. Besides temperature measurements from a traversing array of 37 thermocouples, velocity measurements were made using laser and ultrasound Doppler velocimetries (LDV and UDV). In parallel the in-house code, CASCADE, featuring a {kappa}-{epsilon} turbulence model was used to simulate the experimental flow configuration. A comparison of the experimental and numerical results showed that code validation by LDV/UDV was possible and in particular that time-averaged field and frequency characteristics of transversely swaying jets, even under Reynolds averaging of the conservation equations, could be simulated. A representative comparison of the amplitude of oscillation is shown in Figure A-1 with an inset of the visualized flow and sample time-series of the temperature fluctuations at the position indicated. The difference in the predominant frequency, the numerically predicted {approximately}1.6 Hz versus the experimental {approximately}2.25 Hz, is attributed to the turbulence model that overestimate thus effective fluid viscosity. Development of an accurate numerical simulation is of relevance to the design of the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), where the lack of mixing of the cold sodium may initiate thermal striping; that is, poorly mixed hot and cold streams may thermally stress the components onto which they impinge. Turbulent mixing of jets is equally of general interest to environmental and material processing flows.

  5. Two-stage epitaxial growth of vertically-aligned SnO2 nano-rods on(001) ceria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solovyov, Vyacheslav F.; Wu, Li-jun; Rupich, Martin W.; Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan; Li, Xiaoping; Li, Qiang

    2014-09-20

    Growth of high-aspect ratio oriented tin oxide, SnO2, nano-rods is complicated by a limited choice of matching substrates. We show that a (001) cerium oxide, CeO2, surface uniquely enables epitaxial growth of tin-oxide nano-rods via a two-stage process. First, (100) oriented nano-wires coat the ceria surface by lateral growth, forming a uniaxially-textured SnO2 deposit. Second, vertical SnO2nano-rods nucleate on the deposit by homoepitaxy. We demonstrate growth of vertically oriented 1-2 ?m long nano-rods with an average diameter of ?20 nm.

  6. 1.9 W continuous-wave single transverse mode emission from 1060?nm edge-emitting lasers with vertically extended lasing area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miah, M. J. Posilovic, K.; Kalosha, V. P.; Rosales, R.; Bimberg, D.; Kettler, T.; Skoczowsky, D.; Pohl, J.; Weyers, M.

    2014-10-13

    High-brightness edge-emitting semiconductor lasers having a vertically extended waveguide structure emitting in the 1060?nm range are investigated. Ridge waveguide (RW) lasers with 9??m stripe width and 2.64?mm cavity length yield highest to date single transverse mode output power for RW lasers in the 1060?nm range. The lasers provide 1.9 W single transverse mode optical power under continuous-wave (cw) operation with narrow beam divergences of 9 in lateral and 14 (full width at half maximum) in vertical direction. The beam quality factor M{sup 2} is less than 1.9 up to 1.9 W optical power. A maximum brightness of 72 MWcm{sup ?2}sr{sup ?1} is obtained. 100??m wide and 3?mm long unpassivated broad area lasers provide more than 9 W optical power in cw operation.

  7. Site characterization plan conceptual design report for a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt, vertical emplacement mode: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-12-01

    This Conceptual Design Report describes the conceptual design of a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt at a proposed site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. Waste receipt, processing, packing, and other surface facility operations are described. Operations in the shafts underground are described, including waste hoisting, transfer, and vertical emplacement. This report specifically addresses the vertical emplacement mode, the reference design for the repository. Waste retrieval capability is described. The report includes a description of the layout of the surface, shafts, and underground. Major equipment items are identified. The report includes plans for decommissioning and sealing of the facility. The report discusses how the repository will satisfy performance objectives. Chapters are included on basis for design, design analyses, and data requirements for completion of future design efforts. 105 figs., 52 tabs.

  8. 618-10 Burial Ground Trench Remediation and 618-10 and 618-11 Burial Ground Nonintrusive Characterization of Vertical Pipe Units Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darby, J. W.

    2012-06-28

    A lessons learned is a noteworthy practice or innovative approach that is captured and shared to promote repeat application, or an adverse work practice/experience that is captured and shared to avoid reoccurrence. This document provides the lessons learned identified by the 618-10 Burial Ground trench remediation and the 618-10 and 618-11 Burial Ground nonintrusive characterization of the vertical pipe units (VPUs).

  9. Vapor-liquid-solid epitaxial growth of Si1-xGex alloy nanowires. Composition dependence on precursor reactivity and morphology control for vertical forests

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Choi, S. G.; Manandhar, P.; Picraux, S. T.

    2015-07-07

    The growth of high-density group IV alloy nanowire forests is critical for exploiting their unique functionalities in many applications. Here, the compositional dependence on precursor reactivity and optimized conditions for vertical growth are studied for Si1- x Ge x alloy nanowires grown by the vapor-liquid-solid method. The nanowire composition versus gas partial-pressure ratio for germane-silane and germane-disilane precursor combinations is obtained at 350°C over a wide composition range (0.05 ≤ x ≤ 0.98) and a generalized model to predict composition for alloy nanowires is developed based on the relative precursor partial pressures and reactivity ratio. In combination with germane, silanemore » provides more precise compositional control at high Ge concentrations (x > 0.7), whereas disilane greatly increases the Si concentration for a given gas ratio and enables more precise alloy compositional control at small Ge concentrations (x < 0.3). Vertically oriented, non-kinking nanowire forest growth on Si (111) substrates is then discussed for silane/germane over a wide range of compositions, with temperature and precursor partial pressure optimized by monitoring the nanowire growth front using in-situ optical reflectance. For high Ge compositions (x ≈ 0.9), a “two-step” growth approach with nucleation at higher temperatures results in nanowires with high-density and uniform vertical orientation. Furthermore, increasing Si content (x ≈ 0.8), the optimal growth window is shifted to higher temperatures, which minimizes nanowire kinking morphologies. For Si-rich Si1- x Ge x alloys (x ≈ 0.25), vertical nanowire growth is enhanced by single-step, higher-temperature growth at reduced pressures.« less

  10. Comparison of the Vertical Velocity Used to Calculate the Cloud Droplet Number Concentration in a Cloud Resolving and a Global Climate Model

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Comparison of the Vertical Velocity used to Calculate the Cloud Droplet Number Concentration in a Cloud-Resolving and a Global Climate Model H. Guo, J. E. Penner, M. Herzog, and X. Liu Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences University of Michigan Ann Arbor, Michigan Introduction Anthropogenic aerosols are effective cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The availability of CCN affects the initial cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) and droplet size; therefore, cloud optical

  11. Measurement and Modeling of Vertically Resolved Aerosol Optical Properties and Radiative Fluxes Over the ARM SGP Site During the May 2003 Aerosol IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Measurement and Modeling of Vertically Resolved Aerosol Optical Properties and Radiative Fluxes Over the ARM SGP Site During the May 2003 Aerosol IOP B. Schmid and J. Redemann Bay Area Environmental Research Institute National Aeronautics and Space Administration Ames Research Center Moffett Field, California W. P. Arnott Desert Research Institute Reno, Nevada A. Bucholtz and J. Reid Naval Research Laboratory Monterey, California P. Colarco Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center

  12. Optimal design and control strategies for novel combined heat and power (CHP) fuel cell systems. Part I of II, datum design conditions and approach.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colella, Whitney G.

    2010-06-01

    Energy network optimization (ENO) models identify new strategies for designing, installing, and controlling stationary combined heat and power (CHP) fuel cell systems (FCSs) with the goals of (1) minimizing electricity and heating costs for building owners and (2) reducing emissions of the primary greenhouse gas (GHG) - carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). A goal of this work is to employ relatively inexpensive simulation studies to discover more financially and environmentally effective approaches for installing CHP FCSs. ENO models quantify the impact of different choices made by power generation operators, FCS manufacturers, building owners, and governments with respect to two primary goals - energy cost savings for building owners and CO{sub 2} emission reductions. These types of models are crucial for identifying cost and CO{sub 2} optima for particular installations. Optimal strategies change with varying economic and environmental conditions, FCS performance, the characteristics of building demand for electricity and heat, and many other factors. ENO models evaluate both 'business-as-usual' and novel FCS operating strategies. For the scenarios examined here, relative to a base case of no FCSs installed, model results indicate that novel strategies could reduce building energy costs by 25% and CO{sub 2} emissions by 80%. Part I of II articles discusses model assumptions and methodology. Part II of II articles illustrates model results for a university campus town and generalizes these results for diverse communities.

  13. Measurement of groove features and dimensions of the vertical test cathode and the choke joint of the superconducting electron gun cavity of the Energy Recovery LINAC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammons, L.; Ke, M.

    2011-10-13

    A testing program for the superconducting electron gun cavity that has been designed for the Energy Recovery LINAC is being planned. The goal of the testing program is to characterize the RF properties of the gun cavity at superconducting temperatures and, in particular, to study multipacting that is suspected to be occurring in the choke joint of the cavity where the vertical test cathode is inserted. The testing program will seek to understand the nature and cause of this multipacting and attempt to eliminate it, if possible, by supplying sufficient voltage to the cavity. These efforts are motivated by the multipacting issues that have been observed in the processing of the fine-grain niobium gun cavity. This cavity, which is being processed at Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory for Brookhaven, has encountered multipacting at a gradient of approximately 3 MV/m and, to date, has resisted efforts at elimination. Because of this problem, a testing program is being established here in C-AD that will use the large-grain niobium gun cavity that currently resides at Brookhaven and has been used for room-temperature measurements. The large-grain and fine-cavities are identical in every aspect of construction and only differ in niobium grain size. Thus, it is believed that testing and conditioning of the large-grain cavity should yield important insights about the fine-grain cavity. One element of this testing program involves characterizing the physical features of the choke joint of the cavity where the multipacting is believed to be occurring and, in particular the grooves of the joint. The configuration of the cavity and the vertical test cathode is shown in Figure 1. In addition, it is important to characterize the groove of the vertical test cathode. The grooved nature of these two components was specifically designed to prevent multipacting. However, it is suspected that, because of the chemical processing that the fine-grain gun cavity underwent along with the vertical test cathode, the geometry of these grooves was altered, presenting the possibility that multipacting may, in fact, be occurring in this area and contributing to the low gradients that have been observed in the fine-grain cavity. Therefore, the Survey and Alignment group in C-AD engaged in measurements of the cavity joint, shown in Figure 2 and the cathode weldment, shown in Figure 3 for the purpose of characterizing the grooves in both the cavity and the vertical test cathode and comparing the dimensions of the cathode with those of the prints supplied by Advanced Energy Systems (AES), the original designer and manufacturer of both the test cathode and the electron gun cavity, in preparation to have a new one manufactured. The goal was to ensure that the articles as built matched the design prints in preparation for manufacturing a new vertical test cathode. This report describes the data collected by the Survey group in these efforts. The endeavor was challenging for the group given the millimeter-scale dimensions of the grooves and the requirement for high precision.

  14. Growth of Multiwalled-Carbon Nanotubes using Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofibers as Templates/Scaffolds and Improved Field-Emission Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cui, Hongtao; Yang, X.; Baylor, Larry R; Lowndes, Douglas H

    2005-01-01

    Multiwalled-carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are grown on top of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) via microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPECVD). The VACNFs are first grown in a direct-current plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition reactor using nickel catalyst. A layer of carbon-silicon materials is then deposited on the VACNFs and the nickel catalyst particle is broken down into smaller nanoparticles during an intermediate reactive-ion-plasma deposition step. These nickel nanoparticles nucleate and grow MWCNTs in the following MPECVD process. Movable-probe measurements show that the MWCNTs have greatly improved field-emission properties relative to the VACNFs

  15. Strain relaxation and enhanced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in BiFeO{sub 3}:CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} vertically aligned nanocomposite thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Wenrui; Jiao, Liang; Li, Leigang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Jian, Jie; Khatkhatay, Fauzia; Chu, Frank [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Chen, Aiping [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Jia, Quanxi [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Wang, Haiyan, E-mail: wangh@ece.tamu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States)

    2014-02-10

    Self-assembled BiFeO{sub 3}:CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (BFO:CFO) vertically aligned nanocomposite thin films have been fabricated on SrTiO{sub 3} (001) substrates using pulsed laser deposition. The strain relaxation mechanism between BFO and CFO with a large lattice mismatch has been studied by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The as-prepared nanocomposite films exhibit enhanced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy as the BFO composition increases. Different anisotropy sources have been investigated, suggesting that spin-flop coupling between antiferromagnetic BFO and ferrimagnetic CFO plays a dominant role in enhancing the uniaxial magnetic anisotropy.

  16. Ni(OH){sub 2} nanoflakes electrodeposited on Ni foam-supported vertically oriented graphene nanosheets for application in asymmetric supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xin; Liu, Jiyue; Wang, Yayu; Zhao, Cuimei; Zheng, Weitao

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: Ni(OH){sub 2}/vertically oriented graphene nanosheets (V-GNs) was prepared. Ni(OH){sub 2}/V-GNs had enhanced specific capacitance, cycling reversibility and stability. Performance of Ni(OH){sub 2}/GNs/NF-AC asymmetric supercapacitor was studied. - Abstract: Binderless Ni(OH){sub 2} nanoflakes grown on Ni foam (NF)-supported vertically oriented graphene nanosheets (V-GNs) has been fabricated as a positive electrode material for asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC), coupled with activated carbon (AC) as a counter electrode material. The introduction of V-GNs leads to dense growth of nanocrystalline ?-Ni(OH){sub 2} that is confirmed by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopic and scanning electron microscopic analyses. The electrochemical performances of the Ni(OH){sub 2}/GNs/NF electrode are characterized by cyclic voltammetry and chargedischarge tests, which exhibit high specific capacitance of 2215 F g{sup ?1} at a scan current density of 2.3 A g{sup ?1}, enhanced cycling stability and high rate capability. The Ni(OH){sub 2}/GNs/NF-AC-based ASC can achieve a cell voltage of 1.4 V and a specific energy density of 11.11 Wh kg{sup ?1} at 0.5 mA cm{sup ?2} with a nearly 100% coulombic efficiency at room temperature.

  17. Soil concentration, vertical distribution and inventory of plutonium, [sup 241]Am, [sup 90]Sr and [sup 137]Cs in the Marche Region of Central Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jia, G.; Testa, C.; Desideri, D.; Guerra, F.; Meli, M.A.; Roselli, C. . Inst. of General Chemistry); Belli, M.E. )

    1999-07-01

    Soil concentrations of [sup 239+240]Pu, [sup 238]Pu, [sup 241]Am, [sup 90]Sr, and [sup 137]Cs are investigated in the Marche Region of Central Italy. Mean values in uncultivated soils are 3.5--8 times higher than the corresponding values in cultivated soils. Radionuclide inventories and ratios are consistent with values reported by the United nations Scientific Committee on the Effect of Atomic Radiation for this latitude. This suggests that radiocontamination in this region is mainly due to atmospheric deposition of nuclear weapon test fallout. The vertical distribution of these radionuclides is also studied. The results show that, with the exception of [sup 90]Sr, more than 90% of these radionuclides are contained in the first 20 cm of soil and that mobility follows the order [sup 90]Sr > [sup 241]Am > [sup 239+240]Pu, [sup 238]Pu > [sup 137]Cs.

  18. Analysis of Cloud-resolving Simulations of a Tropical Mesoscale Convective System Observed during TWP-ICE: Vertical Fluxes and Draft Properties in Convective and Stratiform Regions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mrowiec, Agnieszka A.; Rio, Catherine; Fridlind, Ann; Ackerman, Andrew; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Pauluis, Olivier; Varble, Adam; Fan, Jiwen

    2012-10-02

    We analyze three cloud-resolving model simulations of a strong convective event observed during the TWP-ICE campaign, differing in dynamical core, microphysical scheme or both. Based on simulated and observed radar reflectivity, simulations roughly reproduce observed convective and stratiform precipitating areas. To identify the characteristics of convective and stratiform drafts that are difficult to observe but relevant to climate model parameterization, independent vertical wind speed thresholds are calculated to capture 90% of total convective and stratiform updraft and downdraft mass fluxes. Convective updrafts are fairly consistent across simulations (likely owing to fixed large-scale forcings and surface conditions), except that hydrometeor loadings differ substantially. Convective downdraft and stratiform updraft and downdraft mass fluxes vary notably below the melting level, but share similar vertically uniform draft velocities despite differing hydrometeor loadings. All identified convective and stratiform downdrafts contain precipitation below ~10 km and nearly all updrafts are cloudy above the melting level. Cold pool properties diverge substantially in a manner that is consistent with convective downdraft mass flux differences below the melting level. Despite differences in hydrometeor loadings and cold pool properties, convective updraft and downdraft mass fluxes are linearly correlated with convective area, the ratio of ice in downdrafts to that in updrafts is ~0.5 independent of species, and the ratio of downdraft to updraft mass flux is ~0.5-0.6, which may represent a minimum evaporation efficiency under moist conditions. Hydrometeor loading in stratiform regions is found to be a fraction of hydrometeor loading in convective regions that ranges from ~10% (graupel) to ~90% (cloud ice). These findings may lead to improved convection parameterizations.

  19. Property Improvement in CZT via Modeling and Processing Innovations . Te-particles in vertical gradient freeze CZT: Size and Spatial Distributions and Constitutional Supercooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henager, Charles H.; Alvine, Kyle J.; Bliss, Mary; Riley, Brian J.; Stave, Jean A.

    2014-10-01

    A section of a vertical gradient freeze CZT boule approximately 2100-mm3 with a planar area of 300-mm2 was prepared and examined using transmitted IR microscopy at various magnifications to determine the three-dimensional spatial and size distributions of Te-particles over large longitudinal and radial length scales. The boule section was approximately 50-mm wide by 60-mm in length by 7-mm thick and was doubly polished for TIR work. Te-particles were imaged through the thickness using extended focal imaging to locate the particles in thickness planes spaced 15-m apart and then in plane of the image using xy-coordinates of the particle center of mass so that a true three dimensional particle map was assembled for a 1-mm by 45-mm longitudinal strip and for a 1-mm by 50-mm radial strip. Te-particle density distributions were determined as a function of longitudinal and radial positions in these strips, and treating the particles as vertices of a network created a 3D image of the particle spatial distribution. Te-particles exhibited a multi-modal log-normal size density distribution that indicated a slight preference for increasing size with longitudinal growth time, while showing a pronounced cellular network structure throughout the boule that can be correlated to dislocation network sizes in CZT. Higher magnification images revealed a typical Rayleigh-instability pearl string morphology with large and small satellite droplets. This study includes solidification experiments in small crucibles of 30:70 mixtures of Cd:Te to reduce the melting point below 1273 K (1000C). These solidification experiments were performed over a wide range of cooling rates and clearly demonstrated a growth instability with Te-particle capture that is suggested to be responsible for one of the peaks in the size distribution using size discrimination visualization. The results are discussed with regard to a manifold Te-particle genesis history as 1) Te-particle direct capture from melt-solid growth instabilities, 2) Te-particle formation from dislocation core diffusion and the formation and breakup of Te-tubes, and 3) Te-particle formation due to classical nucleation and growth as precipitates.

