National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for geochemical interpretation cxs

  1. Geochemical and Isotopic Interpretations of Groundwater Flow in the Oasis Valley Flow System, Southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.M. Thomas; F.C. Benedict, Jr.; T.P. Rose; R.L. Hershey; J.B. Paces; Z.E. Peterman; I.M. Farnham; K.H. Johannesson; A.K. Singh; K.J. Stetzenbach; G.B. Hudson; J.M. Kenneally; G.F. Eaton; D.K. Smith

    2003-01-08

    This report summarizes the findings of a geochemical investigation of the Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley groundwater flow system in southwestern Nevada. It is intended to provide geochemical data and interpretations in support of flow and contaminant transport modeling for the Western and Central Pahute Mesa Corrective Action Units.

  2. HBH-GEOCHEM-GEOPHY

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    003015WKSTN00 Hiereachical Bayesian Model for Combining Geochemical and Geophysical Data for Environmental Applications Software

  3. Geochemical Reaction Mechanism Discovery from Molecular Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stack, Andrew G.; Kent, Paul R. C.

    2014-11-10

    Methods to explore reactions using computer simulation are becoming increasingly quantitative, versatile, and robust. In this review, a rationale for how molecular simulation can help build better geochemical kinetics models is first given. We summarize some common methods that geochemists use to simulate reaction mechanisms, specifically classical molecular dynamics and quantum chemical methods and discuss their strengths and weaknesses. Useful tools such as umbrella sampling and metadynamics that enable one to explore reactions are discussed. Several case studies wherein geochemists have used these tools to understand reaction mechanisms are presented, including water exchange and sorption on aqueous species and mineral surfaces, surface charging, crystal growth and dissolution, and electron transfer. The impact that molecular simulation has had on our understanding of geochemical reactivity are highlighted in each case. In the future, it is anticipated that molecular simulation of geochemical reaction mechanisms will become more commonplace as a tool to validate and interpret experimental data, and provide a check on the plausibility of geochemical kinetic models.

  4. Geochemical Reaction Mechanism Discovery from Molecular Simulation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stack, Andrew G.; Kent, Paul R. C.

    2014-11-10

    Methods to explore reactions using computer simulation are becoming increasingly quantitative, versatile, and robust. In this review, a rationale for how molecular simulation can help build better geochemical kinetics models is first given. We summarize some common methods that geochemists use to simulate reaction mechanisms, specifically classical molecular dynamics and quantum chemical methods and discuss their strengths and weaknesses. Useful tools such as umbrella sampling and metadynamics that enable one to explore reactions are discussed. Several case studies wherein geochemists have used these tools to understand reaction mechanisms are presented, including water exchange and sorption on aqueous species and mineralmore » surfaces, surface charging, crystal growth and dissolution, and electron transfer. The impact that molecular simulation has had on our understanding of geochemical reactivity are highlighted in each case. In the future, it is anticipated that molecular simulation of geochemical reaction mechanisms will become more commonplace as a tool to validate and interpret experimental data, and provide a check on the plausibility of geochemical kinetic models.« less

  5. Aging and the geochemical environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    This report describes and assesses the aging process and related environmental aspects that may provide useful insights toward postponing some of the inevitable effects of aging. Although the Panel on Aging and the Geochemical Environment is convinced that the geochemical environment is associated with aging, it of course recognizes that other factors may also be significant or, perhaps, more important. Accordingly, the report is intended to enhance the awareness of biomedical and geochemical research scientists, decision makers in related areas, and the lay public interested in an understanding of the relation of the geochemical environment to senescence.

  6. Geochemical Speciation Mass Transfer

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1985-12-01

    PHREEQC is designed to model geochemical reactions. Based on an ion association aqueous model, PHREEQC can calculate pH, redox potential, and mass transfer as a function of reaction progress. It can be used to describe geochemical processes for both far-field and near-field performance assessment and to evaluate data acquisition needs and test data. It can also calculate the composition of solutions in equilibrium with multiple phases. The data base, including elements, aqueous species, and mineralmore » phases, is independent of the program and is completely user-definable. PHREEQC requires thermodynamic data for each solid, gaseous, or dissolved chemical species being modeled. The two data bases, PREPHR and DEQPAK7, supplied with PHREEQC are for testing purposes only and should not be applied to real problems without first being carefully examined. The conceptual model embodied in PHREEQC is the ion-association model of Pearson and Noronha. In this model a set of mass action equations are established for each ion pair (and controlling solid phases when making mass transfer calculations) along with a set of mass balance equations for each element considered. These sets of equations are coupled using activity coefficient values for each aqueous species and solved using a continued fraction approach for the mass balances combined with a modified Newton-Raphson technique for all other equations. The activity coefficient expressions in PHREEQC include the extended Debye-Huckel, WATEQ Debye-Huckel, and Davies equations from the original United States Geological Survey version of the program. The auxiliary preprocessor program PHTL, which is derived from EQTL, converts EQ3/6 thermodynamic data to PHREEQC format so that the two programs can be compared. PHREEQC can be used to determine solubility limits on the radionuclides present in the waste form. These solubility constraints may be input to the WAPPA leach model.« less

  7. Novel Coupled Thermochronometric and Geochemical Investigation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Novel Coupled Thermochronometric and Geochemical Investigation of Blind Geothermal Resources in Fault-Controlled Dilational Corners Novel Coupled Thermochronometric and Geochemical ...

  8. Category:Geochemical Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Techniques Technique Subcategories This category has only the following subcategory. G + Geochemical Data Analysis (2 categories) 4 pages Pages in category "Geochemical...

  9. Aging and the geochemical environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The report describes and assesses the aging process and related environmental aspects. Specific geographic areas of increased and decreased longevity were identified and geochemically characterized in terms of surface rocks, drinking water quality, soils, and abnormal absorption of trace elements by plants. Environmental factors that may be related to increased longevity are discussed. 11 references, 32 figures, 8 tables. (ACR)

  10. EQ3/6 A Software Package for Geochemical Modeling

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2010-12-13

    EQ3/6 is a software package for modeling geochemical interactions between aqueous solution, solids, and gases, following principles of chemical thermodynamics and chemical kinetics. It is useful for interpreting aqueiou solution chemical compositions and for calculating the consequences of reaction of such solutions with minerals, other solids, and gases. It is designed to run in a command line environment. EQPT is a thermodynamic data file preprocessor. EQ3NR is a speciation-solubility code. EQ6 is a reaction pathmore » code.« less

  11. Interface Induced Carbonate Mineralization: A Fundamental Geochemical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Interface Induced Carbonate Mineralization: A Fundamental Geochemical Process Relevant to Carbon Sequestration Teng, H. Henry PI, The George Washington University PI, The George...

  12. Novel Coupled Thermochronometric and Geochemical Investigation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... in a well-characterized structural context (permeability and alteration) in order to ... and geochemical data integration and model Innovative approach combining structural ...

  13. Optimizing parameters for predicting the geochemical behavior...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of discrete fracture networks in geothermal systems Optimizing parameters for predicting the geochemical behavior and performance of discrete fracture networks in geothermal ...

  14. Geochemical Data Analysis | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Information Provided by Technique Lithology: StratigraphicStructural: Hydrological: Thermal: Dictionary.png Geochemical Data Analysis: No definition has been provided for...

  15. Book Review - Geochemical Exploration 1982 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Book Review - Geochemical Exploration 1982 Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Book Review: Book Review - Geochemical Exploration 1982 Author R. A....

  16. Application Of Geochemical Methods In The Search For Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geochemical Methods In The Search For Geothermal Fields Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Application Of Geochemical Methods In...

  17. Computer Modeling of Chemical and Geochemical Processes in High...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Computer modeling of chemical and geochemical processes in high ionic strength solutions ... in brine Computer modeling of chemical and geochemical processes in high ionic ...

  18. Geochemical Modeling Of Aqueous Systems

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1995-09-07

    EQ3/6 is a software package for geochemical modeling of aqueous systems. This description pertains to version 7.2b. It addresses aqueous speciation, thermodynamic equilibrium, disequilibrium, and chemical kinetics. The major components of the package are EQ3NR, a speciation-solubility code, and EQ6 a reaction path code. EQ3NR is useful for analyzing groundwater chemistry data, calculating solubility limits, and determining whether certain reactions are in states of equilibrium or disequilibrium. It also initializes EQ6 calculations. EQ6 models themore » consequences of reacting an aqueous solution with a specified set of reactants (e.g., minerals or waste forms). It can also model fluid mixing and the effects of changes in temperature. Each of five supporting data files contain both standard state and activity coefficient-related data. Three support the use of the Davies or B-dot equations for the activity coefficients; the other two support the use of Pitzer''s equations. The temperature range of the thermodynamic data on the data files varies from 25 degrees C only to 0-300 degrees C.« less

  19. Nanogeochemistry: Geochemical reactions and mass transfers in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Nanogeochemistry: Geochemical reactions and mass transfers in nanopores ... OSTI Identifier: 913493 Report Number(s): SAND2003-0369J Journal ID: ISSN 0091-7613; TRN: ...

  20. Geothermal/Geochemical Database | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to library Chart: GeothermalGeochemical DatabaseInfo GraphicMapChart Author Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology Published Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, 2012 DOI Not...

  1. The hydrogeologic-geochemical model of Cerro Prieto revisited

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lippmann, M.J.; Halfman, S.E.; Truesdell, A.H.; Manon M., A.

    1989-01-01

    As the exploitation of the Cerro Prieto, Mexico, geothermal field continues, there is increasing evidence that the hydrogeologic model developed by Halfman et al. (1984, 1986) presents the basic features controlling the movement of geothermal fluids in the system. At the present time the total installed capacity at Cerro Prieto is 620 MWe requiring the production of more than 10,500 tonnes/hr of a brine-steam mixture. This significant rate of fluid production has resulted in changes in reservoir thermodynamic conditions and in the chemistry of the produced fluids. After reviewing the hydrogeologic-geochemical model of Cerro Prieto, some of the changes observed in the field due to its exploitation are discussed and interpreted on the basis of the model. 21 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Geochemical Enhancement Of Enhanced Geothermal System Reservoirs: An Integrated Field And Geochemical Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph N. Moore

    2007-12-31

    . In contrast, fluid inclusions trapped prior to injection are relatively gas rich. These results suggest that the rocks undergo extensive microfracturing during injection and that the composition of the fluid inclusions will be biased toward the youngest event. Interactions between the reservoir rocks and injectate were modeled using the non-isothermal reactive geochemical transport code TOUGHREACT. Changes in fluid pH, fracture porosity, fracture permeability, fluid temperature, and mineral abundances were monitored. The simulations predict that amorphous silica will precipitate primarily within a few meters of the injection well and that mineral deposition will lead to rapid declines in fracture porosity and permeability, consistent with field observations. In support of Enhanced Geothermal System development, petrologic studies of Coso well 46A-19RD were conducted to determine the regions that are most likely to fail when stimulated. These studies indicate that the most intensely brecciated and altered rocks in the zone targeted for stimulation (below 10,000 ft (3048 m)) occur between 11,200 and 11,350 ft (3414 and 3459 m). This zone is interpreted as a shear zone that initially juxtaposed quartz diorite against granodiorite. Strong pervasive alteration and veining within the brecciated quartz diorite and granodiorite suggest this shear zone was permeable in the past. This zone of weakness was subsequently exploited by a granophyre dike whose top occurs at 11,350 ft (3459 m). The dike is unaltered. We anticipate, based on analysis of the well samples that failure during stimulation will most likely occur on this shear zone.

  3. Analysis and Geochemical Modeling of Vanadium Contamination in Groundwater

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    New Rifle Processing Site, Colorado | Department of Energy and Geochemical Modeling of Vanadium Contamination in Groundwater New Rifle Processing Site, Colorado Analysis and Geochemical Modeling of Vanadium Contamination in Groundwater New Rifle Processing Site, Colorado Analysis and Geochemical Modeling of Vanadium Contamination in Groundwater New Rifle Processing Site, Colorado Analysis and Geochemical Modeling of Vanadium Contamination in Groundwater New Rifle Processing Site, Colorado

  4. Novel Coupled Thermochronometric and Geochemical Investigation of Blind

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Geothermal Resources in Fault-Controlled Dilational Corners | Department of Energy Coupled Thermochronometric and Geochemical Investigation of Blind Geothermal Resources in Fault-Controlled Dilational Corners Novel Coupled Thermochronometric and Geochemical Investigation of Blind Geothermal Resources in Fault-Controlled Dilational Corners Novel Coupled Thermochronometric and Geochemical Investigation of Blind Geothermal Resources in Fault-Controlled Dilational Corners presentation at the

  5. DNA-based methods of geochemical prospecting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashby, Matthew

    2011-12-06

    The present invention relates to methods for performing surveys of the genetic diversity of a population. The invention also relates to methods for performing genetic analyses of a population. The invention further relates to methods for the creation of databases comprising the survey information and the databases created by these methods. The invention also relates to methods for analyzing the information to correlate the presence of nucleic acid markers with desired parameters in a sample. These methods have application in the fields of geochemical exploration, agriculture, bioremediation, environmental analysis, clinical microbiology, forensic science and medicine.

  6. A Geochemical Speciation Program Based on PHREEQE

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-02-18

    HARPHRQ is a program based on the code PHREEQE and is designed to model geochemical reactions. Like PHREEQE, it can calculate the pH, redox potential and mass transfer as a function of reaction progress and the composition of solution in equilibrium with multiple phases. In addition, HARPHRQ includes options to allow the composition of a solution at a fixed pH to be calculated and to automatically add or remove mineral phases as they become saturatedmore » or exhausted. A separate module can also be interfaced to give a choice of sorption models including the triple-layer model.« less

  7. Monitoring CO2 intrusion and associated geochemical transformations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Monitoring CO2 intrusion and associated geochemical transformations in a shallow ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Monitoring CO2 intrusion and associated ...

  8. Category:Geochemical Data Analysis | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    category, out of 4 total. G Geochemical Data Analysis Geothermometry T Thermal Ion Dispersion Thermochronometry Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleCategory:Ge...

  9. Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide, Brine, Trace Metal and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Carbon Dioxide, Brine, Trace Metal and Organic Leakage into an Unconfined, Oxidizing Limestone Aquifer Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Geochemical Impacts of Carbon ...

  10. Geochemical Modeling of the Near-Surface Hydrothermal System...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    with non-thermal groundwater. Our conceptual model is based on hypotheses in the literature and published geochemical and petrologic data. Mixing of thermal and non-thermal...

  11. Merging high resolution geophysical and geochemical surveys to...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    combine a suite of high resolution geophysical and geochemical techniques to reduce exploration risk by characterizing hydrothermal alteration, fault geometries and relationships. ...

  12. Interpretation of extragalactic jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norman, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    The nature of extragalatic radio jets is modeled. The basic hypothesis of these models is that extragalatic jets are outflows of matter which can be described within the framework of fluid dynamics and that the outflows are essentially continuous. The discussion is limited to the interpretation of large-scale (i.e., kiloparsec-scale) jets. The central problem is to infer the physical parameters of the jets from observed distributions of total and polarized intensity and angle of polarization as a function of frequency. 60 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Code System to Model Aqueous Geochemical Equilibria.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2001-08-23

    Version: 00 MINTEQ is a geochemical program to model aqueous solutions and the interactions of aqueous solutions with hypothesized assemblages of solid phases. It was developed for the Environmental Protection Agency to perform the calculations necessary to simulate the contact of waste solutions with heterogeneous sediments or the interaction of ground water with solidified wastes. MINTEQ can calculate ion speciation/solubility, adsorption, oxidation-reduction, gas phase equilibria, and precipitation/dissolution ofsolid phases. MINTEQ can accept a finite massmore » for any solid considered for dissolution and will dissolve the specified solid phase only until its initial mass is exhausted. This ability enables MINTEQ to model flow-through systems. In these systems the masses of solid phases that precipitate at earlier pore volumes can be dissolved at later pore volumes according to thermodynamic constraints imposed by the solution composition and solid phases present. The ability to model these systems permits evaluation of the geochemistry of dissolved traced metals, such as low-level waste in shallow land burial sites. MINTEQ was designed to solve geochemical equilibria for systems composed of one kilogram of water, various amounts of material dissolved in solution, and any solid materials that are present. Systems modeled using MINTEQ can exchange energy and material (open systems) or just energy (closed systems) with the surrounding environment. Each system is composed of a number of phases. Every phase is a region with distinct composition and physically definable boundaries. All of the material in the aqueous solution forms one phase. The gas phase is composed of any gaseous material present, and each compositionally and structurally distinct solid forms a separate phase.« less

  14. Geologic interpretation of gravity anomalies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andreyev, B.A.; Klushin, I.G.

    1990-04-19

    This Russian textbook provides a sufficiently complete and systematic illumination of physico-geologic and mathematical aspect of complex problem of interpretation of gravity anomalies. The rational methods of localization of anomalies are examined in detail. All methods of interpreting gravity anomalies are described which have found successful application in practice. Also given are ideas of some new methods of the interpretation of gravity anomalies, the prospects for further development and industrial testing. Numerous practical examples to interpretation are given. Partial Contents: Bases of gravitational field theory; Physico-geologic bases of gravitational prospecting; Principles of geologic interpretation of gravity anomalies; Conversions and calculations of anomalies; Interpretation of gravity anomalies for bodies of correct geometric form and for bodies of arbitrary form; Geologic interpretation of the results of regional gravitational photographing; Searches and prospecting of oil- and gas-bearing structures and of deposits of ore and nonmetalliferous useful minerals.

  15. Summary and interpretive synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-05-01

    This chapter summarizes the major advances made through our integrated geological studies of the Lisburne Group in northern Alaska. The depositional history of the Lisburne Group is discussed in a framework of depositional sequence stratigraphy. Although individual parasequences (small-scale carbonate cycles) of the Wahoo Limestone cannot be correlated with certainty, parasequence sets can be interpreted as different systems tracts within the large-scale depositional sequences, providing insights on the paleoenvironments, paleogeography and platform geometry. Conodont biostratigraphy precisely established the position of the Mississippian-Pennsylvanian boundary within an important reference section, where established foraminiferal biostratigraphy is inconsistent with respect to conodont-based time-rock boundaries. However, existing Carboniferous conodont zonations are not readily applicable because most zonal indicators are absent, so a local zonation scheme was developed. Diagenetic studies of the Lisburne Group recognized nineteen subaerial exposure surfaces and developed a cement stratigraphy that includes: early cements associated with subaerial exposure surfaces in the Lisburne Group; cements associated with the sub-Permian unconformity; and later burial cements. Subaerial exposure surfaces in the Alapah Limestone are easily explained, being associated with peritidal environments at the boundaries of Sequence A. The Lisburne exposed in ANWR is generally tightly cemented and supermature, but could still be a good reservoir target in the adjacent subsurface of ANWR given the appropriate diagenetic, deformational and thermal history. Our ongoing research on the Lisburne Group will hopefully provide additional insights in future publications.

  16. A Mineralogical Petrographic And Geochemical Study Of Samples...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mineralogical Petrographic And Geochemical Study Of Samples From Wells In The Geothermal Field Of Milos Island (Greece) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to...

  17. Geochemical Data on Waters, Gases, Scales, and Rocks from the...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Geochemical Data on Waters, Gases, Scales, and Rocks from the Dixie Valley Region, Nevada (1996-1999)...

  18. Geochemical and isotopic water results, Barrow, Alaska, 2012-2013

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Heikoop, Jeff; Wilson, Cathy; Newman, Brent

    2012-07-18

    Data include a large suite of analytes (geochemical and isotopic) for samples collected in Barrow, Alaska (2012-2013). Sample types are indicated, and include soil pore waters, drainage waters, snowmelt, precipitation, and permafrost samples.

  19. SubTER Grand Challenge Roundtable: Imaging Geophysical and Geochemical

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Signals in the Subsurface | Department of Energy SubTER Grand Challenge Roundtable: Imaging Geophysical and Geochemical Signals in the Subsurface SubTER Grand Challenge Roundtable: Imaging Geophysical and Geochemical Signals in the Subsurface Grand Challenge Workshop -Imaging Subsurface.pdf (434.52 KB) More Documents & Publications AGU SubTER Town Hall Presentation 2015 SubTER Presentation at Town Hall - American Geophysical Union Controlling Subsurface Fractures and Fluid Flow: A Basic

  20. Geochemical Mud Logging of geothermal drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tonani, F.B.; Guidi, M.; Johnson, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    The experience and results described in the present paper were developed over nearly two decades, with a major R&D project around 1980. The expression Geochemical Mud Logging (GML) has ill defined meaning in the geothermal industry, and ought to be specified. We refer here to GML as featuring mud and formation fluid tracer(s) and temperature as the bare essentials and with specified accuracies. Air and water logging are expected to be less demanding with regard to analysis accuracy, but are not discussed in this report. During application of GML to several drill holes with low formation permeabilities and under conditions of high temperature and high mud weight, GML as specified, revealed unexpected influx of formation brine. Such influx was a recurring feature that has been referenced to individual fractures and reflects both fracture size and permeability. As a consequence, continuous or subcontinuous sampling of mud systems appears more cost effective than trying to keep up with cumulative changes of bulk mud composition; although, the latter approach is more sensitive to extremely low rate, steady, inflow of formation fluid into the mud system. It appears, that based on this influx of formation fluid, permeability can be estimated well before mud losses are detected and/or drill strings are stuck. The main advantages of GML are: (1) the capability to assess formation temperature and permeability in nearly real time, resulting in (a) assessments of undisturbed formation and (b) having data in hand for holes lost during drilling operations and (2) being effective under conditions of very high temperatures where electrical logs are very costly and less reliable. Estimated cost for GML is $1500 per day (1982) based on assessments of R&D operations. However, extrapolating to larger scale services and to different operating conditions is indeed difficult. GML cost is probably the only significant point of controversy with regard to GML being a viable evaluation tool.

  1. Stochastic Joint Inversion for Integrated Data Interpretation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Stochastic Joint Inversion for Integrated Data Interpretation in Geothermal Exploration Stochastic Joint Inversion for Integrated Data Interpretation in Geothermal Exploration ...

  2. Geochemical Modeling of ILAW Lysimeter Water Extracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2014-12-22

    Geochemical modeling results of water extracts from simulated immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) glasses, placed in lysimeters for eight years suggest that the secondary phase reaction network developed using product consistency test (PCT) results at 90°C may need to be modified for field conditions. For sediment samples that had been collected from near the glass samples, the impact of glass corrosion could be readily observed based upon the pH of their water extracts. For unimpacted sediments the pH ranged from 7.88 to 8.11 with an average of 8.04. Sediments that had observable impacts from glass corrosion exhibited elevated pH values (as high as 9.97). For lysimeter sediment samples that appear to have been impacted by glass corrosion to the greatest extent, saturation indices determined for analcime, calcite, and chalcedony in the 1:1 water extracts were near equilibrium and were consistent with the secondary phase reaction network developed using PCT results at 90°C. Fe(OH)3(s) also appears to be essentially at equilibrium in extracts impacted by glass corrosion, but with a solubility product (log Ksp) that is approximately 2.13 units lower than that used in the secondary phase reaction network developed using PCT results at 90°C. The solubilities of TiO2(am) and ZrO2(am) also appear to be much lower than that assumed in the secondary phase reaction network developed using PCT results at 90°C. The extent that the solubility of TiO2(am) and ZrO2(am) were reduced relative to that assumed in the secondary phase reaction network developed using PCT results at 90°C could not be quantified because the concentrations of Ti and Zr in the extracts were below the estimated quantification limit. Gibbsite was consistently highly oversaturated in the extract while dawsonite was at or near equilibrium. This suggests that dawsonite might be a more suitable phase for the secondary phase reaction network than gibbsite under field conditions. This may be due to the

  3. The integration of geochemical, geological and engineering data to determine reservoir continuity in the Iagifu-Hedinia field, Papua New Guinea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaufman, R.L.; Eisenberg, L.I.; Fitzmorris, R.E.

    1995-08-01

    A series of oil and gas fields, including Iagifu-Hedinia, occur along the leading edge of the Papuan fold and thrust belt. Formed during Pliocene to Recent compression, they are structurally complex, and typically broken into multiple reservoir compartments. The presence of the karstic Darai Limestone at the surface over most of the fold belt prevents acquisition of useful seismic data. Reservoir mapping, and establishment of reservoir continuity, is therefore based soley on (1) surface geologic data, (2) drilling data; initially dipmeter and RFT pressure data, and subsequently well production histories, and (3) geochemical correlation of reservoir fluids. During appraisal of the Iagifu-Hedinia discovery, these complimentary data sets demonstrated that (1) a single hydrocarbon column existed above a flowing aquifer in the main block of Iagifu-Hedinia field, (2) a separate acuumulation existed in the Usano area. Geochemical data have suggested the presence of reservoir compartments where other data were missing or inconclusive. Subsequently-acquired production history data have confirmed the geochemically-based interpretations. Geochemical data suggest that oils at Iagifu-Hedinia have a common source. The slight differences in oil composition between reservoirs are likely due to multiple phases of expulsion from the same source rock and/or migration-fractionation.

  4. How 12 geochemical methods fared in GERT project in Permian basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calhoun, G.G.

    1991-05-13

    This paper reports on Geochemical Evaluation Research Team (GERT) which is an experiment conceived to identify surface geochemical exploration methods that are effective in finding oil. Many of the methods use technology developed in the last 5 years. In fact, one of the challenging jobs for the geochemical explorationist is keeping up with new techniques and improvements. The way to minimize dry holes is to screen prospects with carefully selected geochemical techniques prior to acreage acquisition and seismic surveys.

  5. Validation of the WATEQ4 geochemical model for uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krupka, K.M.; Jenne, E.A.; Deutsch, W.J.

    1983-09-01

    As part of the Geochemical Modeling and Nuclide/Rock/Groundwater Interactions Studies Program, a study was conducted to partially validate the WATEQ4 aqueous speciation-solubility geochemical model for uranium. The solubility controls determined with the WATEQ4 geochemical model were in excellent agreement with those laboratory studies in which the solids schoepite (UO/sub 2/(OH)/sub 2/ . H/sub 2/O), UO/sub 2/(OH)/sub 2/, and rutherfordine ((UO/sub 2/CO/sub 3/) were identified as actual solubility controls for uranium. The results of modeling solution analyses from laboratory studies of uranyl phosphate solids, however, identified possible errors in the characterization of solids in the original solubility experiments. As part of this study, significant deficiencies in the WATEQ4 thermodynamic data base for uranium solutes and solids were corrected. Revisions included recalculation of selected uranium reactions. Additionally, thermodynamic data for the hydroxyl complexes of U(VI), including anionic (VI) species, were evaluated (to the extent permitted by the available data). Vanadium reactions were also added to the thermodynamic data base because uranium-vanadium solids can exist in natural ground-water systems. This study is only a partial validation of the WATEQ4 geochemical model because the available laboratory solubility studies do not cover the range of solid phases, alkaline pH values, and concentrations of inorganic complexing ligands needed to evaluate the potential solubility of uranium in ground waters associated with various proposed nuclear waste repositories. Further validation of this or other geochemical models for uranium will require careful determinations of uraninite solubility over the pH range of 7 to 10 under highly reducing conditions and of uranyl hydroxide and phosphate solubilities over the pH range of 7 to 10 under oxygenated conditions.

  6. Microsoft Word - Interpretive Guidance FINAL

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    June 2, 2011 INTERPRETIVE GUIDANCE ON THE REQUIREMENTS OF 10 C.F.R. § 205.322 This guidance is intended to clarify the Department of Energy (DOE)'s interpretation of 10 C.F.R. § 205.322, which sets forth the contents of an application for a Presidential permit issued by DOE under Executive Order (E.O.) 10485, as amended by E.O. 12038. Anyone seeking to construct, operate, maintain, or connect an electric transmission facility crossing the borders of the United States must first obtain a

  7. Precipitation in Pores: A Geochemical Frontier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stack, Andrew G.

    2015-01-01

    This article's purpose is to review some of the recent research in which geochemists have examined precipitation of solid phases in porous media, particularly in pores a few nanometers in diameter (nanopores). While this is a “review,” it is actually more forward-looking in that the list of things about this phenomenon that we do not know or cannot control at this time is likely longer than what we do know and can control. For example, there are three directly contradictory theories on how to predict how precipitation proceeds in a medium of varying pore size, as will be discussed below. The confusion on this subject likely stems from the complexity of the phenomenon itself: One can easily clog a porous medium by inducing a rapid, homogeneous precipitation directly from solution, or have limited precipitation occur that does not affect permeability or even porosity substantially. It is more difficult to engineer mineral precipitation in order to obtain a specific outcome, such as filling all available pore space over a targeted area for the purposes of contaminant sequestration. However, breakthrough discoveries could occur in the next five to ten years that enhance our ability to predict robustly and finely control precipitation in porous media by understanding how porosity and permeability evolve in response to system perturbations. These discoveries will likely stem (at least in part) from advances in our ability to 1) perform and interpret X-ray/neutron scattering experiments that reveal the extent of precipitation and its locales within porous media (Anovitz and Cole 2015, this volume), and 2) utilize increasingly powerful simulations to test concepts and models about the evolution of porosity and permeability as precipitation occurs (Steefel et al. 2015, this volume). A further important technique to isolate specific phenomena and understand reactivity is also microfluidics cell experiments that allow specific control of flow paths and fluid velocities

  8. Precipitation in pores: A geochemical frontier

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stack, Andrew G.

    2015-07-29

    This article's purpose is to review some of the recent research in which geochemists have examined precipitation of solid phases in porous media, particularly in pores a few nanometers in diameter (nanopores). While this is a “review,” it is actually more forward-looking in that the list of things about this phenomenon that we do not know or cannot control at this time is likely longer than what we do know and can control. For example, there are three directly contradictory theories on how to predict how precipitation proceeds in a medium of varying pore size, as will be discussed below.more » The confusion on this subject likely stems from the complexity of the phenomenon itself: One can easily clog a porous medium by inducing a rapid, homogeneous precipitation directly from solution, or have limited precipitation occur that does not affect permeability or even porosity substantially. It is more difficult to engineer mineral precipitation in order to obtain a specific outcome, such as filling all available pore space over a targeted area for the purposes of contaminant sequestration. However, breakthrough discoveries could occur in the next five to ten years that enhance our ability to predict robustly and finely control precipitation in porous media by understanding how porosity and permeability evolve in response to system perturbations. These discoveries will likely stem (at least in part) from advances in our ability to 1) perform and interpret X-ray/neutron scattering experiments that reveal the extent of precipitation and its locales within porous media (Anovitz and Cole 2015, this volume), and 2) utilize increasingly powerful simulations to test concepts and models about the evolution of porosity and permeability as precipitation occurs (Steefel et al. 2015, this volume). A further important technique to isolate specific phenomena and understand reactivity is also microfluidics cell experiments that allow specific control of flow paths and fluid

  9. Summary: interpretations of asteroseismic data (Conference) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Summary: interpretations of asteroseismic data Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Summary: interpretations of asteroseismic data You are accessing a document from the ...

  10. Geochemical Triggers of Arsenic Mobilization during Managed Aquifer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Recharge | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Geochemical Triggers of Arsenic Mobilization during Managed Aquifer Recharge Monday, February 29, 2016 Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is an increasingly used water enhancement strategy, which involves subsurface storage of water supplies in groundwater aquifers. While MAR projects have the potential to alleviate water deficits, they can also adversely impact groundwater quality by altering the native geochemistry of the aquifer and

  11. Argonne Geothermal Geochemical Database v2.0

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Harto, Christopher

    A database of geochemical data from potential geothermal sources aggregated from multiple sources as of March 2010. The database contains fields for the location, depth, temperature, pH, total dissolved solids concentration, chemical composition, and date of sampling. A separate tab contains data on non-condensible gas compositions. The database contains records for over 50,000 wells, although many entries are incomplete. Current versions of source documentation are listed in the dataset.

  12. Argonne Geothermal Geochemical Database v2.0

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Harto, Christopher

    2013-05-22

    A database of geochemical data from potential geothermal sources aggregated from multiple sources as of March 2010. The database contains fields for the location, depth, temperature, pH, total dissolved solids concentration, chemical composition, and date of sampling. A separate tab contains data on non-condensible gas compositions. The database contains records for over 50,000 wells, although many entries are incomplete. Current versions of source documentation are listed in the dataset.

  13. Geochemical drivers of organic matter decomposition in Arctic tundra soils

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Herndon, Elizabeth M.; Yang, Ziming; Graham, David E.; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Gu, Baohua; Liang, Liyuan; Bargar, John; Janot, Noemie; Regier, Tom Z.

    2015-12-07

    Climate change is warming tundra ecosystems in the Arctic, resulting in the decomposition of previously-frozen soil organic matter (SOM) and release of carbon (C) to the atmosphere; however, the processes that control SOM decomposition and C emissions remain highly uncertain. In this study, we evaluate geochemical factors that influence anaerobic production of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) in the active layers of four ice-wedge polygons. Surface and soil pore waters were collected during the annual thaw season over a two-year period in an area containing waterlogged, low-centered polygons and well-drained, high-centered polygons. We report spatial and seasonal patterns ofmore » dissolved gases in relation to the geochemical properties of Fe and organic C as determined using spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques. Iron was present as Fe(II) in soil solution near the permafrost boundary but enriched as Fe(III) in the middle of the active layer, similar to dissolved aromatic-C and organic acids. Dissolved CH4 increased relative to dissolved CO2 with depth and varied with soil moisture in the middle of the active layer in patterns that were positively correlated with the proportion of dissolved Fe(III) in transitional and low-centered polygon soils but negatively correlated in the drier flat- and high-centered polygons. These results suggest that microbial-mediated Fe oxidation and reduction influence respiration/fermentation of SOM and production of substrates (e.g., low-molecular-weight organic acids) for methanogenesis. As a result, we infer that geochemical differences induced by water saturation dictate microbial products of SOM decomposition, and Fe geochemistry is an important factor regulating methanogenesis in anoxic tundra soils.« less

  14. Geochemical drivers of organic matter decomposition in Arctic tundra soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herndon, Elizabeth M.; Yang, Ziming; Graham, David E.; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Gu, Baohua; Liang, Liyuan; Bargar, John; Janot, Noemie; Regier, Tom Z.

    2015-12-07

    Climate change is warming tundra ecosystems in the Arctic, resulting in the decomposition of previously-frozen soil organic matter (SOM) and release of carbon (C) to the atmosphere; however, the processes that control SOM decomposition and C emissions remain highly uncertain. In this study, we evaluate geochemical factors that influence anaerobic production of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) in the active layers of four ice-wedge polygons. Surface and soil pore waters were collected during the annual thaw season over a two-year period in an area containing waterlogged, low-centered polygons and well-drained, high-centered polygons. We report spatial and seasonal patterns of dissolved gases in relation to the geochemical properties of Fe and organic C as determined using spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques. Iron was present as Fe(II) in soil solution near the permafrost boundary but enriched as Fe(III) in the middle of the active layer, similar to dissolved aromatic-C and organic acids. Dissolved CH4 increased relative to dissolved CO2 with depth and varied with soil moisture in the middle of the active layer in patterns that were positively correlated with the proportion of dissolved Fe(III) in transitional and low-centered polygon soils but negatively correlated in the drier flat- and high-centered polygons. These results suggest that microbial-mediated Fe oxidation and reduction influence respiration/fermentation of SOM and production of substrates (e.g., low-molecular-weight organic acids) for methanogenesis. As a result, we infer that geochemical differences induced by water saturation dictate microbial products of SOM decomposition, and Fe geochemistry is an important factor regulating methanogenesis in anoxic tundra soils.

  15. Reduced-Order Model for the Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Reduced-Order Model for the Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide, Brine and Trace Metal Leakage into an Unconfined, Oxidizing Carbonate Aquifer, Version 2.1 Citation Details...

  16. Improved Geothermometry Through Multivariate Reaction Path Modeling and Evaluation of Geomicrobiological Influences on Geochemical Temperature Indicators

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Improved Geothermometry Through Multivariate Reaction Path Modeling and Evaluation of Geomicrobiological Influences on Geochemical Temperature Indicators presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado.

  17. New Mexico Play Fairway Analysis: New Mexico available wells for geochemical sampling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeff Pepin

    2015-11-15

    This is a map package that is used to show the wells in New Mexico that may be available for geochemical sampling.

  18. Optimizing parameters for predicting the geochemical behavior and performance of discrete fracture networks in geothermal systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Optimizing parameters for predicting the geochemical behavior and performance of discrete fracture networks in geothermal systems presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado.

  19. QUALITATIVE INTERPRETATION OF GALAXY SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchez Almeida, J.; Morales-Luis, A. B. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Terlevich, R.; Terlevich, E. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico); Cid Fernandes, R., E-mail: jos@iac.es, E-mail: abml@iac.es, E-mail: rjt@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: eterlevi@inaoep.mx, E-mail: cid@astro.ufsc.br [Departamento de Fisica-CFM, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, P.O. Box 476, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2012-09-10

    We describe a simple step-by-step guide to qualitative interpretation of galaxy spectra. Rather than an alternative to existing automated tools, it is put forward as an instrument for quick-look analysis and for gaining physical insight when interpreting the outputs provided by automated tools. Though the recipe is for general application, it was developed for understanding the nature of the Automatic Spectroscopic K-means-based (ASK) template spectra. They resulted from the classification of all the galaxy spectra in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 7, thus being a comprehensive representation of the galaxy spectra in the local universe. Using the recipe, we give a description of the properties of the gas and the stars that characterize the ASK classes, from those corresponding to passively evolving galaxies, to H II galaxies undergoing a galaxy-wide starburst. The qualitative analysis is found to be in excellent agreement with quantitative analyses of the same spectra. We compare the mean ages of the stellar populations with those inferred using the code STARLIGHT. We also examine the estimated gas-phase metallicity with the metallicities obtained using electron-temperature-based methods. A number of byproducts follow from the analysis. There is a tight correlation between the age of the stellar population and the metallicity of the gas, which is stronger than the correlations between galaxy mass and stellar age, and galaxy mass and gas metallicity. The galaxy spectra are known to follow a one-dimensional sequence, and we identify the luminosity-weighted mean stellar age as the affine parameter that describes the sequence. All ASK classes happen to have a significant fraction of old stars, although spectrum-wise they are outshined by the youngest populations. Old stars are metal-rich or metal-poor depending on whether they reside in passive galaxies or in star-forming galaxies.

  20. Merging high resolution geophysical and geochemical surveys to reduce exploration risk at glass buttes, Oregon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walsh, Patrick; Fercho, Steven; Perkin, Doug; Martini, Brigette; Boshmann, Darrick

    2015-06-01

    observed in each data set as follows. Field observations include fault plane orientations, complicated fault intersections, and hydrothermal alteration apparently pre-dating basalt flows. Geophysical anomalies include large, linear gradients in gravity and aeromagnetic data with magnetic lows possibly associated with alteration. Resistivity low anomalies also appear to have offsets associated with faulting. Hyperspectral and XRF identified alteration and individual volcanic flow units, respectively. When incorporated into a 3D geologic model, the fault intersections near the highest proven temperature and geophysical anomalies provide the first priority targets at Midnight Point. Ormat geologists selected the Midnight Point 52-33 drilling target based on a combination of pre-existing drilling data, geologic field work, geophysical interpretation, and geochemical analysis. Deep temperatures of well 52-33 was lower than anticipated. Temperature gradients in the well mirrored those found in historical drilling, but they decreased below 1500 ft and were isothermal below 2000 ft.

  1. Geochemical and Geomechanical Effects on Wellbore Cement Fractures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Um, Wooyong; Jung, Hun Bok; Kabilan, Senthil; Fernandez, Carlos A.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2014-12-31

    Experimental studies were conducted using batch reactors, X-ray microtomograpy (XMT), and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation to determine changes in cement fracture surfaces, fluid flow pathways, and permeability with geochemical and geomechanical processes. Composite Portland cement-basalt caprock core with artificial fractures was prepared and reacted with CO2-saturated groundwater at 50°C and 10 MPa for 3 to 3.5 months under static conditions to understand the geochemical and geomechanical effects on the integrity of wellbores containing defects. Cement-basalt interface samples were subjected to mechanical stress at 2.7 MPa before the CO2 reaction. XMT provided three-dimensional (3-D) visualization of the opening and interconnection of cement fractures due to mechanical stress. After the CO2 reaction, XMT images revealed that calcium carbonate precipitation occurred extensively within the fractures in the cement matrix, but only partially along fractures located at the cement-basalt interface. The permeability calculated based on CFD simulation was in agreement with the experimentally measured permeability. The experimental results imply that the wellbore cement with fractures is likely to be healed during exposure to CO2-saturated groundwater under static conditions, whereas fractures along the cement-caprock interface are still likely to remain vulnerable to the leakage of CO2. CFD simulation for the flow of different fluids (CO2-saturated brine and supercritical CO2) using a pressure difference of 20 kPa and 200 kPa along ~2 cm-long cement fractures showed that a pressure gradient increase resulted in an increase of CO2 fluids flux by a factor of only ~3-9 because the friction of CO2 fluids on cement fracture surfaces increased with higher flow rate as well. At the same pressure gradient, the simulated flow rate was higher for supercritical CO2 than CO2-saturated brine by a factor of only ~2-3, because the viscosity of supercritical CO2 is much

  2. Geochemical and Geomechanical Effects on Wellbore Cement Fractures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Um, Wooyong; Jung, Hun Bok; Kabilan, Senthil; Fernandez, Carlos A.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2014-12-31

    Experimental studies were conducted using batch reactors, X-ray microtomograpy (XMT), and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation to determine changes in cement fracture surfaces, fluid flow pathways, and permeability with geochemical and geomechanical processes. Composite Portland cement-basalt caprock core with artificial fractures was prepared and reacted with CO2-saturated groundwater at 50°C and 10 MPa for 3 to 3.5 months under static conditions to understand the geochemical and geomechanical effects on the integrity of wellbores containing defects. Cement-basalt interface samples were subjected to mechanical stress at 2.7 MPa before the CO2 reaction. XMT provided three-dimensional (3-D) visualization of the opening and interconnectionmore » of cement fractures due to mechanical stress. After the CO2 reaction, XMT images revealed that calcium carbonate precipitation occurred extensively within the fractures in the cement matrix, but only partially along fractures located at the cement-basalt interface. The permeability calculated based on CFD simulation was in agreement with the experimentally measured permeability. The experimental results imply that the wellbore cement with fractures is likely to be healed during exposure to CO2-saturated groundwater under static conditions, whereas fractures along the cement-caprock interface are still likely to remain vulnerable to the leakage of CO2. CFD simulation for the flow of different fluids (CO2-saturated brine and supercritical CO2) using a pressure difference of 20 kPa and 200 kPa along ~2 cm-long cement fractures showed that a pressure gradient increase resulted in an increase of CO2 fluids flux by a factor of only ~3-9 because the friction of CO2 fluids on cement fracture surfaces increased with higher flow rate as well. At the same pressure gradient, the simulated flow rate was higher for supercritical CO2 than CO2-saturated brine by a factor of only ~2-3, because the viscosity of supercritical CO2 is

  3. WATEQ3 geochemical model: thermodynamic data for several additional solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krupka, K.M.; Jenne, E.A.

    1982-09-01

    Geochemical models such as WATEQ3 can be used to model the concentrations of water-soluble pollutants that may result from the disposal of nuclear waste and retorted oil shale. However, for a model to competently deal with these water-soluble pollutants, an adequate thermodynamic data base must be provided that includes elements identified as important in modeling these pollutants. To this end, several minerals and related solid phases were identified that were absent from the thermodynamic data base of WATEQ3. In this study, the thermodynamic data for the identified solids were compiled and selected from several published tabulations of thermodynamic data. For these solids, an accepted Gibbs free energy of formation, ..delta..G/sup 0//sub f,298/, was selected for each solid phase based on the recentness of the tabulated data and on considerations of internal consistency with respect to both the published tabulations and the existing data in WATEQ3. For those solids not included in these published tabulations, Gibbs free energies of formation were calculated from published solubility data (e.g., lepidocrocite), or were estimated (e.g., nontronite) using a free-energy summation method described by Mattigod and Sposito (1978). The accepted or estimated free energies were then combined with internally consistent, ancillary thermodynamic data to calculate equilibrium constants for the hydrolysis reactions of these minerals and related solid phases. Including these values in the WATEQ3 data base increased the competency of this geochemical model in applications associated with the disposal of nuclear waste and retorted oil shale. Additional minerals and related solid phases that need to be added to the solubility submodel will be identified as modeling applications continue in these two programs.

  4. DISPLAYING AND INTERPRETING FLUID INCLUSION STRATIGRAPHY ANALYSES...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    DISPLAYING AND INTERPRETING FLUID INCLUSION STRATIGRAPHY ANALYSES ON MUDLOG GRAPHS Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Proceedings:...

  5. Mineralogic Interpretation Of Hymap Hyperspectral Data, Dixie...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mineralogic Interpretation Of Hymap Hyperspectral Data, Dixie Valley, Nevada, USA-Initial Results Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal...

  6. Aeromagnetic Survey And Interpretation, Ascention Island, South...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    And Interpretation, Ascention Island, South Atlantic Ocean Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Aeromagnetic Survey And...

  7. General Counsel Legal Interpretation Regarding Medical Removal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Benefits Pursuant to 10 CFR Part 850, Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program General Counsel Legal Interpretation Regarding Medical Removal Protection Benefits ...

  8. Modeling Background Radiation in our Environment Using Geochemical Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malchow, Russell L.; Marsac, Kara; Burnley, Pamela; Hausrath, Elisabeth; Haber, Daniel; Adcock, Christopher

    2015-02-01

    Radiation occurs naturally in bedrock and soil. Gamma rays are released from the decay of the radioactive isotopes K, U, and Th. Gamma rays observed at the surface come from the first 30 cm of rock and soil. The energy of gamma rays is specific to each isotope, allowing identification. For this research, data was collected from national databases, private companies, scientific literature, and field work. Data points were then evaluated for self-consistency. A model was created by converting concentrations of U, K, and Th for each rock and soil unit into a ground exposure rate using the following equation: D=1.32 K+ 0.548 U+ 0.272 Th. The first objective of this research was to compare the original Aerial Measurement System gamma ray survey to results produced by the model. The second objective was to improve the method and learn the constraints of the model. Future work will include sample data analysis from field work with a goal of improving the geochemical model.

  9. 31 TAC, part 1, chapter 9, rule 9.11 Geophysical and Geochemical...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    9, rule 9.11 Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration Permits Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: 31 TAC, part...

  10. Reduced-Order Model for the Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Reduced-Order Model for the Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide, Brine and Trace Metal Leakage into an Unconfined, Oxidizing Carbonate Aquifer, Version 2.1 Bacon, Diana H. carbon...

  11. Merging high resolution geophysical and geochemical surveys to reduce exploration risk at Glass Buttes, Oregon

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Technologies Peer Review - 2010. The primary objective of this project is to combine a suite of high resolution geophysical and geochemical techniques to reduce exploration risk by characterizing hydrothermal alteration, fault geometries and relationships.

  12. A geochemical model of the Kilauea east rift zone | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    rift zone Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: A geochemical model of the Kilauea east rift zone Abstract NA Author Donald Thomas...

  13. A Geological and Hydro-Geochemical Study of the Animas Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hydro-Geochemical Study of the Animas Geothermal Area, Hidalgo County, New Mexico Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: A Geological...

  14. Geochemical Monitoring Considerations for the FutureGen 2.0 Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amonette, James E.; Johnson, Timothy A.; Spencer, Clayton F.; Zhong, Lirong; Szecsody, James E.; Vermeul, Vince R.

    2014-12-31

    Geochemical monitoring is an essential component of a suite of monitoring technologies designed to evaluate CO2 mass balance and detect possible loss of containment at the FutureGen 2.0 geologic sequestration site near Jacksonville, IL. This presentation gives an overview of the potential geochemical approaches and tracer technologies that were considered, and describes the evaluation process by which the most cost-effective and robust of these were selected for implementation

  15. Extension Modules for the Python Interpretive language

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-12-29

    Python is an interpreted computer language, freely available to all, which may be extended by user developed "modules". These modules ay be written in a complied language such as 'C', and then linked into the Python program

  16. Natural bacterial communities serve as quantitative geochemical biosensors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Smith, Mark B.; Rocha, Andrea M.; Smillie, Chris S.; Olesen, Scott W.; Paradis, Charles; Wu, Liyou; Campbell, James H.; Fortney, Julian L.; Mehlhorn, Tonia L.; Lowe, Kenneth A.; et al

    2015-05-12

    Biological sensors can be engineered to measure a wide range of environmental conditions. Here we show that statistical analysis of DNA from natural microbial communities can be used to accurately identify environmental contaminants, including uranium and nitrate at a nuclear waste site. In addition to contamination, sequence data from the 16S rRNA gene alone can quantitatively predict a rich catalogue of 26 geochemical features collected from 93 wells with highly differing geochemistry characteristics. We extend this approach to identify sites contaminated with hydrocarbons from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, finding that altered bacterial communities encode a memory of prior contamination,more » even after the contaminants themselves have been fully degraded. We show that the bacterial strains that are most useful for detecting oil and uranium are known to interact with these substrates, indicating that this statistical approach uncovers ecologically meaningful interactions consistent with previous experimental observations. Future efforts should focus on evaluating the geographical generalizability of these associations. Taken as a whole, these results indicate that ubiquitous, natural bacterial communities can be used as in situ environmental sensors that respond to and capture perturbations caused by human impacts. These in situ biosensors rely on environmental selection rather than directed engineering, and so this approach could be rapidly deployed and scaled as sequencing technology continues to become faster, simpler, and less expensive. Here we show that DNA from natural bacterial communities can be used as a quantitative biosensor to accurately distinguish unpolluted sites from those contaminated with uranium, nitrate, or oil. These results indicate that bacterial communities can be used as environmental sensors that respond to and capture perturbations caused by human impacts.« less

  17. Geochemical characteristics of bitumens and seeps from Tanzania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mpanju, F. ); Philp, P. )

    1991-03-01

    A number of bitumen extracts from prospective source rocks and oil seeps of potential oil-producing areas in Tanzania have been characterized by a variety of geochemical techniques. The data obtained from this study have provided additional insight into the source rock potential of these areas. However, in this paper it is proposed to discuss in detail the results from two of the more unusual samples in this region, namely Wingayongo and Pemba. The Wingayongo bitumens isolated from an exposed Neocomian-aged sandstone, possibly a paleoreservoir, are almost totally devoid of n-alkanes and steranes and dominated by hopane-type biomarkers with the so-called immature {beta}{beta}-stereochemistry at the C{sub 17} and C{sub 21} positions. There is no typical evidence of biodegradation having occurred leading to the proposal of an unusual source material or maturity history for this sample. The Pemba seep samples were also characterized by relatively high concentrations of hopanes with the immature stereochemistry at the C{sub 17} and C{sub 21} positions and a virtual absence of n-alkanes and steranes. The aromatic fractions contained relatively high concentrations of hopanic acids, with the immature stereochemistry at C{sub 17} and C{sub 21} positions and a virtual absence of n-alkanes and steranes. The aromatic fractions contained relatively high concentrations of hopanic acids, with the immature stereochemistry at C{sub 17} and C{sub 21}. On the basis of these data, it is proposed that the seeps in the Pemba region are not true oil seeps. Rather they are formed as a result of extremely high levels of bacterial activity with the bacteria utilizing natural gas in the region as the substrate. The net result is a material referred to in other areas of the world as paraffin dirt whose occurrence results from extensive microbial activity in the region and not directly from seepage of products having a thermal origin.

  18. Natural bacterial communities serve as quantitative geochemical biosensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Mark B.; Rocha, Andrea M.; Smillie, Chris S.; Olesen, Scott W.; Paradis, Charles; Wu, Liyou; Campbell, James H.; Fortney, Julian L.; Mehlhorn, Tonia L.; Lowe, Kenneth A.; Earles, Jennifer E.; Phillips, Jana; Techtmann, Steve M.; Joyner, Dominique C.; Elias, Dwayne A.; Bailey, Kathryn L.; Hurt, Richard A.; Preheim, Sarah P.; Sanders, Matthew C.; Yang, Joy; Mueller, Marcella A.; Brooks, Scott; Watson, David B.; Zhang, Ping; He, Zhili; Dubinsky, Eric A.; Adams, Paul D.; Arkin, Adam P.; Fields, Matthew W.; Zhou, Jizhong; Alm, Eric J.; Hazen, Terry C.

    2015-05-12

    Biological sensors can be engineered to measure a wide range of environmental conditions. Here we show that statistical analysis of DNA from natural microbial communities can be used to accurately identify environmental contaminants, including uranium and nitrate at a nuclear waste site. In addition to contamination, sequence data from the 16S rRNA gene alone can quantitatively predict a rich catalogue of 26 geochemical features collected from 93 wells with highly differing geochemistry characteristics. We extend this approach to identify sites contaminated with hydrocarbons from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, finding that altered bacterial communities encode a memory of prior contamination, even after the contaminants themselves have been fully degraded. We show that the bacterial strains that are most useful for detecting oil and uranium are known to interact with these substrates, indicating that this statistical approach uncovers ecologically meaningful interactions consistent with previous experimental observations. Future efforts should focus on evaluating the geographical generalizability of these associations. Taken as a whole, these results indicate that ubiquitous, natural bacterial communities can be used as in situ environmental sensors that respond to and capture perturbations caused by human impacts. These in situ biosensors rely on environmental selection rather than directed engineering, and so this approach could be rapidly deployed and scaled as sequencing technology continues to become faster, simpler, and less expensive. Here we show that DNA from natural bacterial communities can be used as a quantitative biosensor to accurately distinguish unpolluted sites from those contaminated with uranium, nitrate, or oil. These results indicate that bacterial communities can be used as environmental sensors that respond to and capture perturbations caused by human impacts.

  19. Earned Value Management System Interpretation Handbook (EVMSIH)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The DOE EVMS Interpretation Handbook EVMSIH is the basis for defining and assessing EVMS compliance to the EIA-748 Guidelines. It was developed in collaboration with Department of Energy (DOE) and contractor EVMS experts, and based extensively on the complete EVM historical body of knowledge documents from industry and various Government organizations as well as DOE unique situations/conditions. The DOE EVMSIH consolidates the necessary elements from existing EVM body of knowledge documents into a single source for EVM interpretation within DOE to ensure consistency of expectations, implementation, and assessment.

