National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for generation thermochemical code

  1. TEA: A Code for Calculating Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blecic, Jasmina; Bowman, M Oliver

    2015-01-01

    We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. (1958) and Eriksson (1971). It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature-pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method of Burrows & Sharp (1999), the free thermochemical equilibrium code CEA (Chemical Equilibrium with Applications), and the example given by White et al. (1958). Using their thermodynamic data, TEA reproduces their final abundances, but with higher precision. We also applied the TEA abundance calculations to models of several hot-Jupiter exoplanets, producing expected results. TEA is written in Python in a modular format. There is a start guide, a user manual, and a code document in addition to this theory paper. TEA is ...

  2. A comparison of reversible chemical reactions for solar thermochemical power generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    453 A comparison of reversible chemical reactions for solar thermochemical power generation O. M storage of the reaction products. A number of reactions have been proposed for solar thermochemical power to be a good choice for first generation solar thermochemical power generation. Revue Phys. Appl. 15 (1980) 453

  3. Tests of second-generation and third-generation density functionals for thermochemical kineticsy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Truhlar, Donald G

    Tests of second-generation and third-generation density functionals for thermochemical kineticsy January 2004 We report tests of second- and third-generation density functionals, for pure density of these methods is tested against each other as well as against first- generation methods (BP86, BLYP, PW91, B3PW

  4. Membranes for H2 generation from nuclear powered thermochemical cycles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nenoff, Tina Maria; Ambrosini, Andrea; Garino, Terry J.; Gelbard, Fred; Leung, Kevin; Navrotsky, Alexandra (University of California, Davis, CA); Iyer, Ratnasabapathy G. (University of California, Davis, CA); Axness, Marlene

    2006-11-01

    In an effort to produce hydrogen without the unwanted greenhouse gas byproducts, high-temperature thermochemical cycles driven by heat from solar energy or next-generation nuclear power plants are being explored. The process being developed is the thermochemical production of Hydrogen. The Sulfur-Iodide (SI) cycle was deemed to be one of the most promising cycles to explore. The first step of the SI cycle involves the decomposition of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} into O{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O at temperatures around 850 C. In-situ removal of O{sub 2} from this reaction pushes the equilibrium towards dissociation, thus increasing the overall efficiency of the decomposition reaction. A membrane is required for this oxygen separation step that is capable of withstanding the high temperatures and corrosive conditions inherent in this process. Mixed ionic-electronic perovskites and perovskite-related structures are potential materials for oxygen separation membranes owing to their robustness, ability to form dense ceramics, capacity to stabilize oxygen nonstoichiometry, and mixed ionic/electronic conductivity. Two oxide families with promising results were studied: the double-substituted perovskite A{sub x}Sr{sub 1-x}Co{sub 1-y}B{sub y}O{sub 3-{delta}} (A=La, Y; B=Cr-Ni), in particular the family La{sub x}Sr{sub 1-x}Co{sub 1-y}Mn{sub y}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSCM), and doped La{sub 2}Ni{sub 1-x}M{sub x}O{sub 4} (M = Cu, Zn). Materials and membranes were synthesized by solid state methods and characterized by X-ray and neutron diffraction, SEM, thermal analyses, calorimetry and conductivity. Furthermore, we were able to leverage our program with a DOE/NE sponsored H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} decomposition reactor study (at Sandia), in which our membranes were tested in the actual H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} decomposition step.

  5. A Mechanically Verified Code Generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Robert Stephen

    A Mechanically Verified Code Generator William D. Young Technical Report 37 January, 1989, one which generates semantically equivalent target language code for any given source language program we describe the implementation and proof of a code generator, a major component of a compiler

  6. UCRL-ID-117240 CHEETAH: A Next Generation Thermochemical Code

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With WIPP UPDATE:Administration Bratislavat e d N a-10

  7. Code Generation on Steroids: Enhancing COTS Code Generators via Generative Aspects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryder, Barbara G.

    Code Generation on Steroids: Enhancing COTS Code Generators via Generative Aspects Cody Henthorne tilevich@cs.vt.edu Abstract Commercial of-the-shelf (COTS) code generators have become an integral part of modern commercial software development. Programmers use code generators to facilitate many tedious

  8. High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels Using Solar Thermochemical Splitting of Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heske, Clemens; Moujaes, Samir; Weimer, Alan; Wong, Bunsen; Siegal, Nathan; McFarland, Eric; Miller, Eric; Lewis, Michele; Bingham, Carl; Roth, Kurth; Sabacky, Bruce; Steinfeld, Aldo

    2011-09-29

    The objective of this work is to identify economically feasible concepts for the production of hydrogen from water using solar energy. The ultimate project objective was to select one or more competitive concepts for pilot-scale demonstration using concentrated solar energy. Results of pilot scale plant performance would be used as foundation for seeking public and private resources for full-scale plant development and testing. Economical success in this venture would afford the public with a renewable and limitless source of energy carrier for use in electric power load-leveling and as a carbon-free transportation fuel. The Solar Hydrogen Generation Research (SHGR) project embraces technologies relevant to hydrogen research under the Office of Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technology (HFCIT) as well as concentrated solar power under the Office of Solar Energy Technologies (SET). Although the photoelectrochemical work is aligned with HFCIT, some of the technologies in this effort are also consistent with the skills and technologies found in concentrated solar power and photovoltaic technology under the Office of Solar Energy Technologies (SET). Hydrogen production by thermo-chemical water-splitting is a chemical process that accomplishes the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen using only heat or a combination of heat and electrolysis instead of pure electrolysis and meets the goals for hydrogen production using only water and renewable solar energy as feed-stocks. Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production also meets these goals by implementing photo-electrolysis at the surface of a semiconductor in contact with an electrolyte with bias provided by a photovoltaic source. Here, water splitting is a photo-electrolytic process in which hydrogen is produced using only solar photons and water as feed-stocks. The thermochemical hydrogen task engendered formal collaborations among two universities, three national laboratories and two private sector entities. The photoelectrochemical hydrogen task included formal collaborations with three universities and one national laboratory. The formal participants in these two tasks are listed above. Informal collaborations in both projects included one additional university (the University of Nevada, Reno) and two additional national laboratories (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory).

  9. Generating Code for High-Level Operations through Code Composition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Generating Code for High-Level Operations through Code Composition James M. Stichnoth August 1997 of the authors and should not be interpreted as necessarily representing the official policies or endorsements: Compilers, code generation, parallelism, communication generation #12;Abstract A traditional compiler

  10. Thermochemical Interface

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermochemical Interface PNNL-SA-109025 DATE MARCH 24, 2015 TECHNOLOGY AREA REVIEW: ALGAE DAN ANDERSON DOUG ELLIOTT, ANDY SCHMIDT, KARL ALBRECHT, JON MAGNUSON PACIFIC NORTHWEST...

  11. A KNOWLEDGE-BASED CODE GENERATOR GENERATOR Christopher W. Fraser %

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraser, Christopher W.

    A KNOWLEDGE-BASED CODE GENERATOR GENERATOR Christopher W. Fraser % Department of Computer Science a good local code generator for an ALGOL-like language. It is organized as a production system of rules generation of compilers. Automatic generation of some compiler modules is already available; for example

  12. Adaptive code generators for tree coding of speech 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Hui

    1998-01-01

    Tree coding is a promising way of obtaining good performance for medium-to-low rate speech coding. The key part of a tree coder is the code generator which consists of a short-term predictor and a long-term predictor. The ...

  13. Sulfur Based Thermochemical Heat Storage for Baseload Concentrated Solar Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    wong, bunsen

    2014-11-20

    This project investigates the engineering and economic feasibility of supplying baseload power using a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant integrated with sulfur based thermochemical heat storage. The technology stores high temperature solar heat in the chemical bonds of elemental sulfur. Energy is recovered as high temperature heat upon sulfur combustion. Extensive developmental and design work associated with sulfur dioxide (SO2) disproportionation and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) decomposition chemical reactions used in this technology had been carried out in the two completed phases of this project. The feasibility and economics of the proposed concept was demonstrated and determined.

  14. Engineering a Simple, Efficient Code-Generator Generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraser, Christopher W.

    Engineering a Simple, Efficient Code-Generator Generator CHRISTOPHER W, FRASER AT& TBell Laboratories DAVID R. HANSON Princeton University and TODD A. PROEBSTING The University of Arizona Many code-generator generators use tree pattern matching and dynamic programming. This paper describes a simple program

  15. Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program: 1986 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    Wood and crop residues constitute a vast majority of the biomass feedstocks available for conversion, and thermochemical processes are well suited for conversion of these materials. Thermochemical conversion processes can generate a variety of products such as gasoline hydrocarbon fuels, natural gas substitutes, or heat energy for electric power generation. The US Department of Energy is sponsoring research on biomass conversion technologies through its Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. Pacific Northwest Laboratory has been designated the Technical Field Management Office for the Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program with overall responsibility for the Program. This report briefly describes the Thermochemical Conversion Program structure and summarizes the activities and major accomplishments during fiscal year 1986. 88 refs., 31 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Solar Thermochemical Hydrogen Production Research (STCH): Thermochemic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the production of hydrogen and identifies the critical path challenges to the commercial potential of each cycle. Solar Thermochemical Hydrogen Production Research (STCH):...

  17. Thermochemical generation of hydrogen and oxygen from water. [NaMnO/sub 2/ and TiO/sub 2/

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robinson, P.R.; Bamberger, C.E.

    1980-02-08

    A thermochemical cyclic process for the production of hydrogen exploits the reaction between sodium manganate (NaMnO/sub 2/) and titanium dioxide (TiO/sub 2/) to form sodium titanate (Na/sub 2/TiO/sub 3/), manganese (II) titanate (MnTiO/sub 3/) and oxygen. The titanate mixture is treated with sodium hydroxide, in the presence of steam, to form sodium titanate, sodium manganate (III), water and hydrogen. The sodium titanate-manganate (III) mixture is treated with water to form sodium manganate (III), titanium dioxide and sodium hydroxide. Sodium manganate (III) and titanium dioxide are recycled following dissolution of sodium hydroxide in water.

  18. Universal thermochemical energy converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Labinov, Solomon Davidovich (Oak Ridge, TN); Sand, James R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Conklin, James C. (Knoxville, TN); VanCoevering, James (Oak Ridge, TN); Courville, George E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed are methods and apparatus for a thermochemical closed cycle employing a polyatomic, chemically active working fluid for converting heat energy into useful work.