  20. X6.9-CLASS FLARE-INDUCED VERTICAL KINK OSCILLATIONS IN A LARGE-SCALE PLASMA CURTAIN AS OBSERVED BY THE SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY/ATMOSPHERIC IMAGING ASSEMBLY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srivastava, A. K. [Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences (ARIES), Manora Peak, Nainital 263 002 (India); Goossens, M. [Centre for Mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, Department of Mathematics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2013-11-01

    We present rare observational evidence of vertical kink oscillations in a laminar and diffused large-scale plasma curtain as observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The X6.9-class flare in active region 11263 on 2011 August 9 induces a global large-scale disturbance that propagates in a narrow lane above the plasma curtain and creates a low density region that appears as a dimming in the observational image data. This large-scale propagating disturbance acts as a non-periodic driver that interacts asymmetrically and obliquely with the top of the plasma curtain and triggers the observed oscillations. In the deeper layers of the curtain, we find evidence of vertical kink oscillations with two periods (795 s and 530 s). On the magnetic surface of the curtain where the density is inhomogeneous due to coronal dimming, non-decaying vertical oscillations are also observed (period ? 763-896 s). We infer that the global large-scale disturbance triggers vertical kink oscillations in the deeper layers as well as on the surface of the large-scale plasma curtain. The properties of the excited waves strongly depend on the local plasma and magnetic field conditions.

  1. Relational contracting and the law and economics of vertical integration: a study of the economics of petroleum coking, processing, and consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erickson, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    The basis for this study was an antitrust suit brought by the Federal Trade Commission against the Great Lakes Carbon Corp., a processor and reseller of green petroleum coke, and eight petroleum refiners. The respondents in this case were accused of using long-term contracts to foreclose the markets for both green and processed petroleum coke. Chapter 1 develops a theory of exchange and the contracts governing exchange. Chapter 2 describes the petroleum-coke industry and the nature of green coke exchange. It explains the reasons for the highly concentrated structure of the green-coke market in terms of the technology of petroleum-coke production and consumption and the physical and byproduct nature of petroleum coke. Chapter 3 takes a large number of green-coke contracts and breaks them down into their various relevant provisions. These provisions are then grouped according to their purpose and the characteristics of the firms employing them and shows that differences between the contracts can be explained by differences in the risks to firms of engaging in green coke exchange. Chapter 4 discusses the implications of vertical restrictions from the point of view of relational contracting using the data adduced in Chapter 3.

  2. The effect of large-scale model time step and multiscale coupling frequency on cloud climatology, vertical structure, and rainfall extremes in a superparameterized GCM

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yu, Sungduk; Pritchard, Michael S.

    2015-12-17

    The effect of global climate model (GCM) time step—which also controls how frequently global and embedded cloud resolving scales are coupled—is examined in the Superparameterized Community Atmosphere Model ver 3.0. Systematic bias reductions of time-mean shortwave cloud forcing (~10 W/m2) and longwave cloud forcing (~5 W/m2) occur as scale coupling frequency increases, but with systematically increasing rainfall variance and extremes throughout the tropics. An overarching change in the vertical structure of deep tropical convection, favoring more bottom-heavy deep convection as a global model time step is reduced may help orchestrate these responses. The weak temperature gradient approximation is more faithfullymore » satisfied when a high scale coupling frequency (a short global model time step) is used. These findings are distinct from the global model time step sensitivities of conventionally parameterized GCMs and have implications for understanding emergent behaviors of multiscale deep convective organization in superparameterized GCMs. Lastly, the results may also be useful for helping to tune them.« less

  3. Exergy Analysis of a Two-Stage Ground Source Heat Pump with a Vertical Bore for Residential Space Conditioning under Simulated Occupancy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ally, Moonis Raza; Munk, Jeffrey D; Baxter, Van D; Gehl, Anthony C

    2015-01-01

    This twelve-month field study analyzes the performance of a 7.56W (2.16- ton) water-to-air-ground source heat pump (WA-GSHP) to satisfy domestic space conditioning loads in a 253 m2 house in a mixed-humid climate in the United States. The practical feasibility of using the ground as a source of renewable energy is clearly demonstrated. Better than 75% of the energy needed for space heating was extracted from the ground. The average monthly electricity consumption for space conditioning was only 40 kWh at summer and winter thermostat set points of 24.4oC and 21.7oC, respectively. The WA-GSHP shared the same 94.5 m vertical bore ground loop with a separate water-to-water ground-source heat pump (WW-GSHP) for meeting domestic hot water needs in the same house. Sources of systemic irreversibility, the main cause of lost work are identified using Exergy and energy analysis. Quantifying the sources of Exergy and energy losses is essential for further systemic improvements. The research findings suggest that the WA-GSHPs are a practical and viable technology to reduce primary energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions under the IECC 2012 Standard, as well as the European Union (EU) 2020 targets of using renewable energy resources.

  4. Computing UV/vis spectra from the adiabatic and vertical Franck-Condon schemes with the use of Cartesian and internal coordinates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gtze, Jan P.; Karasulu, Bora; Thiel, Walter

    2013-12-21

    We address the effects of using Cartesian or internal coordinates in the adiabatic Franck-Condon (AFC) and vertical Franck-Condon (VFC) approaches to electronic spectra. The adopted VFC approach is a simplified variant of the original approach [A. Hazra, H. H. Chang, and M. Nooijen, J. Chem. Phys. 151, 2125 (2004)], as we omit any contribution from normal modes with imaginary frequency. For our test molecules ranging from ethylene to flavin compounds, VFC offers several advantages over AFC, especially by preserving the properties of the FC region and by avoiding complications arising from the crossing of excited-state potential surfaces or from the failure of the harmonic approximation. The spectral quality for our target molecules is insensitive to the chosen approach. We also explore the effects of Duschinsky rotation and relate the need for internal coordinates to the absence of symmetry elements. When using Duschinsky rotation and treating larger systems without planar symmetry, internal coordinates are found to outperform Cartesian coordinates in the AFC spectral calculations.

  5. Data, exergy, and energy analysis of a vertical-bore, ground-source heat pump to for domestic water heating under simulated occupancy conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ally, Moonis Raza; Munk, Jeffrey D; Baxter, Van D; Gehl, Anthony C

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is provided to support the view that greater than two-thirds of energy required to produce domestic hot water may be extracted from the ground which serves as renewable energy resource. The case refers to a 345 m2 research house located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 36.01 N 84.26 W in a mixed-humid climate with HDD of 2218 C-days (3993 F-days) and CDD of 723 C-days (1301 F-days). The house is operated under simulated occupancy conditions in which the hot water use protocol is based on the Building America Research Benchmark Definition (Hendron 2008; Hendron and Engebrecht 2010) which captures the water consumption lifestyles of the average family in the United States. The 5.275 (1.5-ton) water-to-water ground source heat pump (WW-GSHP) shared the same vertical bore with a 7.56 KW water-to-air ground source heat pump for space conditioning the same house. Energy and exergy analysis of data collected continuously over a twelve month period provide performance metrics and sources of inherent systemic inefficiencies. Data and analyses are vital to better understand how WW-GSHPs may be further improved to enable the ground to be used as a renewable energy resource.

  6. Vertical flow chemical detection portal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Linker, K.L.; Hannum, D.W.; Conrad, F.J.

    1999-06-22

    A portal apparatus is described for screening objects or persons for the presence of trace amounts of chemical substances such as illicit drugs or explosives. The apparatus has a test space, in which a person may stand, defined by two generally upright sides spanned by a horizontal transom. One or more fans in the transom generate a downward air flow (uni-directional) within the test space. The air flows downwardly from a high pressure upper zone, past the object or person to be screened. Air moving past the object dislodges from the surface thereof both volatile and nonvolatile particles of the target substance. The particles are entrained into the air flow which continues flowing downward to a lower zone of reduced pressure, where the particle-bearing air stream is directed out of the test space and toward preconcentrator and detection components. The sides of the portal are specially configured to partially contain and maintain the air flow. 3 figs.

  7. Horizontal and Vertical Erosion Flume

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A One-of-a-Kind Testing Capability In WIPP Performance Assessment scenarios, an exploration borehole is hypothesized to penetrate the repository sometime in the future. Drilling fluid flowing up the borehole would apply a hydrodynamic shear stress to the material comprising the borehole wall. If the wall material is made up of TRU waste degraded to the point it could be eroded off the wall and carried uphole with the drilling fluid, radionuclides could possibly escape the repository. To address

  8. Vertical flow chemical detection portal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Linker, Kevin L. (Albuquerque, NM); Hannum, David W. (Albuquerque, NM); Conrad, Frank James (Russellville, SC)

    1999-01-01

    A portal apparatus for screening objects or persons for the presence of trace amounts of chemical substances such as illicit drugs or explosives. The apparatus has a test space, in which a person may stand, defined by two generally upright sides spanned by a horizontal transom. One or more fans in the transom generate a downward air flow (uni-directional) within the test space. The air flows downwardly from a high pressure upper zone, past the object or person to be screened. Air moving past the object dislodges from the surface thereof both volatile and nonvolatile particles of the target substance. The particles are entrained into the air flow which continues flowing downward to a lower zone of reduced pressure, where the particle-bearing air stream is directed out of the test space and toward preconcentrator and detection components. The sides of the portal are specially configured to partially contain and maintain the air flow.

  9. Vertical Extraction Process Implemented at the 118-K-1 Burial Ground for Removal of Irradiated Reactor Debris from Silo Structures - 12431

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teachout, Douglas B.; Adamson, Clinton J.; Zacharias, Ames

    2012-07-01

    The primary objective of a remediation project is the safe extraction and disposition of diverse waste forms and materials. Remediation of a solid waste burial ground containing reactor hardware and irradiated debris involves handling waste with the potential to expose workers to significantly elevated dose rates. Therefore, a major challenge confronted by any remediation project is developing work processes that facilitate compliant waste management practices while at the same time implementing controls to protect personnel. Traditional burial ground remediation is accomplished using standard excavators to remove materials from trenches and other excavation configurations often times with minimal knowledge of waste that will be encountered at a specific location. In the case of the 118-K-1 burial ground the isotopic activity postulated in historic documents to be contained in vertical cylindrical silos was sufficient to create the potential for a significant radiation hazard to project personnel. Additionally, certain reported waste forms posed an unacceptably high potential to contaminate the surrounding environment and/or workers. Based on process knowledge, waste management requirements, historic document review, and a lack of characterization data it was determined that traditional excavation techniques applied to remediation of vertical silos would expose workers to unacceptable risk. The challenging task for the 118-K-1 burial ground remediation project team then became defining an acceptable replacement technology or modification of an existing technology to complete the silo remediation. Early characterization data provided a good tool for evaluating the location of potential high exposure rate items in the silos. Quantitative characterization was a different case and proved difficult because of the large diameter of the silos and the potential for variable density of attenuating soils and waste forms in the silo. Consequently, the most relevant information supporting job planning and understanding of the conditions was the data obtained from the gross gamma meter that was inserted into each casing to provide a rough estimate of dose rates in the tubes. No added value was realized in attempting to quantify the source term and/or associate the isotopic activity with a particular actual waste form (e.g., sludge). Implementing the WRM system allowed monitoring of worker and boundary exposure rates from a distance, maintaining compliance with ALARA principles. This system also provided the project team early knowledge of items being removed that had high exposure rates associated with them, thus creating an efficient method of acknowledging an issue and arriving at a solution prior to having an upset condition. An electronic dosimeter with telemetry capability replaced the excavator mounted AMP-100 system approximately half way through remediation of the silos. Much higher connectivity efficiency was derived from this configuration. Increasing the data feed efficiency additionally led to less interruption of the remediation effort. Early in system testing process a process handicap on the excavator operator was acknowledged. A loss of depth perception resulted when maneuvering the excavator and bucket using the camera feed to an in-cab monitor. Considerable practice and mock-up testing allowed this handicap to be overcome. The most significant equipment failures involved the cable connection to the camera mounted between the clamshell bucket jaws and the video splitter in the excavator cab. Rotation of the clamshell bucket was identified as the cause of cable connection failures because of the cyclic twisting motion and continuous mechanical jarring of the connection. In-cab vibration was identified as the culprit in causing connection failures of the video splitter. While these failures were repaired, substantial production time was lost. Ultimately, the decision was made to purchase a second cable and higher quality video splitter eliminate the down time. An engineering improvement for future operations would be i

  10. Comparison of Sn-doped and nonstoichiometric vertical-Bridgman-grown crystals of the topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 2}Se

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kushwaha, S. K. Gibson, Q. D.; Cava, R. J.; Xiong, J.; Ong, N. P.; Pletikosic, I.; Weber, A. P.; Fedorov, A. V.; Valla, T.

    2014-04-14

    A comparative study of the properties of topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 2}Se (BTS) crystals grown by the vertical Bridgeman method is described. Two defect mechanisms that create acceptor impurities to compensate for the native n-type carriers are compared: Bi excess, and light Sn doping. Both methods yield low carrier concentrations and an n-p crossover over the length of the grown crystal boules, but lower carrier concentrations and higher resistivities are obtained for the Sn-doped crystals, which reach carrier concentrations as low as 8??10{sup 14}?cm{sup ?3}. Further, the temperature dependent resistivities for the Sn-doped crystals display strongly activated behavior at high temperatures, with a characteristic energy of half the bulk band gap. The (001) cleaved Sn-doped BTS crystals display high quality Shubnikov de Haas (SdH) quantum oscillations due to the topological surface state electrons. Angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) characterization shows that the Fermi energy (E{sub F}) for the Sn-doped crystals falls cleanly in the surface states with no interference from the bulk bands, which the Dirac point for the surface states lies approximately 60?meV below the top of the bulk valence band maximum, and allows for a determination of the bulk and surface state carrier concentrations as a function of Energy near E{sub F}. Electronic structure calculations that compare Bi excess and Sn dopants in BTS demonstrate that Sn acts as a special impurity, with a localized impurity band that acts as a charge buffer occurring inside the bulk band gap. We propose that the special resonant level character of Sn in BTS gives rise to the exceptionally low carrier concentrations and activated resistivities observed.

  11. Depth-dependent Vertical-to-Horizontal (V/H) Ratios of Free-Field Ground Motion Response Spectra for Deeply Embedded Nuclear Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei X.; Braverman J.; Miranda, M.; Rosario, M.E.; Costantino, C.J.

    2015-02-25

    This report documents the results of a study to determine the depth-dependent V/H ratios of ground motion response spectra in the free field. The V/H ratios reported herein were developed from a worldwide database of surface and downhole acceleration recordings obtained from 45 vertical array stations. This database was specifically compiled for this project, and includes information from a diversity of active tectonic regions (California, Alaska, Taiwan, Japan), site conditions (rock to soft soil), ground motion intensity levels (PGAs between 0.01 g and 0.50 g), magnitudes (between ML 2.78 and JMA 8.1), epicentral distances (between 3.2 km and 812 km), and source depths (between 1.2 km and 112 km), as well as sensors at surface and at a wide range of depths relevant to the project. To study the significance of the depth effect, V/H ratios from all the records were sorted into a number of depth bins relevant to the project, and statistics (average, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, 16th, 50th, and 84th percentiles) of the V/H ratios within each bin were computed. Similar analyses were repeated, controlling for different site conditions, ground motion intensity levels, array locations, and source depths, to study their relative effect on the V/H ratios. Our findings confirm the importance of the depth effect on the V/H ratios. The research findings in this report can be used to provide guidance on the significance of the depth effect, and the extent to which this effect should be considered in the seismic design of deeply embedded SMR structures and NPP structures in general.

  12. Measured water heating performance of a vertical-bore water-to-water ground source heat pump (WW-GSHP) for domestic water heating over twelve months under simulated occupancy loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ally, Moonis Raza; Munk, Jeffrey D; Baxter, Van D; Gehl, Anthony C

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents monthly performance metrics of a 5.275 kW (1.5 ton) WW-GSHP providing 227 L day-1 domestic hot water at 49 C. Daily water use is simulated as stipulated in the Building America Research Benchmark Definition capturing the living habits of the average U.S household. The 94.5m vertical-bore ground loop is shared with a separate GSHP for space conditioning the 251m2 residential home. Data on entering water temperatures, energy extracted from the ground, delivered energy, compressor electricity use, COP, WW-GSHP run times, and the impact of fan and pump energy consumption on efficiency are presented for each month. Factors influencing performance metrics are highlighted.

  13. Comment on A study of vertical and in-plane electron mobility due to interface roughness scattering at low temperature in InAs-GaSb superlattices [J. Appl. Phys. 114, 053712 (2013)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szmulowicz, F.

    2014-04-14

    The purpose of this comment is to point out that the paper by Safa, Asgari, and Faraone [J. Appl. Phys. 114, 053712 (2013)] (SAF) on electronic transport in superlattices contains a number of errors in physics and execution. By dealing with a finite number of periods and forcing the wave function to be zero at the upper and lower boundaries of the superlattice stack, SAF have turned the system into a quantum well for which the momentum along the growth axis is not a good quantum number, so that the bands in the growth direction are flat and the corresponding carrier velocities and vertical mobilities are zero. A number of other errors allow the authors to get nonzero results and to reach conclusions that qualitatively mirror those of Szmulowicz, Haugan, Elhamri, and Brown [Phys. Rev. B 84, 155307 (2011)].

  14. Reservoir monitoring and characterization using satellite geodetic data: Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar observations from the Krechba field, Algeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasco, D.W.; Ferretti, Alessandro; Novali, Fabrizio

    2008-05-01

    Deformation in the material overlying an active reservoir is used to monitor pressure change at depth. A sequence of pressure field estimates, eleven in all, allow us to construct a measure of diffusive travel time throughout the reservoir. The dense distribution of travel time values means that we can construct an exactly linear inverse problem for reservoir flow properties. Application to Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data gathered over a CO{sub 2} injection in Algeria reveals pressure propagation along two northwest trending corridors. An inversion of the travel times indicates the existence of two northwest-trending high permeability zones. The high permeability features trend in the same direction as the regional fault and fracture zones. Model parameter resolution estimates indicate that the features are well resolved.

  15. INTEGRATED VERTICAL AND OVERHEAD DECONTAMINATION (IVOD) SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    The deactivation and decommissioning of 1200 buildings within the U.S. Department of Energy-Office of Environmental Management complex will require the disposition of a large quantity of contaminated concrete and metal surfaces. It has been estimated that 23 million cubic meters of concrete and over 600,000 tons of metal will need disposition. The disposition of such large quantities of material presents difficulties in the area of decontamination and characterization. The final disposition of this large amount of material will take time and money as well as risk to the D&D work force. A single automated system that would decontaminate and characterize surfaces in one step would not only reduce the schedule and decrease cost during D&D operations but would also protect the D&D workers from unnecessary exposures to contaminated surfaces. This report summarizes the activities performed during FY00 and describes the planned activities for FY01. Accomplishments for FY00 include the following: Development and field-testing of characterization system; Completion of Title III design of deployment platform and decontamination unit; In-house testing of deployment platform and decontamination unit; Completion of system integration design; Identification of deployment site; and Completion of test plan document for deployment of IVOD at Rancho Seco nuclear power facility.

  16. Conventional Energy Forum & Associated Vertical Business Development...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    New discoveries New oil and gas production methods Associated research and development Support industry opportunities and new markets emerging in the traditional energy sector This ...

  17. Vertical Seismic Profiling | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Borehole Seismic Techniques Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Rock unit density influences elastic wave velocities. StratigraphicStructural: Structural geology-...

  18. Vertical Pretreatment Reactor System (Poster), NREL (National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC....

  19. Vertical Velocities in Continental Boundary Layer Stratocumulus...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    out of BL & Aerosol processing by clouds * Variety of conditions - Useful to evaluate LES models and GCM parameterizations Slingo et al. 2004; Kollias et al. (2007) Need of...

  20. Plasmon resonant cavities in vertical nanowire arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bora, Mihail; Bond, Tiziana C.; Fasenfest, Benjamin J.; Behymer, Elaine M.

    2014-07-15

    Tunable plasmon resonant cavity arrays in paired parallel nanowire waveguides are presented. Resonances can be observed when the waveguide length is an odd multiple of quarter plasmon wavelengths, consistent with boundary conditions of node and antinode at the ends. Two nanowire waveguides can satisfy the dispersion relation of a planar metal-dielectric-metal waveguide of equivalent width equal to the square field average weighted gap. Confinement factors of over 10.sup.3 are possible due to plasmon focusing in the inter-wire space.