  20. Hiereachical Bayesian Model for Combining Geochemical and Geophysical Data for Environmental Applications Software

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-05-01

    Development of a hierarchical Bayesian model to estimate the spatiotemporal distribution of aqueous geochemical parameters associated with in-situ bioremediation using surface spectral induced polarization (SIP) data and borehole geochemical measurements collected during a bioremediation experiment at a uranium-contaminated site near Rifle, Colorado. The SIP data are first inverted for Cole-Cole parameters including chargeability, time constant, resistivity at the DC frequency and dependence factor, at each pixel of two-dimensional grids using a previously developed stochastic method.more » Correlations between the inverted Cole-Cole parameters and the wellbore-based groundwater chemistry measurements indicative of key metabolic processes within the aquifer (e.g. ferrous iron, sulfate, uranium) were established and used as a basis for petrophysical model development. The developed Bayesian model consists of three levels of statistical sub-models: 1) data model, providing links between geochemical and geophysical attributes, 2) process model, describing the spatial and temporal variability of geochemical properties in the subsurface system, and 3) parameter model, describing prior distributions of various parameters and initial conditions. The unknown parameters are estimated using Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. By combining the temporally distributed geochemical data with the spatially distributed geophysical data, we obtain the spatio-temporal distribution of ferrous iron, sulfate and sulfide, and their associated uncertainity information. The obtained results can be used to assess the efficacy of the bioremediation treatment over space and time and to constrain reactive transport models.« less

  1. Tracer Test Interpretation Methods for Reservior Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shook, George Michael

    2001-08-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop tools that can be used to interpret tracer tests and obtain estimates of reservoir and operational parameters. These tools (mostly in the form of spreadsheet applications) can be used to optimize geothermal resource management.

  2. A Regulator's Perspective on Interpretation of Performance and...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Interpretation of Performance and Risk Assessment Results A Regulator's Perspective on Interpretation of Performance and Risk Assessment Results Presentation from the 2015 Annual...

  3. Laboratory Study Supporting the Interpretation of Solar Dynamics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Laboratory Study Supporting the Interpretation of Solar Dynamics Observatory data Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Laboratory Study Supporting the Interpretation of Solar...

  4. Laboratory Study Supporting the Interpretation of Solar Dynamics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Laboratory Study Supporting the Interpretation of Solar Dynamics Observatory data Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Laboratory Study Supporting the Interpretation of Solar ...

  5. Soil Iodine Determination in Deccan Syneclise, India: Implications for Near Surface Geochemical Hydrocarbon Prospecting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mani, Devleena; Kumar, T. Satish; Rasheed, M. A.; Patil, D. J.; Dayal, A. M.; Rao, T. Gnaneshwar; Balaram, V.

    2011-03-15

    The association of iodine with organic matter in sedimentary basins is well documented. High iodine concentration in soils overlying oil and gas fields and areas with hydrocarbon microseepage has been observed and used as a geochemical exploratory tool for hydrocarbons in a few studies. In this study, we measure iodine concentration in soil samples collected from parts of Deccan Syneclise in the west central India to investigate its potential application as a geochemical indicator for hydrocarbons. The Deccan Syneclise consists of rifted depositional sites with Gondwana-Mesozoic sediments up to 3.5 km concealed under the Deccan Traps and is considered prospective for hydrocarbons. The concentration of iodine in soil samples is determined using ICP-MS and the values range between 1.1 and 19.3 ppm. High iodine values are characteristic of the northern part of the sampled region. The total organic carbon (TOC) content of the soil samples range between 0.1 and 1.3%. The TOC correlates poorly with the soil iodine (r{sup 2} < 1), indicating a lack of association of iodine with the surficial organic matter and the possibility of interaction between the seeping hydrocarbons and soil iodine. Further, the distribution pattern of iodine compares well with two surface geochemical indicators: the adsorbed light gaseous hydrocarbons (methane through butane) and the propane-oxidizing bacterial populations in the soil. The integration of geochemical observations show the occurrence of elevated values in the northern part of the study area, which is also coincident with the presence of exposed dyke swarms that probably serve as conduits for hydrocarbon microseepage. The corroboration of iodine with existing geological, geophysical, and geochemical data suggests its efficacy as one of the potential tool in surface geochemical exploration of hydrocarbons. Our study supports Deccan Syneclise to be promising in terms of its hydrocarbon prospects.

  6. Technical Interpretation, NSTI 2003-01 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Interpretation, NSTI 2003-01 Technical Interpretation, NSTI 2003-01 December 3, 2003 Technical Interpretation Regarding Department of Energy Reviews and Approvals of Safety Programs Technical Interpretation 2003-01 concerns Department of Energy Orders and Regulations for review and approval of the underlying scope, methods, and approaches to implement the Order requirements. Technical Interpretation, NSTI 2003-01 (189.73 KB) More Documents & Publications DOE O 420.1B/1C Crosswalk Matrix

  7. The role of interpreters in high performance computing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naumann, Axel; Canal, Philippe; /Fermilab

    2008-01-01

    Compiled code is fast, interpreted code is slow. There is not much we can do about it, and it's the reason why interpreters use in high performance computing is usually restricted to job submission. We show where interpreters make sense even in the context of analysis code, and what aspects have to be taken into account to make this combination a success.

  8. Optimizing parameters for predicting the geochemical behavior and performance of discrete fracture networks in geothermal systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Optimizing parameters for predicting the geochemical behavior and performance of discrete fracture networks in geothermal systems Alexandra Hakala (National Energy Technology Laboratory) Track 1 Project Officer: Lauren Boyd Total Project Funding: $995,718 April 25, 2013 This presentation does not contain any proprietary confidential, or otherwise restricted information. 2 | US DOE Geothermal Office eere.energy.gov Relevance/Impact of Research * Fractures - primary pathway for geothermal heat

  9. Improved Geothermometry Through Multivariate Reaction Path Modeling and Evaluation of Geomicrobiological Influences on Geochemical Temperature Indicators

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Improved Geothermometry Through Multivariate Reaction Path Modeling and Evaluation of Geomicrobiological Influences on Geochemical Temperature Indicators Project Officer: Eric Hass Total Project Funding: $999,000 April 24, 2013 Craig Cooper Larry Hull Idaho National Laboratory This presentation does not contain any proprietary confidential, or otherwise restricted information. 2 | US DOE Geothermal Program eere.energy.gov Relevance/Impact of Research Geothermometry enables estimation of

  10. Geochemical and isotopic results for groundwater, drainage waters, snowmelt, permafrost, precipitation in Barrow, Alaska (USA) 2012-2013

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Wilson, Cathy; Newman, Brent; Heikoop, Jeff

    2012-07-18

    Data include a large suite of analytes (geochemical and isotopic) for samples collected in Barrow, Alaska (2012-2013). Sample types are indicated, and include soil pore waters, drainage waters, snowmelt, precipitation, and permafrost samples.

  11. Geochemical and isotopic results for groundwater, drainage waters, snowmelt, permafrost, precipitation in Barrow, Alaska (USA) 2012-2013

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Wilson, Cathy; Newman, Brent; Heikoop, Jeff

    Data include a large suite of analytes (geochemical and isotopic) for samples collected in Barrow, Alaska (2012-2013). Sample types are indicated, and include soil pore waters, drainage waters, snowmelt, precipitation, and permafrost samples.

  12. Kinetics of Uranium(VI) Desorption from Contaminated Sediments: Effect of Geochemical Conditions and Model Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Chongxuan; Shi, Zhenqing; Zachara, John M.

    2009-09-01

    Stirred-flow cell experiments were performed to investigate the kinetics of uranyl [U(VI)] desorption from a contaminated sediment collected from the Hanford 300 Area at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, Washington. Three influent solutions of variable pH, Ca and carbonate concentrations that affected U(VI) aqueous and surface speciation were used under dynamic flow conditions to evaluate the effect of geochemical conditions on the rate of U(VI) desorption. The measured rate of U(VI) desorption varied with solution chemical composition that evolved as a result of thermodynamic and kinetic interactions between the influent solutions and sediment. The solution chemical composition that led to a lower equilibrium U(VI) sorption to the solid phase yielded a faster desorption rate. The experimental results were used to evaluate a multi-rate, surface complexation model (SCM) that has been proposed to describe U(VI) desorption kinetics in the Hanford sediment that contained complex sorbed U(VI) species in mass transfer limited domains. The model was modified and supplemented by including multi-rate, ion exchange reactions to describe the geochemical interactions between the solutions and sediment. With the same set of model parameters, the modified model reasonably well described the evolution of major ions and the rates of U(VI) desorption under variable geochemical and flow conditions, implying that the multi-rate SCM is an effective way to describe U(VI) desorption kinetics in subsurface sediments.

  13. Geochemical factors affecting radionuclide transport through near and far fields at a Low-Level Waste Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaplan, D.I.; Seme, R.J.; Piepkho, M.G.

    1995-03-01

    The concentration of low-level waste (LLW) contaminants in groundwater is determined by the amount of contaminant present in the solid waste, rate of release from the waste and surrounding barriers, and a number of geochemical processes including adsorption, desorption, diffusion, precipitation, and dissolution. To accurately predict radionuclide transport through the subsurface, it is essential that the important geochemical processes affecting radionuclide transport be identified and, perhaps more importantly, accurately quantified and described in a mathematically defensible manner.

  14. Thermodynamic Data for Geochemical Modeling of Carbonate Reactions Associated with CO2 Sequestration – Literature Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krupka, Kenneth M.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2010-09-28

    Permanent storage of anthropogenic CO2 in deep geologic formations is being considered as a means to reduce the concentration of atmospheric CO2 and thus its contribution to global climate change. To ensure safe and effective geologic sequestration, numerous studies have been completed of the extent to which the CO2 migrates within geologic formations and what physical and geochemical changes occur in these formations when CO2 is injected. Sophisticated, computerized reservoir simulations are used as part of field site and laboratory CO2 sequestration studies. These simulations use coupled multiphase flow-reactive chemical transport models and/or standalone (i.e., no coupled fluid transport) geochemical models to calculate gas solubility, aqueous complexation, reduction/oxidation (redox), and/or mineral solubility reactions related to CO2 injection and sequestration. Thermodynamic data are critical inputs to modeling geochemical processes. The adequacy of thermodynamic data for carbonate compounds has been identified as an important data requirement for the successful application of these geochemical reaction models to CO2 sequestration. A review of thermodynamic data for CO2 gas and carbonate aqueous species and minerals present in published data compilations and databases used in geochemical reaction models was therefore completed. Published studies that describe mineralogical analyses from CO2 sequestration field and natural analogue sites and laboratory studies were also reviewed to identify specific carbonate minerals that are important to CO2 sequestration reactions and therefore require thermodynamic data. The results of the literature review indicated that an extensive thermodynamic database exists for CO2 and CH4 gases, carbonate aqueous species, and carbonate minerals. Values of ∆fG298° and/or log Kr,298° are available for essentially all of these compounds. However, log Kr,T° or heat capacity values at temperatures above 298 K exist for less than

  15. An interpretation of passive containment cooling phenomena

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, Bum-Jin; Kang, Chang-Sun,

    1995-09-01

    A simplified interpretation model for the cooling capability of the Westinghouse type PCCS is proposed in this paper. The PCCS domain was phenomenologically divided into 3 regions; water entrance effect region, asymptotic region, and air entrance effect region. The phenomena in the asymptotic region is focused in this paper. Due to the very large height to thickness ratio of the water film, the length of the asymptotic region is estimated to be over 90% of the whole domain. Using the analogy between heat and mass transfer phenomena in a turbulent situation, a new dependent variable combining temperature and vapor mass fraction was defined. The similarity between the PCCS phenomena, which contains the sensible and latent heat transfer, and the buoyant air flow on a vertical heated plate is derived. The modified buoyant coefficient and thermal conductivity were defined. Using these newly defined variable and coefficients, the modified correlation for the interfacial heat fluxes and the ratios of latent heat transfer to sensible heat transfer is established. To verify the accuracy of the correlation, the results of this study were compared with the results of other numerical analyses performed for the same configuration and they are well within the range of 15% difference.

  16. Langley Deep Field, discovery and interpretation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henderson, G.J.; Lake, E.A.; Douglas, G.

    1984-01-01

    In May 1978, ARCO Oil and Gas Co. completed the Langley Deep Unit 1 well in Lea County, New Mexico, discovering a deep gas field with production from two horizons. The discovery well produces gas from a northwest-southeast-trending anticline that has a reverse fault at the Ellenburger formation on the northeast flank of the structure. This reverse fault, possibly persistent to the base of the Wolfcamp Formation, generated an anticlinal feature in the upthrown block at the Devonian level. The fault itself is the trap at the Ellenburger formation. Since the discovery of the Langley Deep field in 1978, a new geologic interpretation has been proposed for the eastern rim of the Delaware basin. A major conclusion, based on seismic control, the well control from this field, and on subsurface control throughout southern Lea County, New Mexico, is that a strike-slip fault was activated during the Late Pennsylvanian and Early Permian and caused deformation resulting in the formation of the Langley Deep structure.

  17. A Regulator's Perspective on Interpretation of Performance and Risk

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Assessment Results | Department of Energy Interpretation of Performance and Risk Assessment Results A Regulator's Perspective on Interpretation of Performance and Risk Assessment Results Presentation from the 2015 Annual Performance and Risk Assessment (P&RA) Community of Practice (CoP) Technical Exchange Meeting held in Richland, Washington on December 15-16, 2015. A Regulator's Perspective on Interpretation of Performance and Risk Assessment Results (2.19 MB) More Documents &

  18. General Counsel Legal Interpretation Regarding Medical Removal Protection

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Benefits Pursuant to 10 CFR Part 850, Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program | Department of Energy Counsel Legal Interpretation Regarding Medical Removal Protection Benefits Pursuant to 10 CFR Part 850, Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program General Counsel Legal Interpretation Regarding Medical Removal Protection Benefits Pursuant to 10 CFR Part 850, Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program The following document is the Office of the General Counsel (GC) interpretation

  19. Stochastic Joint Inversion for Integrated Data Interpretation in Geothermal Exploration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Stochastic Joint Inversion for Integrated Data Interpretation in Geothermal Exploration presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado.

  20. Laboratory Experiments and Modeling for Interpreting Field Studies...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Laboratory Experiments and Modeling for Interpreting Field Studies of Secondary Organic ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Laboratory Experiments and Modeling for ...

  1. Fluid Inclusion Stratigraphy Interpretation of New Wells in the...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Stratigraphy Interpretation of New Wells in the Coso Geothermal Field Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Fluid Inclusion...

  2. DOE Withdraws Interpretive Rule and Provides Enforcement Guidance on Showerheads

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department has withdrawn as unwarranted the draft interpretative rule setting out the Department's views on the definition of a "showerhead" for purposes of the water conservation standard...

  3. PyGrid WSDL and XML Schema interpreter

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2003-08-01

    PyGridWare WSDL and XMLSchema interpreter is used to automatically generate python code that maps directly to the XMLSchema objects and WSLD PortTypes

  4. Interpretation of electromagnetic soundings in the Raft River...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    electromagnetic soundings in the Raft River geothermal area, Idaho Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Interpretation of electromagnetic...

  5. Geochemical Behaviour of S, Cl and Fe in Silicate Melts/Glasses Simulating

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Natural Magmas | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Geochemical Behaviour of S, Cl and Fe in Silicate Melts/Glasses Simulating Natural Magmas Monday, March 26, 2012 - 11:00am SSRL Conference Room 137-322 G. Giuli, R. Alonso-Mori, E. Paris, P. Glatzel, S. Eeckhout, M. Carroll, School of Science and Technology, Geology Division, University of Camerino, Via G. III da Varano, 62032 Camerino; e-mail: The solubility behaviour of S and Cl in silicate magmas is a key to understand the

  6. Evaluation of Groundwater Movement in the Frenchman Flat CAU Using Geochemical and Isotopic Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Hershey; J. Thomas; T. Rose; J. Paces; I. Farnham; C. Benedict, Jr.

    2005-03-01

    The principal pathway for radionuclide migration from underground tests in Frenchman Flat, on the Nevada Test Site, to the accessible environment is groundwater flow. Two potential pathways for radionuclide transport via groundwater have been identified from hydrologic data: (1) radionuclide transport downward from the alluvial and volcanic aquifers into the underlying carbonate aquifer; and (2) radionuclide transport laterally to the carbonate aquifer surrounding Frenchman Flat. This report presents an evaluation of geochemical and environmental isotopic data to test these potential pathways and to identify other groundwater flowpaths in, and out of, Frenchman Flat.

  7. Geochemical Data Package for Performance Assessment Calculations Related to the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaplan, Daniel I.

    2010-03-15

    The Savannah River Site disposes of low-activity radioactive waste within subsurface-engineered facilities. One of the tools used to establish the capacity of a given site to safely store radioactive waste (i.e., that a site does not exceed its Waste Acceptance Criteria) is the Performance Assessment (PA). The objective of this document is to provide the geochemical values for the PA calculations. This work is being conducted as part of the on-going maintenance program that permits the PA to periodically update existing calculations when new data becomes available.

  8. Remote Raman - laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) geochemical investigation under Venus atmospheric conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clegg, Sanuel M; Barefield, James E; Humphries, Seth D; Wiens, Roger C; Vaniman, D. T.; Sharma, S. K.; Misra, A. K.; Dyar, M. D.; Smrekar, S. E.

    2010-12-13

    The extreme Venus surface temperatures ({approx}740 K) and atmospheric pressures ({approx}93 atm) create a challenging environment for surface missions. Scientific investigations capable of Venus geochemical observations must be completed within hours of landing before the lander will be overcome by the harsh atmosphere. A combined remote Raman - LIBS (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) instrument is capable of accomplishing the geochemical science goals without the risks associated with collecting samples and bringing them into the lander. Wiens et al. and Sharma et al. demonstrated that both analytical techniques can be integrated into a single instrument capable of planetary missions. The focus of this paper is to explore the capability to probe geologic samples with Raman - LIBS and demonstrate quantitative analysis under Venus surface conditions. Raman and LIBS are highly complementary analytical techniques capable of detecting both the mineralogical and geochemical composition of Venus surface materials. These techniques have the potential to profoundly increase our knowledge of the Venus surface composition, which is currently limited to geochemical data from Soviet Venera and VEGA landers that collectively suggest a surface composition that is primarily tholeiitic basaltic with some potentially more evolved compositions and, in some locations, K-rich trachyandesite. These landers were not equipped to probe the surface mineralogy as can be accomplished with Raman spectroscopy. Based on the observed compositional differences and recognizing the imprecise nature of the existing data, 15 samples were chosen to constitute a Venus-analog suite for this study, including five basalts, two each of andesites, dacites, and sulfates, and single samples of a foidite, trachyandesite, rhyolite, and basaltic trachyandesite under Venus conditions. LIBS data reduction involved generating a partial least squares (PLS) model with a subset of the rock powder standards to

  9. Blind Geothermal System Exploration in Active Volcanic Environments; Multi-phase Geophysical and Geochemical Surveys in Overt & Subtle Volcanic Systems, Hawaii & Maui

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Technologies Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project Objective: To use a combination of traditional geophysical and geochemical tools with exploration suites not typically used in geothermal exploration.

  10. Interpretation of storage field well casing surface potentials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dabkowski, J.

    1987-01-01

    The shape of a well casing-to-soil potential gradient surface profile is influenced by many variables. Hence, the interpretation of such field data can be difficult. The paper illustrates how such factors as layered ground resistivity, polarization potential variations with depth, and external interference affect the profiles and, therefore, the interpretation of field data.

  11. Geochemical Implications of CO2 Leakage Associated with Geologic Storage: A Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harvey, Omar R.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2012-07-09

    Leakage from deep storage reservoirs is a major risk factor associated with geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2). Different scientific theories exist concerning the potential implications of such leakage for near-surface environments. The authors of this report reviewed the current literature on how CO2 leakage (from storage reservoirs) would likely impact the geochemistry of near surface environments such as potable water aquifers and the vadose zone. Experimental and modeling studies highlighted the potential for both beneficial (e.g., CO2 re sequestration or contaminant immobilization) and deleterious (e.g., contaminant mobilization) consequences of CO2 intrusion in these systems. Current knowledge gaps, including the role of CO2-induced changes in redox conditions, the influence of CO2 influx rate, gas composition, organic matter content and microorganisms are discussed in terms of their potential influence on pertinent geochemical processes and the potential for beneficial or deleterious outcomes. Geochemical modeling was used to systematically highlight why closing these knowledge gaps are pivotal. A framework for studying and assessing consequences associated with each factor is also presented in Section 5.6.

  12. Geochemical and geologic factors effecting the formulation of gas hydrate: Task No. 5, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Claypool, G.E.

    1988-01-01

    The main objective of our work has been to determine the primary geochemical and geological factors controlling gas hydrate information and occurrence and particularly in the factors responsible for the generation and accumulation of methane in oceanic gas hydrates. In order to understand the interrelation of geochemical/geological factors controlling gas hydrate occurrence, we have undertaken a multicomponent program which has included (1) comparison of available information at sites where gas hydrates have been observed through drilling by the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) on the Blake Outer Ridge and Middle America Trench; (2) regional synthesis of information related to gas hydrate occurrences of the Middle America Trench; (3) development of a model for the occurrence of a massive gas hydrate as DSDP Site 570; (4) a global synthesis of gas hydrate occurrences; and (5) development of a predictive model for gas hydrate occurrence in oceanic sediment. The first three components of this program were treated as part of a 1985 Department of Energy Peer Review. The present report considers the last two components and presents information on the worldwide occurrence of gas hydrates with particular emphasis on the Circum-Pacific and Arctic basins. A model is developed to account for the occurrence of oceanic gas hydrates in which the source of the methane is from microbial processes. 101 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Geothermal well log interpretation state of the art. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanyal, S.K.; Wells, L.E.; Bickham, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    An in-depth study of the state of the art in Geothermal Well Log Interpretation has been made encompassing case histories, technical papers, computerized literature searches, and actual processing of geothermal wells from New Mexico, Idaho, and California. A classification scheme of geothermal reservoir types was defined which distinguishes fluid phase and temperature, lithology, geologic province, pore geometry, salinity, and fluid chemistry. Major deficiencies of Geothermal Well Log Interpretation are defined and discussed with recommendations of possible solutions or research for solutions. The Geothermal Well Log Interpretation study and report has concentrated primarily on Western US reservoirs. Geopressured geothermal reservoirs are not considered.

  14. APS Tcl/Tk library and interpreter extensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saunders, C.; Borland, M.

    1995-11-27

    This document serves as a User`s Manual and Reference for the library of Tcl and Tk procedures produced by the Operations Analysis Group. Also covered are compiled interpreter extensions.

  15. DOE interpretations Guide to OSH standards. Update to the Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-03-31

    Reflecting Secretary O`Leary`s focus on occupational safety and health, the Office of Occupational Safety is pleased to provide you with the latest update to the DOE Interpretations Guide to OSH Standards. This Guide was developed in cooperation with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, which continued its support during this last revision by facilitating access to the interpretations found on the OSHA Computerized Information System (OCIS). This March 31, 1994 update contains 123 formal interpretation letters written OSHA. As a result of the unique requests received by the 1-800 Response Line, this update also contains 38 interpretations developed by DOE. This new occupational safety and health information adds still more important guidance to the four volume reference set that you presently have in your possession.

  16. DOE interpretations Guide to OSH standards. Update to the Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-03-31

    Reflecting Secretary O`Leary`s focus on occupational safety and health, the Office of Occupational Safety is pleased to provide you with the latest update to the DOE Interpretations Guide to OSH Standards. This Guide was developed in cooperation with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, which continued its support during this last revision by facilitating access to the interpretations found on the OSHA Computerized Information System (OCIS). This March 31, 1994 update contains 123 formal interpretation letters written by OSHA. As a result of the unique requests received by the 1-800 Response Line, this update also contains 38 interpretations developed by DOE. This new occupational safety and health information adds still more important guidance to the four volume reference set that you presently have in your possession.

  17. Geologic interpretation of gravity and magnetic data in the Salida...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    interpretation of gravity and magnetic data in the Salida region, Colorado Authors J.E. Case and R.F. Sikora Published U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report, 1984 Report...

  18. Interpretation of self-potential measurements during injection...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    self-potential measurements during injection tests at Raft River, Idaho. Final report Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Interpretation of...

  19. INTERPRETATION REGARDING THE APPLICATION OF DOE TECHNICAL STANDARD...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Part 830 Interpretation Regarding TS 1027 10-13-2011 Final.pdf (18.78 KB) More Documents & Publications NSTP 2002-2 Methodology for Final Hazard Categorization for Nuclear ...

  20. Workshop on hydrologic and geochemical monitoring in the Long Valley Caldera: proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorey, M.L.; Farrar, C.D.; Wollenberg, H.A.

    1984-10-01

    A workshop reviewed the results of hydrologic and geochemical monitoring in the Long Valley caldera. Such monitoring is being done to detect changes in the hydrothermal system induced by ongoing magmatic and tectonic processes. Workshop participants discussed the need to instrument sites for continuous measurements of several parameters and to obtain additional hydrologic and chemical information from intermediate and deep drill holes. In addition to seismic and deformation monitoring, programs are currently in progress to monitor changes in the discharge characteristics of hot springs, fumaroles, and soil gases, as well as pressures and temperatures in wells. Some hydrochemical parameters are measured continuously, others are measured monthly or at longer intervals. This report summarizes the information presented at the hydrologic monitoring workshop, following the workshop agenda which was divided into four sessions: (1) overview of the hydrothermal system; (2) monitoring springs, fumaroles, and wells; (3) monitoring gas emissions; and (4) conclusions and recommendations.

  1. Interface Induced Carbonate Mineralization: A Fundamental Geochemical Process Relevant to Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teng, H. Henry; Xu, Huifang

    2013-07-17

    We have approached the long-standing geochemical question why anhydrous high-Mg carbonate minerals (i.e., magnesite and dolomite) cannot be formed at ambient conditions from a new perspective by exploring the formation of MgCO{sub 3} and Mg{sub x}Ca{sub (1-x)}CO{sub 3} in non-aqueous solutions. Data collected from our experiments in this funding period suggest that a fundamental barrier, other than cation hydration, exists that prevents Mg{sup 2+} and CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} ions from forming long-range ordered structures. We propose that this barrier mainly stems from the lattice limitation on the spatial configuration of CO{sub 3} groups in magnesite crystals. On the other hand, the measured higher distribution coefficients of Mg between magnesian calcites formed in the absence and presence of water give us a first direct proof to support and quantify the cation hydration effect.

  2. Geological, geochemical, and geophysical survey of the geothermal resources at Hot Springs Bay Valley, Akutan Island, Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motyka, R.J.; Wescott, E.M.; Turner, D.L.; Swanson, S.E.; Romick, J.D.; Moorman, M.A.; Poreda, R.J.; Witte, W.; Petzinger, B.; Allely, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    An extensive survey was conducted of the geothermal resource potential of Hot Springs Bay Valley on Akutan Island. A topographic base map was constructed, geologic mapping, geophysical and geochemical surveys were conducted, and the thermal waters and fumarolic gases were analyzed for major and minor element species and stable isotope composition. (ACR)

  3. Evaluating oil quality and monitoring production from heavy oil reservoirs using geochemical methods: Application to the Boscan Field, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaufman, R.L.; Noguera, V.H.; Bantz, D.M.; Rodriguez, R.

    1996-08-01

    Many oil fields worldwide contain heavy oil in one or more reservoir units. The low gravity of these oils is most frequently due to biodegradation and/or low maturity. The challenge is to find ways to economically recover this oil. Methods which reduce the operating costs of producing heavy oil add significant value to such projects. Geochemical techniques which use the composition of the reservoir fluids as natural tracers offer cost effective methods to assist with reservoir management. The low viscosity and gravity of heavy oil, combined with frequent high water cuts, low flow rates, and the presence of downhole artificial lift equipment, make many conventional production logging methods difficult to apply. Therefore, monitoring production, especially if the produced oil is commingled from multiple reservoirs, can be difficult. Geochemical methods can be used to identify oil/water contacts, tubing string leaks and to allocate production to individual zones from commingled production. An example of a giant heavy oil field where geochemical methods may be applicable is the Boscan Field in Venezuela. Low maturity oil, averaging 10{degrees} API gravity, is produced from the Eocene Upper and Lower Boscan (Miosa) Sands. Geochemical, stratigraphic and engineering data have helped to better define the controls on oil quality within the field, identified new reservoir compartments and defined unique characteristics of the Upper and Lower Boscan oils. This information can be used to identify existing wells in need of workovers due to mechanical problems and to monitor production from new infill wells.

  4. Geochemical and physical properties of wetland soils at the Savannah River site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, K.L; Rogers, V.A.; Conner, S.P.; Cummings, C.L.; Gladden, J.B.; Weber, J.M.

    1996-05-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS), located in Aiken, Allendale, and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina, is a nuclear production facility operated for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). To facilitate future human health and ecological risk assessments, treatability studies, remedial investigations, and feasibility studies for its wetland areas, SRS needs a database of background geochemical and physical properties of wetland soils. These data are needed for comparison to data collected from wetland soils that may have been affected by SRS operations. SRS contains 36,000 acres of wetlands and an additional 5,000 acres of bottom land soils subject to flooding. Recent studies of wetland soils near various waste units at SRS show that some wetlands have been impacted by releases of contaminants resulting from SRS operations (WSRC, 1992). Waste waters originating from the operations facilities typically have been discharged into seepage basins located in upland soils, direct discharge of waste water to wetland areas has been minimal. This suggests that impacted wetland areas have been affected indirectly as a result of transport mechanisms such as surface runoff, groundwater seeps, fluvial or sediment transport, and leaching. Looney et al. (1990) conducted a study to characterize the geochemical and physical properties of upland soils and shallow sediments on the SRS. A primary objective of the upland study was to collect the data needed to assess the qualitative and quantitative impacts of SRS operations on the environment. By comparing the upland soils data to data collected from waste units located in similar soils, SRS impacts could be assessed. The data were also intended to aid in selection of remediation alternatives. Because waste units at SRS have historically been located in upland areas, wetland soils were not sampled. (Abstract Truncated)

  5. Geochemical Impacts of Leaking CO2 from Subsurface Storage Reservoirs to Unconfined and Confined Aquifers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qafoku, Nikolla; Brown, Christopher F.; Wang, Guohui; Sullivan, E. C.; Lawter, Amanda R.; Harvey, Omar R.; Bowden, Mark

    2013-04-15

    Experimental research work has been conducted and is undergoing at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to address a variety of scientific issues related with the potential leaks of the carbon dioxide (CO2) gas from deep storage reservoirs. The main objectives of this work are as follows: • Develop a systematic understanding of how CO2 leakage is likely to influence pertinent geochemical processes (e.g., dissolution/precipitation, sorption/desorption and redox reactions) in the aquifer sediments. • Identify prevailing environmental conditions that would dictate one geochemical outcome over another. • Gather useful information to support site selection, risk assessment, policy-making, and public education efforts associated with geological carbon sequestration. In this report, we present results from experiments conducted at PNNL to address research issues related to the main objectives of this effort. A series of batch and column experiments and solid phase characterization studies (quantitative x-ray diffraction and wet chemical extractions with a concentrated acid) were conducted with representative rocks and sediments from an unconfined, oxidizing carbonate aquifer, i.e., Edwards aquifer in Texas, and a confined aquifer, i.e., the High Plains aquifer in Kansas. These materials were exposed to a CO2 gas stream simulating CO2 gas leaking scenarios, and changes in aqueous phase pH and chemical composition were measured in liquid and effluent samples collected at pre-determined experimental times. Additional research to be conducted during the current fiscal year will further validate these results and will address other important remaining issues. Results from these experimental efforts will provide valuable insights for the development of site-specific, generation III reduced order models. In addition, results will initially serve as input parameters during model calibration runs and, ultimately, will be used to test model predictive capability and

  6. Geochemical orientation survey of stream sediment, stream water, and ground water near uranium prospects, Monticello area, New York. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, A. W.; Smith, A. T.; Wesolowski, D.

    1982-08-01

    A detailed geochemical test survey has been conducted in a 570 sq km area around six small copper-uranium prospects in sandstones of the Devonian Catskill Formation near Monticello in southern New York state. This report summarizes and interprets the data for about 500 stream sediment samples, 500 stream water samples, and 500 ground water samples, each analyzed for 40 to 50 elements. The groundwater samples furnish distinctive anomalies for uranium, helium, radon, and copper near the mineralized localities, but the samples must be segregated into aquifers in order to obtain continuous well-defined anomalies. Two zones of uranium-rich water (1 to 16 parts per billion) can be recognized on cross sections; the upper zone extends through the known occurrences. The anomalies in uranium and helium are strongest in the deeper parts of the aquifers and are diluted in samples from shallow wells. In stream water, copper and uranium are slightly anomalous, as in an ore factor derived from factor analysis. Ratios of copper, uranium, and zinc to conductivity improve the resolution of anomalies. In stream sediment, extractable uranium, copper, niobium, vanadium, and an ore factor furnish weak anomalies, and ratios of uranium and copper to zinc improve the definition of anomalies. The uranium/thorium ratio is not helpful. Published analyses of rock samples from the nearby stratigraphic section show distinct anomalies in the zone containing the copper-uranium occurrences. This report is being issued without the normal detailed technical and copy editing, to make the data available to the public before the end of the National Uranium Reconnaissance Evaluation program.

  7. DOE interpretations Guide to OSH standards. Update to the Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-03-31

    Reflecting Secretary O`Leary`s focus on occupational safety and health, the Office of Occupational Safety is pleased to provide you with the latest update to the DOE Interpretations Guide to OSH Standards. This Guide was developed in cooperation with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, which continued it`s support during this last revision by facilitating access to the interpretations found on the OSHA Computerized Information System (OCIS). This March 31, 1994 update contains 123 formal in letter written by OSHA. As a result of the unique requests received by the 1-800 Response Line, this update also contains 38 interpretations developed by DOE. This new occupational safety and health information adds still more important guidance to the four volume reference set that you presently have in your possession.

  8. Up-Scaling Geochemical Reaction Rates for Carbon Dioxide (CO2) in Deep Saline Aquifers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, Catherine A

    2013-02-28

    Geochemical reactions in deep subsurface environments are complicated by the consolidated nature and mineralogical complexity of sedimentary rocks. Understanding the kinetics of these reactions is critical to our ability to make long-term predictions about subsurface processes such as pH buffering, alteration in rock structure, permeability changes, and formation of secondary precipitates. In this project, we used a combination of experiments and numerical simulation to bridge the gap between our knowledge of these reactions at the lab scale and rates that are meaningful for modeling reactive transport at core scales. The focus is on acid-driven mineral dissolution, which is specifically relevant in the context of CO2-water-rock interactions in geological sequestration of carbon dioxide. The project led to major findings in three areas. First, we modeled reactive transport in pore-network systems to investigate scaling effects in geochemical reaction rates. We found significant scaling effects when CO2 concentrations are high and reaction rates are fast. These findings indicate that the increased acidity associated with geological sequestration can generate conditions for which proper scaling tools are yet to be developed. Second, we used mathematical modeling to investigate the extent to which SO2, if co-injected with CO2, would acidify formation brines. We found that there exist realistic conditions in which the impact on brine acidity will be limited due to diffusion rate-limited SO2 dissolution from the CO2 phase, and the subsequent pH shift may also be limited by the lack of availability of oxidants to produce sulfuric acid. Third, for three Viking sandstones (Alberta sedimentary basin, Canada), we employed backscattered electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy to statistically characterize mineral contact with pore space. We determined that for reactive minerals in sedimentary consolidated rocks, abundance alone is not a good predictor of

  9. Novel Imaging Techniques, Integrated with Mineralogical, Geochemical and Microbiological Characterization to Determine the Biogeochemical Controls....

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lloyd, Jonathan R.

    2005-06-01

    conditions on the stability/solubility of Fe(II) and Tc(IV), found 80 % resolubilization of the Tc. Column experiments exploring this behavior are being planned. HYPOTHESIS 4 The mobility of 99mTc in the sediment columns can be modeled using a coupled speciation and transport code. Microbiological and geochemical characterization of the column experiments is ongoing and transport and geochemical modeling experiments are being planned.

  10. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF GENERAL COUNSEL INTERPRETATION

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    INTERPRETATION REGARDING THE APPLICATION OF DOE TECHNICAL STANDARD 1027-92, HAZARD CATEGORIZATION AND ACCIDENT ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES FOR COMPLIANCE WITH DOE ORDER 5480.23, NUCLEAR SAFETY ANALYSIS REPORTS, UNDER THE PROVISIONS OF 10 C.F.R. § 830.202(b)(3) In accordance with 10 C.F.R § 820.51, the Department of Energy (DOE) Acting General Counsel is responding to a request to provide an interpretation concerning a DOE Nuclear Safety Requirement: the application of DOE Technical Standard 1027-92,

  11. Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide, Brine, Trace Metal and Organic Leakage into an Unconfined, Oxidizing Limestone Aquifer

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bacon, Diana H.; Dai, Zhenxue; Zheng, Liange

    2014-12-31

    An important risk at CO2 storage sites is the potential for groundwater quality impacts. As part of a system to assess the potential for these impacts a geochemical scaling function has been developed, based on a detailed reactive transport model of CO2 and brine leakage into an unconfined, oxidizing carbonate aquifer. Stochastic simulations varying a number of geochemical parameters were used to generate a response surface predicting the volume of aquifer that would be impacted with respect to regulated contaminants. The brine was assumed to contain several trace metals and organic contaminants. Aquifer pH and TDS were influenced by CO2more » leakage, while trace metal concentrations were most influenced by the brine concentrations rather than adsorption or desorption on calcite. Organic plume sizes were found to be strongly influenced by biodegradation.« less

  12. Improved Geothermometry Through Multivariate Reaction-path Modeling and Evaluation of Geomicrobiological Influences on Geochemical Temperature Indicators: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattson, Earl; Smith, Robert; Fujita, Yoshiko; McLing, Travis; Neupane, Ghanashyam; Palmer, Carl; Reed, David; Thompson, Vicki

    2015-03-01

    The project was aimed at demonstrating that the geothermometric predictions can be improved through the application of multi-element reaction path modeling that accounts for lithologic and tectonic settings, while also accounting for biological influences on geochemical temperature indicators. The limited utilization of chemical signatures by individual traditional geothermometer in the development of reservoir temperature estimates may have been constraining their reliability for evaluation of potential geothermal resources. This project, however, was intended to build a geothermometry tool which can integrate multi-component reaction path modeling with process-optimization capability that can be applied to dilute, low-temperature water samples to consistently predict reservoir temperature within ±30 °C. The project was also intended to evaluate the extent to which microbiological processes can modulate the geochemical signals in some thermal waters and influence the geothermometric predictions.

  13. GaMin’11 – an international inter-laboratory comparison for geochemical CO₂ - saline fluid - mineral interaction experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ostertag-Henning, C.; Risse, A.; Thomas, B.; Rosenbauer, R.; Rochelle, C.; Purser, G.; Kilpatrick, A.; Rosenqvist, J.; Yardley, B.; Karamalidis, A.; Griffith, C.; Hedges, S.; Dilmore, R.; Goodman, A.; Black, J.; Haese, R.; Deusner, C.; Bigalke, N.; Haeckel, M.; Fischer, S.; Liebscher, A.; Icenhower, J. P.; Daval, D.; Saldi, G. D.; Knauss, K. G.; Schmidt, M.; Mito, S.; Sorai, M.; Truche, L.

    2014-12-31

    Due to the strong interest in geochemical CO₂-fluid-rock interaction in the context of geological storage of CO₂ a growing number of research groups have used a variety of different experimental ways to identify important geochemical dissolution or precipitation reactions and – if possible – quantify the rates and extent of mineral or rock alteration. In this inter-laboratory comparison the gas-fluid-mineral reactions of three samples of rock-forming minerals have been investigated by 11 experimental labs. The reported results point to robust identification of the major processes in the experiments by most groups. The dissolution rates derived from the changes in composition of the aqueous phase are consistent overall, but the variation could be reduced by using similar corrections for changing parameters in the reaction cells over time. The comparison of experimental setups and procedures as well as of data corrections identified potential improvements for future gas-fluid-rock studies.

  14. Preburn versus postburn mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of overburden and coal at the Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oliver, R.L.; Youngberg, A.D.

    1983-12-01

    Hundreds of mineralogic and geochemical tests were done under US Department of Energy contracts on core samples taken from the Hanna underground coal gasification site. These tests included x-ray diffraction studies of minerals in coal ash, overburden rocks, and heat-altered rocks; x-ray fluorescence analyses of oxides in coal ash and heat-altered rocks; semi-quantitative spectrographic analyses of elements in coal, overburden, and heat-altered rocks; chemical analyses of elements and compounds in coal, overburden, and heat-altered rocks and ASTM proximate and ultimate analyses of coal and heat-altered coal. These data sets were grouped, averaged, and analyzed to provide preburn and postburn mineralogic and geochemical characteristics of rock units at the site. Where possible, the changes in characteristics from the preburn to the postburn state are related to underground coal gasification processes. 11 references, 13 figures, 8 tables.

  15. Comparison of microbial and sorbed soil gas surgace geochemical techniques with seismic surveys from the Southern Altiplano, Bolivia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aranibar, O.R.; Tucker, J.D.; Hiltzman, D.C.

    1995-12-31

    Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos (YPFB) undertook a large seismic evaluation in the southern Altiplano, Bolivia in 1994. As an additional layer of information, sorbed soil gas and Microbial Oil Survey Technique (MOST) geochemical surveys were conducted to evaluate the hydrocarbon microseepage potential. The Wara Sara Prospect had 387 sorbed soil gas samples, collected from one meter depth, and 539 shallow soil microbial samples, collected from 15 to 20 centimeter depth. The sorbed soil gas samples were collected every 500 meters and microbial samples every 250 meters along geochemical traverses spaced 1 km apart. The presence of anmalous hydrocarbon microseepage is indicated by (1) a single hydrocarbon source identified by gas crossplots, (2) the high gas values with a broad range, (3) the high overall gas average, (4) the clusters of elevated samples, and (5) the right hand skewed data distributions.

  16. Geochemical information for sites contaminated with low-level radioactive wastes: I. Niagara Falls Storage Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seeley, F.G.; Kelmers, A.D.

    1984-11-01

    The Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS) became radioactively contaminated as a result of wastes that were being stored from operations carried out to recover uranium from pitchblende ore in the 1940s and 1950s. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is considering various remedial action options for the NFSS. This report describes the results of geochemical investigations performed to help provide a quantitative evaluation of the effects of various options. NFSS soil and groundwater samples were characterized; and uranium and radium sorption ratios, as well as apparent concentration limit values, were measured in site soil/groundwater systems by employing batch contact methodology. The results suggest that any uranium which is in solution in the groundwater at the NFSS may be poorly retarded due to the low uranium sorption ratio values and high solubility measured. Further, appreciable concentrations of uranium in groundwater could be attained from soluble wastes. Release of uranium via groundwater migration could be a significant release pathway. Solubilized radium would be expected to be effectively retarded by soil at the NFSS as a result of the very high radium sorption ratios observed. The addition of iron oxyhydroxide to NFSS soils resulted in much higher uranium sorption ratios. Additional field testing of this potential remedial action additive could be desirable. 10 references.

  17. Unearthing the Antibacterial Mechanism of Medicinal Clay: A Geochemical Approach to Combating Antibiotic Resistance

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Morrison, Keith D.; Misra, Rajeev; Williams, Lynda B.

    2016-01-08

    Natural antibacterial clays, when hydrated and applied topically, kill human pathogens including antibiotic resistant strains proliferating worldwide. Only certain clays are bactericidal; those containing soluble reduced metals and expandable clay minerals that absorb cations, providing a capacity for extended metal release and production of toxic hydroxyl radicals. Here we show the critical antibacterial components are soluble Fe2+ and Al3+ that synergistically attack multiple cellular systems in pathogens normally growth-limited by Fe supply. This geochemical process is more effective than metal solutions alone and provides an alternative antibacterial strategy to traditional antibiotics. Advanced bioimaging methods and genetic show that Al3+ misfoldsmore » cell membrane proteins, while Fe2+ evokes membrane oxidation and enters the cytoplasm inflicting hydroxyl radical attack on intracellular proteins and DNA. The lethal reaction precipitates Fe3+-oxides as biomolecular damage proceeds. In conclusion, discovery of this bactericidal mechanism demonstrated by natural clays should guide designs of new mineral-based antibacterial agents.« less

  18. Geochemical characteristics of oils from New Zealand, Papua New Guinea and Taiwan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung-Nan, Oung; Philp, P.R. )

    1990-05-01

    Oils from a number of convergent margin settings of the Pacific and Philippine plates have been characterized by geochemical techniques including gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and carbon isotopic analysis. The oils, collected from New Zealand, New Guinea, and Taiwan, are described in terms of their biomarker compositions, and these distributions are used to evaluate the nature of the source material responsible for the oils. For the most part these oils are of Tertiary age and the source materials were derived predominantly from higher plants. The authors describe the effects of a convergent margin on the relative maturity of the oils as reflected by their biomarker distributions. In other words, do any of the oils from these regions have anomalous maturity values that can be attributed to additional heating resulting from plate movement in the area. The results will also be compared with oils from similar source materials but not in convergent margin settings (for example, the Gippsland basin, Australia) to further evaluate the effects of the convergent margin setting on the biomarker distributions.

  19. Geochemical and physical properties of soils and shallow sediments at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Looney, B.B.; Eddy, C.A.; Ramdeen, M.; Pickett, J. ); Rogers, V. . Savannah River Site Savannah River Lab., Aiken, SC ); Scott, M.T.; Shirley, P.A. )

    1990-08-31

    A program to characterize the geochemical and physical properties of the unimpacted soils and shallow sediments at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has been completed. The maximum, minimum, median, standard deviation, and mean values for metals, radionuclides, inorganic anions, organic compounds, and agricultural indicator parameters are summarized for six soil series that were identified as representative of the 29 soil series at SRS. The soils from unimpacted areas of SRS are typical of soils found in moderately aggressive weathering environments, including the southeastern United States. Appendix 8 organic compounds were detected in all samples. Since these constituents are not generally present in soil, this portion of the investigation was intended to assess possible laboratory artifacts. An additional objective of the SRS Soil Study was to determine if the composition of the split spoon sampler biased chemical analysis of the soils. Twenty-five duplicate samples were analyzed for a number of metals, radiological and agricultural parameters, and organics by two laboratories currently contracted with to analyze samples during waste site characterization. In all cases, the absolute values of the average differences are relatively small compared to the overall variability in the population. 31 refs., 14 figs., 48 tabs.

  20. The low temperature hydrothermal system of Campiglia, Tuscany (Italy); A geochemical approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Celati, R.; Grassi, S.; D'Amore, F.; Marcolini, L. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the Campiglia hydrothermal system which is a low temperature hydrothermal system located in southwestern Tuscany, a region of Italy characterized by intense geothermal activity and by the presence of high temperature exploited geothermal reservoirs. Six water-points, with temperatures ranging between 20 and 47{degrees} C and different chemical and isotopic compositions, are found close to the margins of outcrops of the main regional aquifer formation. Systematic hydrogeological, geochemical and isotopic observations and temperature measurements were carried out on the different springs and wells for a period of three years (1984-1986). Constant water characteristics with time were observed in four water-points; two wells had variable trends depending on mixing processes. A groundwater circulation model characterized by flowpaths of different length and depth is suggested by the variety of chemical and isotopic characteristics and is consistent with geothermometry, which indicates temperatures up to 25{degrees} C higher than those measured at the spring emergencies. An important water supply to the system comes from local recharge, although regional circulation may also be present, particularly in the eastern part of the investigated area.

  1. Microbial distributions detected by an oligonucleotide microarray across geochemical zones associated with methane in marine sediments from the Ulleung Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Briggs, Brandon R.; Graw, Michael; Brodie, Eoin L.; Bahk, Jang-Jun; Kim, Sung-Han; Hyun, Jung-Ho; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Torres, Marta; Colwell, Frederick S.

    2013-11-01

    The biogeochemical processes that occur in marine sediments on continental margins are complex; however, from one perspective they can be considered with respect to three geochemical zones based on the presence and form of methane: sulfatemethane transition (SMTZ), gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ), and free gas zone (FGZ). These geochemical zones may harbor distinct microbial communities that are important in biogeochemical carbon cycles. The objective of this study was to describe the microbial communities in sediments from the SMTZ, GHSZ, and FGZ using molecular ecology methods (i.e. PhyloChip microarray analysis and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP)) and examining the results in the context of non-biological parameters in the sediments. Non-metric multidimensional scaling and multi-response permutation procedures were used to determine whether microbial community compositions were significantly different in the three geochemical zones and to correlate samples with abiotic characteristics of the sediments. This analysis indicated that microbial communities from all three zones were distinct from one another and that variables such as sulfate concentration, hydrate saturation of the nearest gas hydrate layer, and depth (or unmeasured variables associated with depth e.g. temperature, pressure) were correlated to differences between the three zones. The archaeal anaerobic methanotrophs typically attributed to performing anaerobic oxidation of methane were not detected in the SMTZ; however, the marine benthic group-B, which is often found in SMTZ, was detected. Within the GHSZ, samples that were typically closer to layers that contained higher hydrate saturation had indicator sequences related to Vibrio-type taxa. These results suggest that the biogeographic patterns of microbial communities in marine sediments are distinct based on geochemical zones defined by methane.

  2. Geologic, geophysical, and geochemical aspects of site-specific studies of the geopressured-geothermal energy resource of southern Louisiana. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pilger, R.H. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The report consists of four sections dealing with progress in evaluating geologic, geochemical, and geophysical aspects of geopressured-geothermal energy resources in Louisiana. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual sections. (ACR)

  3. Geochemical Data Package for the 2005 Hanford Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krupka, Kenneth M.; Serne, R JEFFREY.; Kaplan, D I.

    2004-09-30

    CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CH2M HILL) is designing and assessing the performance of an integrated disposal facility (IDF) to receive low-level waste (LLW), mixed low-level waste (MLLW), immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW), and failed or decommissioned melters. The CH2M HILL project to assess the performance of this disposal facility is the Hanford IDF Performance Assessment (PA) activity. The goal of the Hanford IDF PA activity is to provide a reasonable expectation that the disposal of the waste is protective of the general public, groundwater resources, air resources, surface-water resources, and inadvertent intruders. Achieving this goal will require prediction of contaminant migration from the facilities. This migration is expected to occur primarily via the movement of water through the facilities, and the consequent transport of dissolved contaminants in the vadose zone to groundwater where contaminants may be re-introduced to receptors via drinking water wells or mixing in the Columbia River. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) assists CH2M HILL in their performance assessment activities. One of the PNNL tasks is to provide estimates of the geochemical properties of the materials comprising the IDF, the disturbed region around the facility, and the physically undisturbed sediments below the facility (including the vadose zone sediments and the aquifer sediments in the upper unconfined aquifer). The geochemical properties are expressed as parameters that quantify the adsorption of contaminants and the solubility constraints that might apply for those contaminants that may exceed solubility constraints. The common parameters used to quantify adsorption and solubility are the distribution coefficient (Kd) and the thermodynamic solubility product (Ksp), respectively. In this data package, we approximate the solubility of contaminants using a more simplified construct, called the solution concentration limit, a constant value. The Kd values and

  4. Geochemical engineering design tools for uranium in situ recovery : the HYDROGEOCHEM codes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siegel, Malcolm Dean; Li, Ming-Hsu; Yeh, Gour-Tsyh

    2010-11-01

    Geochemical Engineering Design (GED) is based on applications of the principles and various computer models that describe the biogeochemistry and physics of removal of contaminants from water by adsorption, precipitation and filtration. It can be used to optimize or evaluate the efficiency of all phases of in situ recovery (ISR). The primary tools of GED are reactive transport models; this talk describes the potential application of the HYDROGEOCHEM family of codes to ISR. The codes can describe a complete suite of equilibrium or kinetic aqueous complexation, adsorption-desorption, precipitation-dissolution, redox, and acid-base reactions in variably saturated media with density-dependent fluid flow. Applications to ISR are illustrated with simulations of (1) the effectiveness of a reactive barrier to prevent off-site uranium migration and (2) evaluation of the effect of sorption hysteresis on natural attenuation. In the first example, it can be seen that the apparent effectiveness of the barrier depends on monitoring location and that it changes over time. This is due to changes in pH, saturation of sorption sites, as well as the geometry of the flow field. The second simulation shows how sorption hysteresis leads to observable attenuation of a uranium contamination plume. Different sorption mechanisms including fast (or reversible), slow, and irreversible sorption were simulated. The migration of the dissolved and total uranium plumes for the different cases are compared and the simulations show that when 50-100% of the sites have slow desorption rates, the center of mass of the dissolved uranium plume begins to move upstream. This would correspond to the case in which the plume boundaries begin to shrink as required for demonstration of natural attenuation.

  5. Model-Based Analysis of the Role of Biological, Hydrological and Geochemical Factors Affecting Uranium Bioremediation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Jiao; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Mahadevan, Radhakrishnan

    2011-01-24

    Uranium contamination is a serious concern at several sites motivating the development of novel treatment strategies such as the Geobacter-mediated reductive immobilization of uranium. However, this bioremediation strategy has not yet been optimized for the sustained uranium removal. While several reactive-transport models have been developed to represent Geobacter-mediated bioremediation of uranium, these models often lack the detailed quantitative description of the microbial process (e.g., biomass build-up in both groundwater and sediments, electron transport system, etc.) and the interaction between biogeochemical and hydrological process. In this study, a novel multi-scale model was developed by integrating our recent model on electron capacitance of Geobacter (Zhao et al., 2010) with a comprehensive simulator of coupled fluid flow, hydrologic transport, heat transfer, and biogeochemical reactions. This mechanistic reactive-transport model accurately reproduces the experimental data for the bioremediation of uranium with acetate amendment. We subsequently performed global sensitivity analysis with the reactive-transport model in order to identify the main sources of prediction uncertainty caused by synergistic effects of biological, geochemical, and hydrological processes. The proposed approach successfully captured significant contributing factors across time and space, thereby improving the structure and parameterization of the comprehensive reactive-transport model. The global sensitivity analysis also provides a potentially useful tool to evaluate uranium bioremediation strategy. The simulations suggest that under difficult environments (e.g., highly contaminated with U(VI) at a high migration rate of solutes), the efficiency of uranium removal can be improved by adding Geobacter species to the contaminated site (bioaugmentation) in conjunction with the addition of electron donor (biostimulation). The simulations also highlight the interactive effect of

  6. Geochemical information for sites contaminated with low-level radioactive wastes. III. Weldon Spring Storage Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seeley, F.G.; Kelmers, A.D.

