Sample records for generators condensers photovoltaic

  1. Next-Generation Photovoltaic Technologies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Next-Generation Photovoltaic Technologies Next-Generation Photovoltaic Technologies Print Monday, 06 February 2012 15:48 Organic solar cells based on the polymerfullerene bulk...

  2. PbS and Ge Nanocrystals: A Pathway Towards Third Generation Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Church, Carena

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Towards Third Generation Photovoltaics by Carena PuameliChurch Third-generation photovoltaics offer a way around theJ. Nozik. Third generation photovoltaics based on multiple

  3. Modeling Variability and Uncertainty of Photovoltaic Generation: A Hidden State Spatial Statistical Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Callaway, Duncan S; Tabone, Michaelangelo D

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AND UNCERTAINTY OF PHOTOVOLTAIC GENERATION [9] M. Milligan,for grid-connected photovoltaic system based on advancedand uncertainty in solar photovoltaic generation at multiple

  4. Electrical faults modeling of the photovoltaic generator Wail Rezgui1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    energy by the photovoltaic phenomena. So, the degradation of these two factors means the presenceElectrical faults modeling of the photovoltaic generator Wail Rezgui1 , Leïla-Hayet Mouss1 , Kinza presented a new methodology for the mathematical modeling of the photovoltaic generator's characteristics

  5. Energizing the Next Generation with Photovoltaics Following the lead of Russian colleagues, photovoltaic (PV)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    Energizing the Next Generation with Photovoltaics ABSTRACT Following the lead of Russian colleagues, photovoltaic (PV) lab kits are being built and experiments and curricula are being developed for use of these kits. This Photovoltaic Sci- ence Experiments and Curriculum (PSEC) is being tested in local high

  6. Photovoltaic Power Generation in the Stellar Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. E. Girish; S. Aranya

    2010-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we have studied the problem of photovoltaic power generation near selected stars in the solar neighborhood. The nature of the optical radiation from a star will depend on its luminosity,HR classification and spectral characteristics. The solar celloperation in the habitable zones of the stars is similar to AM1.0 operation near earth.Thecurrent space solar cell technology can be adopted for power generation near G,K and Mtype stars. Silicon solar cells with good near IR response are particularly suitable in theenvironments of M type stars which are most abundant in the universe. . Photovoltaicpower generation near binary stars like Sirius and Alpha Centauri is also discussed.

  7. Fermion mass generation without a condensate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venkitesh Ayyar

    2014-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We study a lattice field theory model containing two flavors of massless staggered fermions with an onsite four-fermion interaction. The symmetry of the model forbids non-zero fermion bilinear order parameters that can generate a fermion mass. At weak couplings, we expect a massless fermion phase. At strong couplings, we can argue for the existence of massive fermions without the formation of any fermion bilinear condensate. Using Monte Carlo calculations in three space-time dimensions, we find evidence for a direct second order phase transition between the two phases.

  8. Free Carrier Generation in Fullerene Acceptors and Its Effect on Polymer Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGehee, Michael

    Free Carrier Generation in Fullerene Acceptors and Its Effect on Polymer Photovoltaics George F is this also true for many of the soluble fullerene derivatives commonly used in organic photovoltaics generated by numerous field- dependent techniques. INTRODUCTION In the organic photovoltaic (OPV) community

  9. A Smart Algorithm for the Diagnosis of Short-Circuit Faults in a Photovoltaic Generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A Smart Algorithm for the Diagnosis of Short-Circuit Faults in a Photovoltaic Generator Wail Rezgui observations distributed over classes is used for simulation purposes. Keywords--Photovoltaic generator, SVM, k-NN, short-circuit fault, smart classification, linear programming. NOMENCLATURE PV = Photovoltaic; SVM

  10. Electronic copy available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2014738 Published: J. M. Pearce, "Expanding Photovoltaic Penetration with Residential Distributed Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Photovoltaic Penetration with Residential Distributed Generation from Hybrid Solar Photovoltaic + Combined Heat.08.012 Expanding Photovoltaic Penetration with Residential Distributed Generation from Hybrid Solar Photovoltaic and power (CHP) systems has provided the opportunity for inhouse power backup of residentialscale

  11. A Regression Algorithm for the Smart Prognosis of a Reversed Polarity Fault in a Photovoltaic Generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A Regression Algorithm for the Smart Prognosis of a Reversed Polarity Fault in a Photovoltaic database containing sample data is used for simulation purposes. Keywords--Photovoltaic generator, SVR, k-NNR, reversed polarity fault, diagnosis, prognosis. NOMENCLATURE PV = Photovoltaic; SVM = Support Vector

  12. Second-generation photovoltaic-concentrator-array design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Broadbent, S.; Baumann, J.E.; Heller, B.W.; Hughes, D.J.; Marshall, L.S.; Semma, R.P.; Stegeman, R.E.

    1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Martin Marietta Corporation's design of a second generation concentrating photovoltaic module is described. The passively cooled 13-kg module uses 2 columns of 7 point focus Fresnel lenses that are each 20.7 cm by 20.7 cm, and 14 planar junction silicon cells. The geometric concentration is 84X. Martin Marietta fabricated five prototype modules and shipped three to Sandia for testing. The modules' peak efficiency was 14.1% which is the highest to date for a module using silicon cells.

  13. Local Control of Reactive Power by Distributed Photovoltaic Generators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turitsyn, Konstantin S; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Misha

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High penetration levels of distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation on an electrical distribution circuit may severely degrade power quality due to voltage sags and swells caused by rapidly varying PV generation during cloud transients coupled with the slow response of existing utility compensation and regulation equipment. Although not permitted under current standards for interconnection of distributed generation, fast-reacting, VAR-capable PV inverters may provide the necessary reactive power injection or consumption to maintain voltage regulation under difficult transient conditions. As side benefit, the control of reactive power injection at each PV inverter provides an opportunity and a new tool for distribution utilities to optimize the performance of distribution circuits, e.g. by minimizing thermal losses. We suggest a local control scheme that dispatches reactive power from each PV inverter based on local instantaneous measurements of the real and reactive components of the consumed power and the re...

  14. Options for Control of Reactive Power by Distributed Photovoltaic Generators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sulc, Petr; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Michael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High penetration levels of distributed photovoltaic(PV) generation on an electrical distribution circuit present several challenges and opportunities for distribution utilities. Rapidly varying irradiance conditions may cause voltage sags and swells that cannot be compensated by slowly responding utility equipment resulting in a degradation of power quality. Although not permitted under current standards for interconnection of distributed generation, fast-reacting, VAR-capable PV inverters may provide the necessary reactive power injection or consumption to maintain voltage regulation under difficult transient conditions. As side benefit, the control of reactive power injection at each PV inverter provides an opportunity and a new tool for distribution utilities to optimize the performance of distribution circuits, e.g. by minimizing thermal losses. We discuss and compare via simulation various design options for control systems to manage the reactive power generated by these inverters. An important design de...

  15. Arranging social circumstances for spreading photovoltaic power generation systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakagawa, Koshi; Katsumata, Hiroshi [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan). Solar Energy Dept.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1990, The Comprehensive Energy Investigation Board discussed and set a target for the introduction of new energy sources. The investigation Board prepared the energy supply outlook for the year of 2000 and 2010, and the target for the introduction of new energy sources was a part of the outlook. In the last few years, however, the actual supply of primary energy sources has made a quite different growth from the original outlook due to the current stagnancy in the development of the nuclear power generation and the crude oil prices stabilized at the lower level. Under the circumstances, the outlook has been under review since the spring of this year. In the new outlook, basic policies are being made to expand the use of new energy sources, with the specific target ratio of new energy to the total energy supply of 1.2% in 1992 (actual), 2.0% in 2000, and 3.0% in 2010. Among the new energy sources, the outlook specifies the introduction of the photovoltaic energy, targeting its increase to 400,000 kW by 2000 and 4,600,000 kW by 2010. Thus the supply of the photovoltaic power generation is expected to increase rapidly after the year 2000.

  16. Energy and Capacity Valuation of Photovoltaic Power Generation in New York

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard R.

    Energy and Capacity Valuation of Photovoltaic Power Generation in New York Prepared by Richard of photovoltaic (PV) power generation for New York focuses on the value to utilities. Specifically, the report, will bridge the remaining 25% gap1 , making distributed PV a net benefit to New York utilities

  17. Local control of reactive power by distributed photovoltaic generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Turitsyn, Konstantin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sulc, Petr [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Backhaus, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High penetration levels of distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation on an electrical distribution circuit may severely degrade power quality due to voltage sags and swells caused by rapidly varying PV generation during cloud transients coupled with the slow response of existing utility compensation and regulation equipment. Although not permitted under current standards for interconnection of distributed generation, fast-reacting, VAR-capable PV inverters may provide the necessary reactive power injection or consumption to maintain voltage regulation under difficult transient conditions. As side benefit, the control of reactive power injection at each PV inverter provides an opportunity and a new tool for distribution utilities to optimize the performance of distribution circuits, e.g. by minimizing thermal losses. We suggest a local control scheme that dispatches reactive power from each PV inverter based on local instantaneous measurements of the real and reactive components of the consumed power and the real power generated by the PVs. Using one adjustable parameter per circuit, we balance the requirements on power quality and desire to minimize thermal losses. Numerical analysis of two exemplary systems, with comparable total PV generation albeit a different spatial distribution, show how to adjust the optimization parameter depending on the goal. Overall, this local scheme shows excellent performance; it's capable of guaranteeing acceptable power quality and achieving significant saving in thermal losses in various situations even when the renewable generation in excess of the circuit own load, i.e. feeding power back to the higher-level system.

  18. Photovoltaic power conditioners: Development, evolution, and the next generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bulawka, A. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States); Krauthamer, S.; Das, R. [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (United States); Bower, W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Market-place acceptance of utility-connected photovoltaic (PV) power generation systems and their accelerated installation into residential and commercial applications are heavily dependent upon the ability of their power conditioning subsystems (PCS) to meet high reliability, low cost, and high performance goals. Many PCS development efforts have taken place over the last 15 years, and those efforts have resulted in substantial PCS hardware improvements. These improvements, however, have generally fallen short of meeting many reliability, cost and performance goals. Continuously evolving semiconductor technology developments, coupled with expanded market opportunities for power processing, offer a significant promise of improving PCS reliability, cost and performance, as they are integrated into future PCS designs. This paper revisits past and present development efforts in PCS design, identifies the evolutionary improvements and describes the new opportunities for PCS designs. The new opportunities are arising from the increased availability and capability of semiconductor switching components, smart power devices, and power integrated circuits (PICS).

  19. Options for Control of Reactive Power by Distributed Photovoltaic Generators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petr Sulc; Konstantin Turitsyn; Scott Backhaus; Michael Chertkov

    2010-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    High penetration levels of distributed photovoltaic(PV) generation on an electrical distribution circuit present several challenges and opportunities for distribution utilities. Rapidly varying irradiance conditions may cause voltage sags and swells that cannot be compensated by slowly responding utility equipment resulting in a degradation of power quality. Although not permitted under current standards for interconnection of distributed generation, fast-reacting, VAR-capable PV inverters may provide the necessary reactive power injection or consumption to maintain voltage regulation under difficult transient conditions. As side benefit, the control of reactive power injection at each PV inverter provides an opportunity and a new tool for distribution utilities to optimize the performance of distribution circuits, e.g. by minimizing thermal losses. We discuss and compare via simulation various design options for control systems to manage the reactive power generated by these inverters. An important design decision that weighs on the speed and quality of communication required is whether the control should be centralized or distributed (i.e. local). In general, we find that local control schemes are capable for maintaining voltage within acceptable bounds. We consider the benefits of choosing different local variables on which to control and how the control system can be continuously tuned between robust voltage control, suitable for daytime operation when circuit conditions can change rapidly, and loss minimization better suited for nighttime operation.

  20. Storing unsteady energy, like photovoltaically generated electric energy, as potential energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nadja Kutz

    2012-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A proposal to store unsteady energy in potential energy via lifting masses with a rough quantitative overview. Some applications and methods to harvest the potential energy are also given. A focus is put on photovoltaically generated energy.

  1. The Photovoltaic Crisis and the Demand-side Generation in Spain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mir-Artigues, Pere

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The RES-E promotion policy in Spain gave priority to the photovoltaic (henceforth, PV) ground-mounted installations. For years, the coupling of customer-side generation coupled with excess energy exports was never specifically considered. However...

  2. The economic impact of state ordered avoided cost rates for photovoltaic generated electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bottaro, Drew

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) of 1978 requires that electric utilities purchase electricity generated by small power producers (QFs) such as photovoltaic systems at rates that will encourage the ...

  3. Short term generation scheduling in photovoltaic-utility grid with battery storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marwali, M.K.C.; Ma, H.; Shahidehpour, S.M. [Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering] [Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Abdul-Rahman, K.H. [Siemens Energy and Automation, Brooklyn Park, MN (United States)] [Siemens Energy and Automation, Brooklyn Park, MN (United States)

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents an efficient approach to short term resource scheduling for an integrated thermal and photovoltaic-battery generation. The proposed model incorporated battery storage for peak load shaving. Several constraints including battery capacity, minimum up/down time and ramp rates for thermal units, as well as natural photovoltaic (PV) capacity are considered in the proposed model. A case study composed of 26 thermal units and a PV-battery plant is presented to test the efficiency of the method.

  4. Nanopillar Photovoltaics: Photon Management and Junction Engineering for Next-Generation Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mariani, Giacomo

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of interfaces in high-efficiency photovoltaic devices. , MRS24,25 Nonetheless, a high-efficiency photovoltaic device ishigh-efficiency photovoltaics”, 39th IEEE Photovoltaic

  5. High gliding fluid power generation system with fluid component separation and multiple condensers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahmoud, Ahmad M; Lee, Jaeseon; Radcliff, Thomas D

    2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An example power generation system includes a vapor generator, a turbine, a separator and a pump. In the separator, the multiple components of the working fluid are separated from each other and sent to separate condensers. Each of the separate condensers is configured for condensing a single component of the working fluid. Once each of the components condense back into a liquid form they are recombined and exhausted to a pump that in turn drives the working fluid back to the vapor generator.

  6. Photovoltaic Power Generation in Flagstaff | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeedingBiomassPPPOPetroleum Reserves Vision,4newsSolar Photovoltaic

  7. Photovoltaic generator with a spherical imaging lens for use with a paraboloidal solar reflector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angel, Roger P

    2013-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a generator for photovoltaic conversion of concentrated sunlight into electricity. A generator according to the invention incorporates a plurality of photovoltaic cells and is intended for operation near the focus of a large paraboloidal reflector pointed at the sun. Within the generator, the entering concentrated light is relayed by secondary optics to the cells arranged in a compact, concave array. The light is delivered to the cells at high concentration, consistent with high photovoltaic conversion efficiency and low cell cost per unit power output. Light enters the generator, preferably first through a sealing window, and passes through a field lens, preferably in the form of a full sphere or ball lens centered on the paraboloid focus. This lens forms a concentric, concave and wide-angle image of the primary reflector, where the intensity of the concentrated light is stabilized against changes in the position of concentrated light entering the generator. Receiving the stabilized light are flat photovoltaic cells made in different shapes and sizes and configured in a concave array corresponding to the concave image of a given primary reflector. Photovoltaic cells in a generator are also sized and interconnected so as to provide a single electrical output that remains high and stable, despite aberrations in the light delivered to the generator caused by, for example, mispointing or bending of the primary reflector. In some embodiments, the cells are set back from the image formed by the ball lens, and part of the light is reflected onto each cell small secondary reflectors in the form of mirrors set around its perimeter.

  8. Thin Film Materials and Processing Techniques for a Next Generation Photovoltaic Device: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-12-470

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Hest, M.

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research extends thin film materials and processes relevant to the development and production of a next generation photovoltaic device.

  9. Semiconductor Quantum Dots and Quantum Dot Arrays and Applications of Multiple Exciton Generation to Third-Generation Photovoltaic Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George, Steven C.

    to Third-Generation Photovoltaic Solar Cells A. J. Nozik,*,, M. C. Beard, J. M. Luther, M. Law,§ R. J. Applications: Quantum Dot Solar Cells 6884 6.1. Quantum Dot Solar Cell Configurations 6885 6.1.1. Photoelectrodes Composed of Quantum Dot Arrays 6885 6.1.2. Quantum Dot-Sensitized Nanocrystalline TiO2 Solar Cells

  10. Cost-Effectivenessof PhotovoltaicGenerationIn A Transmission-Constrained Load Area of An InterconnectedSystem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, George

    Abstract: Electric power systems of today are experiencing a difficulty of constrained transmission lines, present electric system networks are experiencing the difficulty of constrained transmission lines: Photovoltaic Generation, Power System Economics, Dispersed Generation, Transmission-Constrained Interconnected

  11. A Framework of Incorporating Spatio-temporal Forecast in Look-ahead Grid Dispatch with Photovoltaic Generation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Chen

    2013-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Increasing penetration of stochastic photovoltaic (PV) generation into the electric power system poses significant challenges to system operators. In the thesis, we evaluate the spatial and temporal correlations of stochastic PV generation...

  12. Solar Fuels and Next Generation Photovoltaics: The UNC-CH Energy Frontier Research Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Thomas J.; Papanikolas, John M.; Heyer, Catherine M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The UNC Energy Frontier Research Center: “Solar Fuels and Next Generation Photovoltaics” is funded by a $17.5 M grant from the US Department of Energy. Its mission is to conduct basic research that will enable a revolution in the collection and conversion of sunlight into storable solar fuels and electricity.

  13. Nanopillar Photovoltaics: Photon Management and Junction Engineering for Next-Generation Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mariani, Giacomo

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for ultrahigh-efficiency photovoltaics, Nat. Mater. 11, 174-devices towards high-efficiency photovoltaics”, 39th IEEEto ensure high-efficiency nanostructured photovoltaics: each

  14. Nanopillar Photovoltaics: Photon Management and Junction Engineering for Next-Generation Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mariani, Giacomo

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for efficient photovoltaic cells, Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 568-for efficient photovoltaic cells, Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 568-trapping in thin-film photovoltaic cells, Opt. Express 8,

  15. Nanopillar Photovoltaics: Photon Management and Junction Engineering for Next-Generation Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mariani, Giacomo

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for ultrahigh-efficiency photovoltaics, Nat. Mater. 11, 174-devices towards high-efficiency photovoltaics”, 39th IEEEfor high efficiency hybrid photovoltaics”, 37th IEEE

  16. Apparatus for mounting photovoltaic power generating systems on buildings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Russell, Miles C. (Lincoln, MA)

    2009-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Rectangular photovoltaic (PV) modules are mounted on a building roof by mounting stands that are distributed in rows and columns. Each stand comprises a base plate and first and second different height brackets attached to opposite ends of the base plate. Each first and second bracket comprises two module-support members. One end of each module is pivotally attached to and supported by a first module-support member of a first bracket and a second module-support member of another first bracket. At its other end each module rests on but is connected by flexible tethers to module-support members of two different second brackets. The tethers are sized to allow the modules to pivot up away from the module-support members on which they rest to a substantially horizontal position in response to wind uplift forces.

  17. Solar energy storage through the homogeneous electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide : photoelectrochemical and photovoltaic approaches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathrum, Aaron John

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Powered Hydrogen Generation using Photovoltaic-ElectrolysisPowered Hydrogen Generation Using Photovoltaic?ElectrolysisPowered Hydrogen Production Using Photovoltaic Electrolysis

  18. Air-Cooled Condensers for Next Generation Power Plants

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    based on specifications for a condenser in existing binary plant * Used combination of Aspen Plus and Aspen's Exchanger Design and Rating (EDR) software tools to evaluate...

  19. Nanopillar Photovoltaics: Photon Management and Junction Engineering for Next-Generation Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mariani, Giacomo

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    S. Heterojunction photovoltaics using GaAs nanowires andC. M. Single nanowire photovoltaics, Chem. Soc. Rev. 38, 16-nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible

  20. Designing of Hybrid Power Generation System using Wind energy- Photovoltaic Solar energy- Solar energy with Nanoantenna

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    All the natural wastage energies are used for production of Electricity. Thus, the Electrical Power or Electricity is available with a minimum cost and pollution free to anywhere in the world at all times. This process reveals a unique step in electricity generation and availability from natural resources without hampering the ecological balance. This paper describes a new and evolving Electrical Power Generation System by integrating simultaneously photovoltaic Solar Energy, solar Energy with Nano-antenna, Wind Energy and non conventional energy sources. We can have an uninterrupted power supply irrespective of the natural condition without any sort of environmental pollution. Moreover this process yields the least production cost for electricity generation. Utilization of lightning energy for generation of electricity reveals a new step. The set-up consists of combination of photo-voltaic solar-cell array & Nano-anteena array, a mast mounted wind generator, lead-acid storage batteries, an inverter unit to convert DC power to AC power, electrical lighting loads and electrical heating loads, several fuse and junction boxes and associated wiring, and test instruments for measuring voltages, currents, power factors, and harmonic contamination data throughout the system. This hybrid solar-wind power generating system will extensively use in the Industries and also in external use like home appliance.

  1. Nanocrystal Photovoltaics: The Case of Cu2S-CdS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rivest, Jessica Louis Baker

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    M. A. Third generation photovoltaics: Ultra-high conversionmodern photovoltaic age. … in photovoltaics: research andnanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible

  2. Air-cooled Condensers in Next-generation Conversion Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Program Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project objective: to reduce the costs associated with the generation of electrical power from air-cooled binary plants.

  3. Origin of carrier generation in photovoltaic perovskite variant Cs2SnI6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiao, Zewen; Kamiya, Toshio

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cs2SnI6 is an air-stable & non-toxic variant of perovskite-type photovoltaic materials. In this letter, stability of intrinsic defects in Cs2SnI6 was examined by density functional theory calculations. We found that iodine vacancy and tin interstitial are the dominant defects, mainly responsible for the intrinsic n-type conductivity in Cs2SnI6. However, the transition levels of the dominant defects are deep, which makes it difficult to achieve high-density n-type doping. Tin vacancy is expected for p-type doping, but it has a very high formation energy > 3.6 eV because of the strong Sn-I covalent bonds and can hardly be generated. Instead, cesium vacancy is formed at an extremely Cs-poor condition and explains already-reported p-type conductivity by SnI2 doping.

  4. Simulation of one-minute power output from utility-scale photovoltaic generation systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Ellis, Abraham; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an approach to simulate time-synchronized, one-minute power output from large photovoltaic (PV) generation plants in locations where only hourly irradiance estimates are available from satellite sources. The approach uses one-minute irradiance measurements from ground sensors in a climatically and geographically similar area. Irradiance is translated to power using the Sandia Array Performance Model. Power output is generated for 2007 in southern Nevada are being used for a Solar PV Grid Integration Study to estimate the integration costs associated with various utility-scale PV generation levels. Plant designs considered include both fixed-tilt thin-film, and single-axis-tracked polycrystalline Si systems ranging in size from 5 to 300 MW{sub AC}. Simulated power output profiles at one-minute intervals were generated for five scenarios defined by total PV capacity (149.5 MW, 222 WM, 292 MW, 492 MW, and 892 MW) each comprising as many as 10 geographically separated PV plants.

  5. ANALYSIS OF DISTRIBUTION FEEDER LOSSES DUE TO ADDITION OF DISTRIBUTED PHOTOVOLTAIC GENERATORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Singh, Ruchi

    2011-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Distributed generators (DG) are small scale power supplying sources owned by customers or utilities and scattered throughout the power system distribution network. Distributed generation can be both renewable and non-renewable. Addition of distributed generation is primarily to increase feeder capacity and to provide peak load reduction. However, this addition comes with several impacts on the distribution feeder. Several studies have shown that addition of DG leads to reduction of feeder loss. However, most of these studies have considered lumped load and distributed load models to analyze the effects on system losses, where the dynamic variation of load due to seasonal changes is ignored. It is very important for utilities to minimize the losses under all scenarios to decrease revenue losses, promote efficient asset utilization, and therefore, increase feeder capacity. This paper will investigate an IEEE 13-node feeder populated with photovoltaic generators on detailed residential houses with water heater, Heating Ventilation and Air conditioning (HVAC) units, lights, and other plug and convenience loads. An analysis of losses for different power system components, such as transformers, underground and overhead lines, and triplex lines, will be performed. The analysis will utilize different seasons and different solar penetration levels (15%, 30%).

  6. The Development of Semiconducting Materials for Organic Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douglas, Jessica D.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    F. C. ; Norrman, K. Prog. Photovoltaics 2007, 15, 697–712.Processed Organic Photovoltaics that Generate Chargepolymer-based organic photovoltaics (OPVs) have attracted

  7. Fabrication and Characterization of Organic/Inorganic Photovoltaic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guvenc, Ali Bilge

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Colloidal-quantum-dot photovoltaics using atomic-ligandGreen, Third generation photovoltaics: solar cells for 202027), Progress in Photovoltaics 14 (1), 45-51 (2006). [44] I.

  8. Maximum-Power-Point Tracking only using Current Sensor Information for Photovoltaic Power Generation System Hiroyuki Matsumoto, and Toshihiko Noguchi (Nagaoka University of Technology)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fujimoto, Hiroshi

    SPC-02-88 * Maximum-Power-Point Tracking only using Current Sensor Information for Photovoltaic Power Generation System Hiroyuki Matsumoto, and Toshihiko Noguchi (Nagaoka University of Technology) Abstract This paper describes a novel strategy of maximum-power-point tracking for photovoltaic power

  9. Solar energy storage through the homogeneous electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide : photoelectrochemical and photovoltaic approaches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathrum, Aaron John

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen Generation using Photovoltaic-Electrolysis Devices.6128-6141. Gratzel, M. Photovoltaic and PhotoelectrochemicalHydrogen Generation Using Photovoltaic?Electrolysis Devices.

  10. Characterization of 3D Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Characterization of 3D Photovoltaics SEMICONDUCTORS Our goal is to provide industry with test structures and models of next-generation photovoltaics, with an initial focus on cadmium telluride (Cd (nanostructured) photovoltaic devices. Objective Impact and Customers · The U.S. Photovoltaic Industry Roadmap

  11. Mass generation from tachyon condensation for vector fields on D-branes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington Taylor

    2000-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The level truncation approach to string field theory is used to study the zero-momentum action for vector excitations on a bosonic D-brane which has been annihilated by tachyon condensation. It is shown that in the true vacuum the translation zero modes associated with transverse scalars on the D-brane are lifted by spontaneous generation of mass terms. Similarly, the U(1) gauge field on the brane develops a nonzero mass term.

  12. Sandia National Laboratories: photovoltaic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Integration Program addresses technical barriers to large-scale deployment of solar photovoltaic (PV) generation in grid-tied power systems. Sandia's grid integration research...

  13. Low-Cost High-Concentration Photovoltaic Systems for Utility Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McConnell, R.; Garboushian, V.; Gordon, R.; Dutra, D.; Kinsey, G.; Geer, S.; Gomez, H.; Cameron, C.

    2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Under DOE's Technology Pathway Partnership (TPP) program, Amonix, Inc. developed a new generation of high-concentration photovoltaic systems using multijunction technology and established the manufacturing capacity needed to supply multi-megawatt power plants buing using the new Amonix 7700-series solar energy systems. For this effort, Amonix Collaborated with a variety of suppliers and partners to complete project tasks. Subcontractors included: Evonik/Cyro; Hitek; the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Raytech; Spectrolab; UL; University of Nevada, Las Vegas; and TUV Rheinland PTL. The Amonix TPP tasks included: Task 1: Multijunction Cell Optimization for Field Operation, Task 2: Fresnel Lens R&D, Task 3: Cell Package Design & Production, Task 4: Standards Compliance and Reliability Testing, Task 5: Receiver Plate Production, Task 6: MegaModule Performance, Task 7: MegaModule Cost Reduction, Task 8: Factory Setup and MegaModule Production, Task 9: Tracker and Tracking Controller, Task 10: Installation and Balance of System (BOS), Task 11: Field Testing, and Task 12: Solar Advisor Modeling and Market Analysis. Amonix's TPP addressed nearly the complete PV value chain from epitaxial layer design and wafer processing through system design, manufacturing, deployment and O&M. Amonix has made progress toward achieving these reduced costs through the development of its 28%+ efficient MegaModule, reduced manufacturing and installation cost through design for manufacturing and assembly, automated manufacturing processes, and reduced O&M costs. Program highlights include: (1) Optimized multijunction cell and cell package design to improve performance by > 10%; (2) Updated lens design provided 7% increased performance and higher concentration; (3) 28.7% DC STC MegaModule efficiency achieved in Phase II exceeded Phase III performance goal; (4) New 16' focal length MegaModule achieved target materials and manufacturing cost reduction; (5) Designed and placed into production 25 MW/yr manufacturing capacity for complete MegaModules, including cell packages, receiver plates, and structures with lenses; (6) Designed and deployed Amonix 7700 series systems rated at 63 kW PTC ac and higher. Based on an LCOE assessment using NREL's Solar Advisor Model, Amonix met DOE's LCOE targets: Amonix 2011 LCOE 12.8 cents/kWh (2010 DOE goal 10-15); 2015 LCOE 6.4 cents/kWh (2015 goal 5-7) Amonix and TPP participants would like to thank the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technology Program for funding received under this program through Agreement No. DE-FC36-07GO17042.

