National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for geodetic vertical datum

  1. GEODETIC SURVEY SPECIAL PUBLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . SP #4 OUT OF PRINT U.S. COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY. ... GEODESY. THE TRANSCONTINENTAL TRIANGULATION

  2. Geodetic Survey At Nevada Test And Training Range Area (Sabin...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geodetic Survey At Nevada Test And Training Range Area (Sabin, Et Al., 2004) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geodetic Survey At...

  3. Geodetic Survey At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Blewitt...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geodetic Survey At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Blewitt, Et Al., 2003) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geodetic Survey At...

  4. Geodetic Survey At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Blewitt...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geodetic Survey At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Blewitt Et Al, 2005) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geodetic Survey At...

  5. Geodetic Survey At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Newman...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Caldera Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Geodetic Survey Activity Date 1995 - 2000 Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes "We investigate the effects of...

  6. Geodetic Survey At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Blewitt...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geodetic Survey At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Blewitt Et Al, 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration...

  7. Category:Geodetic Survey | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmentalBowerbank,CammackFLIR Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMALFacebookGasGeodetic

  8. Switzerland Suisse Swiss Geodetic Commission Commission Godsique Suisse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giger, Christine

    Switzerland Suisse Swiss Geodetic Commission Commission Géodésique Suisse Swiss National Report;#12;Switzerland Suisse Swiss Geodetic Commission Commission Géodésique Suisse Swiss National Report Switzerland http://www.sgc.ethz.ch/publications Edited by: J. Mueller-Gantenbein, Secretary of the SGC A

  9. Computing minimum geodetic sets in proper interval graphs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heggernes, Pinar

    , denoted by NG(v), is the set of vertices of G that are adjacent to v. For a set S of vertices of G, G

  10. Modeling sea level changes and geodetic variations by glacial isostasy: the improved SELEN code

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spada, Giorgio; Galassi, Gaia; Colleoni, Florence

    2012-01-01

    We describe the basic features of SELEN, an open source Fortran 90 program for the numerical solution of the so-called "Sea Level Equation" for a spherical, layered, non-rotating Earth with Maxwell viscoelastic rheology. The Sea Level Equation was introduced in the 70s to model the sea level variations in response to the melting of late-Pleistocene ice-sheets, but it can be also employed for predictions of geodetic quantities such as vertical and horizontal surface displacements and gravity variations on a global and a regional scale. SELEN (acronym of SEa Level EquatioN solver) is particularly oriented to scientists at their first approach to the glacial isostatic adjustment problem and, according to our experience, it can be successfully used in teaching. The current release (2.9) considerably improves the previous versions of the code in terms of computational efficiency, portability and versatility. In this paper we describe the essentials of the theory behind the Sea Level Equation, the purposes of SELEN...

  11. Kinematic models of deformation in Southern California constrained by geologic and geodetic data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eich, Lori A

    2006-01-01

    Using a standardized fault geometry based on the Community Block Model, we create two analytic block models of the southern California fault system. We constrain one model with only geodetic data. In the other, we assign ...

  12. Geodetic Measurements of Crustal Deformation in the Western Mediterranean and Europe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nocquet, Jean-Mathieu

    Geodetic Measurements of Crustal Deformation in the Western Mediterranean and Europe J.-M. NOCQUET1 at slow rates (Europe velocities. We present a new velocity field for Western Europe and the Western Mediterranean derived from

  13. Reservoir monitoring and characterization using satellite geodetic data: Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar observations from the Krechba field, Algeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasco, D.W.

    2008-01-01

    uid saturation prediction in a multicomponent reservoir,Reservoir monitoring and characterization using geodetic data Landro, M. , 2001, Discrimination between pressure and ?uid saturation

  14. Vertical axis wind turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krivcov, Vladimir (Miass, RU); Krivospitski, Vladimir (Miass, RU); Maksimov, Vasili (Miass, RU); Halstead, Richard (Rohnert Park, CA); Grahov, Jurij (Miass, RU)

    2011-03-08

    A vertical axis wind turbine is described. The wind turbine can include a top ring, a middle ring and a lower ring, wherein a plurality of vertical airfoils are disposed between the rings. For example, three vertical airfoils can be attached between the upper ring and the middle ring. In addition, three more vertical airfoils can be attached between the lower ring and the middle ring. When wind contacts the vertically arranged airfoils the rings begin to spin. By connecting the rings to a center pole which spins an alternator, electricity can be generated from wind.

  15. International Conference on Machine Control & Guidance 2008 1 Geodetic Instrumentation for Use on Machine Bored

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1st International Conference on Machine Control & Guidance 2008 1 Geodetic Instrumentation for Use on Machine Bored Tunnels N. CLARKE-HACKSTON, M. MESSING, E. ULLRICH VMT GmbH, Bruchsal Germany Abstract of the machine and the tunnel support are able to operate at the desired rate. This paper describes

  16. Is there a discrepancy between geological and geodetic slip rates along the San

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandwell, David T.

    Is there a discrepancy between geological and geodetic slip rates along the San Andreas Fault of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA, 2 Department of Geology along the San Andreas Fault System (SAFS), based on elastic half-space models, show a discrepancy

  17. Which Dynamic Rupture Parameters Can Be Estimated from Strong Ground Motion and Geodetic Data?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olsen, Kim Bak

    of seismic waves as well as ground failure caused by the earthquake. The level and variation of the initialWhich Dynamic Rupture Parameters Can Be Estimated from Strong Ground Motion and Geodetic Data the constitutive laws and the initial stress on the fault control how the earthquake propagates and arrests

  18. Geodetic Studies in the Novarupta Area, Katmai National Park, Alaska, 1990 to 1995

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geodetic Studies in the Novarupta Area, Katmai National Park, Alaska, 1990 to 1995 By Jack W and resurveyed in 1993 and 1995. Both EDM and Global Positioning Sys- tem (GPS) measurements were made in 1993. The 1995 survey was restricted to the more accurate GPS surveying method. Analysis of EDM data in 1993

  19. Structural, geodetic and seismological evidence for tectonic escape in SW Taiwan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Andrew Tien-Shun

    Structural, geodetic and seismological evidence for tectonic escape in SW Taiwan O. Lacombe*, F and seismological data in SW Taiwan are analysed and discussed in terms of present-day tectonic escape occurring began during the late Pleistocene, later than in northeastern Taiwan as a result of the southward

  20. Deciphering oblique shortening of central Alborz in Iran using geodetic data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vernant, Philippe

    Deciphering oblique shortening of central Alborz in Iran using geodetic data Ph. Vernanta,*, F 13185-1684, Meraj Av., Tehran, Iran Received 27 January 2004; received in revised form 16 April 2004 accommodates the differential motion between the Sanandaj­Sirjan zone in central Iran and the South Caspian

  1. Estimating runoff using hydro-geodetic approaches; assessment and comparison M. J. Tourian1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuttgart, Universität

    Estimating runoff using hydro-geodetic approaches; assessment and comparison M. J. Tourian1 , C- drological balance equation, hydro-meteorological balance equation, least squares prediction using change from GRACE hydro-meteorological balance equation (Ratm) Ratm = - · Q - dM dt . · Q refers

  2. The deflection of light induced by the Sun's gravitational field and measured with geodetic VLBI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. Titov; A. Girdiuk

    2015-11-02

    The Sun's gravitational field deflects the apparent positions of close objects in accordance with the formulae of general relativity. Optical astrometry is used to test the prediction, but only with the stars close to the Sun and only during total Solar eclipses. Geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) is capable of measuring the deflection of the light from distant radio sources anytime and across the whole sky. We show that the effect of light deflection is equivalent to the gravitational delay calculated during the reduction of VLBI data. All reference radio sources display an annual circular motion with the magnitude proportional to their ecliptic latitude. In particular, radio sources near the ecliptic pole draw an annual circle with magnitude of 4 mas. This effect could be easily measured with the current precision of the geodetic VLBI data.

  3. 04/22/02 EGS G6 2002 1 STABILITY OF GLOBAL GEODETIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herring, Thomas

    1 04/22/02 EGS G6 2002 1 STABILITY OF GLOBAL GEODETIC RESULTS Prof. Thomas Herring Room 54-611; 253-5941 tah@mit.edu http://bowie.mit.edu/~tah 04/22/02 EGS G6 2002 2 Overview · Motivation for talk: Anomalies of scale variations with VLBI results #12;2 04/22/02 EGS G6 2002 3 Motivation · Launch of Block IIR

  4. The Fresnel-Fizeau effect and the atmospheric time delay in geodetic VLBI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M., Kopeikin S

    2015-01-01

    The Fresnel-Fizeau effect is a special relativistic effect that makes the speed of light dependent on the velocity of a transparent, moving medium. We present a theoretical formalism for discussing propagation of electromagnetic signals through the moving Earth atmosphere with taking into account the Fresnel-Fizeau effect. It provides the rigorous relativistic derivation of the atmospheric time delay equation in the consensus model of geodetic VLBI observations which was never published before. The paper confirms the atmospheric time delay of the consensus VLBI model used in IERS Standards, and provides a firm theoretical basis for calculation of even more subtle relativistic corrections.

  5. The Fresnel-Fizeau effect and the atmospheric time delay in geodetic VLBI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kopeikin S. M.; Han W. -B.

    2015-03-20

    The Fresnel-Fizeau effect is a special relativistic effect that makes the speed of light dependent on the velocity of a transparent, moving medium. We present a theoretical formalism for discussing propagation of electromagnetic signals through the moving Earth atmosphere with taking into account the Fresnel-Fizeau effect. It provides the rigorous relativistic derivation of the atmospheric time delay equation in the consensus model of geodetic VLBI observations which was never published before. The paper confirms the atmospheric time delay of the consensus VLBI model used in IERS Standards, and provides a firm theoretical basis for calculation of even more subtle relativistic corrections.

  6. Multicolored Vertical Silicon Nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seo, Kwanyong; Wober, Munib; Steinvurzel, P.; Schonbrun, E.; Dan, Yaping; Ellenbogen, T.; Crozier, K. B.

    2011-04-13

    We demonstrate that vertical silicon nanowires take on a surprising variety of colors covering the entire visible spectrum, in marked contrast to the gray color of bulk silicon. This effect is readily observable by bright-field microscopy, or even to the naked eye. The reflection spectra of the nanowires each show a dip whose position depends on the nanowire radii. We compare the experimental data to the results of finite difference time domain simulations to elucidate the physical mechanisms behind the phenomena we observe. The nanowires are fabricated as arrays, but the vivid colors arise not from scattering or diffractive effects of the array, but from the guided mode properties of the individual nanowires. Each nanowire can thus define its own color, allowing for complex spatial patterning. We anticipate that the color filter effect we demonstrate could be employed in nanoscale image sensor devices.

  7. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 27, NO. 22, PAGES 2615-3618, NOVEMBER 15, 2000 Geodetic network optimization for geophysical parameters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tingley, Joseph V.

    GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 27, NO. 22, PAGES 2615-3618, NOVEMBER 15, 2000 3615 Geodetic network optimization for geophysical parameters Geoffrey Blewitt Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology is gener- alized here, to seek the network configuration that optimizes the precision of geophysical

  8. Open-source software for geodetic imaging: ROI_PAC for InSAR and pixel tracking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pritchard, Matt

    1 Open-source software for geodetic imaging: ROI_PAC for InSAR and pixel tracking Authors: Matthew. Acknowledgements Section I. Introduction Section II. Getting started: Data & software Raw data format Available software for InSAR and pixel tracking Appendix 0: Some basic LINUX commands Appendix 1: Getting

  9. Vertical axis wind turbine airfoil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krivcov, Vladimir; Krivospitski, Vladimir; Maksimov, Vasili; Halstead, Richard; Grahov, Jurij Vasiljevich

    2012-12-18

    A vertical axis wind turbine airfoil is described. The wind turbine airfoil can include a leading edge, a trailing edge, an upper curved surface, a lower curved surface, and a centerline running between the upper surface and the lower surface and from the leading edge to the trailing edge. The airfoil can be configured so that the distance between the centerline and the upper surface is the same as the distance between the centerline and the lower surface at all points along the length of the airfoil. A plurality of such airfoils can be included in a vertical axis wind turbine. These airfoils can be vertically disposed and can rotate about a vertical axis.

  10. Vertical axis wind turbine acoustics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pearson, Charlie

    2014-04-08

    due to the political support for renewable energy and the introduction of Feed In Tariffs, which pay home owners for generating their own electricity. Due to their ability to respond quickly to changing wind conditions, small-scale vertical axis...

  11. Macrobiotic Vertical Transport of Litter Derived Carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Post, Wilfred M.

    Macrobiotic Vertical Transport of Litter Derived Carbon (Earthworm Phase) Mac Callaham Corey Babb in each treatment Sampling #12;Macrobiotic Vertical Transport of Litter Derived Carbon (millipede phase

  12. Thermal gradient-induced forces on geodetic reference masses for LISA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Carbone; A. Cavalleri; G. Ciani; R. Dolesi; M. Hueller; D. Tombolato; S. Vitale; W. J. Weber

    2007-06-29

    The low frequency sensitivity of space-borne gravitational wave observatories will depend critically on the geodetic purity of the trajectories of orbiting test masses. Fluctuations in the temperature difference across the enclosure surrounding the free-falling test mass can produce noisy forces through several processes, including the radiometric effect, radiation pressure, and outgassing. We present here a detailed experimental investigation of thermal gradient-induced forces for the LISA gravitational wave mission and the LISA Pathfinder, employing high resolution torsion pendulum measurements of the torque on a LISA-like test mass suspended inside a prototype of the LISA gravitational reference sensor that will surround the test mass in orbit. The measurement campaign, accompanied by numerical simulations of the radiometric and radiation pressure effects, allows a more accurate and representative characterization of thermal-gradient forces in the specific geometry and environment relevant to LISA free-fall. The pressure dependence of the measured torques allows clear identification of the radiometric effect, in quantitative agreement with the model developed. In the limit of zero gas pressure, the measurements are most likely dominated by outgassing, but at a low level that does not threaten the LISA sensitivity goals.

  13. Vertical Integration and Technology: Theory and Evidence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acemoglu, Daron

    We study the determinants of vertical integration. We first derive a number of predictions regarding the relationship between technology intensity and vertical integration from a simple incomplete contracts model. Then, ...

  14. Vertical silicon nanowire arrays for gas sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Hangbo

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this research was to fabricate and characterize vertically aligned silicon nanowire gas sensors. Silicon nanowires are very attractive for gas sensing applications and vertically aligned silicon nanowires are ...

  15. Macrobiotic Vertical Transport of Litter Derived Carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Post, Wilfred M.

    Macrobiotic Vertical Transport of Litter Derived Carbon (UPDATE) Mac Callaham Corey Babb Paul vertical transport of litter derived carbon-millipede phase More germane to upland sites Sampled uplands

  16. 7, 22492274, 2007 Vertical ozone over

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 7, 2249­2274, 2007 Vertical ozone over Eastern Mediterranean and Central Europe P. D a Creative Commons License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Vertical ozone measurements (kalabokas pavlos@yahoo.gr) 2249 #12;ACPD 7, 2249­2274, 2007 Vertical ozone over Eastern Mediterranean

  17. On production costs in vertical differentiation models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    EA 4272 On production costs in vertical differentiation models Dorothée BRECARD(*) 2009,version1-1Oct2009 #12;1 On production costs in vertical differentiation models Dorothée Brécard production cost beside a fixed cost of quality improvement in a duopoly model of vertical product

  18. Conventional Energy Forum & Associated Vertical Business Development...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    & Casino The Office of Indian Energy Tribal Leader Energy Forum on "Conventional Energy (Oil, Gas, and Coal) Forum & Associated Vertical Business Development: Best Practices in...

  19. Vertical two chamber reaction furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blaugher, R.D.

    1999-03-16

    A vertical two chamber reaction furnace is disclosed. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700 and 800 C) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800 to 950 C to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product. 2 figs.

  20. Vertical two chamber reaction furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blaugher, Richard D. (Evergreen, CO)

    1999-03-16

    A vertical two chamber reaction furnace. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700.degree. and 800.degree. C.) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800.degree. to 950.degree. C. to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product.

  1. Asynchronous vertical migration and bimodal distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Townsend, David W.

    Asynchronous vertical migration and bimodal distribution of motile phytoplankton DAVID K. RALSTON1 sources of nutrients in a vertical migration cycle: photosynthesis in the near-surface layer, transit to depth, uptake of the limiting nutrient and transit back to the surface layer. If all four steps can

  2. Vertical Glider Robots for Subsea Equipment Delivery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Brooks L.

    2011-01-01

    We have developed an underwater vehicle that offers significant performance improvements over existing sub sea elevators. Our Vertical Glider Robot falls under its own weight to a precise location on the seafloor, employing ...

  3. Subsurface imaging with reverse vertical seismic profiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krasovec, Mary L. (Mary Lee), 1972-

    2001-01-01

    This thesis presents imaging results from a 3D reverse vertical seismic profile (RVSP) dataset measured at a hydrocarbon bearing pinnacle reef in northern Michigan. The study presented many challenges in seismic data ...

  4. Seismic signatures of two orthogonal sets of vertical microcorrugated fractures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsvankin, Ilya

    surface seismic and VSP (vertical seismic profiling) data. Using the linear- slip theory describedSeismic signatures of two orthogonal sets of vertical microcorrugated fractures Rodrigo Fel propagation through an effective anisotropic medium that contains two microcorrugated, vertical, orthogonal

  5. User's manual for the vertical axis wind turbine performance...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: User's manual for the vertical axis wind turbine performance computer code darter Citation Details In-Document Search Title: User's manual for the vertical axis...

  6. User's manual for the vertical axis wind turbine performance...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    User's manual for the vertical axis wind turbine performance computer code darter Citation Details In-Document Search Title: User's manual for the vertical axis wind turbine...

  7. Sandia Energy - Innovative Offshore Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovative Offshore Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine Rotors Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Wind Energy Offshore Wind Innovative Offshore Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine...

  8. Vertical stability, high elongation, and the consequences of loss of vertical control on DIII-D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kellman, A.G.; Ferron, J.R.; Jensen, T.H.; Lao, L.L.; Luxon, J.L.; Skinner, D.G.; Strait, E.J.; Reis, E.; Taylor, T.S.; Turnbull, A.D. (General Atomics, San Diego, CA (USA)); Lazarus, E.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Lister, J.B. (Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Lausanne (Switzerland))

    1990-09-01

    Recent modifications to the vertical control system for DIII-D has enabled operation of discharges with vertical elongation {kappa}, up to 2.5. When vertical stability is lost, a disruption follows and a large vertical force on the vacuum vessel is observed. The loss of plasma energy begins when the edge safety factor q is 2 but the current decay does not begin until q {approximately}1.3. Current flow on the open field lines in the plasma scrapeoff layer has been measured and the magnitude and distribution of these currents can explain the observed force on the vessel. Equilibrium calculations and simulation of this vertical displacement episode are presented. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  9. A low order model for vertical axis wind turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drela, Mark

    A new computational model for initial sizing and performance prediction of vertical axis wind turbines

  10. INVESTIGATING THERMODYNAMICS OF VERTICAL ATMOSPHERIC ENERGY TRANSPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    's climate and on enhancing the overall entropy production of the Earth's climate system are discussed. Potential thermodynamic constraint(s) for the Earth's climate system are also explored from these simple transport are investigated by using simple one-dimensional vertical energy balance models (i.e., radiative

  11. Order in vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Xu, Z [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Eres, Gyula [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    We report the direct measurements on the bulk morphology of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays using small angle neutron scattering (SANS). SANS measurements at different heights of CNT arrays corresponding to different stages of the growth reveal increasing alignment order along the thickness and two distinctly different CNT morphologies. The observations suggest that the evolution of the macroscopic CNT morphologies be driven by competing collective growth and spatial constraints.

  12. Electrically floating, near vertical incidence, skywave antenna

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Allen A.; Kaser, Timothy G.; Tremblay, Paul A.; Mays, Belva L.

    2014-07-08

    An Electrically Floating, Near Vertical Incidence, Skywave (NVIS) Antenna comprising an antenna element, a floating ground element, and a grounding element. At least part of said floating ground element is positioned between said antenna element and said grounding element. The antenna is separated from the floating ground element and the grounding element by one or more electrical insulators. The floating ground element is separated from said antenna and said grounding element by one or more electrical insulators.

  13. MODELING OF VERTICAL GROUND LOOP HEAT EXCHANGERS FOR GROUND SOURCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MODELING OF VERTICAL GROUND LOOP HEAT EXCHANGERS FOR GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS By CENK SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS Thesis Approved: ___________________________________________ Thesis Adviser pump systems. For detailed analysis and accurate simulation of the transient heat transfer in vertical

  14. Vertical axis wind turbine with continuous blade angle adjustment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weiss, Samuel Bruce

    2010-01-01

    The author presents a concept for a vertical axis wind turbine that utilizes each blade's entire rotational cycle for power generation. Each blade has its own vertical axis of rotation and is constrained to rotate at the ...

  15. Functionality Tuning in Vertically Aligned Nanocomposite Thin Films 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Aiping

    2013-04-04

    Vertically aligned nanocomposite (VAN) oxide thin films are unique nanostructures with two-phase self-assembled, heteroepitaxially grown on single-crystal substrates. Both phases tend to grow vertically and simultaneously ...

  16. Tropical cyclone energy dispersion under vertical shears Xuyang Ge,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Tim

    Tropical cyclone energy dispersion under vertical shears Xuyang Ge,1 Tim Li,1,2 and Xiaqiong Zhou1] Tropical cyclone Rossby wave energy dispersion under easterly and westerly vertical shears is investigated, and X. Zhou (2007), Tropical cyclone energy dispersion under vertical shears, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L

  17. GLOBAL DYNAMICS OF AN SEIR EPIDEMIC MODEL WITH VERTICAL TRANSMISSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Michael

    GLOBAL DYNAMICS OF AN SEIR EPIDEMIC MODEL WITH VERTICAL TRANSMISSION MICHAEL Y. LI, HAL L. SMITH population through both horizontal and vertical transmission. The total host population is assumed to have at an endemic equilibrium state if it initially exists. The contribution of the vertical transmission

  18. A User Guide for Marsh Analysis and Planning Tool Incorporating Tides and Elevations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ................... 18 3) Vertical Datum (VDatum) Transformation ....................... 20 c. Digital Elemation Models on a combination of a digital elevation model (DEM) derived from GPS observations, local tidal datums, and grass

  19. Flow and heat transfer in vertical annuli

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ulke, A.; Goldberg, I.

    1993-11-01

    In shell-side boiling heat exchangers narrow crevices that are formed between the tubes and the tube support structure provide areas for local conditions which differ significantly from the bulk fluid conditions. A quasi-two-dimensional model which was developed to describe the local phenomena in a vertical, cylindrical crevice was described previously. The present work compares experimentally obtained flow and tube temperature distributions to those predicted by the model. The results confirm the characteristic ``W`` shape of the tube temperature profile centered at the line contact between a heated tube and tube support.

  20. Control system for a vertical axis windmill

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brulle, Robert V. (St. Louis County, MO)

    1983-10-18

    A vertical axis windmill having a rotating structure is provided with a series of articulated vertical blades whose positions are controlled to maintain a constant RPM for the rotating structure, when wind speed is sufficient. A microprocessor controller is used to process information on wind speed, wind direction and RPM of the rotating structure to develop an electrical signal for establishing blade position. The preferred embodiment of the invention, when connected to a utility grid, is designed to generate 40 kilowatts of power when exposed to a 20 mile per hour wind. The control system for the windmill includes electrical blade actuators that modulate the blades of the rotating structure. Blade modulation controls the blade angle of attack, which in turn controls the RPM of the rotor. In the preferred embodiment, the microprocessor controller provides the operation logic and control functions. A wind speed sensor provides inputs to start or stop the windmill, and a wind direction sensor is used to keep the blade flip region at 90.degree. and 270.degree. to the wind. The control system is designed to maintain constant rotor RPM when wind speed is between 10 and 40 miles per hour.

  1. High vertical resolution crosswell seismic imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lazaratos, Spyridon K. (Houston, TX)

    1999-12-07

    A method for producing high vertical resolution seismic images from crosswell data is disclosed. In accordance with one aspect of the disclosure, a set of vertically spaced, generally horizontally extending continuous layers and associated nodes are defined within a region between two boreholes. The specific number of nodes is selected such that the value of a particular characteristic of the subterranean region at each of the nodes is one which can be determined from the seismic data. Once values are established at the nodes, values of the particular characteristic are assigned to positions between the node points of each layer based on the values at node within that layer and without regard to the values at node points within any other layer. A seismic map is produced using the node values and the assigned values therebetween. In accordance with another aspect of the disclosure, an approximate model of the region is established using direct arrival traveltime data. Thereafter, the approximate model is adjusted using reflected arrival data. In accordance with still another aspect of the disclosure, correction is provided for well deviation. An associated technique which provides improvements in ray tracing is also disclosed.

  2. Effective Higgs vertices in the generic MSSM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crivellin, Andreas

    2011-03-01

    In this article we consider chirally enhanced corrections to Higgs vertices in the most general MSSM. We include the contributions stemming from bilinear terms, from the trilinear A terms, and from their nonholomorphic analogues, the A{sup '} terms, which couple squarks to the ''wrong'' Higgs field. We perform a consistent renormalization of the Higgs vertices beyond the decoupling limit (M{sub SUSY{yields}{infinity}}), using a purely diagrammatic approach. The cancellation of the different contributions in and beyond the decoupling limit is discussed and the possible size of decoupling effects which occur if the supersymmetry particles are not much heavier than the electroweak scale are examined. In the decoupling limit we recover the results obtained in the effective-field-theory approach. For the nonholomorphic A{sup '} terms we find the well known tan{beta} enhancement in the down sector similar to the one for terms proportional to {mu}. Because of the a priori generic flavor structure of these trilinear terms large flavor-changing neutral Higgs couplings can be induced. We also discover new tan{beta} enhanced contributions involving the usual holomorphic A terms, which were not discussed before in the literature. These corrections occur only if also flavor-diagonal nonholomorphic corrections to the Higgs couplings are present. This reflects the fact that the A terms, and also the chirality-changing self-energies, are physical quantities and cannot be absorbed into renormalization constants.

  3. Stabilization of the Vertical Mode in Tokamaks by Localized Nonaxisymm...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Mode in Tokamaks by Localized Nonaxisymmetric Fields Vertical instability of a tokamak plasma can be controlled by nonaxisymmetric magnetic fields localized near the plasma...

  4. An ultimate storage ring lattice with vertical emittance generated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: An ultimate storage ring lattice with vertical emittance generated by damping wigglers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An ultimate storage ring lattice...

  5. Vertical Electrical Sounding Configurations At Mt Princeton Hot...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Vertical Electrical Sounding Configurations At Mt Princeton Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Zohdy, Et Al., 1971) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home...

  6. Vertical stratified turbulent transport mechanism indicated by remote sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carl H. Gibson; R. Norris Keeler; Valery G. Bondur

    2007-12-02

    Satellite and shipboard data reveal the intermittent vertical information transport mechanism of turbulence and internal waves that mixes the ocean, atmosphere, planets and stars.

  7. Vertical Seismic Profiling At Neal Hot Springs Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Vertical Seismic Profiling At Neal Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Colorado School of Mines and Imperial College London, 2011) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal...

  8. Continuous Growth of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes Forests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guzman de Villoria, Roberto

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes are one of the most promising materials due their numerous applications in flexible electronic devices, biosensors and multifunctional aircraft materials, among others. However, the ...

  9. Engineering design of vertical test stand cryostat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suhane, S.K.; Sharma, N.K.; Raghavendra, S.; Joshi, S.C.; Das, S.; Kush, P.K.; Sahni, V.C.; Gupta, P.D.; Sylvester, C.; Rabehl, R.; Ozelis, J.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    Under Indian Institutions and Fermilab collaboration, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology and Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory are jointly developing 2K Vertical Test Stand (VTS) cryostats for testing SCRF cavities at 2K. The VTS cryostat has been designed for a large testing aperture of 86.36 cm for testing of 325 MHz Spoke resonators, 650 MHz and 1.3 GHz multi-cell SCRF cavities for Fermilab's Project-X. Units will be installed at Fermilab and RRCAT and used to test cavities for Project-X. A VTS cryostat comprises of liquid helium (LHe) vessel with internal magnetic shield, top insert plate equipped with cavity support stand and radiation shield, liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) shield and vacuum vessel with external magnetic shield. The engineering design and analysis of VTS cryostat has been carried out using ASME B&PV Code and Finite Element Analysis. Design of internal and external magnetic shields was performed to limit the magnetic field inside LHe vessel at the cavity surface <1 {micro}T. Thermal analysis for LN{sub 2} shield has been performed to check the effectiveness of LN{sub 2} cooling and for compliance with ASME piping code allowable stresses.

  10. The MHV lagrangian vertices and the Parke-Taylor formula

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chih-Hao Fu

    2009-07-31

    We explicitly calculate the vertices of the MHV-rules lagrangian in 4-dimensions. This proves that the vertices in the lagrangian obtained by a canonical transformation from light-cone Yang-Mills theory coincide to all order with the Parke-Taylor formula, filling the gap originally left in the lagrangian derivation of the CSW rules.

  11. Optimization of Vertical Handover Decision Processes for Fourth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sekercioglu, Y. Ahmet

    Optimization of Vertical Handover Decision Processes for Fourth Generation Heterogeneous Wireless processes in the Fourth Generation (4G) het- erogeneous wireless networks. The scheme consists of three of vertical handover de- cision algorithms in fourth generation heterogeneous wireless networks," Com- puter

  12. Hedging and Vertical Integration in Electricity Markets Gilles Chemla

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Touzi, Nizar

    Hedging and Vertical Integration in Electricity Markets Ren´e A¨id Gilles Chemla Arnaud Porchet) spot, retail, and forward markets and vertical integration in electricity markets. We develop risk averse. We illustrate our analysis with data from the French electricity market. We would like

  13. Vertical Transport of Subwavelength Localized Surface Electromagnetic Modes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Fei; Zhang, Youming; Shi, Xihang; Yang, Zhaoju; Zhang, Baile

    2015-01-01

    Transport of subwavelength electromagnetic (EM) energy has been achieved through near-field coupling of highly confined surface EM modes supported by plasmonic nanoparticles, in a configuration usually staying on a two-dimensional (2D) substrate. Vertical transport of similar modes along the third dimension, on the other hand, can bring more flexibility in designs of functional photonic devices, but this phenomenon has not been observed in reality. In this paper, designer (or spoof) surface plasmon resonators (plasmonic meta-atoms) are stacked in the direction vertical to their individual planes in demonstrating vertical transport of subwavelength localized surface EM modes. Dispersion relation of this vertical transport is determined from coupled mode theory and is verified with near-field transmission spectrum and field mapping with a microwave near-field scanning stage. This work extends the near-field coupled resonator optical waveguide (CROW) theory into the vertical direction, and may find applications ...

  14. Steerable vertical to horizontal energy transducer for mobile robots

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM); Fischer, Gary J. (Albuquerque, NM); Feddema, John T. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a steerable vertical to horizontal energy transducer for mobile robots that less complex and requires less power than two degree of freedom tilt mechanisms. The present invention comprises an end effector that, when mounted with a hopping actuator, translates along axis (typically vertical) actuation into combined vertical and horizontal motion. The end effector, or foot, mounts with an end of the actuator that moves toward the support surface (typically a floor or the earth). The foot is shaped so that the first contact with the support surface is off the axis of the actuator. Off-axis contact with the support surface generates an on-axis force (typically resulting in vertical motion) and a moment orthogonal to the axis. The moment initiates a horizontal tumbling motion, and tilts the actuator so that its axis is oriented with a horizontal component and continued actuation generates both vertical and horizontal force.

  15. Sidewall containment of liquid metal with vertical alternating magnetic fields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lari, Robert J. (Aurora, IL); Praeg, Walter F. (Palos Park, IL); Turner, Larry R. (Naperville, IL); Battles, James E. (Oak Forest, IL); Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL); Rote, Donald M. (Lagrange, IL)

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus for containing molten metal using a magnet producing vertical alternating magnetic field positioned adjacent the area in which the molten metal is to be confined. This invention can be adapted particularly to the casting of metal between counter-rotating rollers with the vertical alternating magnetic field used to confine the molten metal at the edges of the rollers. Alternately, the vertical alternating magnetic field can be used as a flow regulator in casting molten metal from an opening in a channel.

  16. Sidewall containment of liquid metal with vertical alternating magnetic fields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lari, R.J.; Praeg, W.F.; Turner, L.R.; Battles, J.E.; Hull, J.R.; Rote, D.M.

    1990-12-04

    An apparatus is disclosed for containing molten metal using a magnet producing vertical alternating magnetic field positioned adjacent the area in which the molten metal is to be confined. This invention can be adapted particularly to the casting of metal between counter-rotating rollers with the vertical alternating magnetic field used to confine the molten metal at the edges of the rollers. Alternately, the vertical alternating magnetic field can be used as a flow regulator in casting molten metal from an opening in a channel. 9 figs.

  17. Sidewall containment of liquid metal with vertical alternating magnetic fields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lari, R.J.; Praeg, W.F.; Turner, L.R.; Battles, J.E.; Hull, J.R.; Rote, D.M.

    1988-06-17

    An apparatus for containing molten metal using a magnet producing vertical alternating magnetic field positioned adjacent to the area in which the molten metal is to be confined. This invention can be adapted particularly to the casting of metal between counter-rotating rollers with the vertical alternating magnetic field used to confine the molten metal at the edges of the rollers. Alternately, the vertical alternating magnetic field can be used as a flow regulator in casting molten metal from an opening in a channel. 8 figs.

  18. Exact solutions in a model of vertical gas migration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silin, Dmitriy B.; Patzek, Tad W.; Benson, Sally M.

    2006-01-01

    VERTICAL GAS MIGRATION At a su?ciently large depth, the gasmigration, such an assumption is questionable, especially when dealing with shallow depths.migration and trapping. 9 If a con- nected gas plume extends between depths

  19. Perspective+Detail a visualization technique for vertically curved displays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on the vertical display segment and (3) a head-up display (HUD) in the connecting curved segment (see Figure 1 display connection. The detail view and the HUD are seamlessly integrated with this extended overview

  20. Origami building blocks: generic and special 4-vertices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott Waitukaitis; Martin van Hecke

    2015-07-30

    Four rigid panels connected by hinges that meet at a point form a 4-vertex, the fundamental building block of origami metamaterials. Here we show how the geometry of 4-vertices, given by the sector angles of each plate, affects their folding behavior. For generic vertices, we distinguish three vertex types and two subtypes. We establish relationships based on the relative sizes of the sector angles to determine which folds can fully close and the possible mountain-valley assignments. Next, we consider what occurs when sector angles or sums thereof are set equal, which results in 16 special vertex types. One of these, flat-foldable vertices, has been studied extensively, but we show that a wide variety of qualitatively different folding motions exist for the other 15 special and 3 generic types. Our work establishes a straightforward set of rules for understanding the folding motion of both generic and special 4-vertices and serves as a roadmap for designing origami metamaterials.

  1. An ecological perceptual aid for precision vertical landings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Cristin Anne

    2006-01-01

    Pilots of vertical landing vehicles face numerous control challenges which often involve the loss of outside visual perceptual cues or the control of flight parameters within tight constraints. These challenges are often ...

  2. Characterizing Vertical Mass Flux Profiles in Aeolian Saltation Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Eugene

    2012-07-16

    transport rate in field and wind tunnel experiments respectively. The Rouse approach is more physically meaningful than current approaches that use standard curve fitting functions to represent the vertical flux data but do not provide any explanatory power...

  3. Simulation of vertical ship responses in high seas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajendran, Suresh

    2009-05-15

    total responses were reconstructed and compared with the measured responses. This also helped to investigate the contribution of second order part to the total vertical ship responses. In the last stage of the research a new semi- empirical method...

  4. Water coning calculations for vertical and horizontal wells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Weiping

    1990-01-01

    recovery of several wells coning water. Since their type curves are specific for the data they investigated, it can not serve as a general method of coning evaluation. Addington'2 developed a set of gas coning correlations for 3-D coarse grid... for predicting (1) critical coning rate, (2) breakthrough time, and (3) WOR after breakthrough in both vertical and horizontal wells. Two hand calculation methods had been developed in this study. Either of them applies to both vertical and horizontal wells...

  5. Estimating the fracture density of small-scale vertical fractures when large-scale vertical fractures are present

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Yuwei

    2013-01-01

    When fractures are vertical, aligned and their dimensions are small relative to the seismic wavelength, the medium can be considered to be an equivalent Horizontal Transverse Isotropic (HTI) medium. However, geophysical ...

  6. Average vertical and zonal F region plasma drifts over Jicamarca

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fejer, B.G.; Gonzalez, S.A. (Utah State Univ., Logan (United States)); de Paula, E.R. (Inst. de Pesquisas Espaciais-INPE, Sao Paulo (Brazil) Utah State Univ., Logan (United States)); Woodman, R.F. (Inst. Geofisico del Peru, Lima (Peru))

    1991-08-01

    The seasonal averages of the equatorial F region vertical and zonal plasma drifts are determined using extensive incoherent scatter radar observations from Jicamarca during 1968-1988. The late afternoon and nighttime vertical and zonal drifts are strongly dependent on the 10.7-cm solar flux. The authors show that the evening prereversal enhancement of vertical drifts increases linearly with solar flux during equinox but tends to saturate for large fluxes during southern hemisphere winter. They examine in detail, for the first time, the seasonal variation of the zonal plasma drifts and their dependence on solar flux and magnetic activity. The seasonal effects on the zonal drifts are most pronounced in the midnight-morning sector. The nighttime eastward drifts increase with solar flux for all seasons but decrease slightly with magnetic activity. The daytime westward drifts are essentially independent of season, solar cycle, and magnetic activity.

  7. Coriolis Effect on Dynamic Stall in a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine at Moderate Reynolds Number

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colonius, Tim

    Coriolis Effect on Dynamic Stall in a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine at Moderate Reynolds Number Hsieh-scale Reynolds number in order to investigate the sep- arated flow occurring on a vertical-axis wind turbine SSPM the sinusoidal surging-pitching motion VAWT vertical axis wind turbine I. Introduction Vertical

  8. Anisotropic inversion of refracted waves in vertical cable data in the presence of dip

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edinburgh, University of

    method in vertical seismic profiles (VSP). In the VSP case, the anisotropic phase-slowness surface local exploration tech- nique, vertical-cable (VC) seismic uses vertical arrays of hydrophones deployed in the waterAnisotropic inversion of refracted waves in vertical cable data in the presence of dip Hejie Wang1

  9. Cloud-Scale Vertical Velocity and Turbulent Dissipation Rate Retrievals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shupe, Matthew

    2013-05-22

    Time-height fields of retrieved in-cloud vertical wind velocity and turbulent dissipation rate, both retrieved primarily from vertically-pointing, Ka-band cloud radar measurements. Files are available for manually-selected, stratiform, mixed-phase cloud cases observed at the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) site during periods covering the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (MPACE, late September through early November 2004) and the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC, April-early May 2008). These time periods will be expanded in a future submission.

  10. Cloud-Scale Vertical Velocity and Turbulent Dissipation Rate Retrievals

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Shupe, Matthew

    Time-height fields of retrieved in-cloud vertical wind velocity and turbulent dissipation rate, both retrieved primarily from vertically-pointing, Ka-band cloud radar measurements. Files are available for manually-selected, stratiform, mixed-phase cloud cases observed at the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) site during periods covering the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (MPACE, late September through early November 2004) and the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC, April-early May 2008). These time periods will be expanded in a future submission.