    1985-02-01

    The Weldon Spring Storage Site (WSSS), which includes both the chemical site and the quarry, became radioactively contaminated as the result of wastes that were being stored from operations to recover uranium from pitchblende ores in the 1940s and 1950s. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is considering various remedial action options for the WSSS. This report describes the results of geochemical investigations carried out at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to support these activities and to help quantify various remedial action options. Soil and groundwater samples were characterized, and uranium and radium sorption ratios were measured in site soil/groundwater systems by batch contact methodology. Soil samples from various locations around the raffinate pits were found to contain major amounts of silica, along with illite as the primary clay constituent. Particle sizes of the five soil samples were variable (50% distribution point ranging from 12 to 81 ..mu..m); the surface areas varied from 13 to 62 m/sup 2//g. Elemental analysis of the samples showed them to be typical of sandy clay and silty clay soils. Groundwater samples included solution from Pit 3 and well water from Well D. Anion analyses showed significant concentrations of sulfate and nitrate (>350 and >7000 mg/L, respectively) in the solution from Pit 3. These anions were also present in the well water, but in lower concentrations. Uranium sorption ratios for four of the soil samples contacted with the solution from Pit 3 were moderate to high (approx. 300 to approx. 1000 mL/g). The fifth sample had a ratio of only 12 mL/g. Radium sorption ratios for the five samples were moderate to high (approx. 600 to approx. 1000 mL/g). These values indicate that soil at the WSSS may show favorable retardation of uranium and radium in the groundwater. 13 references, 13 figures, 10 tables.

  7. Characterizing Microbial Community and Geochemical Dynamics at Hydrothermal Vents Using Osmotically Driven Continuous Fluid Samplers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robidart, Julie C.; Callister, Stephen J.; Song, Peng F.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Wheat, Charles G.; Girguis, Peter R.

    2013-05-07

    microbial and geochemical phenomena.

  8. Scaling Effects of Cr(VI) Reduction Kinetics. The Role of Geochemical Heterogeneity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Li; Li, Li

    2015-10-22

    The natural subsurface is highly heterogeneous with minerals distributed in different spatial patterns. Fundamental understanding of how mineral spatial distribution patterns regulate sorption process is important for predicting the transport and fate of chemicals. Existing studies about the sorption was carried out in well-mixed batch reactors or uniformly packed columns, with few data available on the effects of spatial heterogeneities. As a result, there is a lack of data and understanding on how spatial heterogeneities control sorption processes. In this project, we aim to understand and develop modeling capabilities to predict the sorption of Cr(VI), an omnipresent contaminant in natural systems due to its natural occurrence and industrial utilization. We systematically examine the role of spatial patterns of illite, a common clay, in determining the extent of transport limitation and scaling effects associated with Cr(VI) sorption capacity and kinetics using column experiments and reactive transport modeling. Our results showed that the sorbed mass and rates can differ by an order of magnitude due to of the illite spatial heterogeneities and transport limitation. With constraints from data, we also developed the capabilities of modeling Cr(VI) in heterogeneous media. The developed model is then utilized to understand the general principles that govern the relationship between sorption and connectivity, a key measure of the spatial pattern characteristics. This correlation can be used to estimate Cr(VI) sorption characteristics in heterogeneous porous media. Insights gained here bridge gaps between laboratory and field application in hydrogeology and geochemical field, and advance predictive understanding of reactive transport processes in the natural heterogeneous subsurface. We believe that these findings will be of interest to a large number of environmental geochemists and engineers, hydrogeologists, and those interested in contaminant fate and transport

  9. Geochemical Evidence of the Seasonality, Affinity and Pigmenation of Solenopora jurassica

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Barden, Holly E.; Behnsen, Julia; Bergmann, Uwe; Leng, Melanie J.; Manning, Phillip L.; Withers, Philip J.; Wogelius, Roy A.; van Dongen, Bart E.; Silva, Lucas C. R.

    2015-09-14

    Solenopora jurassica is a fossil calcareous alga that functioned as an important reef-building organism during the Palaeozoic. It is of significant palaeobiological interest due to its distinctive but poorly understood pink and white banding. Though widely accepted as an alga there is still debate over its taxonomic affinity, with recent work arguing that it should be reclassified as a chaetetid sponge. The banding is thought to be seasonal, but there is no conclusive evidence for this. Other recent work has, however demonstrated the presence of a unique organic boron-containing pink/red pigment in the pink bands of S. jurassica. We presentmore » new geochemical evidence concerning the seasonality and pigmentation of S. jurassica. Seasonal growth cycles are demonstrated by X-ray radiography, which shows differences in calcite density, and by varying δ13C composition of the bands. Temperature variation in the bands is difficult to constrain accurately due to conflicting patterns arising from Mg/Ca molar ratios and δ18O data. Fluctuating chlorine levels indicate increased salinity in the white bands, when combined with the isotope data this suggests more suggestive of marine conditions during formation of the white band and a greater freshwater component (lower chlorinity) during pink band precipitation (δ18O). Increased photosynthesis is inferred within the pink bands in comparison to the white, based on δ13C. Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (Py-GCMS) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) show the presence of tetramethyl pyrrole, protein moieties and carboxylic acid groups, suggestive of the presence of the red algal pigment phycoerythrin. This is consistent with the pink colour of S. jurassica. As phycoerythrin is only known to occur in algae and cyanobacteria, and no biomarker evidence of bacteria or sponges was detected we conclude S. jurassica is most likely an alga. Pigment analysis may be a reliable classification method for

  10. Coupled Geochemical Impacts of Leaking CO2 and Contaminants from Subsurface Storage Reservoirs on Groundwater Quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Hongbo; Qafoku, Nikolla; Lawter, Amanda R.; Bowden, Mark E.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2015-07-07

    The leakage of CO2 and the concomitant saline solutions from deep storage reservoirs to overlying groundwater aquifers is considered one of the major potential risks associated with geologic CO2 sequestration (GCS). Batch and column experiments were conducted to determine the fate of trace metals in groundwater in the scenarios of CO2 and metal contaminated brine leakage. The sediments used in this work were collected from an unconsolidated sand and gravel aquifer in Kansas, and contained 0-4 wt% carbonates. Cd and As were spiked into the reaction system to represent potential contaminants from the reservoir brine that could intrude into groundwater aquifers with leaking CO2 at initial concentrations of 114 and 40 ppb, respectively. Through this research we demonstrated that Cd and As were adsorbed on the sediments, in spite of the lowered pH due to CO2 dissolution in the groundwater. Cd concentrations were well below its MCL in both batch and column studies, even for sediment samples without detectable carbonate to buffer the pH. Arsenic concentrations in the effluent were also significantly lower than influent concentration, suggesting that the sediments tested have the capacity to mitigate the coupled adverse effects of CO2 leakage and brine intrusion. However, the mitigation capacity of sediment is a function of its geochemical properties [e.g., the calcite content; the presence of adsorbed As(III); and the presence of P in the natural sediment]. The competitive adsorption between phosphate and arsenate may result in higher concentrations of As in the aqueous phase.

  11. Geochemical Evidence of the Seasonality, Affinity and Pigmenation of Solenopora jurassica

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barden, Holly E.; Behnsen, Julia; Bergmann, Uwe; Leng, Melanie J.; Manning, Phillip L.; Withers, Philip J.; Wogelius, Roy A.; van Dongen, Bart E.; Silva, Lucas C. R.

    2015-09-14

    Solenopora jurassica is a fossil calcareous alga that functioned as an important reef-building organism during the Palaeozoic. It is of significant palaeobiological interest due to its distinctive but poorly understood pink and white banding. Though widely accepted as an alga there is still debate over its taxonomic affinity, with recent work arguing that it should be reclassified as a chaetetid sponge. The banding is thought to be seasonal, but there is no conclusive evidence for this. Other recent work has, however demonstrated the presence of a unique organic boron-containing pink/red pigment in the pink bands of S. jurassica. We present new geochemical evidence concerning the seasonality and pigmentation of S. jurassica. Seasonal growth cycles are demonstrated by X-ray radiography, which shows differences in calcite density, and by varying δ13C composition of the bands. Temperature variation in the bands is difficult to constrain accurately due to conflicting patterns arising from Mg/Ca molar ratios and δ18O data. Fluctuating chlorine levels indicate increased salinity in the white bands, when combined with the isotope data this suggests more suggestive of marine conditions during formation of the white band and a greater freshwater component (lower chlorinity) during pink band precipitation (δ18O). Increased photosynthesis is inferred within the pink bands in comparison to the white, based on δ13C. Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (Py-GCMS) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) show the presence of tetramethyl pyrrole, protein moieties and carboxylic acid groups, suggestive of the presence of the red algal pigment phycoerythrin. This is consistent with the pink colour of S. jurassica. As phycoerythrin is only known to occur in algae and cyanobacteria, and no biomarker evidence of bacteria or sponges was detected we conclude S. jurassica is most likely an alga. Pigment analysis may be a

  12. Integrating knowledge-based techniques into well-test interpretation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, I.W.; Fraser, J.L.

    1995-04-01

    The goal of the Spirit Project was to develop a prototype of next-generation well-test-interpretation (WTI) software that would include knowledge-based decision support for the WTI model selection task. This paper describes how Spirit makes use of several different types of information (pressure, seismic, petrophysical, geological, and engineering) to support the user in identifying the most appropriate WTI model. Spirit`s knowledge-based approach to type-curve matching is to generate several different feasible interpretations by making assumptions about the possible presence of both wellbore storage and late-time boundary effects. Spirit fuses information from type-curve matching and other data sources by use of a knowledge-based decision model developed in collaboration with a WTI expert. The sponsors of the work have judged the resulting prototype system a success.

  13. Los Alamos technologies help scientists detect, record & interpret

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    'monster' burst of gamma rays 'Monster' burst of gamma rays Los Alamos technologies help scientists detect, record & interpret 'monster' burst of gamma rays The burst was detected by NASA's Swift satellite. March 21, 2008 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and new materials. Los

  14. Stochastic Joint Inversion for Integrated Data Interpretation in Geothermal Exploration

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Stochastic Joint Inversion for Integrated Data Interpretation in Geothermal Exploration Principal Investigator: Robert J. Mellors Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Track 1: Geophysics Project Officer: Eric Hass Total Project Funding: $890,000 April 24, 2013 This presentation does not contain any proprietary confidential, or otherwise restricted information. Mandatory slide Data Flow models Subsurface permeability and temperatures 2 | US DOE Geothermal Office eere.energy.gov Relevance/Impact

  15. Two-dimensional interpreter for field-reversed configurations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinhauer, Loren

    2014-08-15

    An interpretive method is developed for extracting details of the fully two-dimensional (2D) “internal” structure of field-reversed configurations (FRC) from common diagnostics. The challenge is that only external and “gross” diagnostics are routinely available in FRC experiments. Inferring such critical quantities as the poloidal flux and the particle inventory has commonly relied on a theoretical construct based on a quasi-one-dimensional approximation. Such inferences sometimes differ markedly from the more accurate, fully 2D reconstructions of equilibria. An interpreter based on a fully 2D reconstruction is needed to enable realistic within-the-shot tracking of evolving equilibrium properties. Presented here is a flexible equilibrium reconstruction with which an extensive data base of equilibria was constructed. An automated interpreter then uses this data base as a look-up table to extract evolving properties. This tool is applied to data from the FRC facility at Tri Alpha Energy. It yields surprising results at several points, such as the inferences that the local β (plasma pressure/external magnetic pressure) of the plasma climbs well above unity and the poloidal flux loss time is somewhat longer than previously thought, both of which arise from full two-dimensionality of FRCs.

  16. ENZYME ACTIVITY PROBE AND GEOCHEMICAL ASSESSMENT FOR POTENTIAL AEROBIC COMETABOLISM OF TRICHLOROETHENE IN GROUNDWATER OF THE NORTHWEST PLUME, PADUCAH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT, KENTUCKY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Looney, B; M. Hope Lee, M; S. K. Hampson, S

    2008-06-27

    The overarching objective of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) enzyme activity probe (EAP) effort is to determine if aerobic cometabolism is contributing to the attenuation of trichloroethene (TCE) and other chlorinated solvents in the contaminated groundwater beneath PGDP. The site-specific objective for the EAP assessment is to identify if key metabolic pathways are present and expressed in the microbial community--namely the pathways that are responsible for degradation of methane and aromatic (e.g. toluene, benzene, phenol) substrates. The enzymes produced to degrade methane and aromatic compounds also break down TCE through a process known as cometabolism. EAPs directly measure if methane and/or aromatic enzyme production pathways are operating and, for the aromatic pathways, provide an estimate of the number of active organisms in the sampled groundwater. This study in the groundwater plumes at PGDP is a major part of a larger scientific effort being conducted by Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and North Wind Inc. in which EAPs are being applied to contaminated groundwater from diverse hydrogeologic and plume settings throughout the U.S. to help standardize their application as well as their interpretation. While EAP data provide key information to support the site specific objective for PGDP, several additional lines of evidence are being evaluated to increase confidence in the determination of the occurrence of biodegradation and the rate and sustainability of aerobic cometabolism. These complementary efforts include: (1) Examination of plume flowpaths and comparison of TCE behavior to 'conservative' tracers in the plume (e.g., {sup 99}Tc); (2) Evaluation of geochemical conditions throughout the plume; and (3) Evaluation of stable isotopes in the contaminants and their daughter products throughout the plume. If

  17. Sampling designs for geochemical baseline studies in the Colorado oil shale region: a manual for practical application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klusman, R. W.; Ringrose, C. D.; Candito, R. J.; Zuccaro, B.; Rutherford, D. W.; Dean, W. E.

    1980-06-01

    This manual presents a rationale for sampling designs, and results of geochemical baseline studies in the Colorado portion of the oil-shale region. The program consists of a systematic trace element study of soils, stream sediments, and plants carried out in a way to be conservative of human and financial resources and yield maximum information. Extension of this approach to other parameters, other locations, and to environmental baseline studies in general is a primary objective. A baseline for any geochemical parameter can be defined as the concentration of that parameter in a given medium such as soil, the range of its concentration, and the geographic scale of variability. In air quality studies, and to a lesser extent for plants, the temporal scale of variability must also be considered. In studies of soil, the temporal variablility does not become a factor until such time that a study is deemed necessary to evaluate whether or not there have been changes in baseline levels as a result of development. The manual is divided into five major parts. The first is a suggested sampling protocol which is presented in an outline form for guiding baseline studies in this area. The second section is background information on the physical features of the area of study, trace elements of significance occurring in oil shale, and the sample media used in these studies. The third section is concerned primarily with sampling design and its application to the geochemical studies of the oil shale region. The last sections, in the form of appendices, provide actual data and illustrate in a systematic manner, the calculations performed to obtain the various summary data. The last segment of the appendices is a more academic discussion of the geochemistry of trace elements and the parameters of importance influencing their behavior in natural systems.

  18. Structural Analysis for Gold Mineralization Using Remote Sensing and Geochemical Techniques in a GIS Environment: Island of Lesvos, Hellas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rokos, D. Argialas, D. Mavrantza, R. St Seymour, K.; Vamvoukakis, C.; Kouli, M.; Lamera, S.; Paraskevas, H.; Karfakis, I.; Denes, G

    2000-12-15

    Exploration for epithermal Au has been active lately in the Aegean Sea of the eastern Mediterranean Basin, both in the islands of the Quaternary arc and in those of the back-arc region. The purpose of this study was the structural mapping and analysis for a preliminary investigation of possible epithermal gold mineralization, using remotely sensed data and techniques, structural and field data, and geochemical information, for a specific area on the Island of Lesvos. Therefore, Landsat-TM and SPOT-Pan satellite images and the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the study area were processed digitally using spatial filtering techniques for the enhancement and recognition of the geologically significant lineaments, as well as algebraic operations with band ratios and Principal Component Analysis (PCA), for the identification of alteration zones. Statistical rose diagrams and a SCHMIDT projection Stereo Net were generated from the lineament maps and the collected field data (dip and strike measurements of faults, joints, and veins), respectively. The derived lineament map and the band ratio images were manipulated in a GIS environment, in order to study the relation of the tectonic pattern to both the alteration zoning and the geomorphology of the volcanic field of the study area. Target areas of high interest for possible mineralization also were specified using geochemical techniques, such as X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis, trace-element, and fluid-inclusion analysis. Finally, preliminary conclusions were derived about possible mineralization, the type (high or low sulfidation), and the extent of mineralization, by combining the structural information with geochemical information.

  19. Mineral dissolution and precipitation during CO2 injection at the Frio-I Brine Pilot: Geochemical modeling and uncertainty analysis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ilgen, A. G.; Cygan, R. T.

    2015-12-07

    During the Frio-I Brine Pilot CO2 injection experiment in 2004, distinct geochemical changes in response to the injection of 1600 tons of CO2 were recorded in samples collected from the monitoring well. Previous geochemical modeling studies have considered dissolution of calcite and iron oxyhydroxides, or release of adsorbed iron, as the most likely sources of the increased ion concentrations. We explore in this modeling study possible alternative sources of the increasing calcium and iron, based on the data from the detailed petrographic characterization of the Upper Frio Formation “C”. Particularly, we evaluate whether dissolution of pyrite and oligoclase (anorthitemore » component) can account for the observed geochemical changes. Due to kinetic limitations, dissolution of pyrite and anorthite cannot account for the increased iron and calcium concentrations on the time scale of the field test (10 days). However, dissolution of these minerals is contributing to carbonate and clay mineral precipitation on the longer time scales (1000 years). The one-dimensional reactive transport model predicts carbonate minerals, dolomite and ankerite, as well as clay minerals kaolinite, nontronite and montmorillonite, will precipitate in the Frio Formation “C” sandstone as the system progresses towards chemical equilibrium during a 1000-year period. Cumulative uncertainties associated with using different thermodynamic databases, activity correction models (Pitzer vs. B-dot), and extrapolating to reservoir temperature, are manifested in the difference in the predicted mineral phases. Furthermore, these models are consistent with regards to the total volume of mineral precipitation and porosity values which are predicted to within 0.002%.« less

  20. GEOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF CO₂-BRINE-ROCK INTERACTIONS OF THE KNOX GROUP IN THE ILLINOIS BASIN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoksoulian, Lois; Berger, Peter; Freiburg, Jared; Butler, Shane; Leetaru, Hannes

    2014-09-30

    Increased output of greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide (CO₂), into the atmosphere from anthropogenic sources is of great concern. A potential technology to reduce CO₂ emissions is geologic carbon sequestration. This technology is currently being evaluated in the United States and throughout the world. The geology of the Illinois Basin exhibits outstanding potential as a carbon sequestration target, as demonstrated by the ongoing Illinois Basin – Decatur Project that is using the Mt. Simon Sandstone reservoir and Eau Claire Shale seal system to store and contain 1 million tonnes of CO₂. The Knox Group-Maquoketa Shale reservoir and seal system, located stratigraphically above the Mt. Simon Sandstone-Eau Claire Shale reservoir and seal system, has little economic value as a resource for fossil fuels or as a potable water source, making it ideal as a potential carbon sequestration target. In order for a reservoir-seal system to be effective, it must be able to contain the injected CO₂ without the potential for the release of harmful contaminants liberated by the reaction between CO₂-formation fluids and reservoir and seal rocks. This study examines portions of the Knox Group (Potosi Dolomite, Gunter Sandstone, New Richmond Sandstone) and St. Peter Sandstone, and Maquoketa Shale from various locations around the Illinois Basin. A total of 14 rock and fluid samples were exposed to simulated sequestration conditions (9101–9860 kPa [1320–1430 psi] and 32°–42°C [90°– 108°F]) for varying amounts of time (6 hours to 4 months). Knox Group reservoir rocks exhibited dissolution of dolomite in the presence of CO₂ as indicated by petrographic examination, X-ray diffraction analysis, and fluid chemistry analysis. These reactions equilibrated rapidly, and geochemical modeling confirmed that these reactions reached equilibrium within the time frames of the experiments. Pre-reaction sample mineralogy and postreaction fluid geochemistry from this

  1. Effect of curing conditions on the geotechnical and geochemical properties of CFBC ashes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bland, A.E.

    1999-07-01

    Western Research Institute, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy Federal Energy Technology Center, initiated a multi-year program to examine the relationship between CFBC ash chemistry and geotechnical properties as they relate to ash disposal and utilization. Four CFBC facilities supplied ash from their units for the study representing high-sulfur (4%) and medium-sulfur (1.8%) bituminous coal. Sub-bituminous coal (0.9% sulfur) and petroleum coke (5--6% sulfur) fired ashes were also included in the study. The ashes were composed principally of large quantities of anhydrite (CaSO{sub 4}) and lime (CaO) and minor amounts of calcite (CaCO{sub 3}). The ash curing study addressed the impact of curing conditions (sealed and saturated curing and 23 C and 5 C curing temperature) on the geochemical and geotechnical properties of the ash. The strength development and expansion varied with the type and characteristics of the ashes. The expansion appeared to be inversely related to strength development. As the strength decreased under saturated curing, the expansion increased significantly. The application of 5 C saturated curing resulted in further strength loss and increased expansion. The hydration reaction products appeared to be principally the hydration of lime (CaO) to portlandite (Ca[OH]{sub 2}), the hydration of anhydrite (CaSO{sub 4}) to gypsum (CaSO{sub 4} {center{underscore}dot} 2H{sub 2}O), and the precipitation of ettringite (Ca{sub 6}Al{sub 2}[SO{sub 4}]{sub 3}[OH]{sub 12} {center{underscore}dot} 26H{sub 2}O) from the soluble calcium, sulfates and alumina. No thaumasite was noted in the specimens. The ashes appeared to follow one of several hydration reaction trends: (1) ettringite-only development, (2) ettringite and/or gypsum early followed by later gypsum formation, or (3) gypsum-only formation. Testing confirmed that the hydration reaction chemistry was related to geotechnical properties of the ashes. Strength development and expansion appeared to

  2. Geochemical Impacts of Leaking CO2 from Subsurface Storage Reservoirs to an Unconfined Oxidizing Carbonate Aquifer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Guohui; Qafoku, Nikolla; Lawter, Amanda R.; Bowden, Mark E.; Harvey, Omar; Sullivan, E. C.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2015-07-15

    leakage is likely to influence pertinent geochemical processes (e.g., dissolution/precipitation, sorption/desorption) in the aquifer sediments and will support site selection, risk assessment, policy-making, and public education efforts associated with geologic carbon sequestration.

  3. Final Report: Molecular Basis for Microbial Adhesion and Geochemical Surface Reactions: A Study Across Scales

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, David Adams

    2013-06-27

    Computational chemistry was used to help provide a molecular level description of the interactions of Gram-negative microbial membranes with subsurface materials. The goal is to develop a better understanding of the molecular processes involved in microbial metal binding, microbial attachment to mineral surfaces, and, eventually, oxidation/reduction reactions (electron transfer) that can occur at these surfaces and are mediated by the bacterial exterior surface. The project focused on the interaction of the outer microbial membrane, which is dominated by an exterior lipopolysaccharide (LPS) portion, of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with the mineral goethite and with solvated ions in the environment. This was originally a collaborative project with T.P. Straatsma and B. Lowery of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The University of Alabama effort used electronic structure calculations to predict the molecular behavior of ions in solution and the behavior of the sugars which form a critical part of the LPS. The interactions of the sugars with metal ions are expected to dominate much of the microscopic structure and transport phenomena in the LPS. This work, in combination with the molecular dynamics simulations of Straatsma and the experimental electrochemistry and microscopy measurements of Lowry, both at PNNL, is providing new insights into the detailed molecular behavior of these membranes in geochemical environments. The effort at The University of Alabama has three components: solvation energies and structures of ions in solution, prediction of the acidity of the critical groups in the sugars in the LPS, and binding of metal ions to the sugar anions. An important aspect of the structure of the LPS membrane as well as ion transport in the LPS is the ability of the sugar side groups such as the carboxylic acids and the phosphates to bind positively charged ions. We are studying the acidity of the acidic side groups in order to better understand the ability of

  4. Permeability, geochemical, and water quality tests in support of an aquifer thermal energy storage site in Minnesota

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blair, S.C.; Deutsch, W.J.; Mitchell, P.J.

    1985-04-01

    This report describes the Underground Energy Storage Program's efforts to characterize physicochemical processes at DOE's ATES Field Test Facility (FTF) located on the University of Minnesota campus at St. Paul, Minnesota. Experimental efforts include: field tests at the St. Paul FTF to characterize fluid injectability and to evaluate the effectiveness of fluid-conditioning equipment, geochemical studies to investigate chemical reactions resulting from alterations to the aquifer's thermal regime, and laboratory tests on sandstone core from the site. Each experimental area is discussed and results obtained thus far are reported. 23 refs., 39 figs., 12 tabs.

  5. GIS Regional Spatial Data from the Great Basin Center for Geothermal Energy: Geochemical, Geodesic, Geologic, Geophysical, Geothermal, and Groundwater Data

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Great Basin Center for Geothermal Energy, part of the University of Nevada, Reno, conducts research towards the establishment of geothermal energy as an economically viable energy source within the Great Basin. The Center specializes in collecting and synthesizing geologic, geochemical, geodetic, geophysical, and tectonic data, and using Geographic Information System (GIS) technology to view and analyze this data and to produce favorability maps of geothermal potential. The center also makes its collections of spatial data available for direct download to the public. Data are in Lambert Conformable Conic Projection.

  6. A system for interpretation of blast furnace stockrod measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinnelae, J.; Saxen, H.

    1997-12-31

    A system for intelligent monitoring and interpretation of signals from blast furnace stockrods is presented. The system visualizes the measurements and estimates the local burden layer thickness (under the rods) after every dump. Furthermore, it analyzes the burden descent rate to distinguish between slips, hangings, normal descent and peaks, etc., and also combines the stockrod information with findings of temperature measurements from an above-burden probe. The preprocessing of the signals and some features of the system, which is under development, are treated in this paper.

  7. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site gravity survey and interpretation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barrows, L.J.; Fett, J.D.

    1983-04-01

    A portion of the WIPP site has been extensively surveyed with high-precision gravity. The main survey (in T22S, R31E) covered a rectangular area 2 by 4-1/3 mi encompassing all of WIPP site Zone II and part of the disturbed zone to the north of the site. Stations were at 293-ft intervals along 13 north-south lines 880 ft apart. The data are considered accurate to within a few hundredths of a milligal. Long-wavelength gravity anomalies correlate well with seismic time structures on horizons below the Castile Formation. Both the gravity anomalies and the seismic time structures are interpreted as resulting from related density and velocity variations within the Ochoan Series. Shorter wavelength negative gravity anomalies are interpreted as resulting from bulk density alteration in the vicinity of karst conduits. The WIPP gravity survey was unable to resolve low-amplitude, long-wavelength anomalies that should result from the geologic structures within the disturbed zone. It did indicate the degree and character of karst development within the surveyed area.

  8. Geologic, geochemical, and geographic controls on NORM in produced water from Texas oil, gas, and geothermal reservoirs. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, R.

    1995-08-01

    Water from Texas oil, gas, and geothermal wells contains natural radioactivity that ranges from several hundred to several thousand Picocuries per liter (pCi/L). This natural radioactivity in produced fluids and the scale that forms in producing and processing equipment can lead to increased concerns for worker safety and additional costs for handling and disposing of water and scale. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in oil and gas operations are mainly caused by concentrations of radium-226 ({sup 226}Ra) and radium-228 ({sup 228}Ra), daughter products of uranium-238 ({sup 238}U) and thorium-232 ({sup 232}Th), respectively, in barite scale. We examined (1) the geographic distribution of high NORM levels in oil-producing and gas-processing equipment, (2) geologic controls on uranium (U), thorium (Th), and radium (Ra) in sedimentary basins and reservoirs, (3) mineralogy of NORM scale, (4) chemical variability and potential to form barite scale in Texas formation waters, (5) Ra activity in Texas formation waters, and (6) geochemical controls on Ra isotopes in formation water and barite scale to explore natural controls on radioactivity. Our approach combined extensive compilations of published data, collection and analyses of new water samples and scale material, and geochemical modeling of scale Precipitation and Ra incorporation in barite.

  9. GaMin’11 – an international inter-laboratory comparison for geochemical CO₂ - saline fluid - mineral interaction experiments

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ostertag-Henning, C.; Risse, A.; Thomas, B.; Rosenbauer, R.; Rochelle, C.; Purser, G.; Kilpatrick, A.; Rosenqvist, J.; Yardley, B.; Karamalidis, A.; et al

    2014-12-31

    Due to the strong interest in geochemical CO₂-fluid-rock interaction in the context of geological storage of CO₂ a growing number of research groups have used a variety of different experimental ways to identify important geochemical dissolution or precipitation reactions and – if possible – quantify the rates and extent of mineral or rock alteration. In this inter-laboratory comparison the gas-fluid-mineral reactions of three samples of rock-forming minerals have been investigated by 11 experimental labs. The reported results point to robust identification of the major processes in the experiments by most groups. The dissolution rates derived from the changes in compositionmore » of the aqueous phase are consistent overall, but the variation could be reduced by using similar corrections for changing parameters in the reaction cells over time. The comparison of experimental setups and procedures as well as of data corrections identified potential improvements for future gas-fluid-rock studies.« less

  10. Application of geochemical techniques to deduce the reservoir performance of the Palinpinon Geothermal Field, Philippines - an update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramos-Candelaria, M.N.; Garcia, S.E.; Hermoso, D.Z.

    1997-12-31

    Regular monitoring of various geochemical parameters in the water and vapor phases of the production wells at the Palinpinon I and II sectors of the Southern Negros Geothermal Field have been useful in the identification of the dominant reservoir processes occurring related to the present exploitation strategy. Observed geochemical and physical changes in the output of production wells have dictated production and injection strategies adopted to maximize production to meet the steam requirements of the power plant. Correlation of both physical and chemical data have identified the following reservoir processes: (1) Injection breakthrough via the Ticala Fault of the highly mineralized (Cl {approximately}8,000-10,500 mg/kg), isotopically enriched ({delta}{sup 18}O = -3.00{per_thousand}, {delta}{sup 2} H = -39{per_thousand}), and gas depleted brine for wells in the SW and central Puhagan. Injection breakthrough is also occurring in Palinpinon II and has resulted in temperature drops of 5-10{degrees}C.2. Pressure drawdown enhanced boiling in the liquid reservoir with steam separation of 220-240{degrees}C, feeding wells tapping the natural steam zone. However, enhanced drawdown has induced the entry of shallow acid steam condensate fluids in some wells (e.g. OK-7, PN-29D, PN-18D), which if not arrested could reduce production.

  11. INEEL Subregional Conceptual Model Report Volume 2: Summary of Existing Knowledge of Geochemical Influences on the Fate and Transport of Contaminants in the Subsurface at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul L. Wichlacz; Robert C. Starr; Brennon Orr

    2003-09-01

    This document summarizes previous descriptions of geochemical system conceptual models for the vadose zone and groundwater zone (aquifer) beneath the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The primary focus is on groundwater because contaminants derived from wastes disposed at INEEL are present in groundwater, groundwater provides a pathway for potential migration to receptors, and because geochemical characteristics in and processes in the aquifer can substantially affect the movement, attenuation, and toxicity of contaminants. The secondary emphasis is perched water bodies in the vadose zone. Perched water eventually reaches the regional groundwater system, and thus processes that affect contaminants in the perched water bodies are important relative to the migration of contaminants into groundwater. Similarly, processes that affect solutes during transport from nearsurface disposal facilities downward through the vadose zone to the aquifer are relevant. Sediments in the vadose zone can affect both water and solute transport by restricting the downward migration of water sufficiently that a perched water body forms, and by retarding solute migration via ion exchange. Geochemical conceptual models have been prepared by a variety of researchers for different purposes. They have been published in documents prepared by INEEL contractors, the United States Geological Survey (USGS), academic researchers, and others. The documents themselves are INEEL and USGS reports, and articles in technical journals. The documents reviewed were selected from citation lists generated by searching the INEEL Technical Library, the INEEL Environmental Restoration Optical Imaging System, and the ISI Web of Science databases. The citation lists were generated using the keywords ground water, groundwater, chemistry, geochemistry, contaminant, INEL, INEEL, and Idaho. In addition, a list of USGS documents that pertain to the INEEL was obtained and manually searched

  12. Interpretation of Geoelectric Structure at Hululais Prospect Area, South Sumatra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mulyadi

    1995-01-01

    Schlumberger resistivity surveys were conducted in 1993 as part of a combined geological, geophysical and geological program to investigate a geothermal prospect in the Hululais area, Southern Sumatra. These resistivity data resolved the upper conductive layer and were interpreted to define the shallow extent of a possible geothermal system. A follow-up magnetotelluric (MT) survey was carried out to probe deeper than the dc resistivity survey results achieved. However, the resistive sub-stratum below the conductive layer was still poorly resolved. Possible reasons for this include a preferential channeling of the telluric current within the thick shallow very conductive layer, thus limiting the penetration depth of the magnetotelluric signals and poor resolution due to high noise levels caused by significant rain and sferics.

  13. Interpretation of Synthetic Aperture Radar measurements of ocean currents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rufenach, C.L.; Shuchman, R.A.; Lyzenga, D.R.

    1983-02-28

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) experiments hae been performed over the last few years to measure ocean currents inferred from shifts in the Doppler spectral peak. Interpretations of aircraft SAR measurements, when compared with limited surface values, tend to underestimate the currents by about 25%. A theory is developed that modifies the classical Doppler expression showing that the radar measurements are dependent on the radar processor (system) bandwidth and the received signal bandwidth. Measured bandwidths give a correction that increases the inferred current values by about 25%, bringing the measurements into good agreement. This new correction lends credence to the theory and increases the potential for application of SAR systems to future ocean current measurements. SAR measurements should include the determination of processor and signal bandwidths such that this correction can be applied.

  14. Interpretational framework for forensic analyses of illicit nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niemeyer, S.; Kammeraad, J.

    1996-10-01

    jThe interdiction of illicit special nuclear materials (SNM) causes many attribution questions to be asked, e.g. where was this material produced, where was legitimate control lost, how was it transported, etc. We have developed a general framework for evaluating forensic measurements that will be useful in answering attribution questions, and will present an initial prioritization of these measurements. Interpretation of the measurements requires the integration of inputs from a diverse set of experts who have knowledge of environmental signatures, radiochemical signatures, weapons production complex, production pathways for SNM, criminal forensics, law enforcement, and intelligence. Comparison databases and international cooperation are crucial for future application of forensic measurements to the nuclear smuggling problem.

  15. Data Package of Samples Collected for Hydrogeologic and Geochemical Characterization: 300 Area RI/FS Sediment Cores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindberg, Michael J.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Lanigan, David C.; Williams, Benjamin D.

    2011-05-01

    This is a data package for sediment samples received from the 300 FF 5 OU. This report was prepared for CHPRC. Between August 16, 2010 and April 25, 2011 sediment samples were received from 300-FF-5 for geochemical studies. The analyses for this project were performed at the 331 building located in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The analyses were performed according to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) approved procedures and/or nationally recognized test procedures. The data sets include the sample identification numbers, analytical results, estimated quantification limits (EQL), and quality control data. The preparatory and analytical quality control requirements, calibration requirements, acceptance criteria, and failure actions are defined in the on-line QA plan 'Conducting Analytical Work in Support of Regulatory Programs' (CAW). This QA plan implements the Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Requirements Documents (HASQARD) for PNNL.

  16. Actualistic and Geochemical Modeling of Reservoir Rock, CO2 and Formation Fluid Interaction, Citronelle Oil Field, Alabama

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weislogel, Amy

    2014-01-31

    This report includes description of the Citronelle field study area and the work carried out in the project to characterize the geology and composition of reservoir rock material and to collect an analyze the geochemical composition of produced fluid waters from the Citronelle field. Reservoir rock samples collected from well bore core were made into thin-sections and assessed for textural properties, including pore types and porosity distribution. Compositional framework grain modal data were collected via point-counting, and grain and cement mineralogy was assessed using SEM-EDS. Geochemistry of fluid samples is described and modeled using PHREEQC. Composition of rock and produced fluids were used as inputs for TOUGHREACT reactive transport modeling, which determined the rock-fluid system was in disequilibrium.

  17. Geothermal prospecting by geochemical methods on natural gas and water discharges in the Vulsini Mts Volcanic District (Central Italy)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duchi, V.; Minissale, A.A.; Ortino, S.; Romani, L.

    1987-01-01

    The Latera and Torre Alfina geothermal fields were discovered in the Vulsini Mts district (central Italy) in the 70s. The fluid produced by the two geothermal systems is a high rhoCO/sub 2/(around 7 MPa) sodium chloride solution (T.D.S. is 9200 ppm at Latera and 7800 at Torre Alfina), with high SiO/sub 2/ and H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/ contents. The fluid temperature taken at well bottom is about 155/sup 0/C at Torre Alfina, whereas at Latera it ranges from 200 to over 350/sup 0/C. In spite of these temperatures, recorded in producing wells, previous geochemical prospectings using geothermometers in natural thermal manifestations had predicted temperatures no higher than 140/sup 0/C in all the Vulsini district. This contrasting feature between real temperatures and those evaluated during prospecting is caused by the fast circulation of large amounts of meteoric waters in the aquifer located in the shallow parts of the carbonate reservoir formations, and by the short interaction between the latter and the deep geothermal fluids. In the present study a new geochemical survey on thermal and cold springs, stream samples, as well as natural gas emissions has been carried out. A critical review of the main geothermometers, some considerations about the hydraulic behavior of the reservoir formations, and the cross comparison between NH/sub 4//sup +//B ratio, rhoCO/sub 2/ and SiO/sub 2/ content in both cold and thermal waters, have led to the conclusion that in the Vulsini Mts there are no shallow anomalous areas apart from those already discovered at Latera and Torre Alfina. The present method could be successfully applied in other geothermal systems, where the potential reservoir is represented by carbonate formations.

  18. Gene set analyses for interpreting microarray experiments on prokaryotic organisms.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tintle, Nathan; Best, Aaron; Dejongh, Matthew; VanBruggen, Dirk; Heffron, Fred; Porwollik, Steffen; Taylor, Ronald C.

    2008-11-05

    Background: Recent advances in microarray technology have brought with them the need for enhanced methods of biologically interpreting gene expression data. Recently, methods like Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) and variants of Fisher’s exact test have been proposed which utilize a priori biological information. Typically, these methods are demonstrated with a priori biological information from the Gene Ontology. Results: Alternative gene set definitions are presented based on gene sets inferred from the SEED: open-source software environment for comparative genome annotation and analysis of microbial organisms. Many of these gene sets are then shown to provide consistent expression across a series of experiments involving Salmonella Typhimurium. Implementation of the gene sets in an analysis of microarray data is then presented for the Salmonella Typhimurium data. Conclusions: SEED inferred gene sets can be naturally defined based on subsystems in the SEED. The consistent expression values of these SEED inferred gene sets suggest their utility for statistical analyses of gene expression data based on a priori biological information

  19. Interpretation of AMS-02 electrons and positrons data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mauro, M. Di; Donato, F.; Fornengo, N.; Vittino, A.; Lineros, R. E-mail: donato@to.infn.it E-mail: rlineros@ific.uv.es

    2014-04-01

    We perform a combined analysis of the recent AMS-02 data on electrons, positrons, electrons plus positrons and positron fraction, in a self-consistent framework where we realize a theoretical modeling of all the astrophysical components that can contribute to the observed fluxes in the whole energy range. The primary electron contribution is modeled through the sum of an average flux from distant sources and the fluxes from the local supernova remnants in the Green catalog. The secondary electron and positron fluxes originate from interactions on the interstellar medium of primary cosmic rays, for which we derive a novel determination by using AMS-02 proton and helium data. Primary positrons and electrons from pulsar wind nebulae in the ATNF catalog are included and studied in terms of their most significant (while loosely known) properties and under different assumptions (average contribution from the whole catalog, single dominant pulsar, a few dominant pulsars). We obtain a remarkable agreement between our various modeling and the AMS-02 data for all types of analysis, demonstrating that the whole AMS-02 leptonic data admit a self-consistent interpretation in terms of astrophysical contributions.

  20. Novel interpretation of the mean structure of feroxyhyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sestu, Matteo; Carta, Daniela; Casula, Maria F.; Corrias, Anna; Navarra, Gabriele

    2015-05-15

    The structure of the iron oxyhydroxide called feroxyhyte (δ-FeOOH), which shows an elusive X-ray powder diffraction pattern, has been represented so far using models describing a mean structure based on the crystalline network of the iron(III) oxide hematite (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}). In this paper, a novel description of the mean structure of feroxyhyte is presented, which is based on the structure of the thermodynamically stable iron oxyhydroxide goethite. Starting from different local arrangements present in the goethite network, a mean structural model is determined which shows an X-ray powder diffraction pattern almost coincident with previous studies. This outcome enables to integrate the structure of feroxyhyte among those of other well characterized iron oxyhydroxides. - Graphical abstract: The structure of the iron oxy-hydroxide feroxyhyte can be described by local arrangements present in the goethite network. - Highlights: • The structure of feroxyhyte (δ-FeOOH) proposed in literature is discussed. • The structure of goethite (α-FeOOH) is analyzed. • A structural relationship between feroxyhyte and goethite is found. • New interpretation of the mean structure of δ-FeOOH is given.

  1. Interpretation of simulated global warming using a simple model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watterson, I.G.

    2000-01-01

    A simple energy balance model with two parameters, an effective heat capacity and an effective climate sensitivity, is used to interpret six GCM simulations of greenhouse gas-induced global warming. By allowing the parameters to vary in time, the model can be accurately calibrated for each run. It is found that the sensitivity can be approximated as a constant in each case. However, the effective heat capacity clearly varies, and it is important that the energy equation is formulated appropriately, and thus unlike many such models. For simulations with linear forcing and from a cold start, the capacity is in each case close to that of a homogeneous ocean with depth initially 200 m, but increasing some 4.3 m each year, irrespective of the sensitivity and forcing growth rate. Analytic solutions for t his linear capacity function are derived, and these reproduce the GCM runs well, even for cases where the forcing is stabilized after a century or so. The formation of a subsurface maximum in the mean ocean temperature anomaly is a significant feature of such cases. A simple model for a GCM run with a realistic forcing scenario starting from 1,880 is constructed using component results for forcing segments. Given this, an estimate of the cold start error of a simulation of the warming due to forcing after the present would be given by the negative of the temperature drift of the anomaly due to the past forcing. The simple model can evidently be used to give an indication of likely warming curves, at lest for this range of scenarios and GCM sensitivities.

  2. An inverse free electron laser accelerator: Experiment and theoretical interpretation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Jyan-Min

    1997-06-01

    Experimental and numerical studies of the Inverse Free Electron Laser using a GW-level 10.6 {mu}m CO{sub 2} laser have been carried out at Brookhaven`s Accelerator Test Facility. An energy gain of 2.5 % ({Delta}E/E) on a 40 MeV electron beam has been observed E which compares well with theory. The effects on IFEL acceleration with respect to the variation of the laser electric field, the input electron beam energy, and the wiggler magnetic field strength were studied, and show the importance of matching the resonance condition in the IFEL. The numerical simulations were performed under various conditions and the importance of the electron bunching in the IFEL is shown. The numerical interpretation of our IFEL experimental results was examined. Although good numerical agreement with the experimental results was obtained, there is a discrepancy between the level of the laser power measured in the experiment and used in the simulation, possibly due to the non-Gaussian profile of the input high power laser beam. The electron energy distribution was studied numerically and a smoothing of the energy spectrum by the space charge effect at the location of the spectrometer was found, compared with the spectrum at the exit of the wiggler. The electron bunching by the IFEL and the possibility of using the IFEL as an electron prebuncher for another laser-driven accelerator were studied numerically. We found that bunching of the electrons at 1 meter downstream from the wiggler can be achieved using the existing facility. The simulation shows that there is a fundamental difference between the operating conditions for using the IFEL as a high gradient accelerator, and as a prebuncher for another accelerator.

  3. Models to interpret bedform geometries from cross-bed data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luthi, S.M. (Schlumberger-Doll Research, Ridgefield, CT (USA)); Banavar, J.R. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (USA)); Bayer, U. (Kernforschungsanlage Juelich (West Germany))

    1990-03-01

    Semi-elliptical and sinusoidal bedform crestlines were modeled with curvature and sinuosity as parameters. Both bedform crestlines are propagated at various angles of migration over a finite area of deposition. Two computational approaches are used, a statistical random sampling (Monte Carlo) technique over the area of the deposit, and an analytical method based on topology and differential geometry. The resulting foreset azimuth distributions provide a catalogue for a variety of situations. The resulting thickness distributions have a simple shape and can be combined with the azimuth distributions to constrain further the cross-strata geometry. Paleocurrent directions obtained by these models can differ substantially from other methods, especially for obliquely migrating low-curvature bedforms. Interpretation of foreset azimuth data from outcrops and wells can be done either by visual comparison with the catalogued distributions, or by iterative computational fits. Studied examples include eolian cross-strata from the Permian Rotliegendes in the North Sea, fluvial dunes from the Devonian in the Catskills (New York State), the Triassic Schilfsandstein (West Germany) and the Paleozoic-Jurassic of the Western Desert (Egypt), as well as recent tidal dunes from the German coast of the North Sea and tidal cross-strata from the Devonian Koblentquartzit (West Germany). In all cases the semi-elliptical bedform model gave a good fit to the data, suggesting that it may be applicable over a wide range of bedforms. The data from the Western Desert could only be explained by data scatter due to channel sinuosity combining with the scatter attributed to the ellipticity of the bedform crestlines. These models, therefore, may also allow simulations of some hierarchically structured bedforms.

  4. Mercury Geochemical, Groundwater Geochemical, And Radiometric...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    at right angles to known and suspected faults. Scintillometer readings (gamma radiation - total counts second) were also recorded at each soil sample station. At the...

  5. Revised Interpretation of the Applicability of the Davis-Bacon Act |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Revised Interpretation of the Applicability of the Davis-Bacon Act Revised Interpretation of the Applicability of the Davis-Bacon Act Revised analysis of the applicability of the Davis-Bacon Act requirements to activities funding in whole or in part by the Smart Grid Investment Grant project under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Revised Interpretation of the Applicability of the Davis-Bacon Act (66.92 KB) More Documents & Publications Davis Bacon Act

  6. Earned Value Management System Interpretation Handbook (EVMSIH) V2.0 |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy Interpretation Handbook (EVMSIH) V2.0 Earned Value Management System Interpretation Handbook (EVMSIH) V2.0 As the office with the responsibility to develop establish, maintain and execute the EVMS compliance mission, PM endeavors to work closely with the Program Offices and the Energy Facility Contractors Group (EFCOG) in the pursuit of consistent and compliant implementation. A uniform approach to interpretation of the EIA-748 EVMS Guidelines is a major element in DOE's

  7. Microsoft Word - Part 850 Interpretation to be posted on GC Website with date 8 16 2012

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    OFFICE OF GENERAL COUNSEL INTERPRETATION REGARDING MEDICAL REMOVAL PROTECTION BENEFITS PURSUANT TO 10 CFR PART 850, CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM The Department of Energy (DOE) General Counsel has been asked to provide a legal interpretation of the regulations regarding medical removal protection benefits under 10 CFR Part 850, Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program. 1 This interpretation addresses the questions below. 1. Who decides whether a worker should be removed

  8. CX-012479: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Assessing the Geochemical Response of CO2 Disposal in Flood Basalt Reservoirs CX(s) Applied: B3.6Date: 41862 Location(s): IllinoisOffices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  9. CX-012481: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Assessing the Geochemical Response of CO2 Disposal in Flood Basalt Reservoirs CX(s) Applied: B3.1, B3.6Date: 41862 Location(s): CaliforniaOffices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  10. Solid phase evolution in the Biosphere 2 hillslope experiment as predicted by modeling of hydrologic and geochemical fluxes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dontsova, K.; Steefel, C.I.; Desilets, S.; Thompson, A.; Chorover, J.

    2009-07-15

    A reactive transport geochemical modeling study was conducted to help predict the mineral transformations occurring over a ten year time-scale that are expected to impact soil hydraulic properties in the Biosphere 2 (B2) synthetic hillslope experiment. The modeling sought to predict the rate and extent of weathering of a granular basalt (selected for hillslope construction) as a function of climatic drivers, and to assess the feedback effects of such weathering processes on the hydraulic properties of the hillslope. Flow vectors were imported from HYDRUS into a reactive transport code, CrunchFlow2007, which was then used to model mineral weathering coupled to reactive solute transport. Associated particle size evolution was translated into changes in saturated hydraulic conductivity using Rosetta software. We found that flow characteristics, including velocity and saturation, strongly influenced the predicted extent of incongruent mineral weathering and neo-phase precipitation on the hillslope. Results were also highly sensitive to specific surface areas of the soil media, consistent with surface reaction controls on dissolution. Effects of fluid flow on weathering resulted in significant differences in the prediction of soil particle size distributions, which should feedback to alter hillslope hydraulic conductivities.

  11. Isotopic and geochemical tracers for U(VI) reduction and U mobility at an in situ recovery U mine

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Basu, Anirban; Brown, Shaun T.; Christensen, John N.; DePaolo, Donald J.; Reimus, Paul W.; Heikoop, Jeffrey M.; Woldegabriel, Giday; Simmons, Ardyth M.; House, Brian M.; Hartmann, Matt; et al

    2015-05-19

    In situ recovery (ISR) uranium (U) mining mobilizes U in its oxidized hexavalent form (U(VI)) by oxidative dissolution of U from the roll-front U deposits. Post-mining natural attenuation of residual U(VI) at ISR mines is a potential remediation strategy. Detection and monitoring of naturally occurring reducing subsurface environments are important for successful implementation of this remediation scheme. We used the isotopic tracers ²³⁸U/²³⁵U (δ²³⁸U), ²³⁴U/²³⁸U activity ratio, and ³⁴S/³²S (δ³⁴S), and geochemical measurements of U ore and groundwater collected from 32 wells located within, upgradient, and downgradient of a roll-front U deposit to detect U(VI) reduction and U mobility atmore » an ISR mining site at Rosita, TX, USA. The δ²³⁸U in Rosita groundwater varies from 0.61‰ to -2.49‰, with a trend toward lower δ²³⁸U in downgradient wells. The concurrent decrease in U(VI) concentration and δ²³⁸U with an ε of 0.48‰ ± 0.08‰ is indicative of naturally occurring reducing environments conducive to U(VI) reduction. Additionally, characteristic ²³⁴U/²³⁸U activity ratio and δ³⁴S values may also be used to trace the mobility of the ore zone groundwater after mining has ended. These results support the use of U isotope-based detection of natural attenuation of U(VI) at Rosita and other similar ISR mining sites.« less

  12. Geochemical information for sites contaminated with low-level radioactive wastes: II. St. Louis Airport Storage Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seeley, F.G.; Kelmers, A.D.

    1985-01-01

    The St. Louis Airport Storage Site (SLASS) became radioactively contaminated as a result of wastes that were being stored from operations to recover uranium from pitchblende ores in the 1940s and 1950s. The US Department of Energy is considering various remedial action options for the SLASS under the Formerly Utilized Site Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). This report describes the results of geochemical investigations, carried out to support the FUSRAP activities and to aid in quantifying various remedial action options. Soil and groundwater samples from the site were characterized, and sorption ratios for uranium and radium and apparent concentration limit values for uranium were measured in soil/groundwater systems by batch contact methodology. The uranium and radium concentrations in soil samples were significantly above background near the old contaminated surface horizon (now at the 0.3/sup -/ to 0.9/sup -/m depth); the maximum values were 1566 ..mu..g/g and 101 pCi/g, respectively. Below about the 6/sup -/m depth, the concentrations appeared to be typical of those naturally present in soils of this area (3.8 +- 1.2 ..mu..g/g and 3.1 +- 0.6 pCi/g). Uranium sorption ratios showed stratigraphic trends but were generally moderate to high (100 to 1000 L/kg). The sorption isotherm suggested an apparent uranium concentration limit of about 200 mg/L. This relatively high solubility can probably be correlated with the carbonate content of the soil/groundwater systems. The lower sorption ratio values obtained from the sorption isotherm may have resulted from changes in the experimental procedure or the groundwater used. The SLASS appears to exhibit generally favorable behavior for the retardation of uranium solubilized from waste in the site. Parametric tests were conducted to estimate the sensitivity of uranium sorption and solubility to the pH and carbonate content of the system.

  13. CORE-BASED INTEGRATED SEDIMENTOLOGIC, STRATIGRAPHIC, AND GEOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF THE OIL SHALE BEARING GREEN RIVER FORMATION, UINTA BASIN, UTAH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lauren P. Birgenheier; Michael D. Vanden Berg,

    2011-04-11

    An integrated detailed sedimentologic, stratigraphic, and geochemical study of Utah's Green River Formation has found that Lake Uinta evolved in three phases (1) a freshwater rising lake phase below the Mahogany zone, (2) an anoxic deep lake phase above the base of the Mahogany zone and (3) a hypersaline lake phase within the middle and upper R-8. This long term lake evolution was driven by tectonic basin development and the balance of sediment and water fill with the neighboring basins, as postulated by models developed from the Greater Green River Basin by Carroll and Bohacs (1999). Early Eocene abrupt global-warming events may have had significant control on deposition through the amount of sediment production and deposition rates, such that lean zones below the Mahogany zone record hyperthermal events and rich zones record periods between hyperthermals. This type of climatic control on short-term and long-term lake evolution and deposition has been previously overlooked. This geologic history contains key points relevant to oil shale development and engineering design including: (1) Stratigraphic changes in oil shale quality and composition are systematic and can be related to spatial and temporal changes in the depositional environment and basin dynamics. (2) The inorganic mineral matrix of oil shale units changes significantly from clay mineral/dolomite dominated to calcite above the base of the Mahogany zone. This variation may result in significant differences in pyrolysis products and geomechanical properties relevant to development and should be incorporated into engineering experiments. (3) This study includes a region in the Uinta Basin that would be highly prospective for application of in-situ production techniques. Stratigraphic targets for in-situ recovery techniques should extend above and below the Mahogany zone and include the upper R-6 and lower R-8.

  14. I/O Performance of a Large-Scale, Interpreter-Driven Laser-Plasma...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: IO Performance of a Large-Scale, Interpreter-Driven Laser-Plasma Interaction Code Citation Details In-Document Search Title: IO Performance of a Large-Scale, ...

  15. Analysis and Interpretation of Hard X-ray Emission fromthe Bullet...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Analysis and Interpretation of Hard X-ray Emission fromthe Bullet Cluster (1E0657-56), the Most Distant Cluster of Galaxies Observed by the RXTE Citation Details In-Document Search ...

  16. Blue Star Memorial By-Way Dedication: Weldon Spring Interpretive Center

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Since 2003, the Lewis and Clark Garden Club (LCGC) of St. Charles County, Missouri, has held their monthly meetings in the Weldon Spring Interpretive Center (WSIC). The LCGC has 22 active members...

