National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for generator shift factor

  1. Factors influencing photocurrent generation in organic bulk heterojunction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar cells: interfacial energetics and blend microstructure | MIT-Harvard Center for Excitonics Factors influencing photocurrent generation in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells: interfacial energetics and blend microstructure April 29, 2009 at 3pm/36-428 Jenny Nelson Department of Physics Imperial College London jenny-nelson_000 abstract: The efficiency of photocurrent generation in conjugated polymer:small molecule blend solar is strongly influenced both by the energy level alignment

  2. Materials used in new generation vehicles: supplies, shifts, and supporting infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, S.; Curlee, T.R.; Schexnayder, S.M.

    1997-08-01

    The Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) program intends to develop new designs for automobiles that will reduce fuel consumption by two thirds but otherwise have price, comfort, safety, and other measures of performance similar to the typical automobile now on the market. PNGV vehicle designs are expected to substitute lightweight materials, such as aluminum, magnesium, carbon-reinforced polymer composites, glass-reinforced polymer composites, and ultra- light steel, for heavier materials such as steel and iron in automobile components. The target mass of a PNGV vehicle is 1,960 pounds, as compared to the average current vehicle that weights 3,240 pounds. Other changes could include the use of different ferrous alloys, engineering changes, or incorporation of advanced ceramic components. Widespread adoption of these vehicle designs would affect materials markets and require concurrent development and adoption of supporting technologies to supply the materials and to use and maintain them in automobiles. This report identifies what would be required to bring about these changes and developments in materials substitution; identifies reasons that might make these substitutions difficult to accomplish within the overall objectives and timetable of the PNGV program; and identifies any issues arising from the substitution that could prompt consideration of policies to deal with them. The analysis in this paper uses scenarios that assume the production of new generation vehicles will begin in 2007 and that their market share will increase gradually over the following 25 years. The scenarios on which the analysis is based assume a maximum substitution of each potential replacement material considered. This maximum substitution of individual materials (i.e., the amount of replacement material by weight that would be added to the baseline vehicle`s composition) is as follows: ULSAB (high strength steel), 298 lbs.; glass-reinforced composites, 653 lbs.; carbon

  3. Highly coherent red-shifted dispersive wave generation around 1.3 μm for efficient wavelength conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Xia; Bi, Wanjun; Chen, Wei; Xue, Tianfeng; Hu, Lili; Liao, Meisong; Gao, Weiqing

    2015-03-14

    This research investigates the mechanism of the optical dispersive wave (DW) and proposes a scheme that can realize an efficient wavelength conversion. In an elaborately designed photonic crystal fiber, a readily available ytterbium laser operating at ∼1 μm can be transferred to the valuable 1.3 μm wavelength range. A low-order soliton is produced to concentrate the energy of the DW into the target wavelength range and improve the degree of coherence. The input chirp is demonstrated to be a factor that enhances the wavelength conversion efficiency. With a positive initial chirp, 76.6% of the pump energy in the fiber can be transferred into a spectral range between 1.24 and 1.4 μm. With the use of a grating compressor, it is possible to compress the generated coherent DW of several picoseconds into less than 90 fs.

  4. Time dependent Doppler shifts in high-order harmonic generation in intense laser interactions with solid density plasma and frequency chirped pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Welch, E. C.; Zhang, P.; He, Z.-H.; Dollar, F.; Krushelnick, K.; Thomas, A. G. R.

    2015-05-15

    High order harmonic generation from solid targets is a compelling route to generating intense attosecond or even zeptosecond pulses. However, the effects of ion motion on the generation of harmonics have only recently started to be considered. Here, we study the effects of ion motion in harmonics production at ultrahigh laser intensities interacting with solid density plasma. Using particle-in-cell simulations, we find that there is an optimum density for harmonic production that depends on laser intensity, which scales linearly with a{sub 0} with no ion motion but with a reduced scaling if ion motion is included. We derive a scaling for this optimum density with ion motion and also find that the background ion motion induces Doppler red-shifts in the harmonic structures of the reflected pulse. The temporal structure of the Doppler shifts is correlated to the envelope of the incident laser pulse. We demonstrate that by introducing a frequency chirp in the incident pulse we are able to eliminate these Doppler shifts almost completely.

  5. Dependence of Berry's phase on the sign of the g factor for conical rotation of a magnetic field, measured without any dynamical phase shift

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morinaga, Atsuo; Toriyama, Koichi; Narui, Hirotaka; Aoki, Takatoshi; Imai, Hiromitsu

    2011-05-15

    Berry's phase for a whole turn in a conical rotation of the magnetic field with a semiangle {theta} has been clearly manifested free from the dynamical phase shift using the magnetic-field-insensitive two-photon transitions between sodium-ground hyperfine states having different signs of the g factors. The solid angles for states with a positive g factor and with a negative g factor are verified to be 2{pi}(1-cos{theta}) and -2{pi}(1+cos{theta}), respectively, for a right-handed rotation of a magnetic field and a semiangle of 0{<=}{theta}{<=}{pi}/2.

  6. Efficient gradient field generation providing a multi-dimensional arbitrary shifted field-free point for magnetic particle imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaethner, Christian Ahlborg, Mandy; Buzug, Thorsten M.; Knopp, Tobias; Sattel, Timo F.

    2014-01-28

    Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) is a tomographic imaging modality capable to visualize tracers using magnetic fields. A high magnetic gradient strength is mandatory, to achieve a reasonable image quality. Therefore, a power optimization of the coil configuration is essential. In order to realize a multi-dimensional efficient gradient field generator, the following improvements compared to conventionally used Maxwell coil configurations are proposed: (i) curved rectangular coils, (ii) interleaved coils, and (iii) multi-layered coils. Combining these adaptions results in total power reduction of three orders of magnitude, which is an essential step for the feasibility of building full-body human MPI scanners.

  7. A Review of Operational Water Consumption and Withdrawal Factors for Electricity Generating Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macknick, Jordan; Newmark, Robin; Heath, Garvin; Hallett, K. C.

    2011-03-01

    This report provides estimates of operational water withdrawal and water consumption factors for electricity generating technologies in the United States. Estimates of water factors were collected from published primary literature and were not modified except for unit conversions. The presented water factors may be useful in modeling and policy analyses where reliable power plant level data are not available.

  8. Improvement of force factor of magnetostrictive vibration power generator for high efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kita, Shota Ueno, Toshiyuki; Yamada, Sotoshi

    2015-05-07

    We develop high power magnetostrictive vibration power generator for battery-free wireless electronics. The generator is based on a cantilever of parallel beam structure consisting of coil-wound Galfenol and stainless plates with permanent magnet for bias. Oscillating force exerted on the tip bends the cantilever in vibration yields stress variation of Galfenol plate, which causes flux variation and generates voltage on coil due to the law of induction. This generator has advantages over conventional, such as piezoelectric or moving magnet types, in the point of high efficiency, highly robust, and low electrical impedance. Our concern is the improvement of energy conversion efficiency dependent on the dimension. Especially, force factor, the conversion ratio of the electromotive force (voltage) on the tip velocity in vibration, has an important role in energy conversion process. First, the theoretical value of the force factor is formulated and then the validity was verified by experiments, where we compare four types of prototype with parameters of the dimension using 7.0 × 1.5 × 50 mm beams of Galfenol with 1606-turn wound coil. In addition, the energy conversion efficiency of the prototypes depending on load resistance was measured. The most efficient prototype exhibits the maximum instantaneous power of 0.73 W and energy of 4.7 mJ at a free vibration of frequency of 202 Hz in the case of applied force is 25 N. Further, it was found that energy conversion efficiency depends not only on the force factor but also on the damping (mechanical loss) of the vibration.

  9. Estimation of the Alpha Factor Parameters for the Emergency Diesel Generators of Ulchin Unit 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dae Il Kang; Sang Hoon Han

    2006-07-01

    Up to the present, the generic values of the Common cause failure (CCF) event parameters have been used in most PSA projects for the Korean NPPs. However, the CCF analysis should be performed with plant specific information to meet Category II of the ASME PRA Standard. Therefore, we estimated the Alpha factor parameters of the emergency diesel generator (EDG) for Ulchin Unit 3 by using the International Common-Cause Failure data Exchange (ICDE) database. The ICDE database provides the member countries with only the information needed for an estimation of the CCF parameters. The Ulchin Unit A3, pressurized water reactor, has two onsite EDGs and one alternate AC (AAC) diesel generator. The onsite EDGs of Unit 3 and 4 and the AAC are manufactured by the same company, but they are designed differently. The estimation procedure of the Alpha factor used in this study follows the approach of the NUREG/CR-5485. Since we did not find any qualitative difference between the target systems (two EDGs of Ulchin Unit 3) and the original systems (ICDE database), the applicability factor of each CCF event in the ICDE database was assumed to be 1. For the case of three EDGs including the AAC, five CCF events for the EDGs in the ICDE database were identified to be screened out. However, the detailed information for the independent events in the ICDE database is not presented. Thus, we assumed that the applicability factors for the CCF events to be screened out were, to be conservative, 0.5 and those of the other CCF events were 1. The study results show that the estimated Alpha parameters by using the ICDE database are lower than the generic values of the NUREG/CR-5497. The EDG system unavailability of the 1 out of 3 success criterion except for the supporting systems was calculated as 2.76 E-3. Compared with the system unavailability estimated by using the data of NUREG/CR-5497, it is decreased by 31.2%. (authors)

  10. Phase shifting interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sommargren, G.E.

    1999-08-03

    An interferometer is disclosed which has the capability of measuring optical elements and systems with an accuracy of {lambda}/1000 where {lambda} is the wavelength of visible light. Whereas current interferometers employ a reference surface, which inherently limits the accuracy of the measurement to about {lambda}/50, this interferometer uses an essentially perfect spherical reference wavefront generated by the fundamental process of diffraction. Whereas current interferometers illuminate the optic to be tested with an aberrated wavefront which also limits the accuracy of the measurement, this interferometer uses an essentially perfect spherical measurement wavefront generated by the fundamental process of diffraction. This interferometer is adjustable to give unity fringe visibility, which maximizes the signal-to-noise, and has the means to introduce a controlled prescribed relative phase shift between the reference wavefront and the wavefront from the optics under test, which permits analysis of the interference fringe pattern using standard phase extraction algorithms. 11 figs.

  11. Phase shifting interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sommargren, Gary E.

    1999-01-01

    An interferometer which has the capability of measuring optical elements and systems with an accuracy of .lambda./1000 where .lambda. is the wavelength of visible light. Whereas current interferometers employ a reference surface, which inherently limits the accuracy of the measurement to about .lambda./50, this interferometer uses an essentially perfect spherical reference wavefront generated by the fundamental process of diffraction. Whereas current interferometers illuminate the optic to be tested with an aberrated wavefront which also limits the accuracy of the measurement, this interferometer uses an essentially perfect spherical measurement wavefront generated by the fundamental process of diffraction. This interferometer is adjustable to give unity fringe visibility, which maximizes the signal-to-noise, and has the means to introduce a controlled prescribed relative phase shift between the reference wavefront and the wavefront from the optics under test, which permits analysis of the interference fringe pattern using standard phase extraction algorithms.

  12. Review of Operational Water Consumption and Withdrawal Factors for Electricity Generating Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macknick, J.; Newmark, R.; Heath, G.; Hallett, K. C.

    2011-03-01

    Various studies have attempted to consolidate published estimates of water use impacts of electricity generating technologies, resulting in a wide range of technologies and values based on different primary sources of literature. The goal of this work is to consolidate the various primary literature estimates of water use during the generation of electricity by conventional and renewable electricity generating technologies in the United States to more completely convey the variability and uncertainty associated with water use in electricity generating technologies.

  13. Phase shifting diffraction interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sommargren, Gary E.

    1996-01-01

    An interferometer which has the capability of measuring optical elements and systems with an accuracy of .lambda./1000 where .lambda. is the wavelength of visible light. Whereas current interferometers employ a reference surface, which inherently limits the accuracy of the measurement to about .lambda./50, this interferometer uses an essentially perfect spherical reference wavefront generated by the fundamental process of diffraction. This interferometer is adjustable to give unity fringe visibility, which maximizes the signal-to-noise, and has the means to introduce a controlled prescribed relative phase shift between the reference wavefront and the wavefront from the optics under test, which permits analysis of the interference fringe pattern using standard phase extraction algorithms.

  14. Phase shifting diffraction interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sommargren, G.E.

    1996-08-29

    An interferometer which has the capability of measuring optical elements and systems with an accuracy of {lambda}/1000 where {lambda} is the wavelength of visible light. Whereas current interferometers employ a reference surface, which inherently limits the accuracy of the measurement to about {lambda}/50, this interferometer uses an essentially perfect spherical reference wavefront generated by the fundamental process of diffraction. This interferometer is adjustable to give unity fringe visibility, which maximizes the signal-to-noise, and has the means to introduce a controlled prescribed relative phase shift between the reference wavefront and the wavefront from the optics under test, which permits analysis of the interference fringe pattern using standard phase extraction algorithms. 8 figs.

  15. Updated greenhouse gas and criteria air pollutant emission factors and their probability distribution functions for electricity generating units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, H.; Wang, M.; Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.

    2012-07-06

    Greenhouse gas (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O, hereinafter GHG) and criteria air pollutant (CO, NO{sub x}, VOC, PM{sub 10}, PM{sub 2.5} and SO{sub x}, hereinafter CAP) emission factors for various types of power plants burning various fuels with different technologies are important upstream parameters for estimating life-cycle emissions associated with alternative vehicle/fuel systems in the transportation sector, especially electric vehicles. The emission factors are typically expressed in grams of GHG or CAP per kWh of electricity generated by a specific power generation technology. This document describes our approach for updating and expanding GHG and CAP emission factors in the GREET (Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation) model developed at Argonne National Laboratory (see Wang 1999 and the GREET website at http://greet.es.anl.gov/main) for various power generation technologies. These GHG and CAP emissions are used to estimate the impact of electricity use by stationary and transportation applications on their fuel-cycle emissions. The electricity generation mixes and the fuel shares attributable to various combustion technologies at the national, regional and state levels are also updated in this document. The energy conversion efficiencies of electric generating units (EGUs) by fuel type and combustion technology are calculated on the basis of the lower heating values of each fuel, to be consistent with the basis used in GREET for transportation fuels. On the basis of the updated GHG and CAP emission factors and energy efficiencies of EGUs, the probability distribution functions (PDFs), which are functions that describe the relative likelihood for the emission factors and energy efficiencies as random variables to take on a given value by the integral of their own probability distributions, are updated using best-fit statistical curves to characterize the uncertainties associated with GHG and CAP emissions in life

  16. State-level Greenhouse Gas Emission Factors for Electricity Generation, Updated

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01

    To assist reporters in estimating emissions and emission reductions, The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has made available in the instructions to Forms EIA-1605 and EIA-1605EZ emission coefficients for most commonly used fossil fuels and electricity. These coefficients were based on 1992 emissions and generation data. In 1999, updated coefficients were prepared based on the most recent data (1998) then available; however, the updated coefficients were not included in the instructions for the 1999 data year. This year, they have been updated again, but based on three years worth of data (1997, 1998, and 1999) rather than a single year.

  17. Shifting scintillator neutron detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clonts, Lloyd G; Cooper, Ronald G; Crow, Jr., Morris Lowell; Hannah, Bruce W; Hodges, Jason P; Richards, John D; Riedel, Richard A

    2014-03-04

    Provided are sensors and methods for detecting thermal neutrons. Provided is an apparatus having a scintillator for absorbing a neutron, the scintillator having a back side for discharging a scintillation light of a first wavelength in response to the absorbed neutron, an array of wavelength-shifting fibers proximate to the back side of the scintillator for shifting the scintillation light of the first wavelength to light of a second wavelength, the wavelength-shifting fibers being disposed in a two-dimensional pattern and defining a plurality of scattering plane pixels where the wavelength-shifting fibers overlap, a plurality of photomultiplier tubes, in coded optical communication with the wavelength-shifting fibers, for converting the light of the second wavelength to an electronic signal, and a processor for processing the electronic signal to identify one of the plurality of scattering plane pixels as indicative of a position within the scintillator where the neutron was absorbed.

  18. PowerSHIFT Biofuels LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biofuels LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: PowerSHIFT Biofuels LLC Place: Wyoming Product: Focused on biodiesel plants and power generation facilities in the US. References:...

  19. Shift End | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Shift End Shift End A shift ends and the race for home begins.

  20. In-line phase shift tomosynthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammonds, Jeffrey C.; Price, Ronald R.; Pickens, David R.; Donnelly, Edwin F.

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to (1) demonstrate laboratory measurements of phase shift images derived from in-line phase-contrast radiographs using the attenuation-partition based algorithm (APBA) of Yan et al.[Opt. Express 18(15), 1607416089 (2010)], (2) verify that the APBA reconstructed images obey the linearity principle, and (3) reconstruct tomosynthesis phase shift images from a collection of angularly sampled planar phase shift images.Methods: An unmodified, commercially available cabinet x-ray system (Faxitron LX-60) was used in this experiment. This system contains a tungsten anode x-ray tube with a nominal focal spot size of 10 ?m. The digital detector uses CsI/CMOS with a pixel size of 50 50 ?m. The phantoms used consisted of one acrylic plate, two polystyrene plates, and a habanero pepper. Tomosynthesis images were reconstructed from 51 images acquired over a 25 arc. All phase shift images were reconstructed using the APBA.Results: Image contrast derived from the planar phase shift image of an acrylic plate of uniform thickness exceeded the contrast of the traditional attenuation image by an approximate factor of two. Comparison of the planar phase shift images from a single, uniform thickness polystyrene plate with two polystyrene plates demonstrated an approximate linearity of the estimated phase shift with plate thickness (?1600 rad vs ?2970 rad). Tomographic phase shift images of the habanero pepper exhibited acceptable spatial resolution and contrast comparable to the corresponding attenuation image.Conclusions: This work demonstrated the feasibility of laboratory-based phase shift tomosynthesis and suggests that phase shift imaging could potentially provide a new imaging biomarker. Further investigation will be needed to determine if phase shift contrast will be able to provide new tissue contrast information or improved clinical performance.

  1. ISO standardization of scaling factor method for low and intermediate level radioactive wastes generated at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kashiwagi, Makoto; Masui, Hideki; Denda, Yasutaka; James, David; Lantes, Bertrand; Mueller, Wolfgang; Garamszeghy, Mike; Leganes, Jose Luis; Maxeiner, Harald; Van Velzen, Leo

    2007-07-01

    Low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes (L-ILW ) generated at nuclear power plants are disposed of in various countries. In the disposal of such wastes, it is required that the radioactivity concentrations of waste packages should be declared with respect to difficult-to-measure nuclides (DTM nuclides), such as C-14, Ni-63 and a-emitting nuclides, which are often limited to maximum values in disposal licenses, safety cases and/or regulations for maximum radioactive concentrations. To fulfill this requirement, the Scaling Factor method (SF method) has been applied in various countries as a principal method for determining the concentrations of DTM nuclides. In the SF method, the concentrations of DTM nuclides are determined by multiplying the concentrations of certain key nuclides by SF values (the determined ratios of radioactive concentration between DTM nuclides and those key nuclides). The SF values used as conversion factors are determined from the correlation between DTM nuclides and key nuclides such as Co-60. The concentrations of key nuclides are determined by {gamma} ray measurements which can be made comparatively easily from outside the waste package. The SF values are calculated based on the data obtained from the radiochemical analysis of waste samples. The use of SFs, which are empirically based on analytical data, has become established as a widely recognized 'de facto standard'. A number of countries have independently collected nuclide data by analysis over many years and each has developed its own SF method, but all the SF methods that have been adopted are similar. The project team for standardization had been organized for establishing this SF method as a 'de jure standard' in the international standardization system of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). The project team for standardization has advanced the standardization through technical studies, based upon each country's study results and analysis data. The

  2. Majors' Shift to Natural Gas, The

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01

    The Majors' Shift to Natural Gas investigates the factors that have guided the United States' major energy producers' growth in U.S. natural gas production relative to oil production. The analysis draws heavily on financial and operating data from the Energy Information Administration's Financial Reporting System (FRS)

  3. Application of spatial and non-spatial data analysis in determination of the factors that impact municipal solid waste generation rates in Turkey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keser, Saniye; Duzgun, Sebnem; Aksoy, Aysegul

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spatial autocorrelation exists in municipal solid waste generation rates for different provinces in Turkey. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Traditional non-spatial regression models may not provide sufficient information for better solid waste management. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Unemployment rate is a global variable that significantly impacts the waste generation rates in Turkey. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Significances of global parameters may diminish at local scale for some provinces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GWR model can be used to create clusters of cities for solid waste management. - Abstract: In studies focusing on the factors that impact solid waste generation habits and rates, the potential spatial dependency in solid waste generation data is not considered in relating the waste generation rates to its determinants. In this study, spatial dependency is taken into account in determination of the significant socio-economic and climatic factors that may be of importance for the municipal solid waste (MSW) generation rates in different provinces of Turkey. Simultaneous spatial autoregression (SAR) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) models are used for the spatial data analyses. Similar to ordinary least squares regression (OLSR), regression coefficients are global in SAR model. In other words, the effect of a given independent variable on a dependent variable is valid for the whole country. Unlike OLSR or SAR, GWR reveals the local impact of a given factor (or independent variable) on the waste generation rates of different provinces. Results show that provinces within closer neighborhoods have similar MSW generation rates. On the other hand, this spatial autocorrelation is not very high for the exploratory variables considered in the study. OLSR and SAR models have similar regression coefficients. GWR is useful to indicate the local determinants of MSW generation rates. GWR model can be utilized to

  4. Laying the Groundwork: Lessons Learned from the Telecommunications Industry for Distributed Generation; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wise, A. L.