  19. Attributed Transformational Code Generation for Dynamic Compilers \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyland, John Tang

    Attributed Transformational Code Generation for Dynamic Compilers \\Lambda John Boyland Computer compilers, that is, compilers that preserve execu­ tion state when newly compiled code is patched into an executing image, presents the compiler writer with a number of difficulties. First, all the complexity

  20. Project Profile: Carbon Dioxide Shuttling Thermochemical Storage...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project Profile: Carbon Dioxide Shuttling Thermochemical Storage Using Strontium Carbonate Project Profile: Carbon Dioxide Shuttling Thermochemical Storage Using Strontium...

  1. Project Profile: Thermochemical Storage with Anhydrous Ammonia...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project Profile: Thermochemical Storage with Anhydrous Ammonia: Optimizing the Synthesis Reactor for Direct Production of Supercritical Steam Project Profile: Thermochemical...

  2. Generating Fast Code from Concurrent Program Dependence Graphs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    such synchronous concurrent specifications. Starting from a concurrent program dependence graph generated fromGenerating Fast Code from Concurrent Program Dependence Graphs Jia Zeng Cristian Soviani Stephen A, this approach can be unpredictable and difficult to debug. Synchronous concurrency, in which a sys- tem marches

  3. Code accompanying "Analysis of Targeted and Combinatorial Approaches to Phage T7 Genome Generation" Master's Thesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mallet, Alex

    2006-11-26

    Code accompanying "Analysis of Targeted and Combinatorial Approaches to Phage T7 Genome Generation" Master's Thesis.

  4. 1982 annual report: Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    This report provides a brief overview of the Thermochemical Conversion Program's activities and major accomplishments during fiscal year 1982. The objective of the Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program is to generate scientific data and fundamental biomass converison process information that, in the long term, could lead to establishment of cost effective processes for conversion of biomass resources into clean fuels and petrochemical substitutes. The goal of the program is to improve the data base for biomass conversion by investigating the fundamental aspects of conversion technologies and exploring those parameters which are critical to these conversion processes. To achieve this objective and goal, the Thermochemical Conversion Program is sponsoring high-risk, long-term research with high payoff potential which industry is not currently sponsoring, nor is likely to support. Thermochemical conversion processes employ elevated temperatures to convert biomass materials into energy. Process examples include: combustion to produce heat, steam, electricity, direct mechanical power; gasification to produce fuel gas or synthesis gases for the production of methanol and hydrocarbon fuels; direct liquefaction to produce heavy oils or distillates; and pyrolysis to produce a mixture of oils, fuel gases, and char. A bibliography of publications for 1982 is included.

  5. Project Profile: Regenerative Carbonate-Based Thermochemical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project Profile: Regenerative Carbonate-Based Thermochemical Energy Storage System for Concentrating Solar Power Project Profile: Regenerative Carbonate-Based Thermochemical Energy...

  6. `C and tcc: A Language and Compiler for Dynamic Code Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pratt, Vaughan

    and expressiveness superior to those of static code. The `C Tick C language is a superset of ANSI C that supports e Words and Phrases: compilers, dynamic code generation, dynamic code optimiza- tion, ANSI C Email: maxp is a superset of ANSI C that supports the high-level and e cient use of dynamic code generation. It extends ANSI

  7. Biomass Program 2007 Accomplishments - Thermochemical Conversion Platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2009-10-27

    This document details the accomplishments of the Biomass Program Thermochemical Conversion Platform in 2007.

  8. Integrated Solar Thermochemical Reaction System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet describes an integrated solar thermochemical reaction system project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. The team, led by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, is working to develop and demonstrate a high-performance solar thermochemical reaction system in an end-to-end demonstration that produces electricity. A highly efficient solar thermochemical reaction system would allow for 24-hour operation without the need for storage technology, and reductions in total system costs while providing a relatively low-risk deployment option for CSP systems.

  9. Renewable Energy Requirements for Future Building Codes: Energy Generation and Economic Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russo, Bryan J.; Weimar, Mark R.; Dillon, Heather E.

    2011-09-30

    As the model energy codes are improved to reach efficiency levels 50 percent greater than current codes, installation of on-site renewable energy generation is likely to become a code requirement. This requirement will be needed because traditional mechanisms for code improvement, including the building envelope, mechanical systems, and lighting, have been maximized at the most cost-effective limit.

  10. `C and tcc: A Language and Compiler for Dynamic Code Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) language is a superset of ANSI C that supports efficient and high­level use of dynamic code generation. `C, Languages, Performance Additional Key Words and Phrases: ANSI C, compilers, dynamic code generation, dynamic, and other components of modern mobile code and other adaptive systems. `C is a superset of ANSI C

  11. Development of tools for automatic generation of PLC code

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koutli, Maria; Rochez, Jacques

    This Master thesis was performed at CERN and more specifically in the EN-ICE-PLC section. The Thesis describes the integration of two PLC platforms, that are based on CODESYS development tool, to the CERN defined industrial framework, UNICOS. CODESYS is a development tool for PLC programming, based on IEC 61131-3 standard, and is adopted by many PLC manufacturers. The two PLC development environments are, the SoMachine from Schneider and the TwinCAT from Beckhoff. The two CODESYS compatible PLCs, should be controlled by the SCADA system of Siemens, WinCC OA. The framework includes a library of Function Blocks (objects) for the PLC programs and a software for automatic generation of the PLC code based on this library, called UAB. The integration aimed to give a solution that is shared by both PLC platforms and was based on the PLCOpen XML scheme. The developed tools were demonstrated by creating a control application for both PLC environments and testing of the behavior of the code of the library.

  12. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Thermochemical Conversion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermochemical Conversion 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Thermochemical Conversion "This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an...

  13. Project Profile: Thermochemical Energy Storage for Stirling CSP Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), under an ARRA CSP Award, is working to develop and commercialize thermochemical energy storage technologies that enable CSP systems based on parabolic dish concentrators and Stirling Cycle heat engines to generate power when sunlight is unavailable.

  14. Innovative solar thermochemical water splitting.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hogan, Roy E. Jr.; Siegel, Nathan P.; Evans, Lindsey R.; Moss, Timothy A.; Stuecker, John Nicholas; Diver, Richard B., Jr.; Miller, James Edward; Allendorf, Mark D.; James, Darryl L.

    2008-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is evaluating the potential of an innovative approach for splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen using two-step thermochemical cycles. Thermochemical cycles are heat engines that utilize high-temperature heat to produce chemical work. Like their mechanical work-producing counterparts, their efficiency depends on operating temperature and on the irreversibility of their internal processes. With this in mind, we have invented innovative design concepts for two-step solar-driven thermochemical heat engines based on iron oxide and iron oxide mixed with other metal oxides (ferrites). The design concepts utilize two sets of moving beds of ferrite reactant material in close proximity and moving in opposite directions to overcome a major impediment to achieving high efficiency--thermal recuperation between solids in efficient counter-current arrangements. They also provide inherent separation of the product hydrogen and oxygen and are an excellent match with high-concentration solar flux. However, they also impose unique requirements on the ferrite reactants and materials of construction as well as an understanding of the chemical and cycle thermodynamics. In this report the Counter-Rotating-Ring Receiver/Reactor/Recuperator (CR5) solar thermochemical heat engine and its basic operating principals are described. Preliminary thermal efficiency estimates are presented and discussed. Our ferrite reactant material development activities, thermodynamic studies, test results, and prototype hardware development are also presented.

  15. Critically Evaluated Thermochemical Properties of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chickos, James S.

    values for these thermochemical properties and for the enthalpies of formation in the gas state at T=298Critically Evaluated Thermochemical Properties of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons María Victoria Experimental thermochemical properties of benzene, toluene, and 63 polycyclic aro- matic hydrocarbons

  16. Webinar: Highly Efficient Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Video recording and text version of the Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar titled "Highly Efficient Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems," originally presented on January 13, 2015.

  17. Algae-to-Fuel: Integrating Thermochemical Conversion, Nutrient...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Algae-to-Fuel: Integrating Thermochemical Conversion, Nutrient Recycling, and Wastewater Algae-to-Fuel: Integrating Thermochemical Conversion, Nutrient Recycling, and Wastewater...

  18. Integrated Solar Thermochemical Reaction System for High Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Integrated Solar Thermochemical Reaction System for High Efficiency Production of Electricity Integrated Solar Thermochemical Reaction System for High Efficiency Production of...

  19. 2015 Peer Review Presentations-Thermochemical Conversion | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermochemical Conversion 2015 Peer Review Presentations-Thermochemical Conversion The Bioenergy Technologies Office hosted its 2015 Project Peer Review on March 23-27, 2015, at...

  20. A Continuous Solar Thermochemical Hydrogen Production Plant Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luc, Wesley Wai

    C.E. , Richardson, D.M. , “Hydrogen Production from Water byThermochemical Hydrogen Production: Past and Present,”Muradove, N. , “Hydrogen Production via Solar Thermochemical

  1. Enabling Low Temperature Combustion Through Thermo-Chemical Recuperati...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Temperature Combustion Through Thermo-Chemical Recuperation Enabling Low Temperature Combustion Through Thermo-Chemical Recuperation Poster presentation from the 2007 Diesel...

  2. Low Temperature Combustion with Thermo-chemical Recuperation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Temperature Combustion with Thermo-chemical Recuperation to Maximize In-use Engine Efficiency Low Temperature Combustion with Thermo-chemical Recuperation to Maximize In-use...

  3. System for thermochemical hydrogen production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werner, R.W.; Galloway, T.R.; Krikorian, O.H.

    1981-05-22

    Method and apparatus are described for joule boosting a SO/sub 3/ decomposer using electrical instead of thermal energy to heat the reactants of the high temperature SO/sub 3/ decomposition step of a thermochemical hydrogen production process driven by a tandem mirror reactor. Joule boosting the decomposer to a sufficiently high temperature from a lower temperature heat source eliminates the need for expensive catalysts and reduces the temperature and consequent materials requirements for the reactor blanket. A particular decomposer design utilizes electrically heated silicon carbide rods, at a temperature of 1250/sup 0/K, to decompose a cross flow of SO/sub 3/ gas.

