National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for generation transmission distribution

  1. The Impact of Distributed Generation on Power Transmission Grid Dynamics D. E. Newman B. A. Carreras M. Kirchner I. Dobson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dobson, Ian

    The Impact of Distributed Generation on Power Transmission Grid Dynamics D. E. Newman B. A on the robustness of the power transmission grid using a dynamic model of the power transmission system (OPA of the transmission grid. This intuitive improvement comes simply from the realization that less power would need

  2. Distributed generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ness, E.

    1999-09-02

    Distributed generation, locating electricity generators close to the point of consumption, provides some unique benefits to power companies and customers that are not available from centralized electricity generation. Photovoltaic (PV) technology is well suited to distributed applications and can, especially in concert with other distributed resources, provide a very close match to the customer demand for electricity, at a significantly lower cost than the alternatives. In addition to augmenting power from central-station generating plants, incorporating PV systems enables electric utilities to optimize the utilization of existing transmission and distribution.

  3. Impact of distributed generation of solar photovoltaic (PV) generation on the Massachusetts transmission system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simhadri, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    After reaching 250 megawatt direct current (MW dc) of solar photovoltaic (PV) generation installed in Massachusetts (MA) in 2013, four years ahead of schedule, Governor Deval Patrick in May of 2013 announced an increase ...

  4. Distributed Generation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electricity, US Data. 6. Distributed Generation: Standby Generation and Cogeneration Ozz Energy Solutions, Inc. February 28 th , 2005. For more information about...

  5. Distributed generation and demand side management : applications to transmission system operation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayes, Barry Patrick

    2013-07-01

    Electricity networks are undergoing a period of rapid change and transformation, with increased penetration levels of renewable-based distributed generation, and new influences on electricity end-use patterns from ...

  6. Integrated Transmission and Distribution Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalsi, Karanjit; Fuller, Jason C.; Tuffner, Francis K.; Lian, Jianming; Zhang, Wei; Marinovici, Laurentiu D.; Fisher, Andrew R.; Chassin, Forrest S.; Hauer, Matthew L.

    2013-01-16

    Distributed, generation, demand response, distributed storage, smart appliances, electric vehicles and renewable energy resources are expected to play a key part in the transformation of the American power system. Control, coordination and compensation of these smart grid assets are inherently interlinked. Advanced control strategies to warrant large-scale penetration of distributed smart grid assets do not currently exist. While many of the smart grid technologies proposed involve assets being deployed at the distribution level, most of the significant benefits accrue at the transmission level. The development of advanced smart grid simulation tools, such as GridLAB-D, has led to a dramatic improvement in the models of smart grid assets available for design and evaluation of smart grid technology. However, one of the main challenges to quantifying the benefits of smart grid assets at the transmission level is the lack of tools and framework for integrating transmission and distribution technologies into a single simulation environment. Furthermore, given the size and complexity of the distribution system, it is crucial to be able to represent the behavior of distributed smart grid assets using reduced-order controllable models and to analyze their impacts on the bulk power system in terms of stability and reliability. The objectives of the project were to: • Develop a simulation environment for integrating transmission and distribution control, • Construct reduced-order controllable models for smart grid assets at the distribution level, • Design and validate closed-loop control strategies for distributed smart grid assets, and • Demonstrate impact of integrating thousands of smart grid assets under closed-loop control demand response strategies on the transmission system. More specifically, GridLAB-D, a distribution system tool, and PowerWorld, a transmission planning tool, are integrated into a single simulation environment. The integrated environment allows the load flow interactions between the bulk power system and end-use loads to be explicitly modeled. Power system interactions are modeled down to time intervals as short as 1-second. Another practical issue is that the size and complexity of typical distribution systems makes direct integration with transmission models computationally intractable. Hence, the focus of the next main task is to develop reduced-order controllable models for some of the smart grid assets. In particular, HVAC units, which are a type of Thermostatically Controlled Loads (TCLs), are considered. The reduced-order modeling approach can be extended to other smart grid assets, like water heaters, PVs and PHEVs. Closed-loop control strategies are designed for a population of HVAC units under realistic conditions. The proposed load controller is fully responsive and achieves the control objective without sacrificing the end-use performance. Finally, using the T&D simulation platform, the benefits to the bulk power system are demonstrated by controlling smart grid assets under different demand response closed-loop control strategies.

  7. AGENDA: PETROLEUM PRODUCT TRANSMISSION & DISTRIBUTION

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The agenda for the Quadrennial Energy Review (QER) public stakeholder meeting in New Orleans on petroleum product transmission, distribution, and storage.

  8. TRANSMISSION AND GENERATION INVESTMENT IN ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-03-04

    Mar 4, 2015 ... generation capacity by private firms in liberalized electricity markets. ... Electricity Markets, Network Expansion, Transmission Management. 1 ...... renewables: Using two-stage optimisation to evaluate flexibility and the cost of.

  9. Coiled transmission line pulse generators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kenneth Fox (Columbia, MO)

    2010-11-09

    Methods and apparatus are provided for fabricating and constructing solid dielectric "Coiled Transmission Line" pulse generators in radial or axial coiled geometries. The pour and cure fabrication process enables a wide variety of geometries and form factors. The volume between the conductors is filled with liquid blends of monomers, polymers, oligomers, and/or cross-linkers and dielectric powders; and then cured to form high field strength and high dielectric constant solid dielectric transmission lines that intrinsically produce ideal rectangular high voltage pulses when charged and switched into matched impedance loads. Voltage levels may be increased by Marx and/or Blumlein principles incorporating spark gap or, preferentially, solid state switches (such as optically triggered thyristors) which produce reliable, high repetition rate operation. Moreover, these Marxed pulse generators can be DC charged and do not require additional pulse forming circuitry, pulse forming lines, transformers, or an a high voltage spark gap output switch. The apparatus accommodates a wide range of voltages, impedances, pulse durations, pulse repetition rates, and duty cycles. The resulting mobile or flight platform friendly cylindrical geometric configuration is much more compact, light-weight, and robust than conventional linear geometries, or pulse generators constructed from conventional components. Installing additional circuitry may accommodate optional pulse shape improvements. The Coiled Transmission Lines can also be connected in parallel to decrease the impedance, or in series to increase the pulse length.

  10. Transmission and Generation Investment in Electricity Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mar 4, 2015 ... Transmission and Generation Investment in Electricity Markets: The Effects of Market Splitting and Network Fee Regimes.

  11. WESTERN MONTANA ELECTRIC GENERATING & TRANSMISSION COOPERATIVE, INC.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 WESTERN MONTANA ELECTRIC GENERATING & TRANSMISSION COOPERATIVE, INC. 1001 SW Higgins, Panorama, but not the more fundamental issues of stakeholder definition, future role, governance and structure. We

  12. Transmission eigenvalue distributions in highly conductive molecular junctions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergfield, Justin P; Barr, Joshua D; Stafford, Charles A

    2012-01-01

    Transmission eigenvalue distributions in highly conductivesingle-molecule junction; transmission eigenchannels Openuniquely characterized by its transmission eigenvalues ? n .

  13. Space-based solar power generation using a distributed network of satellites and methods for efficient space power transmission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McLinko, Ryan M.

    Space-based solar power (SSP) generation is being touted as a solution to our ever-increasing energy consumption and dependence on fossil fuels. Satellites in Earth's orbit can capture solar energy through photovoltaic ...

  14. Briefing Memo: Petroleum Product Transmission & Distribution...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    PDF of the briefing memo. Briefing Memo More Documents & Publications Briefing Memo: Petroleum Product Transmission & Distribution The Quadrennial Energy Review (Full Report)...

  15. A Distributed System for Cooperative MIMO Transmissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalyanaraman, Shivkumar

    a distributed system for facilitating cooperative MIMO transmissions in networks without multiple antenna diversity can be leveraged at the network, link or physical layers to provide energy efficient transmissions for reliable low-power transmissions. The rest of this paper is organized as follows: the proposed system

  16. Electric Power Generation and Transmission (Iowa)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Electric power generating facilities with a combined capacity greater than 25 MW, as well as associated transmission lines, may not be constructed or begin operation prior to the issuance of a...

  17. The role of transmission investment in the coordination between generation and transmission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 The role of transmission investment in the coordination between generation and transmission Abstract This paper examines how transmission coordinates with generation to the long term in a liberalized generation and transmission of electricity into distinct modules. The governance structure of transmission

  18. Integrating Renewable Energy into the Transmission and Distribution...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Integrating Renewable Energy into the Transmission and Distribution System of the U.S. Virgin Islands Integrating Renewable Energy into the Transmission and Distribution System of...

  19. GASIFICATION FOR DISTRIBUTED GENERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald C. Timpe; Michael D. Mann; Darren D. Schmidt

    2000-05-01

    A recent emphasis in gasification technology development has been directed toward reduced-scale gasifier systems for distributed generation at remote sites. The domestic distributed power generation market over the next decade is expected to be 5-6 gigawatts per year. The global increase is expected at 20 gigawatts over the next decade. The economics of gasification for distributed power generation are significantly improved when fuel transport is minimized. Until recently, gasification technology has been synonymous with coal conversion. Presently, however, interest centers on providing clean-burning fuel to remote sites that are not necessarily near coal supplies but have sufficient alternative carbonaceous material to feed a small gasifier. Gasifiers up to 50 MW are of current interest, with emphasis on those of 5-MW generating capacity. Internal combustion engines offer a more robust system for utilizing the fuel gas, while fuel cells and microturbines offer higher electric conversion efficiencies. The initial focus of this multiyear effort was on internal combustion engines and microturbines as more realistic near-term options for distributed generation. In this project, we studied emerging gasification technologies that can provide gas from regionally available feedstock as fuel to power generators under 30 MW in a distributed generation setting. Larger-scale gasification, primarily coal-fed, has been used commercially for more than 50 years to produce clean synthesis gas for the refining, chemical, and power industries. Commercial-scale gasification activities are under way at 113 sites in 22 countries in North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia, according to the Gasification Technologies Council. Gasification studies were carried out on alfalfa, black liquor (a high-sodium waste from the pulp industry), cow manure, and willow on the laboratory scale and on alfalfa, black liquor, and willow on the bench scale. Initial parametric tests evaluated through reactivity and product composition were carried out on thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) equipment. These tests were evaluated and then followed by bench-scale studies at 1123 K using an integrated bench-scale fluidized-bed gasifier (IBG) which can be operated in the semicontinuous batch mode. Products from tests were solid (ash), liquid (tar), and gas. Tar was separated on an open chromatographic column. Analysis of the gas product was carried out using on-line Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). For selected tests, gas was collected periodically and analyzed using a refinery gas analyzer GC (gas chromatograph). The solid product was not extensively analyzed. This report is a part of a search into emerging gasification technologies that can provide power under 30 MW in a distributed generation setting. Larger-scale gasification has been used commercially for more than 50 years to produce clean synthesis gas for the refining, chemical, and power industries, and it is probable that scaled-down applications for use in remote areas will become viable. The appendix to this report contains a list, description, and sources of currently available gasification technologies that could be or are being commercially applied for distributed generation. This list was gathered from current sources and provides information about the supplier, the relative size range, and the status of the technology.

  20. DISTRIBUTED GENERATION AND COGENERATION POLICY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION DISTRIBUTED GENERATION AND COGENERATION POLICY ROADMAP FOR CALIFORNIA;ABSTRACT This report defines a year 2020 policy vision for distributed generation and cogeneration and cogeneration. Additionally, this report describes long-term strategies, pathways, and milestones to take

  1. Regulatory Considerations for Developing Distributed Generation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Regulatory Considerations for Developing Distributed Generation Projects Webinar May 23, 2012 Regulatory Considerations for Developing Distributed Generation Projects Webinar May...

  2. Edison Electric Institute State Generation and Transmission Siting...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Edison Electric Institute State Generation and Transmission Siting Directory Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance -...

  3. QER Public Meeting: Petroleum Product Transmission & Distribution

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    May 27, 2014 Public Meeting: Petroleum Product Transmission & Distribution (including CO2/EOR) On May 27, 2014, the DOE will hold a public meeting in New Orleans, Louisiana. The May 27, 2014 public meeting will feature facilitated panel discussions, followed by an open microphone session. Persons desiring to speak during the 6 open microphone session at the public meeting should come prepared to speak for no more than 3 minutes and will be accommodated on a first- come, first- serve basis, according to the order in which they register to speak on a sign-in sheet available at the meeting location, on the morning of the meeting. In advance of the meeting, DOE anticipates making publicly available a briefing memorandum providing useful background information regarding the topics under discussion at the meeting. DOE will post this memorandum on its website: http://energy.gov

  4. J.S. 24 POWER TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION; VECTORS; ELECTRIC...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    power and power factor of instantaneous phasors Hsu, J.S. 24 POWER TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION; VECTORS; ELECTRIC CURRENTS; ELECTRIC POTENTIAL; MONITORING; POWER SYSTEMS;...

  5. Non-Utility Generation and Transmission Access in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Panjavan, S.; Adib, P.

    1993-01-01

    . The lack of transmission access clearly restricted IPPs' ability to compete in the power supply market. In the Energy Policy Act of 1992, the first impediment was eliminated by amending the PUHCA to allow IPPs to operate facilities without coming...-UTILITY GENERATION AND TRANSMISSION ACCESS IN TEXAS' Sarut Panjavan Senior Power Systems Engineer Public Utility Commission ofTexas Austin, Texas ABSTRACT Power from non-utility generators (NUG) is an important part of the generation mix in Texas...

  6. Distributed MEMS Transmission Lines for Tunable Filter Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    York, Robert A.

    Distributed MEMS Transmission Lines for Tunable Filter Applications Yu Liu, Andrea Borgioli, Amit S: This paper describes the design and fabrication of a distributed MEMS ( )transmission line DMTL , used is a coplanar waveguide periodically loaded with continuously-variable MEMS capacitors. A tunable bandpass

  7. Electricity generation with looped transmission networks: Bidding to an ISO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferris, Michael C.

    Electricity generation with looped transmission networks: Bidding to an ISO Xinmin Hu Daniel Ralph to model markets for delivery of electrical power on looped transmission networks. It analyzes, 2323 Audubon St, New Orleans, LA 70125-4117, USA; www.EKonomicsLLC.com ¶ Department of Economics

  8. Regulatory Considerations for Developing Distributed Generation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Distributed Generation Projects Webinar May 23, 2012 Regulatory Considerations for Developing Distributed Generation Projects Webinar May 23, 2012 Document covers the Regulatory...

  9. Generation and transmission expansion planning for renewable energy integration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bent, Russell W; Berscheid, Alan; Toole, G. Loren

    2010-11-30

    In recent years the expansion planning problem has become increasingly complex. As expansion planning (sometimes called composite or integrated resource planning) is a non-linear and non-convex optimization problem, researchers have traditionally focused on approximate models of power flows to solve the problem. The problem has also been split into generation expansion planning (GEP) and transmission network expansion planning (TNEP) to improve computational tractability. Until recently these approximations have produced results that are straight-forward to combine and adapt to the more complex and complete problem. However, the power grid is evolving towards a state where the adaptations are no longer easy (e.g. large amounts of limited control, renewable generation, comparable generation and transmission construction costs) and necessitates new approaches. Recent work on deterministic Discrepancy Bounded Local Search (DBLS) has shown it to be quite effective in addressing the TNEP. In this paper, we propose a generalization of DBLS to handle simultaneous generation and transmission planning.

  10. Modeling and Verification of a Distributed Transmission Protocol Lubomir Ivanov

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ivanov, Lubomir

    -parallel poset verification is a powerful methodology for proving the design correctness of complex systemsModeling and Verification of a Distributed Transmission Protocol Lubomir Ivanov Department verification methodologies has evolved in two directions: powerful, general techniques capable of accurately

  11. TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION; POWER SUBSTATIONS; CAPITALIZED...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AND DISTRIBUTION; POWER SUBSTATIONS; CAPITALIZED COST; CALCULATION METHODS; PLANNING; COST ESTIMATION; MATHEMATICAL MODELS The displacement or deferral of substation...

  12. Methodology The electricity generation and distribution network in the Western United States is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Sharon J.

    Methodology The electricity generation and distribution network in the Western United States is comprised of power plants, electric utilities, electrical transformers, transmission and distribution infrastructure, etc. We conceptualize the system as a transportation network with resources (electricity

  13. Distributed Generation with Heat Recovery and Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan M.; Zhou, Nan

    2008-01-01

    Distributed Generation with Heat Recovery and Storage AfzalGeneration with Heat Recovery and Storage Manuscript Numberhere in order to focus on heat recovery and storage) utility

  14. Experimental results of a transmission line compression circuit for low impedance pulse power generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nassini, V

    1996-01-01

    Experimental results of a transmission line compression circuit for low impedance pulse power generation

  15. Non resonant transmission modelling with Statistical modal Energy distribution Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    be used as an alternative to Statistical Energy Analysis for describing subsystems with low modal overlap1 Non resonant transmission modelling with Statistical modal Energy distribution Analysis L. Maxit Capelle, F-69621 Villeurbanne Cedex, France Statistical modal Energy distribution Analysis (SmEdA) can

  16. Specialty Fibers for Terahertz Generation and Transmission: A Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barh, Ajanta; Agrawal, G P; Varshney, R K; Rahman, B M A

    2015-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) frequency range, lying between the optical and microwave range covers a significant portion of the electro-magnetic spectrum. Though its initial usage started in the 1960s, active research in the THz field started only in the 1990s by researchers from both optics and microwaves disciplines. The use of optical fibers for THz application has attracted considerable attention in recent years. In this article, we review the progress and current status of optical fiber-based techniques for THz generation and transmission. The first part of this review focuses on THz sources. After a review on various types of THz sources, we discuss how specialty optical fibers can be used for THz generation. The second part of this review focuses on the guided wave propagation of THz waves for their transmission. After discussing various wave guiding schemes, we consider new fiber designs for THz transmission.

  17. Identification and definition of unbundled electric generation and transmission services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, B.; Hirst, E.; Vancoevering, J.

    1995-03-01

    State and federal regulators, private and public utilities, large and small customers, power brokers and marketers, and others are engaged in major debates about the future structure of the electric industry. Although the outcomes are far from certain, it seems clear that customers will have much greater choices about the electric services they purchase and from whom they buy these services. This report examines the ``ancillary`` services that are today buried within the typical vertically integrated utility. These ancillary services support and make possible the provision of the basic services of generating capacity, energy supply, and power delivery. These ancillary services include: Management of generating units; reserve generating capacity to follow variations in customer loads, to provide capacity and energy when generating units or transmission lines suddenly fall, to maintain electric-system stability, and to provide local-area security; transmission-system monitoring and control; replacement of real power and energy losses; reactive-power management and voltage regulation; transmission reserves; repair and maintenance of the transmission network; metering, billing, and communications; and assurance of appropriate levels of power quality. Our focus in this report, the first output from a larger Oak Ridge National Laboratory project, is on identification and definition of these services. Later work in this project will examine more closely the costs and pricing options for each service.

  18. Unbundling generation and transmission services for competitive electricity markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirst, E.; Kirby, B.

    1998-01-01

    Ancillary services are those functions performed by the equipment and people that generate, control, and transmit electricity in support of the basic services of generating capacity, energy supply, and power delivery. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) defined such services as those `necessary to support the transmission of electric power from seller to purchaser given the obligations of control areas and transmitting utilities within those control areas to maintain reliable operations of the interconnected transmission system.` The nationwide cost of ancillary services is about $12 billion a year, roughly 10% of the cost of the energy commodity. More important than the cost, however, is the necessity of these services for bulk-power reliability and for the support of commercial transactions. FERC`s landmark Order 888 included a pro forma tariff with provision for six key ancillary services. The Interconnected Operations Services Working Group identified another six services that it felt were essential to the operation of bulk-power systems. Several groups throughput the United States have created or are forming independent system operators, which will be responsible for reliability and commerce. To date, the electricity industry (including traditional vertically integrated utilities, distribution utilities, power markets and brokers, customers, and state and federal regulators) has paid insufficient attention to these services. Although the industry had made substantial progress in identifying and defining the key services, much remains to be doe to specify methods to measure the production, delivery, and consumption of these services; to identify the costs and cost-allocation factors for these services; and to develop market and operating rules for their provision and pricing. Developing metrics, determining costs, and setting pricing rules are important because most of these ancillary services are produced by the same pieces of equipment that produce the basic electricity commodity. Thus, the production of energy and ancillary services is highly interactive, sometimes complementary and sometimes competing. In contrast to today`s typical time-invariant, embedded-cost prices, competitive prices for ancillary services would vary with system loads and spot prices for energy.

  19. Flashover vulnerability of transmission and distribution lines to high-altitude electromagnetic pulse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruse, V.J. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Advanced Systems Technology Div.); Tesche, F.M. (E-Systems, Inc., Greenville, TX (USA)); Liu, T.K. (Lutech, Inc., Oakland, CA (US)); Barnes, P.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1990-04-01

    This paper estimates the vulnerability of transmission and distribution lines to flashover from the electromagnetic pulse generated by a nuclear detonation 400 kilometers above the earth. The analysis consists of first determining the cumulative probability of induced-voltage on three-phase lines, including shield and neutral conductors, for four operating voltages and then comparing these stresses to estimates of line insulation strength.

  20. Transmission Pricing of Distributed Multilateral Energy Transactions to Ensure System Security and Guide Economic Dispatch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ilic, Marija; Hsieh, Eric; Remanan, Prasad

    2004-06-16

    Transmission Pricing of Distributed Multilateral Energy Transactions to Ensure System Security and Guide Economic Dispatch...

  1. Impact of Renewable Distributed Generation on Power Systems M. Begovi, A. Pregelj, A. Rohatgi D. Novosel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    benefits also include loss reduction, avoided costs of energy production, generation capacity, distributionImpact of Renewable Distributed Generation on Power Systems M. Begovi, A. Pregelj, A. Rohatgi D, eliminating the unnecessary transmission and distribution costs. In addition, it can reduce fossil fuel

  2. Distributed Generation and Renewable Energy in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Distributed Generation and Renewable Energy in the Electric Cooperative Sector Ed Torrero generation (non-renewable) $6.4M CRN dollars over 10 years Renewable energy $1.6M CRN dollars over 10

  3. Integration of Demand Side Management, Distributed Generation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Integration of Demand Side Management, Distributed Generation, Renewable Energy Sources, and Energy Storages: State-of-the-Art Report, Volume 1, Main Report Jump to: navigation,...

  4. Distributed Generation Operational Reliability, Executive Summary...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reliability, Executive Summary Report, January 2004 Distributed Generation Operational Reliability, Executive Summary Report, January 2004 This report summarizes the results of the...

  5. Distributed Generation Operational Reliability and Availability...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reliability and Availability Database, Final Report, January 2004 Distributed Generation Operational Reliability and Availability Database, Final Report, January 2004 This final...

  6. Exact and Efficient Algorithm to Discover Extreme Stochastic Events in Wind Generation over Transmission Power Grids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chertkov, Michael; Pan, Feng; Baldick, Ross

    2011-01-01

    In this manuscript we continue the thread of [M. Chertkov, F. Pan, M. Stepanov, Predicting Failures in Power Grids: The Case of Static Overloads, IEEE Smart Grid 2011] and suggest a new algorithm discovering most probable extreme stochastic events in static power grids associated with intermittent generation of wind turbines. The algorithm becomes EXACT and EFFICIENT (polynomial) in the case of the proportional (or other low parametric) control of standard generation, and log-concave probability distribution of the renewable generation, assumed known from the wind forecast. We illustrate the algorithm's ability to discover problematic extreme events on the example of the IEEE RTS-96 model of transmission with additions of 10%, 20% and 30% of renewable generation. We observe that the probability of failure may grow but it may also decrease with increase in renewable penetration, if the latter is sufficiently diversified and distributed.

  7. Energy Storage and Distributed Energy Generation Project, Final Project Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwank, Johannes; Mader, Jerry; Chen, Xiaoyin; Mi, Chris; Linic, Suljo; Sastry, Ann Marie; Stefanopoulou, Anna; Thompson, Levi; Varde, Keshav

    2008-03-31

    This report serves as a Final Report under the “Energy Storage and Distribution Energy Generation Project” carried out by the Transportation Energy Center (TEC) at the University of Michigan (UM). An interdisciplinary research team has been working on fundamental and applied research on: -distributed power generation and microgrids, -power electronics, and -advanced energy storage. The long-term objective of the project was to provide a framework for identifying fundamental research solutions to technology challenges of transmission and distribution, with special emphasis on distributed power generation, energy storage, control methodologies, and power electronics for microgrids, and to develop enabling technologies for novel energy storage and harvesting concepts that can be simulated, tested, and scaled up to provide relief for both underserved and overstressed portions of the Nation’s grid. TEC’s research is closely associated with Sections 5.0 and 6.0 of the DOE "Five-year Program Plan for FY2008 to FY2012 for Electric Transmission and Distribution Programs, August 2006.”

  8. Flashover vulnerability of transmission and distribution lines to high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruse, V.J.; Liu, T.K.; Tesche, F.M.; Barnes, P.R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper estimates the vulnerability of transmission and distribution lines to flashover from the electromagnetic pulse generated by a nuclear detonation 400 kilometers above the earth. The analysis consists of first determining the cumulative probability of induced-voltage on three-phase lines, including shield and neutral conductors, for four operating voltages and then comparing these stresses to estimates of line insulation strength. 11 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Electric Utility Transmission and Distribution Line Engineering Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter McKenny

    2010-08-31

    Economic development in the United States depends on a reliable and affordable power supply. The nation will need well educated engineers to design a modern, safe, secure, and reliable power grid for our future needs. An anticipated shortage of qualified engineers has caused considerable concern in many professional circles, and various steps are being taken nationwide to alleviate the potential shortage and ensure the North American power system's reliability, and our world-wide economic competitiveness. To help provide a well-educated and trained workforce which can sustain and modernize the nation's power grid, Gonzaga University's School of Engineering and Applied Science has established a five-course (15-credit hour) Certificate Program in Transmission and Distribution (T&D) Engineering. The program has been specifically designed to provide working utility engineering professionals with on-line access to advanced engineering courses which cover modern design practice with an industry-focused theoretical foundation. A total of twelve courses have been developed to-date and students may select any five in their area of interest for the T&D Certificate. As each course is developed and taught by a team of experienced engineers (from public and private utilities, consultants, and industry suppliers), students are provided a unique opportunity to interact directly with different industry experts over the eight weeks of each course. Course material incorporates advanced aspects of civil, electrical, and mechanical engineering disciplines that apply to power system design and are appropriate for graduate engineers. As such, target students for the certificate program include: (1) recent graduates with a Bachelor of Science Degree in an engineering field (civil, mechanical, electrical, etc.); (2) senior engineers moving from other fields to the utility industry (i.e. paper industry to utility engineering or project management positions); and (3) regular working professionals wishing to update their skills or increase their knowledge of utility engineering design practices and procedures. By providing graduate educational opportunities for the above groups, the T&D Program will help serve a strong industry need for training the next generation of engineers in the cost-effective design, construction, operation, and maintenance of modern electrical transmission and distribution systems. In addition to developing the on-line engineering courses described above, the T&D Program also focused significant efforts towards enhancing the training opportunities available to power system operators in the northwest. These efforts have included working with outside vendors to provide NERC-approved training courses in Gonzaga University's (GU) system operator training facility, support for an accurate system model which can be used in regional blackstart exercises, and the identification of a retired system operator who could provide actual regional training courses. The GU system operator training facility is also being used to recruit young workers, veterans, and various under-represented groups to the utility industry. Over the past three years students from Columbia Gorge Community College, Spokane Falls Community College, Walla Walla Community College, Central Washington University, Eastern Washington University, Gonzaga University, and various local high schools have attended short (one-day) system operator training courses free of charge. These collaboration efforts has been extremely well received by both students and industry, and meet T&D Program objectives of strengthening the power industry workforce while bridging the knowledge base across power worker categories, and recruiting new workers to replace a predominantly retirement age workforce. In the past three years the T&D Program has provided over 170 utility engineers with access to advanced engineering courses, been involved in training more than 300 power system operators, and provided well over 500 college and high school students with an experienc

  10. Distributed Generation Investment by a Microgrid Under Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Afzal; Marnay, Chris

    2006-01-01

    option on natural gas generation, which increases in valueL ABORATORY Distributed Generation Investment by a MicrogridORMMES’06 Distributed Generation Investment by a Microgrid

  11. A stochastic framework for uncertainty analysis in electric power transmission systems with wind generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of generating units, the transfer of electric power over networks of transmission lines and, finally1 A stochastic framework for uncertainty analysis in electric power transmission systems with wind an electric transmission network with wind power generation and their impact on its reliability. A stochastic

  12. Integration of Demand Side Management, Distributed Generation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    United States. Annex 8 provides a list of software tools for analysing various aspects of demand response, distributed generation, smart grid and energy storage. Annex 9 is a list...

  13. Voltage Management of Networks with Distributed Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Donnell, James

    2008-01-01

    At present there is much debate about the impacts and benefits of increasing the amount of generation connected to the low voltage areas of the electricity distribution network. The UK government is under political ...

  14. Microgrids: distributed on-site generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Andrew

    of the study is a microgrid of domestic users powered by small Combined Heat and Power generators and energy storage in the microgrid. It is found that a microgrid consisting of around 1.4 kWp PV array perMicrogrids: distributed on-site generation Suleiman Abu-Sharkh, Rachel Li, Tom Markvart, Neil Ross

  15. Cost-Effectivenessof PhotovoltaicGenerationIn A Transmission-Constrained Load Area of An InterconnectedSystem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, George

    Abstract: Electric power systems of today are experiencing a difficulty of constrained transmission lines, present electric system networks are experiencing the difficulty of constrained transmission lines: Photovoltaic Generation, Power System Economics, Dispersed Generation, Transmission-Constrained Interconnected

  16. The Value of Distributed Generation and CHP Resources in Wholesale...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Value of Distributed Generation and CHP Resources in Wholesale Power Markets, September 2005 The Value of Distributed Generation and CHP Resources in Wholesale Power Markets,...

  17. The Potential Benefits of Distributed Generation and the Rate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Potential Benefits of Distributed Generation and the Rate-Related Issues That May Impede Its Expansion The Potential Benefits of Distributed Generation and the Rate-Related...

  18. Abstract--Distributed generation (DG) has brought great attention from the power community, especially

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    generation and DFACTS (distribution network Flexible AC Transmission System). In these researches and penetration of DG is affecting power flow of the networks and Distributed FACTS (DFACTS) devices and centralized power stations connected to high and extra- high voltage networks, which in turn, supply power

  19. SYSTEM WIDE ECONOMIC BENEFITS OF DISTRIBUTED GENERATION IN THE NEW ENGLAND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Numbers With Location · Substation Capacities and Installed Loads Without this information, the study that would be useful is: Cost and location of all planned transmission and distribution upgrades was to evaluate the benefits and costs associated with a distributed generation unit from the perspectives

  20. Avoiding Distribution System Upgrade Costs Using Distributed Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schienbein, Lawrence A.; Balducci, Patrick J.; Nguyen, Tony B.; Brown, Daryl R.; DeSteese, John G.; Speer, Gregory A.

    2004-01-20

    PNNL, in cooperation with three utilities, developed a database and methodology to analyze and characterize the avoided costs of Distributed Generation (DG) deployment as an alternative to traditional distribution system investment. After applying a number of screening criteria to the initial set of 307 cases, eighteen were selected for detailed analysis. Alternative DG investment scenarios were developed for these cases to permit capital, operation, maintenance, and fuel costs to be identified and incorporated into the analysis. The “customer-owned” backup power generator option was also investigated. The results of the analysis of the 18 cases show that none yielded cost savings under the alternative DG scenarios. However, the DG alternative systems were configured using very restrictive assumptions concerning reliability, peak rating, engine types and acceptable fuel. In particular it was assumed that the DG alternative in each case must meet the reliability required of conventional distribution systems (99.91% reliability). The analysis was further constrained by a requirement that each substation meet the demands placed upon it by a one in three weather occurrence. To determine if, by relaxing these requirements, the DG alternative might be more viable, one project was re-examined. The 99.91% reliability factor was still assumed for normal operating conditions but redundancy required to maintain reliability was relaxed for the relatively few hours every three years where extreme weather caused load to exceed present substation capacity. This resulted in the deferment of capital investment until later years and reduced the number of engines required for the project. The cost of both the conventional and DG alternative also dropped because the centralized power generation, variable O&M, and DG fuels costs were calculated based on present load requirements in combination with long-term forecasts of load growth, as opposed to load requirements plus a buffer based on predictions of extraordinary weather conditions. Application of the relaxed set of assumptions reduced the total cost of the DG alternative by roughly 57 percent from $7.0 million to $3.0 million. The reduction, however, did not change the overall result of the analysis, as the cost of the conventional distribution system upgrade alternative remained lower at $1.7 million. This paper also explores the feasibility of using a system of backup generators to defer investment in distribution system infrastructure. Rather than expanding substation capacity at substations experiencing slow load growth rates, PNNL considered a scenario where diesel generators were installed on location at customers participating in a program designed to offer additional power security and reliability to the customer and connection to the grid. The backup generators, in turn, could be used to meet peak demand for a limited number of hours each year, thus deferring distribution system investment. Data from an existing program at one of the three participating utilities was used to quantify the costs associated with the backup generator scenario. The results of the “customer owned” backup power generator analysis showed that in all cases the nominal cost of the DG scenario is more than the nominal cost of the base-case conventional distribution system upgrade scenario. However, in two of the cases the total present value costs of the alternative backup generator scenarios were between 15 and 22% less than those for the conventional scenarios. Overall, the results of the study offer considerable encouragement that the use of DG systems can defer conventional distribution system upgrades under the right conditions and when the DG configurations are intelligently designed. Using existing customer-owned DG to defer distribution system upgrades appears to be an immediate commercially-viable opportunity.

  1. Distributed Generation Dispatch Optimization under Various Electricity Tariffs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

    2007-01-01

    price ($/kWh) Distributed Generation Dispatch Optimization Under Various Electricity Tariffs carbon (

  2. Transmission Pricing Issues for Electricity Generation From Renewable Resources

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses how the resolution of transmission pricing issues which have arisen under the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC) open access environment may affect the prospects for renewable-based electricity.