    2008-05-01

    The telecommunications industry went through growing pains in the past that hold some interesting lessons for the growing distributed generation (DG) industry. The technology shifts and stakeholders involved with the historic market transformation of the telecommunications sector mirror similar factors involved in distributed generation today. An examination of these factors may inform best practices when approaching the conduits necessary to accelerate the shifting of our nation's energy system to cleaner forms of generation and use. From a technical perspective, the telecom industry in the 1990s saw a shift from highly centralized systems that had no capacity for adaptation to highly adaptive, distributed network systems. From a management perspective, the industry shifted from small, private-company structures to big, capital-intensive corporations. This presentation will explore potential correlation and outline the lessons that we can take away from this comparison.

  5. Quantized beam shifts in graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de Melo Kort-Kamp, Wilton Junior; Sinitsyn, Nikolai; Dalvit, Diego Alejandro Roberto

    2015-10-08

    We predict the existence of quantized Imbert-Fedorov, Goos-Hanchen, and photonic spin Hall shifts for light beams impinging on a graphene-on-substrate system in an external magnetic field. In the quantum Hall regime the Imbert-Fedorov and photonic spin Hall shifts are quantized in integer multiples of the fine structure constant α, while the Goos-Hanchen ones in multiples of α2. We investigate the influence on these shifts of magnetic field, temperature, and material dispersion and dissipation. An experimental demonstration of quantized beam shifts could be achieved at terahertz frequencies for moderate values of the magnetic field.

  6. Technique for information retrieval using enhanced latent semantic analysis generating rank approximation matrix by factorizing the weighted morpheme-by-document matrix

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chew, Peter A; Bader, Brett W

    2012-10-16

    A technique for information retrieval includes parsing a corpus to identify a number of wordform instances within each document of the corpus. A weighted morpheme-by-document matrix is generated based at least in part on the number of wordform instances within each document of the corpus and based at least in part on a weighting function. The weighted morpheme-by-document matrix separately enumerates instances of stems and affixes. Additionally or alternatively, a term-by-term alignment matrix may be generated based at least in part on the number of wordform instances within each document of the corpus. At least one lower rank approximation matrix is generated by factorizing the weighted morpheme-by-document matrix and/or the term-by-term alignment matrix.

  7. Integrated reformer and shift reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bentley, Jeffrey M.; Clawson, Lawrence G.; Mitchell, William L.; Dorson, Matthew H.

    2006-06-27

    A hydrocarbon fuel reformer for producing diatomic hydrogen gas is disclosed. The reformer includes a first reaction vessel, a shift reactor vessel annularly disposed about the first reaction vessel, including a first shift reactor zone, and a first helical tube disposed within the first shift reactor zone having an inlet end communicating with a water supply source. The water supply source is preferably adapted to supply liquid-phase water to the first helical tube at flow conditions sufficient to ensure discharge of liquid-phase and steam-phase water from an outlet end of the first helical tube. The reformer may further include a first catalyst bed disposed in the first shift reactor zone, having a low-temperature shift catalyst in contact with the first helical tube. The catalyst bed includes a plurality of coil sections disposed in coaxial relation to other coil sections and to the central longitudinal axis of the reformer, each coil section extending between the first and second ends, and each coil section being in direct fluid communication with at least one other coil section.

  8. Large doppler shift in radar detection of ultra-high energy cosmic rays.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Underwood, D. G.; High Energy Physics

    2008-01-01

    Radar detection of cosmic ray air showers has been discussed for 60 years, but never clearly observed. The topic was reexamined by Gorham in 2001 and some serious simulations were done by Takai, who also initiated the Mariachi project utilizing commercial television transmissions as a signal source. The air showers from ultra-high energy cosmic rays are expected to generate a plasma with plasma frequency in the high VHF region. One factor limiting the received signal strength is the short ion recombination time in air at low altitude. However, a major factor which has not been the center of attention so far is the possible large Doppler shifts for non-specular reflection, and the soft transition between specular and diffuse for small objects and short time scales. We discuss recent work on receivers, and simulations of the Doppler shift. These simulations assume a very short ion recombination time in the lower atmosphere, and use an extremely simple mathematical model. A central feature of our simulations is large Doppler shift from non-moving material.

  9. Automated manual transmission shift sequence controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lawrie, Robert E.; Reed, Richard G.; Rausen, David J.

    2000-02-01

    A powertrain system for a hybrid vehicle. The hybrid vehicle includes a heat engine, such as a diesel engine, and an electric machine, which operates as both, an electric motor and an alternator, to power the vehicle. The hybrid vehicle also includes a manual-style transmission configured to operate as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver. The engine and the electric machine drive an input shaft which in turn drives an output shaft of the transmission. In addition to driving the transmission, the electric machine regulates the speed of the input shaft in order to synchronize the input shaft during either an upshift or downshift of the transmission by either decreasing or increasing the speed of the input shaft. When decreasing the speed of the input shaft, the electric motor functions as an alternator to produce electrical energy which may be stored by a storage device. Operation of the transmission is controlled by a transmission controller which receives input signals and generates output signals to control shift and clutch motors to effect smooth launch, upshift shifts, and downshifts of the transmission, so that the transmission functions substantially as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver, while internally substantially functioning as a manual transmission.

  10. Multiple soliton self-frequency shift cancellations in a temporally tailored photonic crystal fiber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Lai; Kang, Zhe; Li, Qing; Gao, Xuejian; Qin, Guanshi E-mail: wpqin@jlu.edu.cn; Qin, Weiping E-mail: wpqin@jlu.edu.cn; Liao, Meisong; Hu, Lili; Ohishi, Yasutake

    2014-11-03

    We report the generation of multiple soliton self-frequency shift cancellations in a temporally tailored tellurite photonic crystal fiber (PCF). The temporally regulated group velocity dispersion (GVD) is generated in the fiber by soliton induced optical Kerr effect. Two red-shifted dispersive waves spring up when two Raman solitons meet their own second zero-dispersion-wavelengths in the PCF. These results show how, through temporally tailored GVD, nonlinearities can be harnessed to generate unexpected effects.

  11. Shifting Standards: Experiments in Particle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Shifting Standards: Experiments in Particle Physics in the Twentieth Century Allan Franklin University of Colorado July 15, 2015 4:00 p.m. (coffee @ 3:30) In this paper I will discuss changes in the presentation of experimental results from the early 20 th century to the present and their implications. In particular I will look at the history of high-energy physics from the 1960s to the present to see the evolution of the five-standards deviation discovery criterion. This history will

  12. Reduction of frequency noise and frequency shift by phase shifting elements in frequency modulation atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kobayashi, Kei; Yamada, Hirofumi; Matsushige, Kazumi

    2011-03-15

    We recently reported the analysis of the frequency noise in the frequency modulation atomic force microscopy (FM-AFM) both in high-Q and low-Q environments [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 043708 (2009)]. We showed in the paper that the oscillator noise, the frequency fluctuation of the oscillator, becomes prominent in the modulation frequency lower than f{sub 0}/2Q, where f{sub 0} and Q are the resonance frequency and Q-factor. The magnitude of the oscillator noise is determined by the slope of the phase versus frequency curve of the cantilever at f{sub 0}. However, in actual FM-AFM in liquids, the phase versus frequency curve may not be always ideal because of the existence of various phase shifting elements (PSEs). For example, the spurious resonance peaks caused by the acoustic excitation and a band-pass filter in the self-oscillation loop increase the slope of the phase versus frequency curve. Due to those PSEs, the effective Q-factor is often increased from the intrinsic Q-factor of the cantilever. In this article, the frequency noise in the FM-AFM system with the PSEs in the self-oscillation loop is analyzed to show that the oscillator noise is reduced by the increase of the effective Q-factor. It is also shown that the oscillation frequency deviates from the resonance frequency due to the increase of the effective Q-factor, thereby causing the reduction in the frequency shift signal with the same factor. Therefore the increase of the effective Q-factor does not affect the signal-to-noise ratio in the frequency shift measurement, but it does affect the quantitativeness of the measured force in the FM-AFM. Furthermore, the reduction of the frequency noise and frequency shift by the increase of the effective Q-factor were confirmed by the experiments.

  13. Feature Extraction of PDV Challenge Data Set A with Digital Down Shift (DDS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tunnell, T. W.

    2012-10-18

    This slide-show is about data analysis in photonic Doppler velocimetry. The digital down shift subtracts a specified velocity (frequency) from all components in the Fourier frequency domain and generates both the down shifted in-phase and out-of-phase waveforms so that phase and displacement can be extracted through a continuous unfold of the arctangent.

  14. Light beam frequency comb generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Priatko, G.J.; Kaskey, J.A.

    1992-11-24

    A light beam frequency comb generator uses an acousto-optic modulator to generate a plurality of light beams with frequencies which are uniformly separated and possess common noise and drift characteristics. A well collimated monochromatic input light beam is passed through this modulator to produce a set of both frequency shifted and unshifted optical beams. An optical system directs one or more frequency shifted beams along a path which is parallel to the path of the input light beam such that the frequency shifted beams are made incident on the modulator proximate to but separated from the point of incidence of the input light beam. After the beam is thus returned to and passed through the modulator repeatedly, a plurality of mutually parallel beams are generated which are frequency-shifted different numbers of times and possess common noise and drift characteristics. 2 figs.

  15. Light beam frequency comb generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Priatko, Gordon J.; Kaskey, Jeffrey A.

    1992-01-01

    A light beam frequency comb generator uses an acousto-optic modulator to generate a plurality of light beams with frequencies which are uniformly separated and possess common noise and drift characteristics. A well collimated monochromatic input light beam is passed through this modulator to produce a set of both frequency shifted and unshifted optical beams. An optical system directs one or more frequency shifted beams along a path which is parallel to the path of the input light beam such that the frequency shifted beams are made incident on the modulator proximate to but separated from the point of incidence of the input light beam. After the beam is thus returned to and passed through the modulator repeatedly, a plurality of mutually parallel beams are generated which are frequency-shifted different numbers of times and possess common noise and drift characteristics.

  16. Collisional shifts in optical-lattice atom clocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Band, Y. B. [Department of Chemistry, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Atomic Physics Division, A267 Physics, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Ilse Katz Center for Nano-Science, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Vardi, A. [Department of Chemistry, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2006-09-15

    We theoretically study the effects of elastic collisions on the determination of frequency standards via Ramsey-fringe spectroscopy in optical-lattice atom clocks. Interparticle interactions of bosonic atoms in multiply occupied lattice sites can cause a linear frequency shift, as well as generate asymmetric Ramsey-fringe patterns and reduce fringe visibility due to interparticle entanglement. We propose a method of reducing these collisional effects in an optical lattice by introducing a phase difference of {pi} between the Ramsey driving fields in adjacent sites. This configuration suppresses site-to-site hopping due to interference of two tunneling pathways, without degrading fringe visibility. Consequently, the probability of double occupancy is reduced, leading to cancellation of collisional shifts.

  17. GreenShift Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Corporation Jump to: navigation, search Name: GreenShift Corporation Address: 1 Penn Plaza, Suite 1612 Place: New York, New York Zip: 10119 Region: Northeast - NY NJ CT PA Area...

  18. Hick Shifts Gears in NERSC's Storage Systems Group, Takes on New Role

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hick Shifts Gears in NERSC's Storage Systems Group Hick Shifts Gears in NERSC's Storage Systems Group, Takes on New Role October 7, 2015 JasonHick2015 Jason Hick, who has been group lead of the Storage Systems Group (SSG) at NERSC since first coming to the center in 2006, has decided to return to his roots as a senior storage engineer, applying his computer science background and management expertise to NERSC's next-generation data storage and data management challenges. Effective immediately,

  19. Hand held phase-shifting diffraction Moire interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deason, V.A.; Ward, M.B.

    1994-09-20

    An interferometer is described in which a coherent beam of light is generated within a remote case and transmitted to a hand held unit tethered to said remote case, said hand held unit having optical elements for directing a pair of mutually coherent collimated laser beams at a diffraction grating. Data from the secondary or diffracted beams are then transmitted to a separate video and data acquisition system for recording and analysis for load induced deformation or for identification purposes. Means are also provided for shifting the phase of one incident beam relative to the other incident beam and being controlled from within said remote case. 4 figs.

  20. Hand held phase-shifting diffraction moire interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deason, Vance A.; Ward, Michael B.

    1994-01-01

    An interferometer in which a coherent beam of light is generated within a remote case and transmitted to a hand held unit tethered to said remote case, said hand held unit having optical elements for directing a pair of mutually coherent collimated laser beams at a diffraction grating. Data from the secondary or diffracted beams are then transmitted to a separate video and data acquisition system for recording and analysis for load induced deformation or for identification purposes. Means are also provided for shifting the phase of one incident beam relative to the other incident beam and being controlled from within said remote case.

  1. Factors affecting the failure of copper connectors brazed to copper bus bar segments on a 615-MVA hydroelectric generator at Grand Coulee Dam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atteridge, D.G.; Klein, R.F.; Layne, R.; Anderson, W.E.; Correy, T.B.

    1988-01-01

    On March 21, 1986, the United States Bureau of Reclamation experienced a ground fault in the main parallel ring assembly of Unit G19 - a 615-MVA hydroelectric generator - at Grand Coulee Dam, Washington. Inspection of the unit revealed that the ground fault had been induced by fracture of one or more of the copper connectors used to join adjacent segments of one of the bus bars in the north half of the assembly. Various experimental techniques were used to detect and determine the presence of cracks, crack morphology, corrosion products, and material microstructure and/or embrittlement. The results of these inspections and recommendations are given. 7 refs., 27 figs.

  2. Dielectric waveguide gas-filled stark shift modulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hutchinson, Donald P.; Richards, Roger K.

    2003-07-22

    An optical modulator includes a dielectric waveguide for receiving an optical beam and coupling energy of the optical beam into the waveguide. At least one Stark material is provided in the waveguide. A bias circuit generates a bias signal to produce an electrical field across the Stark material to shift at least one of the Stark absorption frequencies towards the frequency of the optical beam. A circuit for producing a time varying electric field across the Stark material modulates the optical beam. At least a portion of the bias field can be generated by an alternating bias signal, such as a square wave. A method of modulating optical signals includes the steps of providing a dielectric waveguide for receiving an optical beam and coupling energy of the optical beam into the waveguide, the waveguide having at least one Stark material disposed therein, and varying an electric field imposed across the Stark material.

  3. Washington Nuclear Profile - Columbia Generating Station

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Columbia Generating Station" "Unit","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Summer capacity factor (percent)","Type","Commercial operation date","License expiration ...

  4. Neurobehavioral impairments, generation of oxidative stress and release of pro-apoptotic factors after chronic exposure to sulphur mustard in mouse brain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, Deep Raj; Sunkaria, Aditya; Bal, Amanjit; Bhutia, Yangchen D.; Vijayaraghavan, R.; Flora, S.J.S.; Gill, Kiran Dip

    2009-10-15

    Recent global events have focused attention on the potential threat of international and domestic chemical terrorism, as well as the possibility of chemical warfare proliferation. Sulphur mustard (SM) is one of the potent chemical warfare agents (CWA), which initiates a cascade of events that converge on the redox mechanisms common to brain injury. The present study was designed to examine the effects of chronic SM exposure on neurobehavioral impairments, mitochondrial oxidative stress in male Swiss Albino mice and its role in inducing apoptotic neuronal cell death. The animals were divided into four groups (control, low, medium and high dose) of 5 animals each. Exposure to SM was given percutaneously daily for 12 weeks. The results demonstrated impairment in neurobehavioral indices viz. rota rod, passive avoidance and water maze tests in a dose dependent manner. There was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content whereas, decrease in the activity of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase suggesting impaired antioxidant defense system. Immunoblotting of cytochrome c, Bcl-2, Bax and activation of caspase-3 suggest induction of apoptosis in a dose dependent manner. Finally, increased p53 expression suggests that it may target the mitochondrial pathway for inducing apoptosis in response to DNA damage signals. In conclusion, chronic SM exposure may have the potential to generate oxidative stress which may trigger the release of cytochrome c as well as caspase-3 activation in neurons leading to cell death by apoptosis in a dose dependent manner which may in the end be responsible for the disruption of cognitive functions in mice.

  5. Generation Planning (pbl/generation)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Generation Hydro Power Wind Power Monthly GSP BPA White Book Dry Year Tools Firstgov Generation Planning Thumbnail image of BPA White Book BPA White Book (1998-2014) Draft Dry...

  6. Collisionally induced atomic clock shifts and correlations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Band, Y. B.; Osherov, I.

    2011-07-15

    We develop a formalism to incorporate exchange symmetry considerations into the calculation of collisional frequency shifts for atomic clocks using a density-matrix formalism. The formalism is developed for both fermionic and bosonic atomic clocks. Numerical results for a finite-temperature {sup 87}Sr {sup 1}S{sub 0} (F=9/2) atomic clock in a magic wavelength optical lattice are presented.

  7. Stabilizing windings for tilting and shifting modes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jardin, Stephen C.; Christensen, Uffe R.

    1984-01-01

    This invention relates to passive conducting loops for stabilizing a plasma ring against unstable tilting and/or shifting modes. To this end, for example, plasma ring in a spheromak is stabilized by a set of four figure-8 shaped loops having one pair on one side of the plasma and one pair on the other side with each pair comprising two loops whose axes are transverse to each other.

  8. Distributed Generation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Untapped Value of Backup Generation While new guidelines and regulations such as IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) 1547 have come a long way in addressing interconnection standards for distributed generation, utilities have largely overlooked the untapped potential of these resources. Under certain conditions, these units (primarily backup generators) represent a significant source of power that can deliver utility services at lower costs than traditional centralized

  9. Distributed Generation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and regulations such as IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) 1547 have come a long way in addressing interconnection standards for distributed generation, ...

  10. Reducing gain shifts in photomultiplier tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cohn, Charles E.

    1976-01-01

    A means is provided for reducing gain shifts in multiplier tubes due to varying event count rates. It includes means for limiting the number of cascaded, active dynodes of the multiplier tube to a predetermined number with the last of predetermined number of dynodes being the output terminal of the tube. This output is applied to an amplifier to make up for the gain sacrificed by not totally utilizing all available active stages of the tube. Further reduction is obtained by illuminating the predetermined number of dynodes with a light source of such intensity that noise appearing at the output dynode associated with the illumination is negligible.

  11. Pendulum Shifts, Context, Error, and Personal Accountability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harold Blackman; Oren Hester

    2011-09-01

    This paper describes a series of tools that were developed to achieve a balance in under-standing LOWs and the human component of events (including accountability) as the INL continues its shift to a learning culture where people report, are accountable and interested in making a positive difference - and want to report because information is handled correctly and the result benefits both the reporting individual and the organization. We present our model for understanding these interrelationships; the initiatives that were undertaken to improve overall performance.

  12. Resonance-shifting luminescent solar concentrators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giebink, Noel Christopher; Wiederrecht, Gary P; Wasielewski, Michael R

    2014-09-23

    An optical system and method to overcome luminescent solar concentrator inefficiencies by resonance-shifting, in which sharply directed emission from a bi-layer cavity into a glass substrate returns to interact with the cavity off-resonance at each subsequent reflection, significantly reducing reabsorption loss en route to the edges. In one embodiment, the system comprises a luminescent solar concentrator comprising a transparent substrate, a luminescent film having a variable thickness; and a low refractive index layer disposed between the transparent substrate and the luminescent film.