  1. Vertical Electrical Sounding Configurations | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    faults Hydrological: Resistivity influenced by porosity, grain size distribution, permeability, fluid saturation, fluid type and phase state of the pore water Thermal:...

  2. An investigation of a model of the flow pattern transition mechanism in relation to the identification of annular flow of R134a in a vertical tube using various void fraction models and flow regime maps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dalkilic, A.S. [Heat and Thermodynamics Division, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, Yildiz, Besiktas, Istanbul 34349 (Turkey); Wongwises, S. [Fluid Mechanics, Thermal Engineering and Multiphase Flow Research Lab. (FUTURE), Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, Bangmod, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2010-09-15

    In the present study, new experimental data are presented for literature on the prediction of film thickness and identification of flow regime during the co-current downward condensation in a vertical smooth copper tube having an inner diameter of 8.1 mm and a length of 500 mm. R134a and water are used as working fluids in the tube side and annular side of a double tube heat exchanger, respectively. Condensation experiments are done at mass fluxes of 300 and 515 kg m{sup -2} s{sup -1}. The condensing temperatures are between 40 and 50 C; heat fluxes are between 12.65 and 66.61 kW m{sup -2}. The average experimental heat transfer coefficient of the refrigerant HFC-134a is calculated by applying an energy balance based on the energy transferred from the test section. A mathematical model by Barnea et al. based on the momentum balance of liquid and vapor phases is used to determine the condensation film thickness of R134a. The comparative film thickness values are determined indirectly using relevant measured data together with various void fraction models and correlations reported in the open literature. The effects of heat flux, mass flux, and condensation temperature on the film thickness and condensation heat transfer coefficient are also discussed for the laminar and turbulent flow conditions. There is a good agreement between the film thickness results obtained from the theoretical model and those obtained from six of 35 void fraction models in the high mass flux region of R134a. In spite of their different valid conditions, six well-known flow regime maps from the literature are found to be predictive for the annular flow conditions in the test tube in spite of their different operating conditions. (author)

  3. Structural Orientations Adjacent to Some Colorado Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard,

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Geothermal Development Associates, Reno, Nevada Publication Date: 2012 Title: Structural Data Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Reno Nevada Publisher: Geothermal Development Associates, Reno, Nevada Description: Structural orientations (fractures, joints, faults, lineaments, bedding orientations, etc.) were collected with a standard Brunton compass during routine field examinations of geothermal phenomena in Colorado. Often multiple orientations were taken from one outcrop. Care was taken to ensure outcrops were "in place". Point data was collected with a hand-held GPS unit. The structural data is presented both as standard quadrant measurements and in format suitable for ESRI symbology Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4491528.924999 m Left: 207137.983196 m Right: 432462.310324 m Bottom: 4117211.772001 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Geothermal Development Associates, Reno, Nevada Contact Person: Richard Rick Zehner Address: 3740 Barron Way City: Reno State: NV Postal Code: 89511 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 775-737-7806 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  4. ASTER Thermal Anomalies in western Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zehner, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: ASTER Thermal Anomalies Western Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains the areas identified as areas of anomalous surface temperature from ASTER satellite imagery. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. Areas that had temperature greater than 2σ, and areas with temperature equal to 1σ to 2σ, were considered ASTER modeled very warm and warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies), respectively Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4547052.446651 m Left: 158917.090117 m Right: 4101162.228281 m Bottom: 4101162.228281 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  5. Colorado Regional Faults

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Originator: Colorado Geological Survey (CGS) Publication Date: 2012 Title: Regional Faults Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science, University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains the regional faults of Colorado Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4543192.100000 m Left: 144385.020000 m Right: 754585.020000 m Bottom: 4094592.100000 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  6. Colorado Electrical Transmission Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zehner, Richard E.

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Originator: Xcel Energy Publication Date: 2012 Title: Colorado XcelEnergy NonXcel Transmission Network Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains transmission network of Colorado Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4540689.017558 m Left: 160606.141934 m Right: 758715.946645 m Bottom: 4098910.893397m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shapefile

  7. Colorado Potential Geothermal Pathways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zehner, Richard E.

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Colorado PRS Cool Fairways Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains the weakened basement rocks. Isostatic gravity was utilized to identify structural basin areas, characterized by gravity low values reflecting weakened basement rocks. Together interpreted regional fault zones and basin outlines define geothermal "exploration fairways", where the potential exists for deep, superheated fluid flow in the absence of Pliocene or younger volcanic units Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4544698.569273 m Left: 144918.141004 m Right: 763728.391299 m Bottom: 4094070.397932 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  8. Method for laser-based two-dimensional navigation system in a structured environment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boultinghouse, Karlan D. (Sandia Park, NM); Schoeneman, J. Lee (Albuquerque, NM); Tise, Bertice L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1989-01-01

    A low power, narrow laser beam, generated by a laser carried by a mobile vehicle, is rotated about a vertical reference axis as the vehicle navigates within a structured environment. At least three stationary retroreflector elements are located at known positions, preferably at the periphery of the structured environment, with one of the elements having a distinctive retroreflection. The projected rotating beam traverses each retroreflector in succession, and the corresponding retroreflections are received at the vehicle and focussed on a photoelectric cell to generate corresponding electrical signals. The signal caused by the distinctive retroreflection serves as an angle-measurement datum. An angle encoder coupled to the apparatus rotating the projected laser beam provides the angular separation from this datum of the lines connecting the mobile reference axis to successive retroreflectors. This real-time angular data is utilized with the known locations of the retroreflectors to trigonometrically compute using three point resection, the exact real-time location of the mobile reference axis (hence the navigating vehicle) vis-a-vis the structured environment, e.g., in terms of two-dimensional Cartesian coordinates associated with the environment.

  9. Nijmegen soft-core potential including two-meson exchange

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoks, V.G.J.; Rijken, T.A.

    1995-05-10

    We report on the progress of the construction of the extended soft-core (ESC) Nijmegen potential. Next to the standard one-boson-exchange parts, the model includes the pion-meson-exchange potentials due to the parallel and crossed-box diagrams, as well as the one-pair and two-pair diagrams, vertices for which can be identified with similar interactions appearing in chiral-symmetric Lagrangians. Although the ESC potential is still under construction, it already gives an excellent description of all {ital NN} scattering data below 350 MeV with {chi}{sup 2}/datum=1.3. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  10. Digital Elevation Model, 0.25 m, Barrow Environmental Observatory, Alaska, 2013

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Cathy Wilson; Garrett Altmann

    2015-11-20

    This 0.25m horizontal resolution digital elevation model, DEM, was developed from Airborne Laser Altimetry flown by Aerometric Inc, now known as Quantum Spatial, Inc. on 12 July, 2013. One Mission was flown and the data jointly processed with LANL personnel to produce a 0.25m DEM covering a region approximately 2.8km wide and 12.4km long extending from the coast above North Salt Lagoon to south of Gas Well Road. This DEM encompasses a diverse range of hydrologic, geomorphic, geophysical and biological features typical of the Barrow Peninsula. Vertical accuracy at the 95% confidence interval was computed as 0.143m. The coordinate system, datum, and geoid for this DEM are UTM Zone 4N, NAD83 (2011), NAVD88 (GEOID09).

  11. Control Surveys for Underground Construction of the Superconducting Super Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greening, W.J.Trevor; Robinson, Gregory L.; Robbins, Jeffrey S.; Ruland, Robert E.; /SLAC

    2005-08-16

    Particular care had to be taken in the design and implementation of the geodetic control systems for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) due to stringent accuracy requirements, the demanding tunneling schedule, long duration and large size of the construction effort of the project. The surveying requirements and the design and implementation of the surface and underground control scheme for the precise location of facilities which include approximately 120 km of bored tunnel are discussed. The methodology used for the densification of the surface control networks, the technique used for the transfer of horizontal and vertical control into the underground facilities, and the control traverse scheme employed in the tunnels is described.

  12. Thermal studies in a geothermal area: Report I. Thermal studies at Roosevelt Hot Springs, Utah; Report II. Heat flow above an arbitrarily dipping plane of heat sources; and Report III. A datum correction for heat flow measurements made on an arbitrary surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, W.R.; Chapman, D.S.

    1980-10-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the three reports included in this volume on the interpretation of heat flow data in a geothermal area. (MHR)

  13. Vertical Variability in Saturated Zone Hydrochemistry Near Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Patterson; P. Striffler

    2007-02-17

    The differences in the saturated zone hydrochemistry with depth at borehole NC-EWDP-22PC reflect the addition of recharge along Fortymile Wash. The differences in water chemistry with depth at borehole NC-EWDP-19PB appear to indicate that other processes are involved. Water from the lower part of NC-EWDP-19PB possesses chemical characteristics that clearly indicate that it has undergone cation exchange that resulted in the removal of calcium and magnesium and the addition of sodium. This water is very similar to water from the Western Yucca Mountain facies that has previously been thought to flow west of NC-EWDP-19PB. Water from the lower zone in NC-EWDP-19PB also could represent water from the Eastern Yucca Mountain facies that has moved through clay-bearing or zeolitized aquifer material resulting in the altered chemistry. Water chemistry from the upper part of the saturated zone at NC-EWDP-19PB, both zones at NC-EWDP-22PC, and wells in the Fortymile Wash facies appears to be the result of recharge through the alluvium south of Yucca Mountain and within the Fortymile Wash channel.

  14. 24 CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erik C. Westman

    2002-07-01

    This report describes the technical progress on a project to design and construct a multi-channel geophone array that improves tomographic imaging capabilities in both surface and underground mines. Especially important in the design of the array is sensor placement. One issue related to sensor placement is addressed in this report: the method of emplacing the array in a long, horizontal borehole. Improved imaging capabilities will produce energy, environmental, and economic benefits by increasing exploration accuracy and reducing operating costs.

  15. 24 CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erik C. Westman

    2003-06-01

    This report describes the technical progress on a project to design and construct a multichannel geophone array that improves tomographic imaging capabilities in both surface and underground mines. Especially important in the design of the array is sensor placement. One issue related to sensor placement is addressed in this report: the method for clamping the sensor once it is emplaced in the borehole. If the sensors (geophones) are not adequately coupled to the surrounding rock mass, the resulting data will be of very poor quality. Improved imaging capabilities will produce energy, environmental, and economic benefits by increasing exploration accuracy and reducing operating costs.

  16. 24-CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erik C. Westman

    2002-08-01

    This report describes the technical progress on a project to design and construct a multi-channel geophone array that improves tomographic imaging capabilities in both surface and underground mines. Especially important in the design of the array is sensor placement. One issue related to sensor placement is addressed in this report: the method for clamping the sensor once it is emplaced in the borehole. If the sensors (geophones) are not adequately coupled to the surrounding rock mass, the resulting data will be of very poor quality. Improved imaging capabilities will produce energy, environmental, and economic benefits by increasing exploration accuracy and reducing operating costs.

  17. 24-CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erik C. Westman

    2002-07-01

    This report describes the technical progress on a project to design and construct a multi-channel geophone array that improves tomographic imaging capabilities in both surface and underground mines. Especially important in the design of the array is sensor placement. One issue related to sensor placement is addressed in this report: the development of simple, robust, MSHA-acceptable clamping unit. Improved imaging capabilities will produce energy, environmental, and economic benefits by increasing exploration accuracy and reducing operating costs.

  18. 24 CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erik C. Westman

    2003-07-01

    This report describes the technical progress on a project to design and construct a multichannel geophone array that improves tomographic imaging capabilities in both surface and underground mines. No work was completed during this reporting period as project personnel are waiting for the mine to become available for final field testing of the array. Improved imaging capabilities will produce energy, environmental, and economic benefits by increasing exploration accuracy and reducing operating costs.

  19. 24-CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erik C. Westman

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the technical progress on a project to design and construct a multichannel geophone array that improves tomographic imaging capabilities in both surface and underground mines. Especially important in the design of the array is sensor placement. One issue related to sensor placement is addressed in this report: the method for clamping the sensor once it is emplaced in the borehole. If the sensors (geophones) are not adequately coupled to the surrounding rock mass, the resulting data will be of very poor quality. Improved imaging capabilities will produce energy, environmental, and economic benefits by increasing exploration accuracy and reducing operating costs.

  20. 24-CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erik C. Westman

    2002-07-01

    This report describes the technical progress on a project to design and construct a multi-channel geophone array that improves tomographic imaging capabilities in both surface and underground mines. Especially important in the design of the array is sensor placement. One issue related to sensor placement is addressed in this report: the method for clamping the sensor once it is emplaced in the borehole. If the sensors (geophones) are not adequately coupled to the surrounding rock mass, the resulting data will be of very poor quality. Improved imaging capabilities will produce energy, environmental, and economic benefits by increasing exploration accuracy and reducing operating costs.

  1. 24-CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erik C. Westman

    2002-07-01

    This report describes the technical progress on a project to design and construct a multi-channel geophone array that improves tomographic imaging capabilities in both surface and underground mines. Especially important in the design of the array is sensor placement. One issue related to sensor placement is addressed in this report: the method for orienting the sensor once it is emplaced in the borehole. If the sensors (geophones) do not have the same orientation, the data will be essentially worthless. Improved imaging capabilities will produce energy, environmental, and economic benefits by increasing exploration accuracy and reducing operating costs.

  2. Beam Profile Monitor With Accurate Horizontal And Vertical Beam Profiles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Havener, Charles C [Knoxville, TN; Al-Rejoub, Riad [Oak Ridge, TN

    2005-12-26

    A widely used scanner device that rotates a single helically shaped wire probe in and out of a particle beam at different beamline positions to give a pair of mutually perpendicular beam profiles is modified by the addition of a second wire probe. As a result, a pair of mutually perpendicular beam profiles is obtained at a first beamline position, and a second pair of mutually perpendicular beam profiles is obtained at a second beamline position. The simple modification not only provides more accurate beam profiles, but also provides a measurement of the beam divergence and quality in a single compact device.

  3. Vertically Integrated Mass Production of Automotive Class Lithium Ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  4. Three-dimensional Numerical Analysis on Blade Response of Vertical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Tidal power as a large-scale renewable source of energy has been receiving significant attention recently because of its advantages over the wind and other renewal energy sources. ...

  5. MHK Technologies/Vertical Axis Venturi System | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Primary Organization Warrior Girl Corporation Technology Type Click here Axial Flow Turbine Technology Description The proprietary venturi system uses two venturies one on the...

  6. Remote Sensing of Cirrus Particle Size Vertical Profile Using...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Category: Cloud Properties The time series of backscattering coefficients derived from lidar and Doppler millimeter-wave radar returns, as well as from balloon and aircraft...

  7. Scalable Fabrication of Polymer Membranes with Vertically Aligned...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Number: 1246804; AR0000098; 1119826; 1122492; R13AC80040 Type: Published Article Journal Name: ACS Nano Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 8; Journal Issue: 12;...

  8. Vertical Seismic Profiling (Majer, 2003) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    DOE-funding Unknown Notes The goal of this work is to evaluate the most promising methods and approaches that may be used for improved geothermal exploration and reservoir...

  9. Vertically Integrated Mass Production of Automotive Class Lithium...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon arravt018esalvarez...

  10. Vertically Integrated Mass Production of Automotive Class Lithium...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon esarravt018pinho...

  11. Vertically Integrated Mass Production of Automotive Class Lithium...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon arravt018esalvarez2012...

  12. Vertical Emmittance Studies at the ATF Damping Ring (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the dependence of the emittance on various parameters, such as the betatron tunes, vacuum pressure, and beam current, and, subsequently, study several methods of...

  13. Low dimensional GaAs/air vertical microcavity lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gessler, J.; Steinl, T.; Fischer, J.; Hfling, S.; Schneider, C.; Kamp, M.; Mika, A.; S?k, G.; Misiewicz, J.

    2014-02-24

    We report on the fabrication of gallium arsenide (GaAs)/air distributed Bragg reflector microresonators with indium gallium arsenide quantum wells. The structures are studied via momentum resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy which allows us to investigate a pronounced optical mode quantization of the photonic dispersion. We can extract a length parameter from these quantized states whose upper limit can be connected to the lateral physical extension of the microcavity via analytical calculations. Laser emission from our microcavity under optical pumping is observed in power dependent investigations.

  14. Residential Vertical Geothermal Heat Pump System Models: Calibration to Data:

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornton, Jeff W.; McDowell, T. P.; Shonder, John A; Hughes, Patrick; Pahud, D.; Hellstrom, G.

    1997-06-01

    A detailed component-based simulation model of a geothermal heat pump system has been calibrated to monitored data taken from a family housing unit located at Fort Polk, Louisiana. The simulation model represents the housing unit, geothermal heat pump, ground heat exchanger, thermostat, blower, and ground-loop pump. Each of these component models was 'tuned' to better match the measured data from the site. These tuned models were then interconnect to form the system model. The system model was then exercised in order to demonatrate its capabilities.

  15. Residential vertical geothermal heat pump system models: Calibration to data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornton, J.W.; McDowell, T.P.; Shonder, J.A.; Hughes, P.J.; Pahud, D.; Hellstroem, G.A.J.

    1997-12-31

    A detailed component-based simulation model of a geothermal heat pump system has been calibrated to monitored data taken from a family housing unit located at Fort Polk, Louisiana. The simulation model represents the housing unit, geothermal heat pump, ground heat exchanger, thermostat, blower, and ground-loop pump. Each of these component models was tuned to better match the measured data from the site. These tuned models were then interconnected to form the system model. The system model was then exercised in order to demonstrate its capabilities.

  16. High-Intensity Silicon Vertical Multi-Junction Solar Cells |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Versatility Can be used in ground-mounted and roof-mounted deployments. Contact Information Mico Perales (216) 535-9200 mico.perales@greenfieldsolar.com GreenField Solar ...

  17. Vertical Seismic Profiling At Neal Hot Springs Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    were taken in three different wells. A 60 kg accelerated weight drop and Vibroseis machine was used as the seismic source. Two receiver arrays were used, one was a linear...

  18. Moisture absorption results for vertical calciner plutonium dioxide product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Compton, J.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-03

    A sample of calcined plutonium dioxide was exposed to room air for one week. The sample was weighed daily to determine if the material absorbed moisture from the room air. A random variation of weight was observed after the first day; however, the sample returned to its original weight at the end of the week. The loss on ignition for the material increased from 0.439 to 0.544 weight percent during this time. This change is considered inconsequential as the material will normally be packaged for storage within hours of its production.

  19. Spin-stabilized magnetic levitation without vertical axis of rotation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Romero, Louis (Albuquerque, NM); Christenson, Todd (Albuquerque, NM); Aaronson, Gene (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-06-09

    The symmetry properties of a magnetic levitation arrangement are exploited to produce spin-stabilized magnetic levitation without aligning the rotational axis of the rotor with the direction of the force of gravity. The rotation of the rotor stabilizes perturbations directed parallel to the rotational axis.

  20. Vertical Seismic Profiling At Rye Patch Area (Feighner, Et Al...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    reflectivity in the area and to obtain velocity information for the design and potential processing of the proposed 3-D seismic survey Feighner et al. (1998). Because the results...

  1. Vertically Integrated Mass Production of Automotive Class Lithium Ion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Batteries | Department of Energy 1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon arravt018_es_alvarez

  2. Vertically Integrated Mass Production of Automotive Class Lithium Ion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Batteries | Department of Energy 0 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon esarravt018_pinho

  3. Vertically Integrated Mass Production of Automotive Class Lithium Ion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Batteries | Department of Energy 2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon arravt018_es_alvarez_2012

  4. Vertical Emmittance Studies at the ATF Damping Ring (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Type: Technical Report Research Org: Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), Menlo Park, CA Sponsoring Org: ER Country of Publication: United States Language: English ...