  11. Geodetic Survey | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable UrbanKentucky: EnergyGateway EditOpenTechniques Jump2004)2005) |Survey

  12. NATURAL CONVECTION OF SUBCOOLED LIQUID NITROGEN IN A VERTICAL CAVITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Ho-Myung

    is cooled to nearly the freezing temperature (63 K) at atmospheric pressure by a vertical copper heat-7354-0186-1/04/$22.00 Cryogenic Engineering Conference - CEC, Vol. 49, edited by J. Waynert et al. CP710, Advances in Cryogenic the cryogenics for HTS transformers is underway at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory. The objective

  13. The Evolution of Vertical IS Standards: Electronic Interchange Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steinfield, Charles

    on the technical details of IT-related standards, surprisingly little empirical research addresses the development from horizontal standards, not only in their narrower applicability, but also in their technical conteThe Evolution of Vertical IS Standards: Electronic Interchange Standards in the US Home Mortgage

  14. MODELING OF VERTICAL GROUND LOOP HEAT EXCHANGERS FOR GROUND SOURCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    exchanger model is crucial for analysis of hybrid ground source heat pump systems. Ground source heat pumps in a hybrid ground source heat pump application under different climate conditions. An actual office buildingMODELING OF VERTICAL GROUND LOOP HEAT EXCHANGERS FOR GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS By CENK

  15. Graphs where every ksubset of vertices is an identifying set

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Janson, Svante

    , 20014 Turku, Finland, terolai@utu.fi. Research supported by the Academy of Finland under grant 111940. § Department of Mathematics, University of Turku, 20014 Turku, Finland, samano@utu.fi. Research supported by the Academy of Finland under grant 111940. 1 #12; these vertices and it is denoted by d(x, y

  16. Cryogenic infrastructure for Fermilab's ILC vertical cavity test facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carcagno, R.; Ginsburg, C.; Huang, Y.; Norris, B.; Ozelis, J.; Peterson, T.; Poloubotko, V.; Rabehl, R.; Sylvester, C.; Wong, M.; /Fermilab

    2006-06-01

    Fermilab is building a Vertical Cavity Test Facility (VCTF) to provide for R&D and pre-production testing of bare 9-cell, 1.3-GHz superconducting RF (SRF) cavities for the International Linear Collider (ILC) program. This facility is located in the existing Industrial Building 1 (IB1) where the Magnet Test Facility (MTF) also resides. Helium and nitrogen cryogenics are shared between the VCTF and MTF including the existing 1500-W at 4.5-K helium refrigerator with vacuum pumping for super-fluid operation (125-W capacity at 2-K). The VCTF is being constructed in multiple phases. The first phase is scheduled for completion in mid 2007, and includes modifications to the IB1 cryogenic infrastructure to allow helium cooling to be directed to either the VCTF or MTF as scheduling demands require. At this stage, the VCTF consists of one Vertical Test Stand (VTS) cryostat for the testing of one cavity in a 2-K helium bath. Planning is underway to provide a total of three Vertical Test Stands at VCTF, each capable of accommodating two cavities. Cryogenic infrastructure improvements necessary to support these additional VCTF test stands include a dedicated ambient temperature vacuum pump, a new helium purification skid, and the addition of helium gas storage. This paper describes the system design and initial cryogenic operation results for the first VCTF phase, and outlines future cryogenic infrastructure upgrade plans for expanding to three Vertical Test Stands.

  17. University of Alberta VERTICALLY-INTEGRATED CMOS TECHNOLOGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph, Dileepan

    University of Alberta VERTICALLY-INTEGRATED CMOS TECHNOLOGY FOR THIRD-GENERATION IMAGE SENSORS and Computer Engineering c Orit Skorka Fall 2011 Edmonton, Alberta Permission is hereby granted to the University of Alberta Libraries to reproduce single copies of this thesis and to lend or sell such copies

  18. CSEM WP 117 Vertical Integration in Restructured Electricity Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley. University of

    to buy in the market in order to provide power to their retail customers at set rates. Second, I accountCSEM WP 117 Vertical Integration in Restructured Electricity Markets: Measuring Market Efficiency Markets (CSEM) Working Paper Series. CSEM is a program of the University of California Energy Institute

  19. Vertical Relationships and Competition in Retail Gasoline Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley. University of

    PWP-075 Vertical Relationships and Competition in Retail Gasoline Markets: Empirical Evidence from in Retail Gasoline Markets Empirical Evidence from Contract Changes in Southern California Justine S, if any, of the differences in retail gasoline prices between markets is attributable to differences

  20. SOLVING VERTICAL TRANSPORT AND CHEMISTRY IN AIR POLLUTION MODELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Botchev, Mike

    SOLVING VERTICAL TRANSPORT AND CHEMISTRY IN AIR POLLUTION MODELS P.J.F. BERKVENS #3; , M.A. BOTCHEV; transport-chemistry problems from air pollution modelling, standard ODE solvers are not feasible due causing large errors for such species. In the framework of an operational global air pollution model, we

  1. Cooling Requirements for the Vertical Shear Instability in Protoplanetary Disks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Min-Kai

    2015-01-01

    It is difficult to understand how cold circumstellar disks accrete onto their central stars. A hydrodynamic mechanism, the vertical shear instability (VSI), offers a means to drive angular momentum transport in cold accretion disks such as protoplanetary disks (PPDs). The VSI is driven by a weak vertical gradient in the disk's orbital motion. In order to grow, the VSI must overcome vertical buoyancy, a strongly stabilizing influence in cold disks, where heating is dominated by external irradiation. Rapid cooling, via radiative losses, reduces the effective buoyancy and allows the VSI to operate. In this paper, we quantify the cooling timescale, $t_c$, needed for growth of the VSI. We perform a linear analysis of the VSI with cooling in vertically global and radially local disk models. For irradiated disks, we find that the VSI is most vigorous for rapid cooling with $t_c < \\Omega_\\mathrm{K}^{-1} h |q| / (\\gamma -1)$ in terms of the Keplerian orbital frequency, $\\Omega_\\mathrm{K}$, the disk's aspect ratio, ...

  2. Cryogenic vertical test facility for the SRF cavities at BNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Than, R.; Liaw, CJ; Porqueddu, R.; Grau, M.; Tuozzolo, J.; Tallerico, T.; McIntyre, G.; Lederle, D.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Burrill, A.; Pate, D.

    2011-03-28

    A vertical test facility has been constructed to test SRF cavities and can be utilized for other applications. The liquid helium volume for the large vertical dewar is approximate 2.1m tall by 1m diameter with a clearance inner diameter of 0.95m after the inner cold magnetic shield installed. For radiation enclosure, the test dewar is located inside a concrete block structure. The structure is above ground, accessible from the top, and equipped with a retractable concrete roof. A second radiation concrete facility, with ground level access via a labyrinth, is also available for testing smaller cavities in 2 smaller dewars. The cryogenic transfer lines installation between the large vertical test dewar and the cryo plant's sub components is currently near completion. Controls and instrumentations wiring are also nearing completion. The Vertical Test Facility will allow onsite testing of SRF cavities with a maximum overall envelope of 0.9 m diameter and 2.1 m height in the large dewar and smaller SRF cavities and assemblies with a maximum overall envelope of 0.66 m diameter and 1.6 m height.

  3. Vertical stability requirements for ARIES-I reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bathke, C.G.; Jardin, S.C.; Leuer, J.A.; Ward, D.J.; Princeton Univ., NJ . Plasma Physics Lab.; General Atomics, San Diego, CA; Princeton Univ., NJ . Plasma Physics Lab.)

    1989-01-01

    The vertical stability of the ARIES-I reactor design is analyzed with the NOVA-W, PSTAB, and TSC codes. A growth rate of {approximately}5.7 s{sup -1} is predicted for a vacuum vessel positioned behind the scrapeoff, first wall, and blanket (0.7 in inboard and 0.9 in outboard thickness) and acting as a passive stabilizer. A reactive power of {approximately}2 MV A would be required for active feedback coils located outside of the TF coils {approximately}3 m to correct a 50-mm vertical displacement of the magnetic axis. A multipolar expansion technique used in the TSC analysis is also used to examine options that minimize stored energy. 10 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hadley, G.R.; Lear, K.L.; Awyoung, A.; Choquette, K.D.

    1999-05-11

    A vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser device is disclosed. The vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) device comprises one or more VCSELs with each VCSEL having a mode-control region thereabout, with the mode-control region forming an optical cavity with an effective cavity length different from the effective cavity length within each VCSEL. Embodiments of the present invention can be formed as single VCSELs and as one- or two-dimensional arrays of VCSELs, with either an index-guided mode of operation or an index anti-guided mode of operation being defined by a sign of the difference in the two effective cavity lengths. 10 figs.

  5. Friction of partially embedded vertically aligned carbon nanofibers inside elastomers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aksak, Burak; Sitti, Metin; Cassell, Alan; Li, Jun; Meyyappan, Meyya; Callen, Phillip [NanoRobotics Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California 94035 (United States); NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas 77058 (United States)

    2007-08-06

    Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers partially embedded inside polyurethane (eVACNFs) are proposed as a robust high friction fibrillar material with a compliant backing. Carbon nanofibers with 50-150 nm in diameter and 20-30 {mu}m in length are vertically grown on silicon and transferred completely inside an elastomer by vacuum molding. By using time controlled and selective oxygen plasma etching, fibers are partially released up to 5 {mu}m length. Macroscale friction experiments show that eVACNFs exhibit reproducible effective friction coefficients up to 1. Besides high friction, the proposed fabrication method improves fiber-substrate bond strength, and enables uniform height nanofibers with a compliant backing.

  6. Flow regimes and heat transfer in vertical narrow annuli

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ulke, A.; Goldberg, I.

    1993-11-01

    In shell side boiling heat exchangers narrow crevices that are formed between the tubes and the tube support structure provide areas for local thermal-hydraulic conditions which differ significantly from bulk fluid conditions. Understanding of the processes of boiling and dryout in flow restricted crevices can help in designing of tube support geometries to minimize the likelihood of tube support plate and tube corrosion observed in commercial power plant steam generators. This paper describes a one dimensional thermal-hydraulic model of a vertical crevice between a tube and a support plate with cylindrical holes. The annulus formed by the support plate hole and an eccentrically located tube has been represented by vertical strips. The formation, growth and collapse of a steam bubble in each strip has been determined. Based on the bubble history, and flow regimes characterized by ``isolated`` bubbles, ``coalesced`` bubbles and liquid deficient regions have been defined.

  7. Electromechanical tuning of vertically-coupled photonic crystal nanobeams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Midolo, L; Pagliano, F; Xia, T; van Otten, F W M; Lermer, M; Höfling, S; Fiore, A

    2012-01-01

    We present the design, the fabrication and the characterization of a tunable one-dimensional (1D) photonic crystal cavity (PCC) etched on two vertically-coupled GaAs nanobeams. A novel fabrication method which prevents their adhesion under capillary forces is introduced. We discuss a design to increase the flexibility of the structure and we demonstrate a large reversible and controllable electromechanical wavelength tuning (> 15 nm) of the cavity modes.

  8. Method of fabricating vertically aligned group III-V nanowires

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, George T; Li, Qiming

    2014-11-25

    A top-down method of fabricating vertically aligned Group III-V micro- and nanowires uses a two-step etch process that adds a selective anisotropic wet etch after an initial plasma etch to remove the dry etch damage while enabling micro/nanowires with straight and smooth faceted sidewalls and controllable diameters independent of pitch. The method enables the fabrication of nanowire lasers, LEDs, and solar cells.

  9. Electrically injected visible vertical cavity surface emitting laser diodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schneider, R.P.; Lott, J.A.

    1994-09-27

    Visible laser light output from an electrically injected vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VSCEL) diode is enabled by the addition of phase-matching spacer layers on either side of the active region to form the optical cavity. The spacer layers comprise InAlP which act as charge carrier confinement means. Distributed Bragg reflector layers are formed on either side of the optical cavity to act as mirrors. 5 figs.

  10. Vertical feed stick wood fuel burning furnace system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, Richard C. (Orono, ME)

    1984-01-01

    A new and improved stove or furnace for efficient combustion of wood fuel including a vertical feed combustion chamber for receiving and supporting wood fuel in a vertical attitude or stack, a major upper portion of the combustion chamber column comprising a water jacket for coupling to a source of water or heat transfer fluid and for convection circulation of the fluid for confining the locus of wood fuel combustion to the bottom of the vertical gravity feed combustion chamber. A flue gas propagation delay channel extending from the laterally directed draft outlet affords delayed travel time in a high temperature environment to assure substantially complete combustion of the gaseous products of wood burning with forced air as an actively induced draft draws the fuel gas and air mixture laterally through the combustion and high temperature zone. Active sources of forced air and induced draft are included, multiple use and circuit couplings for the recovered heat, and construction features in the refractory material substructure and metal component superstructure.

  11. Low profile, high load vertical rolling positioning stage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shu, Deming (Darien, IL); Barraza, Juan (Aurora, IL)

    1996-01-01

    A stage or support platform assembly for use in a synchrotron accurately positions equipment to be used in the beam line of the synchrotron. The support platform assembly includes an outer housing in which is disposed a lifting mechanism having a lifting platform or stage at its upper extremity on which the equipment is mounted. A worm gear assembly is located in the housing and is adapted to raise and lower a lifting shaft that is fixed to the lifting platform by an anti-binding connection. The lifting platform is moved vertically as the lifting shaft is moved vertically. The anti-binding connection prevents the shaft from rotating with respect to the platform, but does permit slight canting of the shaft with respect to the lifting platform so as to eliminate binding and wear due to possible tolerance mismatches. In order to ensure that the lifting mechanism does not move in a horizontal direction as it is moved vertically, at least three linear roller bearing assemblies are arranged around the outer-periphery of the lifting mechanism. One of the linear roller bearing assemblies can be adjusted so that the roller bearings apply a loading force against the lifting mechanism. Alternatively, a cam mechanism can be used to provide such a loading force.

  12. A Recipe for Construction of the Critical Vertices for Left-Sector Stability of Interval

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Recipe for Construction of the Critical Vertices for Left-Sector Stability of Interval polynomials. This paper provides a recipe for construction of these critical vertices. Illustrative examples

  13. Vertical-axis wind turbines -- The current status of an old technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, D.E.

    1996-12-31

    Vertical-axis wind turbine technology is not well understood, even though the earliest wind machines rotated about a vertical axis. The operating environment of a vertical-axis wind turbine is quite complex, but detailed analysis capabilities have been developed and verified over the last 30 years. Although vertical-axis technology has not been widely commercialized, it exhibits both advantages and disadvantages compared to horizontal-axis technology, and in some applications, it appears to offer significant advantages.

  14. Vertical Concentric Tube Ground Couoled Heat Exchangers V. C. Mei and S. K. Fischer*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    vertical heat exchanger. Bose et al [2-4] described a geothermal well used for heat pump application#12;Vertical Concentric Tube Ground Couoled Heat Exchangers V. C. Mei and S. K. Fischer* Abstract An experimental and analytical project to study the design of vertical, concentric-tube ground-coupled heat

  15. Vibration Analysis of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Blade , S.Tullis 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullis, Stephen

    Vibration Analysis of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Blade K. Mc Laren 1 , S.Tullis 2 and S.Ziada 3 1 vibration source of a small-scale vertical axis wind turbine currently undergoing field-testing. The turbine consists of three 3 metre long vertically aligned blades each fixed to the central shaft by two horizontal

  16. Experimental investigation of the performance of a diffuser-augmented vertical axis wind turbine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    Experimental investigation of the performance of a diffuser- augmented vertical axis wind turbine Experimental investigation of the performance of a diffuser-augmented vertical axis wind turbine by Arash The performance of a vertical axis wind turbine with and without a diffuser was studied using direct force

  17. Effect of Dynamic Stall on the Aerodynamics of Vertical-Axis Wind Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCalley, James D.

    Effect of Dynamic Stall on the Aerodynamics of Vertical-Axis Wind Turbines Frank Scheurich of the aerodynamic performance of vertical-axis wind turbines pose a significant challenge for computational fluid of the aerodynamics of a vertical- axis wind turbine that consists of three curved rotor blades that are twisted

  18. WIND-TUNNEL STUDY ON AERODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE OF SMALL VERTICAL-AXIS WIND TURBINES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leu, Tzong-Shyng "Jeremy"

    1 WIND-TUNNEL STUDY ON AERODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE OF SMALL VERTICAL-AXIS WIND TURBINES J. J. Miau*1 were carried out to study the aerodynamic performance of three vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWT) have attracted a great deal of attention, because of their potential

  19. Turbulence in vertical axis wind turbine canopies Matthias Kinzel, Daniel B. Araya, and John O. Dabiri

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faraon, Andrei

    Turbulence in vertical axis wind turbine canopies Matthias Kinzel, Daniel B. Araya, and John O of a hydroformed metal blade for vertical-axis wind turbines J. Renewable Sustainable Energy 7, 043135 (2015); 10 blades for a vertical axis wind turbine J. Renewable Sustainable Energy 3, 013106 (2011); 10

  20. A Low Order Model for Vertical Axis Wind Turbines Isaac M. Asher

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peraire, Jaime

    A Low Order Model for Vertical Axis Wind Turbines Isaac M. Asher , Mark Drela and Jaime Peraire and performance prediction of vertical axis wind turbines is presented. The model uses a 2D hybrid dynamic vortex perpendicular. z perpendicular to the plane (spanwise direction). I. Introduction Darrieus-type vertical axis

  1. Experimental and numerical investigation of an optimized airfoil for vertical axis wind turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Experimental and numerical investigation of an optimized airfoil for vertical axis wind turbines and numerical verification of the per- formance of a new airfoil design for lift driven vertical-axis wind-turbines-driven vertical-axis wind-turbines VAWTs, with particular attention to floating installations (see Akimoto et al

  2. Multi-Fidelity Uncertainty Quantification: Application to a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Under an

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alonso, Juan J.

    Multi-Fidelity Uncertainty Quantification: Application to a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Under, USA Designing better vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) requires considering the uncertain wind cost. Low-fidelity tools are used extensively in the modeling of vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs)3

  3. Evolution of vertical faults at an extensional plate boundary, southwest Iceland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kattenhorn, Simon

    Evolution of vertical faults at an extensional plate boundary, southwest Iceland James V. Grant1 Abstract Vertical faults having both opening and vertical displacements are common in southwest Iceland of both oblique and normal spreading in southwest Iceland. Individual fracture segments are commonly

  4. Geophys. J. Znt. (1991) 107, 449-463 Fracture detection using crosshole surveys and reverse vertical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edinburgh, University of

    1991-01-01

    vertical seismic profiles at the Conoco Borehole Test Facility, Oklahoma Enru Liu,' Stuart Crampin) and reverse vertical seismic profiles (RVSPs) at the Conoco Borehole Test Facility, Oklahoma, are analysed 1986; Willis, Rethford & Bielanski 1986) and vertical seismic profiles (VSPs) (Beydoun, Cheng & Toksijz

  5. A Uniform PV Framework for Balanced Dynamics vertical structure of the troposphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muraki, David J.

    A Uniform PV Framework for Balanced Dynamics vertical structure of the troposphere surface & vertical displacement surface QG: balanced dynamics & uniform PV with vertical structure surface pressure & thickness vis-`a-vis 500 hPa vorticity & geopotential http://grads.iges.org 2 #12;PV Structure of the Lower

  6. Numerical simulation model for vertical flow in geothermal wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tachimori, M.

    1982-01-01

    A numerical simulation model for vertical flow in geothermal wells is presented. The model consists of equations for the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy, for thermodynamic state of water, for friction losses, for slip velocity relations, and of the criteria for various flow regimes. A new set of correlations and criteria is presented for two-phase flow to improve the accuracy of predictions; bubbly flow - Griffith and Wallis correlation, slug flow - Nicklin et al. one, annular-mist flow - Inoue and Aoki and modified by the author. The simulation method was verified by data from actual wells.

  7. VERTICAL RELAXATION OF A MOONLET PROPELLER IN SATURN'S A RING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffmann, H.; Seiss, M.; Spahn, F. [Institute of Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, D-14476 Golm (Germany)

    2013-03-01

    Two images, taken by the Cassini spacecraft near Saturn's equinox in 2009 August, show the Earhart propeller casting a 350 km long shadow, offering the opportunity to watch how the ring height, excited by the propeller moonlet, relaxes to an equilibrium state. From the shape of the shadow cast and a model of the azimuthal propeller height relaxation, we determine the exponential cooling constant of this process to be {lambda} = 0.07 {+-} 0.02 km{sup -1}, and thereby determine the collision frequency of the ring particles in the vertically excited region of the propeller to be {omega}{sub c}/{Omega} = 0.9 {+-} 0.2.

  8. SGP and TWP (Manus) Ice Cloud Vertical Velocities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalesse, Heike

    2013-06-27

    Daily netcdf-files of ice-cloud dynamics observed at the ARM sites at SGP (Jan1997-Dec2010) and Manus (Jul1999-Dec2010). The files include variables at different time resolution (10s, 20min, 1hr). Profiles of radar reflectivity factor (dbz), Doppler velocity (vel) as well as retrieved vertical air motion (V_air) and reflectivity-weighted particle terminal fall velocity (V_ter) are given at 10s, 20min and 1hr resolution. Retrieved V_air and V_ter follow radar notation, so positive values indicate downward motion. Lower level clouds are removed, however a multi-layer flag is included.

  9. Torque ripple in a Darrieus, vertical axis wind turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reuter, R.C. Jr.

    1980-09-01

    Interaction between a steady wind and a rotating, Darrieus, vertical axis wind turbine produces time periodic aerodynamic loads which cause time dependent torque variations, referred to as torque ripple, to occur in the mechanical link between the turbine and the electrical generator. There is concern for the effect of torque ripple upon fatigue life of drive train components and upon power quality. An analytical solution characterizing the phenomenon of torque ripple has been obtained which is based upon a Fourier expansion of the time dependent features of the problem. Numerical results for torque ripple, some experimental data, determination of acceptable levels and methods of controlling it, are presented and discussed.

  10. Automatic generation of vertices for the Schroedinger functional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shinji Takeda; Ulli Wolff

    2007-09-26

    We present a multiplication algorithm to recursively construct vertices for the Schroedinger functional in the abelian background field case. The algorithm is suited for automatic perturbative calculations with a variety of actions. As first applications, we derive ratios of the lambda parameters between the lattice scheme (improved gauge actions including six link loops) and the $\\bar{\\rm MS}$ scheme, and one-loop results for the Schroedinger functional coupling with a lattice $T=L \\pm a$, which is motivated by considering staggered fermions.

  11. Flow patterns in vertical two-phase flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McQuillan, K.W.; Whalley, P.B.

    1985-03-01

    This paper is concerned with the flow patterns which occur in upwards gas-liquid two-phase flow in vertical tubes. The basic flow patterns are described and the use of flow patter maps is discussed. The transition between plug flow and churn flow is modelled under the assumption that flooding of the falling liquid film limits the stability of plug flow. The resulting equation is combined with other flow pattern transition equations to produce theoretical flow pattern maps, which are then tested against experimental flow pattern data. Encouraging agreement is obtained.

  12. Performance of petroleum reservoirs containing random vertical fractures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huskey, William Lyman

    1963-01-01

    'so 1 I I o ios 'I \\ I I I I oo I I \\ I I I DISTRIRIJTION OF POTENTIAL IN A VERTICALLY FRACTURED RESE'RVOIR FRACTURE LENGTH 7% OF MODEL RADIUS. FRACTURE DENSI ( Y I. 6 FIGURE 4 14 '" ELK cP o i o o ~o o o~o x ( 'I oh'' I I I... of absence for the purpose of pursuing additional education. REFERENCES Russell, William L. : Structural Geolo for Petroleum Geolo ists, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. , New York, N. Y. , 1955, p. 163. 2, Elkins, Lincoln F. and Skov, Arlie M. : "Deter...

  13. SGP and TWP (Manus) Ice Cloud Vertical Velocities

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kalesse, Heike

    Daily netcdf-files of ice-cloud dynamics observed at the ARM sites at SGP (Jan1997-Dec2010) and Manus (Jul1999-Dec2010). The files include variables at different time resolution (10s, 20min, 1hr). Profiles of radar reflectivity factor (dbz), Doppler velocity (vel) as well as retrieved vertical air motion (V_air) and reflectivity-weighted particle terminal fall velocity (V_ter) are given at 10s, 20min and 1hr resolution. Retrieved V_air and V_ter follow radar notation, so positive values indicate downward motion. Lower level clouds are removed, however a multi-layer flag is included.

  14. Vertical Velocities in Continental Boundary Layer Stratocumulus Clouds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking WithTelecentricN A County roadFeet) Deliveries DennisVertical

  15. IntroductionIntroduction The use of small scale vertical axis wind turbinesThe use of small scale vertical axis wind turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullis, Stephen

    IntroductionIntroduction The use of small scale vertical axis wind turbinesThe use of small scale vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT) is being studied at McMaster University using(VAWT) is being studied at McMaster University using a prototype wind turbine provided bya prototype wind turbine provided

  16. Electromagnetic confinement for vertical casting or containing molten metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lari, Robert J. (Aurora, IL); Praeg, Walter F. (Palos Park, IL); Turner, Larry R. (Naperville, IL)

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus and method adapted to confine a molten metal to a region by means of an alternating electromagnetic field. As adapted for use in the present invention, the alternating electromagnetic field given by B.sub.y =(2.mu..sub.o .rho.gy).sup.1/2 (where B.sub.y is the vertical component of the magnetic field generated by the magnet at the boundary of the region; y is the distance measured downward form the top of the region, .rho. is the metal density, g is the acceleration of gravity and .mu..sub.o is the permeability of free space) induces eddy currents in the molten metal which interact with the magnetic field to retain the molten metal with a vertical boudnary. As applied to an apparatus for the continuous casting of metal sheets or rods, metal in liquid form can be continuously introduced into the region defined by the magnetic field, solidified and conveyed away from the magnetic field in solid form in a continuous process.

  17. Vertical distribution of structural components in corn stover

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Johnson, Jane M. F.; Karlen, Douglas L.; Gresham, Garold L.; Cantrell, Keri B.; Archer, David W.; Wienhold, Brian J.; Varvel, Gary E.; Laird, David A.; Baker, John; Ochsner, Tyson E.; et al

    2014-11-17

    In the United States, corn (Zea mays L.) stover has been targeted for second generation fuel production and other bio-products. Our objective was to characterize sugar and structural composition as a function of vertical distribution of corn stover (leaves and stalk) that was sampled at physiological maturity and about three weeks later from multiple USA locations. A small subset of samples was assessed for thermochemical composition. Concentrations of lignin, glucan, and xylan were about 10% greater at grain harvest than at physiological maturity, but harvestable biomass was about 25% less due to stalk breakage. Gross heating density above the earmore »averaged 16.3 ± 0.40 MJ kg?¹, but with an alkalinity measure of 0.83 g MJ?¹, slagging is likely to occur during gasification. Assuming a stover harvest height of 10 cm, the estimated ethanol yield would be >2500 L ha?¹, but it would be only 1000 L ha?¹ if stover harvest was restricted to the material from above the primary ear. Vertical composition of corn stover is relatively uniform; thus, decision on cutting height may be driven by agronomic, economic and environmental considerations.« less

  18. Vertical feed stick wood fuel burning furnace system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, Richard C. (Orono, ME)

    1982-01-01

    A stove or furnace for efficient combustion of wood fuel includes a vertical feed combustion chamber (15) for receiving and supporting wood fuel in a vertical attitude or stack. A major upper portion of the combustion chamber column comprises a water jacket (14) for coupling to a source of water or heat transfer fluid for convection circulation of the fluid. The locus (31) of wood fuel combustion is thereby confined to the refractory base of the combustion chamber. A flue gas propagation delay channel (34) extending laterally from the base of the chamber affords delayed travel time in a high temperature refractory environment sufficient to assure substantially complete combustion of the gaseous products of wood burning with forced air prior to extraction of heat in heat exchanger (16). Induced draft draws the fuel gas and air mixture laterally through the combustion chamber and refractory high temperature zone to the heat exchanger and flue. Also included are active sources of forced air and induced draft, multiple circuit couplings for the recovered heat, and construction features in the refractory material substructure and metal component superstructure.

  19. Control system for a vertical-axis windmill

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brulle, R.V.

    1981-09-03

    A vertical-axis windmill having a rotating structure is provided with a series of articulated vertical blades whose positions are controlled to maintain a constant RPM for the rotating structure, when wind speed is sufficient. A microprocessor controller is used to process information on wind speed, wind direction and RPM of the rotating structure to develop an electrical signal for establishing blade position. The preferred embodiment of the invention, when connected to a utility grid, is designed to generate 40 kilowatts of power when exposed to a 20 mile per hour wind. The control system for the windmill includes electrical blade actuators that modulate the blades of the rotating structure. Blade modulation controls the blade angle of attack, which in turn controls the RPM of the rotor. In the preferred embodiment, the microprocessor controller provides the operation logic and control functions. A wind speed sensor provides inputs to start or stop the windmill, and a wind direction sensor is used to keep the blade flip region at 90 and 270/sup 0/ to the wind. The control system is designed to maintain constant rotor RPM when wind speed is between 10 and 40 miles per hour.

  20. Vertical distribution of structural components in corn stover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Jane M. F.; Karlen, Douglas L.; Gresham, Garold L.; Cantrell, Keri B.; Archer, David W.; Wienhold, Brian J.; Varvel, Gary E.; Laird, David A.; Baker, John; Ochsner, Tyson E.; Novak, Jeff M.; Halvorson, Ardell D.; Arriaga, Francisco; Lightle, David T.; Hoover, Amber; Emerson, Rachel; Barbour, Nancy W.

    2014-11-17

    In the United States, corn (Zea mays L.) stover has been targeted for second generation fuel production and other bio-products. Our objective was to characterize sugar and structural composition as a function of vertical distribution of corn stover (leaves and stalk) that was sampled at physiological maturity and about three weeks later from multiple USA locations. A small subset of samples was assessed for thermochemical composition. Concentrations of lignin, glucan, and xylan were about 10% greater at grain harvest than at physiological maturity, but harvestable biomass was about 25% less due to stalk breakage. Gross heating density above the ear averaged 16.3 ± 0.40 MJ kg?¹, but with an alkalinity measure of 0.83 g MJ?¹, slagging is likely to occur during gasification. Assuming a stover harvest height of 10 cm, the estimated ethanol yield would be >2500 L ha?¹, but it would be only 1000 L ha?¹ if stover harvest was restricted to the material from above the primary ear. Vertical composition of corn stover is relatively uniform; thus, decision on cutting height may be driven by agronomic, economic and environmental considerations.

  1. Vertical distribution of structural components in corn stover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jane M. F. Johnson; Douglas L. Karlen; Garold L. Gresham; Keri B. Cantrell; David W. Archer; Brian J. Wienhold; Gary E. Varvel; David A. Laird; John Baker; Tyson E. Ochsner; Jeff M. Novak; Ardell D. Halvorson; Francisco Arriaga; David T. Lightle; Amber Hoover; Rachel Emerson; Nancy W. Barbour

    2014-11-01

    In the United States, corn (Zea mays L.) stover has been targeted for second generation fuel production and other bio-products. Our objective was to characterize sugar and structural composition as a function of vertical distribution of corn stover (leaves and stalk) that was sampled at physiological maturity and about three weeks later from multiple USA locations. A small subset of samples was assessed for thermochemical composition. Concentrations of lignin, glucan, and xylan were about 10% greater at grain harvest than at physiological maturity, but harvestable biomass was about 25% less due to stalk breakage. Gross heating density above the ear averaged 16.3 ± 0.40 MJ kg?¹, but with an alkalinity measure of 0.83 g MJ?¹, slagging is likely to occur during gasification. Assuming a stover harvest height of 10 cm, the estimated ethanol yield would be >2500 L ha?¹, but it would be only 1000 L ha?¹ if stover harvest was restricted to the material from above the primary ear. Vertical composition of corn stover is relatively uniform; thus, decision on cutting height may be driven by agronomic, economic and environmental considerations.

  2. Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofiber Based Biosensor Platform for Glucose Sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mamun, Khandaker Abdullah Al; Tulip, Fahmida S; Macarthur, Kimberly C; McFarlane, Nicole M; Islam, Syed K

    2014-01-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) have recently become an important tool for biosensor design. Carbon nanofibers (CNF) have excellent conductive and structural properties with many irregularities and defect sites in addition to exposed carboxyl groups throughout their surfaces. These properties allow a better immobilization matrix compared to carbon nanotubes and offer better resolution when compared with the FET-based biosensors. VACNFs can be deterministically grown on silicon substrates allowing optimization of the structures for various biosensor applications. Two VACNF electrode architectures have been employed in this study and a comparison of their performances has been made in terms of sensitivity, sensing limitations, dynamic range, and response time. The usage of VACNF platform as a glucose sensor has been verified in this study by selecting an optimum architecture based on the VACNF forest density. Read More: http://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/10.1142/S0129156414500062

  3. Semicoke production and quality at Chinese vertical SJ furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V.M. Strakhov; I.V. Surovtseva; A.V. D'yachenko; V.M. Men'shenin [Kuznetsk Center, Eastern Coal-Chemistry Institute (Russian Federation)

    2007-05-15

    In Russia there has been little interest on the thermal processing of non-sintering coal. However it may be used to obtain many special types of coke and semicoke that are necessary for processes other than blast furnace smelting and employing small metallurgical coke fractions that do not meet the relevant quality requirements. China has recently made great progress in developing the thermal processing of coal (mainly energy coal) to obtain a highly effective product, semicoke, primarily used in metallurgy and adsorption process. The article considers the operation of a Chinese semicoking plant equipped with vertical SJ furnaces. The plant is in the Shenmu district of Shanxi province (Inner Mongolia). The enterprise includes two furnaces of total output of about 100,000 t/yr of semicoke.

  4. Suppression of vertical instability in elongated current-carrying plasmas by applying stellarator rotational transform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ArchMiller, M. C.; Cianciosa, M. R.; Ennis, D. A.; Hanson, J. D.; Hartwell, G. J.; Hebert, J. D.; Herfindal, J. L.; Knowlton, S. F.; Ma, X.; Maurer, D. A.; Pandya, M. D.; Traverso, P. [Physics Department, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    The passive stability of vertically elongated current-carrying toroidal plasmas has been investigated in the Compact Toroidal Hybrid, a stellarator/tokamak hybrid device. In this experiment, the fractional transform f, defined as the ratio of the imposed external rotational transform from stellarator coils to the total rotational transform, was varied from 0.04 to 0.50, and the elongation ? was varied from 1.4 to 2.2. Plasmas that were vertically unstable were evidenced by motion of the plasma in the vertical direction. Vertical drifts are measured with a set of poloidal field pickup coils. A three chord horizontally viewing interferometer and a soft X-ray diode array confirmed the drifts. Plasmas with low fractional transform and high elongation are the most susceptible to vertical instability, consistent with analytic predictions that the vertical mode in elongated plasmas can be stabilized by the poloidal field of a relatively weak stellarator equilibrium.

  5. Integration of photoactive and electroactive components with vertical cavity surface emitting lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bryan, R.P.; Esherick, P.; Jewell, J.L.; Lear, K.L.; Olbright, G.R.

    1997-04-29

    A monolithically integrated optoelectronic device is provided which integrates a vertical cavity surface emitting laser and either a photosensitive or an electrosensitive device either as input or output to the vertical cavity surface emitting laser either in parallel or series connection. Both vertical and side-by-side arrangements are disclosed, and optical and electronic feedback means are provided. Arrays of these devices can be configured to enable optical computing and neural network applications. 9 figs.

  6. Vertical Integration in Gasoline Supply: An Empirical Test of Raising Rivals' Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, Richard; Hastings, Justine

    2001-01-01

    Vertical Integration in Gasoline Supply: An Empirical Testoligopoly, market power, gasoline Abstract: This paperand distribution of gasoline and the wholesale price of

  7. Vertical Integration in Gasoline Supply: An Empirical Test of Raising Rivals' Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, Richard; Hastings, Justine

    2001-01-01

    Vertical Integration in Gasoline Supply: An Empirical Testfor the reÞning and distribution of gasoline and the whole-sale price of unbranded gasoline sold to independent

  8. Development of bottom-emitting 1300 nm vertical-cavity surface...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    1300 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers. No abstract prepared. Authors: Fish, M. A. 1 ; Serkland, Darwin Keith ; Guilfoyle, Peter S. 1 ; Stone, Richard V. 1 ;...

  9. Sandia Energy - Sandia and Partners Complete Phase I of a Vertical...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Partners Complete Phase I of a Vertical-Axis Deep-Water Offshore Turbine Study Home Renewable Energy Energy News Wind Energy News & Events Computational Modeling & Simulation...

  10. Effectiveness of vertical moisture barriers in highway pavements on expansive soils 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jayatilaka, Ranasinghege

    1993-01-01

    barriers will have little effect. Sites in wet and semi-arid climates, with medium cracked clay soils show the greatest benefit from using vertical moisture barriers....

  11. The impact of vertical shear on the sensitivity of tropical cyclogenes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The impact of vertical shear on the sensitivity of tropical cyclogenesis to environmental rotation and thermodynamic state: TROPICAL CYCLOGENESIS AND SHEAR Citation Details...

  12. Visible light emitting vertical cavity surface emitting lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bryan, R.P.; Olbright, G.R.; Lott, J.A.; Schneider, R.P. Jr.

    1995-06-27

    A vertical cavity surface emitting laser that emits visible radiation is built upon a substrate, then having mirrors, the first mirror on top of the substrate; both sets of mirrors being a distributed Bragg reflector of either dielectrics or other materials which affect the resistivity or of semiconductors, such that the structure within the mirror comprises a plurality of sets, each having a thickness of {lambda}/2n where n is the index of refraction of each of the sets; each of the mirrors adjacent to spacers which are on either side of an optically active bulk or quantum well layer; and the spacers and the optically active layer are from one of the following material systems: In{sub z}(Al{sub y}Ga{sub 1{minus}y}){sub 1{minus}z}P, InAlGaAs, AlGaAs, InGaAs, or AlGaP/GaP, wherein the optically active region having a length equal to m {lambda}/2n{sub eff} where m is an integer and n{sub eff} is the effective index of refraction of the laser cavity, and the spacer layer and one of the mirrors being transmissive to radiation having a wavelength of {lambda}/n, typically within the green to red portion of the visible spectrum. 10 figs.

  13. Rivulet Flow In Vertical Parallel-Wall Channel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. M. McEligot; G. E. Mc Creery; P. Meakin

    2006-04-01

    In comparison with studies of rivulet flow over external surfaces, rivulet flow confined by two surfaces has received almost no attention. Fully-developed rivulet flow in vertical parallel-wall channels was characterized, both experimentally and analytically for flows intermediate between a lower flow limit of drop flow and an upper limit where the rivulets meander. Although this regime is the most simple rivulet flow regime, it does not appear to have been previously investigated in detail. Experiments were performed that measured rivulet widths for aperture spacing ranging from 0.152 mm to 0.914 mm. The results were compared with a simple steadystate analytical model for laminar flow. The model divides the rivulet cross-section into an inner region, which is dominated by viscous and gravitational forces and where essentially all flow is assumed to occur, and an outer region, dominated by capillary forces, where the geometry is determined by the contact angle between the fluid and the wall. Calculations using the model provided excellent agreement with data for inner rivulet widths and good agreement with measurements of outer rivulet widths.

  14. Atomic clocks as a tool to monitor vertical surface motion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bondarescu, Ruxandra; Lundgren, Andrew; Hetényi, György; Houlié, Nicolas; Jetzer, Philippe; Bondarescu, Mihai

    2015-01-01

    Atomic clock technology is advancing rapidly, now reaching stabilities of $\\Delta f/f \\sim 10^{-18}$, which corresponds to resolving $1$ cm in equivalent geoid height over an integration timescale of about 7 hours. At this level of performance, ground-based atomic clock networks emerge as a tool for monitoring a variety of geophysical processes by directly measuring changes in the gravitational potential. Vertical changes of the clock's position due to magmatic, volcanic, post-seismic or tidal deformations can result in measurable variations in the clock tick rate. As an example, we discuss the geopotential change arising due to an inflating point source (Mogi model), and apply it to the Etna volcano. Its effect on an observer on the Earth's surface can be divided into two different terms: one purely due to uplift and one due to the redistribution of matter. Thus, with the centimetre-level precision of current clocks it is already possible to monitor volcanoes. The matter redistribution term is estimated to b...

  15. Prefabricated vertical drains flow resistance under vacuum conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quaranta, J.D.; Gabr, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    The results of experimental research are presented and discussed with focus on the internal well resistance of prefabricated vertical drains (PVD) under vacuum-induced water flow. Measured results included fluid flow rates for two different cross-sectional hydraulic profiles (Types 1 and 2 PVDs). Experimental results indicated linear relationship, independent of the PVD widths, between extracted fluid velocity and the applied hydraulic gradient. Data showed a laminar flow regime to predominate for test velocities corresponding to hydraulic gradients {lt}0.5. The larger nominal hydraulic radius of the Type 2 PVD is credited with providing a flow rate equal to approximately 3.2 times that of the Type 1 PVD at approximately the same operating total head. There was no apparent dependency of the transmissivity {theta} on the width or lengths (3, 4, and 5 m) of the PVDs tested. In the case of the 100-mm-wide Type 1 PVD, {theta} = 618 mm{sup 2}/s was estimated from the measured data versus {theta} = 1,996 mm{sup 2}/s for Type 2 PVD with the same dimensions.