  17. Interpretation of AIRS Data in Thin Cirrus Atmospheres Based on a Fast

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiative Transfer Model and ARM Data Interpretation of AIRS Data in Thin Cirrus Atmospheres Based on a Fast Radiative Transfer Model and ARM Data Yue, Qing Dept. of Atomspheric & Oceanic Sciences, UCLA Liou, Kuo-Nan UCLA Ou, Szu-cheng University of California, Los Angeles Kahn, Brian Jet Propulsion Laboratory Yang, Ping Texas A&M Mace, Gerald University of Utah Category: Radiation A thin cirrus cloud thermal infrared radiative transfer model has been developed to interpret AIRS

  18. Mineral dissolution and precipitation during CO2 injection at the Frio-I Brine Pilot: Geochemical modeling and uncertainty analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilgen, A. G.; Cygan, R. T.

    2015-12-07

    During the Frio-I Brine Pilot CO2 injection experiment in 2004, distinct geochemical changes in response to the injection of 1600 tons of CO2 were recorded in samples collected from the monitoring well. Previous geochemical modeling studies have considered dissolution of calcite and iron oxyhydroxides, or release of adsorbed iron, as the most likely sources of the increased ion concentrations. We explore in this modeling study possible alternative sources of the increasing calcium and iron, based on the data from the detailed petrographic characterization of the Upper Frio Formation “C”. Particularly, we evaluate whether dissolution of pyrite and oligoclase (anorthite component) can account for the observed geochemical changes. Due to kinetic limitations, dissolution of pyrite and anorthite cannot account for the increased iron and calcium concentrations on the time scale of the field test (10 days). However, dissolution of these minerals is contributing to carbonate and clay mineral precipitation on the longer time scales (1000 years). The one-dimensional reactive transport model predicts carbonate minerals, dolomite and ankerite, as well as clay minerals kaolinite, nontronite and montmorillonite, will precipitate in the Frio Formation “C” sandstone as the system progresses towards chemical equilibrium during a 1000-year period. Cumulative uncertainties associated with using different thermodynamic databases, activity correction models (Pitzer vs. B-dot), and extrapolating to reservoir temperature, are manifested in the difference in the predicted mineral phases. Furthermore, these models are consistent with regards to the total volume of mineral precipitation and porosity values which are predicted to within 0.002%.

  19. Evaluation and combined geophysical interpretations of NURE and related geoscience data in the Van Horn, Pecos, Marfa, Fort Stockton, Presidido, and Emory Peak quadrangles, Texas. Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, G.R.; Hinze, W.J.; Aiken, C.L.V.; Goodell, P.C.; Roy, R.F.; Pingitore, N.E.

    1981-09-01

    This report (two volumes) is the culmination of a two-year study of the six Trans-Pecos Texas quadrangles (Van Horn, Pecos, Marfa, Fort Stockton, Presidio, and Emory Park) surveyed as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program. Volume I contains a discussion of the aeromagnetic, gravity and geochemical data, their processing, and their analysis. The geologic history and setting of the Trans-Pecos are discussed along with the uranium potential of the region. Uranium anomalies and occurrences characteristic of numerous different NURE classes are present in the study area, and information is presented on 33 drill holes into these targets. Volume II is a folio of maps reduced to a scale of 1:500,000. Geologic maps for each of the six quadrangles are included and the geophysical maps have been prepared to be overlays for the goelogic maps. In addition to the geologic maps, residual aeromagnetic anomaly, complete Bouguer gravity anomaly, flight line index, gravity station index, and anomaly interpretative maps were prepared for each quadrangle. A large suite of digitally processed maps of gravity and aeromagnetic data were prepared and are included in Volume II.

  20. Geochemical engineering reference manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Owen, L.B.; Michels, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    The following topics are included in this manual: physical and chemical properties of geothermal brine and steam, scale and solids control, processing spent brine for reinjection, control of noncondensable gas emissions, and goethermal mineral recovery. (MHR)

  1. Geochemical indicators of depositional environment and soruce-rock potential for the Upper Ordovician Maquoketa Group, Illinois basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guthrie, J.M.; Pratt, L.M. )

    1994-05-01

    Two depositional cycles are recognized within the Upper Ordovician Maquoketa Group of the Illinois basin in a core from the New Jersey Zinc 1 Parrish well of Fulton County, Illinois. Organic carbon (C[sub org]), total sulfur, [sup 13]C content of the organic carbon ([delta][sup 13]C[sub org]), hydrogen and oxygen indices (HI and OI) from Rock-Eval pyrolysis and yields of extractable organic matter (EOM) vary through the cycles. Dark-brown to black, laminated shales are present in the lower portion of each cycle and have high values of C[sub org] (1.0-3.0%), HI (500-1000 mg hydrocarbon [HC]/g total organic carbon[TOC]), and EOM (500-2500 ppm), and more negative [delta][sup 13]C[sub org] values ([delta][sup 13]C[sub org] = -30 to -30.5%). Gray to greenish-gray, bioturbated shales are present in the upper portion of each cycle and have low values of C[sub org] (<1.0%), HI (<500 mg HC/g TOC), and EOM (<500 ppm), and more positive [delta][sup 13]C[sub org] values (-28.5 to 29.5%) compared to the laminated shales. Although thermally immature or marginally mature in this core, the laminated shales represent potential source rock s for petroleum because they contain good to excellent quantities of oil-prone organic matter and are more deeply buried in other areas of the basin. Kerogen elemental data and Rock-Eval data suggest that the source of organic matter in the Maquoketa was uniform, with the notable exception of graptolite-rich layers. Distributions of saturated hydrocarbons for Maquoketa samples resemble those derived from amorphous organic matter. Variations in bulk geochemical data and carbon isotopic compositions within the Maquoketa Group indicate substantial reworking and degradation of organic matter associated with bioturbation and oxygenated depositional conditions. 64 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Geochemical Processes Data Package for the Vadose Zone in the Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Areas at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Zachara, John M.; Dresel, P. Evan; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2007-09-28

    This data package discusses the geochemistry of vadose zone sediments beneath the single-shell tank farms at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Hanford Site. The purpose of the report is to provide a review of the most recent and relevant geochemical process information available for the vadose zone beneath the single-shell tank farms and the Integrated Disposal Facility. Two companion reports to this one were recently published which discuss the geology of the farms (Reidel and Chamness 2007) and groundwater flow and contamination beneath the farms (Horton 2007).

  3. Effect of non-diffusive processes on transport and its interpretation in the tokamak plasma edge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stacey, Weston M.

    2013-11-15

    An interpretive methodology improved to account for two non-diffusive transport mechanisms—particle pinch and ion orbit loss—was applied to interpret the difference in transport (i) between a discharge with Resonance Magnetic Perturbations and a High confinement mode discharge with otherwise identical operating parameters and (ii) between the Low confinement and High confinement phases of a discharge free of Edge Localized Modes. Differences in particle and energy diffusion coefficients and in the particle pinch were inferred from the experimental data, and the inferred experiment thermal diffusion coefficients were compared with various theoretical predictions. The effect of taking ion orbit loss into account in the interpretation was quantified, and the possible relation of ion orbit loss to the observed transport “edge shortfall” is discussed.

  4. Many worlds and modality in the interpretation of quantum mechanics: An algebraic approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Domenech, G.; Freytes, H.; Ronde, C. de

    2009-07-15

    Many world interpretations (MWIs) of quantum mechanics avoid the measurement problem by considering every term in the quantum superposition as actual. A seemingly opposed solution is proposed by modal interpretations (MIs) which state that quantum mechanics does not provide an account of what 'actually is the case', but rather deals with what 'might be the case', i.e., with possibilities. In this paper we provide an algebraic framework which allows us to analyze in depth the modal aspects of MWI. Within our general formal scheme we also provide a formal comparison between MWI and MI, in particular, we provide a formal understanding of why - even though both interpretations share the same formal structure - MI fall pray of Kochen-Specker-type contradictions while MWI escape them.

  5. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF GENERAL COUNSEL INTERPRETATION REGARDING EXEMPTION RELIEF PURSUANT TO

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    INTERPRETATION REGARDING EXEMPTION RELIEF PURSUANT TO 10 C.F.R. PART 820, PROCEDURAL RULES FOR DOE NUCLEAR ACTIVITIES, SUBPART E, EXEMPTION RELIEF, AND NON-COMPLIANT "DOCUMENTED SAFETY ANALYSES" SUBJECT TO 10 C.F.R. PART 830, NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT, SUBPART B, SAFETY BASIS REQUIREMENTS Subpart D to 10 C.F.R Part 820 provides that the Department of Energy's (DOE) General Counsel (GC) shall be responsible for interpreting the DOE Nuclear Safety Requirements. Pursuant to that

  6. Spatial resolution and the geologic interpretation of Martian morphology - implications for subsurface volatiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zimbelman, J.R.

    1987-08-01

    Viking Orbiter images of the Acheron Fossae on Mars are presented and analyzed, with an emphasis on the impact of image resolution on the interpretation. High-resolution (less than 10 m/pixel) images reveal small mounds which can be interpreted as aeolian dunes, but these features are not evident on images with resolution of 50 m/pixel or greater. Also reported are the results of a visual inspection of 527 usable high-resolution images: it is found that all of the morphological features identified can arise in the absence of subsurface volatiles. 21 references.

  7. Pre-test geological and geochemical evaluation of the Caprock, St. Peter Sandstone and formation fluids, Yakley Field, Pike County, Illinois

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-03-01

    The goal of these studies is to ensure long-term stable containment of air in the underground reservoirs used in conjunction with compressed air energy storage (CAES) plants. The specific objective is to develop stability criteria and engineering guidelines for designing CAES reservoirs in each of the three major reservoir types, including aquifers, salt cavities, and mined hard rock caverns. This document characterizes the geologic nature of porous media constituents native to the aquifer field test site near Pittsfield, Illinois. The geologic samples were subjected to geochemical evaluations to determine anticipated responses to cyclic air injection, heating and moisture - conditions typical of an operating CAES reservoir. This report documents the procedures used and results obtained from these analyses.

  8. Groundwater geochemical modeling and simulation of a breached high-level radioactive waste repository in the northern Tularosa Basin, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chappell, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    The northern Tularosa Basin in south-central New Mexico was ranked favorably as a potential location for a high-level radioactive waste repository by a US Geological Survey pilot screening study of the Basin and Range Province. The favorable ranking was based chiefly on hydrogeologic and descriptive geochemical evidence. A goal of this study was to develop a methodology for predicting the performance of this or any other basin as a potential repository site using geochemical methods. The approach involves first characterizing the groundwater geochemistry, both chemically and isotopically, and reconstructing the probable evolutionary history of, and controls on the ground water chemistry through modeling. In the second phase of the approach, a hypothetically breached repository is introduced into the system, and the mobility of the parent radionuclide, uranium, in the groundwater is predicted. Possible retardation of uranium transport in the downgradient flow direction from the repository by adsorption and mineral precipitation is then considered. The Permian Yeso Formation, the primary aquifer in the northern Tularosa Basin, was selected for study, development and testing of the methodology outlined above. The Yeso Formation contains abundant gypsum and related evaporite minerals, which impart a distinctive chemical signature to the ground water. Ground water data and solubility calculations indicate a conceptual model of irreversible gypsum and dolomite dissolution with concomitant calcite precipitation. Recharge areas are apparent from temperature, {delta}{sup 18}O and {delta}{sup 2} H, and {sup 3}H trends in the aquifer. Corrected {sup 14}C ages range between modern and 31,200 years, and suggest an average ground water velocity of 0.83 m/yr.

  9. Elucidating geochemical response of shallow heterogeneous aquifers to CO2 leakage using high-performance computing: Implications for monitoring of CO2 sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis K.; Maxwell, Reed M.; Siirila, Erica R.; Hammond, Glenn E.; Lichtner, Peter C.

    2013-03-01

    Predicting and quantifying impacts of potential carbon dioxide (CO2) leakage into shallow aquifers that overlie geologic CO2 storage formations is an important part of developing reliable carbon storage techniques. Leakage of CO2 through fractures, faults or faulty wellbores can reduce groundwater pH, inducing geochemical reactions that release solutes into the groundwater and pose a risk of degrading groundwater quality. In order to help quantify this risk, predictions of metal concentrations are needed during geologic storage of CO2. Here, we present regional-scale reactive transport simulations, at relatively fine-scale, of CO2 leakage into shallow aquifers run on the PFLOTRAN platform using high-performance computing. Multiple realizations of heterogeneous permeability distributions were generated using standard geostatistical methods. Increased statistical anisotropy of the permeability field resulted in more lateral and vertical spreading of the plume of impacted water, leading to increased Pb2+ (lead) concentrations and lower pH at a well down gradient of the CO2 leak. Pb2+ concentrations were higher in simulations where calcite was the source of Pb2+ compared to galena. The low solubility of galena effectively buffered the Pb2+ concentrations as galena reached saturation under reducing conditions along the flow path. In all cases, Pb2+ concentrations remained below the maximum contaminant level set by the EPA. Results from this study, compared to natural variability observed in aquifers, suggest that bicarbonate (HCO3) concentrations may be a better geochemical indicator of a CO2 leak under the conditions simulated here.

  10. Evapotranspiration And Geochemical Controls On Groundwater Plumes At Arid Sites: Toward Innovative Alternate End-States For Uranium Processing And Tailings Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Looney, Brian B.; Denham, Miles E.; Eddy-Dilek, Carol A.; Millings, Margaret R.; Kautsky, Mark

    2014-01-08

    Management of legacy tailings/waste and groundwater contamination are ongoing at the former uranium milling site in Tuba City AZ. The tailings have been consolidated and effectively isolated using an engineered cover system. For the existing groundwater plume, a system of recovery wells extracts contaminated groundwater for treatment using an advanced distillation process. The ten years of pump and treat (P&T) operations have had minimal impact on the contaminant plume – primarily due to geochemical and hydrological limits. A flow net analysis demonstrates that groundwater contamination beneath the former processing site flows in the uppermost portion of the aquifer and exits the groundwater as the plume transits into and beneath a lower terrace in the landscape. The evaluation indicates that contaminated water will not reach Moenkopi Wash, a locally important stream. Instead, shallow groundwater in arid settings such as Tuba City is transferred into the vadose zone and atmosphere via evaporation, transpiration and diffuse seepage. The dissolved constituents are projected to precipitate and accumulate as minerals such as calcite and gypsum in the deep vadose zone (near the capillary fringe), around the roots of phreatophyte plants, and near seeps. The natural hydrologic and geochemical controls common in arid environments such as Tuba City work together to limit the size of the groundwater plume, to naturally attenuate and detoxify groundwater contaminants, and to reduce risks to humans, livestock and the environment. The technical evaluation supports an alternative beneficial reuse (“brownfield”) scenario for Tuba City. This alternative approach would have low risks, similar to the current P&T scenario, but would eliminate the energy and expense associated with the active treatment and convert the former uranium processing site into a resource for future employment of local citizens and ongoing benefit to the Native American Nations.

  11. Geophysical interpretations west of and within the northwestern part of the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grauch, V.J.; Sawyer, D.A.; Fridrich, C.J.; Hudson, M.R.

    1997-12-31

    This report focuses on interpretation of gravity and new magnetic data west of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and within the northwestern part of NTS. The interpretations integrate the gravity and magnetic data with other geophysical, geological, and rock property data to put constraints on tectonic and magmatic features not exposed at the surface. West of NTS, where drill hole information is absent, these geophysical data provide the best available information on the subsurface. Interpreted subsurface features include calderas, intrusions, basalt flows and volcanoes, Tertiary basins, structurally high pre-Tertiary rocks, and fault zones. New features revealed by this study include (1) a north-south buried tectonic fault east of Oasis Mountain, which the authors call the Hogback fault; (2) an east striking fault or accommodation zone along the south side of Oasis Valley basin, which they call the Hot Springs fault; (3) a NNE striking structural zone coinciding with the western margins of the caldera complexes; (4) regional magnetic highs that probably represent a thick sequence of Tertiary volcanic rocks; and (5) two probable buried calderas that may be related to the tuffs of Tolicha Peak and of Sleeping Butte, respectively.

  12. INFRARED NON-DETECTION OF FOMALHAUT b: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE PLANET INTERPRETATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janson, Markus; Carson, Joseph C.; Bent, John R.; Wong, Palmer; Lafreniere, David; Spiegel, David S.

    2012-03-10

    The nearby A4-type star Fomalhaut hosts a debris belt in the form of an eccentric ring, which is thought to be caused by dynamical influence from a giant planet companion. In 2008, a detection of a point source inside the inner edge of the ring was reported and was interpreted as a direct image of the planet, named Fomalhaut b. The detection was made at {approx}600-800 nm, but no corresponding signatures were found in the near-infrared range, where the bulk emission of such a planet should be expected. Here, we present deep observations of Fomalhaut with Spitzer/IRAC at 4.5 {mu}m, using a novel point-spread function subtraction technique based on angular differential imaging and Locally Optimized Combination of Images, in order to substantially improve the Spitzer contrast at small separations. The results provide more than an order of magnitude improvement in the upper flux limit of Fomalhaut b and exclude the possibility that any flux from a giant planet surface contributes to the observed flux at visible wavelengths. This renders any direct connection between the observed light source and the dynamically inferred giant planet highly unlikely. We discuss several possible interpretations of the total body of observations of the Fomalhaut system and find that the interpretation that best matches the available data for the observed source is scattered light from a transient or semi-transient dust cloud.

  13. Data interpretation of joint compressional and shear wave survey in mountainous region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fugiu, D. )

    1992-01-01

    The join utilization of compressional and shear wave data leads one to discover nonstructural hydrocarbon traps such as stratigraphic trap, lithologic trap, fracture trap, etc. and to ascertain fluid situation in formation, lithologic variation and fracture zone, so that the accuracy of seismic data interpretation is improved greatly. In this paper, the author describes how to determine shear wave horizon, how to interpret carbonate reservoir and how to discover gas accumulation zone in HBC area in Sichuan Province. It is very important to pay more attention to analyzing the ratio between compressional wave amplitude and shear wave amplitude, and the ratio between compressional wave velocity and shear wave velocity in data interpretation. The amplitude ratio anomaly and the velocity ratio anomaly in HBC area can be usually seen at anticlinal axis areas and small noses. Generally speaking, the amplitude ratio anomaly area reflects gas accumulation and the velocity ratio anomaly area exhibits dense fracture zone. Good results have been obtained from exploratory wells in the areas where there occur the two anomalies simultaneously.

  14. Interpretation Of Multifrequency Crosswell Electromagnetic Data With Frequency Dependent Core Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirkendall, B; Roberts, J

    2005-06-07

    Interpretation of cross-borehole electromagnetic (EM) images acquired at enhanced oil recovery (EOR) sites has proven to be difficult due to the typically complex subsurface geology. Significant problems in image interpretation include correlation of specific electrical conductivity values with oil saturations, the time-dependent electrical variation of the subsurface during EOR, and the non-unique electrical conductivity relationship with subsurface conditions. In this study we perform laboratory electrical properties measurements of core samples from the EOR site to develop an interpretation approach that combines field images and petrophysical results. Cross-borehole EM images from the field indicate resistivity increases in EOR areas--behavior contrary to the intended waterflooding design. Laboratory measurements clearly show a decrease in resistivity with increasing effective pressure and are attributed to increased grain-to-grain contact enhancing a strong surface conductance. We also observe a resistivity increase for some samples during brine injection. These observations possibly explain the contrary behavior observed in the field images. Possible mechanisms for increasing the resistivity in the region include (1) increased oil content as injectate sweeps oil toward the plane of the observation wells; (2) lower conductance pore fluid displacing the high-conductivity brine; (3) degradation of grain-to-grain contacts of the initially conductive matrix; and (4) artifacts of the complicated resistivity/time history similar to that observed in the laboratory experiments.

  15. Communication: The correct interpretation of surface hopping trajectories: How to calculate electronic properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landry, Brian R.; Falk, Martin J.; Subotnik, Joseph E.

    2013-12-07

    In a recent paper, we presented a road map for how Tully's fewest switches surface hopping (FSSH) algorithm can be derived, under certain circumstances, from the mixed quantum-classical Liouville equation. In this communication, we now demonstrate how this new interpretation of surface hopping can yield significantly enhanced results for electronic properties in nonadiabatic calculations. Specifically, we calculate diabatic populations for the spin-boson problem using FSSH trajectories. We show that, for some Hamiltonians, without changing the FSSH algorithm at all but rather simply reinterpreting the ensemble of surface hopping trajectories, we recover excellent results and remove any and all ambiguity about the initial condition problem.

  16. INTERPRETATION REGARDING THE APPLICATION OF DOE TECHNICAL STANDARD 1027-92,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HAZARD CATEGORIZATION AND ACCIDENT ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES FOR COMPLIANCE WITH DOE ORDER 5480.23, NUCLEAR SAFETY ANALYSIS REPORTS, UNDER THE PROVISIONS OF 10 C.F.R. § 830.202(b)(3). | Department of Energy THE APPLICATION OF DOE TECHNICAL STANDARD 1027-92, HAZARD CATEGORIZATION AND ACCIDENT ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES FOR COMPLIANCE WITH DOE ORDER 5480.23, NUCLEAR SAFETY ANALYSIS REPORTS, UNDER THE PROVISIONS OF 10 C.F.R. § 830.202(b)(3). INTERPRETATION REGARDING THE APPLICATION OF DOE TECHNICAL

  17. INTERPRETATION OF AIRBORNE ELECTROMAGNETIC AND MAGNETIC DATA IN THE 600 AREA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CUMMINS GD

    2010-11-11

    As part of the 200-PO-1 Phase I geophysical surveys, Fugro Airborne Surveys was contracted to collect airborne electromagnetic (EM) and magnetic surveys of the Hanford Site 600 Area. Two helicopter survey systems were used with the HeliGEOTEM{reg_sign} time domain portion flown between June 19th and June 20th, 2008, and the RESOLVE{reg_sign} frequency domain portion was flown from June 29th to July 1st, 2008. Magnetic data were acquired contemporaneously with the electromagnetic surveys using a total-field cesium vapor magnetometer. Approximately 925 line kilometers (km) were flown using the HeliGEOTEM{reg_sign} II system and 412 line kilometers were flown using the RESOLVE{reg_sign} system. The HeliGEOTEM system has an effective penetration of roughly 250 meters into the ground and the RESOLVE system has an effective penetration of roughly 60 meters. Acquisition parameters and preliminary results are provided in SGW-39674, Airborne Electromagnetic Survey Report, 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit, 600 Area, Hanford Site. Airborne data are interpreted in this report in an attempt to identify areas of likely preferential groundwater flow within the aquifer system based on the presence of paleochannels or fault zones. The premise for the interpretation is that coarser-grained intervals have filled in scour channels created by episodic catastrophic flood events during the late Pleistocene. The interpretation strategy used the magnetic field anomaly data and existing bedrock maps to identify likely fault or lineament zones. Combined analysis of the magnetic, 60-Hz noise monitor, and flight-altitude (radar) data were used to identify zones where EM response is more likely due to cultural interference and or bedrock structures. Cross-sectional and map view presentations of the EM data were used to identify more electrically resistive zones that likely correlate with coarser-grained intervals. The resulting interpretation identifies one major northwest-southeast trending

  18. Simple interpretation of shape evolution in Pt isotopes without intruder states

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCutchan, E.A.; Casten, R.F.; Zamfir, N.V.

    2005-06-01

    The most commonly accepted interpretation of the light Pt isotopes invokes the coexistence and mixing with proton intruder states from above the Z = 82 shell gap. Using an alternative description, interacting boson model (IBA) calculations are performed for the Pt isotopes with a simple, single configuration, two-parameter Hamiltonian. Excellent agreement is obtained for energies and electromagnetic transition strengths over the entire isotopic chain, spanning a wide variety of structures, and suggesting that these nuclei can be described more simply without the introduction of an intruder configuration. The Pt nuclei close to midshell are found to lie close to a region of phase/shape coexistence.

  19. Drill-hole data, drill-site geology, and geochemical data from the study of Precambrian uraniferous conglomerates of the Medicine Bow Mountains and Sierra Madre of southeastern Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karlstrom, K.E.; Houston, R.S.; Schmidt, T.G.; Inlow, D.; Flurkey, A.J.; Kratochvil, A.L.; Coolidge, C.M.; Sever, C.K.; Quimby, W.F.

    1981-02-01

    This volume is presented as a companion to Volume 1: The Geology and Uranium Potential of Precambrian Conglomerates in the Medicine Bow Mountains and Sierra Madre of Southeastern Wyoming; and to Volume 3: Uranium Assessment for Precambrian Pebble Conglomerates in Southeastern Wyoming. Volume 1 summarized the geologic setting and geologic and geochemical characteristics of uranium-bearing conglomerates in Precambrian metasedimentary rocks of southeastern Wyoming. Volume 3 is a geostatistical resource estimate of U and Th in quartz-pebble conglomerates. This volume contains supporting geochemical data, lithologic logs from 48 drill holes in Precambrian rocks of the Medicine Bow Mountains and Sierra Madre, and drill site geologic maps and cross-sections from most of the holes.

  20. EQ3NR, a computer program for geochemical aqueous speciation-solubility calculations: Theoretical manual, user`s guide, and related documentation (Version 7.0); Part 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolery, T.J.

    1992-09-14

    EQ3NR is an aqueous solution speciation-solubility modeling code. It is part of the EQ3/6 software package for geochemical modeling. It computes the thermodynamic state of an aqueous solution by determining the distribution of chemical species, including simple ions, ion pairs, and complexes, using standard state thermodynamic data and various equations which describe the thermodynamic activity coefficients of these species. The input to the code describes the aqueous solution in terms of analytical data, including total (analytical) concentrations of dissolved components and such other parameters as the pH, pHCl, Eh, pe, and oxygen fugacity. The input may also include a desired electrical balancing adjustment and various constraints which impose equilibrium with special pure minerals, solid solution end-member components (of specified mole fractions), and gases (of specified fugacities). The code evaluates the degree of disequilibrium in terms of the saturation index (SI = 1og Q/K) and the thermodynamic affinity (A = {minus}2.303 RT log Q/K) for various reactions, such as mineral dissolution or oxidation-reduction in the aqueous solution itself. Individual values of Eh, pe, oxygen fugacity, and Ah (redox affinity) are computed for aqueous redox couples. Equilibrium fugacities are computed for gas species. The code is highly flexible in dealing with various parameters as either model inputs or outputs. The user can specify modification or substitution of equilibrium constants at run time by using options on the input file.

  1. Geochemical and Isotopic Evaluation of Groundwater Movement in Corrective Action Unit 97: Yucca Flat/Climax Mine, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farnham, Irene

    2006-02-01

    This report describes the results of a comprehensive geochemical evaluation of the groundwater flow system in the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine Corrective Action Unit (CAU). The main objectives of this study are to identify probable pathways for groundwater flow within the study area and to develop constraints on groundwater transit times between selected data collection sites. This work provides an independent means of testing and verifying predictive flow models being developed for this CAU using finite element methods. The Yucca Flat/Climax Mine CAU constitutes the largest of six underground test areas on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) specified for remedial action in the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order''. A total of 747 underground nuclear detonations were conducted in this CAU. Approximately 23 percent of these detonations were conducted below or near the water table, resulting in groundwater contamination in the vicinity and possibly downgradient of these underground test locations. Therefore, a rigorous evaluation of the groundwater flow system in this CAU is necessary to assess potential long-term risks to the public water supply at downgradient locations.

  2. Sedimentological, mineralogical and geochemical definition of oil-shale facies in the lower Parachute Creek Member of Green River Formation, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, R.D.

    1984-04-01

    Sedimentological, mineralogical and geochemical studies of two drill cores penetrating the lower Saline zone of the Parachute Creek Member (middle L-4 oil-shale zone through upper R-2 zone) of the Green River Formation in north-central Piceance Creek basin, Colorado, indicate the presence of two distinct oil-shale facies. The most abundant facies has laminated stratification and frequently occurs in the L-4, L-3 and L-2 oil-shale zones. The second, and subordinate facies, has ''streaked and blebby'' stratification and is most abundant in the R-4, R-3 and R-2 zones. Laminated oil shale originated by slow, regular sedimentation during meromictic phases of ancient Lake Uinta, whereas streaked and blebby oil shale was deposited by episodic, non-channelized turbidity currents. Laminated oil shale has higher contents of nahcolite, dawsonite, quartz, K-feldspar and calcite, but less dolomite/ankerite and albite than streaked and blebby oil shale. Ca-Mg-Fe carbonate minerals in laminated oil shale have more variable compositions than those in streaked and blebby shales. Streaked and blebby oil shale has more kerogen and a greater diversity of kerogen particles than laminated oil shale. Such variations may produce different pyrolysis reactions when each shale type is retorted.

  3. Isotopic and geochemical tracers for U(VI) reduction and U mobility at an in situ recovery U mine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basu, Anirban; Brown, Shaun T.; Christensen, John N.; DePaolo, Donald J.; Reimus, Paul W.; Heikoop, Jeffrey M.; Woldegabriel, Giday; Simmons, Ardyth M.; House, Brian M.; Hartmann, Matt; Maher, Kate

    2015-05-19

    In situ recovery (ISR) uranium (U) mining mobilizes U in its oxidized hexavalent form (U(VI)) by oxidative dissolution of U from the roll-front U deposits. Post-mining natural attenuation of residual U(VI) at ISR mines is a potential remediation strategy. Detection and monitoring of naturally occurring reducing subsurface environments are important for successful implementation of this remediation scheme. We used the isotopic tracers ?U/?U (??U), ?U/?U activity ratio, and ?S/S (??S), and geochemical measurements of U ore and groundwater collected from 32 wells located within, upgradient, and downgradient of a roll-front U deposit to detect U(VI) reduction and U mobility at an ISR mining site at Rosita, TX, USA. The ??U in Rosita groundwater varies from 0.61 to -2.49, with a trend toward lower ??U in downgradient wells. The concurrent decrease in U(VI) concentration and ??U with an ? of 0.48 0.08 is indicative of naturally occurring reducing environments conducive to U(VI) reduction. Additionally, characteristic ?U/?U activity ratio and ??S values may also be used to trace the mobility of the ore zone groundwater after mining has ended. These results support the use of U isotope-based detection of natural attenuation of U(VI) at Rosita and other similar ISR mining sites.

  4. Interpretation of a short-term anomaly in the gravitational microlensing event MOA-2012-BLG-486

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, K.-H.; Choi, J.-Y.; Han, C.; Bond, I. A.; Sumi, T.; Koshimoto, N.; Gaudi, B. S.; Gould, A.; Bozza, V.; Beaulieu, J.-P.; Tsapras, Y.; Abe, F.; Fukunaga, D.; Itow, Y.; Bennett, D. P.; Botzler, C. S.; Freeman, M.; Chote, P.; Harris, P.; Fukui, A.; Collaboration: MOA Collaboration; μFUN Collaboration; PLANET Collaboration; RoboNet Collaboration; and others

    2013-11-20

    A planetary microlensing signal is generally characterized by a short-term perturbation to the standard single lensing light curve. A subset of binary-source events can produce perturbations that mimic planetary signals, thereby introducing an ambiguity between the planetary and binary-source interpretations. In this paper, we present the analysis of the microlensing event MOA-2012-BLG-486, for which the light curve exhibits a short-lived perturbation. Routine modeling not considering data taken in different passbands yields a best-fit planetary model that is slightly preferred over the best-fit binary-source model. However, when allowed for a change in the color during the perturbation, we find that the binary-source model yields a significantly better fit and thus the degeneracy is clearly resolved. This event not only signifies the importance of considering various interpretations of short-term anomalies, but also demonstrates the importance of multi-band data for checking the possibility of false-positive planetary signals.

  5. Interpreting the behavior of a quarter-wave transmission line resonator in a magnetized plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gogna, G. S. Turner, M. M.; Karkari, S. K.

    2014-12-15

    The quarter wave resonator immersed in a strongly magnetized plasma displays two possible resonances occurring either below or above its resonance frequency in vacuum, f{sub o}. This fact was demonstrated in our recent articles [G. S. Gogna and S. K. Karkari, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 151503 (2010); S. K. Karkari, G. S. Gogna, D. Boilson, M. M. Turner, and A. Simonin, Contrib. Plasma Phys. 50(9), 903 (2010)], where the experiments were carried out over a limited range of magnetic fields at a constant electron density, n{sub e}. In this paper, we present the observation of dual resonances occurring over the frequency scan and find that n{sub e} calculated by considering the lower resonance frequency is 25%–30% smaller than that calculated using the upper resonance frequency with respect to f{sub o}. At a given magnetic field strength, the resonances tend to shift away from f{sub o} as the background density is increased. The lower resonance tends to saturate when its value approaches electron cyclotron frequency, f{sub ce}. Interpretation of these resonance conditions are revisited by examining the behavior of the resonance frequency response as a function of n{sub e}. A qualitative discussion is presented which highlights the practical application of the hairpin resonator for interpreting n{sub e} in a strongly magnetized plasma.

  6. Interpreting, correlating, and predicting the multimedia concentrations of PCDD/Fs in the United Kingdom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, J.G.; Mackay, D.; Jones, K.C.; Alcock, R.E.

    1999-02-01

    Reported concentrated of 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and furan congeners or congener groups in ten environmental media of the UK have been compiled. The relative equilibrium status of each congener is deduced with respect to its concentration in urban air which is regarded as the primary source of multimedia contamination. This is accomplished by calculating the equilibrium lipid partitioning (ELP) concentration for each congener and medium using partitioning information derived from measured physical chemical properties. It is shown that the extents of departure from equilibrium conditions between media are consistent for all congeners except the octa-chlorinated compounds. This method of analyzing monitoring data and the consistency of intermedia ELP concentration ratios facilitates the interpretation of the fate and levels of these persistent chemicals in a multimedia environment and yields an approximate predictive capability by which levels in one medium can be used to estimate levels in other media. Benefits of this ELP concentration approach are discussed as a means of enhancing the more complete and detailed interpretation of monitoring data for persistent compounds.

  7. Thermodynamic approach to the interpretation of self-consistent pressure profiles in a tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dyabilin, K. S.; Razumova, K. A.

    2015-09-15

    The phenomenon of invariable pressure profiles in tokamaks is interpreted in the framework of the thermodynamic approach suggesting that invariable self-consistent states correspond to the minimum of free energy. Solutions qualitatively consistent with the experiment are obtained under the assumption that the mechanism for the formation of self-consistent profiles is directly related to equilibrium diamagnetic currents. The dynamics of the system and specific transport phenomena, such as energy and particle pinching and a decrease in the local density under auxiliary electron cyclotron resonance heating (density pump-out), are analyzed in the vicinity of an equilibrium state characterized by a stable pressure profile. The scaling for the energy confinement time deduced from the transport model agrees qualitatively with the ITER scaling based on the analysis of experimental data obtained in many tokamaks. The possibility of using generalized Tsallis statistics to analyze pressure profiles is considered.

  8. DIRECT RADIO PROBING AND INTERPRETATION OF THE SUN'S PLASMA DENSITY PROFILE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cairns, I. H.; Lobzin, V. V.; Li, B.; Robinson, P. A.; Warmuth, A.; Mann, G.

    2009-12-01

    The Sun's electron number density profile n{sub e} (r) is vital for solar physics but not well measured or understood within a few solar radii R{sub S} . Here, a new technique extracts n{sub e} (r) directly from coronal type III radio bursts for 40 <= f <= 180 MHz. Unexpectedly, wind-like regions with n{sub e} propor to (r - R{sub S} ){sup -2} are quite common below 2R{sub S} , and coronal type IIIs often have closely linear 1/f - t spectra. The profile n{sub e} propor to (r - R{sub S} ){sup -2} is consistent with the radio data and simulations and is interpreted in terms of conical flow from localized sources (e.g., UV funnels) close to the photosphere. It is consistent with solar wind acceleration occurring for 2 <= r/R{sub S} <= 10.

  9. Laboratory equipment and data interpretation method for predicting volatile emissions during solidification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, H.J.J.; Jensen, R.H.; Hinsenveld, M.

    1996-12-31

    Volatilization is a valid concern in the solidification of wastes containing organics. In the presence of strongly adsorbing substances, however, even volatile compounds may not rule out solidification. In order to distinguish between wastes having negligible emissions and those from which emissions may be problematic, a definition of a volatilization potential and a method of determining this potential is needed. The assessment method can be based on the emission rate measured in a standardized laboratory setup. This paper begins to develop a laboratory setup and a reference framework for the interpretation of the measured emissions from sludges. A volatilization quality index is derived, which can be used to evaluate and rank the potential of volatilization from sludges during mixing operations. This quality index is related to the measured emissions from an organic sludge taken from a waste site. The implications of the experimental results are related to practice.

  10. Interpretation of HRTEM images by image simulation: An introduction to theory and practice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Keefe, M.A.

    1994-08-01

    This tutorial describes the use of image simulation as an aid to interpretation of high-resolution transmission electron microscope images. Topics include some image processing as well as image simulation. Image processing is the manipulation of experimental images in order to extract some desired information. Image simulation is the generation of a computed or simulated image from a model structure. It requires a detailed knowledge of the process of image formation in the high-resolution transmission electron microscope. This tutorial concentrates on image simulation, with examples of image processing appearing only as required as illustrations. Because this is an introduction, the theory of image simulation is described, but not explored in depth. The practice of image simulation is covered in sufficient detail to enable the student to understand the functions of the various steps in the computations, and the parameters necessary for their evaluation.

  11. Radar imagery interpretation to assess the hydrocarbon potential of four sites in the Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-11-17

    The Republic of the Philippines is intensely interested in the identification, development, and conservation of natural resources. In keeping with this, the Government of the Philippines has recently completed a nationwide sedimentary basin evaluation program to assess hydrocarbon potential and assist in future exploration activities. This program of collection and interpretation of the radar imagery was designed to augment and complement the existing data base. The primary objective of the project was to further the goals of international energy development by aiding the Republic of the Philippines in the assessment of potential petroleum and geothermal prospects within the areas imaged. Secondary goals were to assist the Republic of the Philippines in utilizing state-of-the-art radar remote sensing technology for resource exploration, and to train key Philippines scientists in the use of imaging radar data. 29 refs., 30 figs., 14 tabs.

  12. Executive summary: Radar imagery interpretation to assess the hydrocarbon potential of four sites in the Phillipines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-11-17

    The Republic of the Philippines is intensely interested in the identification, development, and conservation of natural resources. In keeping with this, the Government of the Philippines has recently completed a nationwide sedimentary basin evaluation program to assess hydrocarbon potential and assist in future exploration activities. This program of collection and interpretation of the radar imagery was designed to augment and complement the existing data base. The primary objective of the project was to further the goals of international energy development by aiding the Republic of the Philippines in the assessment of potential petroleum and geothermal prospects within the areas imaged. Secondary goals were to assist the Republic of the Philippines in utilizing state-of-the-art radar remote sensing technology for resource exploration, and to train key Philippines scientists in the use of imaging radar data. 9 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Radar imagery interpretation to provide information about several geothermal sites in the Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-11-17

    The Republic of the Philippines is intensely interested in the identification, development, and conservation of natural resources. In keeping with this, the Government of the Philippines has recently completed a nation-wide sedimentary basin evaluation program to assess hydrocarbon potential and assist in future exploration activities. This program of collection and interpretation of the radar imagery was designed to augment and complement the existing data base. The primary objective of the project was to further the goals of international energy development by aiding the Republic of the Philippines in the assessment of potential geothermal and petroleum prospects within the areas imaged. Secondary goals were to assist the Republic of the Philippines in utilizing state-of-the-art radar remote sensing technology for resource exploration, and to train key Philippines scientists in the use of imaging radar data. 7 refs., 20 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Loss of sex chromosomes in the hematopoietic disorders: Questions, concerns and data interpretation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slovak, M.L. [City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The significance of sex chromosome aberrations in the hematopoietic disorders has not yet been defined. Interpretive problems stem from (1) the loss of a sex chromosome associated with aging, (2) sex chromosome loss as the sole aberration in leukemia is rare, (3) random -(X or Y) is observed frequently in bone marrow samples, and (4) constitutional sex chromosome anomalies must be ruled out in cancer and follow-up may not be possible. The COH database identified 41 patients (pts) with sex chromosome loss. Loss of a sex chromosome was common in myeloid disorders (21/41). In t(8;21) leukemia (n=10), -(X or Y) was a common secondary karyotypic change. Additionally, -Y was associated with clonal evolution in 2 Ph + CML pts. In 2 elderly pts with myeloid disorders, -(X or Y) was observed in complex karyotypes with dmins; however, in the lymphoproliferative disorders -(X or Y) was noted in elderly pts without apparent pathogenetic significance. Three pts had constitutional sex chromosome aberrations: CML in 45,X; ALL in 47, XXY; and RAEB-IT in mos45,X/46,XX. In the mos45,X/46,XX pt, the leukemic clone was associated with the 45,X line without other karyotypic changes. Non-clonal aberrations were observed in 11 cases; in 3 cases these non-clonal losses were observed in serial samples. In a sex-mismatched BMT case, -(X or Y) in 4 cells was one of the first pathogenetic signs of leukemia relapse. These data suggest (1) interpretation of sex chromosome loss in leukemia must be made with caution and after a baseline sample, (2) non-clonal aberrations should be recorded, and (3) -(X or Y) appears to have pathogenetic significance in the myeloid disorders. Multi-institutional studies are needed to define (1) the incidence of leukemia in pts with constitutional sex chromosome anomalies and (2) the incidence and significance of sex chromosome aberrations as the primary (sole) cytogenetic aberration in leukemia.

  15. Interpretations of Tracer Tests Performed in the Culebra Dolomite at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MEIGS,LUCY C.; BEAUHEIM,RICHARD L.; JONES,TOYA L.

    2000-08-01

    This report provides (1) an overview of all tracer testing conducted in the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WPP) site, (2) a detailed description of the important information about the 1995-96 tracer tests and the current interpretations of the data, and (3) a summary of the knowledge gained to date through tracer testing in the Culebra. Tracer tests have been used to identify transport processes occurring within the Culebra and quantify relevant parameters for use in performance assessment of the WIPP. The data, especially those from the tests performed in 1995-96, provide valuable insight into transport processes within the Culebra. Interpretations of the tracer tests in combination with geologic information, hydraulic-test information, and laboratory studies have resulted in a greatly improved conceptual model of transport processes within the Culebra. At locations where the transmissivity of the Culebra is low (< 4 x 10{sup -6} m{sup 2}/s), we conceptualize the Culebra as a single-porosity medium in which advection occurs largely through the primary porosity of the dolomite matrix. At locations where the transmissivity of the Culebra is high (> 4 x 10{sup -6} m{sup 2}/s), we conceptualize the Culebra as a heterogeneous, layered, fractured medium in which advection occurs largely through fractures and solutes diffuse between fractures and matrix at multiple rates. The variations in diffusion rate can be attributed to both variations in fracture spacing (or the spacing of advective pathways) and matrix heterogeneity. Flow and transport appear to be concentrated in the lower Culebra. At all locations, diffusion is the dominant transport process in the portions of the matrix that tracer does not access by flow.

  16. Interpretation of seismic reflection data, Central Palo Duro Basin: Technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-11-01

    Seismic reflection data from the Central Palo Duro Basin, Texas, were studied to identify and characterize geologic structure, potential hydrocarbon traps, and anomalies suggesting adverse features such as salt dissolution or diapirism. The data included seismic reflection data, geologic and geophysical data controlled by Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation, and data from the literature. These data comprised approximately 590 line-mi of seismic profiles over approximately 4000 mi/sup 2/, plus well logs from 308 wells. The study addressed the section from shallow reflectors down to basement. Structural contour maps were prepared for the Upper San Andres, Near Top of Glorieta, Wolfcamp, and Precambrian horizons. Isopach maps were prepared for intervals between the Upper and Lower San Andres and between the Upper San Andres and the Wolfcamp. Interpretation indicates southeasterly dips in the northwest part of the mapped area and southwesterly dips in the southwest part. Geologic structures show a generally northwest alignment. Faults at the Precambrian level and geologic structures show a generally northwest alignment. Faulting in the area is largely limited to the Precambrian, but interpretation is uncertain. Evidence of post-Wolfcampian faulting is not recognized. Seismic data delineating the San Andres section indicate a stable section throughout the area. Anomalous reflection events possibly associated with subsurface salt dissolution were seen at the 800- to 1200-ft level in Swisher County. Other anomalies include an overthickened zone northwest of Westway and carbonate buildup in the Wolfcamp and Pennsylvanian in Randall County. Mississippian to Middle Pennsylvanian diastrophism resulting in the Amarillo Uplift and Matador Arch is not manifested structurally in the central Palo Duro Basin. Subsidence or gentle uplift contributed to some structural deformation.

  17. DOE ER63951-3 Final Report: An Integrated Assessment of Geochemical and Community Structure Determinants of Metal Reduction Rates in Subsurface Sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susan Pfiffner

    2010-06-28

    The objective of this research was to examine the importance of microbial community structure in influencing uranium reduction rates in subsurface sediments. If the redox state alone is the key to metal reduction, then any organisms that can utilize the oxygen and nitrate in the subsurface can change the geochemical conditions so metal reduction becomes an energetically favored reaction. Thus, community structure would not be critical in determining rates or extent of metal reduction unless community structure influenced the rate of change in redox. Alternatively, some microbes may directly catalyze metal reduction (e.g., specifically reduce U). In this case the composition of the community may be more important and specific types of electron donors may promote the production of communities that are more adept at U reduction. Our results helped determine if the type of electron donor or the preexisting community is important in the bioremediation of metal-contaminated environments subjected to biostimulation. In a series of experiments at the DOE FRC site in Oak Ridge we have consistently shown that all substrates promoted nitrate reduction, while glucose, ethanol, and acetate always promoted U reduction. Methanol only occasionally promoted extensive U reduction which is possibly due to community heterogeneity. There appeared to be limitations imposed on the community related to some substrates (e.g. methanol and pyruvate). Membrane lipid analyses (phospholipids and respiratory quinones) indicated different communities depending on electron donor used. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and clone libraries indicated distinct differences among communities even in treatments that promoted U reduction. Thus, there was enough metabolic diversity to accommodate many different electron donors resulting in the U bioimmobilization.

  18. Computed solid phases limiting the concentration of dissolved constituents in basalt aquifers of the Columbia Plateau in eastern Washington. Geochemical modeling and nuclide/rock/groundwater interaction studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deutsch, W.J.; Jenne, E.A.; Krupka, K.M.

    1982-08-01

    A speciation-solubility geochemical model, WATEQ2, was used to analyze geographically-diverse, ground-water samples from the aquifers of the Columbia Plateau basalts in eastern Washington. The ground-water samples compute to be at equilibrium with calcite, which provides both a solubility control for dissolved calcium and a pH buffer. Amorphic ferric hydroxide, Fe(OH)/sub 3/(A), is at saturation or modestly oversaturated in the few water samples with measured redox potentials. Most of the ground-water samples compute to be at equilibrium with amorphic silica (glass) and wairakite, a zeolite, and are saturated to oversaturated with respect to allophane, an amorphic aluminosilicate. The water samples are saturated to undersaturated with halloysite, a clay, and are variably oversaturated with regard to other secondary clay minerals. Equilibrium between the ground water and amorphic silica presumably results from the dissolution of the glassy matrix of the basalt. The oversaturation of the clay minerals other than halloysite indicates that their rate of formation lags the dissolution rate of the basaltic glass. The modeling results indicate that metastable amorphic solids limit the concentration of dissolved silicon and suggest the same possibility for aluminum and iron, and that the processes of dissolution of basaltic glass and formation of metastable secondary minerals are continuing even though the basalts are of Miocene age. The computed solubility relations are found to agree with the known assemblages of alteration minerals in the basalt fractures and vesicles. Because the chemical reactivity of the bedrock will influence the transport of solutes in ground water, the observed solubility equilibria are important factors with regard to chemical-retention processes associated with the possible migration of nuclear waste stored in the earth's crust.

  19. User's Guide of TOUGH2-EGS. A Coupled Geomechanical and Reactive Geochemical Simulator for Fluid and Heat Flow in Enhanced Geothermal Systems Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fakcharoenphol, Perapon; Xiong, Yi; Hu, Litang; Winterfeld, Philip H.; Xu, Tianfu; Wu, Yu-Shu

    2013-05-01

    TOUGH2-EGS is a numerical simulation program coupling geomechanics and chemical reactions for fluid and heat flows in porous media and fractured reservoirs of enhanced geothermal systems. The simulator includes the fully-coupled geomechanical (THM) module, the fully-coupled geochemical (THC) module, and the sequentially coupled reactive geochemistry (THMC) module. The fully-coupled flow-geomechanics model is developed from the linear elastic theory for the thermo-poro-elastic system and is formulated with the mean normal stress as well as pore pressure and temperature. The chemical reaction is sequentially coupled after solution of flow equations, which provides the flow velocity and phase saturation for the solute transport calculation at each time step. In addition, reservoir rock properties, such as porosity and permeability, are subjected to change due to rock deformation and chemical reactions. The relationships between rock properties and geomechanical and chemical effects from poro-elasticity theories and empirical correlations are incorporated into the simulator. This report provides the user with detailed information on both mathematical models and instructions for using TOUGH2-EGS for THM, THC or THMC simulations. The mathematical models include the fluid and heat flow equations, geomechanical equation, reactive geochemistry equations, and discretization methods. Although TOUGH2-EGS has the capability for simulating fluid and heat flows coupled with both geomechanical and chemical effects, it is up to the users to select the specific coupling process, such as THM, THC, or THMC in a simulation. There are several example problems illustrating the applications of this program. These example problems are described in details and their input data are presented. The results demonstrate that this program can be used for field-scale geothermal reservoir simulation with fluid and heat flow, geomechanical effect, and chemical reaction in porous and fractured media.

  20. Isotopic and geochemical tracers for U(VI) reduction and U mobility at an in situ recovery U mine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basu, Anirban; Brown, Shaun T.; Christensen, John N.; DePaolo, Donald J.; Reimus, Paul W.; Heikoop, Jeffrey M.; Woldegabriel, Giday; Simmons, Ardyth M.; House, Brian M.; Hartmann, Matt; Maher, Kate

    2015-05-19

    In situ recovery (ISR) uranium (U) mining mobilizes U in its oxidized hexavalent form (U(VI)) by oxidative dissolution of U from the roll-front U deposits. Post-mining natural attenuation of residual U(VI) at ISR mines is a potential remediation strategy. Detection and monitoring of naturally occurring reducing subsurface environments are important for successful implementation of this remediation scheme. We used the isotopic tracers ²³⁸U/²³⁵U (δ²³⁸U), ²³⁴U/²³⁸U activity ratio, and ³⁴S/³²S (δ³⁴S), and geochemical measurements of U ore and groundwater collected from 32 wells located within, upgradient, and downgradient of a roll-front U deposit to detect U(VI) reduction and U mobility at an ISR mining site at Rosita, TX, USA. The δ²³⁸U in Rosita groundwater varies from 0.61‰ to -2.49‰, with a trend toward lower δ²³⁸U in downgradient wells. The concurrent decrease in U(VI) concentration and δ²³⁸U with an ε of 0.48‰ ± 0.08‰ is indicative of naturally occurring reducing environments conducive to U(VI) reduction. Additionally, characteristic ²³⁴U/²³⁸U activity ratio and δ³⁴S values may also be used to trace the mobility of the ore zone groundwater after mining has ended. These results support the use of U isotope-based detection of natural attenuation of U(VI) at Rosita and other similar ISR mining sites.

  1. Interpretation of Scanning Tunneling Quasiparticle Interference and Impurity States in Cuprates

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kreisel, A.; Choubey, P.; Berlijn, T.; Ku, W.; Andersen, B. M.; Hirschfeld, P. J.

    2015-05-27

    We apply a recently developed method combining first principles based Wannier functions with solutions to the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations to the problem of interpreting STM data in cuprate superconductors. We show that the observed images of Zn on the surface of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 can only be understood by accounting for the tails of the Cu Wannier functions, which include significant weight on apical O sites in neighboring unit cells. This calculation thus puts earlier crude “filter” theories on a microscopic foundation and solves a long standing puzzle. We then study quasiparticle interference (QPI) phenomena induced by out-of-plane weak potential scatterers, andmore » show how patterns long observed in cuprates can be understood in terms of the interference of Wannier functions above the surface. Our results show excellent agreement with experiment and enable a better understanding of novel phenomena in the cuprates via STM imaging.« less

  2. Interpretation of scanning tunneling quasiparticle interference and impurity states in cuprates

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kreisel, Andreas; Choubey, Peayush; Berlijn, Tom; Ku, W.; Andersen, Brian M.; Hirschfeld, Peter J.

    2015-05-27

    We apply a recently developed method combining first principles based Wannier functions with solutions to the Bogoliubov–de Gennes equations to the problem of interpreting STM data in cuprate superconductors. We show that the observed images of Zn on the surface of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 can only be understood by accounting for the tails of the Cu Wannier functions, which include significant weight on apical O sites in neighboring unit cells. This calculation thus puts earlier crude “filter” theories on a microscopic foundation and solves a long-standing puzzle. We then study quasiparticle interference phenomena induced by out-of-plane weak potential scatterers, and show howmore » patterns long observed in cuprates can be understood in terms of the interference of Wannier functions above the surface. Furthermore, our results show excellent agreement with experiment and enable a better understanding of novel phenomena in the cuprates via STM imaging.« less

  3. Search for oil in Papua New Guinea: Evolution of structural interpretations in a difficult physical environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matzke, R.H. )

    1990-09-01

    Chevron Nuigini Pty Ltd. and its partners are exploring for oil in the foreland folded belt of Papua New Guinea's Southern Highlands province, one of the remaining frontier areas of the world that offers the potential for the discovery of giant oil fields. The search has been focused on the Lower Cretaceous Toro sandstone, an excellent reservoir rock unit about 100 m thick. It is overlain by up to 1,200 m of Upper Cretaceous marine shales, siltstones, and fine sandstones (Ieru formation) and, finally, at the surface by the thick (1,000 m) Miocene Darai limestone. The entire stratigraphic sequence was folded during the Pliocene-Pleistocene into a broad belt of thrusted anticlines that have good surface expression throughout the highland valleys and ridges. The thick carapace of folded limestone is heavily karsted and extremely rugged, circumstances that have prohibited effective seismic surveying of the region. Prospecting for oil has consequently relied almost entirely on structural interpretation of surface geologic data, including images from satellites and airborne radar, and, most particularly, on the results of wildcat drilling. Fortunately, early drilling was rewarded with encouraging quantities of gas, gas condensate, and oil. Structural models and concepts are continuing to evolve as the results of successive wells become available, thus providing the critical insight into the habitat of hydrocarbons in this complex environment.