  3. A reliability assessment methodology for distribution systems with distributed generation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duttagupta, Suchismita Sujaya

    2006-08-16

    is associated 11 Fig. 1. Sample Distribution Network with the network response to dynamic and transient failures caused from faults and other disturbances, which could result in widespread cascading outages and loss of stability [11]. This research will focus... and maintain reliable power systems because cost of interruptions and power outages can have severe economic impact on the utility and its customers. At present, the deregulated electric power utilities are being restructured and operated as distinct generation...

  4. Physical Effects of Distributed PV Generation on California's Distribution System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Deployment of high-penetration photovoltaic (PV) power is expected to have a range of effects -- both positive and negative -- on the distribution grid. The magnitude of these effects may vary greatly depending upon feeder topology, climate, PV penetration level, and other factors. In this paper we present a simulation study of eight representative distribution feeders in three California climates at PV penetration levels up to 100\\%, supported by a unique database of distributed PV generation data that enables us to capture the impact of PV variability on feeder voltage and voltage regulating equipment. When comparing the influence of feeder location (i.e. climate) versus feeder type on outcomes, we find that location more strongly influences the incidence of reverse power flow, reductions in peak loading and the presence of voltage excursions. On the other hand, we find that feeder characteristics more strongly influence the magnitude of loss reduction and changes in voltage regulator operations. We find th...

  5. Integrating Renewable Energy into the Transmission and Distribution System of the U. S. Virgin Islands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burman, K.; Olis, D.; Gevorgian, V.; Warren, A.; Butt, R.; Lilienthal, P.; Glassmire, J.

    2011-09-01

    This report focuses on the economic and technical feasibility of integrating renewable energy technologies into the U.S. Virgin Islands transmission and distribution systems. The report includes three main areas of analysis: 1) the economics of deploying utility-scale renewable energy technologies on St. Thomas/St. John and St. Croix; 2) potential sites for installing roof- and ground-mount PV systems and wind turbines and the impact renewable generation will have on the electrical subtransmission and distribution infrastructure, and 3) the feasibility of a 100- to 200-megawatt power interconnection of the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA), Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority (WAPA), and British Virgin Islands (BVI) grids via a submarine cable system.

  6. Distributed Channel Probing for Efficient Transmission Scheduling in Wireless Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srikant, Rayadurgam

    to continuously estimate the channel quality before each transmission decision in opportunistic scheduling over statistics and rates, and note its tightness in the symmetric and independent ON- OFF fading scenario. We transmission decision. However, in the presence of many contending users that utilize the time-varying channel

  7. Magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP) interaction with power transmission and distribution systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tesche, F.M. [Tesche (F.M.), Dallas, TX (United States); Barnes, P.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Meliopoulos, A.P.S. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1992-02-01

    This report discusses the effects of the late-time high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) on electrical transmission and distribution (T&D) systems. This environment, known as the magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP), is a very slowly varying electric field induced in the earth`s surface, similar to the field induced by a geomagnetic storm. It can result in the flow of a quasi-dc current in grounded power lines and in the subsequent magnetic saturation of transformers. This saturation, in turn, causes 6-Hz harmonic distortion and an increase in the reactive power required by generation facilities. This report analyzes and discusses these phenomena. The MHD-EMP environment is briefly discussed, and a simplified form of the earth-induced electric field is developed for use in a parametric study of transmission line responses. Various field coupling models are described, and calculated results for the responses of both transmission- and distribution-class power lines are presented. These calculated responses are compared with measurements of transformer operation under dc excitation to infer the MHD-EMP response of these power system components. It is found that the MHD-EMP environment would have a marked effect on a power system by inducing up to several hundreds of amperes of quasi-dc current on power lines. These currents will cause transformers to saturate which could result in excessive harmonic generation, voltage swings, and voltage suppression. The design of critical facilities which are required to operate during and after MHD-EMP events will have to be modified in order to mitigate the effects of these abnormal power system conditions.

  8. Jobs and Economic Development from New Transmission and Generation...

    Wind Powering America (EERE)

    Construction- and Operations-related Economic Activity from 1,800 MW of New Natural Gas Generation ......

  9. Do Generation Firms in Restructured Electricity Markets Have Incentives to Support Socially-Efficient Transmission Investments? *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .S. transmission system is under stress (Abraham, 2002). Growth of electricity demand and new generation capacity investment in new generation and growth in electricity demand. Much of the current underinvestment1 Do Generation Firms in Restructured Electricity Markets Have Incentives to Support Socially

  10. Distributed Generation Investment by a Microgrid Under Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Afzal; Marnay, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Distributed Generation Power Projects , National Renewable EnergyDistributed Energy Program, under the Assistant Secretary of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

  11. Jobs and Economic Development from New Transmission and Generation in Wyoming (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-05-01

    Wyoming is a significant energy exporter, producing nearly 40% of the nation's coal and 10% of the nation's natural gas. However, opportunities to add new energy exports in the form of power generation are limited by insufficient transmission capacity. This fact sheet summarizes results from a recent analysis conducted by NREL for the Wyoming Infrastructure Authority (WIA) that estimates jobs and economic development activity that could occur in Wyoming should the market support new investments in power generation and transmission in the state.

  12. Jobs and Economic Development from New Transmission and Generation in Wyoming Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-05-10

    Wyoming is a significant energy exporter, producing nearly 40% of the nation's coal and 10% of the nation's natural gas. However, opportunities to add new energy exports in the form of power generation are limited by insufficient transmission capacity. This fact sheet summarizes results from a recent analysis conducted by NREL for the Wyoming Infrastructure Authority that estimates jobs and economic development activity that could occur in Wyoming should the market support new investments in power generation and transmission in the state.

  13. Jobs and Economic Development from New Transmission and Generation...

    Wind Powering America (EERE)

    Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Infrastructure Type Units Installed Total Installed Cost Wyoming Share Annual Operating Expenditures Wyoming Share Wind Generation 9,000 MW...

  14. Distributed Generation with Heat Recovery and Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan M.; Zhou, Nan

    2008-01-01

    distributed energy resource technology characterizations, National Renewable EnergyEfficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Distributed

  15. Integrated, Automated Distributed Generation Technologies Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, Kevin

    2014-09-30

    The purpose of the NETL Project was to develop a diverse combination of distributed renewable generation technologies and controls and demonstrate how the renewable generation could help manage substation peak demand at the ATK Promontory plant site. The Promontory plant site is located in the northwestern Utah desert approximately 25 miles west of Brigham City, Utah. The plant encompasses 20,000 acres and has over 500 buildings. The ATK Promontory plant primarily manufactures solid propellant rocket motors for both commercial and government launch systems. The original project objectives focused on distributed generation; a 100 kW (kilowatt) wind turbine, a 100 kW new technology waste heat generation unit, a 500 kW energy storage system, and an intelligent system-wide automation system to monitor and control the renewable energy devices then release the stored energy during the peak demand time. The original goal was to reduce peak demand from the electrical utility company, Rocky Mountain Power (RMP), by 3.4%. For a period of time we also sought to integrate our energy storage requirements with a flywheel storage system (500 kW) proposed for the Promontory/RMP Substation. Ultimately the flywheel storage system could not meet our project timetable, so the storage requirement was switched to a battery storage system (300 kW.) A secondary objective was to design/install a bi-directional customer/utility gateway application for real-time visibility and communications between RMP, and ATK. This objective was not achieved because of technical issues with RMP, ATK Information Technology Department’s stringent requirements based on being a rocket motor manufacturing facility, and budget constraints. Of the original objectives, the following were achieved: • Installation of a 100 kW wind turbine. • Installation of a 300 kW battery storage system. • Integrated control system installed to offset electrical demand by releasing stored energy from renewable sources during peak hours of the day. Control system also monitors the wind turbine and battery storage system health, power output, and issues critical alarms. Of the original objectives, the following were not achieved: • 100 kW new technology waste heat generation unit. • Bi-directional customer/utility gateway for real time visibility and communications between RMP and ATK. • 3.4% reduction in peak demand. 1.7% reduction in peak demand was realized instead.

  16. Voltage Control of Distribution Networks with Distributed Generation using Reactive Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    , photovoltaics, and synchronous generators. I. INTRODUCTION Penetration of DG into distribution network in terms of voltage profile improvement, line-loss reduction, and environmental impact reductionVoltage Control of Distribution Networks with Distributed Generation using Reactive Power

  17. Pulse transmission receiver with higher-order time derivative pulse generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dress, Jr., William B.; Smith, Stephen F.

    2003-08-12

    Systems and methods for pulse-transmission low-power communication modes are disclosed. A pulse transmission receiver includes: a front-end amplification/processing circuit; a synchronization circuit coupled to the front-end amplification/processing circuit; a clock coupled to the synchronization circuit; a trigger signal generator coupled to the clock; and at least one higher-order time derivative pulse generator coupled to the trigger signal generator. The systems and methods significantly reduce lower-frequency emissions from pulse transmission spread-spectrum communication modes, which reduces potentially harmful interference to existing radio frequency services and users and also simultaneously permit transmission of multiple data bits by utilizing specific pulse shapes.

  18. Distributed Key Generation in the Wild Aniket Kate1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Distributed Key Generation in the Wild Aniket Kate1 Yizhou Huang2 Ian Goldberg2 1 Max Planck of Waterloo, Canada aniket@mpi-sws.org, {y226huan, iang}@uwaterloo.ca Abstract Distributed key generation (DKG communication model. computational setting. distributed key generation. uniform randomness. implementation 1

  19. Short & long run transmission incentives for generation location

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turvey, Ralph

    2006-01-01

    This paper is about one aspect of Britain's electricity trading system, its advantages and its weaknesses concerning the incentives it provides or fails to provide for the location of generation. (Similar considerations ...

  20. Distributed Generation with Heat Recovery and Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan M.; Zhou, Nan

    2008-01-01

    selection of on-site power generation with combined heat andTotal Electricity Generation Figure 13. Small MercantileWeekday Total Electricity Generation (No Storage Adoption

  1. Distribution of Immune Cells in the Human Cervix and Implications for HIV Transmission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lieberman, Judy

    Distribution of Immune Cells in the Human Cervix and Implications for HIV Transmission Radiana T transmission. Am J Reprod Immunol 2014; 71: 252­264 doi:10.1111/aji.12198 Problem Knowledge of the mucosal a third were CD11c+ , most of which were CD103Ŕ CD11b+ CX3CR1+ DC-SIGN+ dendritic cells (DCs). The other

  2. Distributed Generation with Heat Recovery and Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan M.; Zhou, Nan

    2008-01-01

    Weekday Total Electricity Generation (Storage AdoptionWeekday Total Electricity Generation (Storage Adoptionrecovery and storage) utility electricity and natural gas

  3. Distribution of Natural Gas: The Final Step in the Transmission Process

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2008-01-01

    This report analyzes the role of local distribution companies (LDCs) and transmission pipelines in delivering natural gas supplies to end use customers, focusing upon the years 1996 through 2006.

  4. State Research, Outreach, and Technical Assistance to Imrove the Nation's Transmission & Distribution System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Fox; M. Keogh; A. Spahn

    2009-05-20

    The broad purpose of this project was to work cooperatively with the DOE to explore technology nad policy issues associated with more efficient, reliable, and affordable electric transmission and distribution use.

  5. Transmission and Distribution World March 2007: DOE Focuses on Cyber

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OF APPLICABLEStatutory AuthorityTrack A -TRANSMISSION INFRASTRUCTURESecurity |

  6. Abstract--The increase in use of power electronics in transmission and distribution applications is the driving

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    of the systems. High Voltage DC (HVDC) transmission and Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) are the widelyAbstract-- The increase in use of power electronics in transmission and distribution applications and compared for SiC and Si devices. These loss models are integrated with an HVDC transmission system to study

  7. Experimental comparison of PV-smoothing controllers using distributed generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Jay Dean; Ellis, Abraham; Denda, Atsushi; Morino, Kimio; Hawkins, John N.; Arellano, Brian; Shinji, Takao; Ogata, Takao; Tadokoro, Masayuki

    2014-02-01

    The power output variability of photovoltaic systems can affect local electrical grids in locations with high renewable energy penetrations or weak distribution or transmission systems. In those rare cases, quick controllable generators (e.g., energy storage systems) or loads can counteract the destabilizing effects by compensating for the power fluctuations. Previously, control algorithms for coordinated and uncoordinated operation of a small natural gas engine-generator (genset) and a battery for smoothing PV plant output were optimized using MATLAB/Simulink simulations. The simulations demonstrated that a traditional generation resource such as a natural gas genset in combination with a battery would smooth the photovoltaic output while using a smaller battery state of charge (SOC) range and extending the life of the battery. This paper reports on the experimental implementation of the coordinated and uncoordinated controllers to verify the simulations and determine the differences in the controllers. The experiments were performed with the PNM PV and energy storage Prosperity site and a gas engine-generator located at the Aperture Center at Mesa Del Sol in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Two field demonstrations were performed to compare the different PV smoothing control algorithms: (1) implementing the coordinated and uncoordinated controls while switching off a subsection of the PV array at precise times on successive clear days, and (2) comparing the results of the battery and genset outputs for the coordinated control on a high variability day with simulations of the coordinated and uncoordinated controls. It was found that for certain PV power profiles the SOC range of the battery may be larger with the coordinated control, but the total amp-hours through the battery-which approximates battery wear-will always be smaller with the coordinated control.

  8. Reducing the Cost of Generating APH-distributed Random Numbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Telek, Miklós

    Reducing the Cost of Generating APH-distributed Random Numbers Philipp Reinecke1 , Mikl´os Telek2 from PH distributions and propose two algorithms for reducing the cost associated with generating representation that minimises the cost associated with generating random numbers. In this paper we study

  9. Impact of Distribution-Connected Large-Scale Wind Turbines on Transmission System Stability during Large Disturbances: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Y.; Allen, A.; Hodge, B. M.

    2014-02-01

    This work examines the dynamic impacts of distributed utility-scale wind power during contingency events on both the distribution system and the transmission system. It is the first step toward investigating high penetrations of distribution-connected wind power's impact on both distribution and transmission stability.

  10. Abstract--Improvements in transmission and distribution networks can be noticed in most countries that had their system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morton, David

    , the National Electricity Regulatory Agency has established that the monthly amount of transmission system usage1 Abstract--Improvements in transmission and distribution networks can be noticed in most one of the biggest challenges is the transmission and distribution open access. In Brazil

  11. GENERATING TEXT DESCRIPTIONS FOR GEOGRAPHICALLY DISTRIBUTED SENSORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Molina, Martín

    of work. KEYWORDS Multimedia presentation system, natural language generation, geographic information method uses two information sources: an online server for geographic names (Geonames) and a specific confirm that online geographic information resources such as Geonames are useful to generate names

  12. Distributed Generation with Heat Recovery and Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan M.; Zhou, Nan

    2008-01-01

    Only Load Electricity Generation By Fuel in the U.S.electricity generation from most sources, except oil, is growing to meet the growing demand and that fossil fuels

  13. MODELLING DISTRIBUTED KNOWLEDGE PROCESSES IN NEXT GENERATION MULTIDISCIPLINARY ALLIANCES *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowker, Geoffrey C.

    MODELLING DISTRIBUTED KNOWLEDGE PROCESSES IN NEXT GENERATION MULTIDISCIPLINARY ALLIANCES * Alaina G and industrial dollars are invested in establishing academic-industry alliances and building infrastructures and technology in distributed, multidisciplinary scientific teams in the National Computational Science Alliance

  14. Distributed Generation Investment by a Microgrid under Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Afzal

    2008-01-01

    Delivery and Energy Reliability, Renewable and DistributedDistributed Energy Program, under the Assistant Secretary of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energydistributed generation power projects, report NREL/SR-200-28053. Golden, CO, USA: National Renewable Energy

  15. Distributed Sustainable Generation Dispatch via Evolutionary Games

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kundur, Deepa

    and solar panels are sustainable but unreliable as these have inherently variable generation capacities The power grid is composed of a diverse mix of energy generation systems designed to provision for all types such as wind and solar power generators are green en- ergy sources with lower levelized costs [4

  16. High Penetration Solar Distributed Generation Study on Oahu ...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    on Oahu High Penetration Solar Distributed Generation Study on Oahu The rooftop solar PV on Hawai'i's Mauna Lani Bay Hotel generates 75 kW of electricity. Photo from...

  17. Distributed Generation Study/Patterson Farms CHP System Using...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Patterson Farms CHP System Using Renewable Biogas < Distributed Generation Study Jump to: navigation, search Study Location Auburn, New York Site Description Agricultural Study...

  18. Distributed Generation Investment by a Microgrid under Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Afzal

    2008-01-01

    L, editor. 11 th Annual Real Options Conference, Berkeley,from its utility. Using the real options approach, we find aDistributed Generation; Real Options; Optimal Investment;

  19. Distributed Generation Investment by a Microgrid Under Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Afzal; Marnay, Chris

    2006-01-01

    utility. Using the real options approach, we find naturalDistributed Generation; Real Options; Optimal Investment. 1.based microgrid via the real options approach to determine

  20. Integrated Transmission and Distribution Effects of Demand-Side Participation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    to retail customers Wholesale net load Load Aggregators Retailers Intermediaries Wholesale Power Market Retail Power Market #12;IRW Test Bed = AMES + Distribution Feeders http://www2.econ,tesfatsi}@iastate.edu 1 Panel Session: Wholesale and Retail Market Interaction Requirements for Effective Demand

  1. Load management alternatives to transmission and distribution construction: Toledo-Wren case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Englin, J.E.; Klan, M.S.; Lyke, A.J.; Tawil, J.J.; De Steese, J.G.; Tepel, R.C.

    1987-12-01

    This paper describes the development of a method to predict the feasibility of using load management as an alternative to construction of transmission and distribution capacity. A forecasting model was developed and applied to a particular case. Several problems were identified in the test case, necessitating modification of the model. The authors conclude that the modified version of the model allows accurate assessment of the effects of load management and conservation measures on transmission capacity. 13 figs. (JDH)

  2. Impact of Utility-Scale Distributed Wind on Transmission-Level System Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brancucci Martinez-Anido, C.; Hodge, B. M.

    2014-09-01

    This report presents a new renewable integration study that aims to assess the potential for adding distributed wind to the current power system with minimal or no upgrades to the distribution or transmission electricity systems. It investigates the impacts of integrating large amounts of utility-scale distributed wind power on bulk system operations by performing a case study on the power system of the Independent System Operator-New England (ISO-NE).

  3. Exotic Electricity Options and the Valuation of Electricity Generation and Transmission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Exotic Electricity Options and the Valuation of Electricity Generation and Transmission Assets a methodology for valuing electricity deriva- tives by constructing replicating portfolios from electricity-storable nature of electricity, which rules out the traditional spot mar- ket, storage-based method of valuing

  4. Waves Transmission and Generation in Turbine Stages in a Combustion-Noise Framework

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicoud, Franck

    Waves Transmission and Generation in Turbine Stages in a Combustion-Noise Framework M. Leyko SNECMA) and downstream (turbine) turbo-machinery stages; and (b) an additional source of noise, the indirect combustion waves when they accelerate in the downstream turbine stages. Candel1 showed that this source could

  5. SMALL TURBOGENERATOR TECHNOLOGY FOR DISTRIBUTED GENERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sy Ali; Bob Moritz

    2001-09-01

    This report is produced in under Contract DE-FC26-00NT40914, awarded in accordance with U.S. Department of Energy solicitation DE-PS26-00FT40759, ''Development of Technologies and Capabilities for Fossil Energy-Wide Coal, Natural Gas and Oil R&D Programs'', area of interest 7, ''Advanced Turbines and Engines.'' As a result of ten years of collaborative fuel cell systems studies with U.S. fuel cell manufacturers, initiated to evaluate the gas turbine opportunities likely to result from this technology, Rolls-Royce in Indianapolis has established a clear need for the creation of a turbogenerator to a specification that cannot be met by available units. Many of the required qualities are approached, but not fully met, by microturbines, which tend to be too small and low in pressure ratio. Market evaluation suggests a 1 MW fuel cell hybrid, incorporating a turbogenerator of about 250 kW, is a good market entry product (large enough to spread the costs of a relatively complex plant, but small enough to be acceptable to early adopters). The fuel cell stack occupies the position of a combustor in the turbogenerator, but delivers relatively low turbine entry temperature (1600 F [870 C]). If fitted with a conventional combustor and run stand-alone at full uncooled turbine temperature (1800 F [980 C]), the turbogenerator will develop more power. The power can be further enhanced if the turbogenerator is designed to have flow margin in its fuel cell role (by running faster). This margin can be realized by running at full speed and it is found that power can be increased to the 0.7 to 1.0 MW range, depending on initial fuel cell stack flow demand. The fuel cell hybrid applications require increased pressure ratio (at least 6 rather than the 3-4 of microturbines) and very long life for a small machine. The outcome is a turbogenerator that is very attractive for stand-alone operation and has been the subject of unsolicited enthusiasm from potential users who see an application in grid support. The machine is consistent with 21st century power generation objectives. It will be more efficient than a microturbine and also more cost effective because it does not require an expensive recuperator. It will produce ultra-low emissions because it has a low combustor delivery temperature. It will also avoid producing hazardous waste because it requires no lube system. These qualities are obtained by combining, and in some instances extending, the best of available technologies rather than breaking wholly new ground. Limited ''barrier technology'' rig tests of bearing systems and alternator configuration are proposed to support the extension of technology. Low combustion temperature also has merit in handling alternative fuels with minimum emissions and minimum materials degradation. Program continuation is proposed that will simultaneously provide technology support to a SECA fuel cell hybrid system and a distributed generation turbogenerator. This technology program will be led by a Rolls-Royce team based in Indianapolis with access to extensive small turbogenerator experience gathered in DOE (and other) programs by Allison Mobile Power Systems. It is intended that subsequent production will be in the U.S., but the products may have substantial export potential.

  6. Distributed Generation with Heat Recovery and Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Afzal; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan M.; Zhou, Nan

    2005-01-01

    Generation with Heat Recovery and Storage ‡ Afzal Sgeneration unit with heat recovery for space and watergeneration unit with heat recovery for space and water

  7. Investment and Upgrade in Distributed Generation under Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guillas, Serge

    for microgrids to use small-scale distributed generation (DG) and combined heat and power (CHP) applications via.maribu@ensmp.fr 1 #12;Investment and Upgrade under Uncertainty in Distributed Generation 2 Keywords: Combined heat heat exchangers (HXs) to meet local energy loads. Although the electric-only efficiency of DG is lower

  8. Optimal distributed power generation under network load constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    , small wind turbine or central heating power units) can be inserted into any transmission line, mainly because of the development of novel components for decentral power generation (solar panels, small wind turbines and heat pumps). This gives rise to the question how many units of each type (solar panel

  9. Distributed Generation in Buildings (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2008-01-01

    Currently, distributed generation provides a very small share of residential and commercial electricity requirements in the United States. The Annual Energy Outlook 2005 reference case projects a significant increase in electricity generation in the buildings sector, but distributed generation is expected to remain a small contributor to the sectors energy needs. Although the advent of higher energy prices or more rapid improvement in technology could increase the use of distributed generation relative to the reference case projection, the vast majority of electricity used in buildings is projected to continue to be purchased from the grid.

  10. Transmission

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired SolarAbout / Transforming Y-12 Transforming Y-12ComplexTransmission

  11. Distributed Generation with Heat Recovery and Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan M.; Zhou, Nan

    2008-01-01

    power generation with combined heat and power applications,”of carbon tax on combined heat and power adoption by a131(1), 2-25. US Combined Heat and Power Association (

  12. Distributed Medium Access Control for Next Generation CDMA Wireless Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhuang, Weihua

    Distributed Medium Access Control for Next Generation CDMA Wireless Networks Hai Jiang, Princeton wireless networks are expected to have a simple infrastructure with distributed control. In this article, we consider a generic distributed network model for future wireless multi- media communications

  13. A Distributed Generation Control Architecture for Islanded AC Microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dominguez-Garcia, Alejandro

    1 A Distributed Generation Control Architecture for Islanded AC Microgrids Stanton T. Cady, Student in islanded ac microgrids with both synchronous generators and inverter-interfaced power supplies. Although they are smaller and have lower ratings, the generation control objectives for an islanded microgrid are similar

  14. Operation of Distributed Generation Under Stochastic Prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris

    2005-11-30

    We model the operating decisions of a commercial enterprisethatneeds to satisfy its periodic electricity demand with either on-sitedistributed generation (DG) or purchases from the wholesale market. Whilethe former option involves electricity generation at relatively high andpossibly stochastic costs from a set of capacity-constrained DGtechnologies, the latter implies unlimited open-market transactions atstochastic prices. A stochastic dynamic programme (SDP) is used to solvethe resulting optimisation problem. By solving the SDP with and withoutthe availability of DG units, the implied option values of the DG unitsare obtained.

  15. Options for Control of Reactive Power by Distributed Photovoltaic Generators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sulc, Petr; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Michael

    2010-01-01

    High penetration levels of distributed photovoltaic(PV) generation on an electrical distribution circuit present several challenges and opportunities for distribution utilities. Rapidly varying irradiance conditions may cause voltage sags and swells that cannot be compensated by slowly responding utility equipment resulting in a degradation of power quality. Although not permitted under current standards for interconnection of distributed generation, fast-reacting, VAR-capable PV inverters may provide the necessary reactive power injection or consumption to maintain voltage regulation under difficult transient conditions. As side benefit, the control of reactive power injection at each PV inverter provides an opportunity and a new tool for distribution utilities to optimize the performance of distribution circuits, e.g. by minimizing thermal losses. We discuss and compare via simulation various design options for control systems to manage the reactive power generated by these inverters. An important design de...

  16. Model documentation: Natural gas transmission and distribution model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-02-17

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) is the component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) that is used to represent the domestic natural gas transmission and distribution system. NEMS was developed in the Office of integrated Analysis and Forecasting of the Energy information Administration (EIA). NEMS is the third in a series of computer-based, midterm energy modeling systems used since 1974 by the EIA and its predecessor, the Federal Energy Administration, to analyze domestic energy-economy markets and develop projections. The NGTDM is the model within the NEMS that represents the transmission, distribution, and pricing of natural gas. The model also includes representations of the end-use demand for natural gas, the production of domestic natural gas, and the availability of natural gas traded on the international market based on information received from other NEMS models. The NGTDM determines the flow of natural gas in an aggregate, domestic pipeline network, connecting domestic and foreign supply regions with 12 demand regions. The methodology employed allows the analysis of impacts of regional capacity constraints in the interstate natural gas pipeline network and the identification of pipeline capacity expansion requirements. There is an explicit representation of core and noncore markets for natural gas transmission and distribution services, and the key components of pipeline tariffs are represented in a pricing algorithm. Natural gas pricing and flow patterns are derived by obtaining a market equilibrium across the three main elements of the natural gas market: the supply element, the demand element, and the transmission and distribution network that links them. The NGTDM consists of four modules: the Annual Flow Module, the Capacity F-expansion Module, the Pipeline Tariff Module, and the Distributor Tariff Module. A model abstract is provided in Appendix A.

  17. Economic Development from New Generation and Transmission in Wyoming and Colorado (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-03-01

    This report analyzes the potential economic impacts in Colorado and Wyoming of a 225 MW natural gas fired electricity generation facility and a 900 MW wind farm constructed in Wyoming as well as a 180 mile, 345 kV transmission line that runs from Wyoming to Colorado. This report and analysis is not a forecast, but rather an estimate of economic activity associated with a hypothetical scenario.

  18. Economic Development from New Generation and Transmission in Wyoming and Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keyser, D.; Lantz, E.

    2013-03-01

    This report analyzes the potential economic impacts in Colorado and Wyoming of a 225 MW natural gas fired electricity generation facility and a 900 MW wind farm constructed in Wyoming as well as a 180 mile, 345 kV transmission line that runs from Wyoming to Colorado. This report and analysis is not a forecast, but rather an estimate of economic activity associated with a hypothetical scenario.

  19. Transmission comb of a distributed Bragg reflector induced by two surface dielectric gratings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Xiaobo; Zhang, Yongyou

    2015-01-01

    With transfer matrix theory, we study the transmission of a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) with two dielectric gratings on top and on the bottom. Owing to the diffraction of the two gratings, the transmission shows a comb-like spectrum which red shifts with increasing the grating period during the forbidden band of the DBR. The number density of the comb peaks increases with increasing the number of the DBR cells, while the ratio of the average full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the transmission peaks in the transmission comb to the corresponding average free spectral range, being about 0.04 and 0.02 for the TE and TM incident waves, is almost invariant. The average FWHM of the TM waves is about half of the TE waves, and both they could be narrower than 0.1 nm. In addition, the transmission comb peaks of the TE and TM waves can be fully separated during certain waveband. We further prove that the transmission comb is robust against the randomness of the heights of the DBR layers, even when a 15\\% randomn...

  20. Fault Current Issues for Market Driven Power Systems with Distributed Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Fault Current Issues for Market Driven Power Systems with Distributed Generation Natthaphob of installing distributed generation (DG) to electric power systems. The proliferation of new generators creates Terms--Distributed / dispersed generation, power distri- bution, power system protection, fault

  1. The Potential Benefits of Distributed Generation and the Rate...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The Potential Benefits of Distributed Generation and the Rate-Related Issues That May Impede Its Expansion. Report Pursuant to Section 1817 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005. The...

  2. Investment and Upgrade in Distributed Generation under Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Afzal

    2008-01-01

    ment of uncertainty via real options increases the value of2007) and the 2007 Real Options Conference in Berkeley, CA,distributed generation, real options JEL Codes: D81, Q40

  3. Reliability Improvement Programs in Steam Distribution and Power Generation Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petto, S.

    1987-01-01

    can be found in power generation. steam distribution, and in all types of durable and non-durable Industrial productions. I 300 " 0 " 200 C " ? ? ~ 'DO ?~ 50 ' .. '7. '70 '75 '50 '.2 The cost to maintain steam systems. namely...

  4. Local control of reactive power by distributed photovoltaic generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chertkov, Michael; Turitsyn, Konstantin; Sulc, Petr; Backhaus, Scott

    2010-01-01

    High penetration levels of distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation on an electrical distribution circuit may severely degrade power quality due to voltage sags and swells caused by rapidly varying PV generation during cloud transients coupled with the slow response of existing utility compensation and regulation equipment. Although not permitted under current standards for interconnection of distributed generation, fast-reacting, VAR-capable PV inverters may provide the necessary reactive power injection or consumption to maintain voltage regulation under difficult transient conditions. As side benefit, the control of reactive power injection at each PV inverter provides an opportunity and a new tool for distribution utilities to optimize the performance of distribution circuits, e.g. by minimizing thermal losses. We suggest a local control scheme that dispatches reactive power from each PV inverter based on local instantaneous measurements of the real and reactive components of the consumed power and the real power generated by the PVs. Using one adjustable parameter per circuit, we balance the requirements on power quality and desire to minimize thermal losses. Numerical analysis of two exemplary systems, with comparable total PV generation albeit a different spatial distribution, show how to adjust the optimization parameter depending on the goal. Overall, this local scheme shows excellent performance; it's capable of guaranteeing acceptable power quality and achieving significant saving in thermal losses in various situations even when the renewable generation in excess of the circuit own load, i.e. feeding power back to the higher-level system.

  5. Random variate generation for the generalized inverse gaussian distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Devroye, Luc

    ;Introduction The two-parameter form of the generalized inverse gaussian distribution (or gig) has density does not quite work for gig variate generation, but it is almost possible to do so. Indeed gaussian law--see, e.g., Lesosky and Horrocks (2003). -- 2 -- #12;A transformed gig distribution

  6. Distributed Generation Investment by a Microgrid under Uncertainty++++ Afzal Siddiqui

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guillas, Serge

    1 Distributed Generation Investment by a Microgrid under Uncertainty++++ Afzal Siddiqui University, CA 94720-8163, USA, c_marnay@lbl.gov ABSTRACT. This paper examines a California-based microgrid-term natural gas generation cost is stochastic, we initially assume that the microgrid may purchase electricity

  7. Do Generation Firms in Restructured Electricity Markets Have Incentives to Support Social-Welfare-Improving Transmission Investments? *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oren, Shmuel S.

    Transmission Grid Study of the U.S. Department of Energy (Abraham, 2002) declares: "Growth in electricity of incentives for investment in the U.S. electricity transmission system are sparse. Moreover, noneDo Generation Firms in Restructured Electricity Markets Have Incentives to Support Social

  8. Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-01-01

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) is the component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) that is used to represent the domestic natural gas transmission and distribution system. The NGTDM is the model within the NEMS that represents the transmission, distribution, and pricing of natural gas. The model also includes representations of the end-use demand for natural gas, the production of domestic natural gas, and the availability of natural gas traded on the international market based on information received from other NEMS models. The NGTDM determines the flow of natural gas in an aggregate, domestic pipeline network, connecting domestic and foreign supply regions with 12 demand regions. The purpose of this report is to provide a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public that defines the objectives of the model, describes its basic design, provides detail on the methodology employed, and describes the model inputs, outputs, and key assumptions. Subsequent chapters of this report provide: an overview of NGTDM; a description of the interface between the NEMS and NGTDM; an overview of the solution methodology of the NGTDM; the solution methodology for the Annual Flow Module; the solution methodology for the Distributor Tariff Module; the solution methodology for the Capacity Expansion Module; the solution methodology for the Pipeline Tariff Module; and a description of model assumptions, inputs, and outputs.

  9. Probabilistic Approach to Quantifying the Contribution of Variable Generation and Transmission to System Reliability: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibanez, E.; Milligan, M.

    2012-09-01

    The increasing electrical load served by variable generation (VG), such as wind and solar energy, in the United States and many other countries has stimulated an interesting line of research to better quantify the capacity value of these resources. Methods applied traditionally to thermal units based on their average outage rates do not apply to VG because of their uncertain and non-dispatchable nature. The North American Electric Reliability Corporation's Integration of Variable Generation Task Force recently released a report that highlighted the need to develop and benchmark underlying loss-of-load expectation and related metrics that reasonably and fairly calculate the contribution to planning reserves, or capacity value, of solar and wind power. As the fraction of generation coming from VG becomes more significant, their estimated capacity value will have a larger impact on system planning. In this paper, we provide a method to include VG in traditional probabilistic-based adequacy methods. This method has been implemented in the Renewable Energy Probabilistic Resource Assessment tool developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Through an example based on the U.S. Western Interconnection, this method is applied to assess the effect that transmission can have on resource adequacy. We also analyze the interactions between available transmission and capacity value for VG.