  16. 24-CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erik C. Westman

    2003-10-24

    Improved ground-imaging capabilities have enormous potential to increase energy, environmental, and economic benefits by improving exploration accuracy and reducing energy consumption during the mining cycle. Seismic tomography has been used successfully to monitor and evaluate geologic conditions ahead of a mining face. A primary limitation to existing seismic tomography, however, is the placement of sensors. The goal of this project is to develop an array of 24 seismic sensors capable of being mounted in either a vertical or horizontal borehole. Development of this technology reduces energy usage in excavation, transportation, ventilation, and processing phases of the mining operation because less waste is mined and the mining cycle suffers fewer interruptions. This new technology benefits all types of mines, including metal/nonmetal, coal, and quarrying. The primary research tasks focused on sensor placement method, sensor housing and clamping design, and cabling and connector selection. An initial design is described in the report. Following assembly, a prototype was tested in the laboratory as well as at a surface stone quarry. Data analysis and tool performance were used for subsequent design modifications. A final design is described, of which several components are available for patent application. Industry partners have shown clear support for this research and demonstrated an interest in commercialization following project completion.

  17. Studies of vertical annular gas-liquid flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zabaras, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    Three types of vertical flowing films were studied. These are the free falling film, the falling film in the presence of countercurrent gas flow, and the upward moving film due to concurrent flow of gas. An experimental program was performed based on a new electrochemical method for the dynamic measurement of the magnitude and the direction of the wall shear stress, and on a conductance wire probe for the simultaneous measurement of the film thickness. Pressure drop was measured over a short distance with a differential pressure transducer. The data obtained for the free falling film reveal a strong length effect on the wavy-film structure. The measured variation of the wall shear stress along a wave suggests that a mixing vortex exists in the wave front followed by the development of a hydrodynamic boundary layer in the wave back. Analysis of the data taken with counter current flow of gas shows that even at the flooding condition, the film flow is controlled by downward wave motion. Measured wall shear stress was found to be upward directed and decreasing in magnitude with increasing gas rate. Analyses of the upward film flow data in a variety of ways suggest that, at low gas rates, the motion of the interface is controlled by a process of switching between possible steady states of the system. This condition is usually designated as churn flow but bridging of the liquid across the pipe as associated with churning does not occur.

  18. DIEL MOVEMENT AND VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF JUVENILE ANADROMOUS FISH IN TURBINE INTAKES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DIEL MOVEMENT AND VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF JUVENILE ANADROMOUS FISH IN TURBINE INTAKES BY CLIFFORD, WASH. 98102 ABSTRACT The behavior of fingerling salmonids was measured in turbine intakes of The Dalles in Kaplan turbines. At The Dalles Dam, diel movement and vertical distribution were sampled at both ends

  19. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, 2008 (to appear). 1 Vertical Handoff Decision Algorithms for Providing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    future, vehicular and other mobile applications will expect seamless vertical handoff between (APs)) but also to maximize the collective battery lifetime of Mobile Nodes (MNs). In addition, when adIEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, 2008 (to appear). 1 Vertical Handoff Decision Algorithms

  20. Proton implanted singlemode holey vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choquette, Kent

    Proton implanted singlemode holey vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers P.O. Leisher, A.J. Danner of proton implant confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers. The index confinement and selective loss (both fundamental and non-fundamental) operation [9]. Although proton implantation for current

  1. EXTREME WAVE RUNUP ON A VERTICAL CLIFF FRANCESCO CARBONE, DENYS DUTYKH # , JOHN M. DUDLEY, AND FR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EXTREME WAVE RUN­UP ON A VERTICAL CLIFF FRANCESCO CARBONE, DENYS DUTYKH # , JOHN M. DUDLEY, AND FR â?? ED â?? ERIC DIAS Abstract. Wave impact and run­up onto vertical obstacles are among the most impor­ tant phenomena which must be taken into account in the design of coastal structures. From linear wave

  2. EXTREME WAVE RUN-UP ON A VERTICAL CLIFF FRANCESCO CARBONE, DENYS DUTYKH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    EXTREME WAVE RUN-UP ON A VERTICAL CLIFF FRANCESCO CARBONE, DENYS DUTYKH , JOHN M. DUDLEY, AND FR´ED´ERIC DIAS Abstract. Wave impact and run-up onto vertical obstacles are among the most impor- tant phenomena which must be taken into account in the design of coastal structures. From linear wave theory, we know

  3. EXTREME WAVE RUN-UP ON A VERTICAL CLIFF FRANCESCO CARBONE, DENYS DUTYKH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    EXTREME WAVE RUN-UP ON A VERTICAL CLIFF FRANCESCO CARBONE, DENYS DUTYKH , JOHN M. DUDLEY, AND FR´ED´ERIC DIAS Abstract. Wave impact and run-up onto vertical obstacles constitutes one of the main phenomena which have to be taken into account in the design of coastal structures. From the linear wave theory we

  4. EXTREME WAVE RUN-UP ON A VERTICAL CLIFF FRANCESCO CARBONE, DENYS DUTYKH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EXTREME WAVE RUN-UP ON A VERTICAL CLIFF FRANCESCO CARBONE, DENYS DUTYKH , JOHN M. DUDLEY, AND FR´ED´ERIC DIAS Abstract. Wave impact and run-up onto vertical obstacles are among the most impor- tant phenomena which must be taken into account in the design of coastal structures. From linear wave theory, we know

  5. Internal wave excitation by a vertically oscillating elliptical cylinder B. R. Sutherland a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sutherland, Bruce

    Internal wave excitation by a vertically oscillating elliptical cylinder B. R. Sutherland a the amplitude of internal waves generated by an elliptical cylinder oscillating vertically with different, the theory underestimates the amplitude of low­frequency waves and overestimates the amplitude of high

  6. Integration of a waveguide self-electrooptic effect device and a vertically coupled interconnect waveguide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vawter, G. Allen (Corrales, NM)

    2008-02-26

    A self-electrooptic effect device ("SEED") is integrated with waveguide interconnects through the use of vertical directional couplers. Light initially propagating in the interconnect waveguide is vertically coupled to the active waveguide layer of the SEED and, if the SEED is in the transparent state, the light is coupled back to the interconnect waveguide.

  7. Characterizing hydraulic properties of filter material of a Vertical Flow1 Constructed Wetland2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Characterizing hydraulic properties of filter material of a Vertical Flow1 Constructed Wetland2 A Characterizing the hydraulic properties of filter material used in a vertical flow11 constructed wetland (VFCW of porous mineral material and13 organic matter that makes hydraulic characterization a difficult task. Here

  8. Evidence of Diel Vertical Migration in Mnemiopsis leidyi Matilda Haraldsson1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aksnes, Dag L.

    on average in the same depth interval at all times. Biophysical data suggest that migrating individualsEvidence of Diel Vertical Migration in Mnemiopsis leidyi Matilda Haraldsson1 *, Ulf Ba°mstedt2 Department of Biology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway Abstract The vertical distribution and migration

  9. Vertical deformation monitoring at Axial Seamount since its 1998 eruption using deep-sea pressure sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chadwick, Bill

    Vertical deformation monitoring at Axial Seamount since its 1998 eruption using deep-sea pressure geodesy; bottom pressure recorder 1. Introduction The purpose of vertical deformation monitoring at active.W. Chadwick). Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 150 (2006) 313­327 www

  10. Vertical circulation and thermospheric composition: a modelling study H. Rishbeth1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mueller-Wodarg, Ingo

    -layer. At equinox, the vertical air motion is basically up by day, down by night, and the atomic oxygen is greater in winter than in summer, the semiannual anomaly exists if NmF2 is greater at equinox than by global-scale vertical and horizontal winds associated with a worldwide thermospheric circulation

  11. Vertical movements of bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) associated with islands, buoys, and seamounts near the main

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

    Vertical movements of bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) associated with islands, buoys, and seamounts recaptured near the offshore weather buoy where they were tagged. Based on vertical movement patterns, it appeared that all stayed immediately asso- ciated with the buoy for up to 34 days. During this time

  12. MODELING OF THE FREEZING PROCESS FOR FISH IN VERTICAL PLATE FREEZERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gravdahl, Jan Tommy

    MODELING OF THE FREEZING PROCESS FOR FISH IN VERTICAL PLATE FREEZERS Christoph Backi, Jan Tommy at the freezing system on board. Aims of this study: Find a model to estimate the temperature distribution in a fish block during freezing in vertical platefreezers. For a known temperature distribution the energy

  13. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Aeroelastic Modeling of Large Offshore Vertical-axis Wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vertical-axis Wind Turbines: Development of the Offshore Wind Energy Simulation Toolkit Brian C. Owens will argue, the vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT)2 has the potential to alleviate many challenges encountered advantages over the horizontal-axis wind turbine configuration in the offshore arena. VAWTs, however

  14. Evaluation of a Pump and Reeled Hose System for Studying the Vertical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    545 Evaluation of a Pump and Reeled Hose System for Studying the Vertical Distribution of Small Evaluation of a Pump and Reeled Hose System for Studying the Vertical Distribution of Small Plankton Advantages and limitations of a pump and reeled hose system 8 Literature cited 9 #12;#12;Evaluation of a Pump

  15. Performance Testing of a Small Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine , S. Tullis2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullis, Stephen

    Performance Testing of a Small Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine R. Bravo1 , S. Tullis2 , S. Ziada3 of electric production [1]. Although most performance testing for small-scale wind turbines is conducted vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWT) in urban settings, full-scale wind tunnel testing of a prototype 3.5 k

  16. Blade Offset and Pitch Effects on a High Solidity Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullis, Stephen

    Blade Offset and Pitch Effects on a High Solidity Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Andrzej J. Fiedler ABSTRACT A high solidity, small scale, 2.5m diameter by 3m high Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT in an open-air wind tunnel facility to investigate the effects of preset toe-in and toe-out turbine blade

  17. Response of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine to Time Varying Wind Conditions found within the Urban

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullis, Stephen

    Response of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine to Time Varying Wind Conditions found within the Urban, 2010 PP 389­401 389 ABSTRACT Experimental testing of a vertical axis wind turbine within the urban of the turbine. Temporal variation of the wind with respect to the direction and velocity fluctuations

  18. CFD Simulation of Dynamic Thrust and Radial Forces on a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Blade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullis, Stephen

    CFD Simulation of Dynamic Thrust and Radial Forces on a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Blade K. Mc vibration source of a small scale vertical axis wind turbine. The dynamic loading on the blades of the turbine, as they rotate about the central shaft and travel through a range of relative angles of attack

  19. Growth of vertically aligned ZnO nanowalls for inverted polymer solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    vertically aligned 1D metal oxide could improve the performance of the inverted polymer solar cellsGrowth of vertically aligned ZnO nanowalls for inverted polymer solar cells Zhiqiang Liang a May 2013 Keywords: Inverted polymer solar cells Zinc oxide Nanowalls Aqueous solution growth a b s t r

  20. van der Waals Epitaxy of InAs Nanowires Vertically Aligned on Single-Layer Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ABSTRACT: Semiconductor nanowire arrays integrated vertically on graphene films offer significant-organic vapor-phase epitaxy Hybrid junctions composed of semiconductor nanostruc- tures and graphene havevan der Waals Epitaxy of InAs Nanowires Vertically Aligned on Single-Layer Graphene Young Joon Hong

  1. Omega Equation The calculation of vertical motion in the atmosphere is one of the most challenging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hennon, Christopher C.

    ATMS 310 Omega Equation The calculation of vertical motion in the atmosphere is one of the most that the kinematic method involved integrating the continuity equation in the vertical, yielding (in isobaric method based on the thermodynamic equation: + + = - y T v x T u t T Sp 1 (2

  2. Buoyant mixing of miscible fluids of varying viscosities in vertical tubes M. Debacq,a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hinch, John

    engineering,10 fire propagation in vertical shafts,11 drilling and completion fluids in petroleum engiBuoyant mixing of miscible fluids of varying viscosities in vertical tubes M. Debacq,a) J-P. Hulin,b) and D. Salin Laboratoire Fluides Automatique et Syste`mes Thermiques, UMR 7608, CNRS, Universite´s P. et

  3. High surface area diamond-like carbon electrodes grown on vertically aligned carbon nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bristol, University of

    High surface area diamond-like carbon electrodes grown on vertically aligned carbon nanotubes H packed forests of vertically aligned multiwall carbon nanotubes (VACNTs). The DLC:VACNT composite film and high corrosion resistance [13,14]. Other type of dopants, including nickel and boron, also result

  4. Wavelength selection in MEMS tunable vertical-cavity SOAs Garrett Cole1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacDonald, Noel C.

    Wavelength selection in MEMS tunable vertical-cavity SOAs Garrett Cole1 , Qi Chen2 , Staffan: gcole@engineering.ucsb.edu Abstract: We analyze the tuning characteristics of MEMS tunable vertical promising method is microelectromechanical (MEMS) tuning. In this case mechanical alteration of the resonant

  5. Internal wave excitation by a vertically oscillating elliptical cylinder B. R. Sutherland a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sutherland, Bruce

    Internal wave excitation by a vertically oscillating elliptical cylinder B. R. Sutherland a the amplitude of internal waves generated by an elliptical cylinder oscillating vertically with different, the theory underestimates the amplitude of low­frequency waves and overestimates the amplitude of high

  6. Internal wave excitation by a vertically oscillating elliptical cylinder B. R. Sutherlanda)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sutherland, Bruce

    Internal wave excitation by a vertically oscillating elliptical cylinder B. R. Sutherlanda the amplitude of internal waves generated by an elliptical cylinder oscillating vertically with different, the theory underestimates the amplitude of low-frequency waves and overestimates the amplitude of high

  7. 1471OCTOBER 2005AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY | T WORKSHOP ON VERTICAL PROFILES OF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of changes in the energy of the system. This requires a holistic VERTICAL PROFILES OF TEMPERATURE TRENDS Kingdom; KARL--National Climatic Data Center, Asheville, North Carolina; MURRAY--NOAA Office for Global1471OCTOBER 2005AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY | T WORKSHOP ON VERTICAL PROFILES OF TEMPERATURE

  8. Observational Estimates of Entrainment and Vertical Salt Flux in the Interior of a Spreading River Plume

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacCready, Parker

    Observational Estimates of Entrainment and Vertical Salt Flux in the Interior of a Spreading River@ocean.washington.edu #12;Abstract: Observational estimates of entrainment and vertical salt flux into the tidally- pulsed are used to determine the plume depth and entrainment velocity throughout the experiment. This approach

  9. Spatial Search by Continuous-Time Quantum Walk with Multiple Marked Vertices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas G. Wong

    2015-09-24

    In the typical spatial search problems solved by continuous-time quantum walk, changing the location of the marked vertices does not alter the search problem. In this paper, we consider search when this is no longer true. In particular, we analytically solve search on the "simplex of $K_M$ complete graphs" with all configurations of two marked vertices, two configurations of $M+1$ marked vertices, and two configurations of $2(M+1)$ marked vertices, showing that the location of the marked vertices can dramatically influence the required jumping rate of the quantum walk, such that using the wrong configuration's value can cause the search to fail. This sensitivity to the jumping rate is an issue unique to continuous-time quantum walks that does not affect discrete-time ones.

  10. Probing Baryogenesis with Displaced Vertices at the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yanou Cui; Brian Shuve

    2015-07-08

    The generation of the asymmetric cosmic baryon abundance requires a departure from thermal equilibrium in the early universe. In a large class of baryogenesis models, the baryon asymmetry results from the out-of-equilibrium decay of a new, massive particle. We highlight that in the interesting scenario where this particle has a weak scale mass, this out-of-equilibrium condition requires a proper decay length larger than O(1) mm. Such new fields are within reach of the LHC, at which they can be pair produced leaving a distinctive, displaced-vertex signature. This scenario is realized in the recently proposed mechanism of baryogenesis where the baryon asymmetry is produced through the freeze-out and subsequent decay of a meta-stable weakly interacting massive particle ("WIMP baryogenesis"). In analogy to missing energy searches for WIMP dark matter, the LHC is an excellent probe of these new long-lived particles responsible for baryogenesis via the low-background displaced vertex channel. In our paper, we estimate the limits on simplified models inspired by WIMP baryogenesis from two of the most sensitive collider searches by CMS and ATLAS with 8 TeV LHC data. We also estimate the LHC reach at 13 TeV using current strategies, and demonstrate that O(10) improvements in cross-section limits can be achieved by requiring two displaced vertices while lowering kinematic thresholds. For meta-stable WIMPs produced through electroweak interactions, the high luminosity LHC is sensitive to masses up to 2.5 TeV for lifetimes around 1 cm, while for singlets pair-produced through the off-shell-Higgs portal, the LHC is sensitive to production cross sections of O(50) ab for benchmark masses around 150 GeV. Our analysis and proposals also generally apply to displaced vertex signatures from other new physics such as hidden valley models, twin Higgs models and displaced supersymmetry.

  11. Application of the Gebhart-Block Model for Predicting Vertical Temperature Distribution in a Large Space Building with Natural Ventilation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, C.; Song, Y.; Luo, X.

    2006-01-01

    Based on the Block model for predicting vertical temperature distribution in a large space, this paper describes an improved Gebhart-Block model for predicting vertical temperature distribution of a large space with natural ventilation...

  12. Design and Analysis of the ITER Vertical Stability Coils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter H. Titus, et. al.

    2012-09-06

    The ITER vertical stability (VS) coils have been developed through the preliminary design phase by Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). Final design, prototyping and construction will be carried out by the Chinese Participant Team contributing lab, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ASIPP). The VS coils are a part of the in-vessel coil systems which include edge localized mode (ELM) coils as well as the VS coils. An overview of the ELM coils is provided in another paper at this conference. 15 The VS design employs four turns of stainless steel jacketed mineral insulated copper (SSMIC) conductors The mineral insulation is Magnesium Oxide (MgO). Joule and nuclear heat is removed by water flowing at 3 m/s through the hollow copper conductor. A key element in the design is that slightly elevated temperatures in the conductor and its support spine during operation impose compressive stresses that mitigate fatigue damage. Away from joints, and break-outs, conductor thermal stresses are low because of the axisymmetry of the winding (there are no corner bends as in the ELM coils).The 120 degree segment joint, and break-out or terminal regions are designed with similar but imperfect constraint compared with the ring coil portion of the VS. The support for the break-out region is made from a high strength copper alloy, CuCrZr. This is needed to conduct nuclear heat to the actively cooled conductor and to the vessel wall. The support "spine" for the ring coil portion of the VS is 316 stainless steel, held to the vessel with preloaded 718 bolts. Lorentz loads resulting from normal operating loads, disruption loads and loads from disruption currents in the support spine shared with vessel, are applied to the VS coil. The transmission of the Lorentz and thermal expansion loads from the "spine" to the vessel rails is via friction augmented with a restraining "lip" to ensure the coil frictional slip is minimal and acceptable. Stresses in the coil, joints, and break-outs are presented. These are compared with static and fatigue allowables. Design for fatigue is much less demanding than for the ELM coils. A total of 30,000 cycles is required for VS design. Loads on the vessel due to the thermal expansion of the coil and spine are significant. Efforts to reduce these by reducing the cross section of the spine have been made but the vessel still must support loads resulting from restraint of thermal expansion.

  13. Vertical sheaves and Fourier-Mukai transform on elliptic Calabi-Yau threefolds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diaconescu, Duiliu-Emanuel

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the action of the Fourier-Mukai transform on moduli spaces of vertical torsion sheaves on elliptic Calabi-Yau threefolds in Weierstrass form. Moduli stacks of semistable one dimensional sheaves on such threefolds are identified with open and closed substacksof moduli stacks of vertical semistable two dimensional sheaves on their Fourier-Mukai duals. In particular, this yields explicit conjectural results for Donaldson-Thomas invariants of vertical two dimensional sheaves on K3-fibered elliptic Calabi-Yau threefolds.

  14. FSI Modeling of Vertical-Axis Wind Turbines Y. Bazilevs, A. Korobenko, X. Deng, and J. Yan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dabiri, John O.

    FSI Modeling of Vertical-Axis Wind Turbines Y. Bazilevs, A. Korobenko, X. Deng, and J. Yan-dependent aerodynamics and fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simula- tions of a Darrieus-type vertical-axis wind turbine compared to the vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT) designs. However, smaller-size VAWTs are more suitable

  15. Design and Test of a Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine with Pitch Control J. J. Miau1,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leu, Tzong-Shyng "Jeremy"

    Design and Test of a Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine with Pitch Control J. J. Miau1,a , S. Y. Liang2 , R, USA a jjmiau@mail.ncku.edu.tw Keywords: vertical-axis wind turbine, pitch control, wind of a small vertical-axis wind turbine. Benefits gained can be shown by the experimental and numerical results

  16. Vertically-tapered optical waveguide and optical spot transformer formed therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bakke, Thor; Sullivan, Charles T.

    2004-07-27

    An optical waveguide is disclosed in which a section of the waveguide core is vertically tapered during formation by spin coating by controlling the width of an underlying mesa structure. The optical waveguide can be formed from spin-coatable materials such as polymers, sol-gels and spin-on glasses. The vertically-tapered waveguide section can be used to provide a vertical expansion of an optical mode of light within the optical waveguide. A laterally-tapered section can be added adjacent to the vertically-tapered section to provide for a lateral expansion of the optical mode, thereby forming an optical spot-size transformer for efficient coupling of light between the optical waveguide and a single-mode optical fiber. Such a spot-size transformer can also be added to a III-V semiconductor device by post processing.

  17. Author's personal copy Thorium-234 as a tracer of spatial, temporal and vertical variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buesseler, Ken

    Author's personal copy Thorium-234 as a tracer of spatial, temporal and vertical variability 2009 Accepted 6 April 2009 Available online 16 April 2009 Keywords: Thorium-234 Particle flux Sediment

  18. The Effects of Irradiance in Determining the Vertical Distribution of Elk Kelp Pelagophycus porra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fejtek, Stacie Michelle

    2008-01-01

    microscopic stages to higher irradiances appears to be theH. (1996). “Effect of high irradiance on recruitment of theTHESIS The Effects of Irradiance in Determining the Vertical

  19. Empirical vertical structure of density anomaly in the Gulf of Mexico 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Current, Carole Louise

    1993-01-01

    Climatological vertical structure of density anomaly in the Gulf of Mexico is realistically characterized in a form useful for calibration and/or verification of numerical circulation models, employing a new method that ...

  20. Vertical Phasing as a Corporate Real Estate Strategy and Development Option

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guma, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the potential value of significant vertical phasing – that is, the addition of five or more stories to an existing building – as a valuable real option in real estate ...

  1. Flooding Experiments with Steam and Water in a Large Diameter Vertical Tube 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Susan Nicole

    2010-10-12

    An experimental study on flooding with steam and water in a large diameter vertical tube was conducted. This research has been performed to provide a better prediction of flooding in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) ...

  2. Effect of Backfill on the Performance of a Vertical U-Tube Ground Coupled Heat Pump 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gu, Yian

    1995-01-01

    The present work is concerned with developing a discretized analytical model to investigate the effect of a backfill on the performance of a vertical U-tube ground-coupled heat pump. This work involves the development ...

  3. Fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer (FFPI) sensor using vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Kyung-Woo

    2006-10-30

    This research represents the first effort to apply vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) to the monitoring of interferometric fiber optic sensors. Modulation of the drive current causes thermal tuning of the laser light frequency...

  4. Development of a Digital Controller for a Vertical Wind Tunnel (VWT) Prototype to Mitigate Ball Fluctuations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silva, Ramon A.

    2011-08-08

    The objective of this research was to mitigate fluctuations of a levitated ping pong ball within a vertical wind tunnel (VWT) prototype. This was made possible by remodeling the VWT system with its inherent nonlinear characteristics instead...

  5. Transition from film boiling to nucleate boiling in forced convection vertical flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iloeje, Onwuamaeze C.

    1972-01-01

    The mechanism of collapse of forced cnnvection annular vertical flow film boiling, with liquid core, is investigated using liquid nitrogen at low pressures. The report includes the effect of heat flux from the buss bar. ...

  6. Past changes in the vertical distribution of ozone – Part 3: Analysis and interpretation of trends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, N. R. P.; Hassler, B.; Tummon, F.; Bodeker, G. E.; Hubert, D.; Petropavlovskikh, I.; Steinbrecht, W.; Anderson, J.; Bhartia, P. K.; Boone, C. D.; Bourassa, A.; Davis, S. M.; Degenstein, D.; Delcloo, A.; Frith, S. M.; Froidevaux, L.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Jones, N.; Kurylo, M. J.; Kyrölä, E.; Laine, M.; Leblanc, S. T.; Lambert, J.-C.; Liley, B.; Mahieu, E.; Maycock, A.; de Mazière, M.; Parrish, A.; Querel, R.; Rosenlof, K. H.; Roth, C.; Sioris, C.; Staehelin, J.; Stolarski, R. S.; Stübi, R.; Tamminen, J.; Vigouroux, C.; Walker, K.; Wang, H. J.; Wild, J.; Zawodny, J. M.

    2015-03-23

    Trends in the vertical distribution of ozone are reported and compared for a number of new and recently revised datasets. The amount of ozone-depleting compounds in the stratosphere (as measured by Equivalent Effective Stratospheric Chlorine – EESC...

  7. Fracture studies from amplitude versus offset and azimuth and vertical seismic profile data 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varela Gutierrez, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis I address the problem of determining fracture properties of subsurface rocks from geophysical surface seismic and vertical seismic profile (VSP) data. In the first part of this thesis I perform multi-attribute ...

  8. Analytical Modeling of Wood Frame Shear Walls Subjected to Vertical Load 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyendinh, Hai

    2011-08-08

    A nonlinear automated parameter fitted analytical model that numerically predicts the load-displacement response of wood frame shear walls subjected to static monotonic loading with and without vertical load is presented. This analytical model...

  9. Effect of Ionic Stabilization on Vertical Movement in Expansive Subgrade Soils in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hariharan, Narain

    2013-07-31

    An important consideration for the successful design of flexible pavement systems in Texas is the prediction and control of the vertical change in height of the subgrade soils due to swelling upon wetting and shrinkage upon drying. The purpose...

  10. A Summary of Convective-Core Vertical Velocity Properties Using ARM UHF Wind Profilers in Oklahoma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohta, Shigemi

    A Summary of Convective-Core Vertical Velocity Properties Using ARM UHF Wind Profilers in Oklahoma Sciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois # University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma @ Bureau of Meteorology, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia & Cooperative Institute for Research

  11. Achieving large stable vertical displacement in surface-micromachined microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deutsch, Erik R. (Erik Robertson), 1974-

    2002-01-01

    This thesis describes electrostatic actuation techniques and mechanical design features for realizing large planar analog vertical travel in an electrostatically actuated diffractive mid-infrared optical device, which is ...

  12. The relationship between vertical teaming in science and student achievement as reported in the academic excellence indicator system (AEIS) at selected public schools in Bexar County, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arteaga, Veronica Hernandez

    2008-10-10

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between vertical teaming in science and student achievement. This study compared student achievement of campuses implementing vertical teaming with schools that do not practice vertical...

  13. Surround-gated vertical nanowire quantum dots M. H. M. van Weert,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    arsenide phosphide InAsP quantum dots embedded in vertical surround-gated indium phosphide InP nanowires dots. The InAsP quantum dots, embedded in InP nanowires, are grown in the vapor-liquid-solid mode usingSurround-gated vertical nanowire quantum dots M. H. M. van Weert,1 M. den Heijer,1 M. P. van Kouwen

  14. Development and validation of a vertically two-dimensional mesoscale numerical model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walters, Michael Kent

    1985-01-01

    DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A VERTICALLY TWO-DIMENSIONAL MESOSCALE NUMERICAL MODEL A Thesis by MICHAEL KENT WALTERS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AsM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 1985 Major Subject: Meteorology DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A VERTICALLY TWO-DIMENSIONAL MESOSCALE NUMERICAL MODEL A Thesis by MICHAEL KENT WALTERS Approved as to style and content by: Dusan Djuric (Chair of Committee) WP...

  15. Electric characteristics of germanium Vertical Multijunction (VMJ) photovoltaic cells under high intensity illumination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unishkov, V.A.

    1997-03-01

    This paper presents the results of the performance evaluation of Vertical Multijunction (VMJ) germanium (Ge) photovoltaic (PV) cells. Vertical Multijunction Germanium Photovoltaic cells offer several advantages for Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) applications such as high intensity light conversion, low series resistance, more efficient coupling to lower temperature sources, high output voltage, simplified heat rejection system as well as potentially simple fabrication technology and low cost photovoltaic converter device. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. The vertical structure of ocean heat 89A64BC7DEF72B4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    freeze over [Winton, 2003]. While global ocean heat transport can be deduced from estimates of airThe vertical structure of ocean heat transport 1234567 89A64BC7DEF72B4 5567334EE72224EE1D523E1E;4#72B43%EE7D44 7D446BE27B725CE93$93BE647 #12;The vertical structure of ocean heat transport G

  17. The Vertical Force-Couple Generator Shear waves may be generated by a force or force-couple acting on a single interface, or by vertical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kristoffersen, Yngve

    The Vertical Force-Couple Generator Shear waves may be generated by a force or force-couple acting is the Love-wave generator of Stoll and Bautista (1994) using a self erecting bottom sled towed behind generator was designed and built by Y. Kristoffersen (Fig. 1). A 150 kg flywheel is mounted in a case

  18. Method and apparatus for determining vertical heat flux of geothermal field

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poppendiek, Heinz F. (LaJolla, CA)

    1982-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining vertical heat flux of a geothermal field, and mapping the entire field, is based upon an elongated heat-flux transducer (10) comprised of a length of tubing (12) of relatively low thermal conductivity with a thermopile (20) inside for measuring the thermal gradient between the ends of the transducer after it has been positioned in a borehole for a period sufficient for the tube to reach thermal equilibrium. The transducer is thermally coupled to the surrounding earth by a fluid annulus, preferably water or mud. A second transducer comprised of a length of tubing of relatively high thermal conductivity is used for a second thermal gradient measurement. The ratio of the first measurement to the second is then used to determine the earth's thermal conductivity, k.sub..infin., from a precalculated graph, and using the value of thermal conductivity thus determined, then determining the vertical earth temperature gradient, b, from predetermined steady state heat balance equations which relate the undisturbed vertical earth temperature distributions at some distance from the borehole and earth thermal conductivity to the temperature gradients in the transducers and their thermal conductivity. The product of the earth's thermal conductivity, k.sub..infin., and the earth's undisturbed vertical temperature gradient, b, then determines the earth's vertical heat flux. The process can be repeated many times for boreholes of a geothermal field to map vertical heat flux.

  19. Pore-fluid effects on seismic waves in vertically fractured earth with orthotropic symmetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berryman, J.G.

    2010-05-15

    For elastically noninteracting vertical-fracture sets at arbitrary orientation angles to each other, a detailed model is presented in which the resulting anisotropic fractured medium generally has orthorhombic symmetry overall. Some of the analysis methods and ideas of Schoenberg are emphasized, together with their connections to other similarly motivated and conceptually related methods by Sayers and Kachanov, among others. Examples show how parallel vertical-fracture sets having HTI (horizontal transversely isotropic) symmetry transform into orthotropic fractured media if some subsets of the vertical fractures are misaligned with the others, and then the fractured system can have VTI (vertical transversely isotropic) symmetry if all of the fractures are aligned randomly or half parallel and half perpendicular to a given vertical plane. An orthotropic example having vertical fractures in an otherwise VTI earth system (studied previously by Schoenberg and Helbig) is compared with the other examples treated and it is finally shown how fluids in the fractures affect the orthotropic poroelastic system response to seismic waves. The key result is that fracture-influence parameters are multiplied by a factor of (1-B), where 0 {le} B < 1 is Skempton's second coefficient for poroelastic media. Skempton's B coefficient is itself a measurable characteristic of fluid-saturated porous rocks, depending on porosity, solid moduli, and the pore-fluid bulk modulus. For heterogeneous porous media, connections between the present work and earlier related results of Brown and Korringa are also established.

  20. Geodetic Imaging of the Earthquake Cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tong, Xiaopeng

    5.3 3-dimensional earthquake cycle2 1.2 Earthquake cycle study . . . . . . . .thrust - Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake . . . 3 1.2.2 Subduction

  1. Electron-electron interaction, weak localization and spin valve effect in vertical-transport graphene devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, Mingsheng; Gong, Youpin; Wei, Xiangfei; Zhu, Chao; Xu, Jianbao; Liu, Ping; Guo, Yufen; Li, Weiwei; Liu, Liwei, E-mail: lwliu2007@sinano.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Nanodevices and Applications-CAS and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Suzhou 215123 (China); Liu, Guangtong [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-04-14

    We fabricated a vertical structure device, in which graphene is sandwiched between two asymmetric ferromagnetic electrodes. The measurements of electron and spin transport were performed across the combined channels containing the vertical and horizontal components. The presence of electron-electron interaction (EEI) was found not only at low temperatures but also at moderate temperatures up to ?120?K, and EEI dominates over weak localization (WL) with and without applying magnetic fields perpendicular to the sample plane. Moreover, spin valve effect was observed when magnetic filed is swept at the direction parallel to the sample surface. We attribute the EEI and WL surviving at a relatively high temperature to the effective suppress of phonon scattering in the vertical device structure. The findings open a way for studying quantum correlation at relatively high temperature.

  2. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. Eddy current sensing of vertical Bridgman semiconductor crystal growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    permission. Eddy current sensing of vertical Bridgman semiconductor crystal growth Dharmasena, Kumar Pradeepa

  3. Beam steering via resonance detuning in coherently coupled vertical cavity laser arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Matthew T., E-mail: matthew.johnson.9@us.af.mil; Siriani, Dominic F.; Peun Tan, Meng; Choquette, Kent D. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61820 (United States)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61820 (United States)

    2013-11-11

    Coherently coupled vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays offer unique advantages for nonmechanical beam steering applications. We have applied dynamic coupled mode theory to show that the observed temporal phase shift between vertical-cavity surface-emitting array elements is caused by the detuning of their resonant wavelengths. Hence, a complete theoretical connection between the differential current injection into array elements and the beam steering direction has been established. It is found to be a fundamentally unique beam-steering mechanism with distinct advantages in efficiency, compactness, speed, and phase-sensitivity to current.

  4. Can the vertical motions in the eyewall of tropical cyclones support persistent UAV flight?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poh, Chung-Kiak

    2014-01-01

    Powered flights in the form of manned or unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have been flying into tropical cyclones to obtain vital atmospheric measurements with flight duration typically lasting between 12 and 36 hours. Convective vertical motion properties of tropical cyclones have previously been studied. This work investigates the possibility to achieve persistent flight by harnessing the generally pervasive updrafts in the eyewall of tropical cyclones. A sailplane UAV capable of vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) is proposed and its flight characteristics simulated. Results suggest that the concept of persistent flight within the eyewall is promising and may be extendable to the rainband regions.

  5. Vertical dispersion methods in x-ray spectroscopy of high temperature plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renner, O.; Missalla, T.; Foerster, E.

    1995-12-31

    General formulae for the applying the vertical dispersion principle in x-ray spectroscopy of multiple charged ions are summarized, the characteristics of the experimental schemes based on flat and bent crystals are discussed. The unique properties of the novel spectroscopic methods, i.e., their extremely high dispersion, high spectral and 1-D spatial resolution and good collection efficiency, make them very attractive for ultrahigh-resolution spectroscopy. The examples of successful use of the vertical dispersion modifications of the double-crystal and the Johann spectrometer in diagnostics of several types of laser-generated plasma are presented.

  6. Large-scale fabrication of vertically aligned ZnO nanowire arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong Lin; Hu, Youfan; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Chen; Zhu, Guang

    2014-09-09

    A generator includes a substrate, a first electrode layer, a dense plurality of vertically-aligned piezoelectric elongated nanostructures, an insulating layer and a second electrode layer. The substrate has a top surface and the first electrode layer is disposed on the top surface of the substrate. The dense plurality of vertically-aligned piezoelectric elongated nanostructures extends from the first electrode layer. Each of the nanostructures has a top end. The insulating layer is disposed on the top ends of the nanostructures. The second electrode layer is disposed on the non-conductive layer and is spaced apart from the nanostructures.

  7. Vertical poloidal asymmetries of low-Z element radiation in the PDX tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brau, K.; Suckewer, S.; Wong, S.K.

    1983-06-01

    Vertical poloidal asymmetries of hydrogen isotopes and low-Z impurity radiation in the PDX tokamak may be caused by poloidally asymmetric sources of these elements at gas inlet valves, limiters or vacuum vessel walls, asymmetric magnetic field geometry in the region beyond the plasma boundary, or by ion curvature drifts. Low ionization states of carbon (C II- C IV) are more easily influenced by edge conditions than is CV. Vertical poloidal asymmetries of CV are correlated with the direction of the toroidal field. The magnitude of the asymmetry agrees with the predictions of a quasifluid neoclassical model. Experimental data and numerical simulations are presented to investigate different models of impurity poloidal asymmetries.

  8. Low threshold vertical cavity surface emitting lasers integrated onto Si-CMOS ICs using novel hybrid assembly techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perkins, James Michael, 1978-

    2007-01-01

    A new heterogeneous integration technique has been developed and demonstrated to integrate vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) on silicon CMOS integrated circuits for optical interconnect applications. Individual ...

  9. 1 Spreading and convective dissolution of carbon dioxide in vertically 2 confined, horizontal aquifers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neufeld, Jerome A.

    1 Spreading and convective dissolution of carbon dioxide in vertically 2 confined, horizontal] Injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) into saline aquifers is a promising tool for reducing 6 anthropogenic CO2 emissions. At reservoir conditions, the injected CO2 is buoyant relative 7 to the ambient groundwater

  10. Spreading and convective dissolution of carbon dioxide in vertically confined, horizontal aquifers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huppert, Herbert

    Spreading and convective dissolution of carbon dioxide in vertically confined, horizontal aquifers of carbon dioxide (CO2) into saline aquifers is a promising tool for reducing anthropogenic CO2 emissions. At reservoir conditions, the injected CO2 is buoyant relative to the ambient groundwater. The buoyant plume

  11. Effective hydraulic parameters for steady state vertical flow in heterogeneous soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohanty, Binayak P.

    Effective hydraulic parameters for steady state vertical flow in heterogeneous soils Jianting Zhu August 2003. [1] In hydroclimate and land-atmospheric interaction models, effective hydraulic properties are needed at large grid scales. In this study, the effective soil hydraulic parameters of the areally

  12. A Vertical Hydrophone Array Coupled via Inductive Modem for Detecting Deep-Ocean Seismic and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bohnenstiehl, Delwayne

    A Vertical Hydrophone Array Coupled via Inductive Modem for Detecting Deep-Ocean Seismic synchronization methods based on three-wire serial or NTP network interface, it only requires an insulated single is active with seismicity and submarine eruptions. The results of the four-month long monitoring

  13. Subcooling Effects for Flooding Experiments with Steam and Water in a Large Diameter Vertical Tube 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cullum, Wes

    2012-10-19

    rate needed to induce flooding. The data more closely follow air-water data at low subcooling. Such data has not been seen in the literature for steam-water flooding experiments in a large diameter vertical tube and will serve as an important benchmark....

  14. On the impact of the vertical resolution on chemistry transport modelling Laurent MENUT1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menut, Laurent

    presents a sensitivity analysis of the modelling of air pollutant concentrations in the surface layer pollutants are emitted and where air quality networks monitor pollutant concentrations, while models usually validates the fact that a simplified vertical mesh is suitable for air quality forecasting even

  15. Identification and control of plasma vertical position using neural network in Damavand tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rasouli, H. [School of Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, AEOI, P.O. Box 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Advanced Process Automation and Control (APAC) Research Group, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, P.O. Box 16315-1355, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rasouli, C.; Koohi, A. [School of Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, AEOI, P.O. Box 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    In this work, a nonlinear model is introduced to determine the vertical position of the plasma column in Damavand tokamak. Using this model as a simulator, a nonlinear neural network controller has been designed. In the first stage, the electronic drive and sensory circuits of Damavand tokamak are modified. These circuits can control the vertical position of the plasma column inside the vacuum vessel. Since the vertical position of plasma is an unstable parameter, a direct closed loop system identification algorithm is performed. In the second stage, a nonlinear model is identified for plasma vertical position, based on the multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network (NN) structure. Estimation of simulator parameters has been performed by back-propagation error algorithm using Levenberg-Marquardt gradient descent optimization technique. The model is verified through simulation of the whole closed loop system using both simulator and actual plant in similar conditions. As the final stage, a MLP neural network controller is designed for simulator model. In the last step, online training is performed to tune the controller parameters. Simulation results justify using of the NN controller for the actual plant.