  13. Shape-Shifting Plastic (Other) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Other: Shape-Shifting Plastic Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Shape-Shifting Plastic A new plastic developed by ORNL and Washington State University transforms from its ...

  14. Relativistic calculations of isotope shifts in highly charged ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tupitsyn, I.I.; Shabaev, V.M.; Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, J.R.; Soria Orts, R.; Ullrich, J.; Draganic, I.

    2003-08-01

    The isotope shifts of forbidden transitions in Be- and B-like argon ions are calculated. It is shown that only using the relativistic recoil operator can provide a proper evaluation of the mass isotope shift, which strongly dominates over the field isotope shift for the ions under consideration. Comparing the isotope shifts calculated with the current experimental uncertainties indicates very good perspectives for a first test of the relativistic theory of the recoil effect in middle-Z ions.

  15. Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Medecki, H.

    1998-11-10

    Disclosed is a point diffraction interferometer for evaluating the quality of a test optic. In operation, the point diffraction interferometer includes a source of radiation, the test optic, a beam divider, a reference wave pinhole located at an image plane downstream from the test optic, and a detector for detecting an interference pattern produced between a reference wave emitted by the pinhole and a test wave emitted from the test optic. The beam divider produces separate reference and test beams which focus at different laterally separated positions on the image plane. The reference wave pinhole is placed at a region of high intensity (e.g., the focal point) for the reference beam. This allows reference wave to be produced at a relatively high intensity. Also, the beam divider may include elements for phase shifting one or both of the reference and test beams. 8 figs.

  16. Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Medecki, Hector

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a point diffraction interferometer for evaluating the quality of a test optic. In operation, the point diffraction interferometer includes a source of radiation, the test optic, a beam divider, a reference wave pinhole located at an image plane downstream from the test optic, and a detector for detecting an interference pattern produced between a reference wave emitted by the pinhole and a test wave emitted from the test optic. The beam divider produces separate reference and test beams which focus at different laterally separated positions on the image plane. The reference wave pinhole is placed at a region of high intensity (e.g., the focal point) for the reference beam. This allows reference wave to be produced at a relatively high intensity. Also, the beam divider may include elements for phase shifting one or both of the reference and test beams.

  17. PULSE GENERATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roeschke, C.W.

    1957-09-24

    An improvement in pulse generators is described by which there are produced pulses of a duration from about 1 to 10 microseconds with a truly flat top and extremely rapid rise and fall. The pulses are produced by triggering from a separate input or by modifying the current to operate as a free-running pulse generator. In its broad aspect, the disclosed pulse generator comprises a first tube with an anode capacitor and grid circuit which controls the firing; a second tube series connected in the cathode circuit of the first tube such that discharge of the first tube places a voltage across it as the leading edge of the desired pulse; and an integrator circuit from the plate across the grid of the second tube to control the discharge time of the second tube, determining the pulse length.

  18. Microwave generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kwan, T.J.T.; Snell, C.M.

    1987-03-31

    A microwave generator is provided for generating microwaves substantially from virtual cathode oscillation. Electrons are emitted from a cathode and accelerated to an anode which is spaced apart from the cathode. The anode has an annular slit there through effective to form the virtual cathode. The anode is at least one range thickness relative to electrons reflecting from the virtual cathode. A magnet is provided to produce an optimum magnetic field having the field strength effective to form an annular beam from the emitted electrons in substantial alignment with the annular anode slit. The magnetic field, however, does permit the reflected electrons to axially diverge from the annular beam. The reflected electrons are absorbed by the anode in returning to the real cathode, such that substantially no reflexing electrons occur. The resulting microwaves are produced with a single dominant mode and are substantially monochromatic relative to conventional virtual cathode microwave generators. 6 figs.

  19. Electrostatic shape-shifting ion optics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dahl, David A.; Scott, Jill R.; Appelhans, Anthony D.

    2006-05-02

    Electrostatic shape-shifting ion optics includes an outer electrode that defines an interior region between first and second opposed open ends. A first inner electrode is positioned within the interior region of the outer electrode at about the first open end. A second inner electrode is positioned within the interior region of the outer electrode at about the second open end. A first end cap electrode is positioned at about a first open end of the first inner electrode so that the first end cap electrode substantially encloses the first open end of the first inner electrode. A second end cap electrode is positioned at about a second open end of the second inner electrode so that the second end cap electrode substantially encloses the second open end of the second inner electrode. A voltage source operatively connected to each of the electrodes applies voltage functions to each of the electrodes to produce an electric field within an interior space enclosed by the electrodes.

  20. Magnetocumulative generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pettibone, J.S.; Wheeler, P.C.

    1981-06-08

    An improved magnetocumulative generator is described that is useful for producing magnetic fields of very high energy content over large spatial volumes. The polar directed pleated magnetocumulative generator has a housing providing a housing chamber with an electrically conducting surface. The chamber forms a coaxial system having a small radius portion and a large radius portion. When a magnetic field is injected into the chamber, from an external source, most of the magnetic flux associated therewith positions itself in the small radius portion. The propagation of an explosive detonation through high-explosive layers disposed adjacent to the housing causes a phased closure of the chamber which sweeps most of the magnetic flux into the large radius portion of the coaxial system. The energy content of the magnetic field is greatly increased by flux stretching as well as by flux compression. The energy enhanced magnetic field is utilized within the housing chamber itself.

  1. PLASMA GENERATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foster, J.S. Jr.

    1958-03-11

    This patent describes apparatus for producing an electricity neutral ionized gas discharge, termed a plasma, substantially free from contamination with neutral gas particles. The plasma generator of the present invention comprises a plasma chamber wherein gas introduced into the chamber is ionized by a radiofrequency source. A magnetic field is used to focus the plasma in line with an exit. This magnetic field cooperates with a differential pressure created across the exit to draw a uniform and uncontaminated plasma from the plasma chamber.

  2. Thermoelectric generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pryslak, N.E.

    1974-02-26

    A thermoelectric generator having a rigid coupling or stack'' between the heat source and the hot strap joining the thermoelements is described. The stack includes a member of an insulating material, such as ceramic, for electrically isolating the thermoelements from the heat source, and a pair of members of a ductile material, such as gold, one each on each side of the insulating member, to absorb thermal differential expansion stresses in the stack. (Official Gazette)

  3. Cluster generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donchev, Todor I.; Petrov, Ivan G.

    2011-05-31

    Described herein is an apparatus and a method for producing atom clusters based on a gas discharge within a hollow cathode. The hollow cathode includes one or more walls. The one or more walls define a sputtering chamber within the hollow cathode and include a material to be sputtered. A hollow anode is positioned at an end of the sputtering chamber, and atom clusters are formed when a gas discharge is generated between the hollow anode and the hollow cathode.

  4. Photon generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srinivasan-Rao, Triveni

    2002-01-01

    A photon generator includes an electron gun for emitting an electron beam, a laser for emitting a laser beam, and an interaction ring wherein the laser beam repetitively collides with the electron beam for emitting a high energy photon beam therefrom in the exemplary form of x-rays. The interaction ring is a closed loop, sized and configured for circulating the electron beam with a period substantially equal to the period of the laser beam pulses for effecting repetitive collisions.

  5. Electric generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foster, Jr., John S.; Wilson, James R.; McDonald, Jr., Charles A.

    1983-01-01

    1. In an electrical energy generator, the combination comprising a first elongated annular electrical current conductor having at least one bare surface extending longitudinally and facing radially inwards therein, a second elongated annular electrical current conductor disposed coaxially within said first conductor and having an outer bare surface area extending longitudinally and facing said bare surface of said first conductor, the contiguous coaxial areas of said first and second conductors defining an inductive element, means for applying an electrical current to at least one of said conductors for generating a magnetic field encompassing said inductive element, and explosive charge means disposed concentrically with respect to said conductors including at least the area of said inductive element, said explosive charge means including means disposed to initiate an explosive wave front in said explosive advancing longitudinally along said inductive element, said wave front being effective to progressively deform at least one of said conductors to bring said bare surfaces thereof into electrically conductive contact to progressively reduce the inductance of the inductive element defined by said conductors and transferring explosive energy to said magnetic field effective to generate an electrical potential between undeformed portions of said conductors ahead of said explosive wave front.

  6. Process Intensification with Integrated Water-Gas-Shift Membrane Reactor |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Intensification with Integrated Water-Gas-Shift Membrane Reactor Process Intensification with Integrated Water-Gas-Shift Membrane Reactor water-gas-shift.pdf (597.03 KB) More Documents & Publications ITP Energy Intensive Processes: Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key Energy Challenges Across U.S. Industry Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key Energy Challenges Across U.S. Industry CX-014220: Categorical Exclusion Determination

  7. Etched-multilayer phase shifting masks for EUV lithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chapman, Henry N.; Taylor, John S.

    2005-04-05

    A method is disclosed for the implementation of phase shifting masks for EUV lithography. The method involves directly etching material away from the multilayer coating of the mask, to cause a refractive phase shift in the mask. By etching into the multilayer (for example, by reactive ion etching), rather than depositing extra material on the top of the multilayer, there will be minimal absorption loss associated with the phase shift.

  8. Nonlinear frequency shift of electrostatic waves in general collisionl...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nonlinear frequency shift of electrostatic waves in general collisionless plasma: Unifying theory of fluid and kinetic nonlinearities Citation Details In-Document Search This...

  9. On the Coulomb shifts of nuclear resonances at low energies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takibayev, N.

    2005-05-06

    The relationship between the shift of a resonance and the interacion potential is obtained in the frame of coupling constant evolution method. Analysis of the Coulomb shifts of resonance energies and widths has been carried out for nuclear cluster systems at low energies. The nature of these shifts is investigated in the examples of p, {alpha} and p,6Li scatterings. For simplicity a model using separable potentials describing two-body nuclear scattering resonances. The results of the calculation are in accordance with experimental data. In the case of the two {alpha}-particles system the relationship shows that the Coulomb shift of {alpha}, {alpha}-resonance remains small.

  10. Nature of Coulomb Shifts of Nuclear Scattering Resonances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takibayev, N.Zh.

    2005-07-01

    Relations determining the shift of energies and widths of scattering resonances are obtained within the method of evolution in the coupling constant. These relations generalize the well-known relations for the shift of levels in a discrete spectrum. The problem of determining the Coulomb shifts of low-energy resonances manifesting themselves in the cross section for the scattering of some light nuclei is solved. Examples that are of importance for nuclear astrophysics and examples of problems that are associated with the production of chemical elements are considered. The character of Coulomb shifts is studied within simple nuclear models. Respective numerical estimates are given, which agree satisfactorily with experimental data.

  11. PowerSHIFT Energy Company Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: PowerSHIFT Energy Company Inc Place: Casper, Wyoming Zip: 82605 Sector: Biofuels Product: Wyoming-based biofuels producer. Coordinates: 42.850095, -106.327734...

  12. Monthly Generation System Peak (pbl/generation)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Generation > Generation Hydro Power Wind Power Monthly GSP BPA White Book Dry Year Tools Firstgov Monthly Generation System Peak (GSP) This site is no longer maintained. Page last...

  13. Magnetocumulative generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pettibone, Joseph S.; Wheeler, Paul C.

    1983-01-01

    An improved magnetocumulative generator is described that is useful for producing magnetic fields of very high energy content over large spatial volumes. The polar directed pleated magnetocumulative generator has a housing (100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105) providing a housing chamber (106) with an electrically conducting surface. The chamber (106) forms a coaxial system having a small radius portion and a large radius portion. When a magnetic field is injected into the chamber (106), from an external source, most of the magnetic flux associated therewith positions itself in the small radius portion. The propagation of an explosive detonation through high-explosive layers (107, 108) disposed adjacent to the housing causes a phased closure of the chamber (106) which sweeps most of the magnetic flux into the large radius portion of the coaxial system. The energy content of the magnetic field is greatly increased by flux stretching as well as by flux compression. The energy enhanced magnetic field is utilized within the housing chamber itself.

  14. PLASMA GENERATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilcox, J.M.; Baker, W.R.

    1963-09-17

    This invention is a magnetohydrodynamic device for generating a highly ionized ion-electron plasma at a region remote from electrodes and structural members, thus avoiding contamination of the plasma. The apparatus utilizes a closed, gas-filled, cylindrical housing in which an axially directed magnetic field is provided. At one end of the housing, a short cylindrical electrode is disposed coaxially around a short axial inner electrode. A radial electrical discharge is caused to occur between the inner and outer electrodes, creating a rotating hydromagnetic ionization wave that propagates aiong the magnetic field lines toward the opposite end of the housing. A shorting switch connected between the electrodes prevents the wave from striking the opposite end of the housing. (AEC)

  15. Triboelectric generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L; Fan, Fengru; Lin, Long; Zhu, Guang; Pan, Caofeng; Zhou, Yusheng

    2015-11-03

    A generator includes a thin first contact charging layer and a thin second contact charging layer. The thin first contact charging layer includes a first material that has a first rating on a triboelectric series. The thin first contact charging layer has a first side with a first conductive electrode applied thereto and an opposite second side. The thin second contact charging layer includes a second material that has a second rating on a triboelectric series that is more negative than the first rating. The thin first contact charging layer has a first side with a first conductive electrode applied thereto and an opposite second side. The thin second contact charging layer is disposed adjacent to the first contact charging layer so that the second side of the second contact charging layer is in contact with the second side of the first contact charging layer.

  16. Multi-factor authentication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hamlet, Jason R; Pierson, Lyndon G

    2014-10-21

    Detection and deterrence of spoofing of user authentication may be achieved by including a cryptographic fingerprint unit within a hardware device for authenticating a user of the hardware device. The cryptographic fingerprint unit includes an internal physically unclonable function ("PUF") circuit disposed in or on the hardware device, which generates a PUF value. Combining logic is coupled to receive the PUF value, combines the PUF value with one or more other authentication factors to generate a multi-factor authentication value. A key generator is coupled to generate a private key and a public key based on the multi-factor authentication value while a decryptor is coupled to receive an authentication challenge posed to the hardware device and encrypted with the public key and coupled to output a response to the authentication challenge decrypted with the private key.

  17. Magnetic blackbody shift of hyperfine transitions for atomic clocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berengut, J. C.; Flambaum, V. V.; King-Lacroix, J.

    2009-12-15

    We derive an expression for the magnetic blackbody shift of hyperfine transitions such as the cesium primary reference transition which defines the second. The shift is found to be a complicated function of temperature, and has a T{sup 2} dependence only in the high-temperature limit. We also calculate the shift of ground-state p{sub 1/2} hyperfine transitions which have been proposed as new atomic clock transitions. In this case interaction with the p{sub 3/2} fine-structure multiplet may be the dominant effect.

  18. Clock Shifts of Optical Transitions in Ultracold Atomic Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu Zhenhua; Pethick, C. J.

    2010-01-08

    We calculate the shift, due to interatomic interactions, of an optical transition in an atomic Fermi gas trapped in an optical lattice, as in recent experiments of Campbell et al.[Science 324, 360 (2009)]. Using a pseudospin formalism to describe the density matrix of atoms, we derive a Bloch equation which incorporates both spatial inhomogeneity of the probe laser field and interatomic interactions. Expressions are given for the frequency shift as a function of pulse duration, detuning of the probe laser, and the spatial dependence of the electric field of the probe beam. In the low temperature semiclassical regime, we find that the magnitude of the shift is proportional to the temperature.

  19. Shape-Shifting Plastic (Other) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE SHAPE-SHIFTING; PLASTIC; TEMPERATURE. Word Cloud More Like This Multimedia File size NAView Multimedia View Multimedia DOI: Run time 00:00:34 Select ...

  20. Spin relaxation and linear-in-electric-field frequency shift...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    arbitrary, time-independent magnetic field Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Spin relaxation and linear-in-electric-field frequency shift in an arbitrary, time-independen...

  1. Process Intensification with Integrated Water-Gas-Shift Membrane...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    water-gas-shift.pdf (597.03 KB) More Documents & Publications ITP Energy Intensive Processes: Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key Energy Challenges Across U.S. ...

  2. Shape-shifting groups of nanorods release heat differently |...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Shape-shifting groups of nanorods release heat differently By Justin H.S. Breaux * ... of the transfer of heat at the nanoscale cause nanoparticles to change shape in ensembles. ...

  3. Process Intensification with Integrated Water-Gas-Shift Membrane Reactor

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Intensification with Integrated Water-Gas-Shift Membrane Reactor Hydrogen-Selective Membranes for High- Pressure Hydrogen Separation This project will develop hydrogen-selective membranes for an innovative water-gas-shift reactor that improves gas separation effciency, enabling reduced energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. Introduction The goal of process intensifcation is to reduce the equipment footprint, energy consumption, and environmental impact of manufacturing processes. One candidate

  4. Optical Lattice Induced Light Shifts in an Yb Atomic Clock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barber, Z. W.; Stalnaker, J. E.; Lemke, N. D.; Poli, N.; Oates, C. W.; Fortier, T. M.; Diddams, S. A.; Hollberg, L.; Hoyt, C. W.; Taichenachev, A. V.; Yudin, V. I.

    2008-03-14

    We present an experimental study of the lattice-induced light shifts on the {sup 1}S{sub 0}{yields}{sup 3}P{sub 0} optical clock transition ({nu}{sub clock}{approx_equal}518 THz) in neutral ytterbium. The 'magic' frequency {nu}{sub magic} for the {sup 174}Yb isotope was determined to be 394 799 475(35) MHz, which leads to a first order light shift uncertainty of 0.38 Hz. We also investigated the hyperpolarizability shifts due to the nearby 6s6p{sup 3}P{sub 0}{yields}6s8p{sup 3}P{sub 0}, 6s8p{sup 3}P{sub 2}, and 6s5f{sup 3}F{sub 2} two-photon resonances at 759.708, 754.23, and 764.95 nm, respectively. By measuring the corresponding clock transition shifts near these two-photon resonances, the hyperpolarizability shift was estimated to be 170(33) mHz for a linear polarized, 50 {mu}K deep, lattice at the magic wavelength. These results indicate that the differential polarizability and hyperpolarizability frequency shift uncertainties in a Yb lattice clock could be held to well below 10{sup -17}.

  5. Submersible Generator for Marine Hydrokinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cinq-Mars, Robert S; Burke, Timothy; Irish, James; Gustafson, Brian; Kirtley, James; Alawa, Aiman

    2011-09-01

    A submersible generator was designed as a distinct and critical subassembly of marine hydrokinetics systems, specifically tidal and stream energy conversion. The generator is designed to work with both vertical and horizontal axis turbines. The final product is a high-pole-count, radial-flux, permanent magnet, rim mounted generator, initially rated at twenty kilowatts in a two-meter-per-second flow, and designed to leverage established and simple manufacturing processes. The generator was designed to work with a 3 meter by 7 meter Gorlov Helical Turbine or a marine hydrokinetic version of the FloDesign wind turbine. The team consisted of experienced motor/generator design engineers with cooperation from major US component suppliers (magnetics, coil winding and electrical steel laminations). Support for this effort was provided by Lucid Energy Technologies and FloDesign, Inc. The following tasks were completed: Identified the conditions and requirements for MHK generators. Defined a methodology for sizing and rating MHK systems. Selected an MHK generator topology and form factor. Completed electromechanical design of submersible generator capable of coupling to multiple turbine styles. Investigated MHK generator manufacturing requirements. Reviewed cost implications and financial viability. Completed final reporting and deliverables

  6. Voltage shifts and defect-dipoles in ferroelectric capacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, W.L.; Pike, G.E.; Dimos, D.

    1996-12-01

    We review the processes and mechanisms by which voltage offsets occur in the hysteresis loop of ferroelectric materials. Simply stated, voltage shifts arise from near-interfacial charge trapping in the ferroelectric. We show that the impetus behind voltage shifts in ferroelectric capacitors is the net polarization, with the net polarization being determined by the perovskite and the aligned defect-dipole components. Some common defect-dipoles in the PZT system are lead vacancy-oxygen vacancy complexes. One way to change the net polarization in the ferroelectric is to subject the PZT capacitor to a dc bias at elevated temperature; this process is spectroscopically shown to align defect-dipoles along the direction of the applied electric field. The alignment of defect-dipoles can strongly impact several material properties. One such impact is that it can lead to enhanced voltage shifts (imprint). It is proposed that the net polarization determines the spatial location of the asymmetrically trapped charge that are the cause for the voltage shifts. An enhanced polarization at one electrode interface can lead to larger voltage shifts since it lowers the electrostatic potential well for electron trapping, i.e., more electron trapping can occur. Defect-dipole alignment is also shown to increase the UV sensitivity of the ferroelectric.