  14. Solar energy storage through the homogeneous electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide : photoelectrochemical and photovoltaic approaches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathrum, Aaron John

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    harvesting. With solar photovoltaic efficiencies approachingthat the photovoltaic solar cell efficiency plays a dominantEfficiency of Solar Powered Hydrogen Generation using Photovoltaic-

  15. The Effects of Non-Uniform Electronic Properties on Thin Film Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Gregory Ferguson

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Third   Generation  Photovoltaics:  Advanced  Solar  R.   Noufi,  Prog.  Photovoltaics  16,  235-­?239  (2008).  M.  Green,  Prog.  Photovoltaics  17,  183-­?189  (2009).  

  16. Modeling Variability and Uncertainty of Photovoltaic Generation: A Hidden State Spatial Statistical Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Callaway, Duncan S; Tabone, Michaelangelo D

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Operational im- pacts of wind generation on California poweralong with all solar and wind generation) is different thanincreases in wind and solar generation—see those cited

  17. Low Cost Production of InGaN for Next-Generation Photovoltaic Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nick M. Sbrockey, Shangzhu Sun, Gary S. Tompa,

    2012-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project is to develop a low-cost and low-energy technology for production of photovoltaic devices based on InGaN materials. This project builds on the ongoing development by Structured Materials Industries (SMI), of novel thin film deposition technology for Group III-Nitride materials, which is capable of depositing Group-III nitride materials at significantly lower costs and significantly lower energy usage compared to conventional deposition techniques. During this project, SMI demonstrated deposition of GaN and InGaN films using metalorganic sources, and demonstrated compatibility of the process with standard substrate materials and hardware components.

  18. Next Generation Print-based Manufacturing for Photovoltaics and Solid State Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sue A. Carter

    2012-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    For the grand challenge of reducing our energy and carbon footprint, the development of renewable energy and energy efficient technologies offer a potential solution. Energy technologies can reduce our dependence on foreign oil as well as the energy consumed by the petroleum industry, the leading consumer of energy by a U.S. industry sector. Nonetheless, the manufacturing processes utilized to manufacture equipment for alternative energy technologies often involve energy-intensive processes. This undermines some of the advantages to moving to 'green' technologies in the first place. Our answer to the Industrial Technology Program's (ITP) Grand Challenge FOA was to develop a transformational low cost manufacturing process for plastic-based photovoltaics that will lower by over 50% both energy consumption and greenhouse emissions and offer a return-of-investment of over 20%. We demonstrated a Luminescent Solar Concentrator fabricated on a plastic acrylic substrate (i.e. no glass) that increases the power output of the PV cell by 2.2x with a 2% power efficiency as well as an LSC with a 7% power efficiency that increased the power output from the PV cells by 35%. S large area 20-inch x 60-inch building-integrated photovoltaic window was fabricated using contract manufacturing with a 4% power efficiency which improved the power output of the PV cell by over 50%. In addition, accelerated lifetimes of the luminescent material demonstrate lifetimes of 20-years.

  19. Presented at the 21st European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Dresden,Germany, 4-8 September 2006 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF PV ELECTRICITY GENERATION -

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Presented at the 21st European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Dresden,Germany, 4-8 September 2006 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF PV ELECTRICITY GENERATION - A CRITICAL COMPARISON OF ENERGY SUPPLY.dewild@ecn.nl, Phone +31 224 564736, Fax +31 224 568214 Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Unit Solar

  20. Dye-Sentitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) are an emerging low-cost third generation photovoltaic technology particularly suited for efficient light-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dye-Sentitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) are an emerging low-cost third generation photovoltaic technology particularly suited for efficient light- to-electricity conversion in indoors low light-to -electricity conversion efficiency in early implementations under AM1.5 solar light. Easy

  1. PhotoVoltaic distributed generation for Lanai power grid real-time simulation and control integration scenario.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinett, Rush D., III; Kukolich, Keith (Opal RT Technologies, Montreal, Quebec, Canada); Wilson, David Gerald; Schenkman, Benjamin L.

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the modeling, analysis, and testing in a real-time simulation environment of the Lanai power grid system for the integration and control of PhotoVoltaic (PV) distributed generation. The Lanai Island in Hawaii is part of the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI) to transition to 30% renewable green energy penetration by 2030. In Lanai the primary loads come from two Castle and Cook Resorts, in addition to residential needs. The total peak load profile is 12470 V, 5.5 MW. Currently there are several diesel generators that meet these loading requirements. As part of the HCEI, Lanai has initially installed 1.2 MW of PV generation. The goal of this study has been to evaluate the impact of the PV with respect to the conventional carbon-based diesel generation in real time simulation. For intermittent PV distributed generation, the overall stability and transient responses are investigated. A simple Lanai 'like' model has been developed in the Matlab/Simulink environment (see Fig. 1) and to accommodate real-time simulation of the hybrid power grid system the Opal-RT Technologies RT-Lab environment is used. The diesel generators have been modelled using the SimPowerSystems toolbox swing equations and a custom Simulink module has been developed for the High level PV generation. All of the loads have been characterized primarily as distribution lines with series resistive load banks with one VAR load bank. Three-phase faults are implemented for each bus. Both conventional and advanced control architectures will be used to evaluate the integration of the PV onto the current power grid system. The baseline numerical results include the stable performance of the power grid during varying cloud cover (PV generation ramping up/down) scenarios. The importance of assessing the real-time scenario is included.

  2. Organic photovoltaics and concentrators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mapel, Jonathan King

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The separation of light harvesting and charge generation offers several advantages in the design of organic photovoltaics and organic solar concentrators for the ultimate end goal of achieving a lower cost solar electric ...

  3. Interim Report: Air-Cooled Condensers for Next Generation Geothermal Power Plants Improved Binary Cycle Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel S. Wendt; Greg L. Mines

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As geothermal resources that are more expensive to develop are utilized for power generation, there will be increased incentive to use more efficient power plants. This is expected to be the case with Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) resources. These resources will likely require wells drilled to depths greater than encountered with hydrothermal resources, and will have the added costs for stimulation to create the subsurface reservoir. It is postulated that plants generating power from these resources will likely utilize the binary cycle technology where heat is rejected sensibly to the ambient. The consumptive use of a portion of the produced geothermal fluid for evaporative heat rejection in the conventional flash-steam conversion cycle is likely to preclude its use with EGS resources. This will be especially true in those areas where there is a high demand for finite supplies of water. Though they have no consumptive use of water, using air-cooling systems for heat rejection has disadvantages. These systems have higher capital costs, reduced power output (heat is rejected at the higher dry-bulb temperature), increased parasitics (fan power), and greater variability in power generation on both a diurnal and annual basis (larger variation in the dry-bulb temperature). This is an interim report for the task ‘Air-Cooled Condensers in Next- Generation Conversion Systems’. The work performed was specifically aimed at a plant that uses commercially available binary cycle technologies with an EGS resource. Concepts were evaluated that have the potential to increase performance, lower cost, or mitigate the adverse effects of off-design operation. The impact on both cost and performance were determined for the concepts considered, and the scenarios identified where a particular concept is best suited. Most, but not all, of the concepts evaluated are associated with the rejection of heat. This report specifically addresses three of the concepts evaluated: the use of recuperation, the use of turbine reheat, and the non-consumptive use of EGS make-up water to supplement heat rejection

  4. Photovoltaic solar system connected to the electric power grid operating as active power generator and reactive power compensator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albuquerque, Fabio L.; Moraes, Adelio J.; Guimaraes, Geraldo C.; Sanhueza, Sergio M.R.; Vaz, Alexandre R. [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, Uberlandia-MG, CEP 38400-902 (Brazil)

    2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In the case of photovoltaic (PV) systems acting as distributed generation (DG) systems, the DC energy that is produced is fed to the grid through the power-conditioning unit (inverter). The majority of contemporary inverters used in DG systems are current source inverters (CSI) operating at unity power factor. If, however, we assume that voltage source inverters (VSI) can replace CSIs, we can generate reactive power proportionally to the remaining unused capacity at any given time. According to the theory of instantaneous power, the inverter reactive power can be regulated by changing the amplitude of its output voltage. In addition, the inverter active power can be adjusted by modifying the phase angle of its output voltage. Based on such theory, both the active power supply and the reactive power compensation (RPC) can be carried out simultaneously. When the insolation is weak or the PV modules are inoperative at night, the RPC feature of a PV system can still be used to improve the inverter utilisation factor. Some MATLAB simulation results are included here to show the feasibility of the method. (author)

  5. Utilizing Electric Vehicles to Assist Integration of Large Penetrations of Distributed Photovoltaic Generation Capacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Chassin, Forrest S.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Gowri, Krishnan

    2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Executive Summary Introduction and Motivation This analysis provides the first insights into the leveraging potential of distributed photovoltaic (PV) technologies on rooftop and electric vehicle (EV) charging. Either of the two technologies by themselves - at some high penetrations – may cause some voltage control challenges or overloading problems, respectively. But when combined, there – at least intuitively – could be synergistic effects, whereby one technology mitigates the negative impacts of the other. High penetration of EV charging may overload existing distribution system components, most prominently the secondary transformer. If PV technology is installed at residential premises or anywhere downstream of the secondary transformer, it will provide another electricity source thus, relieving the loading on the transformers. Another synergetic or mitigating effect could be envisioned when high PV penetration reverts the power flow upward in the distribution system (from the homes upstream into the distribution system). Protection schemes may then no longer work and voltage violation (exceeding the voltage upper limited of the ANSI voltage range) may occur. In this particular situation, EV charging could absorb the electricity from the PV, such that the reversal of power flow can be reduced or alleviated. Given these potential mutual synergistic behaviors of PV and EV technologies, this project attempted to quantify the benefits of combining the two technologies. Furthermore, of interest was how advanced EV control strategies may influence the outcome of the synergy between EV charging and distributed PV installations. Particularly, Californian utility companies with high penetration of the distributed PV technology, who have experienced voltage control problems, are interested how intelligent EV charging could support or affect the voltage control

  6. Photovoltaic cell efficiency at elevated temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ray, Katherine Leung

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to determine what type of photovoltaic solar cell could best be used in a thermoelectric photovoltaic hybrid power generator, we tested the change in efficiency due to higher temperatures of three types of solar ...

  7. Photovoltaic solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J

    2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic solar cell for generating electricity from sunlight is disclosed. The photovoltaic solar cell comprises a plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions formed in a semiconductor body to receive the sunlight and generate the electicity therefrom, the plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions having a first plurality of regions having a first doping type and a second plurality of regions having a second doping type. In addition, the photovoltaic solar cell comprises a first electrical contact electrically connected to each of the first plurality of regions and a second electrical contact electrically connected to each of the second plurality of regions, as well as a passivation layer covering major surfaces and sidewalls of the photovoltaic solar cell.

  8. Photovoltaic solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielson, Gregory N; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J

    2014-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic solar cell for generating electricity from sunlight is disclosed. The photovoltaic solar cell comprises a plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions formed in a semiconductor body to receive the sunlight and generate the electricity therefrom, the plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions having a first plurality of regions having a first doping type and a second plurality of regions having a second doping type. In addition, the photovoltaic solar cell comprises a first electrical contact electrically connected to each of the first plurality of regions and a second electrical contact electrically connected to each of the second plurality of regions, as well as a passivation layer covering major surfaces and sidewalls of the photovoltaic solar cell.

  9. Analysis of the value of battery storage with wind and photovoltaic generation to the Sacramento Municipal Utility District

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaininger, H.W. [Zaininger Engineering Co., Inc., Roseville, CA (United States)

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the results of an analysis to determine the economic and operational value of battery storage to wind and photovoltaic (PV) generation technologies to the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) system. The analysis approach consisted of performing a benefit-cost economic assessment using established SMUD financial parameters, system expansion plans, and current system operating procedures. This report presents the results of the analysis. Section 2 describes expected wind and PV plant performance. Section 3 describes expected benefits to SMUD associated with employing battery storage. Section 4 presents preliminary benefit-cost results for battery storage added at the Solano wind plant and the Hedge PV plant. Section 5 presents conclusions and recommendations resulting from this analysis. The results of this analysis should be reviewed subject to the following caveat. The assumptions and data used in developing these results were based on reports available from and interaction with appropriate SMUD operating, planning, and design personnel in 1994 and early 1995 and are compatible with financial assumptions and system expansion plans as of that time. Assumptions and SMUD expansion plans have changed since then. In particular, SMUD did not install the additional 45 MW of wind that was planned for 1996. Current SMUD expansion plans and assumptions should be obtained from appropriate SMUD personnel.

  10. Agent-Based Simulation of Distribution Systems with High Penetration of Photovoltaic Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    of strategic trading in restructured wholesale power markets with congestion managed by locational marginal when coupled with increased price-sensitivity of demand as realized through demand response, demand dispatch, and/or price-sensitive demand bidding. Index Terms--Distributed power generation, multiagent sys

  11. The effect of the number of condensed phases modeled on aerosol behavior during an induced steam generator tube rupture sequence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bixler, N.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schaperow, J.H. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    VICTORIA is a mechanistic computer code designed to analyze fission product behavior within a nuclear reactor coolant system (RCS) during a severe accident. It provides detailed predictions of the release of radioactive and nonradioactive materials from the reactor core and transport and deposition of these materials within the RCS. A recently completed independent peer review of VICTORIA, while confirming the overall adequacy of the code, recommended a number of modeling improvements. One of these recommendations, to model three rather than a single condensed phase, is the focus of the work reported here. The recommendation has been implemented as an option so that either a single or three condensed phases can be treated. Both options have been employed in the study of fission product behavior during an induced steam generator tube rupture sequence. Differences in deposition patterns and mechanisms predicted using these two options are discussed.

  12. Optimizing Geographic Allotment of Photovoltaic Capacity in a Distributed Generation Setting: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urquhart, B.; Sengupta, M.; Keller, J.

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-objective optimization was performed to allocate 2MW of PV among four candidate sites on the island of Lanai such that energy was maximized and variability in the form of ramp rates was minimized. This resulted in an optimal solution set which provides a range of geographic allotment alternatives for the fixed PV capacity. Within the optimal set, a tradeoff between energy produced and variability experienced was found, whereby a decrease in variability always necessitates a simultaneous decrease in energy. A design point within the optimal set was selected for study which decreased extreme ramp rates by over 50% while only decreasing annual energy generation by 3% over the maximum generation allocation. To quantify the allotment mix selected, a metric was developed, called the ramp ratio, which compares ramping magnitude when all capacity is allotted to a single location to the aggregate ramping magnitude in a distributed scenario. The ramp ratio quantifies simultaneously how much smoothing a distributed scenario would experience over single site allotment and how much a single site is being under-utilized for its ability to reduce aggregate variability. This paper creates a framework for use by cities and municipal utilities to reduce variability impacts while planning for high penetration of PV on the distribution grid.

  13. Vibrational Sum Frequency Generation Spectroscopy of Secondary Organic Material Produced by Condensational Growth from Pinene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .9). The corresponding volume concentrations were as high as (3.0 ± 0.1) � 1014 nm3 cm-3 . The size distributions to (1.26 ± 0.02) � 107 cm-3 for the matrix of reaction conditions. The mode diameters of the aerosols indicated access to different particle growth stages, namely condensation, coagulation, or combination

  14. Economical Condensing Turbines? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dean, J. E.

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam turbines have long been used at utilities and in industry to generate power. There are three basic types of steam turbines: condensing, letdown and extraction/condensing. • Letdown turbines reduce the pressure of the incoming steam to one...

  15. Impacts of Variability and Uncertainty in Solar Photovoltaic Generation at Multiple Timescales

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ela, E.; Diakov, V.; Ibanez, E.; Heaney, M.

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The characteristics of variability and uncertainty of PV solar power have been studied extensively. These characteristics can create challenges for system operators who must ensure a balance between generation and demand while obeying power system constraints at the lowest possible cost. A number of studies have looked at the impact of wind power plants, and some recent studies have also included solar PV. The simulations that are used in these studies, however, are typically fixed to one time resolution. This makes it difficult to analyze the variability across several timescales. In this study, we use a simulation tool that has the ability to evaluate both the economic and reliability impacts of PV variability and uncertainty at multiple timescales. This information should help system operators better prepare for increases of PV on their systems and develop improved mitigation strategies to better integrate PV with enhanced reliability. Another goal of this study is to understand how different mitigation strategies and methods can improve the integration of solar power more reliably and efficiently.

  16. The Solar Photovoltaics Technology Conflict between

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deutch, John

    A Duel in the Sun The Solar Photovoltaics Technology Conflict between China and the United States A Duel in the Sun The Solar Photovoltaics Technology Conflict between China and the United States1 John domestically, and selling interna- tionally solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity- generating technology. Over

  17. EELE408 Photovoltaics Lecture 23: Summary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Todd J.

    Photovoltaic Myth #1 · Solar modules consume more energy for their production than they ever generate. ­ Most industry ­ Future recycling of modules will further reduce environmental impact 15 Photovoltaic Myth #81 EELE408 Photovoltaics Lecture 23: Summary Dr. Todd J. Kaiser tjkaiser@ece.montana.edu Department

  18. Module Handbook Specialisation Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Habel, Annegret

    Module Handbook Specialisation Photovoltaics 2nd Semester for the Master Programme REMA/EUREC Course 2008/2009 University of Northumbria Specialisation Provider: Photovoltaics #12;Specialisation Photovoltaics, University of Northumbria Module 1/Photovoltaics: PHOTOVOLTAIC CELL

  19. Photovoltaics Green is a Prerequisite for Sustainable Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohta, Shigemi

    1 Photovoltaics Green is a Prerequisite for Sustainable Growth Vasilis Fthenakis1 and Brent Nelson2 impact on the environment, are the key drivers of photovoltaic energy development Photovoltaic life Criteria Photovoltaics are required to meet the need for abundant electricity generation at competitive

  20. Valuing the Time-Varying Electricity Production of Solar Photovoltaic Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    photovoltaic cells remain a relatively expensive way to generate electricity, but with increasing natural gas prices

  1. Photovoltaic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, Roy G. (Cambridge, MA); Kurtz, Sarah (Somerville, MA)

    1984-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    In a photovoltaic cell structure containing a visibly transparent, electrically conductive first layer of metal oxide, and a light-absorbing semiconductive photovoltaic second layer, the improvement comprising a thin layer of transition metal nitride, carbide or boride interposed between said first and second layers.

  2. Generation of directional, coherent matter beams through dynamical instabilities in Bose-Einstein condensates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis, Graham R.; Johnsson, Mattias T. [Department of Quantum Science, Australian National University, Canberra 0200, Australia and Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Quantum-Atom Optics, Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia)

    2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a theoretical analysis of a coupled, two-state Bose-Einstein condensate with nonequal scattering lengths and show that dynamical instabilities can be excited. We demonstrate that these instabilities are exponentially amplified, resulting in highly directional, oppositely propagating, coherent matter beams at specific momenta. To accomplish this we prove that the mean field of our system is periodic and extend the standard Bogoliubov approach to consider a time-dependent, but cyclic, background. This allows us to use Floquet's theorem to gain analytic insight into such systems, rather than employing the usual Bogoliubov-de Gennes approach, which is usually limited to numerical solutions. We apply our theory to the metastable helium atom laser experiment by Dall et al. [Phys. Rev. A 79, 011601(R) (2009)] and show that it explains the anomalous beam profiles they observed. Finally, we demonstrate that the paired particle beams will be Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entangled on formation.

  3. Mass generation via the Higgs boson and the quark condensate of the QCD vacuum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schumacher, Martin

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Higgs boson, recently discovered with a mass of 125.7 GeV is known to mediate the masses of elementary particles, but only 2% of the mass of the nucleon. Extending a previous investigation [1] and including the strange-quark sector, hadron masses are derived from the quark condensate of the QCD vacuum and from the effects of the Higgs boson. These calculations include the $\\pi$ meson, the nucleon and the scalar mesons $\\sigma(600)$, $\\kappa(800)$, $a_0(980)$ $f_0(980)$ and $f_0(1370)$. The predicted second $\\sigma$ meson $\\sigma'(1344)=|s\\bar{s}\\rangle$, is investigated and identified with the $f_0(1370)$ meson. An outlook is given on the hyperons $\\Lambda$, $\\Sigma^{0,\\pm}$ and $\\Xi^{0,-}$.

  4. Photovoltaic Energy Conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glashausser, Charles

    than electricity from coal if cost of carbon capture is factored in Great promise for solving globalPhotovoltaic Energy Conversion Frank Zimmermann #12;Solar Electricity Generation Consumes no fuel No pollution No greenhouse gases No moving parts, little or no maintenance Sunlight is plentiful

  5. Air-Cooled Condensers in Next-Generation Conversion Systems Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    expensive to develop, there will be increased incentive to use more efficient power plants. Because of increasing demand on finite supplies of water, this next generation of...

  6. Photovoltaic Subcontract Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Surek, Thomas; Catalano, Anthony

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the fiscal year (FY) 1992 progress of the subcontracted photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R D) performed under the Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)-formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The mission of the national PV program is to develop PV technology for large-scale generation of economically competitive electric power in the United States. The technical sections of the report cover the main areas of the subcontract program: the Crystalline Materials and Advanced Concepts project, the Polycrystalline Thin Films project, Amorphous Silicon Research project, the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project, PV Module and System Performance and Engineering project, and the PV Analysis and Applications Development project. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs provide a discussion of approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1992, and future research directions.

  7. EELE408 Photovoltaics Lecture 20: Photovoltaic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Todd J.

    · 6. Determine battery size for recommended reserve time Photovoltaic System Design Block Diagram Ph1 EELE408 Photovoltaics Lecture 20: Photovoltaic Systems Dr. Todd J. Kaiser tjkaiser into the grid 2 Application Areas 3 Photovoltaic System Basics · Photovoltaic Systems ­ Cell Panel Array

  8. Sandia National Laboratories: Photovoltaic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in Computational Modeling & Simulation, Energy, Facilities, News, News & Events, Photovoltaic, Photovoltaic Systems Evaluation Laboratory (PSEL), Renewable Energy, Solar, Solar...

  9. Economical Condensing Turbines?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dean, J. E.

    Economical Condensing Turbines? by J.E.Dean, P.E. Steam turbines have long been used at utilities and in industry to generate power. There are three basic types of steam turbines: condensing, letdown 1 and extraction/condensing. ? Letdown... turbines reduce the pressure of the incoming steam to one or more pressures and generate power very efficiently, assuming that all the letdown steam has a use. Two caveats: ? Letdown turbines produce power based upon steam requirements and not based upon...

  10. Strong field physics in condensed matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oka, Takashi

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are deep similarities between non-linear QFT studied in high-energy and non-equilibrium physics in condensed matter. Ideas such as the Schwinger mechanism and the Volkov state are deeply related to non-linear transport and photovoltaic Hall effect in condensed matter. Here, we give a review on these relations.

  11. Strong field physics in condensed matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takashi Oka

    2011-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    There are deep similarities between non-linear QFT studied in high-energy and non-equilibrium physics in condensed matter. Ideas such as the Schwinger mechanism and the Volkov state are deeply related to non-linear transport and photovoltaic Hall effect in condensed matter. Here, we give a review on these relations.

  12. Condensation on Superhydrophobic Copper Oxide Nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enright, Ryan

    Condensation is an important process in both emerging and traditional power generation and water desalination technologies. Superhydrophobic nanostructures promise enhanced condensation heat transfer by reducing the ...

  13. Condensation on superhydrophobic copper oxide nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dou, Nicholas (Nicholas Gang)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Condensation is an important process in many power generation and water desalination technologies. Superhydrophobic nanostructured surfaces have unique condensation properties that may enhance heat transfer through a ...

  14. Photovoltaic Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duty, C.; Angelini, J.; Armstrong, B.; Bennett, C.; Evans, B.; Jellison, G. E.; Joshi, P.; List, F.; Paranthaman, P.; Parish, C.; Wereszczak, A.

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of the current project was to help make the US solar industry a world leader in the manufacture of thin film photovoltaics. The overall approach was to leverage ORNL’s unique characterization and processing technologies to gain a better understanding of the fundamental challenges for solar cell processing and apply that knowledge to targeted projects with industry members. ORNL has the capabilities in place and the expertise required to understand how basic material properties including defects, impurities, and grain boundaries affect the solar cell performance. ORNL also has unique processing capabilities to optimize the manufacturing process for fabrication of high efficiency and low cost solar cells. ORNL recently established the Center for Advanced Thin-film Systems (CATS), which contains a suite of optical and electrical characterization equipment specifically focused on solar cell research. Under this project, ORNL made these facilities available to industrial partners who were interested in pursuing collaborative research toward the improvement of their product or manufacturing process. Four specific projects were pursued with industrial partners: Global Solar Energy is a solar industry leader in full scale production manufacturing highly-efficient Copper Indium Gallium diSelenide (CIGS) thin film solar material, cells and products. ORNL worked with GSE to develop a scalable, non-vacuum, solution technique to deposit amorphous or nanocrystalline conducting barrier layers on untextured stainless steel substrates for fabricating high efficiency flexible CIGS PV. Ferro Corporation’s Electronic, Color and Glass Materials (“ECGM”) business unit is currently the world’s largest supplier of metallic contact materials in the crystalline solar cell marketplace. Ferro’s ECGM business unit has been the world's leading supplier of thick film metal pastes to the crystalline silicon PV industry for more than 30 years, and has had operational cells and modules in the field for 25 years. Under this project, Ferro leveraged world leading analytical capabilities at ORNL to characterize the paste-to-silicon interface microstructure and develop high efficiency next generation contact pastes. Ampulse Corporation is developing a revolutionary crystalline-silicon (c-Si) thin-film solar photovoltaic (PV) technology. Utilizing uniquely-textured substrates and buffer materials from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and breakthroughs in Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition (HW-CVD) techniques in epitaxial silicon developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Ampulse is creating a solar technology that is tunable in silicon thickness, and hence in efficiency and economics, to meet the specific requirements of multiple solar PV applications. This project focused on the development of a high rate deposition process to deposit Si, Ge, and Si1-xGex films as an alternate to hot-wire CVD. Mossey Creek Solar is a start-up company with great expertise in the solar field. The primary interest is to create and preserve jobs in the solar sector by developing high-yield, low-cost, high-efficiency solar cells using MSC-patented and -proprietary technologies. The specific goal of this project was to produce large grain formation in thin, net-shape-thickness mc-Si wafers processed with high-purity silicon powder and ORNL's plasma arc lamp melting without introducing impurities that compromise absorption coefficient and carrier lifetime. As part of this project, ORNL also added specific pieces of equipment to enhance our ability to provide unique insight for the solar industry. These capabilities include a moisture barrier measurement system, a combined physical vapor deposition and sputtering system dedicated to cadmium-containing deposits, adeep level transient spectroscopy system useful for identifying defects, an integrating sphere photoluminescence system, and a high-speed ink jet printing system. These tools were combined with others to study the effect of defects on the performance of crystalline silicon and

  15. EELE408 Photovoltaics Lecture 15 Photovoltaic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Todd J.

    1 EELE408 Photovoltaics Lecture 15 Photovoltaic Devices Dr. Todd J. Kaiser tjkaiser) · Demonstrated the photovoltaic effect · Best results with UV or blue light 2 g · Electrodes covered with light of photovoltaic effect in an all solid state device · Several decades before the effect could be explained Fritts

  16. Amorphous Silicon-Carbon Nanostructure Photovoltaic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schriver, Maria Christine

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Photovoltaic Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Amorphous Silicon as a Photovoltaic Material 2.1.2ii Photovoltaic Model . . . . . . . . . . .