  5. Prop transport in vertical fractures: settling velocity correlations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, P.E.; Guler, N.

    1983-03-01

    The settling velocity of propping agents is a critical variable in the calculation of proppant distribution in a fracture. Most computer programs available in the industry today base estimates of settling velocity on a Stokes' Law type calculation. We have found that significant deviations from Stokes' Law settling velocities occur in cross-linked fluids and uncrosslinked fluids (concentrations in excess of 0.48%). This paper discusses experimental results obtained with a dynamic system and the implications which these data have on prop transport calculations. In addition, correlations have been derived which can be used to predict the settling velocities of particles in cross-linked gels. A discussion of these correlations will be included.

  6. Method of lining a vertical mine shaft with concrete

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eklund, James D. (Mattawa, WA); Halter, Joseph M. (Richland, WA); Rasmussen, Donald E. (Spokane, WA); Sullivan, Robert G. (Richland, WA); Moffat, Robert B. (Federal Way, WA)

    1981-01-01

    The apparatus includes a cylindrical retainer form spaced inwardly of the wall of the shaft by the desired thickness of the liner to be poured and having overlapping edges which seal against concrete flow but permit the form to be contracted to a smaller circumference after the liner has hardened and is self-supporting. A curb ring extends downwardly and outwardly toward the shaft wall from the bottom of the retainer form to define the bottom surface of each poured liner section. An inflatable toroid forms a seal between the curb ring and the shaft wall. A form support gripper ring having gripper shoes laterally extendable under hydraulic power to engage the shaft wall supports the retainer form, curb ring and liner until the newly poured liner section becomes self-supporting. Adjusting hydraulic cylinders permit the curb ring and retainer form to be properly aligned relative to the form support gripper ring. After a liner section is self-supporting, an advancing system advances the retainer form, curb ring and form support gripper ring toward a shaft boring machine above which the liner is being formed. The advancing system also provides correct horizontal alignment of the form support gripper ring.

  7. Favorable Geochemistry from Springs and Wells in COlorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zehner, Richard E.

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Geothermal Development Associates, Reno Nevada Originator: United States Geological Survey (USGS) Originator: Colorado Geological Survey Publication Date: 2012 Title: Favorable Geochemistry Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Reno Nevada Publisher: Geothermal Development Associates, Reno, Nevada Description: This layer contains favorable geochemistry for high-temperature geothermal systems, as interpreted by Richard "Rick" Zehner. The data is compiled from the data obtained from the USGS. The original data set combines 15,622 samples collected in the State of Colorado from several sources including 1) the original Geotherm geochemical database, 2) USGS NWIS (National Water Information System), 3) Colorado Geological Survey geothermal sample data, and 4) original samples collected by R. Zehner at various sites during the 2011 field season. These samples are also available in a separate shapefile FlintWaterSamples.shp. Data from all samples were reportedly collected using standard water sampling protocols (filtering through 0.45 micron filter, etc.) Sample information was standardized to ppm (micrograms/liter) in spreadsheet columns. Commonly-used cation and silica geothermometer temperature estimates are included. Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4515595.841032 m Left: 149699.513964 m Right: 757959.309388 m Bottom: 4104156.435530 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Geothermal Development Associates, Reno, Nevada Contact Person: Richard Rick Zehner Address: 3740 Barron Way City: Reno State: NV Postal Code: 89511 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 775-737-7806 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  8. Colorado Heat Flow Data from IHFC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zehner, Richard E.

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Originator: The International Heat Flow Commission (IHFC) Publication Date: 2012 Title: Colorado IHFC Data Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: Abstract: This layer contains the heat flow sites and data of the State of Colorado compiled from the International Heat Flow Commission (IHFC) of the International Association of Seismology and Physics of the Earth's Interior (IASPEI) global heat flow database (www.heatflow.und.edu/index2.html). The data include different items: Item number, descriptive code, name of site, latitude and longitude, elevation, depth interval, number of temperature data, temperature gradient, number of conductivity measurement, average conductivity, number of heat generation measurements, average heat production, heat flow, number of individual sites, references, and date of publication. Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4522121.800672 m Left: 165356.134075 m Right: 621836.776246 m Bottom: 4097833.419676 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude Of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  9. Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Routt County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Routt Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Routt County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4501071.574000 m Left: 311351.975000 m Right: 359681.975000 m Bottom: 4447251.574000 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  10. Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Alamosa and Saguache Counties, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Alamosa Saguache Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Alamosa and Saguache Counties identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4217727.601630 m Left: 394390.400264 m Right: 460179.841813 m Bottom: 4156258.036086 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  11. Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Dolored County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Dolores Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Dolores County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4186234.213315 m Left: 212558.673056 m Right: 232922.811862 m Bottom: 4176781.467043 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  12. Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Chaffee County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Chaffee Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Chaffee County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4333432.368072 m Left: 366907.700763 m Right: 452457.816015 m Bottom: 4208271.566715 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  13. Geothermal Target Areas in Colorado as Identified by Remote Sensing Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Target Areas Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains the areas identified as targets of potential geothermal activity. The Criteria used to identify the target areas include: hot/warm surface exposures modeled from ASTER/Landsat satellite imagery and geological characteristics, alteration mineral commonly associated with hot springs (clays, Si, and FeOx) modeled from ASTER and Landsat data, Coloradodo Geological Survey (CGS) known thermal hot springs/wells and heat-flow data points, Colorado deep-seated fault zones, weakened basement identified from isostatic gravity data, and Colorado sedimentary and topographic characteristics Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4546251.530446 m Left: 151398.567298 m Right: 502919.587395 m Bottom: 4095100.068903 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  14. Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Garfield County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Garfield Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Garfield County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4441550.552290 m Left: 271445.053363 m Right: 359825.053363 m Bottom: 4312490.552290 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  15. Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Archuleta County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Archuleta Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Archuleta County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4144691.792023 m Left: 285531.662851 m Right: 348694.182686 m Bottom: 4097005.210304 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  16. An Evaluation of the Carbon Sequestration Potential of the Cambro-Ordovician Strata of the Illinois and Michigan Basins: Part 1: Evaluation of Phase 2 CO{sub 2} Injection Testing in the Deep Saline Gunter Sandstone Reservoir (Cambro-Ordovician Knox Group), Marvin Blan No. 1 Hancock County, Kentucky Part 2: Time-lapse Three-Dimensional Vertical Seismic Profile (3D-VSP) of Sequestration Target Interval with Injected Fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Bowersox; John Hickman; Hannes Leetaru

    2012-12-01

    Part 1 of this report focuses on results of the western Kentucky carbon storage test, and provides a basis for evaluating injection and storage of supercritical CO{sub 2} in Cambro-Ordovician carbonate reservoirs throughout the U.S. Midcontinent. This test demonstrated that the Cambro- Ordovician Knox Group, including the Beekmantown Dolomite, Gunter Sandstone, and Copper Ridge Dolomite in stratigraphic succession from shallowest to deepest, had reservoir properties suitable for supercritical CO{sub 2} storage in a deep saline reservoir hosted in carbonate rocks, and that strata with properties sufficient for long-term confinement of supercritical CO{sub 2} were present in the deep subsurface. Injection testing with brine and CO{sub 2} was completed in two phases. The first phase, a joint project by the Kentucky Geological Survey and the Western Kentucky Carbon Storage Foundation, drilled the Marvin Blan No. 1 carbon storage research well and tested the entire Knox Group section in the open borehole â?? including the Beekmantown Dolomite, Gunter Sandstone, and Copper Ridge Dolomite â?? at 1152â??2255 m, below casing cemented at 1116 m. During Phase 1 injection testing, most of the 297 tonnes of supercritical CO{sub 2} was displaced into porous and permeable sections of the lowermost Beekmantown below 1463 m and Gunter. The wellbore was then temporarily abandoned with a retrievable bridge plug in casing at 1105 m and two downhole pressure-temperature monitoring gauges below the bridge plug pending subsequent testing. Pressure and temperature data were recorded every minute for slightly more than a year, providing a unique record of subsurface reservoir conditions in the Knox. In contrast, Phase 2 testing, this study, tested a mechanically-isolated dolomitic-sandstone interval in the Gunter. Operations in the Phase 2 testing program commenced with retrieval of the bridge plug and long-term pressure gauges, followed by mechanical isolation of the Gunter by plugging the wellbore with cement below the injection zone at 1605.7 m, then cementing a section of a 14-cm casing at 1470.4â??1535.6. The resultant 70.1-m test interval at 1535.6â??1605.7 m included nearly all of the Gunter sandstone facies. During the Phase 2 injection, 333 tonnes of CO{sub 2} were injected into the thick, lower sand section in the sandy member of the Gunter. Following the completion of testing, the injection zone below casing at 1116 m in the Marvin Blan No. 1 well, and wellbore below 305 m was permanently abandoned with cement plugs and the wellsite reclaimed. The range of most-likely storage capacities found in the Knox in the Marvin Blan No. 1 is 1000 tonnes per surface hectare in the Phase 2 Gunter interval to 8685 tonnes per surface hectare if the entire Knox section were available including the fractured interval near the base of the Copper Ridge. By itself the Gunter lacks sufficient reservoir volume to be considered for CO{sub 2} storage, although it may provide up to 18% of the reservoir volume available in the Knox. Regional extrapolation of CO{sub 2} storage potential based on the results of a single well test can be problematic, although indirect evidence of porosity and permeability can be demonstrated in the form of active saltwater-disposal wells injecting into the Knox. The western Kentucky region suitable for CO{sub 2} storage in the Knox is limited updip, to the east and south, by the depth at which the base of the Maquoketa shale lies above the depth required to ensure storage of CO{sub 2} in its supercritical state and the deepest a commercial well might be drilled for CO{sub 2} storage. The resulting prospective region has an area of approximately 15,600 km{sup 2}, beyond which it is unlikely that suitable Knox reservoirs may be developed. Faults in the subsurface, which serve as conduits for CO{sub 2} migration and compromise sealing strata, may mitigate the area with Knox reservoirs suitable for CO{sub 2} storage. The results of the injection tests in the Marvin Blan No. 1, however, provide a basis for evaluating supercritical CO{sub 2} storage in Cambro-Ordovician carbonate reservoirs throughout the Midcontinent. Reservoir seals were evaluated in the Knox and overlying strata. Within the Knox, permeabilities measured in vertical core plugs from the Beekmantown and Copper Ridge suggest that intraformational seals may problematic. Three stratigraphic intervals overlying the Knox in the Marvin Blan No. 1 well may provide seals for potential CO{sub 2} storage reservoirs in western Kentucky: Dutchtown Limestone, Black River Group, and Maquoketa Shale. The Dutchtown and Black River had permeabilities suggest that these intervals may act as secondary sealing strata. The primary reservoir seal for the Knox, however, is the Maquoketa. Maximum seal capacity calculated from permeabilities measured in vertical core plugs from the Maquoketa exceeded the net reservoir height in the Knox by about two orders of magnitude. Rock strength measured in core plugs from the Maquoketa suggest that it is unlikely that any CO{sub 2} migrating from the Knox would have sufficient pressure to fracture the Maquoketa. Part 2 of this report reviews the results of vertical seismic profiling in the Marvin Blan No. 1 well to model post-injection CO{sub 2} plume migration. Two three-dimensional vertical seismic profiles (3D-VSPâ??s) were acquired at the Kentucky Geological Survey Marvin Blan No. 1 CO{sub 2} sequestration research well, Hancock County, Kentucky. The initial (pre-injection) survey was performed on September 15â??16, 2010. This was followed by the injection of 333 tonnes of supercritical CO{sub 2} and then 584 m3 of 2% KCl water (to displace the remaining CO{sub 2} in the wellbore) on September 22, 2010. After injection, the well was shut in with a downhole pressure of 17.5 MPa at the injected reservoir depth of 1545.3 m. The second 3D-VSP was acquired on September 25â??26, 2010. These two 3D-VSP's were combined to produce a time-lapse 3D-VSP data volume in an attempt to monitor and image the subsurface changes caused by the injection. Less than optimum surface access and ambient subsurface noise from a nearby active petroleum pipeline hampered quality of the data, resulting in the inability to image the CO{sub 2} plume in the subsurface. However, some changes in the seismic response post-injection (both wavelet character and an apparent seismic "pull-down" within the injection zone) are interpreted to be a result of the injection process and imply that the technique could still be valid under different circumstances.

  17. Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Routt County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Warm Modeled Temperature Routt Edition: First Note: This Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature dataset differs from the Anomalous Surface Temperature dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1? and 2? above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2? temperatures contained in the Anomalous Surface Temperature dataset. Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Routt County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature between 1? and 2? were considered ASTER modeled warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4501071.574000 m Left: 311351.975000 m Right: 359411.975000 m Bottom: 4447521.574000 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  18. Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Chaffee County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Chaffee Edition: First Note: This Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature dataset differs from the Anomalous Surface Temperature dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1? and 2? above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2? temperatures contained in the Anomalous Surface Temperature dataset. Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Chaffee County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4333432.368072 m Left: 366907.700763 m Right: 452457.816015 m Bottom: 4208271.566715 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  19. Remotely Sensed Thermal Anomalies in western Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Landsat Thermal Anomalies Western Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains the areas identified as areas of anomalous surface temperature from Landsat satellite imagery in Western Colorado. Data was obtained for two different dates. The digital numbers of each Landsat scene were converted to radiance and the temperature was calculated in degrees Kelvin and then converted to degrees Celsius for each land cover type using the emissivity of that cover type. And this process was repeated for each of the land cover types (open water, barren, deciduous forest and evergreen forest, mixed forest, shrub/scrub, grassland/herbaceous, pasture hay, and cultivated crops). The temperature of each pixel within each scene was calculated using the thermal band. In order to calculate the temperature an average emissivity value was used for each land cover type within each scene. The NLCD 2001 land cover classification raster data of the zones that cover Colorado were downloaded from USGS site and used to identify the land cover types within each scene. Areas that had temperature residual greater than 2?, and areas with temperature equal to 1? to 2?, were considered Landsat modeled very warm and warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies), respectively Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4546381.234113 m Left: 140556.857021 m Right: 573390.000000 m Bottom: 4094583.641581 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  20. Archuleta County CO Lineaments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zehner, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Originator: Geothermal Development Associates, Reno, Nevada Publication Date: 2012 Title: Archuleta Lineaments Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Reno Nevada Publisher: Geothermal Development Associates, Reno, Nevada Description: This layer traces apparent topographic and air-photo lineaments in the area around Pagosa springs in Archuleta County, Colorado. It was made in order to identify possible fault and fracture systems that might be conduits for geothermal fluids. Geothermal fluids commonly utilize fault and fractures in competent rocks as conduits for fluid flow. Geothermal exploration involves finding areas of high near-surface temperature gradients, along with a suitable plumbing system that can provide the necessary permeability. Geothermal power plants can sometimes be built where temperature and flow rates are high. To do this, georeferenced topographic maps and aerial photographs were utilized in an existing GIS, using ESRI ArcMap 10.0 software. The USA_Topo_Maps and World_Imagery map layers were chosen from the GIS Server at server.arcgisonline.com, using a UTM Zone 13 NAD27 projection. This line shapefile was then constructed over that which appeared to be through-going structural lineaments in both the aerial photographs and topographic layers, taking care to avoid manmade features such as roads, fence lines, and right-of-ways. These lineaments may be displaced somewhat from their actual location, due to such factors as shadow effects with low sun angles in the aerial photographs. Note: This shape file was constructed as an aid to geothermal exploration in preparation for a site visit for field checking. We make no claims as to the existence of the lineaments, their location, orientation, and nature. Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4132831.990103 m Left: 311979.997741 m Right: 331678.289280 m Bottom: 4116067.165795 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Geothermal Development Associates, Reno, Nevada Contact Person: Richard Rick Zehner Address: 3740 Barron Way City: Reno State: NV Postal Code: 89511 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 775-737-7806 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  1. Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Archuleta County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Warm Modeled Temperature Archuleta Note: This Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature dataset differs from the Anomalous Surface Temperature dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1? and 2? above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2? temperatures contained in the Anomalous Surface Temperature dataset. Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Archuleta County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature between 1? and 2? were considered ASTER modeled warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies). Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4144825.235807 m Left: 285446.256851 m Right: 350577.338852 m Bottom: 4096962.250137 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  2. Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Alamosa and Saguache Counties, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Alamosa Saguache Edition: First Note: This Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature dataset differs from the Anomalous Surface Temperature dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1? and 2? above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2? temperatures contained in the Anomalous Surface Temperature dataset. Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Alamosa and Saguache Counties identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4217727.601630 m Left: 394390.400264 m Right: 460179.841813 m Bottom: 4156258.036086 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  3. Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Dolores County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Dolores Edition: First Note: This Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature dataset differs from the Anomalous Surface Temperature dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1? and 2? above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2? temperatures contained in the Anomalous Surface Temperature dataset. Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Dolores County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4186234.213315 m Left: 212558.673056 m Right: 232922.811862 m Bottom: 4176781.467043 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  4. Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Garfield County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Warm Modeled Temperature Garfield Edition: First Note: This Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature dataset differs from the Anomalous Surface Temperature dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1? and 2? above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2? temperatures contained in the Anomalous Surface Temperature dataset. Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Garfield County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature between 1? and 2? were considered ASTER modeled warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4442180.552290 m Left: 268655.053363 m Right: 359915.053363 m Bottom: 4312490.552290 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  5. Method For Detecting The Presence Of A Ferromagnetic Object

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roybal, Lyle G. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2000-11-21

    A method for detecting a presence or an absence of a ferromagnetic object within a sensing area may comprise the steps of sensing, during a sample time, a magnetic field adjacent the sensing area; producing surveillance data representative of the sensed magnetic field; determining an absolute value difference between a maximum datum and a minimum datum comprising the surveillance data; and determining whether the absolute value difference has a positive or negative sign. The absolute value difference and the corresponding positive or negative sign thereof forms a representative surveillance datum that is indicative of the presence or absence in the sensing area of the ferromagnetic material.

  6. Measurements of television interference caused by a vertical-axis wind machine. Final subcontract report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sengupta, D L; Senior, T B.A.; Ferris, J E

    1983-01-01

    The electromagnetic interference to television reception caused by the 17 m Darreius at Albuquerque, NM, has been studied by carrying out measurements at a number of sites in the vicinity of the VAWT. The rf sources used were the commercial vhf and uhf TV signals available in the area. Ambient field-strength measurements showed that the signals on all TV channels except one were strong, and provided good reception at all test sites. With the antenna (properly) oriented for maximum direct signal, unacceptable interference was observed on some channels at sites out to 33 m from the WT in the forward and backward regions. With the antenna beam directed at the WT, interference varying from slight to violent were observed at all sites on some or all TV channels. A simple theoretical model has been developed for analyzing the TVI produced by a VAWT like the Darrieus. Using the model in conjunction with measured data, an approximate expression for the equivalent scattering area A of the Darrieus has been developed. It is found that A is wavelength (lambda) dependent and varies as lambda/sup 1/2/.

  7. Molecular jet growth of carbon nanotubes and dense vertically aligned nanotube arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eres, Gyula (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN

    2010-10-12

    A method of growing a carbon nanotube includes the step of impinging a beam of carbon-containing molecules onto a substrate to grow at least one carbon nanotube on the catalyst surface.