  7. Observation of the Goos-Haenchen Shift with Neutrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haan, Victor-O. de; Plomp, Jeroen; Rekveldt, Theo M.; Kraan, Wicher H.; Well, Ad A. van; Dalgliesh, Robert M.; Langridge, Sean

    2010-01-08

    The Goos-Haenchen effect is a spatial shift along an interface resulting from an interference effect that occurs for total internal reflection. This phenomenon was suggested by Sir Isaac Newton, but it was not until 1947 that the effect was experimentally observed by Goos and Haenchen. We provide the first direct, absolute, experimental determination of the Goos-Haenchen shift for a particle experiencing a potential well as required by quantum mechanics: namely, wave-particle duality. Here, the particle is a spin-polarized neutron reflecting from a film of magnetized material. We detect the effect through a subtle change in polarization of the neutron. Here, we demonstrate, through experiment and theory, that neutrons do exhibit the Goos-Haenchen effect and postulate that the associated time shift should also be observable.

  8. System for computer controlled shifting of an automatic transmission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patil, Prabhakar B.

    1989-01-01

    In an automotive vehicle having an automatic transmission that driveably connects a power source to the driving wheels, a method to control the application of hydraulic pressure to a clutch, whose engagement produces an upshift and whose disengagement produces a downshift, the speed of the power source, and the output torque of the transmission. The transmission output shaft torque and the power source speed are the controlled variables. The commanded power source torque and commanded hydraulic pressure supplied to the clutch are the control variables. A mathematical model is formulated that describes the kinematics and dynamics of the powertrain before, during and after a gear shift. The model represents the operating characteristics of each component and the structural arrangement of the components within the transmission being controlled. Next, a close loop feedback control is developed to determine the proper control law or compensation strategy to achieve an acceptably smooth gear ratio change, one in which the output torque disturbance is kept to a minimum and the duration of the shift is minimized. Then a computer algorithm simulating the shift dynamics employing the mathematical model is used to study the effects of changes in the values of the parameters established from a closed loop control of the clutch hydraulic and the power source torque on the shift quality. This computer simulation is used also to establish possible shift control strategies. The shift strategies determine from the prior step are reduced to an algorithm executed by a computer to control the operation of the power source and the transmission.

  9. Levelized Power Generation Cost Codes

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-04-30

    LPGC is a set of nine microcomputer programs for estimating power generation costs for large steam-electric power plants. These programs permit rapid evaluation using various sets of economic and technical ground rules. The levelized power generation costs calculated may be used to compare the relative economics of nuclear and coal-fired plants based on life-cycle costs. Cost calculations include capital investment cost, operation and maintenance cost, fuel cycle cost, decommissioning cost, and total levelized power generationmore » cost. These programs can be used for quick analyses of power generation costs using alternative economic parameters, such as interest rate, escalation rate, inflation rate, plant lead times, capacity factor, fuel prices, etc. The two major types of electric generating plants considered are pressurized water reactor (PWR) and pulverized coal-fired plants. Data are also provided for the Large Scale Prototype Breeder (LSPB) type liquid metal reactor.« less

  10. VARIABLE TIME-INTERVAL GENERATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, J.E.

    1959-10-31

    This patent relates to a pulse generator and more particularly to a time interval generator wherein the time interval between pulses is precisely determined. The variable time generator comprises two oscillators with one having a variable frequency output and the other a fixed frequency output. A frequency divider is connected to the variable oscillator for dividing its frequency by a selected factor and a counter is used for counting the periods of the fixed oscillator occurring during a cycle of the divided frequency of the variable oscillator. This defines the period of the variable oscillator in terms of that of the fixed oscillator. A circuit is provided for selecting as a time interval a predetermined number of periods of the variable oscillator. The output of the generator consists of a first pulse produced by a trigger circuit at the start of the time interval and a second pulse marking the end of the time interval produced by the same trigger circuit.

  11. Extracting Scattering Phase-Shifts in Higher Partial-Waves from...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Extracting Scattering Phase-Shifts in Higher Partial-Waves from Lattice QCD Calculations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Extracting Scattering Phase-Shifts in Higher...

  12. Reduced soliton interaction by Raman self-frequency-shift

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hause, A.; Mitschke, F.

    2009-12-15

    We show that the interaction of adjacent fiber-optic solitons can be reduced by the Raman self-frequency shift. As the frequency slides, the interaction periodically alternates between attraction and repulsion. If this happens sufficiently rapidly, the forces largely average out. We present a simplified analytical model and compare its predictions to numerical simulations.

  13. Method and apparatus for executing a shift in a hybrid transmission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gupta, Pinaki; Kaminsky, Lawrence A; Demirovic, Besim

    2013-09-03

    A method for executing a transmission shift in a hybrid transmission including first and second electric machines includes executing a shift-through-neutral sequence from an initial transmission state to a target transmission state including executing an intermediate shift to neutral. Upon detecting a change in an output torque request while executing the shift-through-neutral sequence, possible recovery shift paths are identified. Available ones of the possible recovery shift paths are identified and a shift cost for each said available recovery shift path is evaluated. The available recovery shift path having a minimum shift cost is selected as a preferred recovery shift path and is executed to achieve a non-neutral transmission state.

  14. CATALYTIC INTERACTIONS OF RHODIUM, RUTHENIUM, AND MERCURY DURING SIMULATED DWPF CPC PROCESSING WITH HYDROGEN GENERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koopman, D

    2008-10-09

    Simulations of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) vessels were performed as part of the ongoing investigation into catalytic hydrogen generation. Rhodium, ruthenium, and mercury have been identified as the principal elemental factors affecting the peak hydrogen generation rate in the DWPF Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) for a given acid addition. The primary goal of this study is to identify any significant interactions between the three factors. Noble metal concentrations were similar to recent sludge batches. Rh ranged from 0.0026-0.013% and Ru ranged from 0.010-0.050% in the dried sludge solids, while initial Hg ranged from 0.5-2.5 wt%. An experimental matrix was developed to ensure that the existence of statistically significant two-way interactions could be determined without confounding of the main effects with the two-way interaction effects. The nominal matrix design consisted of twelve SRAT cycles. Testing included: a three factor (Rh, Ru, and Hg) study at two levels per factor (eight runs), two duplicate midpoint runs, and two additional replicate runs to assess reproducibility away from the midpoint. Midpoint testing can identify potential quadratic effects from the three factors. A single sludge simulant was used for all tests. Acid addition was kept effectively constant except to compensate for variations in the starting mercury concentration. Six Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycles were performed to supplement the SME hydrogen generation database. Some of the preliminary findings from this study include: (1) Rh was linked to the maximum SRAT hydrogen generation rate in the first two hours after acid addition in preliminary statistical modeling. (2) Ru was linked conclusively to the maximum SRAT hydrogen generation rate in the last four hours of reflux in preliminary statistical modeling. (3) Increasing the ratio of Hg/Rh shifted the noble metal controlling the maximum SRAT hydrogen generation rate from

  15. Nurbs and grid generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnhill, R.E.; Farin, G.; Hamann, B.

    1995-12-31

    This paper provides a basic overview of NURBS and their application to numerical grid generation. Curve/surface smoothing, accelerated grid generation, and the use of NURBS in a practical grid generation system are discussed.

  16. Three dimensional imaging detector employing wavelength-shifting optical fibers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Worstell, William A.

    1997-01-01

    A novel detector element structure and method for its use is provided. In a preferred embodiment, one or more inorganic scintillating crystals are coupled through wavelength shifting optical fibers (WLSFs) to position sensitive photomultipliers (PS-PMTs). The superior detector configuration in accordance with this invention is designed for an array of applications in high spatial resolution gamma ray sensing with particular application to SPECT, PET and PVI imaging systems. The design provides better position resolution than prior art devices at a lower total cost. By employing wavelength shifting fibers (WLSFs), the sensor configuration of this invention can operate with a significant reduction in the number of photomultipliers and electronics channels, while potentially improving the resolution of the system by allowing three dimensional reconstruction of energy deposition positions.

  17. Device and method for noresonantly Raman shifting ultraviolet radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loree, Thomas R.; Barker, Dean L.

    1979-01-01

    A device and method for nonresonantly Raman shifting broad band uv excimer laser radiation, which enhances preselected Stokes signals by varying the pressure of the Raman scattering medium, the focal interaction length of the incident radiation within the Raman scattering medium and its power density level. Gaseous molecular H.sub.2, D.sub.2, CH.sub.4 (methane), HD and mixes thereof, and liquid N.sub.2 are used as the Raman scattering medium to frequency shift the outputs of high power KrF and ArF lasers. A cable fed discharge with an unstable resonant cavity configuration is utilized to produce the output laser power levels required for operation.

  18. Three dimensional imaging detector employing wavelength-shifting optical fibers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Worstell, W.A.

    1997-02-04

    A novel detector element structure and method for its use is provided. In a preferred embodiment, one or more inorganic scintillating crystals are coupled through wavelength shifting optical fibers (WLSFs) to position sensitive photomultipliers (PS-PMTs). The superior detector configuration in accordance with this invention is designed for an array of applications in high spatial resolution gamma ray sensing with particular application to SPECT, PET and PVI imaging systems. The design provides better position resolution than prior art devices at a lower total cost. By employing wavelength shifting fibers (WLSFs), the sensor configuration of this invention can operate with a significant reduction in the number of photomultipliers and electronics channels, while potentially improving the resolution of the system by allowing three dimensional reconstruction of energy deposition positions. 11 figs.

  19. Spatial-heterodyne interferometry for transmission (SHIFT) measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bingham, Philip R.; Hanson, Gregory R.; Tobin, Ken W.

    2006-10-10

    Systems and methods are described for spatial-heterodyne interferometry for transmission (SHIFT) measurements. A method includes digitally recording a spatially-heterodyned hologram including spatial heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis using a reference beam, and an object beam that is transmitted through an object that is at least partially translucent; Fourier analyzing the digitally recorded spatially-heterodyned hologram, by shifting an original origin of the digitally recorded spatially-heterodyned hologram to sit on top of a spatial-heterodyne carrier frequency defined by an angle between the reference beam and the object beam, to define an analyzed image; digitally filtering the analyzed image to cut off signals around the original origin to define a result; and performing an inverse Fourier transform on the result.

  20. Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer mask designs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldberg, Kenneth Alan

    2001-01-01

    In a phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer, different image-plane mask designs can improve the operation of the interferometer. By keeping the test beam window of the mask small compared to the separation distance between the beams, the problem of energy from the reference beam leaking through the test beam window is reduced. By rotating the grating and mask 45.degree., only a single one-dimensional translation stage is required for phase-shifting. By keeping two reference pinholes in the same orientation about the test beam window, only a single grating orientation, and thus a single one-dimensional translation stage, is required. The use of a two-dimensional grating allows for a multiplicity of pinholes to be used about the pattern of diffracted orders of the grating at the mask. Orientation marks on the mask can be used to orient the device and indicate the position of the reference pinholes.

  1. DWPF CATALYTIC HYDROGEN GENERATION PROGRAM - REVIEW OF CURRENT STATUS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koopman, D.

    2009-07-10

    hydrogen generation in the SME cycle when the hydrogen levels are high enough to be noteworthy. Mercury has a role in catalytic hydrogen generation. Two potentially distinct roles have been identified. The most dramatic effect of Hg on hydrogen generation occurs between runs with and without any Hg. When a small amount of Hg is present, it has a major inhibiting effect on Rh-catalyzed H{sub 2} generation. The Rh-Ru-Hg matrix study showed that increasing mercury from 0.5 to 2.5 wt% in the SRAT receipt total solids did not improve the inhibiting effect significantly. The next most readily identified role for Hg is the impact it has on accelerating NO production from nitrite ion. This reaction shifts the time that the ideal concentration of nitrite relative to Rh occurs, and consequently causes the most active nitro-Rh species to form sooner. The potential consequences of this shift in timing are expected to be a function of other factors such as amount of excess acid, Rh concentration, etc. Graphical data from the Rh-Ru-Hg study suggested that Hg might also be responsible for partially inhibiting Ru-catalysis initially, but that the inhibition was not sustained through the SRAT and SME cycles. Continued processing led to a subsequent increase in hydrogen generation that was often abrupt and that frequently more than doubled the hydrogen generation rate. This phenomenon may have been a function of the extent of Hg stripping versus the initial Ru concentration in these tests. Palladium is an active catalyst, and activates during (or prior to) nitrite destruction to promote N{sub 2}O formation followed by a very small amount of hydrogen. Pd then appears to deactivate. Data to date indicate that Pd should not be a species of primary concern relative to Rh and Ru for hydrogen generation. Pd was a very mild catalyst for hydrogen generation compared to Rh and Ru in the simulated waste system. Pd was comparable to Rh in enhancing N{sub 2}O production when present at equal

  2. Hybrid powertrain system including smooth shifting automated transmission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beaty, Kevin D.; Nellums, Richard A.

    2006-10-24

    A powertrain system is provided that includes a prime mover and a change-gear transmission having an input, at least two gear ratios, and an output. The powertrain system also includes a power shunt configured to route power applied to the transmission by one of the input and the output to the other one of the input and the output. A transmission system and a method for facilitating shifting of a transmission system are also provided.

  3. Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer grating designs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Naulleau, Patrick; Goldberg, Kenneth Alan; Tejnil, Edita

    2001-01-01

    In a phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer, by sending the zeroth-order diffraction to the reference pinhole of the mask and the first-order diffraction to the test beam window of the mask, the test and reference beam intensities can be balanced and the fringe contrast improved. Additionally, using a duty cycle of the diffraction grating other than 50%, the fringe contrast can also be improved.

  4. Maximizing productivity & profitability through best cost shift schedules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coleman, R.

    1996-12-31

    If you have the right equipment and employees at the right place, the fight time, and the right cost, you have the perfect business schedule. But, if you`re like most mines, you can probably improve your schedule, improvements that will reach all the way to the bottom line. And unlike adding employees, materials, or capital equipment, better scheduling is a cost-free way improve profitability. A good schedule can save millions. A bad schedule will cost money every year. A shift schedule is not a day off pattern or shift length. A shift schedule is a complete system deploying personnel and capital equipment. Most mining schedules are either copied from another operation, based on tradition or the result of a contract negotiation made far from the mine site. Unfortunately, most mine managers don`t give much thought to schedules until a crisis develops; at which point the tendency is to implement the first solution that comes along as quickly as possible. Costly mistakes are made.

  5. Hydrogen Generator Appliance

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    J slide presentation: hydrogen Generator appliance Gus Block, Nuvera Fuel Cells

  6. Gamma ray generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Firestone, Richard B; Reijonen, Jani

    2014-05-27

    An embodiment of a gamma ray generator includes a neutron generator and a moderator. The moderator is coupled to the neutron generator. The moderator includes a neutron capture material. In operation, the neutron generator produces neutrons and the neutron capture material captures at least some of the neutrons to produces gamma rays. An application of the gamma ray generator is as a source of gamma rays for calibration of gamma ray detectors.

  7. Electric rate that shifts hourly may foretell spot-market kWh

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Springer, N.

    1985-11-25

    Four California industrial plants have cut their electricity bills up to 16% by shifting from the traditional time-of-use rates to an experimental real-time program (RTP) that varies prices hourly. The users receive a price schedule reflecting changing generating costs one day in advance to encourage them to increase power consumption during the cheapest time periods. Savings during the pilot program range between $11,000 and $32,000 per customer. The hourly cost breakdown encourages consumption during the night and early morning. The signalling system could be expanded to cogenerators and independent small power producers. If an electricity spot market develops, forecasters think a place on the stock exchanges for future-delivery contracts could develop in the future.

  8. NEXT GENERATION GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benjamin C. Wiant; Ihor S. Diakunchak; Dennis A. Horazak; Harry T. Morehead

    2003-03-01

    Under sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation has conducted a study of Next Generation Gas Turbine Systems that embraces the goals of the DOE's High Efficiency Engines and Turbines and Vision 21 programs. The Siemens Westinghouse Next Generation Gas Turbine (NGGT) Systems program was a 24-month study looking at the feasibility of a NGGT for the emerging deregulated distributed generation market. Initial efforts focused on a modular gas turbine using an innovative blend of proven technologies from the Siemens Westinghouse W501 series of gas turbines and new enabling technologies to serve a wide variety of applications. The flexibility to serve both 50-Hz and 60-Hz applications, use a wide range of fuels and be configured for peaking, intermediate and base load duty cycles was the ultimate goal. As the study progressed the emphasis shifted from a flexible gas turbine system of a specific size to a broader gas turbine technology focus. This shift in direction allowed for greater placement of technology among both the existing fleet and new engine designs, regardless of size, and will ultimately provide for greater public benefit. This report describes the study efforts and provides the resultant conclusions and recommendations for future technology development in collaboration with the DOE.

  9. Hick Shifts Gears in NERSC's Storage Systems Group, Takes on...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to his roots as a senior storage engineer, applying his computer science background and management expertise to NERSC's next-generation data storage and data management challenges. ...

  10. Cylindrical neutron generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2005-06-14

    A cylindrical neutron generator is formed with a coaxial RF-driven plasma ion source and target. A deuterium (or deuterium and tritium) plasma is produced by RF excitation in a cylindrical plasma ion generator using an RF antenna. A cylindrical neutron generating target is coaxial with the ion generator, separated by plasma and extraction electrodes which contain many slots. The plasma generator emanates ions radially over 360.degree. and the cylindrical target is thus irradiated by ions over its entire circumference. The plasma generator and target may be as long as desired. The plasma generator may be in the center and the neutron target on the outside, or the plasma generator may be on the outside and the target on the inside. In a nested configuration, several concentric targets and plasma generating regions are nested to increase the neutron flux.

  11. Cylindrical neutron generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2008-04-22

    A cylindrical neutron generator is formed with a coaxial RF-driven plasma ion source and target. A deuterium (or deuterium and tritium) plasma is produced by RF excitation in a cylindrical plasma ion generator using an RF antenna. A cylindrical neutron generating target is coaxial with the ion generator, separated by plasma and extraction electrodes which contain many slots. The plasma generator emanates ions radially over 360.degree. and the cylindrical target is thus irradiated by ions over its entire circumference. The plasma generator and target may be as long as desired. The plasma generator may be in the center and the neutron target on the outside, or the plasma generator may be on the outside and the target on the inside. In a nested configuration, several concentric targets and plasma generating regions are nested to increase the neutron flux.

  12. Cylindrical neutron generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2009-12-29

    A cylindrical neutron generator is formed with a coaxial RF-driven plasma ion source and target. A deuterium (or deuterium and tritium) plasma is produced by RF excitation in a cylindrical plasma ion generator using an RF antenna. A cylindrical neutron generating target is coaxial with the ion generator, separated by plasma and extraction electrodes which contain many slots. The plasma generator emanates ions radially over 360.degree. and the cylindrical target is thus irradiated by ions over its entire circumference. The plasma generator and target may be as long as desired. The plasma generator may be in the center and the neutron target on the outside, or the plasma generator may be on the outside and the target on the inside. In a nested configuration, several concentric targets and plasma generating regions are nested to increase the neutron flux.

  13. Using Backup Generators: Choosing the Right Backup Generator...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Homeowners Using Backup Generators: Choosing the Right Backup Generator - Homeowners Using Backup Generators: Choosing the Right Backup Generator - Homeowners Determine the amount ...

  14. A 6 kV arbitrary waveform generator for the Tevatron Electron Lens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pfeffer, H.; Saewert, G.

    2011-11-09

    This paper reports on a 6 kV modulator built and installed at Fermilab to drive the electron gun anode for the Tevatron Electron Lens (TEL). The TEL was built with the intention of shifting the individual (anti)proton bunch tunes to even out the tune spread among all 36 bunches with the desire of improving Tevatron integrated luminosity. This modulator is essentially a 6 kV arbitrary waveform generator that enables the TEL to define the electron beam intensity on a bunch-by-bunch basis. A voltage waveform is constructed having a 7 μs duration that corresponds to the tune shift requirements of a 12-bunch (anti)proton beam pulse train. This waveform is played out for any one or all three bunch trains in the Tevatron. The programmed waveform voltages transition to different levels at time intervals corresponding to the 395 ns bunch spacing. In addition, complex voltage waveforms can be played out at a sustained rate of 143 kHz over the full 6 kV output range. This paper describes the novel design of the inductive adder topology employing five transformers. It describes the design aspects that minimize switching losses for this multi-kilovolt, high repetition rate and high duty factor application.