  10. Options for Control of Reactive Power by Distributed Photovoltaic Generators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petr Sulc; Konstantin Turitsyn; Scott Backhaus; Michael Chertkov

    2010-08-04

    High penetration levels of distributed photovoltaic(PV) generation on an electrical distribution circuit present several challenges and opportunities for distribution utilities. Rapidly varying irradiance conditions may cause voltage sags and swells that cannot be compensated by slowly responding utility equipment resulting in a degradation of power quality. Although not permitted under current standards for interconnection of distributed generation, fast-reacting, VAR-capable PV inverters may provide the necessary reactive power injection or consumption to maintain voltage regulation under difficult transient conditions. As side benefit, the control of reactive power injection at each PV inverter provides an opportunity and a new tool for distribution utilities to optimize the performance of distribution circuits, e.g. by minimizing thermal losses. We discuss and compare via simulation various design options for control systems to manage the reactive power generated by these inverters. An important design decision that weighs on the speed and quality of communication required is whether the control should be centralized or distributed (i.e. local). In general, we find that local control schemes are capable for maintaining voltage within acceptable bounds. We consider the benefits of choosing different local variables on which to control and how the control system can be continuously tuned between robust voltage control, suitable for daytime operation when circuit conditions can change rapidly, and loss minimization better suited for nighttime operation.

  11. Cascade Failures from Distributed Generation in Power Grids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scala, Antonio; Scoglio, Caterina

    2012-01-01

    Power grids are nowadays experiencing a transformation due to the introduction of Distributed Generation based on Renewable Sources. At difference with classical Distributed Generation, where local power sources mitigate anomalous user consumption peaks, Renewable Sources introduce in the grid intrinsically erratic power inputs. By introducing a simple schematic (but realistic) model for power grids with stochastic distributed generation, we study the effects of erratic sources on the robustness of several IEEE power grid test networks with up to 2000 buses. We find that increasing the penetration of erratic sources causes the grid to fail with a sharp transition. We compare such results with the case of failures caused by the natural increasing power demand.

  12. A planning scheme for penetrating embedded generation in power distribution grids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Jiankang, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01

    Penetrating Embedded Generation, or Distributed Generation (DG), in power distribution grids presents great benefits and substantial positive social impacts to utilities, system operators and electricity consumers. Existing ...

  13. Modeling Distributed Electricity Generation in the NEMS Buildings Models

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling methodology, projected market penetration, and impact of distributed generation with respect to offsetting future electricity needs and carbon dioxide emissions in the residential and commercial buildings sector in the Annual Energy Outlook 2000 (AEO2000) reference case.

  14. Distribution of the Number of Generations in Flux Compactifications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andreas P. Braun; Taizan Watari

    2014-12-10

    Flux compactification of string theory generates an ensemble with a large number of vacua called the landscape. By using the statistics of various properties of low-energy effective theories in the string landscape, one can therefore hope to provide a scientific foundation to the notion of naturalness. This article discusses how to answer such questions of practical interest by using flux compactification of F-theory. It is found that the distribution is approximately in a factorized form given by the distribution of the choice of 7-brane gauge group, that of the number of generations $N_{\\rm gen}$ and that of effective coupling constants. The distribution of $N_{\\rm gen}$ is approximately Gaussian for the range $|N_{\\rm gen}| \\lesssim 10$. The statistical cost of higher-rank gauge groups is also discussed.

  15. Recovery Act-SmartGrid regional demonstration transmission and distribution (T&D) Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hedges, Edward T.

    2015-01-31

    This document represents the Final Technical Report for the Kansas City Power & Light Company (KCP&L) Green Impact Zone SmartGrid Demonstration Project (SGDP). The KCP&L project is partially funded by Department of Energy (DOE) Regional Smart Grid Demonstration Project cooperative agreement DE-OE0000221 in the Transmission and Distribution Infrastructure application area. This Final Technical Report summarizes the KCP&L SGDP as of April 30, 2015 and includes summaries of the project design, implementation, operations, and analysis performed as of that date.

  16. Opportunities for Efficiency Improvements in the U.S. Electricity Transmission and Distribution System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, Roderick K.; Onar, Omer C.; Kirkham, Harold; Fisher, Emily; Burkes, Klaehn; Starke, Michael R.; Mohammed, Olama; Weeks, George

    2015-04-01

    Since 2000, more than 172 quads of electricity have been transmitted on the US transmission and distribution (T&D) grid. Given this significant amount of energy flow, establishing and maintaining an efficient T&D grid is paramount. As shown in the figure below, the total percentage of overall losses in the US electric grid is approximately 6% (5.12% in 2012) (30% lower than the world average since 2000). While these efficiency losses appear to be relatively small from a percentage perspective, the total estimated electricity loss during this time is 10.8 quads.

  17. Survey of Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Mudd, C.; Rogers, J.

    2011-02-01

    The report presents transmission cost allocation methodologies for reliability transmission projects, generation interconnection, and economic transmission projects for all Regional Transmission Organizations.

  18. Microsoft Word - DOE RFI on Transmission Planning - PGE Comments...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    California. PG&E engages in the businesses of electricity and natural gas distribution, electricity generation, procurement and transmission, and natural gas procurement,...

  19. Natural gas transmission and distribution model of the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-02-01

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) is the component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) that is used to represent the domestic natural gas transmission and distribution system. NEMS was developed in the Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting of the Energy Information Administration (EIA). NEMS is the third in a series of computer-based, midterm energy modeling systems used since 1974 by the EIA and its predecessor, the Federal Energy Administration, to analyze domestic energy-economy markets and develop projections. From 1982 through 1993, the Intermediate Future Forecasting System (IFFS) was used by the EIA for its analyses, and the Gas Analysis Modeling System (GAMS) was used within IFFS to represent natural gas markets. Prior to 1982, the Midterm Energy Forecasting System (MEFS), also referred to as the Project Independence Evaluation System (PIES), was employed. NEMS was developed to enhance and update EIA`s modeling capability by internally incorporating models of energy markets that had previously been analyzed off-line. In addition, greater structural detail in NEMS permits the analysis of a broader range of energy issues. The time horizon of NEMS is the midterm period (i.e., through 2015). In order to represent the regional differences in energy markets, the component models of NEMS function at regional levels appropriate for the markets represented, with subsequent aggregation/disaggregation to the Census Division level for reporting purposes.

  20. Decoding the `Nature Encoded' Messages for Distributed Energy Generation Control in Microgrid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gong, Shuping; Lai, Lifeng; Qiu, Robert C

    2010-01-01

    The communication for the control of distributed energy generation (DEG) in microgrid is discussed. Due to the requirement of realtime transmission, weak or no explicit channel coding is used for the message of system state. To protect the reliability of the uncoded or weakly encoded messages, the system dynamics are considered as a `nature encoding' similar to convolution code, due to its redundancy in time. For systems with or without explicit channel coding, two decoding procedures based on Kalman filtering and Pearl's Belief Propagation, in a similar manner to Turbo processing in traditional data communication systems, are proposed. Numerical simulations have demonstrated the validity of the schemes, using a linear model of electric generator dynamic system.

  1. Greenhouse Gas Abatement with Distributed Generation in California's Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael; Lipman, Tim; Lai, Judy; Cardoso, Goncalo; Megel, Olivier

    2009-09-01

    The motivation and objective of this research is to determine the role of distributed generation (DG) in greenhouse gas reductions by: (1) applying the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM); (2) using the California Commercial End-Use Survey (CEUS) database for commercial buildings; (3) selecting buildings with electric peak loads between 100 kW and 5 MW; (4) considering fuel cells, micro-turbines, internal combustion engines, gas turbines with waste heat utilization, solar thermal, and PV; (5) testing of different policy instruments, e.g. feed-in tariff or investment subsidies.

  2. ANALYSIS OF DISTRIBUTION FEEDER LOSSES DUE TO ADDITION OF DISTRIBUTED PHOTOVOLTAIC GENERATORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Singh, Ruchi

    2011-08-09

    Distributed generators (DG) are small scale power supplying sources owned by customers or utilities and scattered throughout the power system distribution network. Distributed generation can be both renewable and non-renewable. Addition of distributed generation is primarily to increase feeder capacity and to provide peak load reduction. However, this addition comes with several impacts on the distribution feeder. Several studies have shown that addition of DG leads to reduction of feeder loss. However, most of these studies have considered lumped load and distributed load models to analyze the effects on system losses, where the dynamic variation of load due to seasonal changes is ignored. It is very important for utilities to minimize the losses under all scenarios to decrease revenue losses, promote efficient asset utilization, and therefore, increase feeder capacity. This paper will investigate an IEEE 13-node feeder populated with photovoltaic generators on detailed residential houses with water heater, Heating Ventilation and Air conditioning (HVAC) units, lights, and other plug and convenience loads. An analysis of losses for different power system components, such as transformers, underground and overhead lines, and triplex lines, will be performed. The analysis will utilize different seasons and different solar penetration levels (15%, 30%).

  3. Agent-Based Simulation of Distribution Systems with High Penetration of Photovoltaic Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    1 Agent-Based Simulation of Distribution Systems with High Penetration of Photovoltaic Generation- tems, photovoltaic generation, power distribution, power system economics, smart grids. I. INTRODUCTION study of electric distribution systems with high penetration of photovoltaic (PV) panels within

  4. Decision-Support Software for Grid Operators: Transmission Topology Control for Infrastructure Resilience to the Integration of Renewable Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-03-16

    GENI Project: The CRA team is developing control technology to help grid operators more actively manage power flows and integrate renewables by optimally turning on and off entire power lines in coordination with traditional control of generation and load resources. The control technology being developed would provide grid operators with tools to help manage transmission congestion by identifying the facilities whose on/off status must change to lower generation costs, increase utilization of renewable resources and improve system reliability. The technology is based on fast optimization algorithms for the near to real-time change in the on/off status of transmission facilities and their software implementation.

  5. Fuel cycle comparison of distributed power generation technologies.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elgowainy, A.; Wang, M. Q.; Energy Systems

    2008-12-08

    The fuel-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with the application of fuel cells to distributed power generation were evaluated and compared with the combustion technologies of microturbines and internal combustion engines, as well as the various technologies associated with grid-electricity generation in the United States and California. The results were primarily impacted by the net electrical efficiency of the power generation technologies and the type of employed fuels. The energy use and GHG emissions associated with the electric power generation represented the majority of the total energy use of the fuel cycle and emissions for all generation pathways. Fuel cell technologies exhibited lower GHG emissions than those associated with the U.S. grid electricity and other combustion technologies. The higher-efficiency fuel cells, such as the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), exhibited lower energy requirements than those for combustion generators. The dependence of all natural-gas-based technologies on petroleum oil was lower than that of internal combustion engines using petroleum fuels. Most fuel cell technologies approaching or exceeding the DOE target efficiency of 40% offered significant reduction in energy use and GHG emissions.

  6. Optimal Solar PV Arrays Integration for Distributed Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Li, Xueping

    2012-01-01

    Solar photovoltaic (PV) systems hold great potential for distributed energy generation by installing PV panels on rooftops of residential and commercial buildings. Yet challenges arise along with the variability and non-dispatchability of the PV systems that affect the stability of the grid and the economics of the PV system. This paper investigates the integration of PV arrays for distributed generation applications by identifying a combination of buildings that will maximize solar energy output and minimize system variability. Particularly, we propose mean-variance optimization models to choose suitable rooftops for PV integration based on Markowitz mean-variance portfolio selection model. We further introduce quantity and cardinality constraints to result in a mixed integer quadratic programming problem. Case studies based on real data are presented. An efficient frontier is obtained for sample data that allows decision makers to choose a desired solar energy generation level with a comfortable variability tolerance level. Sensitivity analysis is conducted to show the tradeoffs between solar PV energy generation potential and variability.

  7. A Technique to Utilize Smart Meter Load Information for Adapting Overcurrent Protection for Radial Distribution Systems with Distributed Generations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ituzaro, Fred Agyekum

    2012-07-16

    Smart radial distribution grids will include advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) and significant distributed generators (DGs) connected close to loads. DGs in these radial distribution systems (RDS) introduce bidirectional power flows (BPFs...

  8. Transmission integral analysis of Mössbauer spectra displaying hyperfine parameter distributions with arbitrary profile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klencsár, Zoltán

    2014-10-27

    Accurate quantitative analysis of Mössbauer spectra displaying thickness effects requires the consideration of the so-called transmission integral when modeling the spectral shape. Whereas this is straightforward when the correct model for the decomposition of the absorber's nuclear resonance absorption cross-section into individual components is a priori known, in the absence of such knowledge and notably in the presence of hyperfine parameter distributions with an unknown profile, the so-called model-independent evaluation methods could be used to fit the spectra. However, the methods available for this purpose were developed for the analysis of spectra for which the thin absorber approximation is valid, and thus they do not take the sample thickness and related effects into account. Consequently, in order to use them for spectra displaying thickness effects, their usage needs to be generalized by combining them with transmission integral fitting. A new algorithm realizing such a generalized version of the Hesse-Rübartsch model-independent evaluation method was developed recently as an integral part of the MossWinn program. In the present work, the working principle of the newly developed algorithm is described in details along with examples illustrating the capabilities of the method for the case of {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy.

  9. Model documentation Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-02-26

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) of the National Energy Modeling System is developed and maintained by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting. This report documents the archived version of the NGTDM that was used to produce the natural gas forecasts presented in the Annual Energy Outlook 1996, (DOE/EIA-0383(96)). The purpose of this report is to provide a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public that defines the objectives of the model, describes its basic approach, and provides detail on the methodology employed. Previously this report represented Volume I of a two-volume set. Volume II reported on model performance, detailing convergence criteria and properties, results of sensitivity testing, comparison of model outputs with the literature and/or other model results, and major unresolved issues.

  10. Reflection and transmission of ocean wave spectra by a band of randomly distributed ice floes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montiel, Fabien; Bennetts, Luke

    2014-01-01

    A new ocean wave/sea-ice interaction model is proposed that simulates how a directional wave spectrum evolves as it travels through an arbitrary finite array of circular ice floes, where wave/ice dynamics are entirely governed by wave scattering effects. The model is applied to characterise the wave reflection and transmission properties of a strip of ice floes, such as an ice edge band. A method is devised to extract the reflected and transmitted directional wave spectra produced by the array. The method builds upon an integral mapping from polar to Cartesian coordinates of the scattered wave components. Sensitivity tests are conducted for a row of floes randomly perturbed from a regular arrangement. Results for random arrays are generated using ensemble averaging. A realistic ice edge band is then reconstructed from field experiments data. Simulations show a good qualitative agreement with the data in terms of transmitted wave energy and directional spreading. In particular, it is observed that short waves ...

  11. Model documentation: Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model of the National Energy Modeling System; Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-02-24

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) is a component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) used to represent the domestic natural gas transmission and distribution system. NEMS is the third in a series of computer-based, midterm energy modeling systems used since 1974 by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) and its predecessor, the Federal Energy Administration, to analyze domestic energy-economy markets and develop projections. This report documents the archived version of NGTDM that was used to produce the natural gas forecasts used in support of the Annual Energy Outlook 1994, DOE/EIA-0383(94). The purpose of this report is to provide a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public that defines the objectives of the model, describes its basic design, provides detail on the methodology employed, and describes the model inputs, outputs, and key assumptions. It is intended to fulfill the legal obligation of the EIA to provide adequate documentation in support of its models (Public Law 94-385, Section 57.b.2). This report represents Volume 1 of a two-volume set. (Volume 2 will report on model performance, detailing convergence criteria and properties, results of sensitivity testing, comparison of model outputs with the literature and/or other model results, and major unresolved issues.) Subsequent chapters of this report provide: (1) an overview of the NGTDM (Chapter 2); (2) a description of the interface between the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) and the NGTDM (Chapter 3); (3) an overview of the solution methodology of the NGTDM (Chapter 4); (4) the solution methodology for the Annual Flow Module (Chapter 5); (5) the solution methodology for the Distributor Tariff Module (Chapter 6); (6) the solution methodology for the Capacity Expansion Module (Chapter 7); (7) the solution methodology for the Pipeline Tariff Module (Chapter 8); and (8) a description of model assumptions, inputs, and outputs (Chapter 9).

  12. A Multi-Agent Solution to Distribution System Management by Considering Distributed Generators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Minjie

    has both advantages and disadvantages [7]. On one hand, DGs can supply power to the network near such as solar and wind, the distribution network may perform differently from the conventionally ex- pected]. Typically, the bulk generation is the only energy resource to a DN, and the direction of the power flow

  13. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Deangelis; Rich Depuy; Debashis Dey; Georgia Karvountzi; Nguyen Minh; Max Peter; Faress Rahman; Pavel Sokolov; Deliang Yang

    2004-09-30

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) during the April to October 2004 reporting period in Task 2.3 (SOFC Scaleup for Hybrid and Fuel Cell Systems) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL), entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. This study analyzes the performance and economics of power generation systems for central power generation application based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology and fueled by natural gas. The main objective of this task is to develop credible scale up strategies for large solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine systems. System concepts that integrate a SOFC with a gas turbine were developed and analyzed for plant sizes in excess of 20 MW. A 25 MW plant configuration was selected with projected system efficiency of over 65% and a factory cost of under $400/kW. The plant design is modular and can be scaled to both higher and lower plant power ratings. Technology gaps and required engineering development efforts were identified and evaluated.

  14. Emissions Benefits of Distributed Generation in the Texas Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadley, SW

    2005-06-16

    One potential benefit of distributed generation (DG) is a net reduction in air emissions. While DG will produce emissions, most notably carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides, the power it displaces might have produced more. This study used a system dispatch model developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to simulate the 2012 Texas power market with and without DG. This study compares the reduction in system emissions to the emissions from the DG to determine the net savings. Some of the major findings are that 85% of the electricity displaced by DG during peak hours will be simple cycle natural gas, either steam or combustion turbine. Even with DG running as baseload, 57% of electricity displaced will be simple cycle natural gas. Despite the retirement of some gas-fired steam units and the construction of many new gas turbine and combined cycle units, the marginal emissions from the system remain quite high (1.4 lb NO{sub x}/MWh on peak and 1.1 lb NO{sub x}/MWh baseload) compared to projected DG emissions. Consequently, additions of DG capacity will reduce emissions in Texas from power generation in 2012. Using the DG exhaust heat for combined heat and power provides an even greater benefit, since it eliminates further boiler emissions while adding none over what would be produced while generating electricity. Further studies are warranted concerning the robustness of the result with changes in fuel prices, demands, and mixes of power generating technology.

  15. The Value of Distributed Generation under Different Tariff Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Ryan; Magnus Maribu, Karl; Marnay, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Distributed Energy ProgramRenewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO by Distributed

  16. Time series power flow analysis for distribution connected PV generation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Broderick, Robert Joseph; Quiroz, Jimmy Edward; Ellis, Abraham; Reno, Matthew J.; Smith, Jeff; Dugan, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Distributed photovoltaic (PV) projects must go through an interconnection study process before connecting to the distribution grid. These studies are intended to identify the likely impacts and mitigation alternatives. In the majority of the cases, system impacts can be ruled out or mitigation can be identified without an involved study, through a screening process or a simple supplemental review study. For some proposed projects, expensive and time-consuming interconnection studies are required. The challenges to performing the studies are twofold. First, every study scenario is potentially unique, as the studies are often highly specific to the amount of PV generation capacity that varies greatly from feeder to feeder and is often unevenly distributed along the same feeder. This can cause location-specific impacts and mitigations. The second challenge is the inherent variability in PV power output which can interact with feeder operation in complex ways, by affecting the operation of voltage regulation and protection devices. The typical simulation tools and methods in use today for distribution system planning are often not adequate to accurately assess these potential impacts. This report demonstrates how quasi-static time series (QSTS) simulation and high time-resolution data can be used to assess the potential impacts in a more comprehensive manner. The QSTS simulations are applied to a set of sample feeders with high PV deployment to illustrate the usefulness of the approach. The report describes methods that can help determine how PV affects distribution system operations. The simulation results are focused on enhancing the understanding of the underlying technical issues. The examples also highlight the steps needed to perform QSTS simulation and describe the data needed to drive the simulations. The goal of this report is to make the methodology of time series power flow analysis readily accessible to utilities and others responsible for evaluating potential PV impacts.

  17. Distributed Generation Dispatch Optimization under Various Electricity Tariffs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Efficiency and Renewable Energy, former Distributed EnergyEfficiency and Renewable Energy, former Distributed EnergyEfficiency and Renewable Energy, former Distributed Energy

  18. A New Approach to Mitigate the Impact of Distributed Generation on the Overcurrent Protection Scheme of Radial Distribution Feeders 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Funmilayo, Hamed

    2010-01-14

    Increased Distributed Generation (DG) presence on radial distribution feeders is becoming a common trend. The existing Overcurrent Protection (OCP) scheme on such feeders consists mainly of overcurrent protection devices ...

  19. Distributed Generation Investment by a Microgrid under Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Afzal

    2008-01-01

    the long-term natural gas generation cost is stochastic, wethe consideration of generation cost threshold that triggersthat of natural gas generation cost delays investment while

  20. SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL HYBRID SYSTEM FOR DISTRIBUTED POWER GENERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurt Montgomery; Nguyen Minh

    2003-08-01

    This report summarizes the work performed by Honeywell during the October 2001 to December 2001 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a turbogenerator. The conceptual and demonstration system designs were proposed and analyzed, and these systems have been modeled in Aspen Plus. Work has also started on the assembly of dynamic component models and the development of the top-level controls requirements for the system. SOFC stacks have been fabricated and performance mapping initiated.

  1. A Model of U.S. Commercial Distributed Generation Adoption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi; Ryan Firestone; Zhou, Nan; Maribu,Karl; Marnay, Chris

    2006-01-10

    Small-scale (100 kW-5 MW) on-site distributed generation (DG) economically driven by combined heat and power (CHP) applications and, in some cases, reliability concerns will likely emerge as a common feature of commercial building energy systems over the next two decades. Forecasts of DG adoption published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) in the Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) are made using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS), which has a forecasting module that predicts the penetration of several possible commercial building DG technologies over the period 2005-2025. NEMS is also used for estimating the future benefits of Department of Energy research and development used in support of budget requests and management decisionmaking. The NEMS approach to modeling DG has some limitations, including constraints on the amount of DG allowed for retrofits to existing buildings and a small number of possible sizes for each DG technology. An alternative approach called Commercial Sector Model (ComSeM) is developed to improve the way in which DG adoption is modeled. The approach incorporates load shapes for specific end uses in specific building types in specific regions, e.g., cooling in hospitals in Atlanta or space heating in Chicago offices. The Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) uses these load profiles together with input cost and performance DG technology assumptions to model the potential DG adoption for four selected cities and two sizes of five building types in selected forecast years to 2022. The Distributed Energy Resources Market Diffusion Model (DER-MaDiM) is then used to then tailor the DER-CAM results to adoption projections for the entire U.S. commercial sector for all forecast years from 2007-2025. This process is conducted such that the structure of results are consistent with the structure of NEMS, and can be re-injected into NEMS that can then be used to integrate adoption results into a full forecast.

  2. Onsite Distributed Generation Systems For Laboratories, Laboratories for the 21st Century: Best Practices (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-09-01

    This guide provides general information on implementing onsite distributed generation systems in laboratory environments. Specific technology applications, general performance information, and cost data are provided to educate and encourage laboratory energy managers to consider onsite power generation or combined heat and power (CHP) systems for their facilities. After conducting an initial screening, energy managers are encouraged to conduct a detailed feasibility study with actual cost and performance data for technologies that look promising. Onsite distributed generation systems are small, modular, decentralized, grid-connected, or off-grid energy systems. These systems are located at or near the place where the energy is used. These systems are also known as distributed energy or distributed power systems. DG technologies are generally considered those that produce less than 20 megawatts (MW) of power. A number of technologies can be applied as effective onsite DG systems, including: (1) Diesel, natural gas, and dual-fuel reciprocating engines; (2) Combustion turbines and steam turbines; (3) Fuel cells; (4) Biomass heating; (5) Biomass combined heat and power; (6) Photovoltaics; and (7) Wind turbines. These systems can provide a number of potential benefits to an individual laboratory facility or campus, including: (1) High-quality, reliable, and potentially dispatchable power; (2) Low-cost energy and long-term utility cost assurance, especially where electricity and/or fuel costs are high; (3) Significantly reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Typical CHP plants reduce onsite GHG by 40 to 60 percent; (4) Peak demand shaving where demand costs are high; (5) CHP where thermal energy can be used in addition to electricity; (6) The ability to meet standby power needs, especially where utility-supplied power is interrupted frequently or for long periods and where standby power is required for safety or emergencies; and (7) Use for standalone or off-grid systems where extending the grid is too expensive or impractical. Because they are installed close to the load, DG systems avoid some of the disadvantages of large, central power plants, such as transmission and distribution losses over long electric lines.

  3. Air Quality Impact of Distributed Generation of Electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jing, Qiguo

    2011-01-01

    of the near source air quality impact of distributedDabdub, D. , 2003. Urban Air quality impacts of distributedDabdub, D. , 2004. Urban Air quality impacts of distributed

  4. Distributed Generation Investment by a Microgrid under Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Afzal

    2008-01-01

    Cost of Natural Gas Generation, p Figure 6. Normalised NetCost of Natural Gas Generation, p Figure 7. Wait InvestCost of Natural Gas Generation (US$/kWh e ), C Figure 8.

  5. Distributed Generation Investment by a Microgrid Under Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Afzal; Marnay, Chris

    2006-01-01

    the long-term natural gas generation cost is stochastic, weterm natural gas generation cost, C (US$/kWh) 1 , evolvesonly if the natural gas generation cost decreases to US$

  6. Economic Inefficiency of Passive Transmission Rights in Congested Electricity Systems with Competitive Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oren, Shmuel S.

    Economic Inefficiency of Passive Transmission Rights in Congested Electricity Systems (1997), pp. 63-83 Published by: International Association for Energy Economics Stable URL: http@jstor.org. . International Association for Energy Economics is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend

  7. Method and apparatus for anti-islanding protection of distributed generations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ye, Zhihong; John, Vinod; Wang, Changyong; Garces, Luis Jose; Zhou, Rui; Li, Lei; Walling, Reigh Allen; Premerlani, William James; Sanza, Peter Claudius; Liu, Yan; Dame, Mark Edward

    2006-03-21

    An apparatus for anti-islanding protection of a distributed generation with respect to a feeder connected to an electrical grid is disclosed. The apparatus includes a sensor adapted to generate a voltage signal representative of an output voltage and/or a current signal representative of an output current at the distributed generation, and a controller responsive to the signals from the sensor. The controller is productive of a control signal directed to the distributed generation to drive an operating characteristic of the distributed generation out of a nominal range in response to the electrical grid being disconnected from the feeder.

  8. Atmospheric Environment 41 (2007) 56185635 Air quality impacts of distributed power generation in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dabdub, Donald

    2007-01-01

    analysis; Spatial sensitivity 1. Introduction Distributed energy resources (DER) have the potential is expected. The use of these distributed generation (DG) resources results in multiple stationary powerAtmospheric Environment 41 (2007) 5618­5635 Air quality impacts of distributed power generation

  9. Effects of georeferencing effort on mapping monkeypox case distributions and transmission risk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lash, R. Ryan; Carroll, Darin S.; Hughes, Christine M.; Nakazawa, Yoshinori; Karem, Kevin; Damon, Inger K.; Peterson, A. Townsend

    2012-06-27

    Background Maps of disease occurrences and GIS-based models of disease transmission risk are increasingly common, and both rely on georeferenced diseases data. Automated methods for georeferencing disease data have been ...

  10. Greenhouse Gas Abatement with Distributed Generation in California's Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Cardoso, Goncalo; Megel, Olivier; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy

    2009-08-15

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBL) is working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) to determine the role of distributed generation (DG) in greenhouse gas reductions. The impact of DG on large industrial sites is well known, and mostly, the potentials are already harvested. In contrast, little is known about the impact of DG on commercial buildings with peak electric loads ranging from 100 kW to 5 MW. We examine how DG with combined heat and power (CHP) may be implemented within the context of a cost minimizing microgrid that is able to adopt and operate various smart energy technologies, such as thermal and photovoltaic (PV) on-site generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and storage systems. We use a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that has the minimization of a site's annual energy costs as objective. Using 138 representative commercial sites in California (CA) with existing tariff rates and technology data, we find the greenhouse gas reduction potential for California's commercial sector. This paper shows results from the ongoing research project and finished work from a two year U.S. Department of Energy research project. To show the impact of the different technologies on CO2 emissions, several sensitivity runs for different climate zones within CA with different technology performance expectations for 2020 were performed. The considered sites can contribute between 1 Mt/a and 1.8 Mt/a to the California Air Resources Board (CARB) goal of 6.7Mt/a CO2 abatement potential in 2020. Also, with lower PV and storage costs as well as consideration of a CO2 pricing scheme, our results indicate that PV and electric storage adoption can compete rather than supplement each other when the tariff structure and costs of electricity supply have been taken into consideration. To satisfy the site's objective of minimizing energy costs, the batteries will be charged also by CHP systems during off-peak and mid-peak hours and not only by PV during sunny on-peak hours.

  11. Dynamic equivalencing of distribution network with embedded generation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Xiaodan Selina

    2012-06-25

    Renewable energy generation will play an important role in solving the climate change problem. With renewable electricity generation increasing, there will be some significant changes in electric power systems, ...

  12. Subsystem Interaction Analysis in Power Distribution Systems of Next Generation Airlifters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lindner, Douglas K.

    tolerant, autonomously controlled electrical power system to deliver high quality power from the sources electronics, fault tolerant electrical power distribution systems and electrically driven primary flight1 Subsystem Interaction Analysis in Power Distribution Systems of Next Generation Airlifters Sriram

  13. Micro-grid operation of inverter based distributed generation with voltage and frequency dependent loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeineldin, H. H.

    Distribution systems are experiencing increasing penetration of distributed generation (DG). One attractive option is to use the available DG capacity during utility outages by forming planned micro-grids. Load sharing ...

  14. Machine Learning Approach to Islanding Detection for Inverter-Based Distributed Generation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matic Cuka, Biljana

    2014-12-17

    Despite a number of economic and environmental benefits that integration of renewable distributed generation (DG) into the distribution grid brings, there are many technical challenges that arise as well. One of the most important issues concerning...

  15. On the Distribution of the Subset Sum Pseudorandom Number Generator on Elliptic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    On the Distribution of the Subset Sum Pseudorandom Number Generator on Elliptic Curves Simon R a previous result in this direction due to E. El Mahassni. 1 Introduction The knapsack generator or subset sum generator is a pseudorandom number generator introduced by Rueppel and Massey [14] and studied

  16. Future of Distributed Generation and IEEE 1547 (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preus, R.

    2014-06-01

    This presentation discusses the background on IEEE 1547, including its purpose, changes, new boundary issues and requirements, islanding issues, and how it impacts distributed wind.

  17. Distributed Generation Investment by a Microgrid Under Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Afzal; Marnay, Chris

    2006-01-01

    electricity markets , PhD thesis, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA,USA, 1994. Joskow PL, Productivity growth and technical change in the generation of electricity,

  18. Distributed Generation Investment by a Microgrid Under Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Afzal; Marnay, Chris

    2006-01-01

    DG) and combined heat and power (CHP) applications matchedpower generation with combined heat and power applications,tax on microgrid combined heat and power adoption, Journal

  19. Smoothing the Eects of Renewable Generation on the Distribution Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naud, Paul S.

    2014-01-01

    to Grid by Paul Naud Renewable electrical power sourcessystem based on various renewable energy resources. InCRUZ Smoothing the Effects of Renewable Generation on the

  20. Distributed Generation Dispatch Optimization under Various Electricity Tariffs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

    2007-01-01

    data available and used to generate random solar radiationResource Data Center], The Solar Radiation Resourcedata were collected from [16]. The stochastic model of solar radiation

  1. The changing global distribution and prevalence of canine transmissible venereal tumour

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strakova, A.; Murchison, E. P.

    2014-09-03

    . The International Monetary Fund: World Economic Outlook Database. ; 2013. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2013/01/weodata/index.aspx. 105. Mikaelian I, Girard C, Ivascu I: Transmissible venereal tumor: a consequence of sex tourism in a dog. Can Vet J 1998...

  2. Aalborg Universitet Economic Power Dispatch of Distributed Generators in a Grid-Connected Microgrid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    Aalborg Universitet Economic Power Dispatch of Distributed Generators in a Grid-Connected Microgrid., & Vasquez, J. C. (2015). Economic Power Dispatch of Distributed Generators in a Grid-Connected Microgrid-Connected Microgrid Adriana C. Luna, Nelson L. Diaz, Fabio Andrade, Mois`es Graells§, Josep M. Guerrero, and Juan C

  3. Aalborg Universitet Influence of Resolution of the Input Data on Distributed Generation Integration Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sera, Dezso

    concerning large penetration of the renewable energy based generators on the distribution network is related on Distributed Generation Integration Studies Catalin I. Ciontea, Dezso Sera, Florin Iov Department of Energy in order to obtain realistic results. I. INTRODUCTION The interest in renewable energy is a result

  4. A CRITICAL REVIEW OF WIND TRANSMISSION COST ESTIMATES FROM MAJOR TRANSMISSION PLANNING EFFORTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew; Wiser, Ryan; Porter, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    Generation Outlet Electric Transmission Study. May.Identifying Minnesota’s Electric Transmission InfrastructureGeneration Outlet Electric Transmission Study Xcel-31A

  5. The Cost of Transmission for Wind Energy: A Review of Transmission Planning Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew D.

    2009-01-01

    additional transmission costs to new electricity generators,additional transmission costs to new electricity generators,Electricity Coordinating Council / California - 13 transmission

  6. Distributed Generation Investment by a Microgrid under Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Afzal

    2008-01-01

    power generation with combined heat and power applications.tax on microgrid combined heat and power adoption. JournalCHP Application Center. Combined heat and power in a dairy.