  4. SIGACE Code for Generating High-Temperature ACE Files; Validation and Benchmarking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, Amit R. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar-382428, Gujarat (India); Ganesan, S. [Reactor Physics Design Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai-400085 (India); Trkov, A. [Nuclear Data Section, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2005-05-24

    A code named SIGACE has been developed as a tool for MCNP users within the scope of a research contract awarded by the Nuclear Data Section of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (Ref: 302-F4-IND-11566 B5-IND-29641). A new recipe has been evolved for generating high-temperature ACE files for use with the MCNP code. Under this scheme the low-temperature ACE file is first converted to an ENDF formatted file using the ACELST code and then Doppler broadened, essentially limited to the data in the resolved resonance region, to any desired higher temperature using SIGMA1. The SIGACE code then generates a high-temperature ACE file for use with the MCNP code. A thinning routine has also been introduced in the SIGACE code for reducing the size of the ACE files. The SIGACE code and the recipe for generating ACE files at higher temperatures has been applied to the SEFOR fast reactor benchmark problem (sodium-cooled fast reactor benchmark described in ENDF-202/BNL-19302, 1974 document). The calculated Doppler coefficient is in good agreement with the experimental value. A similar calculation using ACE files generated directly with the NJOY system also agrees with our SIGACE computed results. The SIGACE code and the recipe is further applied to study the numerical benchmark configuration of selected idealized PWR pin cell configurations with five different fuel enrichments as reported by Mosteller and Eisenhart. The SIGACE code that has been tested with several FENDL/MC files will be available, free of cost, upon request, from the Nuclear Data Section of the IAEA.

  5. The BENCHMARK trademark code: Simulation of hourly generation: User's guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenkins, R.T. (Tennessee Univ., Chattanooga, TN (USA). School of Engineering)

    1990-04-01

    BENCHMARK simulates generator commitment and dispatch hourly for periods extending from one week to one year. Its value to utilities stems from its accurate representation of operator strategies and generator operating constraints (including ramp rate limits, minimum operating levels, and minimum uptime and downtime). The availability of thermal units is either prespecified or determined by a Monte Carlo technique. The program can model a pump-storage or compressed-air energy storage facility, and can allocate hydroelectric energy over a multiweek interval. BENCHMARK can produce reports with detailed hourly data or summary reports for part or all of the simulation period. Results can be reported for individual units or for groups of units. It is also possible to produce a file of data for use with an external graphics program. BENCHMARK is written in FORTRAN and requires about 2-1/2 megabytes of core. Execution times per simulation week and per Monte Carlo replication vary from under 1 second of CPU time for systems without a storage facility to up to about 10 seconds for a large system with pumped storage.

  6. Webinar: Highly Efficient Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Fuel Cell Technologies Office will present a live webinar titled "Highly Efficient Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems" on Tuesday, January 13, from 12:00 to 1:00 p.m. Eastern Standard Time.

  7. Thermochemical Recuperation for High Temperature Furnaces

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to substantiate the technical feasibility of the thermochemical recuperation concept as well as its business viability, including identification of technical, scale-up, and manufacturability concerns.

  8. Highly Efficient Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Highly Efficient, Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems (2014 R&D 100 Award Winner) U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Office 2 Question and Answer * Please type your...

  9. Solar Thermochemical Hydrogen Production Research (STCH)

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    Eight cycles in a coordinated set of projects for Solar Thermochemical Cycles for Hydrogen production (STCH) were self-evaluated for the DOE-EERE Fuel Cell Technologies Program at a Working Group Meet

  10. From Physics Model to Results: An Optimizing Framework for Cross-Architecture Code Generation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Blazewicz, Marek; Hinder, Ian; Koppelman, David M.; Brandt, Steven R.; Ciznicki, Milosz; Kierzynka, Michal; Löffler, Frank; Schnetter, Erik; Tao, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Starting from a high-level problem description in terms of partial differential equations using abstract tensor notation, theChemoraframework discretizes, optimizes, and generates complete high performance codes for a wide range of compute architectures. Chemora extends the capabilities of Cactus, facilitating the usage of large-scale CPU/GPU systems in an efficient manner for complex applications, without low-level code tuning. Chemora achieves parallelism through MPI and multi-threading, combining OpenMP and CUDA. Optimizations include high-level code transformations, efficient loop traversal strategies, dynamically selected data and instruction cache usage strategies, and JIT compilation of GPU code tailored to the problem characteristics. The discretization is based onmore »higher-order finite differences on multi-block domains. Chemora's capabilities are demonstrated by simulations of black hole collisions. This problem provides an acid test of the framework, as the Einstein equations contain hundreds of variables and thousands of terms.« less

  11. From Physics Model to Results: An Optimizing Framework for Cross-Architecture Code Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marek Blazewicz; Ian Hinder; David M. Koppelman; Steven R. Brandt; Milosz Ciznicki; Michal Kierzynka; Frank Löffler; Erik Schnetter; Jian Tao

    2013-07-24

    Starting from a high-level problem description in terms of partial differential equations using abstract tensor notation, the Chemora framework discretizes, optimizes, and generates complete high performance codes for a wide range of compute architectures. Chemora extends the capabilities of Cactus, facilitating the usage of large-scale CPU/GPU systems in an efficient manner for complex applications, without low-level code tuning. Chemora achieves parallelism through MPI and multi-threading, combining OpenMP and CUDA. Optimizations include high-level code transformations, efficient loop traversal strategies, dynamically selected data and instruction cache usage strategies, and JIT compilation of GPU code tailored to the problem characteristics. The discretization is based on higher-order finite differences on multi-block domains. Chemora's capabilities are demonstrated by simulations of black hole collisions. This problem provides an acid test of the framework, as the Einstein equations contain hundreds of variables and thousands of terms.

  12. Efficient Hardware Code Generation ZHI GUO, WALID NAJJAR; and BETUL BUYUKKURT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Najjar, Walid A.

    6 Efficient Hardware Code Generation for FPGAs ZHI GUO, WALID NAJJAR; and BETUL BUYUKKURT-intensive Authors' address: Zhi Guo, Walid Najjar, and Betul Buyukkurt, University of California, Riverside computing, high-level synthesis, data reuse, FPGA, VHDL ACM Reference Format: Guo, Z., Najjar, W

  13. FORIG: a modification of the ORIGEN2 isotope-generation and depletion code for fusion problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blink, J.A.

    1982-03-03

    This report describes how to use the FORIG computer code to solve isotope-generation and depletion problems in fusion and fission reactors. FORIG is an adaptation of ORIGEN2 to run on a Cray-1 computer, and to accept more extensive activation cross sections.

  14. IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS, VOL. 25, NO. 10, MAY 15, 2013 899 Photonic Generation of a Phase-Coded Microwave

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Jianping

    -Coded Microwave Waveform With Ultrawide Frequency Tunable Range Liang Gao, Student Member, IEEE, Xiangfei Chen-coded microwave waveform with ultrawide frequency tunable range using two polarization modulators (Pol signal with a switching voltage of V to PolM1, a phase-coded microwave waveform is generated. The key

  15. Generator of neutrino-nucleon interactions for the FLUKA based simulation code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Battistoni, G.; Sala, P. R. [INFN, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); Ferrari, A. [CERN, CH-1211 GENEVE 23 (Switzerland); Lantz, M. [RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, Wako (Japan); Smirnov, G. I. [CERN, CH-1211 GENEVE 23 (Switzerland); JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2009-11-25

    An event generator of neutrino-nucleon and neutrino-nucleus interactions has been developed for the general purpose Monte Carlo code FLUKA. The generator includes options for simulating quasi-elastic interactions, the neutrino-induced resonance production and deep inelastic scattering. Moreover, it shares the hadronization routines developed earlier in the framework of the FLUKA package for simulating hadron-nucleon interactions. The simulation of neutrino-nuclear interactions makes use of the well developed PEANUT event generator implemented in FLUKA for modeling of the interactions between hadrons and nuclei. The generator has been tested in the neutrino energy range from 0 to 10 TeV and it is available in the standard FLUKA distribution. Limitations related to some particular kinematical conditions are discussed. A number of upgrades is foreseen for the generator which will optimize its applications for simulating experiments in the CNGS beam.

  16. A Continuous Solar Thermochemical Hydrogen Production Plant Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luc, Wesley Wai

    capital cost of the thermochemical plant was estimated with an equation- based Guthrie method [2]. Equipment cost

  17. A Continuous Solar Thermochemical Hydrogen Production Plant Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luc, Wesley Wai

    thermochemical plant. Solar thermal energy is harnessed bya solar thermal plant built by the Department of Energy in

  18. Optimisations for quadrature representations of finite element tensors through automated code generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oelgaard, Kristian B; Wells, G N

    2009-07-20

    Optimisations for quadrature representations of finite element tensors through automated code generation KRISTIAN B. ØLGAARD Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences Delft University of Technology and GARTH N. WELLS Department of Engineering... differential equations while achieving optimal or near-optimal run time performance is a possibility offered by K.B. Ølgaard, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of Technology Stev- inweg 1, 2628 CN Delft, Netherlands. Email: k.b...

  19. Thermochemical Design Report: Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-04-01

    This process design and technoeconomic evaluation addresses the conversion of biomass to ethanol via thermochemical pathways that are expected to be demonstrated at the pilot-unit level by 2012.