  16. Interface instabilities during displacements of two miscible fluids in a vertical pipe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lajeunesse, Eric

    instability modes have been observed: an asymmetric ``corkscrew'' mode and an axisymmetric one. We remark. INTRODUCTION The hydrodynamic stability of two-phase flow in pipes and channels has been the subject of many­water mixture of viscosity 1 and density 1 in a vertical tube. The authors observed the formation of a finger

  17. Kirchhoff prestack depth migration in velocity models with and without vertical gradients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cerveny, Vlastislav

    Kirchhoff prestack depth migration in velocity models with and without vertical gradients-mail: bucha@seis.karlov.mff.cuni.cz Summary The Kirchhoff prestack depth migration is used to calculate. The bottom layer is isotropic and homogeneous. We apply the Kirchhoff prestack depth migration to both

  18. Abstract--We examined the diel ver-tical distribution, concentration, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    than during the day, and there was evidence of larval diel vertical migration. Depth stratum. The 74 depth-stratified samples yielded 1571 fish larvae from 20 taxa, representing 11 families, and 128 increased from the surface to 50 m, then decreased with depth. Larval concentrations were higher at night

  19. A one-dimensional model of vertical gas plume migration through a heterogeneous porous medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    A one-dimensional model of vertical gas plume migration through a heterogeneous porous medium Buoyancy Countercurrent flow Plume migration a b s t r a c t This work is motivated by the growing interest or inadvertently created conduits in the cap rock may result in a gas leakage from primary storage. Even

  20. 2008 IEEE Electrical Performance of Electronic Packaging Suppression of Vertical Coupling using Electromagnetic Band Gap Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swaminathan, Madhavan

    2008 IEEE Electrical Performance of Electronic Packaging Suppression of Vertical Coupling using Electromagnetic Band Gap Structures Nithya Sankaran, Suzanne Huh, Madhavan Swaminathan and Rao Tummala Packaging are presented. I. Introduction Multilayer packaging plays a vital role in producing highly miniaturized, low

  1. Coupled-resonator vertical-cavity lasers with two active gain regions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Arthur J.; Choquette, Kent D.; Chow, Weng W.

    2003-05-20

    A new class of coupled-resonator vertical-cavity semiconductor lasers has been developed. These lasers have multiple resonant cavities containing regions of active laser media, resulting in a multi-terminal laser component with a wide range of novel properties.

  2. Modeling multifrequency eddy current sensor interactions during vertical Bridgman growth of semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    Modeling multifrequency eddy current sensor interactions during vertical Bridgman growth methods have been used to analyze the responses of two ``absolute'' and ``differential'' eddy current conductivity ratio increases. Of the materials studied, GaAs is found best suited for eddy current sensing

  3. Seismic characterization of vertical fractures described as general linear-slip interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsvankin, Ilya

    Seismic characterization of vertical fractures described as general linear-slip interfaces Vladimir School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401-1887, USA (currently at Shell International Exploration and Production International Exploration and Production Inc., Bellaire Technology Center, 3737 Bellaire Blvd., Houston, TX

  4. Compact fluorescent lamp using horizontal and vertical insulating septums and convective venting geometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siminovitch, M.

    1998-02-10

    A novel design is described for a compact fluorescent lamp, including a lamp geometry which will increase light output and efficacy of the lamp in a base down operating position by providing horizontal and vertical insulating septums positioned in the ballast compartment of the lamp to provide a cooler coldspot. Selective convective venting provides additional cooling of the ballast compartment. 9 figs.

  5. 4/3 law of Granular Particles Flowing through a Vertical Pipe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayakawa, Hisao

    excitations under vertical vibration [5,6] and a fluidized bed due to air injected inside a box containing dimensional realiza­ tion of a fluidized bed is also a typical example of unusual features of granular motion behaviors [1], such as convection [2], size segregation [3], bubbling [4], standing waves and localized

  6. EVALUATION OF MODELS FOR THE VERTICAL EXTRAPOLATION OF WIND SPEED MEASUREMENTS AT OFFSHORE SITES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    EVALUATION OF MODELS FOR THE VERTICAL EXTRAPOLATION OF WIND SPEED MEASUREMENTS AT OFFSHORE SITES important for offshore wind energy utilisation are discussed and tested: Four models for the surface tested with data from the offshore field measurement Rødsand by extrapolating the measured 10 m wind

  7. MODELLING THE VERTICAL WIND SPEED AND TURBULENCE INTENSITY PROFILES AT PROSPECTIVE OFFSHORE WIND FARM SITES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    MODELLING THE VERTICAL WIND SPEED AND TURBULENCE INTENSITY PROFILES AT PROSPECTIVE OFFSHORE WIND important for offshore wind energy utilisation are discussed and tested: Four models for the surface tested with data from the offshore field measurement Rødsand by extrapolating the measured 10 m wind

  8. EVALUATION OF MODELS FOR THE VERTICAL EXTRAPOLATION OF WIND SPEED MEASUREMENTS AT OFFSHORE SITES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    EVALUATION OF MODELS FOR THE VERTICAL EXTRAPOLATION OF WIND SPEED MEASUREMENTS AT OFFSHORE SITES important for offshore wind energy utilisation are discussed and tested: Four models for the surface that an important part of the future expansion of wind energy utilisation at least in Europe will come from offshore

  9. MODELLING THE VERTICAL WIND SPEED AND TURBULENCE INTENSITY PROFILES AT PROSPECTIVE OFFSHORE WIND FARM SITES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    MODELLING THE VERTICAL WIND SPEED AND TURBULENCE INTENSITY PROFILES AT PROSPECTIVE OFFSHORE WIND for conditions important for offshore wind energy utilisation are compared and tested: Four models tested with data from the offshore field measurement Rødsand by extrapolating the measured 10 m wind

  10. Case Study: Visualizing Ocean Flow Vertical Motions using LagrangianEulerian Time Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erlebacher, Gordon

    important to study because mar- itime life depends on it. The majority of marine life inhabits the top 100 to 200 meters below the ocean surface, because sunlight does not penetrate below these depths. The plant life in these regions depends on vertical motion to transport nutrients from the deeper waters

  11. Graphs where every k-subset of vertices is an identifying set

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Janson, Svante

    , Finland, terolai@utu.fi. Research supported by the Academy of Finland under grant 111940. §Department of Mathematics, University of Turku, 20014 Turku, Finland, samano@utu.fi. Research supported by the Academy of Finland under grant 111940. 1 #12;these vertices and it is denoted by d(x, y). If there is no such path

  12. RATE SENSITIVITY OF PLASTIC FLOW AND IMPLICATIONS FOR YIELD-SURFACE VERTICES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RATE SENSITIVITY OF PLASTIC FLOW AND IMPLICATIONS FOR YIELD-SURFACE VERTICES Jwo PAN Stress; in recked form 29 Norember 1982) &tract-When crystalline slip is considered as the micromechanism of plastic sensitivity of plastic flow may be central to understanding the ambiguous conclusions from experimental

  13. Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulations and Control Design for a Small Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yanikoglu, Berrin

    the dynamics of the rotor. To deal with disturbance torques in the HIL system, a virtual plant is introduced to obtain an error between the speeds in the HIL system and virtual plant. This error is used by a pro a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm for small vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs). Wind torque

  14. Analysis of wellbore instability in vertical, directional, and horizontal wells using field data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Majed, Abdulaziz Abdullah

    and directional wells is being redeveloped by drilling horizontal wells. The experience gained while drilling vertical and directional wells is not useful for drilling horizontal wells, as the failure rate is 1 in 3 holes. Quantification of drilling problems in sixty wells show that majority are tight holes. Stuck

  15. "Enhanced Field Emission from Vertically Oriented Graphene by Thin Solid Film Coatings"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Leah B.

    "Enhanced Field Emission from Vertically Oriented Graphene by Thin Solid Film Coatings" MICHAEL films such as nanotubes, nanohorns, and graphene due to their favorable field emission properties by the application of low work function thin films. These studies employ various characterization techniques

  16. Disaster SitRep -A Vertical Search Engine and Information Analysis Tool in Disaster Management Domain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Shu-Ching

    together to apply world class computing tools to deliver the right information to the right people at the right time. Needs for heterogeneous information integration in disaster management domain: People haveDisaster SitRep - A Vertical Search Engine and Information Analysis Tool in Disaster Management

  17. COMMUNICATIONS Polarization-resolved linewidth-power product of a vertical-cavity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Exter, Martin van

    COMMUNICATIONS Polarization-resolved linewidth-power product of a vertical-cavity semiconductor ext c 2 4 P . 2 From Eqs. 1 and 2 follows that the prefactor of the linewidth-power product single-mode laser, as typically 1% of the emitted power is present as polarization noise in a weak

  18. NET-VISA: Network Processing Vertically Integrated Seismic Analysis by Nimar S. Arora, Stuart Russell,*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Stuart

    NET-VISA: Network Processing Vertically Integrated Seismic Analysis by Nimar S. Arora, Stuart Russell,* and Erik Sudderth Abstract The automated processing of multiple seismic signals to detect and in real time, performing station processing (analysis and reduction of raw seismic sensor data to detect

  19. On the vertical extent of the large low shear velocity province beneath the South Pacific Superswell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barruol, Guilhem

    , the southwestern Pacific events recorded by seismic arrays in southeastern Asia sample its western rim [Takeuchi et the western rim to the southern rim of the Pacific LLSVP is proposed as a result of forward modeling [HeOn the vertical extent of the large low shear velocity province beneath the South Pacific

  20. Neuro-fuzzy control of vertical vibrations in railcars using magnetorheological dampers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atray, Vipul Sunil

    2002-01-01

    Control of vertical vibrations in a railcar is a critical issue that has been addressed by many researchers in the past. This thesis presents a new approach to solving the problem by using a semi-active viscous damper in tandem with a neuro-fuzzy...

  1. Design of a large-scale vertical open-structure cylindrical shield employing magnetic shaking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paperno, Eugene

    Design of a large-scale vertical open-structure cylindrical shield employing magnetic shaking and Materials, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-Koen, Kasuga-Shi, Fukuoka 816-8580, Japan The shield developed in length, consist of 26 and 30 layers, respectively. A thin polyethylene film is tightly wound on each

  2. Vertical Integration and Risk Management in Competitive Markets of Non-Storable Goods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Touzi, Nizar

    the interactions between spot, forward and retail markets, and the impact of vertical integration their retail market share and forward positions under uncertainty before time t = 1 where production and supply, Spot, Forward, Retail, Perfect Competition, Equilib- rium, Mean Variance Utility, Market Share, Hedging

  3. Production of vertical arrays of small diameter single-walled carbon nanotubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hauge, Robert H; Xu, Ya-Qiong

    2013-08-13

    A hot filament chemical vapor deposition method has been developed to grow at least one vertical single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT). In general, various embodiments of the present invention disclose novel processes for growing and/or producing enhanced nanotube carpets with decreased diameters as compared to the prior art.

  4. Adaptive Beamforming Technique for Accurate Vertical Wind Measurements with Multichannel MST Radar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sato, Toru

    -constrained minimization of power (NC-DCMP) algo- rithm, which provides not only robustness but also higher accuracy thanAdaptive Beamforming Technique for Accurate Vertical Wind Measurements with Multichannel MST Radar wind estimates due to contamination by horizontal wind components. An adaptive beamforming technique

  5. Vertical Object Layout and Compression for Fixed Heaps Ben L. Titzer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palsberg, Jens

    of dynamic memory allocation, which removes the need for a runtime system to manage memory. To provide data with the goal of reducing the RAM footprint of a program. We explore table-based compression and introduce that compressed vertical layout has better execution time and code size than table- based compression while

  6. A Continuous ` \\Gamma oe Vertical Coordinate for a Baroclinic Model of the Atmospheric Circulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drake, John B.

    meteorolgoical coordinate system is developed which can support a continuous isentropic­ oe vertical coordinate and boundary layer approximations were addressed by the introduction of a hybrid (patched) model [15]. By use analysis [14, 8]. The effects of heating on the circulation are most clearly seen with the isentropic

  7. Supporting information for Vertically Grown Multi-walled Carbon Nanotube Anode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Supporting information for Vertically Grown Multi-walled Carbon Nanotube Anode and Nickel-type highly doped silicon wafer. First, we formed a nickel silicide contact path as a low resistance contact comparing carbon nanotube anode and carbon cloth anode Figure S3. Polarization plot comparing MWCNT

  8. VERTICALLY INHOMOGENEOUS MODELS OF THE UPPER CRUSTAL STRUCTURE IN THE WEST-BOHEMIAN SEISMOACTIVE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cerveny, Vlastislav

    VERTICALLY INHOMOGENEOUS MODELS OF THE UPPER CRUSTAL STRUCTURE IN THE WEST-BOHEMIAN SEISMOACTIVE in the year 2000, three profiles traversed the region of earthquake swarms in West- Bohemia/Vogtland. The shots were also recorded at the permanent stations of the local seismic networks. The travel times of P

  9. Quiz 3, Section 262 P1. Find the area of the triangle with vertices A(1 ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jony

    2013-01-29

    Find the area of the triangle with vertices A(1,1,1), B(1,b1,2) and C(0,2,3). Solution: First we choose one of the points A, B, C to be the common vertex for being ...

  10. math-1 math-1Mathematics for 3D Graphics Points, Vectors, Vertices, Coordinates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koppelman, David M.

    math-1 math-1Mathematics for 3D Graphics Topics Points, Vectors, Vertices, Coordinates Dot Products," Second Edition, Addison Wesley. math-1 EE 4702-1 Lecture Transparency. Formatted 9:27, 10 September 2014 from set-1-math. math-1 #12;math-2 math-2Points and Vectors Point: Indivisible location in space. P1 P2

  11. math-1 math-1Mathematics for 3D Graphics Points, Vectors, Vertices, Coordinates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koppelman, David M.

    math-1 math-1Mathematics for 3D Graphics Topics Points, Vectors, Vertices, Coordinates Dot Products," Second Edition, Addison Wesley. math-1 EE 7700-1 Lecture Transparency. Formatted 10:16, 29 January 2010 from set-1-math. math-1 #12;math-2 math-2Points and Vectors Point: Indivisible location in space. E

  12. Potential impacts of vertical cable seismic: modeling, resolution and multiple attenuation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, Ryan Justin

    2004-09-30

    of the staggered grid scheme which is used in our FDM software include (1) stability for all values of Poisson?s ratio, (2) minimized grid dispersion and normal stresses, Lame parameters shear stresses, rigidity vertical velocity, density horizontal velocity... within cables varied........................................................... 119 xvi LIST OF TABLES TABLE Page 1 Zero-offset...

  13. Structural Properties of Opals Grown with Vertical Controlled Drying Alex Hartsuiker*, and Willem L. Vos,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vos, Willem L.

    Structural Properties of Opals Grown with Vertical Controlled Drying Alex Hartsuiker*, and Willem L ReceiVed January 15, 2008 We have grown thin opals of self-assembled silica colloids by the well. These self-assembled photonic crystals, also called artificial opals, have attracted much attention over

  14. Fracture of colloidal single-crystal films fabricated by controlled vertical drying deposition Ding Lan,1,*,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    Fracture of colloidal single-crystal films fabricated by controlled vertical drying deposition He was used to make high-quality single crystal close-packed colloidal films formed of different radii the last few years colloidal crystals have attracted researchers' attention due to their potential

  15. Texture evolution of vertically aligned biaxial tungsten nanorods using RHEED surface pole figure technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Gwo-Ching

    Texture evolution of vertically aligned biaxial tungsten nanorods using RHEED surface pole figure biaxial tungsten nanorods using RHEED surface pole figure technique R Krishnan1 , Y Liu2 , C Gaire2 , L (RHEED) pole figure technique. The initial polycrystalline film begins to show the inception of biaxial

  16. Cryogenic system for the Energy Recovery Linac and vertical test facility at BNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Than, R.; Soria, V.; Lederle, D.; Orfin, P.; Porqueddu, R.; Talty, P.; Zhang, Y.; Tallerico, T.; Masi, L.

    2011-03-28

    A small cryogenic system and warm helium vacuum pumping system provides cooling to either the Energy Recovery Linac's (ERL) cryomodules that consist of a 5-cell cavity and an SRF gun or a large Vertical Test Dewar (VTD) at any given time. The cryogenic system consists of a model 1660S PSI piston plant, a 3800 liter storage dewar, subcooler, a wet expander, a 50 g/s main helium compressor, and a 170 m{sup 3} storage tank. A system description and operating plan of the cryogenic plant and cryomodules is given. The cryogenic system for ERL and the Vertical Test Dewar has a plant that can produce the equivalent of 300W at 4.5K with the addition of a wet expander 350 W at 4.5K. Along with this system, a sub-atmospheric, warm compression system provides pumping to produce 2K at the ERL cryomodules or the Vertical Test Dewar. The cryogenic system for ERL and the Vertical Test Dewar makes use of existing equipment for putting a system together. It can supply either the ERL side or the Vertical Test Dewar side, but not both at the same time. Double valve isolation on the liquid helium supply line allows one side to be warmed to room temperature and worked on while the other side is being held at operating temperature. The cryogenic system maintain the end loads from 4.4K to 2K or colder depending on capacity. Liquid helium storage dewar capacity allows ERL or the VTD to operate above the plant's capacity when required and ERL cryomodules ballast reservoirs and VTD reservoir allows the end loads to operate on full vacuum pump capacity when required.

  17. Cs deposition and vertical migration in soils from Argentina J. Juri Ayub, M. Rizzotto, J. Toso, H. Velasco

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nacional de San Luis, Universidad

    1 137 Cs deposition and vertical migration in soils from Argentina J. Juri Ayub, M. Rizzotto, J), Universidad Nacional de San Luis. CONICET. Ejército de los Andes 950, 5700 San Luis, Argentina Abstract. Vertical migration of 137 Cs global fallout was studied in soils from Argentina. The sampling area

  18. Study of instabilities and quasi-two-dimensional turbulence in volumetrically heated magnetohydrodynamic flows in a vertical rectangular duct

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdou, Mohamed

    magnetohydrodynamic flows in a vertical rectangular duct N. Vetcha, S. Smolentsev, M. Abdou, and R. Moreau Citation in a vertical rectangular duct N. Vetcha,1 S. Smolentsev,1,a) M. Abdou,1 and R. Moreau2 1 Mechanical 2013; published online 15 February 2013) We consider magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) rectangular duct flows

  19. Towards a correct description of zooplankton feeding in models: Taking into account food-mediated unsynchronized vertical migration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Towards a correct description of zooplankton feeding in models: Taking into account food-synchronous vertical migration Functional response Grazing control Vertical distribution a b s t r a c t Complex nature at a given depth is normally computed as the product of the local functional response and the zooplankton

  20. Vertical distributions of the early life stages of walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) in the Southeastern Bering Sea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    vertical migration in relation to development and habitat. Walleye pollock demonstrated a decrease in the depth of occurrence following hatching, indicating an ontogenetic change in vertical distribution. Eggs related to the date of collection, water column depth, and thermocline depth. Non-feeding stages (eggs

  1. A benchmark study of the vertical electronic spectra of the linear chain radicals C2H and C4H

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crawford, T. Daniel

    A benchmark study of the vertical electronic spectra of the linear chain radicals C2H and C4H Ryan The ability of coupled-cluster models to predict vertical excitation energies is tested on the electronic/visibility spectroscopy are preferred for identification.8­10 However, electronic spectra are signifi- cantly more

  2. Geographic variability in the export of moist static energy and vertical motion profiles in the tropical Pacific

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bretherton, Chris

    Geographic variability in the export of moist static energy and vertical motion profiles), Geographic variability in the export of moist static energy and vertical motion profiles in the tropical 31 July 2006; published 9 September 2006. [1] Column-integrated moist static energy (MSE) budgets

  3. Vertical Ozone Profiling at UMBS K. O'Donnell, T. Jobson, M. Erickson, T. Vanreken, W. Wallace

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Vertical Ozone Profiling at UMBS K. O'Donnell, T. Jobson, M. Erickson, T. Vanreken, W. Wallace been done to determine vertical ozone profiles, especially in environments such as the northern mixed forest where this field campaign is being run. What past research that has been done has shown that ozone

  4. 390 IEEE JOURNAL OF QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, VOL. 41, NO. 3, MARCH 2005 MEMS-Tunable Vertical-Cavity SOAs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacDonald, Noel C.

    390 IEEE JOURNAL OF QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, VOL. 41, NO. 3, MARCH 2005 MEMS-Tunable Vertical properties, and noise figure (NF) of MEMS-based widely tunable vertical-cavity semiconductor optical electrostatic actuator are outlined. It is found that MEMS-tunable VCSOAs follow many of the same design trends

  5. Estimation of light penetration, and horizontal and vertical visibility in oceanic and coastal waters from surface reflectance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Babin, Marcel

    Estimation of light penetration, and horizontal and vertical visibility in oceanic and coastal penetration, and horizontal and vertical visibility in oceanic and coastal waters from surface reflectance, J. The algorithms are found to be valid both in coastal and oceanic waters, and largely insensitive to regional

  6. Boiling heat transfer in a vertical microchannel: Local estimation during flow boiling with a non intrusive method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boiling heat transfer in a vertical microchannel: Local estimation during flow boiling with a non the results of experimental and numerical studies concerning boiling heat transfer inside vertical in minichannels for several gravity levels (µg, 1g, 2g). To fully understand the high heat transfer potential

  7. Report (Vertical)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMassR&D100 Winners *ReindustrializationEnergyWind Energy Wind FindBPA Profile

  8. Report (Vertical)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMassR&D100 Winners *ReindustrializationEnergyWind Energy Wind FindBPA

  9. Report (Vertical)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMassR&D100 Winners *ReindustrializationEnergyWind Energy Wind FindBPALANS

  10. Nonlinear analysis of the three-dimensional datum transformation [conformal group C7(3)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuttgart, Universität

    . Grafarend, J. L. Awange Department of Geodesy and GeoInformatics, University of Stuttgart, Geschwister

  11. Vortrge im Sommersemester 2012 im SFB Datum Referent(in) Herkunft Thema Ort Videobertragung

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Madlener, Klaus

    Kohlenhydrat- Karlsruhe liganden 22.05.2012 Prof. Dr. Klaus Müllen MPI für Polymerforschung Mainz Ist die-couplings 19.06.2012 Jun.Prof. Dr. M. Bauer TU Kaiserslautern Chemie und Synchrotronstrahlung: Von den

  12. In situ oil shale retort with a generally T-shaped vertical cross section

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ricketts, Thomas E. (Grand Junction, CO)

    1981-01-01

    An in situ oil shale retort is formed in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. The retort contains a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale and has a production level drift in communication with a lower portion of the fragmented mass for withdrawing liquid and gaseous products of retorting during retorting of oil shale in the fragmented mass. The principal portion of the fragmented mass is spaced vertically above a lower production level portion having a generally T-shaped vertical cross section. The lower portion of the fragmented mass has a horizontal cross sectional area smaller than the horizontal cross sectional area of the upper principal portion of the fragmented mass above the production level.

  13. THE VERTICAL COMPOSITION OF NEUTRINO-DOMINATED ACCRETION DISKS IN GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Tong; Xue, Li; Gu, Wei-Min; Lu, Ju-Fu, E-mail: tongliu@xmu.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)] [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)

    2013-01-10

    We investigate the vertical structure and element distribution of neutrino-dominated accretion flows around black holes in spherical coordinates using the reasonable nuclear statistical equilibrium. According to our calculations, heavy nuclei tend to be produced in a thin region near the disk surface, whose mass fractions are primarily determined by the accretion rate and vertical distribution of temperature and density. In this thin region, we find that {sup 56}Ni is dominant for the flow with a low accretion rate (e.g., 0.05 M {sub Sun} s{sup -1}), but {sup 56}Fe is dominant for the flow with a high accretion rate (e.g., 1 M {sub Sun} s{sup -1}). The dominant {sup 56}Ni in the aforementioned region may provide a clue to understanding the bumps in the optical light curve of core-collapse supernovae.

  14. Proposal for the award of a contract for the supply of a vertical vacuum furnace

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2001-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract for the supply of a vertical vacuum furnace. Following a market survey carried out among 32 firms in seven Member States, a call for tenders (IT-2684/EST) was sent on 19 September 2000 to seven firms in four Member States. By the closing date, CERN had received six tenders from six firms in four Member States. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with PVA VAKUUM-ANLAGENBAU (DE), the lowest bidder complying with the specification, for the supply of a vertical vacuum furnace for a total amount of 926 900 Swiss francs, not subject to revision. The firm has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: DE - 59%; AT - 23%; SK - 10%; CH - 8%.

  15. Metrology for x-ray telescope mirrors in a vertical configuration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Haizhang; Li, Xiaodan; Grindel, M.W.

    1995-09-01

    Mirrors used in x-ray telescope systems for observations outside of the earth`s atmosphere are usually made of several thin nested shells, each formed by a pair of paraboloidal and hyperboloidal surfaces. The thin shells are very susceptible to self-weight deflection caused by gravity and are nearly impossible to test by conventional interferometric techniques. The metrology requirements for these mirrors are extremely challenging. This paper presents a prototype of a Vertical Scanning Long Trace Profiler (VSLTP) which is optimized to measure the surface figure of x-ray telescope mirrors in a vertical orientation. The optical system of the VSLTP is described. Experimental results from measurements on an x-ray telescope mandrel and tests of the accuracy and repeatability of the prototype VSLTP are presented. The prototype instrument has achieved a height measurement accuracy of about 50 nanometers with a repeatability of better than 20 nanometers, and a slope measurement accuracy of about 1 microradian.

  16. The variable input coupler for the Fermilab Vertical Cavity Test Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Champion, Mark; Ginsburg, Camille M.; Lunin, Andrei; /Fermilab; Moeller, Wolf-Dietrich; /DESY; Nehring, Roger; Poloubotko, Valeri; /Fermilab

    2008-09-01

    A variable input coupler has been designed for the Fermilab vertical cavity test facility (VCTF), a facility for CW RF vertical testing of bare ILC 1.3 GHz 9-cell SRF cavities at 2K, to provide some flexibility in the test stand RF measurements. The variable coupler allows the cavity to be critically coupled for all RF tests, including all TM010 passband modes, which will simplify or make possible the measurement of those modes with very low end-cell fields, e.g., {pi}/9 mode. The variable coupler assembly mounts to the standard input coupler port on the cavity, and uses a cryogenic motor submerged in superfluid helium to control the antenna position. The RF and mechanical design and RF test results are described.

  17. Hydrodynamical wind on vertically self-gravitating ADAFs in the presence of toroidal magnetic field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghasemnezhad, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    We present the effect of a hydrodynamical wind on the structure and the surface temperature of a vertically self-gravitating magnetized ADAFs using self-similar solutions. Also a model for an axisymmetric, steady-state, vertically self-gravitating hot accretion flow threaded by a toroidal magnetic field has been formulated. The model is based on $\\alpha-$prescription for turbulence viscosity. It is found that the thickness and radial velocity of the disc are reduced significantly as wind gets stronger. In particular, the solutions indicated that the wind and advection have the same effects on the structure of the disc. We also find that in the optically thin ADAF becomes hotter by including the wind parameter and the self-gravity parameter.

  18. Observation of slow light in the noise spectrum of a vertical external cavity surface emitting laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. El Amili; B. -X. Miranda; F. Goldfarb; G. Baili; G. Beaudoin; I. Sagnes; F. Bretenaker; M. Alouini

    2010-10-27

    The role of coherent population oscillations is evidenced in the noise spectrum of an ultra-low noise lasers. This effect is isolated in the intensity noise spectrum of an optimized single-frequency vertical external cavity surface emitting laser. The coherent population oscillations induced by the lasing mode manifest themselves through their associated dispersion that leads to slow light effects probed by the spontaneous emission present in the non-lasing side modes.

  19. Structure and Characterization of Vertically Aligned Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Bundles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Márquez, Francisco; López, Vicente; Morant, Carmen; Roque-Malherbe, Rolando; Domingo, Concepción; Elizalde, Eduardo; Zamora, Félix

    2010-01-01

    Arrays of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotube bundles, SWCNTs, have been synthesized by simple alcohol catalytic chemical vapor deposition process, carried out at 800°C. The formed SWCNTs are organized in small groups perpendicularly aligned and attached to the substrate. These small bundles show a constant diameter of ca. 30 nm and are formed by the adhesion of no more than twenty individual SWCNTs perfectly aligned along their length.

  20. An after-market, five-port vertical beam line extension for the PETtrace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnhart, T. E.; Engle, J. W.; Severin, G. W.; Valdovinos, H. F.; Gagnon, K.; Nickles, R. J.

    2012-12-19

    Most commercial cyclotrons intended for medical isotope production provide a limited number of beam ports crowded into a minimal vault space. Taking advantage of our new lab construction, we planned and installed a beam-line on port Music-Sharp-Sign 2 of our GEMS PETtrace to bring beam to an additional 5 target positions. These are oriented in the vertical plane, with the downward directed beam well suited for molten target substrates.

  1. Mesoscale divergence, vorticity, and vertical motion compared to radar and rainfall patterns 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Withers, Donald Mead

    1971-01-01

    !e degree of PIASTER OF SCIENCE August 1971 Major Subject: PJeteorology MESOSCALE DIVERGENCE& VORTICITY& AND VERTICAL MOTION COMPARED TO RADAR AND RAINI'ALL PATTERNS A Thesis by DONALD MEAD NITHERS Approved as to style and content by: 88.... ( (Chairman of Committee) (Member) (Head of Depa ent) (Member) August 1971 ASS TRACT Mesoscale Divergence, Vorticity, and Vertica] Motion Compared to Radar and Rainfall Patterns. (August 1971) Donald Mead Nithers, B. S. , University of Oklahoma...

  2. Proposal for the development of 3D Vertically Integrated Pattern Recognition Associative Memory (VIPRAM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deptuch, Gregory; Hoff, Jim; Kwan, Simon; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Ted; Ramberg, Erik; Todri, Aida; Yarema, Ray; /Fermilab; Demarteua, Marcel,; Drake, Gary; Weerts, Harry; /Argonne /Chicago U. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua

    2010-10-01

    Future particle physics experiments looking for rare processes will have no choice but to address the demanding challenges of fast pattern recognition in triggering as detector hit density becomes significantly higher due to the high luminosity required to produce the rare process. The authors propose to develop a 3D Vertically Integrated Pattern Recognition Associative Memory (VIPRAM) chip for HEP applications, to advance the state-of-the-art for pattern recognition and track reconstruction for fast triggering.

  3. Pressure Responses of a Vertically Hydraulic Fractured Well in a Reservoir with Fractal Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Razminia, Kambiz; Torres, Delfim F M

    2015-01-01

    We obtain an analytical solution for the pressure-transient behavior of a vertically hydraulic fractured well in a heterogeneous reservoir. The heterogeneity of the reservoir is modeled by using the concept of fractal geometry. Such reservoirs are called fractal reservoirs. According to the theory of fractional calculus, a temporal fractional derivative is applied to incorporate the memory properties of the fractal reservoir. The effect of different parameters on the computed wellbore pressure is fully investigated by various synthetic examples.

  4. Bistable laser device with multiple coupled active vertical-cavity resonators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Arthur J.; Choquette, Kent D.; Chow, Weng W.

    2003-08-19

    A new class of bistable coupled-resonator vertical-cavity semiconductor laser devices has been developed. These bistable laser devices can be switched, either electrically or optically, between lasing and non-lasing states. A switching signal with a power of a fraction of a milliwatt can change the laser output of such a device by a factor of a hundred, thereby enabling a range of optical switching and data encoding applications.

  5. Global equatorial ionospheric vertical plasma drifts measured by the AE-E satellite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fejer, B.G.; Paula, E.R. de [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States)]l Heelis, R.A. [Univ. of Texas, Richardson, TX (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    Ion drift meter observations from the Atmospheric Explorer E satellite during the period of January 1977 to December 1979 are used to study the dependence of equatorial (dip latitudes {le}7.5{degrees}) F region vertical plasma drifts (east-west electric fields) on solar activity, season, and longitude. The satellite-observed ion drifts show large day-to-day and seasonal variations. Solar cycle effects are most pronounced near the dusk sector with a large increase of the prereversal velocity enhancement from solar minimum to maximum. The diurnal, seasonal, and solar cycle dependence of the longitudinally averaged drifts are consistent with results from the Jicamarca radar except near the June solstice when the AE-E nightime downward velocities are significantly smaller than those observed by the radar. Pronounced presunrise downward drift enhancements are often observed over a large longitudinal range but not in the Peruvian equatorial region. The satellite data indicate that longitudinal variations are largest near the June solstice, particularly near dawn and dusk but are virtually absent during equinox. The longitudinal dependence of the AE-E vertical drifts is consistent with results from ionosonde data. These measurements were also used to develop a description of equatorial F region vertical drifts in four longitudinal sectors. 17 refs., 7 figs.

  6. GaAs buffer layer technique for vertical nanowire growth on Si substrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Xiaoqing Parizi, Kokab B.; Huo, Yijie; Kang, Yangsen; Philip Wong, H.-S.; Li, Yang

    2014-02-24

    Gold catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid method is widely applied to III–V nanowire (NW) growth on Si substrate. However, the easy oxidation of Si, possible Si contamination in the NWs, high defect density in the NWs, and high sensitivity of the NW morphology to growth conditions largely limit its controllability. In this work, we developed a buffer layer technique by introducing a GaAs thin film with predefined polarity as a template. It is found that samples grown on these buffer layers all have high vertical NW yields in general, due to the single-orientation of the buffer layers. Low temperature buffer with smoother surface leads to highest yield of vertical NWs, while high temperature (HT) buffer with better crystallinity results in perfect NW quality. The defect-free property we observed here is very promising for optoelectronic device applications based on GaAs NW. Moreover, the buffer layers can eliminate Si contamination by preventing Si-Au alloy formation and by increasing the thickness of the Si diffusion barrier, thus providing more flexibility to vertical NW growth. The buffer layer technique we demonstrated here could be easily extended to other III-V on Si system for electronic and photonic applications.

  7. Characterization of Vertical Velocity and Drop Size Distribution Parameters in Widespread Precipitation at ARM Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giangrande S. E.; Luke, E. P.; Kollias, P.

    2012-02-01

    Extended, high-resolution measurements of vertical air motion and median volume drop diameter D0 in widespread precipitation from three diverse Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) locations [Lamont, Oklahoma, Southern Great Plains site (SGP); Niamey, Niger; and Black Forest, Germany] are presented. The analysis indicates a weak (0-10 cm{sup -1}) downward air motion beneath the melting layer for all three regions, a magnitude that is to within the typical uncertainty of the retrieval methods. On average, the hourly estimated standard deviation of the vertical air motion is 0.25 m s{sup -1} with no pronounced vertical structure. Profiles of D0 vary according to region and rainfall rate. The standard deviation of 1-min-averaged D0 profiles for isolated rainfall rate intervals is 0.3-0.4 mm. Additional insights into the form of the raindrop size distribution are provided using available dual-frequency Doppler velocity observations at SGP. The analysis suggests that gamma functions better explain paired velocity observations and radar retrievals for the Oklahoma dataset. This study will be useful in assessing uncertainties introduced in the measurement of precipitation parameters from ground-based and spaceborne remote sensors that are due to small-scale variability.

  8. Medium-solidity Vertical Axis Wind Turbines for use in Urban Environments S. Tullis, A. Fiedler, K. McLaren, S. Ziada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullis, Stephen

    Medium-solidity Vertical Axis Wind Turbines for use in Urban Environments S. Tullis, A. Fiedler, K Vertical axis wind turbines are currently experiencing a renewed interest in small- scale applications: vertical axis wind turbines, vibration, blade aerodynamics #12;Introduction In community wind power

  9. Presented at the 2010 Rocky Mountain AAPG Section Meeting in Durango Colorado 1 Pre-and Post-injection Vertical Seismic Profiling over the Southwest Regional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, Thomas H.

    -injection Vertical Seismic Profiling over the Southwest Regional Partnership's Phase II Fruitland Coal CO2 Pilot Tom of pre and post injection vertical seismic profiles collected at the Southwest Regional Partnership (SWP into the Fruitland coals. The pre-injection vertical seismic profiles were completed on June 2nd and 3rd of 2008

  10. Process for mounting a protection diode on a vertical multijunction photovoltaic cell structure and photovoltaic cells obtained

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnould, J.

    1982-09-07

    In a stack of diodes forming a vertical multijunction photovoltaic cell, an inversely connected diode is firmly secured to this stack with possible insertion of a intermediate wafer made from a conducting material.

  11. Thorium-234 as a tracer of spatial, temporal and vertical variability in particle flux in the North Pacific

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, David A.

    Thorium-234 as a tracer of spatial, temporal and vertical variability in particle flux in the North Available online 16 April 2009 Keywords: Thorium-234 Particle flux Sediment trap Scavenging North Pacific

  12. Evolution of vertical drafts and cloud-to-ground lightning within the convective region of a mesoscale convective complex 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saul, Scott Henry

    1995-01-01

    The evolution of the area-averaged vertical velocity within the objectively defined convective region of the 4 June 1985 PRE-STORM (Preliminary Regional Experiment for Stormscale Operational and Research Meteorology-Central Phase) mesoscale...

  13. Self-interaction-free density-functional theoretical study of the electronic structure of spherical and vertical quantum dots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, T. F.; Tong, Xiao-Min; Chu, Shih-I

    2001-01-09

    We study the electronic structure and shell-filling effects of both spherical and vertical quantum dots by means of the density functional theory (DFT) with optimized effective potential (OEP) and self-interaction-correction (SIC) recently developed...

  14. Formation of the Galactic bulge from a two-component stellar disk: Explaining cylindrical rotation and vertical metallicity gradient

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bekki, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    Recent observational studies have revealed that the Galactic bulge has cylindrical rotation and a steeper vertical metallicity gradient. We adopt two representative models for the bulge formation and thereby investigate whether the two models can explain both the observed cylindrical rotation and vertical metallicity gradient in a self-consistent manner. One is the "pure disk scenario" (PDS) in which the bulge is formed from a pure thin stellar disk through spontaneous bar instability. The other is the "two-component disk scenario" (TCDS) in which the bulge is formed from a disk composed of thin and thick disks through bar instability. Our numerical simulations show that although PDS can reproduce the cylindrical rotation, it shows a rather flatter vertical metallicity gradient that is inconsistent with observations. The derived flatter metallicity gradient is due to the vertical mixing of stars with different initial metallicities by the stellar bar. This result implies that the bulge can not be simply forme...

  15. Vertical profiles of radar reflectivity of convective cells in tropical and mid-latitude mesoscale convective systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Kurt Reed

    1992-01-01

    VERTICAL PROFILES OF RADAR REFLECTIVITY OF CONVECTIVE CELLS IN TROPICAL AND MID-LATITUDE MESOSCALE CONVECTIVE SYSTEMS A Thesis by KURT REED LUTZ Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1992 Major Subject: Meteorology VERTICAL PROFILES OF RADAR REFLECTIVITY OF CONVECTIVE CELLS IN TROPICAL AND MID-LATITUDE MESOSCALE CONVECTIVE SYSTEMS A Thesis by KURT REED LUTZ Approved...

  16. GRAVITATIONAL INSTABILITY OF ROTATING, PRESSURE-CONFINED, POLYTROPIC GAS DISKS WITH VERTICAL STRATIFICATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Jeong-Gyu; Kim, Woong-Tae; Seo, Young Min; Hong, Seung Soo E-mail: wkim@astro.snu.ac.kr E-mail: sshong@astro.snu.ac.kr

    2012-12-20

    We investigate the gravitational instability (GI) of rotating, vertically stratified, pressure-confined, polytropic gas disks using a linear stability analysis as well as analytic approximations. The disks are initially in vertical hydrostatic equilibrium and bounded by a constant external pressure. We find that the GI of a pressure-confined disk is in general a mixed mode of the conventional Jeans and distortional instabilities, and is thus an unstable version of acoustic-surface-gravity waves. The Jeans mode dominates in weakly confined disks or disks with rigid boundaries. On the other hand, when the disk has free boundaries and is strongly pressure confined, the mixed GI is dominated by the distortional mode that is surface-gravity waves driven unstable under their own gravity and thus incompressible. We demonstrate that the Jeans mode is gravity-modified acoustic waves rather than inertial waves and that inertial waves are almost unaffected by self-gravity. We derive an analytic expression for the effective sound speed c{sub eff} of acoustic-surface-gravity waves. We also find expressions for the gravity reduction factors relative to a razor-thin counterpart that are appropriate for the Jeans and distortional modes. The usual razor-thin dispersion relation, after correcting for c{sub eff} and the reduction factors, closely matches the numerical results obtained by solving a full set of linearized equations. The effective sound speed generalizes the Toomre stability parameter of the Jeans mode to allow for the mixed GI of vertically stratified, pressure-confined disks.

  17. Experimental natural convection on vertical surfaces for building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fossa, M.; Menezo, C.; Leonardi, E.