  7. Classified Comfort Noise Generation for Efficient Voice Transmission Yasheng Qian, Wei-Shou Hsu, Peter Kabal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kabal, Peter

    ); coded speech and comfort noise at the decoder (bottom). The aim of the Comfort Noise Generator (CNG with a reduced rate relative to active speech. CNG systems do not need to exactly reproduce the background noise waveform. Dif- 225 September 17-21, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania INTERSPEECH 2006 - ICSLP #12;ferent CNG

  8. Maui Smart Grid Demonstration Project Managing Distribution System Resources for Improved Service Quality and Reliability, Transmission Congestion Relief, and Grid Support Functions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2014-09-30

    The Maui Smart Grid Project (MSGP) is under the leadership of the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) of the University of Hawaii at Manoa. The project team includes Maui Electric Company, Ltd. (MECO), Hawaiian Electric Company, Inc. (HECO), Sentech (a division of SRA International, Inc.), Silver Spring Networks (SSN), Alstom Grid, Maui Economic Development Board (MEDB), University of Hawaii-Maui College (UHMC), and the County of Maui. MSGP was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under Cooperative Agreement Number DE-FC26-08NT02871, with approximately 50% co-funding supplied by MECO. The project was designed to develop and demonstrate an integrated monitoring, communications, database, applications, and decision support solution that aggregates renewable energy (RE), other distributed generation (DG), energy storage, and demand response technologies in a distribution system to achieve both distribution and transmission-level benefits. The application of these new technologies and procedures will increase MECO’s visibility into system conditions, with the expected benefits of enabling more renewable energy resources to be integrated into the grid, improving service quality, increasing overall reliability of the power system, and ultimately reducing costs to both MECO and its customers.

  9. Transmission Commercial Project Integration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Market Generator Interconnection Reform Implementation Network Integration Transmission Service (NT Service) Network Open Season (NOS) PTSA Reform North American Energy...

  10. WormShield: Fast Worm Signature Generation with Distributed Fingerprint Aggregation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papadopoulos, Christos

    WormShield: Fast Worm Signature Generation with Distributed Fingerprint Aggregation Min Cai, Member, IEEE Abstract--Fast and accurate generation of worm signatures is essential to contain zero-day worms at the Internet scale. Recent work has shown that signature generation can be automated by analyzing

  11. Published in IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution Received on 16th April 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Czarnecki, Leszek S.

    incentives for reducing harmonics and asymmetry both on the energy provider and the customer sides. This idea users. Nonetheless, financial accounts between the energy provider and the user should contain some decades of the power systems development the energy was provided almost exclusively from synchronous

  12. Buildings Energy Data Book: 6.2 Electricity Generation, Transmission, and Distribution

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center HomeVehicle Replacement U.S. Residential and69 Energy74714 U.S.567

  13. Buildings Energy Data Book: 6.2 Electricity Generation, Transmission, and Distribution

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center HomeVehicle Replacement U.S. Residential and69 Energy74714 U.S.5670

  14. Buildings Energy Data Book: 6.2 Electricity Generation, Transmission, and Distribution

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center HomeVehicle Replacement U.S. Residential and69 Energy74714 U.S.56702

  15. Buildings Energy Data Book: 6.2 Electricity Generation, Transmission, and Distribution

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center HomeVehicle Replacement U.S. Residential and69 Energy74714

  16. Buildings Energy Data Book: 6.2 Electricity Generation, Transmission, and Distribution

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center HomeVehicle Replacement U.S. Residential and69 Energy747144 Electric

  17. Buildings Energy Data Book: 6.2 Electricity Generation, Transmission, and Distribution

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center HomeVehicle Replacement U.S. Residential and69 Energy747144

  18. Buildings Energy Data Book: 6.2 Electricity Generation, Transmission, and Distribution

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center HomeVehicle Replacement U.S. Residential and69 Energy7471446 Cost of

  19. Buildings Energy Data Book: 6.2 Electricity Generation, Transmission, and Distribution

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center HomeVehicle Replacement U.S. Residential and69 Energy7471446 Cost

  20. Buildings Energy Data Book: 6.2 Electricity Generation, Transmission, and Distribution

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center HomeVehicle Replacement U.S. Residential and69 Energy7471446 Cost8

  1. Buildings Energy Data Book: 6.2 Electricity Generation, Transmission, and Distribution

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center HomeVehicle Replacement U.S. Residential and69 Energy7471446 Cost89

  2. Distributed Power Generation: Requirements and Recommendations for an ICT Architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Appelrath, Hans-Jürgen

    . In the future of energy markets, the distributed energy production through wind and hydroelectric power plants. Some of these are sustainable (wind and hydroelectric power plants, solar cells), some are controllable, one has to distinguish between two in principle different products: consumption power and balance

  3. Low-cost distributed solar-thermal-electric power generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanders, Seth

    -piston Stirling engine devices incorporating integrated electric generation. We target concentrator- collector design issues, and a specific design for an appropriately dimensioned free-piston Stirling engine. Only: Solar Thermal Collectors, Solar Thermal Electricity, Stirling Engine 1. INTRODUCTION In this paper, we

  4. City of San Marcos- Distributed Generation Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Qualifying Solar PV systems are eligible for a $2.50 per Watt (W) rebate up to $5,000. Qualifying Wind Generation systems are eligible for a $1.00 per W rebate up to $5,000. Neither rebate amount...

  5. A multiconductor model for determining the response of power transmission and distribution lines to a high altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tesche, F.M.; Barnes, P.R.

    1988-01-01

    A calculation model for electromagnetic pulse coupling to transmission and transmission line is discussed. Sample calculations for a 345 kV transmission line are given. 3 refs., 8 figs.

  6. The Value of Distributed Solar Electric Generation to San Antonio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Nic; Norris, Ben; Meyer, Lisa

    2013-02-14

    This report presents an analysis of value provided by grid-connected, distributed PV in San Antonio from a utility perspective. The study quantified six value components, summarized in Table ES- 1. These components represent the benefits that accrue to the utility, CPS Energy, in accepting solar onto the grid. This analysis does not treat the compensation of value, policy objectives, or cost-effectiveness from the retail consumer perspective.

  7. An Investigation of the Utilization of Smart Meter Data to Adapt Overcurrent Protection for Radial Distribution Systems with a High Penetration of Distributed Generation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douglin, Richard Henry

    2012-07-16

    The future of electric power distribution systems (DSs) is one that incorporates extensive amounts of advanced metering, distribution automation, and distributed generation technologies. Most DSs were designed to be radial ...

  8. Study and Development of Anti-Islanding Control for Synchronous Machine-Based Distributed Generators: November 2001--March 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye, Z.

    2006-03-01

    This report summarizes the study and development of new active anti-islanding control schemes for synchronous machine-based distributed generators, including engine generators and gas turbines.

  9. Distributed Generation Study/Floyd Bennett | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTIONRobertsdale, Alabama (UtilityInstrumentsArea (DOE GTP)Displacement TransferBennett < Distributed

  10. Distributed Generation Study/Tudor Gardens | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTIONRobertsdale, Alabama (UtilityInstrumentsArea (DOE GTP)DisplacementTudor Gardens < Distributed

  11. Property:Distributed Generation/Site Description | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to: navigation, search Property NameDefinition JumpShore (m)Generation/Site

  12. Transmission Rates of Gossypium mustelinum and G. tomentosum SNP Markers in Early-generation Backcrosses to Cotton 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Jiale

    2014-12-03

    for genetic improvement. Successful interspecific introgression efforts require the transmission of alien genes into the cultivated species and homologous recombination. Transmission distortion can restrict or preclude gene transfer, and reduced rates...

  13. Applying epoch-era analysis for homeowner selection of distributed generation power systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pińa, Alexander L

    2014-01-01

    The current shift from centralized energy generation to a more distributed model has opened a number of choices for homeowners to provide their own power. While there are a number of systems to purchase, there are no tools ...

  14. Energy-Efficient Distributed Detection Via Multi-hop Transmission in Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, Huaiyu

    does not hold in practice, and makes it difficult to evaluate the true detection performance and energy expenditure. In this paper, we focus on the regime where the number of sensors is large, and investigate makes an observation Yj, i.i.d. across sensors given the hypothesis. The cumulative distribution

  15. Agent-Based Test Beds for the Integrated Study of Transmission-Distribution Operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LAB-D to realistically model the distribution system 2 #12;Integrated Retail and Wholesale (IRW) Power System Test Bed Xx xx 3 #12;AMES Wholesale Power Market Test Bed 4 AMES Homepage: http://www2.econ Workshop, March 24-25, 2015 NIST, Gaithersburg, Maryland 1 #12;Presentation Outline Integrated Retail

  16. Electrical power systems (Guatemala). Electric power generation and distribution equipment, March 1991. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-03-01

    The article analyzes the electrical power generation and distribution equipment market in Guatemala and contains the following subtopics: market assessment, competitive situation, market access, trade promotion opportunities, best sales prospects, and statistical data. The total market demand of electrical power generation and distribution equipment and materials in Guatemala increased from US $19.0 million in 1987 to $24.8 million in 1988 (30.5 percent).

  17. Transmission Power Management for Wireless Health Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amini, Navid

    2012-01-01

    Experimental Analysis of RF Transmission Characteristics foroptimal low-energy transmission strategy for ieee 802.11a/h.Distributed algorithms for transmission power control in

  18. Transmission Grid Integration | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    utility operations, engage in transmission planning forums, and model generator output. More information on transmission grid integration is available in the Transmission...

  19. Incentive Regulation in Theory and Practice: Electricity Distribution and Transmission Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joskow, Paul

    2006-03-14

    . The first relates to the System Operator (SO) incentive schemes that have been offered to the National Grid Company in England and Wales discussed below. The second is the menu of sliding scale mechanisms offered to the electric distribution companies... ) the introduction of new products and services, and stimulate efficient investment in and pricing of access to regulated infrastructure services. 1 Prepared for the National Bureau of Economic Research Conference...

  20. Power Flow Analysis Algorithm for Islanded LV Microgrids Including Distributed Generator Units with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaudhary, Sanjay

    Power Flow Analysis Algorithm for Islanded LV Microgrids Including Distributed Generator Units power system. Being able to operate in both grid-connected and islanded mode, a microgrid manages and controls distributed energy resources, energy storage systems and loads, most of them are power electronic

  1. Optimal Placement and Sizing of Distributed Generator Units using Genetic Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and electricity in the distribution grid. A group of DG units can form a virtual power plant, being centrally controlled and behaving as a single power plant towards the grid. The extreme case is an energy island to conventional power plants distributed generation units such as PV cells (depending on solar illumination

  2. Historical and Current U.S. Strategies for Boosting Distributed Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowder, Travis; Schwabe, Paul; Zhou, Ella; Arent, Douglas J.

    2015-10-29

    This report seeks to introduce a variety of top-down and bottom-up practices that, in concert with the macro-environment of cost-reduction globally and early adoption in Europe, helped boost the distributed generation photovoltaic market in the United States. These experiences may serve as a reference in China's quest to promote distributed renewable energy.

  3. Stability analysis of weak rural electrification microgrids with droop-controlled rotational and electronic distributed generators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lemmon, Michael

    Stability analysis of weak rural electrification microgrids with droop-controlled rotational--Droop-controlled distributed generation (DG) units are widely used in microgrids for rural electrification applica- tions. In these microgrids, power quality is vulnerable to voltage and frequency instabilities due to limited generation

  4. Distributed Load Demand Scheduling in Smart Grid to Minimize Electricity Generation Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    Distributed Load Demand Scheduling in Smart Grid to Minimize Electricity Generation Cost Siyu Yue of electricity consumers is an effective way to alleviate the peak power demand on the elec- tricity grid- ple users cooperate to perform load demand scheduling in order to minimize the electricity generation

  5. Quadrennial Energy Review Public Meeting #5: Electricity Transmission, Storage and Distribution - West

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nAandSummary From: Julia Hammand Distribution |Public MeetingMeeting

  6. Neutron Resonance Transmission Analysis (NRTA): A Nondestructive Assay Technique for the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative’s Plutonium Assay Challenge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. W. Sterbentz; D. L. Chichester

    2010-12-01

    This is an end-of-year report for a project funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration's Office of Nuclear Safeguards (NA-241). The goal of this project is to investigate the feasibility of using Neutron Resonance Transmission Analysis (NRTA) to assay plutonium in commercial light-water-reactor spent fuel. This project is part of a larger research effort within the Next-Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) to evaluate methods for assaying plutonium in spent fuel, the Plutonium Assay Challenge. The first-year goals for this project were modest and included: 1) developing a zero-order MCNP model for the NRTA technique, simulating data results presented in the literature, 2) completing a preliminary set of studies investigating important design and performance characteristics for the NRTA measurement technique, and 3) documentation of this work in an end of the year report (this report). Research teams at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and at several universities are also working to investigate plutonium assay methods for spent-fuel safeguards. While the NRTA technique is well proven in the scientific literature for assaying individual spent fuel pins, it is a newcomer to the current NGSI efforts studying Pu assay method techniques having just started in March 2010; several analytical techniques have been under investigation within this program for two to three years or more. This report summarizes a nine month period of work.

  7. Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fink, S.; Rogers, J.; Porter, K.

    2010-07-01

    This report describes transmission cost allocation methodologies for transmission projects developed to maintain or enhance reliability, to interconnect new generators, or to access new resources and enhance competitive bulk power markets, otherwise known as economic transmission projects.

  8. Distributed Generation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit theCovalentLaboratory |

  9. Do Generation Firms in Restructured Electricity Markets Have Incentives to Support Social-Welfare-Improving Transmission Investments? *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    transmission rights, power systems economics. * The work reported in this paper was partially supported. This lack of flexibility has increased the risk of power failures and blackouts. From an economic

  10. Proceedings of Power Systems 03: Distributed Generation and Advanced Metering 2002 Wichita State University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Proceedings of Power Systems 03: Distributed Generation and Advanced Metering © 2002 Wichita State are critically dependent on the fuel quality and supply parameters for optimal power delivery and overall System Friction Losses (kW) PBearing Total System Bearing Losses (kW) PCon Electrical Conversion Losses

  11. Aalborg Universitet Stored Energy Balance for Distributed PV-Based Active Generators in an AC Microgrid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    Microgrid Aldana, Nelson Leonardo Diaz; Wu, Dan; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez). Stored Energy Balance for Distributed PV-Based Active Generators in an AC Microgrid. In Proceedings Microgrid Nelson L. Diaz, Dan Wu, Tomislav Dragicevic, Juan C. Vasquez, and Josep M. Guerrero Abstract

  12. 3D phase-differentiated GDL microstructure generation with binder and PTFE distributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kandlikar, Satish

    3D phase-differentiated GDL microstructure generation with binder and PTFE distributions Michael M of gas diffusion layer (GDL) materials with localized binder and poly- tetrafluoroethylene (PTFE mimics manufacturing processes and produces complete phase-differentiated (void, fiber, binder, and PTFE

  13. Modeling and Generating Daily Changes in Market Variables Using A Multivariate Mixture of Normal Distributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Jin

    Modeling and Generating Daily Changes in Market Variables Using A Multivariate Mixture of Normal of the normal distribution for modeling of daily changes in market variables with fatter-than-normal tails is to transform (linearly) a multivariate normalwith an input covariance matrix into the desired multivariate

  14. Fuel Cell Generation in Geo-Distributed Cloud Services: A Quantitative Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Baochun

    Fuel Cell Generation in Geo-Distributed Cloud Services: A Quantitative Study Zhi Zhou1 Fangming Liu of fuel cell energy in cloud computing, yet it is unclear what and how much benefit it may bring. This paper, for the first time, attempts to quantitatively examine the benefits brought by fuel cell

  15. Boardman to Hemingway Transmission Project

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Market Generator Interconnection Reform Implementation Network Integration Transmission Service (NT Service) Network Open Season (NOS) PTSA Reform North American Energy...

  16. Competitive Bidding Process for Electric Distribution Companies’ Procurement of Default and Back-up Electric Generation Services (Connecticut)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Electric distribution companies shall utilize a competitive bidding process for electric generation services. The Department of Public Utility Control will be responsible for setting the criteria...

  17. Modeling the Impacts of Solar Distributed Generation on U.S. Water Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amanda, Smith; Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Jaron, Peck

    2015-01-01

    Distributed electric power generation technologies typically use little or no water per unit of electrical energy produced; in particular, renewable energy sources such as solar PV systems do not require cooling systems and present an opportunity to reduce water usage for power generation. Within the US, the fuel mix used for power generation varies regionally, and certain areas use more water for power generation than others. The need to reduce water usage for power generation is even more urgent in view of climate change uncertainties. In this paper, we present an example case within the state of Tennessee, one of the top four states in water consumption for power generation and one of the states with little or no potential for developing centralized renewable energy generations. The potential for developing PV generation within Knox County, Tennessee, is studied, along with the potential for reducing water withdrawal and consumption within the Tennessee Valley stream region. Electric power generation plants in the region are quantified for their electricity production and expected water withdrawal and consumption over one year, where electrical generation data is provided over one year and water usage is modeled based on the cooling system(s) in use. Potential solar PV electrical production is modeled based on LiDAR data and weather data for the same year. Our proposed methodology can be summarized as follows: First, the potential solar generation is compared against the local grid demand. Next, electrical generation reductions are specified that would result in a given reduction in water withdrawal and a given reduction in water consumption, and compared with the current water withdrawal and consumption rates for the existing fuel mix. The increase in solar PV development that would produce an equivalent amount of power, is determined. In this way, we consider how targeted local actions may affect the larger stream region through thoughtful energy development. This model can be applied to other regions, other types of distributed generation, and used as a framework for modeling alternative growth scenarios in power production capacity in addition to modeling adjustments to existing capacity.

  18. Estimating electricity storage power rating and discharge duration for utility transmission and distribution deferral :a study for the DOE energy storage program.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eyer, James M. (Distributed Utility Associates, Livermore, CA); Butler, Paul Charles; Iannucci, Joseph J., Jr.

    2005-11-01

    This report describes a methodology for estimating the power and energy capacities for electricity energy storage systems that can be used to defer costly upgrades to fully overloaded, or nearly overloaded, transmission and distribution (T&D) nodes. This ''sizing'' methodology may be used to estimate the amount of storage needed so that T&D upgrades may be deferred for one year. The same methodology can also be used to estimate the characteristics of storage needed for subsequent years of deferral.

  19. Ionic Liquids for Utilization of Waste Heat from Distributed Power Generation Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joan F. Brennecke; Mihir Sen; Edward J. Maginn; Samuel Paolucci; Mark A. Stadtherr; Peter T. Disser; Mike Zdyb

    2009-01-11

    The objective of this research project was the development of ionic liquids to capture and utilize waste heat from distributed power generation systems. Ionic Liquids (ILs) are organic salts that are liquid at room temperature and they have the potential to make fundamental and far-reaching changes in the way we use energy. In particular, the focus of this project was fundamental research on the potential use of IL/CO2 mixtures in absorption-refrigeration systems. Such systems can provide cooling by utilizing waste heat from various sources, including distributed power generation. The basic objectives of the research were to design and synthesize ILs appropriate for the task, to measure and model thermophysical properties and phase behavior of ILs and IL/CO2 mixtures, and to model the performance of IL/CO2 absorption-refrigeration systems.

  20. Effects on electrical distribution networks of dispersed power generation at high levels of connection penetration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Longrigg, P.

    1983-07-01

    The advent and deployment of significant levels of photovoltaic and wind energy generation in the spatially dispersed mode (i.e., residential and intermediate load centers) may have deleterious effects upon existing protective relay equipment and its time-current coordination on radial distribution circuits to which power conditioning equipment may be connected for power sell-back purposes. The problems that may arise involve harmonic injection from power conditioning inverters that can affect protective relays and cause excessive voltage and current from induced series and parallel resonances on feeders and connected passive equipment. Voltage regulation, var requirements, and consumer metering can also be affected by this type of dispersed generation. The creation of islands of supply is also possible, particularly on rural supply systems. This paper deals mainly with the effects of harmonics and short-circuit currents from wind energy conversion systems (WECS) and photovoltaic (PV) systems upon the operating characteristics of distribution networks and relays and other protective equipment designed to ensure the safety and supply integrity of electrical utility networks. Traditionally, electrical supply networks have been designed for one-way power flow-from generation to load, with a balance maintained between the two by means of automatic generation and load-frequency controls. Dispersed generation, from renewables like WECS or PV or from nonrenewable resources, can change traditional power flow. These changes must be dealt with effectively if renewable energy resources are to be integrated into the utility distribution system. This paper gives insight into these problems and proposes some solutions.

  1. SIZE DISTRIBUTION AND RATE OF PRODUCTION OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER GENERATED DURING METAL CUTTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.; S.K. Dua, Ph.D., C.H.P.; Hillol Guha, Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    During deactivation and decommissioning activities, thermal cutting tools, such as plasma torch, laser, and gasoline torch, are used to cut metals. These activities generate fumes, smoke and particulates. These airborne species of matter, called aerosols, may be inhaled if suitable respiratory protection is not used. Inhalation of the airborne metallic aerosols has been reported to cause ill health effects, such as acute respiratory syndrome and chromosome damage in lymphocytes. In the nuclear industry, metals may be contaminated with radioactive materials. Cutting these metals, as in size reduction of gloveboxes and tanks, produces high concentrations of airborne transuranic particles. Particles of the respirable size range (size < 10 {micro}m) deposit in various compartments of the respiratory tract, the fraction and the site in the respiratory tract depending on the size of the particles. The dose delivered to the respiratory tract depends on the size distribution of the airborne particulates (aerosols) and their concentration and radioactivity/toxicity. The concentration of airborne particulate matter in an environment is dependent upon the rate of their production and the ventilation rate. Thus, measuring aerosol size distribution and generation rate is important for (1) the assessment of inhalation exposures of workers, (2) the selection of respiratory protection equipment, and (3) the design of appropriate filtration systems. Size distribution of the aerosols generated during cutting of different metals by plasma torch was measured. Cutting rates of different metals, rate of generation of respirable mass, as well as the fraction of the released kerf that become respirable were determined. This report presents results of these studies. Measurements of the particles generated during cutting of metal plates with a plasma arc torch revealed the presence of particles with mass median aerodynamic diameters of particles close to 0.2 {micro}m, arising from condensation of vaporized material and subsequent rapid formation of aggregates. Particles of larger size, resulting from ejection of melted material or fragments from the cutting zone, were also observed. This study presents data regarding the metal cutting rate, particle size distribution, and their generation rate, while using different cutting tools and metals. The study shows that respirable particles constitute only a small fraction of the released kerf.

  2. Electricity transmission congestion costs: A review of recent reports

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesieutre, Bernard C.; Eto, Joseph H.

    2003-01-01

    Commission). 2001. Electric Transmission Constraint Study.by the Office of Electric Transmission and Distribution ofCommission (FERC), Electric Transmission Constraint Study (

  3. Design of a 2.5kW Low Temperature Stirling Engine for Distributed Solar Thermal Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanders, Seth

    Design of a 2.5kW Low Temperature Stirling Engine for Distributed Solar Thermal Generation Mike He on the design of a Stirling engine for distributed solar thermal ap- plications. In particular, we design for experimentation. Stirling engines can have broad significance and technological advantages for distributed

  4. Electronic Transmission and Computation of Very Long Baseline Interferometry and Its Application to Next Generation Radio Telescopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melbourne, University of

    @atnf.csiro.au Abstract Australia is contributing to the next generation radio telescope, the Square Kilometre Array (SKA processors. 1. Introduction The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) is a next- generation radio telescope planned for operation around 2015. As the name implies, it will encompass a square kilometre of collecting area

  5. GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTION POTENTIAL WITH COMBINED HEAT AND POWER WITH DISTRIBUTED GENERATION PRIME MOVERS - ASME 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curran, Scott; Theiss, Timothy J; Bunce, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Pending or recently enacted greenhouse gas regulations and mandates are leading to the need for current and feasible GHG reduction solutions including combined heat and power (CHP). Distributed generation using advanced reciprocating engines, gas turbines, microturbines and fuel cells has been shown to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) compared to the U.S. electrical generation mix due to the use of natural gas and high electrical generation efficiencies of these prime movers. Many of these prime movers are also well suited for use in CHP systems which recover heat generated during combustion or energy conversion. CHP increases the total efficiency of the prime mover by recovering waste heat for generating electricity, replacing process steam, hot water for buildings or even cooling via absorption chilling. The increased efficiency of CHP systems further reduces GHG emissions compared to systems which do not recover waste thermal energy. Current GHG mandates within the U.S Federal sector and looming GHG legislation for states puts an emphasis on understanding the GHG reduction potential of such systems. This study compares the GHG savings from various state-of-the- art prime movers. GHG reductions from commercially available prime movers in the 1-5 MW class including, various industrial fuel cells, large and small gas turbines, micro turbines and reciprocating gas engines with and without CHP are compared to centralized electricity generation including the U.S. mix and the best available technology with natural gas combined cycle power plants. The findings show significant GHG saving potential with the use of CHP. Also provided is an exploration of the accounting methodology for GHG reductions with CHP and the sensitivity of such analyses to electrical generation efficiency, emissions factors and most importantly recoverable heat and thermal recovery efficiency from the CHP system.

  6. Ultrashort laser ablation of bulk copper targets: Dynamics and size distribution of the generated nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsakiris, N.; Gill-Comeau, M.; Lewis, L. J.; Anoop, K. K.; Ausanio, G.; Bruzzese, R.; Amoruso, S.

    2014-06-28

    We address the role of laser pulse fluence on expansion dynamics and size distribution of the nanoparticles produced by irradiating a metallic target with an ultrashort laser pulse in a vacuum, an issue for which contrasting indications are present in the literature. To this end, we have carried out a combined theoretical and experimental analysis of laser ablation of a bulk copper target with ?50 fs, 800?nm pulses, in an interval of laser fluencies going from few to several times the ablation threshold. On one side, molecular dynamics simulations, with two-temperature model, describe the decomposition of the material through the analysis of the evolution of thermodynamic trajectories in the material phase diagram, and allow estimating the size distribution of the generated nano-aggregates. On the other side, atomic force microscopy of less than one layer nanoparticles deposits on witness plates, and fast imaging of the nanoparticles broadband optical emission provide the corresponding experimental characterization. Both experimental and numerical findings agree on a size distribution characterized by a significant fraction (?90%) of small nanoparticles, and a residual part (?10%) spanning over a rather large size interval, evidencing a weak dependence of the nanoparticles sizes on the laser pulse fluence. Numerical and experimental findings show a good degree of consistency, thus suggesting that modeling can realistically support the search for experimental methods leading to an improved control over the generation of nanoparticles by ultrashort laser ablation.

  7. Optimizing Geographic Allotment of Photovoltaic Capacity in a Distributed Generation Setting: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urquhart, B.; Sengupta, M.; Keller, J.

    2012-09-01

    A multi-objective optimization was performed to allocate 2MW of PV among four candidate sites on the island of Lanai such that energy was maximized and variability in the form of ramp rates was minimized. This resulted in an optimal solution set which provides a range of geographic allotment alternatives for the fixed PV capacity. Within the optimal set, a tradeoff between energy produced and variability experienced was found, whereby a decrease in variability always necessitates a simultaneous decrease in energy. A design point within the optimal set was selected for study which decreased extreme ramp rates by over 50% while only decreasing annual energy generation by 3% over the maximum generation allocation. To quantify the allotment mix selected, a metric was developed, called the ramp ratio, which compares ramping magnitude when all capacity is allotted to a single location to the aggregate ramping magnitude in a distributed scenario. The ramp ratio quantifies simultaneously how much smoothing a distributed scenario would experience over single site allotment and how much a single site is being under-utilized for its ability to reduce aggregate variability. This paper creates a framework for use by cities and municipal utilities to reduce variability impacts while planning for high penetration of PV on the distribution grid.

  8. Development, Demonstration, and Field Testing of Enterprise-Wide Distributed Generation Energy Management System: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenberg, S.; Cooley, C.

    2005-01-01

    This report details progress on subcontract NAD-1-30605-1 between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and RealEnergy (RE), the purpose of which is to describe RE's approach to the challenges it faces in the implementation of a nationwide fleet of clean cogeneration systems to serve contemporary energy markets. The Phase 2 report covers: utility tariff risk and its impact on market development; the effect on incentives on distributed energy markets; the regulatory effectiveness of interconnection in California; a survey of practical field interconnection issues; trend analysis for on-site generation; performance of dispatch systems; and information design hierarchy for combined heat and power.

  9. Utility/Industry Partnerships Involving Distributed Generation Technologies in Evolving Electricity Markets 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rastler, D. M.

    1997-01-01

    the defUlition given above. It can be a corporate strategic tool in the newly competitive electric business. It can be part of an offensive strategy to capture new retail markets. It can be used to optimize support of a capacity-stretched distribution... system. It can be used defensively to retain existing customers. Example strategies include: Meet existing customers' growing local peak demands without adding long-payback T&D upgrades and/or new central station generation investments. Serve new...

  10. Alleviating Solar Energy Congestion in the Distribution Grid via Smart

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ansari, Nirwan

    generator supplies power to multiple groups of end users through transmission and distribution lines energy is generated and injected into the grid; this is attributed to a lack of transmission lines metering. Ç 1 INTRODUCTION THE electric power grid is one of the national critical infrastructures

  11. Electric utility transmission and distribution upgrade deferral benefits from modular electricity storage : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eyer, James M.

    2009-06-01

    The work documented in this report was undertaken as part of an ongoing investigation of innovative and potentially attractive value propositions for electricity storage by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Electricity Storage Systems (ESS) Program. This study characterizes one especially attractive value proposition for modular electricity storage (MES): electric utility transmission and distribution (T&D) upgrade deferral. The T&D deferral benefit is characterized in detail. Also presented is a generalized framework for estimating the benefit. Other important and complementary (to T&D deferral) elements of possible value propositions involving MES are also characterized.

  12. Trends In U.S. Electric Power Transmission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    The report provides an overview of the changes that are occurring in the industry to implement the goals of improved reliability and reduced congestion costs. As the electric industry works to become a more efficient market, transmission stands as a key link between the competitive generation and the regulated distribution sectors. In this role as a key link, transmission is a major focus of government efforts to improve reliability and reduce congestion costs. The scope of the report is to analyze the dominant reliability, investment, siting, and competition/open access trends that are occurring in the domestic electric transmission industry. Topics covered include: the impact of the 2003 Northeast blackout on reliability rules; the move from voluntary to mandatory reliability standards; the advent of real-time transmission system monitoring; ISO/RTO efforts to improve system reliability; the drivers of government intervention in transmission investment; the move towards incentive-based rates for transmission investment; legislative and regulatory efforts to spur transmission investment to support renewable energy resources; the emergence of merchant transmission; the need for federal backstop authority on regional transmission projects; the designation of national interest electric transmission corridors; FERC Orders on siting transmission; the need for changes in open access and competition regulations; FERC efforts to increase open access and competition; legislative efforts to increase competition; and, current competitive issues in the industry.

  13. Reliable, Low-Cost Distributed Generator/Utility System Interconnect: Final Subcontract Report, November 2001-March 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye, Z.; Walling, R.; Miller, N.; Du, P.; Nelson, K.; Li, L.; Zhou, R.; Garces, L.; Dame, M.

    2006-03-01

    This report summarizes the detailed study and development of new GE anti-islanding controls for two classes of distributed generation. One is inverter-interfaced, while the other is synchronous machine interfaced.

  14. QER Public Meeting in Pittsburgh, PA: Natural Gas: Transmission...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Pittsburgh, PA: Natural Gas: Transmission, Storage and Distribution QER Public Meeting in Pittsburgh, PA: Natural Gas: Transmission, Storage and Distribution Meeting Date and...

  15. QER Public Meeting in Portland, OR: Electricity Transmission...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Portland, OR: Electricity Transmission, Storage and Distribution - West QER Public Meeting in Portland, OR: Electricity Transmission, Storage and Distribution - West Meeting Date...

  16. Viability of Small Wind Distributed Generation for Farmers Who Irrigate (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meadows, B.; Forsyth, T.; Johnson, S.; Healow, D.

    2010-05-01

    About 14% of U.S. farms are irrigated, representing 55 million acres of irrigated land. Irrigation on these farms is a major energy user in the United States, accounting for one-third of water withdrawals and 137 billion gallons per day. More than half of the Irrigation systems use electric energy. Wind energy can be a good choice for meeting irrigation energy needs. Nine of the top 10 irrigation states (California, Texas, Idaho, Arkansas, Colorado, Nebraska, Arizona, Kansas, Washington, and Oregon) have good to excellent wind resources. Many rural areas have sufficient wind speeds to make wind an attractive alternative, and farms and ranches can often install a wind energy system without impacting their ability to plant crops and graze livestock. Additionally, the rising and uncertain future costs of diesel, natural gas, and even electricity increase the potential effectiveness for wind energy and its predictable and competitive cost. In general, wind-powered electric generation systems generate more energy in the winter months than in the summer months when most crops need the water. Therefore, those states that have a supportive net metering policy can dramatically impact the viability of an onsite wind turbine. This poster presentation highlights case studies that show favorable and unfavorable policies that impact the growth of small wind in this important sector and demonstrate how net metering policies affect the viability of distributed wind generation for farmers who irrigate.

  17. Automated manual transmission controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lawrie, Robert E. (Whitmore Lake, MI); Reed, Jr., Richard G. (Royal Oak, MI); Bernier, David R. (Rochester Hills, MI)

    1999-12-28

    A powertrain system for a hybrid vehicle. The hybrid vehicle includes a heat engine, such as a diesel engine, and an electric machine, which operates as both an electric motor and an alternator, to power the vehicle. The hybrid vehicle also includes a manual-style transmission configured to operate as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver. The engine and the electric machine drive an input shaft which in turn drives an output shaft of the transmission. In addition to driving the transmission, the electric machine regulates the speed of the input shaft in order to synchronize the input shaft during either an upshift or downshift of the transmission by either decreasing or increasing the speed of the input shaft. When decreasing the speed of the input shaft, the electric motor functions as an alternator to produce electrical energy which may be stored by a storage device. Operation of the transmission is controlled by a transmission controller which receives input signals and generates output signals to control shift and clutch motors to effect smooth launch, upshift shifts, and downshifts of the transmission, so that the transmission functions substantially as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver, while internally substantially functioning as a manual transmission.

  18. Abstract--This paper presents the consequences and operating limitations of installing distributed generation (DG) to electric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    enhances certain aspects of the power quality of the owners significantly by mitigat- ing the voltage sag distributed generation (DG) to electric power systems. The proliferation of new generators creates new are discussed. A technique used to evaluate fault current in the system after installing DGs is ana- lyzed

  19. Evaluating shortfalls in mixed-integer programming approaches for the optimal design and dispatch of distributed generation systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    heat and power Fuel cells Building energy a b s t r a c t The distributed generation (DG) of combined Wisconsin, retrofitted with solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and a hot water storage tank. The simpler model of renewable or non- renewable sources of power generation (e.g., photovoltaic (PV) cells, fuel cells

  20. Determination of High-Frequency Current Distribution Using EMTP-Based Transmission Line Models with Resulting Radiated Electromagnetic Fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mork, B; Nelson, R; Kirkendall, B; Stenvig, N

    2009-11-30

    Application of BPL technologies to existing overhead high-voltage power lines would benefit greatly from improved simulation tools capable of predicting performance - such as the electromagnetic fields radiated from such lines. Existing EMTP-based frequency-dependent line models are attractive since their parameters are derived from physical design dimensions which are easily obtained. However, to calculate the radiated electromagnetic fields, detailed current distributions need to be determined. This paper presents a method of using EMTP line models to determine the current distribution on the lines, as well as a technique for using these current distributions to determine the radiated electromagnetic fields.