  8. Vertical Integration of Biomass Saccharification of Enzymes for Sustainable Cellulosic Biofuel Production in a Biorefinery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manoj Kumar, PhD

    2011-05-09

    Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant, least expensive renewable natural biological resource for the production of biobased products and bioenergy is important for the sustainable development of human civilization in 21st century. For making the fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic biomass, a reduction in cellulase production cost, an improvement in cellulase performance, and an increase in sugar yields are all vital to reduce the processing costs of biorefineries. Improvements in specific cellulase activities for non-complexed cellulase mixtures can be implemented through cellulase engineering based on rational design or directed evolution for each cellulase component enzyme, as well as on the reconstitution of cellulase components. In this paper, we will provide DSM's efforts in cellulase research and developments and focus on limitations. Cellulase improvement strategies based on directed evolution using screening on relevant substrates, screening for higher thermal tolerance based on activity screening approaches such as continuous culture using insoluble cellulosic substrates as a powerful selection tool for enriching beneficial cellulase mutants from the large library. We will illustrate why and how thermostable cellulases are vital for economic delivery of bioproducts from cellulosic biomass using biochemical conversion approach.

  9. A Block-Structured KIVA Program for Engines with Vertical or Canted Valves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-04-16

    KIVA-4 is the latest version of the series of KIVA codes. While KIVA-4 maintains the full generality of KIVA-3V, it adds the capability of computing with unstructured grids. Unstructured grids can be generated more easily than structured grids for complex geometries. The unstructured grids can be composed of a variety of elements including hexahedra, prisms, pyramids, and tetrahedra. However the numerical accuracy is less when the grid is not composed of hexahedra. KIVA-4 was developed to work with the many geometries accommodated with KIVA-3V which include 2D axisymmetric, 2D planar, 3D axisymmetric sector geometries, and full 3D geometries. KIVA-4 also features a multicomponent fuel evaporation algorithm. Many of the numerical algorithms in KIVA-3V do generalize nicely to unstructured meshes. However fundamental changes were needed in the solution of the pressure equation and the fluxing of momentum. In addition, KIVA-4 loops over cell faces to compute diffusion terms. More details can be found in Torres, D.J. and Trujillo, M.F., KIVA-4: An unstructured ALE code for compressible gas flow with sprays, Journal of Computational Physics, 2006, vol. 219, pp. 943-975. PACKAGE TESTED USING LINUX OPERATING SYSTEM. MAY BE MODIFIED TO RUN USING UNIX OR WINDOWS.

  10. Sandia Vertical-Axis Wind-Turbine Research Presented at Science...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lab Photovoltaic Systems Evaluation Laboratory PV Regional ... Facility Geomechanics and Drilling Labs National ... enhanced version of the Offshore Wind Energy Simu-lation ...

  11. Roles of Wind Shear at Different Vertical Levels in Cloud System...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    thunderstorms, called mesoscale convective systems (MCSs), occur frequently across the globe and contribute greatly to the hydrologic cycle and atmospheric energy budget....

  12. Embedded arrays of vertically aligned carbon nanotube carpets and methods for making them

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Myung Jong; Nicholas, Nolan Walker; Kittrell, W. Carter; Schmidt, Howard K.

    2015-06-30

    According to some embodiments, the present invention provides a system and method for supporting a carbon nanotube array that involve an entangled carbon nanotube mat integral with the array, where the mat is embedded in an embedding material. The embedding material may be depositable on a carbon nanotube. A depositable material may be metallic or nonmetallic. The embedding material may be an adhesive material. The adhesive material may optionally be mixed with a metal powder. The embedding material may be supported by a substrate or self-supportive. The embedding material may be conductive or nonconductive. The system and method provide superior mechanical and, when applicable, electrical, contact between the carbon nanotubes in the array and the embedding material. The optional use of a conductive material for the embedding material provides a mechanism useful for integration of carbon nanotube arrays into electronic devices.

  13. Large-scale fabrication of vertically aligned ZnO nanowire arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L; Das, Suman; Xu, Sheng; Yuan, Dajun; Guo, Rui; Wei, Yaguang; Wu, Wenzhuo

    2013-02-05

    In a method for growing a nanowire array, a photoresist layer is placed onto a nanowire growth layer configured for growing nanowires therefrom. The photoresist layer is exposed to a coherent light interference pattern that includes periodically alternately spaced dark bands and light bands along a first orientation. The photoresist layer exposed to the coherent light interference pattern along a second orientation, transverse to the first orientation. The photoresist layer developed so as to remove photoresist from areas corresponding to areas of intersection of the dark bands of the interference pattern along the first orientation and the dark bands of the interference pattern along the second orientation, thereby leaving an ordered array of holes passing through the photoresist layer. The photoresist layer and the nanowire growth layer are placed into a nanowire growth environment, thereby growing nanowires from the nanowire growth layer through the array of holes.

  14. GE/NOMADICS IN-WELL MONITORING SYSTEM FOR VERTICAL PROFILING OF DNAPL CONTAMINANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald E. Shaffer; Radislav Potyralio; Joseph Salvo; Timothy Sivavec; Lloyd Salsman

    2003-04-01

    This report describes the Phase I effort to develop an Automated In Well Monitoring System (AIMS) for in situ detection of chlorinated volatile organic compounds such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) in groundwater. AIMS is composed of 3 primary components: (a) sensor probe, (b) instrument delivery system, and (c) communication/recharging station. The sensor probe utilizes an array of thickness shear mode (TSM) sensors coated with chemically-sensitive polymer films provides a low-cost, highly sensitive microsensor platform for detection and quantification. The instrument delivery system is used to position the sensor probe in 2 inch or larger groundwater monitoring wells. A communication/recharging station provides wireless battery recharging and communication to enable a fully automated system. A calibration curve for TCE in water was built using data collected in the laboratory. The detection limit of the sensor probe was 6.7 ppb ({micro}g/L) for TCE in water. A preliminary field test was conducted at a GE remediation location and a pilot field test was performed at the DOE Savannah River Site (SRS). The AIMS system was demonstrated in an uncontaminated (i.e., ''clean'') 2-inch well and in a 4-inch well containing 163.5 ppb of TCE. Repeat measurements at the two wells indicated excellent day-to-day reproducibility. Significant differences in the sensor responses were noted between the two types of wells but they did not closely match the laboratory calibration data. The robustness of the system presented numerous challenges for field work and limited the scope of the SRS pilot field test. However, the unique combination of trace detection (detection limits near the MCL, minimum concentration level) and size (operations in 2-inch or larger groundwater wells) is demonstration of the promise of this technology for long-term monitoring (LTM) applications or rapid site characterization. Using the lessons learned from the pilot field test, a number of design changes are proposed to increase the robustness of the system for extended field studies and commercialization.

  15. Engineering catalytic activity via ion beam bombardment of catalyst supports for vertically aligned carbon nanotube growth

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Islam, A. E.; Zakharov, D.; Stach, E. A.; Nikoleav, P.; Amama, P. B.; Sargent, G.; Saber, S.; Huffman, D.; Erford, M.; Semiatin, S. L.; et al

    2015-09-16

    Carbon nanotube growth depends on the catalytic activity of metal nanoparticles on alumina or silica supports. The control on catalytic activity is generally achieved by variations in water concentration, carbon feed, and sample placement on a few types of alumina or silica catalyst supports obtained via thin film deposition. We have recently expanded the choice of catalyst supports by engineering inactive substrates like c-cut sapphire via ion beam bombardment. The deterministic control on the structure and chemistry of catalyst supports obtained by tuning the degree of beam-induced damage have enabled better regulation of the activity of Fe catalysts only inmore » the ion beam bombarded areas and hence enabled controllable super growth of carbon nanotubes. A wide range of surface characterization techniques were used to monitor the catalytically active surface engineered via ion beam bombardment. The proposed method offers a versatile way to control carbon nanotube growth in patterned areas and also enhances the current understanding of the growth process. As a result, with the right choice of water concentration, carbon feed and sample placement, engineered catalyst supports may extend the carbon nanotube growth yield to a level that is even higher than the ones reported here, and thus offers promising applications of carbon nanotubes in electronics, heat exchanger, and energy storage.« less

  16. Vertical stratification of subsurface microbial community composition across geological formations at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Xueju; Kennedy, David W.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Konopka, Allan

    2011-11-29

    Microbial diversity in subsurface sediments at the Hanford Site 300 Area near Richland, Washington State (USA) was investigated by analyzing samples recovered from depths of 9 to 52 m. Approximately 8000 near full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences were analyzed across geological strata that include a natural redox transition zone. These strata included the oxic coarse-grained Hanford formation, fine-grained oxic and anoxic Ringold Formation sediments, and the weathered basalt group. We detected 1233 and 120 unique bacterial and archaeal OTUs (Operational Taxonomic Units at the 97% identity level), respectively. Microbial community structure and richness varied substantially across the different geological strata. Bacterial OTU richness (Chao1 estimator) was highest (>700) in the upper Hanford formation, and declined to about 120 at the bottom of the Hanford formation. Just above the Ringold oxic-anoxic interface, richness was about 325 and declined to less than 50 in the deeper reduced zones. The deeper Ringold strata were characterized by a preponderance (ca. 90%) of Proteobacteria. The Bacterial community in the oxic sediments contained not only members of 9 well-recognized phyla but also an unusually high proportion of 3 candidate divisions (GAL15, NC10, and SPAM). Additionally, novel phylogenetic orders were identified within the Delta-proteobacteria, a clade rich in microbes that carry out redox transformations of metals that are important contaminants on the Hanford Site.

  17. OCCIDENTAL VERTICAL MODIFIED IN SITU PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF OIL FROM OIL SHALE. PHASE II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Reid M.

    1980-09-01

    The progress presented in this report covers the period June 1, 1980 through August 31, 1980 under the work scope for.Phase II of the DOE/Occidental Oil Shale, Inc. (OOSI) Cooperative Agreement. The major activities at OOSI 1s Logan Wash site during the quarter were: mining the voids at all levels for Retorts 7, 8 and 8x; completing Mini-Retort (MR) construction; continuing surface facility construction; tracer testing the MR 1 s; conducting Retorts 7 & 8 related Rock Fragmentation tests; setting up and debugging the Sandia B-61 trailer; and preparing the Phase II instrumentation plan.

  18. Final Report of the Grant: ''Vertical Transport and Mixing in Complex Terrain Airsheds''

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernando, Joseph Harindra; Anderson, James; Boyer, Don; Berman, Neil

    2004-12-29

    Stable stratification associated with nocturnal thermal circulation in areas of complex terrain leads to interesting and important phenomena that govern local meteorology and contaminant dispersion. Given that most urban areas are in complex topography, understanding and prediction of such phenomena are of immediate practical importance. This project dealt with theoretical, laboratory, numerical and field experimental studies aimed at understanding stratified flow and turbulence phenomena in urban areas, with particular emphasis on flow, turbulence and contaminant transport and diffusion in such flows. A myriad of new results were obtained and some of these results were used to improve the predictive capabilities of the models.

  19. Ultrafast pulse amplification in mode-locked vertical external-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bttge, C. N. Hader, J.; Kilen, I.; Moloney, J. V.; Koch, S. W.

    2014-12-29

    A fully microscopic many-body Maxwellsemiconductor Bloch model is used to investigate the influence of the non-equilibrium carrier dynamics on the short-pulse amplification in mode-locked semiconductor microlaser systems. The numerical solution of the coupled equations allows for a self-consistent investigation of the lightmatter coupling dynamics, the carrier kinetics in the saturable absorber and the multiple-quantum-well gain medium, as well as the modification of the light field through the pulse-induced optical polarization. The influence of the pulse-induced non-equilibrium modifications of the carrier distributions in the gain medium and the saturable absorber on the single-pulse amplification in the laser cavity is identified. It is shown that for the same structure, quantum wells, and gain bandwidth the non-equilibrium carrier dynamics lead to two preferred operation regimes: one with pulses in the (sub-)100 fs-regime and one with multi-picosecond pulses. The recovery time of the saturable absorber determines in which regime the device operates.

  20. Microsoft Word - Vertical migration _Text_-EBF Nov 16 2009 LINE...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Ukraine Chabany, Ukraine Email: ivanov@uiar.kiev.ua Phone: +380 44 5267531 Fax: +380 44 5260790 For reprints and correspondence contact: Eduardo B. Farfn, Ph.D....

  1. Magneto-exciton-polariton condensation in a sub-wavelength high contrast grating based vertical microcavity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, J.; Brodbeck, S.; Worschech, L.; Kamp, M.; Schneider, C.; Hfling, S.; Zhang, B.; Wang, Z.; Deng, H.

    2014-03-03

    We comparably investigate the diamagnetic shift of an uncoupled quantum well exciton with a microcavity exciton-polariton condensate on the same device. The sample is composed of multiple GaAs quantum wells in an AlAs microcavity, surrounded by a Bragg reflector and a sub-wavelength high contrast grating reflector. Our study introduces an independent and easily applicable technique, namely, the measurement of the condensate diamagnetic shift, which directly probes matter contributions in polariton condensates and hence discriminates it from a conventional photon laser.

  2. Interface Architecture Determined Electrocatalytic Activity of Pt on Vertically Oriented TiO2 Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R Rettew; N Allam; F Alamgir

    2011-12-31

    The surface atomic structure and chemical state of Pt is consequential in a variety of surface-intensive devices. Herein we present the direct interrelationship between the growth scheme of Pt films, the resulting atomic and electronic structure of Pt species, and the consequent activity for methanol electro-oxidation in Pt/TiO{sub 2} nanotube hybrid electrodes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements were performed to relate the observed electrocatalytic activity to the oxidation state and the atomic structure of the deposited Pt species. The atomic structure as well as the oxidation state of the deposited Pt was found to depend on the pretreatment of the TiO{sub 2} nanotube surfaces with electrodeposited Cu. Pt growth through Cu replacement increases Pt dispersion, and a separation of surface Pt atoms beyond a threshold distance from the TiO{sub 2} substrate renders them metallic, rather than cationic. The increased dispersion and the metallic character of Pt results in strongly enhanced electrocatalytic activity toward methanol oxidation. This study points to a general phenomenon whereby the growth scheme and the substrate-to-surface-Pt distance dictates the chemical state of the surface Pt atoms, and thereby, the performance of Pt-based surface-intensive devices.

  3. A Block-Structured KIVA Program for Engines with Vertical or Canted Valves

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2007-04-16

    KIVA-4 is the latest version of the series of KIVA codes. While KIVA-4 maintains the full generality of KIVA-3V, it adds the capability of computing with unstructured grids. Unstructured grids can be generated more easily than structured grids for complex geometries. The unstructured grids can be composed of a variety of elements including hexahedra, prisms, pyramids, and tetrahedra. However the numerical accuracy is less when the grid is not composed of hexahedra. KIVA-4 was developedmore » to work with the many geometries accommodated with KIVA-3V which include 2D axisymmetric, 2D planar, 3D axisymmetric sector geometries, and full 3D geometries. KIVA-4 also features a multicomponent fuel evaporation algorithm. Many of the numerical algorithms in KIVA-3V do generalize nicely to unstructured meshes. However fundamental changes were needed in the solution of the pressure equation and the fluxing of momentum. In addition, KIVA-4 loops over cell faces to compute diffusion terms. More details can be found in Torres, D.J. and Trujillo, M.F., KIVA-4: An unstructured ALE code for compressible gas flow with sprays, Journal of Computational Physics, 2006, vol. 219, pp. 943-975. PACKAGE TESTED USING LINUX OPERATING SYSTEM. MAY BE MODIFIED TO RUN USING UNIX OR WINDOWS.« less

  4. Experimental study of mixed convection heat transfer in vertical helically coiled tube heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghorbani, N. [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds, England (United Kingdom); Taherian, H. [Department of Engineering Technology and Industrial Distribution, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States); Gorji, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Babol Noushirvani University of Technology, Babol (Iran); Mirgolbabaei, H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Jouybar branch, Jouybar (Iran)

    2010-10-15

    In this study the mixed convection heat transfer in a coil-in-shell heat exchanger for various Reynolds numbers, various tube-to-coil diameter ratios and different dimensionless coil pitch was experimentally investigated. The experiments were conducted for both laminar and turbulent flow inside coil. Effects of coil pitch and tube diameters on shell-side heat transfer coefficient of the heat exchanger were studied. Different characteristic lengths were used in various Nusselt number calculations to determine which length best fits the data and several equations were proposed. The particular difference in this study in comparison with the other similar studies was the boundary conditions for the helical coils. The results indicate that the equivalent diameter of shell is the best characteristic length. (author)

  5. The Effect of Roll Waves on the Hydrodynamics of Falling Films Observed in Vertical Column Absorbers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, W.A.

    2001-06-28

    A thin falling film is well suited to simultaneous heat and mass transfer because of the small thermal resistance through the film and because of the large contact surface achievable at low flow rates. The film enters as a smooth laminar flow and quickly transitions into small-amplitude wavy flow. The waves grown in length and amplitude and are identified as roll waves. This flow regime is termed wavy-laminar flow, and modern heat and mass transfer equipment operate in this complicated transition regime. Research published in open literature has shown the mass flow rate in the rollwaves to be about 10 to 20 times greater than that in the laminar substrate. As the film fully develops, the waves grow in mass and the film substrate thins because fluid is swept from the substrate by the secondary flows of the roll wave. Many studies have been conducted to measure and correlate the film thickness of wavy-laminar flows. Literature data show that Nusselt's theory for smooth laminar flow can over predict the film thickness by as much as 20% for certain wavy-laminar flow conditions. The hydrodynamics of falling films were therefore studied to measure the film thickness of a free-surface falling film and to better understand the parameters that affect the variations of the film thickness. A flow loop was set up for measuring the thickness, wave amplitude,and frequency of a film during hydrodynamic flow. Decreasing the pipe diameter caused the amplitude of the wavy flow to diminish. Measurements monitored from stations along the falling film showed a thinning of film thickness. Fully developed flow required large starting lengths of about 0.5 m. The film thickness increases as the Reynolds number (Re) increases. Increasing the Kapitza number (Ka) causes a decrease in the film thickness. Regression analysis showed that the Re and Ka numbers described the data trends in wavy-laminar flow. Rather than correlating the Re number in discrete ranges of the Ka number as earlier researchers have done, this research made the Ka number an independent regression variable along with the Re number. The correlation explains 96% of the total variation in the data and predicts the experimental data within an absolute average deviation of {+-} 4.0%. The correlation supports the calculation of a fully developed film thickness for wavy-laminar falling films.

  6. Vertical stratification of subsurface microbial community composition across geological formations at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Xueju; Kennedy, David W.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Konopka, Allan

    2012-02-01

    The microbial diversity in subsurface sediments at the Hanford Site's 300 Area in southeastern Washington State was investigated by analyzing 21 samples recovered from depths that ranged from 9 to 52 m. Approximately 8000 non-chimeric Bacterial and Archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences were analyzed across geological strata that contain a natural redox transition zone. These strata included the oxic coarse-grained Hanford formation, fine-grained oxic and anoxic Ringold Formation sediments, and the weathered basalt group. We detected 1233 and 120 unique bacterial and archaeal OTUs (Operational Taxonomic Units, defined at the 97% identity level). Microbial community structure and richness varied substantially across the different geological strata. Bacterial OTU richness (based upon Chao1 estimator) was highest (>700) in the upper Hanford formation, and declined to about 120 at the bottom of the Hanford formation. Just above the Ringold oxic-anoxic transition zone, richness was about 325 and declined to less than 50 in the deeper reduced zones. The Bacterial community in the oxic Hanford and Ringold Formations contained members of 9 major well-recognized phyla as well 30 as unusually high proportions of 3 candidate divisions (GAL15, NC10, and SPAM). The deeper Ringold strata were characterized by low OTU richness and a very high preponderance (ca. 90%) of Proteobacteria. The study has greatly expanded the intralineage phylogenetic diversity within some major divisions. These subsurface sediments have been shown to contain a large number of phylogenetically novel microbes, with substantial heterogeneities between sediment samples from the same geological formation.