  17. Nanoscience and Nanostructures for Photovoltaics and Solar Fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Zhigang

    Nanoscience and Nanostructures for Photovoltaics and Solar Fuels Arthur J. Nozik National Renewable to enhance the power conversion efficiency of solar cells for photovoltaic and solar fuels production of the technological status of nanocrystals and nanostructures for third generation photovoltaic cells and solar fuels

  18. Interdisciplinary Institute for Innovation What cost for photovoltaic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Interdisciplinary Institute for Innovation What cost for photovoltaic modules in 2020? Lessons from@mines-paristech.fr hal-00805668,version2-27May2013 #12;1 What cost for photovoltaic modules in 2020? Lessons from Abstract Except in few locations, photovoltaic generated electricity remains considerably more expensive

  19. Photovoltaic Installations at Williams College Ruth Aronoff

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aalberts, Daniel P.

    generation using solar power. Photovoltaic (PV) panel installations are a simple way for the College facilities, it is now evaluating in detail the environmental impact of these actions. In addition to making1 Photovoltaic Installations at Williams College Ruth Aronoff Williams Luce Project SUMMARY

  20. Improving Vortex Generators to Enhance the Performance of Air-Cooled Condensers in a Geothermal Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manohar S. Sohal

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes work at the Idaho National Laboratory to develop strategies to enhance air-side heat transfer in geothermal air-cooled condensers such that it should not significantly increase pressure drop and parasitic fan pumping power. The work was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) of Japan, Yokohama National University, and the Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, India. A combined experimental and numerical investigation was performed to investigate heat transfer enhancement techniques that may be applicable to largescale air-cooled condensers such as those used in geothermal power applications. A transient heat transfer visualization and measurement technique was employed in order to obtain detailed distributions of local heat transfer coefficients on model fin surfaces. Pressure drop measurements were obtained for a variety of tube and winglet configurations using a single-channel flow apparatus that included four tube rows in a staggered array. Heat transfer and pressure drop measurements were also acquired in a separate multiple-tube row apparatus in the Single Blow Test Facility. In addition, a numerical modeling technique was developed to predict local and average heat transfer for these low-Reynolds number flows, with and without winglets. Representative experimental and numerical results were obtained that reveal quantitative details of local finsurface heat transfer in the vicinity of a circular tube with a single delta winglet pair downstream of the cylinder. Heat transfer and pressure-drop results were obtained for flow Reynolds numbers based on channel height and mean flow velocity ranging from 700 to 6500. The winglets were of triangular (delta) shape with a 1:2 or 1:3 height/length aspect ratio and a height equal to 90% of the channel height. Overall mean fin-surface heat transfer results indicate a significant level of heat transfer enhancement (in terms of Colburn j-factor) associated with deployment of the winglets with circular as well as oval tubes. In general, toe-in (common flow up) type winglets appear to have better performance than the toe-out (common flow down) type winglets. Comparisons of heat transfer and pressure drop results for the elliptical tube versus a circular tube with and without winglets are provided. During the course of their independent research, all of the researchers have established that about 10 to 30% enhancement in Colburn j-factor is expected. However, actual increase in heat transfer rate from a heat exchanger employing finned tubes with winglets may be smaller, perhaps on the order of 2 to 5%. It is also concluded that for any specific application, more full-size experimentation is needed to optimize the winglet design for a specific heat exchanger application. If in place of a circular tube, an oval tube can be economically used in a bundle, it is expected that the pressure drop across the tube bundle with the application of vortex generators (winglets) will be similar to that in a conventional circular tube bundle. It is hoped that the results of this research will demonstrate the benefits of applying vortex generators (winglets) on the fins to improve the heat transfer from the air-side of the tube bundle.

  1. World Conference on Photovoltaic Conversion, Hawaii, May 8-12, 2006 QUANTIFYING THE LIFE-CYCLE ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE OF PHOTOVOLTAICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IEEE 4 th World Conference on Photovoltaic Conversion, Hawaii, May 8-12, 2006 QUANTIFYING THE LIFE-CYCLE ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE OF PHOTOVOLTAICS AND COMPARISONS WITH OTHER ELECTRICITY-GENERATING TECHNOLOGIES V and Australian studies portrayed photovoltaic systems as causing significant life-cycle environmental and health

  2. Photovoltaic roof heat flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samady, Mezhgan Frishta

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    designs (relatively) Photovoltaic Solar P a n e l AtmosphereCALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO Photovoltaic Roof Heat Flux A ThesisABSTRACT OF T H E THESIS Photovoltaic Roof Heat Flux by

  3. EPRI condensate polisher guidelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larkin, B.A.; Webb, L.C.; Sawochka, S.G.; Crits, G.J.; Pocock, F.J.; Wirth, L.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cycle chemistry is one of the most important contributors to the loss of availability of generating units. Condensate polishing can significantly improve cycle chemistry by improving cycle water quality and minimizing the transport of contaminants in the power cycle. The EPRI-funded project described in this paper developed comprehensive guidelines for condensate polishing based upon information gathered from utility surveys, equipment vendors, and resin suppliers. Existing literature was also surveyed for pertinent input. Comprehensive guidelines which outline guidance for design, operation, maintenance, surveillance, management, and retrofitting of condensate polishing systems were developed. Economics of condensate polishing were evaluated and a roadmap for economic evaluation for utilities to follow was produced.

  4. Aternating current photovoltaic building block

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bower, Ward Issac; Thomas, Michael G.; Ruby, Douglas S.

    2004-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A modular apparatus for and method of alternating current photovoltaic power generation comprising via a photovoltaic module, generating power in the form of direct current; and converting direct current to alternating current and exporting power via one or more power conversion and transfer units attached to the module, each unit comprising a unitary housing extending a length or width of the module, which housing comprises: contact means for receiving direct current from the module; one or more direct current-to-alternating current inverters; an alternating current bus; and contact means for receiving alternating current from the one or more inverters.

  5. Sandia National Laboratories: Photovoltaics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia Tool Determines Value of Solar Photovoltaic Power Systems On February 6, 2012, in Energy, News, News & Events, Partnership, Photovoltaic, Renewable Energy, Solar Consistent...

  6. Sandia National Laboratories: Photovoltaics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Security National Solar Thermal Test Facility NSTTF Nuclear Energy photovoltaic Photovoltaics PV Renewable Energy solar Solar Energy solar power Solar Research Solid-State...

  7. Sandia National Laboratories: Photovoltaics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy, News, Photovoltaic, Renewable Energy, Solar Sandia's microsystems enabled photovoltaics, also known as "solar glitter," captured a prestigious R&D 100 Award in this...

  8. Photovoltaic Technology Basics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Photovoltaic (PV) materials and devices convert sunlight into electrical energy, and PV cells are commonly known as solar cells. Photovoltaics can literally be translated as light-electricity.

  9. Sandia National Laboratories: photovoltaic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    photovoltaic Microsystems Enabled Photovoltaics (MEPV) On April 14, 2011, in About MEPV Flexible MEPV MEPV Publications MEPV Awards Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories are...

  10. Sandia National Laboratories: photovoltaic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    photovoltaic Sandians Win 'Best Paper' Award at Photovoltaic Conference in Japan On March 4, 2015, in Computational Modeling & Simulation, Energy, Facilities, News, News & Events,...

  11. Sandia National Laboratories: photovoltaic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia Tool Determines Value of Solar Photovoltaic Power Systems On February 6, 2012, in Energy, News, News & Events, Partnership, Photovoltaic, Renewable Energy, Solar Consistent...

  12. Sandia National Laboratories: Photovoltaic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photovoltaic Sandians Win 'Best Paper' Award at Photovoltaic Conference in Japan On March 4, 2015, in Computational Modeling & Simulation, Energy, Facilities, News, News & Events,...

  13. Sandia National Laboratories: Photovoltaic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia Tool Determines Value of Solar Photovoltaic Power Systems On February 6, 2012, in Energy, News, News & Events, Partnership, Photovoltaic, Renewable Energy, Solar Consistent...

  14. Photovoltaic module reliability workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mrig, L. (ed.)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper and presentations compiled in this volume form the Proceedings of the fourth in a series of Workshops sponsored by Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI/DOE) under the general theme of photovoltaic module reliability during the period 1986--1990. The reliability Photo Voltaic (PV) modules/systems is exceedingly important along with the initial cost and efficiency of modules if the PV technology has to make a major impact in the power generation market, and for it to compete with the conventional electricity producing technologies. The reliability of photovoltaic modules has progressed significantly in the last few years as evidenced by warranties available on commercial modules of as long as 12 years. However, there is still need for substantial research and testing required to improve module field reliability to levels of 30 years or more. Several small groups of researchers are involved in this research, development, and monitoring activity around the world. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in this field were brought together under SERI/DOE sponsorship to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this important field. The papers presented here reflect this effort.

  15. Retrospective modeling of the merit-order effect on wholesale electricity prices from distributed photovoltaic generation in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandiford, Mike

    Retrospective modeling of the merit-order effect on wholesale electricity prices from distributed, the depression in wholesale prices has significant value. c 5 GW of solar generation would have saved $1.8 billion in the market over two years. c The depression of wholesale prices offsets the cost of support

  16. China Solar Photovoltaic Group CNPV aka Dongying Photovoltaic...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    China Solar Photovoltaic Group CNPV aka Dongying Photovoltaic Power Co Ltd or China Solar PV Jump to: navigation, search Name: China Solar Photovoltaic Group (CNPV, aka Dongying...

  17. Photovoltaics: New opportunities for utilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication presents information on photovoltaics. The following topics are discussed: Residential Photovoltaics: The New England Experience Builds Confidence in PV; Austin's 300-kW Photovoltaic Power Station: Evaluating the Breakeven Costs; Residential Photovoltaics: The Lessons Learned; Photovoltaics for Electric Utility Use; Least-Cost Planning: The Environmental Link; Photovoltaics in the Distribution System; Photovoltaic Systems for the Rural Consumer; The Issues of Utility-Intertied Photovoltaics; and Photovoltaics for Large-Scale Use: Costs Ready to Drop Again.

  18. Lab Breakthrough: Microelectronic Photovoltaics | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Lab Breakthrough: Microelectronic Photovoltaics Lab Breakthrough: Microelectronic Photovoltaics June 7, 2012 - 9:31am Addthis Sandia developed tiny glitter-sized photovoltaic (PV)...

  19. Photovoltaic Subcontract Program, FY 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the fiscal year (FY) 1991 (October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991) progress of the subcontracted photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R D) performed under the Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) -- formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The mission of the national PV program is to develop PV technology for large-scale generation of economically competitive electric power in the United States. The technical sections of the report cover the main areas of the subcontract program: the Amorphous Silicon Research Project, Polycrystalline Thin Films, Crystalline Silicon Materials Research, High-Efficiency Concepts, the New Ideas Program, the University Participation Program, and the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs provide a discussion of approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1991, and future research directions.

  20. High-efficiency grid-connected photovoltaic module integrated converter system with high-speed communication interfaces for small-scale distribution power generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Woo-Young; Lai, Jih-Sheng (Jason) [Future Energy Electronics Center, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a high-efficiency grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) module integrated converter (MIC) system with reduced PV current variation. The proposed PV MIC system consists of a high-efficiency step-up DC-DC converter and a single-phase full-bridge DC-AC inverter. An active-clamping flyback converter with a voltage-doubler rectifier is proposed for the step-up DC-DC converter. The proposed step-up DC-DC converter reduces the switching losses by eliminating the reverse-recovery current of the output rectifying diodes. To reduce the PV current variation introduced by the grid-connected inverter, a PV current variation reduction method is also suggested. The suggested PV current variation reduction method reduces the PV current variation without any additional components. Moreover, for centralized power control of distributed PV MIC systems, a PV power control scheme with both a central control level and a local control level is presented. The central PV power control level controls the whole power production by sending out reference power signals to each individual PV MIC system. The proposed step-up DC-DC converter achieves a high-efficiency of 97.5% at 260 W output power to generate the DC-link voltage of 350 V from the PV voltage of 36.1 V. The PV MIC system including the DC-DC converter and the DC-AC inverter achieves a high-efficiency of 95% with the PV current ripple less than 3% variation of the rated PV current. (author)

  1. Methods for Analyzing the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Photovoltaic Generation to the U.S. Electric Utility System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.; Palmintier, B.; Barrows, C.; Ibanez, E.; Bird, L.; Zuboy, J.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report outlines the methods, data, and tools that could be used at different levels of sophistication and effort to estimate the benefits and costs of DGPV. In so doing, we identify the gaps in current benefit-cost-analysis methods, which we hope will inform the ongoing research agenda in this area. The focus of this report is primarily on benefits and costs from the utility or electricity generation system perspective. It is intended to provide useful background information to utility and regulatory decision makers and their staff, who are often being asked to use or evaluate estimates of the benefits and cost of DGPV in regulatory proceedings. Understanding the technical rigor of the range of methods and how they might need to evolve as DGPV becomes a more significant contributor of energy to the electricity system will help them be better consumers of this type of information. This report is also intended to provide information to utilities, policy makers, PV technology developers, and other stakeholders, which might help them maximize the benefits and minimize the costs of integrating DGPV into a changing electricity system.

  2. Sandia National Laboratories: photovoltaic analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in Computational Modeling & Simulation, Energy, Facilities, News, News & Events, Photovoltaic, Photovoltaic Systems Evaluation Laboratory (PSEL), Renewable Energy, Solar, Solar...

  3. EELE408 Photovoltaics Lecture 22: Grid Tied Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Todd J.

    14 Inverter Electrical Panel Monitoring Exterior Labeled PV Disconnect Required 15 Inverter 16 Photovoltaic Generator AC Load Inverter & Metering 2 Generator Grid g Example: Most Home Systems Roof Anchor City Hall 11 Two inverters in this systems Photovoltaic & Solar Heating 12 Hot water tilted for winter

  4. Request for Information on Photovoltaic Module Recycling

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative requests feedback from industry, academia, research laboratories, government agencies, and other stakeholders on issues related to photovoltaic (PV) module recycling technology. SunShot intends to understand the current state of recycling technology and the areas of research that could lead to impactful recycling technologies to support the developing PV industry. The intent of this request for information is to generate discussion related to planning for the end of life of photovoltaic modules and to create a list of high impact research topics in photovoltaics recycling.

  5. Making the most of residential photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moon, S.; Parker, D.; Hayter, S.

    1999-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Making the Most of Residential Photovoltaic Systems, was recently produced by NREL Communications and Public Affairs. It showcases a demonstration project in Florida that produced some remarkable results by incorporating both energy efficiency and photovoltaic systems into newly built housing. The brochure points up the benefits of making wise personal choices about energy use, and how large-scale use of advanced energy technologies can benefit the nation. This is one of a series of brochures that presents stimulating information about photovoltaics, with a goal of helping to push this technology into the power-generation mix in different utilities, communities, and states.

  6. Amorphous Silicon-Carbon Nanostructure Photovoltaic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schriver, Maria Christine

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Photovoltaic Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .conduction and photovoltaic performance. Experimental dataElectronic and Photovoltaic Performance We also probed oxide

  7. Sandia National Laboratories: Photovoltaic Regional Testing Center...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Grid Integration, Modeling, Modeling & Analysis, News, News & Events, Partnership, Photovoltaic, Photovoltaic Regional Testing Center (PV RTC), Photovoltaic Systems Evaluation...

  8. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis

    2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

  9. Sandia National Laboratories: Photovoltaics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PV Facilities On November 10, 2010, in Photovoltaic System Evaluation Laboratory Distributed Energy Technologies Laboratory Microsystems and Engineering Sciences Applications...

  10. Photovoltaics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The fact sheet summarizes the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its photovoltaics subprogram.

  11. Photovoltaics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The fact sheet summarizes the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its photovoltaics subprogram.

  12. Electroluminescence in photovoltaic cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petraglia, Antonio; 10.1088/0031-9120/46/5/F01

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Here we propose two methods to get electroluminescence images from photovoltaic cells in a school or home lab.

  13. Sandia National Laboratories: photovoltaic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Grid Integration, Infrastructure Security, Microgrid, News, News & Events, Photovoltaic, Renewable Energy, SMART Grid, Solar Newsletter, Systems Analysis, Systems...

  14. Photovoltaic Technology Incubator Awards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This factsheet gives an overview of the Photovoltaic (PV) Technology Incubator Awards and the Solar America Initiative (SAI).

  15. Amorphous silicon photovoltaic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, David E.; Lin, Guang H.; Ganguly, Gautam

    2004-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is a photovoltaic device comprising an intrinsic or i-layer of amorphous silicon and where the photovoltaic device is more efficient at converting light energy to electric energy at high operating temperatures than at low operating temperatures. The photovoltaic devices of this invention are suitable for use in high temperature operating environments.

  16. NREL Center for Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar cells, also called photovoltaics (PV) by solar cell scientists, convert sunlight directly into electricity. Solar cells are often used to power calculators and watches. The performance of a solar cell is measured in terms of its efficiency at turning sunlight into electricity. Only sunlight of certain energies will work efficiently to create electricity, and much of it is reflected or absorbed by the material that make up the cell. Because of this, a typical commercial solar cell has an efficiency of 15%—about one-sixth of the sunlight striking the cell generates electricity. Low efficiencies mean that larger arrays are needed, and that means higher cost. Improving solar cell efficiencies while holding down the cost per cell is an important goal of the PV industry, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, and they have made significant progress. The first solar cells, built in the 1950s, had efficiencies of less than 4%. For a text version of this video visit http://www.nrel.gov/learning/re_photovoltaics_video_text.html

  17. NREL Center for Photovoltaics

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar cells, also called photovoltaics (PV) by solar cell scientists, convert sunlight directly into electricity. Solar cells are often used to power calculators and watches. The performance of a solar cell is measured in terms of its efficiency at turning sunlight into electricity. Only sunlight of certain energies will work efficiently to create electricity, and much of it is reflected or absorbed by the material that make up the cell. Because of this, a typical commercial solar cell has an efficiency of 15%?about one-sixth of the sunlight striking the cell generates electricity. Low efficiencies mean that larger arrays are needed, and that means higher cost. Improving solar cell efficiencies while holding down the cost per cell is an important goal of the PV industry, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, and they have made significant progress. The first solar cells, built in the 1950s, had efficiencies of less than 4%. For a text version of this video visit http://www.nrel.gov/learning/re_photovoltaics_video_text.html

  18. EELE408 Photovoltaics Lecture 17 Photovoltaic Modules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Todd J.

    1 EELE408 Photovoltaics Lecture 17 Photovoltaic Modules Dr. Todd J. Kaiser tjkaiser to temperature effects and other non ideal conditions · Allows for voltage drops across other PV system components · Requires 15 V to charge a 12 V battery 10 Module Current · Depends primarily on size of solar

  19. Transmission System Performance Analysis for High-Penetration Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Achilles, S.; Schramm, S.; Bebic, J.

    2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study is an assessment of the potential impact of high levels of penetration of photovoltaic (PV) generation on transmission systems. The effort used stability simulations of a transmission system with different levels of PV generation and load.

  20. Thermal response of photovoltaic cell to laser beam irradiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuan, Yu-Chen

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper firstly presents the concept of using dual laser beam to irradiate the photovoltaic cell, so as to investigate the temperature dependency of the efficiency of long distance energy transmission. Next, the model on the multiple reflection and absorption of any monochromatic light in multilayer structure has been established, and the heat generation in photovoltaic cell has been interpreted in this work. Then, the finite element model has been set up to calculate the temperature of photovoltaic cell subjected to laser irradiation. Finally, the effect of temperature elevation on the efficiency and reliability of photovoltaic cell has been discussed to provide theoretical references for designing the light-electricity conversion system.

  1. Decentalized solar photovoltaic energy systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krupka, M. C.

    1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmental data for decentralized solar photovoltaic systems have been generated in support of the Technology Assessment of Solar Energy Systems program (TASE). Emphasis has been placed upon the selection and use of a model residential photovoltaic system to develop and quantify the necessary data. The model consists of a reference home located in Phoenix, AZ, utilizing a unique solar cell array-roof shingle combination. Silicon solar cells, rated at 13.5% efficiency at 28/sup 0/C and 100 mW/cm/sup 2/ (AMI) insolation are used to generate approx. 10 kW (peak). An all-electric home is considered with lead-acid battery storage, dc-ac inversion and utility backup. The reference home is compared to others in regions of different insolation. Major material requirements, scaled to quad levels of end-use energy include significant quantities of silicon, copper, lead, antimony, sulfuric acid and plastics. Operating residuals generated are negligible with the exception of those from the storage battery due to a short (10-year) lifetime. A brief general discussion of other environmental, health, and safety and resource availability impacts is presented. It is suggested that solar cell materials production and fabrication may have the major environmental impact when comparing all facets of photovoltaic system usage. Fabrication of the various types of solar cell systems involves the need, handling, and transportation of many toxic and hazardous chemicals with attendant health and safety impacts. Increases in production of such materials as lead, antimony, sulfuric acid, copper, plastics, cadmium and gallium will be required should large scale usage of photovoltaic systems be implemented.

  2. Photovoltaic transistors based on a steady-state internal polarization effect in asymmetric semiconductor superlattices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luryi, Serge

    Photovoltaic transistors based on a steady-state internal polarization effect in asymmetric that a modified structure can generate a steady-state photovoltage. We then propose a new class of photovoltaic novelty is such a photovoltaic transistor (PVT) aspect. Our idea of the PVT arises from the well known

  3. Maximum-Power-Point Tracking Method of Photovoltaic Power System Using Single Transducer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fujimoto, Hiroshi

    Maximum-Power-Point Tracking Method of Photovoltaic Power System Using Single Transducer Toshihiko) method of a photovoltaic power system with less transducer count. A unique feature of this method concern on an environmental issue since 1990's. Above all, a photovoltaic power generation system is one

  4. NREL Photovoltaic Program FY 1996 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the in-house and subcontract research and development (R&D) activities under the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Photovoltaics (PV) Program from October 1, 1995 through September 30, 1996 (fiscal year [FY] 1996). The NREL PV Program is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Photovoltaics Program, as described in the DOE Photovoltaics Program Plan, FY 1991 - FY 1995. The mission of the DOE National Photovoltaics Program is to: "Work in partnership with U.S. industry to develop and deploy photovoltaic technology for generating economically competitive electric power, making photovoltaics an important contributor to the nation's and the world's energy use and environmental improvement. The two primary goals of the national program are to (1) maintain the U.S. PV industry's world leadership in research and technology development and (2) help the U.S. industry remain a major, profitable force in the world market. The NREL PV Program provides leadership and support to the national program toward achieving its mission and goals.

  5. Sandia National Laboratories: Photovoltaics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photovoltaics PV Plant Performance Technical Briefing Published in PV Power Tech On March 4, 2015, in Computational Modeling & Simulation, Energy, Facilities, News, News & Events,...

  6. Sandia National Laboratories: Photovoltaics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Workshops and ... Solar Energy On February 3, 2011, in Solar Programs Photovoltaics Concentrating Solar Power Sunshine to Petrol Solar Publications Recent Solar...

  7. Photovoltaics Business Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frantzis, L.; Graham, S.; Katofsky, R.; Sawyer, H.

    2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes work to better understand the structure of future photovoltaics business models and the research, development, and demonstration required to support their deployment.

  8. Sandia National Laboratories: Photovoltaic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    News, News & Events, Photovoltaic, Renewable Energy, Research & Capabilities, Solar, SunShot The Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies at Sandia recently received a...

  9. Concentrating Photovoltaics (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.

    2009-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar is growing rapidly, and the concentrating photovoltaics industry-both high- and low-concentration cell approaches-may be ready to ramp production in 2009.

  10. National Laboratory Photovoltaics Research

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE supports photovoltaic (PV) research and development and facilities at its national laboratories to accelerate progress toward achieving the SunShot Initiative's technological and economic...

  11. Sandia National Laboratories: photovoltaic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Instruments: Solar Glitter On March 21, 2013, in Capabilities, Energy, Partnership, Photovoltaic, Renewable Energy, Research & Capabilities, Solar, SunShot Sandia scientists have...

  12. Sandia National Laboratories: photovoltaic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resolving a Key to How Stars Transmit Energy Sandians Win 'Best Paper' Award at Photovoltaic Conference in Japan EC Top Publications Literature Survey of Crude Oil Properties...

  13. Sandia National Laboratories: Photovoltaic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Solar Technology in the Home On June 12, 2014, in Energy, News, News & Events, Photovoltaic, Renewable Energy, Solar, Solar Newsletter, SunShot, Systems Analysis To better...

  14. Sandia National Laboratories: photovoltaic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    photovoltaic Past Market Transformation Activities On April 4, 2012, in Current activates have built upon past efforts, most notably the Solar American Cities (now Communities)...

  15. Lab Breakthrough: Microelectronic Photovoltaics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Sandia's glitter-sized photovoltaic cells are highly efficient and cost effective – the perfect combination for a game-changing technology.

  16. Photovoltaic Resources and Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This page provides a brief overview of photovoltaic (PV) technologies supplemented by specific information to apply PV within the Federal sector.

  17. Sandia National Laboratories: concentrating photovoltaic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    concentrating photovoltaic Sandia and EMCORE: Solar Photovoltaics, Fiber Optics, MODE, and Energy Efficiency On March 29, 2013, in Concentrating Solar Power, Energy, Partnership,...

  18. Entangled light from Bose-Einstein condensates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. T. Ng; S. Bose

    2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a method to generate entangled light with a Bose-Einstein condensate trapped in a cavity, a system realized in recent experiments. The atoms of the condensate are trapped in a periodic potential generated by a cavity mode. The condensate is continuously pumped by a laser and spontaneously emits a pair of photons of different frequencies in two distinct cavity modes. In this way, the condensate mediates entanglement between two cavity modes which leak out and can be separated and exhibit continuous variable entanglement. The scheme exploits the experimentally demonstrated strong, steady and collective coupling of condensate atoms to a cavity field.

  19. Strategy for SUPA Condensed Matter and Material Physics Theme, 2012 Introduction Condensed Matter and Materials Physics (CMMP) as a field is dually motivated by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenaway, Alan

    Strategy for SUPA Condensed Matter and Material Physics Theme, 2012 Introduction Condensed Matter optics Energy/Photonics: photovoltaics, solid-state lighting and fuel-cells PALS: statistical mechanics the best students who are available on the UK, European, and world-wide markets. With this in mind

  20. Use of photovoltaics for waste heat recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Polcyn, Adam D

    2013-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for recovering waste heat in the form of radiated light, e.g. red visible light and/or infrared light includes a housing having a viewing window, and a photovoltaic cell mounted in the housing in a relationship to the viewing window, wherein rays of radiated light pass through the viewing window and impinge on surface of the photovoltaic cell. The housing and/or the cell are cooled so that the device can be used with a furnace for an industrial process, e.g. mounting the device with a view of the interior of the heating chamber of a glass making furnace. In this manner, the rays of the radiated light generated during the melting of glass batch materials in the heating chamber pass through the viewing window and impinge on the surface of the photovoltaic cells to generate electric current which is passed onto an electric load.

  1. Ris Energy Report 5 Photovoltaics 6.3.1 Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risø Energy Report 5 Photovoltaics 6.3.1 Photovoltaics TOM MARkVART, UNIVERsITy OF s kREbs, RIsø NATIONAL LAbORATORy, DENMARk The market for photovoltaics (PV, or solar cells) has grown. The European Photovoltaic Industry Association esti- mates that the share of thin-film technologies

  2. Microsystems Enabled Photovoltaics

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Gupta, Vipin; Nielson, Greg; Okandan, Murat, Granata, Jennifer; Nelson, Jeff; Haney, Mike; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luiz

    2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia's microsystems enabled photovoltaic advances combine mature technology and tools currently used in microsystem production with groundbreaking advances in photovoltaics cell design, decreasing production and system costs while improving energy conversion efficiency. The technology has potential applications in buildings, houses, clothing, portable electronics, vehicles, and other contoured structures.

  3. Photovoltaics Life Cycle Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (air, water, solid) M, Q E PV array Photovoltaic modules Balance of System (BOS) (Inverters & Environmental Engineering Department Columbia University and National Photovoltaic (PV) EHS Research Center Brookhaven National Laboratory www.clca.columbia.edu www.pv.bnl.gov #12;2 The Life Cycle of PVThe Life Cycle

  4. Photovoltaics for residential applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Information is given about the parts of a residential photovoltaic system and considerations relevant to photovoltaic power use in homes that are also tied to utility lines. In addition, factors are discussed that influence implementation, including legal and environmental factors such as solar access and building codes, insurance, utility buyback, and system longevity. (LEW)

  5. Microsystems Enabled Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Vipin; Nielson, Greg; Okandan, Murat, Granata, Jennifer; Nelson, Jeff; Haney, Mike; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luiz

    2012-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia's microsystems enabled photovoltaic advances combine mature technology and tools currently used in microsystem production with groundbreaking advances in photovoltaics cell design, decreasing production and system costs while improving energy conversion efficiency. The technology has potential applications in buildings, houses, clothing, portable electronics, vehicles, and other contoured structures.

  6. Photovoltaic application for disaster relief

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, W.R. Jr.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hurricanes, floods, tornados, and earthquakes are natural disasters that can happen at any time destroying homes, businesses, and natural surroundings. One such disaster, Hurricane Andrew, devastated South Florida leaving several hundred-thousand people homeless. Many people were without electrical service, functioning water and sewage systems, communications, and medical services for days, even weeks in the aftermath of the storm. Emergency management teams, the military, and countless public and private organizations staged a massive relief effort. Dependency on electrical utility power became a pronounced problem as emergency services were rendered to survivors and the rebuilding process started. Many of the energy needs of emergency management organizations, relief workers, and the general public can be satisfied with solar electric energy systems. Photovoltaic (PV) power generated from solar energy is quiet, safe, inexhaustible and pollution-free. Previously, photovoltaics have supplied emergency power for Hurricanes Hugo and Andrew, and the earthquake at Northridge in Southern California. This document focuses on photovoltaic technology and its application to disaster relief efforts.

  7. Photosynthesis-inspired device architectures for organic photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heidel, Timothy David

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic semiconductor photovoltaics offer a promising route to low-cost, scalable, emissions-free electricity generation. However, achieving higher power conversion efficiencies is critical before these devices can play a ...

  8. Power processing and active protection for photovoltaic energy extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Arthur Hsu Chen

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar photovoltaic power generation is a promising clean and renewable energy technology that can draw upon the planet's most abundant power source - the sun. However, relatively high levelized cost of energy (LCOE), the ...