    2008-02-15

    An experimental study on natural convection in an open channel is carried out in order to investigate the effect of the geometrical configuration of heat sources on the heat transfer behaviour. To this aim, a series of vertical heaters are cooled by natural convection of air flowing between two parallel walls. The objective of the work is to investigate the physical mechanisms which influence the thermal behaviour of a double-skin photovoltaic (PV) facade. This results in a better understanding of the related phenomena and infers useful engineering information for controlling the energy transfers from the environment to the PV surfaces and from the PV surfaces to the building. Furthermore increasing the heat transfer rate from the PV surfaces increases the conversion efficiency of the PV modules since they operate better as their temperature is lower. The test section consists in a double vertical wall, 2 m high, and each wall is constituted by 10 different heating modules 0.2 m high. The heater arrangement simulates, at a reduced scale, the presence of a series of vertical PV modules. The heat flux at the wall ranges from 75 to 200 W/m{sup 2}. In this study, the heated section is 1.6 m in height, preceded by an adiabatic of 0.4 m in height. Different heating configurations are analyzed, including the uniform heating mode and two different configurations of non uniform, alternate heating. The experimental procedure allows the wall surface temperature, local heat transfer coefficient and local and average Nusselt numbers to be inferred. The experimental evidences show that the proper selection of the separating distance and heating configuration can noticeably decrease the surface temperatures and hence enhance the conversion efficiency of PV modules. (author)

  18. Formation of Spiral-Arm Spurs and Bound Clouds in Vertically Stratified Galactic Gas Disks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woong-Tae Kim; Eve C. Ostriker

    2006-03-28

    (Abridged) We investigate the growth of spiral-arm substructure in vertically stratified, self-gravitating, galactic gas disks, using local numerical MHD simulations. Our new models extend our previous 2D studies (Kim & Ostriker 2002), which showed that a magnetized spiral shock in a thin disk can undergo magneto-Jeans instability (MJI), resulting in interarm spur structures and massive fragments. Similar spur features have recently been seen in high-resolution observations of several galaxies. Here, we consider two sets of numerical models: 2D models that use a thick-disk gravitational kernel, and 3D runs with explicit vertical stratification. When disks are sufficiently magnetized and self-gravitating, the result in both sorts of models is the growth of spiral-arm substructure similar to that in our previous razor-thin models. Reduced self-gravity in thick disks increases the spur spacing to ~10 times the Jeans length at the arm peak. Bound clouds that form from spur fragmentation have masses ~(1-3)x10^7 Msun each, a factor ~3-8 times larger than in razor-thin models with the same gas surface density and stellar spiral arm strength. We find that unmagnetized or weakly magnetized 2D models are unstable to the wiggle instability (WI) previously identified by Wada & Koda (2004), and proposed as a potential spur- and clump-forming mechanism. However,our fully 3D models do not show this effect. Non-steady motions and strong vertical shear prevent coherent vortical structures from forming, evidently suppressing the WI that appears in 2D (isothermal) runs. We also find no clear traces of Parker instability in the nonlinear spiral arm substructures that emerge (in self-gravitating models), although conceivably Parker modes may help seed the MJI at early stages since azimuthal wavelengths are similar.

  19. The Theory of the Kink Mode during the Vertical Disruption Events in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leonid E. Zakharov

    2008-01-14

    This paper explains the locked m/n = 1/1 kink mode during the vertical disruption event when the plasma has an electrical contact with the plasma facing conducting surfaces. It is shown that the kink perturbation can be in equilibrium state even with a stable safety factor q > 1, if the halo currents, excited by the kink mode, can flow through the conducting structure. This suggests a new explanation of the so-called sideway forces on the tokamak in-vessel components during the disruption event. __________________________________________________

  20. Vertical and horizontal test results of 3.9-GHz accelerating cavities at FNAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khabiboulline, T.; Edwards, H.; Foley, M.; Harms, E.; Hocker, James Andrew; Mitchell, D.; Rowe, A.; Solyak, N.; /Fermilab

    2008-06-01

    The 3rd harmonic 3.9GHz accelerating cavity was proposed to improve the beam performance of the VUV FEL, FLASH. In the frame of a collaborative agreement, Fermilab will provide DESY with a cryomodule containing a string of four cavities. Seven 9-cell Nb cavities were tested and six of them did reach accelerating gradient up to 24 MV/m almost twice more than design value of 14 MV/m. Two of these cavities are with new HOM couplers with improved design. In this paper we present all results of the vertical and horizontal tests.

  1. Aerosynthesis: Growths of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofibers with Air DC Plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kodumagulla, A [North Carolina State University; Varanasi, V [North Carolina State University; Pearce, Ryan [North Carolina State University; Wu, W-C [North Carolina State University; Hensley, Dale K [ORNL; Tracy, Joseph B [North Carolina State University; McKnight, Timothy E [ORNL; Melechko, Anatoli [North Carolina State University

    2014-01-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNF) have been synthesized in a mixture of acetone and air using catalytic DC plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Typically, ammonia or hydrogen is used as etchant gas in the mixture to remove carbon that otherwise passivates the catalyst surface and impedes growth. Our demonstration of using air as the etchant gas opens up a possibility that ion etching could be sufficient to maintain the catalytic activity state during synthesis. It also demonstrates the path toward growing VACNFs in open atmosphere.

  2. Thermal interaction between free convection and forced convection along a vertical conducting wall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shu, Jian-Jun

    2015-01-01

    A theoretical study is presented in this paper to investigate the conjugate heat transfer across a vertical finite wall separating two forced and free convection flows at different temperatures. The heat conduction in the wall is in the transversal direction and countercurrent boundary layers are formed on the both sides of the wall. The governing equations of this problem and their corresponding boundary conditions are all cast into a dimensionless form by using a non-similarity transformation. These resultant equations with multiple singular points are solved numerically using a very efficient singular perturbation method. The effects of the resistance parameters and Prandtl numbers on heat transfer characteristics are investigated.

  3. LOCAL STUDY OF ACCRETION DISKS WITH A STRONG VERTICAL MAGNETIC FIELD: MAGNETOROTATIONAL INSTABILITY AND DISK OUTFLOW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bai, Xue-Ning; Stone, James M., E-mail: xbai@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2013-04-10

    We perform three-dimensional, vertically-stratified, local shearing-box ideal MHD simulations of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) that include a net vertical magnetic flux, which is characterized by midplane plasma {beta}{sub 0} (ratio of gas to magnetic pressure). We have considered {beta}{sub 0} = 10{sup 2}, 10{sup 3}, and 10{sup 4}, and in the first two cases the most unstable linear MRI modes are well resolved in the simulations. We find that the behavior of the MRI turbulence strongly depends on {beta}{sub 0}: the radial transport of angular momentum increases with net vertical flux, achieving {alpha} {approx} 0.08 for {beta} = 10{sup 4} and {alpha} {approx}> 1.0 for {beta}{sub 0} = 100, where {alpha} is the height-integrated and mass-weighted Shakura-Sunyaev parameter. A critical value lies at {beta}{sub 0} {approx} 10{sup 3}: for {beta}{sub 0} {approx}> 10{sup 3}, the disk consists of a gas pressure dominated midplane and a magnetically dominated corona. The turbulent strength increases with net flux, and angular momentum transport is dominated by turbulent fluctuations. The magnetic dynamo that leads to cyclic flips of large-scale fields still exists, but becomes more sporadic as net flux increases. For {beta}{sub 0} {approx}< 10{sup 3}, the entire disk becomes magnetically dominated. The turbulent strength saturates, and the magnetic dynamo is fully quenched. Stronger large-scale fields are generated with increasing net flux, which dominates angular momentum transport. A strong outflow is launched from the disk by the magnetocentrifugal mechanism, and the mass flux increases linearly with net vertical flux and shows sign of saturation at {beta}{sub 0} {approx}< 10{sup 2}. However, the outflow is unlikely to be directly connected to a global wind: for {beta}{sub 0} {approx}> 10{sup 3}, the large-scale field has no permanent bending direction due to dynamo activities, while for {beta}{sub 0} {approx}< 10{sup 3}, the outflows from the top and bottom sides of the disk bend towards opposite directions, inconsistent with a physical disk wind geometry. Global simulations are needed to address the fate of the outflow.

  4. The effect of distributors on two-phase and three-phase flows in vertical columns 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ouyang, Chie-Jan Paul

    1982-01-01

    ) - U1C (1 - E'g)/6'1 where g is the void fraction. For two-phase flow, the area fractions are related by equation 4. Substituting equation 4 into equation 3, the reduced form f' or the drift flux is obtained, Vd ? U (1- 6 ) ? Ulg The drift flux... appropriate: THE EFFECT OF DISTRIBUTORS ON TWO-PHASE AND THREE-PHASE FLOWS IN VERTICAL COLUMNS A Thesis by CHIE-JAN PAUL OUYANG Approved as to sty1e and content by: Chairm of Committee Member M mber Head of Dep rtment May 1982 ABS TRACT The Effect...

  5. Result of MHI 2-Cell Seamless Dumb-Bell Cavity Vertical Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okihira, K.; Hara, H.; Ikeda, N.; Inoue, F.; Sennyu, K.; Geng, Rongli; Rimmer, Robert A.; Kako, E.

    2014-12-01

    MHI have supplied several 9-cell cavities for STF (R&D of ILC project at KEK) and have been considering production method for stable quality and cost reduction, seamless dumb-bell cavity was one of them. We had fabricated a 2 cell seamless dumb-bell cavity for cost reduction and measured RF performance in collaboration with JLab, KEK and MHI. Surface treatment recipe for ILC was applied for MHI 2-cell cavity and vertical test was performed at JLab. The cavity reached Eacc=32.4MV/m after BCP and EP. Details of the result are reported.

  6. Method and apparatus for drilling horizontal holes in geological structures from a vertical bore

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Summers, David A. (Rolla, MO); Barker, Clark R. (Rolla, MO); Keith, H. Dean (Rolla, MO)

    1982-01-01

    This invention is directed to a method and apparatus for drilling horizontal holes in geological strata from a vertical position. The geological structures intended to be penetrated in this fashion are coal seams, as for in situ gasification or methane drainage, or in oil-bearing strata for increasing the flow rate from a pre-existing well. Other possible uses for this device might be for use in the leaching of uranium ore from underground deposits or for introducing horizontal channels for water and steam injections.

  7. Vertical Variability of Aerosols and Water Vapor Over the Southern Great Plains

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking WithTelecentricN A County roadFeet) Deliveries DennisVertical

  8. Simulation of winds as seen by a rotating vertical axis wind turbine blade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George, R.L.

    1984-02-01

    The objective of this report is to provide turbulent wind analyses relevant to the design and testing of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWT). A technique was developed for utilizing high-speed turbulence wind data from a line of seven anemometers at a single level to simulate the wind seen by a rotating VAWT blade. Twelve data cases, representing a range of wind speeds and stability classes, were selected from the large volume of data available from the Clayton, New Mexico, Vertical Plane Array (VPA) project. Simulations were run of the rotationally sampled wind speed relative to the earth, as well as the tangential and radial wind speeds, which are relative to the rotating wind turbine blade. Spectral analysis is used to compare and assess wind simulations from the different wind regimes, as well as from alternate wind measurement techniques. The variance in the wind speed at frequencies at or above the blade rotation rate is computed for all cases, and is used to quantitatively compare the VAWT simulations with Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT) simulations. Qualitative comparisons are also made with direct wind measurements from a VAWT blade.

  9. Verification of theoretically computed spectra for a point rotating in a vertical plane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, D.C.; Connell, J.R.; George, R.L.

    1985-03-01

    A theoretical model is modified and tested that produces the power spectrum of the alongwind component of turbulence as experienced by a point rotating in a vertical plane perpendicular to the mean wind direction. The ability to generate such a power spectrum, independent of measurement, is important in wind turbine design and testing. The radius of the circle of rotation, its height above the ground, and the rate of rotation are typical for those for a MOD-OA wind turbine. Verification of this model is attempted by comparing two sets of variances that correspond to individual harmonic bands of spectra of turbulence in the rotational frame. One set of variances is calculated by integrating the theoretically generated rotational spectra; the other is calculated by integrating rotational spectra from real data analysis. The theoretical spectrum is generated by Fourier transformation of an autocorrelation function taken from von Karman and modified for the rotational frame. The autocorrelation is based on dimensionless parameters, each of which incorporates both atmospheric and wind turbine parameters. The real data time series are formed by sampling around the circle of anemometers of the Vertical Plane Array at the former MOD-OA site at Clayton, New Mexico.

  10. The Vertical Metallicity Gradient of the Milky Way Disk: Transitions in [a/Fe] Populations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlesinger, Katharine J; Rockosi, Constance M; Lee, Young Sun; Beers, Timothy C; Harding, Paul; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Bird, Jonathan C; Schoenrich, Ralph; Yanny, Brian; Schneider, Donald P; Weaver, Benjamin A; Brinkmann, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Using G dwarfs from the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE) survey, we have determined a vertical metallicity gradient over a large volume of the Milky Way's disk, and examined how this gradient varies for different [a/Fe] subsamples. This sample contains over 40,000 stars with low-resolution spectroscopy over 144 lines of sight. We employ the SEGUE Stellar Parameter Pipeline (SSPP) to obtain estimates of effective temperature, surface gravity, [Fe/H], and [a/Fe] for each star and extract multiple volume-complete subsamples of approximately 1000 stars each. Based on the survey's consistent target-selection algorithm, we adjust each subsample to determine an unbiased picture of the disk in [Fe/H] and [a/Fe]; consequently, each individual star represents the properties of many. The SEGUE sample allows us to constrain the vertical metallicity gradient for a large number of stars over a significant volume of the disk, between ~0.3 and 1.6 kpc from the Galactic plane, and examine the...

  11. Experimental research on heat transfer of natural convection in vertical rectangular channels with large aspect ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Qing; Qiu, Suizheng; Su, Guanghui [State Key Laboratory of Multi Phase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi'an JIaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Tian, Wenxi; Ye, Zhonghao [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710049 (China)

    2010-01-15

    This work presents the experimental research on the steady laminar natural convection heat transfer of air in three vertical thin rectangular channels with different gap clearance. The much higher ratio of width to gap clearance (60-24) and the ratio of length to gap clearance (800-320) make the rectangular channels similar with the coolant flow passage in plate type fuel reactors. The vertical rectangular channels were composed of two stainless steal plates and were heated by electrical heating rods. The wall temperatures were detected with the K-type thermocouples which were inserted into the blind holes drilled in the steal plates. Also the air temperatures at the inlet and outlet of the channel were detected. The wall heat fluxes added to the air flow were calculated by the Fourier heat conduction law. The heat transfer characteristics were analyzed, and the average Nusselt numbers in all the three channels could be well correlated with the Rayleigh number or the modified Rayleigh number in a uniform correlation. Furthermore, the maximum wall temperatures were investigated, which is a key parameter for the fuel's integrity during some accidents. It was found that even the wall heat flux was up to 1500 W/m{sup 2}, the maximum wall temperature was lower than 350 C. All this work is valuable for the plate type reactor's design and safety analysis. (author)

  12. A systematic approach to vertically excited states of ethylene using configuration interaction and coupled cluster techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feller, David, E-mail: dfeller@owt.com; Peterson, Kirk A. [Department of Chemistry, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164-4630 (United States); Davidson, Ernest R. [Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1700 (United States)

    2014-09-14

    A systematic sequence of configuration interaction and coupled cluster calculations were used to describe selected low-lying singlet and triplet vertically excited states of ethylene with the goal of approaching the all electron, full configuration interaction/complete basis set limit. Included among these is the notoriously difficult, mixed valence/Rydberg {sup 1}B{sub 1u} V state. Techniques included complete active space and iterative natural orbital configuration interaction with large reference spaces which led to variational spaces of 1.8 × 10{sup 9} parameters. Care was taken to avoid unintentionally biasing the results due to the widely recognized sensitivity of the V state to the details of the calculation. The lowest vertical and adiabatic ionization potentials to the {sup 2}B{sub 3u} and {sup 2}B{sub 3} states were also determined. In addition, the heat of formation of twisted ethylene {sup 3}A{sub 1} was obtained from large basis set coupled cluster theory calculations including corrections for core/valence, scalar relativistic and higher order correlation recovery.

  13. Modeling vertical and horizontal solute transport for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomasko, D.

    1992-11-01

    This technical memorandum presents a one-dimensional model to simulate the transport of a contaminant that originates as a liquid release, moves vertically downward through a vadose zone, mixes with initially clean groundwater in an unconfined aquifer, and ends at a downgradient extraction well. Vertical and horizontal segments of the contaminant pathway are coupled by assuming that the breakthrough curve of the contaminant at the water table acts as a contaminant source for the unconfined aquifer. For simplicity, this source is assumed to be a time-shifted unit square wave having an amplitude equal to the peak breakthrough concentration at the water table and a duration equal to the full width of the breakthrough curve at the half-maximum concentration value. The effects of dilution at the water-table interface are evaluated with a simple mass-balance equation. Comparing the model results for the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site near St. Louis, Missouri, and the Envirocare facility located near Salt Lake City, Utah, with those obtained from a solution formulated with the real and imaginary parts of a Fourier series in Laplace space indicates that the model provides a conservative estimate of the contaminant breakthrough curve at the receptor.

  14. Lateral and Vertical Transistors Using the AlGaN/GaN Heterostructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chowdhury, S; Mishra, UK

    2013-10-01

    Power conversion losses are endemic in all areas of electricity consumption, including motion control, lighting, air conditioning, and information technology. Si, the workhorse of the industry, has reached its material limits. Increasingly, the lateral AlGaN/GaN HEMT based on gallium nitride (GaN-on-Si) is becoming the device of choice for medium power electronics as it enables high-power conversion efficiency and reduced form factor at attractive pricing for wide market penetration. The reduced form factor enabled by high-efficiency operation at high frequency further enables significant system price reduction because of savings in bulky extensive passive elements and heat sink costs. The high-power market, however, still remains unaddressed by lateral GaN devices. The current and voltage demand for high power conversion application makes the chip area in a lateral topology so large that it becomes more difficult to manufacture. Vertical GaN devices would play a big role alongside of silicon carbide (SiC) to address the high power conversion needs. In this paper, the development, performance, and status of lateral and vertical GaN devices are discussed.

  15. VERTICAL KINK OSCILLATION OF A MAGNETIC FLUX ROPE STRUCTURE IN THE SOLAR CORONA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, S.; Cho, K.-S.; Nakariakov, V. M.

    2014-12-20

    Vertical transverse oscillations of a coronal magnetic rope, observed simultaneously in the 171 Å and 304 Å bandpasses of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), are detected. The oscillation period is about 700 s and the displacement amplitude is about 1 Mm. The oscillation amplitude remains constant during the observation. Simultaneous observation of the rope in the bandpasses corresponding to the coronal and chromospheric temperatures suggests that it has a multi-thermal structure. Oscillatory patterns in 171 Å and 304 Å are coherent, which indicates that the observed kink oscillation is collective, in which the rope moves as a single entity. We interpret the oscillation as a fundamental standing vertically polarized kink mode of the rope, while the interpretation in terms of a perpendicular fast wave could not be entirely ruled out. In addition, the arcade situated above the rope and seen in the 171 Å bandpass shows an oscillatory motion with the period of about 1000 s.

  16. Polarization measurement and vertical aperture optimization for obtaining circularly polarized bend-magnet radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kortright, J.; Rice, M.; Hussain, Z.; Padmore, H.; Adamson, A.; Huff, W.; Young, A.; Moler, E.; Kellar, S.; Ynzunza, R.; Palomares, F.; Daimon, H.; Tober, E.; Fadley, C. [Center for X-Ray Optics, Advanced Light Source, Chemical Sciences Division, Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)] [Center for X-Ray Optics, Advanced Light Source, Chemical Sciences Division, Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); [Physics Department, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); [Department of Material Physics, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    Using multilayer linear polarizers, we have characterized the polarization state of radiation from bend-magnet beamline 9.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source as a function of vertical opening angle at photon energies of 367 and 722 eV. Both a fine slit and a coarse semi-aperture were stepped across the beam to accept different portions of the vertical radiation fan. Polarimetry yields the degree of linear polarization directly and the degree of circular polarization indirectly assuming an immeasurably small amount of unpolarized radiation based on the close agreement of the theoretical and experimental results for linear polarization. The results are in good agreement with theoretical calculations, with departures from theory resulting from uncertainty in the effective aperture of the measured beam. The narrow 0.037-mrad aperture on the orbit plane transmits a beam whose degree of linear polarization exceeds 0.99 at these energies. The wide semi-aperture blocking the beam from above and below transmits a beam with a maximum figure of merit, given by the square root of flux times the degree of circular polarization, when the aperture edge is on the orbit plane thus blocking only half of the total available flux. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Wall pressure measurements of flooding in vertical countercurrent annular air–water flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choutapalli, I., Vierow, K.

    2010-01-01

    An experimental study of flooding in countercurrent air-water annular flow in a large diameter vertical tube using wall pressure measurements is described in this paper. Axial pressure profiles along the length of the test section were measured up to and after flooding using fast response pressure transducers for three representative liquid flow rates representing a wide range of liquid Reynolds numbers (ReL = 4?/?; ? is the liquid mass flow rate per unit perimeter; ? is the dynamic viscosity) from 3341 to 19,048. The results show that flooding in large diameter tubes cannot be initiated near the air outlet and is only initiated near the air inlet. Fourier analysis of the wall pressure measurements shows that up to the point of flooding, there is no dominant wave frequency but rather a band of frequencies encompassing both the low frequency and the broad band that are responsible for flooding. The data indicates that flooding in large diameter vertical tubes may be caused by the constructive superposition of a plurality of waves rather than the action of a single large-amplitude wave.

  18. Vertical two-phase flow regimes and pressure gradients: Effect of viscosity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Da Hlaing, Nan; Sirivat, Anuvat; Siemanond, Kitipat [The Petroleum and Petrochemical College, Chulalongkorn University, Soi Chula 12, Phayathai Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Wilkes, James O. [Department of Chemical Engineering, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2136 (United States)

    2007-05-15

    The effect of liquid viscosity on the flow regimes and the corresponding pressure gradients along the vertical two-phase flow was investigated. Experiment was carried out in a vertical transparent tube of 0.019 m in diameter and 3 m in length and the pressure gradients were measured by a U-tube manometer. Water and a 50 vol.% glycerol solution were used as the working fluids whose kinematic viscosities were 0.85 x 10{sup -6} and 4.0 x 10{sup -6} m{sup 2}/s, respectively. In our air-liquid annular two-phase flow, the liquid film of various thicknesses flowed adjacent to the wall and the gas phase flowed at the center of the tube. The superficial air velocity, j{sub air}, was varied between 0.0021 and 58.7 m/s and the superficial liquid velocity, j{sub liquid}, was varied between 0 and 0.1053 m/s. In the bubble, the slug and the slug-churn flow regimes, the pressure gradients decreased with increasing Reynolds number. But in the annular and the mist flow regimes, pressure gradients increased with increasing Reynolds number. Finally, the experimentally measured pressure gradient values were compared and are in good agreement with the theoretical values. (author)

  19. Lidar Measurements of the Vertical Distribution of Aerosol Optical and Physical Properties over Central Asia

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chen, Boris B.; Sverdlik, Leonid G.; Imashev, Sanjar A.; Solomon, Paul A.; Lantz, Jeffrey; Schauer, James J.; Shafer, Martin M.; Artamonova, Maria S.; Carmichael, Gregory R.

    2013-01-01

    The vertical structure of aerosol optical and physical properties was measured by Lidar in Eastern Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia, from June 2008 to May 2009. Lidar measurements were supplemented with surface-based measurements of PM 2.5 and PM 10 mass and chemical composition in both size fractions. Dust transported into the region is common, being detected 33% of the time. The maximum frequency occurred in the spring of 2009. Dust transported to Central Asia comes from regional sources, for example, Taklimakan desert and Aral Sea basin, and from long-range transport, for example, deserts of Arabia, Northeast Africa, Iran, and Pakistan. Regionalmore »sources are characterized by pollution transport with maximum values of coarse particles within the planetary boundary layer, aerosol optical thickness, extinction coefficient, integral coefficient of aerosol backscatter, and minimum values of the Ångström exponent. Pollution associated with air masses transported over long distances has different characteristics during autumn, winter, and spring. During winter, dust emissions were low resulting in high values of the Ångström exponent (about 0.51) and the fine particle mass fraction (64%). Dust storms were more frequent during spring with an increase in coarse dust particles in comparison to winter. The aerosol vertical profiles can be used to lower uncertainty in estimating radiative forcing. « less

  20. Observation of gravitationally induced vertical striation of polarized ultracold neutrons by spin-echo spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Afach; N. J. Ayres; G. Ban; G. Bison; K. Bodek; Z. Chowdhuri; M. Daum; M. Fertl; B. Franke; W. C. Griffith; Z. D. Gruji?; P. G. Harris; W. Heil; V. Hélaine; M. Kasprzak; Y. Kermaidic; K. Kirch; P. Knowles; H. -C. Koch; S. Komposch; A. Kozela; J. Krempel; B. Lauss; T. Lefort; Y. Lemière; A. Mtchedlishvili; M. Musgrave; O. Naviliat-Cuncic; J. M. Pendlebury; F. M. Piegsa; G. Pignol; C. Plonka-Spehr; P. N. Prashanth; G. Quéméner; M. Rawlik; D. Rebreyend; D. Ries; S. Roccia; D. Rozpedzik; P. Schmidt-Wellenburg; N. Severijns; J. A. Thorne; A. Weis; E. Wursten; G. Wyszynski; J. Zejma; J. Zenner; G. Zsigmond

    2015-09-08

    We describe a spin-echo method for ultracold neutrons (UCNs) confined in a precession chamber and exposed to a $|B_0|=1~\\text{\\mu T}$ magnetic field. We have demonstrated that the analysis of UCN spin-echo resonance signals in combination with knowledge of the ambient magnetic field provides an excellent method by which to reconstruct the energy spectrum of a confined ensemble of neutrons. The method takes advantage of the relative dephasing of spins arising from a gravitationally induced striation of stored UCN of different energies, and also permits an improved determination of the vertical magnetic-field gradient with an exceptional accuracy of $1.1~\\text{pT/cm}$. This novel combination of a well-known nuclear resonance method and gravitationally induced vertical striation is unique in the realm of nuclear and particle physics and should prove to be invaluable for the assessment of systematic effects in precision experiments such as searches for an electric dipole moment of the neutron or the measurement of the neutron lifetime.

  1. Frequency-doubled vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raymond, Thomas D. (Edgewood, NM); Alford, William J. (Albuquerque, NM); Crawford, Mary H. (Albuquerque, NM); Allerman, Andrew A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A frequency-doubled semiconductor vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser (VECSEL) is disclosed for generating light at a wavelength in the range of 300-550 nanometers. The VECSEL includes a semiconductor multi-quantum-well active region that is electrically or optically pumped to generate lasing at a fundamental wavelength in the range of 600-1100 nanometers. An intracavity nonlinear frequency-doubling crystal then converts the fundamental lasing into a second-harmonic output beam. With optical pumping with 330 milliWatts from a semiconductor diode pump laser, about 5 milliWatts or more of blue light can be generated at 490 nm. The device has applications for high-density optical data storage and retrieval, laser printing, optical image projection, chemical-sensing, materials processing and optical metrology.

  2. Vertically aligned gas-insulated transmission line having particle traps at the inner conductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dale, Steinar J. (Monroeville, PA)

    1984-01-01

    Gas insulated electrical apparatus having first and second conductors separated by an insulating support within an insulating gas environment, and particle traps disposed along the surface of the high potential conductor for trapping and inactivating foreign particles which may be present within the insulating gas medium. Several embodiments of the invention were developed which are particularly suited for vertically aligned gas insulated transmission lines. The particle traps are grooves or cavities formed into the walls of the tubular inner conductor, without extending into the hollow portion of the conductor. In other embodiments, the traps are appendages or insert flanges extending from the inner conductor, with the insulator supports contacting the appendages instead of the inner conductor.

  3. Numerical Investigation of Vertical Plunging Jet Using a Hybrid Multifluid–VOF Multiphase CFD Solver

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shonibare, Olabanji Y.; Wardle, Kent E.

    2015-01-01

    A novel hybrid multiphase flow solver has been used to conduct simulations of a vertical plunging liquid jet. This solver combines a multifluid methodology with selective interface sharpening to enable simulation of both the initial jet impingement and the long-time entrained bubble plume phenomena. Models are implemented for variable bubble size capturing and dynamic switching of interface sharpened regions to capture transitions between the initially fully segregated flow types into the dispersed bubbly flow regime. It was found that the solver was able to capture the salient features of the flow phenomena under study and areas for quantitative improvement havemore »been explored and identified. In particular, a population balance approach is employed and detailed calibration of the underlying models with experimental data is required to enable quantitative prediction of bubble size and distribution to capture the transition between segregated and dispersed flow types with greater fidelity.« less

  4. Fish schooling as a basis for vertical axis wind turbine farm design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whittlesey, Robert W; Dabiri, John O

    2010-01-01

    Most wind farms consist of horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs) due to the high power coefficient (mechanical power output divided by the power of the free-stream air through the turbine cross-sectional area) of an isolated turbine. However when in close proximity to neighbouring turbines, HAWTs suffer from a reduced power coefficient. In contrast, previous research on vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) suggests that closely-spaced VAWTs may experience only small decreases (or even increases) in an individual turbine's power coefficient when placed in close proximity to neighbours, thus yielding much higher power outputs for a given area of land. A potential flow model of inter-VAWT interactions is developed to investigate the effect of changes in VAWT spatial arrangement on the array performance coefficient, which compares the expected average power coefficient of turbines in an array to a spatially-isolated turbine. A geometric arrangement based on the configuration of shed vortices in the wake of schooli...

  5. Cryogenic Etching of Silicon: An Alternative Method for Fabrication of Vertical Microcantilever Master Molds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, Darrell Keith [ORNL; Lavrik, Nickolay V [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the use of deep reactive ion etching of silicon with fluorine high-density plasmas at cryogenic temperatures to produce silicon master molds for vertical microcantilever arrays used for controlling substrate stiffness for culturing living cells. The resultant profiles achieved depend on the rate of deposition and etching of an SiO{sub x}F{sub y} polymer, which serves as a passivation layer on the sidewalls of the etched structures in relation to areas that have not been passivated with the polymer. We look at how optimal tuning of two parameters, the O{sub 2} flow rate and the capacitively coupled plasma power, determine the etch profile. All other pertinent parameters are kept constant. We examine the etch profiles produced using electron-beam resist as the main etch mask, with holes having diameters of 750 nm, 1 ??m , and 2 ??m.

  6. Vertical two-phase flow regimes and pressure gradients under the influence of SDS surfactant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duangprasert, Tanabordee; Sirivat, Anuvat; Siemanond, Kitipat [The Petroleum and Petrochemical College, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Wilkes, James O. [Department of Chemical Engineering, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2136 (United States)

    2008-01-15

    Two-phase gas/liquid flows in vertical pipes have been systematically investigated. Water and SDS surfactant solutions at various concentrations were used as the working fluids. In particular, we focus our work on the influence of surfactant addition on the flow regimes, the corresponding pressure gradients, and the bubble sizes and velocity. Adding the surfactant lowers the air critical Reynolds numbers for the bubble-slug flow and the slug flow transitions. The pressure gradients of SDS solutions are lower than those of pure water especially in the slug flow and the slug-churn flow regimes, implying turbulent drag reduction. At low Re{sub air}, the bubble sizes of the surfactant solution are lower than those of pure water due to the increase in viscosity. With increasing and at high Re{sub air}, the bubble sizes of the SDS solution become greater than those of pure water which is attributed to the effect of surface tension. (author)

  7. On the role of disorder on graphene and graphene nanoribbon-based vertical tunneling transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghobadi, Nayereh; Pourfath, Mahdi E-mail: pourfath@iue.tuwien.ac.at

    2014-11-14

    In this work, the characteristics of vertical tunneling field-effect transistors based on graphene (VTGFET) and graphene nanoribbon heterostructure (VTGNRFET) in the presence of disorder are theoretically investigated. An statistical analysis based on an atomistic tight-binding model for the electronic bandstructure along with the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism are employed. We study the dependence of the averaged density of states, transmission probability, on- and off-state conductances, on/off conductance ratio, and transfer characteristics on the substrate induced potential fluctuations and vacancies. In addition, the variabilities of the device characteristics due to the presence of disorder are evaluated. It can be inferred from the results that while introducing vacancies cause a relatively modest suppression of the transmission probability, potential fluctuations lead to the significant increase of transmission probability and conductance of the device. Moreover, the results show that the transport properties of VTGFET are more robust against disorder compared to VTGNRFET.

  8. Growth of a peanut shaped bulge via resonant trapping of stellar orbits in the vertical Inner Lindblad Resonances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. C. Quillen

    2002-09-18

    We present a simple resonant Hamiltonian model for the vertical response of a stellar disk to the growth of a bar perturbation. As a bar perturbation grows stars become trapped in vertical Inner Lindblad resonances and are lifted into higher amplitude orbits. The vertical structure of a boxy and peanut shaped bulge as a function of radius and azimuthal angle in the galaxy plane can be predicted from the strength and speed of the bar perturbation and the derivatives of the gravitational potential. This model predicts that stars on the outer side of the resonance are lifted higher than stars on the inner side, offering an explanation for the sharp outer edge of the boxy/peanut.

  9. Effect of rolling motion on critical heat flux for subcooled flow boiling in vertical tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, J. S.; Park, I. U.; Park, M. Y.; Park, G. C.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents defining characteristics of the critical heat flux (CHF) for the boiling of R-134a in vertical tube operation under rolling motion in marine reactor. It is important to predict CHF of marine reactor having the rolling motion in order to increase the safety of the reactor. Marine Reactor Moving Simulator (MARMS) tests are conducted to measure the critical heat flux using R-134a flowing upward in a uniformly heated vertical tube under rolling motion. MARMS was rotated by motor and mechanical power transmission gear. The CHF tests were performed in a 9.5 mm I.D. test section with heated length of 1 m. Mass fluxes range from 285 to 1300 kg m{sup -2}s{sup -1}, inlet subcooling from 3 to 38 deg. C and outlet pressures from 13 to 24 bar. Amplitudes of rolling range from 15 to 40 degrees and periods from 6 to 12 sec. To convert the test conditions of CHF test using R-134a in water, Katto's fluid-to-fluid modeling was used in present investigation. A CHF correlation is presented which accounts for the effects of pressure, mass flux, inlet subcooling and rolling angle over all conditions tested. Unlike existing transient CHF experiments, CHF ratio of certain mass flux and pressure are different in rolling motion. For the mass fluxes below 500 kg m{sup -2}s{sup -1} at 13, 16 (region of relative low mass flux), CHF ratio was decreased but was increased above that mass flux (region of relative high mass flux). Moreover, CHF tend to enhance in entire mass flux at 24 bar. (authors)

  10. Estimating nocturnal ecosystem respiration from the vertical turbulent flux and change in storage of CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Lianhong; Van Gorsel, Eva; Leuning, Ray; Delpierre, Nicolas; Black, Andy; Chen, Baozhang; Munger, J. William; Wofsy, Steve; Aubinet, M.

    2009-11-01

    Micrometeorological measurements of nighttime ecosystem respiration can be systematically biased when stable atmospheric conditions lead to drainage flows associated with decoupling of air flow above and within plant canopies. The associated horizontal and vertical advective fluxes cannot be measured using instrumentation on the single towers typically used at micrometeorological sites. A common approach to minimize bias is to use a threshold in friction velocity, u*, to exclude periods when advection is assumed to be important, but this is problematic in situations when in-canopy flows are decoupled from the flow above. Using data from 25 flux stations in a wide variety of forest ecosystems globally, we examine the generality of a novel approach to estimating nocturnal respiration developed by van Gorsel et al. (van Gorsel, E., Leuning, R., Cleugh, H.A., Keith, H., Suni, T., 2007. Nocturnal carbon efflux: reconciliation of eddy covariance and chamber measurements using an alternative to the u*-threshold filtering technique. Tellus 59B, 397 403, Tellus, 59B, 307-403). The approach is based on the assumption that advection is small relative to the vertical turbulent flux (FC) and change in storage (FS) of CO2 in the few hours after sundown. The sum of FC and FS reach a maximum during this period which is used to derive a temperature response function for ecosystem respiration. Measured hourly soil temperatures are then used with this function to estimate respiration RRmax. The new approach yielded excellent agreement with (1) independent measurements using respiration chambers, (2) with estimates using ecosystem light-response curves of Fc + Fs extrapolated to zero light, RLRC, and (3) with a detailed process-based forest ecosystem model, Rcast. At most sites respiration rates estimated using the u*-filter, Rust, were smaller than RRmax and RLRC. Agreement of our approach with independent measurements indicates that RRmax provides an excellent estimate of nighttime ecosystem respiration

  11. Three-dimensional Numerical Analysis on Blade Response of Vertical Axis Tidal Current Turbine Under Operational Condition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Ye; Karri, Naveen K.; Wang, Qi

    2014-04-30

    Tidal power as a large-scale renewable source of energy has been receiving significant attention recently because of its advantages over the wind and other renewal energy sources. The technology used to harvest energy from tidal current is called a tidal current turbine. Though some of the principles of wind turbine design are applicable to tidal current turbines, the design of latter ones need additional considerations like cavitation damage, corrosion etc. for the long-term reliability of such turbines. Depending up on the orientation of axis, tidal current turbines can be classified as vertical axis turbines or horizontal axis turbines. Existing studies on the vertical axis tidal current turbine focus more on the hydrodynamic aspects of the turbine rather than the structural aspects. This paper summarizes our recent efforts to study the integrated hydrodynamic and structural aspects of the vertical axis tidal current turbines. After reviewing existing methods in modeling tidal current turbines, we developed a hybrid approach that combines discrete vortex method -finite element method that can simulate the integrated hydrodynamic and structural response of a vertical axis turbine. This hybrid method was initially employed to analyze a typical three-blade vertical axis turbine. The power coefficient was used to evaluate the hydrodynamic performance, and critical deflection was considered to evaluate the structural reliability. A sensitivity analysis was also conducted with various turbine height-to-radius ratios. The results indicate that both the power output and failure probability increase with the turbine height, suggesting a necessity for optimal design. An attempt to optimize a 3-blade vertical axis turbine design with hybrid method yielded a ratio of turbine height to radius (H/R) about 3.0 for reliable maximum power output.

  12. Using computerized tomography to determine ionospheric structures. Part 2, A method using curved paths to increase vertical resolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vittitoe, C.N.

    1993-08-01

    A method is presented to unfold the two-dimensional vertical structure in electron density by using data on the total electron content for a series of paths through the ionosphere. The method uses a set of orthonormal basis functions to represent the vertical structure and takes advantage of curved paths and the eikonical equation to reduce the number of iterations required for a solution. Curved paths allow a more thorough probing of the ionosphere with a given set of transmitter and receiver positions. The approach can be directly extended to more complex geometries.

  13. Two-stage epitaxial growth of vertically-aligned SnO2 nano-rods on(001) ceria

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Solovyov, Vyacheslav F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wu, Li-jun [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Rupich, Martin W. [American Superconductor, Devens, MA (United States); Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan [American Superconductor, Devens, MA (United States); Li, Xiaoping [American Superconductor, Devens, MA (United States); Li, Qiang [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Growth of high-aspect ratio oriented tin oxide, SnO2, nano-rods is complicated by a limited choice of matching substrates. We show that a (001) cerium oxide, CeO2, surface uniquely enables epitaxial growth of tin-oxide nano-rods via a two-stage process. First, (100) oriented nano-wires coat the ceria surface by lateral growth, forming a uniaxially-textured SnO2 deposit. Second, vertical SnO2nano-rods nucleate on the deposit by homoepitaxy. We demonstrate growth of vertically oriented 1-2 ?m long nano-rods with an average diameter of ?20 nm.

  14. Two-stage epitaxial growth of vertically-aligned SnO2 nano-rods on(001) ceria

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Solovyov, Vyacheslav F.; Wu, Li-jun; Rupich, Martin W.; Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan; Li, Xiaoping; Li, Qiang

    2014-09-20

    Growth of high-aspect ratio oriented tin oxide, SnO2, nano-rods is complicated by a limited choice of matching substrates. We show that a (001) cerium oxide, CeO2, surface uniquely enables epitaxial growth of tin-oxide nano-rods via a two-stage process. First, (100) oriented nano-wires coat the ceria surface by lateral growth, forming a uniaxially-textured SnO2 deposit. Second, vertical SnO2nano-rods nucleate on the deposit by homoepitaxy. We demonstrate growth of vertically oriented 1-2 ?m long nano-rods with an average diameter of ?20 nm.

  15. Vertical transmission of TnSNPV, TnCPV, AcMNPV, and possibly recombinant NPV in Trichoplusia ni

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    ; Risk assessment 1. Introduction Vertical transmission, or parent-to-offspring passage of a pathogenic microorganism, is a phenomenon commonly observed with insect viruses. Such transmis- sion is common pathogens generally is not critical for maintaining their populations in nature nor does it correlate

  16. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 58, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2009 865 Vertical Handoff Decision Algorithms for Providing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and other mobile applications will be expected to have seamless VHO between heterogeneous access networks.g., base stations and access points) but also maximize the collective battery lifetime of mobile nodes (MNsIEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 58, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2009 865 Vertical Handoff

  17. On the Vertical Structure of Modeled and Observed Deep Convective Storms: Insights for Precipitation Retrieval and Microphysical Parameterization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Droegemeier, Kelvin K.