  1. The Cost of Transmission for Wind Energy: A Review of Transmission Planning Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew D.

    2009-01-01

    Transmission Cost Incremental Generation as Only BeneficiaryUnit of Incremental Generation Equipment Cost Assumptions2003 Least Cost Resource Plan Wind Generation. Xcel Energy

  2. A Multi-State Model for the Reliability Assessment of a Distributed Generation System via Universal Generating Function

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    renewable technology (e.g. wind or solar, etc.) whose behavior is described by a binary state, working of the renewable generator (e.g. solar generator, wind turbine, and electrical vehicle aggregation) State value Multiplication operator of u-functions Wind speed Total number of discretized wind speed states Discretized wind

  3. PV Ramping in a Distributed Generation Environment: A Study Using Solar Measurements; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sengupta, M.; Keller, J.

    2012-06-01

    Variability in Photovoltaic (PV) generation resulting from variability in the solar radiation over the PV arrays is a topic of continuing concern for those involved with integrating renewables onto existing electrical grids. The island of Lanai, Hawaii is an extreme example of the challenges that integrators will face due to the fact that it is a small standalone grid. One way to study this problem is to take high-resolution solar measurements in multiple locations and model simultaneous PV production for various sizes at those locations. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) collected high-resolution solar data at four locations on the island where proposed PV plants will be deployed in the near future. This data set provides unique insight into how the solar radiation may vary between points that are proximal in distance, but diverse in weather, due to the formation of orographic clouds in the center of the island. Using information about each proposed PV plant size, power output was created at high resolution. The team analyzed this output to understand power production ramps at individual locations and the effects of aggregating the production from all four locations. Hawaii is a unique environment, with extremely variable events occurring on a daily basis. This study provided an excellent opportunity for understanding potential worst-case scenarios for PV ramping. This paper provides an introduction to the datasets that NREL collected over a year and a comprehensive analysis of PV variability in a distributed generation scenario.

  4. Generation and distribution of PAHs in the process of medical waste incineration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Ying; Zhao, Rongzhi; Xue, Jun; Li, Jinhui

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ? PAHs generation and distribution features of medical waste incineration are studied. ? More PAHs were found in fly ash than that in bottom ash. ? The highest proportion of PAHs consisted of the seven most carcinogenic ones. ? Increase of free oxygen molecule and burning temperature promote PAHs degradation. ? There is a moderate positive correlation between total PCDD/Fs and total PAHs. - Abstract: After the deadly earthquake on May 12, 2008 in Wenchuan county of China, several different incineration approaches were used for medical waste disposal. This paper investigates the generation properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during the incineration. Samples were collected from the bottom ash in an open burning slash site, surface soil at the open burning site, bottom ash from a simple incinerator, bottom ash generated from the municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator used for medical waste disposal, and bottom ash and fly ash from an incinerator exclusively used for medical waste. The species of PAHs were analyzed, and the toxicity equivalency quantities (TEQs) of samples calculated. Analysis results indicate that the content of total PAHs in fly ash was 1.8 × 10{sup 3} times higher than that in bottom ash, and that the strongly carcinogenic PAHs with four or more rings accumulated sensitively in fly ash. The test results of samples gathered from open burning site demonstrate that Acenaphthylene (ACY), Acenaphthene (ACE), Fluorene (FLU), Phenanthrene (PHE), Anthracene (ANT) and other PAHs were inclined to migrate into surrounding environment along air and surface watershed corridors, while 4- to 6-ring PAHs accumulated more likely in soil. Being consistent with other studies, it has also been confirmed that increases in both free oxygen molecules and combustion temperatures could promote the decomposition of polycyclic PAHs. In addition, without the influence of combustion conditions, there is a positive correlation between total PCDD/Fs and total PAHs, although no such relationship has been found for TEQ.

  5. Distributed Dynamic State Estimator, Generator Parameter Estimation and Stability Monitoring Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meliopoulos, Sakis; Cokkinides, George; Fardanesh, Bruce; Hedrington, Clinton

    2013-12-31

    This is the final report for this project that was performed in the period: October1, 2009 to June 30, 2013. In this project, a fully distributed high-fidelity dynamic state estimator (DSE) that continuously tracks the real time dynamic model of a wide area system with update rates better than 60 times per second is achieved. The proposed technology is based on GPS-synchronized measurements but also utilizes data from all available Intelligent Electronic Devices in the system (numerical relays, digital fault recorders, digital meters, etc.). The distributed state estimator provides the real time model of the system not only the voltage phasors. The proposed system provides the infrastructure for a variety of applications and two very important applications (a) a high fidelity generating unit parameters estimation and (b) an energy function based transient stability monitoring of a wide area electric power system with predictive capability. Also the dynamic distributed state estimation results are stored (the storage scheme includes data and coincidental model) enabling an automatic reconstruction and “play back” of a system wide disturbance. This approach enables complete play back capability with fidelity equal to that of real time with the advantage of “playing back” at a user selected speed. The proposed technologies were developed and tested in the lab during the first 18 months of the project and then demonstrated on two actual systems, the USVI Water and Power Administration system and the New York Power Authority’s Blenheim-Gilboa pumped hydro plant in the last 18 months of the project. The four main thrusts of this project, mentioned above, are extremely important to the industry. The DSE with the achieved update rates (more than 60 times per second) provides a superior solution to the “grid visibility” question. The generator parameter identification method fills an important and practical need of the industry. The “energy function” based transient stability monitoring opens up new ways to protect the power grid, better manage disturbances, confine their impact and in general improve the reliability and security of the system. Finally, as a by-product of the proposed research project, the developed system is able to “play back” disturbances by a click of a mouse. The importance of this by-product is evident by considering the tremendous effort exerted after the August 2003 blackout to piece together all the disturbance recordings, align them and recreate the sequence of events. This project has moved the state of art from fault recording by individual devices to system wide disturbance recording with “play back” capability.

  6. Environmental Transmission Electron Microscopy Study of the Origins of Anomalous Particle Size Distributions in Supported Metal Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benavidez, Angelica D.; Kovarik, Libor; Genc, Arda; Agrawal, Nitin; Larsson, Elin M.; Hansen, Thomas W.; Karim, Ayman M.; Datye, Abhaya K.

    2012-10-31

    In this Environmental TEM (ETEM) study of supported Pt and Pd model catalysts, individual nanoparticles were tracked during heat treatments at temperatures up to 600°C in H2, O2, and vacuum. We found anomalous growth of nanoparticles occurred during the early stages of catalyst sintering wherein some particles started to grow significantly larger than the mean, resulting in a broadening of the particle size distribution. We can rule out sample non-uniformity as a cause for the growth of these large particles, since images were recorded prior to heat treatments. The anomalous growth of these particles may help explain particle size distributions in heterogeneous catalysts which often show particles that are significantly larger than the mean, resulting in a long tail to the right. It has been suggested that particle migration and coalescence could be the likely cause for the broad size distributions. This study shows that anomalous growth of nanoparticles can occur under conditions where Ostwald ripening is the primary sintering mechanism.

  7. Integrated Simulation Development and Decision Support Tool-Set for Utility Market and Distributed Solar Power Generation Electricore, Inc.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daye, Tony

    2013-09-30

    This project will enable utilities to develop long-term strategic plans that integrate high levels of renewable energy generation, and to better plan power system operations under high renewable penetration. The program developed forecast data streams for decision support and effective integration of centralized and distributed solar power generation in utility operations. This toolset focused on real time simulation of distributed power generation within utility grids with the emphasis on potential applications in day ahead (market) and real time (reliability) utility operations. The project team developed and demonstrated methodologies for quantifying the impact of distributed solar generation on core utility operations, identified protocols for internal data communication requirements, and worked with utility personnel to adapt the new distributed generation (DG) forecasts seamlessly within existing Load and Generation procedures through a sophisticated DMS. This project supported the objectives of the SunShot Initiative and SUNRISE by enabling core utility operations to enhance their simulation capability to analyze and prepare for the impacts of high penetrations of solar on the power grid. The impact of high penetration solar PV on utility operations is not only limited to control centers, but across many core operations. Benefits of an enhanced DMS using state-of-the-art solar forecast data were demonstrated within this project and have had an immediate direct operational cost savings for Energy Marketing for Day Ahead generation commitments, Real Time Operations, Load Forecasting (at an aggregate system level for Day Ahead), Demand Response, Long term Planning (asset management), Distribution Operations, and core ancillary services as required for balancing and reliability. This provided power system operators with the necessary tools and processes to operate the grid in a reliable manner under high renewable penetration.

  8. Exploration of Resource and Transmission Expansion Decisions in the Western Renewable Energy Zone Initiative

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Marginal Production Cost Generation as Percent of Resourcezone (considering generation costs and transmission costs),about transmission costs and different generation profiles.

  9. Central power generation versus distributed generation e An air quality assessment in the South Coast Air Basin of California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dabdub, Donald

    , central generation concentrates emissions in a small area, whereas DG spreads emissions throughout an urban air basin. In contrast, conventional, centralized power plants tend to be located in remote areas by the year 2020. The intermittent nature of renewable sources like wind and solar power may require

  10. FEMTOSECOND TIMING DISTRIBUTION AND CONTROL FOR NEXT GENERATION ACCELERATORS AND LIGHT SOURCES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Li-Jin

    2014-03-31

    Femtosecond Timing Distribution At LCLS Free-electron-lasers (FEL) have the capability of producing high photon flux from the IR to the hard x-ray wavelength range and to emit femtosecond and eventually even at-tosecond pulses. This makes them an ideal tool for fundamental as well as applied re-search. Timing precision at the Stanford Linear Coherent Light Source (LCLS) between the x-ray FEL (XFEL) and ultrafast optical lasers is currently no better than 100 fs RMS. Ideally this precision should be much better and could be limited only by the x-ray pulse duration, which can be as short as a few femtoseconds. An increasing variety of science problems involving electron and nuclear dynamics in chemical and material systems will become accessible as the timing improves to a few femtoseconds. Advanced methods of electron beam conditioning or pulse injection could allow the FEL to achieve pulse durations less than one femtosecond. The objec-tive of the work described in this proposal is to set up an optical timing distribution sys-tem based on modelocked Erbium doped fiber lasers at LCLS facility to improve the timing precision in the facility and allow time stamping with a 10 fs precision. The primary commercial applications for optical timing distributions systems are seen in the worldwide accelerator facilities and next generation light sources community. It is reasonable to expect that at least three major XFELs will be built in the next decade. In addition there will be up to 10 smaller machines, such as FERMI in Italy and Maxlab in Sweden, plus the market for upgrading already existing facilities like Jefferson Lab. The total market is estimated to be on the order of a 100 Million US Dollars. The company owns the exclusive rights to the IP covering the technology enabling sub-10 fs synchronization systems. Testing this technology, which has set records in a lab environment, at LCLS, hence in a real world scenario, is an important corner stone of bringing the technology to market.

  11. The Case for Natural Gas Fueled Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power Systems for Distributed Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chick, Lawrence A.; Weimar, Mark R.; Whyatt, Greg A.; Powell, Michael R.

    2015-02-01

    Natural-gas-fueled solid oxide fuel cell (NGSOFC) power systems yield electrical conversion efficiencies exceeding 60% and may become a viable alternative for distributed generation (DG) if stack life and manufacturing economies of scale can be realized. Currently, stacks last approximately 2 years and few systems are produced each year because of the relatively high cost of electricity from the systems. If mass manufacturing (10,000 units per year) and a stack life of 15 years can be reached, the cost of electricity from an NGSOFC system is estimated to be about 7.7 ˘/kWh, well within the price of commercial and residential retail prices at the national level (9.9-10˘/kWh and 11-12 ˘/kWh, respectively). With an additional 5 ˘/kWh in estimated additional benefits from DG, NGSOFC could be well positioned to replace the forecasted 59-77 gigawatts of capacity loss resulting from coal plant closures due to stricter emissions regulations and low natural gas prices.

  12. The Cost of Transmission for Wind Energy: A Review of Transmission Planning Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew D.

    2009-01-01

    Generation and Transmission and Western Area Power Administration Clean and Diversified Energy Advisory Committee (CDEAC) Transmission Task Force NorthWestern Energy ElectricGeneration and Transmission and Western Area Power Administration Clean and Diversified Energy Advisory Committee (CDEAC) Transmission Task Force NorthWestern Energy Electric

  13. On the use of satellite-based estimates of rainfall temporal distribution to simulate the potential for malaria transmission in rural Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamana, Teresa K.

    [1] This paper describes the use of satellite-based estimates of rainfall to force the Hydrology, Entomology and Malaria Transmission Simulator (HYDREMATS), a hydrology-based mechanistic model of malaria transmission. We ...

  14. Abstract--The penetration of plug-in electric vehicles and renewable distributed generation is expected to increase over the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perreault, Dave

    1 Abstract--The penetration of plug-in electric vehicles and renewable distributed generation, power grids I. INTRODUCTION ROWING concern for climate change and energy security has renewed interest legislative effort to mandate, or incentivize, large scale integration of renewable energy resources

  15. PhotoVoltaic distributed generation for Lanai power grid real-time simulation and control integration scenario.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinett, Rush D., III; Kukolich, Keith; Wilson, David Gerald; Schenkman, Benjamin L.

    2010-06-01

    This paper discusses the modeling, analysis, and testing in a real-time simulation environment of the Lanai power grid system for the integration and control of PhotoVoltaic (PV) distributed generation. The Lanai Island in Hawaii is part of the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI) to transition to 30% renewable green energy penetration by 2030. In Lanai the primary loads come from two Castle and Cook Resorts, in addition to residential needs. The total peak load profile is 12470 V, 5.5 MW. Currently there are several diesel generators that meet these loading requirements. As part of the HCEI, Lanai has initially installed 1.2 MW of PV generation. The goal of this study has been to evaluate the impact of the PV with respect to the conventional carbon-based diesel generation in real time simulation. For intermittent PV distributed generation, the overall stability and transient responses are investigated. A simple Lanai 'like' model has been developed in the Matlab/Simulink environment (see Fig. 1) and to accommodate real-time simulation of the hybrid power grid system the Opal-RT Technologies RT-Lab environment is used. The diesel generators have been modelled using the SimPowerSystems toolbox swing equations and a custom Simulink module has been developed for the High level PV generation. All of the loads have been characterized primarily as distribution lines with series resistive load banks with one VAR load bank. Three-phase faults are implemented for each bus. Both conventional and advanced control architectures will be used to evaluate the integration of the PV onto the current power grid system. The baseline numerical results include the stable performance of the power grid during varying cloud cover (PV generation ramping up/down) scenarios. The importance of assessing the real-time scenario is included.

  16. Electricity Generation, Transmission and Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation Current HABFES Science NetworkMediator EffectsDepartment of2015A

  17. The Sensitivity of DPF Performance to the Spatial Distribution of Ash Generated from Six Lubricant Formulations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Discusses potential of DPF pressure drop reduction by optimizing the spatial distribution of ash inside DPF inlet channel

  18. THE GALACTIC SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF OB ASSOCIATIONS AND THEIR SURROUNDING SUPERNOVA-GENERATED SUPERBUBBLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higdon, J. C. [W. M. Keck Science Center, Claremont Colleges, Claremont, CA 91711-5916 (United States); Lingenfelter, R. E., E-mail: jhigdon@kecksci.claremont.edu, E-mail: rlingenfelter@ucsd.edu [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The Galactic spatial distribution of OB associations and their surrounding superbubbles (SBs) reflect the distribution of a wide range of important processes in our Galaxy. In particular, it can provide a three-dimensional measure not only of the major source distribution of Galactic cosmic rays, but also the Galactic star formation distribution, the Lyman continuum ionizing radiation distribution, the core-collapse supernova distribution, the neutron star and stellar black hole production distribution, and the principal source distribution of freshly synthesized elements. Thus, we construct a three-dimensional spatial model of the massive-star distribution based primarily on the emission of the H II envelopes that surround the giant SBs and are maintained by the ionizing radiation of the embedded O stars. The Galactic longitudinal distribution of the 205 ?m N II radiation, emitted by these H II envelopes, is used to infer the spatial distribution of SBs. We find that the Galactic SB distribution is dominated by the contribution of massive-star clusters residing in the spiral arms.

  19. Factsheet: An Initiative to Help Modernize Natural Gas Transmission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Factsheet: An Initiative to Help Modernize Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Infrastructure Factsheet: An Initiative to Help Modernize Natural Gas Transmission and...

  20. A Survey of National Transmission Grid Modeling Capabilities at DOE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howle, Victoria E.

    711712003 A Survey of National Transmission Grid Modeling Capabilities at DOE Laboratories Steve Data Sheets.................................................................... 9 Electricity Market Complex Adaptive Systems (EMCAS)..................10 Generation and Transmission Maximization (GTMAX

  1. Controlling Methane Emissions in the Natural Gas Sector. A Review of Federal and State Regulatory Frameworks Governing Production, Gathering, Processing, Transmission, and Distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paranhos, Elizabeth; Kozak, Tracy G.; Boyd, William; Bradbury, James; Steinberg, D. C.; Arent, D. J.

    2015-04-23

    This report provides an overview of the regulatory frameworks governing natural gas supply chain infrastructure siting, construction, operation, and maintenance. Information was drawn from a number of sources, including published analyses, government reports, in addition to relevant statutes, court decisions and regulatory language, as needed. The scope includes all onshore facilities that contribute to methane emissions from the natural gas sector, focusing on three areas of state and federal regulations: (1) natural gas pipeline infrastructure siting and transportation service (including gathering, transmission, and distribution pipelines), (2) natural gas pipeline safety, and (3) air emissions associated with the natural gas supply chain. In addition, the report identifies the incentives under current regulatory frameworks to invest in measures to reduce leakage, as well as the barriers facing investment in infrastructure improvement to reduce leakage. Policy recommendations regarding how federal or state authorities could regulate methane emissions are not provided; rather, existing frameworks are identified and some of the options for modifying existing regulations or adopting new regulations to reduce methane leakage are discussed.

  2. Connecting to the Grid: A Guide to Distributed Generation Interconnection Issues, 6th Edition, 2009

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This guide addresses issues relevant to all DG technologies, including net excess generation, third-party ownership, energy storage and networks

  3. Integration of Renewables Via Demand Management: Highly Dispatchable and Distributed Demand Response for the Integration of Distributed Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-02-11

    GENI Project: AutoGrid, in conjunction with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Columbia University, will design and demonstrate automated control software that helps manage real-time demand for energy across the electric grid. Known as the Demand Response Optimization and Management System - Real-Time (DROMS-RT), the software will enable personalized price signal to be sent to millions of customers in extremely short timeframes—incentivizing them to alter their electricity use in response to grid conditions. This will help grid operators better manage unpredictable demand and supply fluctuations in short time-scales —making the power generation process more efficient and cost effective for both suppliers and consumers. DROMS-RT is expected to provide a 90% reduction in the cost of operating demand response and dynamic pricing Projects in the U.S.

  4. Autonomous data transmission apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotlyar, O.M.

    1997-03-25

    A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus is described for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters. 4 figs.

  5. Autonomous data transmission apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotlyar, Oleg M. (4675 W. 3825 S, Salt Lake City, UT 84120)

    1997-01-01

    A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters.

  6. Medium Frequency Power Distribution Architectures for Next Generation Photovoltaic Farms and Data Centers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hafez, Bahaa Eldeen

    2015-08-06

    scale PV structure is shown to increase power density and improves system modularity while maintaining high efficiency levels. The PV panels power standard three phase voltage source inverters to generate MF ac voltage. Various voltage source inverter...

  7. Computational Needs for the Next Generation Electric Grid Proceedings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birman, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    for  unexpected  failure  of  generators  and  transmission case  of  a  failure of one of the generatorstransmission considering failure of more than one generator and/or 

  8. Model documentation natural gas transmission and distribution model (NGTDM) of the national energy modeling system. Volume II: Model developer`s report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-01-03

    To partially fulfill the requirements for {open_quotes}Model Acceptance{close_quotes} as stipulated in EIA Standard 91-01-01 (effective February 3, 1991), the Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting has conducted tests of the Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) for the specific purpose of validating the forecasting model. This volume of the model documentation presents the results of {open_quotes}one-at-a-time{close_quotes} sensitivity tests conducted in support of this validation effort. The test results are presented in the following forms: (1) Tables of important model outputs for the years 2000 and 2010 are presented with respect to change in each input from the reference case; (2) Tables of percent changes from base case results for the years 2000 and 2010 are presented for important model outputs; (3) Tables of conditional sensitivities (percent change in output/percent change in input) for the years 2000 and 2010 are presented for important model outputs; (4) Finally, graphs presenting the percent change from base case results for each year of the forecast period are presented for selected key outputs. To conduct the sensitivity tests, two main assumptions are made in order to test the performance characteristics of the model itself and facilitate the understanding of the effects of the changes in the key input variables to the model on the selected key output variables: (1) responses to the amount demanded do not occur since there are no feedbacks of inputs from other NEMS models in the stand-alone NGTDM run. (2) All the export and import quantities from and to Canada and Mexico, and liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports and exports are held fixed (i.e., there are no changes in imports and exports between the reference case and the sensitivity cases) throughout the forecast period.

  9. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 566 (2006) 598608 The number distribution of neutrons and gamma photons generated in a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pázsit, Imre

    2006-01-01

    of neutrons and gamma photons generated in a multiplying sample Andreas Enqvista,�, Imre Pa´ zsita , Sara is an analytical derivation of the full probability distribution of the number of neutrons and photons generated. With the introduction of a modified factorial moment of the number of neutrons and gamma photons generated in fission

  10. Utilizing Electric Vehicles to Assist Integration of Large Penetrations of Distributed Photovoltaic Generation Capacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Chassin, Forrest S.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Gowri, Krishnan

    2012-11-30

    Executive Summary Introduction and Motivation This analysis provides the first insights into the leveraging potential of distributed photovoltaic (PV) technologies on rooftop and electric vehicle (EV) charging. Either of the two technologies by themselves - at some high penetrations – may cause some voltage control challenges or overloading problems, respectively. But when combined, there – at least intuitively – could be synergistic effects, whereby one technology mitigates the negative impacts of the other. High penetration of EV charging may overload existing distribution system components, most prominently the secondary transformer. If PV technology is installed at residential premises or anywhere downstream of the secondary transformer, it will provide another electricity source thus, relieving the loading on the transformers. Another synergetic or mitigating effect could be envisioned when high PV penetration reverts the power flow upward in the distribution system (from the homes upstream into the distribution system). Protection schemes may then no longer work and voltage violation (exceeding the voltage upper limited of the ANSI voltage range) may occur. In this particular situation, EV charging could absorb the electricity from the PV, such that the reversal of power flow can be reduced or alleviated. Given these potential mutual synergistic behaviors of PV and EV technologies, this project attempted to quantify the benefits of combining the two technologies. Furthermore, of interest was how advanced EV control strategies may influence the outcome of the synergy between EV charging and distributed PV installations. Particularly, Californian utility companies with high penetration of the distributed PV technology, who have experienced voltage control problems, are interested how intelligent EV charging could support or affect the voltage control

  11. Automated manual transmission clutch controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lawrie, Robert E. (9375 Kearney Rd., Whitmore Lake, MI 48189); Reed, Jr., Richard G. (3003 Bembridge, Royal Oak, MI 48073); Rausen, David J. (519 S. Gaylord St., Denver, CO 80209)

    1999-11-30

    A powertrain system for a hybrid vehicle. The hybrid vehicle includes a heat engine, such as a diesel engine, and an electric machine, which operates as both an electric motor and an alternator, to power the vehicle. The hybrid vehicle also includes a manual-style transmission configured to operate as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver. The engine and the electric machine drive an input shaft which in turn drives an output shaft of the transmission. In addition to driving the transmission, the electric machine regulates the speed of the input shaft in order to synchronize the input shaft during either an upshift or downshift of the transmission by either decreasing or increasing the speed of the input shaft. When decreasing the speed of the input shaft, the electric motor functions as an alternator to produce electrical energy which may be stored by a storage device. Operation of the transmission is controlled by a transmission controller which receives input signals and generates output signals to control shift and clutch motors to effect smooth launch, upshift shifts, and downshifts of the transmission, so that the transmission functions substantially as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver, while internally substantially functioning as a manual transmission.

  12. Evaluation of Representative Smart Grid Investment Grant Project Technologies: Distributed Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Ruchi; Vyakaranam, Bharat GNVSR

    2012-02-14

    This document is one of a series of reports estimating the benefits of deploying technologies similar to those implemented on the Smart Grid Investment Grant (SGIG) projects. Four technical reports cover the various types of technologies deployed in the SGIG projects, distribution automation, demand response, energy storage, and renewables integration. A fifth report in the series examines the benefits of deploying these technologies on a national level. This technical report examines the impacts of addition of renewable resources- solar and wind in the distribution system as deployed in the SGIG projects.

  13. Updated greenhouse gas and criteria air pollutant emission factors and their probability distribution functions for electricity generating units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, H.; Wang, M.; Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.

    2012-07-06

    Greenhouse gas (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O, hereinafter GHG) and criteria air pollutant (CO, NO{sub x}, VOC, PM{sub 10}, PM{sub 2.5} and SO{sub x}, hereinafter CAP) emission factors for various types of power plants burning various fuels with different technologies are important upstream parameters for estimating life-cycle emissions associated with alternative vehicle/fuel systems in the transportation sector, especially electric vehicles. The emission factors are typically expressed in grams of GHG or CAP per kWh of electricity generated by a specific power generation technology. This document describes our approach for updating and expanding GHG and CAP emission factors in the GREET (Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation) model developed at Argonne National Laboratory (see Wang 1999 and the GREET website at http://greet.es.anl.gov/main) for various power generation technologies. These GHG and CAP emissions are used to estimate the impact of electricity use by stationary and transportation applications on their fuel-cycle emissions. The electricity generation mixes and the fuel shares attributable to various combustion technologies at the national, regional and state levels are also updated in this document. The energy conversion efficiencies of electric generating units (EGUs) by fuel type and combustion technology are calculated on the basis of the lower heating values of each fuel, to be consistent with the basis used in GREET for transportation fuels. On the basis of the updated GHG and CAP emission factors and energy efficiencies of EGUs, the probability distribution functions (PDFs), which are functions that describe the relative likelihood for the emission factors and energy efficiencies as random variables to take on a given value by the integral of their own probability distributions, are updated using best-fit statistical curves to characterize the uncertainties associated with GHG and CAP emissions in life-cycle modeling with GREET.

  14. 1170 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 28, NO. 2, MAY 2013 Independent Distributed Generation Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohsenian-Rad, Hamed

    . Hosseinian, M. Abedi, and Hamed Mohsenian-Rad, Member, IEEE Abstract--Most current regulations allow small investors into DG contracts that can significantly benefit the utility network. In this regard, a new contracts for committed-type DG projects to offset distribution network investment costs. On one hand

  15. Transmission INTRODUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that the incentives to assure the reliable and economic operation of regulated, vertically integrated utility service for monopoly electricity generation by vertically integrated utilities. New generating technologies such as combined cycle combustion turbines, cogeneration, wind power, and geothermal generation tended

  16. Unnatural landscapes in ecology: Generating the spatial distribution of brine spills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jager, Yetta [ORNL; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann [ORNL; Sublette, K. [University of Tulsa; Ashwood, Tom L [ORNL

    2005-01-01

    Quantitative tools are needed to evaluate the ecological effects of increasing petroleum production. In this article, we describe two stochastic models for simulating the spatial distribution of brine spills on a landscape. One model uses general assumptions about the spatial arrangement of spills and their sizes; the second model distributes spills by siting rectangular well complexes and conditioning spill probabilities on the configuration of pipes. We present maps of landscapes with spills produced by the two methods and compare the ability of the models to reproduce a specified spill area. A strength of the models presented here is their ability to extrapolate from the existing landscape to simulate landscapes with a higher (or lower) density of oil wells.

  17. Advanced Inverter Technology for High Penetration Levels of PV Generation in Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schauder, C.

    2014-03-01

    This subcontract report was completed under the auspices of the NREL/SCE High-Penetration Photovoltaic (PV) Integration Project, which is co-funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and the California Solar Initiative (CSI) Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment (RD&D) program funded by the California Public Utility Commission (CPUC) and managed by Itron. This project is focused on modeling, quantifying, and mitigating the impacts of large utility-scale PV systems (generally 1-5 MW in size) that are interconnected to the distribution system. This report discusses the concerns utilities have when interconnecting large PV systems that interconnect using PV inverters (a specific application of frequency converters). Additionally, a number of capabilities of PV inverters are described that could be implemented to mitigate the distribution system-level impacts of high-penetration PV integration. Finally, the main issues that need to be addressed to ease the interconnection of large PV systems to the distribution system are presented.

  18. Wyoming/Transmission | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Lower Valley Energy, High West Energy, Western Area Power Administration, Bonneville Power Administration, Tri-State Generation and Transmission Association, Inc., and Rocky...

  19. Distributively generated near rings on the dihedral group of order eight 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Willhite, Mary Lynn

    1970-01-01

    (~ ~@mbezeb Decemh. -. 1970 ABSTRACT Distributively Gene' ated Near Rings on the Dihedral Group of Order Eight. (December 1)70) Mary lynn Willhite, B. A. , Texas Christian University; Directed by: Dr. J. J. Malone, Jr. In this thesis, observations... OF TABLES TABLE 1 . THE DIHEDRAL GROUP D 2. THE ENDONORPHTSNS OF D Page 9 10 POSSIBLE KJLTIPLICATIONS FOR P=~ O, bi. . . 1$ 4-. POSSIBLE IIULTIPLICATIONS FOR P={ 0, 2a] . . . 18 5. AS OCIATIUE KH TIPLICATIONS FOR P=f0, 2a, b, 2a+b...

  20. Assessing business models arising from the integration of distributed energy systems in the Chilean electric power system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Le Dantec, Jorge I. (Jorge Ignacio)

    2014-01-01

    Electric power systems are more than just networks of generation, transmission and distribution assets. They are socio-technical systems, involving regulation, markets and technology availability. Presently, the dynamic ...

  1. July 2, 2007 1 Optimal Transmission Switching

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mangasarian, Olvi L.

    . INTRODUCTION n large electric networks, transmission is traditionally characterized as a static systemJuly 2, 2007 1 Optimal Transmission Switching Emily Bartholomew Fisher, Student Member, IEEE an optimal generation dispatch and transmission topology to meet a specific inflexible load as a mixed

  2. Smart Grid Application of Optimal Transmission Switching

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferris, Michael C.

    ;6 Introduction continued Electric Transmission Network Flow Problem Optimal Power Flow (OPF) AlternatingSmart Grid Application of Optimal Transmission Switching By, Kory W. Hedman, et al.* University (Professor, UC Berkeley) #12;2 Motivation Co-optimize transmission topology and generation dispatch

  3. Developing and Implementing the Foundation for a Renewable Energy-Based "Distribution Generation Micro-grid": A California Energy Commission Public Interest Energy Research Co-Funded Program 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lilly, P.; Sebold, F. D.; Carpenter, M.; Kitto, W.

    2002-01-01

    The California Energy Commission has been implementing its Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) and Renewable Energy Programs since early 1998. In the last two years, the demand for renewable distributed generation systems has increased rapidly...

  4. Transmission Services

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transmission Services BPA Clarifications on the DSO216 1 Document updated on 2242015 at 3:29:25 PM B O N N E V I L L E P O W E R A D M I N I S T R A T I O N BPA Clarifications on...

  5. Breaking the Hierarchy: Distributed Control & Economic Optimality in Microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bullo, Francesco

    genera- tion and energy storage systems, the concept of a microgrid has recently gained popularity [2 generation, storage, load, and managed au- tonomously from the larger transmission network. Microgrids independently. Distributed energy sources in a microgrid generate either DC or variable frequency AC power

  6. Magnetic field distribution in the plasma flow generated by a plasma focus discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitrofanov, K. N.; Krauz, V. I. Myalton, V. V.; Velikhov, E. P.; Vinogradov, V. P.; Vinogradova, Yu. V.

    2014-11-15

    The magnetic field in the plasma jet propagating from the plasma pinch region along the axis of the chamber in a megajoule PF-3 plasma focus facility is studied. The dynamics of plasma with a trapped magnetic flow is analyzed. The spatial sizes of the plasma jet region in which the magnetic field concentrates are determined in the radial and axial directions. The magnetic field configuration in the plasma jet is investigated: the radial distribution of the azimuthal component of the magnetic field inside the jet is determined. It is shown that the magnetic induction vector at a given point in space can change its direction during the plasma flight. Conclusions regarding the symmetry of the plasma flow propagation relative to the chamber axis are drawn.

  7. Development and Testing of a 6-Cylinder HCCI Engine for Distributed Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flowers, D L; Martinez-Frias, J; Espinosa-Loza, F; Killingsworth, N; Aceves, S M; Dibble, R; Kristic, M; Bining, A

    2005-07-12

    This paper describes the technical approach for converting a Caterpillar 3406 natural gas spark ignited engine into HCCI mode. The paper describes all stages of the process, starting with a preliminary analysis that determined that the engine can be operated by preheating the intake air with a heat exchanger that recovers energy from the exhaust gases. This heat exchanger plays a dual role, since it is also used for starting the engine. For start-up, the heat exchanger is preheated with a natural gas burner. The engine is therefore started in HCCI mode, avoiding the need to handle the potentially difficult transition from SI or diesel mode to HCCI. The fueling system was modified by replacing the natural gas carburetor with a liquid petroleum gas (LPG) carburetor. This modification sets an upper limit for the equivalence ratio at {phi} {approx} 0.4, which is ideal for HCCI operation and guarantees that the engine will not fail due to knock. Equivalence ratio can be reduced below 0.4 for low load operation with an electronic control valve. Intake boosting has been a challenge, as commercially available turbochargers are not a good match for the engine, due to the low HCCI exhaust temperature. Commercial introduction of HCCI engines for stationary power will therefore require the development of turbochargers designed specifically for this mode of operation. Considering that no appropriate off-the-shelf turbocharger for HCCI engines exists at this time, we are investigating mechanical supercharging options, which will deliver the required boost pressure (3 bar absolute intake) at the expense of some reduction in the output power and efficiency. An appropriate turbocharger can later be installed for improved performance when it becomes available or when a custom turbocharger is developed. The engine is now running in HCCI mode and producing power in an essentially naturally aspirated mode. Current work focuses on developing an automatic controller for obtaining consistent combustion in the 6 cylinders. The engine will then be tested for 1000 hours to demonstrate durability. This paper presents intermediate progress towards development of an HCCI engine for stationary power generation and next steps towards achieving the project goals.