  9. Increased Photovoltaic Power Output via Diffractive Spectrum Separation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Ganghun

    In this Letter, we report the preliminary demonstration of a new paradigm for photovoltaic power generation that utilizes a broadband diffractive-optical element (BDOE) to efficiently separate sunlight into laterally spaced ...

  10. Steam condensate leakage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Midlock, E.B.; Thuot, J.R.

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is a multi-program research and development center owned by the United States Department of Energy and operated by the University of Chicago. The majority of the buildings on site use steam for heating and other purposes. Steam is generated from liquid water at the site`s central boiler house and distributed around the site by means of large pipes both above and below the ground. Steam comes into each building where it is converted to liquid condensate, giving off heat which can be used by the building. The condensate is then pumped back to the boiler house where it will be reheated to steam again. The process is continual but is not perfectly efficient. A substantial amount of condensate is being lost somewhere on site. The lost condensate has both economic and environmental significance. To compensate for lost condensate, makeup water must be added to the returned condensate at the boiler house. The water cost itself will become significant in the future when ANL begins purchasing Lake Michigan water. In addition to the water cost, there is also the cost of chemically treating the water to remove impurities, and there is the cost of energy required to heat the water, as it enters the boiler house 1000 F colder than the condensate return. It has been estimated that only approximately 60% of ANL`s steam is being returned as condensate, thus 40% is being wasted. This is quite costly to ANL and will become significantly more costly in the future when ANL begins purchasing water from Lake Michigan. This study locates where condensate loss is occurring and shows how much money would be saved by repairing the areas of loss. Shortly after completion of the study, one of the major areas of loss was repaired. This paper discusses the basis for the study, the areas where losses are occurring, the potential savings of repairing the losses, and a hypothesis as to where the unaccounted for loss is occurring.

  11. DISSERTATION DEVICE CHARACTERIZATION OF CADMIUM TELLURIDE PHOTOVOLTAICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    DISSERTATION DEVICE CHARACTERIZATION OF CADMIUM TELLURIDE PHOTOVOLTAICS Submitted by Russell M Reserved #12;ABSTRACT DEVICE CHARACTERIZATION OF CADMIUM TELLURIDE PHOTOVOLTAICS Thin-film photovoltaics

  12. Amorphous Silicon-Carbon Nanostructure Photovoltaic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schriver, Maria Christine

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Photovoltaics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.1Graphene 4 Photovoltaics 4.1 Motivation and Materialby the European Photovoltaics Industry Association for

  13. Metallic nanostructures for optoelectronic and photovoltaic applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Swee Hoe

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    enhanced performance of photovoltaic and photodetector Proc.and H. Wagner, in Photovoltaic Specialists Conference. ,for Optoelectronic and Photovoltaic Applications by Swee Hoe

  14. An analysis of the photovoltaic value chain for reviewing solar energy policy in Massachusetts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dean, Ryan, S. B. (Ryan G.) Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We explore the photovoltaic value chain for 1st generation crystalline silicon, 2nd generation thin film and 3rd generation organic/ dye-sensitized PV in an effort to evaluate two levels of policy options intended to create ...

  15. Annual Report: Photovoltaic Subcontract Program FY 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Summers, K. A.

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the fiscal year (FY) 1991 (October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991) progress of the subcontracted photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R&D) performed under the Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)-formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The mission of the national PV program is to develop PV technology for large-scale generation of economically competitive electric power in the United States. The technical sections of the report cover the main areas of the subcontract program: the Amorphous Silicon Research Project, Polycrystalline Thin Films, Crystalline Silicon Materials Research, High Efficiency Concepts, the New Ideas Program, the University Participation Program, and the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs provide a discussion of approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1991, and future research directions.

  16. Photovoltaic Subcontract Program. Annual report, FY 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the fiscal year (FY) 1992 progress of the subcontracted photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R&D) performed under the Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)-formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The mission of the national PV program is to develop PV technology for large-scale generation of economically competitive electric power in the United States. The technical sections of the report cover the main areas of the subcontract program: the Crystalline Materials and Advanced Concepts project, the Polycrystalline Thin Films project, Amorphous Silicon Research project, the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project, PV Module and System Performance and Engineering project, and the PV Analysis and Applications Development project. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs provide a discussion of approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1992, and future research directions.

  17. Optical Refrigeration for Ultra-Efficient Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manor, Assaf; Rotschild, Carmel

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improving the conversion efficiency of solar energy to electricity is most important to mankind. For single-junction photovoltaic solar-cells, the Shockley-Queisser thermodynamic efficiency limit is extensively due to the heat dissipation, inherently accompanying the quantum process of electro-chemical potential generation. Concepts such as solar thermo-photovoltaics and thermo-photonics, have been suggested to harness this wasted heat, yet efficiencies exceeding the Shockley-Queisser limit have not been demonstrated due to the challenge of operating at high temperatures. Here, we present a highly efficient converter based on endothermic photoluminescence, which operates at relative low temperatures. The thermally induced blue-shifted photoluminescence of a low-bandgap absorber is coupled to a high-bandgap photovoltaic cell. The high absorber's photo-current and the high cell's voltage results in 69% maximal theoretical conversion efficiencies. We experimentally demonstrate tenfold thermal-enhancement of usef...

  18. DISTRIBUTED GENERATION AND COGENERATION POLICY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Director EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLES & DEMAND ANALYSIS DIVISION B.B. Blevins Executive Director DISCLAIMER capacity targets. KEYWORDS Distributed generation, cogeneration, photovoltaics, wind, biomass, combined

  19. Abstract--The many different techniques for maximum power point tracking of photovoltaic arrays are discussed. The

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapman, Patrick

    Abstract--The many different techniques for maximum power point tracking of photovoltaic arrays on implementation. This manuscript should serve as a convenient reference for future work in photovoltaic power generation. Index Terms--maximum power point tracking, MPPT, photovoltaic, PV. I. INTRODUCTION RACKING

  20. In the July 2011 PE magazine article "Why We Need Rational Selection of Energy Projects," the author stated that "photovoltaic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ," the author stated that "photovoltaic electricity generation cannot be an energy source for the future" because photovoltaics require more energy than they produce (during their lifetime), thus their "Energy Payback Times The life cycle of photovoltaics starts from the extraction of raw mate- rials (cradle

  1. Photovoltaic module and interlocked stack of photovoltaic modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wares, Brian S.

    2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    One embodiment relates to an arrangement of photovoltaic modules configured for transportation. The arrangement includes a plurality of photovoltaic modules, each photovoltaic module including a frame. A plurality of individual male alignment features and a plurality of individual female alignment features are included on each frame. Adjacent photovoltaic modules are interlocked by multiple individual male alignment features on a first module of the adjacent photovoltaic modules fitting into and being surrounded by corresponding individual female alignment features on a second module of the adjacent photovoltaic modules. Other embodiments, features and aspects are also disclosed.

  2. Sandia National Laboratories: Photovoltaics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ESTAP Webinar: Briefing on Sandia's Maui Energy Storage Study On March 6, 2013, in EC, Energy, News, Photovoltaic, Renewable Energy, Solar March 6, 2013 14:00 - 15:00 Eastern The...

  3. Sandia National Laboratories: Photovoltaics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    845-9015 rdrobin@sandia.gov Publications available at: pvsac@sandia.gov Websites Photovoltaics energy.sandia.gov www.eere.energy.gov SunShot Meetings & Workshops On November 9,...

  4. Sandia National Laboratories: Photovoltaics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photovoltaics PV Publications On April 22, 2011, in Recent Publications, Listed by Date. Click on publication title to view, right click to download. All files are in PDF format...

  5. Photovoltaic Research Facilities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funds photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R&D) at its national laboratory facilities located throughout the country. To encourage further innovation,...

  6. Nanocarbon-Based Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernardi, Marco

    Carbon materials are excellent candidates for photovoltaic solar cells: they are Earth-abundant, possess high optical absorption, and maintain superior thermal and photostability. Here we report on solar cells with active ...

  7. INTEGRATING PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delaware, University of

    for Energy and Environmental Policy University of Delaware February 2006 #12;INTEGRATING PHOTOVOLTAIC Delmarva Power Delaware Energy Office University of Delaware Center for Energy and Environmental Policy..................................................................................................... 5 3.3.1 Delaware's Solar Resource

  8. Photovoltaic decision analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Neil L.

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is concerned with the development and implementation of a methodology that analyzes information relating to the choice between flat plate and concentrator technologies for photovoltaic development. A

  9. Three-dimensional photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myers, Bryan

    The concept of three-dimensional (3D) photovoltaics is explored computationally using a genetic algorithm to optimize the energy production in a day for arbitrarily shaped 3D solar cells confined to a given area footprint ...

  10. Photovoltaic roof heat flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samady, Mezhgan Frishta

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    e l Atmosphere ceiling, back panel roof, exposed roof insideSAN DIEGO Photovoltaic Roof Heat Flux A Thesis submitted i no n Convection Exposed Roof Temperature Seasonal Temperature

  11. Sandia National Laboratories: photovoltaic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    On October 10, 2011, in This Web Demo model is a simplified "player" version of the Photovoltaic Reliability Performance Model (PV-RPM) currently in development at Sandia National...

  12. Photovoltaic systems and applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstracts are given of presentations given at a project review meeting held at Albuquerque, NM. The proceedings cover the past accomplishments and current activities of the Photovoltaic Systems Research, Balance-of-System Technology Development and System Application Experiments Projects at Sandia National Laboratories. The status of intermediate system application experiments and residential system analysis is emphasized. Some discussion of the future of the Photovoltaic Program in general, and the Sandia projects in particular is also presented.

  13. General Services Administration Photovoltaics Project in Sacramento...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    General Services Administration Photovoltaics Project in Sacramento, California General Services Administration Photovoltaics Project in Sacramento, California Document describes a...

  14. Sandia National Laboratories: Photovoltaic Systems Evaluation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Modeling & Simulation, Energy, Facilities, News, News & Events, Partnership, Photovoltaic, Photovoltaic Systems Evaluation Laboratory (PSEL), Renewable Energy, Solar, Solar...

  15. Fabrication and Characterization of Organic/Inorganic Photovoltaic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guvenc, Ali Bilge

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polymer Photovoltaic Cells - Enhanced Efficiencies Via afor high-efficiency polymer photovoltaic cells usingfactors. The photovoltaic power conversion efficiency (?) [

  16. The Development of Semiconducting Materials for Organic Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douglas, Jessica D.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Organic Photovoltaic Device Efficiency……………………………..4of Organic Photovoltaic Device Efficiency The efficiency atpower conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaic devices.

  17. IEEE JOURNAL OF PHOTOVOLTAICS 1 Optimal Dispatch of Residential Photovoltaic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giannakis, Georgios

    IEEE JOURNAL OF PHOTOVOLTAICS 1 Optimal Dispatch of Residential Photovoltaic Inverters Under of existing low- voltage distribution systems with high photovoltaic (PV) gen- eration have focused on the possibility of inverters providing ancillary services such as active power curtailment and reactive power

  18. Liquid photovoltaic/thermal collectors for residential applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendrie, S. D.; Raghuraman, P.; Cox, C. H.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A second-generation, liquid photovoltaic/thermal collector has been designed and is currently under fabrication. Results of computer simulations indicate that the collector unit, which incorporates novel cell and framing concepts, yields significnatly improved performance results over earlier units tested. Predicted performance values of 55% thermal efficiency and 11% electrical efficiency make the performance and this collector competitive with its single-function solar thermal and photovoltaic counterparts.

  19. Thermionic-photovoltaic energy converter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chubb, D. L.

    1985-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermionic-photovoltaic energy conversion device comprises a thermionic diode mounted within a hollow tubular photovoltaic converter. The thermionic diode maintains a cesium discharge for producing excited atoms that emit line radiation in the wavelength region of 850 nm to 890 nm. The photovoltaic converter is a silicon or galium arsenide photovoltaic cell having bandgap energies in this same wavelength region for optimum cell efficiency.

  20. Apparatus and method for maximizing power delivered by a photovoltaic array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muljadi, Eduard (Golden, CO); Taylor, Roger W. (Golden, CO)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for maximizing the electric power output of a photovoltaic array connected to a battery where the voltage across the photovoltaic array is adjusted through a range of voltages to find the voltage across the photovoltaic array that maximizes the electric power generated by the photovoltaic array and then is held constant for a period of time. After the period of time has elapsed, the electric voltage across the photovoltaic array is again adjusted through a range of voltages and the process is repeated. The electric energy and the electric power generated by the photovoltaic array is delivered to the battery which stores the electric energy and the electric power for later delivery to a load.

  1. Apparatus and method for maximizing power delivered by a photovoltaic array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muljadi, E.; Taylor, R.W.

    1998-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for maximizing the electric power output of a photovoltaic array connected to a battery where the voltage across the photovoltaic array is adjusted through a range of voltages to find the voltage across the photovoltaic array that maximizes the electric power generated by the photovoltaic array and then is held constant for a period of time. After the period of time has elapsed, the electric voltage across the photovoltaic array is again adjusted through a range of voltages and the process is repeated. The electric energy and the electric power generated by the photovoltaic array is delivered to the battery which stores the electric energy and the electric power for later delivery to a load. 20 figs.

  2. Editorial: Photovoltaic Materials and Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sopori, B.; Tan, T.; Rupnowski, P.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As the global energy needs grow, there is increasing interest in the generation of electricity by photovoltaics (PVs) devices or solar cells - devices that convert sunlight to electricity. Solar industry has seen an enormous growth during the last decade. The sale of PV modules has exceeded 27 GW in 2011, with significant contributions to the market share from all technologies. While the silicon technology continues to have the dominant share, the other thin film technologies (CdTe, CIGS, a-Si, and organic PV) are experiencing fast growth. Increased production of silicon modules has led to a very rapid reduction in their price and remains as benchmark for other technologies. The PV industry is in full gear to commercialize new automated equipment for solar cell and module production, instrumentation for process monitoring technologies, and for implementation of other cost-reduction approaches, and extensive research continues to be carried out in many laboratories to improve the efficiency of solar cells and modules without increasing the production costs. A large variety of solar cells, which differ in the material systems used, design, PV structure, and even the principle of PV conversion, are designed to date. This special issue contains peer-reviewed papers in the recent developments in research related to broad spectrum of photovoltaic materials and devices. It contains papers on many aspects of solar cells-the growth and deposition, characterization, and new material development.

  3. Photovoltaic system controller

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerken, K.F.; Sullivan, R.A.

    1989-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a photovoltaic system controller for utilization with a photovoltaic power system including at least a photovoltaic array, a system battery adapted to be charged by the array and a load adapted to be powered by the battery. The controller comprising a microprocessor having an erasable programmable memory. The microprocessor having means to receive input data from the array, the battery and the load. The microprocessor having means to evaluate the input data in relation to at least one predetermined setpoint, the microprocessor in response to the evaluation being adapted to disconnect the battery from the array or to disconnect the load from the battery. The setpoint being adapted to be adjusted to a second setpoint by adjustment means, and the erasable programmable memory being adapted to be changed whereby the evaluation performed by the microprocessor is also changed.

  4. Nanowires enabling strained photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greil, J.; Bertagnolli, E.; Lugstein, A., E-mail: alois.lugstein@tuwien.ac.at [Institute of Solid State Electronics, Vienna University of Technology, Floragasse 7, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Birner, S. [nextnano GmbH, Südmährenstr. 21, 85586 Poing (Germany)

    2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Photovoltaic nano-devices have largely been relying on charge separation in conventional p-n junctions. Junction formation via doping, however, imposes major challenges in process control. Here, we report on a concept for photovoltaic energy conversion at the nano scale without the need for intentional doping. Our approach relies on charge carrier separation in inhomogeneously strained germanium nanowires (Ge NWs). This concept utilizes the strain-induced gradient in bandgap along tapered NWs. Experimental data confirms the feasibility of strain-induced charge separation in individual vapor-liquid-solid grown Ge NW devices with an internal quantum efficiency of ?5%. The charge separation mechanism, though, is not inherently limited to a distinct material. Our work establishes a class of photovoltaic nano-devices with its opto-electronic properties engineered by size, shape, and applied strain.

  5. Tradeoffs between revenue enhancements and emissions reductions with energy storage-coupled photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heidel, Timothy David

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy storage has the potential to dramatically change the operation of photovoltaics by allowing for a delay between generation and use. This flexibility has the potential to impact both the revenue from generating ...

  6. High efficiency photovoltaic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guha, Subhendu (Troy, MI); Yang, Chi C. (Troy, MI); Xu, Xi Xiang (Findlay, OH)

    1999-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An N-I-P type photovoltaic device includes a multi-layered body of N-doped semiconductor material which has an amorphous, N doped layer in contact with the amorphous body of intrinsic semiconductor material, and a microcrystalline, N doped layer overlying the amorphous, N doped material. A tandem device comprising stacked N-I-P cells may further include a second amorphous, N doped layer interposed between the microcrystalline, N doped layer and a microcrystalline P doped layer. Photovoltaic devices thus configured manifest improved performance, particularly when configured as tandem devices.

  7. Concentrating photovoltaic solar panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cashion, Steven A; Bowser, Michael R; Farrelly, Mark B; Hines, Braden E; Holmes, Howard C; Johnson, Jr., Richard L; Russell, Richard J; Turk, Michael F

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to photovoltaic power systems, photovoltaic concentrator modules, and related methods. In particular, the present invention features concentrator modules having interior points of attachment for an articulating mechanism and/or an articulating mechanism that has a unique arrangement of chassis members so as to isolate bending, etc. from being transferred among the chassis members. The present invention also features adjustable solar panel mounting features and/or mounting features with two or more degrees of freedom. The present invention also features a mechanical fastener for secondary optics in a concentrator module.

  8. Sandia Energy - Photovoltaics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del Sol Home Distribution Grid IntegrationOffshoreLive PhotovoltaicPhotovoltaics

  9. Photovoltaics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroupPerfectenergy International LimitedPhoenix BioPhotovoltaicsPhotovoltaics

  10. Detailed balance limit of power conversion efficiency for organic photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seki, Kazuhiko, E-mail: k-seki@aist.go.jp [NRI, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), AIST Tsukuba Central 5, Higashi 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan)] [NRI, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), AIST Tsukuba Central 5, Higashi 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan); Furube, Akihiro [RIIF, AIST Tsukuba Central 2, Umezono 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)] [RIIF, AIST Tsukuba Central 2, Umezono 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Yoshida, Yuji [RCPVT, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), AIST Tsukuba Central 5, Higashi 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan)] [RCPVT, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), AIST Tsukuba Central 5, Higashi 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan)

    2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A fundamental difference between inorganic photovoltaic (IPV) and organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells is that charges are generated at the interface in OPV cells, while free charges can be generated in the bulk in IPV cells. In OPV cells, charge generation involves intrinsic energy losses to dissociate excitons at the interface between the donor and acceptor. By taking into account the energy losses, we show the theoretical limits of the power conversion efficiency set by radiative recombination of the carriers on the basis of the detailed balance relation between radiation from the cell and black-body radiation.

  11. Confinement Contains Condensates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Roberts, Craig D.; Shrock, Robert; Tandy, Peter C.

    2012-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and its connection to the generation of hadron masses has historically been viewed as a vacuum phenomenon. We argue that confinement makes such a position untenable. If quark-hadron duality is a reality in QCD, then condensates, those quantities that have commonly been viewed as constant empirical mass-scales that fill all spacetime, are instead wholly contained within hadrons; i.e., they are a property of hadrons themselves and expressed, e.g., in their Bethe-Salpeter or light-front wave functions. We explain that this paradigm is consistent with empirical evidence, and incidentally expose misconceptions in a recent Comment.

  12. Photovoltaics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DOE works with national labs, academia, and industry to support the domestic photovoltaics (PV) industry and research enterprise. SunShot aims to achieve widespread, unsubsidized cost-competitiveness through an applied research and development (R&D) portfolio spanning PV materials, devices, and manufacturing technologies.

  13. Photovoltaics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) works with industry, academia, national laboratories, and other government agencies to advance solar photovoltaics (PV) domestically. The SunShot Initiative aims to achieve widespread, unsubsidized cost-competitiveness through an applied research and development (R&D) portfolio spanning PV materials, devices, and manufacturing technologies.

  14. Multiple gap photovoltaic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dalal, Vikram L. (Newark, DE)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multiple gap photovoltaic device having a transparent electrical contact adjacent a first cell which in turn is adjacent a second cell on an opaque electrical contact, includes utilizing an amorphous semiconductor as the first cell and a crystalline semiconductor as the second cell.

  15. Photovoltaic radiation detector element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Agouridis, D.C.

    1980-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A radiation detector element is formed of a body of semiconductor material, a coating on the body which forms a photovoltaic junction therewith, and a current collector consisting of narrow metallic strips, the aforesaid coating having an opening therein in the edge of which closely approaches but is spaced from the current collector strips.

  16. Thin film photovoltaic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meakin, John D. (Newark, DE); Bragagnolo, Julio (Newark, DE)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin film photovoltaic cell having a transparent electrical contact and an opaque electrical contact with a pair of semiconductors therebetween includes utilizing one of the electrical contacts as a substrate and wherein the inner surface thereof is modified by microroughening while being macro-planar.

  17. PHOTOVOLTAICS AND COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS--

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard R.

    management of electricity demand. · PV applications are now being integrated directly into building roofs, Valuation of Demand-Side Commercial PV Systems in the United States, we sought to measure the costPHOTOVOLTAICS AND COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS-- A NATURAL MATCH A study highlighting strategic

  18. Particle mixing, flavor condensate and dark energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massimo Blasone; Antonio Capolupo; Giuseppe Vitiello

    2009-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The mixing of neutrinos and quarks generate a vacuum condensate that, at the present epoch, behaves as a cosmological constant. The value of the dark energy is constrained today by the very small breaking of the Lorentz invariance.

  19. Condensation heat transfer on superhydrophobic surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miljkovic, Nenad

    Condensation is a phase change phenomenon often encountered in nature, as well as used in industry for applications including power generation, thermal management, desalination, and environmental control. For the past eight ...

  20. Efficiency enhancement of luminescent solar concentrations for photovoltaic technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chunhua

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to standardize the performance of photovoltaic devices,Performance of organic luminescent solar concentrator photovoltaic

  1. Photovoltaic Forecasting: A state of the art B. Espinar, J.L. Aznarte, R. Girard, A.M. Moussa and G. Kariniotakis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Photovoltaic Forecasting: A state of the art B. Espinar, J.L. Aznarte, R. Girard, A.M. Moussa and G(0)493678967; FAX: +33 (0)493957535,bella.espinar@mines-paristech.fr Abstract Photovoltaic (PV) energy, together Introduction Photovoltaics (PV) for electricity generation is the fastest-growing energy technology since 2002

  2. RECYCLING OF CdTe PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES: RECOVERY OF CADMIUM AND TELLURIUM Vasilis Fthenakis1, Paul Duby2, Wenming Wang1, Christopher Graves2 & Anuta Belova2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RECYCLING OF CdTe PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES: RECOVERY OF CADMIUM AND TELLURIUM Vasilis Fthenakis1, Paul the recovery of tellurium. Keywords: Photovoltaic, Recycling, CdTe 1. INTRODUCTION Photovoltaic modules acid (sulfuric) /hydrogen peroxide solution mixture to generate a solution that is rich in cadmium

  3. Photovoltaic module and interlocked stack of photovoltaic modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wares, Brian S.

    2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    One embodiment relates to an arrangement of photovoltaic modules configured for transportation. The arrangement includes a plurality of photovoltaic modules, each photovoltaic module including a frame having at least a top member and a bottom member. A plurality of alignment features are included on the top member of each frame, and a plurality of alignment features are included on the bottom member of each frame. Adjacent photovoltaic modules are interlocked by the alignment features on the top member of a lower module fitting together with the alignment features on the bottom member of an upper module. Other embodiments, features and aspects are also disclosed.

  4. Photon management in thermal and solar photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Lu

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photovoltaics is a technology that directly converts photon energy into electrical energy. Depending on the photon source, photovoltaic systems can be categorized into two groups: solar photovoltaics (PV) and thermophotovoltaics ...

  5. Scattering Properties of nanostructures : applications to photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Derkacs, Daniel

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Arya, D. Carlson, Prog. Photovoltaics 10, p. 69 (2002). K.and J. Bailat, Prog. in Photovoltaics 12 , 113 (2004). M.and A. Mart?´, Progress in Photovoltaics 9, p. 73 (2001). S.

  6. Department of Energy: Photovoltaics program - FY 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Photovoltaic Program supports efforts to make PV an important part of the US economy through three main program elements: Research and Development, Technology Development, and Systems Engineering and Applications. (1) Research and Development activities generate new ideas, test the latest scientific theories, and push the limits of PV efficiencies in laboratory and prototype materials and devices. (2) Technology Development activities apply laboratory innovations to products to improve PV technology and the manufacturing techniques used to produce PV systems for the market. (3) Systems Engineering and Applications activities help improve PV systems and validate these improvements through tests, measurements, and deployment of prototypes. In addition, applications research validates, sales, maintenance, and financing mechanisms worldwide. (4) Environmental, Health, Safety and Resource Characterization activities help to define environmental, health and safety issues for those facilities engaged in the manufacture of PV products and organizations engaged in PV research and development. All PV Program activities are planned and executed in close collaboration and partnership with the U.S. PV industry. The overall PV Program is planned to be a balanced effort of research, manufacturing development, and market development. Critical to the success of this strategy is the National Photovoltaic Program`s effort to reduce the cost of electricity generated by photovoltaic. The program is doing this in three primary ways: by making devices more efficient, by making PV systems less expensive, and by validating the technology through measurements, tests, and prototypes.

  7. Portable thermo-photovoltaic power source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zuppero, Anthony C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Krawetz, Barton (Idaho Falls, ID); Barklund, C. Rodger (Idaho Falls, ID); Seifert, Gary D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1997-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A miniature thermo-photovoltaic (TPV) device for generation of electrical power for use in portable electronic devices. A TPV power source is constructed to provide a heat source chemical reactor capable of using various fuels, such as liquid hydrocarbons, including but not limited to propane, LPG, butane, alcohols, oils and diesel fuels to generate a source of photons. A reflector dish guides misdirected photon energy from the photon source toward a photovoltaic array. A thin transparent protector sheet is disposed between the photon source and the array to reflect back thermal energy that cannot be converted to electricity, and protect the array from thermal damage. A microlens disposed between the protector sheet and the array further focuses the tailored band of photon energy from the photon source onto an array of photovoltaic cells, whereby the photon energy is converted to electrical power. A heat recuperator removes thermal energy from reactor chamber exhaust gases, preferably using mini- or micro-bellows to force air and fuel past the exhaust gases, and uses the energy to preheat the fuel and oxidant before it reaches the reactor, increasing system efficiency. Mini- or micro-bellows force ambient air through the system both to supply oxidant and to provide cooling. Finally, an insulator, which is preferably a super insulator, is disposed around the TPV power source to reduce fuel consumption, and to keep the TPV power source cool to the touch so it can be used in hand-held devices.

  8. Planar photovoltaic solar concentrator module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Clement J. (New Brunswick, NJ)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A planar photovoltaic concentrator module for producing an electrical signal from incident solar radiation includes an electrically insulating housing having a front wall, an opposing back wall and a hollow interior. A solar cell having electrical terminals is positioned within the interior of the housing. A planar conductor is connected with a terminal of the solar cell of the same polarity. A lens forming the front wall of the housing is operable to direct solar radiation incident to the lens into the interior of the housing. A refractive optical element in contact with the solar cell and facing the lens receives the solar radiation directed into the interior of the housing by the lens and directs the solar radiation to the solar cell to cause the solar cell to generate an electrical signal. An electrically conductive planar member is positioned in the housing to rest on the housing back wall in supporting relation with the solar cell terminal of opposite polarity. The planar member is operable to dissipate heat radiated by the solar cell as the solar cell generates an electrical signal and further forms a solar cell conductor connected with the solar cell terminal to permit the electrical signal generated by the solar cell to be measured between the planar member and the conductor.

  9. Planar photovoltaic solar concentrator module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, C.J.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A planar photovoltaic concentrator module for producing an electrical signal from incident solar radiation includes an electrically insulating housing having a front wall, an opposing back wall and a hollow interior. A solar cell having electrical terminals is positioned within the interior of the housing. A planar conductor is connected with a terminal of the solar cell of the same polarity. A lens forming the front wall of the housing is operable to direct solar radiation incident to the lens into the interior of the housing. A refractive optical element in contact with the solar cell and facing the lens receives the solar radiation directed into the interior of the housing by the lens and directs the solar radiation to the solar cell to cause the solar cell to generate an electrical signal. An electrically conductive planar member is positioned in the housing to rest on the housing back wall in supporting relation with the solar cell terminal of opposite polarity. The planar member is operable to dissipate heat radiated by the solar cell as the solar cell generates an electrical signal and further forms a solar cell conductor connected with the solar cell terminal to permit the electrical signal generated by the solar cell to be measured between the planar member and the conductor. 5 figs.