  4. Integrating 3D seismic curvature and curvature gradient attributes for fracture characterization: Methodologies and interpretational implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Dengliang

    2013-03-01

    In 3D seismic interpretation, curvature is a popular attribute that depicts the geometry of seismic reflectors and has been widely used to detect faults in the subsurface; however, it provides only part of the solutions to subsurface structure analysis. This study extends the curvature algorithm to a new curvature gradient algorithm, and integrates both algorithms for fracture detection using a 3D seismic test data set over Teapot Dome (Wyoming). In fractured reservoirs at Teapot Dome known to be formed by tectonic folding and faulting, curvature helps define the crestal portion of the reservoirs that is associated with strong seismic amplitude and high oil productivity. In contrast, curvature gradient helps better define the regional northwest-trending and the cross-regional northeast-trending lineaments that are associated with weak seismic amplitude and low oil productivity. In concert with previous reports from image logs, cores, and outcrops, the current study based on an integrated seismic curvature and curvature gradient analysis suggests that curvature might help define areas of enhanced potential to form tensile fractures, whereas curvature gradient might help define zones of enhanced potential to develop shear fractures. In certain fractured reservoirs such as at Teapot Dome where faulting and fault-related folding contribute dominantly to the formation and evolution of fractures, curvature and curvature gradient attributes can be potentially applied to differentiate fracture mode, to predict fracture intensity and orientation, to detect fracture volume and connectivity, and to model fracture networks.

  5. Automated method for the systematic interpretation of resonance peaks in spectrum data

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Damiano, Brian; Wood, Richard T.

    1997-01-01

    A method for spectral signature interpretation. The method includes the creation of a mathematical model of a system or process. A neural network training set is then developed based upon the mathematical model. The neural network training set is developed by using the mathematical model to generate measurable phenomena of the system or process based upon model input parameter that correspond to the physical condition of the system or process. The neural network training set is then used to adjust internal parameters of a neural network. The physical condition of an actual system or process represented by the mathematical model is then monitored by extracting spectral features from measured spectra of the actual process or system. The spectral features are then input into said neural network to determine the physical condition of the system or process represented by the mathematical. More specifically, the neural network correlates the spectral features (i.e. measurable phenomena) of the actual process or system with the corresponding model input parameters. The model input parameters relate to specific components of the system or process, and, consequently, correspond to the physical condition of the process or system.

  6. Automated method for the systematic interpretation of resonance peaks in spectrum data

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Damiano, B.; Wood, R.T.

    1997-04-22

    A method is described for spectral signature interpretation. The method includes the creation of a mathematical model of a system or process. A neural network training set is then developed based upon the mathematical model. The neural network training set is developed by using the mathematical model to generate measurable phenomena of the system or process based upon model input parameter that correspond to the physical condition of the system or process. The neural network training set is then used to adjust internal parameters of a neural network. The physical condition of an actual system or process represented by the mathematical model is then monitored by extracting spectral features from measured spectra of the actual process or system. The spectral features are then input into said neural network to determine the physical condition of the system or process represented by the mathematical model. More specifically, the neural network correlates the spectral features (i.e. measurable phenomena) of the actual process or system with the corresponding model input parameters. The model input parameters relate to specific components of the system or process, and, consequently, correspond to the physical condition of the process or system. 1 fig.

  7. The impact of high-frequency sedimentation cycles on stratigraphic interpretation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perlmutter, M.A.; Radovich, B.J.; Matthews, M.D.

    1997-01-01

    Global cyclostratigraphy, a methodology that utilizes climate change to evaluate sediment flux, characterizes the impact of sediment cycles on stratigraphy. Climatic succession, sediment yield cycles, and the phase relationship of sediment cycles to eustatic cycles are all determined in the early stages of basin analysis. Sedimentologic information is then used to assist in sequence evaluations. Climatic successions are intrinsically associated with global position (paleogeography) and are not necessarily synchronous with glacioeustatic sea-level cycles. A preliminary evaluation of the effect of climate on sediment supply from modem river systems indicates that sediment yield may vary by well over two orders of magnitude during one climate cycle. Consequently, basins in different climatic belts can have distinctly different volumes and lithologies for systems tracts that have similar base-level changes. The stratigraphic computer program Sedpak was utilized to examine the possible impact of different sedimentation cycles on sequence interpretation and reservoir forecasts. The effect of sedimentation cycles on reservoir distribution in real world sequences is demonstrated with a comparison of the Miocene section of the Surma basin, Bangladesh, and the Plio-Pleistocene section of the Gulf of Mexico. In the Surma basin, reservoirs are most likely to occur in transgressive and highstand systems tracts, while reservoirs in the Gulf of Mexico are more likely in lowstand prograding complexes.

  8. Interpretation of thermoreflectance measurements with a two-temperature model including non-surface heat deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Regner, K. T.; Wei, L. C.; Malen, J. A.

    2015-12-21

    We develop a solution to the two-temperature diffusion equation in axisymmetric cylindrical coordinates to model heat transport in thermoreflectance experiments. Our solution builds upon prior solutions that account for two-channel diffusion in each layer of an N-layered geometry, but adds the ability to deposit heat at any location within each layer. We use this solution to account for non-surface heating in the transducer layer of thermoreflectance experiments that challenge the timescales of electron-phonon coupling. A sensitivity analysis is performed to identify important parameters in the solution and to establish a guideline for when to use the two-temperature model to interpret thermoreflectance data. We then fit broadband frequency domain thermoreflectance (BB-FDTR) measurements of SiO{sub 2} and platinum at a temperature of 300 K with our two-temperature solution to parameterize the gold/chromium transducer layer. We then refit BB-FDTR measurements of silicon and find that accounting for non-equilibrium between electrons and phonons in the gold layer does lessen the previously observed heating frequency dependence reported in Regner et al. [Nat. Commun. 4, 1640 (2013)] but does not completely eliminate it. We perform BB-FDTR experiments on silicon with an aluminum transducer and find limited heating frequency dependence, in agreement with time domain thermoreflectance results. We hypothesize that the discrepancy between thermoreflectance measurements with different transducers results in part from spectrally dependent phonon transmission at the transducer/silicon interface.

  9. Benthic foraminifera of Puerto Rican mangrove-lagoon systems: Potential for paleoenvironmental interpretations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Culver, S.J. )

    1990-02-01

    Recent foraminiferal assemblages from four traverses across mangrove-lagoonal environments off Puerto Rico exhibit patterns of distribution that should be useful in paleoenvironmental interpretations. Variations in sediment substrate type, abundance and distribution of marine vegetation, and degree of exposure to wave and current activity appear to be important factors related to foraminiferal distributions and abundances. Cluster analysis of foraminiferal abundance data distinguishes four major assemblages. Other generally recognizable trends in foraminiferal assemblages include: offshore increase in species diversity; offshore increase in percent miliolids while percent rotaliids remain more or less constant; small peaks in percent textulariids immediately adjacent to mangrove growth; almost 100% agglutinated assemblages in fully mangrove environments; offshore increase in foraminiferal number except in areas of abundant Halimeda plate production where numbers of foraminifera are diluted; restriction of high abundances of Fissurina, Nonionella, Fursenkoina and Helenina to lagoons behind mangrove islands; restrictions of high abundances of Rosalina, Cibicides, Discorbis, Spiroloculina, Cyclogyra, Quinqueloculina, Amphistegina, Peneroplis and Archaias to lagoons seaward of mangrove islands. These trends provide a micropaleontological link between a potential petroleum source, mangrove swamps, and the potential petroleum reservoir, reef rocks.

  10. LORENTZ-FACTOR-ISOTROPIC-LUMINOSITY/ENERGY CORRELATIONS OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS AND THEIR INTERPRETATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lue Jing; Zou Yuanchuan; Lei Weihua; Wu Qingwen; Wang Dingxiong [School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zhang Bing; Lue Houjun [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada Las Vegas, 4505 Maryland Parkway, Box 454002, Las Vegas, NV 89154-4002 (United States); Liang Enwei, E-mail: zouyc@hust.edu.cn, E-mail: leiwh@hust.edu.cn, E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu [Department of Physics, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China)

    2012-05-20

    The bulk Lorentz factor of the gamma-ray burst (GRB) ejecta ({Gamma}{sub 0}) is a key parameter to understanding GRB physics. Liang et al. have discovered a correlation between {Gamma}{sub 0} and isotropic {gamma}-ray energy: {Gamma}{sub 0}{proportional_to}E{sup 0.25}{sub {gamma},iso,52}. By including more GRBs with updated data and more methods to derive {Gamma}{sub 0}, we confirm this correlation and obtain {Gamma}{sub 0} {approx_equal} 91E{sup 0.29}{sub {gamma},iso,52}. Evaluating the mean isotropic {gamma}-ray luminosities L{sub {gamma},iso} of the GRBs in the same sample, we discover an even tighter correlation {Gamma}{sub 0} {approx_equal} 249L{sup 0.30}{sub {gamma},iso,52}. We propose an interpretation to this later correlation. Invoking a neutrino-cooled hyperaccretion disk around a stellar mass black hole as the central engine of GRBs, we derive jet luminosity powered by neutrino annihilation and baryon loading from a neutrino-driven wind. Applying beaming correction, we finally derive {Gamma}{sub 0}{proportional_to}L{sup 0.22}{sub {gamma},iso}, which is consistent with the data. This suggests that the central engine of long GRBs is likely a stellar mass black hole surrounded by a hyper-accreting disk.

  11. Dynamical interpretation of average fission-fragment kinetic energy systematics and nuclear scission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nadtochy, P.N. [GSI, Plankstrasse 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Omsk State University, Department of Theoretical Physics, Mira Prospect 55-A, RU-644077 Omsk (Russian Federation); Adeev, G.D. [Omsk State University, Department of Theoretical Physics, Mira Prospect 55-A, RU-644077 Omsk (Russian Federation)

    2005-11-01

    A dynamical interpretation of the well-known systematics for average total kinetic energy of fission fragments over a wide range of the Coulomb parameter (600 on the Coulomb parameter. The results of dynamical calculations of within three-dimensional Langevin dynamics show that the mean distance between the centers of mass of nascent fragments at the scission configuration increases linearly with the parameter Z{sup 2}/A{sup 1/3}. This distance changes approximately from 2.35R{sub 0} for {sup 119}Xe to 2.6R{sub 0} for {sup 256}Fm. In spite of this increase in mean distance between future fragments at scission, the linear dependence of on the parameter Z{sup 2}/A{sup 1/3} remains approximately valid over a wide range of the Coulomb parameter Z{sup 2}/A{sup 1/3}.

  12. Galvanic interpretation of self-potential signals associated withmicrobial sulfate-reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Kenneth H.; Hubbard, Susan S.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2007-05-02

    We have evaluated the usefulness of the self-potential (SP)geophysical method to track the onset and location of microbialsulfate-reduction in saturated sediments during organic carbon amendment.Following stimulation of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) by addition oflactate, anomalous voltages exceeding 600 mV correlated in space and timewith the accumulation of dissolved sulfide. Abiotic experiments in whichthe sulfide concentration at the measurement electrode was systematicallyvaried showed a positive correlation between the magnitude of the SPanomaly and differences in the half-cell potential associated with themeasurement and reference electrodes. Thus, we infer that the SPanomaliesresulted from electrochemical differences that developedbetween sulfide-rich regions and areas having higher oxidation potential.In neither experiment did generation of an SP anomaly require thepresence of an in situ electronic conductor, as is required by othermodels. These findings emphasize the importance of incorporation ofelectrochemical effects at electrode surfaces in interpretation of SPdata from geophysical studies. We conclude that SP measurements provide aminimally invasive means for monitoring stimulated sulfate-reductionwithin saturated sediments.

  13. Interactive geological interpretation of the El Roble oil field, eastern Venezuela basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Briceno, M.A.; Joffree Arud, G.M. ); Segura, F. ); Rosario Sifontes, A.S.; Bejarano, C. )

    1990-05-01

    The El Noble oil field has been in production since May 1939, following the completion of RPN 1 well in the mid-section of the Oficina Formation. Seventy-three wells, 50% of which are producers, have been drilled as part of evaluation and appraisal-development programs. Production comes mostly from the Tertiary Oficina and Merecure formations, whose cumulative production is 45.2 MMbbl of light and condensate oil, and 74-94 bcf of gas. To date, 158 reservoirs have been identified in more than 40 sand bodies. Over 120 wells have been drilled in the study area which covers the El Roble field and its surroundings. Due to the importance of the field as a supplier to the domestic gas market, Corpoven has decided to reevaluate the area through an integrated study which takes into account all available data, including lab and sedimentological analyses, petrophysical analyses, well logs, etc., all of which have been processed through the Intergraph Gipsie system. The Intergraph Gipsie system allows the handling of data and the generation of ecological maps, sections, and graphs in a relatively short time using interactive routines, freeing the geologist for interpretations. More than 40 sand beds were reevaluated and their oil and gas volumes estimated. Further corrections and updating should be easily handled through the system.

  14. HoravaLifshitz cosmology, entropic interpretation and quarkhadron phase transition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kheyri, F. Khodadi, M. Sepangi, Hamid Reza

    2013-05-15

    Based on the assumptions of the standard model of cosmology, a phase transition associated with chiral symmetry breaking after the electroweak transition has occurred at approximately 10 ?s after the Big Bang to convert a plasma of free quarks and gluons into hadrons. We consider such a phase transition in the context of a deformed HoravaLifshitz cosmology. The Friedmann equation for the deformed HoravaLifshitz universe is obtained using the entropic interpretation of gravity, proposed by Verlinde. We investigate the effects of the parameter ? appearing in the theory on the evolution of the physical quantities relevant to a description of the early universe, namely, the energy density and temperature before, during and after the phase transition. Finally, we study the cross-over phase transition in both high and low temperature regions in view of the recent lattice QCD simulations data. -- Highlights: ? We study the problem of the quarkhadron phase transition in the early universe, in the context of HoravaLifshitz cosmology. ? We conduct this study by including the recently introduced entropic principle. ? We study the behavior of thermodynamical parameters of the theory.

  15. Simple interpretation of nuclear orientation for Coulomb barrier distributions derived from a realistic effective interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ismail, M.; Seif, W. M.

    2010-03-15

    A simple straightforward method has been presented to predict the dependence of barrier distributions at arbitrary orientations on different deformations. The proposed interpretation is developed independently of the complicated numerical calculations. It is related to the change of half-density radius of the deformed nucleus, in the direction of the separation vector. The microscopic calculations of Coulomb barrier are carried out by using a realistic density dependent nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction, BDM3Y, for the interaction between spherical, {sup 48}Ca, and deformed, {sup 244}Pu, nuclei, as an example. To do so, the double-folding model for the interaction of spherical-deformed nuclei is put in a suitable computational form for the calculation of the potential at several separation distances and orientation angles using the density dependent NN force without consuming computational time. We found that the orientation distributions of the Coulomb barrier parameters show similar patterns to those of the interacting deformed nucleus radius. It is found that the orientation distribution of the Coulomb barrier radius follows the same variation of the deformed nucleus radius while the barrier height distribution follows it inversely. This correlation (anticorrelation) allows a simple evaluation of the orientation barrier distribution which would be very helpful to estimate when the barrier parameters will increase or decrease and at which orientations they will be independent of the deformation. This also allows us to estimate the compact and elongated configurations of the interacting nuclei which lead to hot and cold fusion, respectively.

  16. Using the depth-velocity-size diagram to interpret equilibrium bed configurations in river flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Southard, J.B. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Data from flume studies that report equilibrium bed configuration as well as water temperature, flow depth, flow velocity, and sediment size were used to develop the best approximation to the relationships among the various bed phases (ripples, dunes, lower regime plane bed, upper regime plane bed, and antidunes) in a three-axis graph (depth-velocity-size diagram) with dimensionless measures of mean flow depth, mean flow velocity, and sediment size along the axis. Relationships are shown in a series of depth-velocity and velocity-size sections through the diagram. Boundaries between bed-phase stability fields are drawn as surfaces that minimize, misplacement of data points. A large subset of the data, for which reliable values of bed shear stress are reported, was also used to represent the stability relationships in a graph of dimensionless boundary shear stress against dimensionless sediment size, but with results less useful for fluvial flow interpretation. The diagram covers about one order of magnitude in flow depth. To be useful for river flows, the diagram must be extrapolated in flow depth by about one more order of magnitude, but this is not a serious problem for approximate work. The depth-velocity-size diagram permits prediction of equilibrium bed configuration in river flows when the approximate flow depth and mean flow velocity are known. Because the diagram is essentially dimensionless, the effect of water temperature (via the fluid viscosity) on the bed configuration is easily accounted for by use of the diagram.

  17. Geochemical Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermometers Multicomponent Geothermometers Silica Geothermometers Thermal Ion Dispersion Thermochronometry References General References Technical References No exploration...

  18. Blind Geothermal System Exploration in Active Volcanic Environments; Multi-phase Geophysical and Geochemical Surveys in Overt and Subtle Volcanic Systems, Hawai’i and Maui

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fercho, Steven; Owens, Lara; Walsh, Patrick; Drakos, Peter; Martini, Brigette; Lewicki, Jennifer L.; Kennedy, Burton M.

    2015-08-01

    Suites of new geophysical and geochemical exploration surveys were conducted to provide evidence for geothermal resource at the Haleakala Southwest Rift Zone (HSWRZ) on Maui Island, Hawai’i. Ground-based gravity (~400 stations) coupled with heli-bourne magnetics (~1500 line kilometers) define both deep and shallow fractures/faults, while also delineating potentially widespread subsurface hydrothermal alteration on the lower flanks (below approximately 1800 feet a.s.l.). Multi-level, upward continuation calculations and 2-D gravity and magnetic modeling provide information on source depths, but lack of lithologic information leaves ambiguity in the estimates. Additionally, several well-defined gravity lows (possibly vent zones) lie coincident with magnetic highs suggesting the presence of dike intrusions at depth which may represent a potentially young source of heat. Soil CO2 fluxes were measured along transects across geophysically-defined faults and fractures as well as young cinder cones along the HSWRZ. This survey generally did not detect CO2 levels above background, with the exception of a weak anomalous flux signal over one young cinder cone. The general lack of observed CO2 flux signals on the HSWRZ is likely due to a combination of lower magmatic CO2 fluxes and relatively high biogenic surface CO2 fluxes which mix with the magmatic signal. Similar surveys at the Puna geothermal field on the Kilauea Lower East Rift Zone (KLERZ) also showed a lack of surface CO2 flux signals, however aqueous geochemistry indicated contribution of magmatic CO2 and He to shallow groundwater here. As magma has been intercepted in geothermal drilling at the Puna field, the lack of measured surface CO2 flux indicative of upflow of magmatic fluids here is likely due to effective “scrubbing” by high groundwater and a mature hydrothermal system. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations, δ13C compositions and 3He/4He values were sampled at Maui from several shallow

  19. A Comprehensive Statistically-Based Method to Interpret Real-Time Flowing Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keita Yoshioka; Pinan Dawkrajai; Analis A. Romero; Ding Zhu; A. D. Hill; Larry W. Lake

    2007-01-15

    With the recent development of temperature measurement systems, continuous temperature profiles can be obtained with high precision. Small temperature changes can be detected by modern temperature measuring instruments such as fiber optic distributed temperature sensor (DTS) in intelligent completions and will potentially aid the diagnosis of downhole flow conditions. In vertical wells, since elevational geothermal changes make the wellbore temperature sensitive to the amount and the type of fluids produced, temperature logs can be used successfully to diagnose the downhole flow conditions. However, geothermal temperature changes along the wellbore being small for horizontal wells, interpretations of a temperature log become difficult. The primary temperature differences for each phase (oil, water, and gas) are caused by frictional effects. Therefore, in developing a thermal model for horizontal wellbore, subtle temperature changes must be accounted for. In this project, we have rigorously derived governing equations for a producing horizontal wellbore and developed a prediction model of the temperature and pressure by coupling the wellbore and reservoir equations. Also, we applied Ramey's model (1962) to the build section and used an energy balance to infer the temperature profile at the junction. The multilateral wellbore temperature model was applied to a wide range of cases at varying fluid thermal properties, absolute values of temperature and pressure, geothermal gradients, flow rates from each lateral, and the trajectories of each build section. With the prediction models developed, we present inversion studies of synthetic and field examples. These results are essential to identify water or gas entry, to guide flow control devices in intelligent completions, and to decide if reservoir stimulation is needed in particular horizontal sections. This study will complete and validate these inversion studies.

  20. Adirondack lakes survey: An interpretive analysis of fish communities and water chemistry, 1984--1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, J.P. , Raleigh, NC ); Gherini, S.A.; Munson, R.K. ); Christensen, S.W. ); Driscoll, C.T. ); Gallagher, J. ); Newton, R.M. ); Reckhow, K.H. ); Schofield, C.L. (Co

    1990-01-01

    The Adirondack Lakes Survey Corporation (ALSC) was formed as a cooperative effort of the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation and the Empire State Electric Energy Research Corporation to better characterize the chemical and biological status of Adirondack lakes. Between 1984 and 1987, the ALSC surveyed 1469 lakes within the Adirondack ecological zone. As a follow-up to the survey, the ALSC sponsored a series of interpretive analyses of the ALSC data base. The primary objectives of these analyses were as follows: Evaluate the influence of mineral acids (from acidic deposition) and nonmineral acids (natural organic acids) on lake pH levels; classify Adirondack lakes according to lake and watershed features expected to influence their responsiveness to changes in acidic deposition; evaluate the sensitivity of Adirondack lakes to changes in environmental conditions, such as changes in mineral acids or dissolved organic carbon concentrations; identify lake characteristics important in explaining the observed present-day status of fish communities in Adirondack lakes, in particular the relative importance of lake acidity; evaluate changes that have occurred over time in Adirondack fish communities and probable causes for these trends by using the available historical data on fish communities in the Adirondacks and the ALSC data base; and determine the degree to which the existing fish resource might be at risk from continued acidic deposition, or might recover if acidity levels were reduced. The basic approach examined relationships observed in the ALSC data base among watershed characteristics, lake chemistry, and fish status. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.

  1. Biothems: Sequence stratigraphic units and their implications for regional tectono-stratigraphic interpretations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lane, H.R. ); Frye, M.W. ); Couples, G.D. )

    1992-01-01

    Biothems are regional wedge- or lens-shaped bodies of strata that are bounded shelfward or cratonward by paleontologically recognizable unconformities; generally thicken on marine shelves, where they are typically conformable with underlying and overlying biothems; are commonly thinner or represent starved sequences further basinward; and in their most basinward extent, are either bounded by biostratigraphically recognizable unconformities or are conformable with underlying and overlying biothems. As recognized to date, biothems have a logical distribution of faunal and floral components, as well as facies groupings that represent internally consistent and logical sequences of depositional environments. A west-to-east transect within the North American Mississippian System which extends from the Basin and Range Province, across the Transcontinental Arch (TA), into the Anadarko Basin, was constructed to demonstrate the regional distribution and tectono-stratigraphic significance of biothems relative to the axis of the TA. The relationships portrayed on the transect, tied to an understanding of North American Mississippian paleogeography, imply that biothems deposited during relative highstand events on one flank of the TA are time-equivalent to biothems deposited during relative lowstand events on the opposite flank of the TA. This distribution is interpreted to have been controlled by intraplate tectonic events that formed piano key basins along the flanks of the TA. The spatial patterns of these basins are not consistent with published models of basin evolution. A further conclusion is that the lack of coincident, transgressive or regressive Mississippian biothems on either flank of the TA suggests that it is inadvisable to impose the Mississippi Valley-derived eustasy curve on western flank depositional sequences.

  2. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant simulated RH TRU waste experiments: Data and interpretation pilot

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molecke, M.A.; Argueello, G.J.; Beraun, R.

    1993-04-01

    The simulated, i.e., nonradioactive remote-handled transuranic waste (RH TRU) experiments being conducted underground in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) were emplaced in mid-1986 and have been in heated test operation since 9/23/86. These experiments involve the in situ, waste package performance testing of eight full-size, reference RH TRU containers emplaced in horizontal, unlined test holes in the rock salt ribs (walls) of WIPP Room T. All of the test containers have internal electrical heaters; four of the test emplacements were filled with bentonite and silica sand backfill materials. We designed test conditions to be ``near-reference`` with respect to anticipated thermal outputs of RH TRU canisters and their geometrical spacing or layout in WIPP repository rooms, with RH TRU waste reference conditions current as of the start date of this test program. We also conducted some thermal overtest evaluations. This paper provides a: detailed test overview; comprehensive data update for the first 5 years of test operations; summary of experiment observations; initial data interpretations; and, several status; experimental objectives -- how these tests support WIPP TRU waste acceptance, performance assessment studies, underground operations, and the overall WIPP mission; and, in situ performance evaluations of RH TRU waste package materials plus design details and options. We provide instrument data and results for in situ waste container and borehole temperatures, pressures exerted on test containers through the backfill materials, and vertical and horizontal borehole-closure measurements and rates. The effects of heat on borehole closure, fracturing, and near-field materials (metals, backfills, rock salt, and intruding brine) interactions were closely monitored and are summarized, as are assorted test observations. Predictive 3-dimensional thermal and structural modeling studies of borehole and room closures and temperature fields were also performed.

  3. Definition and interpretation of Holocene shorelines in the south Atlantic coastal zone, southeast Florida

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finkl, C.W. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    There is a wide variety of contemporary shorelines in southeastern Florida. Distinctive types range from rocky platforms, tidal flats, mangroves and marshes, to sand and gravel beaches. Because the natural sequence of shorelines in the urban coastal corridor from Miami to Palm Beach is partly obscured by dredge and fill operations initiated in the early 1920's, some coastal segments are subject to re-interpretation. Analysis of early aerial photographs, old coastal charts and bore log data indicates a much more complicated sequence of Recent coastlines than is generally appreciated. Before development, much of the coastal zone contained complicated networks of fresh-water marshes and lakes with lagoons, bays, and sounds lying behind extensively developed spits. The larger spits prograded southward (downdrift) forming long coastwise sounds that eventually led into fresh-water marshes such as Lake Mabel (now Port Everglades). When new inlets were cut to link the ICW with the sea, the spits were beheaded to form what are now called barrier islands. After subsequent inlet stabilization with inadequate sand bypassing, some spits became welded to the shore and others eroded away. Extension of boundaries marking the back sides of barriers landward into the marshes, to the position of the ICW, is not only an erroneous definition of barrier island width but dangerous for emergency (storm surge) planning because the barriers were never this wide. Beach ridge plains, ridge and swale topography, dune-covered limestone ridges, and some fossil reefs such as Key Biscayne have in addition been mistakenly identified as barrier islands.

  4. AN INTERPRETATION OF GLE71 CONCURRENT CME-DRIVEN SHOCK WAVE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Firoz, Kazi A.; Rodrguez-Pacheco, J.; Zhang, Q. M.; Gan, W. Q.; Li, Y. P.; Moon, Y.-J.; Kudela, K.; Park, Y.-D.; Dorman, Lev I. E-mail: firoz.kazi@uah.es

    2014-08-01

    Particle accelerations in solar flares and CME-driven shocks can sometimes result in very high-energy particle events (?1 GeV) that are known as ground level enhancements (GLEs). Recent studies on the first GLE event (GLE71 2012 May 17 01:50 UT) of solar cycle 24 suggested that CME-driven shock played a leading role in causing the event. To verify this claim, we have made an effort to interpret the GLE71 concurrent shock wave. For this, we have deduced the possible speed and height of the shock wave in terms of the frequency (MHz) of the solar radio type II burst and its drift rate (MHz min{sup 1}), and studied the temporal evolution of the particle intensity profiles at different heights of the solar corona. For a better perception of the particle acceleration in the shock, we have studied the solar radio type II burst with concurrent solar radio and electron fluxes. When the particle intensity profiles are necessarily shifted in time at ?1 AU, it is found that the growth phases of the electron and cosmic ray intensity fluxes are strongly correlated (>0.91; ?0.87) with the frequency drift rate of the type II burst, which is also consistent with the intensive particle accelerations at upper coronal heights (??0.80 R {sub S} < 1.10 R {sub S}). Thus, we conclude that the CME-driven shock was possibly capable of producing the high-energy particle event. However, since the peaks of some flare components are found to be strongly associated with the fundamental phase of the type II burst, the preceding flare is supposed to contribute to the shock acceleration process.

  5. Models to interpret bed-form geometries from cross-bed data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luthi, S.M. (Schlumberger-Doll Research, Ridgefield, CT (USA)); Banavar, J.R. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (USA)); Bayer, U. (Institute Erdoel und Organische Chemie, Kernforschungsanlage Juelich (West Germany))

    1990-05-01

    To improve the understanding of the relation of cross-bed azimuth distributions to bed-forms, geometric models were developed for migrating bed forms using a minimum number of parameters. Semielliptical and sinusoidal bed-form crestlines were modeled with curvature and sinuosity as parameters. Both bedform crestlines are propagated at various angles of migration over a finite area of deposition. Two computational approaches are used, a statistical random sampling (Monte Carlo) technique over the area of the deposit, and an analytical method based on topology and differential geometry. The resulting foreset azimuth distributions provide a catalog for a variety of simulations. The resulting thickness distributions have a simple shape and can be combined with the azimuth distributions to further constrain the cross-strata geometry. Paleocurrent directions obtained by these models can differ substantially from other methods, especially for obliquely migrating low-curvature bed forms. Interpretation of foreset azimuth data from outcrops and wells can be done either by visual comparison with the cataloged distributions, or by iterative computational fits. Studied examples include eolian cross-strata from the Permian Rotliegendes in the North Sea, fluvial dunes from the Devonian in the Catskills (New York state), the Triassic Schilfsandstein (Federal Republic of Germany), and the Paleozoic-Jurassic of the Western Desert (Egypt), as well as recent tidal dunes from the German coast of the North Sea and tidal cross-strata from the Devonian Koblentzquartzit (Federal Republic of Germany). In all cases the semi-elliptical bed-form model gave a good fit to the data, suggesting that it may be applicable over a wide range of bed forms. The data from the Western Desert could be explained only by data scatter due to channel sinuosity combined with the scatter attributed to the ellipticity of the bed-form crestlines.

  6. The effect of rotation and viscous heating on the interpretation of experimental heat diffusivities in the edge pedestal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stacey, Weston M.

    2010-05-15

    A formalism is presented for evaluating the effect of plasma rotation, via viscous heating, on the interpretation of thermal conductivities from measured temperature and density gradients in the edge pedestal. An application to a H-mode DIII-D [J. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)] discharge indicates that the effect could be significant.

  7. Restoration of geological surface-UNFOLD method-a validation of complex structural mapping interpretation in the Andean Thrust Belt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guillier, B. ); Oller, J.; Mendez, E.; Leconte, J.C.; Letouzey, J.; Specht, M.; Gratier, J.P.

    1993-02-01

    One of the most important problems in petroleum structural geology is dependable interpretation of structural maps obtained by seismic and sub-surface data. One method for validating the geometry of geological structures is the balancing cross-section technique which allows verification of cross-section geometry by a return to its initial horizontal state. However, this can not be used for of 3D halokinesis, shale tectonics, structures formed by polyphased noncoaxial tectonic events, or strike-slip and wrench faulting. An alternative approach is to test the restoration of folded and faulted surfaces to verify 3D structures by balancing geological surfaces represented by a structural map. This method tests the geometry of studied horizon and faults and is based upon the fact that, initially, actual folded/faulted structures were continuous at deposition. The balancing surface program, UNFOLD, restores the actual geological surface to its initial state. Misfits along faults implied poor structural map drawings or strong internal deformation of the geological level. By trial and error method, we returned to the initial data interpretation modifications. This method has been applied to 2D and 3D seismic structural interpretation in different structural styles, environments, rift zones, salt basins, wrench faulting, thrust belt,etc. Some applications to oil field structures in the Andean Thrust Belt have been done to check and validate the complex structural mapping interpretation.

  8. On Possible Interpretations of the High Energy Electron-Positron Spectrum Measured by the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grasso, D.; Profumo, S.; Strong, A.W.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bloom, E.D.; Bregeon, J.; Di Bernardo, G.; Gaggero, D.; Giglietto, N.; Kamae, T.; Latronico, L.; Longo, F.; Mazziotta, M.N.; Moiseev, A.A.; Morselli, A.; Ormes, J.F.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Pohl, M.; Razzano, M.; Sgro, C.

    2009-05-15

    The Fermi-LAT experiment recently reported high precision measurements of the spectrum of cosmic-ray electrons-plus-positrons (CRE) between 20 GeV and 1 TeV. The spectrum shows no prominent spectral features, and is significantly harder than that inferred from several previous experiments. Here we discuss several interpretations of the Fermi results based either on a single large scale Galactic CRE component or by invoking additional electron-positron primary sources, e.g. nearby pulsars or particle Dark Matter annihilation. We show that while the reported Fermi-LAT data alone can be interpreted in terms of a single component scenario, when combined with other complementary experimental results, specifically the CRE spectrum measured by H.E.S.S. and especially the positron fraction reported by PAMELA between 1 and 100 GeV, that class of models fails to provide a consistent interpretation. Rather, we find that several combinations of parameters, involving both the pulsar and dark matter scenarios, allow a consistent description of those results. We also briefly discuss the possibility of discriminating between the pulsar and dark matter interpretations by looking for a possible anisotropy in the CRE flux.

  9. Surface speciation of yttrium and neodymium sorbed on rutile: Interpretations using the change distribution model.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ridley, Mora K.; Hiemstra, T; Machesky, Michael L.; Wesolowski, David J; Van Riemsdijk, Willem H.

    2012-01-01

    The adsorption of Y3+ and Nd3+ onto rutile has been evaluated over a wide range of pH (3 11) and surface loading conditions, as well as at two ionic strengths (0.03 and 0.3 m), and temperatures (25 and 50 C). The experimental results reveal the same adsorption behavior for the two trivalent ions onto the rutile surface, with Nd3+ first adsorbing at slightly lower pH values. The adsorption of both Y3+ and Nd3+ commences at pH values below the pHznpc of rutile. The experimental results were evaluated using a charge distribution (CD) and multisite complexation (MUSIC) model, and Basic Stern layer description of the electric double layer (EDL). The coordination geometry of possible surface complexes were constrained by molecular-level information obtained from X-ray standing wave measurements and molecular dynamic (MD) simulation studies. X-ray standing wave measurements showed an inner-sphere tetradentate complex for Y3+ adsorption onto the (110) rutile surface (Zhang et al., 2004b). TheMDsimulation studies suggest additional bidentate complexes may form. The CD values for all surface species were calculated based on a bond valence interpretation of the surface complexes identified by X-ray and MD. The calculated CD values were corrected for the effect of dipole orientation of interfacial water. At low pH, the tetradentate complex provided excellent fits to the Y3+ and Nd3+ experimental data. The experimental and surface complexation modeling results show a strong pH dependence, and suggest that the tetradentate surface species hydrolyze with increasing pH. Furthermore, with increased surface loading of Y3+ on rutile the tetradentate binding mode was augmented by a hydrolyzed-bidentate Y3+ surface complex. Collectively, the experimental and surface complexation modeling results demonstrate that solution chemistry and surface loading impacts Y3+ surface speciation. The approach taken of incorporating molecular-scale information into surface complexation models (SCMs

  10. Dose impact in radiographic lung injury following lung SBRT: Statistical analysis and geometric interpretation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Victoria; Kishan, Amar U.; Cao, Minsong; Low, Daniel; Lee, Percy; Ruan, Dan

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To demonstrate a new method of evaluating dose response of treatment-induced lung radiographic injury post-SBRT (stereotactic body radiotherapy) treatment and the discovery of bimodal dose behavior within clinically identified injury volumes. Methods: Follow-up CT scans at 3, 6, and 12 months were acquired from 24 patients treated with SBRT for stage-1 primary lung cancers or oligometastic lesions. Injury regions in these scans were propagated to the planning CT coordinates by performing deformable registration of the follow-ups to the planning CTs. A bimodal behavior was repeatedly observed from the probability distribution for dose values within the deformed injury regions. Based on a mixture-Gaussian assumption, an Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm was used to obtain characteristic parameters for such distribution. Geometric analysis was performed to interpret such parameters and infer the critical dose level that is potentially inductive of post-SBRT lung injury. Results: The Gaussian mixture obtained from the EM algorithm closely approximates the empirical dose histogram within the injury volume with good consistency. The average Kullback-Leibler divergence values between the empirical differential dose volume histogram and the EM-obtained Gaussian mixture distribution were calculated to be 0.069, 0.063, and 0.092 for the 3, 6, and 12 month follow-up groups, respectively. The lower Gaussian component was located at approximately 70% prescription dose (35 Gy) for all three follow-up time points. The higher Gaussian component, contributed by the dose received by planning target volume, was located at around 107% of the prescription dose. Geometrical analysis suggests the mean of the lower Gaussian component, located at 35 Gy, as a possible indicator for a critical dose that induces lung injury after SBRT. Conclusions: An innovative and improved method for analyzing the correspondence between lung radiographic injury and SBRT treatment dose has

  11. Developing a robust geochemical and reactive transport model to evaluate possible sources of arsenic at the CO[subscript 2] sequestration natural analog site in Chimayo, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viswanathan, Hari; Dai, Zhenxue; Lopano, Christina; Keating, Elizabeth; Hakala, J. Alexandra; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Zheng, Liange; Gutherie, George D.; Pawar, Rajesh

    2012-10-24

    Migration of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from deep storage formations into shallow drinking water aquifers is a possible system failure related to geologic CO{sub 2} sequestration. A CO{sub 2} leak may cause mineral precipitation/dissolution reactions, changes in aqueous speciation, and alteration of pH and redox conditions leading to potential increases of trace metal concentrations above EPA National Primary Drinking Water Standards. In this study, the Chimayo site (NM) was examined for site-specific impacts of shallow groundwater interacting with CO{sub 2} from deep storage formations. Major ion and trace element chemistry for the site have been previously studied. This work focuses on arsenic (As), which is regulated by the EPA under the Safe Drinking Water Act and for which some wells in the Chimayo area have concentrations higher than the maximum contaminant level (MCL). Statistical analysis of the existing Chimayo groundwater data indicates that As is strongly correlated with trace metals U and Pb indicating that their source may be from the same deep subsurface water. Batch experiments and materials characterization, such as: X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and synchrotron micro X-ray fluorescence ({mu}-XRF), were used to identify As association with Fe-rich phases, such as clays or oxides, in the Chimayo sediments as the major factor controlling As fate in the subsurface. Batch laboratory experiments with Chimayo sediments and groundwater show that pH decreases as CO{sub 2} is introduced into the system and buffered by calcite. The introduction of CO{sub 2} causes an immediate increase in As solution concentration, which then decreases over time. A geochemical model was developed to simulate these batch experiments and successfully predicted the pH drop once CO{sub 2} was introduced into the experiment. In the model, sorption of As to illite, kaolinite and smectite through surface complexation proved to be the key reactions in

  12. Novel imaging techniques, integrated with mineralogical, geochemical and microbiological characterizations to determine the biogeochemical controls on technetium mobility in FRC sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonathan R. Lloyd

    2009-02-03

    The objective of this research program was to take a highly multidisciplinary approach to define the biogeochemical factors that control technetium (Tc) mobility in FRC sediments. The aim was to use batch and column studies to probe the biogeochemical conditions that control the mobility of Tc at the FRC. Background sediment samples from Area 2 (pH 6.5, low nitrate, low {sup 99}Tc) and Area 3 (pH 3.5, high nitrate, relatively high {sup 99}Tc) of the FRC were selected (http://www.esd.ornl.gov/nabirfrc). For the batch experiments, sediments were mixed with simulated groundwater, modeled on chemical constituents of FRC waters and supplemented with {sup 99}Tc(VII), both with and without added electron donor (acetate). The solubility of the Tc was monitored, alongside other biogeochemical markers (nitrate, nitrite, Fe(II), sulfate, acetate, pH, Eh) as the 'microcosms' aged. At key points, the microbial communities were also profiled using both cultivation-dependent and molecular techniques, and results correlated with the geochemical conditions in the sediments. The mineral phases present in the sediments were also characterized, and the solid phase associations of the Tc determined using sequential extraction and synchrotron techniques. In addition to the batch sediment experiments, where discrete microbial communities with the potential to reduce and precipitate {sup 99}Tc will be separated in time, we also developed column experiments where biogeochemical processes were spatially separated. Experiments were conducted both with and without amendments proposed to stimulate radionuclide immobilization (e.g. the addition of acetate as an electron donor for metal reduction), and were also planned with and without competing anions at high concentration (e.g. nitrate, with columns containing Area 3 sediments). When the columns had stabilized, as determined by chemical analysis of the effluents, we used a spike of the short-lived gamma emitter {sup 99m}Tc (50-200 MBq; half

  13. A discussion on the interpretation and characterization of metafilms/metasurfaces: the two-dimensional equivalent of metamaterials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'hara, John F; Azad, Abul K

    2008-01-01

    A metafilm (also referred to as a metasurface) is the surface equivalent of a metamaterial. More precisely, a metafilm is a surface distribution of suitable chosen electrically small scatterers. Metafilms are becoming popular as an alternative to full three-dimensional metamaterials. Unfortunately, many papers in the literature present incorrect interpretations and mischaracterizations of these metafilms. In fact, some of the characterizations presented in the literature result in non-unique parameters for a uniquely defined metafilm. In this paper we discuss an appropriate interpretation and characterization of metafilms and present a correct manner to characterize a metafilm. Additionally, we illustrate the error that results from an incorrect characterization of metafilms. We present various examples to emphasize these points. Finally we present a retrieval approach for determining the uniquely defined quantities (the electric and magnetic susceptibilities of its constituent scatterers) that characterize a metafilm.

  14. CX-013472: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Geochemical Evaluation of Double Layered BSR's on the Hikurangi Margin, New Zealand CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.1, B3.6Date: 03/16/2015 Location(s): District of ColumbiaOffices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  15. CX-013749: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Geochemical Evaluation of Double Layered BSRs on the Hikurangi Margin, NZ CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.1, B3.6Date: 03/16/2015 Location(s): District of ColumbiaOffices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  16. CX-010941: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Assessing the Response of Methane Hydrates to Environmental Change at the Svalbard Continental Margin CX(s) Applied: B3.6, Other: Biological & Geochemical Analysis-Lab Date: 09/17/2013 Location(s): Oregon Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  17. Integrated model for the natural flow regime in the Cerro Prieto hydrothermal system, B. C. , Mexico, based upon petrological and isotope geochemical criteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elders, W.A.; Williams, A.E.; Hoagland, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    Studies of cuttings and core at Cerro Prieto have now been extended to more than 50 boreholes. The aims of this petrological and isotopic work are to determine the shape of the reservoir, its physical properties, and its temperature distribution and flow regime before the steam field was produced. A map showing the first occurrence of hydrothermal epidote shows a dome-shaped top to the steam-producing zone. The hottest of the mapped mineral zones - the biotite vermiculite zone - shows a dome displaced to the northeast relative to the epidote zone. Patterns of mineral zones observed in wells are consistent with patterns of oxygen isotopic ratios in calcite and quartz. Using both criteria all of the boreholes so far studied were classified as belonging to one of four different regimes. These are: (a) the thermal plume of upward flowing water close to boiling, marked by a regular sequence of prograde mineral zones and large isotopic shifts; (b) the discharge system where fluid leaks to the surface, as indicated by the occurrence of only a few low temperature mineral zones, which extend over large depth intervals with little isotope exchange; (c) the horizontal flow zone, in which boreholes penetrate reversals of both mineral zones and isotope shifts with increasing depth; and (d) the recharge zone where cold water is descending. Plotting these four types of boreholes on a map reveals a simple, consistent, pattern. This is interpreted to have been produced by a thermal plume dipping at 45/sup 0/ to the northeast.

  18. Microbiological, Geochemical and Hydrologic Processes Controlling Uranium Mobility: An Integrated Field Scale Subsurface Research Challenge Site at Rifle, Colorado, February 2011 to January 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, Philip E.; Banfield, Jill; Chandler, Darrell P.; Davis, James A.; Hettich, Bob; VerBerkmoes, Nathan; Jaffe, Peter R.; Kerkhof, Lee J.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Lipton, Mary; Peacock, Aaron; Williams, Kenneth H.; Yabusaki, Steven B.

    2012-02-15

    The Rifle IFRC continued to make excellent progress during the last 12 months. As noted above, a key field experiment (Best Western) was performed during 2011 as a logical follow-on to the Super 8 field experiment preformed in 2010. In the Super 8 experiment, we successfully combined desorption and bioreduction and deployed a number of novel tracer techniques to enhance our ability to interpret the biogeochemistry of the experiment. In the Best Western experiment, we used the same experimental plot (Plot C) as was used for Super 8. The overarching objective of the Best Western field experiment was to compared the impacts of abiotic vs. biotic increases in alkalinity and to assess the mass of the sorbed pool of U(VI) at Rifle at the field scale. Both of these objectives were met. Preliminary analysis of the data indicate that the underlying biogeochemical data sets were obtained that will support a mechanistic understanding of the underlying processes, including remarkable insight into previously unrecognized microbial processes taking place during acetate amendment of the subsurface for a second time.

  19. Interpreting biomarker data from the COPHES/DEMOCOPHES twin projects: Using external exposure data to understand biomarker differences among countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smolders, R.; Den Hond, E.; Koppen, G.; Govarts, E.; Willems, H.; Casteleyn, L.; Kolossa-Gehring, M.; Fiddicke, U.; Castaño, A.; Koch, H.M.; Angerer, J.; Esteban, M.; Sepai, O.; Exley, K.; Bloemen, L.; Horvat, M.; Knudsen, L.E.; Joas, A.; Joas, R.; Biot, P.; and others

    2015-08-15

    In 2011 and 2012, the COPHES/DEMOCOPHES twin projects performed the first ever harmonized human biomonitoring survey in 17 European countries. In more than 1800 mother–child pairs, individual lifestyle data were collected and cadmium, cotinine and certain phthalate metabolites were measured in urine. Total mercury was determined in hair samples. While the main goal of the COPHES/DEMOCOPHES twin projects was to develop and test harmonized protocols and procedures, the goal of the current paper is to investigate whether the observed differences in biomarker values among the countries implementing DEMOCOPHES can be interpreted using information from external databases on environmental quality and lifestyle. In general, 13 countries having implemented DEMOCOPHES provided high-quality data from external sources that were relevant for interpretation purposes. However, some data were not available for reporting or were not in line with predefined specifications. Therefore, only part of the external information could be included in the statistical analyses. Nonetheless, there was a highly significant correlation between national levels of fish consumption and mercury in hair, the strength of antismoking legislation was significantly related to urinary cotinine levels, and we were able to show indications that also urinary cadmium levels were associated with environmental quality and food quality. These results again show the potential of biomonitoring data to provide added value for (the evaluation of) evidence-informed policy making. - Highlights: • External data was collected to interpret HBM data from DEMOCOPHES. • Hg in hair could be related to fish consumption across different countries. • Urinary cotinine was related to strictness of anti-smoking legislation. • Urinary Cd was borderline significantly related to air and food quality. • Lack of comparable data among countries hampered the analysis.

  20. A survey of radiographers' confidence and self-perceived accuracy in frontline image interpretation and their continuing educational preferences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neep, Michael J; Steffens, Tom; Owen, Rebecca; McPhail, Steven M

    2014-06-15

    The provision of a written comment on traumatic abnormalities of the musculoskeletal system detected by radiographers can assist referrers and may improve patient management, but the practice has not been widely adopted outside the United Kingdom. The purpose of this study was to investigate Australian radiographers' perceptions of their readiness for practice in a radiographer commenting system and their educational preferences in relation to two different delivery formats of image interpretation education, intensive and non-intensive. A cross-sectional web-based questionnaire was implemented between August and September 2012. Participants included radiographers with experience working in emergency settings at four Australian metropolitan hospitals. Conventional descriptive statistics, frequency histograms, and thematic analysis were undertaken. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test examined whether a difference in preference ratings between intensive and non-intensive education delivery was evident. The questionnaire was completed by 73 radiographers (68% response rate). Radiographers reported higher confidence and self-perceived accuracy to detect traumatic abnormalities than to describe traumatic abnormalities of the musculoskeletal system. Radiographers frequently reported high desirability ratings for both the intensive and the non-intensive education delivery, no difference in desirability ratings for these two formats was evident (z = 1.66, P = 0.11). Some Australian radiographers perceive they are not ready to practise in a frontline radiographer commenting system. Overall, radiographers indicated mixed preferences for image interpretation education delivered via intensive and non-intensive formats. Further research, preferably randomised trials, investigating the effectiveness of intensive and non-intensive education formats of image interpretation education for radiographers is warranted.

  1. A tale of tails. Dark matter interpretations of the Fermi GeV excess in light of background model systematics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Calore, Francesca; Cholis, Ilias; McCabe, Christopher; Weniger, Christoph

    2015-03-10

    Several groups have identified an extended excess of gamma rays over the modeled foreground and background emissions towards the Galactic center (GC) based on observations with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. This excess emission is compatible in morphology and spectrum with a telltale sign from dark matter (DM) annihilation. Here, we present a critical reassessment of DM interpretations of the GC signal in light of the foreground and background uncertainties that some of us recently outlaid in Calore et al. (2014). We find that a much larger number of DM models fits the gamma-ray data than previously noted. In particular:more(1) In the case of DM annihilation into bb, we find that even large DM masses up to m??74 GeV are allowed at p-value >0.05. (2) Surprisingly, annihilation into nonrelativistic hh gives a good fit to the data. (3) The inverse Compton emission from ?+? with m? ~ 6070 GeV can also account for the excess at higher latitudes, |b|>2, both in its spectrum and morphology. We also present novel constraints on a large number of mixed annihilation channels, including cascade annihilation involving hidden sector mediators. In conclusion, we show that the current limits from dwarf spheroidal observations are not in tension with a DM interpretation when uncertainties on the DM halo profile are accounted for.less

  2. A Tale of Tails. Dark Matter Interpretations of the Fermi GeV Excess in Light of Background Model Systematics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Calore, Francesca; Cholis, Ilias; McCabe, Christopher; Weniger, Christoph

    2015-03-10

    Several groups have identified an extended excess of gamma rays over the modeled foreground and background emissions towards the Galactic center (GC) based on observations with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. The excess emission is compatible in morphology and spectrum with a telltale sign from dark matter (DM) annihilation. Here, we present a critical reassessment of DM interpretations of the GC signal in light of the foreground and background uncertainties that some of us recently outlaid in Calore et al. (2014). We also find that a much larger number of DM models fits the gamma-ray data than previously noted. Inmore » particular: (1) In the case of DM annihilation into b¯b, we find that even large DM masses up to mχ≃74 GeV are allowed at p-value >0.05. (2) Surprisingly, annihilation into nonrelativistic hh gives a good fit to the data. (3) The inverse Compton emission from μ+μ- with mχ~60–70 GeV can also account for the excess at higher latitudes, |b|>2°, both in its spectrum and morphology. We also present novel constraints on a large number of mixed annihilation channels, including cascade annihilation involving hidden sector mediators. Finally, we show that the current limits from dwarf spheroidal observations are not in tension with a DM interpretation when uncertainties on the DM halo profile are accounted for.« less

  3. A Tale of Tails. Dark Matter Interpretations of the Fermi GeV Excess in Light of Background Model Systematics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calore, Francesca; Cholis, Ilias; McCabe, Christopher; Weniger, Christoph

    2015-03-10

    Several groups have identified an extended excess of gamma rays over the modeled foreground and background emissions towards the Galactic center (GC) based on observations with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. The excess emission is compatible in morphology and spectrum with a telltale sign from dark matter (DM) annihilation. Here, we present a critical reassessment of DM interpretations of the GC signal in light of the foreground and background uncertainties that some of us recently outlaid in Calore et al. (2014). We also find that a much larger number of DM models fits the gamma-ray data than previously noted. In particular: (1) In the case of DM annihilation into bb, we find that even large DM masses up to m??74 GeV are allowed at p-value >0.05. (2) Surprisingly, annihilation into nonrelativistic hh gives a good fit to the data. (3) The inverse Compton emission from ?+?- with m?~6070 GeV can also account for the excess at higher latitudes, |b|>2, both in its spectrum and morphology. We also present novel constraints on a large number of mixed annihilation channels, including cascade annihilation involving hidden sector mediators. Finally, we show that the current limits from dwarf spheroidal observations are not in tension with a DM interpretation when uncertainties on the DM halo profile are accounted for.

  4. A Tale of Tails. Dark Matter Interpretations of the Fermi GeV Excess in Light of Background Model Systematics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calore, Francesca; Cholis, Ilias; McCabe, Christopher; Weniger, Christoph

    2015-03-10

    Several groups have identified an extended excess of gamma rays over the modeled foreground and background emissions towards the Galactic center (GC) based on observations with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. The excess emission is compatible in morphology and spectrum with a telltale sign from dark matter (DM) annihilation. Here, we present a critical reassessment of DM interpretations of the GC signal in light of the foreground and background uncertainties that some of us recently outlaid in Calore et al. (2014). We also find that a much larger number of DM models fits the gamma-ray data than previously noted. In particular: (1) In the case of DM annihilation into b¯b, we find that even large DM masses up to mχ≃74 GeV are allowed at p-value >0.05. (2) Surprisingly, annihilation into nonrelativistic hh gives a good fit to the data. (3) The inverse Compton emission from μ+μ- with mχ~60–70 GeV can also account for the excess at higher latitudes, |b|>2°, both in its spectrum and morphology. We also present novel constraints on a large number of mixed annihilation channels, including cascade annihilation involving hidden sector mediators. Finally, we show that the current limits from dwarf spheroidal observations are not in tension with a DM interpretation when uncertainties on the DM halo profile are accounted for.

  5. Interpretation of Colloid-Homologue Tracer Test 10-03, Including Comparisons to Test 10-01

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reimus, Paul W.

    2012-06-26

    This presentation covers the interpretations of colloid-homologue tracer test 10-03 conducted at the Grimsel Test Site, Switzerland, in 2010. It also provides a comparison of the interpreted test results with those of tracer test 10-01, which was conducted in the same fracture flow system and using the same tracers than test 10-03, but at a higher extraction flow rate. A method of correcting for apparent uranine degradation in test 10-03 is presented. Conclusions are: (1) Uranine degradation occurred in test 10-03, but not in 10-01; (2) Uranine correction based on apparent degradation rate in injection loop in test 11-02 seems reasonable when applied to data from test 10-03; (3) Colloid breakthrough curves quite similar in the two tests with similar recoveries relative to uranine (after correction); and (4) Much slower apparent desorption of homologues in test 10-03 than in 10-01 (any effect of residual homologues from test 10-01 in test 10-03?).

  6. DOE/SC0001389 Final technical report: Investigation of uranium attenuation and release at column and pore scales in response to advective geochemical gradients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Savage, Kaye S.; Zhu, Wenyi; Barnett, Mark O.