  7. Vertical cavity surface-emitting laser scanning cytometer for high speed analysis of cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gourley, P.L.; McDonald, A.E.; Gourley, M.F.

    1995-12-31

    We have constructed a new semiconductor laser device that may be useful in high speed characterization of cell morphology for diagnosis of disease. This laser device has critical advantages over conventional cell fluorescence detection methods since it provides intense, monochromatic, low-divergence fight signals that are emitted from lasing modes confined by a cell. Further, the device integrates biological structures with semiconductor materials at the wafer level to reduce device size and simplify cell preparation. In this paper we discuss operational characteristics of the prototype cytometer and present preliminary data for blood cells and dielectric spheres.

  8. The Correlation of Coupled Heat and Mass Transfer Experimental Data for Vertical Falling Film Absorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keyhani, M.; Miller, W.A.

    1999-11-14

    Absorption chillers are gaining global acceptance as quality comfort cooling systems. These machines are the central chilling plants and the supply for cotnfort cooling for many large commercial buildings. Virtually all absorption chillers use lithium bromide (LiBr) and water as the absorption fluids. Water is the refrigerant. Research has shown LiBr to he one of the best absorption working fluids because it has a high affinity for water, releases water vapor at relatively low temperatures, and has a boiling point much higher than that of water. The heart of the chiller is the absorber, where a process of simultaneous heat and mass transfer occurs as the refrigerant water vapor is absorbed into a falling film of aqueous LiBr. The more water vapor absorbed into the falling film, the larger the chiller?s capacity for supporting comfort cooling. Improving the performance of the absorber leads directly to efficiency gains for the chiller. The design of an absorber is very empirical and requires experimental data. Yet design data and correlations are sparse in the open literature. The experimental data available to date have been derived at LiBr concentrations ranging from 0.30 to 0.60 mass fraction. No literature data are readily available for the design operating conditions of 0.62 and 0.64 mass fraction of LiBr and absorber pressures of 0.7 and 1.0 kPa.

  9. Development of bottom-emitting 1300 nm vertical-cavity surface...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Proposed for publication in IEEE Photonics Technology Letters. Research Org: Sandia National Laboratories Sponsoring ...

  10. ARM - PI Product - SGP and TWP (Manus) Ice Cloud Vertical Velocities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    removed, however a multi-layer flag is included. Data Details Contact Heike Kalesse Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research kalesse@tropos.de Permoserstr. 15 Leipzig, 04318...

  11. Engineering catalytic activity via ion beam bombardment of catalyst supports for vertically aligned carbon nanotube growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Islam, A. E.; Zakharov, D.; Stach, E. A.; Nikoleav, P.; Amama, P. B.; Sargent, G.; Saber, S.; Huffman, D.; Erford, M.; Semiatin, S. L.; Maruyama, B.

    2015-09-16

    Carbon nanotube growth depends on the catalytic activity of metal nanoparticles on alumina or silica supports. The control on catalytic activity is generally achieved by variations in water concentration, carbon feed, and sample placement on a few types of alumina or silica catalyst supports obtained via thin film deposition. We have recently expanded the choice of catalyst supports by engineering inactive substrates like c-cut sapphire via ion beam bombardment. The deterministic control on the structure and chemistry of catalyst supports obtained by tuning the degree of beam-induced damage have enabled better regulation of the activity of Fe catalysts only in the ion beam bombarded areas and hence enabled controllable super growth of carbon nanotubes. A wide range of surface characterization techniques were used to monitor the catalytically active surface engineered via ion beam bombardment. The proposed method offers a versatile way to control carbon nanotube growth in patterned areas and also enhances the current understanding of the growth process. As a result, with the right choice of water concentration, carbon feed and sample placement, engineered catalyst supports may extend the carbon nanotube growth yield to a level that is even higher than the ones reported here, and thus offers promising applications of carbon nanotubes in electronics, heat exchanger, and energy storage.

  12. Temporal variability of the trade wind inversion: Measured with a boundary layer vertical profiler. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grindinger, C.M.

    1992-05-01

    This study uses Hawaiian Rainband Project (HaRP) data, from the summer of 1991, to show a boundary layer wind profiler can be used to measure the trade wind inversion. An algorithm has been developed for the profiler that objectively measures the depth of the moist oceanic boundary layer. The Hilo inversion, measured by radiosonde, is highly correlated with the moist oceanic boundary layer measured by the profiler at Paradise Park. The inversion height on windward Hawaii is typically 2253 + or - 514 m. The inversion height varies not only on a daily basis, but on less than an hourly basis. It has a diurnal, as well as a three to four day cycle. There appears to be no consistent relationship between inversion height and precipitation. Currently, this profiler is capable of making high frequency (12 minute) measurements of the inversion base variation, as well as other features.

  13. Investigation of vertical distribution and morphology of indigenous organic matter Sleeping Bear site, Michigan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, C.C.; Lyon, W.G.; Ross, D.L.

    1994-11-01

    This study evaluates the nature and origin of particulate organic carbon and organic coatings on aquifer sands upgradient from a fuel spill site near the Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore in Michigan. The distribution of carbon was found to be highly complex due to the occurrence of high organic carbon horizons, bounded above and below by high carbonate sediments. The organic coatings on the sands were examined using white light and fluorescence microscopy and by scanning electron microscopy. Core samples were analyzed for organic and inorganic carbon, solution pH, humic/fulvic acid ratios, and insoluable organic matter content (that is, humin) as function of depth from the ground surface. The organic geochemistry of the soil profile at this site was found to be significantly influenced by the carbonates producing a sharp boundary of precipitated organic matter. This boundary was followed by coatings of predominantly fulvic acid salts on mineral grains deeper in the soil column. The coatings extended into the aquifer. The existence of native organic films on sand grains is well documented in the soils literature. The study reported here was greatly aided by this information and provides the framework for future studies concerning the influence of carbon distribution, chemical identity, and morphology on contaminant fate and transport processes. 56 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. A Primitive Alkali Basaltic Stratovolcano And Associated Eruptive...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    define a very high geotherm consistent with their location near the Yermak hot spot, and provide a good datum point for the geothermal gradient adjacent to such a thermal...

  15. FireHose Streaming Benchmarks

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2015-01-27

    The FireHose Streaming Benchmarks are a suite of stream-processing benchmarks defined to enable comparison of streaming software and hardware, both quantitatively vis-a-vis the rate at which they can process data, and qualitatively by judging the effort involved to implement and run the benchmarks. Each benchmark has two parts. The first is a generator which produces and outputs datums at a high rate in a specific format. The second is an analytic which reads the streammore » of datums and is required to perform a well-defined calculation on the collection of datums, typically to find anomalous datums that have been created in the stream by the generator. The FireHose suite provides code for the generators, sample code for the analytics (which users are free to re-implement in their own custom frameworks), and a precise definition of each benchmark calculation.« less

  16. Oblique Aerial & Ground Visible Band & Thermographic Imaging...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    definition has been provided for this term. Add a Definition Related Techniques Passive Sensors Aerial Photography FLIR Geodetic Survey Hyperspectral Imaging Long-Wave Infrared...

  17. Modeling-Computer Simulations At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (2003) The Mechanics of Unrest at Long Valley Caldera, California. 2. Constraining the Nature of the Source Using Geodetic and Micro-Gravity Data John O. Langbein (2003)...

  18. Shallow (2-meter) temperature surveys in Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zehner, Richard E.

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Geothermal Development Associates, Reno, Nevada Publication Date: 2012 Title: Colorado 2m Survey Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Reno Nevada Publisher: Geothermal Development Associates, Reno, Nevada Description: Shallow temperature surveys are useful in early-stage geothermal exploration to delineate surface outflow zones, with the intent to identify the source of upwelling, usually a fault. Detailed descriptions of the 2-meter survey method and equipment design can be found in Coolbaugh et al. (2007) and Sladek et al. (2007), and are summarized here. The survey method was devised to measure temperature as far below the zone of solar influence as possible, have minimal equilibration time, and yet be portable enough to fit on the back of an all-terrain vehicle (ATV); Figure 2). This method utilizes a direct push technology (DPT) technique where 2.3 m long, 0.54 outer diameter hollow steel rods are pounded into the ground using a demolition hammer. Resistance temperature devices (RTD) are then inserted into the rods at 2-meter depths, and allowed to equilibrate for one hour. The temperatures are then measured and recorded, the rods pulled out of the ground, and re-used at future sites. Usually multiple rods are planted over the course of an hour, and then the sampler returns back to the first station, measures the temperatures, pulls the rods, and so on, to eliminate waiting time. At Wagon Wheel Gap, 32 rods were planted around the hot springs between June 20 and July 1, 2012. The purpose was to determine the direction of a possible upflow fault or other structure. Temperatures at 1.5m and 2m depths were measured and recorded in the attribute table of this point shapefile. Several anomalous temperatures suggest that outflow is coming from a ~N60W striking fault or shear zone that contains the quartz-fluorite-barite veins of the adjacent patented mining claims. It should be noted that temperatures at 2m depth vary according to the amount of solar heating from above, as well as possible geothermal heating from below. Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4490310.560635 m Left: 150307.008238 m Right: 433163.213617 m Bottom: 4009565.915398 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Geothermal Development Associates, Reno, Nevada Contact Person: Richard Rick Zehner Address: 3740 Barron Way City: Reno State: NV Postal Code: 89511 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 775-737-7806 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  19. Vertically polarizing undulator with the dynamic compensation of magnetic forces for the next generation of light sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strelnikov, N.; Trakhtenberg, E.; Vasserman, I.; Xu, J.; Gluskin, E.

    2014-11-15

    A short prototype (847-mm-long) of an Insertion Device (ID) with the dynamic compensation of ID magnetic forces has been designed, built, and tested at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) of the Argonne National Laboratory. The ID magnetic forces were compensated by the set of conical springs placed along the ID strongback. Well-controlled exponential characteristics of conical springs permitted a very close fit to the ID magnetic forces. Several effects related to the imperfections of actual springs, their mounting and tuning, and how these factors affect the prototype performance has been studied. Finally, series of tests to determine the accuracy and reproducibility of the ID magnetic gap settings have been carried out. Based on the magnetic measurements of the ID B{sub eff}, it has been demonstrated that the magnetic gaps within an operating range were controlled accurately and reproducibly within 1 ?m. Successful tests of this ID prototype led to the design of a 3-m long device based on the same concept. The 3-m long prototype is currently under construction. It represents R and D efforts by the APS toward APS Upgrade Project goals as well as the future generation of IDs for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS)

  20. Active probing of cloud multiple scattering, optical depth, vertical thickness, and liquid water content using wide-angle imaging LIDAR.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Love, Steven P.; Davis, A. B.; Rohde, C. A.; Tellier, L. L.; Ho, Cheng,

    2002-01-01

    At most optical wavelengths, laser light in a cloud lidar experiment is not absorbed but merely scattered out of the beam, eventually escaping the cloud via multiple scattering. There is much information available in this light scattered far from the input beam, information ignored by traditional 'on-beam' lidar. Monitoring these off-beam returns in a fully space- and time-resolved manner is the essence of our unique instrument, Wide Angle Imaging Lidar (WAIL). In effect, WAIL produces wide-field (60-degree full-angle) 'movies' of the scattering process and records the cloud's radiative Green functions. A direct data product of WAIL is the distribution of photon path lengths resulting from multiple scattering in the cloud. Following insights from diffusion theory, we can use the measured Green functions to infer the physical thickness and optical depth of the cloud layer, and, from there, estimate the volume-averaged liquid water content. WAIL is notable in that it is applicable to optically thick clouds, a regime in which traditional lidar is reduced to ceilometry. Here we present recent WAIL data oti various clouds and discuss the extension of WAIL to full diurnal monitoring by means of an ultra-narrow magneto-optic atomic line filter for daytime measurements.

  1. Aeroelastic Modeling of Large Off-shore Vertical-axis Wind Turbines: Development of the Offshore Wind Energy Simulation Toolkit

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Downloaded by Daniel Griffith on April 12, 2013 | http://arc.aiaa.org | DOI: 10.2514/6.2013-1552 54th AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference April 8-11, 2013, Boston, Massachusetts AIAA 2013-1552 This material is declared a work of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 2 I. Introduction HE availability of offshore wind resources in coastal regions makes

  2. Low Power, Red, Green and Blue Carbon Nanotube Enabled Vertical Organic Light Emitting Transistors for Active Matrix OLED Displays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarthy, M. A. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Liu, B. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Donoghue, E. P. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Kravchenko, Ivan I [ORNL; Kim, D. Y. [University of Florida, Gainesville; So, Franky [University of Florida, Gainesville; Rinzler, A. G. [University of Florida, Gainesville

    2011-01-01

    Organic semiconductors are potential alternatives to polycrystalline silicon as the semiconductor used in the backplane of active matrix organic light emitting diode displays. Demonstrated here is a light-emitting transistor with an organic channel, operating with low power dissipation at low voltage, and high aperture ratio, in three colors: red, green and blue. The single-wall carbon nanotube network source electrode is responsible for the high level of performance demonstrated. A major benefit enabled by this architecture is the integration of the drive transistor, storage capacitor and light emitter into a single device. Performance comparable to commercialized polycrystalline-silicon TFT driven OLEDs is demonstrated.

  3. Fuel cell integral bundle assembly including ceramic open end seal and vertical and horizontal thermal expansion control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zafred, Paolo R. (Murrysville, PA); Gillett, James E. (Greensburg, PA)

    2012-04-24

    A plurality of integral bundle assemblies contain a top portion with an inlet fuel plenum and a bottom portion containing a base support, the base supports a dense, ceramic air exhaust manifold having four supporting legs, the manifold is below and connects to air feed tubes located in a recuperator zone, the air feed tubes passing into the center of inverted, tubular, elongated, hollow electrically connected solid oxide fuel cells having an open end above a combustion zone into which the air feed tubes pass and a closed end near the inlet fuel plenum, where the open end of the fuel cells rest upon and within a separate combination ceramic seal and bundle support contained in a ceramic support casting, where at least one flexible cushion ceramic band seal located between the recuperator and fuel cells protects and controls horizontal thermal expansion, and where the fuel cells operate in the fuel cell mode and where the base support and bottom ceramic air exhaust manifolds carry from 85% to all of the weight of the generator.

  4. A Comparison of Platform Options for Deep-water Floating Offshore Vertical Axis Wind Turbines: An Initial Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bull, Diana L; Fowler, Matthew; Goupee, Andrew

    2014-08-01

    This analysis utilizes a 5 - MW VAWT topside design envelope created by Sandia National Laborator ies to compare floating platform options fo r each turbine in the design space. The platform designs are based on two existing designs, the OC3 Hywind spar - buoy and Principal Power's WindFloat semi - submersible. These designs are scaled using Froude - scaling relationships to determine an appropriately sized spar - buoy and semi - submersible design for each topside. Both the physical size of the required platform as well as mooring configurations are considered. Results are compared with a comparable 5 - MW HAWT in order to identify potential differences in the platform and mooring sizing between the VAWT and HAWT . The study shows that there is potential for cost savings due to reduced platform size requirements for the VAWT.

  5. Property:ThermalInfo | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    G cont. Geodetic Survey Geophysical Methods Geothermal Literature Review Gravity Methods Ground Magnetics H Hand-held X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) I Image Logs InSAR Injectivity Test...

  6. A Four-Dimensional Viscoelastic Deformation Model For Long Valley...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    spherical VE shell model of Newman et al. (Newman, A.V., Dixon, T.H., Ofoegbu, G., Dixon, J.E., 2001. Geodetic and seismic constraints on recent activity at Long Valley caldera,...

  7. The Mechanics of Unrest at Long Valley Caldera, California. 2...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    California. 2. Constraining the Nature of the Source Using Geodetic and Micro-Gravity Data Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: The...

  8. Vertical and adiabatic excitations in anthracene from quantum Monte Carlo: Constrained energy minimization for structural and electronic excited-state properties in the JAGP ansatz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dupuy, Nicolas; Bouaouli, Samira; Mauri, Francesco Casula, Michele; Sorella, Sandro

    2015-06-07

    We study the ionization energy, electron affinity, and the ? ? ?{sup ?} ({sup 1}L{sub a}) excitation energy of the anthracene molecule, by means of variational quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods based on a Jastrow correlated antisymmetrized geminal power (JAGP) wave function, developed on molecular orbitals (MOs). The MO-based JAGP ansatz allows one to rigorously treat electron transitions, such as the HOMO ? LUMO one, which underlies the {sup 1}L{sub a} excited state. We present a QMC optimization scheme able to preserve the rank of the antisymmetrized geminal power matrix, thanks to a constrained minimization with projectors built upon symmetry selected MOs. We show that this approach leads to stable energy minimization and geometry relaxation of both ground and excited states, performed consistently within the correlated QMC framework. Geometry optimization of excited states is needed to make a reliable and direct comparison with experimental adiabatic excitation energies. This is particularly important in ?-conjugated and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, where there is a strong interplay between low-lying energy excitations and structural modifications, playing a functional role in many photochemical processes. Anthracene is an ideal benchmark to test these effects. Its geometry relaxation energies upon electron excitation are of up to 0.3 eV in the neutral {sup 1}L{sub a} excited state, while they are of the order of 0.1 eV in electron addition and removal processes. Significant modifications of the ground state bond length alternation are revealed in the QMC excited state geometry optimizations. Our QMC study yields benchmark results for both geometries and energies, with values below chemical accuracy if compared to experiments, once zero point energy effects are taken into account.

  9. Spectral analysis of the efficiency of vertical mixing in the deep ocean due to interaction of tidal currents with a ridge running down a continental slope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibragimov, Ranis N.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.

    2014-10-29

    Efficiency of mixing, resulting from the reflection of an internal wave field imposed on the oscillatory background flow with a three-dimensional bottom topography, is investigated using a linear approximation. The radiating wave field is associated with the spectrum of the linear model, which consists of those mode numbers n and slope values α, for which the solution represents the internal waves of frequencies ω = nω0 radiating upwrad of the topography, where ω0 is the fundamental frequency at which internal waves are generated at the topography. The effects of the bottom topography and the earth’s rotation on the spectrum is analyzed analytically and numerically in the vicinity of the critical slope, which is a slope with the same angle to the horizontal as the internal wave characteristic. In this notation, θ is latitude, f is the Coriolis parameter and N is the buoyancy frequency, which is assumed to be a constant, which corresponds to the uniform stratification.

  10. THE UNUSUAL VERTICAL MASS DISTRIBUTION OF NGC 4013 SEEN THROUGH THE SPITZER SURVEY OF STELLAR STRUCTURE IN GALAXIES (S{sup 4}G)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Comeron, Sebastien; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Knapen, Johan H.; Sheth, Kartik; Munoz-Mateos, Juan-Carlos; Kim, Taehyun; Mizusawa, Trisha; Regan, Michael W.; Gil de Paz, Armando; Menendez-Delmestre, KarIn; Seibert, Mark; Ho, Luis C.; Laurikainen, Eija; Salo, Heikki; Laine, Jarkko; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, Albert; Gadotti, Dimitri A.

    2011-09-10

    NGC 4013 is a nearby Sb edge-on galaxy known for its 'prodigious' H I warp and its 'giant' tidal stream. Previous work on this unusual object shows that it cannot be fitted satisfactorily by a canonical thin+thick disk structure. We have produced a new decomposition of NGC 4013, considering three stellar flattened components (thin+thick disk plus an extra and more extended component) and one gaseous disk. All four components are considered to be gravitationally coupled and isothermal. To do so, we have used the 3.6 {mu}m images from the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies. We find evidence for NGC 4013 indeed having a thin and a thick disk and an extra flattened component. This smooth and extended component (scale height z{sub EC} {approx} 3 kpc) could be interpreted as a thick disk or as a squashed ellipsoidal halo and contains {approx}20% of the total mass of all three stellar components. We argue it is unlikely to be related to the ongoing merger or due to the off-plane stars from a warp in the other two disk components. Instead, we favor a scenario in which the thick disk and the extended component were formed in a two-stage process, in which an initially thick disk has been dynamically heated by a merger soon enough in the galaxy history to have a new thick disk formed within it.