  10. This article has been accepted for inclusion in a future issue of this journal. Content is final as presented, with the exception of pagination. IEEE JOURNAL OF PHOTOVOLTAICS 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atwater, Harry

    as presented, with the exception of pagination. IEEE JOURNAL OF PHOTOVOLTAICS 1 Wafer-Scale Growth of Silicon Microwire Arrays for Photovoltaics and Solar Fuel Generation Adele C. Tamboli, Member, IEEE, Christopher T-efficiency photovoltaics and pho- toelectrochemical fuel generation. A remaining challenge to mak- ing this technology

  11. Interim performance criteria for photovoltaic energy systems. [Glossary included

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeBlasio, R.; Forman, S.; Hogan, S.; Nuss, G.; Post, H.; Ross, R.; Schafft, H.

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is a response to the Photovoltaic Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1978 (P.L. 95-590) which required the generation of performance criteria for photovoltaic energy systems. Since the document is evolutionary and will be updated, the term interim is used. More than 50 experts in the photovoltaic field have contributed in the writing and review of the 179 performance criteria listed in this document. The performance criteria address characteristics of present-day photovoltaic systems that are of interest to manufacturers, government agencies, purchasers, and all others interested in various aspects of photovoltaic system performance and safety. The performance criteria apply to the system as a whole and to its possible subsystems: array, power conditioning, monitor and control, storage, cabling, and power distribution. They are further categorized according to the following performance attributes: electrical, thermal, mechanical/structural, safety, durability/reliability, installation/operation/maintenance, and building/site. Each criterion contains a statement of expected performance (nonprescriptive), a method of evaluation, and a commentary with further information or justification. Over 50 references for background information are also given. A glossary with definitions relevant to photovoltaic systems and a section on test methods are presented in the appendices. Twenty test methods are included to measure performance characteristics of the subsystem elements. These test methods and other parts of the document will be expanded or revised as future experience and needs dictate.

  12. Temperature compensated photovoltaic array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mosher, D.M.

    1997-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A temperature compensated photovoltaic module comprises a series of solar cells having a thermally activated switch connected in parallel with several of the cells. The photovoltaic module is adapted to charge conventional batteries having a temperature coefficient differing from the temperature coefficient of the module. The calibration temperatures of the switches are chosen whereby the colder the ambient temperature for the module, the more switches that are on and form a closed circuit to short the associated solar cells. By shorting some of the solar cells as the ambient temperature decreases, the battery being charged by the module is not excessively overcharged at lower temperatures. PV module is an integrated solution that is reliable and inexpensive. 2 figs.

  13. Temperature compensated photovoltaic array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mosher, Dan Michael (Plano, TX)

    1997-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A temperature compensated photovoltaic module (20) comprised of a series of solar cells (22) having a thermally activated switch (24) connected in parallel with several of the cells (22). The photovoltaic module (20) is adapted to charge conventional batteries having a temperature coefficient (TC) differing from the temperature coefficient (TC) of the module (20). The calibration temperatures of the switches (24) are chosen whereby the colder the ambient temperature for the module (20), the more switches that are on and form a closed circuit to short the associated solar cells (22). By shorting some of the solar cells (22) as the ambient temperature decreases, the battery being charged by the module (20) is not excessively overcharged at lower temperatures. PV module (20) is an integrated solution that is reliable and inexpensive.

  14. Condensate polishing at Plant Bowen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, K.A.; Siegwarth, D.P.; Sawochka, S.G.; McNea, D.A.; Suhonen, C.H.

    1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Condensate polisher system design and operation were evaluated at the fosssil-fueled Plant Bowen of Georgia Power Company relative to the ability of the polishers to achieve an effluent chemical quality consistent with PWR Steam Generator Owners Group Chemistry Guidelines. Polishers regenerated employing the Seprex and Ammonex processes were evaluated during normal plant operation and during periods of simulated condenser inleakage. Although polisher effluent quality was acceptable relative to boiler corrosion control at Plant Bowen, it was inconsistent with that required for recirculating PWR steam generators. Polisher effluent quality was reasonably consistent with requirements for PWR once-through steam generator systems. High polisher cation to anion resin equivalence ratios (3.4 to 1), and insufficiently rapid anion resin kinetics were the major reasons for the observed non-optimum polisher performance.

  15. Photovoltaics for Residential Buildings Webinar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A webinar by National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Senior Engineer Otto VanGeet on using solar photovoltaic (PV) systems to provide electricity for homes.

  16. Monitoring SERC Technologies — Solar Photovoltaics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A webinar by National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Market Transformation Center electrical engineer Peter McNutt about Solar Photovoltaics and how to properly monitor its installation.

  17. Sandia National Laboratories: sustainable photovoltaics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    photovoltaics Solar Energy Research Institute for India and the United States Kick-Off On November 27, 2012, in Concentrating Solar Power, Energy, National Solar Thermal Test...

  18. Solar photovoltaics for development applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shepperd, L.W. [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cape Canaveral, FL (United States)] [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cape Canaveral, FL (United States); Richards, E.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document introduces photovoltaic technology to individuals and groups specializing in development activities. Examples of actual installations illustrate the many services supplied by photovoltaic systems in development applications, including water pumping, lighting, health care, refrigeration, communications, and a variety of productive uses. The various aspects of the technology are explored to help potential users evaluate whether photovoltaics can assist them in achieving their organizational goals. Basic system design, financing techniques, and the importance of infrastructure are included, along with additional sources of information and major US photovoltaic system suppliers.

  19. Amorphous Silicon-Carbon Nanostructure Photovoltaic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schriver, Maria Christine

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    decline in photovoltaic efficiency is less dramatic, butefficiency ? = V OC I ?j SC Amorphous Silicon-Carbon Nanostructure So- lar Cells For this thesis, I made photovoltaic

  20. Scattering Properties of nanostructures : applications to photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Derkacs, Daniel

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Manufacturing high-efficiency low- cost photovoltaic devicesManufacturing high-efficiency low-cost photovoltaic devicesphotovoltaic devices capable of operation at power conversion efficiencies

  1. Organic Photovoltaics Experiments Showcase 'Superfacility' Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organic Photovoltaics Experiments Showcase 'Superfacility' Concept Organic Photovoltaics Experiments Showcase 'Superfacility' Concept Collaboration Key to Enabling On-The-Fly HPC...

  2. Sandia National Laboratories: microsystems enabled photovoltaics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    microsystems enabled photovoltaics Sandian Selected for Outstanding Young Engineer Award On June 4, 2014, in Energy, News, News & Events, Photovoltaic, Renewable Energy, Solar The...

  3. Sandia National Laboratories: photovoltaic plant reliability

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    photovoltaic plant reliability Sandia-Electric Power Research Institute Partnership Publishes Photovoltaic Reliability Report On January 21, 2014, in Energy, Facilities, Grid...

  4. Sandia National Laboratories: increased photovoltaic efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    increased photovoltaic efficiency Combining 'Tinkertoy' Materials with Solar Cells for Increased Photovoltaic Efficiency On December 4, 2014, in Energy, Materials Science, News,...

  5. Sandia National Laboratories: Photovoltaic System Model Calibration...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photovoltaic System Model Calibration Using Monitored System Data Sandians Win 'Best Paper' Award at Photovoltaic Conference in Japan On March 4, 2015, in Computational Modeling &...

  6. Sandia National Laboratories: Photovoltaic Systems Evaluation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy On May 1, 2013, in DETL, Energy, Facilities, News, News & Events, Photovoltaic, Photovoltaic Systems Evaluation Laboratory (PSEL), Renewable Energy, Solar, Solar...

  7. Iron Chalcogenide Photovoltaic Absorbers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Liping [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lany, Stephan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kykyneshi, Robert [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Jieratum, Vorranutch [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Ravichandran, Ram [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Pelatt, Brian [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Altschul, Emmeline [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Platt, Heather A. S. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Wager, John F. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Keszler, Douglas A. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Zunger, Alex [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An integrated computational and experimental study of FeS? pyrite reveals that phase coexistence is an important factor limiting performance as a thin-film solar absorber. This phase coexistence is suppressed with the ternary materials Fe?SiS? and Fe?GeS?, which also exhibit higher band gaps than FeS?. Thus, the ternaries provide a new entry point for development of thin-film absorbers and high-efficiency photovoltaics.

  8. Photovoltaic-thermal collectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cox, III, Charles H. (Carlisle, MA)

    1984-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic-thermal solar cell including a semiconductor body having antireflective top and bottom surfaces and coated on each said surface with a patterned electrode covering less than 10% of the surface area. A thermal-absorbing surface is spaced apart from the bottom surface of the semiconductor and a heat-exchange fluid is passed between the bottom surface and the heat-absorbing surface.

  9. Photovoltaic self-assembly.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lavin, Judith; Kemp, Richard Alan; Stewart, Constantine A.

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This late-start LDRD was focused on the application of chemical principles of self-assembly on the ordering and placement of photovoltaic cells in a module. The drive for this chemical-based self-assembly stems from the escalating prices in the 'pick-and-place' technology currently used in the MEMS industries as the size of chips decreases. The chemical self-assembly principles are well-known on a molecular scale in other material science systems but to date had not been applied to the assembly of cells in a photovoltaic array or module. We explored several types of chemical-based self-assembly techniques, including gold-thiol interactions, liquid polymer binding, and hydrophobic-hydrophilic interactions designed to array both Si and GaAs PV chips onto a substrate. Additional research was focused on the modification of PV cells in an effort to gain control over the facial directionality of the cells in a solvent-based environment. Despite being a small footprint research project worked on for only a short time, the technical results and scientific accomplishments were significant and could prove to be enabling technology in the disruptive advancement of the microelectronic photovoltaics industry.

  10. Graphite-based photovoltaic cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lagally, Max (Madison, WI); Liu, Feng (Salt Lake City, UT)

    2010-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention uses lithographically patterned graphite stacks as the basic building elements of an efficient and economical photovoltaic cell. The basic design of the graphite-based photovoltaic cells includes a plurality of spatially separated graphite stacks, each comprising a plurality of vertically stacked, semiconducting graphene sheets (carbon nanoribbons) bridging electrically conductive contacts.

  11. Experimental investigation on the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system on water-heating mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Guiyin; Hu, Hainan; Liu, Xu [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study on operation performance of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was conducted in this paper. The experimental system of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was set up. The performance parameters such as the evaporation pressure, the condensation pressure and the coefficient of performance (COP) of heat pump air-conditioning system, the water temperature and receiving heat capacity in water heater, the photovoltaic (PV) module temperature and the photovoltaic efficiency were investigated. The experimental results show that the mean photovoltaic efficiency of photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) solar heat pump air-conditioning system reaches 10.4%, and can improve 23.8% in comparison with that of the conventional photovoltaic module, the mean COP of heat pump air-conditioning system may attain 2.88 and the water temperature in water heater can increase to 42 C. These results indicate that the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system has better performances and can stably work. (author)

  12. A uniform economic valuation methodology for solar photovoltaic applications competing in a utility environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carpenter, Paul R.

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The question of how the economic benefits of weather-dependent electric generation technologies should be measured is addressed, with specific reference to dispersed, user-owned photovoltaic systems. The approach to ...

  13. Integrating Solar Thermal and Photovoltaic Systems in Whole Building Energy Simulation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, S.; Haberl, J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper introduces methodologies on how the renewable energy generated by the solar thermal and solar photovoltaic (PV) systems installed on site can be integrated in the whole building simulation analyses, which then can be available to analyze...

  14. Photovoltaic power plant as FACTS devices in multi-feeder systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moawwad, Ahmed

    This paper illustrates possible configurations for a large-scale photovoltaic power plant (PV), to operate as a FACTS (flexible AC transmission system) device in addition to operating as a source of renewable power generation. ...

  15. Where solar thermal meets photovoltaic for high-efficiency power conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bierman, David M. (David Matthew)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To develop disruptive techniques which generate power from the Sun, one must understand the aspects of existing technologies that limit performance. Solar thermal and solar photovoltaic schemes dominate today's solar market ...

  16. Next Generation Photovoltaics 3 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking ofOilNEW HAMPSHIREofNewsletter Newsletter Better BuildingsAtticsWinnersNext

  17. Photochromic, electrochromic, photoelectrochromic and photovoltaic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kostecki, Robert (Lafayette, CA); McLarnon, Frank R. (Orinda, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A light activated photoelectrochromic device is formed of a two-component system formed of a photoactive charge carrier generating material and electrochromic material (plus an elecrolyte). Light interacts with a semiconductive material to generate hole-electron charge carriers which cause a redox reaction in the electrochromic material. One device is formed of hydrated nickel oxide as the electrochromic layer and polycrystalline titanium dioxide as the charge generating material. The materials may be formed as discrete layers or mixed together. Because of the direct charge transfer between the layers, a circuit to apply a voltage to drive the electrochromic reaction is not required, although one can be used to enhance the reaction. The hydrated nickel oxide-titanium dioxide materials can also be used to form a photovoltaic device for generating electricity.

  18. Photovoltaic Performance and Reliability Database: A Gateway to Experimental Data Monitoring Projects for PV at the Florida Solar Energy Center

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    This site is the gateway to experimental data monitoring projects for photovoltaic (PV) at the Florida Solar Energy Center. The website and the database were designed to facilitate and standardize the processes for archiving, analyzing and accessing data collected from dozens of operational PV systems and test facilities monitored by FSEC's Photovoltaics and Distributed Generation Division. [copied from http://www.fsec.ucf.edu/en/research/photovoltaics/data_monitoring/index.htm

  19. Metallic nanostructures for optoelectronic and photovoltaic applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Swee Hoe

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    photovoltaics deployment, such technologies will reach their fundamental limitation in terms of efficiency,

  20. in Condensed Matter Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van der Torre, Leon

    Master in Condensed Matter Physics ­ Master académique #12;2 #12;3 Students at the University. Condensed matter physics is about explaining and predicting the relationship between the atomic, and broad education in the field of condensed matter physics · introduce you to current research topics

  1. Photovoltaic system reliability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maish, A.B.; Atcitty, C. [Sandia National Labs., NM (United States); Greenberg, D. [Ascension Technology, Inc., Lincoln Center, MA (United States)] [and others

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the reliability of several photovoltaic projects including SMUD`s PV Pioneer project, various projects monitored by Ascension Technology, and the Colorado Parks project. System times-to-failure range from 1 to 16 years, and maintenance costs range from 1 to 16 cents per kilowatt-hour. Factors contributing to the reliability of these systems are discussed, and practices are recommended that can be applied to future projects. This paper also discusses the methodology used to collect and analyze PV system reliability data.

  2. Bracket for photovoltaic modules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ciasulli, John; Jones, Jason

    2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Brackets for photovoltaic ("PV") modules are described. In one embodiment, a saddle bracket has a mounting surface to support one or more PV modules over a tube, a gusset coupled to the mounting surface, and a mounting feature coupled to the gusset to couple to the tube. The gusset can have a first leg and a second leg extending at an angle relative to the mounting surface. Saddle brackets can be coupled to a torque tube at predetermined locations. PV modules can be coupled to the saddle brackets. The mounting feature can be coupled to the first gusset and configured to stand the one or more PV modules off the tube.

  3. Photovoltaic Degradation Risk: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability to accurately predict power delivery over the course of time is of vital importance to the growth of the photovoltaic (PV) industry. Important cost drivers include the efficiency with which sunlight is converted into power, how this relationship changes over time, and the uncertainty in this prediction. An accurate quantification of power decline over time, also known as degradation rate, is essential to all stakeholders - utility companies, integrators, investors, and researchers alike. In this paper we use a statistical approach based on historical data to quantify degradation rates, discern trends and quantify risks related to measurement uncertainties, number of measurements and methodologies.

  4. Photovoltaic panel clamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mittan, Margaret Birmingham (Oakland, CA); Miros, Robert H. J. (Fairfax, CA); Brown, Malcolm P. (San Francisco, CA); Stancel, Robert (Loss Altos Hills, CA)

    2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic panel clamp includes an upper and lower section. The interface between the assembled clamp halves and the module edge is filled by a flexible gasket material, such as EPDM rubber. The gasket preferably has small, finger like protrusions that allow for easy insertion onto the module edge while being reversed makes it more difficult to remove them from the module once installed. The clamp includes mounting posts or an integral axle to engage a bracket. The clamp also may include a locking tongue to secure the clamp to a bracket.

  5. Photovoltaic panel clamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Malcolm P.; Mittan, Margaret Birmingham; Miros, Robert H. J.; Stancel, Robert

    2013-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic panel clamp includes an upper and lower section. The interface between the assembled clamp halves and the module edge is filled by a flexible gasket material, such as EPDM rubber. The gasket preferably has small, finger like protrusions that allow for easy insertion onto the module edge while being reversed makes it more difficult to remove them from the module once installed. The clamp includes mounting posts or an integral axle to engage a bracket. The clamp also may include a locking tongue to secure the clamp to a bracket.

  6. Thin film photovoltaic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Catalano, Anthony W. (Wilmington, DE); Bhushan, Manjul (Wilmington, DE)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin film photovoltaic solar cell which utilizes a zinc phosphide semiconductor is of the homojunction type comprising an n-type conductivity region forming an electrical junction with a p-type region, both regions consisting essentially of the same semiconductor material. The n-type region is formed by treating zinc phosphide with an extrinsic dopant such as magnesium. The semiconductor is formed on a multilayer substrate which acts as an opaque contact. Various transparent contacts may be used, including a thin metal film of the same chemical composition as the n-type dopant or conductive oxides or metal grids.

  7. Thin film photovoltaic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Catalano, A.W.; Bhushan, M.

    1982-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin film photovoltaic solar cell which utilizes a zinc phosphide semiconductor is of the homojunction type comprising an n-type conductivity region forming an electrical junction with a p-type region, both regions consisting essentially of the same semiconductor material. The n-type region is formed by treating zinc phosphide with an extrinsic dopant such as magnesium. The semiconductor is formed on a multilayer substrate which acts as an opaque contact. Various transparent contacts may be used, including a thin metal film of the same chemical composition as the n-type dopant or conductive oxides or metal grids. 5 figs.

  8. Photovoltaic Product Directory and Buyers Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watts, R.L.; Smith, S.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Mazzucchi, R.P.; Lee, V.E.

    1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The directory guide explains photovoltaic systems briefly and shows what products are available off-the-shelf. Information is given to assist in designing a photovoltaic system and on financial incentives. Help is given for determining if photovoltaic products can meet a particular buyer's needs, and information is provided on actual photovoltaic user's experiences. Detailed information is appended on various financial incentives available from state and federal governments, sources of additional information on photovoltaics, sources of various photovoltaic products, and a listing of addresses of photovoltaic products suppliers. (LEW)

  9. Dispelling the misconception of low-EROI photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Center for Life Cycle Analysis Columbia University, New York (USA) 3 Photovoltaic Environmental Research Center BNL, New York (USA) #12;M. Raugei, V. Fthenakis, P. Fullana - AES 2010 2 Titulo de la diapositiva electricity generated [MJ] Cumulative primary energy required [MJ] Source: Earth. Cleveland C.J. (Ed

  10. Solar Photovoltaic Capacity F t P f d P li

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    6/19/2013 1 Solar Photovoltaic ­ Capacity F t P f d P li Generating Resources Advisory Committee Advisor Model (SAM), version 2013.1.15 Technology: Solar PV (PVWatts system model)Technology: Solar PV (MWh) (First year output, each year thereafter degrades 0.5%) 6 #12;6/19/2013 4 Shape of PNW Solar PV

  11. Production Cost Modeling for High Levels of Photovoltaics Penetration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.; Milford, J.

    2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this report is to evaluate the likely avoided generation, fuels, and emissions resulting from photovoltaics (PV) deployment in several U.S. locations and identify new tools, methods, and analysis to improve understanding of PV impacts at the grid level.

  12. Experimental signatures of cosmological neutrino condensation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mofazzal Azam; Jitesh R. Bhatt; Utpal Sarkar

    2010-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Superfluid condensation of neutrinos of cosmological origin at a low enough temperature can provide simple and elegant solution to the problems of neutrino oscillations and the accelerated expansion of the universe. It would give rise to a late time cosmological constant of small magnitude and also generate tiny Majorana masses for the neutrinos as observed from their flavor oscillations. We show that carefully prepared beta decay experiments in the laboratory would carry signatures of such a condensation, and thus, it would be possible to either establish or rule out neutrino condensation of cosmological scale in laboratory experiments.

  13. Structure-Function Relationships in Semiconducting Polymers for Organic Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavulak, David Fredric Joel

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    current organic photovoltaic efficiencies are not highof the high photovoltaic efficiencies, 20-22 high chargeof a photovoltaic device by affecting the efficiency of

  14. Learning by doing: The evolution of state support for photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of State Support for Photovoltaics Mark Bolinger and Ryantarget the installation of photovoltaics (PV) in one way orwidespread popularity of photovoltaics (PV), along with its

  15. Optically Functional Nanomaterials: Optothermally Responsive Composites and Carbon Nanotube Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Okawa, David

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Carbon Nanotube Photovoltaics by David Christopher OkawaPart II: Carbon Nanotube Photovoltaics Chapter 6:Carbon Nanotube – Polymer Photovoltaics 6.1 Polymer-Nanotube

  16. Temperature-Dependent Electron Transport in Quantum Dot Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Padilla, Derek

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    4.4 Photovoltaics in Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . .milestones. Quantum dot photovoltaics is in the bottom-rightIN QUANTUM DOT PHOTOVOLTAICS A dissertation submitted in

  17. Structure-Function Relationships in Semiconducting Polymers for Organic Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavulak, David Fredric Joel

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    properties for organic photovoltaics (OPVs). Space-chargePolymers for Organic Photovoltaics By David Fredric JoelPolymers for Organic Photovoltaics by David Fredric Joel

  18. Comment on "coherence and uncertainty in nanostructured organic photovoltaics"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukamel, S

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    provide new probes for photovoltaics. The develop- ment ofin Nanostructured Organic Photovoltaics. J. Phys. Chem. Lettin Nanostructured Organic Photovoltaics” Shaul Mukamel

  19. The Development of Semiconducting Materials for Organic Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douglas, Jessica D.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    properties of P1-P3, and photovoltaic performance of P1-P3Polymer Optoelectronic Photovoltaic Performance Propertiespolymer and the photovoltaic performance of the OPV devices,

  20. Fabrication and Characterization of Organic/Inorganic Photovoltaic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guvenc, Ali Bilge

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Defect States, and Photovoltaic Performance, Advanced EnergyV curve and Photovoltaic Device Performance Parameters: Thetransport. The BHJ photovoltaic device performance improving

  1. The Market Value and Cost of Solar Photovoltaic Electricity Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Production of Solar Photovoltaic Cells”, Center for theconcerns is solar photovoltaic cells (PVs), which captureProduction of Solar Photovoltaic Cells Solar PV cells

  2. Statistical Methods for Enhanced Metrology in Semiconductor/Photovoltaic Manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Dekong

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    modeling method for photovoltaic cells. ” in Proc. IEEE 35thlosses in solar photovoltaic cell networks. ” Energy 32:Cell Variability Photovoltaic (PV) cells manufactured with

  3. Structure-Function Relationships in Semiconducting Polymers for Organic Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavulak, David Fredric Joel

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photovoltaic Cell .the materials, all photovoltaic cells operate on the basicEquation 1.2) For photovoltaic cells of all kinds and from

  4. Fabrication and Characterization of Organic/Inorganic Photovoltaic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guvenc, Ali Bilge

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    processable polymer photovoltaic cells by self-organizationand their influence on photovoltaic cells, Solar EnergyPhotodiodes, and Photovoltaic Cells, Applied Physics Letters

  5. Charge transport in hybrid nanorod-polymer composite photovoltaic cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huynh, Wendy U.; Dittmer, Janke J.; Teclemariam, Nerayo; Milliron, Delia; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Barnham, Keith W.J.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    circuit diagram for a photovoltaic cell under illumination.Polymer Composite Photovoltaic Cells Wendy U. Huynh ‡ ,devices such as photovoltaic cells and light-emitting-

  6. Tariffs Can Be Structured to Encourage Photovoltaic Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Be Structured to Encourage Photovoltaic Energy Ryan Wiser,of customer-sited photovoltaic (PV) systems. Though theseEconomics of Commercial Photovoltaic Systems in California,

  7. Fabrication and Characterization of Organic/Inorganic Photovoltaic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guvenc, Ali Bilge

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    J. W. Yu, Organic photovoltaic devices with a crosslinkablein Nanostructured Photovoltaic Devices, Recent Patents oninterfaces in organic photovoltaic devices, Solar Energy

  8. Effects of solar photovoltaic panels on roof heat transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dominguez, Anthony; Kleissl, Jan; Luvall, Jeffrey C

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the energy performance of  photovoltaic roofs, ASHRAE Trans A thermal model for photovoltaic systems, Solar Energy, Effects of Solar Photovoltaic Panels on Roof Heat Transfer 

  9. Financing Non-Residential Photovoltaic Projects: Options and Implications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coggeshall. 2008. Solar Photovoltaic Financing: DeploymentEconomics of Commercial Photovoltaic Systems in California.Financing Non-Residential Photovoltaic Projects: Options and

  10. Soiling losses for solar photovoltaic systems in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mejia, Felipe A; Kleissl, Jan

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on Large Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems in Californiaof Dust on Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Performance: Researchclimatology in design of photovoltaic systems. In: Markvart

  11. Efficiency enhancement of luminescent solar concentrations for photovoltaic technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chunhua

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and V.U. Ho?mann. Photovoltaic Solar Energy Gen- eration.Concentrations for Photovoltaic Technologies A dissertationThirteenth IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference- 1978—

  12. Statistical Methods for Enhanced Metrology in Semiconductor/Photovoltaic Manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Dekong

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Simulation of Photovoltaic Arrays. ” IEEE Trans. PowerSolar Cell Variability Photovoltaic (PV) cells manufacturedmodeling method for photovoltaic cells. ” in Proc. IEEE 35th

  13. Proceedings: 2003 EPRI Workshop on Condensate Polishing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Successful condensate polishing operations maintain control of ionic and particulate impurity transport to the pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator and the boiling water reactor (BWR) reactor and recirculation system, thus allowing the units to operate more reliably. This report contains the work presented at EPRI's 2003 Workshop on Condensate Polishing, where 30 papers were presented on current issues, research, and utility experiences involving polishing issues at both PWR and BWR units.

  14. Laminated photovoltaic modules using back-contact solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gee, James M. (Albuquerque, NM); Garrett, Stephen E. (Albuquerque, NM); Morgan, William P. (Albuquerque, NM); Worobey, Walter (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Photovoltaic modules which comprise back-contact solar cells, such as back-contact crystalline silicon solar cells, positioned atop electrically conductive circuit elements affixed to a planar support so that a circuit capable of generating electric power is created. The modules are encapsulated using encapsulant materials such as EVA which are commonly used in photovoltaic module manufacture. The module designs allow multiple cells to be electrically connected in a single encapsulation step rather than by sequential soldering which characterizes the currently used commercial practices.

  15. Photovoltaics information user study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marie, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on photovoltaics (PV) are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The report is 1 of 10 discussing study results. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. It covers these technological areas: photovoltaics, passive solar heating and cooling, active solar heating and cooling, biomass energy, solar thermal electric power, solar industrial and agricultural process heat, wind energy, ocean energy, and advanced energy storage. An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from seven PV groups respondents are analyzed in this report: DOE-Funded Researchers, Non-DOE-Funded Researchers, Researchers Working for Manufacturers, Representatives of Other Manufacturers, Representatives of Utilities, Electric Power Engineers, and Educators.

  16. Apparatus for making photovoltaic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foote, James B. (Toledo, OH); Kaake, Steven A. F. (Perrysburg, OH); Meyers, Peter V. (Bowling Green, OH); Nolan, James F. (Sylvania, OH)

    1994-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and apparatus (70) for making a large area photovoltaic device (22) that is capable of generating low cost electrical power. The apparatus (70) for performing the process includes an enclosure (126) providing a controlled environment in which an oven (156) is located. At least one and preferably a plurality of deposition stations (74,76,78) provide heated vapors of semiconductor material within the oven (156) for continuous elevated temperature deposition of semiconductor material on a sheet substrate (24) including a glass sheet (26) conveyed within the oven. The sheet substrate (24) is conveyed on a roller conveyor (184) within the oven (156) and the semiconductor material whose main layer (82) is cadmium telluride is deposited on an upwardly facing surface (28) of the substrate by each deposition station from a location within the oven above the roller conveyor. A cooling station (86) rapidly cools the substrate (24) after deposition of the semiconductor material thereon to strengthen the glass sheet of the substrate.

  17. Photovoltaic module with adhesion promoter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    2013-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters and methods for fabricating photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters are described. A photovoltaic module includes a solar cell including a first surface and a second surface, the second surface including a plurality of interspaced back-side contacts. A first glass layer is coupled to the first surface by a first encapsulating layer. A second glass layer is coupled to the second surface by a second encapsulating layer. At least a portion of the second encapsulating layer is bonded directly to the plurality of interspaced back-side contacts by an adhesion promoter.