  8. Energy Transmission and Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathison, Jane

    2012-12-31

    The objective of Energy Transmission and Infrastructure Northern Ohio (OH) was to lay the conceptual and analytical foundation for an energy economy in northern Ohio that will: • improve the efficiency with which energy is used in the residential, commercial, industrial, agricultural, and transportation sectors for Oberlin, Ohio as a district-wide model for Congressional District OH-09; • identify the potential to deploy wind and solar technologies and the most effective configuration for the regional energy system (i.e., the ratio of distributed or centralized power generation); • analyze the potential within the district to utilize farm wastes to produce biofuels; • enhance long-term energy security by identifying ways to deploy local resources and building Ohio-based enterprises; • identify the policy, regulatory, and financial barriers impeding development of a new energy system; and • improve energy infrastructure within Congressional District OH-09. This objective of laying the foundation for a renewable energy system in Ohio was achieved through four primary areas of activity: 1. district-wide energy infrastructure assessments and alternative-energy transmission studies; 2. energy infrastructure improvement projects undertaken by American Municipal Power (AMP) affiliates in the northern Ohio communities of Elmore, Oak Harbor, and Wellington; 3. Oberlin, OH-area energy assessment initiatives; and 4. a district-wide conference held in September 2011 to disseminate year-one findings. The grant supported 17 research studies by leading energy, policy, and financial specialists, including studies on: current energy use in the district and the Oberlin area; regional potential for energy generation from renewable sources such as solar power, wind, and farm-waste; energy and transportation strategies for transitioning the City of Oberlin entirely to renewable resources and considering pedestrians, bicyclists, and public transportation as well as drivers in developing transportation policies; energy audits and efficiency studies for Oberlin-area businesses and Oberlin College; identification of barriers to residential energy efficiency and development of programming to remove these barriers; mapping of the solar-photovoltaic and wind-energy supply chains in northwest Ohio; and opportunities for vehicle sharing and collaboration among the ten organizations in Lorain County from the private, government, non-profit, and educational sectors. With non-grant funds, organizations have begun or completed projects that drew on the findings of the studies, including: creation of a residential energy-efficiency program for the Oberlin community; installation of energy-efficient lighting in Oberlin College facilities; and development by the City of Oberlin and Oberlin College of a 2.27 megawatt solar photovoltaic facility that is expected to produce 3,000 megawatt-hours of renewable energy annually, 12% of the College’s yearly power needs. Implementation of these and other projects is evidence of the economic feasibility and technical effectiveness of grant-supported studies, and additional projects are expected to advance to implementation in the coming years. The public has benefited through improved energydelivery systems and reduced energy use for street lighting in Elmore, Oak Harbor, and Wellington; new opportunities for assistance and incentives for residential energy efficiency in the Oberlin community; new opportunities for financial and energy savings through vehicle collaboration within Lorain County; and decreased reliance on fossil fuels and expanded production of renewable energy in the region. The dissemination conference and the summary report developed for the conference also benefited the public, but making the findings and recommendations of the regional studies broadly available to elected officials, city managers, educators, representatives of the private sector, and the general public.

  9. Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    The Keystone Center

    2005-06-15

    The Keystone Center convened and facilitated a year-long Dialogue on "Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions" to develop recommendations that will help address the difficult and contentious issues related to expansions of regional electric transmission systems that are needed for reliable and economic transmission of power within and across regions. This effort brought together a cross-section of affected stakeholders and thought leaders to address the problem with the collective wisdom of their experience and interests. Transmission owners sat at the table with consumer advocates and environmental organizations. Representatives from regional transmission organizations exchanged ideas with state and federal regulators. Generation developers explored common interests with public power suppliers. Together, the Dialogue participants developed consensus solutions about how to begin unraveling some of the more intractable issues surrounding identification of need, allocation of costs, and reaching consensus on siting issues that can frustrate the development of regional transmission infrastructure. The recommendations fall into three broad categories: 1. Recommendations on appropriate institutional arrangements and processes for achieving regional consensus on the need for new or expanded transmission infrastructure 2. Recommendations on the process for siting of transmission lines 3. Recommendations on the tools needed to support regional planning, cost allocation, and siting efforts. List of Dialogue participants: List of Dialogue Participants: American Electric Power American Transmission Company American Wind Energy Association California ISO Calpine Corporation Cinergy Edison Electric Institute Environmental Defense Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Great River Energy International Transmission Company ISO-New England Iowa Public Utility Board Kanner & Associates Midwest ISO National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners National Association of State Utility Consumer Advocates National Grid Northeast Utilities PA Office of Consumer Advocates Pacific Gas & Electric Corporation Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission PJM Interconnection The Electricity Consumers Resource Council U.S. Department of Energy US Department of the Interior Van Ness Feldman Western Interstate Energy Board Wind on the Wires Wisconsin Public Service Commission Xcel Energy

  10. The next generation Virgo cluster survey. VIII. The spatial distribution of globular clusters in the Virgo cluster

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durrell, Patrick R.; Accetta, Katharine [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Youngstown State University, Youngstown, OH 44555 (United States); Côté, Patrick; Blakeslee, John P.; Ferrarese, Laura; McConnachie, Alan; Gwyn, Stephen [Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, National Research Council, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Peng, Eric W.; Zhang, Hongxin [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Mihos, J. Christopher [Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Puzia, Thomas H.; Jordán, Andrés [Institute of Astrophysics, Pontificia Universidad Catolica, Av. Vicu'a Mackenna 4860, Macul 7820436, Santiago (Chile); Lançon, Ariane [Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l'Université, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Liu, Chengze [Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Cuillandre, Jean-Charles [Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Corporation, Kamuela, HI 96743 (United States); Boissier, Samuel; Boselli, Alessandro [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Courteau, Stéphane [Department of Physics, Engineering Physics and Astronomy, Queen's University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6 (Canada); Duc, Pierre-Alain [AIM Paris Saclay, CNRS/INSU, CEA/Irfu, Université Paris Diderot, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette cedex (France); Emsellem, Eric [Université de Lyon 1, CRAL, Observatoire de Lyon, 9 av. Charles André, F-69230 Saint-Genis Laval (France); CNRS, UMR 5574, ENS de Lyon (France); and others

    2014-10-20

    We report on a large-scale study of the distribution of globular clusters (GCs) throughout the Virgo cluster, based on photometry from the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS), a large imaging survey covering Virgo's primary subclusters (Virgo A = M87 and Virgo B = M49) out to their virial radii. Using the g{sub o}{sup ?}, (g' – i') {sub o} color-magnitude diagram of unresolved and marginally resolved sources within the NGVS, we have constructed two-dimensional maps of the (irregular) GC distribution over 100 deg{sup 2} to a depth of g{sub o}{sup ?} = 24. We present the clearest evidence to date showing the difference in concentration between red and blue GCs over the full extent of the cluster, where the red (more metal-rich) GCs are largely located around the massive early-type galaxies in Virgo, while the blue (metal-poor) GCs have a much more extended spatial distribution with significant populations still present beyond 83' (?215 kpc) along the major axes of both M49 and M87. A comparison of our GC maps to the diffuse light in the outermost regions of M49 and M87 show remarkable agreement in the shape, ellipticity, and boxiness of both luminous systems. We also find evidence for spatial enhancements of GCs surrounding M87 that may be indicative of recent interactions or an ongoing merger history. We compare the GC map to that of the locations of Virgo galaxies and the X-ray intracluster gas, and find generally good agreement between these various baryonic structures. We calculate the Virgo cluster contains a total population of N {sub GC} = 67, 300 ± 14, 400, of which 35% are located in M87 and M49 alone. For the first time, we compute a cluster-wide specific frequency S {sub N,} {sub CL} = 2.8 ± 0.7, after correcting for Virgo's diffuse light. We also find a GC-to-baryonic mass fraction ? {sub b} = 5.7 ± 1.1 × 10{sup –4} and a GC-to-total cluster mass formation efficiency ? {sub t} = 2.9 ± 0.5 × 10{sup –5}, the latter values slightly lower than but consistent with those derived for individual galactic halos. Taken as a whole, our results show that the production of the complex structures in the unrelaxed Virgo cluster core (including the production of the diffuse intracluster light) is an ongoing and continuing process.

  11. Motor/generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hickam, Christopher Dale (Glasford, IL)

    2008-05-13

    A motor/generator is provided for connecting between a transmission input shaft and an output shaft of a prime mover. The motor/generator may include a motor/generator housing, a stator mounted to the motor/generator housing, a rotor mounted at least partially within the motor/generator housing and rotatable about a rotor rotation axis, and a transmission-shaft coupler drivingly coupled to the rotor. The transmission-shaft coupler may include a clamp, which may include a base attached to the rotor and a plurality of adjustable jaws.

  12. Power superconducting power transmission cable

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashworth, Stephen P. (Cambridge, GB)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is for a compact superconducting power transmission cable operating at distribution level voltages. The superconducting cable is a conductor with a number of tapes assembled into a subconductor. These conductors are then mounted co-planarly in an elongated dielectric to produce a 3-phase cable. The arrangement increases the magnetic field parallel to the tapes thereby reducing ac losses.

  13. Abstract--Application of individual distributed generators can cause as many problems as it may solve. A better way to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , microturbines, photovoltaic, fuel cells and wind- power. Most emerging technologies such as micro-turbines, photovoltaic, fuel cells and gas internal combustion engines with permanent magnet generator require generation technologies permits generators to be placed optimally in relation to heat loads allowing for use

  14. Introduction Synaptic transmission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoltz, Brian M.

    Introduction ·Synaptic transmission throughout the nervous system is predominantly chemical ·At Channels #12;Neuroreceptors & Synaptic Transmission Synapse Neurotransmitter Receptor/Ion Channel Ion Flow

  15. Merchant transmission investment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joskow, Paul L.

    2003-01-01

    We examine the performance attributes of a merchant transmission investment framework that relies on "market driven" transmission investment to provide the infrastructure to support competitive wholesale markets for ...

  16. Infrastructure Needs: Natural Gas/Electricity Transmission,...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    miles of transmission lines, 72,000 miles of distribution lines, and 6,300 miles of natural gas pipelines. Our over 8,600 employees are committed to our mission to deliver...

  17. Automated manual transmission mode selection controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lawrie, Robert E. (Whitmore Lake, MI)

    1999-11-09

    A powertrain system for a hybrid vehicle. The hybrid vehicle includes a heat engine, such as a diesel engine, and an electric machine, which operates as both an electric motor and an alternator, to power the vehicle. The hybrid vehicle also includes a manual-style transmission configured to operate as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver. The engine and the electric machine drive an input shaft which in turn drives an output shaft of the transmission. In addition to driving the transmission, the electric machine regulates the speed of the input shaft in order to synchronize the input shaft during either an upshift or downshift of the transmission by either decreasing or increasing the speed of the input shaft. When decreasing the speed of the input shaft, the electric motor functions as an alternator to produce electrical energy which may be stored by a storage device. Operation of the transmission is controlled by a transmission controller which receives input signals and generates output signals to control shift and clutch motors to effect smooth launch, upshift shifts, and downshifts of the transmission, so that the transmission functions substantially as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver, while internally substantially functioning as a manual transmission.

  18. Automated manual transmission shift sequence controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lawrie, Robert E. (Whitmore Lake, MI); Reed, Richard G. (Royal Oak, MI); Rausen, David J. (Denver, CO)

    2000-02-01

    A powertrain system for a hybrid vehicle. The hybrid vehicle includes a heat engine, such as a diesel engine, and an electric machine, which operates as both, an electric motor and an alternator, to power the vehicle. The hybrid vehicle also includes a manual-style transmission configured to operate as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver. The engine and the electric machine drive an input shaft which in turn drives an output shaft of the transmission. In addition to driving the transmission, the electric machine regulates the speed of the input shaft in order to synchronize the input shaft during either an upshift or downshift of the transmission by either decreasing or increasing the speed of the input shaft. When decreasing the speed of the input shaft, the electric motor functions as an alternator to produce electrical energy which may be stored by a storage device. Operation of the transmission is controlled by a transmission controller which receives input signals and generates output signals to control shift and clutch motors to effect smooth launch, upshift shifts, and downshifts of the transmission, so that the transmission functions substantially as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver, while internally substantially functioning as a manual transmission.

  19. Identifying Transformer Incipient Events for Maintaining Distribution System Reliability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    provide information to predict failures ahead of time so that the necessary corrective actions are taken to reduce operating costs, enhance the availability of the generation, transmission and distribution provide information to predict failures ahead of time so that the necessary corrective actions are taken

  20. Detonator comprising a nonlinear transmission line

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M

    2014-12-30

    Detonators are described herein. In a general embodiment, the detonator includes a nonlinear transmission line that has a variable capacitance. Capacitance of the nonlinear transmission line is a function of voltage on the nonlinear transmission line. The nonlinear transmission line receives a voltage pulse from a voltage source and compresses the voltage pulse to generate a trigger signal. Compressing the voltage pulse includes increasing amplitude of the voltage pulse and decreasing length of the voltage pulse in time. An igniter receives the trigger signal and detonates an explosive responsive to receipt of the trigger signal.

  1. Transmission Constraints and Congestion in the Western and Eastern...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    wind generation," Transmission Hub, February 10, 2012. 144 Smith, B. (2012b). "Fracking, economy slow developing SC offshore wind," Associated Press, Charleston SC,...

  2. Reflection and transmission coefficients of a fracture in transversely ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-11-28

    dependent reflection and transmission coefficients. On the other hand, velocity discontinuities generate an energy loss at the interface. The specific viscosity ...

  3. Optimum Transmission Range for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Jing

    Optimum Transmission Range for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks Jing Deng Dept. of EECS Syracuse Univ-- The transmission range that achieves the most economical use of energy in wireless ad hoc networks is studied under homogeneous node distribution. By as- suming the knowledge of node location, we first proposed a transmission

  4. Residual Energy-Aware Cooperative Transmission (REACT) in Wireless Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leung, Kin K.

    Residual Energy-Aware Cooperative Transmission (REACT) in Wireless Networks Erwu Liu, Qinqing Zhang in the network can cooper- ate their transmissions of information to gain energy savings in a distributed network the lifetime of the network and we call the selection method a residual energy-aware cooperative transmission

  5. 1406 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 22, NO. 4, NOVEMBER 2007 Market-Based Coordination of Transmission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, Yong

    with competitive generation capacity planning in electricity markets. The purpose of the model is a holistic, competitive electricity markets, generation capacity planning, Lagrangian relaxation, merchant transmission simulation of generation and transmission capacity expansion in the market environment. The solution

  6. NREL: Transmission Grid Integration - Eastern Renewable Generation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines lightGeospatial ToolkitSMARTS -BeingFuture for SolarTechnologyNewData

  7. NREL: Transmission Grid Integration - Generator Modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines lightGeospatial ToolkitSMARTS -BeingFuture forForecasting NREL

  8. Transmission Line Security Monitor: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Svoboda

    2011-04-01

    The Electric Power Transmission Line Security Monitor System Operational Test is a project funded by the Technical Support Working Group (TSWG). TSWG operates under the Combating Terrorism Technical Support Office that functions under the Department of Defense. The Transmission Line Security Monitor System is based on technology developed by Idaho National Laboratory. The technology provides a means for real-time monitoring of physical threats and/or damage to electrical transmission line towers and conductors as well as providing operational parameters to transmission line operators to optimize transmission line operation. The end use is for monitoring long stretches of transmission lines that deliver electrical power from remote generating stations to cities and industry. These transmission lines are generally located in remote transmission line corridors where security infrastructure may not exist. Security and operational sensors in the sensor platform on the conductors take power from the transmission line and relay security and operational information to operations personnel hundreds of miles away without relying on existing infrastructure. Initiated on May 25, 2007, this project resulted in pre-production units tested in realistic operational environments during 2010. A technology licensee, Lindsey Manufacturing of Azusa California, is assisting in design, testing, and ultimately production. The platform was originally designed for a security monitoring mission, but it has been enhanced to include important operational features desired by electrical utilities.

  9. The Centre for Power Transmission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burton, Geoffrey R.

    vibration control. These concepts also have applications in analogous renewable energy technologies. (Dr J L du Bois) 2. Distributed actuation and control for active structures The next generation of actuation, will be distributed through and closely integrated with the load-bearing structure. These smart morphing structures

  10. Net Metering Policy Development and Distributed Solar Generation in Minnesota: Overview of Trends in Nationwide Policy Development and Implications of Increasing the Eligible System Size Cap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doris, E.; Busche, S.; Hockett, S.

    2009-12-01

    The goal of the Minnesota net metering policy is to give the maximum possible encouragement to distributed generation assets, especially solar electric systems (MN 2008). However, according to a published set of best practices (NNEC 2008) that prioritize the maximum development of solar markets within states, the Minnesota policy does not incorporate many of the important best practices that may help other states transform their solar energy markets and increase the amount of grid-connected distributed solar generation assets. Reasons cited include the low system size limit of 40kW (the best practices document recommends a 2 MW limit) and a lack of language protecting generators from additional utility fees. This study was conducted to compare Minnesota's policies to national best practices. It provides an overview of the current Minnesota policy in the context of these best practices and other jurisdictions' net metering policies, as well as a qualitative assessment of the impacts of raising the system size cap within the policy based on the experiences of other states.

  11. Transmission through the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yanikomeroglu, Halim

    Optimum Transmission through the GMAC D. Calabuig, R. Gohary, H. Yanikomero. 1/22 Introduction System model Optimization Algorithm Conclusions Optimum Transmission through the Gaussian Multiple Access Engineering Carleton University Ottawa, Canada July 8, 2013 #12;Optimum Transmission through the GMAC D

  12. Performance Incentives for Transmission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oren, Shmuel S.

    Performance Incentives for Transmission FERC's Standard Market Design should accommodate a performance-based regulation mechanism that is designed to align the interests of transmission operators to investment, transmission investors would be entitled to the CRRs or CRR auc- tion revenues engendered

  13. Transmission Enhancement Technology Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    a recommendation of the most cost-effective methods and technologies to enhance electricity transmission from a review of methods and technologies with potential to enhance electricity transmission capability-traditional methods and technologies to increase the capacity of the high voltage electric power transmission system

  14. Moving Beyond Paralysis: How States and Regions Are Creating Innovative Transmission Projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schumacher, A.; Fink, S.; Porter, K.

    2009-10-01

    This report profiles certain state and regional transmission policy initiatives aimed at promoting transmission development, mainly to access renewable resources – including renewable energy zones, location-constrained tariffs, open seasons, and balanced portfolio plans. In particular, this article focuses on transmission initiatives intended to plan and build transmission in advance of new generation, instead of waiting for enough planned new generation to justify the development of a new transmission line of sufficient capability.

  15. National Electric Transmission Congestion Study Webinars | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Services Electricity Policy Coordination and Implementation Transmission Planning National Electric Transmission Congestion Study National Electric Transmission...

  16. LINE: a code which simulates spectral line shapes for fusion reaction products generated by various speed distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slaughter, D.

    1985-03-01

    A computer code is described which estimates the energy spectrum or ''line-shape'' for the charged particles and ..gamma..-rays produced by the fusion of low-z ions in a hot plasma. The simulation has several ''built-in'' ion velocity distributions characteristic of heated plasmas and it also accepts arbitrary speed and angular distributions although they must all be symmetric about the z-axis. An energy spectrum of one of the reaction products (ion, neutron, or ..gamma..-ray) is calculated at one angle with respect to the symmetry axis. The results are shown in tabular form, they are plotted graphically, and the moments of the spectrum to order ten are calculated both with respect to the origin and with respect to the mean.

  17. Evaluation on double-wall-tube residual stress distribution of sodium-heated steam generator by neutron diffraction and numerical analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kisohara, N. [Advanced Nuclear System Research and Development Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan); Suzuki, H.; Akita, K. [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan); Kasahara, N. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Management, Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    A double-wall-tube is nominated for the steam generator heat transfer tube of future sodium fast reactors (SFRs) in Japan, to decrease the possibility of sodium/water reaction. The double-wall-tube consists of an inner tube and an outer tube, and they are mechanically contacted to keep the heat transfer of the interface between the inner and outer tubes by their residual stress. During long term SG operation, the contact stress at the interface gradually falls down due to stress relaxation. This phenomenon might increase the thermal resistance of the interface and degrade the tube heat transfer performance. The contact stress relaxation can be predicted by numerical analysis, and the analysis requires the data of the initial residual stress distributions in the tubes. However, unclear initial residual stress distributions prevent precious relaxation evaluation. In order to resolve this issue, a neutron diffraction method was employed to reveal the tri-axial (radius, hoop and longitudinal) initial residual stress distributions in the double-wall-tube. Strain gauges also were used to evaluate the contact stress. The measurement results were analyzed using a JAEA's structural computer code to determine the initial residual stress distributions. Based on the stress distributions, the structural computer code has predicted the transition of the relaxation and the decrease of the contact stress. The radial and longitudinal temperature distributions in the tubes were input to the structural analysis model. Since the radial thermal expansion difference between the inner (colder) and outer (hotter) tube reduces the contact stress and the tube inside steam pressure contributes to increasing it, the analytical model also took these effects into consideration. It has been conduced that the inner and outer tubes are contacted with sufficient stresses during the plant life time, and that effective heat transfer degradation dose not occur in the double-wall-tube SG. (authors)

  18. Temporal and spatial distribution of fishes in the upper Galveston Bay System with particular reference to the cooling water system of Cedar Bayou Generating Station 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holt, Scott Allen

    1976-01-01

    1I:MPORAL AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF FISHES IN THE UPPER GALVESTON BAY SYSTEM WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO THE COOLING WATER SYSTEM OF CEDAR BAYOU GENERATING STATION A Thesis by SCOTT ALLEN HOLT Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A... This research was made possible by a grant from Hou-ton Lighting 6 Power Company to the Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Scier. es and the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station (Project 1869-2781) . I would like to express my appreciation to Dr. Kirk...

  19. Fuel Cell Power Model Version 2: Startup Guide, System Designs, and Case Studies. Modeling Electricity, Heat, and Hydrogen Generation from Fuel Cell-Based Distributed Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steward, D.; Penev, M.; Saur, G.; Becker, W.; Zuboy, J.

    2013-06-01

    This guide helps users get started with the U.S. Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory Fuel Cell Power (FCPower) Model Version 2, which is a Microsoft Excel workbook that analyzes the technical and economic aspects of high-temperature fuel cell-based distributed energy systems with the aim of providing consistent, transparent, comparable results. This type of energy system would provide onsite-generated heat and electricity to large end users such as hospitals and office complexes. The hydrogen produced could be used for fueling vehicles or stored for later conversion to electricity.

  20. Optimal Distributed Voltage Regulation in Power Distribution Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lam, Albert Y S; Dominguez-Garcia, Alejandro; Tse, David

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of voltage regulation in power distribution networks with deep-penetration of distributed energy resources (DERs), e.g., renewable-based generation, and storage-capable loads such as plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. We cast the problem as an optimization program, where the objective is to minimize the losses in the network subject to constraints on bus voltage magnitudes, limits on active and reactive power injections, transmission line thermal limits and losses. We provide sufficient conditions under which the optimization problem can be solved via its convex relaxation. Using data from existing networks, we show that the conditions are expected to be satisfied by most networks. We also provide an efficient distributed algorithm to solve the problem. The algorithm is asynchronous, with a communication topology that is the same as the electrical network topology. We illustrate the algorithm's performance in the IEEE 34-bus and the 123-bus feeder test systems.

  1. X-ray transmissive debris shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spielman, Rick B. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1994-01-01

    A composite window structure is described for transmitting x-ray radiation and for shielding radiation generated debris. In particular, separate layers of different x-ray transmissive materials are laminated together to form a high strength, x-ray transmissive debris shield which is particularly suited for use in high energy fluences. In one embodiment, the composite window comprises alternating layers of beryllium and a thermoset polymer.

  2. Agenda: Natural Gas: Transmission, Storage and Distribution ...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Tim Murphy, U.S. House of Representatives (PA-18) 10:30 AM - 11:30 AM- Panel 1: Natural Gas Infrastructure: Historical Overview and Current Status Thomas Murphy, Co-Director,...

  3. AGENDA: PETROLEUM PRODUCT TRANSMISSION & DISTRIBUTION | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    A Public Meeting on the Quadrennial Energy Review, Hosted by the United States Department of Energy May 27, 2013 9:00 AM - 5:00 PM CDT Louisiana State University Health Sciences...

  4. Connecting Transmission and Distribution Heather Sanders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,698 MW of power plant capacity § 50,270 MW record peak demand (July 24, 2006) § 26,500 market megawatts of electricity delivered annually The ISO, a nonprofit public benefit corporation, maintains the constant and reliable flow of electricity for the health, safety and welfare of consumers Slide 2 #12

  5. Energy Efficiency, Renewables, Advanced Transmission and Distribution

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-inPPLfor Innovative Solar PowerTribes toefficiency. EnergyTechnologies (2008)

  6. Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963Residential2,2,435,222 2,389,991 2,480,107averagethe rest

  7. Electricity Transmission and Distribution Technologies - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation Current HABFES Science NetworkMediator EffectsDepartmentPortal

  8. Electricity Transmission and Distribution Technologies Available for

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid you not find what youSummer InternshipPower ElectricLicensing - Energy

  9. Agenda: Electricity Transmission, Storage and Distribution - West |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l De p u t y A sCOLONY PROJECTRecord4 TheAgencyCommitteeDepartment

  10. The Flare-energy Distributions Generated by Kink-unstable Ensembles of Zero-net-current Coronal Loops

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bareford, M R; Van der Linden, R A M

    2011-01-01

    It has been proposed that the million degree temperature of the corona is due to the combined effect of barely-detectable energy releases, so called nanoflares, that occur throughout the solar atmosphere. Alas, the nanoflare density and brightness implied by this hypothesis means that conclusive verification is beyond present observational abilities. Nevertheless, we investigate the plausibility of the nanoflare hypothesis by constructing a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model that can derive the energy of a nanoflare from the nature of an ideal kink instability. The set of energy-releasing instabilities is captured by an instability threshold for linear kink modes. Each point on the threshold is associated with a unique energy release and so we can predict a distribution of nanoflare energies. When the linear instability threshold is crossed, the instability enters a nonlinear phase as it is driven by current sheet reconnection. As the ensuing flare erupts and declines, the field transitions to a lower energy sta...

  11. Magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bacon, L.D.; Ballard, W.P.; Clark, M.C.; Marder, B.M.

    1987-05-19

    A magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator employs self-generated magnetic fields to generate microwave energy. An anode of the oscillator includes slow-wave structures which are formed of a plurality of thin conductive vanes defining cavities therebetween, and a gap is formed between the anode and a cathode of the oscillator. In response to a pulsed voltage applied to the anode and cathode, self-generated magnetic fields are produced in a cross-field orientation with respect to the orientation of the electric field between the anode and the cathode. The cross-field magnetic fields insulate the flow of electrons in the gap and confine the flow of electrons within the gap. 11 figs.

  12. Magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bacon, Larry D. (Albuquerque, NM); Ballard, William P. (Albuquerque, NM); Clark, M. Collins (Albuquerque, NM); Marder, Barry M. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1988-01-01

    A magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator employs self-generated magnetic fields to generate microwave energy. An anode of the oscillator includes slow-wave structures which are formed of a plurality of thin conductive vanes defining cavities therebetween, and a gap is formed between the anode and a cathode of the oscillator. In response to a pulsed voltage applied to the anode and cathode, self-generated magnetic fields arfe produced in a cross-field orientation with respect to the orientation of the electric field between the anode and the cathode. The cross-field magnetic fields insulate the flow of electrons in the gap and confine the flow of electrons within the gap.

  13. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buckles, Robert A. (Livermore, CA); Booth, Rex (Livermore, CA); Yen, Boris T. (El Cerrito, CA)

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  14. Transmission and Storage Operations

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Transmission and Storage Operations Natural Gas Infrastructure R&D and Methane Mitigation Workshop Mary Savalle, PMP, LSSGB Compression Reliability Engineer November 12, 2014...

  15. Collaborative Transmission Technology Roadmap

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Addendum to the Collaborative Transmission Technology Roadmap March 2014 Bonneville Power Administration Enhanced PDF Functionality Functionality of the PDF version of this...

  16. Patterns of transmission investment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joskow, Paul L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines a number of issues associated with alternative analytical approaches for evaluating investments in electricity transmission infrastructure and alternative institutional arrangements to govern network ...

  17. Economic feasibility analysis of distributed electric power generation based upon the natural gas-fired fuel cell. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The final report provides a summary of results of the Cost of Ownership Model and the circumstances under which a distributed fuel cell is economically viable. The analysis is based on a series of micro computer models estimate the capital and operations cost of a fuel cell central utility plant configuration. Using a survey of thermal and electrical demand profiles, the study defines a series of energy user classes. The energy user class demand requirements are entered into the central utility plant model to define the required size the fuel cell capacity and all supporting equipment. The central plant model includes provisions that enables the analyst to select optional plant features that are most appropriate to a fuel cell application, and that are cost effective. The model permits the choice of system features that would be suitable for a large condominium complex or a residential institution such as a hotel, boarding school or prison. Other applications are also practical; however, such applications have a higher relative demand for thermal energy, a characteristic that is well-suited to a fuel cell application with its free source of hot water or steam. The analysis combines the capital and operation from the preceding models into a Cost of Ownership Model to compute the plant capital and operating costs as a function of capacity and principal features and compares these estimates to the estimated operating cost of the same central plant configuration without a fuel cell.

  18. Distribution, volume, and depositional origin of Upper Eocene bolide-generated sediments along the U. S. East Coast

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poag, C.W.; Poppe, L.J. (Geological Survey, Woods Hole, MA (United States)); Powars, D.S.; Mixon, R.B. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Upper Eocene bolidites (bolide-generated sedimentary deposits) appear to form a continuous coastwise band, 600 km long and 30--100 km wide, from North Carolina to New Jersey (> 65,000 km[sup 2]). The authors sampled these deposits in 14 boreholes (cores and rotary cuttings) and identified them on 36 offshore seismic-reflection profiles. Cores from the bolidites contain allogenic phenoclasts and fossils, as well as shock-altered minerals and tektite glass. On seismic profiles, the bolidites commonly exhibit interrupted, chaotic reflections and fill elongate or ovate excavations. Maximum bolidite thickness offshore is 500m in the presumed impact crater (New Jersey Continental Shelf); maximum thickness onshore is > 60m (southeastern Virginia). Estimated bolidite volume is at least 1,700km[sup 3]. Disparate depositional processes formed four types of bolidites: (1) chaotic fill within the impact crater; (2) stratified( ) ejecta around the crater; (3) ejecta-bearing debrite at Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 612 (New Jersey slope); and (4) impact tsunamiite in North Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, and New Jersey.

  19. Methods for Analyzing the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Photovoltaic Generation to the U.S. Electric Utility System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.; Palmintier, B.; Barrows, C.; Ibanez, E.; Bird, L.; Zuboy, J.

    2014-09-01

    This report outlines the methods, data, and tools that could be used at different levels of sophistication and effort to estimate the benefits and costs of DGPV. In so doing, we identify the gaps in current benefit-cost-analysis methods, which we hope will inform the ongoing research agenda in this area. The focus of this report is primarily on benefits and costs from the utility or electricity generation system perspective. It is intended to provide useful background information to utility and regulatory decision makers and their staff, who are often being asked to use or evaluate estimates of the benefits and cost of DGPV in regulatory proceedings. Understanding the technical rigor of the range of methods and how they might need to evolve as DGPV becomes a more significant contributor of energy to the electricity system will help them be better consumers of this type of information. This report is also intended to provide information to utilities, policy makers, PV technology developers, and other stakeholders, which might help them maximize the benefits and minimize the costs of integrating DGPV into a changing electricity system.

  20. Use of element model to evaluate transmissibility reduction due to barriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Svanes, T.; South, D.; Dronen, O.M.

    1997-08-01

    Water breakthrough has been observed a year earlier than expected in the productive Oseberg Formation in the Veslefrikk Field. Production data revealed extensive water override, whereas the opposite situation was expected based on a homogeneous and coarse flow simulation model. A new model was developed to include geological heterogeneities using a simple upscaling method. The Oseberg Fm. consists of an upper homogeneous unit (zone 2) and a lower unit containing thin barriers of shale and calcite cemented sandstone (zone 1). The barrier content varies laterally. When barriers are distributed in a complex 3D pattern, they reduce the upscaled horizontal transmissibility more than what is obtained by multiplying the sand permeability by the net-to-gross ratio (N/G). However, the transmissibility reduction strongly depends on the spatial distribution of barriers and their geometry. Therefore, a fine scale element model was used to derive the average transmissibility reduction as a function of N/G for alternative geological descriptions of the barriers. A geo-statistical method called General Marked Point Process was used to generate the fine scale descriptions. This work has resulted in a simple upscaling routine for horizontal transmissibility, which represents an effective bridge between geological evaluation of uncertainties and fluid flow simulation. The method combines geo-statistical and deterministic modelling in an elegant manner, recognising that most often these methods complement one another.

  1. Transmission Line Security Monitor

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-28

    The Transmission Line Security Monitor is a multi-sensor monitor that mounts directly on high-voltage transmission lines to detect, characterize and communicate terrorist activity, human tampering and threatening conditions around support towers. For more information about INL's critical infrastructure protection research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  2. Transmission Line Security Monitor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-01-01

    The Transmission Line Security Monitor is a multi-sensor monitor that mounts directly on high-voltage transmission lines to detect, characterize and communicate terrorist activity, human tampering and threatening conditions around support towers. For more information about INL's critical infrastructure protection research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  3. Pulse transmission transmitter including a higher order time derivate filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dress, Jr., William B.; Smith, Stephen F.