  15. A 6 kV arbitrary waveform generator for the Tevatron Electron Lens

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pfeffer, H.; Saewert, G.

    2011-11-09

    This paper reports on a 6 kV modulator built and installed at Fermilab to drive the electron gun anode for the Tevatron Electron Lens (TEL). The TEL was built with the intention of shifting the individual (anti)proton bunch tunes to even out the tune spread among all 36 bunches with the desire of improving Tevatron integrated luminosity. This modulator is essentially a 6 kV arbitrary waveform generator that enables the TEL to define the electron beam intensity on a bunch-by-bunch basis. A voltage waveform is constructed having a 7 μs duration that corresponds to the tune shift requirements of amore » 12-bunch (anti)proton beam pulse train. This waveform is played out for any one or all three bunch trains in the Tevatron. The programmed waveform voltages transition to different levels at time intervals corresponding to the 395 ns bunch spacing. In addition, complex voltage waveforms can be played out at a sustained rate of 143 kHz over the full 6 kV output range. This paper describes the novel design of the inductive adder topology employing five transformers. It describes the design aspects that minimize switching losses for this multi-kilovolt, high repetition rate and high duty factor application.« less

  16. Power Generation for River and Tidal Generators

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Power Generation for River and Tidal Generators Eduard Muljadi, Alan Wright, and Vahan Gevorgian National Renewable Energy Laboratory James Donegan, Cian Marnagh, and Jarlath McEntee Ocean Renewable Power Company Technical Report NREL/TP-5D00-66097 June 2016 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy

  17. Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer phase grating designs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Naulleau, Patrick (Oakland, CA)

    2001-01-01

    Diffraction phase gratings are employed in phase-shifting point diffraction interferometers to improve the interferometric fringe contrast. The diffraction phase grating diffracts a zeroth-order diffraction of light at a first power level to the test-beam window of a mask that is positioned at the image plane and a first-order diffraction at a second power to the reference-beam pinhole. The diffraction phase grating is preferably selected to yield a desired ratio of the first power level to second power level.

  18. Confocal shift interferometry of coherent emission from trapped dipolar excitons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Repp, J.; Schinner, G. J.; Schubert, E.; Rai, A. K.; Wieck, A. D.; Reuter, D.; Wurstbauer, U.; Holleitner, A. W.; and others

    2014-12-15

    We introduce a confocal shift-interferometer based on optical fibers. The presented spectroscopy allows measuring coherence maps of luminescent samples with a high spatial resolution even at cryogenic temperatures. We apply the spectroscopy onto electrostatically trapped, dipolar excitons in a semiconductor double quantum well. We find that the measured spatial coherence length of the excitonic emission coincides with the point spread function of the confocal setup. The results are consistent with a temporal coherence of the excitonic emission down to temperatures of 250 mK.

  19. NMR chemical shifts in amino acids: Effects of environments, electric field, and amine group rotation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, Young-Gui; Pfrommer, Bernd G.; Louie, Steven G.; Canning, Andrew

    2002-03-03

    The authors present calculations of NMR chemical shifts in crystalline phases of some representative amino acids such as glycine, alanine, and alanyl-alanine. To get an insight on how different environments affect the chemical shifts, they study the transition from the crystalline phase to completely isolated molecules of glycine. In the crystalline limit, the shifts are dominated by intermolecular hydrogen-bonds. In the molecular limit, however, dipole electric field effects dominate the behavior of the chemical shifts. They show that it is necessary to average the chemical shifts in glycine over geometries. Tensor components are analyzed to get the angle dependent proton chemical shifts, which is a more refined characterization method.

  20. Underwater power generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowley, W.W.

    1983-05-10

    Apparatus and method for generating electrical power by disposing a plurality of power producing modules in a substantially constant velocity ocean current and mechanically coupling the output of the modules to drive a single electrical generator is disclosed.

  1. Quantum random number generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pooser, Raphael C.

    2016-05-10

    A quantum random number generator (QRNG) and a photon generator for a QRNG are provided. The photon generator may be operated in a spontaneous mode below a lasing threshold to emit photons. Photons emitted from the photon generator may have at least one random characteristic, which may be monitored by the QRNG to generate a random number. In one embodiment, the photon generator may include a photon emitter and an amplifier coupled to the photon emitter. The amplifier may enable the photon generator to be used in the QRNG without introducing significant bias in the random number and may enable multiplexing of multiple random numbers. The amplifier may also desensitize the photon generator to fluctuations in power supplied thereto while operating in the spontaneous mode. In one embodiment, the photon emitter and amplifier may be a tapered diode amplifier.

  2. Motor/generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hickam, Christopher Dale

    2008-05-13

    A motor/generator is provided for connecting between a transmission input shaft and an output shaft of a prime mover. The motor/generator may include a motor/generator housing, a stator mounted to the motor/generator housing, a rotor mounted at least partially within the motor/generator housing and rotatable about a rotor rotation axis, and a transmission-shaft coupler drivingly coupled to the rotor. The transmission-shaft coupler may include a clamp, which may include a base attached to the rotor and a plurality of adjustable jaws.

  3. Modulation compression for short wavelength harmonic generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiang, J.

    2010-01-11

    Laser modulator is used to seed free electron lasers. In this paper, we propose a scheme to compress the initial laser modulation in the longitudinal phase space by using two opposite sign bunch compressors and two opposite sign energy chirpers. This scheme could potentially reduce the initial modulation wavelength by a factor of C and increase the energy modulation amplitude by a factor of C, where C is the compression factor of the first bunch compressor. Such a compressed energy modulation can be directly used to generate short wavelength current modulation with a large bunching factor.

  4. Bridging silyl groups in sigma-bond metathesis and [1, 2] shifts...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Bridging silyl groups in sigma-bond metathesis and 1, 2 shifts. An experimental and ... Title: Bridging silyl groups in sigma-bond metathesis and 1, 2 shifts. An experimental ...

  5. Report 20.5: Chromaticity Shift Modes of LED PAR38 Lamps Operated...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    5: Chromaticity Shift Modes of LED PAR38 Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions Report 20.5: Chromaticity Shift Modes of LED PAR38 Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions PDF ...

  6. Solar thermoelectric generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toberer, Eric S.; Baranowski, Lauryn L.; Warren, Emily L.

    2016-05-03

    Solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs) are solid state heat engines that generate electricity from concentrated sunlight. A novel detailed balance model for STEGs is provided and applied to both state-of-the-art and idealized materials. STEGs can produce electricity by using sunlight to heat one side of a thermoelectric generator. While concentrated sunlight can be used to achieve extremely high temperatures (and thus improved generator efficiency), the solar absorber also emits a significant amount of black body radiation. This emitted light is the dominant loss mechanism in these generators. In this invention, we propose a solution to this problem that eliminates virtually all of the emitted black body radiation. This enables solar thermoelectric generators to operate at higher efficiency and achieve said efficient with lower levels of optical concentration. The solution is suitable for both single and dual axis solar thermoelectric generators.

  7. Reduced waste generation, FY 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-02-01

    The United States Department of Energy is committed to the principles of minimizing the quantity and transuranic content of its transuranium (TRU) waste being generated at its nuclear facilities. The reasons are to reduce costs associated with waste handling and disposal, and also to reduce radiation exposure to workers and risk for radionuclide release to man and the environment. The purpose of this document is to provide the USDOE with a plan of research and development tasks for waste minimization, and is prepared so as to provide the maximum impact on volumes based on cost/benefit factors. The document is to be updated annually or as needed to reflect current and future tasks. The Reduced Waste Generation (RWG) tasks encompass a wide range of activities with the principal goals of (1) preventing the generation of waste and (2) converting TRU waste into low-level wastes (LLW) by sorting or decontamination. Concepts for reducing the volume such as in incineration and compaction are considered within the discipline of Reduced Waste Generation, but are considered as somewhat developed technology with only a need for implementation. 33 refs.

  8. Multiple Exciton Generation Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luther, J. M.; Semonin, O. E.; Beard, M. C.; Gao, J.; Nozik, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Heat loss is the major factor limiting traditional single junction solar cells to a theoretical efficiency of 32%. Multiple Exciton Generation (MEG) enables efficient use of the solar spectrum yielding a theoretical power conversion efficiency of 44% in solar cells under 1-sun conditions. Quantum-confined semiconductors have demonstrated the ability to generate multiple carriers but present-day materials deliver efficiencies far below the SQ limit of 32%. Semiconductor quantum dots of PbSe and PbS provide an active testbed for developing high-efficiency, inexpensive solar cells benefitting from quantum confinement effects. Here, we will present recent work of solar cells employing MEG to yield external quantum efficiencies exceeding 100%.

  9. High-Temperature Water-Gas Shift Membrane Reactor Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ciocco, M.V.; Iyoha, O.; Enick, R.M.; Killmeyer, R.P.

    2007-06-01

    NETL’s Office of Research and Development is exploring the integration of membrane reactors into coal gasification plants as a way of increasing efficiency and reducing costs. Water-Gas Shift Reaction experiments were conducted in membrane reactors at conditions similar to those encountered at the outlet of a coal gasifier. The changes in reactant conversion and product selectivity due to the removal of hydrogen via the membrane reactor were quantified. Research was conducted to determine the influence of residence time and H2S on CO conversion in both Pd and Pd80wt%Cu membrane reactors. Effects of the hydrogen sulfide-to-hydrogen ratio on palladium and a palladium-copper alloy at high-temperature were also investigated. These results were compared to thermodynamic calculations for the stability of palladium sulfides.

  10. Theory of the Knight Shift and Flux Quantization in Superconductors

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Cooper, L. N.; Lee, H. J.; Schwartz, B. B.; Silvert, W.

    1962-05-01

    Consequences of a generalization of the theory of superconductivity that yields a finite Knight shift are presented. In this theory, by introducing an electron-electron interaction that is not spatially invariant, the pairing of electrons with varying total momentum is made possible. An expression for Xs (the spin susceptibility in the superconducting state) is derived. In general Xs is smaller than Xn, but is not necessarily zero. The precise magnitude of Xs will vary from sample to sample and will depend on the nonuniformity of the samples. There should be no marked size dependence and no marked dependence on the strength of the magnetic field; this is in accord with observation. The basic superconducting properties are retained, but there are modifications in the various electromagnetic and thermal properties since the electrons paired are not time sequences of this generalized theory on flux quantization arguments are presented.(auth)

  11. Illinois Nuclear Profile - Braidwood Generation Station

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Braidwood Generation Station" "Unit","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Summer capacity factor (percent)","Type","Commercial operation date","License expiration date" 1,"1,178","9,197",89.1,"PWR","application/vnd.ms-excel","application/vnd.ms-excel"

  12. Illinois Nuclear Profile - Byron Generating Station

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Byron Generating Station" ,"Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Summer capacity factor (percent)","Type","Commercial operation date","License expiration date" 1,"1,164","10,337",101.4,"PWR","application/vnd.ms-excel","application/vnd.ms-excel"

  13. Douglas Factors

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Merit Systems Protection Board in its landmark decision, Douglas vs. Veterans Administration, 5 MSPR 280, established criteria that supervisors must consider in determining an appropriate penalty to impose for an act of employee misconduct. These twelve factors are commonly referred to as “Douglas Factors” and have been incorporated into the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Personnel Management System and various FAA Labor Agreements.

  14. Quantum random number generation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ma, Xiongfeng; Yuan, Xiao; Cao, Zhu; Zhang, Zhen; Qi, Bing

    2016-06-28

    Here, quantum physics can be exploited to generate true random numbers, which play important roles in many applications, especially in cryptography. Genuine randomness from the measurement of a quantum system reveals the inherent nature of quantumness -- coherence, an important feature that differentiates quantum mechanics from classical physics. The generation of genuine randomness is generally considered impossible with only classical means. Based on the degree of trustworthiness on devices, quantum random number generators (QRNGs) can be grouped into three categories. The first category, practical QRNG, is built on fully trusted and calibrated devices and typically can generate randomness at amore » high speed by properly modeling the devices. The second category is self-testing QRNG, where verifiable randomness can be generated without trusting the actual implementation. The third category, semi-self-testing QRNG, is an intermediate category which provides a tradeoff between the trustworthiness on the device and the random number generation speed.« less

  15. Steam generator support system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moldenhauer, James E.

    1987-01-01

    A support system for connection to an outer surface of a J-shaped steam generator for use with a nuclear reactor or other liquid metal cooled power source. The J-shaped steam generator is mounted with the bent portion at the bottom. An arrangement of elongated rod members provides both horizontal and vertical support for the steam generator. The rod members are interconnected to the steam generator assembly and a support structure in a manner which provides for thermal distortion of the steam generator without the transfer of bending moments to the support structure and in a like manner substantially minimizes forces being transferred between the support structure and the steam generator as a result of seismic disturbances.

  16. Steam generator support system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moldenhauer, J.E.

    1987-08-25

    A support system for connection to an outer surface of a J-shaped steam generator for use with a nuclear reactor or other liquid metal cooled power source is disclosed. The J-shaped steam generator is mounted with the bent portion at the bottom. An arrangement of elongated rod members provides both horizontal and vertical support for the steam generator. The rod members are interconnected to the steam generator assembly and a support structure in a manner which provides for thermal distortion of the steam generator without the transfer of bending moments to the support structure and in a like manner substantially minimizes forces being transferred between the support structure and the steam generator as a result of seismic disturbances. 4 figs.

  17. Method of grid generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnette, Daniel W.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of grid generation that uses the geometry of the problem space and the governing relations to generate a grid. The method can generate a grid with minimized discretization errors, and with minimal user interaction. The method of the present invention comprises assigning grid cell locations so that, when the governing relations are discretized using the grid, at least some of the discretization errors are substantially zero. Conventional grid generation is driven by the problem space geometry; grid generation according to the present invention is driven by problem space geometry and by governing relations. The present invention accordingly can provide two significant benefits: more efficient and accurate modeling since discretization errors are minimized, and reduced cost grid generation since less human interaction is required.

  18. Distributed generation systems model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barklund, C.R.

    1994-12-31

    A slide presentation is given on a distributed generation systems model developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and its application to a situation within the Idaho Power Company`s service territory. The objectives of the work were to develop a screening model for distributed generation alternatives, to develop a better understanding of distributed generation as a utility resource, and to further INEL`s understanding of utility concerns in implementing technological change.

  19. Generation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Generation Generation Southeastern’s Power Operations employees perform the tasks of declaring, scheduling, dispatching, and accounting for capacity and energy generated at the 22 hydroelectric projects in the agency’s 11-state marketing area. Southeastern has Certified System Operators, meeting the criteria set forth by the North American Electric Reliability Corporation. Southeastern's Power Operations employees perform the tasks of declaring, scheduling, dispatching, and accounting

  20. Distributed generation hits market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-10-01

    The pace at which vendors are developing and marketing gas turbines and reciprocating engines for small-scale applications may signal the widespread growth of distributed generation. Loosely defined to refer to applications in which power generation equipment is located close to end users who have near-term power capacity needs, distributed generation encompasses a broad range of technologies and load requirements. Disagreement is inevitable, but many industry observers associate distributed generation with applications anywhere from 25 kW to 25 MW. Ten years ago, distributed generation users only represented about 2% of the world market. Today, that figure has increased to about 4 or 5%, and probably could settle in the 20% range within a 3-to-5-year period, according to Michael Jones, San Diego, Calif.-based Solar Turbines Inc. power generation marketing manager. The US Energy Information Administration predicts about 175 GW of generation capacity will be added domestically by 2010. If 20% comes from smaller plants, distributed generation could account for about 35 GW. Even with more competition, it`s highly unlikely distributed generation will totally replace current market structures and central stations. Distributed generation may be best suited for making market inroads when and where central systems need upgrading, and should prove its worth when the system can`t handle peak demands. Typical applications include small reciprocating engine generators at remote customer sites or larger gas turbines to boost the grid. Additional market opportunities include standby capacity, peak shaving, power quality, cogeneration and capacity rental for immediate demand requirements. Integration of distributed generation systems--using gas-fueled engines, gas-fired combustion engines and fuel cells--can upgrade power quality for customers and reduce operating costs for electric utilities.

  1. Biomass: Biogas Generator

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BIOGAS GENERATOR Curriculum: Biomass Power (organic chemistry, chemicalcarbon cycles, plants, energy resourcestransformations) Grade Level: Middle School (6-8) Small groups (3 to ...

  2. Isolated trigger pulse generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aaland, Kristian (Livermore, CA) [Livermore, CA

    1980-02-19

    A trigger pulse generation system capable of delivering a multiplicity of isolated 100 kV trigger pulses with picosecond simultaneity.

  3. Renewable Electricity Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-09-01

    This document highlights DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's advancements in renewable electricity generation technologies including solar, water, wind, and geothermal.

  4. Talkin Bout Wind Generation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The amount of electricity generated by the wind industry started to grow back around 1999, and since 2007 has been increasing at a rapid pace.

  5. Isolated trigger pulse generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aaland, K.

    1980-02-19

    A trigger pulse generation system capable of delivering a multiplicity of isolated 100 kV trigger pulses with picosecond simultaneity. 2 figs.

  6. SNE TRAFIC GENERATOR

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    003027MLTPL00 Network Traffic Generator for Low-rate Small Network Equipment Software http://eln.lbl.gov/sne_traffic_gen.html

  7. Thermophotovoltaic energy generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Celanovic, Ivan; Chan, Walker; Bermel, Peter; Yeng, Adrian Y. X.; Marton, Christopher; Ghebrebrhan, Michael; Araghchini, Mohammad; Jensen, Klavs F.; Soljacic, Marin; Joannopoulos, John D.; Johnson, Steven G.; Pilawa-Podgurski, Robert; Fisher, Peter

    2015-08-25

    Inventive systems and methods for the generation of energy using thermophotovoltaic cells are described. Also described are systems and methods for selectively emitting electromagnetic radiation from an emitter for use in thermophotovoltaic energy generation systems. In at least some of the inventive energy generation systems and methods, a voltage applied to the thermophotovoltaic cell (e.g., to enhance the power produced by the cell) can be adjusted to enhance system performance. Certain embodiments of the systems and methods described herein can be used to generate energy relatively efficiently.

  8. NEGATIVE GATE GENERATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, C.S.; Eaton, T.E.

    1958-02-01

    This patent relates to pulse generating circuits and more particularly to rectangular pulse generators. The pulse generator of the present invention incorporates thyratrons as switching elements to discharge a first capacitor through a load resistor to initiate and provide the body of a Pulse, and subsequently dlscharge a second capacitor to impress the potential of its charge, with opposite potential polarity across the load resistor to terminate the pulse. Accurate rectangular pulses in the millimicrosecond range are produced across a low impedance by this generator.

  9. Solid aerosol generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prescott, Donald S.; Schober, Robert K.; Beller, John

    1992-01-01

    An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates.

  10. Improved solid aerosol generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prescott, D.S.; Schober, R.K.; Beller, J.

    1988-07-19

    An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates. 2 figs.

  11. Solid aerosol generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prescott, D.S.; Schober, R.K.; Beller, J.

    1992-03-17

    An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration is disclosed. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates. 2 figs.

  12. Laser beam generating apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, Bruce E. (Livermore, CA); Duncan, David B. (Auburn, CA)

    1994-01-01

    Laser beam generating apparatus including a septum segment disposed longitudinally within the tubular structure of the apparatus. The septum provides for radiatively dissipating heat buildup within the tubular structure and for generating relatively uniform laser beam pulses so as to minimize or eliminate radial pulse delays (the chevron effect).

  13. Laser beam generating apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, Bruce E. (Livermore, CA); Duncan, David B. (Auburn, CA)

    1993-01-01

    Laser beam generating apparatus including a septum segment disposed longitudinally within the tubular structure of the apparatus. The septum provides for radiatively dissipating heat buildup within the tubular structure and for generating relatively uniform laser beam pulses so as to minimize or eliminate radial pulse delays (the chevron effect).

  14. Internal split field generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thundat; Thomas George; Van Neste, Charles W.; Vass, Arpad Alexander

    2012-01-03

    A generator includes a coil of conductive material. A stationary magnetic field source applies a stationary magnetic field to the coil. An internal magnetic field source is disposed within a cavity of the coil to apply a moving magnetic field to the coil. The stationary magnetic field interacts with the moving magnetic field to generate an electrical energy in the coil.