  20. Advanced Electrochemical Technologies for Hydrogen Production by Alternative Thermochemical Cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lvov, Serguei; Chung, Mike; Fedkin, Mark; Lewis, Michele; Balashov, Victor; Chalkova, Elena; Akinfiev, Nikolay; Stork, Carol; Davis, Thomas; Gadala-Maria, Francis; Stanford, Thomas; Weidner, John; Law, Victor; Prindle, John

    2011-01-06

    Hydrogen fuel is a potentially major solution to the problem of climate change, as well as addressing urban air pollution issues. But a key future challenge for hydrogen as a clean energy carrier is a sustainable, low-cost method of producing it in large capacities. Most of the world's hydrogen is currently derived from fossil fuels through some type of reforming processes. Nuclear hydrogen production is an emerging and promising alternative to the reforming processes for carbon-free hydrogen production in the future. This report presents the main results of a research program carried out by a NERI Consortium, which consisted of Penn State University (PSU) (lead), University of South Carolina (USC), Tulane University (TU), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Thermochemical water decomposition is an emerging technology for large-scale production of hydrogen. Typically using two or more intermediate compounds, a sequence of chemical and physical processes split water into hydrogen and oxygen, without releasing any pollutants externally to the atmosphere. These intermediate compounds are recycled internally within a closed loop. While previous studies have identified over 200 possible thermochemical cycles, only a few have progressed beyond theoretical calculations to working experimental demonstrations that establish scientific and practical feasibility of the thermochemical processes. The Cu-Cl cycle has a significant advantage over other cycles due to lower temperature requirements – around 530 °C and below. As a result, it can be eventually linked with the Generation IV thermal power stations. Advantages of the Cu-Cl cycle over others include lower operating temperatures, ability to utilize low-grade waste heat to improve energy efficiency, and potentially lower cost materials. Another significant advantage is a relatively low voltage required for the electrochemical step (thus low electricity input). Other advantages include common chemical agents and reactions going to completion without side reactions, and lower demands on materials of construction. Three university research groups from PSU, USC, and TU as well as a group from ANL have been collaborating on the development of enabling technologies for the Cu-Cl cycle, including experimental work on the Cu-Cl cycle reactions, modeling and simulation, and particularly electrochemical reaction for hydrogen production using a CuCl electrolyzer. The Consortium research was distributed over the participants and organized in the following tasks: (1) Development of CuCl electrolyzer (PSU), (2) Thermodynamic modeling of anolyte solution (PSU), (3) Proton conductive membranes for CuCl electrolysis (PSU), (4) Development of an analytical method for online analysis of copper compounds in highly concentrated aqueous solutions (USC), (5) Electrodialysis as a means for separation and purification of the streams exiting the electrolyzer in the Cu-Cl cycle (USC), (6) Development of nanostructured electrocatalysts for the Cu-Cl electrolysis (USC), (7) Cu-Cl electrolyzer modeling (USC), (8) Aspen Plus modeling of the Cu-Cl thermochemical cycle (TU), (9) International coordination of research on the development of the Cu-Cl thermochemical cycle (ANL). The results obtained in the project clearly demonstrate that the Cu-Cl alternative thermochemical cycle is a promising and viable technology to produce hydrogen efficiently.

  1. Thermochemical Conversion Pilot Plant (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-06-01

    The state-of-the-art thermochemical conversion pilot plant includes several configurable, complementary unit operations for testing and developing various reactors, filters, catalysts, and other unit operations. NREL engineers and scientists as well as clients can test new processes and feedstocks in a timely, cost-effective, and safe manner to obtain extensive performance data on processes or equipment.

  2. Intro to NREL's Thermochemical Pilot Plant

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Magrini, Kim

    2014-06-10

    NREL's Thermochemical Pilot Plant converts biomass into higher hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals.NREL is researching biomass pyrolysis. The lab is examining how to upgrade bio-oils via stabilization. Along with this, NREL is developing the engineering system requirements for producing these fuels and chemicals at larger scales.

  3. Intro to NREL's Thermochemical Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magrini, Kim

    2013-09-27

    NREL's Thermochemical Pilot Plant converts biomass into higher hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals.NREL is researching biomass pyrolysis. The lab is examining how to upgrade bio-oils via stabilization. Along with this, NREL is developing the engineering system requirements for producing these fuels and chemicals at larger scales.

  4. 2009 Thermochemical Conversion Platform Review Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrell, John

    2009-12-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Thermochemical Conversion platform review meeting, held on April 14-16, 2009, at the Sheraton Denver Downtown, Denver, Colorado.

  5. Pacies (Part Code Identification Expert System): an expert system to generate part codes for the selection of small part feeding and orienting devices for use in automatic assembly 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yu-Tong

    1985-01-01

    Coding System B: Existing Expert Systems C: Listing of Consultation Driver D: Listing of the Knowledge Base E: Listing of SIMPLE Front-End Relations F: Procedure to Log on the System G: Procedure to Query the Same Question VITA 74 78 79 90 104... look-up, generates a three-digit part code for a part based upon its shape, important features, and symmetries. The part code is used in a table look-up procedure to determine the proper feeding and orienting device for the part. Hence, the part...

  6. A thermodynamic database for new generation nuclear fuels Bertrand CHEYNET, Evelyne FISCHER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    - consistent database designed for thermochemical equilibria calculation codes, specially developed for new, enthalpies of mixing, heat capacities, etc. When a published assessment was available for a particular system

  7. tcc: A System for Fast, Flexible, and Highlevel Dynamic Code Generation Massimiliano Poletto, Dawson R. Engler, and M. Frans Kaashoek

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    language, an extension of ANSI C that supports dynamic code generation [15]. `C gives power and flexibility of ANSI C that provides mechanisms for specifying and dynamically composing arbitrary ANSI C expressions

  8. A thermochemical phase space for combustion in engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oppenheim, A.K.; Maxson, J.A.

    1994-12-31

    The phase space introduced in this paper is based on the recognition that the combustion system is nonlinear, and takes advantage, therefore, of the classical concept of nonlinear mechanics: a space whose coordinates are all the dependent variables of the problem. In the case at hand, they consist of all the thermochemical parameters of the system. The dimension of this space is thus equal to the number of degrees of freedom. The authors name it the Le Chatelier Space. Its major asset lies in providing a map for the global effects of the thermochemical processes occurring in the physical space of the combustion chamber, expressed in terms of trajectories or manifolds. Obtained thereby is an analytical insight into the effective mechanism of the combustion system. Application of the method is illustrated by the evaluation of advantages one can accrue on this basis for a premixed charge engine. It is shown, in particular, that if, instead of a throttled homogeneous charge combustion, the exothermic process is executed in a fireball mode of a direct injection stratified charge system, the engine can be rendered the ability for part-load operation at wide-open throttle, with significant gains in fuel economy and concomitant reduction in pollutant emissions. Such a mode of combustion takes place within large-scale vortex structures generated and sustained by pulsed jets.

  9. Thermochemically Driven Gas-Dynamic Fracturing (TDGF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Goodwin

    2008-12-31

    This report concerns efforts to increase oil well productivity and efficiency via a method of heating the oil-bearing rock of the well, a technique known as Thermochemical Gas-Dynamic Fracturing (TGDF). The technique uses either a chemical reaction or a combustion event to raise the temperature of the rock of the well, thereby increasing oil velocity, and oil pumping rate. Such technology has shown promise for future application to both older wellheads and also new sites. The need for such technologies in the oil extraction field, along with the merits of the TGDF technology is examined in Chapter 1. The theoretical basis underpinning applications of TGDF is explained in Chapter 2. It is shown that productivity of depleted well can be increased by one order of magnitude after heating a reservoir region of radius 15-20 m around the well by 100 degrees 1-2 times per year. Two variants of thermal stimulation are considered: uniform heating and optimal temperature distribution in the formation region around the perforation zone. It is demonstrated that the well productivity attained by using equal amounts of thermal energy is higher by a factor of 3 to 4 in the case of optimal temperature distribution as compared to uniform distribution. Following this theoretical basis, two practical approaches to applying TDGF are considered. Chapter 3 looks at the use of chemical intiators to raise the rock temperature in the well via an exothermic chemical reaction. The requirements for such a delivery device are discussed, and several novel fuel-oxidizing mixtures (FOM) are investigated in conditions simulating those at oil-extracting depths. Such FOM mixtures, particularly ones containing nitric acid and a chemical initiator, are shown to dramatically increase the temperature of the oil-bearing rock, and thus the productivity of the well. Such tests are substantiated by preliminary fieldwork in Russian oil fields. A second, more cost effective approach to TGDF is considered in Chapter 4: use of diesel-fuel to raise the rock temperature by a combustion process in the well. The requirements for such a Gas-Vapor Generator are laid out, and the development of a prototype machine is explained. This is backed up with laboratory experiments showing that the fuel-water mixture used does significantly increase the viscosity of the oil samples. The prototype Gas-Vapor Generator is shown to be able to operate at temperatures of 240 C and pressures of 200 atm. Unfortunately, geopolitical and economic factors outside of our control led to the cancellation of the project before the field testing phase of the generator could be commenced. Nevertheless, it is to be hoped that this report demonstrates both the feasibility and desirability of the Gas-Vapor Generator approach to the application of TDGF technology in both existing and new wells, and provides a foundation for further research in the future.

  10. Lessons Learned: Devolping Thermochemical Cycles for Solar Heat...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Storage Applications This presentation summarizes the introduction given by Bunsen Wong during the Thermochemical Energy Storage Workshop on January 8, 2013....

  11. Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of...

  12. Project Profile: Thermochemical Heat Storage for CSP Based on...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and A. Woerner, "Metal Oxide Based Thermochemical Energy Storage for Concentrated Solar Power - Thermodynamics and Parasitic Loads for Packed Bed Reactors," in Proceedings of...

  13. University of Colorado-Boulder Researches Solar-Thermochemical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    at the University of Colorado-Boulder for a hydrogen production technology that uses solar energy to produce hydrogen from water. The thermochemical process being used has...

  14. Automatic Multi-GPU Code Generation applied to Simulation of Electrical Machines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodrigues, Antonio Wendell De Oliveira; Dekeyser, Jean-Luc; Menach, Yvonnick Le

    2011-01-01

    The electrical and electronic engineering has used parallel programming to solve its large scale complex problems for performance reasons. However, as parallel programming requires a non-trivial distribution of tasks and data, developers find it hard to implement their applications effectively. Thus, in order to reduce design complexity, we propose an approach to generate code for hybrid architectures (e.g. CPU + GPU) using OpenCL, an open standard for parallel programming of heterogeneous systems. This approach is based on Model Driven Engineering (MDE) and the MARTE profile, standard proposed by Object Management Group (OMG). The aim is to provide resources to non-specialists in parallel programming to implement their applications. Moreover, thanks to model reuse capacity, we can add/change functionalities or the target architecture. Consequently, this approach helps industries to achieve their time-to-market constraints and confirms by experimental tests, performance improvements using multi-GPU environmen...

  15. Thermochemical Process Development Unit: Researching Fuels from Biomass, Bioenergy Technologies (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-01-01

    The Thermochemical Process Development Unit (TCPDU) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a unique facility dedicated to researching thermochemical processes to produce fuels from biomass.