    2003-09-23

    Systems and methods for pulse-transmission low-power communication modes are disclosed. A pulse transmission transmitter includes: a clock; a pseudorandom polynomial generator coupled to the clock, the pseudorandom polynomial generator having a polynomial load input; an exclusive-OR gate coupled to the pseudorandom polynomial generator, the exclusive-OR gate having a serial data input; a programmable delay circuit coupled to both the clock and the exclusive-OR gate; a pulse generator coupled to the programmable delay circuit; and a higher order time derivative filter coupled to the pulse generator. The systems and methods significantly reduce lower-frequency emissions from pulse transmission spread-spectrum communication modes, which reduces potentially harmful interference to existing radio frequency services and users and also simultaneously permit transmission of multiple data bits by utilizing specific pulse shapes.

  4. Chapter 5. Transmission networks and electricity markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ernst, Damien

    of the world: assumptions that electrical energy can be traded as if all generators were connected to the same for electrical energy. In this lesson: we study the effects that a transmission network has on trading of electrical energy and the special techniques that can be used to hedge against these limitations. 2 #12

  5. TRANSMISSION SYSTEM ADEQUACY EVALUATION CONSIDERING WIND POWER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saskatchewan, University of

    TRANSMISSION SYSTEM ADEQUACY EVALUATION CONSIDERING WIND POWER Rajesh Karki Jaimin Patel Power to significantly increase renewable power penetration in electrical power systems. Wind power is the most important systems and large grid connected systems. Power generated by wind depends on the availability of the wind

  6. HVDC transmission: a path to the future?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teichler, Stephen L.; Levitine, Ilia

    2010-05-15

    Direct current transmission has been the poor stepchild of the U.S. electric industry. Although early-generation plants were based on DC technology, it was soon deemed uneconomical to transmit electricity over long distances, but it now appears poised for a change. Both the increasing technical potential and changing economics of HVDC lines promise a growing role in the future. (author)

  7. The potential for distributed generation in Japanese prototype buildings: A DER-CAM analysis of policy, tariff design, building energy use, and technology development (Japanese translation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan; Gao, Weijun; Nishida, Masaru

    2004-10-15

    The August 2003 blackout of the northeastern U.S. and CANADA caused great economic losses and inconvenience to New York City and other affected areas. The blackout was a warning to the rest of the world that the ability of conventional power systems to meet growing electricity demand is questionable. Failure of large power systems can lead to serious emergencies. Introduction of on-site generation, renewable energy such as solar and wind power and the effective utilization of exhaust heat is needed, to meet the growing energy demands of the residential and commercial sectors. Additional benefit can be achieved by integrating these distributed technologies into distributed energy resource (DER) systems. This work demonstrates a method for choosing and designing economically optimal DER systems. An additional purpose of this research is to establish a database of energy tariffs, DER technology cost and performance characteristics, and building energy consumption for Japan. This research builds on prior DER studies at the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and with their associates in the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) and operation, including the development of the microgrid concept, and the DER selection optimization program, the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). DER-CAM is a tool designed to find the optimal combination of installed equipment and an idealized operating schedule to minimize a site's energy bills, given performance and cost data on available DER technologies, utility tariffs, and site electrical and thermal loads over a test period, usually an historic year. Since hourly electric and thermal energy data are rarely available, they are typically developed by building simulation for each of six end use loads used to model the building: electric-only loads, space heating, space cooling, refrigeration, water heating, and natural-gas-only loads. DER-CAM provides a global optimization, albeit idealized, that shows how the necessary useful energy loads can be provided for at minimum cost by selection and operation of on-site generation, heat recovery, cooling, and efficiency improvements. This study examines five prototype commercial buildings and uses DER-CAM to select the economically optimal DER system for each. The five building types are office, hospital, hotel, retail, and sports facility. Each building type was considered for both 5,000 and 10,000 square meter floor sizes. The energy consumption of these building types is based on building energy simulation and published literature. Based on the optimization results, energy conservation and the emissions reduction were also evaluated. Furthermore, a comparison study between Japan and the U.S. has been conducted covering the policy, technology and the utility tariffs effects on DER systems installations.

  8. EIS-0411: Transmission Agency of Northern California Transmission Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS is for the Western Area Power Administration construction, operation, and maintenance of the proposed transmission agency of Northern California Transmission Project, California.

  9. Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative - Meeting...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Recovery Act Interconnection Transmission Planning Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative - Meeting Calendars Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning...

  10. Designing electricity transmission auctions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greve, Thomas; Pollitt, Michael G.

    2012-10-26

    The UK has ambitious plans for exploiting offshore wind for electricity production in order to meet its challenging target under the EU Renewable Energy Directive. This could involve investing up to 20bn in transmission assets to bring electricity...

  11. Down hole transmission system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT)

    2007-07-24

    A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a data transmission element in both ends of the downhole component. Each data transmission element houses an electrically conducting coil in a MCEI circular trough. The electrically conducting coil comprises at least two generally fractional loops. In the preferred embodiment, the transmission elements are connected by an electrical conductor. Preferably, the electrical conductor is a coaxial cable. Preferably, the MCEI trough comprises ferrite. In the preferred embodiment, the fractional loops are connected by a connecting cable. In one aspect of the present invention, the connecting cable is a pair of twisted wires. In one embodiment the connecting cable is a shielded pair of twisted wires. In another aspect of the present invention, the connecting cable is a coaxial cable. The connecting cable may be disposed outside of the MCEI circular trough.

  12. Downhole transmission system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

    2008-01-15

    A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a data transmission element in both ends of the downhole component. Each data transmission element houses an electrically conducting coil in a MCEI circular trough. An electrical conductor connects both the transmission elements. The electrical conductor comprises at least three electrically conductive elements insulated from each other. In the preferred embodiment the electrical conductor comprises an electrically conducting outer shield, an electrically conducting inner shield and an electrical conducting core. In some embodiments of the present invention, the electrical conductor comprises an electrically insulating jacket. In other embodiments, the electrical conductor comprises a pair of twisted wires. In some embodiments, the electrical conductor comprises semi-conductive material.

  13. Patterns of Transmission Investment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joskow, Paul

    2006-03-14

    influenced by uncertainty, contingency criteria and associated engineering reliability rules. I illustrate how the wholesale market and transmission investment frameworks have addressed these issues in England and Wales (E&W) since 1990 and in the PJM...

  14. Transmission and Storage Operations

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCEDInstallers/ContractorsPhotovoltaicsState ofSavingsTransmission SEAB PresentationTransmission and

  15. Third cumulant of the total transmission of diffuse waves 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Rossum, Mark; de Boer, Johannes; Nieuwenhuizen, Th.M

    1995-01-01

    The probability distibution of the total transmission is studied for waves multiply scattered from a random, static configuration of scatterers. A theoretical study of the second and third cumulants of this distribution ...

  16. Radio-Frequency Inverters With Transmission-Line Input Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phinney, Joshua W.

    A soft-switching inverter topology (the Class Phi ) is presented which draws dc source current through a transmission line or a lumped-network approximation of a distributed line. By aligning the inverter switching frequency ...

  17. National transmission grid study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham, Spencer

    2003-05-31

    The National Energy Policy Plan directed the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct a study to examine the benefits of establishing a national electricity transmission grid and to identify transmission bottlenecks and measures to address them. DOE began by conducting an independent analysis of U.S. electricity markets and identifying transmission system bottlenecks using DOE’s Policy Office Electricity Modeling System (POEMS). DOE’s analysis, presented in Section 2, confirms the central role of the nation’s transmission system in lowering costs to consumers through increased trade. More importantly, DOE’s analysis also confirms the results of previous studies, which show that transmission bottlenecks and related transmission system market practices are adding hundreds of millions of dollars to consumers’ electricity bills each year. A more detailed technical overview of the use of POEMS is provided in Appendix A. DOE led an extensive, open, public input process and heard a wide range of comments and recommendations that have all been considered.1 More than 150 participants registered for three public workshops held in Detroit, MI (September 24, 2001); Atlanta, GA (September 26, 2001); and Phoenix, AZ (September 28, 2001).

  18. The potential for distributed generation in Japanese prototype buildings: A DER-CAM analysis of policy, tariff design, building energy use, and technology development (English Version)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan; Gao, Weijun; Nishida, Masaru

    2004-10-15

    The August 2003 blackout of the northeastern U.S. and CANADA caused great economic losses and inconvenience to New York City and other affected areas. The blackout was a warning to the rest of the world that the ability of conventional power systems to meet growing electricity demand is questionable. Failure of large power systems can lead to serious emergencies. Introduction of on-site generation, renewable energy such as solar and wind power and the effective utilization of exhaust heat is needed, to meet the growing energy demands of the residential and commercial sectors. Additional benefit can be achieved by integrating these distributed technologies into distributed energy resource (DER) systems. This work demonstrates a method for choosing and designing economically optimal DER systems. An additional purpose of this research is to establish a database of energy tariffs, DER technology cost and performance characteristics, and building energy consumption for Japan. This research builds on prior DER studies at the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and with their associates in the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) and operation, including the development of the microgrid concept, and the DER selection optimization program, the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). DER-CAM is a tool designed to find the optimal combination of installed equipment and an idealized operating schedule to minimize a site's energy bills, given performance and cost data on available DER technologies, utility tariffs, and site electrical and thermal loads over a test period, usually an historic year. Since hourly electric and thermal energy data are rarely available, they are typically developed by building simulation for each of six end use loads used to model the building: electric-only loads, space heating, space cooling, refrigeration, water heating, and natural-gas-only loads. DER-CAM provides a global optimization, albeit idealized, that shows how the necessary useful energy loads can be provided for at minimum cost by selection and operation of on-site generation, heat recovery, cooling, and efficiency improvements. This study examines five prototype commercial buildings and uses DER-CAM to select the economically optimal DER system for each. The five building types are office, hospital, hotel, retail, and sports facility. Each building type was considered for both 5,000 and 10,000 square meter floor sizes. The energy consumption of these building types is based on building energy simulation and published literature. Based on the optimization results, energy conservation and the emissions reduction were also evaluated. Furthermore, a comparison study between Japan and the U.S. has been conducted covering the policy, technology and the utility tariffs effects on DER systems installations. This study begins with an examination of existing DER research. Building energy loads were then generated through simulation (DOE-2) and scaled to match available load data in the literature. Energy tariffs in Japan and the U.S. were then compared: electricity prices did not differ significantly, while commercial gas prices in Japan are much higher than in the U.S. For smaller DER systems, the installation costs in Japan are more than twice those in the U.S., but this difference becomes smaller with larger systems. In Japan, DER systems are eligible for a 1/3 rebate of installation costs, while subsidies in the U.S. vary significantly by region and application. For 10,000 m{sup 2} buildings, significant decreases in fuel consumption, carbon emissions, and energy costs were seen in the economically optimal results. This was most noticeable in the sports facility, followed the hospital and hotel. This research demonstrates that office buildings can benefit from CHP, in contrast to popular opinion. For hospitals and sports facilities, the use of waste heat is particularly effective for water and space heating. For the other building types, waste heat is most effectively use

  19. Transmission rights and market power on electric power networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joskow, Paul L.

    2000-01-01

    We analyze whether and how the allocation of transmission rights associated with the use of electric power networks affects the behavior of electricity generators and electricity consumers with market power. We consider ...

  20. Studies of Neurological Transmission Analysis Hierarchical Bayesian Mixture Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    West, Mike

    Studies of Neurological Transmission Analysis using Hierarchical Bayesian Mixture Models MIKE WEST of individual neuro­ transmitter release sites at nerve junctions. Models attempt to capture scientific features, with result­ ing neurophysiological insights in some recently generated experimental contexts. Further

  1. Bibliometric analysis of distributed generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woon, Wei Lee

    This paper presents an application of term frequency (TF) as a means of identifying useful trends from text documents. Of particular interest is the relationship between publication patterns, as characterized by TF, and ...

  2. EIA - Distributed Generation in Buildings

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table272/S TheEnergyEnergy Markets 9,

  3. Transmission Line Structure Spotting and Optimization within a Defined Transmission Line Routing Centerline Using Non-Linear Programming Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cockrum, Joshua W.

    2010-05-14

    Changes in our nation’s economy and growing global warming concerns have slowed the energy markets in United States. However, one area that continues to have strong growth is the transmission and distribution infrastructure. ...

  4. TRANSMISSION MEDIA 4.1 Guided Transmission Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scarano, Vittorio

    CHAPTER 4 TRANSMISSION MEDIA 4.1 Guided Transmission Media Twisted Pair Coaxial Cable Optical Fiber 4.2 Wireless Transmission Antennas Terrestrial Microwave Satellite Microwave Broadcast Radio.4 Line-of-Sight Transmission Free Space Loss Atmospheric Absorption Multipath Refraction 4.5 Recommended

  5. Pulse transmission transceiver architecture for low power communications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dress, Jr., William B.; Smith, Stephen F.

    2003-08-05

    Systems and methods for pulse-transmission low-power communication modes are disclosed. A method of pulse transmission communications includes: generating a modulated pulse signal waveform; transforming said modulated pulse signal waveform into at least one higher-order derivative waveform; and transmitting said at least one higher-order derivative waveform as an emitted pulse. The systems and methods significantly reduce lower-frequency emissions from pulse transmission spread-spectrum communication modes, which reduces potentially harmful interference to existing radio frequency services and users and also simultaneously permit transmission of multiple data bits by utilizing specific pulse shapes.

  6. Impact of dispersed solar and wind systems on electric distribution planning and operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boardman, R.W.; Patton, R.; Curtice, D.H.

    1981-02-01

    Small-scale dispersed solar photovoltaic and wind generation (DSW) will affect the generation, transmission, and distribution systems of an electric utility. This study examines the technical and economic impacts of dispersing DSW devices within the distribution system. Dispersed intermittent generation is included. Effects of DSW devices on capital investments, reliability, operating and maintenance costs, protection requirements, and communication and control requirements are examined. A DSW operation model is developed to help determine the dependable capacity of fluctuating solar photovoltaic and wind generation as part of the distribution planning process. Specific case studies using distribution system data and renewable resource data for Southern California Edison Company and Consumers Power Company are analyzed to gain insights into the effects of interconnecting DSW devices. The DSW devices were found to offer some distribution investment savings, depending on their availability during peak loads. For a summer-peaking utility, for example, dispersing photovoltaic systems is more likely to defer distribution capital investments than dispersing wind systems. Dispersing storage devices to increase DSW's dependable capacity for distribution systems needs is not economically attractive. Substation placement of DSW and storage devices is found to be more cost effective than feeder or customer placement. Examination of the effects of DSW on distribution system operation showed that small customer-owned DSW devices are not likely to disrupt present time-current distribution protection coordination. Present maintenance work procedures, are adequate to ensure workmen's safety. Regulating voltages within appropriate limits will become more complex with intermittent generation along the distribution feeders.

  7. Technologies and Policies to Improve Energy Efficiency in Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    from electricity generation, transmission, and distributionMtce equivalent of electricity generation, transmission, and

  8. Experimental Single-Photon Transmission from Satellite to Earth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Juan Yin; Yuan Cao; Shu-Bin Liu; Ge-Sheng Pan; Jin-Hong Wang; Tao Yang; Zhong-Ping Zhang; Fu-Min Yang; Yu-Ao Chen; Cheng-Zhi Peng; Jian-Wei Pan

    2013-06-04

    Free-space quantum communication with satellites opens a promising avenue for global secure quantum network and large-scale test of quantum foundations. Recently, numerous experimental efforts have been carried out towards this ambitious goal. However, one essential step - transmitting single photons from the satellite to the ground with high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at realistic environments - remains experimental challenging. Here, we report a direct experimental demonstration of the satellite-ground transmission of a quasi-single-photon source. In the experiment, single photons (~0.85 photon per pulse) are generated by reflecting weak laser pulses back to earth with a cube-corner retro-reflector on the satellite Champ, collected by a 600-mm diameter telescope at the ground station, and finally detected by single-photon counting modules (SPCMs) after 400-km free-space link transmission. With the help of high accuracy time synchronization, narrow receiver field-of-view (FOV) and high-repetition-rate pulses (76 MHz), a SNR of better than 16:1 is obtained, which is sufficient for a secure quantum key distribution. Our experimental results represent an important step towards satellite-ground quantum communication.

  9. Post-injection transmission attenuation measurements for PET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daube-Witherspoon, M.E.; Carson, R.E.; Green, M.V.

    1988-02-01

    The feasibility of acquiring PET transmission information after tracer injection was studied using ring and rotating pin transmission sources. A combined transmission/emission scan was acquired, followed by an emission scan, used to subtract the emission counts from the transmission/emission data. The ratio of emission count rate for FDG brain scans to transmission count rate is 50-100% for a 5-mCi ring source and less than 5% for a 5-mCi pin source. Windowing of the sinogram, which rejects most random and scattered coincidences, also eliminates most emission counts. The magnitude and effects of residual random and scattered coincidences as well as increases in variability from tranmission/emission scans were studied. In addition, the results of combined transmission/emission scans for a high-contrast emission source distribution using ring and pin sources are described.

  10. Printed circuit dispersive transmission line

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ikezi, H.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.; DeGrassie, J.S.

    1991-08-27

    A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission line between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other. 5 figures.

  11. Printed circuit dispersive transmission line

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ikezi, Hiroyuki (Rancho Santa Fe, CA); Lin-Liu, Yuh-Ren (San Diego, CA); DeGrassie, John S. (Encinitas, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission line between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other.

  12. Transmission line capital costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, K.R.; Brown, D.R.

    1995-05-01

    The displacement or deferral of conventional AC transmission line installation is a key benefit associated with several technologies being developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management (OEM). Previous benefits assessments conducted within OEM have been based on significantly different assumptions for the average cost per mile of AC transmission line. In response to this uncertainty, an investigation of transmission line capital cost data was initiated. The objective of this study was to develop a database for preparing preliminary estimates of transmission line costs. An extensive search of potential data sources identified databases maintained by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) as superior sources of transmission line cost data. The BPA and WAPA data were adjusted to a common basis and combined together. The composite database covers voltage levels from 13.8 to 765 W, with cost estimates for a given voltage level varying depending on conductor size, tower material type, tower frame type, and number of circuits. Reported transmission line costs vary significantly, even for a given voltage level. This can usually be explained by variation in the design factors noted above and variation in environmental and land (right-of-way) costs, which are extremely site-specific. Cost estimates prepared from the composite database were compared to cost data collected by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for investor-owned utilities from across the United States. The comparison was hampered because the only design specifications included with the FERC data were voltage level and line length. Working within this limitation, the FERC data were not found to differ significantly from the composite database. Therefore, the composite database was judged to be a reasonable proxy for estimating national average costs.

  13. AMO Industrial Distributed Energy: Industrial Distributed Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in owning and operating costs, thereby improving the economics of distributed power generation using reciprocating gas engines. Caterpillar's Phase I technologies have...

  14. The Efficiency of Point-to-Point Financial Transmission Rights is Limited by the Network Topology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blumsack, Seth

    of the restructured electric power industry envisioned replacing the transmission business of a regulated utility of electric-sector restructuring would place transmission under a market regime similar to generationThe Efficiency of Point-to-Point Financial Transmission Rights is Limited by the Network Topology

  15. 1346 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 23, NO. 3, AUGUST 2008 Optimal Transmission Switching

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferris, Michael C.

    switching in which upper limit on open lines is . I. INTRODUCTION I N large electric networks, transmission1346 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 23, NO. 3, AUGUST 2008 Optimal Transmission Switching, we formulate the problem of finding an optimal generation dispatch and transmission topology to meet

  16. The Cost of Transmission for Wind Energy: A Review of Transmission Planning Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, Andrew D.; Wiser, Ryan; Porter, Kevin

    2009-02-02

    The rapid development of wind power that the United States has experienced over the last several years has been coupled with a growing concern that wind development will require substantial additions to the nation's transmission infrastructure. Transmission is particularly important for wind power due to the locational dependence of wind resources, the relatively low capacity factor of wind plants, and the mismatch between the short lead time to build a new wind project and the longer lead time often needed to plan, permit, and construct transmission. It is clear that institutional issues related to transmission planning, siting, and cost allocation will pose major obstacles to accelerated wind power deployment, but also of concern is the potential cost of this infrastructure build out. Simply put, how much extra cost will society bear to deliver wind power to load centers? Without an answer to this question, there can be no consensus on whether or not the cost of developing transmission for wind will be a major barrier to further wind deployment, or whether the institutional barriers to transmission expansion are likely to be of more immediate concern. In this report, we review a sample of 40 detailed transmission studies that have included wind power. These studies cover a broad geographic area, and were completed from 2001-2008. Our primary goal in reviewing these studies is to develop a better understanding of the transmission costs needed to access growing quantities of wind generation. A secondary goal is to gain a better appreciation of the differences in transmission planning approaches in order to identify those methodologies that seem most able to estimate the incremental transmission costs associated with wind development. Finally, we hope that the resulting dataset and discussion might be used to inform the assumptions, methods, and results of higher-level assessment models that are sometimes used to estimate the cost of wind deployment (e.g. NEMS and WinDS). The authors and general location of the 40 detailed transmission studies included in our review are illustrated in Figure ES-1. As discussed in the body of the report, these studies vary considerably in scope, authorship, objectives, methodology, and tools. Though we recognize this diversity and are cognizant that comparisons among these studies are therefore somewhat inappropriate, we nonetheless emphasize such simple comparisons in this report. We do so in order to improve our understanding of the range of transmission costs needed to access greater quantities of wind, and to highlight some of the drivers of those costs. In so doing, we gloss over many important details and differences among the studies in our sample. In emphasizing simple comparisons, our analysis focuses primarily on the unit cost of transmission implied by each of the studies. The unit cost of transmission for wind in $/kW terms on a capacity-weighted basis is estimated by simply dividing the total transmission cost in a study by the total amount of incremental generation capacity (wind and non-wind) modeled in that study. In so doing, this metric assumes that within any individual study all incremental generation capacity imposes transmission costs in proportion to its nameplate capacity rating. The limitations to this approach are described in some detail in the body of the report.

  17. Borehole data transmission apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotlyar, O.M.

    1993-03-23

    A borehole data transmission apparatus is described whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

  18. Borehole data transmission apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotlyar, Oleg M. (1739 Grandview #2, Idaho Falls, ID 83402)

    1993-01-01

    A borehole data transmission apparatus whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

  19. Drill string transmission line

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David S. (Lehi, UT); Bradford, Kline (Orem, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

    2006-03-28

    A transmission line assembly for transmitting information along a downhole tool comprising a pin end, a box end, and a central bore traveling between the pin end and the box end, is disclosed in one embodiment of the invention as including a protective conduit. A transmission line is routed through the protective conduit. The protective conduit is routed through the central bore and the ends of the protective conduit are routed through channels formed in the pin end and box end of the downhole tool. The protective conduit is elastically forced into a spiral or other non-linear path along the interior surface of the central bore by compressing the protective conduit to a length within the downhole tool shorter than the protective conduit.

  20. Transmission | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al., 2013)OpenEnergyTrail Canyon GeothermalTransmission (Redirected from

  1. Transmission Siting_071508.indd

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCEDInstallers/ContractorsPhotovoltaicsState ofSavingsTransmission SEAB Presentation

  2. Transmission eigenvalues for elliptic operators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Hitrik; Katsiaryna Krupchyk; Petri Ola; Lassi Päivärinta

    2010-07-03

    A reduction of the transmission eigenvalue problem for multiplicative sign-definite perturbations of elliptic operators with constant coefficients to an eigenvalue problem for a non-selfadjoint compact operator is given. Sufficient conditions for the existence of transmission eigenvalues and completeness of generalized eigenstates for the transmission eigenvalue problem are derived. In the trace class case, the generic existence of transmission eigenvalues is established.

  3. Transmission Line Circuit Alexander Glasser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anlage, Steven

    Chaos in a Transmission Line Circuit Alexander Glasser Marshal Miller With... Prof. Edward Ott Prof times become shorter, circuit connections behave more and more like transmission lines. Theoretical(t) - Transmission Line (Zo, T) #12;5 Cf/Cr 1000 Vf Capacitance Voltage Cf Cr Model for Nonlinear Capacitor

  4. New Mexico/Transmission | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Western Area Power Administration, provide transmission in the state of New Mexico. Renewable Energy Transmission Authority The New Mexico Renewable Energy Transmission Authority...

  5. 2015 National Electric Transmission Congestion Study | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2015 National Electric Transmission Congestion Study 2015 National Electric Transmission Congestion Study 2015 National Electric Transmission Congestion Study Section 1221(a) of...

  6. Flexible Transmission in the Smart Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hedman, Kory Walter

    2010-01-01

    models of the electric transmission network flow problem.requirements in the electric transmission grid is provided.operations of the electric transmission grid. It also

  7. Cyclical-Transmission-Schedule Reservation Technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia-Luna-Aceves, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    52) (58) (56) CYCLICAL-TRANSMISSION-SCHEDULE 6,118,787 A *for Topology Dependent Transmission Scheduling, in Proc.times an associ- ated transmission waiting time; and

  8. Flexible Transmission in the Smart Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hedman, Kory Walter

    2010-01-01

    differences: models for transmission property rights,” IEEEto solve power transmission network design problems,” IEEES. A. "Network topologies and transmission investment under

  9. Device-to-Device Assisted Video Transmission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Y; Zhou, W; Wu, P; Toni, L; Cosman, P C; Milstein, L B

    2013-01-01

    Equipment (UE) radio transmission and reception (3GPP TSand Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: Transmission-Capacity Tradeoff”,Device Assisted Video Transmission Yichao Shen, Wenwen Zhou,

  10. Electricity Transmission, A Primer | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electricity Transmission, A Primer Electricity Transmission, A Primer This primer on electric transmission is intended to help policymakers understand the physics of the...

  11. Power and Frequency Control as it Relates to Wind-Powered Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lacommare, Kristina S H

    2011-01-01

    Generation the security of the transmission grid. Thisaffect the security and reliability of the grid. h. BA

  12. Heat transmission in Relativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Brotas; J. C. Fernandes

    2003-07-16

    The simultaneous study of deformation and heat transmission in a bar was ignored for about 150 years. The traditional Fourier equation just allows to study the evolution of temperature in a undeformable bar. The search for its relativistic variant is a task which must fail because in Relativity there are no undeformable bars. Rigid bodies, in the sense as rigid as possible, are deformables. In this work we show how to write in Relativity the system of equations necessary to study simultaneously deformation and temperature evolution along a rigid bar.

  13. Transmission SEAB Presentation

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE- Non-ResidentialAlliantPGEDepartmentfan system' % ~ TransmissionAvailable

  14. DOE Transmission Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i pStateDOE FederalTheofHeyeck, AEP, Sr. Vice President, Transmission

  15. Transmission Business Line

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With U.S.Week DayDr.Theories81TowardsTrackingCarbon2Transmission

  16. Light Transmission through Sub-Wavelength Apertures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Visser, Taco D.

    Light Transmission through Sub-Wavelength Apertures #12;#12;VRIJE UNIVERSITEIT Light Transmission Transmission through a Single Sub-wavelength Slit 59 3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 3.2 The configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 3.3 Transmission

  17. Intensity Distributions of Waves Transmitted through a Multiple Scattering Medium 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Rossum, Mark; Nieuwenhuizen, Th.M

    1995-04-03

    The distributions of the angular transmission coefficient and of the total transmission are calculated for multiple scattered waves. The calculation is based on a mapping to the known distrribution of eigenvalues of the ...

  18. 2012 National Electric Transmission Congestion Study: Presentation...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    2012 National Electric Transmission Congestion Study: Presentation from Congestion Study Webinar Series 2012 National Electric Transmission Congestion Study: Presentation from...

  19. 2009 National Electric Transmission Congestion Study Workshops...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Congestion Studies 2009 Congestion Study 2009 National Electric Transmission Congestion Study Workshops 2009 National Electric Transmission Congestion Study Workshops DOE...

  20. Transmission Eigenvalues in Inverse Scattering Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-04-22

    TE and Scattering Theory. Spherically Stratified Media. Transmission Eigenvalues. Open Problem. Transmission Eigenvalues in Inverse. Scattering Theory.

  1. Transmission Reliability Program 2015 Reliability & Markets Peer...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Transmission Reliability Program 2015 Reliability & Markets Peer Review Materials Available Transmission Reliability Program 2015 Reliability & Markets Peer Review Materials...

  2. Manual transmission shift linkage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sewell, J.S.

    1991-10-01

    This patent describes a sliding gear manual transmission (10) for an automotive vehicle including a transmission housing (11), an input shaft (12) journalled in the housing, an output shaft (13) axially aligned with the input shaft and journalled in the housing, a countershaft (15) journalled in the housing and carrying a cluster gear (17) thereon, the input shaft (12) terminating in an input gear (14), a plurality of gears (26,27,28,29,31,31) on the output shaft (13) in meshing engagement with the cluster gear (17), and a plurality of synchronizing clutches (36,38,41,42) on the output shaft and countershaft for engagement of gear ratios of the meshing gears, and an axially movable and rotatable shift rail (81) located in the housing and operatively connected to a shift lever (82) actuated by the vehicle operator, the improvement comprising an auxiliary shift rail (98) located in the housing (11) generally paralleling the first mentioned shift rail (81) to provide for actuation of fifth, sixth and reverse gears the auxiliary shift rail (98) having a 5-6 shift arm (104) journalled thereon for axial movement relative thereto, and a reverse shift arm (99) rotatably mounted thereon for axial movement therewith.

  3. Colorado Electrical Transmission Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zehner, Richard E.

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Originator: Xcel Energy Publication Date: 2012 Title: Colorado XcelEnergy NonXcel Transmission Network Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains transmission network of Colorado Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4540689.017558 m Left: 160606.141934 m Right: 758715.946645 m Bottom: 4098910.893397m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shapefile

  4. Clock SynthesisRadar Timing/Control PRF Generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kansas, University of

    Clock SynthesisRadar Timing/Control AWG DAQ PRF Generator Receiver Transmitter Transmission Through waveform generator for pulse generation. The transmission pulse used currently is a modified linear FM, including a description of the bistatic synchronization technique. The link budget and radar performance

  5. Acoustic data transmission through a drillstring

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drumheller, D.S.

    1992-07-07

    A method and apparatus for acoustically transmitting data along a drillstring are presented. In accordance with one embodiment of the present invention, acoustic data signals are conditioned to counteract distortions caused by the drillstring. Preferably, this conditioning step comprises multiplying each frequency component of the data signal by exp ([minus]ikL) where L is the transmission length of the drillstring, k is the wave number in the drillstring at the frequency of each component and i is ([minus]1)[sup 1/2]. In another embodiment of this invention, data signals having a frequency content in at least one passband of the drillstring are generated preferably traveling in only one direction (e.g., up the drillstring) while echoes in the drillstring resulting from the data transmission are suppressed. 20 figs.

  6. Reinforcing Power Grid Transmission with FACTS Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frolov, Vladimir; Chertkov, Misha

    2013-01-01

    We explore optimization methods for planning the placement, sizing and operations of Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) devices installed into the grid to relieve congestion created by load growth or fluctuations of intermittent renewable generation. We limit our selection of FACTS devices to those that can be represented by modification of the inductance of the transmission lines. Our master optimization problem minimizes the $l_1$ norm of the FACTS-associated inductance correction subject to constraints enforcing that no line of the system exceeds its thermal limit. We develop off-line heuristics that reduce this non-convex optimization to a succession of Linear Programs (LP) where at each step the constraints are linearized analytically around the current operating point. The algorithm is accelerated further with a version of the cutting plane method greatly reducing the number of active constraints during the optimization, while checking feasibility of the non-active constraints post...

  7. Computational Needs for the Next Generation Electric Grid Proceedings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birman, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    that are vital for grid security.     The cost of  these problems involving grid security  at  bulk  transmission/problems  involving  grid  security  at  distribution  or 

  8. Great Plains Wind Energy Transmission Development Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brad G. Stevens, P.E.; Troy K. Simonsen; Kerryanne M. Leroux

    2012-06-09

    In fiscal year 2005, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) received funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake a broad array of tasks to either directly or indirectly address the barriers that faced much of the Great Plains states and their efforts to produce and transmit wind energy at the time. This program, entitled Great Plains Wind Energy Transmission Development Project, was focused on the central goal of stimulating wind energy development through expansion of new transmission capacity or development of new wind energy capacity through alternative market development. The original task structure was as follows: Task 1 - Regional Renewable Credit Tracking System (later rescoped to Small Wind Turbine Training Center); Task 2 - Multistate Transmission Collaborative; Task 3 - Wind Energy Forecasting System; and Task 4 - Analysis of the Long-Term Role of Hydrogen in the Region. As carried out, Task 1 involved the creation of the Small Wind Turbine Training Center (SWTTC). The SWTTC, located Grand Forks, North Dakota, consists of a single wind turbine, the Endurance S-250, on a 105-foot tilt-up guyed tower. The S-250 is connected to the electrical grid on the 'load side' of the electric meter, and the power produced by the wind turbine is consumed locally on the property. Establishment of the SWTTC will allow EERC personnel to provide educational opportunities to a wide range of participants, including grade school through college-level students and the general public. In addition, the facility will allow the EERC to provide technical training workshops related to the installation, operation, and maintenance of small wind turbines. In addition, under Task 1, the EERC hosted two small wind turbine workshops on May 18, 2010, and March 8, 2011, at the EERC in Grand Forks, North Dakota. Task 2 involved the EERC cosponsoring and aiding in the planning of three transmission workshops in the midwest and western regions. Under Task 3, the EERC, in collaboration with Meridian Environmental Services, developed and demonstrated the efficacy of a wind energy forecasting system for use in scheduling energy output from wind farms for a regional electrical generation and transmission utility. With the increased interest at the time of project award in the production of hydrogen as a critical future energy source, many viewed hydrogen produced from wind-generated electricity as an attractive option. In addition, many of the hydrogen production-related concepts involve utilization of energy resources without the need for additional electrical transmission. For this reason, under Task 4, the EERC provided a summary of end uses for hydrogen in the region and focused on one end product in particular (fertilizer), including several process options and related economic analyses.