  11. Extended-soft-core baryon-baryon model. II. Hyperon-nucleon interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rijken, Th.A.; Yamamoto, Y.

    2006-04-15

    The YN results are presented from the extended soft-core (ESC) interactions. They consist of local and nonlocal potentials because of (i) one-boson exchanges (OBE), which are the members of nonets of pseudoscalar, vector, scalar, and axial mesons; (ii) diffractive exchanges; (iii) two-pseudoscalar exchange; and (iv) meson-pair exchange (MPE). Both the OBE and pair vertices are regulated by Gaussian form factors producing potentials with a soft behavior near the origin. The assignment of the cutoff masses for the baryon-baryon-meson (BBM) vertices is dependent on the SU(3) classification of the exchanged mesons for OBE and a similar scheme for MPE. The particular version of the ESC model, called ESC04 [T. A. Rijken, Phys. Rev. C 73, 044007 (2006)], describes nucleon-nucleon (NN) and hyperon-nucleon (YN) interactions in a unified way using broken SU(3) symmetry. Novel ingredients are the inclusion of (i) the axial-vector meson potentials and (ii) a zero in the scalar- and axial-vector meson form factors. These innovations made it possible for the first time to keep the parameters of the model close to the predictions of the {sup 3}P{sub 0} quark-antiquark creation model. This is also the case for the F/(F+D) ratios. Furthermore, the introduction of the zero helped to avoid the occurrence of unwanted bound states. Broken SU(3) symmetry serves to connect the NN and the YN channels, which leaves after fitting NN only a few free parameters for the determination of the YN interactions. In particular, the meson-baryon coupling constants are calculated via SU(3) using the coupling constants of the NN analysis as input. Here, as a novel feature, medium-strong flavor-symmetry breaking (FSB) of the coupling constants was allowed, using the {sup 3}P{sub 0} model with a Gell-Mann-Okubo hypercharge breaking for the BBM coupling. Very good fits for ESC model with and without FSB were obtained. The charge-symmetry breaking in the {lambda}p and {lambda}n channels, which is an SU(2) isospin breaking, is included in the OBE, TME, and MPE potentials. Simultaneous fits to the NN- and the YN-scattering data are described, using different options for the ESC model. For the selected 4233 NN data with energies 0{<=}T{sub lab}{<=}350 MeV, a {chi}{sup 2}/N{sub data}=1.22 was typically reached. For the usual set of 35 YN data and 3 {sigma}{sup +}p cross sections from a recent KEK experiment E289 {chi}{sup 2}/YN{sub data}{approx_equal}0.63 was obtained. In particular, we were able to fit the precise experimental datum r{sub R}=0.468{+-}0.010 for the inelastic capture ratio at rest rather well. The four versions (a,b,c, and d) of ESC04 presented in this article, give different results for hypernuclei. The reported G-matrix calculations are performed for YN ({lambda}N,{sigma}N,{xi}N) pairs in nuclear matter. The obtained well depths (U{sub {lambda}},U{sub {sigma}},U{sub {xi}}) reveal distinct features of ESC04a-d. The {lambda}{lambda} interactions are demonstrated to be consistent with the observed data of {sub {lambda}}{sub {lambda}}{sup 6}He. The possible three-body effects are investigated by considering phenomenologically the changes of the vector-meson masses.

  12. Closure Report (CR) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 41: Area 27 Landfills with Errata Sheet, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Navarro Nevada Environmental Services

    2010-08-10

    The closure report for CAU 41 is just a one page summary listing the coordinates of the landfill which were given at the time (1996) in Nevada State Plan Coordinates - North American Datum of 1983. The drawing of the use restricted site also listed the coordinates in Nevada State Plan Coordinates - North American Datum of 1983. In the ensuing years the reporting of coordinates has been standardized so that all coordinates are reported in the same manner, which is: NAD 27 UTM Zone 11 N, meters. This Errata Sheet updates the coordinate reporting to the currently accepted method and includes an aerial photo showing the landfill with the coordinates listed showing the use restricted area.

  13. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 399: Area 18 Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Navarro Nevada Environmental Services

    2010-08-10

    The closure report for CAU 399 is just a one page summary listing the coordinates of the disposal site which were given at the time (1995) in Nevada State Plan Coordinates - North American Datum of 1983. The drawing of the use restricted site also listed the coordinates in Nevada State Plan Coordinates - North American Datum of 1983. In the ensuing years the reporting of coordinates has been standardized so that all coordinates are reported in the same manner, which is: NAD 27 UTM Zone 11 N, meters. This Errata Sheet updates the coordinate reporting to the currently accepted method and includes an aerial photo showing the disposal site with the coordinates listed showing the use restricted area.

  14. Feature-Based Measuring Advisor, Version 2.1

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2002-07-22

    The purpose of Feature-Based Measuring Advisor (FBMeas Advisor) is a graphical user interface enabling users to more effectively interact with a solid model for measuring applications. Specifically, the FBMeas Advisor provides a user interface to the functions and capabilities of the FBMeas component technology. The FBMeas Advisor allows end users to visualize, organize, and document their measuring process plans and to facilitate the generation of a coordinate measuring machine part programs before a workpiece ismore » fabricated. The FBMeas Advisor permits the user to interact with an FBTol-enabled solid model to interactively and/or automatically create a set of measuring features (e.g., cylinders, planes, slots) that comply with national and international interface standards (i.e., DMIS (Dimensional Measuring Interface Standard, ISO 22063)). Measuring plans include defining measuring features interactively or automatically. Associating measuring features with appropriate tolerances and datum features via FBTol. Determining what measuring tasks (e.g., measure this feature to validate a size tolerance, measure this feature to establish a primary datum for a specific datum reference frame) are necessary to measure the feature. Assigning a measuring method to perform the task. For coordinate metrology measuring methods, measure points are determined interactively or automatically. Sensors and sensor configurations are defined, represented, and assigned to measuring methods. Measuring machines are defined, represented, and assigned to measure operations. Upon completion of a coordinate metrology measuring plan, FBMeas allows DMIS code segments to be generated, which can be used for DMIS-based CMM part programs.« less

  15. Ex Parte Communication re Energy Conservation Standards for Single Package

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Vertical Air Conditioners and Single Package Vertical Heat Pumps, 79 Fed. Reg. 78,614 (Dec. 30, 2014) (Docket No. EERE-2012-BT-STD-0041) | Department of Energy Communication re Energy Conservation Standards for Single Package Vertical Air Conditioners and Single Package Vertical Heat Pumps, 79 Fed. Reg. 78,614 (Dec. 30, 2014) (Docket No. EERE-2012-BT-STD-0041) Ex Parte Communication re Energy Conservation Standards for Single Package Vertical Air Conditioners and Single Package Vertical Heat

  16. ISSUANCE 2015-8-28: Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Standards for Single Package Vertical Air Conditioners and Single Package Vertical Heat Pumps, Final Rule | Department of Energy 8-28: Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Single Package Vertical Air Conditioners and Single Package Vertical Heat Pumps, Final Rule ISSUANCE 2015-8-28: Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Single Package Vertical Air Conditioners and Single Package Vertical Heat Pumps, Final Rule This document is the Energy

  17. Ex Parte Communication re Energy Conservation Standards for Single...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    EERE-2011-BT-TP-0024 ISSUANCE 2015-8-28: Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Single Package Vertical Air Conditioners and Single Package Vertical Heat ...

  18. Thermal Management Using Carbon Nanotubes - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thermal Management Using Carbon Nanotubes Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes...

  19. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    vertical and horizontal components, variance and vertical flux of the prognostic thermodynamic variables as well as momentum flux are also presented. The most interesting aspect...

  20. Interactive Maps from the Great Basin Center for Geothermal Energy

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Great Basin Center for Geothermal Energy, part of the University of Nevada, Reno, conducts research towards the establishment of geothermal energy as an economically viable energy source within the Great Basin. The Center specializes in collecting and synthesizing geologic, geochemical, geodetic, geophysical, and tectonic data, and using Geographic Information System (GIS) technology to view and analyze this data and to produce favorability maps of geothermal potential. The interactive maps are built with layers of spatial data that are also available as direct file downloads (see DDE00299). The maps allow analysis of these many layers, with various data sets turned on or off, for determining potential areas that would be favorable for geothermal drilling or other activity. They provide information on current exploration projects and leases, Bureau of Land Management land status, and map presentation of each type of scientific spatial data: geothermal, geophysical, geologic, geodetic, groundwater, and geochemical.

  1. Analysis of High Precision GPS Time Series and Strain Rates for the Geothermal Play Fairway Analysis of Washington State Prospects Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Michael Swyer

    2015-02-22

    Global Positioning System (GPS) time series from the National Science Foundation (NSF) Earthscopes Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) and Central Washington Universitys Pacific Northwest Geodetic Array (PANGA). GPS station velocities were used to infer strain rates using the splines in tension method. Strain rates were derived separately for subduction zone locking at depth and block rotation near the surface within crustal block boundaries.

  2. ARM - Facility News Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Speedier Data Delivery Assists Storm Forecasters Bookmark and Share SuomiNet is an international network of global positioning system (GPS) receivers, configured and managed to generate near real-time estimates of precipitable water vapor in the atmosphere, total electron content in the ionosphere, and other meteorological and geodetic information. Last fall, scientific collaborators at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Forecast Systems Laboratory identified a time-delay

  3. Analysis of High Precision GPS Time Series and Strain Rates for the Geothermal Play Fairway Analysis of Washington State Prospects Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Swyer

    2015-02-22

    Global Positioning System (GPS) time series from the National Science Foundation (NSF) Earthscope’s Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) and Central Washington University’s Pacific Northwest Geodetic Array (PANGA). GPS station velocities were used to infer strain rates using the ‘splines in tension’ method. Strain rates were derived separately for subduction zone locking at depth and block rotation near the surface within crustal block boundaries.

  4. Passive magnetic bearing configurations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F. (Walnut Creek, CA)

    2011-01-25

    A journal bearing provides vertical and radial stability to a rotor of a passive magnetic bearing system when the rotor is not rotating and when it is rotating. In the passive magnetic bearing system, the rotor has a vertical axis of rotation. Without the journal bearing, the rotor is vertically and radially unstable when stationary, and is vertically stable and radially unstable when rotating.

  5. Survey and alignment of high energy physics accelerators and transport lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruland, R.E.

    1992-11-01

    This talk summarizes the survey and alignment processes of accelerators and transport lines and discusses the propagation of errors associated with these processes. The major geodetic principles governing the survey and alignment measurement space are revisited and their relationship to a lattice coordinate system shown. The paper continues with a broad overview about the activities involved in the step by step sequence from initial absolute alignment to final smoothing. Emphasis is given to the relative alignment of components, in particular to the importance of incorporating methods to remove residual systematic effects in surveying and alignment operations.

  6. I Historical Information H. 6 SeismicIGround Motion Activity

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Historical Information H. 6 SeismicIGround Motion Activity Book 3 Seismic Data from Rulison DISCLAIMER Portions of this document may be illegible in electronic image products. Images are produced from the best available original document. This page intentionally left blank S E I S M I C D A T A F R O M R U L I S O N ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE SERVICES ADMINISTRATION COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY Prepared By SPECIAL SEISMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS BRANCH James N. Jordan, Chief Sponsored By U .S. ARMS CONTROL AND

  7. GIS Regional Spatial Data from the Great Basin Center for Geothermal Energy: Geochemical, Geodesic, Geologic, Geophysical, Geothermal, and Groundwater Data

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Great Basin Center for Geothermal Energy, part of the University of Nevada, Reno, conducts research towards the establishment of geothermal energy as an economically viable energy source within the Great Basin. The Center specializes in collecting and synthesizing geologic, geochemical, geodetic, geophysical, and tectonic data, and using Geographic Information System (GIS) technology to view and analyze this data and to produce favorability maps of geothermal potential. The center also makes its collections of spatial data available for direct download to the public. Data are in Lambert Conformable Conic Projection.

  8. arm_07.ai

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    be bullet rosettes. The vertical flux of water can be computed using the radar measured vertical velocity and the lidar-radar derived water content . The flux of water computed...

  9. Posters A Stratiform Cloud Parameterization for General Circulation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    P(w) is the probability distribution of vertical velocity, determined from the predicted mean and variance of vertical velocity. Application to a Single-Column Model To test the...

  10. National Electrical Manufacturers Association

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... --- all lighting rulemakings are to the left of the vertical line and the lighting industries have suffered the most severe impact of all those to the left of the vertical line. ...

  11. Coal gasification apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nagy, Charles K. (Monaca, PA)

    1982-01-01

    Coal hydrogenation vessel has hydrogen heating passages extending vertically through its wall and opening into its interior.

  12. Slide 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (ARSCL) * cloud boundaries, hydrometeor height distributions and estimates of their radar reflectivities, vertical velocities, and Doppler spectral widths * "Old" ARSCL -...

  13. EA-1690: Finding of No Significant Impact

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A123 Systems, Inc., Vertically Integrated Mass Production of Automotive-Class Lithium-Ion Batteries, Michigan

  14. Category:DC Resistivity Survey (Wenner Array) | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Image needs updating Reference needed Missing content Broken link Other Additional Comments Cancel Submit Categories: Geothermal Vertical Electrical Sounding Configurations...

  15. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Parameterization of Vertical Velocity in Shallow Convections Download a printable PDF Submitter: Zhang, M., Stony Brook University Area of Research: Vertical Velocity Working Group(s): Cloud Life Cycle Journal Reference: Wang X and M Zhang. 2014. "Vertical velocity in shallow convection for different plume types." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 6(2), doi:10.1002/2014MS000318. Mean profiles of vertical velocity in convective cores (red); convective updrafts (blue); and

  16. Slide 1

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... equipment and characterization in 3D space. * Processes and materials supportive ...Pressure Processes and Materials, Printing Vertically Integrated Multilayer Devices ...

  17. A Probabilistic Approach to Site-Specific, Hazard-Consistent

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vertical-to-Horizontal Spectral Ratio Model | Department of Energy Approach to Site-Specific, Hazard-Consistent Vertical-to-Horizontal Spectral Ratio Model A Probabilistic Approach to Site-Specific, Hazard-Consistent Vertical-to-Horizontal Spectral Ratio Model A Probabilistic Approach to Site-Specific, Hazard-Consistent Vertical-to-Horizontal Spectral Ratio Model Rizzo Associates Presented at U.S. DOE Natural Phenomena Hazards Meeting October 21, 2014 PDF icon A Probabilistic Approach to

  18. Circular zig-zag scan video format

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peterson, C. Glen (Los Alamos, NM); Simmons, Charles M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01

    A circular, ziz-zag scan for use with vidicon tubes. A sine wave is generated, rectified and its fourth root extracted. The fourth root, and its inverse, are used to generate horizontal ramp and sync signals. The fourth root is also used to generate a vertical sync signal, and the vertical sync signal, along with the horizontal sync signal, are used to generate the vertical ramp signal. Cathode blanking and preamplifier clamp signals are also obtained from the vertical sync signal.

  19. ER2 Instrumentation and Measurements for CLASIC (Cloud Land Surface Interaction Campaign) June-2007 SGP {Author-Jimmy Voyles}

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ER2 Desired Measurements for CLASIC June 2007 SGP May 31, 2007 1 MEASUREMENT SOURCE DESIRED MEASUREMENTS AND PRODUCTS INSTRUMENT SYSTEMS Cloud Radar System (CRS), W-Band (95 GHz) 1) Vertical profiles of calibrated radar reflectivity 2) Vertical profiles of Doppler velocity 3) Vertical profiles of estimated IWC 4) Vertical profiles of linear depolarization ratio 5) (ASCII files and quick look plots for all of the above quantities) Resolution: 5 sec resolution? Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) (1064,

  20. 4A Drawings - 88-Inch Cyclotron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protons‎ > ‎ 4A Drawings 4A Translator Table Setup 4A Translator Horizontal 4A Translator Vertical

  1. Microsoft PowerPoint - E1202028_A.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vertical Pipe Unit Vertical Pipe Unit (VPU) Remediation Ri C id River Corridor Closure Project River Corridor Closure Project Cathy Louie DOE RL Cathy Louie, DOE-RL Jamie Zeisloft, DOE-RL Warren Bryant, Washington Closure Hanford February 15, 2012 y g Protecting the Columbia River U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office RIVER CORRIDOR CLOSURE PROJECT DOE's Largest Environmental Cleanup Closure Project Vertical Pipe Unit Remediation Vertical Pipe Unit Remediation * Scope is to

  2. X, Y, Z positioner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goers, G.F.

    1987-11-10

    A three-axis control for precisely and conveniently adjusting items such as mirrors and lenses is disclosed. The adjuster apparatus includes a vertical stack of three rotatable adjusters. Rotation of the first effects vertical translation, whereas the second and third are eccentric assemblies which interact to effect movement along two angled axes perpendicular to the vertical axis. 13 figs.

  3. X, Y, Z positioner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goers, George F. (Tracy, CA)

    1987-01-01

    A three-axis control for precisely and conveniently adjusting items such as irrors and lenses is disclosed. The adjuster apparatus includes a vertical stack of three rotatable adjusters. Rotation of the first effects vertical translation, whereas the second and third are eccentric assemblies which interact to effect movement along two angled axes perpendicular to the vertical axis.

  4. Minimally non-local nucleon-nucleon potentials with chiral two-pion exchange including Delta resonances

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Piarulli, M; Girlanda, L; Schiavilla, R; Perez, R Navarro; Amaro, J E; Arriola, E Ruiz

    2015-02-01

    We construct a coordinate-space chiral potential, including ?-isobar intermediate states in its two-pion-exchange component up to order Q3 (Q denotes generically the low momentum scale).The contact interactions entering at next-to-leading and next-to-next-to-next-to-leading orders (Q2 and Q4, respectively) are rearranged by Fierz transformations to yield terms at most quadratic in the relative momentum operator of the two nucleons. The low-energy constant multiplying these contact interactions are fitted to the 2013 Granada database, consisting of 2309 pp and 2982 np data (including, respectively, 148 and 218 normalizations) in the laboratory-energy range 0--300 MeV. For the total 5291 $pp$ and $np$ data inmorethis range, we obtain a ?2 /datum of roughly 1.3 for a set of three models characterized by long- and short-range cutoffs, RL and RS respectively, ranging from (RL,RS)=(1.2,0.8) fm down to (0.8,0.6) fm. The long-range (short-range) cutoff regularizes the one- and two-pion exchange (contact) part of the potential.less

  5. Triple point temperature of neon isotopes: Dependence on nitrogen impurity and sealed-cell model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pavese, F.; Steur, P. P. M.; Giraudi, D.

    2013-09-11

    This paper illustrates a study conducted at INRIM, to further check how some quantities influence the value of the triple point temperature of the neon high-purity isotopes {sup 20}Ne and {sup 22}Ne. The influence of nitrogen as a chemical impurity in neon is critical with regard to the present best total uncertainty achieved in the measurement of these triple points, but only one determination is available in the literature. Checks are reported, performed on two different samples of {sup 22}Ne known to contain a N{sub 2} amount of 157⋅10{sup −6}, using two different models of sealed cells. The model of the cell can, in principle, have some effects on the shape of the melting plateau or on the triple point temperature observed for the sample sealed in it. This can be due to cell thermal parameters, or because the INRIM cell element mod. c contains many copper wires closely packed, which can, in principle, constrain the interface and induce a premelting-like effect. The reported results on a cell mod. Bter show no evident effect from the cell model and provide a value for the effect of N{sub 2} in Ne liquidus point of 8.6(1.9) μK ppm N{sub 2}{sup −1}, only slightly different from the literature datum.