  16. Ceria based inverse opals for thermochemical fuel production: Quantification and prediction of high temperature behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Casillas, Danielle Courtney

    2015-01-01

    Solar Beam and Solar Heat: Hydrogen Production, Storage andSolar Thermochemical Hydrogen Production Research (STCH),on thermochemical hydrogen production. Low tortuosity and

  17. Ceria based inverse opals for thermochemical fuel production: Quantification and prediction of high temperature behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Casillas, Danielle Courtney

    2015-01-01

    Angeles Ceria based inverse opals for thermochemical fuelCeria based inverse opals for thermochemical fuelCeria- based inverse opals are currently being investigated

  18. Screening analysis of solar thermochemical hydrogen concepts.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diver, Richard B., Jr.; Kolb, Gregory J.

    2008-03-01

    A screening analysis was performed to identify concentrating solar power (CSP) concepts that produce hydrogen with the highest efficiency. Several CSP concepts were identified that have the potential to be much more efficient than today's low-temperature electrolysis technology. They combine a central receiver or dish with either a thermochemical cycle or high-temperature electrolyzer that operate at temperatures >600 C. The solar-to-hydrogen efficiencies of the best central receiver concepts exceed 20%, significantly better than the 14% value predicted for low-temperature electrolysis.

  19. Optimizations enabling transformations and code generation for th HP V class 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carvallo de Ochoa, Julio Antonio

    2000-01-01

    It is generally accepted that state-of-the-art restructuring compiler systems can parallelize automatically only about 25% of existing Fortran codes. This thesis presents some code transformations that improve the power ...

  20. GENII (Generation II): The Hanford Environmental Radiation Dosimetry Software System: Volume 3, Code maintenance manual: Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Napier, B.A.; Peloquin, R.A.; Strenge, D.L.; Ramsdell, J.V.

    1988-09-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project was undertaken to incorporate the internal dosimetry models recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in updated versions of the environmental pathway analysis models used at Hanford. The resulting second generation of Hanford environmental dosimetry computer codes is compiled in the Hanford Environmental Dosimetry System (Generation II, or GENII). This coupled system of computer codes is intended for analysis of environmental contamination resulting from acute or chronic releases to, or initial contamination of, air, water, or soil, on through the calculation of radiation doses to individuals or populations. GENII is described in three volumes of documentation. This volume is a Code Maintenance Manual for the serious user, including code logic diagrams, global dictionary, worksheets to assist with hand calculations, and listings of the code and its associated data libraries. The first volume describes the theoretical considerations of the system. The second volume is a Users' Manual, providing code structure, users' instructions, required system configurations, and QA-related topics. 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Solar Thermochemical Hydrogen Production Research (STCH)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perret, Robert

    2011-05-01

    Eight cycles in a coordinated set of projects for Solar Thermochemical Cycles for Hydrogen production (STCH) were self-evaluated for the DOE-EERE Fuel Cell Technologies Program at a Working Group Meeting on October 8 and 9, 2008. This document reports the initial selection process for development investment in STCH projects, the evaluation process meant to reduce the number of projects as a means to focus resources on development of a few most-likely-to-succeed efforts, the obstacles encountered in project inventory reduction and the outcomes of the evaluation process. Summary technical status of the projects under evaluation is reported and recommendations identified to improve future project planning and selection activities.

  2. Process for the thermochemical production of hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norman, John H. (La Jolla, CA); Russell, Jr., John L. (La Jolla, CA); Porter, II, John T. (Del Mar, CA); McCorkle, Kenneth H. (Del Mar, CA); Roemer, Thomas S. (Cardiff, CA); Sharp, Robert (Del Mar, CA)

    1978-01-01

    Hydrogen is thermochemically produced from water in a cycle wherein a first reaction produces hydrogen iodide and H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 by the reaction of iodine, sulfur dioxide and water under conditions which cause two distinct aqueous phases to be formed, i.e., a lighter sulfuric acid-bearing phase and a heavier hydrogen iodide-bearing phase. After separation of the two phases, the heavier phase containing most of the hydrogen iodide is treated, e.g., at a high temperature, to decompose the hydrogen iodide and recover hydrogen and iodine. The H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 is pyrolyzed to recover sulfur dioxide and produce oxygen.

  3. THERMOCHEMICAL HEAT STORAGE FOR CONCENTRATED SOLAR POWER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PROJECT STAFF

    2011-10-31

    Thermal energy storage (TES) is an integral part of a concentrated solar power (CSP) system. It enables plant operators to generate electricity beyond on sun hours and supply power to the grid to meet peak demand. Current CSP sensible heat storage systems employ molten salts as both the heat transfer fluid and the heat storage media. These systems have an upper operating temperature limit of around 400 C. Future TES systems are expected to operate at temperatures between 600 C to 1000 C for higher thermal efficiencies which should result in lower electricity cost. To meet future operating temperature and electricity cost requirements, a TES concept utilizing thermochemical cycles (TCs) based on multivalent solid oxides was proposed. The system employs a pair of reduction and oxidation (REDOX) reactions to store and release heat. In the storage step, hot air from the solar receiver is used to reduce the oxidation state of an oxide cation, e.g. Fe3+ to Fe2+. Heat energy is thus stored as chemical bonds and the oxide is charged. To discharge the stored energy, the reduced oxide is re-oxidized in air and heat is released. Air is used as both the heat transfer fluid and reactant and no storage of fluid is needed. This project investigated the engineering and economic feasibility of this proposed TES concept. The DOE storage cost and LCOE targets are $15/kWh and $0.09/kWh respectively. Sixteen pure oxide cycles were identified through thermodynamic calculations and literature information. Data showed the kinetics of re-oxidation of the various oxides to be a key barrier to implementing the proposed concept. A down selection was carried out based on operating temperature, materials costs and preliminary laboratory measurements. Cobalt oxide, manganese oxide and barium oxide were selected for developmental studies to improve their REDOX reaction kinetics. A novel approach utilizing mixed oxides to improve the REDOX kinetics of the selected oxides was proposed. It partially replaces some of the primary oxide cations with selected secondary cations. This causes a lattice charge imbalance and increases the anion vacancy density. Such vacancies enhance the ionic mass transport and lead to faster re-oxidation. Reoxidation fractions of Mn3O4 to Mn2O3 and CoO to Co3O4 were improved by up to 16 fold through the addition of a secondary oxide. However, no improvement was obtained in barium based mixed oxides. In addition to enhancing the short term re-oxidation kinetics, it was found that the use of mixed oxides also help to stabilize or even improve the TES properties after long term thermal cycling. Part of this improvement could be attributed to a reduced grain size in the mixed oxides. Based on the measurement results, manganese-iron, cobalt-aluminum and cobalt iron mixed oxides have been proposed for future engineering scale demonstration. Using the cobalt and manganese mixed oxides, we were able to demonstrate charge and discharge of the TES media in both a bench top fixed bed and a rotary kiln-moving bed reactor. Operations of the fixed bed configuration are straight forward but require a large mass flow rate and higher fluid temperature for charging. The rotary kiln makes direct solar irradiation possible and provides significantly better heat transfer, but designs to transport the TES oxide in and out of the reactor will need to be defined. The final reactor and system design will have to be based on the economics of the CSP plant. A materials compatibility study was also conducted and it identified Inconel 625 as a suitable high temperature engineering material to construct a reactor holding either cobalt or manganese mixed oxides. To assess the economics of such a CSP plant, a packed bed reactor model was established as a baseline. Measured cobalt-aluminum oxide reaction kinetics were applied to the model and the influences of bed properties and process parameters on the overall system design were investigated. The optimal TES system design was found to be a network of eight fixed bed reactors at 18.75 MWth each with charge and

  4. Project Profile: Carbon Dioxide Shuttling Thermochemical Storage Using Strontium Carbonate

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy's SunShot Initiative awarded University of Florida (UF) through the Concentrating Solar Power: Efficiently Leveraging Equilibrium Mechanisms for Engineering New Thermochemical Storage (CSP: ELEMENTS) funding program.

  5. DOE Thermochemical Users Facility A Proving Ground for Biomass Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2003-11-01

    The National Bioenergy Center at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provides a state-of-the-art Thermochemical Users Facility (TCUF) for converting renewable, biomass feedstocks into a variety of products.

  6. A Continuous Solar Thermochemical Hydrogen Production Plant Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luc, Wesley Wai

    A.W. , “Likely Near-Term Solar-Thermal Water SplittingFundamentals of s Solar-thermal Mn 2 O 3 /MnO ThermochemicalPower-Photovaltaics or Solar Thermal Power? ” Proceedings of

  7. A Continuous Solar Thermochemical Hydrogen Production Plant Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luc, Wesley Wai

    a 2,600,000 m 2 solar thermal power plant called IvanpahSolar Thermal Power? ” Proceedings of VGB Congress Power Plants,drive a power or thermochemical plant. Solar thermal energy

  8. Evidence of magnetic isotope effects during thermochemical sulfate reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oduro, Harry D.

    Thermochemical sulfate reduction experiments with simple amino acid and dilute concentrations of sulfate reveal significant degrees of mass-independent sulfur isotope fractionation. Enrichments of up to 13‰ for [superscript ...

  9. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review. Thermochemical Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grabowski, Paul E.

    2012-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2011 U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Thermochemical Conversion Platform Review meeting.

  10. FORIG: a computer code for calculating radionuclide generation and depletion in fusion and fission reactors. User's manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blink, J.A.

    1985-03-01

    In this manual we describe the use of the FORIG computer code to solve isotope-generation and depletion problems in fusion and fission reactors. FORIG runs on a Cray-1 computer and accepts more extensive activation cross sections than ORIGEN2 from which it was adapted. This report is an updated and a combined version of the previous ORIGEN2 and FORIG manuals. 7 refs., 15 figs., 13 tabs.