    2013-05-13

    Experimental approach Column experiments were devised to investigate the role of changing fluid composition on mobility of uranium through a sequence of geologic media. Fluids and media were chosen to be relevant to the ground water plume emanating from the former S-3 ponds at the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge (ORIFC) site. Synthetic ground waters were pumped upwards at 0.05 mL/minute for 21 days through layers of quartz sand alternating with layers of uncontaminated soil, quartz sand mixed with illite, quartz sand coated with iron oxides, and another soil layer. Increases in pH or concentration of phosphate, bicarbonate, or acetate were imposed on the influent solutions after each 7 pore volumes while uranium (as uranyl) remained constant at 0.1mM. A control column maintained the original synthetic groundwater composition with 0.1mM U. Pore water solutions were extracted to assess U retention and release in relation to the advective ligand or pH gradients. Following the column experiments, subsamples from each layer were characterized using microbeam X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES) in conjunction with X-ray fluorescence mapping and compared to sediment core samples from the ORIFC, at SSRL Beam Line 2-3. Results U retention of 55 ?? 67 mg occurred in phosphate >pH >control >acetate >carbonate columns. The mass of U retained in the first-encountered quartz layer in all columns was highest and increased throughout the experiment. The rate of increase in acetate- and bicarbonate-bearing columns declined after ligand concentrations were raised. U also accumulated in the first soil layer; the pH-varied column retained most, followed by the increasing-bicarbonate column. The mass of U retained in the upper layers was far lower. Speciation of U, interpreted from microbeam XANES spectra and XRF maps, varied within and among the columns. Evidence of minor reduction to U(IV) was observed in the first-encountered quartz layer in the phosphate

  7. THE PHOTOSPHERIC RADIATION MODEL FOR THE PROMPT EMISSION OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS: INTERPRETING FOUR OBSERVED CORRELATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan Yizhong; Wei Daming; Zhang Fuwen [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Zhang Binbin, E-mail: yzfan@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: dmwei@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: fwzhang@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: bbzhang@psu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2012-08-10

    We show that the empirical E{sub p}-L, {Gamma}-L, E{sub p}-{Gamma}, and {eta}-bar{sub {gamma}}-E{sub p} correlations (where L is the time-averaged luminosity of the prompt emission, E{sub p} is the spectral peak energy, {Gamma} is the bulk Lorentz factor, and {eta}-bar{sub {gamma}} is the emission efficiency of gamma-ray bursts, GRBs) are well consistent with the relations between the analogous parameters predicted in the photospheric radiation model of the prompt emission of GRBs. The time-resolved thermal radiation of GRB 090902B does follow the E{sub p}-L and {Gamma}-L correlations. A reliable interpretation of the four correlations in alternative models is still lacking. These may point toward a photospheric origin of prompt emission of some GRBs.

  8. SECTION III: INTERPRETATIONS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... such as assessment, containment, and confinement of radiological hazards as they pertain to radiation exposure as outlined in 10 CFR 835, Occupational Radiological Protection. ...

  9. INL Tracer Interpretation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2007-03-27

    This spreadsheet application is for tracer test analysis. The analyses are based on the first temporal moment of a tracer. The governing equations are briefly discussed, and the individual steps required of the user are outlined. A series of Excel macros written in Visual Basic calculate mean residence time, swept pore volume, and flow-storage geometry from a tracer history.

  10. Meteor signature interpretation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-01-01

    Meteor signatures contain information about the constituents of space debris and present potential false alarms to early warnings systems. Better models could both extract the maximum scientific information possible and reduce their danger. Accurate predictions can be produced by models of modest complexity, which can be inverted to predict the sizes, compositions, and trajectories of object from their signatures for most objects of interest and concern.

  11. Impact of nucleon matrix element uncertainties on the interpretation of direct and indirect dark matter search results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Austri, R. Ruiz de

    2013-11-01

    We study in detail the impact of the current uncertainty in nucleon matrix elements on the sensitivity of direct and indirect experimental techniques for dark matter detection. We perform two scans in the framework of the cMSSM: one using recent values of the pion-sigma term obtained from Lattice QCD, and the other using values derived from experimental measurements. The two choices correspond to extreme values quoted in the literature and reflect the current tension between different ways of obtaining information about the structure of the nucleon. All other inputs in the scans, astrophysical and from particle physics, are kept unchanged. We use two experiments, XENON100 and IceCube, as benchmark cases to illustrate our case. We find that the interpretation of dark matter search results from direct detection experiments is more sensitive to the choice of the central values of the hadronic inputs than the results of indirect search experiments. The allowed regions of cMSSM parameter space after including XENON100 constraints strongly differ depending on the assumptions on the hadronic matrix elements used. On the other hand, the constraining potential of IceCube is almost independent of the choice of these values.

  12. Summary of the ATLAS experiment’s sensitivity to supersymmetry after LHC Run 1 -- interpreted in the phenomenological MSSM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Agricola, J.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Álvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anders, J. K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Baca, M. J.; Bacci, C.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baldin, E. M.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Balunas, W. K.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Barak, L.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Basalaev, A.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Beringer, J.; Bernard, C.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biedermann, D.; Bieniek, S. P.; Biesuz, N. V.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biondi, S.; Bjergaard, D. M.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J. -B.; Blanco, J. E.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Blunier, S.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boehler, M.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogavac, D.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borroni, S.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boutle, S. K.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Breaden Madden, W. D.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, L.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, K.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Britzger, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bruscino, N.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A. G.; Buda, S. I.; Budagov, I. A.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, L.; Bugge, M. 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A.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Thun, R. P.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Ticse Torres, R. E.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tiouchichine, E.; Tipton, P.; Tisserant, S.; Todome, K.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tolley, E.; Tomlinson, L.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trovatelli, M.; Truong, L.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J. C-L.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsirintanis, N.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuna, A. N.; Tupputi, S. A.; Turchikhin, S.; Turecek, D.; Turra, R.; Turvey, A. J.; Tuts, P. M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ughetto, M.; Ugland, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. C.; Unno, Y.; Unverdorben, C.; Urban, J.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Usanova, A.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Valderanis, C.; Valencic, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Valkar, S.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van Den Wollenberg, W.; Van Der Deijl, P. C.; van der Geer, R.; van der Graaf, H.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; Van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; van Woerden, M. C.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vanguri, R.; Vaniachine, A.; Vannucci, F.; Vardanyan, G.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Veatch, J.; Veloce, L. M.; Veloso, F.; Velz, T.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Venturini, A.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Viazlo, O.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigne, R.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vladoiu, D.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobev, K.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, T.; Wang, X.; Wanotayaroj, C.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Washbrook, A.; Wasicki, C.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, I. J.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weinert, B.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; Wharton, A. M.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wildauer, A.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, C.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, A.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Winter, B. T.; Wittgen, M.; Wittkowski, J.; Wollstadt, S. J.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wu, M.; Wu, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yakabe, R.; Yamada, M.; Yamaguchi, D.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, Y.; Yao, W-M.; Yap, Y. C.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yeletskikh, I.; Yen, A. L.; Yildirim, E.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yuen, S. P. Y.; Yurkewicz, A.; Yusuff, I.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zalieckas, J.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zeng, Q.; Zengel, K.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Zinser, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Živković, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zurzolo, G.; Zwalinski, L.

    2015-10-21

    A summary of the constraints from the ATLAS experiment on R -parity-conserving supersymmetry is presented. Results from 22 separate ATLAS searches are considered, each based on analysis of up to 20.3 fb–1 of proton-proton collision data at centre-of-mass energies of √s =7 and 8 TeV at the Large Hadron Collider. The results are interpreted in the context of the 19-parameter phenomenological minimal supersymmetric standard model, in which the lightest supersymmetric particle is a neutralino, taking into account constraints from previous precision electroweak and flavour measurements as well as from dark matter related measurements. The results are presented in terms of constraints on supersymmetric particle masses and are compared to limits from simplified models. The impact of ATLAS searches on parameters such as the dark matter relic density, the couplings of the observed Higgs boson, and the degree of electroweak fine-tuning is also shown. As a result, spectra for surviving supersymmetry model points with low fine-tunings are presented.

  13. Summary of the ATLAS experiment’s sensitivity to supersymmetry after LHC Run 1 -- interpreted in the phenomenological MSSM

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; et al

    2015-10-21

    A summary of the constraints from the ATLAS experiment on R -parity-conserving supersymmetry is presented. Results from 22 separate ATLAS searches are considered, each based on analysis of up to 20.3 fb–1 of proton-proton collision data at centre-of-mass energies of √s =7 and 8 TeV at the Large Hadron Collider. The results are interpreted in the context of the 19-parameter phenomenological minimal supersymmetric standard model, in which the lightest supersymmetric particle is a neutralino, taking into account constraints from previous precision electroweak and flavour measurements as well as from dark matter related measurements. The results are presented in terms ofmore » constraints on supersymmetric particle masses and are compared to limits from simplified models. The impact of ATLAS searches on parameters such as the dark matter relic density, the couplings of the observed Higgs boson, and the degree of electroweak fine-tuning is also shown. As a result, spectra for surviving supersymmetry model points with low fine-tunings are presented.« less

  14. Interpretation of brine-permeability tests of the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site: First interim report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beauheim, R.L. ); Saulnier, G.J. Jr.; Avis, J.D. )

    1991-08-01

    Pressure-pulse tests have been performed in bedded evaporites of the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site to evaluate the hydraulic properties controlling brine flow through the Salado. Hydraulic conductivities ranging from about 10{sup {minus}14} to 10{sup {minus}11} m/s (permeabilities of about 10{sup {minus}21} to 10{sup {minus}18} m{sup 2}) have been interpreted from nine tests conducted on five stratigraphic intervals within eleven meters of the WIPP underground excavations. Tests of a pure halite layer showed no measurable permeability. Pore pressures in the stratigraphic intervals range from about 0.5 to 9.3 MPa. An anhydrite interbed (Marker Bed 139) appears to be one or more orders of magnitude more permeable than the surrounding halite. Hydraulic conductivities appear to increase, and pore pressures decrease, with increasing proximity to the excavations. These effects are particularly evident within two to three meters of the excavations. Two tests indicated the presence of apparent zero-flow boundaries about two to three meters from the boreholes. The other tests revealed no apparent boundaries within the radii of influence of the tests, which were calculated to range from about four to thirty-five meters from the test holes. The data are insufficient to determine if brine flow through evaporites results from Darcy-like flow driven by pressure gradients within naturally interconnected porosity or from shear deformation around excavations connecting previously isolated pores, thereby providing pathways for fluids at or near lithostatic pressure to be driven towards the low-pressure excavations. Future testing will be performed at greater distances from the excavations to evaluate hydraulic properties and processes beyond the range of excavation effects.

  15. INTERPRETING ERUPTIVE BEHAVIOR IN NOAA AR 11158 VIA THE REGION'S MAGNETIC ENERGY AND RELATIVE-HELICITY BUDGETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tziotziou, Kostas; Georgoulis, Manolis K.; Liu Yang

    2013-08-01

    In previous works, we introduced a nonlinear force-free method that self-consistently calculates the instantaneous budgets of free magnetic energy and relative magnetic helicity in solar active regions (ARs). Calculation is expedient and practical, using only a single vector magnetogram per computation. We apply this method to a time series of 600 high-cadence vector magnetograms of the eruptive NOAA AR 11158 acquired by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory over a five-day observing interval. Besides testing our method extensively, we use it to interpret the dynamical evolution in the AR, including eruptions. We find that the AR builds large budgets of both free magnetic energy and relative magnetic helicity, sufficient to power many more eruptions than the ones it gave within the interval of interest. For each of these major eruptions, we find eruption-related decreases and subsequent free-energy and helicity budgets that are consistent with the observed eruption (flare and coronal mass ejection (CME)) sizes. In addition, we find that (1) evolution in the AR is consistent with the recently proposed (free) energy-(relative) helicity diagram of solar ARs, (2) eruption-related decreases occur before the flare and the projected CME-launch times, suggesting that CME progenitors precede flares, and (3) self terms of free energy and relative helicity most likely originate from respective mutual terms, following a progressive mutual-to-self conversion pattern that most likely stems from magnetic reconnection. This results in the non-ideal formation of increasingly helical pre-eruption structures and instigates further research on the triggering of solar eruptions with magnetic helicity firmly placed in the eruption cadre.

  16. Quantum of area {Delta}A=8{pi}l{sub P}{sup 2} and a statistical interpretation of black hole entropy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ropotenko, Kostiantyn

    2010-08-15

    In contrast to alternative values, the quantum of area {Delta}A=8{pi}l{sub P}{sup 2} does not follow from the usual statistical interpretation of black hole entropy; on the contrary, a statistical interpretation follows from it. This interpretation is based on the two concepts: nonadditivity of black hole entropy and Landau quantization. Using nonadditivity a microcanonical distribution for a black hole is found and it is shown that the statistical weight of a black hole should be proportional to its area. By analogy with conventional Landau quantization, it is shown that quantization of a black hole is nothing but the Landau quantization. The Landau levels of a black hole and their degeneracy are found. The degree of degeneracy is equal to the number of ways to distribute a patch of area 8{pi}l{sub P}{sup 2} over the horizon. Taking into account these results, it is argued that the black hole entropy should be of the form S{sub bh}=2{pi}{center_dot}{Delta}{Gamma}, where the number of microstates is {Delta}{Gamma}=A/8{pi}l{sub P}{sup 2}. The nature of the degrees of freedom responsible for black hole entropy is elucidated. The applications of the new interpretation are presented. The effect of noncommuting coordinates is discussed.

  17. Silica Geothermometers | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in the Past 20 Years: Geochemistry in Geothermal Exploration, Resource Evaluation and Reservoir Management 2.0 2.1 Lectures on Geochemical Interpretation of Hydrothermal...

  18. Natural bacterial communities serve as quantitative geochemical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    approach to identify sites contaminated with hydrocarbons from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, finding that altered bacterial communities encode a memory of prior...

  19. Interface Induced Carbonate Mineralization: A Fundamental Geochemical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    fundamental barrier, other than cation hydration, exists that prevents Mgsup 2+ and ... of water give us a first direct proof to support and quantify the cation hydration effect. ...

  20. Geochemical, Genetic, and Community Controls on Mercury

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wall, Judy D.

    2014-11-10

    The sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are soil bacteria that share two common characteristics, strict anaerobiosis and the ability to respire sulfate. The metabolic activities of these bacteria play significant roles in the global sulfur cycle, anaerobic degradation of biomass, biological metal corrosion in the environment and, recently, degradation of toxic compounds. The accumulation of evidence suggests these bacteria are also key to the production of the neurotoxin methylmercury in environmental settings. We propose to use our experience with the development of genetics in sulfate-reducing bacteria of the genus Desulfovibrio to create mutations that will eliminate the methylation of mercury, thereby identifying the genes essential for this process. This information may allow the environmental monitoring of the mercury methylation potential to learn the location and quantity of the production this toxin. From these data, more accurate predictive models of mercury cycling can be generated.

  1. Interface Induced Carbonate Mineralization: A Fundamental Geochemical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Teng, H. Henry 1 ; Xu, Huifang 2 + Show Author Affiliations PI, The George Washington University PI, The George Washington University Co-PI, University of ...

  2. Interface Induced Carbonate Mineralization: A Fundamental Geochemical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    On the other hand, the measured higher distribution coefficients of Mg between magnesian calcites formed in the absence and presence of water give us a first direct proof to ...

  3. Natural bacterial communities serve as quantitative geochemical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    that respond to and capture perturbations caused by human impacts. less Authors: Smith, Mark B. 1 ; Rocha, Andrea M. 2 ; Smillie, Chris S. 1 ; Olesen, Scott W. 1 ;...

  4. Nanogeochemistry: Geochemical reactions and mass transfers in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ...een-Prokaryotic-and-Eukaryotic-Cellsslide2150310 Sandia National Laboratories ... (80 m2g) in fault gouge accounting for >50% energy consumed in earthquake http:...

  5. Preliminary Interpretation of a Radionuclide and Colloid Tracer Test in a Granodiorite Shear Zone at the Grimsel Test Site, Switzerland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reimus, Paul W.

    2012-08-30

    In February and March 2012, a tracer test involving the injection of a radionuclide-colloid cocktail was conducted in the MI shear zone at the Grimsel Test Site, Switzerland, as part of the Colloids Formation and Migration (CFM) project. The colloids were derived from FEBEX bentonite, which is mined in Spain and is being considered as a potential waste package backfill in a Spanish nuclear waste repository. The tracer test, designated test 12-02 (second test in 2012), involved the injection of the tracer cocktail into borehole CFM 06.002i2 and extraction from the Pinkel surface packer at the main access tunnel wall approximately 6.1 m from the injection interval. The test configuration is depicted in Figure 1. This configuration has been used in several conservative tracer tests and two colloid-homologue tracer tests since 2007, and it is will be employed in an upcoming test involving the emplacement of a radionuclide-doped bentonite plug into CFM 06.002i2 to evaluate the swelling and erosion of the bentonite and the transport of bentonite colloids and radionuclides from the source to the extraction point at the tunnel wall. Interpretive analyses of several of the previous tracer tests, from 09-01 through 12-02 were provided in two previous Used Fuel Disposition Program milestone reports (Arnold et al., 2011; Kersting et al., 2012). However, only the data for the conservative tracer Amino-G Acid was previously analyzed from test 12-02 because the other tracer data from this test were not available at the time. This report documents the first attempt to quantitatively analyze the radionuclide and colloid breakthrough curves from CFM test 12-02. This report was originally intended to also include an experimental assessment of colloid-facilitated transport of uranium by bentonite colloids in the Grimsel system, but this assessment was not conducted because it was reported by German collaborators at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) that neither uranium nor

  6. Positive field-cooled dc susceptibility in granular superconductors interpreted through numerical simulations on a simple Josephson-junction-array model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Auletta, C.; Raiconi, G.; De Luca, R.; Pace, S.

    1995-05-01

    We have performed numerical simulations of a field-cooled dc susceptibility experiment carried out for granular superconductors by modeling these systems with a simple Josephson-junction array proposed by the authors. By this analysis the temperature dependence of the positive field-cooled susceptibility at very low values of the applied magnetic field, observed by Braunisch {ital et} {ital al}. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1908 (1992)] for some ceramic superonductors, has been reproduced and interpreted.

  7. The effect of ion orbit loss and X-loss on the interpretation of ion energy and particle transport in the DIII-D edge plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stacey, Weston M.

    2011-10-15

    Calculation models are presented for treating ion orbit loss effects in interpretive fluid transport calculations for the tokamak edge pedestal. Both standard ion orbit loss of particles following trapped or passing orbits across the separatrix and the X-loss of particles that are poloidally trapped in a narrow null-B{sub {theta}} region extending inward from the X-point, where they gradB and curvature drift outward, are considered. Calculations are presented for a representative DIII-D [J. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)] shot which indicate that ion orbit loss effects are significant and should be taken into account in calculations of present and future experiments.

  8. Categorical Exclusion Determinations: A4 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A4 Categorical Exclusion Determinations: A4 Existing Regulations A4: Interpretations and rulings for existing regulations Interpretations and rulings with respect to existing regulations, or modifications or rescissions of such interpretations and rulings. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD August 2, 2010 CX-003244: Categorical Exclusion Determination Contractors Support Small Business Innovation Research CX(s) Applied: A1, A4 Date: 08/02/2010 Location(s): Argonne, Illinois Office(s): Brookhaven

  9. Calculation and interpretation of crustal shortening along the Central Basin Platform, West Texas: A method to calculate basement motion for modeling input

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoak, T.E. |; Sundberg, K.R.; Ortoleva, P.

    1998-12-31

    The analysis carried out in the Chemical Interaction of Rocks and Fluids Basin (CIRFB) model describes the chemical and physical evolution of the entire system. One aspect of this is the deformation of the rocks, and its treatment with a rigorous flow and rheological model. This type of analysis depends on knowing the state of the model domain`s boundaries as functions of time. In the Andrews and Ector County areas of the Central Basin Platform of West Texas, the authors calculate this shortening with a simple interpretation of the basic motion and a restoration of the Ellenburger formation. Despite its simplicity, this calculation reveals two distinct periods of shortening/extension, a relatively uniform directionality to all the deformation, and the localization of deformation effects to the immediate vicinities of the major faults in the area. Conclusions are drawn regarding the appropriate expressions of these boundary conditions in the CIRFB model and possible implications for exploration.

  10. Age and environmental interpretation of Middle Cretaceous Dinoflagellate Assemblages from central Belt Franciscan and Great Valley Sequence Outliers, northern California coast ranges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucas-Clark, J.

    1986-04-01

    Calcareous nodules and concretions from Franciscan melange matrix and parts of the Great Valley sequence outliers of northern California yielded well-preserved, diverse assemblages of fossil dinoflagellate cysts of late Albian age. Age interpretation of the samples is based on worldwide ranges of known dinoflagellate species. The melange samples are younger than most previously reported Franciscan melange matrix. Impagidinium-type gonyaulacoid cysts are dominant as opposed to spiniferites types, and species apparently related to shallow-water environments are scarce, which suggests that these assemblages represent an open-ocean environment. Assemblages have few species in common with assemblages of the same age from the Mid-Continent of North America, and more species in common with assemblages of the same age from the eastern Atlantic. Paleoenvironmental considerations probably account for this pattern, rather than paleogeography. Assemblages contain numerous previously undescribed species. Thirteen new species are presented.

  11. Crimean orogene: A nappe interpretation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Popadyuk, I.V.; Smirnov, S.E. )

    1993-09-01

    On the International Tectonic Map of Europe, the Crimean orogene presents a structure that has no analog in the Alpine orogenic belt. The Crimean mountain system lacks nappe structures of Alpine age. Its geosynclinal folding deformation is restricted to the Tavria flysch formation, previously dated as Triassic-Liassic. Therefore, the Crimean orogene was considered as the Kimmerian tectonotype. In our model, the Crimean orogene is characterized by nappe structures. The Yayla nappe is composed to Upper Jurassic and Neocomian sediments and is located below the Tavrian nappe, which consists of the Tavrian flysch formation. We dated the age of the Tavrian formation as Hauterivian-Aptian on the basis of published ammonite finds in the stratotype section. Nappe displacements are dated roughly as Austrian (albian) by the occurrence of upper-middle Albian sediments below the nappes and the Upper Cretaceous age of their neoautochthonous sedimentary cover. These north-vergent nappes have a horizontal displacement of about 20 km. In the eastern part of the orogene, these nappe structures were overprinted by Laramide-Savic (Paleocene and end Oligocene-early Miocene) deformations, as evident in the Kerch peninsula. The nature of these late deformation is not clear. The hydrocarbon potential of the prenapping autochthonous series has not yet been studied. Exploration for oil and gas in the Crimean sector of the Black Sea must take the suggested model and its implications into account.

  12. Back from the Brink with Something for Everyone - The Final Executed Memorandum of Agreement for Interpretation of the East Tennessee Technology Park and the K-25 Building - 13370

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cusick, Lesley T.

    2013-07-01

    When the Environmental Management (EM) Program at the Oak Ridge Office of the Department of Energy (DOE) began its major decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) program activities in the mid-1990's, it was understood that the work to demolish the gaseous diffusion process buildings at the K-25 Site, as it was then known, would be challenging. Nothing of that size and breadth had ever been done within the DOE complex and the job brought about a full menu of unique attributes: radiological contamination with enriched materials entrained in certain areas of the system, a facility that was never designed not to operate but had been shut down since 1964, and a loyal following of individuals and organizations who were committed to the physical preservation of at least some portion of the historic Manhattan Project property. DOE was able to solve and resolve the issues related to nuclear materials management, contamination control, and determining the best way to safely and efficiently deconstruct the massive building. However, for a variety of reasons, resolution of the historic preservation questions - what and how much to preserve, how to preserve it, where to preserve it, how to interpret it, how much to spend on preservation, and by and for whom preservation should occur - remained open to debate for over a decade. After a dozen years, countless meetings, phone calls, discussions and other exchanges, and four National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) [1] Memoranda of Agreement (MOA), a final MOA [2] has been executed. The final executed MOA's measures are robust, creative, substantive, and will be effective. They include a multi-story replica of a portion of the K-25 Building, the dedication of the K-25 Building footprint for preservation purposes, an equipment building to house authentic Manhattan Project and Cold War equipment, a virtual museum, an on-site history center, a grant to preserve a historically-significant Manhattan Project-era hotel in Oak Ridge

  13. CX-009278: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Measurement and Interpretation of Seismic Velocities and Attenuation in Hydrate-Bearing Sediments CX(s) Applied: A9, B2.2, B3.6 Date: 09/07/2012 Location(s): Colorado Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  14. Factors influencing the development and implementation of advanced radiographer practice in Australia – a qualitative study using an interpretative phenomenological approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Page, Barbara A; Bernoth, Maree; Davidson, Rob

    2014-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to explore the factors influencing the implementation or the lack of implementation of advanced practitioner role in Australia. This study uses an interpretative phenomenological approach to explore the in-depth real life issues, which surround the advanced practitioner as a solution to radiologist workforce shortages in Australia. Research participants are radiographers, radiation therapists and health managers registered with the Australian Institute of Radiography (AIR) and holding senior professional and AIR Board positions with knowledge of current advanced practice. In total, seven interviews were conducted revealing education, governance, technical, people issues, change management, government, costs and timing as critical factors influencing advanced practice in Australia. Seven participants in this study perceived an advanced practice role might have major benefits and a positive impact on the immediate and long-term management of patients. Another finding is the greater respect and appreciation of each other's roles and expertise within the multidisciplinary healthcare team. Engagement is required of the critical stakeholders that have been identified as ‘blockers’ (radiologists, health departments) as well as identified allies (e.g. emergency clinicians, supportive radiologists, patient advocacy groups). The research supports that the AIR has a role to play for the professional identity of radiographers and shaping the advanced practice role in Australia.

  15. NESC VII European project: demonstration of warm pre-stressing effect in biaxial loading conditions - Bending tests on 18MND5 cruciform specimens and their interpretation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacquemoud, C.; Yuritzinn, T.; Marie, S.

    2012-07-01

    In the framework of the NESC VII European project, a large experimental program has been dedicated to characterize the Warm Pre-Stressing (WPS) effect in different testing configurations. One of the CEA (France) contributions to this project is the realization of five point bending tests on large cruciform specimens considering different WPS loading cycles. The five cruciform specimens, sponsored by EDF (France) and IRSN (France), are made of 18MND5 steel. Two of them have been tested on a same LCF (Load-Cool-Fracture) loading cycle and two others on the same LCTF (Load-Cool-Transient-Fracture) loading cycle. The experimental results presented in this paper give a successful demonstration of the WPS effect in biaxial loading conditions either on a LCF or on a LCTF cycle. During the test interpretations, different models have then been tested and compared in order to evaluate their ability to predict the cleavage fracture in the case of different WPS loading cycles. They all provide very conservative predictions whatever loading cycle is concerned. (authors)

  16. Categorical Exclusion Determinations: A5 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A5 Categorical Exclusion Determinations: A5 Existing Regulations A5: Interpretive rulemakings with no change in environmental effect Rulemakings interpreting or amending an existing rule or regulation that does not change the environmental effect of the rule or regulation being amended. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD May 2, 2016 CX-023000: Categorical Exclusion Determination Nuclear Classification and Declassification; 10 CFR Part 1045 Docket No. AU60-2016-1045; RIN 1992-AA49 CX(s) Applied: A5

  17. Interpretation of Flow Logs from Nevada Test Site Boreholes to Estimate Hydraulic conductivity Using Numerical Simulations Constrained by Single-Well Aquifer Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia, C. Amanda; Halford, Keith J.; Laczniak, Randell J.

    2010-02-12

    Hydraulic conductivities of volcanic and carbonate lithologic units at the Nevada Test Site were estimated from flow logs and aquifer-test data. Borehole flow and drawdown were integrated and interpreted using a radial, axisymmetric flow model, AnalyzeHOLE. This integrated approach is used because complex well completions and heterogeneous aquifers and confining units produce vertical flow in the annular space and aquifers adjacent to the wellbore. AnalyzeHOLE simulates vertical flow, in addition to horizontal flow, which accounts for converging flow toward screen ends and diverging flow toward transmissive intervals. Simulated aquifers and confining units uniformly are subdivided by depth into intervals in which the hydraulic conductivity is estimated with the Parameter ESTimation (PEST) software. Between 50 and 150 hydraulic-conductivity parameters were estimated by minimizing weighted differences between simulated and measured flow and drawdown. Transmissivity estimates from single-well or multiple-well aquifer tests were used to constrain estimates of hydraulic conductivity. The distribution of hydraulic conductivity within each lithology had a minimum variance because estimates were constrained with Tikhonov regularization. AnalyzeHOLE simulated hydraulic-conductivity estimates for lithologic units across screened and cased intervals are as much as 100 times less than those estimated using proportional flow-log analyses applied across screened intervals only. Smaller estimates of hydraulic conductivity for individual lithologic units are simulated because sections of the unit behind cased intervals of the wellbore are not assumed to be impermeable, and therefore, can contribute flow to the wellbore. Simulated hydraulic-conductivity estimates vary by more than three orders of magnitude across a lithologic unit, indicating a high degree of heterogeneity in volcanic and carbonate-rock units. The higher water transmitting potential of carbonate-rock units relative

  18. Workshop on hydrology of crystalline basement rocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, S.N.

    1981-08-01

    This workshop covered the following subjects: measurements in relatively shallow boreholes; measurement and interpretation of data from deep boreholes; hydrologic properties of crystalline rocks as interpreted by geophysics and field geology; rock mechanics related to hydrology of crystalline rocks; the possible contributions of modeling to the understanding of the hydrology of crystalline rocks; and geochemical interpretations of the hydrology of crystalline rocks. (MHR)

  19. CX-100598 Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    8 Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-100598 Categorical Exclusion Determination Comprehensive analysis of Hawaii's geothermal potential through Play Fairway integration of geophysical, geochemical, and geological data Award Number: DE-EE0006729 CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.1, B3.6 Geothermal Technologies Office Date: 04/25/2016 Location(s): HI Office(s): Golden Field Office The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to provide federal funding to the University of Hawaii to address the

  20. Estimating the spatio-temporal distribution of geochemical parameters...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Chen, J. ; Hubbard, S. S. ; Williams, K. H. ; Orozco, A. Flores ; Kemna, A. Publication Date: 2012-06-20 OSTI Identifier: 1212432 Report Number(s): LBNL-5663E Journal ID: ...

  1. Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide, Brine, Trace Metal and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Peer-review under responsibility of the Organizing Committee of GHGT-12 doi: 10.1016j.egy... + ajkXjXj + ai>i,kXi2, where i 1,22 and jl,22 and k 1,37 The goodness-of-fit (R2) ...

  2. Coupled Geochemical Impacts of Leaking CO2 and Contaminants from...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    on the sediments, in spite of the lowered pH due to CO2 dissolution in the groundwater. ... without detectable carbonate to buffer the pH. Arsenic concentrations in the effluent ...

  3. Hydrological, geochemical, and ecological characterization of Kesterson Reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    This report describes Kesterson Reservoir related research activities carried out under a cooperative program between Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and the Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources at the University of California during FY89. The primary objectives of these investigations are: Predict the extent, probability of the occurrence, and selenium concentrations in surface water of temporary wetland habitat at Kesterson; assess rates and direction of migration of the drainage water plume that seeped into the aquifer under Kesterson; monitor and predict changes in quantity and speciation of selenium in surface soils and vadose zone pore-waters; and develop a comprehensive strategy through soil, water, and vegetation management to safely dissipate the high concentrations of selenium accumulated in Kesterson soils. This report provides an up-date on progress made in each of these areas. Chapter 2 describes results of recent investigations of water table fluctuations and plume migration. Chapter 3 describes results of ongoing monitoring of soil water selenium concentrations and evaporative accumulation of selenium at the soil surface. Chapter 4 describes early results from the soil, water, and vegetation management field trials as well as supporting laboratory and theoretical studies. In Chapter 5, new analytical methods for selenium speciation are described and quality assurance/quality control statistics for selenium and boron are provided. 110 refs., 138 figs., 62 tabs.

  4. SubTER Grand Challenge Roundtable: Imaging Geophysical and Geochemical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon Grand Challenge Workshop -Imaging Subsurface.pdf More Documents & Publications AGU SubTER Town Hall Presentation 2015 SubTER Fact Sheet SubTER Presentation at Town Hall - ...

  5. Hydrologic and Geochemical Monitoring in Long Valley Caldera...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    composition of water from selected stream sites, springs, and wells; pumpage from four geothermal wells; flow rates of selected springs and stream sites; mean daily water or gas...

  6. GEOCHEMICAL TESTING AND MODEL DEVELOPMENT - RESIDUAL TANK WASTE TEST PLAN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CANTRELL KJ; CONNELLY MP

    2010-03-09

    This Test Plan describes the testing and chemical analyses release rate studies on tank residual samples collected following the retrieval of waste from the tank. This work will provide the data required to develop a contaminant release model for the tank residuals from both sludge and salt cake single-shell tanks. The data are intended for use in the long-term performance assessment and conceptual model development.

  7. Hydrologic and Geochemical Monitoring in Long Valley Caldera...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    through 1985. The monitoring included the collection of the following types of data: chemical and isotopic composition of waters and gases from springs, wells, and steam vents;...

  8. Spatial And Temporal Geochemical Trends In The Hydrothermal System...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    tracking changes in river solute flux. Authors Shaul Hurwitz, Jacob B. Lowenstern and Henry Heasler Published Journal Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 2007 DOI Not...

  9. Trace Element Geochemical Zoning in the Roosevelt Hot Springs...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    this distribution may be a useful solid geothermometer. Authors O.D. Christensen, J.N. Moore and R.M. Capuano Conference GRC Annual Meeting; Salt Lake City, UT; 09091980...

  10. Geochemical detection of carbon dioxide in dilute aquifers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, S; Hao, Y; Aines, R

    2009-03-27

    Carbon storage in deep saline reservoirs has the potential to lower the amount of CO{sub 2} emitted to the atmosphere and to mitigate global warming. Leakage back to the atmosphere through abandoned wells and along faults would reduce the efficiency of carbon storage, possibly leading to health and ecological hazards at the ground surface, and possibly impacting water quality of near-surface dilute aquifers. We use static equilibrium and reactive transport simulations to test the hypothesis that perturbations in water chemistry associated with a CO{sub 2} gas leak into dilute groundwater are important measures for the potential release of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere. Simulation parameters are constrained by groundwater chemistry, flow, and lithology from the High Plains aquifer. The High Plains aquifer is used to represent a typical sedimentary aquifer overlying a deep CO{sub 2} storage reservoir. Specifically, we address the relationships between CO{sub 2} flux, groundwater flow, detection time and distance. The CO{sub 2} flux ranges from 10{sup 3} to 2 x 10{sup 6} t/yr (0.63 to 1250 t/m{sup 2}/yr) to assess chemical perturbations resulting from relatively small leaks that may compromise long-term storage, water quality, and surface ecology, and larger leaks characteristic of short-term well failure.

  11. Coffinitization of Uraninite: SEM/AEM Investigation and Geochemical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and analytical electron microscopy (AEM) studies have been conducted on a uraninite sample from a U-deposit in Canada. It is observed that the ...

  12. Geochemical characterization of geothermal systems in the Great...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Basin. Development of this database is one of the first steps in understanding the nature of geothermal systems in the Great Basin. Of particular importance in the Great Basin...

  13. Developing a robust geochemical and reactive transport model...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Migration of carbon dioxide (COsub 2) from deep storage formations into shallow drinking ... LEAKS; LEVELS; MATERIALS; METALS; MIGRATION; MINERALS; MOBILITY; OXIDES; ...

  14. Estimating the spatio-temporal distribution of geochemical parameters...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    biostimulation using spectral induced polarization data and hierarchical Bayesian models ... biostimulation using spectral induced polarization data and hierarchical Bayesian models ...

  15. A Reconnaissance Geochemical Study Of La Primavera Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    whereas the water-rich fumaroles are high and central. The Comision Federal de Electricidad de Mexico (CFE) has recently drilled two deep holes at the center of the Sierra...

  16. A Geochemical Reconnaissance Of The Alid Volcaniccenter And Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Robert O. Fournier, Theoderos Tesfai, Wendell A. Duffield, Michael A. Clynne, James G. Smith, Leake Woldegiorgis, Kidane Weldemariam and Gabreab Kahsai Published Journal...

  17. Geochemical Sampling of Thermal Waters in Nevada | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Area (136C), Buffalo Valley (130C), Pumpernickel Valley (Tipton Ranch; 125C), and Smith Creek Valley (119C). Authors Lisa Shevenell and Larry Garside Conference GRC Annual...

  18. Monitoring CO2 intrusion and associated geochemical transformations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    transformations in a shallow groundwater system using complex electrical methods Citation ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 54 ENVIRONMENTAL ...

  19. Geochemical modeling of the Raft River geothermal field | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and additional work needed to refine the overall reservoir model. Authors Overton, H. L.; Chaney, R. E.; Mcatee, R. E.; Graham and D. L. Published DOE Information Bridge, 111...

  20. Alteration And Geochemical Zoning In Bodie Bluff, Bodie Mining...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Banded, epithermal quartz-adularia veins have produced about 1.5 million ounces of gold and 7 million ounces of silver from the Bodie mining district, eastern California. The...

  1. Reactive geochemical transport simulation to study mineral trapping...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Authors: Xu, Tianfu ; Apps, John A. ; Pruess, Karsten Publication Date: 2002-04-01 OSTI Identifier: 801952 Report Number(s): LBNL--50089 R&D Project: 468111; B& R KC0403010; TRN: ...

  2. Factors Controlling The Geochemical Evolution Of Fumarolic Encrustatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Smokes (VTTS). The six-factor solution model explains a large proportion (low of 74% for Ni to high of 99% for Si) of the individual element data variance. Although the primary...

  3. Hg Anomalies In Soils- A Geochemical Exploration Method For Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    is not possible. Hg anomaly patterns yield information on the presence as well as the geometry of shallow geothermal circulation patterns. In conjunction with structural geologic...

  4. Lattice gas automata for flow and transport in geochemical systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janecky, D.R.; Chen, S.; Dawson, S.; Eggert, K.C.; Travis, B.J.

    1992-05-01

    Lattice gas automata models are described, which couple solute transport with chemical reactions at mineral surfaces within pore networks. Diffusion in a box calculations are illustrated, which compare directly with Fickian diffusion. Chemical reactions at solid surfaces, including precipitation/dissolution, sorption, and catalytic reaction, can be examined with the model because hydrodynamic transport, solute diffusion and mineral surface processes are all treated explicitly. The simplicity and flexibility of the approach provides the ability to study the interrelationship between fluid flow and chemical reactions in porous materials, at a level of complexity that has not previously been computationally possible.

  5. Lattice gas automata for flow and transport in geochemical systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janecky, D.R.; Chen, S.; Dawson, S.; Eggert, K.C.; Travis, B.J.

    1992-01-01

    Lattice gas automata models are described, which couple solute transport with chemical reactions at mineral surfaces within pore networks. Diffusion in a box calculations are illustrated, which compare directly with Fickian diffusion. Chemical reactions at solid surfaces, including precipitation/dissolution, sorption, and catalytic reaction, can be examined with the model because hydrodynamic transport, solute diffusion and mineral surface processes are all treated explicitly. The simplicity and flexibility of the approach provides the ability to study the interrelationship between fluid flow and chemical reactions in porous materials, at a level of complexity that has not previously been computationally possible.

  6. Merging High Resolution Geophysical and Geochemical Surveys to...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and in combination when exploring for blind resources where structure, permeability, and temperature are the most pressing questions. The slim holes will allow testing...

  7. Temporal Geochemical Variations In Volatile Emissions From Mount...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1980. Based on D modeling, approximately 63% of shallow, post-1980 magma has yet to degas. Surprisingly, Cl and F contents in the 1994 samples were only 0.47 and 3.8%,...

  8. Hydrological and geochemical investigations of selenium behavior at Kesterson Reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zawislanski, P.T.; Tokunaga, T.K.; Benson, S.M.

    1995-05-01

    This report describes research relevant to selenium specification, fractionation, physical redistribution, reduction and oxidation, and spatial distribution as related to Kesterson Reservoir. The work was carried out by scientists and engineers from the Earth Sciences Division of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory over a two year period from October 1992 to September 1994. Much of the focus of these efforts was on the effects of two above-average rainfall years (1991/1992 and 1992/1993). These events marked a departure from the previous six years of drought conditions, under which oxidation of Se in the soil profile led to a marked increase in soluble Se. Evidence from the last two years show that much of the re-oxidized Se was once more reduced due to increased soil moisture content. Also, in areas of high hydraulic conductivity, major vertical displacement of selenium and other solutes due to rainfall infiltration was observed. Such observations underscore the dependence of the future of Se speciation and distribution on environmental conditions.

  9. Self-Organized Pattern Formation in Sedimentary Geochemical Systems...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Word Cloud More Like This Full Text Books Please see Document Availability for additional information on obtaining the ...

  10. Hydrologic and Geochemical Monitoring in Long Valley Caldera...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Differences since 1982 in fluid chemistry of springs has been minor except at Casa Diablo, where rapid fluctuations in chemistry result from near surface boiling and...

  11. Property:GeochemReservoirTemp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    pages using this property. C Chena Geothermal Area + 383.15 K110 C 230 F 689.67 R + F Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area + 505.15 K232 C 449.6 F 909.27 R + L Lightning...

  12. Geochemical Data for 95 Thermal and Nonthermal Waters of the...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    hydrothermal alterations, and hydrothermal solution chemistry. Authors Fraser E. Goff, Tamsin McCormick, Pat E. Trujillo Jr, Dale A. Counce and Charles O. Grigsby Published...

  13. A Geochemical Model Of The Platanares Geothermal System, Honduras...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    concentrations reflect mixed cooling paths. Authors C. J. Janik, A. H. Truesdell, F. Goff, L. Shevenell, M. L. Stallard, P. E. Trujillo Jr and D. Counce Published Journal...

  14. Interpretation of Wild 2 Dust Fine Structure: Comparison of Stardust Aluminium Foil Craters to the Three-Dimensional Shape of Experimental Impacts by Artificial Aggregate Particles and Meteorite Powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kearsley, A T; Burchell, M J; Price, M C; Graham, G A; Wozniakiewicz, P J; Cole, M J; Foster, N J; Teslich, N

    2009-12-10

    New experimental results show that Stardust crater morphology is consistent with interpretation of many larger Wild 2 dust grains being aggregates, albeit most of low porosity and therefore relatively high density. The majority of large Stardust grains (i.e. those carrying most of the cometary dust mass) probably had density of 2.4 g cm{sup -3} (similar to soda-lime glass used in earlier calibration experiments) or greater, and porosity of 25% or less, akin to consolidated carbonaceous chondrite meteorites, and much lower than the 80% suggested for fractal dust aggregates. Although better size calibration is required for interpretation of the very smallest impacting grains, we suggest that aggregates could have dense components dominated by {micro}m-scale and smaller sub-grains. If porosity of the Wild 2 nucleus is high, with similar bulk density to other comets, much of the pore-space may be at a scale of tens of micrometers, between coarser, denser grains. Successful demonstration of aggregate projectile impacts in the laboratory now opens the possibility of experiments to further constrain the conditions for creation of bulbous (Type C) tracks in aerogel, which we have observed in recent shots. We are also using mixed mineral aggregates to document differential survival of pristine composition and crystalline structure in diverse fine-grained components of aggregate cometary dust analogues, impacted onto both foil and aerogel under Stardust encounter conditions.

  15. INTERPRETATION REGARDING EXEMPTION RELIEF UNDER 10 C.F.R. PART 820, SUBPART E, EXEMPTION RELIEF, AND NON-COMPLIANT ‘DOCUMENTED SAFETY ANALYSES’ SUBJECT TO 10 C.F.R. PART 830, NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT, SUBPART B, SAFETY BASIS REQUIREMENTS

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The following document is the Office of General Counsel (GC) interpretation regarding exemption relief pursuant to 10 C.F.R. Part 820, Procedural Rules for DOE Nuclear Activities, Subpart E,...

  16. Aerial photographic interpretation of lineaments and faults in late Cenozoic deposits in the eastern parts of the Saline Valley 1:100, 000 quadrangle, Nevada and California, and the Darwin Hills 1:100, 000 quadrangle, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reheis, M.C.

    1991-09-01

    Faults and fault-related lineaments in Quaternary and late Tertiary deposits in the southern part of the Walker Lane are potentially active and form patterns that are anomalous compared to those in most other areas of the Great Basin. Two maps at a scale of 1:100,000 summarize information about lineaments and faults in the area around and southwest of the Death Valley-Furnace Creek fault system based on extensive aerial-photo interpretation, limited field interpretation, limited field investigations, and published geologic maps. There are three major fault zones and two principal faults in the Saline Valley and Darwin Hills 1:100,000 quadrangles. (1) The Death Valley-Furnace Creek fault system and (2) the Hunter Mountain fault zone are northwest-trending right-lateral strike-slip fault zones. (3) The Panamint Valley fault zone and associated Towne Pass and Emigrant faults are north-trending normal faults. The intersection of the Hunter Mountain and Panamint Valley fault zones is marked by a large complex of faults and lineaments on the floor of Panamint Valley. Additional major faults include (4) the north-northwest-trending Ash Hill fault on the west side of Panamint Valley, and (5) the north-trending range-front Tin Mountain fault on the west side of the northern Cottonwood Mountains. The most active faults at present include those along the Death Valley-Furnace Creek fault system, the Tin Mountain fault, the northwest and southeast ends of the Hunter Mountain fault zone, the Ash Hill fault, and the fault bounding the west side of the Panamint Range south of Hall Canyon. Several large Quaternary landslides on the west sides of the Cottonwood Mountains and the Panamint Range apparently reflect slope instability due chiefly to rapid uplift of these ranges. 16 refs.

  17. Categorical Exclusion Determinations: A2 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A2 Categorical Exclusion Determinations: A2 Existing Regulations A2: Clarifying or administrative contract actions Contract interpretations, amendments, and modifications that are clarifying or administrative in nature. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD April 2, 2014 CX-012110: Categorical Exclusion Determination Cowlitz Falls Fish Facility Access Agreement Extension CX(s) Applied: A2 Date: 04/02/2014 Location(s): Washington Offices(s): Bonneville Power Administration October 1, 2012 CX-009195:

  18. SUPERIOR ENERGY PERFORMANCE DOCUMENTS INTERPRETATIONS | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy STATE ENERGY PROGRAM (SEP) NARRATIVE INFORMATION WORKSHEET STATE ENERGY PROGRAM (SEP) NARRATIVE INFORMATION WORKSHEET The SEP Narrative consists of information on each SEP market, mandatory or optional, planned for the program year (PY), submitted on the SEP Narrative Information Worksheet included in the Forms section (or facsimile). If there is no change in the purpose and description of a continuing market, only the milestones and PY budget need be submitted in subsequent years. A

  19. Summary: interpretations of asteroseismic data (Conference) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Research Org: Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Sponsoring Org: DOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 79; ASTRONOMY; DATA; MEETINGS; PHYSICS; ...

  20. Earned Value Management System Interpretation Handbook (EVMSIH...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    extensively on the complete EVM historical body of knowledge documents from industry and ... The DOE EVMSIH consolidates the necessary elements from existing EVM body of knowledge ...

  1. Tracers and Tracer Interpretation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Component Research and DevelopmentAnalysis Nathrop, CO 1,840,000 460,000 2,300,000 Quantum Dot Tracers for Use in Engineered Geothermal Systems Utah University of Utah Recovery...

  2. EVMS Interpretation Handbook 2.0 Update

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    David Kester, Office of Project Management Oversight and Assessments Rick Millikin, CHPRC/EFCOG March 22, 2016

  3. Interpretation of long-range interatomic force

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buldum, A.; Ciraci, S.; Fong, C.Y.; Nelson, J.S.

    1999-02-01

    Recent direct mechanical measurements of atomic force microscopy showed that the force between the silicon tip and the silicon sample is long range in the attractive region and its magnitude at maximum is relatively smaller. These features disagree with previous theoretical predictions based on the {ital ab initio} calculations. We investigated the nature of forces between a silicon tip and the silicon (111)-(2{times}1) surface by performing first-principles pseudopotential and classical molecular dynamics calculations and by calculating the van der Waals interaction. The first two methods give forces that are short range in nature. Fair agreement between the experiment and theory is obtained when the van der Waals interaction is included. The effect of the tip induced deformation is analyzed. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  4. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: Interpretation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of cloud structure anomalies over the tropical Pacific during the 199798 El Nino Cess, Robert State University of New York at Stony Brook Sun, Moguo State University of...

  5. THE 2011 FEBRUARY 15 X2 FLARE, RIBBONS, CORONAL FRONT, AND MASS EJECTION: INTERPRETING THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL VIEWS FROM THE SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY AND STEREO GUIDED BY MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC FLUX-ROPE MODELING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schrijver, Carolus J.; Title, Alan M.; Aulanier, Guillaume; Pariat, Etienne; Delannee, Cecile E-mail: title@lmsal.com E-mail: etienne.pariat@obspm.fr

    2011-09-10

    The 2011 February 15 X2.2 flare and associated Earth-directed halo coronal mass ejection were observed in unprecedented detail with high resolution in spatial, temporal, and thermal dimensions by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory, as well as by instruments on the two STEREO spacecraft, then at near-quadrature relative to the Sun-Earth line. These observations enable us to see expanding loops from a flux-rope-like structure over the shearing polarity-inversion line between the central {delta}-spot groups of AR 11158, developing a propagating coronal front ('EIT wave'), and eventually forming the coronal mass ejection moving into the inner heliosphere. The observations support the interpretation that all of these features, including the 'EIT wave', are signatures of an expanding volume traced by loops (much larger than the flux rope only), surrounded by a moving front rather than predominantly wave-like perturbations; this interpretation is supported by previously published MHD models for active-region and global scales. The lateral expansion of the eruption is limited to the local helmet-streamer structure and halts at the edges of a large-scale domain of connectivity (in the process exciting loop oscillations at the edge of the southern polar coronal hole). The AIA observations reveal that plasma warming occurs within the expansion front as it propagates over quiet Sun areas. This warming causes dimming in the 171 A (Fe IX and Fe X) channel and brightening in the 193 and 211 A (Fe XII-XIV) channels along the entire front, while there is weak 131 A (Fe VIII and Fe XXI) emission in some directions. An analysis of the AIA response functions shows that sections of the front running over the quiet Sun are consistent with adiabatic warming; other sections may require additional heating which MHD modeling suggests could be caused by Joule dissipation. Although for the events studied here the effects of volumetric expansion are much

  6. Calendar year 1995 groundwater quality report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Part 2: 1995 groundwater quality data interpretations and proposed program modifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-08-01

    This groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains an evaluation of the groundwater monitoring data obtained during calendar year (CY) 1995 from monitoring wells and springs located at or near several hazardous and non-hazardous waste management facilities associated with the Y-12 Plant. These sites are within the boundaries of the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime, which is one of three hydrogeologic regimes defined for the purposes of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The objectives of the GWPP are to provide the monitoring data necessary for compliance with applicable federal, state, and local regulations, DOE Orders, and Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. corporate policy. The following evaluation of the data is organized into background regulatory information and site descriptions, an overview of the hydrogeologic framework, a summary of the CY 1995 groundwater monitoring programs and associated sampling and analysis activities, analysis and interpretation of the data for inorganic, organic, and radiological analytes, a summary of conclusions and recommendations, and a list of cited references. Appendix A contains supporting maps, cross sections, diagrams, and graphs; data tables and summaries are in Appendix B. Detailed descriptions of the data screening and evaluation criteria are included in Appendix C.

  7. Neutronics qualification of the Jules Horowitz reactor fuel by interpretation of the VALMONT experimental program - Transposition of the uncertainties on the reactivity of JHR with JEF2.2 and JEFF3.1.1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leray, O.; Hudelot, J. P.; Antony, M.; Doederlein, C.; Santamarina, A.; Bernard, D.; Vaglio-Gaudard, C.

    2011-07-01

    The new European material testing Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR), currently under construction in Cadarache center (CEA France), will use LEU (20% enrichment in {sup 235}U) fuels (U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} for the start up and UMoAl in the future) which are quite different from the industrial oxide fuel, for which an extensive neutronics qualification database has been established. The HORUS3D/N neutronics calculation scheme, used for the design and safety studies of the JHR, is being developed within the framework of a rigorous verification-validation-qualification methodology. In this framework, the experimental VALMONT (Validation of Aluminium Molybdenum uranium fuel for Neutronics) program has been performed in the MINERVE facility of CEA Cadarache (France), in order to qualify the capability of HORUS3D/N to accurately calculate the reactivity of the JHR reactor. The MINERVE facility using the oscillation technique provides accurate measurements of reactivity effect of samples. The VALMONT program includes oscillations of samples of UAl{sub x}/Al and UMo/Al with enrichments ranging from 0.2% to 20% and Uranium densities from 2.2 to 8 g/cm{sup 3}. The geometry of the samples and the pitch of the experimental lattice ensure maximum representativeness with the neutron spectrum expected for JHR. By comparing the effect of the sample with the one of a known fuel specimen, the reactivity effect can be measured in absolute terms and be compared to computational results. Special attention was paid to the rigorous determination and reduction of the experimental uncertainties. The calculational analysis of the VALMONT results was performed with the French deterministic code APOLLO2. A comparison of the impact of the different calculation methods, data libraries and energy meshes that were tested is presented. The interpretation of the VALMONT experimental program allowed the qualification of JHR fuel UMoAl8 (with an enrichment of 19.75% {sup 235}U) by the Minerve

  8. CX-001926: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Development of Exploration Methods for Engineered Geothermal Systems through Integrated Geologic, Geophysical, and Geochemical InterpretationCX(s) Applied: A9Date: 04/27/2010Location(s): Dixie Valley, NevadaOffice(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office

  9. Advances in Geochemical Testing of Key Contaminants in Residual Hanford Tank Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deutsch, William J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Heald, Steve M.; Arey, Bruce W.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.

    2005-11-04

    This report describes the advances that have been made over the past two years in testing and characterizing waste material in Hanford tanks.