  6. Minimally nonlocal nucleon-nucleon potentials with chiral two-pion exchange including Δ resonances

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Piarulli, M.; Girlanda, L.; Schiavilla, R.; Pérez, R. Navarro; Amaro, J. E.; Arriola, E. Ruiz

    2015-02-26

    In this study, we construct a coordinate-space chiral potential, including Δ-isobar intermediate states in its two-pion-exchange component up to order Q3 (Q denotes generically the low momentum scale). The contact interactions entering at next-to-leading and next-to-next-to-next-to-leading orders (Q2 and Q4, respectively) are rearranged by Fierz transformations to yield terms at most quadratic in the relative momentum operator of the two nucleons. The low-energy constant multiplying these contact interactions are fitted to the 2013 Granada database, consisting of 2309 pp and 2982 np data (including, respectively, 148 and 218 normalizations) in the laboratory-energy range 0–300 MeV. For the total 5291 $pp$more » and $np$ data in this range, we obtain a Χ2 /datum of roughly 1.3 for a set of three models characterized by long- and short-range cutoffs, RL and RS respectively, ranging from (RL,RS)=(1.2,0.8) fm down to (0.8,0.6) fm. The long-range (short-range) cutoff regularizes the one- and two-pion exchange (contact) part of the potential.« less

  7. Nucleon-nucleon interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiringa, R.B.

    1996-12-31

    Nucleon-nucleon interactions are at the heart of nuclear physics, bridging the gap between QCD and the effective interactions appropriate for the shell model. We discuss the current status of {ital NN} data sets, partial-wave analyses, and some of the issues that go into the construction of potential models. Our remarks are illustrated by reference to the Argonne {ital v}{sub 18} potential, one of a number of new potentials that fit elastic nucleon-nucleon data up to 350 MeV with a {Chi}{sup 2} per datum near 1. We also discuss the related issues of three-nucleon potentials, two-nucleon charge and current operators, and relativistic effects. We give some examples of calculations that can be made using these realistic descriptions of {ital NN} interactions. We conclude with some remarks on how our empirical knowledge of {ital NN} interactions may help constrain models at the quark level, and hence models of nucleon structure.

  8. Fault-tolerant corrector/detector chip for high-speed data processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andaleon, D.D.; Napolitano, L.M. Jr.; Redinbo, G.R.; Shreeve, W.O.

    1994-03-01

    An internally fault-tolerant data error detection and correction integrated circuit device and a method of operating same is described. The device functions as a bidirectional data buffer between a 32-bit data processor and the remainder of a data processing system and provides a 32-bit datum with a relatively short eight bits of data-protecting parity. The 32-bits of data by eight bits of parity is partitioned into eight 4-bit nibbles and two 4-bit nibbles, respectively. For data flowing towards the processor the data and parity nibbles are checked in parallel and in a single operation employing a dual orthogonal basis technique. The dual orthogonal basis increase the efficiency of the implementation. Any one of ten (eight data, two parity) nibbles are correctable if erroneous, or two different erroneous nibbles are detectable. For data flowing away from the processor the appropriate parity nibble values are calculated and transmitted to the system along with the data. The device regenerates parity values for data flowing in either direction and compares regenerated to generated parity with a totally self-checking equality checker. As such, the device is self-validating and enabled to both detect and indicate an occurrence of an internal failure. A generalization of the device to protect 64-bit data with 16-bit parity to protect against byte-wide errors is also presented. 8 figures.

  9. Fault-tolerant corrector/detector chip for high-speed data processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andaleon, David D.; Napolitano, Jr., Leonard M.; Redinbo, G. Robert; Shreeve, William O.

    1994-01-01

    An internally fault-tolerant data error detection and correction integrated circuit device (10) and a method of operating same. The device functions as a bidirectional data buffer between a 32-bit data processor and the remainder of a data processing system and provides a 32-bit datum is provided with a relatively short eight bits of data-protecting parity. The 32-bits of data by eight bits of parity is partitioned into eight 4-bit nibbles and two 4-bit nibbles, respectively. For data flowing towards the processor the data and parity nibbles are checked in parallel and in a single operation employing a dual orthogonal basis technique. The dual orthogonal basis increase the efficiency of the implementation. Any one of ten (eight data, two parity) nibbles are correctable if erroneous, or two different erroneous nibbles are detectable. For data flowing away from the processor the appropriate parity nibble values are calculated and transmitted to the system along with the data. The device regenerates parity values for data flowing in either direction and compares regenerated to generated parity with a totally self-checking equality checker. As such, the device is self-validating and enabled to both detect and indicate an occurrence of an internal failure. A generalization of the device to protect 64-bit data with 16-bit parity to protect against byte-wide errors is also presented.

  10. Laser device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Jill R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Tremblay, Paul L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2008-08-19

    A laser device includes a virtual source configured to aim laser energy that originates from a true source. The virtual source has a vertical rotational axis during vertical motion of the virtual source and the vertical axis passes through an exit point from which the laser energy emanates independent of virtual source position. The emanating laser energy is collinear with an orientation line. The laser device includes a virtual source manipulation mechanism that positions the virtual source. The manipulation mechanism has a center of lateral pivot approximately coincident with a lateral index and a center of vertical pivot approximately coincident with a vertical index. The vertical index and lateral index intersect at an index origin. The virtual source and manipulation mechanism auto align the orientation line through the index origin during virtual source motion.

  11. In-Ground Radiation Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormick, Kathleen R.; Stromswold, David C.; Woodring, Mitchell L.; Ely, James H.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Caggiano, Joseph A.; Hensley, Walter K.

    2006-10-29

    Vertically oriented radiation detectors may not provide sufficient screening in rail or aviation applications. Railcars can be heavily shielded on the sides, reducing the sensitivity of vertically mounted monitors. For aviation, the distance required for wingspan clearance reduces a vertical detectors coverage of the fuselage. To surmount these, and other, challenging operational and sensitivity issues, we have investigated the use of in-ground radiation detectors. (PIET-43741-TM-605).

  12. Integrated null-flux suspension and multiphase propulsion system for magnetically-levitated vehicles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rote, Donald M. (Lagrange, IL); He, Jianliang (Woodridge, IL); Johnson, Larry R. (Naperville, IL)

    1994-01-01

    A propulsion and stabilization system comprising a series of FIG. 8 coils mounted vertically on the walls of the guideway to provide suspension, lateral guidance and propulsion of a magnetically levitated vehicle. This system further allows for altering the magnetic field effects by changing the relative position of the loops comprising the FIG. 8 coils either longitudinally and/or vertically with resulting changes in the propulsion, the vertical stability, and the suspension.

  13. SAND78-0962 VOL 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SAND78-0962 ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF DARRIEUS VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE SYSTEMS FOR THE GENERATION OF UTILITY GRID ELECTRICAL POWER VOLUME I - EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Abstract The economic analysis of the Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine is contained in four separate volumes. This first volume summarizes the complete study, present- ing a description of the technical approach used, key results, and major conclusions. l Acknowledgment The vertical axis wind turbine economic study was conducted with W.

  14. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Comparison of Vertical Velocities in Cirrus Derived from Aircraft and Ground-based Radar Download a printable PDF Submitter: Muhlbauer, A., University of Washington Kalesse, H., Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research Area of Research: Vertical Velocity Working Group(s): Cloud Life Cycle Journal Reference: Muhlbauer A, H Kalesse, and P Kollias. 2014. "Vertical velocities and turbulence in midlatitude anvil cirrus: A comparison between in situ aircraft measurements and ground-based

  15. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: Cirrus properties and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    air mean vertical motion retrieval using mm-wavelength Doppler radar moments Cirrus properties and air mean vertical motion retrieval using mm-wavelength Doppler radar moments Deng, Min University of Utah Mace, Gerald University of Utah Vertically pointing millimeter wavelength Doppler radar provides valuable information on upper tropospheric cloud properties and dynamics. We are developing an innovative algorithm to simultaneously retrieve cirrus microphysical parameters and air mean

  16. kollias-99.PDF

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mass Flux Representations of Vertical Velocity Fluctuations in Continental Stratus Clouds Using a mm-Wavelength Doppler Radar P. Kollias and B. A. Albrecht University of Miami Miami, Florida Introduction A cloud mass flux representation of the vertical turbulent fluxes provides a physical framework for understanding the effects of shallow convection in maintaining the vertical structure of the boundary layer. This approach is based on the assumption that coherent updrafts and downdraft

  17. Fabrication of precision high quality facets on molecular beam epitaxy material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Petersen, Holly E. (Tracy, CA); Goward, William D. (Antioch, CA); Dijaili, Sol P. (Moraga, CA)

    2001-01-01

    Fabricating mirrored vertical surfaces on semiconductor layered material grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Low energy chemically assisted ion beam etching (CAIBE) is employed to prepare mirrored vertical surfaces on MBE-grown III-V materials under unusually low concentrations of oxygen in evacuated etching atmospheres of chlorine and xenon ion beams. UV-stabilized smooth-surfaced photoresist materials contribute to highly vertical, high quality mirrored surfaces during the etching.

  18. Integrated null-flux suspension and multiphase propulsion system for magnetically-levitated vehicles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rote, D.M.; He, Jianliang; Johnson, L.R.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses a propulsion and stabilization system comprising a series of figure 8 coils mounted vertically on the walls of the guideway to provide suspension, lateral guidance and propulsion of a magnetically levitated vehicle. This system further allows for altering the magnetic field effects by changing the relative position of the loops comprising the figure 8 coils either longitudinally and/or vertically with resulting changes in the propulsion, the vertical stability, and the suspension.

  19. Introduction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Between 1951 and 1992, 828 underground nuclear tests were conducted in specially drilled vertical holes, vertical shafts, and horizontal tunnels at the Nevada Test Site, now known as the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). Most vertical shaft tests assisted in the development of new weapon systems. Horizontal tunnel tests occurred to evaluate the effects (radiation, ground shock) of various weapons on military hardware and systems. Background Between 1951 and 1963, a total of 100 atmospheric

  20. Integrated null-flux suspension and multiphase propulsion system for magnetically-levitated vehicles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rote, D.M.; He, J.; Johnson, L.R.

    1994-01-04

    A propulsion and stabilization system are described comprising a series of coils mounted vertically on the walls of the guideway to provide suspension, lateral guidance, and propulsion of a magnetically levitated vehicle. This system further allows for altering the magnetic field effects by changing the relative position of the loops comprising the coils either longitudinally and/or vertically with resulting changes in the propulsion, the vertical stability, and the suspension. 8 figures.

  1. CARBON DIOXIDE FLUXES IN A CENTRAL HARDWOODS OAK-HICKORY FOREST...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    eddy-covariance methods), vertical CO2 profile sampling and soil respiration along with ... Sponsoring Org: SC USDOE - Office of Science (SC) Country of Publication: United States ...

  2. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cloud Life Cycle Journal Reference: NA (a) A conceptual diagram of cloud particle size vertical evolution inside a deep convective cloud. (b) Cloud side scanner retrievals of...

  3. Slide 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vertical Air Velocity and Precipitation Parameter Retrievals in Rainfall from 95-GHz Doppler Radar Spectra Edward P Luke 1 , Scott E Giangrande 2 , and Pavlos Kollias 2 1....

  4. ARM - VAP Process - kazrarscl

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are those considered scientifically relevant. Cloud base height Cloud top height Radar Doppler Radar polarization Radar reflectivity Vertical velocity Locations North Slope...

  5. Slide 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Layer-averaged vertical velocity, 5-pt smooth Examples: Dynamical properties Derived from radar Doppler spectra and time-variance of radar velocity. A few summary statistics for...

  6. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NM, March 27 - 31, 2006 Figure 2. High resolution water vapor mixing ratio and aerosol scattering ratio derived from Raman lidar measurements on September 13, 2005. The vertical...

  7. Stephen Jardin

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and vertical displacement events (VDEs), mass redistribution after pellet injection, and energetic particle modes. 3. Current HPC Usage and Methods 3a. Please list your current...

  8. Fabrication of high thermal conductivity arrays of carbon nanotubes and their composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Geohegan, David B. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Ivanov, Ilya N. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Puretzky, Alexander A [Knoxville, TN

    2010-07-27

    Methods and apparatus are described for fabrication of high thermal conductivity arrays of carbon nanotubes and their composites. A composition includes a vertically aligned nanotube array including a plurality of nanotubes characterized by a property across substantially all of the vertically aligned nanotube array. A method includes depositing a vertically aligned nanotube array that includes a plurality of nanotubes; and controlling a deposition rate of the vertically aligned nanotubes array as a function of an in situ monitored property of the plurality of nanotubes.

  9. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (but not vertically). The basis for the algorithm is decomposing the input fields in Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOFs) (principal components). The specific questions this...

  10. Circular zig-zag scan video format

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peterson, C.G.; Simmons, C.M.

    1992-06-09

    A circular, ziz-zag scan for use with vidicon tubes is disclosed. A sine wave is generated, rectified and its fourth root extracted. The fourth root, and its inverse, are used to generate horizontal ramp and sync signals. The fourth root is also used to generate a vertical sync signal, and the vertical sync signal, along with the horizontal sync signal, are used to generate the vertical ramp signal. Cathode blanking and preamplifier clamp signals are also obtained from the vertical sync signal. 10 figs.

  11. Hydraulic mining method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huffman, Lester H. (Kent, WA); Knoke, Gerald S. (Kent, WA)

    1985-08-20

    A method of hydraulically mining an underground pitched mineral vein comprising drilling a vertical borehole through the earth's lithosphere into the vein and drilling a slant borehole along the footwall of the vein to intersect the vertical borehole. Material is removed from the mineral vein by directing a high pressure water jet thereagainst. The resulting slurry of mineral fragments and water flows along the slant borehole into the lower end of the vertical borehole from where it is pumped upwardly through the vertical borehole to the surface.

  12. EA-1690: Final Environmental Assessment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    For a Loan and Grant to A123 Systems, Inc., for Vertically Integrated Mass Production of Automotive-Class Lithium-Ion Batteries

  13. Power Systems Technician | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    candidate will participate in the commissioning, operation and maintenance of two large, Hydro type vertical Motor-Generator, and associated equipment such, AC & DC bus, control...

  14. SAND81-1762

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1981 Effects of Blade Preset Pitch Offset on Curved-Blade Oarrieus Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Performance Paul C. Klimas, Mark H. Worstell Prepared by Sandia National...

  15. SAND78-0962 VOL 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to update the markings to current standards. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF DARRIEUS VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE SYSTEMS FOR THE GENERATION OF UTILITY GRID ELECTRICAL pmtER VOLUME I -...

  16. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Filter by Author Khandaker, Mahbubul (18) Stepanyan, Samuel (14) Kim, Wooyoung (13) Klein, ... or vertically, is use with quasi-4pi detector systems in open geometries with ...

  17. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    classical and quantum mechanics, general physics (1) dimensionless numbers (1) dimensions ... vertical cavity surface emission laser (VCSEL) that is advantageous in terms of ...

  18. Cost and Performance Comparison Baseline for Fossil Energy Power...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    steel, single suction 2 1 22 Filtered Water Tank Vertical, cylindrical 1 0 23 Makeup Water Demineralizer Multi-media filter, cartridge filter, RO membrane assembly,...

  19. MHK Technologies/Enermar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technology Resource Click here CurrentTidal Technology Type Click here Cross Flow Turbine Technology Description The Enermar Kobold turbine is a unidirectional vertical axis...

  20. SASSI Subtraction Method Effects at Various DOE projects

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Building, Vertical Roof Response CJCAssociates 21 Lessons Learned Subtraction can lead to anomalous response Anomalous response occurs at and above the natural...

  1. Advanced polychromator systems for remote chemical sensing (LDRD...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    was to develop a programmable diffraction grating fabricated in SUMMiT Vtrademark. Two types of grating elements (vertical and rotational) were designed and demonstrated. The...

  2. Sierra Nevada Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sierra Nevada Solar Place: Sacramento, California Zip: 95828 Product: Vertically-integrated PV systems integrator and installer. Coordinates: 38.579065, -121.491014 Show Map...

  3. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    proper access to sunlight. Easements must be executed in writing and must include: The vertical and horizontal angles, expressed in degrees, at which the solar easement extends...

  4. Choosing and Installing Geothermal Heat Pumps | Department of...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    most economical) are typically used for newly constructed buildings with sufficient land. Vertical installations or more compact horizontal "Slinky(tm)" installations are often...

  5. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hagos, S. M., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Area of Research: Atmospheric Thermodynamics and Vertical Structures Working Group(s): Cloud Life Cycle Journal Reference: NA...

  6. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Submitter: Westwater, E. R., University of Colorado Area of Research: Atmospheric Thermodynamics and Vertical Structures Working Group(s): Cloud Properties Journal Reference:...

  7. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Liljegren, J. C., Argonne National Laboratory Area of Research: Atmospheric Thermodynamics and Vertical Structures Working Group(s): Cloud Properties, Radiative Processes...

  8. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Xie, S., Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Area of Research: Atmospheric Thermodynamics and Vertical Structures Working Group(s): Cloud Modeling Journal Reference: Xie S,...

  9. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Xie, S., Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Area of Research: Atmospheric Thermodynamics and Vertical Structures Working Group(s): Cloud Life Cycle Journal Reference: Xie...

  10. Universal Fluid Droplet Ejector - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and horizontal inter-droplet spacing of a two-dimensional droplet array in real time. ... Vertical and horizontal interdroplet spacings may be varied in real time. Applications ...

  11. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Differences Between Tropical and Trade-Wind Shallow Cumuli Download a printable PDF Submitter: Ghate, V. P., Argonne National Laboratory Area of Research: Vertical Velocity Working...

  12. Offshore Resource Assessment and Design Conditions Public Meeting...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Standoff, multiple vertical profile measurements of winds can be obtained currently with Doppler lidar. Some of the more powerful systems could measure wind profiles over the...

  13. Quantifying the Aerosol Indirect Effect Using Ground-Based Remote...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (with assumed particle chemistry), a vertical wind profile (ideally we would need a Doppler lidar to provide this, but the cloud radar will suffice), and surface temperature...

  14. Posters Cloud Microphysical and Radiative Properties Measured

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1993b). Our current investigations emphasize the backscatter intensity and vertical Doppler motions. One important technical characteristic of CO 2 lidar is coherent...

  15. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (right) calculated by combining data from the vertically pointing Doppler cloud radar and Doppler lidar onboard the RV Ronald H. Brown. Vast sheets of stratocumulus clouds are...

  16. affects on the transport of airborne emissions. This information...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Precipitation, barometric pressure, and solar radiation Vertical temperature gradient ... Direction (deg) Peak I-sec Gust (mls) - - Solar Radiation ( m d a ) Mean Daily ...

  17. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ARM SGP domain, as a result of correlated subgrid-scale vertical velocity and thermodynamic structure, can reach 2000 Wm2 during strong convective events. This energy...

  18. Geothermal Heat Pumps- Heating Mode

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In winter, fluid passing through this vertical, closed loop system is warmed by the heat of the earth; this heat is then transferred to the building.

  19. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to model boundary-layer clouds in this study. The model assumes joint double Gaussian distributions of vertical velocity, temperature and moisture. The first and second...

  20. US ITER is a strong contributor in plan to enhance international...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    systems that will be installed on the ITER tokamak. Gallery: Diagram of an equatorial port plug shows the three vertical diagnostic shield modules with detachable first wall...