  11. Testing of an advanced thermochemical conversion reactor system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This report presents the results of work conducted by MTCI to verify and confirm experimentally the ability of the MTCI gasification process to effectively generate a high-quality, medium-Btu gas from a wider variety of feedstock and waste than that attainable in air-blown, direct gasification systems. The system's overall simplicity, due to the compact nature of the pulse combustor, and the high heat transfer rates attainable within the pulsating flow resonance tubes, provide a decided and near-term potential economic advantage for the MTCI indirect gasification system. The primary objective of this project was the design, construction, and testing of a Process Design Verification System for an indirectly heated, thermochemical fluid-bed reactor and a pulse combustor an an integrated system that can process alternative renewable sources of energy such as biomass, black liquor, municipal solid waste and waste hydrocarbons, including heavy oils into a useful product gas. The test objectives for the biomass portion of this program were to establish definitive performance data on biomass feedstocks covering a wide range of feedstock qualities and characteristics. The test objectives for the black liquor portion of this program were to verify the operation of the indirect gasifier on commercial black liquor containing 65 percent solids at several temperature levels and to characterize the bed carbon content, bed solids particle size and sulfur distribution as a function of gasification conditions. 6 refs., 59 figs., 29 tabs.

  12. The VOLNA code for the numerical modelling of tsunami waves: generation, propagation and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the finite volume scheme implemented in the code. We explain the numerical treatment of the wet is decided on the base of inundation maps which are produced with this type of numerical tools. Finally we and the perspectives for future research presented. Key words: tsunami waves, shallow water equations, tsunami

  13. Thermochemical Conversion: Using Heat and Catalysts to Make Biofuels and Bioproducts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-07-29

    This fact sheet discusses the Bioenergy Technologies Office's thermochemical conversion critical technology goal. And, how through the application of heat, robust thermochemical processes can efficiently convert a broad range of biomass.

  14. Solar Thermochemical Advanced Reactor System, Wins R&D 100 Award...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Solar Thermochemical Advanced Reactor System, Wins R&D 100 Award Solar Thermochemical Advanced Reactor System, Wins R&D 100 Award October 16, 2014 - 5:24pm Addthis Developed...

  15. Status report on multigroup cross section generation code development for high-fidelity deterministic neutronics simulation system.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, W. S.; Lee, C. H.

    2008-05-16

    Under the fast reactor simulation program launched in April 2007, development of an advanced multigroup cross section generation code was initiated in July 2007, in conjunction with the development of the high-fidelity deterministic neutron transport code UNIC. The general objectives are to simplify the existing multi-step schemes and to improve the resolved and unresolved resonance treatments. Based on the review results of current methods and the fact that they have been applied successfully to fast critical experiment analyses and fast reactor designs for last three decades, the methodologies of the ETOE-2/MC{sup 2}-2/SDX code system were selected as the starting set of methodologies for multigroup cross section generation for fast reactor analysis. As the first step for coupling with the UNIC code and use in a parallel computing environment, the MC{sup 2}-2 code was updated by modernizing the memory structure and replacing old data management package subroutines and functions with FORTRAN 90 based routines. Various modifications were also made in the ETOE-2 and MC{sup 2}-2 codes to process the ENDF/B-VII.0 data properly. Using the updated ETOE-2/MC{sup 2}-2 code system, the ENDF/B-VII.0 data was successfully processed for major heavy and intermediate nuclides employed in sodium-cooled fast reactors. Initial verification tests of the MC{sup 2}-2 libraries generated from ENDF/B-VII.0 data were performed by inter-comparison of twenty-one group infinite dilute total cross sections obtained from MC{sup 2}-2, VIM, and NJOY. For almost all nuclides considered, MC{sup 2}-2 cross sections agreed very well with those from VIM and NJOY. Preliminary validation tests of the ENDF/B-VII.0 libraries of MC{sup 2}-2 were also performed using a set of sixteen fast critical benchmark problems. The deterministic results based on MC{sup 2}-2/TWODANT calculations were in good agreement with MCNP solutions within {approx}0.25% {Delta}{rho}, except a few small LANL fast assemblies. Relative to the MCNP solution, the MC{sup 2}-2/TWODANT results overestimated the multiplication factor by 0.22 {approx} 0.35% {Delta}{rho} for these small systems with very hard neutron spectrum. Comparisons of measured and calculated values for the fission reaction rate ratios of Godiva and Jezebel assemblies also showed that the MC{sup 2}-2/TWODANT results agreed well with measurements within 2.7%. From a series of methodology review and ENDF/B-VII.0 data processing, several improvement needs to enhance accuracy were also identified for the ETOE-2/MC{sup 2}-2 code system, including the multigroup slowing-down solution for whole-energy range, proper treatment for anisotropy of inelastic scattering, improved evaluation of inelastic and high-order anisotropic scattering source in RABANL calculations.

  16. Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. 1983 Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1984-08-01

    Highlights of progress achieved in the program of thermochemical conversion of biomass into clean fuels during 1983 are summarized. Gasification research projects include: production of a medium-Btu gas without using purified oxygen at Battelle-Columbus Laboratories; high pressure (up to 500 psia) steam-oxygen gasification of biomass in a fluidized bed reactor at IGT; producing synthesis gas via catalytic gasification at PNL; indirect reactor heating methods at the Univ. of Missouri-Rolla and Texas Tech Univ.; improving the reliability, performance, and acceptability of small air-blown gasifiers at Univ. of Florida-Gainesville, Rocky Creek Farm Gasogens, and Cal Recovery Systems. Liquefaction projects include: determination of individual sequential pyrolysis mechanisms at SERI; research at SERI on a unique entrained, ablative fast pyrolysis reactor for supplying the heat fluxes required for fast pyrolysis; work at BNL on rapid pyrolysis of biomass in an atmosphere of methane to increase the yields of olefin and BTX products; research at the Georgia Inst. of Tech. on an entrained rapid pyrolysis reactor to produce higher yields of pyrolysis oil; research on an advanced concept to liquefy very concentrated biomass slurries in an integrated extruder/static mixer reactor at the Univ. of Arizona; and research at PNL on the characterization and upgrading of direct liquefaction oils including research to lower oxygen content and viscosity of the product. Combustion projects include: research on a directly fired wood combustor/gas turbine system at Aerospace Research Corp.; adaptation of Stirling engine external combustion systems to biomass fuels at United Stirling, Inc.; and theoretical modeling and experimental verification of biomass combustion behavior at JPL to increase biomass combustion efficiency and examine the effects of additives on combustion rates. 26 figures, 1 table.

  17. On-the-fly generation of differential resonance scattering probability distribution functions for Monte Carlo codes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sunny, E. E.; Martin, W. R. [University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Boulevard, Ann Arbor MI 48109 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Current Monte Carlo codes use one of three models to model neutron scattering in the epithermal energy range: (1) the asymptotic scattering model, (2) the free gas scattering model, or (3) the S({alpha},{beta}) model, depending on the neutron energy and the specific Monte Carlo code. The free gas scattering model assumes the scattering cross section is constant over the neutron energy range, which is usually a good approximation for light nuclei, but not for heavy nuclei where the scattering cross section may have several resonances in the epithermal region. Several researchers in the field have shown that using the free gas scattering model in the vicinity of the resonances in the lower epithermal range can under-predict resonance absorption due to the up-scattering phenomenon. Existing methods all involve performing the collision analysis in the center-of-mass frame, followed by a conversion back to the laboratory frame. In this paper, we will present a new sampling methodology that (1) accounts for the energy-dependent scattering cross sections in the collision analysis and (2) acts in the laboratory frame, avoiding the conversion to the center-of-mass frame. The energy dependence of the scattering cross section was modeled with even-ordered polynomials to approximate the scattering cross section in Blackshaw's equations for the moments of the differential scattering PDFs. These moments were used to sample the outgoing neutron speed and angle in the laboratory frame on-the-fly during the random walk of the neutron. Results for criticality studies on fuel pin and fuel assembly calculations using these methods showed very close comparison to results using the reference Doppler-broadened rejection correction (DBRC) scheme. (authors)

  18. Thermochemical method for producing hydrogen from hydrogen sulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herrington, D.R.

    1984-02-21

    Hydrogen is produced from hydrogen sulfide by a 3-step, thermochemical process comprising: (a) contacting hydrogen sulfide with carbon dioxide to form carbonyl sulfide and water, (b) contacting the carbonyl sulfide produced in (a) with oxygen to form carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide, and (c) contacting the carbon monoxide produced in (b) with water to form carbon dioxide and hydrogen.

  19. DOE Thermochemical Users Facility: A Proving Ground for Biomass Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2003-10-01

    The National Bioenergy Center at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provides a state-of-the-art Thermochemical Users Facility (TCUF) for converting renewable, biomass feedstocks into a variety of products, including electricity, high-value chemicals, and transportation fuels.

  20. Carbonate thermochemical cycle for the production of hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collins, Jack L (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Dole, Leslie R (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Ferrada, Juan J (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Forsberg, Charles W (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Haire, Marvin J (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Hunt, Rodney D (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Lewis Jr., Benjamin E (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Wymer, Raymond G (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-02-23

    The present invention is directed to a thermochemical method for the production of hydrogen from water. The method includes reacting a multi-valent metal oxide, water and a carbonate to produce an alkali metal-multi-valent metal oxide compound, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen.

  1. Biomass Program 2007 Program Peer Review - Thermochemical Conversion Platform Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-10-27

    This document discloses the comments provided by a review panel at the U.S. Department of Energy Office of the Biomass Program Peer Review held on November 15-16, 2007 in Baltimore, MD and the Biomass Program Peer Review for the Thermochemical Platform, held on July 9th and 10th in Golden, Colorado.

  2. Evidence of magnetic isotope effects during thermochemical sulfate reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaufman, Alan Jay

    such as adsorption of S-bearing com- pounds on surfaces of solids (13). Magnetic isotope effects are expressedEvidence of magnetic isotope effects during thermochemical sulfate reduction Harry Oduroa,b,1 S are attributed to a magnetic isotope effect (MIE) associated with the formation of thiol-disulfide, ion

  3. Carbonate Thermochemical Cycle for the Production of Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrada, Juan J [ORNL; Collins, Jack Lee [ORNL; Dole, Leslie Robert [ORNL; Forsberg, Charles W [ORNL; Haire, Marvin Jonathan [ORNL; Hunt, Rodney Dale [ORNL; Lewis Jr, Benjamin E [ORNL; Wymer, Raymond [ORNL; Ladd-Lively, Jennifer L [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a thermochemical method for the production of hydrogen from water. The method includes reacting a multi-valent metal oxide, water and a carbonate to produce an alkali metal-multi-valent metal oxide compound, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen.

  4. Thermochemical plots using JCZS2i piece-wise curve fits.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, David L.; Schoof, Justin C.; Hobbs, Michael L.