    On the Vertical Structure of Modeled and Observed Deep Convective Storms: Insights-GEORGIOU, AND VENUGOPAL VURUPUTUR Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Minnesota of hydrometeors (liquid and frozen water droplets in a cloud) produced by high-resolution NWP models with explicit

  18. Patterned Growth of Vertically Aligned ZnO Nanowire Arrays on Inorganic Substrates at Low Temperature without Catalyst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    technology. Patterned growth of aligned ZnO NWs has also been accomplished by PVD using nanospherePatterned Growth of Vertically Aligned ZnO Nanowire Arrays on Inorganic Substrates at Low, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 Received September 2, 2008; E-mail: zhong

  19. Abstract--High speed, oxide-confined, polyimide-planarized 850 nm vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) exhibit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lear, Kevin L.

    10760 1 Abstract--High speed, oxide-confined, polyimide-planarized 850 nm vertical cavity surface using a reproducible, simple process incorporating polyimide with good adhesion that does not require based on a simplified, robust process incorporating photosensitive polyimide with good metal adhesion

  20. 39.2 / B. L. Zhang 39.2: Optical Analysis of Vertical Aligned Mode on Color Filter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    39.2 / B. L. Zhang 39.2: Optical Analysis of Vertical Aligned Mode on Color Filter Liquid of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong Y. C. Chen Himax Display, No.12, Nanke 8th Road, Tainan on color filter liquid-crystal-on-silicon microdisplay. Three-dimensional optical analyses were performed

  1. Nine-component vertical seismic profile (9C VSP) data were acquired across a three-state area (Texas, Kansas,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin, University of

    , Kansas, and Colorado showed that there is no preferred seismic wave mode for imaging Morrow stratigraphyNine-component vertical seismic profile (9C VSP) data were acquired across a three-state area (Texas, Kansas, Colorado) to evaluate the relative merits of imaging Morrow and post-Morrow stratigraphy

  2. Potential order-of-magnitude enhancement of wind farm power density via counter-rotating vertical-axis wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dabiri, John O.

    Potential order-of-magnitude enhancement of wind farm power density via counter-rotating vertical-axis wind turbine arrays John O. Dabiria) Graduate Aeronautical Laboratories and Bioengineering, California; published online 19 July 2011) Modern wind farms comprised of horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWTs) require

  3. Modeling of Vertical Ground Loop Heat Exchangers with Variable Convective Resistance and Thermal Mass of the Fluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modeling of Vertical Ground Loop Heat Exchangers with Variable Convective Resistance and Thermal-term behavior of ground loop heat exchangers (GLHE) is critical to the design and energy analysis of ground in the tube to guarantee a low convective heat transfer resistance. However, for some antifreeze types

  4. Optimal estimation of catch by the continuous underway fish egg sampler based on a model of the vertical distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    deYoung, Brad

    modelling, catchability, fish eggs, sampling, survey design, uncertainty, vertical distribution. Received 28 an absolute measure of abundance, because gear avoidance is non-existent and the reten- tion efficiency of plankton nets can be estimated precisely (Lo, 1985). However, survey design and precision represent key

  5. An A-Train and model perspective on the vertical distribution of pollution transport in the1 Northern Hemisphere2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heald, Colette L.

    by Duncan and Bey [2004] with the most dominant export45 towards the northeast over Russia, which can also to investigate34 the vertical structure of pollution during export and long range transport. We focus on the35 export and transport out of three main regions: Asia, Europe, and North38 America.39 Pollution exported

  6. Using Vertical Rock Uplift Patterns to Constrain the Three-Dimensional Fault Configuration in the Los Angeles Basin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurapov, Alexander

    Using Vertical Rock Uplift Patterns to Constrain the Three-Dimensional Fault Configuration of geologic uplift patterns with results of three-dimensional mechanical models provides constraints in the northern Los Angeles basin, California. The modeled uplift matches well the geologic pattern of uplift as

  7. On the vertical profile of stratus liquid water flux using a millimeter cloud radar Shelby Frisch Paquita Zuidema Chris Fairall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zuidema, Paquita

    that calculations of the implied cloud-top entrainment were sensitive to the liquid water flux term of the radar reflectivity is shown graphically below. We estimate an error in the liquid water fluxOn the vertical profile of stratus liquid water flux using a millimeter cloud radar Shelby Frisch

  8. Optimization of Vertical and Horizontal Beamforming Kernels on the PowerPC G4 Processor with AltiVec Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Young Hyun

    1 Optimization of Vertical and Horizontal Beamforming Kernels on the PowerPC G4 Processor with Alti-time on a Sun UltraSPARC II server with 16 333-MHz processors by utilizing the Visual Instruction Set (VIS beamforming kernels to use AltiVec SIMD extension for the PowerPC. AltiVec can execute up to four 32-bit

  9. Edge-emission electroluminescence study of as-grown vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghosh, Sandip

    Edge-emission electroluminescence study of as-grown vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser 22 April 2000 We report polarized edge- and front-emission electroluminescence studies on red on pieces of as-grown wafers using indium­tin­oxide-coated glass electrodes. The front-emission spectra

  10. Modeling of Vertical Ground Loop Heat Exchangers with Variable Convective Resistance and Thermal Mass of the Fluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    source heat pump (GSHP) systems. Thermal load profiles vary significantly from building to buildingModeling of Vertical Ground Loop Heat Exchangers with Variable Convective Resistance and Thermal-term behavior of ground loop heat exchangers (GLHE) is critical to the design and energy analysis of ground

  11. MILLING OPERATIONS Milling is the process of machining flat, curved, or Milling machines are basically classified as vertical or

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gellman, Andrew J.

    of a motor driven spindle, which milling machines have self-contained electric drive motors, mountsTC 9-524 Chapter 8 MILLING OPERATIONS Milling is the process of machining flat, curved, or Milling machines are basically classified as vertical or irregular surfaces by feeding the workpiece against

  12. Optics, Acoustics and Stress in Situ (OASIS): Effects of Aggregation, Vertical Structure, and Relation to Physical Forcing.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boss, Emmanuel S.

    Optics, Acoustics and Stress in Situ (OASIS): Effects of Aggregation, Vertical Structure. Arlington, VA 22203-1995 TITLE: Optics, Acoustics and Stress in Situ (OASIS): Effects of Aggregation of Research and Sponsored Programs #12;Abstract Nearbed optical and acoustical properties in coastal waters

  13. Vertically Grown Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Anode and Nickel Silicide Integrated High Performance Microsized (1.25 L) Microbial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vertically Grown Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Anode and Nickel Silicide Integrated High Performance multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with a nickel silicide (NiSi) contact area that produced 197 mA/m2, carbon nanotube, nickel silicide, surface-to-volume ratio, power density Microbial fuel cells (MFCs

  14. Functional MR imaging of the awake monkey in a novel vertical large-bore 7 Tesla setup J. Pfeuffer1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Functional MR imaging of the awake monkey in a novel vertical large-bore 7 Tesla setup J. Pfeuffer1 The 7 Tesla magnet has a 60 cm bore, an overall height of 6.40 m, and an empty weight of 80 tons

  15. Thermal decomposition of ethanol and growth of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes by alcohol catalytic chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    Thermal decomposition of ethanol and growth of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes. In this study, we have investigated the thermal decomposition of ethanol at various temperatures, as well National Meeting, San Francisco, CA, September 10-14, 2006 1/1 PRES 29 - Thermal decomposition of ethanol

  16. Catalyst deposition by spin-coating for synthesis of vertically-aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    Catalyst deposition by spin-coating for synthesis of vertically-aligned single-walled carbon-SWNTs) are synthesized from catalyst nanoparticles deposited onto Si or quartz substrates by a dip-coating process [3]. Here we present a spin-coating method as an alternative to dip-coating, where cobalt and molybdenum

  17. Asymptotic analysis of chaotic particle sedimentation and trapping in the vicinity of a vertical upward streamline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angilella, J R

    2010-01-01

    The sedimentation of a heavy Stokes particle in a laminar plane or axisymmetric flow is investigated by means of asymptotic methods. We focus on the occurrence of Stommel's retention zones, and on the splitting of their separatrices. The goal of this paper is to analyze under which conditions these retention zones can form, and under which conditions they can break and induce chaotic particle settling. The terminal velocity of the particle in still fluid is of the order of the typical velocity of the flow, and the particle response time is much smaller than the typical flow time-scale. It is observed that if the flow is steady and has an upward streamline where the vertical velocity has a strict local maximum, then inertialess particle trajectories can take locally the form of elliptic Stommel cells, provided the particle terminal velocity is close enough to the local peak flow velocity. These structures only depend on the local flow topology and do not require the flow to have closed streamlines or stagnatio...

  18. Vertically aligned P(VDF-TrFE) core-shell structures on flexible pillar arrays

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Choi, Yoon-Young; Yun, Tae Gwang; Qaiser, Nadeem; Paik, Haemin; Roh, Hee Seok; Hong, Jongin; Hong, Seungbum; Han, Seung Min; No, Kwangsoo

    2015-06-04

    PVDF and P(VDF-TrFE) nano- and micro- structures are widely used due to their potential applications in several fields, including sensors, actuators, vital sign transducers, and energy harvesters. In this study, we developed vertically aligned P(VDF-TrFE) core-shell structures using high modulus polyurethane acrylate (PUA) pillars as the support structure to maintain the structural integrity. In addition, we were able to improve the piezoelectric effect by 1.85 times from 40 ± 2 to 74 ± 2 pm/V when compared to the thin film counterpart, which contributes to the more efficient current generation under a given stress, by making an effective use ofmore »the P(VDF-TrFE) thin top layer as well as the side walls. We attribute the enhancement of piezoelectric effects to the contributions from the shell component and the strain confinement effect, which was supported by our modeling results. We envision that these organic-based P(VDF-TrFE) core-shell structures will be used widely as 3D sensors and power generators because they are optimized for current generations by utilizing all surface areas, including the side walls of core-shell structures.« less

  19. Vertical plasma drifts in the F region at the magnetic equator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Namboothiri, S.P.; Balan, N.; Rao, P.B. (Department of Physics, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Trivandrum, India (IN))

    1989-09-01

    HF Doppler observations of vertical plasma drifts in the equatorial F region at Trivandrum (dip: 0.9{degree}S), conducted during 1984--1986, are presented. The observations reveal a fairly consistent diurnal variation pattern with the drift velocities directing upward during day and downward during night. The diurnal pattern is dominated by the characteristic prereversal enhancement that exhibits the most striking seasonal, solar, and magnetic activity effects. Under high solar activity, the average peak velocity of the enhancement is found to drop from {similar to}40 m s{sup {minus}1} in equinox to {similar to}10 m s{sup {minus}1} in summer. Likewise, the average equinoctial peak velocity drops almost by a factor of 3 as the solar activity index (S10.7) falls from 125 to 70 units. The peak velocity has a unique magnetic activity dependence; it drops by more than a factor of 2 as the activity changes from quiet to moderate but assumes well above the quiet day value for high activity. The corresponding variations for the other times of the day are nowhere as pronounced as for the period of the prereversal enhancement. The observations presented here are found to be in broad agreement with those reported for Jicamarca and are also in accordance with the model predictions based on the F region dynamo. {copyright} American Geophysical Union 1989

  20. Vertical motions in the disk of NGC 5668 as seen with optical Fabry-Perot spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Jimenez-Vicente; E. Battaner

    2000-04-20

    We have observed the nearly face-on spiral galaxy NGC 5668 with the TAURUS II Fabry-Perot interferometer at the William Herschel Telescope using the $H\\alpha$ line to study the kinematics of the ionized gas. From the extracted data cube we construct intensity, velocity and velocity dispersion maps. We calculate the rotation curve in the innermost 2 arcmin and we use the residual velocity field to look for regions with important vertical motions. By comparing the geometry of these regions in the residual velocity field with the geometry in the intensity and velocity dispersion maps we are able to select some regions which are very likely to be shells or chimneys in the disk. The geometry and size of these regions are very similar to the shells or chimneys detected in other galaxies by different means. Moreover, it is worth noting than this galaxy has been reported to have a population of neutral hydrogen high velocity clouds (Schulman et al. 1996) which, according to these observations, could have been originated by chimneys similar to those reported in this paper.

  1. Technology assessment of vertical and horizontal air drilling potential in the United States. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carden, R.S.

    1993-08-18

    The objective of the research was to assess the potential for vertical, directional and horizontal air drilling in the United States and to evaluate the current technology used in air drilling. To accomplish the task, the continental United States was divided into drilling regions and provinces. The map in Appendix A shows the divisions. Air drilling data were accumulated for as many provinces as possible. The data were used to define the potential problems associated with air drilling, to determine the limitations of air drilling and to analyze the relative economics of drilling with air versus drilling mud. While gathering the drilling data, operators, drilling contractors, air drilling contractors, and service companies were contacted. Their opinion as to the advantages and limitations of air drilling were discussed. Each was specifically asked if they thought air drilling could be expanded within the continental United States and where that expansion could take place. The well data were collected and placed in a data base. Over 165 records were collected. Once in the data base, the information was analyzed to determine the economics of air drilling and to determine the limiting factors associated with air drilling.

  2. Development of substrate-removal-free vertical ultraviolet light-emitting diode (RefV-LED)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurose, N., E-mail: kurose@fc.ritsumei.ac.jp; Aoyagi, Y. [The Research Organization of Science and Technology, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1, Noji-higashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan)] [The Research Organization of Science and Technology, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1, Noji-higashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Shibano, K.; Araki, T. [Department of Science and Technology, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1, Noji-higashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan)] [Department of Science and Technology, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1, Noji-higashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    A vertical ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diode (LED) that does not require substrate removal is developed. Spontaneous via holes are formed in n-AlN layer epitaxially grown on a high conductive n+Si substrate and the injected current flows directly from the p-electrode to high doped n{sup +} Si substrate through p-AlGaN, multi-quantum wells, n-AlGaN and spontaneous via holes in n-AlN. The spontaneous via holes were formed by controlling feeding-sequence of metal-organic gas sources and NH{sub 3} and growth temperature in MOCVD. The via holes make insulating n-AlN to be conductive. We measured the current-voltage, current-light intensity and emission characteristics of this device. It exhibited a built-in voltage of 3.8 V and emission was stated at 350 nm from quantum wells with successive emission centered at 400?nm. This UV LED can be produced, including formation of n and p electrodes, without any resist process.

  3. A Vertical Resonance Heating Model for X- or Peanut-Shaped Galactic Bulges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quillen, Alice C; Sharma, Sanjib; Di Matteo, Paola

    2013-01-01

    We explore a second order Hamiltonian vertical resonance model for X-shaped galactic bulges. We examine N-body simulations and find that due to the bar slowing down and disk thickening during bar buckling, the resonance and associated peanut-shape moves outward. The peanut-shape is consistent with the location of the resonance, independent of whether the bar buckled or not. We estimate the resonance width from the potential m=4 Fourier component and find that the resonance is narrow, affecting orbits in angular momentum over a range dL/L ~ 0.05. As the resonance moves outward, stars originally in the mid plane are forced out of the mid plane and into orbits just within the resonance separatrix. The height of these orbits, estimated from the Hamiltonian model, is consistent with the peanut-shape height. The X-shape is comprised of stars in these orbits as they are the only ones that would support the peanut-shape in the drifting system. The resonance condition in the Milky Way bulge relates the mid-plane mass ...

  4. ATCA digital controller hardware for vertical stabilization of plasmas in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batista, A. J. N.; Sousa, J.; Varandas, C. A. F. [Associaca(tilde sign)o EURATOM/IST, Centro de Fusa(tilde sign)o Nuclear, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2006-10-15

    The efficient vertical stabilization (VS) of plasmas in tokamaks requires a fast reaction of the VS controller, for example, after detection of edge localized modes (ELM). For controlling the effects of very large ELMs a new digital control hardware, based on the Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture trade mark sign (ATCA), is being developed aiming to reduce the VS digital control loop cycle (down to an optimal value of 10 {mu}s) and improve the algorithm performance. The system has 1 ATCA trade mark sign processor module and up to 12 ATCA trade mark sign control modules, each one with 32 analog input channels (12 bit resolution), 4 analog output channels (12 bit resolution), and 8 digital input/output channels. The Aurora trade mark sign and PCI Express trade mark sign communication protocols will be used for data transport, between modules, with expected latencies below 2 {mu}s. Control algorithms are implemented on a ix86 based processor with 6 Gflops and on field programmable gate arrays with 80 GMACS, interconnected by serial gigabit links in a full mesh topology.

  5. Condensation of Refrigerant-11 on the outside of vertical enhanced tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Domingo, N.

    1981-08-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine heat transfer performance of single vertical tubes with Refrigerant-11 condensing on its outside surface. Twelve enhanced (fluted, spiraled, roped, and corrugated) tubes of 2.54-cm (1-in.) nominal outside diameter and 1.2-m (4-ft) length were tested. Several of the tested tubes featured internal enhanced geometries. A previously tested smooth tube served as the basis for comparison. Composite heat transfer coefficients (coefficients that include the resistances of both the condensing film and the tube wall), based on the total tube outside surface area, ranged from 850 to 6530 W/m/sup 2/ . K (150 to 1150 Btu/h . ft/sup 2/ . /sup 0/F) over the heat flux range of 5675 to 31,375 W/m/sup 2/ (1800 to 9950 Btu/h . ft/sup 2/). The primary conclusions from this study are: (1) for a given heat flux, an external fluted tube can increase composite condensing heat transfer coefficients by up to 5.5 times the smooth tube values, giving better condensing performance than any of the other geometries tested; (2) further increase in composite condensing coefficients can be achieved by using skirts to divide the fluted tube into equal condensing lengths; and (3) for a given overall temperature difference and water flow rate, internal flutes can increase the overall performance by up to 17% over that for a tube with identical outside flutes and a smooth inside surface.

  6. Water Velocity Measurements on a Vertical Barrier Screen at the Bonneville Dam Second Powerhouse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, James S.; Deng, Zhiqun; Weiland, Mark A.; Martinez, Jayson J.; Yuan, Yong

    2011-11-22

    Fish screens at hydroelectric dams help to protect rearing and migrating fish by preventing them from passing through the turbines and directing them towards the bypass channels by providing a sweeping flow parallel to the screen. However, fish screens may actually be harmful to fish if they become impinged on the surface of the screen or become disoriented due to poor flow conditions near the screen. Recent modifications to the vertical barrier screens (VBS) at the Bonneville Dam second powerhouse (B2) intended to increase the guidance of juvenile salmonids into the juvenile bypass system (JBS) have resulted in high mortality and descaling rates of hatchery subyearling Chinook salmon during the 2008 juvenile salmonid passage season. To investigate the potential cause of the high mortality and descaling rates, an in situ water velocity measurement study was conducted using acoustic Doppler velocimeters (ADV) in the gatewell slot at Units 12A and 14A of B2. From the measurements collected the average approach velocity, sweep velocity, and the root mean square (RMS) value of the velocity fluctuations were calculated. The approach velocities measured across the face of the VBS varied but were mostly less than 0.3 m/s. The sweep velocities also showed large variances across the face of the VBS with most measurements being less than 1.5 m/s. This study revealed that the approach velocities exceeded criteria recommended by NOAA Fisheries and Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife intended to improve fish passage conditions.

  7. Long-term impacts of aerosols on vertical development of cloud and precipitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Z.; Liu Y.; Niu, F.; Fan, J.; Rosenfeld, D.; Ding, Y.

    2011-11-13

    Aerosols alter cloud density and the radiative balance of the atmosphere. This leads to changes in cloud microphysics and atmospheric stability, which can either suppress or foster the development of clouds and precipitation. The net effect is largely unknown, but depends on meteorological conditions and aerosol properties. Here, we examine the long-term impact of aerosols on the vertical development of clouds and rainfall frequencies, using a 10-year dataset of aerosol, cloud and meteorological variables collected in the Southern Great Plains in the United States. We show that cloud-top height and thickness increase with aerosol concentration measured near the ground in mixed-phase clouds-which contain both liquid water and ice-that have a warm, low base. We attribute the effect, which is most significant in summer, to an aerosol-induced invigoration of upward winds. In contrast, we find no change in cloud-top height and precipitation with aerosol concentration in clouds with no ice or cool bases. We further show that precipitation frequency and rain rate are altered by aerosols. Rain increases with aerosol concentration in deep clouds that have a high liquid-water content, but declines in clouds that have a low liquid-water content. Simulations using a cloud-resolving model confirm these observations. Our findings provide unprecedented insights of the long-term net impacts of aerosols on clouds and precipitation.

  8. Film condensation of saturated and superheated vapors along isothermal vertical surfaces in mixed convection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winkler, C.M.; Chen, T.S.; Minkowycz, W.J.

    1999-09-01

    An analysis for condensation from an isothermal vertical flat plate in mixed convection is reported. The entire mixed convection regime is divided into two regions. One region covers the forced-convection-dominated regime, and the other covers the free-convection-dominated regime. The governing system of equations is first transformed into a dimensionless form by the nonsimilar transformation, separately for each regime, and then solved using the local nonsimilarity method along with a finite difference scheme. Two nonsimilarity parameters are introduced. The parameter {xi}{sub f} = Gr{sub x}/Re{sub x}{sup 2} characterizes the effect of buoyancy force on forced convection, while the parameter {xi}{sub n} = Re{sub x}/Gr{sub x}{sup 1/2} characterizes the effect of forced flow on free convection. Numerical results for pure steam and refrigerant R-134a are presented for both saturated and superheated cases. It is found that the buoyancy force significantly increases the wall shear stress and condensate mass flux. To a lesser degree, the buoyancy force also increases the wall heat flux. Superheating is found to have an insignificant effect on wall heat flux for a pure vapor.

  9. Reduced graphene oxide and vertically aligned carbon nanotubes superhydrophilic films for supercapacitors devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zanin, H.; Saito, E.; Ceragioli, H.J.; Baranauskas, V.; Corat, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Graphene nanosheets were produced onto wire rods. • RGO and VACNT-O were evaluated and compared as supercapacitor electrode. • RGO and VACNT-O have structural and electrochemical properties quite similars. • The materials present good specific capacitance, energy storage and power delivery. - Abstract: Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNT) superhydrophilic films were prepared by chemical vapor deposition techniques for electrical energy storage investigations. These electrodes were characterized in terms of their material and electrochemical properties by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), surface wettability, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy dispersive and Raman spectroscopies, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge–discharge. We observed several physical structural and electrochemical similarities between these carbon-based materials with particular attention to very good specific capacitance, ultra-high energy storage and fast power delivery. Our results showed that the main difference between specific capacitance values is attributed to pseudocapacitive contribution and high density of multiwall nanotubes tips. In this work we have tested a supercapacitor device using the VACNT electrodes.

  10. Test plan for non-radioactive testing of vertical calciner for development of direct denitration conversion of Pu-bearing liquors to stable, storage solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, F.D.

    1995-03-30

    Plutonium-bearing liquors, including ANL scrap liquors, will be used for development and demonstration of a vertical calciner direct denitration process for conversion of those liquors to stable, storable PuO{sub 2}-rich solids. This test plan is to test with non-radioactive stand-in materials to demonstrate adequate performance of the vertical calciner and ancillary equipment.

  11. Controlling the emission properties of multimode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers via polarization-and frequency-selective feedback

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, Ingo

    Controlling the emission properties of multimode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers via scheme to control the emission properties of multimode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers. A joint measurements and numerical simulations also reveal that the emission and polarization dynamics can

  12. Copyright 2005 IEEE. Published in the Proceedings of the Hawai'i International Conference on System Sciences, January 36, 2005, Big Island, HI. Impacts of Vertical IS Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steinfield, Charles

    like EDI dependent on how their partners implement the standards, we describe in depth the technical Sciences, January 3­6, 2005, Big Island, HI. Impacts of Vertical IS Standards: The Case of the US Home@bentley.edu Abstract Vertical IS standards prescribe data structures and definitions, document formats, and business

  13. Slow Vertical Deposition of Colloidal Crystals: A Langmuir-Blodgett Robert G. Shimmin, Alexander J. DiMauro, and Paul V. Braun*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    Slow Vertical Deposition of Colloidal Crystals: A Langmuir-Blodgett Process? Robert G. Shimmin thick. We observe that the thickness of colloidal crystals vertically deposited from 1 µm diameter colloidal crystals, effects indistinguishable from those of doubling the concentration of the colloidal

  14. Route to polarization switching induced by optical injection in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sciamanna, M.; Panajotov, K.

    2006-02-15

    We perform a theoretical investigation of the polarization dynamics in a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) subject to orthogonal optical injection, i.e., the injected field has a linear polarization (LP) orthogonal to that of the free-running VCSEL. In agreement with previous experiments [Z. G. Pan et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2999 (1993)], an increase of the injection strength may lead to a polarization switching accompanied by an injection locking. We find that this route to polarization switching is typically accompanied by a cascade of bifurcations to wave-mixing dynamics and time-periodic and possibly chaotic regimes. A detailed mapping of the polarization dynamics in the plane of the injection parameters (detuning, injection strength) unveils a large richness of dynamical scenarios. Of particular interest is the existence of another injection-locked solution for which the two LP modes both lock to the master laser frequency, i.e., an elliptically polarized injection-locked (EPIL) steady state. Modern continuation techniques allow us to unveil an unfolding mechanism of the EPIL solution as the detuning varies and also to link the existence of the EPIL solution to a resonance condition between the master laser frequency and the free-running frequency of the normally depressed LP mode in the slave laser. We furthermore report an additional case of bistability, in which the EPIL solution may coexist with the second injection-locked solution (the one being locked to the master polarization). This case of bistability is a result of the interaction between optical injection and the two-polarization-mode characteristics of VCSEL devices.

  15. Experimental and theoretical studies of isothermal upward gas-liquid flows in vertical tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernandes, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    In two-phase flow technolgy, two important problems exist which must be solved as a function of the various physical and system parameters associated with the phenomenon, and which stand as prerequisites for proper modelling of two-phase processes: Prediction of the flow pattern under existing operating conditions and prediction of the holdup for each given flow pattern. Modelling studies of steady isothermal upward gas-liquid flows in vertical pipes, at low pressures, were undertaken. Experimental data on liquid holdup over a wide range of flow rates were taken for all observed flow patterns-bubbly, slug, churn, and annular - by means of a specially designed Quick-Closing Valves System. This technique also allowed the detection of a unique phenomenon occurring in the form of fast-flowing slugs of gas-liquid mixture, in both the churn and annular flow patterns, which was called the lump phenomenon. The lump holdup was measured and a qualitative theory regarding the nature, formation and propagation of these structures was proposed. A photographic method was applied to the slug flow pattern in order to determine both the rise velocity and length of Taylor bubbles and liquid slugs characteristic of this flow regime. Assisted by the measured data, flow pattern-based physical models were developed for predicting holdup of bubbly flows and the detailed structure of slug flows. The latter was accomplished by means of a fairly complete analysis which enabled the prediction of several variables of interest such as void fractions, velocities, film thicknesses and the length ratio between Taylor bubbles and liquid slugs. The average holdup for churn flow was predicted by directly applying the slug flow model to that flow pattern. A simplified framework for calculating the holdup in annular flows was also proposed. The comparison between theory and experiment showed that for bubbly, slug and churn flows the predicted results are in good agreement with the data.

  16. Air-injection testing in vertical boreholes in welded and nonwelded Tuff, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LeCain, G.D.

    1997-12-31

    Air-injection tests, by use of straddle packers, were done in four vertical boreholes (UE-25 UZ-No.16, USW SD-12, USW NRG-6, and USW NRG-7a) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The geologic units tested were the Tiva Canyon Tuff, nonwelded tuffs of the Paintbrush Group, Topopah Spring Tuff, and Calico Hills Formation. Air-injection permeability values of the Tiva Canyon Tuff ranged from 0.3 x 10{sup -12} to 54.0 x 10{sup -12} m{sup 2}(square meter). Air-injection permeability values of the Paintbrush nonwelded tuff ranged from 0.12 x 10{sup -12} to 3.0 x 10{sup -12} m{sup 2}. Air-injection permeability values of the Topopah Spring Tuff ranged from 0.02 x 10{sup -12} to 33.0 x 10{sup -12} m{sup 2}. The air-injection permeability value of the only Calico Hills Formation interval tested was 0.025 x 10{sup -12} m{sup 2}. The shallow test intervals of the Tiva Canyon Tuff had the highest air-injection permeability values. Variograms of the air-injection permeability values of the Topopah Spring Tuff show a hole effect; an initial increase in the variogram values is followed by a decrease. The hole effect is due to the decrease in permeability with depth identified in several geologic zones. The hole effect indicates some structural control of the permeability distribution, possibly associated with the deposition and cooling of the tuff. Analysis of variance indicates that the air-injection permeability values of borehole NRG-7a of the Topopah Spring Tuff are different from the other boreholes; this indicates areal variation in permeability.

  17. Mixed convection heat transfer from thermal sources mounted on horizontal and vertical surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, S.S.; Jaluria, Y. )

    1990-11-01

    An experimental study is carried out on the fundamental aspects of the conjugate, mixed convective heat transfer from two finite width heat sources, which are of negligible thickness, have a uniform heat flux input at the surface, and are located on a flat plate in a horizontal or the vertical orientation. The heat sources are wide in the transverse direction and, therefore, a two-dimensional flow circumstance is simulated. The mixed convection parameter is varied over a fairly wide range to include the buoyancy-dominated and the mixed convection regimes. The circumstances of pure natural convection are also investigated. The convective mechanisms have been studied in detail by measuring the surface temperatures and determining the heat transfer coefficients for the two heated strips, which represent isolated thermal sources. Experimental results indicate that a stronger upstream heat source causes an increase in the surface temperature of a relatively weaker heat source, located downstream, by reducing it convective heat transfer coefficient. The influence of the upstream source is found to be strongly dependent on the surface orientation, especially in the pure natural convection and the buoyancy dominated regimes. The two heat sources are found to be essentially independent on the surface orientation, especially in the pure natural convection and the buoyancy dominated regimes. The two heat sources are found to be essentially independent of each other, in terms of thermal effects, at a separation distance of more than about three strip widths for both the orientations. The results obtained are relevant to many engineering applications, such as the cooling of electronic systems, positioning of heating elements in furnaces, and safety considerations in enclosure fires.

  18. Room temperature continuous wave InGaAsN quantum well vertical cavity lasers emitting at 1.3 um

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CHOQUETTE,KENT D.; KLEM,JOHN F.; FISCHER,ARTHUR J.; SPAHN,OLGA B.; ALLERMAN,ANDREW A.; FRITZ,IAN J.; KURTZ,STEVEN R.; BREILAND,WILLIAM G.; SIEG,ROBERT M.; GEIB,KENT M.; SCOTT,J.W.; NAONE,R.L.

    2000-06-05

    Selectively oxidized vertical cavity lasers emitting at 1294 nm using InGaAsN quantum wells are reported for the first time which operate continuous wave at and above room temperature. The lasers employ two n-type Al{sub 0.94}Ga{sub 0.06}As/GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors each with a selectively oxidized current aperture adjacent to the optical cavity, and the top output mirror contains a tunnel junction to inject holes into the active region. Continuous wave single mode lasing is observed up to 55 C. These lasers exhibit the longest wavelength reported to date for vertical cavity surface emitting lasers grown on GaAs substrates.

  19. Two-stage epitaxial growth of vertically-aligned SnO2 nano-rods on (001) ceria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solovyov, VF; Wu, LJ; Rupich, MW; Sathyamurthy, S; Li, XP; Li, Q

    2014-12-15

    Growth of high-aspect ratio oriented tin oxide, SnO2, nano-rods is complicated by a limited choice of matching substrates. We show that a (001) cerium oxide, CeO2, surface uniquely enables epitaxial growth of tin-oxide nano-rods via a two-stage process. First, (100) oriented nano-wires coat the ceria surface by lateral growth, forming a uniaxially-textured SnO2 deposit. Second, vertical SnO2 nano-rods nucleate on the deposit by homoepitaxy. We demonstrate growth of vertically oriented 1-2 mu m long nano-rods with an average diameter of approximate to 20 nm. 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of practical vertical ground heat exchanger sizing methods to a Fort Polk data/model benchmark

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornton, J.W.; McDowell, T.P.; Hughes, P.J.

    1997-09-01

    The results of five practical vertical ground heat exchanger sizing programs are compared against a detailed simulation model that has been calibrated to monitored data taken from one military family housing unit at Fort Polk, Louisiana. The calibration of the detailed model to data is described in a companion paper. The assertion that the data/detailed model is a useful benchmark for practical sizing methods is based on this calibration. The results from the comparisons demonstrate the current level of agreement between vertical ground heat exchanger sizing methods in common use. It is recommended that the calibration and comparison exercise be repeated with data sets from additional sites in order to build confidence in the practical sizing methods.

  1. Vertical One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Platforms for Label-Free (Bio)Sensing: Towards Drop-And- Measure Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barillaro, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    In this work, all-silicon, integrated optofluidic platforms, fabricated by electrochemical micromachining technology, making use of vertical, one-dimensional high-aspect- ratio photonic crystals for flow-through (bio)sensing applications are reviewed. The potential of such platforms for point-of-care applications is discussed for both pressure-driven and capillarity- driven operations with reference to refractometry and biochemical sensing.

  2. Determination of fracture and reservoir properties using an automatic history matching technique for wells with finite-conductivity vertical fractures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santhanam, Kalakad Sundhareswaraiyer

    1985-01-01

    ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1985 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering DETERMINATION OF FRACTURE AND RESERVOIR PROPERTIES USING AN AUTOMATIC HISTORY MATCHING TECHNIQUE... FOR WELLS WITH FINITE-CONDUCTIVITY VERTICAL FRACTURES A Thesis by KALAKAD SUNDHARESWARAIYER SANTHANAM Approved as to style and content by William John Lee (Chairman of Commitee) Stephen A. Holditch (Member) Robert R. Berg (Member) Willi D. Von...

  3. Vertical distribution of larval stages of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans (L.), in relation to manure pat temperature gradients 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    March, Philip Anderson

    1981-01-01

    control strategists to recommend the mechanical destruction of the intact manure pat by harrowing (Smith 1889). Mariatt ( 1910) suggested placement of swine in cattle pastures to achieve the same purpose. Rapid dessication of the scattered manure...VERTICAL DISTRISUTION OF LARVAL STAGES OF THE HORN FLY, HAEMATOBIA IRRITANS IRRITANS (L. ), IN RELATION TO MANURE PAT TEMPERATURE GRADIENTS A Thesis by PHILIP ANDERSON MARCH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AijM University...

  4. 46 (2009-6) Application of vertically-aligned single-walled carbon nanotube films to counter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    ) Ar/H2 SWNT Ar (488nm) SWNT SWNT (5) 2.2 Fig. 2 FTO: Fluorine doped tin oxide FTO TiO2 150 5 N719Dye 12 TiO2 SWNT (6) FTO Au/Cr Si (Fig. 3) FTO Pt 30nm TiO2 FTO 150W AM1 46 (2009-6) Application of vertically-aligned single-walled carbon nanotube films to counter

  5. Distribution of maximal clique size of the vertices for theoretical small-world networks and real-world networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meghanathan, Natarajan

    2015-01-01

    Our primary objective in this paper is to study the distribution of the maximal clique size of the vertices in complex networks. We define the maximal clique size for a vertex as the maximum size of the clique that the vertex is part of and such a clique need not be the maximum size clique for the entire network. We determine the maximal clique size of the vertices using a modified version of a branch-and-bound based exact algorithm that has been originally proposed to determine the maximum size clique for an entire network graph. We then run this algorithm on two categories of complex networks: One category of networks capture the evolution of small-world networks from regular network (according to the wellknown Watts-Strogatz model) and their subsequent evolution to random networks; we show that the distribution of the maximal clique size of the vertices follows a Poisson-style distribution at different stages of the evolution of the small-world network to a random network; on the other hand, the maximal cl...

  6. Flow regime mapping of vertical two-phase downflow in a ribbed annulus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kielpinski, A.L.

    1992-01-01

    Two-phase flow regimes have been mapped for vertical, cocurrent downflow in a narrow annulus which is partially segmented by the presence of longitudinal ribs. This geometry and flow condition has application to the analysis of a Large-Break Loss of Coolant Accident (LB-LOCA) in the production K-Reactor at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The ribbed annular geometry, particularly the presence of non-sealing ribs, gives rise to some unique phenomenological features. The flow behavior is influenced by the partial segmentation of the annulus into four quadrants or subchannels. A random element is induced by the natural bowing of the slender tubes; the width of the azimuthal flow path between two subchannels at a given axial location is indeterminate, and can take on any value between zero and the maximum clearance of 7.6 [times] l0[sup [minus]4] m. When the rib gap is zero at a given location, it is at a maximum 180P away at the same axial location. The range of rib gaps is spanned in a single test section, as it would be also in a reactor assembly. As a result of these effects, flow regime maps obtained by other researchers for downflow in annuli are not accurate for defining flow regimes in a ribbed annulus. Flow regime transitions similar to those noted by, e.g., Bamea, were observed; the locations of these transitions were displaced with respect to the transition equations derived by Bamea. Experimental bubble rise velocity measurements were also obtained in the same test section. The bubble rise velocities were much higher than expected from the theory developed for slug bubbles in tubes, unribbed annuli, and rectangular channels. An elliptical-cap bubble rises faster than a slug bubble of the same area. Large, slug-shaped bubbles injected into the test section were observed to reduce in size as they rose, due to interaction with a longitudinal rib. They thereby adopted a shape more like an elliptical-cap bubble, hence rising faster than the original slug bubble.

  7. Flow regime mapping of vertical two-phase downflow in a ribbed annulus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kielpinski, A.L.

    1992-12-01

    Two-phase flow regimes have been mapped for vertical, cocurrent downflow in a narrow annulus which is partially segmented by the presence of longitudinal ribs. This geometry and flow condition has application to the analysis of a Large-Break Loss of Coolant Accident (LB-LOCA) in the production K-Reactor at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The ribbed annular geometry, particularly the presence of non-sealing ribs, gives rise to some unique phenomenological features. The flow behavior is influenced by the partial segmentation of the annulus into four quadrants or subchannels. A random element is induced by the natural bowing of the slender tubes; the width of the azimuthal flow path between two subchannels at a given axial location is indeterminate, and can take on any value between zero and the maximum clearance of 7.6 {times} l0{sup {minus}4} m. When the rib gap is zero at a given location, it is at a maximum 180P away at the same axial location. The range of rib gaps is spanned in a single test section, as it would be also in a reactor assembly. As a result of these effects, flow regime maps obtained by other researchers for downflow in annuli are not accurate for defining flow regimes in a ribbed annulus. Flow regime transitions similar to those noted by, e.g., Bamea, were observed; the locations of these transitions were displaced with respect to the transition equations derived by Bamea. Experimental bubble rise velocity measurements were also obtained in the same test section. The bubble rise velocities were much higher than expected from the theory developed for slug bubbles in tubes, unribbed annuli, and rectangular channels. An elliptical-cap bubble rises faster than a slug bubble of the same area. Large, slug-shaped bubbles injected into the test section were observed to reduce in size as they rose, due to interaction with a longitudinal rib. They thereby adopted a shape more like an elliptical-cap bubble, hence rising faster than the original slug bubble.

  8. Geodetic Constraints on Contemporary Deformation in the Northern...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Analysis- In: Late Cenozoic Structure and Evolution of the Great Basin-Sierra Nevada Transition Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Book Section:...

  9. Geodetic Survey At Yellowstone Region (Hellman & Ramsey, 2004) | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable UrbanKentucky: EnergyGateway EditOpenTechniques Jump2004)2005) |

  10. PREPRINT An Efficient Algorithm for Geocentric to Geodetic Coordinate Conversion

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report:Speeding accessby aLEDSpeeding accessSpeedingPATENTS- 05 - - A75 I30518 18 13

  11. Geodetic Constraints on Contemporary Deformation in the Northern Walker

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButtePowerEdistoWhiskeyFootprintGEXAGemini

  12. SSAASSSAP and SSASMP profiles were projected over a 1 cm vertical grid and difference between them was evaluated in terms of RMSD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SSAASSSAP and SSASMP profiles were projected over a 1 cm vertical grid and difference between them was evaluated in terms of RMSD: Minimizing SSA makes it possible to obtain new values for parameters relating

  13. Atmospheric Test Models and Numerical Experiments for the Simulation of the Global Distribution of Weather Data Transponders II. Vertical Transponder Motion Considerations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grossman, A.; Errico, R.M.