  18. Multijunction Photovoltaic Technologies for High-Performance Concentrators: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McConnell, R.; Symko-Davies, M.

    2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Multijunction solar cells provide high-performance technology pathways leading to potentially low-cost electricity generated from concentrated sunlight. The National Center for Photovoltaics at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has funded different III-V multijunction solar cell technologies and various solar concentration approaches. Within this group of projects, III-V solar cell efficiencies of 41% are close at hand and will likely be reported in these conference proceedings. Companies with well-developed solar concentrator structures foresee installed system costs of $3/watt--half of today's costs--within the next 2 to 5 years as these high-efficiency photovoltaic technologies are incorporated into their concentrator photovoltaic systems. These technology improvements are timely as new large-scale multi-megawatt markets, appropriate for high performance PV concentrators, open around the world.

  19. Temperature-Dependent Electron Transport in Quantum Dot Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Padilla, Derek

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to enhanced photovoltaic device efficiency. ACS nano, 2(11):Photovoltaic Devices Introduction Thin-film quantum dot (QD) photovoltaics provide the potential to create high-efficiencyefficiency under such illumina- tion. A non-ideal model of a photovoltaic

  20. The Development of Semiconducting Materials for Organic Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douglas, Jessica D.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    photovoltaics (OPVs) has led to a significant increase in their power conversion efficiencies (Photovoltaics…………………………..………1 Motivation and Current Technology………………………………………………………1 Organic Photovoltaic Device Operation and Structure……………………………………2 Characterization of Organic Photovoltaic Device Efficiency……………………………..

  1. Methodology Guidelines on Life Cycle Assessment of Photovoltaic Electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Methodology Guidelines on Life Cycle Assessment of Photovoltaic Electricity of Photovoltaic Electricity #12;IEA-PVPS-TASK 12 Methodology Guidelines on Life Cycle Assessment of Photovoltaic Electricity INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER SYSTEMS PROGRAMME Methodology

  2. OTEC- Residential Photovoltaic Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Customers of Oregon Trail Electric Consumers Cooperative (OTEC) who install photovoltaic systems are eligible for a rebate of $500 for the first kilowatt (kW) of installed capacity per year. ...

  3. Reducing recombination in organic photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sussman, Jason M. (Jason Michael)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, I consider two methods to improve organic photovoltaic efficiency: energy level cascades and promotion of triplet state excitons. The former relies on a thin layer of material placed between the active ...

  4. Salem Electric- Photovoltaic Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Salem Electric offers a rebate to residential customers who install solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. Customers have the option of receiving a rebate or a [http://dsireusa.org/incentives/incentive...

  5. Mandatory Photovoltaic System Cost Estimate

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    At the request of a customer or a potential customer, Colorado electric utilities are required to conduct a cost comparison of a photovoltaic (PV) system to any proposed distribution line extension...

  6. Ameren Missouri- Photovoltaic Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Ameren Missouri offers rebates to its customers for the installation of net metered photovoltaic (PV) systems on their properties. The rebate is set at $2.00 per DC watt with a maximum rebate of ...

  7. Mandatory Photovoltaic System Cost Analysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Arizona Corporation Commission requires electric utilities to conduct a cost/benefit analysis to compare the cost of line extension with the cost of installing a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV)...

  8. Rooftop Photovoltaics Market Penetration Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paidipati, J.; Frantzis, L.; Sawyer, H.; Kurrasch, A.

    2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this study was to model the market penetration of rooftop photovoltaics (PV) in the United States under a variety of scenarios, on a state-by-state basis, from 2007 to 2015.

  9. Photovoltaic cell assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beavis, Leonard C. (Albuquerque, NM); Panitz, Janda K. G. (Edgewood, NM); Sharp, Donald J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic assembly for converting high intensity solar radiation into lectrical energy in which a solar cell is separated from a heat sink by a thin layer of a composite material which has excellent dielectric properties and good thermal conductivity. This composite material is a thin film of porous Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 in which the pores have been substantially filled with an electrophoretically-deposited layer of a styrene-acrylate resin. This composite provides electrical breakdown strengths greater than that of a layer consisting essentially of Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 and has a higher thermal conductivity than a layer of styrene-acrylate alone.

  10. Photovoltaic module mounting system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miros, Robert H. J. (Fairfax, CA); Mittan, Margaret Birmingham (Oakland, CA); Seery, Martin N. (San Rafael, CA); Holland, Rodney H. (Novato, CA)

    2012-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A solar array mounting system having unique installation, load distribution, and grounding features, and which is adaptable for mounting solar panels having no external frame. The solar array mounting system includes flexible, pedestal-style feet and structural links connected in a grid formation on the mounting surface. The photovoltaic modules are secured in place via the use of attachment clamps that grip the edge of the typically glass substrate. The panel mounting clamps are then held in place by tilt brackets and/or mid-link brackets that provide fixation for the clamps and align the solar panels at a tilt to the horizontal mounting surface. The tilt brackets are held in place atop the flexible feet and connected link members thus creating a complete mounting structure.

  11. Photovoltaic module mounting system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miros, Robert H. J.; Mittan, Margaret Birmingham; Seery, Martin N; Holland, Rodney H

    2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A solar array mounting system having unique installation, load distribution, and grounding features, and which is adaptable for mounting solar panels having no external frame. The solar array mounting system includes flexible, pedestal-style feet and structural links connected in a grid formation on the mounting surface. The photovoltaic modules are secured in place via the use of attachment clamps that grip the edge of the typically glass substrate. The panel mounting clamps are then held in place by tilt brackets and/or mid-link brackets that provide fixation for the clamps and align the solar panels at a tilt to the horizontal mounting surface. The tilt brackets are held in place atop the flexible feet and connected link members thus creating a complete mounting structure.

  12. Immersion Condensation on Oil-Infused Heterogeneous Surfaces for Enhanced Heat Transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiao, Rong

    Enhancing condensation heat transfer is important for broad applications from power generation to water harvesting systems. Significant efforts have focused on easy removal of the condensate, yet the other desired properties ...

  13. Roll Wave Effects on Annular Condensing Heat Transfer in Horizontal PCCS Condenser Tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masaya Kondo; Hideo Nakamura; Yoshinari Anoda [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai-mura 319-1195 (Japan); Sadanori Saishu; Hiroyuki Obata; Rumi Shimada [Japan Atomic Power Company (Japan); Shinichi Kawamura [Tokyo Electric Power Company, Incorporated, 1-3, Uchisaiwai-cho 1-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 1008560 (Japan)

    2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A horizontal in-tube condensation heat exchanger is under investigation to be used for a passive containment cooling system (PCCS) of a next generation-type BWR. The flow conditions in the horizontal condenser tube were observed both visually and by local void fraction fluctuation. The observed flow regimes at a rated condition were annular flow at the tube inlet, and turned gradually into wavy flow and smooth stratified flow along the length of the tube. It was found further that frequency of the roll waves that appear on the liquid film in the annular flow is closely related to the measured local condensation heat transfer coefficient. Based on the flow observation, the roll wave frequency and measured condensation heat transfer coefficient, a model is proposed which predicts the condensation heat transfer coefficient particularly for annular flows around the tube inlet region. The proposed heat transfer model predicts well the influences of pressure, local gas-phase velocity and film thickness. (authors)

  14. Statistical Methods for Enhanced Metrology in Semiconductor/Photovoltaic Manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Dekong

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bowden. (1999). Photovoltaics CDROM: Devices, Systems, andNREL). [1.3] IEA Photovoltaics Power Systems Programme (IEA

  15. Intra-Hour Dispatch and Automatic Generator Control Demonstration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a prediction of the generation fleet's behavior in real time for realistic photovoltaic penetration scenarios. APPROACH The primary objectives of this effort are: 1) to...

  16. A Valuation-Based Framework for Considering Distributed Generation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    tools to inform further discussions. Keywords-tariff design, ratemaking, distributed generation, photovoltaic, solar valuation, value of solar, cost-benefit analysis I....

  17. acid generation efficiency: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Websites Summary: Dye-Sentitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) are an emerging low-cost third generation photovoltaic light-to -electricity conversion efficiency in early...

  18. Economic Feasibility of Recycling Photovoltaic Modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, J.K.; Fthenakis, V.

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The market for photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation has boomed over the last decade, and its expansion is expected to continue with the development of new technologies. Taking into consideration the usage of valuable resources and the generation of emissions in the life cycle of photovoltaic technologies dictates proactive planning for a sound PV recycling infrastructure to ensure its sustainability. PV is expected to be a 'green' technology, and properly planning for recycling will offer the opportunity to make it a 'double-green' technology - that is, enhancing life cycle environmental quality. In addition, economic feasibility and a sufficient level of value-added opportunity must be ensured, to stimulate a recycling industry. In this article, we survey mathematical models of the infrastructure of recycling processes of other products and identify the challenges for setting up an efficient one for PV. Then we present an operational model for an actual recycling process of a thin-film PV technology. We found that for the case examined with our model, some of the scenarios indicate profitable recycling, whereas in other scenarios it is unprofitable. Scenario SC4, which represents the most favorable scenario by considering the lower bounds of all costs and the upper bound of all revenues, produces a monthly profit of $107,000, whereas the least favorable scenario incurs a monthly loss of $151,000. Our intent is to extend the model as a foundation for developing a framework for building a generalized model for current-PV and future-PV technologies.

  19. Steam and Condensate Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yates, W.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    efficiency and profit. Some important factors to consider in steam and condensate systems are: 1) Proper steam pressure 2) Adequate sized steam lines 3) Adequate sized condensate return lines 4) Utilization of flash steam 5) Properly sized... ! can cause system inefficiency. i Adequate sized steam lines assure the process will be furnished with sufficiertt i quantities of steam at the proper pressure. Adequate sized condensate return lines are essential to overall efficiency. lhese...

  20. Quark Condensates: Flavour Dependence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Williams; C. S. Fischer; M. R. Pennington

    2007-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We determine the q-bar q condensate for quark masses from zero up to that of the strange quark within a phenomenologically successful modelling of continuum QCD by solving the quark Schwinger-Dyson equation. The existence of multiple solutions to this equation is the key to an accurate and reliable extraction of this condensate using the operator product expansion. We explain why alternative definitions fail to give the physical condensate.

  1. Of Matters Condensed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shulman, Michael

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The American Physical Society (APS) March Meeting of condensed matter physics has grown to nearly 10,000 participants, comprises 23 individual APS groups, and even warrants its own hashtag (#apsmarch). Here we analyze the text and data from March Meeting abstracts of the past nine years and discuss trends in condensed matter physics over this time period. We find that in comparison to atomic, molecular, and optical physics, condensed matter changes rapidly, and that condensed matter appears to be moving increasingly toward subject matter that is traditionally in materials science and engineering.

  2. Re-Condensation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhatia, P.; Kozman, T.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    supplied in the boiler is used and the remainder, about 25%, is still held by the condensed water. The heat required to raise the temperature of the makeup water at around 50 OF to the required temperature, is very costly. As most condensate return... condensate is returned, less makeup is required, hence saving on water and makeup water treatment costs. The high purity of the condensate allows for greater boiler cycles of concentration, thus reducing water and energy losses to blowdown. The high heat...

  3. Evaluation of condensate polishers. Final report. [PWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lurie, S.W.

    1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential for steam generator corrosion caused by the release of resins or soluble impurity chemicals from full-flow condensate polishing was evaluated in a series of high temperature tests. The tests were designed to operate within the then prevailing NSSS steam generator chemistry specifications, consistent with realistic release of these impurities to steam generators. Each potential corrodent was tested separately in the absence of other corrosive conditions.

  4. A prototype photovoltaic/thermal system integrated with transpired collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Athienitis, Andreas K.; Bambara, James; O'Neill, Brendan; Faille, Jonathan [Dept. of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Concordia University, 1455 Maisonneuve W., Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Building-integrated photovoltaic/thermal (BIPV/T) systems may be utilized to produce useful heat while simultaneously generating electricity from the same building envelope surface. A well known highly efficient collector is the open-loop unglazed transpired collector (UTC) which consists of dark porous cladding through which outdoor air is drawn and heated by absorbed solar radiation. Commercially available photovoltaic systems typically produce electricity with efficiencies up to about 18%. Thus, it is beneficial to obtain much of the normally wasted heat from the systems, possibly by combining UTC with photovoltaics. Combination of BIPV/T and UTC systems for building facades is considered in this paper - specifically, the design of a prototype facade-integrated photovoltaic/thermal system with transpired collector (BIPV/T). A full scale prototype is constructed with 70% of UTC area covered with PV modules specially designed to enhance heat recovery and compared to a UTC of the same area under outdoor sunny conditions with low wind. The orientation of the corrugations in the UTC is horizontal and the black-framed modules are attached so as to facilitate flow into the UTC plenum. While the overall combined thermal efficiency of the UTC is higher than that of the BIPV/T system, the value of the generated energy - assuming that electricity is at least four times more valuable than heat - is between 7% and 17% higher. Also, the electricity is always useful while the heat is usually utilized only in the heating season. The BIPV/T concept is applied to a full scale office building demonstration project in Montreal, Canada. The ratio of photovoltaic area coverage of the UTC may be selected based on the fresh air heating needs of the building, the value of the electricity generated and the available building surfaces. (author)

  5. Spectroscopy of Photovoltaic Materials: Charge-Transfer Complexes and Titanium Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dillon, Robert

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Clean Electricity From Photovoltaics ; Archer, M. D. , Hill,1 1.1 Introduction to Photovoltaics andPhotovoltaics.

  6. ULTRA BARRIER TOPSHEET (UBT) FOR FLEXIBLE PHOTOVOLTAICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeScioli, Derek

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This slide-show presents 3M photovoltaic-related products, particularly flexible components. Emphasis is on the 3M Ultra Barrier Solar Films. Topics covered include reliability and qualification testing and flexible photovoltaic encapsulation costs.

  7. Amorphous Silicon-Carbon Nanostructure Photovoltaic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schriver, Maria Christine

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    way to do better. A photovoltaic cell, or solar cell, is aFor this thesis, I made photovoltaic cells using a Schottkyphotovoltaic processes oc- cur in a Schottky barrier solar cell. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  8. Plug-and-Play Photovoltaics Funding Opportunity

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Through the Plug-and-Play Photovoltaics program, DOE will advance the development of a commercial plug-and-play photovoltaic (PV) system, an off-the-shelf product that is fully inclusive with...

  9. Mounting support for a photovoltaic module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brandt, Gregory Michael; Barsun, Stephan K.; Coleman, Nathaniel T.; Zhou, Yin

    2013-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A mounting support for a photovoltaic module is described. The mounting support includes a foundation having an integrated wire-way ledge portion. A photovoltaic module support mechanism is coupled with the foundation.

  10. Photovoltaic Reliability and Engineering (Revised) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Capabilities fact sheet for the National Center for Photovoltaics: Photovoltaic Reliability and Engineering. One-sided sheet that includes Scope, Core Competencies and Capabilities, and Contact/Web information.

  11. Thin film photovoltaic panel and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackerman, Bruce (El Paso, TX); Albright, Scot P. (El Paso, TX); Jordan, John F. (El Paso, TX)

    1991-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin film photovoltaic panel includes a backcap for protecting the active components of the photovoltaic cells from adverse environmental elements. A spacing between the backcap and a top electrode layer is preferably filled with a desiccant to further reduce water vapor contamination of the environment surrounding the photovoltaic cells. The contamination of the spacing between the backcap and the cells may be further reduced by passing a selected gas through the spacing subsequent to sealing the backcap to the base of the photovoltaic panels, and once purged this spacing may be filled with an inert gas. The techniques of the present invention are preferably applied to thin film photovoltaic panels each formed from a plurality of photovoltaic cells arranged on a vitreous substrate. The stability of photovoltaic conversion efficiency remains relatively high during the life of the photovoltaic panel, and the cost of manufacturing highly efficient panels with such improved stability is significantly reduced.

  12. Photovoltaic product directory and buyers guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watts, R.L.; Smith, S.A.; Mazzucchi, R.P.

    1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Basic information on photovoltaic conversion technology is provided for those unfamiliar with the field. Various types of photovoltaic products and systems currently available off-the-shelf are described. These include products without batteries, battery chargers, power packages, home electric systems, and partial systems. Procedures are given for designing a photovoltaic system from scratch. A few custom photovoltaic systems are described, and a list is compiled of photovoltaic firms which can provide custom systems. Guidance is offered for deciding whether or not to use photovoltaic products. A variety of installations are described and their performance is appraised by the owners. Information is given on various financial incentives available from state and federal governments. Sources of additional information on photovoltaics are listed. A matrix is provided indicating the sources of various types of photovoltaic products. The addresses of suppliers are listed. (LEW)

  13. Design and operating guidelines for nuclear power plant condensers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recommendations and associated technical justifications are provided for the design and operation of condensate polishing systems. Both deep bed and powdered resin system are addressed. The objective of the guidelines is to ensure that impurity levels in the PWR secondary cycle are reduced to the minimum achievable levels through proper design and operation of the condensate polisher system. Reduction of the condensate polisher to the steam generators has been demonstrated to improve steam generator reliability and limit corrosion of steam generator materials. 19 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Reliability Evaluation of Electric Power Generation Systems with Solar Power 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samadi, Saeed

    2013-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    reliability evaluation of generation systems including Photovoltaic (PV) and Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants. Unit models of PV and CSP are developed first, and then generation system model is constructed to evaluate the reliability of generation systems...

  15. Vacuum condensates, flavor mixing and spontaneous supersymmetry breaking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antonio Capolupo; Marco Di Mauro

    2013-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Spontaneous supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking is revealed in all phenomena in which vacuum condensates are physically relevant. The dynamical breakdown of SUSY is generated by the condensates themselves, which lift the zero point energy. Evidence is presented in the case of the Wess-Zuimino model, and the flavor mixing case is treated in detail.

  16. Process Development for Nanostructured Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elam, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photovoltaic manufacturing is an emerging industry that promises a carbon-free, nearly limitless source of energy for our nation. However, the high-temperature manufacturing processes used for conventional silicon-based photovoltaics are extremely energy-intensive and expensive. This high cost imposes a critical barrier to the widespread implementation of photovoltaic technology. Argonne National Laboratory and its partners recently invented new methods for manufacturing nanostructured photovoltaic devices that allow dramatic savings in materials, process energy, and cost. These methods are based on atomic layer deposition, a thin film synthesis technique that has been commercialized for the mass production of semiconductor microelectronics. The goal of this project was to develop these low-cost fabrication methods for the high efficiency production of nanostructured photovoltaics, and to demonstrate these methods in solar cell manufacturing. We achieved this goal in two ways: 1) we demonstrated the benefits of these coatings in the laboratory by scaling-up the fabrication of low-cost dye sensitized solar cells; 2) we used our coating technology to reduce the manufacturing cost of solar cells under development by our industrial partners.

  17. Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis with high pixel density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palanker, Daniel

    Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis with high pixel density Keith Mathieson1,4 , James Loudin1 to stimulating electrodes via intraocular cables. We present a photovoltaic subretinal prosthesis, in which pixel, demonstrating the possibility of a fully integrated photovoltaic retinal prosthesis with high

  18. Low band gap polymers Organic Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low band gap polymers for Organic Photovoltaics Eva Bundgaard Ph.D. Dissertation Risø National Bundgaard Title: Low band gap polymers for Organic photovoltaics Department: The polymer department Report the area of organic photovoltaics are focusing on low band gap polymers, a type of polymer which absorbs

  19. Photovoltaics for the Terawatt Christiana Honsberg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    1 Photovoltaics for the Terawatt Challenge Christiana Honsberg Department of Electrical Computer;Photovoltaic Milestones · Germany, Spain, Italy have yearly installed PV capacity > yearly increase Workshop 02/28/14 C. Honsberg 5 5 #12;Learning Curves for Photovoltaics UD Energy Institute Solar Workshop

  20. EELE408 Photovoltaics Lecture 01: Intro & Safety

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Todd J.

    1 EELE408 Photovoltaics Lecture 01: Intro & Safety Dr. Todd J. Kaiser tjkaiser@ece.montana.edu Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Montana State University - Bozeman EELE408 Photovoltaics & Ventre: Photovoltaic Systems Engineering , 3E · Resources: ­ Green: Solar Cells: Operating Principles

  1. Rational Design of Zinc Phosphide Heterojunction Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winfree, Erik

    Rational Design of Zinc Phosphide Heterojunction Photovoltaics Thesis by Jeffrey Paul Bosco would meet me with the same energy and enthusiasm regarding the topic of zinc phosphide photovoltaics to the field of earth-abundant photovoltaics has been indispensable to my work. Greg also made a great mentor

  2. Discovery Park Impact Network for Photovoltaic Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holland, Jeffrey

    Discovery Park Impact Network for Photovoltaic Technology NEED Discovery Park provides for Photovoltaic Technology (NPT). The NPT is designed to be a unique venue for industry-directed, university aims to become an international center of gravity for photovoltaic research that connects islands

  3. International photovoltaic products and manufacturers directory, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shepperd, L.W. [ed.] [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)] [ed.; Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This international directory of more than 500 photovoltaic-related manufacturers is intended to guide potential users of photovoltaics to sources for systems and their components. Two indexes help the user to locate firms and materials. A glossary describes equipment and terminology commonly used in the photovoltaic industry.

  4. Sandia National Laboratories: Photovoltaics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Utility Operations and Programs On April 4, 2012, in Utilities need to understand how solar generating technologies will behave on their systems (transmission and distribution) as...

  5. Optimizing Steam & Condensate System: A Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venkatesan, V. V.; Norris, C.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for electricity). The site generates steam for its process operation from 3 gas fired boilers at 525-psig pressure. The steam is consumed at 5 process areas; Acid, Basics, Crystals, Derivatives & Hydrogen plants. All of the process areas recover condensate inside...

  6. Battery testing for photovoltaic applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hund, T.

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Battery testing for photovoltaic (PV) applications is funded at Sandia under the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Photovoltaic Balance of Systems (BOS) Program. The goal of the PV BOS program is to improve PV system component design, operation, reliability, and to reduce overall life-cycle costs. The Sandia battery testing program consists of: (1) PV battery and charge controller market survey, (2) battery performance and life-cycle testing, (3) PV charge controller development, and (4) system field testing. Test results from this work have identified market size and trends, PV battery test procedures, application guidelines, and needed hardware improvements.

  7. Photovoltaic cell and production thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Narayanan, Srinivasamohan (Gaithersburg, MD); Kumar, Bikash (Bangalore, IN)

    2008-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    An efficient photovoltaic cell, and its process of manufacture, is disclosed wherein the back surface p-n junction is removed from a doped substrate having an oppositely doped emitter layer. A front surface and edges and optionally the back surface periphery are masked and a back surface etch is performed. The mask is not removed and acts as an anti-reflective coating, a passivating agent, or both. The photovoltaic cell retains an untextured back surface whether or not the front is textured and the dopant layer on the back surface is removed to enhance the cell efficiency. Optionally, a back surface field is formed.

  8. Recycling Of Cis Photovoltaic Waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drinkard, Jr., William F. (Charlotte, NC); Long, Mark O. (Charlotte, NC); Goozner; Robert E. (Charlotte, NC)

    1998-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for extracting and reclaiming metals from scrap CIS photovoltaic cells and associated photovoltaic manufacturing waste by leaching the waste with dilute nitric acid, skimming any plastic material from the top of the leaching solution, separating glass substrate from the leachate, electrolyzing the leachate to plate a copper and selenium metal mixture onto a first cathode, replacing the cathode with a second cathode, re-electrolyzing the leachate to plate cadmium onto the second cathode, separating the copper from selenium, and evaporating the depleted leachate to yield a zinc and indium containing solid.

  9. A novel hybrid (wind-photovoltaic) system sizing procedure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hocaoglu, Fatih O. [Afyon Kocatepe University, Dept. of Electronics and Communication Eng., 03200 Afyonkarahisar (Turkey); Gerek, Oemer N.; Kurban, Mehmet [Anadolu University, Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Eng., 26555 Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Wind-photovoltaic hybrid system (WPHS) utilization is becoming popular due to increasing energy costs and decreasing prices of turbines and photovoltaic (PV) panels. However, prior to construction of a renewable generation station, it is necessary to determine the optimum number of PV panels and wind turbines for minimal cost during continuity of generated energy to meet the desired consumption. In fact, the traditional sizing procedures find optimum number of the PV modules and wind turbines subject to minimum cost. However, the optimum battery capacity is either not taken into account, or it is found by a full search between all probable solution spaces which requires extensive computation. In this study, a novel description of the production/consumption phenomenon is proposed, and a new sizing procedure is developed. Using this procedure, optimum battery capacity, together with optimum number of PV modules and wind turbines subject to minimum cost can be obtained with good accuracy. (author)

  10. A Thermal-Photovoltaic Device Based on Thermally Enhanced Photoluminescence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manor, Assaf

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Single-junction photovoltaic cells are considered to be efficient solar energy converters, but even ideal cells cannot exceed the their fundamental thermodynamic efficiency limit, first analysed by Shockley and Queisser (SQ). For moderated irradiation levels, the efficiency limit ranges between 30%-40%. The efficiency loss is, to a great extent, due to the inherent heat-dissipation accompanying the process of electro-chemical potential generation. Concepts such as solar thermo-photovoltaics (STPV) and thermo-photonics4 aim to harness this dissipated heat, yet exceeding the SQ limit has not been achieved, mainly due to the very high operating temperatures needed. Recently, we demonstrated that in high-temperature endothermic-photoluminescence (PL), the photon rate is conserved with temperature increase, while each photon is blue shifted. We also demonstrated how endothermic-PL generates orders of magnitude more energetic-photons than thermal emission at similar temperatures. These new findings show that endoth...

  11. Electrolyte vapor condenser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sederquist, R.A.; Szydlowski, D.F.; Sawyer, R.D.

    1983-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A system is disclosed for removing electrolyte from a fuel cell gas stream. The gas stream containing electrolyte vapor is supercooled utilizing conventional heat exchangers and the thus supercooled gas stream is passed over high surface area passive condensers. The condensed electrolyte is then drained from the condenser and the remainder of the gas stream passed on. The system is particularly useful for electrolytes such as phosphoric acid and molten carbonate, but can be used for other electrolyte cells and simple vapor separation as well. 3 figs.

  12. Rapid screening buffer layers in photovoltaics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    List, III, Frederick Alyious; Tuncer, Enis

    2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method of testing electrical impedance of a multiplicity of regions of a photovoltaic surface includes providing a multi-tipped impedance sensor with a multiplicity of spaced apart impedance probes separated by an insulating material, wherein each impedance probe includes a first end adapted for contact with a photovoltaic surface and a second end in operable communication with an impedance measuring device. The multi-tipped impedance sensor is used to contact the photovoltaic surface and electrical impedance of the photovoltaic material is measured between individual first ends of the probes to characterize the quality of the photovoltaic surface.

  13. Photovoltaic power converter system with a controller configured to actively compensate load harmonics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    de Rooij, Michael Andrew (Clifton Park, NY); Steigerwald, Robert Louis (Burnt Hills, NY); Delgado, Eladio Clemente (Burnt Hills, NY)

    2008-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Photovoltaic power converter system including a controller configured to reduce load harmonics is provided. The system comprises a photovoltaic array and an inverter electrically coupled to the array to generate an output current for energizing a load connected to the inverter and to a mains grid supply voltage. The system further comprises a controller including a first circuit coupled to receive a load current to measure a harmonic current in the load current. The controller includes a second circuit to generate a fundamental reference drawn by the load. The controller further includes a third circuit for combining the measured harmonic current and the fundamental reference to generate a command output signal for generating the output current for energizing the load connected to the inverter. The photovoltaic system may be configured to compensate harmonic currents that may be drawn by the load.

  14. Ghost condensate busting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bilic, Neven [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia)] [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Tupper, Gary B; Viollier, Raoul D, E-mail: bilic@thphys.irb.hr, E-mail: gary.tupper@uct.ac.za, E-mail: raoul.viollier@uct.ac.za [Centre of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa)

    2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Applying the Thomas-Fermi approximation to renormalizable field theories, we construct ghost condensation models that are free of the instabilities associated with violations of the null-energy condition.

  15. Measure Guideline: Evaporative Condensers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    German, A.; Dakin, B.; Hoeschele, M.

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this measure guideline on evaporative condensers is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for energy and demand savings in homes with cooling loads. This is a prescriptive approach that outlines selection criteria, design and installation procedures, and operation and maintenance best practices. This document has been prepared to provide a process for properly designing, installing, and maintaining evaporative condenser systems as well as understanding the benefits, costs, and tradeoffs.

  16. Metals Production Requirements for Rapid Photovoltaics Deployment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavlak, Goksin; Jaffe, Robert L; Trancik, Jessika E

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    If global photovoltaics (PV) deployment grows rapidly, the required input materials need to be supplied at an increasing rate. In this paper, we quantify the effect of PV deployment levels on the scale of metals production. For example, we find that if cadmium telluride {copper indium gallium diselenide} PV accounts for more than 3% {10%} of electricity generation by 2030, the required growth rates for the production of indium and tellurium would exceed historically-observed production growth rates for a large set of metals. In contrast, even if crystalline silicon PV supplies all electricity in 2030, the required silicon production growth rate would fall within the historical range. More generally, this paper highlights possible constraints to the rate of scaling up metals production for some PV technologies, and outlines an approach to assessing projected metals growth requirements against an ensemble of past growth rates from across the metals production sector. The framework developed in this paper may be...