    2013-10-01

    This report presents plots of specific heat, enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs free energy for 1439 species in the JCZS2i database. Included in this set of species are 496 condensed-phase species and 943 gas-phase species. The gas phase species contain 80 anions and 112 cations for a total of 192 ions. The JCZS2i database is used in conjunction with the TIGER thermochemical code to predict thermodynamic states from ambient conditions to high temperatures and pressures. Predictions from the TIGER code using the JCZS2i database can be used in shock physics codes where temperatures may be as high as 20,000 K and ions may be present. Such high temperatures were not considered in the original JCZS database, and extrapolations made for these temperatures were unrealistic. For example, specific heat would sometimes go negative at high temperatures which fails the definition of specific heat. The JCZS2i database is a new version of the JCZS database that is being created to address these inaccuracies. The purpose of the current report is to visualize the high temperature extrapolations to insure that the specific heat, enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs free energy predictions are reasonable up to 20,000 K.

  5. Hydrogen Production: Thermochemical Water Splitting | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing Tool Fits the Bill FinancingDepartment ofPowerScenarioCoalThermochemical Water Splitting

  6. Using Heat and Chemistry to Make Products, Fuels, and Power: Thermochemical Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-01

    Information about the Biomass Program's collaborative projects exploring thermochemical conversion processes that use heat and chemistry to convert biomass into a liquid or gaseous intermediate.

  7. System and process for producing fuel with a methane thermochemical cycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diver, Richard B.

    2015-12-15

    A thermochemical process and system for producing fuel are provided. The thermochemical process includes reducing an oxygenated-hydrocarbon to form an alkane and using the alkane in a reforming reaction as a reducing agent for water, a reducing agent for carbon dioxide, or a combination thereof. Another thermochemical process includes reducing a metal oxide to form a reduced metal oxide, reducing an oxygenated-hydrocarbon with the reduced metal oxide to form an alkane, and using the alkane in a reforming reaction as a reducing agent for water, a reducing agent for carbon dioxide, or a combination thereof. The system includes a reformer configured to perform a thermochemical process.

  8. Project Profile: Thermochemical Heat Storage for CSP Based on Multivalent Metal Oxides

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    General Atomics (GA), under the Thermal Storage FOA, is developing a high-density thermochemical heat storage system based on solid metal oxides.

  9. Algae-to-Fuel: Integrating Thermochemical Conversion, Nutrient Recycling, and Wastewater

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 2-C: Biogas and Beyond: Challenges and Opportunities for Advanced Biofuels from Wet-Waste FeedstocksAlgae-to-Fuel: Integrating Thermochemical Conversion, Nutrient Recycling, and...

  10. Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, S.; Aden, A.; Jechura, J.; Dayton, D.; Eggeman, T.

    2007-04-01

    This process design and technoeconomic evaluation addresses the conversion of biomass to ethanol via thermochemical pathways that are expected to be demonstrated at the pilot level by 2012.

  11. Thermochemical ethanol via indirect gasification and mixed alcohol synthesis of lignocellulosic biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, S.; Aden, A.; Jechura, J.; Dayton, D.; Eggeman, T.

    2007-04-01

    This process design and technoeconomic evaluation addresses the conversion of biomass to ethanol via thermochemical pathways that are expected to be demonstrated at the pilot level by 2012.

  12. Simulation of directional solidification, thermochemical convection, and chimney formation in a Hele-Shaw cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worster, M. Grae

    Simulation of directional solidification, thermochemical convection, and chimney formation and the Enthalpy Method throughout the computational domain allows us to avoid prescribing internal boundary

  13. Published in proceedings of the 1996 EUROSIM Int'l Conf., June 10--12, 1996, Delft, The Netherlands, pp. 421--428. Automatic Code Generation for High Performance Computing in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Engelen, Robert A.

    , The Netherlands, pp. 421--428. Automatic Code Generation for High Performance Computing in Environmental Modeling Robert van Engelen a#+ , Lex Wolters a+# , and Gerard Cats b# a High Performance Computing Division, Dept: cats@knmi.nl In this paper we will discuss automatic code generation for high performance computer

  14. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NEURAL NETWORKS, VOL. 17, NO. 3, MAY 2006 771 On Algorithmic Rate-Coded AER Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barranco, Bernabe Linares

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NEURAL NETWORKS, VOL. 17, NO. 3, MAY 2006 771 On Algorithmic Rate-Coded AER of frames into the spike event-based representation known as the address-event-rep- resentation (AER). In this paper we concentrate on rate-coded AER. The problem is addressed as an algorithmic problem, in which

  15. NIST-JANAF Thermochemical Tables. I. Ten Organic Molecules Related to Atmospheric Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magee, Joseph W.

    NIST-JANAF Thermochemical Tables. I. Ten Organic Molecules Related to Atmospheric Chemistry Olga, are reviewed. The calculation of the thermochemical tables involved the critical evaluation of new spectroscopic data, enthalpy of formation determinations, and the use of recent internal rotation data. Since

  16. Effect of electron correlation and scalar relativistic corrections on the thermochemical and spectroscopic properties of HOF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramachandran, Bala (Ramu)

    1 Effect of electron correlation and scalar relativistic corrections on the thermochemical effects on the thermochemical and spectroscopic properties are investigated. The results are compared recommendation for the 0 K enthalpy of formation of HOF, ,0KfH = ­20.02 ± 0.25 kcal/mol, is presented based

  17. Experimental and Computational Thermochemical Study of 2-and 3-Thiopheneacetic Acid Methyl Esters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chickos, James S.

    Experimental and Computational Thermochemical Study of 2- and 3-Thiopheneacetic Acid Methyl Esters an experimental and computational thermochemical study on the relative stabilities of 2- and 3-thiopheneacetic acid methyl esters. The enthalpies of combustion and vaporization were measured by a rotating

  18. Rediscovering the Wheel. Thermochemical Analysis of Energetics of the Aromatic Diazines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chickos, James S.

    Rediscovering the Wheel. Thermochemical Analysis of Energetics of the Aromatic Diazines Sergey P: Thermochemical properties of pyrimidine, pyrazine, and pyridazine have been measured and re-evaluated to provide calorimetry and vapor pressure measurements. The gas and condensed phase enthalpies of formation of the parent

  19. Dynamics of thermochemical plumes: 1. Plume formation and entrainment of a dense layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Keken, Peter

    Dynamics of thermochemical plumes: 1. Plume formation and entrainment of a dense layer Shu investigate the formation of plumes from a thermochemical boundary layer and the entrainment of the dense three factors influence the nature of plume formation and entrainment of dense material. The complexity

  20. Review and analysis of the 1980-1989 biomass thermochemical conversion program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, D.J.

    1994-09-01

    In the period between 1980 and 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored research and development projects through its Biomass Thermochemical Conversion (BTC) Program. Thermochemical conversion technologies use elevated temperatures to convert biomass into more useful forms of energy such as fuel gases or transportation fuels. The BTC Program included a wide range of biomass conversion projects in the areas of gasification, pyrolysis, liquefaction, and combustion. This work formed the basis of the present DOE research and development efforts on advanced liquid fuel and power generation systems. At the beginning of Fiscal Year 1989, the management of the BTC Program was transferred from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL, formerly Solar Energy Research Institute). This document presents a summary of the research which was performed under the BTC Program during the 1981-1989 time frame. The document consists of an analysis of the research projects which were funded by the BTC Program and a bibliography of published documents. This work will help ensure that information from PNL`s BTC Program is available to those interested in biomass conversion technologies. The background of the BTC Program is discussed in the first chapter of this report. In addition, a brief summary of other related biomass research and development programs funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and others is presented with references where additional information can be found. The remaining chapters of the report present a detailed summary of the research projects which were funded by the BTC Program. The progress which was made on each project is summarized, the overall impact on biomass conversion is discussed, and selected references are provided.

  1. Revised and Updated Thermochemical Properties of the Gases Mercapto ,,HS..., Disulfur Monoxide ,,S2O..., Thiazyl ,,NS...,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fegley Jr., Bruce

    in the 4th edition of the NIST-JANAF Thermochemical Tables. Updated enthalpies of formation were includedRevised and Updated Thermochemical Properties of the Gases Mercapto ,,HS..., Disulfur Monoxide ,,S2 to compute the thermochemical tables for four ideal gases: mercapto HS , disulfur monox- ide (S2O), thiazyl

  2. Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. 1984 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of the program is to generate scientific data and conversion process information that will lead to establishment of cost-effective process for converting biomass resources into clean fuels. The goal of the program is to develop the data base for biomass thermal conversion by investigating the fundamental aspects of conversion technologies and by exploring those parameters that are critical to the conversion processes. The research activities can be divided into: (1) gasification technology; (2) liquid fuels technology; (3) direct combustion technology; and (4) program support activities. These activities are described in detail in this report. Outstanding accomplishments during fiscal year 1984 include: (1) successful operation of 3-MW combustor/gas turbine system; (2) successful extended term operation of an indirectly heated, dual bed gasifier for producing medium-Btu gas; (3) determination that oxygen requirements for medium-Btu gasification of biomass in a pressurized, fluidized bed gasifier are low; (4) established interdependence of temperature and residence times on biomass pyrolysis oil yields; and (5) determination of preliminary technical feasibility of thermally gasifying high moisture biomass feedstocks. A bibliography of 1984 publications is included. 26 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Solar thermochemical fuel production. (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail. (Conference)Feedback System in the CERN SPS(JournalLinacSolar thermochemical fuel

  4. Towards a new generation of multi-dimensional stellar evolution models: development of an implicit hydrodynamic code

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viallet, M; Walder, R

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the first steps of development of a new multidimensional time implicit code devoted to the study of hydrodynamical processes in stellar interiors. The code solves the hydrodynamical equations in spherical geometry and is based on the finite volume method. Radiation transport is taken into account within the diffusion approximation. Realistic equation of state and opacities are implemented, allowing the study of a wide range of problems characteristic of stellar interiors. We describe in details the numerical method and various standard tests performed to validate the method. We present preliminary results devoted to the description of stellar convection. We first perform a local simulation of convection in the surface layers of a A-type star model. This simulation is used to test the ability of the code to address stellar conditions and to validate our results, since they can be compared to similar previous simulations based on explicit codes. We then present a global simulation of turbul...