    1999-11-29

    The vertical motion of constant density atmospheric balloons has been considered via an equation of motion for the vertical displacement of a balloon, due to vertical air motion, which can be numerically solved for balloon positions. Initial calculations are made for a constant density atmosphere. Various vertical wind models with relatively large amplitudes are applied to the model to determine how tightly the balloons are coupled to the reference level and the time scale for the balloons to change to the wind driven reference altitude. A surface launch of a balloon to a 6 km reference altitude is modeled using a detailed atmospheric pressure-density-temperature profile in the equation of motion. The results show the balloons to be relatively tightly coupled ({approx} 50-100 m) to the reference altitude.

  14. Developement of 3D Vertically Integrated Pattern Recognition Associative Memory (VIPRAM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deputch, G.; Hoff, J.; Lipton, R.; Liu, T.; Olsen, J.; Ramberg, E.; Wu, Jin-Yuan; Yarema, R.; /Fermilab; Shochet, M.; Tang, F.; /Chicago U.; Demarteau, M.; /Argonne /INFN, Padova

    2011-04-13

    Many next-generation physics experiments will be characterized by the collection of large quantities of data, taken in rapid succession, from which scientists will have to unravel the underlying physical processes. In most cases, large backgrounds will overwhelm the physics signal. Since the quantity of data that can be stored for later analysis is limited, real-time event selection is imperative to retain the interesting events while rejecting the background. Scaling of current technologies is unlikely to satisfy the scientific needs of future projects, so investments in transformational new technologies need to be made. For example, future particle physics experiments looking for rare processes will have to address the demanding challenges of fast pattern recognition in triggering as detector hit density becomes significantly higher due to the high luminosity required to produce the rare processes. In this proposal, we intend to develop hardware-based technology that significantly advances the state-of-the-art for fast pattern recognition within and outside HEP using the 3D vertical integration technology that has emerged recently in industry. The ultimate physics reach of the LHC experiments will crucially depend on the tracking trigger's ability to help discriminate between interesting rare events and the background. Hardware-based pattern recognition for fast triggering on particle tracks has been successfully used in high-energy physics experiments for some time. The CDF Silicon Vertex Trigger (SVT) at the Fermilab Tevatron is an excellent example. The method used there, developed in the 1990's, is based on algorithms that use a massively parallel associative memory architecture to identify patterns efficiently at high speed. However, due to much higher occupancy and event rates at the LHC, and the fact that the LHC detectors have a much larger number of channels in their tracking detectors, there is an enormous challenge in implementing pattern recognition for a track trigger, requiring about three orders of magnitude more associative memory patterns than what was used in the original CDF SVT. Significant improvement in the architecture of associative memory structures is needed to run fast pattern recognition algorithms of this scale. We are proposing the development of 3D integrated circuit technology as a way to implement new associative memory structures for fast pattern recognition applications. Adding a 'third' dimension to the signal processing chain, as compared to the two-dimensional nature of printed circuit boards, Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), etc., opens up the possibility for new architectures that could dramatically enhance pattern recognition capability. We are currently performing preliminary design work to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach. In this proposal, we seek to develop the design and perform the ASIC engineering necessary to realize a prototype device. While our focus here is on the Energy Frontier (e.g. the LHC), the approach may have applications in experiments in the Intensity Frontier and the Cosmic Frontier as well as other scientific and medical projects. In fact, the technique that we are proposing is very generic and could have wide applications far beyond track trigger, both within and outside HEP.

  15. Chemical stratification in the atmosphere of Ap star HD 133792. Regularized solution of the vertical inversion problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. Kochukhov; V. Tsymbal; T. Ryabchikova; V. Makaganyk; S. Bagnulo

    2006-09-12

    High spectral resolution studies of cool Ap stars reveal conspicuous anomalies of the shape and strength of many absorption lines. This is a signature of large atmospheric chemical gradients produced by the selective radiative levitation and gravitational settling of chemical species. Here we present a new approach to mapping the vertical chemical structures in stellar atmospheres. We have developed a regularized chemical inversion procedure that uses all information available in high-resolution stellar spectra. The new technique for the first time allowed us to recover chemical profiles without making a priori assumptions about the shape of chemical distributions. We have derived average abundances and applied the vertical inversion procedure to the high-resolution VLT UVES spectra of the weakly magnetic, cool Ap star HD 133792. Our analysis yielded improved estimates of the atmospheric parameters of HD 133792. We show that this star has negligible vsini and the mean magnetic field modulus =1.1+/-0.1 kG. We have derived average abundances for 43 ions and obtained vertical distributions of Ca, Si, Mg, Fe, Cr, and Sr. All these elements except Mg show high overabundance in the deep layers and solar or sub-solar composition in the upper atmosphere of HD 133792. In contrast, the Mg abundance increases with height. We find that transition from the metal-enhanced to metal-depleted zones typically occurs in a rather narrow range of depths in the atmosphere of HD 133792. Based on the derived photospheric abundances, we conclude that HD 133792 belongs to the rare group of evolved cool Ap stars, which possesses very large Fe-peak enhancement, but lacks a prominent overabundance of the rare-earth elements.

  16. An experimental study of heating performance and seasonal modeling of vertical U-tube ground coupled heat pumps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Margo, Randal E.

    1992-01-01

    by circulating the secondary fluid through a pipe buried in the ground. In the heating mode, heat is extracted from the soil by the ground coil and is supplied to the conditioned space via the heat pump's refrigerant cycle. The GCHP is limited only... is the ASHRAE Design/Data Manual [Bose et al. , 1985], This manual also bases ground coil sizing on the line source solution. Deerman [1991] used the constant heat flux cylindrical source solution as a basis for a vertical U-tube simulation program. He used...

  17. Time-resolved observation of fast domain-walls driven by vertical spin currents in short tracks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sampaio, Joao; Lequeux, Steven; Chanthbouala, Andre; Cros, Vincent; Grollier, Julie; Matsumoto, Rie; Yakushiji, Kay; Kubota, Hitoshi; Fukushima, Akio; Yuasa, Shinji; Nishimura, Kazumasa; Nagamine, Yoshinori; Maehara, Hiroki; Tsunekawa, Koji

    2013-12-09

    We present time-resolved measurements of the displacement of magnetic domain-walls (DWs) driven by vertical spin-polarized currents in track-shaped magnetic tunnel junctions. In these structures, we observe very high DW velocities (600?m/s) at current densities below 10{sup 7}?A/cm{sup 2}. We show that the efficient spin-transfer torque combined with a short propagation distance allows avoiding the Walker breakdown process and achieving deterministic, reversible, and fast (?1?ns) DW-mediated switching of magnetic tunnel junction elements, which is of great interest for the implementation of fast DW-based spintronic devices.

  18. Hyperfine-induced hysteretic funnel structure in spin blockaded tunneling current of coupled vertical quantum dots at low magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leary, A.; Wicha, A.; Harack, B.; Coish, W. A.; Hilke, M.; Yu, G.; Gupta, J. A.; Payette, C.; Austing, D. G.

    2013-12-04

    We outline the properties of the hyperfine-induced funnel structure observed in the two-electron spin blockade region of a weakly coupled vertical double quantum dot device. Hysteretic steps in the leakage current occur due to dynamic nuclear polarization when either the bias voltage or the magnetic field is swept up and down. When the bias voltage is swept, an intriguing ?3 mT wide cusp near 0 T appears in the down-sweep position, and when the magnetic field is swept, the current at 0 T can be switched from 'low' to 'high' as the bias is increased.

  19. Assessment of CCFL model of RELAP5/MOD3 against simple vertical tubes and rod bundle tests. International Agreement Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, S.; Arne, N.; Chung, B.D.; Kim, H.J.

    1993-06-01

    The CCFL model used in RELAP5/MOD3 version 5m5 has been assessed against simple vertical tubes and bundle tests performed at a facility of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. The effect of changes in tube diameter and nodalization of tube section were investigated. The roles of interfacial drags on the flooding characteristics are discussed. Differences between the calculation and the experiment are also discussed. A comparison between model assessment results and the test data showed that the calculated value lay well on the experimental flooding curve specified by user, but the pressure jump before onset of flooding was not calculated.

  20. Phase transformations during the Ag-In plating and bonding of vertical diode elements of multijunction solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klochko, N. P. Khrypunov, G. S.; Volkova, N. D.; Kopach, V. R.; Lyubov, V. N.; Kirichenko, M. V.; Momotenko, A. V.; Kharchenko, N. M.; Nikitin, V. A.

    2013-06-15

    The conditions of the bonding of silicon multijunction solar cells with vertical p-n junctions using Ag-In solder are studied. The compositions of electrodeposited indium films on silicon wafers silver plated by screen printing and silver and indium films fabricated by layer-by-layer electrochemical deposition onto the surface of silicon vertical diode cells silver plated in vacuum are studied. Studying the electrochemical-deposition conditions, structure, and surface morphology of the grown layers showed that guaranteed bonding is provided by 8-min heat treatment at 400 Degree-Sign C under the pressure of a stack of metallized silicon wafers; however, the ratio of the indium and silver layer thicknesses should not exceed 1: 3. As this condition is satisfied, the solder after wafer bonding has the InAg{sub 3} structure (or InAg{sub 3} with an Ag phase admixture), due to which the junction melting point exceeds 700 Degree-Sign C, which guarantees the functioning of such solar cells under concentrated illumination.

  1. 3D modeling of GJ1214b's atmosphere: vertical mixing driven by an anti-Hadley circulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Charnay, Benjamin; Leconte, Jérémy

    2015-01-01

    GJ1214b is a warm sub-Neptune transiting in front of a nearby M dwarf star. Recent observations indicate the presence of high and thick clouds or haze whose presence requires strong atmospheric mixing. In order to understand the transport and distribution of such clouds/haze, we study the atmospheric circulation and the vertical mixing of GJ1214b with a 3D General Circulation Model for cloud-free hydrogen-dominated atmospheres (metallicity of 1, 10 and 100 times the solar value) and for a water-dominated atmosphere. We analyze the effect of the atmospheric metallicity on the thermal structure and zonal winds. We also analyze the zonal mean meridional circulation and show that it corresponds to an anti-Hadley circulation in most of the atmosphere with upwelling at mid-latitude and downwelling at the equator in average. This circulation must be present on a large range of synchronously rotating exoplanets with strong impact on cloud formation and distribution. Using simple tracers, we show that vertical winds o...

  2. Perovskite Solar Cells with Near 100% Internal Quantum Efficiency Based on Large Single Crystalline Grains and Vertical Bulk Heterojunctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Bin; Dyck, Ondrej; Poplawsky, Jonathan D; Keum, Jong Kahk; Puretzky, Alexander A; Sanjib, Das; Ivanov, Ilia N; Rouleau, Christopher; Duscher, Gerd; Geohegan, David B; Xiao, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Grain boundaries (GBs) as defects in the crystal lattice detrimentally impact the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of polycrystalline solar cells, particularly in recently emerging hybrid perovskites where non-radiative recombination processes lead to significant carrier losses. Here, the beneficial effects of activated vertical GBs are demonstrated by first growing large, vertically-oriented methylammonium lead tri-iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) single-crystalline grains. We show that infiltration of p-type doped 2 -7,7 -tetrakis(N,Ndi-p-methoxyphenylamine)-9,9-spirobifluorene (Spiro-OMeTAD) into CH3NH3PbI3 films along the GBs creates space charge regions to suppress non-radiative recombination and enhance carrier collection efficiency. Solar cells with such activated GBs yielded average PCE of 16.3 0.9%, which are among the best solution-processed perovskite devices. As an important alternative to growing ideal CH3NH3PbI3 single crystal films, which is difficult to achieve for such fast-crystallizing perovskites, activating GBs paves a way to design a new type of bulk heterojunction hybrid perovskite photovoltaics toward theoretical maximum PCE.

  3. Perovskite solar cells with near 100% internal quantum efficiency based on large single crystalline grains and vertical bulk heterojunctions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yang, Bin; Dyck, Ondrej; Poplawsky, Jonathan; Keum, Jong; Puretzky, Alexander; Das, Sanjib; Ivanov, Ilia; Rouleau, Christopher; Duscher, Gerd; Geohegan, David; et al

    2015-07-09

    Grain boundaries (GBs) as defects in the crystal lattice detrimentally impact the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of polycrystalline solar cells, particularly in recently emerging hybrid perovskites where non-radiative recombination processes lead to significant carrier losses. Here, the beneficial effects of activated vertical GBs are demonstrated by first growing large, vertically-oriented methylammonium lead tri-iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) single-crystalline grains. We show that infiltration of p-type doped 2 -7,7 -tetrakis(N,Ndi-p-methoxyphenylamine)-9,9-spirobifluorene (Spiro-OMeTAD) into CH3NH3PbI3 films along the GBs creates space charge regions to suppress non-radiative recombination and enhance carrier collection efficiency. Solar cells with such activated GBs yielded average PCE of 16.3 ± 0.9%, whichmore »are among the best solution-processed perovskite devices. As an important alternative to growing ideal CH3NH3PbI3 single crystal films, which is difficult to achieve for such fast-crystallizing perovskites, activating GBs paves a way to design a new type of bulk heterojunction hybrid perovskite photovoltaics toward theoretical maximum PCE.« less

  4. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E): Multi-Frequency Profilers, Vertical Air Motion (williams-vertair)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Williams, Christopher; Jensen, Mike

    2012-11-06

    This data was collected by the NOAA 449-MHz and 2.8-GHz profilers in support of the Department of Energy (DOE) and NASA sponsored Mid-latitude Continental Convective Cloud Experiment (MC3E). The profiling radars were deployed in Northern Oklahoma at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Mission (ARM) Southern Great Plans (SGP) Central Facility from 22 April through 6 June 2011. NOAA deployed three instruments: a Parsivel disdrometer, a 2.8-GHz profiler, and a 449-MHz profiler. The parasivel provided surface estimates of the raindrop size distribution and is the reference used to absolutely calibrate the 2.8 GHz profiler. The 2.8-GHz profiler provided unattenuated reflectivity profiles of the precipitation. The 449-MHz profiler provided estimates of the vertical air motion during precipitation from near the surface to just below the freezing level. By using the combination of 2.8-GHz and 449-MHz profiler observations, vertical profiles of raindrop size distributions can be retrieved. The profilers are often reference by their frequency band: the 2.8-GHz profiler operates in the S-band and the 449-MHz profiler operates in the UHF band. The raw observations are available as well as calibrated spectra and moments. This document describes how the instruments were deployed, how the data was collected, and the format of the archived data.

  5. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E): Multi-Frequency Profilers, Vertical Air Motion (williams-vertair)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Williams, Christopher; Jensen, Mike

    This data was collected by the NOAA 449-MHz and 2.8-GHz profilers in support of the Department of Energy (DOE) and NASA sponsored Mid-latitude Continental Convective Cloud Experiment (MC3E). The profiling radars were deployed in Northern Oklahoma at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Mission (ARM) Southern Great Plans (SGP) Central Facility from 22 April through 6 June 2011. NOAA deployed three instruments: a Parsivel disdrometer, a 2.8-GHz profiler, and a 449-MHz profiler. The parasivel provided surface estimates of the raindrop size distribution and is the reference used to absolutely calibrate the 2.8 GHz profiler. The 2.8-GHz profiler provided unattenuated reflectivity profiles of the precipitation. The 449-MHz profiler provided estimates of the vertical air motion during precipitation from near the surface to just below the freezing level. By using the combination of 2.8-GHz and 449-MHz profiler observations, vertical profiles of raindrop size distributions can be retrieved. The profilers are often reference by their frequency band: the 2.8-GHz profiler operates in the S-band and the 449-MHz profiler operates in the UHF band. The raw observations are available as well as calibrated spectra and moments. This document describes how the instruments were deployed, how the data was collected, and the format of the archived data.

  6. Order-of-magnitude enhancement of wind farm power density via counter-rotating vertical-axis wind turbine arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dabiri, John O

    2010-01-01

    Modern wind farms require significant land resources to separate each wind turbine from the adjacent turbine wakes. These aerodynamic constraints limit the amount of power that can be extracted from a given wind farm footprint. We conducted full-scale field tests of vertical-axis wind turbines in counter-rotating configurations under natural wind conditions. Whereas wind farms consisting of propeller-style turbines produce 2 to 3 watts of power per square meter of land area, these field tests indicate that power densities approaching 100 W m^-2 can be achieved by arranging vertical-axis wind turbines in layouts that enable them to extract energy from adjacent wakes. In addition, we calculated that the global wind resource available to 10-m tall turbines based on the present approach is approximately 225 trillion watts (TW), which significantly exceeds the global wind resource available to 80-m tall, propeller-style wind turbines, approximately 75 TW. This improvement is due to the closer spacing that can be a...

  7. Locating interfaces in vertically-layered materials and determining concentrations in mixed materials utilizing acoustic impedance measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Langlois, G.N.

    1983-09-13

    Measurement of the relative and actual value of acoustic characteristic impedances of an unknown substance, location of the interfaces of vertically-layered materials, and the determination of the concentration of a first material mixed in a second material are disclosed. A highly damped ultrasonic pulse is transmitted into one side of a reference plate, such as a tank wall, where the other side of the reference plate is in physical contact with the medium to be measured. The amplitude of a return signal, which is the reflection of the transmitted pulse from the interface between the other side of the reference plate and the medium, is measured. The amplitude value indicates the acoustic characteristic impedance of the substance relative to that of the reference plate or relative to that of other tested materials. Discontinuities in amplitude with repeated measurements for various heights indicate the location of interfaces in vertically-layered materials. Standardization techniques permit the relative acoustic characteristic impedance of a substance to be converted to an actual value. Calibration techniques for mixtures permit the amplitude to be converted to the concentration of a first material mixed in a second material. 6 figs.

  8. Locating interfaces in vertically-layered materials and determining concentrations in mixed materials utilizing acoustic-impedance measurements. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1981-06-10

    Measurement of the relative and actual value of acoustic characteristic impedances of an unknown substance, location of the interfaces of vertically-layered materials, and the determination of the concentration of a first material mixed in a second material are presented. A highly damped ultrasonic pulse is transmitted into one side of a reference plate, such as a tank wall, where the other side of the reference plate is in physical contact with the medium to be measured. The amplitude of a return signal, which is the reflection of the transmitted pulse from the interface between the other side of the reference plate and the medium, is measured. The amplitude value indicates the acoustic characteristic impedance of the substance relative to that of the reference plate or relative to that of other tested materials. Discontinuities in amplitude with repeated measurements for various heights indicate the location of interfaces in vertically-layered materials. Standardization techniques permit the relative acoustic characteristic impedance of a substance to be converted to an actual value. Calibration techniques for mixtures permit the amplitude to be converted to the concentration of a first material mixed in a second material.

  9. Locating interfaces in vertically-layered materials and determining concentrations in mixed materials utilizing acoustic impedance measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Langlois, Gary N. (Richland, WA)

    1983-09-13

    Measurement of the relative and actual value of acoustic characteristic impedances of an unknown substance, location of the interfaces of vertically-layered materials, and the determination of the concentration of a first material mixed in a second material. A highly damped ultrasonic pulse is transmitted into one side of a reference plate, such as a tank wall, where the other side of the reference plate is in physical contact with the medium to be measured. The amplitude of a return signal, which is the reflection of the transmitted pulse from the interface between the other side of the reference plate and the medium, is measured. The amplitude value indicates the acoustic characteristic impedance of the substance relative to that of the reference plate or relative to that of other tested materials. Discontinuities in amplitude with repeated measurements for various heights indicate the location of interfaces in vertically-layered materials. Standardization techniques permit the relative acoustic characteristic impedance of a substance to be converted to an actual value. Calibration techniques for mixtures permit the amplitude to be converted to the concentration of a first material mixed in a second material.

  10. Comparison of the properties of AlGaInN light-emitting diode chips of vertical and flip-chip design using silicon as the a submount

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markov, L. K., E-mail: l.markov@mail.ioffe.ru; Smirnova, I. P.; Pavlyuchenko, A. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Kukushkin, M. V.; Vasil'eva, E. D. [ZAO Innovation 'Tetis' (Russian Federation); Chernyakov, A. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Science-and-Technology Microelectronics Center (Russian Federation); Usikov, A. S. [De Core Nanosemiconductors Ltd. (India)

    2013-03-15

    Vertical and flip-chip light-emitting diode (LED) chips are compared from the viewpoint of the behavior of current spreading in the active region and the distribution of local temperatures and thermal resistances of chips. AlGaInN LED chips of vertical design are fabricated using Si as a submount and LED flipchips were fabricated with the removal of a sapphire substrate. The latter are also mounted on a Si submount. The active regions of both chips are identical and are about 1 mm{sup 2} in size. It is shown that both the emittance of the crystal surface in the visible range and the distribution of local temperatures estimated from radiation in the infrared region are more uniform in crystals of vertical design. Heat removal from flip-chips is insufficient in regions of the n contact, which do not possess good thermal contact with the submount. As a result, the total thermal resistances between the p-n junction and the submount both for the vertical chips and for flip-chips are approximately 1 K/W. The total area of the flip-chips exceeds that of the vertical design chips by a factor of 1.4.

  11. Lead-chalcogenide mid-infrared vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers with improved threshold: Theory and experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fill, Matthias [ETH Zurich, Laser Spectroscopy and Sensing Lab, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland) [ETH Zurich, Laser Spectroscopy and Sensing Lab, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Phocone AG, 8005 Zurich (Switzerland)] [Switzerland; Debernardi, Pierluigi [IEIIT-CNR, Torino 10129 (Italy)] [IEIIT-CNR, Torino 10129 (Italy); Felder, Ferdinand [Phocone AG, 8005 Zurich (Switzerland)] [Phocone AG, 8005 Zurich (Switzerland); Zogg, Hans [ETH Zurich (Switzerland)] [ETH Zurich (Switzerland)

    2013-11-11

    Mid-infrared Vertical External Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VECSEL) based on narrow gap lead-chalcogenide (IV-VI) semiconductors exhibit strongly reduced threshold powers if the active layers are structured laterally for improved optical confinement. This is predicted by 3-d optical calculations; they show that lateral optical confinement is needed to counteract the anti-guiding features of IV-VIs due to their negative temperature dependence of the refractive index. An experimental proof is performed with PbSe quantum well based VECSEL grown on a Si-substrate by molecular beam epitaxy and emitting around 3.3??m. With proper mesa-etching, the threshold intensity is about 8-times reduced.

  12. Rad-hard vertical JFET switch for the HV-MUX system of the ATLAS upgrade Inner Tracker

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez-Martinez, Pablo; Flores, David; Hidalgo, Salvador; Quirion, David; Lynn, David

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a new silicon vertical JFET (V-JFET) device, based on the trenched 3D-detector technology developed at IMB-CNM, to be used as switches for the High-Voltage powering scheme of the ATLAS upgrade Inner Tracker. The optimization of the device characteristics is performed by 2D and 3D TCAD simulations. Special attention has been paid to the on-resistance and the switch-off and breakdown voltages to meet the specific requirements of the system. In addition, a set of parameter values has been extracted from the simulated curves to implement a SPICE model of the proposed V-JFET transistor. As these devices are expected to operate under very high radiation conditions during the whole experiment life-time, a study of the radiation damage effects and the expected degradation on the device performance is also presented at the end of the paper.

  13. Numerical modeling of a 2K J-T heat exchanger used in Fermilab Vertical Test Stand VTS-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Prabhat Kumar; Rabehl, Roger

    2014-07-01

    Fermilab Vertical Test Stand-1 (VTS-1) is in operation since 2007 for testing the superconducting RF cavities at 2 K. This test stand has single layer coiled finned tubes heat exchanger before J-T valve. A finite difference based thermal model has been developed in Engineering Equation Solver (EES) to study its thermal performance during filling and refilling to maintain the constant liquid level of test stand. The model is also useful to predict its performance under other various operating conditions and will be useful to design the similar kind of heat exchanger for future needs. Present paper discusses the different operational modes of this heat exchanger and its thermal characteristics under these operational modes. Results of this model have also been compared with the experimental data gathered from the VTS-1 heat exchanger and they are in good agreement with the present model.

  14. The vertical structure of Jupiter's equatorial zonal wind above the cloud deck, derived using mesoscale gravity waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watkins, C; 10.1029/2012GL054368

    2013-01-01

    Data from the Galileo Probe, collected during its descent into Jupiter's atmosphere, is used to obtain a vertical profile of the zonal wind from $\\mathbf{\\sim 0.5}$ bar (upper troposphere) to $\\mathbf{\\sim 0.1\\, \\mu{bar}}$ (lower thermosphere) at the probe entry site. This is accomplished by constructing a map of gravity wave Lomb-Scargle periodograms as a function of altitude. The profile obtained from the map indicates that the wind speed above the visible cloud deck increases with height to $\\mathbf{\\sim 150}$ m\\,s$\\mathbf{^{-1}}$ and then levels off at this value over a broad altitude range. The location of the turbopause, as a region of wide wave spectrum, is also identified from the map. In addition, a cross-equatorial oscillation of a jet, which has previously been linked to the quasi-quadrennial oscillation in the stratosphere, is suggested by the profile.

  15. Fabrication of FCC-SiO{sub 2} colloidal crystals using the vertical convective self-assemble method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castañeda-Uribe, O. A.; Salcedo-Reyes, J. C.; Méndez-Pinzón, H. A.; Pedroza-Rodríguez, A. M.

    2014-05-15

    In order to determine the optimal conditions for the growth of high-quality 250 nm-SiO{sub 2} colloidal crystals by the vertical convective self-assemble method, the Design of Experiments (DoE) methodology is applied. The influence of the evaporation temperature, the volume fraction, and the pH of the colloidal suspension is studied by means of an analysis of variance (ANOVA) in a 3{sup 3} factorial design. Characteristics of the stacking lattice of the resulting colloidal crystals are determined by scanning electron microscopy and angle-resolved transmittance spectroscopy. Quantitative results from the statistical test show that the temperature is the most critical factor influencing the quality of the colloidal crystal, obtaining highly ordered structures with FCC stacking lattice at a growth temperature of 40°C.

  16. Self-aligned process for forming microlenses at the tips of vertical silicon nanowires by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dan, Yaping, E-mail: yaping.dan@sjtu.edu.cn; Chen, Kaixiang [University of Michigan–Shanghai Jiao Tong University Joint Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Crozier, Kenneth B. [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The microlens is a key enabling technology in optoelectronics, permitting light to be efficiently coupled to and from devices such as image sensors and light-emitting diodes. Their ubiquitous nature motivates the development of new fabrication techniques, since existing methods face challenges as microlenses are scaled to smaller dimensions. Here, the authors demonstrate the formation of microlenses at the tips of vertically oriented silicon nanowires via a rapid atomic layer deposition process. The nature of the process is such that the microlenses are centered on the nanowires, and there is a self-limiting effect on the final sizes of the microlenses arising from the nanowire spacing. Finite difference time domain electromagnetic simulations are performed of microlens focusing properties, including showing their ability to enhance visible-wavelength absorption in silicon nanowires.

  17. High blue-near ultraviolet photodiode response of vertically stacked graphene-MoS{sub 2}-metal heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wi, Sungjin; Chen, Mikai; Nam, Hongsuk; Liu, Amy C.; Meyhofer, Edgar; Liang, Xiaogan

    2014-06-09

    We present a study on the photodiode response of vertically stacked graphene/MoS{sub 2}/metal heterostructures in which MoS{sub 2} layers are doped with various plasma species. In comparison with undoped heterostructures, such doped ones exhibit significantly improved quantum efficiencies in both photovoltaic and photoconductive modes. This indicates that plasma-doping-induced built-in potentials play an important role in photocurrent generation. As compared to indium-tin-oxide/ MoS{sub 2}/metal structures, the presented graphene/MoS{sub 2}/metal heterostructures exhibit greatly enhanced quantum efficiencies in the blue-near ultraviolet region, which is attributed to the low density of recombination centers at graphene/MoS{sub 2} heterojunctions. This work advances the knowledge for making photo-response devices based on layered materials.

  18. Global Well-posedness of the 3D Primitive Equations With Partial Vertical Turbulence Mixing Heat Diffusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Chongsheng

    2010-01-01

    The three--dimensional incompressible viscous Boussinesq equations, under the assumption of hydrostatic balance, govern the large scale dynamics of atmospheric and oceanic motion, and are commonly called the primitive equations. To overcome the turbulence mixing a partial vertical diffusion is usually added to the temperature advection (or density stratification) equation. In this paper we prove the global regularity of strong solutions to this model in a three-dimensional infinite horizontal channel, subject to periodic boundary conditions in the horizontal directions, and with no-penetration and stress-free boundary conditions on the solid, top and bottom, boundaries. Specifically, we show that short time strong solutions to the above problem exist globally in time, and that they depend continuously on the initial data.

  19. Monitoring of saline tracer movement with vertically distributed self-potential measurements at the HOBE agricultural test site, Voulund, Denmark

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jougnot, Damien; Haarder, Eline B; Looms, Majken C

    2015-01-01

    The self-potential (SP) method is sensitive to water fluxes in saturated and partially saturated porous media, such as those associated with rainwater infiltration and groundwater recharge. We present a field-based study at the Voulund agricultural test site, Denmark, that is, to the best of our knowledge, the first to focus on the vertical self-potential distribution prior to and during a saline tracer test. A coupled hydrogeophysical modeling framework is used to simulate the SP response to precipitation and saline tracer infiltration. A layered hydrological model is first obtained by inverting dielectric and matric potential data. The resulting model that compares favorably with electrical resistance tomography models is subsequently used to predict the SP response. The electrokinetic contribution (caused by water fluxes in a charged porous soil) is modeled by an effective excess charge approach that considers both water saturation and pore water salinity. Our results suggest that the effective excess char...

  20. Measurement of void fraction at different flow regimes in vertical upward two-phase flow of cryogenic fluid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pattanayak, S.Ch.; Das, R.K. [Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur (India)

    1995-12-01

    Local void fraction in a vertical cryogenic two-phase flow has been measured with the help of a small capacitance sensor. The time varying capacitance signal of the sensor is used to modulate the pulse width of a multivibrator. The probability distribution function (PDF) of the pulse width data is analysed for identifying the flow regimes, while average pulse width is correlated with the average void fraction. The calibrations of the void fraction sensor are found to be sensitive to the flow regimes. In slug and churn flow regimes the calibrations are also found to be sensitive to fluid flow rates. But no such dependence is observed in bubble and annular flow regimes. The sensitivity towards flow rates could be correlated with the position of PDF peaks of the concerned flow regimes.

  1. Exact Solutions in a Model of Vertical Gas Migration Dmitriy B. Silin, SPE, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory / UC Berkeley; Tad W. Patzek, SPE,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    SPE 103145 Exact Solutions in a Model of Vertical Gas Migration Dmitriy B. Silin, SPE, Lawrence questions re- garding the feasibility of this technology is the potential rate of leakage out of the primary of the velocity of plume migra- tion provides a conservative estimate for the time of ver- tical migration

  2. Transport Processes in a Salt-Dome Environment We consider coupled subsurface flow and transport within a vertical cross section of a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kornhuber, Ralf

    Transport Processes in a Salt-Dome Environment ­ B ­ We consider coupled subsurface flow). (1) How is the conductive temperature distribution affected by the thermal conductivity of the salt in the simulation? In particular, compare the flow direction along the salt flanks. #12;Model domain No vertical

  3. An estimate for the sum of a Dirichlet series in terms of the minimum of its modulus on a vertical line segment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaisin, Ahtyar M; Rakhmatullina, Zhanna G

    2011-12-31

    The behaviour of the sum of an entire Dirichlet series is analyzed in terms of the minimum of its modulus on a system of vertical line segments. Also a more general problem, connected with the Polya conjecture is posed and solved. It concerns the minimum modulus of an entire function with Fabri gaps and its growth along curves going to infinity. Bibliography: 33 titles.

  4. Energy Conversion in Lifting Mass Vertically using a DC Electric Motor by Observing Required Time to Lift Object for a Certain Height

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viridi, Sparisoma; Permana, Sidik; Srigutomo, Wahyu; Susilawati, Anggie; Nuryadin, Bebeh Wahid; Nurhasan,

    2014-01-01

    In lifting mass vertically using a DC electric motor energy conversion from electric energy, through intermediate kinetic energy, to gravitation potential energy shows that time required {\\Delta}t to lift load mass m for height h is dependent quadratically to m. Several approaches to explain the experiment observation are discussed in this work, from ideal energy conversion to numerical solution from differential equation.

  5. Monolithically Peltier-cooled vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers Paul FL Berger, Niloy K. Dutta, Kent D. Choquette, Ghulam Hasnain, and Naresh Chand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monolithically Peltier-cooled vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers Paul FL Berger, Niloy K. The thermoelectric element is the n + -GaAs substrate based on the Peltier effect. A variation of active region contact on the n + -GaAs substrate. The thermoelectric (Peltier) ef- fect of the n f -GaAs substrate can

  6. On the Ramsey numbers for complete distance graphs with vertices in {l_brace}0,1{r_brace}{sup n}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mikhailov, Kirill A; Raigorodskii, Andrei M [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-12-31

    A new problem of Ramsey type is posed for complete distance graphs in R{sup n} with vertices in the Boolean cube. This problem is closely related to the classical Nelson-Erdos-Hadwiger problem on the chromatic number of a space. Several quite sharp estimates are obtained for certain numerical characteristics that appear in the framework of the problem. Bibliography: 15 titles.

  7. Microcavity enhanced vertical-cavity light-emitting diodes U. Keller, G. R. Jacobovitz-Veselka, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, B. Tell,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keller, Ursula

    Microcavity enhanced vertical-cavity light-emitting diodes U. Keller, G. R. Jacobovitz-Veselka, J-cavity light-emitting diode (LED) by continuously changing the microcavity resonance with respect for optical interconnects seems to be the light emitting diode (LED), or better yet, the microcavity en

  8. Subduction tractions and vertical axis rotations in the Zagros–Makran transition zone, SE Iran: the 2013 May 11 Mw 6.1 Minab earthquake

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Penney, Camilla; Copley, Alex; Oveisi, Behnam

    2015-06-09

    , E., Elliott, J., Jackson, J. & Parsons, B., 2010. The vertical separation of mainshock rupture and microseismicity at Qeshm island in the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt, Iran, Earth planet. Sci. Lett., 296(3–4), 181–194. Nissen, E., Tatar, M., Jackson...

  9. 2D Mater. 2 (2015) 025002 doi:10.1088/2053-1583/2/2/025002 Graphene vertical cascade interband terahertz and infrared

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitin, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    2D Mater. 2 (2015) 025002 doi:10.1088/2053-1583/2/2/025002 PAPER Graphene vertical cascade Technical University and Institute of Ultra High Frequency Semiconductor Electronics of RAS, Moscow 105005, Troy, NY 12180, USA E-mail: v-ryzhii@riec.tohoku.ac.jp Keywords: graphene, radiative transition

  10. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 95, NO. B7, PAGES 11,301-11,315, JULY 10, 1990 Vertical Seismic Profile Synthetics by Dynamic Ray Tracing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cerveny, Vlastislav

    Seismic Profile Synthetics by Dynamic Ray Tracing in Laterally Varying Layered Anisotropic StructuresJOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 95, NO. B7, PAGES 11,301-11,315, JULY 10, 1990 VerticalSciences,Prague, Czechdovakia Dynamic ray tracing (DRT) is important in evaluating high-frequency seismic

  11. Stable Open-Loop Brachiation on a Vertical Wall Nelson Rosa Jr., Adam Barber, Robert D. Gregg, and Kevin M. Lynch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bustamante, Fabián E.

    on a vertical wall and consists of two links, each equipped with a "hand," and a single powered rotary joint in rotary bearings to implement the hand clamping mechanism. Due to the availability of "handholds" at any consisted of two links with grippers and a single powered rotary joint, similar to the Gibbot in this N

  12. Ocean turbulence, III: New GISS vertical mixing scheme V.M. Canuto a,b,*, A.M. Howard a,c

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ocean turbulence, III: New GISS vertical mixing scheme V.M. Canuto a,b,*, A.M. Howard a,c , Y: Turbulence Tides Double diffusion Mixing OGCM a b s t r a c t We have found a new way to express the solutions of the RSM (Reynolds Stress Model) equations that allows us to present the turbulent diffusivities

  13. A Two-Case Examination of the Synoptic and Mesoscale Processes Supporting Vertical13 Superposition of the Polar and Subtropical Jets over North America14

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Jonathan E.

    of the Synoptic and Mesoscale Processes Supporting Vertical13 Superposition of the Polar and Subtropical Jets Madison, WI 5370623 acwinters@wisc.edu24 25 Keywords: Jet Streams; Ageostrophic Transverse Circulations; Convection26 Running Head: Processes Supporting Jet Superposition27 28 29 Submitted

  14. Constructal multi-scale package of vertical channels with natural convection and maximal heat transfer density. CONSTRUCTAL DESIGN: THE GENERATION OF MULTI-SCALE HEAT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kihm, IconKenneth David

    transfer density. CONSTRUCTAL DESIGN: THE GENERATION OF MULTI-SCALE HEAT AND FLUID FLOW STRUCTURES-scale structures in natural convection with the objective of maximizing the heat transfer density, or the heat transfer rate per unit of volume§ . The flow volume is filled with vertical equidistant heated blades

  15. Nonlinear forces on a vertical truncated cylinder in Stokes 5th order waves-model test and validation of prediction model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alex, Hitha

    2000-01-01

    A series of experiments of forces on a fixed vertical truncated column due to Stokes 5th order like waves were done in a wave tank. An effort was made to generate the waves as close as possible to theoretical Stokes 5th ...

  16. 8.3 VERTICAL MIXING AND CHEMISTRY OVER AN ARID URBAN SITE: FIRST RESULTS FROM AIRCRAFT OBSERVATIONS MADE DURING THE PHOENIX SUNRISE CAMPAIGN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MADE DURING THE PHOENIX SUNRISE CAMPAIGN Carl M. Berkowitz, 1 Stephen Springston, 2 J. Christopher of photochemistry. A central goal of the Phoenix 2001 Field Campaign was to study vertical mixing with the onset of this study, a series of low altitude aircraft sampling flights were made over the Greater Phoenix area

  17. A 4.2 GS/sec. Synchronized Vertical Excitation System for SPS Studies - Steps Toward Wideband Feedback

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, John

    2012-07-10

    A 4.2 GS/sec. beam excitation system with accelerator synchronization and power stages is described. The system is capable of playing unique samples (32 samples/bunch) for 15,000 turns on selected bunch(es) in the SPS in syn- chronism with the injection and acceleration cycle. The purpose of the system is to excite internal modes of single-bunch vertical motion, and study the bunch dynamics in the presence of developing Electron cloud or TMCI effects. The system includes a synchronized master oscillator, SPS timing functions, an FPGA based arbitrary waveform generator, 4.2 GS/sec. D/A system and four 80W 20-1000 MHz amplifiers driving a tapered stripline pickup/kicker. A software GUI allows specification of various modulation signals, selection of bunches and turns to excite, while a remote control interface allows simple control/monitoring of the RF power stages located in the tunnel. The successful use of this system for SPS MD measurements in 2011 is a vital proof-of-principle for wideband feedback using similar functions to correct the beam motion.

  18. Particle image velocimetry measurements for opposing flow in a vertical channel with a differential and asymmetric heating condition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez-Suastegui, L. [Graduate Student, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, C.U., Mexico 04510 D.F. (Mexico); Trevino, C. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, C.U., Mexico 04510 D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-10-15

    Particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements were carried out in an experimental investigation of laminar mixed convection in a vertical duct with a square cross-section. The main downward water-flow is driven by gravity while a portion of a lateral side is heated, and buoyancy forces produce non-stationary vortex structures close to the heated region. Various ranges of the Grashof number, Gr are studied in combination with the Reynolds number, Re varying from 300 to 700. The values of the generalized buoyancy parameter or Richardson number, Ri = Gr/Re{sup 2} parallel to the Grashof number are included in the results. The influence of these nondimensional parameters and how they affect the fluid flow structure and vortex sizes and locations are reported. The flow patterns are nonsymmetric, periodic, and exhibit increasing complexity and frequency for increasing buoyancy. For the averaged values of the resulting vortex dimensions, it was found that a better and more congruent representation occurs when employing the Grashof and Reynolds numbers as independent parameters. (author)

  19. Distribution of air-water mixtures in parallel vertical channels as an effect of the header geometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marchitto, Annalisa; Fossa, Marco; Guglielmini, Giovanni

    2009-07-15

    Uneven phase distribution in heat exchangers is a cause of severe reductions in thermal performances of refrigeration equipment. To date, no general design rules are available to avoid phase separation in manifolds with several outlet channels, and even predicting the phase and mass distribution in parallel channels is a demanding task. In the present paper, measurements of two-phase air-water distributions are reported with reference to a horizontal header supplying 16 vertical upward channels. The effects of the operating conditions, the header geometry and the inlet port nozzle were investigated in the ranges of liquid and gas superficial velocities of 0.2-1.2 and 1.5-16.5 m/s, respectively. Among the fitting devices used, the insertion of a co-axial, multi-hole distributor inside the header confirmed the possibility of greatly improving the liquid and gas flow distribution by the proper selection of position, diameter and number of the flow openings between the supplying distributor and the system of parallel channels connected to the header. (author)

  20. Experimental investigation on heat transfer and frictional characteristics of vertical upward rifled tube in supercritical CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Dong; Pan, Jie; Zhu, Xiaojing; Bi, Qincheng; Chen, Tingkuan; Zhou, Chenn Q.