  17. Building integrated photovoltaic systems analysis: Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has estimated that the deployment of photovoltaics (PV) in the commercial buildings sector has the potential to contribute as much as 40 gigawatts peak electrical generation capacity and displace up to 1.1 quads of primary fuel use. A significant portion of this potential exists for smaller buildings under 25,000 square feet (2,300 square meters) in size or two stories or less, providing a strong cross over potential for residential applications as well. To begin to achieve this potential, research is needed to define the appropriate match of PV systems to energy end-uses in the commercial building sector. This report presents preliminary findings for a technical assessment of several alternative paths to integrate PV with building energy systems.

  18. Composition and method for encapsulating photovoltaic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pern, Fu-Jann (Golden, CO)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A composition and method for encapsulating a photovoltaic device which minimizes discoloration of the encapsulant. The composition includes an ethylene-vinyl acetate encapsulant, a curing agent, an optional ultraviolet light stabilizer, and/or an optional antioxidant. The curing agent is preferably 1,1-di-(t-butylperoxy)-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane; the ultraviolet light stabilizer is bis-(N-octyloxy-tetramethyl) piperidinyl sebacate and the antioxidant is selected from the group consisting of tris (2,4-di-tert-butylphenyl) phosphite, tetrakis methylene (3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyhydrocinnamate) methane, octadecyl 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyhydrocinnamate, and 2,2'-ethylidene bis(4,6-di-t-butylphenyl) fluorophosponite. The composition is applied to a solar cell then cured. The cured product contains a minimal concentration of curing-generated chromophores and resists UV-induced degradation.

  19. Thin film photovoltaic cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rothwarf, Allen (Philadelphia, PA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solar cell has as its transparent electrical contact a grid made from a non-noble metal by providing a layer of copper oxide between the transparent electrical contact and the absorber-generator.

  20. Breakthrough: micro-electronic photovoltaics

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Okandan, Murat; Gupta, Vipin

    2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia developed tiny glitter-sized photovoltaic (PV) cells that could revolutionize solar energy collection. The crystalline silicon micro-PV cells will be cheaper and have greater efficiencies than current PV collectors. Micro-PV cells require relatively little material to form well-controlled, highly efficient devices. Cell fabrication uses common microelectric and micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) techniques.

  1. Improved photovoltaic cells and electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skotheim, T.A.

    1983-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved photovoltaic cells and electrodes for use therein, particularly electrodes employing amorphous silicon or polyacetylene coating are produced by a process which includes filling pinholes or porous openings in the coatings by electrochemical oxidation of selected monomers to deposit insulating polymer in the openings.

  2. Photovoltaic cells employing zinc phosphide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnett, Allen M. (Newark, DE); Catalano, Anthony W. (Wilmington, DE); Dalal, Vikram L. (Newark, DE); Masi, James V. (Wilbraham, MA); Meakin, John D. (Newark, DE); Hall, Robert B. (Newark, DE)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic cell having a zinc phosphide absorber. The zinc phosphide can be a single or multiple crystal slice or a thin polycrystalline film. The cell can be a Schottky barrier, heterojunction or homojunction device. Methods for synthesizing and crystallizing zinc phosphide are disclosed as well as a method for forming thin films.

  3. Electrochemical photovoltaic cells and electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skotheim, Terje A. (East Patchogue, NY)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved electrochemical photovoltaic cells and electrodes for use therein, particularly electrodes employing amorphous silicon or polyacetylene coating are produced by a process which includes filling pinholes or porous openings in the coatings by electrochemical oxidation of selected monomers to deposit insulating polymer in the openings.

  4. NREL Photovoltaic Program FY 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report reviews the in-house and subcontracted research and development (R&D) activities under the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Photovoltaic (PV) Program from October 1, 1992, through September 30, 1993 (fiscal year [FY] 1993). The NREL PV Program is part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) National Photovoltaics Program, as described in the DOE Photovoltaics Program Plan, FY 1991 - FY 1995. The FY 1993 budget authority (BA) for carrying out the NREL PV Program was $40.1 million in operating funds and $0.9 million in capital equipment funds. An additional $4.8 million in capital equipment funds were made available for the new Solar Energy Research Facility (SERF) that will house the in-house PV laboratories beginning in FY 1994. Subcontract activities represent a major part of the NREL PV Program, with more than $23.7 million (nearly 59%) of the FY 1993 operating funds going to 70 subcontractors. In FY 1993, DOE assigned certain other PV subcontracting efforts to the DOE Golden Field Office (DOE/GO), and assigned responsibility for their technical support to the NREL PV Program. An example is the PV:BONUS (Building Opportunities in the U.S. for Photovoltaics) Project. These DOE/GO efforts are also reported in this document.

  5. Photovoltaic Subcontract Program, FY 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Summers, K.A. (ed.)

    1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the progress of the subcontracted photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R D) performed under the Photovoltaics Program at the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The SERI subcontracted PV research and development represents most of the subcontracted R D that is funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) National Photovoltaics Program. This report covers fiscal year (FY) 1990: October 1, 1989 through September 30, 1990. During FY 1990, the SERI PV program started to implement a new DOE subcontract initiative, entitled the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) Project.'' Excluding (PVMaT) because it was in a start-up phase, in FY 1990 there were 54 subcontracts with a total annualized funding of approximately $11.9 million. Approximately two-thirds of those subcontracts were with universities, at a total funding of over $3.3 million. Cost sharing by industry added another $4.3 million to that $11.9 million of SERI PV subcontracted R D. The six technical sections of this report cover the previously ongoing areas of the subcontracted program: the Amorphous Silicon Research Project, Polycrystalline Thin Films, Crystalline Silicon Materials Research, High-Efficiency Concepts, the New Ideas Program, and the University Participation Program. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs discuss approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1990, and future research directions. Another section introduces the PVMaT project and reports the progress since its inception in FY 1990. Highlights of technology transfer activities are also reported.

  6. Fine-grained Photovoltaic Output Prediction using a Bayesian Ensemble Prithwish Chakraborty1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramakrishnan, Naren

    generation is increasingly reliant on renewable power sources, e.g., solar (pho- tovoltaic or PV) and wind Increasingly, local and distributed power generation e.g., through solar (photovoltaic or PV), wind, fuel cells and intermittent in their energy output, which makes integration with the power grid challenging. PV output

  7. Condensed Matter Colloquium Thursday, February 6, 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lathrop, Daniel P.

    in Room 1305F Andrew M. Rappe University of Pennsylvania The bulk photovoltaic effect in polar oxides into the bulk photovoltaic effect, and materials design to enhance the photovoltaic efficiency. We calculate photovoltaic effects. Finally, we present new oxides that are strongly polar yet have band gaps in the visible

  8. Producer-Focused Life Cycle Assessment of Thin-Film Silicon Photovoltaic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Teresa Weirui

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Best research photovoltaic efficiencies (Kazmerski,Best research photovoltaic efficiencies (Kazmerski, 2011).

  9. Understanding Variability and Uncertainty of Photovoltaics for Integration with the Electric Power System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Uncertainty of Photovoltaics for Integration with themodels and datasets. Photovoltaics fall under the broader

  10. Producer-Focused Life Cycle Assessment of Thin-Film Silicon Photovoltaic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Teresa Weirui

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    emissions of pv systems. Progress in Photovoltaics: Researchpv system flatcon. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and

  11. Nanocrystal Photovoltaics: The Case of Cu2S-CdS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rivest, Jessica Louis Baker

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    systems, sensors, light-emitting diodes, photovoltaics andsystem. ) Research on Cu 2 S nanocrystal photovoltaics may

  12. Do Photovoltaic Energy Systems Effect Residential Selling Prices? Results from a California Statewide Investigation.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoen, Ben

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PHOTOVOLTAIC ENERGY SYSTEMS AFFECT RESIDENTIAL SELLING PRICES?PHOTOVOLTAIC ENERGY SYSTEMS AFFECT RESIDENTIAL SELLING PRICES?

  13. Sustainability of Large Deployment of Photovoltaics: Environmental & Grid Integration Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohta, Shigemi

    1 Sustainability of Large Deployment of Photovoltaics: Environmental & Grid Integration Research Sustainability of Large Deployment of Photovoltaics: Environmental & Grid Integration Research www Photovoltaics Environmental Research Center Brookhaven National Laboratory #12;2 Source: PV Market Outlook

  14. Solution-processed photovoltaics with advanced characterization and analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duan, Hsin-Sheng

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    at the 37th IEEE Photovoltaics Specialists Conference (D. B. Mitzi, Prog. Photovoltaics 2011, 20, 6. [23] S. Bag,R. Noufi, IEEE J. Photovoltaics 2012, T. Todorov, J. Tang,

  15. Photovoltaic Lifetime & Degradation Science Statistical Pathway Development: Acrylic Degradation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    Photovoltaic Lifetime & Degradation Science Statistical Pathway Development: Acrylic Degradation, USA ABSTRACT In order to optimize and extend the life of photovoltaics (PV) modules, scientific photovoltaics. The statisti- cally significant relationships were investigated using lifetime and degradation

  16. Photovoltaic nanocrystal scintillators hybridized on Si solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    Photovoltaic nanocrystal scintillators hybridized on Si solar cells for enhanced conversion@bilkent.edu.tr Abstract: We propose and demonstrate semiconductor nanocrystal based photovoltaic scintillators integrated on solar cells to enhance photovoltaic device parameters including spectral responsivity, open circuit

  17. Degradation Pathway Models for Photovoltaics Module Lifetime Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    Degradation Pathway Models for Photovoltaics Module Lifetime Performance Nicholas R. Wheeler, Laura data from Underwriter Labs, featuring measurements taken on 18 identical photovoltaic (PV) modules in modules and their effects on module performance over lifetime. Index Terms--photovoltaics, statistical

  18. Efficiency enhancement of luminescent solar concentrations for photovoltaic technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chunhua

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and V.U. Ho?mann. Photovoltaic Solar Energy Gen- eration.stacked LSC plates for photovoltaics with the green LSC onsolar concentra- tors for photovoltaics. Science, 321(5886):

  19. Temperature-Dependent Electron Transport in Quantum Dot Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Padilla, Derek

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Paul Alivisatos. Photovoltaic performance of ultrasmall pbsenot including photovoltaic performance. To understand theperformance through overall structure and QD properties, relatively few studies probe the effects of temperature or capping ligands on the photovoltaic (

  20. Femtosecond laser processing of photovoltaic and transparent materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahn, Sanghoon

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    20%  efficiency.  Progress  in  Photovoltaics.  2004;12:efficiency   tables  (version  39).  Progress  in  Photovoltaics.  efficiency   for   Cu(In,Ga)Se-­?2   thin-­?film   solar   cells   beyond   20%.   Progress   in   Photovoltaics.  

  1. Synthesis and photovoltaic application of coper (I) sulfide nanocrystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Yue

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    polymer hybrid photovoltaic cells. Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,S-CdS heterojunction photovoltaic cells. J. Appl. Phys. 45,photovoltaic devices, such as dye-sensitized solar cells 1-

  2. Synthesis and photovoltaic application of coper (I) sulfide nanocrystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Yue

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CdSe quantum dots for photovoltaic devices. Nano Lett. 7,nanocrystal-polymer hybrid photovoltaic cells. Appl. Phys.Gill, W. D. , Bube, R. H. Photovoltaic Properties of Cu 2 S-

  3. EXPERIMENTS with PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS for high school science students

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    EXPERIMENTS with PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS for high school science students By Dick Erickson ­ Pleasant Activity ­ Testing Photovoltaic Cells ..........................5 Expected Observations: ........................................................................................................8 II. LAB ACTIVITY - TESTING PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS ..................................9 BEFORE YOU START

  4. Semitransparent Organic Photovoltaic Cells with Laminated Top Electrode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    Semitransparent Organic Photovoltaic Cells with Laminated Top Electrode Jung-Yong Lee, Steve T demonstrate semitransparent small molecular weight organic photovoltaic cells using a laminated silver metal cathode due to differences in optical absorption. KEYWORDS Organic photovoltaics, transparent

  5. US photovoltaic patents: 1991--1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pohle, L

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document contains US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1991 to 1993. The entries were located by searching USPA, the database of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class ``Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric`` and the subclasses ``Photoelectric,`` ``Testing,`` and ``Applications.`` The search also located patents that contained the words ``photovoltaic(s)`` or ``solar cell(s)`` and their derivatives. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors, and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaic. Some patents on these three subjects were included when ft appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.

  6. Modeling of concentrating solar thermoelectric generators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ren, Zhifeng

    The conversion of solar power into electricity is dominated by non-concentrating photovoltaics and concentrating solar thermal systems. Recently, it has been shown that solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs) are a viable ...

  7. Defect localization, characterization and reliability assessment in emerging photovoltaic devices.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Benjamin Bing-Yeh; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Haase, Gad S.; Tangyunyong, Paiboon; Cole, Edward Isaac,; Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Microsystems-enabled photovoltaics (MEPV) can potentially meet increasing demands for light-weight, portable, photovoltaic solutions with high power density and efficiency. The study in this report examines failure analysis techniques to perform defect localization and evaluate MEPV modules. CMOS failure analysis techniques, including electroluminescence, light-induced voltage alteration, thermally-induced voltage alteration, optical beam induced current, and Seabeck effect imaging were successfully adapted to characterize MEPV modules. The relative advantages of each approach are reported. In addition, the effects of exposure to reverse bias and light stress are explored. MEPV was found to have good resistance to both kinds of stressors. The results form a basis for further development of failure analysis techniques for MEPVs of different materials systems or multijunction MEPVs. The incorporation of additional stress factors could be used to develop a reliability model to generate lifetime predictions for MEPVs as well as uncover opportunities for future design improvements.

  8. Optical Absorption Characteristics of Silicon Nanowires for Photovoltaic Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parkash, Vidur

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar cells have generated a lot of interest as a potential source of clean renewable energy for the future. However a big bottleneck in wide scale deployment of these energy sources remain the low efficiency of these conversion devices. Recently the use of nanostructures and the strategy of quantum confinement have been as a general approach towards better charge carrier generation and capture. In this article we have presented calculations on the optical characteristics of nanowires made out of Silicon. Our calculations show these nanowires form excellent optoelectronic materials and may yield efficient photovoltaic devices.

  9. PhotovoltaicsPhotovoltaics: the equations for solar: the equations for solar--cell designcell design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pulfrey, David L.

    design LECTURE 5 · photovoltaic effect · the equation set · simplifying the equation set · absorption, Germany 90 MW Sarnia, Ontario 5kW Boston Massachusetts http://256.com/solar/ #12;3 The Photovoltaic EffectThe Photovoltaic EffectSec. 7.0 Is the full Device Equation Set needed to design and analyze a cell like this one

  10. PROGRESS IN PHOTOVOLTAICS RESEARCH AND APPLICATIONS, VOL 2, 235-248 (1994) ~pplications Photovoltaics as a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delaware, University of

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PROGRESS IN PHOTOVOLTAICS RESEARCH AND APPLICATIONS, VOL 2, 235-248 (1994) ~pplications Photovoltaics as a Demand-side Management Technology: an Analysis of Peak-shaving and Direct Load Control Dept. of Energy University Center of Excellence for Photovoltaic Research and Development, Newark, DE

  11. Chapter 9: Photovoltaic DevicesChapter 9: Photovoltaic Devices Solar energy spectrumSolar energy spectrum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Jianfang

    Chapter 9: Photovoltaic DevicesChapter 9: Photovoltaic Devices Solar energy spectrumSolar energy Solar Energy? · Clean · Nearly unlimited PHYS5320 Chapter Nine 3 #12;S l ll l t PHYS5320 Chapter Nine 4 Solar cell plant #12;Cars powered by photovoltaic devices PHYS5320 Chapter Nine 5 #12;Solar Energy

  12. Photovoltaic Energy Program Overview Fiscal Year 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Significant activities in the National Photovoltaic Program are reported for each of the three main program elements. In Research and Development, advances in thin-film materials and crystalline silicon materials are described. The Technology Development report describes activities in photovoltaic manufacturing technology, industrial expansion, module and array development, and testing photovoltaic system components. Systems Engineering and Applications projects described include projects with government agencies, projects with utilities, documentation of performance for international applications, and product certification.

  13. Photovoltaic performance and reliability workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mrig, L. [ed.

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This workshop was the sixth in a series of workshops sponsored by NREL/DOE under the general subject of photovoltaic testing and reliability during the period 1986--1993. PV performance and PV reliability are at least as important as PV cost, if not more. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities, and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in the field were brought together to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this evolving field of PV reliability. The papers presented here reflect this effort since the last workshop held in September, 1992. The topics covered include: cell and module characterization, module and system testing, durability and reliability, system field experience, and standards and codes.

  14. High voltage photovoltaic power converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haigh, Ronald E. (Arvada, CO); Wojtczuk, Steve (Cambridge, MA); Jacobson, Gerard F. (Livermore, CA); Hagans, Karla G. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An array of independently connected photovoltaic cells on a semi-insulating substrate contains reflective coatings between the cells to enhance efficiency. A uniform, flat top laser beam profile is illuminated upon the array to produce electrical current having high voltage. An essentially wireless system includes a laser energy source being fed through optic fiber and cast upon the photovoltaic cell array to prevent stray electrical signals prior to use of the current from the array. Direct bandgap, single crystal semiconductor materials, such as GaAs, are commonly used in the array. Useful applications of the system include locations where high voltages are provided to confined spaces such as in explosive detonation, accelerators, photo cathodes and medical appliances.

  15. Simulation and optimization of ultra thin photovoltaics.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducts pioneering research and development in Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) and solar cell research. This dissertation project combines these two areas to create ultra-thin small-form-factor crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells. These miniature solar cells create a new class of photovoltaics with potentially novel applications and benefits such as dramatic reductions in cost, weight and material usage. At the beginning of the project, unusually low efficiencies were obtained in the research group. The intention of this research was thus to investigate the main causes of the low efficiencies through simulation, design, fabrication, and characterization. Commercial simulation tools were used to find the main causes of low efficiency. Once the causes were identified, the results were used to create improved designs and build new devices. In the simulations, parameters were varied to see the effect on the performance. The researched parameters were: resistance, wafer lifetime, contact separation, implant characteristics (size, dosage, energy, ratio between the species), contact size, substrate thickness, surface recombination, and light concentration. Out of these parameters, it was revealed that a high quality surface passivation was the most important for obtaining higher performing cells. Therefore, several approaches for enhancing the passivation were tried, characterized, and tested on cells. In addition, a methodology to contact and test the performance of all the cells presented in the dissertation under calibrated light was created. Also, next generation cells that could incorporate all the optimized layers including the passivation was designed, built, and tested. In conclusion, through this investigation, solar cells that incorporate optimized designs and passivation schemes for ultrathin solar cells were created for the first time. Through the application of the methods discussed in this document, the efficiency of the solar cells increased from below 1% to 15% in Microsystems Enabled Photovoltaic (MEPV) devices.

  16. Galaxies as condensates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. V. Bugg

    2012-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel interpretation of MOND is presented. For galactic data, in addition to Newtonian acceleration, there is an attractive acceleration peaking at Milgrom's parameter a_0. The peak lies within experimental error where a_0 = cH_0/2\\pi and H_0 is the present-time value of the Hubble constant. This peaking may be understood in terms of quantum mechanical mixing between Newtonian gravitation and the condensation mechanism. There are five pointers towards galaxies being Fermi-Dirac condensates.

  17. NREL Photovoltaic Program FY 1994 bibliography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report lists all published documents of the Photovoltaic Program for FY 1994. Documents include conference papers, journal articles, book chapters, patents, etc.

  18. Sandia National Laboratories: microsystems-enabled photovoltaics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    microsystems-enabled photovoltaics Sandia, Endicott Interconnect Technologies, EMCORE, International Micro Industries, NREL, Universal Instruments: Solar Glitter On March 21, 2013,...

  19. Renewable Energy Ready Home Solar Photovoltaic Specifications...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Solar Photovoltaic Specification, Checklist and Guide, from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. rerhsolarelectricguide.pdf More Documents & Publications Solar Water...

  20. Sandia National Laboratories: Vermont Photovoltaic Regional Test...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photovoltaic Regional Test Center (RTC). The RTC will enable research on integrating solar panels into the statewide smart grid and help reduce the cost of solar power. The...

  1. Sandia National Laboratories: photovoltaic systems integration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photovoltaic Regional Test Center (RTC). The RTC will enable research on integrating solar panels into the statewide smart grid and help reduce the cost of solar power. The...

  2. Sandia National Laboratories: photovoltaic systems validation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photovoltaic Regional Test Center (RTC). The RTC will enable research on integrating solar panels into the statewide smart grid and help reduce the cost of solar power. The...

  3. Mesa Top Photovoltaic Array (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fact sheet overview of the Mesa Top Photovoltaic Array project implemented by the Department of Energy Golden Office and National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

  4. Recording of SERC Monitoring Technologies- Solar Photovoltaics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document provides a transcript of the of SERC Monitoring Technologies - Solar Photovoltaics webinar, presented on 10/20/2011 by Peter McNutt.

  5. Scattering Properties of nanostructures : applications to photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Derkacs, Daniel

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    hydrogen during deposition, dangling bonds are compensated and hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) can be made into a promising photovoltaic

  6. Sandia National Laboratories: predicts photovoltaic array energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    energy production Solar Glare Hazard Analysis Tool Available for Download On March 13, 2014, in Energy, News, News & Events, Photovoltaic, Renewable Energy, Solar, Solar Newsletter...

  7. Hudson Light & Power- Photovoltaic Incentive Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hudson Light & Power Department, the municipal utility for the Town of Hudson, offers a limited number of solar photovoltaic (PV) rebates for residential, commercial, industrial, and municipal...

  8. Sandia National Laboratories: Photovoltaic Systems Evaluation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Systems Evaluation Laboratory (PSEL) Sandians Win 'Best Paper' Award at Photovoltaic Conference in Japan On March 4, 2015, in Computational Modeling & Simulation, Energy,...

  9. Sandia National Laboratories: Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme Task 13 Sandian Presents on PV Failure Analysis at European PV Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (EU PVSC) On December 15, 2014, in...

  10. Sandia National Laboratories: predicts photovoltaic array ocular...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tool Available for Download On March 13, 2014, in Energy, News, News & Events, Photovoltaic, Renewable Energy, Solar, Solar Newsletter Sandia developed the Solar Glare Hazard...

  11. Nellis AFB 'Sun Park' Photovoltaic Power Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Briefing is: UNCLASSIFIED Headquarters Air Combat Command Nellis AFB 'Sun Park' Photovoltaic Power Project *Capt Frank Hollifield *AFLOAJACLULT Overview *Objective * Provide...

  12. Photovoltaic cell with thin CS layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jordan, John F. (El Paso, TX); Albright, Scot P. (El Paso, TX)

    1994-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved photovoltaic panel and method of forming a photovoltaic panel are disclosed for producing a high efficiency CdS/CdTe photovoltaic cell. The photovoltaic panel of the present invention is initially formed with a substantially thick Cds layer, and the effective thickness of the CdS layer is substantially reduced during regrowth to both form larger diameter CdTe crystals and substantially reduce the effective thickness of the C This invention was made with Government support under Subcontract No. ZL-7-06031-3 awarded by the Department of Energy. The Government has certain rights in this invention.

  13. NREL Photovoltaic Program FY 1993 bibliography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pohle, L. [ed.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report lists all published documents of the Photovoltaic Program for FY 1993. Documents include conference papers, journal articles, book chapters, etc.

  14. Sandia Energy - Sandia and EMCORE: Solar Photovoltaics, Fiber...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    EMCORE: Solar Photovoltaics, Fiber Optics, MODE, and Energy Efficiency Home Renewable Energy Energy Partnership Concentrating Solar Power Photovoltaic Research & Capabilities Solar...

  15. Kyungdong Photovoltaic Energy Corp KPE formerly Photon Semiconductor...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kyungdong Photovoltaic Energy Corp KPE formerly Photon Semiconductor Energy Jump to: navigation, search Name: Kyungdong Photovoltaic Energy Corp (KPE) (formerly Photon...

  16. Project Profile: Evaluating the Causes of Photovoltaics Cost...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    progress observed for photovoltaics (PV) over the past half century. Motivation Photovoltaic technologies, including silicon and thin film solar cells, have experienced...

  17. Soiling losses for solar photovoltaic systems in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mejia, Felipe A; Kleissl, Jan

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Performance: Research Status,Photovoltaic Systems in California Felipe A Mejia, Jan Kleissl Keywords: Soiling, PV Performance

  18. Temperature-Dependent Electron Transport in Quantum Dot Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Padilla, Derek

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cell efficiency milestones. Quantum dot photovoltaics is inphotovoltaics provide the potential to create high-efficiencycell efficiency milestones. Quantum dot photovoltaics is in

  19. Solar Photovoltaic Installation Market Trends | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Photovoltaic Installation Market Trends Home John55364's picture Submitted by John55364(95) Contributor 14 May, 2015 - 02:24 Global Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Installation...

  20. Sandia National Laboratories: Sandia Expertise Guides New Photovoltaic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Expertise Guides New Photovoltaic Requirements Sandia Expertise Guides New Photovoltaic Requirements Solar Test Facility Upgrades Complete, Leading to Better Sandia Capabilities to...

  1. Sandia National Laboratories: 6th World Conference on Photovoltaic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion Sandians Win 'Best Paper' Award at Photovoltaic Conference in Japan On March 4, 2015, in Computational Modeling & Simulation,...

  2. Solar Photovoltaic Financing: Deployment on Public Property by...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Photovoltaic Financing: Deployment on Public Property by State and Local Governments Solar Photovoltaic Financing: Deployment on Public Property by State and Local...

  3. Agua Caliente, World's Largest Solar Photovoltaic Plant, Helps...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Agua Caliente, World's Largest Solar Photovoltaic Plant, Helps Advance America's Solar Leadership Agua Caliente, World's Largest Solar Photovoltaic Plant, Helps Advance America's...

  4. Photovoltaics performance and reliability workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mrig, L. (ed.) [ed.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document consists of papers and viewgraphs compiled from the proceedings of a workshop held in September 1992. This workshop was the fifth in a series sponsored by NREL/DOE under the general subject areas of photovoltaic module testing and reliability. PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others exchanged technical knowledge and field experience. The topics of cell and module characterization, module and system performance, materials and module durability/reliability research, solar radiation, and applications are discussed.

  5. Photovoltaics performance and reliability workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mrig, L. [ed.] [ed.

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document consists of papers and viewgraphs compiled from the proceedings of a workshop held in September 1992. This workshop was the fifth in a series sponsored by NREL/DOE under the general subject areas of photovoltaic module testing and reliability. PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others exchanged technical knowledge and field experience. The topics of cell and module characterization, module and system performance, materials and module durability/reliability research, solar radiation, and applications are discussed.

  6. Photovoltaic Films - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeedingBiomassPPPOPetroleum Reserves Vision,4newsSolar Photovoltaic Solar

  7. Nanostructured Photovoltaics: - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for Renewable Energy: GridTruckNanostructued Glass-CeramicInnovationSolar Photovoltaic

  8. Sun Valley Photovoltaic Power Project, Phase 1. Final report, June 1, 1978-February 28, 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodman, Jr, F R

    1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An application experiment was devised for fabrication, installation, operation, and evaluation of a concentrating photovoltaic system for direct conversion of sunlight to electricity. If the experiment is performed, the photovoltaic system will be connected to an electric motor load and to an electric utility system. Provisions will be made to allow the motor load to be supplied with power from either the photovoltaic system or the utility system. When the demand of the motor load is low, the photovoltaic system will deliver excess power to the utility system for use elsewhere. Thus, the experimental installation has been designed with sufficient flexibility to enable several modes of operation to be evaluated. This type of application is a typical example of on-site power generation at an individual load center involving two-way energy exchange with the adjacent utility system. Because a growing market for photovoltaic systems in this type of application is expected in the 1980's, the experiment will provide needed information in a timely manner. The experiment was devised jointly by the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) and its subcontractor, Spectrolab, Inc. LADWP will furnish a site and operate the equipment after installation. The subcontractor will manufacture and furnish a concentrating photovoltaic array with a power rating of approximately 200 kilowatts at one kilowatt per square meter of insolation. Other required equipment will be purchased to specification from appropriate suppliers. The photovoltaic system represents a state-of-the-art design at the time this report was prepared. However, minor design improvements may be made prior to and during system installation. All phases of fabrication, installation and operation will be documented through formal reports. The results of the experiment will contribute to the goals of the National Photovoltaic Conversion Program.

  9. Strategies in Optimizing Condensate Return

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bloom, D.

    Optimizing condensate return for reuse as boiler feedwater is often a viable means of reducing fuel costs and improving boiler system efficiency. As more condensate is returned, less makeup is required and savings on water and water treatment costs...