  15. Laser beam generating apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, B.E.; Duncan, D.B.

    1994-02-15

    Laser beam generating apparatus including a septum segment disposed longitudinally within the tubular structure of the apparatus is described. The septum provides for radiatively dissipating heat buildup within the tubular structure and for generating relatively uniform laser beam pulses so as to minimize or eliminate radial pulse delays (the chevron effect). 7 figures.

  16. Laser beam generating apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, B.E.; Duncan, D.B.

    1993-12-28

    Laser beam generating apparatus including a septum segment disposed longitudinally within the tubular structure of the apparatus. The septum provides for radiatively dissipating heat buildup within the tubular structure and for generating relatively uniform laser beam pulses so as to minimize or eliminate radial pulse delays (the chevron effect). 11 figures.

  17. Coiled transmission line pulse generators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kenneth Fox

    2010-11-09

    Methods and apparatus are provided for fabricating and constructing solid dielectric "Coiled Transmission Line" pulse generators in radial or axial coiled geometries. The pour and cure fabrication process enables a wide variety of geometries and form factors. The volume between the conductors is filled with liquid blends of monomers, polymers, oligomers, and/or cross-linkers and dielectric powders; and then cured to form high field strength and high dielectric constant solid dielectric transmission lines that intrinsically produce ideal rectangular high voltage pulses when charged and switched into matched impedance loads. Voltage levels may be increased by Marx and/or Blumlein principles incorporating spark gap or, preferentially, solid state switches (such as optically triggered thyristors) which produce reliable, high repetition rate operation. Moreover, these Marxed pulse generators can be DC charged and do not require additional pulse forming circuitry, pulse forming lines, transformers, or an a high voltage spark gap output switch. The apparatus accommodates a wide range of voltages, impedances, pulse durations, pulse repetition rates, and duty cycles. The resulting mobile or flight platform friendly cylindrical geometric configuration is much more compact, light-weight, and robust than conventional linear geometries, or pulse generators constructed from conventional components. Installing additional circuitry may accommodate optional pulse shape improvements. The Coiled Transmission Lines can also be connected in parallel to decrease the impedance, or in series to increase the pulse length.

  18. Geothermal Generation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Generation This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Global Geothermal Energy Generation Global Geothermal Electricity Generation in 2007 (in millions...

  19. Highly efficient electron vortex beams generated by nanofabricated phase holograms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grillo, Vincenzo; Mafakheri, Erfan; Frabboni, Stefano

    2014-01-27

    We propose an improved type of holographic-plate suitable for the shaping of electron beams. The plate is fabricated by a focused ion beam on a silicon nitride membrane and introduces a controllable phase shift to the electron wavefunction. We adopted the optimal blazed-profile design for the phase hologram, which results in the generation of highly efficient (25%) electron vortex beams. This approach paves the route towards applications in nano-scale imaging and materials science.

  20. Susceptibility and Knight-shift anomalies in cuprate superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thoma, J.; Tewari, S.; Ruvalds, J.; Rieck, C.T.

    1995-06-01

    The unconventional temperature variation of the static susceptibility {chi}({ital T}) that has been discovered in various copper oxide superconductors is explained in terms of a model density of states that has a step shape at an energy threshold {ital E}{sub 0} along with a logarithmic Van Hove singularity at the same {ital E}{sub 0}. Calculations of {chi}({ital T}) and the Knight shift above the superconducting transition temperature {ital T}{sub {ital c}} yield good fits to the YBCO, BSCCO, and LSCO data by adjusting only the Fermi energy {mu} in correspondence to the oxygen or Sr content, respectively. When {mu} is right on or slightly below the Van Hove singularity, an upturn in {chi} occurs as the temperature {ital T} is lowered. By contrast, when {mu} is slightly above the threshold energy {ital E}{sub 0}, a downturn in {chi} is achieved as {ital T} is lowered. A correlation of these phenomena with experimental data provides insight into the proximity of the Van Hove singularity to {mu} in several cuprate superconductors. The YBCO and TBCO cuprates with the higher {ital T}{sub {ital c}} values exhibit a nearly constant susceptibility that suggests a Fermi energy well removed from the Van Hove singularity. The sensitivity of {ital T}{sub {ital c}} as well as the susceptibility to chemical changes may provide tests of electronic mechanisms of electron pairing as well as the BCS theory.

  1. Shifting uses for natural resources in a changing climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darwin, R.; Lewandrowski, J. ); Tsigas, M. ); Raneses, A. )

    1994-12-01

    Changes in climate lead to changes in land resources, which in turn lead to changes in the global pattern of economic activity. A number of studies have evaluated effects of climate change on world agricultural systems. Most however used methods that did not permit explicit incorporation of land resources into the analysis. In the present study, the authors are able to link economic activities to land resources which are determined by climate. Also, since farmers adopt the crop mix best suited to alternative climatic conditions and compete with other economic agents for land, this is explicitly taken into account. They use this framework to estimate the impacts of climate change scenarios based on results of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies, the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, the United Kingdom Meteorological Office, and Oregon State University's general circulation models. The results indicate that, despite negative impacts in some regions, climate change will have a relatively small impact on the long-term ability of global agricultural resources to meet future world food demands. These results depend, however, on the ability to shift crop production to new locations.

  2. Controllable Raman soliton self-frequency shift in nonlinear metamaterials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiang Yuanjiang; Wen Shuangchun; Guo Jun; Fan Dianyuan

    2011-09-15

    Controllable and dispersive magnetic permeability in the metamaterials (MMs) provides us more freedom to harness the propagation of ultrashort electromagnetic pulses at will. Here we discuss the controllability of the Raman soliton self-frequency shift (SSFS) in the MMs with a nonlinear electric polarization. First, we derive a generalized nonlinear Schroedinger equation suitable for few-cycle pulse propagation in the MMs with delayed Raman response, and demonstrate the Raman effect, high-order Raman-related nonlinearity, and high-order nonlinear dispersion terms occurring in this equation. Second, we present a theoretical investigation on the controllability of the Raman SSFS in the MMs. In particular, we identify the combined effects of the anomalous self-steepening (SS), third-order dispersion (TOD), and Raman effect on SSFS. It is shown that the positive SS effect suppresses SSFS; however, the negative SS effect enhances SSFS, and the positive TOD leads to the deceleration of SSFS. Finally, the effects of SS on the SSFS of the second-order soliton are also discussed.

  3. Understanding predicted shifts in diazotroph biogeography using resource competition theory

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dutkiewicz, S.; Ward, B. A.; Scott, J. R.; Follows, M. J.

    2014-10-08

    We examine the sensitivity of the biogeography of nitrogen fixers to a warming climate and increased aeolian iron deposition in the context of a global earth system model. We employ concepts from the resource-ratio theory to provide a simplifying and transparent interpretation of the results. First we demonstrate that a set of clearly defined, easily diagnosed provinces are consistent with the theory. Using this framework we show that the regions most vulnerable to province shifts and changes in diazotroph biogeography are the equatorial and South Pacific, and central Atlantic. Warmer and dustier climates favor diazotrophs due to an increase inmore » the ratio of supply rate of iron to fixed nitrogen. We suggest that the emergent provinces could be a standard diagnostic for global change models, allowing for rapid and transparent interpretation and comparison of model predictions and the underlying mechanisms. The analysis suggests that monitoring of real world province boundaries, indicated by transitions in surface nutrient concentrations, would provide a clear and easily interpreted indicator of ongoing global change.« less

  4. Understanding predicted shifts in diazotroph biogeography using resource competition theory

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dutkiewicz, S.; Ward, B. A.; Scott, J. R.; Follows, M. J.

    2014-05-19

    We examine the sensitivity of the biogeography of nitrogen fixers to a warming climate and increased aeolian iron deposition in the context of a global Earth System Model. We employ concepts from Resource Ratio Theory to provide a simplifying and transparent interpretation of the results. First we demonstrate that a set of clearly defined, easily diagnosed provinces are consistent with the theory. Using the framework we show that the regions most vulnerable to province shifts and changes in diazotroph biogeography are the Equatorial and South Pacific, and central Atlantic. Warmer and dustier climates favor diazotrophs due to an increase inmore » the ratio of supply rate of iron to fixed nitrogen. The analysis suggests that monitoring of real world province boundaries, indicated by transitions in surface nutrient concentrations, would provide a clear and easily interpreted indicator of ongoing global change. We suggest that the emergent provinces could be a standard diagnostic for global change models, allowing for rapid and transparent interpretation and comparison of model predictions and the underlying mechanisms.« less

  5. Compact neutron generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Lou, Tak Pui

    2005-03-22

    A compact neutron generator has at its outer circumference a toroidal shaped plasma chamber in which a tritium (or other) plasma is generated. A RF antenna is wrapped around the plasma chamber. A plurality of tritium ion beamlets are extracted through spaced extraction apertures of a plasma electrode on the inner surface of the toroidal plasma chamber and directed inwardly toward the center of neutron generator. The beamlets pass through spaced acceleration and focusing electrodes to a neutron generating target at the center of neutron generator. The target is typically made of titanium tubing. Water is flowed through the tubing for cooling. The beam can be pulsed rapidly to achieve ultrashort neutron bursts. The target may be moved rapidly up and down so that the average power deposited on the surface of the target may be kept at a reasonable level. The neutron generator can produce fast neutrons from a T-T reaction which can be used for luggage and cargo interrogation applications. A luggage or cargo inspection system has a pulsed T-T neutron generator or source at the center, surrounded by associated gamma detectors and other components for identifying explosives or other contraband.

  6. Synthetic guide star generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, Stephen A.; Page, Ralph H.; Ebbers, Christopher A.; Beach, Raymond J.

    2004-03-09

    A system for assisting in observing a celestial object and providing synthetic guide star generation. A lasing system provides radiation at a frequency at or near 938 nm and radiation at a frequency at or near 1583 nm. The lasing system includes a fiber laser operating between 880 nm and 960 nm and a fiber laser operating between 1524 nm and 1650 nm. A frequency-conversion system mixes the radiation and generates light at a frequency at or near 589 nm. A system directs the light at a frequency at or near 589 nm toward the celestial object and provides synthetic guide star generation.

  7. Magnetic field generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krienin, Frank (Shoreham, NY)

    1990-01-01

    A magnetic field generating device provides a useful magnetic field within a specific retgion, while keeping nearby surrounding regions virtually field free. By placing an appropriate current density along a flux line of the source, the stray field effects of the generator may be contained. One current carrying structure may support a truncated cosine distribution, and it may be surrounded by a current structure which follows a flux line that would occur in a full coaxial double cosine distribution. Strong magnetic fields may be generated and contained using superconducting cables to approximate required current surfaces.

  8. Synthetic guide star generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Payne, Stephen A; Page, Ralph H; Ebbers, Christopher A; Beach, Raymond J

    2008-06-10

    A system for assisting in observing a celestial object and providing synthetic guide star generation. A lasing system provides radiation at a frequency at or near 938 nm and radiation at a frequency at or near 1583 nm. The lasing system includes a fiber laser operating between 880 nm and 960 nm and a fiber laser operating between 1524 nm and 1650 nm. A frequency-conversion system mixes the radiation and generates light at a frequency at or near 589 nm. A system directs the light at a frequency at or near 589 nm toward the celestial object and provides synthetic guide star generation.

  9. PULSE SYNTHESIZING GENERATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kerns, Q.A.

    1963-08-01

    >An electronlc circuit for synthesizing electrical current pulses having very fast rise times includes several sinewave generators tuned to progressively higher harmonic frequencies with signal amplitudes and phases selectable according to the Fourier series of the waveform that is to be synthesized. Phase control is provided by periodically triggering the generators at precisely controlled times. The outputs of the generators are combined in a coaxial transmission line. Any frequency-dependent delays that occur in the transmission line can be readily compensated for so that the desired signal wave shape is obtained at the output of the line. (AEC)

  10. Mann 3600 Pattern Generator

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mann 3600 Pattern Generator Description: The GCA Mann 3600 pattern generator is designed for patterning standard 5" x 5" mask plates for use in optical lithography. Pattern designs are created in AutoCAD. The AutoCAD file is then converted into binary format, which can be fractured into data read by the pattern generator. The illumination source for exposures is a high pressure Hg arc lamp. The light is filtered and projected onto a shutter, which controls the exposure dose. A set of

  11. Graph Generator Survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lothian, Josh; Powers, Sarah S; Sullivan, Blair D; Baker, Matthew B; Schrock, Jonathan; Poole, Stephen W

    2013-12-01

    The benchmarking effort within the Extreme Scale Systems Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory seeks to provide High Performance Computing benchmarks and test suites of interest to the DoD sponsor. The work described in this report is a part of the effort focusing on graph generation. A previously developed benchmark, SystemBurn, allowed the emulation of dierent application behavior profiles within a single framework. To complement this effort, similar capabilities are desired for graph-centric problems. This report examines existing synthetic graph generator implementations in preparation for further study on the properties of their generated synthetic graphs.

  12. Relativistic electron beam generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mooney, L.J.; Hyatt, H.M.

    1975-11-11

    A relativistic electron beam generator for laser media excitation is described. The device employs a diode type relativistic electron beam source having a cathode shape which provides a rectangular output beam with uniform current density.

  13. Vector generator scan converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, J.M.; Leighton, J.F.

    1988-02-05

    High printing speeds for graphics data are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardware for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold. 7 figs.

  14. Denison Dam Historical Generation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    50,000 100,000 150,000 200,000 250,000 300,000 350,000 400,000 450,000 500,000 (MWh) Denison Dam Historical Generation

  15. Scram signal generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johanson, Edward W.; Simms, Richard

    1981-01-01

    A scram signal generating circuit for nuclear reactor installations monitors a flow signal representing the flow rate of the liquid sodium coolant which is circulated through the reactor, and initiates reactor shutdown for a rapid variation in the flow signal, indicative of fuel motion. The scram signal generating circuit includes a long-term drift compensation circuit which processes the flow signal and generates an output signal representing the flow rate of the coolant. The output signal remains substantially unchanged for small variations in the flow signal, attributable to long term drift in the flow rate, but a rapid change in the flow signal, indicative of a fast flow variation, causes a corresponding change in the output signal. A comparator circuit compares the output signal with a reference signal, representing a given percentage of the steady state flow rate of the coolant, and generates a scram signal to initiate reactor shutdown when the output signal equals the reference signal.

  16. Scram signal generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johanson, E.W.; Simms, R.

    A scram signal generating circuit for nuclear reactor installations monitors a flow signal representing the flow rate of the liquid sodium coolant which is circulated through the reactor, and initiates reactor shutdown for a rapid variation in the flow signal, indicative of fuel motion. The scram signal generating circuit includes a long-term drift compensation circuit which processes the flow signal and generates an output signal representing the flow rate of the coolant. The output signal remains substantially unchanged for small variations in the flow signal, attributable to long term drift in the flow rate, but a rapid change in the flow signal, indicative of a fast flow variation, causes a corresponding change in the output signal. A comparator circuit compares the output signal with a reference signal, representing a given percentage of the steady state flow rate of the coolant, and generates a scram signal to initiate reactor shutdown when the output signal equals the reference signal.

  17. Generating electricity from viruses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Seung-Wuk

    2013-10-31

    Berkeley Lab's Seung-Wuk Lee discusses "Generating electricity from viruses" in this Oct. 28, 2013 talk, which is part of a Science at the Theater event entitled Eight Big Ideas.

  18. Generating electricity from viruses

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Lee, Seung-Wuk

    2014-06-23

    Berkeley Lab's Seung-Wuk Lee discusses "Generating electricity from viruses" in this Oct. 28, 2013 talk, which is part of a Science at the Theater event entitled Eight Big Ideas.

  19. Next Generation Materials:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Next Generation Materials: 1 Technology Assessment 2 Contents 3 1. Introduction to the Technology/System ............................................................................................... 1 4 1.1 Overview ....................................................................................................................................... 1 5 1.2 Public and private roles and activities .......................................................................................... 3 6 2.

  20. Biomass for Electricity Generation

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines issues affecting the uses of biomass for electricity generation. The methodology used in the National Energy Modeling System to account for various types of biomass is discussed, and the underlying assumptions are explained.

  1. Oscillating fluid power generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, David C

    2014-02-25

    A system and method for harvesting the kinetic energy of a fluid flow for power generation with a vertically oriented, aerodynamic wing structure comprising one or more airfoil elements pivotably attached to a mast. When activated by the moving fluid stream, the wing structure oscillates back and forth, generating lift first in one direction then in the opposite direction. This oscillating movement is converted to unidirectional rotational movement in order to provide motive power to an electricity generator. Unlike other oscillating devices, this device is designed to harvest the maximum aerodynamic lift forces available for a given oscillation cycle. Because the system is not subjected to the same intense forces and stresses as turbine systems, it can be constructed less expensively, reducing the cost of electricity generation. The system can be grouped in more compact clusters, be less evident in the landscape, and present reduced risk to avian species.

  2. Next Generation Rooftop Unit

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Next Generation Rooftop Unit - CRADA Bo Shen Oak Ridge National Laboratory shenb@ornl.gov; 865-574-5745 April 3, 2013 ET R&D project in support of DOEBTO Goal of 50% Reduction in ...

  3. Vector generator scan converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, James M.; Leighton, James F.

    1990-01-01

    High printing speeds for graphics data are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O (input/output) channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardward for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold.

  4. Renewable energy generation sources...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    With the Molten Salt Test Loop (MSTL), Sandia and its industry partners are working to address a major barrier to cost-effectively incorporating more solar thermal power generation...

  5. Steam generator tube failures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacDonald, P.E.; Shah, V.N.; Ward, L.W.; Ellison, P.G.

    1996-04-01

    A review and summary of the available information on steam generator tubing failures and the impact of these failures on plant safety is presented. The following topics are covered: pressurized water reactor (PWR), Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, and Russian water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (VVER) steam generator degradation, PWR steam generator tube ruptures, the thermal-hydraulic response of a PWR plant with a faulted steam generator, the risk significance of steam generator tube rupture accidents, tubing inspection requirements and fitness-for-service criteria in various countries, and defect detection reliability and sizing accuracy. A significant number of steam generator tubes are defective and are removed from service or repaired each year. This wide spread damage has been caused by many diverse degradation mechanisms, some of which are difficult to detect and predict. In addition, spontaneous tube ruptures have occurred at the rate of about one every 2 years over the last 20 years, and incipient tube ruptures (tube failures usually identified with leak detection monitors just before rupture) have been occurring at the rate of about one per year. These ruptures have caused complex plant transients which have not always been easy for the reactor operators to control. Our analysis shows that if more than 15 tubes rupture during a main steam line break, the system response could lead to core melting. Although spontaneous and induced steam generator tube ruptures are small contributors to the total core damage frequency calculated in probabilistic risk assessments, they are risk significant because the radionuclides are likely to bypass the reactor containment building. The frequency of steam generator tube ruptures can be significantly reduced through appropriate and timely inspections and repairs or removal from service.

  6. ADJUSTABLE DOUBLE PULSE GENERATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gratian, J.W.; Gratian, A.C.

    1961-08-01

    >A modulator pulse source having adjustable pulse width and adjustable pulse spacing is described. The generator consists of a cross coupled multivibrator having adjustable time constant circuitry in each leg, an adjustable differentiating circuit in the output of each leg, a mixing and rectifying circuit for combining the differentiated pulses and generating in its output a resultant sequence of negative pulses, and a final amplifying circuit for inverting and square-topping the pulses. (AEC)

  7. EIA - Electricity Generating Capacity

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Electricity Generating Capacity Release Date: January 3, 2013 | Next Release: August 2013 Year Existing Units by Energy Source Unit Additions Unit Retirements 2011 XLS XLS XLS 2010 XLS XLS XLS 2009 XLS XLS XLS 2008 XLS XLS XLS 2007 XLS XLS XLS 2006 XLS XLS XLS 2005 XLS XLS XLS 2004 XLS XLS XLS 2003 XLS XLS XLS Source: Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report." Related links Electric Power Monthly Electric Power Annual Form EIA-860 Source Data

  8. Compact Mesh Generator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2007-02-02

    The CMG is a small, lightweight, structured mesh generation code. It features a simple text input parser that allows setup of various meshes via a small set of text commands. Mesh generation data can be output to text, the silo file format, or the API can be directly queried by applications. It can run serially or in parallel via MPI. The CMG includes the ability to specify varius initial conditions on a mesh via meshmore » tags.« less

  9. Fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makiel, Joseph M.

    1985-01-01

    A high temperature solid electrolyte fuel cell generator comprising a housing means defining a plurality of chambers including a generator chamber and a combustion products chamber, a porous barrier separating the generator and combustion product chambers, a plurality of elongated annular fuel cells each having a closed end and an open end with the open ends disposed within the combustion product chamber, the cells extending from the open end through the porous barrier and into the generator chamber, a conduit for each cell, each conduit extending into a portion of each cell disposed within the generator chamber, each conduit having means for discharging a first gaseous reactant within each fuel cell, exhaust means for exhausting the combustion product chamber, manifolding means for supplying the first gaseous reactant to the conduits with the manifolding means disposed within the combustion product chamber between the porous barrier and the exhaust means and the manifolding means further comprising support and bypass means for providing support of the manifolding means within the housing while allowing combustion products from the first and a second gaseous reactant to flow past the manifolding means to the exhaust means, and means for flowing the second gaseous reactant into the generator chamber.