  9. INTEGRATED CONTROL OF NEXT GENERATION POWER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-02-28

    Control methodologies provide the necessary data acquisition, analysis and corrective actions needed to maintain the state of an electric power system within acceptable operating limits. These methods are primarily software-based algorithms that are nonfunctional unless properly integrated with system data and the appropriate control devices. Components of the control of power systems today include protective relays, supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA), distribution automation (DA), feeder automation, software agents, sensors, control devices and communications. Necessary corrective actions are still accomplished using large electromechanical devices such as vacuum, oil and gas-insulated breakers, capacitor banks, regulators, transformer tap changers, reclosers, generators, and more recently FACTS (flexible AC transmission system) devices. The recent evolution of multi-agent system (MAS) technologies has been reviewed and effort made to integrate MAS into next generation power systems. A MAS can be defined as ��a loosely-coupled network of problem solvers that work together to solve problems that are beyond their individual capabilities��. These problem solvers, often called agents, are autonomous and may be heterogeneous in nature. This project has shown that a MAS has significant advantages over a single, monolithic, centralized problem solver for next generation power systems. Various communication media are being used in the electric power system today, including copper, optical fiber and power line carrier (PLC) as well as wireless technologies. These technologies have enabled the deployment of substation automation (SA) at many facilities. Recently, carrier and wireless technologies have been developed and demonstrated on a pilot basis. Hence, efforts have been made by this project to penetrate these communication technologies as an infrastructure for next generation power systems. This project has thus pursued efforts to use specific MAS methods as well as pertinent communications protocols to imbed and assess such technologies in a real electric power distribution system, specifically the Circuit of the Future (CoF) developed by Southern California Edison (SCE). By modeling the behavior and communication for the components of a MAS, the operation and control of the power distribution circuit have been enhanced. The use of MAS to model and integrate a power distribution circuit offers a significantly different approach to the design of next generation power systems. For example, ways to control a power distribution circuit that includes a micro-grid while considering the impacts of thermal constraints, and integrating voltage control and renewable energy sources on the main power system have been pursued. Both computer simulations and laboratory testbeds have been used to demonstrate such technologies in electric power distribution systems. An economic assessment of MAS in electric power systems was also performed during this project. A report on the economic feasibility of MAS for electric power systems was prepared, and particularly discusses the feasibility of incorporating MAS in transmission and distribution (T&D) systems. Also, the commercial viability of deploying MAS in T&D systems has been assessed by developing an initial case study using utility input to estimate the benefits of deploying MAS. In summary, the MAS approach, which had previously been investigated with good success by APERC for naval shipboard applications, has now been applied with promising results for enhancing an electric power distribution circuit, such as the Circuit of the Future developed by Southern California Edison. The results for next generation power systems include better ability to reconfigure circuits, improve protection and enhance reliability.

  10. BPA, Transmission, Non-Wires Analysis, Phase 2: Feasibility Report...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4.2.2 Update to Distributed generation estimate ... 48 4.2.3 Update to Demand Response Estimate... 49 4.2.4 Expected Feasible Energy...

  11. Computational Needs for the Next Generation Electric Grid Proceedings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birman, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    optimization for the unit commitment problem. Technicaloptimization of generation unit commitment and transmissionLee,  M.   Anitescu,  “Unit  Commitment  with  Wind  Power 

  12. Re: Potomac River Generating Station Department of Energy, Case...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    PEPCO is providing you with information regarding the planned transmission maintenance outage Notification of Planned 230kV Outage at Potomac River Generating Station Comments and...

  13. Re: Potomac River Generating Station Department of Energy Case...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    PEPCO is providing you with information regarding the planned transmission maintenance outage Re: Potomac River Generating Station Department of Energy Case No. EO-05-01: PEPCO is...

  14. Renewable Generation Effect on Net Regional Energy Interchange...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    North-West Power Pool PV Photovoltaic power generation RE Renewable energy: PV andor wind RMPP Rocky Mountains Power Pool TEPPC Transmission Expansion Planning Policy Committee...

  15. Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, James E.; Jungjohann, K. L.; Browning, Nigel D.

    2012-10-12

    Dynamic transmission electron microscopy (DTEM) combines the benefits of high spatial resolution electron microscopy with the high temporal resolution of ultrafast lasers. The incorporation of these two components into a single instrument provides a perfect platform for in situ observations of material processes. However, previous DTEM applications have focused on observing structural changes occurring in samples exposed to high vacuum. Therefore, in order to expand the pump-probe experimental regime to more natural environmental conditions, in situ gas and liquid chambers must be coupled with Dynamic TEM. This chapter describes the current and future applications of in situ liquid DTEM to permit time-resolved atomic scale observations in an aqueous environment, Although this chapter focuses mostly on in situ liquid imaging, the same research potential exists for in situ gas experiments and the successful integration of these techniques promises new insights for understanding nanoparticle, catalyst and biological protein dynamics with unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution.

  16. Vice President, Transmission System Operations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The VP for Transmission System Operations provides strategic leadership, direction, and oversight of the people, business processes, and systems that are responsible for the safe, reliable, and...

  17. Helicopter aids transmission pole replacement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Helicopter-aids-transmission-pole-replacement Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search News & Us Expand News & Us Projects & Initiatives Expand Projects...

  18. Transmission Planning | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    visualization, control, operations, and market structure will ultimately modernize the electricity transmission infrastructure to ease congestion, allow for increases in demand,...

  19. Transmission Workshop | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    which addressed the challenges and opportunities presented by the integration of 21st century energy technologies into the electricity transmission system. Parallel sessions...

  20. The interior transmission problem and bounds on transmission eigenvalues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Hitrik; Katsiaryna Krupchyk; Petri Ola; Lassi Päivärinta

    2010-09-28

    We study the interior transmission eigenvalue problem for sign-definite multiplicative perturbations of the Laplacian in a bounded domain. We show that all but finitely many complex transmission eigenvalues are confined to a parabolic neighborhood of the positive real axis.

  1. 1620 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 27, NO. 3, JULY 2012 Hybrid AC/DC Transmission Expansion Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, Yong

    1620 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 27, NO. 3, JULY 2012 Hybrid AC/DC Transmission--This paper proposes a hybrid algorithm for the ac/dc transmission expansion planning (TEP). The stochastic simulation method would consider random outages of generating units and ac/dc transmission lines as well

  2. Panel on Microgrids Systems International Conference on System of Systems Engineering, April 16-18, 2007 San Antonio Abstract--Application of individual distributed generators can

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Panel on Microgrids Systems International Conference on System of Systems Engineering, April 16 a system approach which views generation and associated loads as a subsystem or a "microgrid". The sources verification of the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) microgrid control concepts

  3. Bulk Power Transmission Study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John, T.

    1988-01-01

    are relatively small and cannot afford the cost of a high voltage interconnect, and yet their characteristics match a baseload need. The ability to wheel power to a utility that needs base load power from a distribution level interconnection is essential...

  4. Computational Needs for the Next Generation Electric Grid Proceedings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birman, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    power  flow  relations  for  electric  transmission  lines  (electric power  costs  are  cheap:  if  a  large  power  consumer  is  close  to  the  generator,  the  excess  power  needs associated with transmission line electric grid consists of a network of transmission lines.  Power 

  5. Flexible Transmission in the Smart Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hedman, Kory Walter

    2010-01-01

    33 Figure 4-4. Generation cost, generation rent, congestionin generation cost, generation revenue, generation rent,$2054/hr. Generation Cost Generation Revenue Generation Rent

  6. The Cost of Transmission for Wind Energy: A Review of Transmission Planning Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew D.

    2009-01-01

    DOE). 2006. National Electric Transmission Congestion Study.Division. 2003. Electric Transmission Plan for RenewableIdentifying Minnesota’s Electric Transmission Infrastructure

  7. The Cost of Transmission for Wind Energy: A Review of Transmission Planning Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew D.

    2009-01-01

    Certificates of Need for Transmission Lines to Support theand Preference in Transmission Service. ” Washington, D.C. :Integrating Wind into Transmission Planning: The Rocky

  8. Fact #850: December 8, 2014 Automatic Transmissions have closed the Fuel Economy Gap with Manual Transmissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Historically, manual transmissions have delivered better fuel economy than automatic transmissions. However, improvements in the efficiency of automatic transmissions have closed that gap in recent...

  9. HVDC power transmission technology assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauth, R.L.; Tatro, P.J.; Railing, B.D.; Johnson, B.K.; Stewart, J.R.; Fink, J.L.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an assessment of the national utility system`s needs for electric transmission during the period 1995-2020 that could be met by future reduced-cost HVDC systems. The assessment was to include an economic evaluation of HVDC as a means for meeting those needs as well as a comparison with competing technologies such as ac transmission with and without Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) controllers. The role of force commutated dc converters was to be assumed where appropriate. The assessment begins by identifying the general needs for transmission in the U.S. in the context of a future deregulated power industry. The possible roles for direct current transmission are then postulated in terms of representative scenarios. A few of the scenarios are illustrated with the help of actual U.S. system examples. non-traditional applications as well as traditional applications such as long lines and asynchronous interconnections are discussed. The classical ``break-even distance`` concept for comparing HVDC and ac lines is used to assess the selected scenarios. The impact of reduced-cost converters is reflected in terms of the break-even distance. This report presents a comprehensive review of the functional benefits of HVDC transmission and updated cost data for both ac and dc system components. It also provides some provocative thoughts on how direct current transmission might be applied to better utilize and expand our nation`s increasingly stressed transmission assets.

  10. Negative ion generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stinnett, R.W.

    1984-05-08

    A negative ion generator is formed from a magnetically insulated transmission line having a coating of graphite on the cathode for producing negative ions and a plurality of apertures on the opposed anode for the release of negative ions. Magnetic insulation keeps electrons from flowing from the cathode to the anode. A transverse magnetic field removes electrons which do escape through the apertures from the trajectory of the negative ions. 8 figs.

  11. Infrared Transmission Spectra for Extrasolar Giant Planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Tinetti; M. C. Liang; A. Vidal-Madjar; D. Ehrenreich; A. Lecavelier des Etangs; Y. Yung

    2006-11-06

    Among the hot Jupiters that transit their parent stars known to date, the two best candidates to be observed with transmission spectroscopy in the mid-infrared (MIR) are HD189733b and HD209458b, due to their combined characteristics of planetary density, orbital parameters and parent star distance and brightness. Here we simulate transmission spectra of these two planets during their primary eclipse in the MIR, and we present sensitivity studies of the spectra to the changes of atmospheric thermal properties, molecular abundances and C/O ratios. Our model predicts that the dominant species absorbing in the MIR on hot Jupiters are water vapor and carbon monoxide, and their relative abundances are determined by the C/O ratio. Since the temperature profile plays a secondary role in the transmission spectra of hot Jupiters compared to molecular abundances, future primary eclipse observations in the MIR of those objects might give an insight on EGP atmospheric chemistry. We find here that the absorption features caused by water vapor and carbon monoxide in a cloud-free atmosphere, are deep enough to be observable by the present and future generation of space-based observatories, such as Spitzer Space Telescope and James Webb Space Telescope. We discuss our results in light of the capabilities of these telescopes.

  12. Ultrasonic generator and detector using an optical mask having a grating for launching a plurality of spatially distributed, time varying strain pulses in a sample

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maris, Humphrey J. (Barrington, RI)

    2002-01-01

    A method and a system are disclosed for determining at least one characteristic of a sample that contains a substrate and at least one film disposed on or over a surface of the substrate. The method includes a first step of placing a mask over a free surface of the at least one film, where the mask has a top surface and a bottom surface that is placed adjacent to the free surface of the film. The bottom surface of the mask has formed therein or thereon a plurality of features for forming at least one grating. A next step directs optical pump pulses through the mask to the free surface of the film, where individual ones of the pump pulses are followed by at least one optical probe pulse. The pump pulses are spatially distributed by the grating for launching a plurality of spatially distributed, time varying strain pulses within the film, which cause a detectable change in optical constants of the film. A next step detects a reflected or a transmitted portion of the probe pulses, which are also spatially distributed by the grating. A next step measures a change in at least one characteristic of at least one of reflected or transmitted probe pulses due to the change in optical constants, and a further step determines the at least one characteristic of the sample from the measured change in the at least one characteristic of the probe pulses. An optical mask is also disclosed herein, and forms a part of these teachings.

  13. Ultrasonic generator and detector using an optical mask having a grating for launching a plurality of spatially distributed, time varying strain pulses in a sample

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maris, Humphrey J. (Barrington, RI)

    2003-01-01

    A method and a system are disclosed for determining at least one characteristic of a sample that contains a substrate and at least one film disposed on or over a surface of the substrate. The method includes a first step of placing a mask over a free surface of the at least one film, where the mask has a top surface and a bottom surface that is placed adjacent to the free surface of the film. The bottom surface of the mask has formed therein or thereon a plurality of features for forming at least one grating. A next step directs optical pump pulses through the mask to the free surface of the film, where individual ones of the pump pulses are followed by at least one optical probe pulse. The pump pulses are spatially distributed by the grating for launching a plurality of spatially distributed, time varying strain pulses within the film, which cause a detectable change in optical constants of the film. A next step detects a reflected or a transmitted portion of the probe pulses, which are also spatially distributed by the grating. A next step measures a change in at least one characteristic of at least one of reflected or transmitted probe pulses due to the change in optical constants, and a further step determines the at least one characteristic of the sample from the measured change in the at least one characteristic of the probe pulses. An optical mask is also disclosed herein, and forms a part of these teachings.

  14. EC Transmission Line Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bigelow, Tim S

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify materials acceptable for use in the US ITER Project Office (USIPO)-supplied components for the ITER Electron cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (ECH&CD) transmission lines (TL), PBS-52. The source of material property information for design analysis shall be either the applicable structural code or the ITER Material Properties Handbook. In the case of conflict, the ITER Material Properties Handbook shall take precedence. Materials selection, and use, shall follow the guidelines established in the Materials Assessment Report (MAR). Materials exposed to vacuum shall conform to the ITER Vacuum Handbook. [Ref. 2] Commercial materials shall conform to the applicable standard (e.g., ASTM, JIS, DIN) for the definition of their grade, physical, chemical and electrical properties and related testing. All materials for which a suitable certification from the supplier is not available shall be tested to determine the relevant properties, as part of the procurement. A complete traceability of all the materials including welding materials shall be provided. Halogenated materials (example: insulating materials) shall be forbidden in areas served by the detritiation systems. Exceptions must be approved by the Tritium System and Safety Section Responsible Officers.

  15. Downhole Data Transmission System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David (Lehi, UT); Dahlgren, Scott (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

    2003-12-30

    A system for transmitting data through a string of downhole components. In one aspect, the system includes first and second magnetically conductive, electrically insulating elements at both ends of the component. Each element includes a first U-shaped trough with a bottom, first and second sides and an opening between the two sides. Electrically conducting coils are located in each trough. An electrical conductor connects the coils in each component. In operation, a varying current applied to a first coil in one component generates a varying magnetic field in the first magnetically conductive, electrically insulating element, which varying magnetic field is conducted to and thereby produces a varying magnetic field in the second magnetically conductive, electrically insulating element of a connected component, which magnetic field thereby generates a varying electrical current in the second coil in the connected component.

  16. Conductive Channel for Energy Transmission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apollonov, Victor V. [A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Vavilov Str. 38, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2011-11-10

    For many years the attempts to create conductive channels of big length were taken in order to study the upper atmosphere and to settle special tasks, related to energy transmission. There upon the program of creation of 'Impulsar' represents a great interest, as this program in a combination with high-voltage high repetition rate electrical source can be useful to solve the above mentioned problems (N. Tesla ideas for the days of high power lasers). The principle of conductive channel production can be shortly described as follows. The 'Impulsar' - laser jet engine vehicle - propulsion take place under the influence of powerful high repetition rate pulse-periodic laser radiation. In the experiments the CO{sub 2}-laser and solid state Nd:YAG laser systems had been used. Active impulse appears thanks to air breakdown (<30 km) or to the breakdown of ablated material on the board (>30 km), placed in the vicinity of the focusing mirror-acceptor of the breakdown waves. With each pulse of powerful laser the device rises up, leaving a bright and dense trace of products with high degree of ionization and metallization by conductive nano-particles due to ablation. Conductive dust plasma properties investigation in our experiments was produced by two very effective approaches: high power laser controlled ablation and by explosion of wire. Experimental and theoretical results of conductive canal modeling will be presented. The estimations show that with already experimentally demonstrated figures of specific thrust impulse the lower layers of the Ionosphere can be reached in several ten seconds that is enough to keep the high level of channel conductivity and stability with the help of high repetition rate high voltage generator. Some possible applications for new technology are highlighted.

  17. Transmission Capacity of Wireless Ad Hoc Networks with Energy Harvesting Nodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vaze, Rahul

    2012-01-01

    Transmission capacity of an ad hoc wireless network is analyzed when each node of the network harvests energy from nature, e.g. solar, wind, vibration etc. Transmission capacity is the maximum allowable density of nodes, satisfying a per transmitter-receiver rate, and an outage probability constraint. Energy arrivals at each node are assumed to follow a Bernoulli distribution, and each node stores energy using an energy buffer/battery. For ALOHA medium access protocol (MAP), optimal transmission probability that maximizes the transmission capacity is derived as a function of the energy arrival distribution. Game theoretic analysis is also presented for ALOHA MAP, where each transmitter tries to maximize its own throughput, and symmetric Nash equilibrium is derived. For CSMA MAP, back-off probability and outage probability are derived in terms of input energy distribution, thereby characterizing the transmission capacity.

  18. Staying FIT: Efficient Load Shedding Techniques for Distributed Stream Processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Bottlenecks slow down processing and network transmission, and cause delayed outputs. Load management has been. Common load management techniques include adaptive load distribution, admis- sion control, and load

  19. Nonlinear transmission line based electron beam driver

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    French, David M.; Hoff, Brad W.; Tang Wilkin; Heidger, Susan; Shiffler, Don [Directed Energy Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Kirtland AFB, New Mexico 87117 (United States); Allen-Flowers, Jordan [Program in Applied Mathematics, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Gated field emission cathodes can provide short electron pulses without the requirement of laser systems or cathode heating required by photoemission or thermionic cathodes. The large electric field requirement for field emission to take place can be achieved by using a high aspect ratio cathode with a large field enhancement factor which reduces the voltage requirement for emission. In this paper, a cathode gate driver based on the output pulse train from a nonlinear transmission line is experimentally demonstrated. The application of the pulse train to a tufted carbon fiber field emission cathode generates short electron pulses. The pulses are approximately 2 ns in duration with emission currents of several mA, and the train contains up to 6 pulses at a frequency of 100 MHz. Particle-in-cell simulation is used to predict the characteristic of the current pulse train generated from a single carbon fiber field emission cathode using the same technique.

  20. Today's electrical transmission system delivers high levels of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Post, Wilfred M.

    #12;Today's electrical transmission system delivers high levels of reliability, and society's needs for electricity demand that reliability be maintained as we transition to clean electricity generation of conventional and superconducting conductors. The power grid is a complex machine in which electricity is gener

  1. Species composition, distribution, and seasonal abundance of macro-zooplankton in intake and discharge areas before and during early operation of the Cedar Bayou generating station 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalke, Richard D

    1972-01-01

    on the aquatic organisms when water is used for cooling by a steam electric generating station. Countant (1970) and Markowski (1959) state that the principle changes are: (1) increase in pressure caused by the pumps, (2) elevation in temperature, (3... proper use of a 0. 5 m plankton net (Figure 2). Stations too shallow for sampling were 3, 6, 9, 12-14, 18-21, and 24 and these are omitted from this report. Tabbs Bay Plankton Stations I and 2 were located in lower Tabbs Bay near the intake canal...

  2. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Transmission Siting & Interconnection | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsourceBulkTransmission/Environment/Nevada < RAPID‎RAPID/BulkTransmission/Site Considerations <

  3. Two-particle quantum transmission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ron Folman

    2012-11-25

    Two-photon interference is a fundamental phenomenon in quantum mechanics and stands at the base of numerous experimental observations. Here another manifestation of this phenomenon is described, taking place at a Y junction. Specifically it is shown how the r^2+t^2 term which is behind previous observations of two-photon interference, may give rise to different states at a beam-splitter and different two-particle transmission coefficients at a Y junction. Different from previous descriptions of quantum transmission based on one-particle physics, the enhanced transmission described here is due to two-particle physics.

  4. Electrical transmission line diametrical retainer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David (Lehi, UT); Dahlgren, Scott (Provo, UT); Sneddon, Cameron (Provo, UT); Briscoe, Michael (Lehi, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

    2004-12-14

    The invention is a mechanism for retaining an electrical transmission line. In one embodiment of the invention it is a system for retaining an electrical transmission line within down hole components. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, the system includes a plurality of downhole components, such as sections of pipe in a drill string. The system also includes a coaxial cable running between the first and second end of a drill pipe, the coaxial cable having a conductive tube and a conductive core within it. The invention allows the electrical transmission line to with stand the tension and compression of drill pipe during routine drilling cycles.

  5. The Cost of Transmission for Wind Energy: A Review of Transmission Planning Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew D.

    2009-01-01

    building transmission to meet peak wind conditions during peak transmission usage periods, and the magnitude of curtailment may be small

  6. A Service-Oriented Architecture for Electric Power Transmission System Asset Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Honavar, Vasant

    A Service-Oriented Architecture for Electric Power Transmission System Asset Management Jyotishman,tua,honavar,jdm}@iastate.edu Abstract. In electric power transmission systems, the assets include transmis- sion lines, transformers number of distributed, autonomously managed, capital-intensive as- sets. Such assets include power plants

  7. (to appear in 1998 IEEE MIC) Joint-MAP Reconstruction/Segmentation for Transmission Tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . In addition, the geometry of fan beam scanners for transmission tomography in SPECT with line sources can(to appear in 1998 IEEE MIC) Joint-MAP Reconstruction/Segmentation for Transmission Tomography A Bayesian method, including a pointwise prior comprising mixtures of gamma distributions, is applied

  8. Tri State Generation and Transmission Association Inc | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al., 2013)OpenEnergyTrail CanyonsourceRiver Solar |Trexa Motor

  9. Electric Generating and Transmission Facilities – Emissions Management (Iowa)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This section details responsibilities of the Iowa Utility Board, including the policies for electricity rate-making for the state of Iowa, certification of natural gas providers, and other policies...

  10. Generation and Transmission Maximization Model | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable UrbanKentucky: EnergyGateway EditOpen Energy InformationGeneraland

  11. Edison Electric Institute State Generation and Transmission Siting

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTIONRobertsdale, AlabamaETEC GmbH Jump to:Providence,New Mexico: Energy Resources JumpEdinburg,Directory

  12. State Generation & Transmission Siting Directory | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-Enhancing CapacityVectren) Jump

  13. Diophantine Generation,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shlapentokh, Alexandra

    Diophantine Generation, Horizontal and Vertical Problems, and the Weak Vertical Method Alexandra Shlapentokh Diophantine Sets, Definitions and Generation Diophantine Sets Diophantine Generation Properties of Diophantine Generation Diophantine Family of Z Diophantine Family of a Polynomial Ring Going Down Horizontal

  14. Bit Transmission Probability Maximizing the Key Rate of the BB84 Protocol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sonny Lumbantoruan; Ryutaroh Matsumoto; Tomohiko Uyematsu

    2010-03-11

    In all papers on the BB84 protocol, the transmission probability of each bit value is usually set to be equal. In this paper, we show that by assigning different transmission probability to each transmitted qubit within a single polarization basis, we can generally improve the key generation rate of the BB84 protocol and achieve a higher key rate.

  15. The Role of Demand Resources In Regional Transmission Expansion Planning and Reliable Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, Brendan J

    2006-07-01

    Investigating the role of demand resources in regional transmission planning has provided mixed results. On one hand there are only a few projects where demand response has been used as an explicit alternative to transmission enhancement. On the other hand there is a fair amount of demand response in the form of energy efficiency, peak reduction, emergency load shedding, and (recently) demand providing ancillary services. All of this demand response reduces the need for transmission enhancements. Demand response capability is typically (but not always) factored into transmission planning as a reduction in the load which must be served. In that sense demand response is utilized as an alternative to transmission expansion. Much more demand response is used (involuntarily) as load shedding under extreme conditions to prevent cascading blackouts. The amount of additional transmission and generation that would be required to provide the current level of reliability if load shedding were not available is difficult to imagine and would be impractical to build. In a very real sense demand response solutions are equitably treated in every region - when proposed, demand response projects are evaluated against existing reliability and economic criteria. The regional councils, RTOs, and ISOs identify needs. Others propose transmission, generation, or responsive load based solutions. Few demand response projects get included in transmission enhancement plans because few are proposed. But this is only part of the story. Several factors are responsible for the current very low use of demand response as a transmission enhancement alternative. First, while the generation, transmission, and load business sectors each deal with essentially the same amount of electric power, generation and transmission companies are explicitly in the electric power business but electricity is not the primary business focus of most loads. This changes the institutional focus of each sector. Second, market and reliability rules have, understandably, been written around the capabilities and limitations of generators, the historic reliability resources. Responsive load limitations and capabilities are often not accommodated in markets or reliability criteria. Third, because of the institutional structure, demand response alternatives are treated as temporary solutions that can delay but not replace transmission enhancement. Financing has to be based on a three to five year project life as opposed to the twenty to fifty year life of transmission facilities. More can be done to integrate demand response options into transmission expansion planning. Given the societal benefits it may be appropriate for independent transmission planning organizations to take a more proactive role in drawing demand response alternatives into the resource mix. Existing demand response programs provide a technical basis to build from. Regulatory and market obstacles will have to be overcome if demand response alternatives are to be routinely considered in transmission expansion planning.

  16. Transmission Services Product Pricing Validation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and 09:00 PPT on the above effective date. On October 15, 2013, at 08:00 (PPT), Transmission Services will be updating the OASIS default product prices to reflect the 2014...

  17. Transmission Services Product Pricing Validation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and 12:00 PPT on the above effective date. On October 1, 2015, at 11:00 (PPT), Transmission Services will be updating the OASIS default product prices to reflect the 2016...

  18. Immunology of naturally transmissible tumours

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddle, Hannah V.; Kaufman, Jim

    2014-09-04

    understanding of the vertebrate immune response to allografts. Two naturally occurring contagious cancers are currently active in the animal kingdom, Canine Transmissible Venereal Tumour (CTVT) that spreads among dogs and Devil Facial Tumour Disease (DFTD) among...

  19. 2009 National Electric Transmission Congestion Study | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Congestion Studies 2009 National Electric Transmission Congestion Study 2009 National Electric Transmission Congestion Study Section 216(a) of the Federal Power Act, as amended...

  20. 2006 National Electric Transmission Congestion Study Federal...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    6 National Electric Transmission Congestion Study Federal Register Notice & Comments 2006 National Electric Transmission Congestion Study Federal Register Notice & Comments The...

  1. 2006 National Electric Transmission Congestion Study | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    6 National Electric Transmission Congestion Study 2006 National Electric Transmission Congestion Study Section 216(a) of the Federal Power Act, as amended by the Energy Policy Act...

  2. Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    State Agency Input Regarding Electric Resource and Transmission Planning in the Texas Interconnection Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, State Agency...

  3. Exploring the Business Link Opportunity: Transmission & Clean...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Exploring the Business Link Opportunity: Transmission & Clean Energy Development in the West Exploring the Business Link Opportunity: Transmission & Clean Energy Development in the...

  4. Transmission Line MTF: Magnetized Target Fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Transmission Line MTF: Magnetized Target Fusion Initial target: preheated & magnetized Subsequent for the FRC. Abstract Block Diagram theta coil transmission line Bias cap. bank maincapacitor inductor PI cap

  5. Transmission Reassignment Reporting Requirement - April 2, 2014

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Interconnection Notices Rates Standards of Conduct Tariff TF Web Based Training Transmission Reassignment Reporting Requirement This notice serves as a reminder to transmission...

  6. Transmission/Nepa Database | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Nepa Database < Transmission Jump to: navigation, search NepaHeader.png Transmission Dashboard Permitting Atlas Compare States Arizona California Colorado Idaho Montana Nevada New...

  7. Transmission Eigenvalues in Inverse Scattering Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Title: Transmission Eigenvalues in Inverse Scattering Theory Abstract: The transmission eigenvalue problem is a new class of eigenvalue problems that has

  8. WEYL ASYMPTOTICS OF THE TRANSMISSION EIGENVALUES ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-09-02

    plex internal transmission eigenvalues when the domain is a ball and the index ... formulas for the counting function of the real Interior Transmission Eigenvalues.

  9. Subsampled DPCM system design for speech transmission over lossy packet networks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Aqeel Ahmed

    1995-01-01

    various traffic distributions and patterns, can utilize the network efficiently. This is done through the use of statistical multiplexing. A common feature in packet-switched speech transmission networks is the need to discard packets occasionally...

  10. Monitoring and control requirement definition study for dispersed storage and generation (DSG). Volume IV. Final report, Appendix C: identification from utility visits of present and future approaches to integration of DSG into distribution networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    A major aim of the US National Energy Policy, as well as that of the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, is to conserve energy and to shift from oil to more abundant domestic fuels and renewable energy sources. Dispersed Storage and Generation (DSG) is the term that characterizes the present and future dispersed, relatively small (<30 MW) energy systems, such as solar thermal electric, photovoltaic, wind, fuel cell, storage battery, hydro, and cogeneration, which can help achieve these national energy goals and can be dispersed throughout the distribution portion of an electric utility system. As a result of visits to four utilities concerned with the use of DSG power sources on their distribution networks, some useful impressions of present and future approaches to the integration of DSGs into electrical distribution network have been obtained. A more extensive communications and control network will be developed by utilities for control of such sources for future use. Different approaches to future utility systems with DSG are beginning to take shape. The new DSG sources will be in decentralized locations with some measure of centralized control. The utilities have yet to establish firmly the communication and control means or their organization. For the present, the means for integrating the DSGs and their associated monitoring and control equipment into a unified system have not been decided.

  11. Design of wide-area electric transmission networks under uncertainty : methods for dimensionality reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donohoo-Vallett, Pearl Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The growth of location-constrained renewable generators and the integration of electricity markets in the United States and Europe are forcing transmission planners to consider the design of interconnection-wide systems. ...

  12. Integrated Computing, Communication, and Distributed Control of Deregulated Electric Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bajura, Richard; Feliachi, Ali

    2008-09-24

    Restructuring of the electricity market has affected all aspects of the power industry from generation to transmission, distribution, and consumption. Transmission circuits, in particular, are stressed often exceeding their stability limits because of the difficulty in building new transmission lines due to environmental concerns and financial risk. Deregulation has resulted in the need for tighter control strategies to maintain reliability even in the event of considerable structural changes, such as loss of a large generating unit or a transmission line, and changes in loading conditions due to the continuously varying power consumption. Our research efforts under the DOE EPSCoR Grant focused on Integrated Computing, Communication and Distributed Control of Deregulated Electric Power Systems. This research is applicable to operating and controlling modern electric energy systems. The controls developed by APERC provide for a more efficient, economical, reliable, and secure operation of these systems. Under this program, we developed distributed control algorithms suitable for large-scale geographically dispersed power systems and also economic tools to evaluate their effectiveness and impact on power markets. Progress was made in the development of distributed intelligent control agents for reliable and automated operation of integrated electric power systems. The methodologies employed combine information technology, control and communication, agent technology, and power systems engineering in the development of intelligent control agents for reliable and automated operation of integrated electric power systems. In the event of scheduled load changes or unforeseen disturbances, the power system is expected to minimize the effects and costs of disturbances and to maintain critical infrastructure operational.

  13. Hardware simulation of diesel generator and microgrid stability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zieve, Michael M

    2012-01-01

    Over the last few years, people have begun to depend less on large power plants with extensive distribution systems, and more on local distributed generation sources. A microgrid, a local collection of distributed generators, ...

  14. Electrical and Biological Effects of Transmission Lines: A Review.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Jack M.

    1989-06-01

    This review describes the electrical properties of a-c and d-c transmission lines and the resulting effects on plants, animals, and people. Methods used by BPA to mitigate undesirable effects are also discussed. Although much of the information in this review pertains to high-voltage transmission lines, information on distribution lines and electrical appliances is included. The electrical properties discussed are electric and magnetic fields and corona: first for alternating-current (a-c) lines, then for direct current (d-c).

  15. ransmission, rather than generation, is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T ransmission, rather than generation, is generally the con- straint preventing cus- tomers from six major regionwide power failures (1965, 1977, July 1996, August 1996, 1998, and 2003), all caused by transmission line failures.1 In addition to these regional blackouts, myriad blackouts have resulted from ice

  16. Pulse transmission receiver with higher-order time derivative pulse correlator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dress, Jr., William B.; Smith, Stephen F.

    2003-09-16

    Systems and methods for pulse-transmission low-power communication modes are disclosed. A pulse transmission receiver includes: a higher-order time derivative pulse correlator; a demodulation decoder coupled to the higher-order time derivative pulse correlator; a clock coupled to the demodulation decoder; and a pseudorandom polynomial generator coupled to both the higher-order time derivative pulse correlator and the clock. The systems and methods significantly reduce lower-frequency emissions from pulse transmission spread-spectrum communication modes, which reduces potentially harmful interference to existing radio frequency services and users and also simultaneously permit transmission of multiple data bits by utilizing specific pulse shapes.

  17. TRANSMISSION EIGENVALUES LASSI PAIVARINTA AND JOHN SYLVESTER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sylvester, John

    TRANSMISSION EIGENVALUES LASSI P¨AIV¨ARINTA AND JOHN SYLVESTER Abstract. The scattering of a time. A transmission eigenvalue is a wavenumber at which the scattering operator has a non-trivial kernel or cokernel that are not transmission eigenvalues, they have been studied for some time. Nevertheless, the existence of transmission

  18. Distribution Workshop | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    distributed generation Electric vehicle charging and electrolyzers Energy storage Building and industrial loads and demand response Smart grid sensing, automation, and...

  19. Connectivity in Secure Wireless Sensor Networks under Transmission Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Jun; Gligor, Virgil

    2015-01-01

    In wireless sensor networks (WSNs), the Eschenauer-Gligor (EG) key pre-distribution scheme is a widely recognized way to secure communications. Although connectivity properties of secure WSNs with the EG scheme have been extensively investigated, few results address physical transmission constraints. These constraints reflect real-world implementations of WSNs in which two sensors have to be within a certain distance from each other to communicate. In this paper, we present zero-one laws for connectivity in WSNs employing the EG scheme under transmission constraints. These laws help specify the critical transmission ranges for connectivity. Our analytical findings are confirmed via numerical experiments. In addition to secure WSNs, our theoretical results are also applied to frequency hopping in wireless networks.

  20. 9-26 QER Report: Energy Transmission, Storage, and Distribution...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Outlook 2014 Reference Case Natural Gas * High domestic gas demand * High world gas supply * High U.S. exports Deloitte (MarketPoint) * Coupled gas infrastructure and...