  10. The Color Glass Condensate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Gelis; E. Iancu; J. Jalilian-Marian; R. Venugopalan

    2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We provide a broad overview of the theoretical status and phenomenological applications of the Color Glass Condensate effective field theory describing universal properties of saturated gluons in hadron wavefunctions that are extracted from deeply inelastic scattering and hadron-hadron collision experiments at high energies.

  11. Condensate removal device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maddox, James W. (Newport News, VA); Berger, David D. (Alexandria, VA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A condensate removal device is disclosed which incorporates a strainer in unit with an orifice. The strainer is cylindrical with its longitudinal axis transverse to that of the vapor conduit in which it is mounted. The orifice is positioned inside the strainer proximate the end which is remoter from the vapor conduit.

  12. Condensate polishing at Surry Nuclear Power Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNea, D.A.; Siegwarth, D.P.; Friedman, K.A.; Sawochka, S.G.

    1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Condensate polisher system design and operation at the Surry Nuclear Power Station of Virginia Electric and Power Company were evaluated relative to the ability of the polishers to achieve effluent water quality consistent with PWR Steam Generator Owners Group chemistry guidelines. Polishers regenerated employing a conventional process were evaluated during normal plant operation and during periods of simulated condenser inleakage. Polisher effluent quality was consistent with requirements for PWR steam generator corrosion minimization with minor exceptions, i.e., sodium and sulfate leakage immediately following initiation of most service cycles. Resin aging and incomplete separation of anion and cation resin during the regeneration process were the major reasons for non-optimum polisher performance.

  13. High Penetration Photovoltaic Case Study Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bank, J.; Mather, B.; Keller, J.; Coddington, M.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Technical concerns with integrating higher penetrations of photovoltaic (PV) systems include grid stability, voltage regulation, power quality (voltage rise, sags, flicker, and frequency fluctuations), and protection and coordination. The current utility grid was designed to accommodate power flows from the central generation source to the transmission system and eventually to the distribution feeders. At the distribution level, the system was designed to carry power from the substation toward the load. Renewable distributed generation, particularly solar PV, provides power at the distribution level challenging this classical paradigm. As these resources become more commonplace the nature of the distribution network and its operation is changing to handle power flow in both directions. This report is focused on large PV installations in which penetration is significantly greater than 15% of maximum daytime feeder load. These case studies are intended to demonstrate success stories with integration of large PV plants at the distribution level as well as some of the solutions used by the utility to ensure safe, reliable operation of both the PV system and the distribution network.

  14. NREL: Photovoltaics Research - Thin Film Photovoltaic Partnership Project

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated CodesTransparency Visit |Infrastructure JohnEnergyThin Film Photovoltaic

  15. Photovoltaic Energy Program overview, fiscal year 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Photovoltaic Energy Program fosters the widespread acceptance of photovoltaic (PV) technology and accelerates commercial use of US PV products. The Program is founded on a collaborative strategy involving industry, the research and development community, potential users, utilities, and state and federal agencies. There are three main Program elements: Systems Engineering and Applications, Technology Development, and Research and Development.

  16. Solar Photovoltaics development -Status and perspectives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solar Photovoltaics development - Status and perspectives Jørgen Fenhann Risø National Laboratory for the development of solar photovoltaics, contributing to the Macro Task E1 on production cost for fusion.S. with 53 MWp followed by Japan and EU. Until now off-grid installation have dominated the solar PV market

  17. Low-Cost Installation of Concentrating Photovoltaic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .5 megawatt power plant for the Pacific Gas and Electric Company near Tracy, CA ­ the first solar related with system components, and traditional solar designs that limit installation locations. Many offerings. Currently, no solar company provides a complete photovoltaic or concentrating photovoltaic

  18. National Center for Photovoltaics at NREL

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    VanSant, Kaitlyn; Wilson, Greg; Berry, Joseph; Al-Jassim, Mowafak; Kurtz, Sarah

    2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Center for Photovoltaics at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) focuses on technology innovations that drive industry growth in U.S. photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing. The NCPV is a central resource for our nation's capabilities in PV research, development, deployment, and outreach.

  19. National Center for Photovoltaics at NREL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VanSant, Kaitlyn; Wilson, Greg; Berry, Joseph; Al-Jassim, Mowafak; Kurtz, Sarah

    2013-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Center for Photovoltaics at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) focuses on technology innovations that drive industry growth in U.S. photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing. The NCPV is a central resource for our nation's capabilities in PV research, development, deployment, and outreach.

  20. Sidestream condensate polishing for PWRs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shor, S.W.W.; Yim, S.L.; Rios, J.; Liu, J.

    1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Condensate polishers are used in power plant condensate system to remove both particulate matter and ionized corrodents. Their conventional location is just downstream of the hotwell pumps (condensate pumps). Most polisher installations have enough flow capacity to polish 100% of the condensate. This inline configuration has some disadvantage, including a flow that varies with unit load and tends to disturb the polisher beds and reduce their effectiveness, and a potential for interrupting flow to the feedwater pumps. An alternate arrangement where water is extracted from either the condenser or the condensate system, polished and returned to the system, has been used in a few plants. Three different ways of doing this have been used: divide the condenser hotwell into two parts, one of which receives condensate from the tube bundles and the other of which is sheltered. Take unpolished condensate from the first part, purify it and return it to the other part from which the condensate pumps take suction; take unpolished condensate from one end of a divided header on the suction side of the hotwell pumps and after polishing it return it to the other end; and take unpolished condensate from a header on the discharge side of the condensate pumps, purify it and return it to the condensate system a short distance downstream. The three variants are analyzed in this report. It is concluded that the variant where the connections are on the discharge side of the condensate pumps is the most desirable for retrofitting, in all cases being far easier to retrofit than an inline polisher. In many cases it will be most desirable for new construction.

  1. Heart - Shaped Nuclei: Condensation of Rotational Aligned Octupole Phonons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Frauendorf

    2007-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The strong octupole correlations in the mass region $A\\approx 226$ are interpreted as rotation-induced condensation of octupole phonons having their angular momentum aligned with the rotational axis. Discrete phonon energy and parity conservation generate oscillations of the energy difference between the lowest rotational bands with positive and negative parity. Anharmonicities tend to synchronize the the rotation of the condensate and the quadrupole shape of the nucleus forming a rotating heart shape.

  2. Solar photovoltaic residence in Carlisle, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strong, S. J.; Nichols, B. E.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The first solar photovoltaic house designed and constructed under the US Department of Energy's Solar Photovoltaic Residential Project has been completed. The house, which is powered by a 7-kWp PV system, will be used to assess the occupants' acceptance of and reactions to residential photovoltaic systems and to familiarize utilities, builders, developers, town building officials and others with issues concerning photovoltaic installations. The house is located on a two-acre lot in Carlisle, approximately twenty miles northwest of Boston. Built by a local architect/developer team, the house includes energy conservation and passive solar features. It utilizes a roof-mounted, flat-plate PV array which operates in a two-way energy exchange mode with the electric utility. The energy conservation and passive solar features of this house are described and a detailed description of the utility-interactive photovoltaic system is presented, along with initial performance data.

  3. EPJ Photovoltaics 2, 20301 (2011) www.epj-pv.org

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EPJ Photovoltaics 2, 20301 (2011) www.epj-pv.org DOI: 10.1051/epjpv/2011001 c Owned by the authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2011 EPJ PhotovoltaicsEPJ Photovoltaics Geometrical optimization and electrical online: 1 April 2011 Abstract This article investigates the optimal efficiency of a photovoltaic system

  4. Optically Functional Nanomaterials: Optothermally Responsive Composites and Carbon Nanotube Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Okawa, David

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    materials for organic photovoltaics. We have successfully investigated polymer functionalization to produce supramolecular

  5. Photovoltaics Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroupPerfectenergy International LimitedPhoenix BioPhotovoltaics Design

  6. Enhanced Photovoltaic Performance of Nanostructured Hybrid Solar Cell Using Highly Oriented TiO2 Nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    -called third generation of solar cells including dye-sensitized solar cells, DSCs2,3 and organic phoEnhanced Photovoltaic Performance of Nanostructured Hybrid Solar Cell Using Highly Oriented TiO2 nanotubes can be effectively controlled for the suitable use for a hybrid solar cell by varying the diameter

  7. Maximum Power Transfer Tracking for a Photovoltaic-Supercapacitor Energy System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    that efficiency of the charger varies depending on the power output level of the energy generation source charger efficiency. More precisely, previous MPPT methods only maximize the power output of the energy the power comes from a renewable source such a solar cell (photovoltaic, or PV for short) or a windmill

  8. Asymmetric condensed dark matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguirre, Anthony

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We explore the viability of a boson dark matter candidate with an asymmetry between the number densities of particles and antiparticles. A simple thermal field theory analysis confirms that, under certain general conditions, this component would develop a Bose-Einstein condensate in the early universe that, for appropriate model parameters, could survive the ensuing cosmological evolution until now. The condensation of a dark matter component in equilibrium with the thermal plasma is a relativistic process, hence the amount of matter dictated by the charge asymmetry is complemented by a hot relic density frozen out at the time of decoupling. Contrary to the case of ordinary WIMPs, dark matter particles in a condensate can be very light, $10^{-22}\\,{\\rm eV} \\lesssim m \\lesssim 10^2\\,{\\rm eV}$; the lower limit arises from constraints on small-scale structure formation, while the upper bound ensures that the density from thermal relics is not too large. Big-Bang nucleosynthesis constrains the temperature of deco...

  9. Low-Cost Photovoltaics: Luminescent Solar Concentrators And Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leow, Shin Woei

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for building integrated photovoltaics,” 2013, vol. 8821, pp.of building integrated photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy, vol. 85,of building-integrated photovoltaics,” Energy, vol. 26, no.

  10. Laser Assisted Nanomanufacturing with Solution Processed Nanoparticles for Low-cost Electronics and Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Heng

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electronics and Photovoltaics by Heng Pan A dissertationcost Electronics and Photovoltaics Copyright © 2009 By HengLow-cost Electronics and Photovoltaics by Heng Pan Doctor of

  11. Photovoltaic performance of ultra-small PbSe quantum dots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Wanli

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photovoltaic performance of ultra-small PbSe quantum dotssize on the photovoltaic performance of simple Schottky-typeconfinement on the photovoltaic performance, we adopted

  12. Nanocrystal Photovoltaics: The Case of Cu2S-CdS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rivest, Jessica Louis Baker

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    high conversion efficiency photovoltaics, utilizing self-low-cost and low-efficiency photovoltaics. Third generationgeneration photovoltaics: Ultra-high conversion efficiency

  13. Low-Cost Photovoltaics: Luminescent Solar Concentrators And Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leow, Shin Woei

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    using front-facing photovoltaic cell luminescent solarwith front-facing photovoltaic cells using weighted Montefor tandem photovoltaic cells,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 516,

  14. Valuing the Time-Varying Electricity Production of Solar Photovoltaic Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Production of Solar Photovoltaic Cells Severin BorensteinProduction of Solar Photovoltaic Cells Severin Borenstein 1concerns is so- lar photovoltaic cells (PVs), which capture

  15. Producer-Focused Life Cycle Assessment of Thin-Film Silicon Photovoltaic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Teresa Weirui

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    microcrystalline- silicon photovoltaic cell, B) range ofpayback of roof mounted photovoltaic cells. Boustead, I. andmicrocrystalline-silicon photovoltaic cell, B) range of

  16. Solar energy storage through the homogeneous electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide : photoelectrochemical and photovoltaic approaches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathrum, Aaron John

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    electricity from photovoltaic cells to convert CO 2 intoSolar Energy Anode Photovoltaic Cell Cathode PP Mesh SpacerCoupling a Photovoltaic Solar Cell with a Homogeneous

  17. Rational Design and Preparation of Organic Semiconductors for use in Field Effect Transistors and Photovoltaic Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mauldin, Clayton Edward

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in thin film organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) is presented.efficient organic photovoltaic cells with power conversionEffect Transistors and Photovoltaic Cells By Clayton Edward

  18. Photovoltaic performance of ultra-small PbSe quantum dots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Wanli

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Colloidal Quantum Dots for Photovoltaics: Fundamentals andSchottky-Quantum Dot Photovoltaics for Efficient InfraredDJ; Klimov, VI, Hybrid Photovoltaics Based on Semiconductor

  19. The impact of retail rate structures on the economics of commercial photovoltaic systems in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew D.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Benefits of Distributed Photovoltaics to the Nevada PowerCarrying Capability of Photovoltaics in the United States. ”A Case Study of Photovoltaics Serving Kerman Substation. ”

  20. Producer-Focused Life Cycle Assessment of Thin-Film Silicon Photovoltaic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Teresa Weirui

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of pv systems. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research andand Alsema, E. (2006). Photovoltaics energy payback times,emissions from photovoltaics. Environmental Science and

  1. The Impact of Retail Rate Structures on the Economics of Commercial Photovoltaic Systems in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Benefits of Distributed Photovoltaics to the Nevada PowerCarrying Capability of Photovoltaics in the United States. ”A Case Study of Photovoltaics Serving Kerman Substation. ”

  2. Rational Design and Preparation of Organic Semiconductors for use in Field Effect Transistors and Photovoltaic Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mauldin, Clayton Edward

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in thin film organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) is presented.Effect Transistors and Photovoltaic Cells By Clayton EdwardEffect Transistors and Photovoltaic Cells By Clayton Edward

  3. Photovoltaic Devices Employing Ternary PbSxSe1-x Nanocrystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photovoltaic Devices Employing Ternary PbS x Se 1-xalloy nanoparticles. Photovoltaic devices made using ternaryInformation for Efficient Photovoltaic Devices Employing

  4. Spectroscopy of Photovoltaic Materials: Charge-Transfer Complexes and Titanium Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dillon, Robert

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    RIVERSIDE Spectroscopy of Photovoltaic Materials: Charge-DISSERTATION Spectroscopy of Photovoltaic Materials: Charge-function of photovoltaic (PV) and photocatalytic (PC)

  5. Residential Photovoltaic Energy Systems in California: The Effect on Home Sales Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoen, Ben

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Residential Photovoltaic Energy Systems in California: Thethe marginal impacts of photovoltaic (PV) energy systems ons largest market for photovoltaic solar (PV), with nearly

  6. Producer-Focused Life Cycle Assessment of Thin-Film Silicon Photovoltaic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Teresa Weirui

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    installed power from photovoltaic systems worldwide fromBest research photovoltaic efficiencies (Kazmerski,as a function of time for numerous types of photovoltaic

  7. A Cradle to Grave Framework for Environmental Assessment of Photovoltaic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Teresa; Dornfeld, David

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    impacts and costs of photovoltaic systems: Current state ofEnergy Payback Time for Photovoltaic Modules,” ProceedingsLife-cycle assessment of photovoltaic modules: Comparison of

  8. The Potential Impact of Increased Renewable Energy Penetrations on Electricity Bill Savings from Residential Photovoltaic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbose, Galen

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    California’s Solar Photovoltaic Subsidies? Center for thefrom Residential Photovoltaic Systems Naïm R. Darghouth,FROM RESIDENTIAL PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS Naïm R. Darghouth

  9. Do Photovoltaic Energy Systems Effect Residential Selling Prices? Results from a California Statewide Investigation.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoen, Ben

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DO PHOTOVOLTAIC ENERGY SYSTEMS AFFECT RESIDENTIAL SELLINGopportunity employer. DO PHOTOVOLTAIC ENERGY SYSTEMS AFFECTin the U.S. have sold with photovoltaic (PV) energy systems

  10. The impact of retail rate structures on the economics of commercial photovoltaic systems in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew D.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Production of Solar Photovoltaic Cells. ” Center for theR. Margolis. 2004. “Are Photovoltaic Systems Worth More toLepley. 1993. “Distributed photovoltaic system evaluation by

  11. An Analysis of the Effects of Photovoltaic Energy Systems on Residential Selling Prices in California.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cappers, Peter

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Effects of Residential Photovoltaic Energy Systems on Homeof homes with existing photovoltaic (PV) energy systems havegrid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV) energy systems were

  12. Photovoltaic performance of ultra-small PbSe quantum dots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Wanli

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Y; Alivisatos, AP, Photovoltaic Devices Employing TernaryPhotovoltaic performance of ultra-small PbSe quantum dotsquantum dot, solar cell, photovoltaic, quantum size effect

  13. The Impact of Retail Rate Structures on the Economics of Commercial Photovoltaic Systems in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Production of Solar Photovoltaic Cells. ” Center for theR. Margolis. 2004. “Are Photovoltaic Systems Worth More toLepley. 1993. “Distributed photovoltaic system evaluation by

  14. Models used to assess the performance of photovoltaic systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Klise, Geoffrey T.

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the various photovoltaic (PV) performance models and software developed and utilized by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in support of the Photovoltaics and Grid Integration Department. In addition to PV performance models, hybrid system and battery storage models are discussed. A hybrid system using other distributed sources and energy storage can help reduce the variability inherent in PV generation, and due to the complexity of combining multiple generation sources and system loads, these models are invaluable for system design and optimization. Energy storage plays an important role in reducing PV intermittency and battery storage models are used to understand the best configurations and technologies to store PV generated electricity. Other researcher's models used by SNL are discussed including some widely known models that incorporate algorithms developed at SNL. There are other models included in the discussion that are not used by or were not adopted from SNL research but may provide some benefit to researchers working on PV array performance, hybrid system models and energy storage. The paper is organized into three sections to describe the different software models as applied to photovoltaic performance, hybrid systems, and battery storage. For each model, there is a description which includes where to find the model, whether it is currently maintained and any references that may be available. Modeling improvements underway at SNL include quantifying the uncertainty of individual system components, the overall uncertainty in modeled vs. measured results and modeling large PV systems. SNL is also conducting research into the overall reliability of PV systems.

  15. Sustainability of Very Large Photovoltaic DeploymentSustainability of Very Large Photovoltaic Deployment email: vmf5@columbia.edu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohta, Shigemi

    1 Sustainability of Very Large Photovoltaic DeploymentSustainability of Very Large Photovoltaic for Life Cycle Analysis Columbia University and National Photovoltaics Environmental Research Center, 2006 - Fthenakis & Alsema, Progress in Photovoltaics, 14, 275, 2006 #12;9 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200

  16. New technology in condensate polishing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kunin, R.; Salem, E.; Libutti, B. (Graver Co., Union, NJ (United States). Water Div.)

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sulfonic acid ion exchange resins. when carried into a boiler or steam generator, thermally decompose releasing large amounts of corrosive, sulfates. Replacement of the sulfonic acid resin with a carboxylic acid resin would eliminate this source of contamination. The sulfonic acid resin is a strong acid: the carboxylic acid resin is a weak acid. The carboxylic acid resin alone is not capable of splitting salts which limits its use to mixed resin beds or to its use in single or individual beds with feeds of high alkalinity or high pH values. Laboratory, pilot plant and full scale plant tests compared the two resins in precoat filters. When the resins in mixed beds were in the acid form, the weakly acid resin was almost as effective in removing sodium ion as the strongly acid resin. In the ammonium form. the weakly acid resin was generally more effective in removing sodium than the strongly acid resin. Condensate polishing reduced the sodium ion to a few parts per billion (ppB). Complete resin separation before regeneration is more important for the weakly acid resin than for the strongly acid resin. Another development found that the hydrazine reaction with oxygen could be catalyzed by powdered activated carbon combined with microfibers on a Powdex substrate. The carbon should be thoroughly washed to reduce its residual sodium content. In plant tests, the carbon reduced the oxygen concentration in condensate about 50% during startup. In preliminary tests believed to be typical, carbon lowered the oxygen concentration below 10 ppB in about 6 hours compared to 18 hours without the carbon. Oxygen is also reduced during normal operation.

  17. In-situ characterization of femtosecond laser-induced crystallization in borosilicate glass using time-resolved surface third-harmonic generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Weimin; Wang, Liang; Han, Fangyuan; Fang, Chong [Department of Chemistry, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States)

    2013-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Coherent phonon dynamics in condensed-phase medium are responsible for important material properties including thermal and electrical conductivities. We report a structural dynamics technique, time-resolved surface third-harmonic generation (TRSTHG) spectroscopy, to capture transient phonon propagation near the surface of polycrystalline CaF{sub 2} and amorphous borosilicate (BK7) glass. Our approach time-resolves the background-free, high-sensitivity third harmonic generation (THG) signal in between the two crossing near-IR pulses. Pronounced intensity quantum beats reveal the impulsively excited low-frequency Raman mode evolution on the femtosecond to picosecond timescale. After amplified laser irradiation, danburite-crystal-like structure units form at the glass surface. This versatile TRSTHG setup paves the way to mechanistically study and design advanced thermoelectrics and photovoltaics.

  18. Zhongke Photovoltaic Material Technology Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit withTianlinPapersWindey Wind Generating EngineeringZhichengZhongke Photovoltaic

  19. Applying photovoltaics to disaster relief

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, W. Jr. [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hurricanes, floods, tornados, earthquakes and other disasters can happen at any time, often with little or no advance warning. They can be as destructive as Hurricane Andrew leaving several hundred-thousand people homeless or as minor as an afternoon thunderstorm knocking down local power lines to your home. Major disasters leave many people without adequate medical services, potable water, electrical service and communications. In response to a natural disaster, photovoltaic (solar electric) modules offer a source of quiet, safe, pollution-free electrical power. Photovoltaic (PV) power systems are capable of providing the electrical needs for vaccine refrigerators, microscopes, medical equipment, lighting, radios, fans, communications, traffic devices and other general electrical needs. Stand alone PV systems do not require refueling and operate for long period of time from the endless energy supplied by the sun, making them beneficial during recovery efforts. This report discusses the need for electrical power during a disaster, and the capability of PV to fill that need. Applications of PV power used during previous disaster relief efforts are also presented.

  20. Diffraction spectral filter for use in extreme-UV lithography condenser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM); Tichenor, Daniel A. (Castro Valley, CA); Bernardez, Luis J. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A condenser system for generating a beam of radiation includes a source of radiation light that generates a continuous spectrum of radiation light; a condenser comprising one or more first optical elements for collecting radiation from the source of radiation light and for generating a beam of radiation; and a diffractive spectral filter for separating first radiation light having a particular wavelength from the continuous spectrum of radiation light. Cooling devices can be employed to remove heat generated. The condenser system can be used with a ringfield camera in projection lithography.

  1. Abstract--Application of individual distributed generators can cause as many problems as it may solve. A better way to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , microturbines, photovoltaic, fuel cells and wind- power. Most emerging technologies such as micro-turbines, photovoltaic, fuel cells and gas internal combustion engines with permanent magnet generator require generation technologies permits generators to be placed optimally in relation to heat loads allowing for use

  2. Photovoltaic Subcontract Program, FY 1991. Annual report, [October 1, 1990--September 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the fiscal year (FY) 1991 (October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991) progress of the subcontracted photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R&D) performed under the Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) -- formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The mission of the national PV program is to develop PV technology for large-scale generation of economically competitive electric power in the United States. The technical sections of the report cover the main areas of the subcontract program: the Amorphous Silicon Research Project, Polycrystalline Thin Films, Crystalline Silicon Materials Research, High-Efficiency Concepts, the New Ideas Program, the University Participation Program, and the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs provide a discussion of approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1991, and future research directions.

  3. SIXTH QUARTERLY REPORT OF RESEARCH ON CuxS - (Cd,Zn)S PHOTOVOLTAIC SOLAR ENERGY CONVERTERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chin, B.L.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for use in experimental photovoltaic cells. Hall mobilityvacuum method for photovoltaic cell fabrication" However,

  4. Lease Condensate Production

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 3400, U.S.MajorMarketsNov-14 Dec-14Has|IssuesCondensate

  5. Color Glass Condensate and Glasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francois Gelis

    2010-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    In this talk, I review the Color Glass Condensate theory of gluon saturation, and its application to the early stages of heavy ion collisions.

  6. Condensate polishers for brackish water-cooled PWRs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadler, M.A.; Darvill, M.R.; Bickerstaffe, J.A.; Chakravorti, R.; Siegwarth, D.P.

    1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of project RP 1571-5 ''Optimization of Pressurized Water Reactor Secondary Water Treatment: Task 4 Conceptual Design Options - Condensate Polishing'' were to provide detailed guidelines for the design of a condensate polishing system for retrofitting to a seawater cooled PWR. For this purpose a national 1100MW PWR with recirculating steam generators was defined. The polished water to be produced by this plant must be of such a quality so as to permit the advisory SGOG guidelines on impurity levels in Steam Generator water to be achieved. Target maximum impurity levels in the final polished water were proposed by the RP 1571 Project review Team and adopted for this study.

  7. Utility-Interconnected Photovoltaic Systems: Evaluating the Rationale for the Utility-Accessible External Disconnect Switch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coddington, M.; Margolis, R.M.; Aabakken, J.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The utility-accessible alternating current (AC) external disconnect switch (EDS) for distributed generators, including photovoltaic (PV) systems, is a hardware feature that allows a utility?s employees to manually disconnect a customer-owned generator from the electricity grid. This paper examines the utility-accessible EDS debate in the context of utility-interactive PV systems for residential and small commercial installations. It also evaluates the rationale for EDS requirements.

  8. Time-Resolved Photoluminescence and Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metzger, W. K.; Ahrenkiel, R. K.; Dippo, P.; Geisz, J.; Wanlass, M. W.; Kurtz, S.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) technique and its ability to characterize recombination in bulk photovoltaic semiconductor materials are reviewed. Results from a variety of materials and a few recent studies are summarized and compared.

  9. Sawnee EMC- Solar Photovoltaic Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Sawnee EMC offers a rebate of $300 per kilowatt (kW) to residential customers who install photovoltaic (PV) systems that meet the cooperative's [http://www.sawnee.com/Rate%20Pdfs/NEM%20Rider.pdf...

  10. GreyStone Power- Photovoltaic Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    GreyStone Power, an electricity cooperative in Georgia, offers a rebate for solar photovoltaic (PV) systems to members. The one-time rebate is offered for PV installations that are interconnected...

  11. Central Georgia EMC- Photovoltaic Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In June 2008, Central Georgia Electric Membership Corporation (CGEMC) began offering a rebate of $450 per kilowatt (kW) to residential members who install photovoltaic (PV) systems that are...

  12. Poudre Valley REA- Photovoltaic Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Poudre Valley REC is providing rebates to their residential customers who install photovoltaic (PV) systems on their homes. This rebate program was timed to coincide with the Colorado Governor's...

  13. Practical Roadmap and Limits to Nanostructured Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lunt, Richard R.

    The significant research interest in the engineering of photovoltaic (PV) structures at the nanoscale is directed toward enabling reductions in PV module fabrication and installation costs as well as improving cell power ...

  14. Amorphous Silicon-Carbon Nanostructure Photovoltaic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schriver, Maria Christine

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    hydrogen dilution in silane on light induced degradation of hydrogenated amor- phous silicon films for solar photovoltaichydrogen content from 14-22%[76]. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon has promise as a photovoltaic

  15. Modesto Irrigation District- Photovoltaic Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Modesto Irrigation District offers a photovoltaic rebate program for all of their electric customers. The peak output capacity of a system must be 1 kW or greater to participate. Systems up to 30...

  16. Performance Assessment of Photovoltaic Attic Ventilator Fans 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, D. S.; Sherwin, J. R.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    has long been identified as a method to abate such heat gains. We present test results from using the photovoltaic (PV) attic ventilator fans in a test home to assess impact on attic and cooling energy performance....

  17. Silicon cast wafer recrystallization for photovoltaic applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hantsoo, Eerik T. (Eerik Torm)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Current industry-standard methods of manufacturing silicon wafers for photovoltaic (PV) cells define the electrical properties of the wafer in a first step, and then the geometry of the wafer in a subsequent step. The ...

  18. Performance Assessment of Photovoltaic Attic Ventilator Fans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, D. S.; Sherwin, J. R.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    has long been identified as a method to abate such heat gains. We present test results from using the photovoltaic (PV) attic ventilator fans in a test home to assess impact on attic and cooling energy performance....

  19. Residential photovoltaic worth : a summary assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two critical perspectives have been addressed by the analyses of residential photovoltaic worth. For the researcher and designer have been established allowable costs. For the homeowner and institutional decision-makers ...

  20. Photovoltaic module and module arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Botkin, Jonathan (El Cerrito, CA); Graves, Simon (Berkeley, CA); Lenox, Carl J. S. (Oakland, CA); Culligan, Matthew (Berkeley, CA); Danning, Matt (Oakland, CA)

    2012-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic (PV) module including a PV device and a frame. The PV device has a PV laminate defining a perimeter and a major plane. The frame is assembled to and encases the laminate perimeter, and includes leading, trailing, and side frame members, and an arm that forms a support face opposite the laminate. The support face is adapted for placement against a horizontal installation surface, to support and orient the laminate in a non-parallel or tilted arrangement. Upon final assembly, the laminate and the frame combine to define a unitary structure. The frame can orient the laminate at an angle in the range of 3.degree.-7.degree. from horizontal, and can be entirely formed of a polymeric material. Optionally, the arm incorporates integral feature(s) that facilitate interconnection with corresponding features of a second, identically formed PV module.