  10. Hybrid shearing and phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldberg, Kenneth Alan; Naulleau, Patrick P.

    2003-06-03

    A new interferometry configuration combines the strengths of two existing interferometry methods, improving the quality and extending the dynamic range of both. On the same patterned mask, placed near the image-plane of an optical system under test, patterns for phase-shifting point diffraction interferometry and lateral shearing interferometry coexist. The former giving verifiable high accuracy for the measurement of nearly diffraction-limited optical systems. The latter enabling the measurement of optical systems with more than one wave of aberration in the system wavefront. The interferometry configuration is a hybrid shearing and point diffraction interferometer system for testing an optical element that is positioned along an optical path including: a source of electromagnetic energy in the optical path; a first beam splitter that is secured to a device that includes means for maneuvering the first beam splitter in a first position wherein the first beam splitter is in the optical path dividing light from the source into a reference beam and a test beam and in a second position wherein the first beam splitter is outside the optical path: a hybrid mask which includes a first section that defines a test window and at least one reference pinhole and a second section that defines a second beam splitter wherein the hybrid mask is secured to a device that includes means for maneuvering either the first section or the second section into the optical path positioned in an image plane that is created by the optical element, with the proviso that the first section of the hybrid mask is positioned in the optical path when first beam splitter is positioned in the optical path; and a detector positioned after the hybrid mask along the optical path.

  11. Resonances and spectral shift function for a magnetic Schroedinger operator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khochman, Abdallah

    2009-04-15

    We consider the three-dimensional Schroedinger operator H{sub 0} with a constant magnetic field and subject to an electric potential v{sub 0} depending only on the variable along the magnetic field x{sub 3}. The operator H{sub 0} has infinitely many eigenvalues of infinite multiplicity embedded in its continuous spectrum. We perturb H{sub 0} by smooth scalar potentials V=O(<(x{sub 1},x{sub 2})>{sup -{delta}{sub perpendicular}}{sup -{delta}{sub ||}}), {delta}{sub perpendicular}>2, {delta}{sub ||}>1. We assume also that V and v{sub 0} have an analytic continuation, in the magnetic field direction, in a complex sector outside a compact set. We define the resonances of H=H{sub 0}+V as the eigenvalues of the nonself-adjoint operator obtained from H by analytic distortions of R{sub x{sub 3}}. We study their distribution near any fixed real eigenvalue of H{sub 0}, 2bq+{lambda} for q is an element of N. In a ring centered at 2bq+{lambda} with radii (r,2r), we establish an upper bound, as r tends to 0, of the number of resonances. This upper bound depends on the decay of V at infinity only in the directions (x{sub 1},x{sub 2}). Finally, we deduce a representation of the derivative of the spectral shift function for the operator pair (H{sub 0},H) in terms of resonances. This representation justifies the Breit-Wigner approximation and implies a local trace formula.

  12. Performance of Multi-chaotic PSO on a shifted benchmark functions set

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pluhacek, Michal; Senkerik, Roman; Zelinka, Ivan

    2015-03-10

    In this paper the performance of Multi-chaotic PSO algorithm is investigated using two shifted benchmark functions. The purpose of shifted benchmark functions is to simulate the time-variant real-world problems. The results of chaotic PSO are compared with canonical version of the algorithm. It is concluded that using the multi-chaotic approach can lead to better results in optimization of shifted functions.

  13. Federal-Tribal Partnership on Climate Change Action Rounds Corner, Shifts

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Into High Gear at 2013 Tribal Nations Conference | Department of Energy Federal-Tribal Partnership on Climate Change Action Rounds Corner, Shifts Into High Gear at 2013 Tribal Nations Conference Federal-Tribal Partnership on Climate Change Action Rounds Corner, Shifts Into High Gear at 2013 Tribal Nations Conference November 19, 2013 - 5:12pm Addthis Federal-Tribal Partnership on Climate Change Action Rounds Corner, Shifts Into High Gear at 2013 Tribal Nations Conference David F. Conrad

  14. (Small) Resonant non-Gaussianities: Signatures of a Discrete Shift Symmetry

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in the Effective Field Theory of Inflation (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect (Small) Resonant non-Gaussianities: Signatures of a Discrete Shift Symmetry in the Effective Field Theory of Inflation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: (Small) Resonant non-Gaussianities: Signatures of a Discrete Shift Symmetry in the Effective Field Theory of Inflation We apply the Effective Field Theory of Inflation to study the case where the continuous shift symmetry of the Goldstone boson {pi} is

  15. Coherence and Clock Shifts in Ultracold Fermi Gases with Resonant Interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baym, Gordon; Pethick, C. J.; Yu Zhenhua; Zwierlein, Martin W.

    2007-11-09

    Using arguments based on sum rules, we derive a general result for the average shifts of rf lines in Fermi gases in terms of interatomic interaction strengths and two-particle correlation functions. We show that near an interaction resonance shifts vary inversely with the atomic scattering length, rather than linearly as in dilute gases, thus accounting for the experimental observation that clock shifts remain finite at Feshbach resonances.

  16. Decrease in carbonyl sulfide in the feed to Claus converters by shift catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gens, T.A. (BOC Group Technical Center, Murray Hill, NJ (United States))

    1994-07-01

    The principal reaction in the burner in a Claus plant is the combustion of part of the hydrogen sulfide to form sulfur dioxide, which can react with more hydrogen sulfide to form sulfur. Alumina or commercial shift catalysts were used downstream of a Claus burner to shift carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide before it could react to form carbonyl sulfide. The shift catalysts were effective in preventing formation of carbonyl sulfide, thereby decreasing sulfur losses.

  17. On the Inclusion of Energy-Shifting Demand Response in Production...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    On the Inclusion of Energy- Shifting Demand Response in Production Cost Models: Methodology and a Case Study Niamh O'Connell Technical University of Denmark Elaine Hale, Ian ...

  18. Guide to good practices for control of on-shift training

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-12-01

    This Guide to Good Practices is written to enhance understanding of, and provide direction for, Control of On-Shift Training, Chapter 5 of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.19, Conduct of Operations Requirements for DOE Facilities. The practices in this guide should be considered when planning or reviewing on-shift training programs. ``Control of On-Shift Training`` is an element of an effective Conduct of Operations program. The complexity and array of activities performed in DOE facilities dictate the necessary for a coordinated on-shift training program to meet the continuous demand for skilled, well-trained personnel to promote safe and efficient operations.

  19. Differential Light-Shift Cancellation in a Magnetic-Field-Insensitive Transition of {sup 87}Rb

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chicireanu, R.; Nelson, K. D.; Olmschenk, S.; Porto, J. V.; Lundblad, N.; Derevianko, A.

    2011-02-11

    The precise measurement of transition frequencies of trapped atomic samples is susceptible to inaccuracy arising from the inhomogeneous differential shift of the relevant energy levels in the presence of the trapping fields. We demonstrate near-complete cancellation of the differential ac Stark shift (''light shift'') of a two-photon magnetic-field-insensitive microwave hyperfine (clock) transition in {sup 87}Rb atoms trapped in an optical lattice. Up to 95(2)% of the differential light shift is cancelled while maintaining magnetic-field insensitivity. This technique should have applications in quantum information and frequency metrology.

  20. EMP-002a Phase Shift through the Ionosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soltz, R.; Simons, D.; Fenimore, E.; Wilks, S.; Carey, T.

    2015-10-20

    In this note we review the derivation and use of the Ionospheric Transfer Function (ITF) in the DIO- RAMA model to calculate the propagation of a broad band ElectroMagnetic Pulse (EMP) through the Ionosphere in the limit of geometric optics. This note is intended to resolve a misunderstanding between the NDS VVA and EMP modeling teams regarding the appropriate use of the phase and group velocities in DIORAMA. The di erent approaches are documented in EMP-002 note, \\Phase vs. Group" [1], generated by the LLNL DIORAMA VVA team, and the subsequent response from the DIORAMA EMP modeling team' [2].

  1. Apparatus for generating nonlinear pulse patterns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nakamura, N.M.I.

    Apparatus for generating a plurality of nonlinear pulse patterns from a single linear pulse pattern. A first counter counts the pulses of the linear pulse pattern and a second counter counts the pulses of the nonlinear pulse pattern. A comparator compares the counts of both counters, and in response to an equal count, a gate is enabled to gate a pulse of the linear pattern as a pulse of the nonlinear pattern, the latter also resetting the first counter. Presettable dividers divide the pulses of each pattern before they are counted by the respective counters. Apparatus for generating a logarithmic pulse pattern from a linear pulse pattern to any log base is described. In one embodiment, a shift register is used in place of the second counter to be clocked by each pulse of the logarithmic pattern to generate the pattern. In another embodiment, a memory stores the logarithmic pattern and is addressed by the second counter which is clocked by the pulses of the logarithmic pulse pattern.

  2. Apparatus for generating nonlinear pulse patterns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nakamura, Michiyuki

    1981-01-01

    Apparatus for generating a plurality of nonlinear pulse patterns from a single linear pulse pattern. A first counter counts the pulses of the linear pulse pattern and a second counter counts the pulses of the nonlinear pulse pattern. A comparator compares the counts of both counters, and in response to an equal count, a gate is enabled to gate a pulse of the linear pattern as a pulse of the nonlinear pattern, the latter also resetting the first counter. Presettable dividers divide the pulses of each pattern before they are counted by the respective counters. Also, apparatus for generating a logarithmic pulse pattern from a linear pulse pattern to any log base. In one embodiment, a shift register is used in place of the second counter to be clocked by each pulse of the logarithmic pattern to generate the pattern. In another embodiment, a memory stores the logarithmic pattern and is addressed by the second counter which is clocked by the pulses of the logarithmic pulse pattern.

  3. Coal Gasification for Power Generation, 3. edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-11-15

    The report provides a concise look at the challenges faced by coal-fired generation, the ability of coal gasification to address these challenges, and the current state of IGCC power generation. Topics covered include: an overview of Coal Generation including its history, the current market environment, and the status of coal gasification; a description of gasification technology including processes and systems; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving increased interest in coal gasification; an analysis of the barriers that are hindering the implementation of coal gasification projects; a discussion of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology; an evaluation of IGCC versus other generation technologies; a discussion of IGCC project development options; a discussion of the key government initiatives supporting IGCC development; profiles of the key gasification technology companies participating in the IGCC market; and, a detailed description of existing and planned coal IGCC projects.

  4. Social Intelligence: Next Generation Business Intelligence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troy Hiltbrand

    2010-09-01

    In order for Business Intelligence to truly move beyond where it is today, a shift in approach must occur. Currently, much of what is accomplished in the realm of Business Intelligence relies on reports and dashboards to summarize and deliver information to end users. As we move into the future, we need to get beyond these reports and dashboards to a point where we break out the individual metrics that are embedded in these reports and interact with these components independently. Breaking these pieces of information out of the confines of reports and dashboards will allow them to be dynamically assembled for delivery in the way that makes most sense to each consumer. With this change in ideology, Business Intelligence will move from the concept of collections of objects, or reports and dashboards, to individual objects, or information components. The Next Generation Business Intelligence suite will translate concepts popularized in Facebook, Flickr, and Digg into enterprise worthy communication vehicles.

  5. Superconducting thermoelectric generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Metzger, J.D.; El-Genk, M.S.

    1994-01-01

    Thermoelectricity is produced by applying a temperature differential to dissimilar electrically conducting or semiconducting materials, thereby producing a voltage that is proportional to the temperature difference. Thermoelectric generators use this effect to directly convert heat into electricity; however, presently-known generators have low efficiencies due to the production of high currents which in turn cause large resistive heating losses. Some thermoelectric generators operate at efficiencies between 4% and 7% in the 800{degrees} to 1200{degrees}C range. According to its major aspects and bradly stated, the present invention is an apparatus and method for producing electricity from heat. In particular, the invention is a thermoelectric generator that juxtaposes a superconducting material and a semiconducting material - so that the superconducting and the semiconducting materials touch - to convert heat energy into electrical energy without resistive losses in the temperature range below the critical temperature of the superconducting material. Preferably, an array of superconducting material is encased in one of several possible configurations within a second material having a high thermal conductivity, preferably a semiconductor, to form a thermoelectric generator.

  6. MCNP LWR Core Generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, Noah A.

    2012-08-14

    The reactor core input generator allows for MCNP input files to be tailored to design specifications and generated in seconds. Full reactor models can now easily be created by specifying a small set of parameters and generating an MCNP input for a full reactor core. Axial zoning of the core will allow for density variation in the fuel and moderator, with pin-by-pin fidelity, so that BWR cores can more accurately be modeled. LWR core work in progress: (1) Reflectivity option for specifying 1/4, 1/2, or full core simulation; (2) Axial zoning for moderator densities that vary with height; (3) Generating multiple types of assemblies for different fuel enrichments; and (4) Parameters for specifying BWR box walls. Fuel pin work in progress: (1) Radial and azimuthal zoning for generating further unique materials in fuel rods; (2) Options for specifying different types of fuel for MOX or multiple burn assemblies; (3) Additional options for replacing fuel rods with burnable poison rods; and (4) Control rod/blade modeling.

  7. MHD Generating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Petrick, Michael; Pierson, Edward S.; Schreiner, Felix

    1980-01-01

    According to the present invention, coal combustion gas is the primary working fluid and copper or a copper alloy is the electrodynamic fluid in the MHD generator, thereby eliminating the heat exchangers between the combustor and the liquid-metal MHD working fluids, allowing the use of a conventional coalfired steam bottoming plant, and making the plant simpler, more efficient and cheaper. In operation, the gas and liquid are combined in a mixer and the resulting two-phase mixture enters the MHD generator. The MHD generator acts as a turbine and electric generator in one unit wherein the gas expands, drives the liquid across the magnetic field and thus generates electrical power. The gas and liquid are separated, and the available energy in the gas is recovered before the gas is exhausted to the atmosphere. Where the combustion gas contains sulfur, oxygen is bubbled through a side loop to remove sulfur therefrom as a concentrated stream of sulfur dioxide. The combustor is operated substoichiometrically to control the oxide level in the copper.

  8. Hydrate Evolution in Response to Ongoing Environmental Shifts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rempel, Alan

    2015-12-31

    Natural gas hydrates have the potential to become a vital domestic clean-burning energy source. However, past changes in environmental conditions have caused hydrates to become unstable and trigger both massive submarine landslides and the development of crater-like pockmarks, thereby releasing methane into the overlying seawater and atmosphere, where it acts as a powerful greenhouse gas. This project was designed to fill critical gaps in our understanding of domestic hydrate resources and improve forecasts for their response to environmental shifts. Project work can be separated into three interrelated components, each involving the development of predictive mathematical models. The first project component concerns the role of sediment properties on the development and dissociation of concentrated hydrate anomalies. To this end, we developed numerical models to predict equilibrium solubility of methane in twophase equilibrium with hydrate as a function of measureable porous medium characteristics. The second project component concerned the evolution of hydrate distribution in heterogeneous reservoirs. To this end, we developed numerical models to predict the growth and decay of anomalies in representative physical environments. The third project component concerned the stability of hydrate-bearing slopes under changing environmental conditions. To this end, we developed numerical treatments of pore pressure evolution and consolidation, then used "infinite-slope" analysis to approximate the landslide potential in representative physical environments, and developed a "rate-and-state" frictional formulation to assess the stability of finite slip patches that are hypothesized to develop in response to the dissociation of hydrate anomalies. The increased predictive capabilities that result from this work provide a framework for interpreting field observations of hydrate anomalies in terms of the history of environmental forcing that led to their development. Moreover

  9. Demand Shifting with Thermal Mass in Light and Heavy Mass Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Peng; Zagreus, Leah

    2009-05-01

    The potential for utilizing building thermal mass for load shifting and peak demand reduction has been demonstrated in a number of simulation, laboratory, and field studies. This project studied the potential of pre-cooling and demand limiting in a heavy mass and a light mass building in the Bay Area of California. The conclusion of the work to date is that pre-cooling has the potential to improve the demand responsiveness of commercial buildings while maintaining acceptable comfort conditions. Results indicate that pre-cooling increases the depth (kW) and duration (kWh) of the shed capacity of a given building, all other factors being equal. Due to the time necessary for pre-cooling, it is only applicable to day-ahead demand response programs. Pre-cooling can be very effective if the building mass is relatively heavy. The effectiveness of night pre-cooling under hot weather conditions has not been tested. Further work is required to quantify and demonstrate the effectiveness of pre-cooling in different climates. Research is also needed to develop screening tools that can be used to select suitable buildings and customers, identify the most appropriate pre-cooling strategies, and estimate the benefits to the customer and the utility.

  10. Massively parallel mesh generation for physics codes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardin, D.D.

    1996-06-01

    Massively parallel processors (MPPs) will soon enable realistic 3-D physical modeling of complex objects and systems. Work is planned or presently underway to port many of LLNL`s physical modeling codes to MPPs. LLNL`s DSI3D electromagnetics code already can solve 40+ million zone problems on the 256 processor Meiko. However, the author lacks the software necessary to generate and manipulate the large meshes needed to model many complicated 3-D geometries. State-of-the-art commercial mesh generators run on workstations and have a practical limit of several hundred thousand elements. In the foreseeable future MPPs will solve problems with a billion mesh elements. The objective of the Parallel Mesh Generation (PMESH) Project is to develop a unique mesh generation system that can construct large 3-D meshes (up to a billion elements) on MPPs. Such a capability will remove a critical roadblock to unleashing the power of MPPs for physical analysis and will put LLNL at the forefront of mesh generation technology. PMESH will ``front-end`` a variety of LLNL 3-D physics codes, including those in the areas of electromagnetics, structural mechanics, thermal analysis, and hydrodynamics. The DSI3D and DYNA3D codes are already running on MPPs. The primary goal of the PMESH project is to provide the robust generation of large meshes for complicated 3-D geometries through the appropriate distribution of the generation task between the user`s workstation and the MPP. Secondary goals are to support the unique features of LLNL physics codes (e.g., unusual elements) and to minimize the user effort required to generate different meshes for the same geometry. PMESH`s capabilities are essential because mesh generation is presently a major limiting factor in simulating larger and more complex 3-D geometries. PMESH will significantly enhance LLNL`s capabilities in physical simulation by advancing the state-of-the-art in large mesh generation by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude.

  11. Spherical neutron generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2006-11-21

    A spherical neutron generator is formed with a small spherical target and a spherical shell RF-driven plasma ion source surrounding the target. A deuterium (or deuterium and tritium) ion plasma is produced by RF excitation in the plasma ion source using an RF antenna. The plasma generation region is a spherical shell between an outer chamber and an inner extraction electrode. A spherical neutron generating target is at the center of the chamber and is biased negatively with respect to the extraction electrode which contains many holes. Ions passing through the holes in the extraction electrode are focused onto the target which produces neutrons by D-D or D-T reactions.

  12. Thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1984-11-16

    A thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator includes an intrinsically irreversible thermoacoustic heat engine coupled to a magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator. The heat engine includes an electrically conductive liquid metal as the working fluid and includes two heat exchange and thermoacoustic structure assemblies which drive the liquid in a push-pull arrangement to cause the liquid metal to oscillate at a resonant acoustic frequency on the order of 1000 Hz. The engine is positioned in the field of a magnet and is oriented such that the liquid metal oscillates in a direction orthogonal to the field of the magnet, whereby an alternating electrical potential is generated in the liquid metal. Low-loss, low-inductance electrical conductors electrically connected to opposite sides of the liquid metal conduct an output signal to a transformer adapted to convert the low-voltage, high-current output signal to a more usable higher voltage, lower current signal.