  10. Geochemical Evaluation of Uranium Fate and Transport Guterl Specialty Steel Site, New York - 12077

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frederick, Bill; Tandon, Vikas

    2012-07-01

    Between 1948 and 1952, up to 15,875 metric tons (35 million pounds) of natural uranium metal (U) were processed at the former Guterl Specialty Steel Corporation site in Lockport, New York. The resulting dust, thermal scale, mill shavings and associated land disposal contaminated both the facility and on-site soils. Uranium subsequently impacted groundwater and a fully developed plume exists below the site. Site soils are composed of anthropogenic fill and re-worked, glacially-derived native soil. This overburden is underlain by the weathered and fractured Lockport Dolostone bedrock. Shallow groundwater levels fluctuate seasonally and allow groundwater to contact U contaminated soil, which promotes transport. This condition is exemplified through coincident increases in specific conductivity and groundwater levels, which flush soluble constituents in the fill/soil to groundwater during recharge events. In addition, water-level fluctuations affect reduction-oxidation (redox) conditions at the site. The U in soils is subject to wetting and drying cycles that promote oxidation more than stable redox conditions (e.g., dry soil or fully saturated conditions). This oxidizing mechanism increases uranium solubility and mobility. Site groundwater also receives uranium via leaching from near-surface contaminated fill. The strong correlation between nitrate and uranium in groundwater indicates that uranium is mobile where oxidizing conditions occur. Analytical models of contaminant leaching determined that multiple pathways and transport mechanisms govern site risk. Uranium transport to groundwater involves three mechanisms: 1) direct contact of contaminated soil with groundwater, 2) the oxidation-state or chemical valence of uranium, and 3) the leaching of near-surface contamination to groundwater. These mechanisms require an integrated remedial solution that is sustainable and cost effective. (authors)

  11. Geological and geochemical aspects of uranium deposits. A selected, annotated bibliography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garland, P.A.; Thomas, J.M.; Brock, M.L.; Daniel, E.W.

    1980-06-01

    A bibliography of 479 references encompassing the fields of uranium and thorium geochemistry and mineralogy, geology of uranium deposits, uranium mining, and uranium exploration techniques has been compiled by the Ecological Sciences Information Center of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The bibliography was produced for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program, which is funded by the Grand Junction Office of the Department of Energy. The references contained in the bibliography have been divided into the following eight subject categories: (1) geology of deposits, (2) geochemistry, (3) genesis O deposits, (4) exploration, (5) mineralogy, (6) uranium industry, (7) reserves and resources, and (8) geology of potential uranium-bearing areas. All categories specifically refer to uranium and thorium; the last category contains basic geologic information concerning areas which the Grand Junction Office feels are particularly favorable for uranium deposition. The references are indexed by author, geographic location, quadrangle name, geoformational feature, taxonomic name, and keyword.

  12. Memo: Quarry Residuals Geochemical Sampling of the Shallow USGS Piezometers in the Saint Charles County Wellfield.

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

  13. Geochemical studies of reservoir processes in the NCPA field of The Geysers, a preliminary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truesdell, Alfred; Enedy, Steve; Smith, Bill

    1993-01-28

    Methods of tracing reservoir processes will be discussed and applied to the NCPA Geysers steam field. The gas and isotope chemistry of produced steam is far from uniform even in a restricted volume of the reservoir. The composition is affected by many factors. Differences in permeability, local existence of gas pockets or perched liquid and the pattern of fracture connection can cause neighboring wells to produce steam of different compositions. This study attempts to separate local effects from general influences by viewing the data across the field and over a period of time. The fits of the trend lines to the data are far from perfect but present a reasonably consistent picture.

  14. Geochemical character and origin of oils in Ordovician reservoir rock, Illinois and Indiana, USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guthrie, J.M.; Pratt, L.M.

    1995-11-01

    Twenty-three oils produced from reservoirs within the Ordovician Galena Group (Trenton equivalent) and one oil from the Mississippian Ste. Genevieve Limestone in the Illinois and Indiana portions of the Illinois basin are characterized. Two end-member oil groups (1) and (2) and one intermediate group (1A) are identified using conventional carbon isotopic analysis of whole and fractionated oils, gas chromatography (GC) of saturated hydrocarbon fractions, isotope-ratio-monitoring gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (irm-GC/MS) of n-alkanes ranging from C{sub 15} to C{sub 25}, and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) of the aromatic hydrocarbon fractions. Group 1 is characterized by high odd-carbon predominance in mid-chain n-alkanes (C{sub 15}-C{sub 19}), low abundance Of C{sub 20+}, n-alkanes, and an absence of pristane and phytane. Group IA is characterized by slightly lower odd-carbon predominance of mid-chain n-alkanes, greater abundance of C{sub 20+} n-alkanes compared to group 1, and no pristane and phytane. Conventional correlations of oil to source rock based on carbon isotopic-type curves and hopane (m/z 191) and sterane (m/z 217) distributions are of limited use in distinguishing Ordovician-reservoired oil groups and determining their origin. Oil to source rock correlations using the distribution and carbon isotopic composition of n-alkanes and the m/z 133 chromatograms of n-alkylarenes show that groups 1 and 1A originated from strata of the Upper Ordovician Galena Group. Group 2 either originated solely from the Upper Ordovician Maquoketa Group or from a mixture of oils generated from the Maquoketa Group and the Galena Group. The Mississippian-reservoired oil most likely originated from the Devonian New Albany Group. The use of GC, irm-GC/MS, and GC/MS illustrates the value of integrated molecular and isotopic approaches for correlating oil groups with source rocks.

  15. Petroleum potential of the Upper Ordovician Maquoketa Group in Illinois: A coordinated geological and geochemical study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crockett, J.E.; Oltz, D.F. ); Kruge, M.A. )

    1990-05-01

    The Ordovician Maquoketa Group in Illinois, predominantly composed of shale, calcareous shale, and carbonates, has long been considered a potential source for Illinois basin hydrocarbons. Methods used to better define the petroleum potential of the Maquoketa in the Illinois basin were lithostratigraphic study, Rock-Eval (pyrolysis) analyses, comparison of molecular markers from whole-rock extracts and produced oil, and construction of burial history models. Organic-rich submature Maquoketa potential source rocks are present in western Illinois at shallow depths on the basin flank. Deeper in the basin in southern Illinois, Rock-Eval analyses indicate that the Maquoketa shale is within the oil window. Solvent extracts of the Maquoketa from western Illinois closely resemble the Devonian New Albany Shale, suggesting that past studies may have erroneously attributed Maquoketa-generated petroleum to a New Albany source or failed to identify mixed source oils. Subtle differences between Maquoketa and New Albany solvent extracts include differences in pristane/phytane ratios, proportions of steroids, and distribution of dimethyldibenzothiophene isomers. Maquoketa solvent extracts show little resemblance to Middle Ordovician oils from the Illinois or Michigan basins. Lithostratigraphic studies identified localized thick carbonate facies in the Maquoketa, suggesting depositional response to upper Ordovician paleostructures. Sandstone facies in the Maquoketa in southwestern Illinois offer a potential source/trap play, as well as serving as potential carrier beds for hydrocarbon migration. Maquoketa source and carrier beds may feed older Ordovician rocks in faulted areas along and south of the Cottage Grove fault system in southern Illinois.

  16. A Geochemical Model of the Kilauea East Rift Zone | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to southwest-trending complex of dikes and fractures extending more than 100 kilometers from the summit caldera to the ocean floor. Geologic, petrologic, and geophysical...

  17. Geochemical Behaviour of S, Cl and Fe in Silicate Melts/Glasses...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    E. Paris, P. Glatzel, S. Eeckhout, M. Carroll, School of Science and Technology, Geology Division, University of Camerino, Via G. III da Varano, 62032 Camerino; e-mail:...

  18. Geochemical and Strontium Isotope Characterization of Produced Waters from Marcellus Shale Natural Gas Extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapman, Elizabeth C; Capo, Rosemary C.; Stewart, Brian W.; Kirby, Carl S.; Hammack, Richard W.; Schroeder, Karl T.; Edenborn, Harry M.

    2012-03-20

    Extraction of natural gas by hydraulic fracturing of the Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale, a major gas-bearing unit in the Appalachian Basin, results in significant quantities of produced water containing high total dissolved solids (TDS). We carried out a strontium (Sr) isotope investigation to determine the utility of Sr isotopes in identifying and quantifying the interaction of Marcellus Formation produced waters with other waters in the Appalachian Basin in the event of an accidental release, and to provide information about the source of the dissolved solids. Strontium isotopic ratios of Marcellus produced waters collected over a geographic range of 375 km from southwestern to northeastern Pennsylvania define a relatively narrow set of values (ε{sub Sr}{sup SW} = +13.8 to +41.6, where ε{sub Sr}{sup SW} is the deviation of the {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio from that of seawater in parts per 10{sup 4}); this isotopic range falls above that of Middle Devonian seawater, and is distinct from most western Pennsylvania acid mine drainage and Upper Devonian Venango Group oil and gas brines. The uniformity of the isotope ratios suggests a basin-wide source of dissolved solids with a component that is more radiogenic than seawater. Mixing models indicate that Sr isotope ratios can be used to sensitively differentiate between Marcellus Formation produced water and other potential sources of TDS into ground or surface waters.

  19. Geochemical and Strontium Isotope Characterization of Produced Waters from Marcellus Shale Natural Gas Extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elizabeth C. Chapman,† Rosemary C. Capo,† Brian W. Stewart,*,† Carl S. Kirby,‡ Richard W. Hammack,§ Karl T. Schroeder,§ and Harry M. Edenborn

    2012-02-24

    Extraction of natural gas by hydraulic fracturing of the Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale, a major gas-bearing unit in the Appalachian Basin, results in significant quantities of produced water containing high total dissolved solids (TDS). We carried out a strontium (Sr) isotope investigation to determine the utility of Sr isotopes in identifying and quantifying the interaction of Marcellus Formation produced waters with other waters in the Appalachian Basin in the event of an accidental release, and to provide information about the source of the dissolved solids. Strontium isotopic ratios of Marcellus produced waters collected over a geographic range of ∼375 km from southwestern to northeastern Pennsylvania define a relatively narrow set of values (εSr SW = +13.8 to +41.6, where εSr SW is the deviation of the 87Sr/86Sr ratio from that of seawater in parts per 104); this isotopic range falls above that of Middle Devonian seawater, and is distinct from most western Pennsylvania acid mine drainage and Upper Devonian Venango Group oil and gas brines. The uniformity of the isotope ratios suggests a basin-wide source of dissolved solids with a component that is more radiogenic than seawater. Mixing models indicate that Sr isotope ratios can be used to sensitively differentiate between Marcellus Formation produced water and other potential sources of TDS into ground or surface waters.

  20. Coal-type gas provinces in China and their geochemical characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Xiaobao; Xu Yonghang; Shen Ping )

    1996-01-01

    The distribution of coal - type gases in China can be divided into the east gas province, the central gas province and the west gas province the east gas province lies in the East China Meso - Cenozoic Rift Belt, including Donghai Basin and Bohaiwan Basin. The ages of gas source rocks are Carbo - Permian and Tertiary. The types of gas reservoirs are a anticline or a hidden mountain - fault block combination reservoir. The CH[sub 4] content ofthe gases there is 83 -90%, with [delta][sup 13]C[sub 1] -35.5 [approximately] -39.9[per thousand], and [delta][sup 13]C[sub 2] -24.0 [approximately] -26.8[per thousand]. The [delta][sup 13]C of condensate oils associated with the gases ranges from -25.4[per thousand] to -26.8[per thousand]. The central gas province is inside the Central China Paleozoic Plates, including Orclos Basin and Sichuan Basin. The gas source rocks are Carbo - Permian and Triassic. The types of gas reservoirs are an anticline-fault combination or a lithological-tectonic combination reservoir. The [delta][sup 13]C[sub 1] of the gases there is -37.9 [approximately] -37. l[per thousand], with the [delta][sup 13]C of condensate oil accompanying them - 25.1 [approximately] -26.6[per thousand]. The west gas province is within the West China Late Paleozoic Intracontinental Compressive Belt, including Tarim Basin, Jungar Basin and Tuna Basin. The age of gas source rocks is Jurassic. The types of gas reservoirs are an anticline or an anticline-fault reservoir. The CH[sub 4] content of the gases there varies from 60 to 90%, with [delta][sup 13]C[sub 1] from - 38.7 to -43.7[per thousand] and [delta] [sup 13]C[sub 2] from -25.9[per thousand] to -29.9[per thousand]. The [delta] [sup 13]C of light oils and condensate oils accompanying the gases changes from 24.3[per thousand] to 27.8[per thousand].

  1. Coal-type gas provinces in China and their geochemical characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Xiaobao; Xu Yonghang; Shen Ping

    1996-12-31

    The distribution of coal - type gases in China can be divided into the east gas province, the central gas province and the west gas province the east gas province lies in the East China Meso - Cenozoic Rift Belt, including Donghai Basin and Bohaiwan Basin. The ages of gas source rocks are Carbo - Permian and Tertiary. The types of gas reservoirs are a anticline or a hidden mountain - fault block combination reservoir. The CH{sub 4} content ofthe gases there is 83 -90%, with {delta}{sup 13}C{sub 1} -35.5 {approximately} -39.9{per_thousand}, and {delta}{sup 13}C{sub 2} -24.0 {approximately} -26.8{per_thousand}. The {delta}{sup 13}C of condensate oils associated with the gases ranges from -25.4{per_thousand} to -26.8{per_thousand}. The central gas province is inside the Central China Paleozoic Plates, including Orclos Basin and Sichuan Basin. The gas source rocks are Carbo - Permian and Triassic. The types of gas reservoirs are an anticline-fault combination or a lithological-tectonic combination reservoir. The {delta}{sup 13}C{sub 1} of the gases there is -37.9 {approximately} -37. l{per_thousand}, with the {delta}{sup 13}C of condensate oil accompanying them - 25.1 {approximately} -26.6{per_thousand}. The west gas province is within the West China Late Paleozoic Intracontinental Compressive Belt, including Tarim Basin, Jungar Basin and Tuna Basin. The age of gas source rocks is Jurassic. The types of gas reservoirs are an anticline or an anticline-fault reservoir. The CH{sub 4} content of the gases there varies from 60 to 90%, with {delta}{sup 13}C{sub 1} from - 38.7 to -43.7{per_thousand} and {delta} {sup 13}C{sub 2} from -25.9{per_thousand} to -29.9{per_thousand}. The {delta} {sup 13}C of light oils and condensate oils accompanying the gases changes from 24.3{per_thousand} to 27.8{per_thousand}.

  2. Kinetics and Mechanism of Metal Retention/Release in Geochemical Processes in Soil - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, Robert W.

    2000-12-29

    Effective, remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals requires a better understanding of the mechanisms by which the metals are retained/released in soils over a long period of time. Studies on reaction of Cr(VI) with iron-rich clays indicated that structural iron (II) in these surfaces is capable of reducing chromate to chromium (III). We found that iron (II) either found naturally or produced by treatment of clay with sodium dithionite, effectively reduced Cr (VI) to Cr (III). Thus, in situ remediation of chromium combines reduction of Cr (VI) to Cr (III) and immobilization of chromium on mineral surfaces. During this study, lead sorption on a kaolin surface was found to be a rapid and a pH dependant process in which lead sorption significantly increased with the amount of phosphate on the clay surface. This study verifies that methylmercury cation remains intact when it binds to humic acids, forming a monodentate complex with some sub-population of humic thiol ligands .

  3. Salt effects on isotope partitioning and their geochemical implications: An overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horita, J.; Cole, D.R.; Fortier, S.M.

    1996-01-01

    Essential to the use of stable isotopes as natural tracers and geothermometers is the knowledge of equilibrium isotope partitioning between different phases and species, which is usually a function of temperature only. The one exception known to date is oxygen and hydrogen isotope fractionation between liquid water and other phases (steam, gases, minerals), which changes upon the addition of salts to water, i.e., the isotope salt salt effect. Our knowledge of this effect, the difference between activity and composition (a-X) of isotopic water molecules in salt solutions, is very limited and controversial, especially at elevated temperatures. For the last several years, we have been conducting a detailed, systematic experimental study at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to determine the isotope salt effects from room temperature to elevated temperatures (currently to 500{degree}C). From this effort, a simple, coherent picture of the isotope salt effect is emerging, that differs markedly from the complex results reported in the literature. In this communication, we present an overview on the isotope salt effect, obtained chiefly from our study. Observed isotope salt effects in salt solutions are significant even at elevated temperatures. The importance and implications of the isotope salt effect for isotopic studies of brine-dominated systems are also discussed in general terms.

  4. Organic geochemical evaluations of bituminous rock and coals in Miocene Himmetoglu basin (Bolu, Turkey)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sari, A.; Geze, Y.

    2008-07-01

    The studied area is a lake basin located in Bolu basin in Turkey. In the basin, from Upper Cretaceous to Upper Miocene 3,000-m thickness sediments were deposited. Upper Miocene Himmetoglu formation consisted of sandstone, claystone, and marl. To the middle level of the formation are located coal, bituminous limestone, and bituminous shales. In the basin, there are two coal beds whose thicknesses range from 1 to 13 m. The coals are easily breakable and black in color. In the coal beds exists some bituminous limestone and bituminous shales, and their thicknesses are between 5 and 45 cm. The amount of organic matter of the bituminous rocks from the Upper Miocene Himmetoglu formation are between 6.83 and 56.34 wt%, and the amount of organic matter of the bituminous limestone from the formation are between 13.58 and 57.16 wt%. These values indicate that these rocks have very good source potential. According to hydrogen index (HI), S2/S3, HI-T{sub max}, and HI-OI (oxygen index) parameters, kerogen types of the bituminous rocks and coals belonging to Upper Miocene Himmetoglu formation are Type I, Type II, and Type III. In accordance with HI, S2/S3, HI-T{sub max}, and HI-OI parameters, the bituminous rocks and coals from the Upper Miocene Himmetoglu formation are mostly immature.

  5. Geochemical and Mineralogical Investigation of Uranium in Multielement Contaminated, Organicrich Subsurface Sediment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qafoku, Nikolla; Gartman, Brandy N.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Arey, Bruce W.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Mouser, Paula J.; Heald, Steve M.; Bargar, John R.; Janot, Noemie; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Long, Philip E.

    2014-03-02

    Alluvial sediments characterized by an abundance of refractory or lignitic organic carbon compounds and reduced Fe and S bearing mineral phases have been identified through drilling activities at the U.S. Department of Energys (DOE) Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site at Rifle, CO. Regions of the subsurface from which such sediments are derived are referred to as Naturally Reduced Zones (NRZ). We conducted a study with NRZ sediments with the objective to: i.) Characterize solid phase contamination of U and other co-contaminants; ii.) Document the occurrence of potential U host minerals; iii.) Determine U valence state and micron scale spatial association with co-contaminants. Macroscopic (wet chemical batch extractions and a column experiment), microscopic (SEM-EDS), and spectroscopic (Mssbauer, -XRF and XANES) techniques were employed. Results showed that sediments solid phase had significant concentrations of U, S, As, Zn, V, Cr, Cu and Se, and a remarkable assortment of potential U hosts (sorbents and/or electron donors), such as Fe oxides (hematite, magnetite, Al-substituted goethite), siderite, reduced Fe(II) bearing clays, sulfides of different types, Zn sulfide framboids and multi element sulfides. Multi-contaminants, micron size (ca. 5 to 30 m) areas of mainly U(IV) and some U(VI), and/or other electron scavengers or donors such as Se, As, Cr, and V were discovered in the sediments, suggesting complex micron-scale system responses to transient redox conditions, and different extent and rates of competing U redox reactions than those of single contaminant systems. Collectively, the results improve our understanding and ability to predict U and NRZs complex behavior and will delineate future research directions to further study both the natural attenuation and persistence of contaminant plumes and their contribution to groundwater contamination.

  6. Geochemical Weathering Increases Lead Bioaccessibility in Semi-Arid Mine Tailings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayes, Sarah M.; Webb, Sam M.; Bargar, John R.; O?Day, Peggy A.; Maier, Raina M.; Chorover, Jon

    2012-09-05

    Mine tailings can host elevated concentrations of toxic metal(loid)s that represent a significant hazard to surrounding communities and ecosystems. Eolian transport, capable of translocating small (micrometer-sized) particles, can be the dominant mechanism of toxic metal dispersion in arid or semiarid landscapes. Human exposure to metals can then occur via direct inhalation or ingestion of particulates. The fact that measured doses of total lead (Pb) in geomedia correlate poorly with blood Pb levels highlights a need to better resolve the precise distribution of molecularly speciated metal-bearing phases in the complex particle mixtures. Species distribution controls bioaccessibility, thereby directly impacting health risk. This study seeks to correlate Pb-containing particle size and mineral composition with lability and bioaccessibility in mine tailings subjected to weathering in a semiarid environment. We employed X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF), coupled with sequential chemical extractions, to study Pb speciation in tailings from the semiarid Arizona Klondyke State Superfund Site. Representative samples ranging in pH from 2.6 to 5.4 were selected for in-depth study of Pb solid-phase speciation. The principle lead-bearing phase was plumbojarosite (PbFe{sub 6}(SO{sub 4}){sub 4}(OH){sub 12}), but anglesite (PbSO{sub 4}) and iron oxide-sorbed Pb were also observed. Anglesite, the most bioavailable mineral species of lead identified in this study, was enriched in surficial tailings samples, where Pb concentrations in the clay size fraction were 2-3 times higher by mass relative to bulk. A mobile and bioaccessible Pb phase accumulates in surficial tailings, with a corresponding increase in risk of human exposure to atmospheric particles.

  7. Hydrology of the Greater Tongonan geothermal system, Philippines, as deduced from geochemical and isotopic data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvis-Isidro, R.R.; Solana, R.R.; D`amore, F.; Nuti, S.; Gonfiantini, R.

    1993-10-01

    Fluids in the Greater Tongonan geothermal system exhibit a large positive {sup 18}O shift from the Leyte meteoric water line. However, there is also a significant shift in {sup 2}H. The {delta}{sup 2}H-{delta}{sup 18}O plot shows that the geothermal fluids may be derived by the mixing of meteoric water with local magmatic water. The most enriched water in the Greater Tongonan system, in terms of {delta}{sup 18}O, {delta}{sup 2}H and Cl, is comprised of approximately 40% magmatic water. Baseline isotope results support a hydrogeochemical model in which there is increasing meteoric water dilution to the southeast, from Mahiao to Sambaloran and towards Malitbog. The Cl-{delta}{sup 18}O plot confirms that the geothermal fluid in Mahanagdong, further southeast, is distinct from that of the Mahiao-Sambaloran-Malitbog system.

  8. Water quality evaluation and geochemical assessment of iron, manganese, and arsenic in a landfill site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pisigan, R.A. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    Several monitoring wells at a landfill site were sampled for water quality parameters to determine the nature of groundwater contamination. The landfill, located beneath a limestone and dolomitic bedrock, has been used for about 20 years for trash and garbage disposal. The monitoring parameters include major cations and anions, as well as iron, manganese, arsenic, and other parameters measured in the field to characterize the subsurface conditions. Groundwater samples collected near the landfill and downgradient locations had higher levels of iron, manganese, arsenic, alkalinity, hardness than those samples from an upgradient well. The downgradient and on-site samples were also more acidic and turbid, The dissolved oxygen data tend to suggest reducing conditions in the leachate environment. The elevated groundwater concentrations of the three metals, especially iron, were most probably caused by the acidity generated by carbon dioxide and organic acids released from microbial degradation of organic compounds dumped into the landfill. The acidic pH led to the dissolution of iron, manganese, and arsenic bearing mineral phases. The buffering reactions of limestone and dolomite to neutralize the acidic degradation products increased the hardness cations, Ca{sup +2} and Mg{sup +2}. Inorganic speciation modeling indicates that iron, manganese, and arsenic predominantly exist as Fe {sup +2}, Mn{sup +2}, and H{sub 3}AsO{sub 3}. The possible presence of organic complexes of iron was discussed, but could be modeled due to lack of appropriate equilibrium constant data.

  9. Geochemical and Geomechanical Effects on Wellbore Cement Fractures: Data Information for Wellbore Reduced Order Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Um, Wooyong; Jung, Hun Bok; Kabilan, Senthil; Suh, Dong-Myung; Fernandez, Carlos A.

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of the National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP) program is to develop a defensible, generalized, and science-based methodology and platform for quantifying risk profiles at CO2 injection and storage sites. The methodology must incorporate and define the scientific basis for assessing residual risks associated with long-term stewardship and help guide site operational decision-making and risk management. Development of an integrated and risk-based protocol will help minimize uncertainty in the predicted long-term behavior of the CO2 storage site and thereby increase confidence in storage integrity. The risk profile concept has proven useful in conveying the qualitative evolution of risks for CO2 injection and storage site. However, qualitative risk profiles are not sufficient for specifying long-term liability for CO2 storage sites. Because there has been no science-based defensible and robust methodology developed for quantification of risk profiles for CO2 injection and storage, NRAP has been focused on developing a science-based methodology for quantifying risk profiles for various risk proxies.

  10. EQ3/6, a software package for geochemical modeling of aqueous...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The software deals with the concepts of thermodynamic equilibrium, thermodynamic ... whether certain reactions are in states of partial equilibrium or disequilibrium. ...

  11. Seismic II over I Drop Test Program results and interpretation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, B.

    1993-03-01

    The consequences of non-seismically qualified (Category 2) objects falling and striking essential seismically qualified (Category 1) objects has always been a significant, yet analytically difficult problem, particularly in evaluating the potential damage to equipment that may result from earthquakes. Analytical solutions for impact problems are conservative and available for mostly simple configurations. In a nuclear facility, the [open quotes]sources[close quotes] and [open quotes]targets[close quotes] requiring evaluation are frequently irregular in shape and configuration, making calculations and computer modeling difficult. Few industry or regulatory rules are available on this topic even though it is a source of considerable construction upgrade costs. A drop test program was recently conducted to develop a more accurate understanding of the consequences of seismic interactions. The resulting data can be used as a means to improve the judgment of seismic qualification engineers performing interaction evaluations and to develop realistic design criteria for seismic interactions. Impact tests on various combinations of sources and targets commonly found in one Savannah River Site (SRS) nuclear facility were performed by dropping the sources from various heights onto the targets. This report summarizes results of the Drop Test Program. Force and acceleration time history data are presented as well as general observations on the overall ruggedness of various targets when subjected to impacts from different types of sources.

  12. Seismic II over I Drop Test Program results and interpretation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, B.

    1993-03-01

    The consequences of non-seismically qualified (Category 2) objects falling and striking essential seismically qualified (Category 1) objects has always been a significant, yet analytically difficult problem, particularly in evaluating the potential damage to equipment that may result from earthquakes. Analytical solutions for impact problems are conservative and available for mostly simple configurations. In a nuclear facility, the {open_quotes}sources{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}targets{close_quotes} requiring evaluation are frequently irregular in shape and configuration, making calculations and computer modeling difficult. Few industry or regulatory rules are available on this topic even though it is a source of considerable construction upgrade costs. A drop test program was recently conducted to develop a more accurate understanding of the consequences of seismic interactions. The resulting data can be used as a means to improve the judgment of seismic qualification engineers performing interaction evaluations and to develop realistic design criteria for seismic interactions. Impact tests on various combinations of sources and targets commonly found in one Savannah River Site (SRS) nuclear facility were performed by dropping the sources from various heights onto the targets. This report summarizes results of the Drop Test Program. Force and acceleration time history data are presented as well as general observations on the overall ruggedness of various targets when subjected to impacts from different types of sources.

  13. A Systematic Approach to the Interpretation of Magnetotelluric...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    modeling simply cannot be avoided in complex geological environments. Authors Stephen K. Park and Carlos Torres-Verdin Published Journal Journal of Geophysical Research,...

  14. Interpretation of Water Sample Analysis, Waunita Hot Spring Project...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Water Sample Analysis, Waunita Hot Spring Project, Gunnison County, Colorado Author R. H. Carpenter Organization Colorado Geological Survey in Cooperation with the U.S....

  15. Ch. III, Interpretation of water sample analyses Waunita Hot...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of water sample analyses Waunita Hot Springs area Gunnison County, Colorado Author R. H. Carpenter Editor T. G. Zacharakis Published Colorado Geological Survey in Cooperation...

  16. Quantitative interpretation of tracer test data | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of tracer test data Abstract Geothermal reinjection is an important part of sustainable management of geothermal resources. Reinjection started out as a method of waste-water...

  17. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF GENERAL COUNSEL INTERPRETATION...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of any DOE Nuclear Safety Requirement or relieve the contractor of its duty to comply. ... For purposes of the assessment of civil penalties, the definition of DOE Nuclear Safety ...

  18. Interpretation of chemical analyses of waters collected from...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    chemical analyses of waters collected from two geothermal wells at Coso, California Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article:...

  19. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF GENERAL COUNSEL INTERPRETATION

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    1027-92, HAZARD CATEGORIZATION AND ACCIDENT ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES FOR COMPLIANCE WITH ... 1027-92, Hazard Categorization and Accident Analysis Techniques for Compliance with ...

  20. Measurment and Interpretation of Seismic Attenuation for Hydrocarbon Exploration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Batzle; Luca Duranti; James Rector; Steve Pride

    2007-12-31

    This research project is the combined effort of several leading research groups. Advanced theoretical work is being conducted at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Here, the fundamental controls on loss mechanisms are being examined, primarily by use of numerical models of heterogeneous porous media. At the University of California, Berkeley, forward modeling is combined with direct measurement of attenuation. This forward modeling provides an estimate of the influence of 1/Q on the observed seismic signature. Direct measures of losses in Vertical Seismic Profiles (VSPs) indicate mechanisms to separate scattering versus intrinsic losses. At the Colorado School of Mines, low frequency attenuation measurements are combined with geologic models of deep water sands. ChevronTexaco is our corporate cosponsor and research partner. This corporation is providing field data over the Genesis Field, Gulf of Mexico. In addition, ChevronTexaco has rebuilt and improved their low frequency measurement system. Soft samples representative of the Genesis Field can now be measured for velocities and attenuations under reservoir conditions. Throughout this project we have: Assessed the contribution of mechanical compaction on time-lapse monitoring; Developed and tested finite difference code to model dispersion and attenuation; Heterogeneous porous materials were modeled and 1/Q calculated vs. frequency; 'Self-affine' heterogeneous materials with differing Hurst exponent modeled; Laboratory confirmation was made of meso-scale fluid motion influence on 1/Q; Confirmed theory and magnitude of layer-based scattering attenuation at Genesis and at a shallow site in California; Scattering Q's of between 40 and 80 were obtained; Measured very low intrinsic Q's (2-20) in a partially saturated vadose zone VSP; First field study to separate scattering and intrinsic attenuation in real data set; Revitalized low frequency device at ChevronTexaco's Richmond lab completed; First complete frequency dependent measurements on Berea sandstones from dry to various saturations (brine and decane); Frequency dependent forward modeling code is running, and tested on a couple of Cases--derives frequency dependent reflectivity from porosity based logs; Genesis seismic data obtained but is on hold until forward modeling is complete; Boundary and end effects modeled for soft material measurements at CSM; and Numerous papers published or submitted and presentations made.

  1. A Lagrangian Interpretation of 3D Tropical Cloud Structure: ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Retrievals with Satellite Data A. M. Vogelmann, K. L. Johnson, M. P. Jensen, M. A. Miller, and M. J. Bartholomew Brookhaven National Laboratory Upton, New York M. P. Jensen...

  2. Structural interpretation of the Coso geothermal field. Summary...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    example of a structurally controlled geothermal resource. Authors Austin, C.F.; Moore and J.L. Published Publisher Not Provided, 911987 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI...

  3. Structural interpretation of Coso Geothermal field, Inyo County...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to be completed with power on line by mid-1987. Authors Austin, C.F.; Bishop, B.P.; Moore and J. Published Journal AAPG Bulletin (American Association of Petroleum Geologists);...

  4. Chemical analyses and preliminary interpretation of waters collected...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    system appears to be a hot water type. The surface expression of fumarole and acid sulfate pools and shallow steam wells gives a false indication of an extensive vapor...

  5. A challenging interpretation of a hexagonally layered protein...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Thompson, Michael C. ; Yeates, Todd O., E-mail: yeates@mbi.ucla.edu 1 + Show Author Affiliations UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States) Publication Date: 2014-01-01 ...

  6. Sensitivity of the interpretation of the experimental ion thermal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; CONVECTION; ...

  7. Erratum: "Sensitivity of the interpretation of the experimental...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    5; Other Information: (c) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 70 ...

  8. INTERPRETATION OF THE ARCADE 2 ABSOLUTE SKY BRIGHTNESS MEASUREMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seiffert, M.; Levin, S. M.; Fixsen, D. J.; Kogut, A.; Wollack, E.; Limon, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Mirel, P.; Singal, J.; Villela, T.; Wuensche, C. A.

    2011-06-10

    We use absolutely calibrated data between 3 and 90 GHz from the 2006 balloon flight of the ARCADE 2 instrument, along with previous measurements at other frequencies, to constrain models of extragalactic emission. Such emission is a combination of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) monopole, Galactic foreground emission, the integrated contribution of radio emission from external galaxies, any spectral distortions present in the CMB, and any other extragalactic source. After removal of estimates of foreground emission from our own Galaxy, and an estimated contribution of external galaxies, we present fits to a combination of the flat-spectrum CMB and potential spectral distortions in the CMB. We find 2{sigma} upper limits to CMB spectral distortions of {mu} < 6 x 10{sup -4} and |Y{sub ff}| < 1 x 10{sup -4}. We also find a significant detection of a residual signal beyond that, which can be explained by the CMB plus the integrated radio emission from galaxies estimated from existing surveys. This residual signal may be due to an underestimated galactic foreground contribution, an unaccounted for contribution of a background of radio sources, or some combination of both. The residual signal is consistent with emission in the form of a power law with amplitude 18.4 {+-} 2.1 K at 0.31 GHz and a spectral index of -2.57 {+-} 0.05.

  9. Interpretation of high voltage solar array discharge experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, N.J.; Underwood, C.S.; Jones, M.R. )

    1990-12-01

    High voltage operation of photovoltaic power sources in low Earth orbit is limited by the probability of discharged in the array. These discharges are initiated by an interaction between the negative voltage portions of the array (relative to the space plasma potential) and the space plasma environment. Laboratory experiments have been conducted to characterize these discharges. The authors propose a model that suggests experiments conducted to date have measured transients related to the decharging of the solar cell cover glass as a result of a discharge rather than the discharge itself. The excellent agreement between the experiment data and the analytical predictions argues for the validity of this model.

  10. Fluid Inclusion Stratigraphy: Interpretation of New Wells in...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to moderate producers, problem producers, injectors, and non producers Authors Dilley, L.M.; Newman, D.L. ; McCulloch, J.; Wiggett and G. Published Geothermal Resource Council...

  11. DOE Withdraws Interpretive Rule and Provides Enforcement Guidance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    out the Department's views on the definition of a "showerhead" for purposes of the water conservation standard enacted by Congress in 1992. To provide certainty going...

  12. ElectroChemical Noise Data Acquistion and Interpretation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2000-01-14

    This software is part of an effort to develop an effective measurement method, using electrochemical noise techniques, to differentiate localized pitting corrosion from general uniform corrosion. It is designed to obtain the electrochemical noise signal from in-situ electrochemical probes in a pipeline and convert the signal from a time-domain to a frequency domain by using a Fourier transform. The converted signal, named "power spectral density'', is then further used to calculate the value of characteristicmore » parameters which describe the mechanism and progress of a corrosion process. The results obtained from this software enable one to differentiate localized pitting corrosion from general uniform corrosion attack in a utility pipeline.« less

  13. Interpretive geothermal heat flow map of Colorado | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    geothermal heat flow map of ColoradoInfo GraphicMapChart Authors F.E. Berkman and C.J. Carroll Published Colorado Geological Survey Map Series, 2007 DOI Not Provided Check...

  14. Interpretation of earth tide response of three deep, confined...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    sfrom earth tide response. Except for the fact that barometric changes act both on the water surface in the well and on the aquifer as a whole while stress changes associated...

  15. Laboratory Experiments and Modeling for Interpreting Field Studies...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Formation Using an Oxidation Flow Reactor Citation Details In-Document Search ... Formation Using an Oxidation Flow Reactor You are accessing a document from the ...

  16. Substation based data interpretation techniques for improved power system management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Booth, C.; McDonald, J.R.; Laycock, W.J.

    1997-04-01

    There is now considerable pressure on electric utilities to operate their systems in the most efficient manner possible and to provide increased quality of service to customers. This pressure, coupled with the decreasing availability of reserve margins dictates that there is a requirement for comprehensive system operation support through, among other things, the provision of quality information relating to the behavior of the primary and secondary systems. This paper will show how the data available within modern substation control and management systems can be exploited in a cost-effective manner, through the implementation of advanced substation functions in an open systems environment. Certain functions which are presently carried out at the control center could be distributed (or partially distributed) to the substation. These functions may provide the utility staff with quality information, which can in turn be used to satisfy the objectives of increasing quality and security of supply, in addition to optimizing the utility`s information, maintenance and asset management functions.

  17. NUCLEAR FORENSICS ANALYSIS CENTER FORENSIC ANALYSIS TO DATA INTERPRETATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichols, T.

    2011-02-07

    The Nuclear Forensics Analysis Center (NFAC) is part of Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and is one of only two USG National Laboratories accredited to perform nuclear forensic analyses to the requirements of ISO 17025. SRNL NFAC is capable of analyzing nuclear and radiological samples from bulk material to ultra-trace samples. NFAC provides analytical support to the FBI's Radiological Evidence Examination Facility (REEF), which is located within SRNL. REEF gives the FBI the capability to perform traditional forensics on material that is radiological and/or is contaminated. SRNL is engaged in research and development efforts to improve the USG technical nuclear forensics capabilities. Research includes improving predictive signatures and developing a database containing comparative samples.

  18. Remote Sensing- Principles And Interpretation | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Exploration Activities Activities (1) Thermal And-Or Near Infrared At Raft River Geothermal Area (1997) Areas (1) Raft River Geothermal Area Regions (0) Retrieved...

  19. 3-D Interpretation Of Magnetotelluric Data At The Bajawa Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    modeling was by the finite difference scheme. The sensitivity matrix was computed once for a homogeneous half space and used at all iterations to save the computation time....

  20. RANDOM BALLISTIC INTERPRETATION OF NONLINEAR GUIDING CENTER THEORY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruffolo, D.; Pianpanit, T.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Chuychai, P. E-mail: th_ee@hotmail.com E-mail: p.chuychai@sci.mfu.ac.th

    2012-03-10

    Nonlinear guiding center (NLGC) theory has been used to explain the asymptotic perpendicular diffusion coefficient {kappa} of energetic charged particles in a turbulent magnetic field, which can be applied to better understand cosmic ray transport. Here we re-derive NLGC, replacing the assumption of diffusive decorrelation with random ballistic decorrelation (RBD), which yields an explicit formula for {kappa} . We note that scattering processes can cause a reversal of the guiding center motion along the field line, i.e., 'backtracking', leading to partial cancellation of contributions to {kappa}, especially for low-wavenumber components of the magnetic turbulence. We therefore include a heuristic backtracking correction (BC) that can be used in combination with RBD. In comparison with computer simulation results for various cases, NLGC with RBD and BC provides a substantially improved characterization of the perpendicular diffusion coefficient for a fluctuation amplitude less than or equal to the large-scale magnetic field.

  1. PROCESS MONITORING FOR SAFEGUARDS VIA EVENT GENERATION, INTEGRATION, AND INTERPRETATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Humberto E. Garcia; Wen-Chiao Lin; Tae-Sic Yoo

    2010-07-01

    There is a recognized safeguards benefit from using process monitoring (PM) on nuclear facilities to complement nuclear materials accountancy. We introduce a model-based approach for PM in which the assessment regarding the state of the monitored system is conducted at a system-centric level. The proposed architecture integrates both time-driven and event-driven data integration and analysis for decision-making. While the time-driven layers of the proposed architecture encompass more traditional PM methods based on time series data and analysis, the event-driven layers encompass operation monitoring methods based on discrete event data integration and analysis. By integrating process- and operation-related information and methodologies within an unified modeling and monitoring framework that includes not only current but also past plant behaviors, the task of anomaly detection is greatly improved because this decision-making approach can benefit from not only known time-series relationships among measured signals but also from known event sequence relationships among generated events. Building from the proposed system-centric PM architecture, we briefly introduce methods that can be used to implement its different components. The application of the proposed approach is then demonstrated via simulation experiments.

  2. Physical interpretation of Jeans instability in quantum plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.

    2014-08-15

    In this paper, we use the quantum hydrodynamics and its hydrostatic limit to investigate the newly posed problem of Jeans instability in quantum plasmas from a different point of view in connection with the well-known Chandrasekhar mass-limit on highly collapsed degenerate stellar configurations. It is shown that the hydrodynamic stability of a spherically symmetric uniform quantum plasma with a given fixed mass is achieved by increase in its mass-density or decrease in the radius under the action of gravity. It is also remarked that for masses beyond the limiting Jeans-mass, the plasma becomes completely unstable and the gravitational collapse would proceed forever. This limiting mass is found to depend strongly on the composition of the quantum plasma and the atomic-number of the constituent ions, where it is observed that heavier elements rather destabilize the quantum plasma hydrodynamically. It is also shown that the Chandrasekhar mass-limit for white dwarf stars can be directly obtained from the hydrostatic limit of our model.

  3. Oil and gas leasing in proposed wilderness areas: the Wyoming District Court's interpretation of Section 603 of the Federal Land Policy Management Act of 1976 - Rocky Mountain Oil and Gas Association v. Andrus, 500 F. Supp. 1338 (D. Wyo. 1980), appeal docketed, No. 81-1040 (10th Cir. Jan. 5, 1981)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corbett, H.E.

    1982-01-01

    Plaintiff Rocky Mountain Oil and Gas Association, a non-profit trade association, brought suit against the Secretary of the Interior, challenging land management policies of the Department of the Interior which plaintiff contended have effectively prohibited oil and gas exploration in areas proposed as wilderness under the Federal Land Policy Management Act of 1976 (FLPMA). The principal issue at trial was Interior's interpretation of the wilderness study provisions contained in Section 603 of the Act, which directed that activities on oil and gas leases in proposed wilderness areas be managed so as to prevent impairment of wilderness values. The United States Court for the District of Wyoming, Kerr, J., held that strict application of the non-impairment standard of Section 603, FLPMA, by the Department of the Interior virtually halted oil and gas exploration in proposed wilderness areas, and is therefore statutorily erroneous, clearly contrary to Congressional intent, and counter-productive to public interest. The Trial Court's decision is being appealed to the Tenth Circuit Court of Appeals under the title Rocky Mountain Oil and Gas Association v. Watt. 91 references.

  4. Aerial photographic interpretation of lineaments and faults in late cenozoic deposits in the Eastern part of the Benton Range 1:100,000 quadrangle and the Goldfield, Last Chance Range, Beatty, and Death Valley Junction 1:100,000 quadrangles, Nevada and California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reheis, M.C.; Noller, J.S.

    1991-09-01

    Lineaments and faults in Quaternary and late Tertiary deposits in the southern part of the Walker Lane are potentially active and form patterns that are anomalous with respect to the typical fault patterns in most of the Great Basin. Little work has been done to identify and characterize these faults, with the exception of those in the Death Valley-Furnace Creek (DVFCFZ) fault system and those in and near the Nevada Test Site. Four maps at a scale of 1:100,000 summarize the existing knowledge about these lineaments and faults based on extensive aerial-photo interpretation, limited field investigations, and published geologic maps. The lineaments and faults in all four maps can be divided geographically into two groups. The first group includes west- to north-trending lineaments and faults associated with the DVFCFZ and with the Pahrump fault zone in the Death Valley Junction quadrangle. The second group consists of north- to east-northeast-trending lineaments and faults in a broad area that lies east of the DVFCFZ and north of the Pahrump fault zone. Preliminary observations of the orientations and sense of slip of the lineaments and faults suggest that the least principle stress direction is west-east in the area of the first group and northwest-southeast in the area of the second group. The DVFCFZ appears to be part of a regional right-lateral strike-slip system. The DVFCFZ steps right, accompanied by normal faulting in an extensional zone, to the northern part of the Walker Lane a the northern end of Fish Lake Valley (Goldfield quadrangle), and appears to step left, accompanied by faulting and folding in a compressional zone, to the Pahrump fault zone in the area of Ash Meadows (Death Valley Junction quadrangle). 25 refs.

  5. Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Advanced Technology Vehicles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reequipping and Engineering CX(s) Applied: B1.31, B5.1 Date: 09062011 ... Aptera All-Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles CX(s) Applied: B1.31, B5.1 Date: 0620...

  6. Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Western Area PowerAdministratio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reconstruction of the V.T. Hanlon Substation CX(s) Applied: B4.11 Date: 03232015 ... Reconstruction of the V.T. Hanlon Substation CX(s) Applied: B4.11 Date: 03232015 ...

  7. Appendix HYDRO: Hydrological Investigations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    HYDRO-2014 Hydrological Investigations United States Department of Energy Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Carlsbad Field Office Carlsbad, New Mexico Compliance Recertification Application 2014 Appendix HYDRO-2014 Table of Contents HYDRO-1.0 Hydrological Studies HYDRO-2.0 Optimization of Culebra Monitoring Well Network HYDRO-3.0 Geochemical Analyses HYDRO-4.0 Steel-Cased Well Reconfiguration and Replacement HYDRO-5.0 Geological Information HYDRO-6.0 Hydraulic Test Interpretation HYDRO-7.0 Monitoring

  8. Quantification of Hydrological, Geochemical, and Mineralogical Processes Governing the Fate and Transport of Uranium over Multiple Scales in Hanford Sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayes, Melanie A.; Perfect, Edmund; van den Berg, Elmer; Parker, Jack C.; Jardine, Philip M.; Tang, Guoping; Fendorf, Scott

    2006-11-15

    A long-term measure of the DOE Environmental Remediation Sciences Division is to provide sufficient scientific understanding to allow a significant fraction of DOE sites to incorporate coupled biological, chemical, and physical processes into decision making for environmental remediation and long-term stewardship by 2015. Our research targets two related, major obstacles to understanding and predicting contaminant transport at DOE sites: the heterogeneity of subsurface geologic media, and the scale dependence of experimental and modeled results.

  9. Geochemical, mineralogical and microbiological characteristics of sediment from a naturally reduced zone in a uranium-contaminated aquife

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, K M; K Kukkadapu, R K; Qafoku, N P; Peacock, A D; Lesher, E; Williams, K H; Bargar, J R; Wilkins, M J; Figueroa, L; Ranville, J; Davis, J A; Long, P E

    2012-05-23

    Localized zones or lenses of naturally reduced sediments have the potential to play a significant role in the fate and transport of redox-sensitive metals and metalloids in aquifers. To assess the mineralogy, microbiology and redox processes that occur in these zones, several cores from a region of naturally occurring reducing conditions in a U-contaminated aquifer (Rifle, CO) were examined. Sediment samples from a transect of cores ranging from oxic/suboxic Rifle aquifer sediment to naturally reduced sediment were analyzed for U and Fe content, oxidation state, and mineralogy; reduced S phases; and solid-phase organic C content using a suite of analytical and spectroscopic techniques on bulk sediment and size fractions. Solid-phase U concentrations were higher in the naturally reduced zone, with a high proportion of the U present as U(IV). The sediments were also elevated in reduced S phases and Fe(II), indicating it is very likely that U(VI), Fe(III), and SO4 reduction has occurred or is occurring in the sediment. The microbial community was assessed using lipid- and DNA-based techniques, and statistical redundancy analysis was performed to determine correlations between the microbial community and the geochemistry. Increased concentrations of solid-phase organic C and biomass in the naturally reduced sediment suggests that natural bioreduction is stimulated by a zone of increased organic C concentration associated with fine-grained material and lower permeability to groundwater flow. Characterization of the naturally bioreduced sediment provides an understanding of the natural processes that occur in the sediment under reducing conditions and how they may impact natural attenuation of radionuclides and other redox sensitive materials. Results also suggest the importance of recalcitrant organic C for maintaining reducing conditions and U immobilization.

  10. Assessment of Geochemical Environment for the Proposed INL Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Craig Cooper

    2011-11-01

    Conservative sorption parameters have been estimated for the proposed Idaho National Laboratory Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility. This analysis considers the influence of soils, concrete, and steel components on water chemistry and the influence of water chemistry on the relative partitioning of radionuclides over the life of the facility. A set of estimated conservative distribution coefficients for the primary media encountered by transported radionuclides has been recommended. These media include the vault system, concrete-sand-gravel mix, alluvium, and sedimentary interbeds. This analysis was prepared to support the performance assessment required by U.S. Department of Energy Order 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management.' The estimated distribution coefficients are provided to support release and transport calculations of radionuclides from the waste form through the vadose zone. A range of sorption parameters are provided for each key transport media, with recommended values being conservative. The range of uncertainty has been bounded through an assessment of most-likely-minimum and most-likely-maximum distribution coefficient values. The range allows for adequate assessment of mean facility performance while providing the basis for uncertainty analysis.

  11. Predictive modeling of CO{sub 2} sequestration in deep saline sandstone reservoirs: Impacts of geochemical kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balashov, Victor N.; Guthrie, George D.; Hakala, J. Alexandra; Lopano, Christina L. J.; Rimstidt, Donald; Brantley, Susan L.

    2013-03-01

    One idea for mitigating the increase in fossil-fuel generated CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere is to inject CO{sub 2} into subsurface saline sandstone reservoirs. To decide whether to try such sequestration at a globally significant scale will require the ability to predict the fate of injected CO{sub 2}. Thus, models are needed to predict the rates and extents of subsurface rock-water-gas interactions. Several reactive transport models for CO{sub 2} sequestration created in the last decade predicted sequestration in sandstone reservoirs of ~17 to ~90 kg CO{sub 2} m{sup -3|. To build confidence in such models, a baseline problem including rock + water chemistry is proposed as the basis for future modeling so that both the models and the parameterizations can be compared systematically. In addition, a reactive diffusion model is used to investigate the fate of injected supercritical CO{sub 2} fluid in the proposed baseline reservoir + brine system. In the baseline problem, injected CO{sub 2} is redistributed from the supercritical (SC) free phase by dissolution into pore brine and by formation of carbonates in the sandstone. The numerical transport model incorporates a full kinetic description of mineral-water reactions under the assumption that transport is by diffusion only. Sensitivity tests were also run to understand which mineral kinetics reactions are important for CO{sub 2} trapping. The diffusion transport model shows that for the first ~20 years after CO{sub 2} diffusion initiates, CO{sub 2} is mostly consumed by dissolution into the brine to form CO{sub 2,aq} (solubility trapping). From 20-200 years, both solubility and mineral trapping are important as calcite precipitation is driven by dissolution of oligoclase. From 200 to 1000 years, mineral trapping is the most important sequestration mechanism, as smectite dissolves and calcite precipitates. Beyond 2000 years, most trapping is due to formation of aqueous HCO{sub 3}{sup -}. Ninety-seven percent of the maximum CO{sub 2} sequestration, 34.5 kg CO{sub 2} per m{sup 3} of sandstone, is attained by 4000 years even though the system does not achieve chemical equilibrium until ~25,000 years. This maximum represents about 20% CO{sub 2} dissolved as CO{sub 2},aq, 50% dissolved as HCO{sub 3}{sup -}{sub ,aq}, and 30% precipitated as calcite. The extent of sequestration as HCO{sub 3}{sup -} at equilibrium can be calculated from equilibrium thermodynamics and is roughly equivalent to the amount of Na+ in the initial sandstone in a soluble mineral (here, oligoclase). Similarly, the extent of trapping in calcite is determined by the amount of Ca2+ in the initial oligoclase and smectite. Sensitivity analyses show that the rate of CO{sub 2} sequestration is sensitive to the mineral-water reaction kinetic constants between approximately 10 and 4000 years. The sensitivity of CO{sub 2} sequestration to the rate constants decreases in magnitude respectively from oligoclase to albite to smectite.

  12. Geochemical, metagenomic and metaproteomic insights into trace metal utilization by methane-oxidizing microbial consortia in sulphidic marine sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glass, DR. Jennifer; Yu, DR. Hang; Steele, Joshua; Dawson, Katherine; Sun, S; Chourey, Karuna; Pan, Chongle; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L; Orphan, V

    2013-01-01

    Microbes have obligate requirements for trace metals in metalloenzymes that catalyse important biogeochemical reactions. In anoxic methane- and sulphiderich environments, microbes may have unique adaptations for metal acquisition and utilization because of decreased bioavailability as a result of metal sulphide precipitation. However, micronutrient cycling is largely unexplored in cold ( 10 C) and sulphidic (> 1 mM H2S) deep-sea methane seep ecosystems. We investigated trace metal geochemistry and microbial metal utilization in methane seeps offshore Oregon and California, USA, and report dissolved concentrations of nickel (0.5 270 nM), cobalt (0.5 6 nM), molybdenum (10 5600 nM) and tungsten (0.3 8 nM) in Hydrate Ridge sediment porewaters. Despite low levels of cobalt and tungsten, metagenomic and metaproteomic data suggest that microbial consortia catalysing anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) utilize both scarce micronutrients in addition to nickel and molybdenum. Genetic machinery for cobalt-containing vitamin B12 biosynthesis was present in both anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) and sulphate-reducing bacteria. Proteins affiliated with the tungsten-containing form of formylmethanofuran dehydrogenase were expressed in ANME from two seep ecosystems, the first evidence for expression of a tungstoenzyme in psychrophilic microorganisms. Overall, our data suggest that AOM consortia use specialized biochemical strategies to overcome the challenges of metal availability in sulphidic environments.

  13. Coal fly ash interaction with environmental fluids: Geochemical and strontium isotope results from combined column and batch leaching experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brubaker, Tonya M.; Stewart, Brian W.; Capo, Rosemary C.; Schroeder, Karl T.; Chapman, Elizabeth C.; Spivak-Birndorf, Lev J.; Vesper, Dorothy J.; Cardone, Carol R.; Rohar, Paul C.

    2013-05-01

    The major element and Sr isotope systematics and geochemistry of coal fly ash and its interactions with environmental waters were investigated using laboratory flow-through column leaching experiments (sodium carbonate, acetic acid, nitric acid) and sequential batch leaching experiments (water, acetic acid, hydrochloric acid). Column leaching of Class F fly ash samples shows rapid release of most major elements early in the leaching procedure, suggesting an association of these elements with soluble and surface bound phases. Delayed release of certain elements (e.g., Al, Fe, Si) signals gradual dissolution of more resistant silicate or glass phases as leaching continues. Strontium isotope results from both column and batch leaching experiments show a marked increase in {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio with continued leaching, yielding a total range of values from 0.7107 to 0.7138. For comparison, the isotopic composition of fluid output from a fly ash impoundment in West Virginia falls in a narrow range around 0.7124. The experimental data suggest the presence of a more resistant, highly radiogenic silicate phase that survives the combustion process and is leached after the more soluble minerals are removed. Strontium isotopic homogenization of minerals in coal does not always occur during the combustion process, despite the high temperatures encountered in the boiler. Early-released Sr tends to be isotopically uniform; thus the Sr isotopic composition of fly ash could be distinguishable from other sources and is a useful tool for quantifying the possible contribution of fly ash leaching to the total dissolved load in natural surface and ground waters.