    2011-02-15

    Water wall design is a key issue for supercritical Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boiler. On account of the good heat transfer performance, rifled tube is applied in the water wall design of a 600 MW supercritical CFB boiler in China. In order to investigate the heat transfer and frictional characteristics of the rifled tube with vertical upward flow, an in-depth experiment was conducted in the range of pressure from 12 to 30 MPa, mass flux from 230 to 1200 kg/(m{sup 2} s), and inner wall heat flux from 130 to 720 kW/m{sup 2}. The wall temperature distribution and pressure drop in the rifled tube were obtained in the experiment. The normal, enhanced and deteriorated heat transfer characteristics were also captured. In this paper, the effects of pressure, inner wall heat flux and mass flux on heat transfer characteristics are analyzed, the heat transfer mechanism and the frictional resistance performance are discussed, and the corresponding empirical correlations are presented. The experimental results show that the rifled tube can effectively prevent the occurrence of departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) and keep the tube wall temperature in a permissible range under the operating condition of supercritical CFB boiler. (author)

  1. A Study of Three Dimensional Bubble Velocities at Co-current Gas-liquid Vertical Upward Bubbly Flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuntoro, Hadiyan Yusuf; Deendarlianto,

    2015-01-01

    Recently, experimental series of co-current gas-liquid upward bubbly flows in a 6 m-height and 54.8 mm i.d. vertical titanium pipe had been conducted at the TOPFLOW thermal hydraulic test facility, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Germany. The experiments were initially performed to develop a high quality database of two-phase flows as well as to validate new CFD models. An ultrafast dual-layer electron beam X-ray tomography, named ROFEX, was used as measurement system with high spatial and temporal resolutions. The gathered cross sectional grey value image results from the tomography scanning were reconstructed, segmented and evaluated to acquire gas bubble parameters for instance bubble position, size and holdup. To assign the correct paired bubbles from both measurement layers, a bubble pair algorithm was implemented on the basis of the highest probability values of bubbles in position, volume and velocity. Hereinafter, the individual characteristics of bubbles were calculated include instantaneous th...

  2. MEASURED SPACE CONDITIONING PERFORMANCE OFA VERTICAL-BORE GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP (GSHP) OVER TWELVE MONTHS UNDER SIMULATED OCCUPANCY LOADS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents monthly performance metrics of a 7.56 kW (2.16 ton) GSHP serving the space conditioning loads of a 251m2 (2700ft2) residential home with a phase change material in its envelope, and a single vertical-bore 94.5m (310 ft) ground loop. The same ground loop also serviced a ground source heat pump water heater. Envelope characteristics are discussed briefly in the context of reducing thermal losses. Data on entering water temperatures, energy extracted from the ground, energy delivered/removed, compressor electricity use, COP, GSHP run times (low and high compressor stages), and the impact of fan and pump energy consumption on efficiency are presented for each month. Both practical as well as research and development issues are discussed. The findings suggest that GSHPs represent a practical technology option to reduce source energy reduction and greenhouse emissions under the IECC 2012 Standard, as well as the European Union (EU) 2020 target of generating over 25% of heat consumed in the EU from renewable energy.

  3. Steam-water two-phase flow in large diameter vertical piping at high pressures and temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasanein, H.A.; Kawaji, Masahiro [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Chan, A.M.C. [Ontario Hydro Technologies, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Yoshioka, Yuzuru [Japan Atomic Power Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-08-01

    No information on steam/water two-phase flow behavior in large diameter pipes (10 inch or larger) at elevated pressures is available in the open literature. However, there are many applications, in the nuclear, chemical and petroleum industries among others where two-phase flows in large diameter pipes at elevated pressures and temperatures are encountered routinely or under accident scenarios. Experimental data on steam-water two-phase flow in a large diameter (20 inch, 50.08 cm I.D.) vertical pipe at elevated pressures and temperatures (2.8 MPa/230 C--6.4 MPa/280 C) have been obtained. Void fraction, two-phase mass flux, phase and velocity distributions as well as pressure drop along the test pipe have been measured using the Ontario Hydro Technologies (OHT) Pump Test Loop. The void fraction distributions were found to be axially symmetric and nearly flat over a wide range of two-phase flow conditions. The two-phase flow regime could be inferred from the dynamic void fluctuations data. For the 280 C tests, the flow was found to be relatively stable with bubbly flow at low average void fractions and churn turbulent or wispy-annular flow at higher void fractions. At 230 C, the flow became rather oscillatory and slugging was suspected at relatively low voids. It has also been found that the average void fractions in the test section can be determined reasonably accurately using the axial pressure drop data.

  4. A study of the minimum wetting rate of isothermal films flowing down on outer surface of vertical pipes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koizumi, Yasuo; Ohtake, Hiroyasu; Ueda, Tatsuhiro

    1999-07-01

    The minimum wetting rate (MWR) was investigated experimentally with an isothermal water film flowing down on the outer surface of test pipes arranged vertically. A dry patch was generated by blowing a small air jet onto the film temporally, and observation was made to discriminate whether the dry patch was rewetted or not. The contact angle of the film at the top edge of the dry patch and the amplitude, length and velocity of large waves on the film were measured. The MWR decreased rapidly as the film flowed down and reached a nearly constant value at a position around 0.6 m down from the film inlet. There were large waves on the film. The tendency of the variation of MWR with the distance coincided well with the growth of the amplitude of large waves with the distance. The contact angle at the top edge of the dry patch varied periodically in a range synchronizing with the arrival of the waves. When the contact angle exceeded the maximum advancing contact angle, the rewetting of the dry patch was initiated. The existing correlations where the smooth surface film was assumed considerably over-predicted the MWR. The MWR was properly given by supposing that the dry patch is rewetted when the maximum of the fluctuating dynamic pressure of the film exceeds the upward component of the surface tension corresponding to the maximum advancing contact angle at the top edge of the dry patch.

  5. Single Packaged Vertical Units

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy (DOE) develops standardized data templates for reporting the results of tests conducted in accordance with current DOE test procedures. Templates may be used by third-party laboratories under contract with DOE that conduct testing in support of ENERGY STAR® verification, DOE rulemakings, and enforcement of the federal energy conservation standards.

  6. Vertical graphene base transistor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    M. Baus, and H. Kurz, “A graphene ?eld-effect device,” IEEERooks, and P. Avouris, “Graphene nano- ribbon electronics,”High-frequency, scaled graphene transistors on diamond- like

  7. Vertical counterflow evaporative cooler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourne, Richard C.; Lee, Brian Eric; Callaway, Duncan

    2005-01-25

    An evaporative heat exchanger having parallel plates that define alternating dry and wet passages. A water reservoir is located below the plates and is connected to a water distribution system. Water from the water distribution system flows through the wet passages and wets the surfaces of the plates that form the wet passages. Air flows through the dry passages, mixes with air below the plates, and flows into the wet passages before exiting through the top of the wet passages.

  8. ARM - Measurement - Vertical velocity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska Outreach Homepolarization ARMtotal downwellingalbedocloud

  9. Vertical Velocity Focus Group

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking WithTelecentricN A County roadFeet) Deliveries

  10. Vertical and lateral morphology effects on solar cell performance for a thiophene–quinoxaline copolymer:PC 70BM blend

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hansson, Rickard; Ericsson, Leif K. E.; Holmes, Natalie P.; Rysz, Jakub; Opitz, Andreas; Campoy-Quiles, Mariano; Wang, Ergang; Barr, Matthew G.; Kilcoyne, A. L. David; Zhou, Xiaojing; et al

    2015-02-13

    The distribution of electron donor and acceptor in the active layer is known to strongly influence the electrical performance of polymer solar cells for most of the high performance polymer:fullerene systems. The formulation of the solution from which the active layer is spincoated plays an important role in the quest for morphology control. We have studied how the choice of solvent and the use of small amounts of a low vapour pressure additive in the coating solution influence the film morphology and the solar cell performance for blends of poly[2,3-bis-(3-octyloxyphenyl)quinoxaline-5,8-diyl-alt-thiophene-2,5-diyl] (TQ1) and [6,6]-phenyl C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC70BM). We havemore »investigated the lateral morphology using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), the vertical morphology using dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry (d-SIMS) and variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE), and the surface composition using near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS). The lateral phase-separated domains observed in films spincoated from single solvents, increase in size with increasing solvent vapour pressure and decreasing PC70BM solubility, but are not observed when 1-chloronaphthalene (CN) is added. A strongly TQ1-enriched surface layer is formed in all TQ1:PC70BM blend films and rationalized by surface energy differences. The photocurrent and power conversion efficiency strongly increased upon the addition of CN, while the leakage current decreased by one to two orders of magnitude. The higher photocurrent correlates with the finer lateral structure and stronger TQ1-enrichment at the interface with the electron-collecting electrode. This indicates that the charge transport and collection are not hindered by this polymer-enriched surface layer. Neither the open-circuit voltage nor the series resistance of the devices are sensitive to the differences in morphology.« less

  11. Extracting and Applying SV-SV Shear Modes from Vertical Vibrator Data Across Geothermal Prospects Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardage, Bob [Bureau of Economic Geology] [Bureau of Economic Geology

    2013-07-01

    This 3-year project was terminated at the end of Year 1 because the DOE Geothermal project-evaluation committee decided one Milestone was not met and also concluded that our technology would not be successful. The Review Panel recommended a ?no-go? decision be implemented by DOE. The Principal Investigator and his research team disagreed with the conclusions reached by the DOE evaluation committee and wrote a scientifically based rebuttal to the erroneous claims made by the evaluators. We were not told if our arguments were presented to the people who evaluated our work and made the ?no-go? decision. Whatever the case regarding the information we supplied in rebuttal, we received an official letter from Laura Merrick, Contracting Officer at the Golden Field Office, dated June 11, 2013 in which we were informed that project funding would cease and instructed us to prepare a final report before September 5, 2013. In spite of the rebuttal arguments we presented to DOE, this official letter repeated the conclusions of the Review Panel that we had already proven to be incorrect. This is the final report that we are expected to deliver. The theme of this report will be another rebuttal of the technical deficiencies claimed by the DOE Geothermal Review Panel about the value and accomplishments of the work we did in Phase 1 of the project. The material in this report will present images made from direct-S modes produced by vertical-force sources using the software and research findings we developed in Phase 1 that the DOE Review Panel said would not be successful. We made these images in great haste when we were informed that DOE Geothermal rejected our rebuttal arguments and still regarded our technical work to be substandard. We thought it was more important to respond quickly rather than to take additional time to create better quality images than what we present in this Final Report.

  12. A comparison of experimental and numerical results on convective thermal mixing of three vertical, quasi-planar jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tokuhiro, A.T.; Kimura, N.; Nishimura, M.; Kobayashi, J.; Miyakoshi, H.

    1999-07-01

    The thermal-hydraulic mixing of three quasi-planar vertical water jets was experimentally and numerically investigated. The central jet was initially 5 C lower in temperature than the other two. The hydraulic diameter and average exit velocity-based Reynolds and Richardson numbers were, Re{sub D} = 2 x 10{sup 4}, Ri{sub D} = 0.002. Besides temperature measurements from a traversing array of 37 thermocouples, velocity measurements were made using laser and ultrasound Doppler velocimetries (LDV and UDV). In parallel the in-house code, CASCADE, featuring a {kappa}-{epsilon} turbulence model was used to simulate the experimental flow configuration. A comparison of the experimental and numerical results showed that code validation by LDV/UDV was possible and in particular that time-averaged field and frequency characteristics of transversely swaying jets, even under Reynolds averaging of the conservation equations, could be simulated. A representative comparison of the amplitude of oscillation is shown in Figure A-1 with an inset of the visualized flow and sample time-series of the temperature fluctuations at the position indicated. The difference in the predominant frequency, the numerically predicted {approximately}1.6 Hz versus the experimental {approximately}2.25 Hz, is attributed to the turbulence model that overestimate thus effective fluid viscosity. Development of an accurate numerical simulation is of relevance to the design of the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), where the lack of mixing of the cold sodium may initiate thermal striping; that is, poorly mixed hot and cold streams may thermally stress the components onto which they impinge. Turbulent mixing of jets is equally of general interest to environmental and material processing flows.

  13. Two-stage epitaxial growth of vertically-aligned SnO2 nano-rods on(001) ceria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solovyov, Vyacheslav F.; Wu, Li-jun; Rupich, Martin W.; Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan; Li, Xiaoping; Li, Qiang

    2014-09-20

    Growth of high-aspect ratio oriented tin oxide, SnO2, nano-rods is complicated by a limited choice of matching substrates. We show that a (001) cerium oxide, CeO2, surface uniquely enables epitaxial growth of tin-oxide nano-rods via a two-stage process. First, (100) oriented nano-wires coat the ceria surface by lateral growth, forming a uniaxially-textured SnO2 deposit. Second, vertical SnO2nano-rods nucleate on the deposit by homoepitaxy. We demonstrate growth of vertically oriented 1-2 ?m long nano-rods with an average diameter of ?20 nm.

  14. Two-stage epitaxial growth of vertically-aligned SnO2 nano-rods on(001) ceria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solovyov, Vyacheslav F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wu, Li-jun [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Rupich, Martin W. [American Superconductor, Devens, MA (United States); Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan [American Superconductor, Devens, MA (United States); Li, Xiaoping [American Superconductor, Devens, MA (United States); Li, Qiang [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Growth of high-aspect ratio oriented tin oxide, SnO2, nano-rods is complicated by a limited choice of matching substrates. We show that a (001) cerium oxide, CeO2, surface uniquely enables epitaxial growth of tin-oxide nano-rods via a two-stage process. First, (100) oriented nano-wires coat the ceria surface by lateral growth, forming a uniaxially-textured SnO2 deposit. Second, vertical SnO2nano-rods nucleate on the deposit by homoepitaxy. We demonstrate growth of vertically oriented 1-2 ?m long nano-rods with an average diameter of ?20 nm.

  15. Site characterization plan conceptual design report for a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt, vertical emplacement mode: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-12-01

    This Conceptual Design Report describes the conceptual design of a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt at a proposed site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. Waste receipt, processing, packing, and other surface facility operations are described. Operations in the shafts underground are described, including waste hoisting, transfer, and vertical emplacement. This report specifically addresses the vertical emplacement mode, the reference design for the repository. Waste retrieval capability is described. The report includes a description of the layout of the surface, shafts, and underground. Major equipment items are identified. The report includes plans for decommissioning and sealing of the facility. The report discusses how the repository will satisfy performance objectives. Chapters are included on basis for design, design analyses, and data requirements for completion of future design efforts. 105 figs., 52 tabs.

  16. Modelling flow pattern transitions for steady upward gas-liquid flow in vertical tubes. [Bubble, slug, churn and dispersed-annular; also existence regions and transitions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taitel, Y. (Tel-Aviv Univ., Israel); Bornea, D.; Dukler, A.E.

    1980-05-01

    Models for predicting flow patterns in steady upward gas-liquid flow in vertical tubes (such as production-well tubing) delineate the transition boundaries between each of the four basic flow patterns for gas-liquid flow in vertical tubes: bubble, slug, churn, and dispersed-annular. Model results suggest that churn flow is the development region for the slug pattern and that bubble flow can exist in small pipes only at high liquid rates, where turbulent dispersion forces are high. Each transition depends on the flow-rate pair, fluid properties, and pipe size, but the nature of the dependence is different for each transition because of differing control mechanisms. The theoretical predictions are in reasonably good agreement with a variety of published flow maps based on experimental data.

  17. Development and application of new methods to retrieve vertical structure of precipitation above the ARM CART sites from MMCR measurements�

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Sergey Matrosov

    2010-12-15

    The main objective of this project was to develop, validate and apply remote sensing methods to retrieve vertical profiles of precipitation over the DOE ARM CART sites using currently available remote sensors. While the ARM Program invested very heavily into developments of remote sensing methods and instruments for water vapor and non-precipitating cloud parameter retrievals, precipitation retrievals and studies lagged behind. Precipitation, however, is a crucial part of the water cycle, and without detailed information on rainfall and snowfall, significant improvements in the atmospheric models of different scales (i.e., one of the ARM Program's main goals) is difficult to achieve. Characterization of the vertical atmospheric column above the CART sites is also incomplete without detailed precipitation information, so developments of remote sensing methods for retrievals of parameters in precipitating cloud condition was essential. Providing modelers with retrieval results was also one of the key objectives of this research project.

  18. MICROSTRUCTURE STUDY ON THE La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 AND RARE-EARTH OXIDE VERTICALLY ALIGNED NANOCOMPOSITE THIN FILMS 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hazariwala, Harshad

    2011-05-05

    Two-phase (La0.7Sr0.3MnO3)0.5:(CeO2)0.5 (LSMO:CeO2) heteroepitaxial nanocomposite films were grown on SrTiO3 (STO) (001) by pulsed laser deposition. XRD and TEM results show that LSMO:CeO2 films epitaxially grow on STO as self-assembled vertically...

  19. 618-10 Burial Ground Trench Remediation and 618-10 and 618-11 Burial Ground Nonintrusive Characterization of Vertical Pipe Units Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darby, J. W.

    2012-06-28

    A “lessons learned” is a noteworthy practice or innovative approach that is captured and shared to promote repeat application, or an adverse work practice/experience that is captured and shared to avoid reoccurrence. This document provides the lessons learned identified by the 618-10 Burial Ground trench remediation and the 618-10 and 618-11 Burial Ground nonintrusive characterization of the vertical pipe units (VPUs).

  20. Rayleigh-Taylor stability of a strong vertical magnetic field at the Galactic center confined by a disk threaded with horizontal magnetic field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benjamin D. G. Chandran

    2002-02-13

    Observations of narrow radio-emitting filaments near the Galactic center have been interpreted in previous studies as evidence of a pervasive vertical (i.e. perpendicular to the Galactic plane) milliGauss magnetic field in the central 150 pc of the Galaxy. A simple cylindrically symmetric model for the equilibrium in this central region is proposed in which horizontal (i.e. parallel to the Galactic plane) magnetic fields embedded in an annular band of partially ionized molecular material of radius 150 pc are wrapped around vertical magnetic fields threading low-density hot plasma. The central vertical magnetic field, which has a pressure that significantly exceeds the thermal pressure of the medium, is confined by the weight of the molecular material. The stability of this equilibrium is studied indirectly by analyzing a uniformly rotating cylinder of infinite extent along the z axis in cylindrical coordinates (r,theta,z), with low-density plasma and an axial magnetic field at rfield at r> 150 pc, and a gravitational acceleration g* proportional to r directed in the negative-r-hat direction. The density profile and gravity tend to destabilize the plasma, but the plasma tends to be stabilized by rotation and magnetic tension--since the interface between the high and low-density plasmas can not be perturbed without bending either the horizontal or vertical field. It is shown analytically that when beta= 8(pi)p/B^2 is small and the dense plasma is supported against gravity primarily by rotation, the necessary and sufficient condition for stability to k_z=0 modes is |g| < (2|Omega| a), where g = g* - Omega^2 r is the effective gravity, Omega is the uniform angular velocity, and "a" is the sound speed in the dense plasma.

  1. High-responsivity vertical-illumination Si/Ge uni-traveling-carrier photodiodes based on silicon-on-insulator substrate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Chong; Liu, Zhi; Cong, Hui; Cheng, Buwen; Guo, Xia; Liu, Wuming

    2015-01-01

    Si/Ge uni-traveling carrier photodiodes exhibit higher output current when space-charge effects are overcome and thermal effects are suppressed, which is highly beneficial for increasing the dynamic range of various microwave photonic systems and simplifying high-bit-rate digital receivers in different applications. From the point of view of packaging, detectors with vertical-illumination configuration can be easily handled by pick-and-place tools and are a popular choice for making photo-receiver modules. However, vertical-illumination Si/Ge uni-traveling carrier (UTC) devices suffer from inter-constraint between high speed and high responsivity. Here, we report a high responsivity vertical-illumination Si/Ge UTC photodiode based on a silicon-on-insulator substrate. The maximum absorption efficiency of the devices was 2.4 times greater than the silicon substrate owing to constructive interference. The Si/Ge UTC photodiode was successfully fabricated and had a dominant responsivity at 1550 nm of 0.18 A/W, a 5...

  2. Measurement of groove features and dimensions of the vertical test cathode and the choke joint of the superconducting electron gun cavity of the Energy Recovery LINAC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammons, L.; Ke, M.

    2011-10-13

    A testing program for the superconducting electron gun cavity that has been designed for the Energy Recovery LINAC is being planned. The goal of the testing program is to characterize the RF properties of the gun cavity at superconducting temperatures and, in particular, to study multipacting that is suspected to be occurring in the choke joint of the cavity where the vertical test cathode is inserted. The testing program will seek to understand the nature and cause of this multipacting and attempt to eliminate it, if possible, by supplying sufficient voltage to the cavity. These efforts are motivated by the multipacting issues that have been observed in the processing of the fine-grain niobium gun cavity. This cavity, which is being processed at Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory for Brookhaven, has encountered multipacting at a gradient of approximately 3 MV/m and, to date, has resisted efforts at elimination. Because of this problem, a testing program is being established here in C-AD that will use the large-grain niobium gun cavity that currently resides at Brookhaven and has been used for room-temperature measurements. The large-grain and fine-cavities are identical in every aspect of construction and only differ in niobium grain size. Thus, it is believed that testing and conditioning of the large-grain cavity should yield important insights about the fine-grain cavity. One element of this testing program involves characterizing the physical features of the choke joint of the cavity where the multipacting is believed to be occurring and, in particular the grooves of the joint. The configuration of the cavity and the vertical test cathode is shown in Figure 1. In addition, it is important to characterize the groove of the vertical test cathode. The grooved nature of these two components was specifically designed to prevent multipacting. However, it is suspected that, because of the chemical processing that the fine-grain gun cavity underwent along with the vertical test cathode, the geometry of these grooves was altered, presenting the possibility that multipacting may, in fact, be occurring in this area and contributing to the low gradients that have been observed in the fine-grain cavity. Therefore, the Survey and Alignment group in C-AD engaged in measurements of the cavity joint, shown in Figure 2 and the cathode weldment, shown in Figure 3 for the purpose of characterizing the grooves in both the cavity and the vertical test cathode and comparing the dimensions of the cathode with those of the prints supplied by Advanced Energy Systems (AES), the original designer and manufacturer of both the test cathode and the electron gun cavity, in preparation to have a new one manufactured. The goal was to ensure that the articles as built matched the design prints in preparation for manufacturing a new vertical test cathode. This report describes the data collected by the Survey group in these efforts. The endeavor was challenging for the group given the millimeter-scale dimensions of the grooves and the requirement for high precision.

  3. Transient conjugate free convection from a vertical flat plate in a porous medium subjected to a sudden change in surface heat flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shu, Jian-Jun

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a theoretical study using the Karman-Pohlhausen method for describing the transient heat exchange between the boundary-layer free convection and a vertical flat plate embedded in a porous medium. The unsteady behavior is developed after the generation of an impulsive heat flux step at the right-hand side of the plate. Two cases are considered according to whether the plate has a finite thickness or no thickness. The time and space evolution of the interface temperature is evidenced.

  4. Growth of Multiwalled-Carbon Nanotubes using Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofibers as Templates/Scaffolds and Improved Field-Emission Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cui, Hongtao; Yang, X.; Baylor, Larry R; Lowndes, Douglas H

    2005-01-01

    Multiwalled-carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are grown on top of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) via microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPECVD). The VACNFs are first grown in a direct-current plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition reactor using nickel catalyst. A layer of carbon-silicon materials is then deposited on the VACNFs and the nickel catalyst particle is broken down into smaller nanoparticles during an intermediate reactive-ion-plasma deposition step. These nickel nanoparticles nucleate and grow MWCNTs in the following MPECVD process. Movable-probe measurements show that the MWCNTs have greatly improved field-emission properties relative to the VACNFs

  5. Strain relaxation and enhanced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in BiFeO{sub 3}:CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} vertically aligned nanocomposite thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Wenrui; Jiao, Liang; Li, Leigang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Jian, Jie; Khatkhatay, Fauzia; Chu, Frank [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Chen, Aiping [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Jia, Quanxi [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Wang, Haiyan, E-mail: wangh@ece.tamu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States)

    2014-02-10

    Self-assembled BiFeO{sub 3}:CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (BFO:CFO) vertically aligned nanocomposite thin films have been fabricated on SrTiO{sub 3} (001) substrates using pulsed laser deposition. The strain relaxation mechanism between BFO and CFO with a large lattice mismatch has been studied by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The as-prepared nanocomposite films exhibit enhanced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy as the BFO composition increases. Different anisotropy sources have been investigated, suggesting that spin-flop coupling between antiferromagnetic BFO and ferrimagnetic CFO plays a dominant role in enhancing the uniaxial magnetic anisotropy.

  6. Ni(OH){sub 2} nanoflakes electrodeposited on Ni foam-supported vertically oriented graphene nanosheets for application in asymmetric supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xin; Liu, Jiyue; Wang, Yayu; Zhao, Cuimei; Zheng, Weitao

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Ni(OH){sub 2}/vertically oriented graphene nanosheets (V-GNs) was prepared. • Ni(OH){sub 2}/V-GNs had enhanced specific capacitance, cycling reversibility and stability. • Performance of Ni(OH){sub 2}/GNs/NF-AC asymmetric supercapacitor was studied. - Abstract: Binderless Ni(OH){sub 2} nanoflakes grown on Ni foam (NF)-supported vertically oriented graphene nanosheets (V-GNs) has been fabricated as a positive electrode material for asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC), coupled with activated carbon (AC) as a counter electrode material. The introduction of V-GNs leads to dense growth of nanocrystalline ?-Ni(OH){sub 2} that is confirmed by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopic and scanning electron microscopic analyses. The electrochemical performances of the Ni(OH){sub 2}/GNs/NF electrode are characterized by cyclic voltammetry and charge–discharge tests, which exhibit high specific capacitance of 2215 F g{sup ?1} at a scan current density of 2.3 A g{sup ?1}, enhanced cycling stability and high rate capability. The Ni(OH){sub 2}/GNs/NF-AC-based ASC can achieve a cell voltage of 1.4 V and a specific energy density of 11.11 Wh kg{sup ?1} at 0.5 mA cm{sup ?2} with a nearly 100% coulombic efficiency at room temperature.

  7. Optimal design and control strategies for novel combined heat and power (CHP) fuel cell systems. Part I of II, datum design conditions and approach.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colella, Whitney G.

    2010-06-01

    Energy network optimization (ENO) models identify new strategies for designing, installing, and controlling stationary combined heat and power (CHP) fuel cell systems (FCSs) with the goals of (1) minimizing electricity and heating costs for building owners and (2) reducing emissions of the primary greenhouse gas (GHG) - carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). A goal of this work is to employ relatively inexpensive simulation studies to discover more financially and environmentally effective approaches for installing CHP FCSs. ENO models quantify the impact of different choices made by power generation operators, FCS manufacturers, building owners, and governments with respect to two primary goals - energy cost savings for building owners and CO{sub 2} emission reductions. These types of models are crucial for identifying cost and CO{sub 2} optima for particular installations. Optimal strategies change with varying economic and environmental conditions, FCS performance, the characteristics of building demand for electricity and heat, and many other factors. ENO models evaluate both 'business-as-usual' and novel FCS operating strategies. For the scenarios examined here, relative to a base case of no FCSs installed, model results indicate that novel strategies could reduce building energy costs by 25% and CO{sub 2} emissions by 80%. Part I of II articles discusses model assumptions and methodology. Part II of II articles illustrates model results for a university campus town and generalizes these results for diverse communities.

  8. Projektarbeit FS 2010Projektarbeit FS 2010 Geodetic Metrology and Engineering Geodesy Valerio Frezza Stefan HochuliGeodetic Metrology and Engineering Geodesy Valerio Frezza, Stefan Hochuli,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crickets (deutsch Grillen) sind eine mit BatterieDie Crickets (deutsch Grillen) sind eine mit Batterie

  9. Finding Aid to Coast and Geodetic Survey Special Publications. Search on "Special Publication (U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey) 471 titles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Islands. 1900. 4. The transcontinental triangulation and the American arc of the parallel / by Chas A

  10. Step edge influence on barrier height and contact area in vertical heterojunctions between epitaxial graphene and n-type 4H-SiC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tadjer, M. J., E-mail: marko.tadjer.ctr@nrl.navy.mil; Nyakiti, L. O.; Robinson, Z. [American Society for Engineering Education, Washington, DC 20036 (United States); Anderson, T. J.; Myers-Ward, R. L.; Wheeler, V. D.; Eddy, C. R.; Gaskill, D. K.; Koehler, A. D.; Hobart, K. D.; Kub, F. J. [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave, SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2014-02-17

    Vertical rectifying contacts of epitaxial graphene grown by Si sublimation on the Si-face of 4H-SiC epilayers were investigated. Forward bias preferential conduction through the step edges was correlated by linear current density normalization. This phenomenon was observed on samples with 2.7–5.8 monolayers of epitaxial graphene as determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A modified Richardson plot was implemented to extract the barrier height (0.81?eV at 290?K, 0.99?eV at 30?K) and the electrically dominant SiC step length of a Ti/Al contact overlapping a known region of approximately 0.52??m wide SiC terraces.

  11. Radiation and porosity effects on the magnetohydrodynamic flow near a vertical plate that applies shear stress to the fluid with mass diffusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, Arshad; Khan, Ilyas; Shafie, Sharidan [Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (Malaysia)

    2014-06-19

    This article studies the radiation and porosity effects on the unsteady magnetohydrodynamic free convection flow of an incompressible viscous fluid past an infinite vertical plate that applies a shear stress f(t) to the fluid. Conjugate phenomenon of heat and mass transfer is considered. General solutions of the dimensionless governing equations along with imposed initial and boundary conditions are determined using Laplace transform technique. The solution of velocity is presented as a sum of mechanical and non mechanical parts. These solutions satisfy all imposed initial and boundary conditions and reduce to some known solutions from the literature as special cases. The results for embedded parameters are shown graphically. Numerical results for skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are computed and presented in tabular forms.

  12. Suitability of Drift-Flux Models, Void-Fraction Evolution, and 3-D Flow Pattern Visualization During Stationary and Transient Flashing Flow in a Vertical Pipe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manera, Annalisa [Delft University of Technology (Netherlands); Prasser, Horst-Michael [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf (Germany); Hagen, Tim H.J.J. van der [Delft University of Technology (Netherlands)

    2005-10-15

    An assessment of void-fraction correlations and drift-flux models applied to stationary and transient flashing flows in a vertical pipe has been performed. Experiments have been carried out on a steam/water loop that can be operated both in forced- and natural-circulation conditions to provide data for the assessment. The GE-Ramp and Dix models are found to give very good predictions both for forced- and natural-circulation flow conditions, in the whole range of measured void fractions.Advanced instrumentation, namely, wire-mesh sensors, has been used to obtain a detailed picture of the void-fraction development in the system. On the basis of experimental data, a three-dimensional visualization of the transient flow pattern during flashing was achieved. A transition of the flow pattern between bubbly and slug/churn regimes was found.

  13. Comment on Influence of convective boundary condition on double diffusive mixed convection from a permeable vertical surface, by P.M. Patil, E. Momoniat, S. Roy, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 70 (2014) 313-321

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pantokratoras, Asterios

    2014-01-01

    In the above paper the authors treat the boundary layer flow along a stationary, vertical, permeable, flat plate within a vertical free stream. Fluid is sucked or injected through the vertical plate. The fluid species concentration at the plate is constant and different from that of the ambient fluid. It is also assumed that the plate is heated by convection from another fluid with constant temperature with a constant heat transfer coefficient. The temperature and species concentration difference between the plate and the ambient fluid creates buoyancy forces and the flow is characterized as mixed convection. The partial differential equations of the boundary layer flow (Eqs. 1-4 in their paper) are transformed and subsequently are solved numerically using an implicit finite difference scheme in combination with a quasi-linearization technique. The quasi-linearization technique is a Newton-Raphson method. The results are presented in 12 figures.

  14. Analysis of Cloud-resolving Simulations of a Tropical Mesoscale Convective System Observed during TWP-ICE: Vertical Fluxes and Draft Properties in Convective and Stratiform Regions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mrowiec, Agnieszka A.; Rio, Catherine; Fridlind, Ann; Ackerman, Andrew; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Pauluis, Olivier; Varble, Adam; Fan, Jiwen

    2012-10-02

    We analyze three cloud-resolving model simulations of a strong convective event observed during the TWP-ICE campaign, differing in dynamical core, microphysical scheme or both. Based on simulated and observed radar reflectivity, simulations roughly reproduce observed convective and stratiform precipitating areas. To identify the characteristics of convective and stratiform drafts that are difficult to observe but relevant to climate model parameterization, independent vertical wind speed thresholds are calculated to capture 90% of total convective and stratiform updraft and downdraft mass fluxes. Convective updrafts are fairly consistent across simulations (likely owing to fixed large-scale forcings and surface conditions), except that hydrometeor loadings differ substantially. Convective downdraft and stratiform updraft and downdraft mass fluxes vary notably below the melting level, but share similar vertically uniform draft velocities despite differing hydrometeor loadings. All identified convective and stratiform downdrafts contain precipitation below ~10 km and nearly all updrafts are cloudy above the melting level. Cold pool properties diverge substantially in a manner that is consistent with convective downdraft mass flux differences below the melting level. Despite differences in hydrometeor loadings and cold pool properties, convective updraft and downdraft mass fluxes are linearly correlated with convective area, the ratio of ice in downdrafts to that in updrafts is ~0.5 independent of species, and the ratio of downdraft to updraft mass flux is ~0.5-0.6, which may represent a minimum evaporation efficiency under moist conditions. Hydrometeor loading in stratiform regions is found to be a fraction of hydrometeor loading in convective regions that ranges from ~10% (graupel) to ~90% (cloud ice). These findings may lead to improved convection parameterizations.

  15. X6.9-CLASS FLARE-INDUCED VERTICAL KINK OSCILLATIONS IN A LARGE-SCALE PLASMA CURTAIN AS OBSERVED BY THE SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY/ATMOSPHERIC IMAGING ASSEMBLY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srivastava, A. K. [Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences (ARIES), Manora Peak, Nainital 263 002 (India); Goossens, M. [Centre for Mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, Department of Mathematics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2013-11-01

    We present rare observational evidence of vertical kink oscillations in a laminar and diffused large-scale plasma curtain as observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The X6.9-class flare in active region 11263 on 2011 August 9 induces a global large-scale disturbance that propagates in a narrow lane above the plasma curtain and creates a low density region that appears as a dimming in the observational image data. This large-scale propagating disturbance acts as a non-periodic driver that interacts asymmetrically and obliquely with the top of the plasma curtain and triggers the observed oscillations. In the deeper layers of the curtain, we find evidence of vertical kink oscillations with two periods (795 s and 530 s). On the magnetic surface of the curtain where the density is inhomogeneous due to coronal dimming, non-decaying vertical oscillations are also observed (period ? 763-896 s). We infer that the global large-scale disturbance triggers vertical kink oscillations in the deeper layers as well as on the surface of the large-scale plasma curtain. The properties of the excited waves strongly depend on the local plasma and magnetic field conditions.

  16. 6 Radar wind profiler and radiosonde wind vectors during MILAGRO This supplemental section shows vertical profiles of horizontal wind vectors from the radar wind profilers at T0, T1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    6 Radar wind profiler and radiosonde wind vectors during MILAGRO This supplemental section shows vertical profiles of horizontal wind vectors from the radar wind profilers at T0, T1 and T2 along with radiosonde wind vectors at MEX and T1 (labelled as T1R). An arrow pointing up shows winds blowing towards

  17. Supplemental Figure 1. Root lengths of S. pinnata and S. albescens grown on vertically placed agar plates after 30 days of growth from germination. Plants treated without () Se (open bars) and with (+) 20 M SeO4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Supplemental Figure 1. Root lengths of S. pinnata and S. albescens grown on vertically placed agar a student's t test are reported in paragraph 1 of results section. #12;Supplemental Figure 2. Total non;Supplemental Figure 3. Graphic depiction of the macroarray expression differences from Tables 1

  18. Final Report: Property Improvement in CZT via Modeling and Processing Innovations – Te-particles in vertical gradient freeze CZT: Size and Spatial Distributions and Constitutional Supercooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henager, Charles H.; Alvine, Kyle J.; Bliss, Mary; Riley, Brian J.; Stave, Jean A.

    2014-10-01

    A section of a vertical gradient freeze CZT boule approximately 2100-mm3 with a planar area of 300-mm2 was prepared and examined using transmitted IR microscopy at various magnifications to determine the three-dimensional spatial and size distributions of Te-particles over large longitudinal and radial length scales. The boule section was approximately 50-mm wide by 60-mm in length by 7-mm thick and was doubly polished for TIR work. Te-particles were imaged through the thickness using extended focal imaging to locate the particles in thickness planes spaced 15-µm apart and then in plane of the image using xy-coordinates of the particle center of mass so that a true three dimensional particle map was assembled for a 1-mm by 45-mm longitudinal strip and for a 1-mm by 50-mm radial strip. Te-particle density distributions were determined as a function of longitudinal and radial positions in these strips, and treating the particles as vertices of a network created a 3D image of the particle spatial distribution. Te-particles exhibited a multi-modal log-normal size density distribution that indicated a slight preference for increasing size with longitudinal growth time, while showing a pronounced cellular network structure throughout the boule that can be correlated to dislocation network sizes in CZT. Higher magnification images revealed a typical Rayleigh-instability pearl string morphology with large and small satellite droplets. This study includes solidification experiments in small crucibles of 30:70 mixtures of Cd:Te to reduce the melting point below 1273 K (1000?C). These solidification experiments were performed over a wide range of cooling rates and clearly demonstrated a growth instability with Te-particle capture that is suggested to be responsible for one of the peaks in the size distribution using size discrimination visualization. The results are discussed with regard to a manifold Te-particle genesis history as 1) Te-particle direct capture from melt-solid growth instabilities, 2) Te-particle formation from dislocation core diffusion and the formation and breakup of Te-tubes, and 3) Te-particle formation due to classical nucleation and growth as precipitates.

  19. Computing UV/vis spectra from the adiabatic and vertical Franck-Condon schemes with the use of Cartesian and internal coordinates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Götze, Jan P.; Karasulu, Bora; Thiel, Walter

    2013-12-21

    We address the effects of using Cartesian or internal coordinates in the adiabatic Franck-Condon (AFC) and vertical Franck-Condon (VFC) approaches to electronic spectra. The adopted VFC approach is a simplified variant of the original approach [A. Hazra, H. H. Chang, and M. Nooijen, J. Chem. Phys. 151, 2125 (2004)], as we omit any contribution from normal modes with imaginary frequency. For our test molecules ranging from ethylene to flavin compounds, VFC offers several advantages over AFC, especially by preserving the properties of the FC region and by avoiding complications arising from the crossing of excited-state potential surfaces or from the failure of the harmonic approximation. The spectral quality for our target molecules is insensitive to the chosen approach. We also explore the effects of Duschinsky rotation and relate the need for internal coordinates to the absence of symmetry elements. When using Duschinsky rotation and treating larger systems without planar symmetry, internal coordinates are found to outperform Cartesian coordinates in the AFC spectral calculations.

  20. Exergy Analysis of a Two-Stage Ground Source Heat Pump with a Vertical Bore for Residential Space Conditioning under Simulated Occupancy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ally, Moonis Raza; Munk, Jeffrey D; Baxter, Van D; Gehl, Anthony C

    2015-01-01

    This twelve-month field study analyzes the performance of a 7.56W (2.16- ton) water-to-air-ground source heat pump (WA-GSHP) to satisfy domestic space conditioning loads in a 253 m2 house in a mixed-humid climate in the United States. The practical feasibility of using the ground as a source of renewable energy is clearly demonstrated. Better than 75% of the energy needed for space heating was extracted from the ground. The average monthly electricity consumption for space conditioning was only 40 kWh at summer and winter thermostat set points of 24.4oC and 21.7oC, respectively. The WA-GSHP shared the same 94.5 m vertical bore ground loop with a separate water-to-water ground-source heat pump (WW-GSHP) for meeting domestic hot water needs in the same house. Sources of systemic irreversibility, the main cause of lost work are identified using Exergy and energy analysis. Quantifying the sources of Exergy and energy losses is essential for further systemic improvements. The research findings suggest that the WA-GSHPs are a practical and viable technology to reduce primary energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions under the IECC 2012 Standard, as well as the European Union (EU) 2020 targets of using renewable energy resources.