  13. Thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, John C.; Swift, Gregory W.; Migliori, Albert

    1986-01-01

    A thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator includes an intrinsically irreversible thermoacoustic heat engine coupled to a magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator. The heat engine includes an electrically conductive liquid metal as the working fluid and includes two heat exchange and thermoacoustic structure assemblies which drive the liquid in a push-pull arrangement to cause the liquid metal to oscillate at a resonant acoustic frequency on the order of 1,000 Hz. The engine is positioned in the field of a magnet and is oriented such that the liquid metal oscillates in a direction orthogonal to the field of the magnet, whereby an alternating electrical potential is generated in the liquid metal. Low-loss, low-inductance electrical conductors electrically connected to opposite sides of the liquid metal conduct an output signal to a transformer adapted to convert the low-voltage, high-current output signal to a more usable higher voltage, lower current signal.

  14. Sidetone generator flowmeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fritz, Robert J.

    1986-01-01

    A flowmeter is provided which uses the sidetones generated in a cavity formed in the wall of a flowpipe or the like in response to fluid flowing past the cavity to provide a measure of the flow velocity of that fluid. The dimensions of the cavity are such as to provide a dominant vibratory frequency which is sensed by a pressure sensor. The flowmeter is adapted for use for a range of frequencies in which the Strouhal number is constant and under these conditions the vibratory frequency is directly related to the flow rate. The tone generator cavity and pressure transducer form a unit which is connected in-line in the flowpipe.

  15. Sidetone generator flowmeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fritz, R.J.

    1983-11-03

    A flowmeter is provided which uses the sidetones generated in a cavity formed in the wall of a flowpipe or the like in response to fluid flowing past the cavity to provide a measure of the flow velocity of that fluid. The dimensions of the cavity are such as to provide a dominant vibratory frequency which is sensed by a pressure sensor. The flowmeter is adapted for use for a range of frequencies in which the Strouhal number is constant and under these conditions the vibratory frequency is directly related to the flow rate. The tone generator cavity and pressure transducer form a unit which is connected in-line in the flowpipe.

  16. External split field generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thundat, Thomas George; Van Neste, Charles W.; Vass, Arpad Alexander

    2012-02-21

    A generator includes a coil disposed about a core. A first stationary magnetic field source may be disposed on a first end portion of the core and a second stationary magnetic field source may be disposed on a second end portion of core. The first and second stationary magnetic field sources apply a stationary magnetic field to the coil. An external magnetic field source may be disposed outside the coil to apply a moving magnetic field to the coil. Electrical energy is generated in response to an interaction between the coil, the moving magnetic field, and the stationary magnetic field.

  17. Electricity Generation Cost Simulation Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2003-04-25

    The Electricity Generation Cost Simulation Model (GENSIM) is a user-friendly, high-level dynamic simulation model that calculates electricity production costs for variety of electricity generation technologies, including: pulverized coal, gas combustion turbine, gas combined cycle, nuclear, solar (PV and thermal), and wind. The model allows the user to quickly conduct sensitivity analysis on key variables, including: capital, O&M, and fuel costs; interest rates; construction time; heat rates; and capacity factors. The model also includes consideration ofmore » a wide range of externality costs and pollution control options for carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and mercury. Two different data sets are included in the model; one from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the other from Platt's Research Group. Likely users of this model include executives and staff in the Congress, the Administration and private industry (power plant builders, industrial electricity users and electric utilities). The model seeks to improve understanding of the economic viability of various generating technologies and their emission trade-offs. The base case results using the DOE data, indicate that in the absence of externality costs, or renewable tax credits, pulverized coal and gas combined cycle plants are the least cost alternatives at 3.7 and 3.5 cents/kwhr, respectively. A complete sensitivity analysis on fuel, capital, and construction time shows that these results coal and gas are much more sensitive to assumption about fuel prices than they are to capital costs or construction times. The results also show that making nuclear competitive with coal or gas requires significant reductions in capital costs, to the $1000/kW level, if no other changes are made. For renewables, the results indicate that wind is now competitive with the nuclear option and is only competitive with coal and gas for grid connected applications if one includes the federal production tax

  18. Levelized cost and levelized avoided cost of new generation resources...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    3 The importance of the factors varies among the technologies. For technologies such as solar and wind generation that have no fuel costs and relatively small variable O&M costs,...

  19. Using Backup Generators: Choosing the Right Backup Generator - Homeowners |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Homeowners Using Backup Generators: Choosing the Right Backup Generator - Homeowners Using Backup Generators: Choosing the Right Backup Generator - Homeowners Determine the amount of power you will need-How much power do you need to operate equipment and appliances connected to the generator? Portable generators made for household use can provide temporary power to a small number of selected appliances or lights. For example, light bulb wattage indicates the power needed

  20. Z' generation with PYTHIA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ciobanu, Catalin; Junk, Thomas; Veramendi, Gregory; Lee, Jedong; De Lentdecker, Gilles; McFarland, Kevin; Maeshima, Kaori; /Fermilab

    2005-07-01

    This document is intended as a guide for getting started with the Z' generation with PYTHIA[1]. Several different conventions used in literature are discussed, and the conversion among these is given. The Z' couplings to fermions are given for the sequential Z', the Z' model-lines of Ref. [2], and the popular E6 Z' models.

  1. Iridium 191-M generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Treves, Salvador; Cheng, Chris C.

    1988-03-08

    Potassium osmate, of the formula K.sub.2 Os O.sub.2 (OH).sub.4), used to make a column for the generation of Ir-191 m, which is used in first pass angiography to detect cardiac defects in patients.

  2. Fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isenberg, Arnold O.

    1983-01-01

    High temperature solid oxide electrolyte fuel cell generators which allow controlled leakage among plural chambers in a sealed housing. Depleted oxidant and fuel are directly reacted in one chamber to combust remaining fuel and preheat incoming reactants. The cells are preferably electrically arranged in a series-parallel configuration.

  3. Iridium 191-m generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Treves, S.; Cheng, C.C.

    1988-03-08

    Potassium osmate, of the formula K[sub 2]OsO[sub 2](OH)[sub 4], is used to make a column for the generation of Ir-191 m, which is used in first pass angiography to detect cardiac defects in patients. 2 figs.

  4. Kansas Nuclear Profile - Wolf Creek Generating Station

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    April 2012" "Next Release Date: February 2013" "Wolf Creek Generating Station" "Unit","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Summer capacity factor (percent)","Type","Commercial operation date","License expiration date" 1,"1,160","9,556",94.0,"PWR","application/vnd.ms-excel","application/vnd.ms-excel"

  5. Illinois Nuclear Profile - Dresden Generating Station

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Dresden Generating Station" "Unit","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Summer capacity factor (percent)","Type","Commercial operation date","License expiration date" 2,867,"7,727",101.7,"BWR","application/vnd.ms-excel","application/vnd.ms-excel" 3,867,"6,866",90.4,"BWR","application/vnd.ms-excel","application/vnd.ms-excel"

  6. Ultralow-threshold laser and blue shift cooperative luminescence in a Yb{sup 3+} doped silica microsphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Yantang Huang, Yu; Zhang, Peijin; Guo, Changlei; Department of Electronic Engineering, Institute of Optoelectronic Technology, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361005

    2014-02-15

    An experimental investigation on ultralow threshold laser and blue shift cooperative luminescence (CL) in a Yb{sup 3+} doped silica microsphere (YDSM) with continuous-wave 976 nm laser diode pumping is reported. The experimental results show that the YDSM emits laser oscillation with ultralow threshold of 2.62 ?W, and the laser spectrum is modulated by the microsphere morphology characteristics. In addition, blue emission of YDSM is also observed with the increase of pump power, which is supposed to be generated by CL of excited Yb ion-pairs with the absorption of 976 nm photons and Si-O vibration phonons, and the process is explained with an energy level diagram. This property of the blue shift CL with phonons absorption in the Yb{sup 3+}doped microcavity makes it attractive for the application of laser cooling based on anti-Stokes fluorescence emission, if the Yb{sup 3+}doped microcavity made from with low phonon energy host materials.

  7. Isotope shifts in francium isotopes Fr 206 - 213 and Fr 221

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Collister, R.; Gwinner, G.; Tandecki, M.; Behr, J. A.; Pearson, M. R.; Zhang, J.; Orozco, L. A.; Aubin, S.; Gomez, E.; FrPNC Collaboration

    2014-11-07

    We present the isotope shifts of the 7s1/2 to 7p1/2 transition for francium isotopes ²⁰⁶⁻²¹³Fr with reference to ²²¹Fr collected from two experimental periods. The shifts are measured on a sample of atoms prepared within a magneto-optical trap by a fast sweep of radio-frequency sidebands applied to a carrier laser. King plot analysis, which includes literature values for 7s1/2 to 7p3/2 isotope shifts, provides a field shift constant ratio of 1.0520(10) and a difference between the specific mass shift constants of 170(100) GHz amu between the D₁ and D₂ transitions, of sufficient precision to differentiate between ab initio calculations.

  8. GASIFICATION FOR DISTRIBUTED GENERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald C. Timpe; Michael D. Mann; Darren D. Schmidt

    2000-05-01

    A recent emphasis in gasification technology development has been directed toward reduced-scale gasifier systems for distributed generation at remote sites. The domestic distributed power generation market over the next decade is expected to be 5-6 gigawatts per year. The global increase is expected at 20 gigawatts over the next decade. The economics of gasification for distributed power generation are significantly improved when fuel transport is minimized. Until recently, gasification technology has been synonymous with coal conversion. Presently, however, interest centers on providing clean-burning fuel to remote sites that are not necessarily near coal supplies but have sufficient alternative carbonaceous material to feed a small gasifier. Gasifiers up to 50 MW are of current interest, with emphasis on those of 5-MW generating capacity. Internal combustion engines offer a more robust system for utilizing the fuel gas, while fuel cells and microturbines offer higher electric conversion efficiencies. The initial focus of this multiyear effort was on internal combustion engines and microturbines as more realistic near-term options for distributed generation. In this project, we studied emerging gasification technologies that can provide gas from regionally available feedstock as fuel to power generators under 30 MW in a distributed generation setting. Larger-scale gasification, primarily coal-fed, has been used commercially for more than 50 years to produce clean synthesis gas for the refining, chemical, and power industries. Commercial-scale gasification activities are under way at 113 sites in 22 countries in North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia, according to the Gasification Technologies Council. Gasification studies were carried out on alfalfa, black liquor (a high-sodium waste from the pulp industry), cow manure, and willow on the laboratory scale and on alfalfa, black liquor, and willow on the bench scale. Initial parametric tests

  9. Rapid prototyping: A paradigm shift in investment casting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atwood, C.L.; Maguire, M.C.; Baldwin, M.D.; Pardo, B.T.

    1996-09-01

    The quest for fabricating complex metal parts rapidly and with minimal cost has brought rapid prototyping (RP) processes to the forefront of the investment casting industry. Relatively recent advances in DTM Corporation`s selective laser sintering (SLS) and 3D Systems stereolithography (SL) processes have had a significant impact on the overall quality of patterns produced using these rapid prototyping processes. Sandia National Laboratories uses patterns generated from rapid prototyping processes to reduce the cycle time and cost of fabricating prototype and small lot production parts in support of a program called FASTCAST. The SLS process is used to fabricate patterns from materials such as investment casting wax, polycarbonate, and a new material called TrueForm PM{trademark}. With the timely introduction of each of these materials, the quality of patterns fabricated has improved. The development and implementation of SL QuickCast{trademark} software has enabled this process to produce highly accurate patterns for use in investment casting. This paper focuses on the successes with these new pattern materials and the infrastructure required to cast rapid prototyping patterns successfully. In addition, a brief overview of other applications of rapid prototyping at Sandia will be discussed.

  10. Exelôn. Generation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Exeln. Generation 4300 Winfield Road Warrenville, Illinois 60555 Writer's Direct Dial: ... On March 14, 2011, representatives of Exelon Generation Company, LLC and Exelon Nuclear ...

  11. Interconnection Standards for Small Generators

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NOTE: On July 2016, FERC issued Order 827 revising the Small Generation Interconnection Agreement (SGIA) to require newly interconnecting small generators under 20 MW to ride through abnormal...

  12. Hydro Power (pbl/generation)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Generation > Generation Hydro Power FCRPS Hydro Projects FCRPS Information Kiosk Current Hydrological Info Fish Funding Agreement FCRPS Definitions Wind Power Monthly GSP BPA White...

  13. SSE Generation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    SSE Generation Jump to: navigation, search Name: SSE Generation Place: Perth, Scotland, United Kingdom Zip: PH1 3AQ Sector: Renewable Energy Product: Owns and operates around half...

  14. Solaire Generation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Generation Place: New York, New York Zip: 10001 Sector: Solar Product: New York-based rooftop PV mounting systems and solar canopy maker. References: Solaire Generation1 This...

  15. Thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1986-07-08

    A thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator is described comprising a magnet having a magnetic field, an elongate hollow housing containing an electrically conductive liquid and a thermoacoustic structure positioned in the liquid, heat exchange means thermally connected to the thermoacoustic structure for inducing the liquid to oscillate at an acoustic resonant frequency within the housing. The housing is positioned in the magnetic field and oriented such that the direction of the magnetic field and the direction of oscillatory motion of the liquid are substantially orthogonal to one another, first and second electrical conductor means connected to the liquid on opposite sides of the housing along an axis which is substantially orthogonal to both the direction of the magnetic field and the direction of oscillatory motion of the liquid, an alternating current output signal is generated in the conductor means at a frequency corresponding to the frequency of the oscillatory motion of the liquid.

  16. Generation of energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalina, Alexander I.

    1984-01-01

    A method of generating energy which comprises utilizing relatively lower temperature available heat to effect partial distillation of at least portion of a multicomponent working fluid stream at an intermediate pressure to generate working fluid fractions of differing compositions. The fractions are used to produce at least one main rich solution which is relatively enriched with respect to the lower boiling component, and to produce at least one lean solution which is relatively improverished with respect to the lower boiling component. The pressure of the main rich solution is increased whereafter it is evaporated to produce a charged gaseous main working fluid. The main working fluid is expanded to a low pressure level to release energy. The spent low pressure level working fluid is condensed in a main absorption stage by dissolving with cooling in the lean solution to regenerate an initial working fluid for reuse.

  17. Calibrated vapor generator source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davies, John P.; Larson, Ronald A.; Goodrich, Lorenzo D.; Hall, Harold J.; Stoddard, Billy D.; Davis, Sean G.; Kaser, Timothy G.; Conrad, Frank J.

    1995-01-01

    A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet.

  18. Calibrated vapor generator source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davies, J.P.; Larson, R.A.; Goodrich, L.D.; Hall, H.J.; Stoddard, B.D.; Davis, S.G.; Kaser, T.G.; Conrad, F.J.

    1995-09-26

    A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet. 10 figs.

  19. Reduced waste generation technical work plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-05-01

    The United States Department of Energy has established policies for avoiding plutonium losses to the waste streams and minimizing the generation of wastes produced at its nuclear facilities. This policy is evidenced in DOE Order 5820.2, which states Technical and administrative controls shall be directed towards reducing the gross volume of TRU waste generated and the amount of radioactivity in such waste.'' To comply with the DOE directive, the Defense Transuranic Waste Program (DTWP) supports and provides funding for specific research and development tasks at the various DOE sites to reduce the generation of waste. This document has been prepared to give an overview of current and past Reduced Waste Generation task activities which are to be based on technical and cost/benefit factors. The document is updated annually, or as needed, to reflect the status of program direction. Reduced Waste Generation (RWG) tasks encompass a wide range of goals which are basically oriented toward (1) avoiding the generation of waste, (2) changing processes or operations to reduce waste, (3) converting TRU waste into LLW by sorting or decontamination, and (4) reducing volumes through operations such as incineration or compaction.

  20. Component for thermoelectric generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Purdy, David L.

    1977-01-01

    In a thermoelectric generator, a component comprises a ceramic insulator, having over limited areas thereof, each area corresponding to a terminal end of thermoelectric wires, a coating of a first metal which adheres to the insulator, and an electrical thermoelectric junction including a second metal which wets said first metal and adheres to said terminal ends but does not wet said insulator, and a cloth composed of electrically insulating threads interlaced with thermoelectric wires.

  1. Hydrogen Generation for Refineries

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE PEER REVIEW MEETING May 5-6, 2014 DE-FG02-08ER85135 Hydrogen Generation for Refineries DOE Phase II SBIR Dr. Girish Srinivas P.I. gsrinivas@tda.com 303-940-2321 Dr. Steven Gebhard, P.E. Dr. Robert Copeland Mr. Jeff Martin TDA Research Inc. 1 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information. Project Overview *

  2. Negative ion generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stinnett, Regan W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1984-01-01

    A negative ion generator is formed from a magnetically insulated transmission line having a coating of graphite on the cathode for producing negative ions and a plurality of apertures on the opposed anode for the release of negative ions. Magnetic insulation keeps electrons from flowing from the cathode to the anode. A transverse magnetic field removes electrons which do escape through the apertures from the trajectory of the negative ions.

  3. Hydro-electric generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vauthier, P.

    1980-06-03

    The efficiency of a hydro-electric generator is improved by providing open-ended hollow tubes having influx ends proximate the axis and efflux ends proximate the periphery of a fan-bladed turbine. The jets of water developed by rotation of the fanbladed turbine are directed against turbine vanes at the periphery of the fan blades. The device is particularly suitable for mounting in a water current such as in an ocean current or river.

  4. HIGH VOLTAGE GENERATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schwemin, A.J.

    1959-03-17

    A generator is presented for producing relatively large currents at high voltages. In general, the invention comprises a plurality of capacitors connected in series by a plurality of switches alternately disposed with the capacitors. The circuit is mounted for movement with respect to contact members and switch closure means so that a load device and power supply are connected across successive numbers of capacitors, while the other capacitors are successively charged with the same power supply.

  5. Monodisperse aerosol generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortiz, Lawrence W.; Soderholm, Sidney C.

    1990-01-01

    An aerosol generator is described which is capable of producing a monodisperse aerosol within narrow limits utilizing an aqueous solution capable of providing a high population of seed nuclei and an organic solution having a low vapor pressure. The two solutions are cold nebulized, mixed, vaporized, and cooled. During cooling, particles of the organic vapor condense onto the excess seed nuclei, and grow to a uniform particle size.

  6. High power microwave generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekdahl, Carl A.

    1986-01-01

    A microwave generator efficiently converts the energy of an intense relativistic electron beam (REB) into a high-power microwave emission using the Smith-Purcell effect which is related to Cerenkov radiation. Feedback for efficient beam bunching and high gain is obtained by placing a cylindrical Smith-Purcell transmission grating on the axis of a toroidal resonator. High efficiency results from the use of a thin cold annular highly-magnetized REB that is closely coupled to the resonant structure.

  7. High power microwave generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekdahl, C.A.

    1983-12-29

    A microwave generator efficiently converts the energy of an intense relativistic electron beam (REB) into a high-power microwave emission using the Smith-Purcell effect which is related to Cerenkov radiation. Feedback for efficient beam bunching and high gain is obtained by placing a cylindrical Smith-Purcell transmission grating on the axis of a toroidal resonator. High efficiency results from the use of a thin cold annular highly-magnetized REB that is closely coupled to the resonant structure.

  8. Ion beam generating apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Ian G.; Galvin, James

    1987-01-01

    An ion generating apparatus utilizing a vacuum chamber, a cathode and an anode in the chamber. A source of electrical power produces an arc or discharge between the cathode and anode. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma is directed to an extractor which separates the electrons from the plasma, and accelerates the ions to produce an ion beam.

  9. Negative ion generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stinnett, R.W.

    1984-05-08

    A negative ion generator is formed from a magnetically insulated transmission line having a coating of graphite on the cathode for producing negative ions and a plurality of apertures on the opposed anode for the release of negative ions. Magnetic insulation keeps electrons from flowing from the cathode to the anode. A transverse magnetic field removes electrons which do escape through the apertures from the trajectory of the negative ions. 8 figs.

  10. Ion beam generating apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, I.G.; Galvin, J.

    1987-12-22

    An ion generating apparatus utilizing a vacuum chamber, a cathode and an anode in the chamber. A source of electrical power produces an arc or discharge between the cathode and anode. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma is directed to an extractor which separates the electrons from the plasma, and accelerates the ions to produce an ion beam. 10 figs.