  14. Geochemical, metagenomic and metaproteomic insights into trace metal utilization by methane-oxidizing microbial consortia in sulfidic marine sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glass, DR. Jennifer; Yu, DR. Hang; Steele, Joshua; Dawson, Katherine; Sun, S; Chourey, Karuna; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L; Orphan, V

    2014-01-01

    Microbes have obligate requirements for trace metals in metalloenzymes that catalyze important biogeochemical reactions. In anoxic methane- and sulfide-rich environments, microbes may have unique adaptations for metal acquisition and utilization due to decreased bioavailability as a result of metal sulfide precipitation. However, micronutrient cycling is largely unexplored in cold ( 10 C) and sulfidic (>1 mM H2S) deep-sea methane seep ecosystems. We investigated trace metal geochemistry and microbial metal utilization in methane seeps offshore Oregon and California, USA, and report dissolved concentrations of nickel (0.5-270 nM), cobalt (0.5-6 nM), molybdenum (10-5,600 nM) and tungsten (0.3-8 nM) in Hydrate Ridge sediment porewaters. Despite low levels of cobalt and tungsten, metagenomic and metaproteomic data suggest that microbial consortia catalyzing anaerobic oxidation of methane utilize both scarce micronutrients in addition to nickel and molybdenum. Genetic machinery for cobalt-containing vitamin B12 biosynthesis was present in both anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Proteins affiliated with the tungsten-containing form of formylmethanofuran dehydrogenase were expressed in ANME from two seep ecosystems, the first evidence for expression of a tungstoenzyme in psychrotolerant microorganisms. Finally, our data suggest that chemical speciation of metals in highly sulfidic porewaters may exert a stronger influence on microbial bioavailability than total concentration

  15. Geochemical reconnaissance for uranium in middle tertiary ash-flow tuffs of the Morey Peak Quadrangle, northern Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, K.C.

    1981-01-01

    Rock and water samples were collected from the Morey Peak 15' quadrangle in the northern Hot Creek Range, Nye County, Nevada. The water was analyzed for trace element content. The rock samples were analyzed for oxide composition, selected trace element composition, and K-U-Th content. Water sampled from springs, hot springs, and creeks had temperatures ranging between 8 and 60/sup 0/C, conductance between 100 and 1800 mhos, pH between 5.4 and 8.7, and Eh between -106 and -301 mv. Factor analysis of the sample set reveals a U-Li-Se association and also identifies oxidized galena in solution. This analysis suggests that water need only be analyzed for copper, lithium, selenium, uranium, and vanadium in an uranium exploration program. Oxide analyses of these samples show gross similarities to other volcanic suites in central Nevada. Correlation coefficients indicate that in this area uranium is independent of any of the tested variables. Factor analyses suggest that there is an association between beryllium and uranium, arsenic and uranium, and selenium and uranium. The K-U-Th analyses yielded a wide variance of measurements. Potassium content ranges between 0 and 7.66%, thorium between 0 and 39.09 ppM, and uranium between 0.04 and 1744 ppM. Disequilibrium plots suggest that the mineralization present in the Corral Canyon area is late.

  16. Geochemical Analyses of Surface and Shallow Gas Flux and Composition Over a Proposed Carbon Sequestration Site in Eastern Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Parris; Michael Solis; Kathryn Takacs

    2009-12-31

    Using soil gas chemistry to detect leakage from underground reservoirs (i.e. microseepage) requires that the natural range of soil gas flux and chemistry be fully characterized. To meet this need, soil gas flux (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}) and the bulk (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}) and isotopic chemistry ({delta}{sup 13}C-CO2) of shallow soil gases (<1 m, 3.3 ft) were measured at 25 locations distributed among two active oil and gas fields, an active strip mine, and a relatively undisturbed research forest in eastern Kentucky. The measurements apportion the biologic, atmospheric, and geologic influences on soil gas composition under varying degrees of human surface disturbance. The measurements also highlight potential challenges in using soil gas chemistry as a monitoring tool where the surface cover consists of reclaimed mine land or is underlain by shallow coals. For example, enrichment of ({delta}{sup 13}C-CO2) and high CH{sub 4} concentrations in soils have been historically used as indicators of microseepage, but in the reclaimed mine lands similar soil chemistry characteristics likely result from dissolution of carbonate cement in siliciclastic clasts having {delta}{sup 13}C values close to 0{per_thousand} and degassing of coal fragments. The gases accumulate in the reclaimed mine land soils because intense compaction reduces soil permeability, thereby impeding equilibration with the atmosphere. Consequently, the reclaimed mine lands provide a false microseepage anomaly. Further potential challenges arise from low permeability zones associated with compacted soils in reclaimed mine lands and shallow coals in undisturbed areas that might impede upward gas migration. To investigate the effect of these materials on gas migration and composition, four 10 m (33 ft) deep monitoring wells were drilled in reclaimed mine material and in undisturbed soils with and without coals. The wells, configured with sampling zones at discrete intervals, show the persistence of some of the aforementioned anomalies at depth. Moreover, high CO{sub 2} concentrations associated with coals in the vadose zone suggest a strong affinity for adsorbing CO{sub 2}. Overall, the low permeability of reclaimed mine lands and coals and CO2 adsorption by the latter is likely to reduce the ability of surface geochemistry tools to detect a microseepage signal.

  17. Hanford 100-N Area In Situ Apatite and Phosphate Emplacement by Groundwater and Jet Injection: Geochemical and Physical Core Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szecsody, James E.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Williams, Mark D.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Phillips, Jerry L.

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate emplacement of phosphate into subsurface sediments in the Hanford Site 100-N Area by two different technologies: groundwater injection of a Ca-citrate-PO4 solution and water-jet injection of sodium phosphate and/or fish-bone apatite. In situ emplacement of phosphate and apatite adsorbs, then incorporates Sr-90 into the apatite structure by substitution for calcium. Overall, both technologies (groundwater injection of Ca-citrate-PO4) and water-jet injection of sodium phosphate/fish-bone apatite) delivered sufficient phosphate to subsurface sediments in the 100-N Area. Over years to decades, additional Sr-90 will incorporate into the apatite precipitate. Therefore, high pressure water jetting is a viable technology to emplace phosphate or apatite in shallow subsurface sediments difficult to emplace by Ca-citrate-PO4 groundwater injections, but further analysis is needed to quantify the relevant areal extent of phosphate deposition (in the 5- to 15-ft distance from injection points) and cause of the high deposition in finer grained sediments.

  18. Low- to moderate-temperature geothermal resource assessment for Nevada: area specific studies, Pumpernickel Valley, Carlin and Moana. Final report June 1, 1981-July 31, 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trexler, D.T.; Flynn, T.; Koenig, B.A.; Bell, E.J.; Ghusn, G. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Geological, geophysical and geochemical surveys were used in conjunction with temperature gradient hole drilling to assess the geothermal resources in Pumpernickel Valley and Carlin, Nevada. This program is based on a statewide assessment of geothermal resources that was completed in 1979. The exploration techniques are based on previous federally-funded assessment programs that were completed in six other areas in Nevada and include: literature search and compilation of existing data, geologic reconnaissance, chemical sampling of thermal and non-thermal fluids, interpretation of satellite imagery, interpretation of low-sun angle aerial photographs, two-meter depth temperature probe survey, gravity survey, seismic survey, soil-mercury survey, and temperature gradient drilling.

  19. A multidiscipline study offshore Texas, Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Land, J.P.; Curtis, C.E. ); Bird, D.A. ); Behrman, R.G.; Jamison, L.A.

    1993-09-01

    In a 500 mi[sup 2] area of the Gulf of Mexico off the Texas coast, we closely examined geologic, gravity, magnetic, seismic, and surface geochemical data and produced an integrated interpretation in an effort to better understand the information contribution of each method and to attempt to improve the visualization of the physical makeup of the subsurface, thereby increasing exploration efficiency in the region. The various data are presented in profile and contour form along with the integrated interpretation and a discussion of survey parameters, procedures, results and conclusions.

  20. Liquid Geothermometry | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Exploration Group: Geochemical Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Geochemical Data Analysis Parent Exploration Technique: Geothermometry Information Provided by Technique...

  1. Gas Geothermometry | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Exploration Group: Geochemical Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Geochemical Data Analysis Parent Exploration Technique: Geothermometry Information Provided by Technique...

  2. Isotope Geothermometry | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Exploration Group: Geochemical Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Geochemical Data Analysis Parent Exploration Technique: Geothermometry Information Provided by Technique...

  3. Investigation of chlorinated aromatic compounds in the environment: Methods development and data interpretation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, Wanghsien.

    1989-01-01

    Detection of low levels of chlorinated benzene compounds (CLBZ) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soil samples has been investigated with respect to potential sources in an industrial area of western New York state. The extract obtained by steam distillation was used directly with minimal additional cleanup steps for high resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (HRGC/MS) and high resolution gas chromatography with electron capture detection (HRGC/ECD) analysis. The Nielson-Kryger steam distillation technique was used to extract CLBZ compounds and PCB congeners from soil samples. The recoveries of the CLBZ compounds in soil samples were monitored by comparison of the response for the {sup 13}C-labelled analogues in each isomeric group. The mean recoveries from field samples ranged from 63% to 76%. The recoveries of PCB congeners were measured using four air-dried subsurface soils which were spiked with Aroclors standard mixture. The mean recoveries of most PCB congeners ranged from 80% to 99%. Using HRGC/MS in the selected ion monitoring mode (SIM), a detection limit below 10 pg/g (10 pptr, parts per trillion) of the CLBZ compounds was achieved. For GC/ECD, an Apiezon L-coated glass capillary column was used to determine PCB congeners at background levels. More than 69 PCB congeners were separated on this column. The detection limit for an individual congener was about 0.01 ng/g. Application of SIMCA (SImple Modeling by Chemical Analogy) pattern recognition and multiple discriminant analysis showed that the pattern of CLBZ compounds in soil samples collected near Love Canal was similar to the patterns from the other areas in the Niagara Falls area. The highest concentrations of CLBZ compounds were detected in the area which is near and downwind from an industrial center with many potential sources of airborne emissions.

  4. EZ reader: Embedded AI for automatic electronic mail interpretation and routing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, A.; Hus, J.; Angotti, A.; Piccolo, R.

    1996-12-31

    EZ Reader is an intelligent electronic mail (email) reader that employs a unique combination of rule-based parsing and case-based reasoning to automatically and with a high level of accuracy classify and respond to large volumes of incoming email. EZ Reader reduces the time and human resources required to handle incoming email by selecting responses and adding attachments and advice to each incoming message based on how previous similar messages were handled. The application, developed for Chase Manhattan Bank using Brightware, Inc.`s ART* Enterprise{reg_sign} tool, answers emails automatically and decreases processing time for those requiring manual review. Phase I of EZ Reader was deployed in the first quarter of 1996, and handles up to 80% of incoming mail automatically, depending on message content. Later phases will enable automatic processing of a wider variety of messages. By dramatically reducing the effort associated with manual processing, EZ Reader will pay its own development costs within six months and will result in substantial, recurring dollar savings each year. This paper describes EZ Reader in detail, including its Al-based design, testing, implementation and development history.

  5. Melt state behaviour of PEEK and processing window interpretation for fast compression moulding process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bessard, Emeline; De Almeida, Olivier; Bernhart, Gerard

    2011-01-17

    Fast mould heating is nowadays possible by using induction technology for example with the Cage System registered developed by RocTool. It allows heating and cooling kinetics of about 100 deg. C per minute and new perspectives are thus possible to optimize the compression moulding process of long fibre reinforced thermoplastic composites. Indeed, a high forming temperature may favour polymer creep and so on composite consolidation. Nevertheless, the processing time of PEEK composite above melt temperature must be reduced to a few minutes due to the fast thermal degradation of the matrix. On the other hand, high cooling rates may have negative effect on matrix crystallinity. The proposed procedure consist in performing a few minutes isotherm around 300 deg. C during the fast cooling. It would favour a high degree of crystallinity of PEEK without extending the cycle time.

  6. A MODERN INTERPRETATION OF THE BARNEY DIAGRAM FOR ALUMINUM SOLUBILITY IN TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    REYNOLDS JG; REYNOLDS DA

    2009-12-16

    Experimental and modeling studies of aluminum solubility in Hanford tank waste have been developed and refined for many years in efforts to resolve new issues or develop waste treatment flowsheets. The earliest of these studies was conducted by G. Scott Barney, who performed solubility studies in highly concentrated electrolyte solutions to support evaporator campaign flowsheets in the 1970's. The 'Barney Diagram', a term still widely used at Hanford today, suggested gibbsite ({gamma}-Al(OH){sub 3}) was much more soluble in tank waste than in simple sodium hydroxide solutions. These results, which were highly surprising at the time, continue to be applied to new situations where aluminum solubility in tank waste is of interest. Here, we review the history and provide a modern explanation for the large gibbsite solubility observed by Barney, an explanation based on basic research that has been performed and published in the last 30 years. This explanation has both thermodynamic and kinetic aspects. Thermodynamically, saturated salt solutions stabilize soluble aluminate species that are minor components in simple sodium hydroxide solutions. These species are the aluminate dimer and the sodium-aluminate ion-pair. Ion-pairs must be present in the Barney simulants because calculations showed that there was insufficient space between the highly concentrated ions for a water molecule. Thus, most of the ions in the simulants have to be ion-paired. Kinetics likely played a role as well. The simulants were incubated for four to seven days, and more recent data indicate that this was unlikely sufficient time to achieve equilibrium from supersaturation. These results allow us to evaluate applications of the Barney results to current and future tank waste issues or flowsheets.

  7. Correlation and deposystem interpretation for Lower Mississippian sequence in subsurface of West Virginia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boswell, R.M.; Jewell, G.A. )

    1988-08-01

    Correlation and depositional environments of the Upper Devonian-Lower Mississippian Price-Rockwell delta complex are well understood for units along the outcrop belt in eastern West Virginia. However, the correlation of these units with the sequence of subsurface driller's sandstones is poorly known. Furthermore, little is known concerning the relationships of the well-developed Lower Mississippian hydrocarbon-bearing strata of southern West Virginia with equivalent units to the north. Regional analysis of over 700 gamma-ray well logs, combined with study of outcrops at Rowlesburg and Caldwell, West Virginia, provides insight into the nature of the Cloyd conglomerate, and the Berea, Weir, Squaw, and Big Injun sandstones and allows the refinement of the stratigraphic succession of the Price Formation in southern West Virginia. New members listed herein are as of yet information, pending publication of description of type sections from the Caldwell outcrop.

  8. SLOW RISE AND PARTIAL ERUPTION OF A DOUBLE-DECKER FILAMENT. I. OBSERVATIONS AND INTERPRETATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Rui; Kliem, Bernhard; Toeroek, Tibor; Titov, Viacheslav S.; Lionello, Roberto; Linker, Jon A.; Liu Chang; Wang Haimin

    2012-09-01

    We study an active-region dextral filament that was composed of two branches separated in height by about 13 Mm, as inferred from three-dimensional reconstruction by combining SDO and STEREO-B observations. This 'double-decker' configuration sustained for days before the upper branch erupted with a GOES-class M1.0 flare on 2010 August 7. Analyzing this evolution, we obtain the following main results. (1) During the hours before the eruption, filament threads within the lower branch were observed to intermittently brighten up, lift upward, and then merge with the upper branch. The merging process contributed magnetic flux and current to the upper branch, resulting in its quasi-static ascent. (2) This transfer might serve as the key mechanism for the upper branch to lose equilibrium by reaching the limiting flux that can be stably held down by the overlying field or by reaching the threshold of the torus instability. (3) The erupting branch first straightened from a reverse S shape that followed the polarity inversion line and then writhed into a forward S shape. This shows a transfer of left-handed helicity in a sequence of writhe-twist-writhe. The fact that the initial writhe is converted into the twist of the flux rope excludes the helical kink instability as the trigger process of the eruption, but supports the occurrence of the instability in the main phase, which is indeed indicated by the very strong writhing motion. (4) A hard X-ray sigmoid, likely of coronal origin, formed in the gap between the two original filament branches in the impulsive phase of the associated flare. This supports a model of transient sigmoids forming in the vertical flare current sheet. (5) Left-handed magnetic helicity is inferred for both branches of the dextral filament. (6) Two types of force-free magnetic configurations are compatible with the data, a double flux rope equilibrium and a single flux rope situated above a loop arcade.

  9. Quantitative interpretation of the transition voltages in gold-poly(phenylene) thiol-gold molecular junctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Kunlin; Bai, Meilin; Hou, Shimin; Sanvito, Stefano

    2013-11-21

    The transition voltage of three different asymmetric Au/poly(phenylene) thiol/Au molecular junctions in which the central molecule is either benzene thiol, biphenyl thiol, or terphenyl thiol is investigated by first-principles quantum transport simulations. For all the junctions, the calculated transition voltage at positive polarity is in quantitative agreement with the experimental values and shows weak dependence on alterations of the Au-phenyl contact. When compared to the strong coupling at the Au-S contact, which dominates the alignment of various molecular orbitals with respect to the electrode Fermi level, the coupling at the Au-phenyl contact produces only a weak perturbation. Therefore, variations of the Au-phenyl contact can only have a minor influence on the transition voltage. These findings not only provide an explanation to the uniformity in the transition voltages found for ?-conjugated molecules measured with different experimental methods, but also demonstrate the advantage of transition voltage spectroscopy as a tool for determining the positions of molecular levels in molecular devices.

  10. Testing the Technicolor Interpretation of the CDF Dijet Excess at the 8-TeV LHC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eichten, Estia; Lane, Kenneth; Martin, Adam; Pilon, Eric

    2012-10-01

    Under the assumption that the dijet excess seen by the CDF Collaboration near 150 Gev in Wjj production is due to the lightest technipion of the low-scale technicolor process $\\rho_T \\rightarrow W \\pi_T$, we study its observability in LHC detectors for 8 TeV collisions and 20 inverse femtobarns of integrated luminosity. We describe interesting new kinematic tests that can provide independent confirmation of this LSTC hypothesis. We show that cuts similar to those employed by CDF, and recently by ATLAS, cannot confirm the dijet signal. We propose cuts tailored to the LSTC hypothesis and its backgrounds at the LHC that may reveal $\\rho_T \\rightarrow \\ell\

  11. Internal Revenue Service, Section 6166, and oil and gas: legislation by interpretation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choate, G.M.; Massoglia, D.J.

    1983-06-01

    The importance of adequate estate planning regarding oil and gas properties has increased with the rise in world oil prices. The Internal Revenue Code, Sections 6166 and 6166A, which permit a deferment of estate tax payments by taxing future business earnings instead, inadvertently prohibits the estates of those who were actively engaged in the oil and gas industry as sole proprietors. Legislative reform is deemed to be necessary in order to allow Congress' original intentions to be realized. The background of the Code is discussed as well as the qualifications necessary in the IRS' estimation of electing those eligible for deferments. 25 references.

  12. AN ASTEROID BELT INTERPRETATION FOR THE TIMING VARIATIONS OF THE MILLISECOND PULSAR B1937+21

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shannon, R. M.; Cordes, J. M.; Metcalfe, T. S.; Lazio, T. J. W.; Jessner, A.; Kramer, M.; Lazaridis, K. E-mail: cordes@astro.cornell.edu

    2013-03-20

    Pulsar timing observations have revealed companions to neutron stars that include other neutron stars, white dwarfs, main-sequence stars, and planets. We demonstrate that the correlated and apparently stochastic residual times of arrival from the millisecond pulsar B1937+21 are consistent with the signature of an asteroid belt having a total mass {approx}< 0.05 M{sub Circled-Plus }. Unlike the solar system's asteroid belt, the best fit pulsar asteroid belt extends over a wide range of radii, consistent with the absence of any shepherding companions. We suggest that any pulsar that has undergone accretion-driven spin-up and subsequently evaporated its companion may harbor orbiting asteroid mass objects. The resulting timing variations may fundamentally limit the timing precision of some of the other millisecond pulsars. Observational tests of the asteroid belt model include identifying periodicities from individual asteroids, which are difficult; testing for statistical stationarity, which becomes possible when observations are conducted over a longer observing span; and searching for reflected radio emission.

  13. Analysis and Interpretation of Hard X-ray Emission fromthe Bullet...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 43 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS; DETECTION; ELECTRONS; GALAXIES; KEV RANGE; SYNCHROTRONS; HARD X ...

  14. New interpretations of Paleozoic stratigraphy and history in the northern Laramie Range and vicinity, Southeast Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sando, W.J.; Sandberg, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    Biostratigraphic and lithostratigraphic studies of the Paleozoic sequence in Southeast Wyoming indicate the need for revision of the ages and nomenclature of Devonian, Mississippian, and Pennsylvanian formations. The Paleozoic sequence begins with a quartzarenite of Devonian age referred to the newly named Fremont Canyon Sandstone, which is overlain by the Englewood Formation of Late Devonian and Early Mississippian age. The Englewood is succeeded by the Madison Limestone of Early and Late Mississippian age, which is overlain disconformably by the Darwin Sandstone Member (Pennsylvanian) of the Casper and Hartville formations. This sequence represents predominantly marine deposition in near-shore environments marginal to the ancient Transcontinental Arch.

  15. Development of Exploration Methods for Engineered Geothermal System through Integrated Geoscience Interpretation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. This project will deploy, test and calibrate Non-invasive EGS Exploration Methodology integrating geoscience data to predict temperature and rock type at a scale of 5km x 5km at depths of 1-5km.

  16. OPTICALLY THICK H I DOMINANT IN THE LOCAL INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM: AN ALTERNATIVE INTERPRETATION TO ''DARK GAS''

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fukui, Y.; Torii, K.; Yamamoto, H.; Okamoto, R.; Hayakawa, T.; Tachihara, K.; Sano, H.; Onishi, T.

    2015-01-01

    Dark gas in the interstellar medium (ISM) is believed to not be detectable either in CO or H I radio emission, but it is detectable by other means including γ rays, dust emission, and extinction traced outside the Galactic plane at |b| > 5°. In these analyses, the 21 cm H I emission is usually assumed to be completely optically thin. We have reanalyzed the H I emission from the whole sky at |b| > 15° by considering temperature stratification in the ISM inferred from the Planck/IRAS analysis of the dust properties. The results indicate that the H I emission is saturated with an optical depth ranging from 0.5 to 3 for 85% of the local H I gas. This optically thick H I is characterized by spin temperature in the range 10 K-60 K, significantly lower than previously postulated in the literature, whereas such low temperature is consistent with emission/absorption measurements of the cool H I toward radio continuum sources. The distribution and the column density of the H I are consistent with those of the dark gas suggested by γ rays, and it is possible that the dark gas in the Galaxy is dominated by optically thick cold H I gas. This result implies that the average density of H I is 2-2.5 times higher than that derived on the optically thin assumption in the local ISM.

  17. Interpretation of thermoelectric properties of Cu substituted LaCoO{sub 3} ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choudhary, K. K.; Kaurav, N.; Sharma, U.; Ghosh, S. K.

    2014-04-24

    The thermoelectric properties of LaCo{sub 1?x}Cu{sub x}O{sub 3??} is theoretically analyzed, it is observed that thermoelectric figure of merit ZT (=S{sup 2}?T/?) is maximized by Cu substitution in LaCoO{sub 3} Ceramics at x=0.15. The lattice thermal conductivity and thermoelectric power were estimated by the scattering of phonons with defects, grain boundaries, electrons and phonons to evaluate the thermoelectric properties. We found that Cu substitution increase the phonon scattering with grain boundaries and defects which significantly increase the thermoelectric power and decrease the thermal conductivity. The present numerical analysis will help in designing more efficient thermoelectric materials.

  18. INTERPRETATION OF AT-LINE SPECTRA FROM AFS-2 BATCH #3 FERROUS SULFAMATE TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyser, E.; O'Rourke, P.

    2013-12-10

    Spectra from the at-line spectrometer were obtained during the ferrous sulfamate (FS) valence adjustment step of AFS-2 Batch #3 on 9/18/2013. These spectra were analyzed by mathematical principal component regression (PCR) techniques to evaluate the effectiveness of this treatment. Despite the complications from Pu(IV), we conclude that all Pu(VI) was consumed during the FS treatment, and that by the end of the treatment, about 85% was as Pu(IV) and about 15% was as Pu(III). Due to the concerns about the odd shape of the Pu(IV) peak and the possibility of this behavior being observed in the future, a follow-up sample was sent to SRNL to investigate this further. Analysis of this sample confirmed the previous results and concluded that it odd shape was due to an intermediate acid concentration. Since the spectral evidence shows complete reduction of Pu(VI) we conclude that it is appropriate to proceed with processing of this the batch of feed solution for HB-Line including the complexation of the fluoride with aluminum nitrate.

  19. Interpretation of the MEG-MUSIC scan in biomagnetic source localization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mosher, J.C.; Lewis, P.S.; Leahy, R.M.

    1993-09-01

    MEG-Music is a new approach to MEG source localization. MEG-Music is based on a spatio-temporal source model in which the observed biomagnetic fields are generated by a small number of current dipole sources with fixed positions/orientations and varying strengths. From the spatial covariance matrix of the observed fields, a signal subspace can be identified. The rank of this subspace is equal to the number of elemental sources present. This signal sub-space is used in a projection metric that scans the three dimensional head volume. Given a perfect signal subspace estimate and a perfect forward model, the metric will peak at unity at each dipole location. In practice, the signal subspace estimate is contaminated by noise, which in turn yields MUSIC peaks which are less than unity. Previously we examined the lower bounds on localization error, independent of the choice of localization procedure. In this paper, we analyzed the effects of noise and temporal coherence on the signal subspace estimate and the resulting effects on the MEG-MUSIC peaks.

  20. A partonic interpretation of DVCS at small x{sub B{sub j}}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumericki, Kresimir; Mueller, Dieter; Passek-Kumericki, Kornelija

    2009-03-23

    We describe small-X{sub B{sub j}} deeply virtual Compton scattering measurements at HERA in terms of generalized parton distributions at leading order of perturbation series.

  1. On physical interpretation of two dimensional time-correlations regarding time delay velocities and eddy shaping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fedorczak, N.; Manz, P.; Thakur, S. C.; Xu, M.; Tynan, G. R.; Xu, G. S.; Liu, S. C.

    2012-12-15

    Time delay estimation (TDE) techniques are frequently used to estimate the flow velocity from fluctuating measurements. Tilted structures carried by the flow lead to misinterpretation of the time delays in terms of velocity direction and amplitude. It affects TDE measurements from probes, and is also intrinsically important for beam emission spectroscopy and gas puff imaging measurements. Local eddy shapes estimated from 2D fluctuating field are necessary to gain a more accurate flow estimate from TDE, as illustrated by Langmuir probe array measurements. A least square regression approach is proposed to estimate both flow field and shaping parameters. The technique is applied to a test case built from numerical simulation of interchange fluctuations. The local eddy shape does not only provide corrections for the velocity field but also quantitative information about the statistical interaction mechanisms between local eddies and E Multiplication-Sign B flow shear. The technique is then tested on gaz puff imaging data collected at the edge of EAST tokamak plasmas. It is shown that poloidal asymmetries of the fluctuation fields-velocity and eddy shape-are consistent at least qualitatively with a ballooning type of turbulence immersed in a radially sheared equilibrium flow.

  2. Special waste-form lysimeters - arid: 1984--1992 data summary and preliminary interpretation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, T.L.; Serne, R.J.

    1994-10-01

    A lysimeter facility constructed at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State has been used since 1984 to monitor the leaching of buried waste forms under natural conditions. The facility is generating data that are useful in evaluating source-term models used in radioactive waste transport analyses. The facility includes ten bare-soil lysimeters (183 cm diameter by 305 cm depth) containing buried waste forms generated at nuclear reactors in the United States and solidified with Portland M cement, masonry cement, bitumen, and vinyl-ester styrene. The waste forms contained in the lysimeters have been leached under natural, semiarid conditions. In spite of the semiarid conditions, from 1984 through 1992, an average of 45 cm of water leached through the lysimeters, representing 27% of area precipitation. Leachate samples have been routinely collected and analyzed for radionuclide and chemical content. To date, tritium, cobalt-60, and cesium-137 have been identified in the lysimeter leachate samples. From 1984 through 1992, over 4000 {mu}Ci of tritium, representing 76 and 71 % of inventory (not decay corrected), have been leached from the two waste forms containing tritium. Cobalt-60 has been found in the leachate from all six of the waste forms that originally contained > 1 mCi of inventory. The leached amounts of cobalt-60 represent < 0.1 % of original cobalt inventories. Mobile cobalt is believed to be chelated with organic compounds, such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), that are present in the waste. Trace amounts of cesium-137 have occasionally been identified in leachate from two waste forms since 1991. Qualitatively, the field leaching results confirm laboratory studies suggesting that tritium is readily leached from cement, and that cobalt-60 is generally leached more easily from cement than from vinyl-ester styrene.

  3. The Northwest Geysers EGS Demonstration Project, California. Pre-stimulation Modeling and Interpretation of the Stimulation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Dobson, Patrick F.; Garcia, Julio; Hartline, Craig; Jeanne, Pierre; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Vasco, Donald W.; Walters, Mark

    2013-10-17

    The Northwest Geysers Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) demonstration project aims to create an EGS by directly and systematically injecting cool water at relatively low pressure into a known High Temperature (280–400 °C) Zone (HTZ) located under the conventional (240 °C) geothermal steam reservoir at The Geysers geothermal field in California. Here we report that , the results of coupled thermal, hydraulic, and mechanical (THM) analyses made using a model developed as part of the pre-stimulation phase of the EGS demonstration project is presented. The model simulations were conducted in order to investigate injection strategies and the resulting effects of cold-watermore » injection upon the EGS system; in particular to predict the extent of the stimulation zone for a given injection schedule. The actual injection began on October 6, 2011, and in this paper a comparison of pre-stimulation model predictions with micro-earthquake (MEQ) monitoring data over the first few months of a one-year injection program is presented. The results show that, by using a calibrated THM model based on historic injection and MEQ data at a nearby well, the predicted extent of the stimulation zone (defined as a zone of high MEQ density around the injection well) compares well with observed seismicity. The modeling indicates that the MEQ events are related to shear reactivation of preexisting fractures, which is triggered by the combined effects of injection-induced cooling around the injection well and small changes in steam pressure as far as half a kilometer away from the injection well. Pressure-monitoring data at adjacent wells and satellite-based ground-surface deformation data were also used to validate and further calibrate reservoir-scale hydraulic and mechanical model properties. The pressure signature monitored from the start of the injection was particularly useful for a precise back-calculation of reservoir porosity. Ultimately, the first few months of reservoir pressure and surface deformation data were useful for estimating the reservoir-rock permeability and elastic modulus. Finally, although the extent of the calculated stimulation zone matches the field observations over the first few months of injection, the observed surface deformations and MEQ evolution showed more heterogeneous behavior as a result of more complex geology, including minor faults and fracture zones that are important for consideration in the analysis of energy production and the long-term evolution of the EGS system.« less

  4. Impact of Transmutation Issues on Interpretation of Data Obtained From Fast Reactor Irradiation Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Garner, Francis A.

    2004-04-15

    The subject of fission-fusion correlation is usually cast in terms of reactor-to-reactor differences, but recently the fusion community has become aware of the impact of differences within a given surrogate facility, especially in constant time experiments when different dose levels are attained in different positions of one reactor. For some materials, it is not safe to assume that in-reactor spectral variations are small and of no consequence. This point is illustrated using calculations for fusion-relevant materials that were irradiated in the Fast Flux Test Facility – Materials Open Test Assembly (FFTF-MOTA) over a wide range of in-core and out of core positions spanning more than two orders of magnitude in dpa rate. It is shown that although both the neutron spectrum and flux changes, the spectral effectiveness factor, dpa/10(22) superscript n/cm(2) superscript (E > 0.1 MeV), remains remarkably constant over this range. The transmutation rate per dpa varies strongly with reactor position, however.

  5. Model independent interpretation of recent CR lepton data after AMS-02

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaggero, Daniele; Maccione, Luca E-mail: luca.maccione@lmu.de

    2013-12-01

    We model the CR leptonic fluxes above 20 GeV in terms of a superposition of a standard and a charge symmetric extra component, which we generically describe as power-laws in momentum. We investigate under these hypotheses the compatibility between AMS-02, Fermi-LAT and PAMELA datasets on positron fraction, electron+positron spectrum and electron spectrum respectively. We find that it is possible to reconcile AMS and Fermi-LAT data within uncertainties, if energy-dependent effects are present in Fermi-LAT systematics. We also study possible deviations from charge symmetry in the extra component and find no compelling evidence for them.

  6. Continuous sea-floor spreading in Red Sea: an alternative interpretation of magnetic anomaly pattern

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    La Brecque, J.L.; Zitellini

    1985-04-01

    The magnetic anomaly pattern over the Red Sea can be modeled as a continuous system of sea-floor spreading from the early Miocene to the present by using a timevarying process filter. The half spreading rate is approximately 1 cm/yr (0.4 in./yr) since initial rifting. The parameters that determine the process filter and development of the transition zone are the intrusion parameter (a measure of the dispersion of feeder dikes or horizontal strain about the rift axis), a flow parameter (a measure of the average flow width), and the effusion parameter (a measure of the volcanic effusion and thickness of layer 2). The authors estimate the flow parameter to be 2.7km(1.7 mi) and the intrusion parameter to be 7.5km(4.7 mi) at early rifting. These values suggest that a wide distribution of axial dikes or horizontal strain is the dominant factor in forming the magnetic anomaly pattern. Reduction in the width of the intrusion parameter and the effusion rate as rifting proceeded resulted in focusing of the strain, thinning of layer 2, and formation of the Red Sea deeps. Their modeling suggests that phase 2, or the stratoid phase, began about the time of anomaly 5C or chron C5C approximately 16 Ma. This age is compatible with geologic estimates of the initial rifting at the late Oligocene to early Miocene (Coleman, 1974; Gass, 1977). The opening rate for Africa-Arabia plate motion has remained relatively constant since early rifting although the African margin appears to be accreting faster than the Arabian plate.

  7. Development and Testing of A Radiation Model for Interpreting ARM Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiang FU

    2004-11-01

    A research program devoted to improving the understanding of atmospheric radiation processes has been supported by DOE ARM Grant DE-FG03-00ER62931. This research effort was carried out at the University of Washington from March 16, 2000 to October 31, 2002 with Prof. Qiang Fu as the principal investigator. In this report, the major accomplishments from the research effort are first described in section one. The journal publications that acknowledge DOE ARM Grant DE-FG03-00ER62931 are listed in section two. In Section 3, the presentations in the ARM Science Meetings are listed from 2000 to 2002.

  8. Evaluation of PM-3 Chemistry Data and Possible Interpretations of 3H Observations, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, Robert; Marutzky, Sam J.

    2015-02-01

    This report summarizes the analyses of the groundwater results from sampling of PM-3-1 (deep) and PM-3-2 (shallow), with a particular focus of evaluating the groundwater geochemistry data in comparison to the geochemistry observed in other wells in the Thirsty Canyon area as well as to evaluate the potential source of 3H observed in these piezometers from previous sampling activities, which employed depth-discrete bailers or a Bennett submersible piston pump.

  9. Metallography and microstructure interpretation of some archaeological tin bronze vessels from Iran

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oudbashi, Omid; Davami, Parviz

    2014-11-15

    Archaeological excavations in western Iran have recently revealed a significant Luristan Bronzes collection from Sangtarashan archaeological site. The site and its bronze collection are dated to Iron Age II/III of western Iran (10th–7th century BC) according to archaeological research. Alloy composition, microstructure and manufacturing technique of some sheet metal vessels are determined to reveal metallurgical processes in western Iran in the first millennium BC. Experimental analyses were carried out using Scanning Electron Microscopy–Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and Optical Microscopy/Metallography methods. The results allowed reconstructing the manufacturing process of bronze vessels in Luristan. It proved that the samples have been manufactured with a binary copper–tin alloy with a variable tin content that may relates to the application of an uncontrolled procedure to make bronze alloy (e.g. co-smelting or cementation). The presence of elongated copper sulphide inclusions showed probable use of copper sulphide ores for metal production and smelting. Based on metallographic studies, a cycle of cold working and annealing was used to shape the bronze vessels. - Highlights: • Sangtarashan vessels are made by variable Cu-Sn alloys with some impurities. • Various compositions occurred due to applying uncontrolled smelting methods. • The microstructure represents thermo-mechanical process to shape bronze vessels. • In one case, the annealing didn’t remove the eutectoid remaining from casting. • The characteristics of the bronzes are similar to other Iron Age Luristan Bronzes.

  10. Testing the Technicolor Interpretation of CDF's Dijet Excess at the LHC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eichten, Estia; Lane, Kenneth; Martin, Adam; Pilon, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Under the assumption that the dijet excess seen by the CDF Collaboration near 150 Gev in Wjj production is due to the lightest technipion of the low-scale technicolor process $\\rho_T \\rightarrow W \\pi_T$, we study its observability in LHC detectors with 1--20 inverse femtobarns of data. We describe interesting new kinematic tests that can provide independent confirmation of this LSTC hypothesis. We find that cuts similar to those employed by CDF, and recently by ATLAS, cannot confirm the dijet signal. We propose cuts tailored to the LSTC hypothesis and its backgrounds at the LHC that may reveal $\\rho_T \\rightarrow \\ell\

  11. Preliminary Theoretical Interpretation of the Tajmar Frame Dragging Effect Through the GEM Theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandenburg, John

    2009-03-16

    A preliminary theoretical explanation for the large amplitude frame dragging effect seen by Tajmar et al.(2007) is proposed. A simple theory of quantum photon fields mediating electrodynamics is derived based on concepts from QED. These are then expressed as quantum wave functions for rotating EM systems. Based on the GEM theory, it is proposed that gravitational frame dragging relies on similar photon wave functions. The constructive interference of the frame dragging fields with co-rotating EM photon fields coupled to Bose-Einstein components in matter at low temperatures results in a large frame dragging term due to a mixed gravity-EM term that is larger by a factor of approximately 10{sup 20} than ordinary frame dragging.

  12. Measurement and interpretation of threshold stress intensity factors for steels in high-pressure hydrogen gas.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nibur, Kevin A.

    2010-11-01

    Threshold stress intensity factors were measured in high-pressure hydrogen gas for a variety of low alloy ferritic steels using both constant crack opening displacement and rising crack opening displacement procedures. The sustained load cracking procedures are generally consistent with those in ASME Article KD-10 of Section VIII Division 3 of the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, which was recently published to guide design of high-pressure hydrogen vessels. Three definitions of threshold were established for the two test methods: K{sub THi}* is the maximum applied stress intensity factor for which no crack extension was observed under constant displacement; K{sub THa} is the stress intensity factor at the arrest position for a crack that extended under constant displacement; and K{sub JH} is the stress intensity factor at the onset of crack extension under rising displacement. The apparent crack initiation threshold under constant displacement, K{sub THi}*, and the crack arrest threshold, K{sub THa}, were both found to be non-conservative due to the hydrogen exposure and crack-tip deformation histories associated with typical procedures for sustained-load cracking tests under constant displacement. In contrast, K{sub JH}, which is measured under concurrent rising displacement and hydrogen gas exposure, provides a more conservative hydrogen-assisted fracture threshold that is relevant to structural components in which sub-critical crack extension is driven by internal hydrogen gas pressure.

  13. Interpretation of the first data on central Au+Au collisions...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    production in central Au+Au collisions taken at RHIC by the PHOBOS Collaboration as well as to existing data on central Pb+Pb collisions taken at the SPS by the NA49 Collaboration. ...

  14. Scheme dependence and transverse momentum distribution interpretation of Collins-Soper-Sterman resummation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Prokudin, Alexei; Sun, Peng; Yuan, Feng

    2015-10-01

    Following an earlier derivation by Catani-de Florian-Grazzini (2000) on the scheme dependence in the Collins-Soper- Sterman (CSS) resummation formalism in hard scattering processes, we investigate the scheme dependence of the Transverse Momentum Distributions (TMDs) and their applications. By adopting a universal C-coefficient function associated with the integrated parton distributions, the difference between various TMD schemes can be attributed to a perturbative calculable function depending on the hard momentum scale. Thus, we further apply several TMD schemes to the Drell-Yan process of lepton pair production in hadronic collisions, and find that the constrained non-perturbative form factors in different schemes are remarkablymoreconsistent with each other and with that of the standard CSS formalism.less

  15. INTERPRETATION REGARDING EXEMPTION RELIEF UNDER 10 C.F.R. PART...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EXEMPTION RELIEF UNDER 10 C.F.R. PART 820, SUBPART E, EXEMPTION RELIEF, AND NON-COMPLIANT 'DOCUMENTED SAFETY ANALYSES' SUBJECT TO 10 C.F.R. PART 830, NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT, ...

  16. Radar imagery interpretation to assess the hydrocarbon potential of four sites in the Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-11-17

    The Government of the Republic of the Philippines has invited new bids from international companies to explore for oil and gas in onshore and offshore sedimentary basins. To assist the private oil industry in the evaluation of the petroleum potential of these basins, the Government, with the assistance of a loan from the World Bank has completed a nation-wide basin evaluation program. The primary objective of the project is to further the goals of international energy development by aiding the Republic of the Philippines in the assessment of potential petroleum prospects within the areas imaged by radar. Secondary goals are to assist the Republic of the Philippines in utilizing state-of-the-art radar remote sensing technology for resource exploration, and to train key Philippines scientists in the use of imaging radar data. Geologic maps were prepared for each petroleum prospect region and are included in this report. A discussion on radar principles, lithography, and stratigraphy of the areas is also included. 29 refs., 27 figs., 12 tabs.

  17. Measurement and interpretation of threshold stress intensity factors for steels in high-pressure hydrogen gas.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dadfarnia, Mohsen; Nibur, Kevin A.; San Marchi, Christopher W.; Sofronis, Petros; Somerday, Brian P.; Foulk, James W., III; Hayden, Gary A.

    2010-07-01

    Threshold stress intensity factors were measured in high-pressure hydrogen gas for a variety of low alloy ferritic steels using both constant crack opening displacement and rising crack opening displacement procedures. The sustained load cracking procedures are generally consistent with those in ASME Article KD-10 of Section VIII Division 3 of the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, which was recently published to guide design of high-pressure hydrogen vessels. Three definitions of threshold were established for the two test methods: K{sub THi}* is the maximum applied stress intensity factor for which no crack extension was observed under constant displacement; K{sub THa} is the stress intensity factor at the arrest position for a crack that extended under constant displacement; and K{sub JH} is the stress intensity factor at the onset of crack extension under rising displacement. The apparent crack initiation threshold under constant displacement, K{sub THi}*, and the crack arrest threshold, K{sub THa}, were both found to be non-conservative due to the hydrogen exposure and crack-tip deformation histories associated with typical procedures for sustained-load cracking tests under constant displacement. In contrast, K{sub JH}, which is measured under concurrent rising displacement and hydrogen gas exposure, provides a more conservative hydrogen-assisted fracture threshold that is relevant to structural components in which sub-critical crack extension is driven by internal hydrogen gas pressure.

  18. Intrinsic quadrupole tensor in the geometric interpretation of the interacting boson approximation (IBA-1)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshalek, Eugene R.

    2006-10-15

    For the first time, complete quantal expressions are provided for the intrinsic components of the quadrupole tensor in the geometric Holstein-Primakoff representation of the IBA-1. These expressions are valid throughout the Casten triangle.

  19. Can the ring polymer molecular dynamics method be interpreted as real time quantum dynamics?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jang, Seogjoo; Sinitskiy, Anton V.; Voth, Gregory A.

    2014-04-21

    The ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) method has gained popularity in recent years as a simple approximation for calculating real time quantum correlation functions in condensed media. However, the extent to which RPMD captures real dynamical quantum effects and why it fails under certain situations have not been clearly understood. Addressing this issue has been difficult in the absence of a genuine justification for the RPMD algorithm starting from the quantum Liouville equation. To this end, a new and exact path integral formalism for the calculation of real time quantum correlation functions is presented in this work, which can serve as a rigorous foundation for the analysis of the RPMD method as well as providing an alternative derivation of the well established centroid molecular dynamics method. The new formalism utilizes the cyclic symmetry of the imaginary time path integral in the most general sense and enables the expression of Kubo-transformed quantum time correlation functions as that of physical observables pre-averaged over the imaginary time path. Upon filtering with a centroid constraint function, the formulation results in the centroid dynamics formalism. Upon filtering with the position representation of the imaginary time path integral, we obtain an exact quantum dynamics formalism involving the same variables as the RPMD method. The analysis of the RPMD approximation based on this approach clarifies that an explicit quantum dynamical justification does not exist for the use of the ring polymer harmonic potential term (imaginary time kinetic energy) as implemented in the RPMD method. It is analyzed why this can cause substantial errors in nonlinear correlation functions of harmonic oscillators. Such errors can be significant for general correlation functions of anharmonic systems. We also demonstrate that the short time accuracy of the exact path integral limit of RPMD is of lower order than those for finite discretization of path. The present quantum dynamics formulation also serves as the basis for developing new quantum dynamical methods that utilize the cyclic nature of the imaginary time path integral.

  20. Observation and interpretation of energy efficient, diffuse direct current glow discharge at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Jie Jiang, Weiman; Wang, Yishan; Zhao, Wei; Li, Jing; Duan, Yixiang

    2015-08-24

    A diffuse direct-current glow discharge was realized with low energy consumption and high energy utilization efficiency at atmospheric pressure. The formation of diffuse discharge was demonstrated by examining and comparing the electrical properties and optical emissions of plasmas. In combination with theoretical derivation and calculation, we draw guidelines that appearance of nitrogen ions at low electron density is crucial to enhance the ambipolar diffusion for the expansion of discharge channel and the increasing ambipolar diffusion near the cathode plays a key role in the onset of diffuse discharge. An individual-discharge-channel expansion model is proposed to explain the diffuse discharge formation.

  1. Interpretation of engine cycle-to-cycle variation by chaotic time series analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daw, C.S.; Kahl, W.K.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we summarize preliminary results from applying a new mathematical technique -- chaotic time series analysis (CTSA) -- to cylinder pressure data from a spark-ignition (SI) four-stroke engine fueled with both methanol and iso-octane. Our objective is to look for the presence of deterministic chaos'' dynamics in peak pressure variations and to investigate the potential usefulness of CTSA as a diagnostic tool. Our results suggest that sequential peak cylinder pressures exhibit some characteristic features of deterministic chaos and that CTSA can extract previously unrecognized information from such data. 18 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. CONTAIN code analyses of direct containment heating (DCH) experiments: Model assessment and phenomenological interpretation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, D.C.; Griffith, R.O.; Tadios, E.L.; Washington, K.E.

    1995-05-12

    Models for direct containment heating (DCH) in the CONTAIN code for severe accident analysis have been reviewed and a standard input prescription for their use has been defined. The code has been exercised against a large subset of the available DCH data base. Generally good agreement with the experimental results for containment pressurization ({Delta}P) and hydrogen generation has been obtained. Extensive sensitivity studies have been performed which permit assessment of many of the strengths and weaknesses of specific model features. These include models for debris transport and trapping, DCH heat transfer and chemistry, atmosphere-structure heat transfer, interactions between nonairborne debris and blowdown steam, potential effects of debris-water interactions, and hydrogen combustion under DCH conditions. Containment compartmentalization is an important DCH mitigator in the calculations, in agreement with experimental results. The CONTAIN model includes partially parametric treatments for some processes that are not well understood. The importance of the associated uncertainties depends upon the details of the DCH scenario being analyzed. Recommended sensitivity studies are summarized that allow the user to obtain a reasonable estimate of the uncertainties in the calculated results.

  3. INTERPRETIVE GUIDANCE ON THE REQUIREMENTS OF 10 C.F.R. § 205...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PP-371 Northern Pass: Comments from Conservation Law Foundation, Appalachian Mountain Club, and Society for the Protection of New Hampshire Forests Application for Presidential ...

  4. Interpretation of solar irradiance monitor measurements through analysis of 3D MHD simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Criscuoli, S.; Uitenbroek, H.

    2014-06-20

    Measurements from the Spectral Irradiance Monitor (SIM) on board the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment mission indicate that solar spectral irradiance at visible and IR wavelengths varies in counter phase with the solar activity cycle. The sign of these variations is not reproduced by most of the irradiance reconstruction techniques based on variations of surface magnetism employed so far, and it is not yet clear whether SIM calibration procedures need to be improved or if instead new physical mechanisms must be invoked to explain such variations. We employ three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the solar photosphere to investigate the dependence of solar radiance in SIM visible and IR spectral ranges on variations of the filling factor of surface magnetic fields. We find that the contribution of magnetic features to solar radiance is strongly dependent on the location on the disk of the features, which are negative close to disk center and positive toward the limb. If features are homogeneously distributed over a region around the equator (activity belt), then their contribution to irradiance is positive with respect to the contribution of HD snapshots, but decreases with the increase of their magnetic flux for average magnetic flux larger than 50 G in at least two of the visible and IR spectral bands monitored by SIM. Under the assumption that the 50 G snapshots are representative of quiet-Sun regions, we thus find that the Spectral Irradiance can be in counter-phase with the solar magnetic activity cycle.

  5. New interpretations of Pennsylvanian and Permian stratigraphy, San Juan basin and southeast Paradox basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huffman, A.C. Jr.; Condon, S.M. )

    1989-09-01

    The Honaker Trail, Paradox, and Pinkerton Trail Formations of the Hermosa Group are recognized throughout most of the San Juan basin. The Paradox Formation is extended southeastward beyond the limits of its evaporite facies into the basin, where it consists of thick shelf-carbonate rocks and thin black shale, sandstone, and siltstone interbeds. Where the Hermosa Group thins onto the marginal uplifts, the Paradox loses the thick carbonate rocks and becomes indistinguishable from the rest of the Hermosa. The Hermosa is correlated in the subsurface with the Madera and Sandia Formations to the southeast. The transitional Rico Formation, between the marine Hermosa Group and the continental Cutler Formation, is identified throughout the subsurface of the San Juan basin and is correlated with similar deposits out-cropping along the northern and eastern margins. The Cutler Formation includes the Organ Rock, Cedar Mesa, and Halgaito members throughout most of the basin. In the vicinity of the Hogback monocline, the Cedar Mesa Sandstone Member undergoes a gradational eastward facies change from cyclic evaporite and sandstone to thick-bedded sandstone. The subsurface Cedar Mesa is correlated in part with similar rocks in the outcropping Abo and Supai Formations.

  6. Theoretical interpretation of the electron mobility behavior in InAs nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marin, E. G. Ruiz, F. G. Godoy, A.; Tienda-Luna, I. M.; Martnez-Blanque, C.; Gmiz, F.

    2014-11-07

    This work studies the electron mobility in InAs nanowires (NWs), by solving the Boltzmann Transport Equation under the Momentum Relaxation Time approximation. The numerical solver takes into account the contribution of the main scattering mechanisms present in III-V compound semiconductors. It is validated against experimental field effect-mobility results, showing a very good agreement. The mobility dependence on the nanowire diameter and carrier density is analyzed. It is found that surface roughness and polar optical phonons are the scattering mechanisms that mainly limit the mobility behavior. Finally, we explain the origin of the oscillations observed in the mobility of small NWs at high electric fields.

  7. Interpretation of the Moessbauer Spectra of the Magnetic Nanoparticles in Mouse Spleen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chuev, Mikhail A.; Cherepanov, Valery M.; Polikarpov, Mikhail A.; Panchenko, Vladislav Y.; Deyev, Sergey M.; Mischenko, Iliya N.; Nikitin, Maxim P.

    2010-12-02

    We have developed a stochastic model for description of relaxation effects in the system of homogeneously magnetized single-domain particles and applied the model to the analysis of Moessbauer spectra of magnetic nanoparticles (Chemicell ARA) and mouse spleen after i.v. injection into animals. We estimate that the fraction of exogenous iron in nanoparticles in the mouse spleen 3 months after injection was 0.27{+-}0.03. The spectra of the residual nanoparticles in the spleen had almost the same isomer shift but smaller mean hyperfine magnetic field values indicating decrease in the magnetic anisotropy energy (size) of the particles compared to the initial ones in the course of biodegradation. Concentration of ferritin-like iron was about three-fold higher than that in the spleen of untreated animals showing ferritin-like forms in the mouse spleen.

  8. CX-010375: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Replace Existing Firehouse CX(s) Applied: B1.15 Date: 09/20/2011 Location(s): California Offices(s): Berkeley Site Office

  9. FE Categorical Exclusions | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    8, 2011 CX-006459: Categorical Exclusion Determination Analytical Physics - Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 08082011 Location(s): Albany, Oregon...

  10. CX-012231: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Mica Peak Radio Station upgrade CX(s) Applied: B1.19 Date: 06/09/2014 Location(s): Washington Offices(s): Bonneville Power Administration

  11. CX-009515: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Tide Creek Property Funding CX(s) Applied: B1.25 Date: 11/08/2012 Location(s): Oregon Offices(s): Bonneville Power Administration

  12. CX-011215: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Nepese Marsh Upgrades CX(s) Applied: B2.5 Date: 10/17/2013 Location(s): Illinois Offices(s): Fermi Site Office

  13. CX-012606: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Preparing of Environmental Samples for Analysis CX(s) Applied: B3.6Date: 41810 Location(s): South CarolinaOffices(s): Savannah River Operations Office

  14. CX-012581: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Demolition of Outfall Sampling Station CX(s) Applied: B1.23Date: 41844 Location(s): South CarolinaOffices(s): Savannah River Operations Office

  15. CX-012572: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    H-Area Vehicle Barrier Installation CX(s) Applied: B1.15Date: 41862 Location(s): South CarolinaOffices(s): Savannah River Operations Office

  16. CX-012566: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Z-Area Fire Tank Painting CX(s) Applied: B1.3Date: 41865 Location(s): South CarolinaOffices(s): Savannah River Operations Office

  17. CX-012628: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Deactivation and Decommissioning of 711-L CX(s) Applied: B1.23Date: 41793 Location(s): South CarolinaOffices(s): Savannah River Operations Office

  18. CX-012559: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Seal Access Plugs at 105-C CX(s) Applied: B1.3Date: 41872 Location(s): South CarolinaOffices(s): Savannah River Operations Office

  19. CX-012587: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    HB-Line Security Upgrades CX(s) Applied: B1.3Date: 41835 Location(s): South CarolinaOffices(s): Savannah River Operations Office

  20. CX-011194: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Particle Physics Division Outback Garage CX(s) Applied: B1.15 Date: 09/19/2013 Location(s): Illinois Offices(s): Fermi Site Office