  5. 462 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION THEORY, VOL. 44, NO. 2, MARCH 1998 Source Codes as Random Number Generators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kulkarni, Sanjeev

    ´u [11] gave fundamental limits on the rate at which random bits can be generated from an arbitrary Number Generators Karthik Visweswariah, Student Member, IEEE, Sanjeev R. Kulkarni, Senior Member, IEEE, and Sergio Verd´u, Fellow, IEEE Abstract--A random number generator generates fair coin flips by processing

  6. Radiation-Generating Devices Guide for Use with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1999-04-15

    For use with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection. This Guide provides an acceptable methodology for establishing and operating a sealed radioactive source accountability and control program that will comply with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements specified in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection (DOE 1998a), hereinafter referred to as 10 CFR 835. In particular, this Guide provides guidance for achieving compliance with subpart M of 10 CFR 835. Canceled by DOE G 441.1-1B.

  7. Moving bed reactor for solar thermochemical fuel production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ermanoski, Ivan

    2013-04-16

    Reactors and methods for solar thermochemical reactions are disclosed. Embodiments of reactors include at least two distinct reactor chambers between which there is at least a pressure differential. In embodiments, reactive particles are exchanged between chambers during a reaction cycle to thermally reduce the particles at first conditions and oxidize the particles at second conditions to produce chemical work from heat. In embodiments, chambers of a reactor are coupled to a heat exchanger to pre-heat the reactive particles prior to direct exposure to thermal energy with heat transferred from reduced reactive particles as the particles are oppositely conveyed between the thermal reduction chamber and the fuel production chamber. In an embodiment, particle conveyance is in part provided by an elevator which may further function as a heat exchanger.

  8. An experimental test plan for the characterization of molten salt thermochemical properties in heat transport systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pattrick Calderoni

    2010-09-01

    Molten salts are considered within the Very High Temperature Reactor program as heat transfer media because of their intrinsically favorable thermo-physical properties at temperatures starting from 300 C and extending up to 1200 C. In this context two main applications of molten salt are considered, both involving fluoride-based materials: as primary coolants for a heterogeneous fuel reactor core and as secondary heat transport medium to a helium power cycle for electricity generation or other processing plants, such as hydrogen production. The reference design concept here considered is the Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR), which is a large passively safe reactor that uses solid graphite-matrix coated-particle fuel (similar to that used in gas-cooled reactors) and a molten salt primary and secondary coolant with peak temperatures between 700 and 1000 C, depending upon the application. However, the considerations included in this report apply to any high temperature system employing fluoride salts as heat transfer fluid, including intermediate heat exchangers for gas-cooled reactor concepts and homogenous molten salt concepts, and extending also to fast reactors, accelerator-driven systems and fusion energy systems. The purpose of this report is to identify the technical issues related to the thermo-physical and thermo-chemical properties of the molten salts that would require experimental characterization in order to proceed with a credible design of heat transfer systems and their subsequent safety evaluation and licensing. In particular, the report outlines an experimental R&D test plan that would have to be incorporated as part of the design and operation of an engineering scaled facility aimed at validating molten salt heat transfer components, such as Intermediate Heat Exchangers. This report builds on a previous review of thermo-physical properties and thermo-chemical characteristics of candidate molten salt coolants that was generated as part of the same project [1]. However, this work focuses on two materials: the LiF-BeF2 eutectic (67 and 33 mol%, respectively, also known as flibe) as primary coolant and the LiF-NaF-KF eutectic (46.5, 11.5, and 52 mol%, respectively, also known as flinak) as secondary heat transport fluid. At first common issues are identified, involving the preparation and purification of the materials as well as the development of suitable diagnostics. Than issues specific to each material and its application are considered, with focus on the compatibility with structural materials and the extension of the existing properties database.

  9. Project Profile: Engineering a Novel High Temperature Metal Hydride Thermochemical Storage

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy's SunShot Initiative awarded to Pacific Northwest National Lab (PNNL) through the Concentrating Solar Power: Efficiently Leveraging Equilibrium Mechanisms for Engineering New Thermochemical Storage (CSP: ELEMENTS) funding program.

  10. Multi-scale chemistry modeling of the thermochemical conversion of biomass in a fluidized bed gasifier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stark, Addison Killean

    2015-01-01

    The thermochemical conversion of biomass to fuels via syn-gas offers a promising approach to producing fungible substitutes for petroleum derived fuels and chemicals. In order for these fuels to be adopted, they must be ...

  11. Project Profile: High-Temperature Thermochemical Storage with Redox-Stable Perovskites for Concentrating Solar Power

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy's SunShot Initiative made an award to Colorado School of Mines (CSM) through the Concentrating Solar Power: Efficiently Leveraging Equilibrium Mechanisms for Engineering New Thermochemical Storage (CSP: ELEMENTS) funding program.

  12. Thermochemical Properties of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) from G3MP2B3 Calculations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pitsch, Heinz

    Thermochemical Properties of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) from G3MP2B3 Calculations-pVDZ). Enthalpies of formation are calculated using the mixed G3MP2//B3 method. Finally, a group correction

  13. Project Profile: High Performance Reduction/Oxidation Metal Oxides for Thermochemical Energy Storage

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy's Solar Energy Technology Office made an award to Sandia National Lab (Sandia) through the Concentrating Solar Power: Efficiently Leveraging Equilibrium Mechanisms for Engineering New Thermochemical Storage (CSP: ELEMENTS) funding program.

  14. Project Profile: Regenerative Carbonate-Based Thermochemical Energy Storage System for Concentrating Solar Power

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy’s SunShot Initiative awarded Southern Research Institute (SRI) through the Concentrating Solar Power: Efficiently Leveraging Equilibrium Mechanisms for Engineering New Thermochemical Storage (CSP: ELEMENTS) funding program.

  15. Synfuels from fusion: producing hydrogen with the Tandem Mirror Reactor and thermochemical cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Werner, R.W.; Ribe, F.L.

    1981-01-21

    This volume contains the following sections: (1) the Tandem Mirror fusion driver, (2) the Cauldron blanket module, (3) the flowing microsphere, (4) coupling the reactor to the process, (5) the thermochemical cycles, and (6) chemical reactors and process units. (MOW)

  16. System and method for investigating sub-surface features of a rock formation with acoustic sources generating coded signals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vu, Cung Khac; Nihei, Kurt; Johnson, Paul A; Guyer, Robert; Ten Cate, James A; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; Larmat, Carene S

    2014-12-30

    A system and a method for investigating rock formations includes generating, by a first acoustic source, a first acoustic signal comprising a first plurality of pulses, each pulse including a first modulated signal at a central frequency; and generating, by a second acoustic source, a second acoustic signal comprising a second plurality of pulses. A receiver arranged within the borehole receives a detected signal including a signal being generated by a non-linear mixing process from the first-and-second acoustic signal in a non-linear mixing zone within the intersection volume. The method also includes-processing the received signal to extract the signal generated by the non-linear mixing process over noise or over signals generated by a linear interaction process, or both.

  17. Third millenium ideal gas and condensed phase thermochemical database for combustion (with update from active thermochemical tables).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burcat, A.; Ruscic, B.; Chemistry; Technion - Israel Inst. of Tech.

    2005-07-29

    The thermochemical database of species involved in combustion processes is and has been available for free use for over 25 years. It was first published in print in 1984, approximately 8 years after it was first assembled, and contained 215 species at the time. This is the 7th printed edition and most likely will be the last one in print in the present format, which involves substantial manual labor. The database currently contains more than 1300 species, specifically organic molecules and radicals, but also inorganic species connected to combustion and air pollution. Since 1991 this database is freely available on the internet, at the Technion-IIT ftp server, and it is continuously expanded and corrected. The database is mirrored daily at an official mirror site, and at random at about a dozen unofficial mirror and 'finger' sites. The present edition contains numerous corrections and many recalculations of data of provisory type by the G3//B3LYP method, a high-accuracy composite ab initio calculation. About 300 species are newly calculated and are not yet published elsewhere. In anticipation of the full coupling, which is under development, the database started incorporating the available (as yet unpublished) values from Active Thermochemical Tables. The electronic version now also contains an XML file of the main database to allow transfer to other formats and ease finding specific information of interest. The database is used by scientists, educators, engineers and students at all levels, dealing primarily with combustion and air pollution, jet engines, rocket propulsion, fireworks, but also by researchers involved in upper atmosphere kinetics, astrophysics, abrasion metallurgy, etc. This introductory article contains explanations of the database and the means to use it, its sources, ways of calculation, and assessments of the accuracy of data.

  18. SummitView 1.0: a code to automatically generate 3D solid models of surface micro-machining based MEMS designs.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBride, Cory L. (Elemental Technologies, American Fort, UT); Yarberry, Victor R.; Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Meyers, Ray J. (Elemental Technologies, American Fort, UT)

    2006-11-01

    This report describes the SummitView 1.0 computer code developed at Sandia National Laboratories. SummitView is designed to generate a 3D solid model, amenable to visualization and meshing, that represents the end state of a microsystem fabrication process such as the SUMMiT (Sandia Ultra-Planar Multilevel MEMS Technology) V process. Functionally, SummitView performs essentially the same computational task as an earlier code called the 3D Geometry modeler [1]. However, because SummitView is based on 2D instead of 3D data structures and operations, it has significant speed and robustness advantages. As input it requires a definition of both the process itself and the collection of individual 2D masks created by the designer and associated with each of the process steps. The definition of the process is contained in a special process definition file [2] and the 2D masks are contained in MEM format files [3]. The code is written in C++ and consists of a set of classes and routines. The classes represent the geometric data and the SUMMiT V process steps. Classes are provided for the following process steps: Planar Deposition, Planar Etch, Conformal Deposition, Dry Etch, Wet Etch and Release Etch. SummitView is built upon the 2D Boolean library GBL-2D [4], and thus contains all of that library's functionality.

  19. LINE: a code which simulates spectral line shapes for fusion reaction products generated by various speed distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slaughter, D.

    1985-03-01

    A computer code is described which estimates the energy spectrum or ''line-shape'' for the charged particles and ..gamma..-rays produced by the fusion of low-z ions in a hot plasma. The simulation has several ''built-in'' ion velocity distributions characteristic of heated plasmas and it also accepts arbitrary speed and angular distributions although they must all be symmetric about the z-axis. An energy spectrum of one of the reaction products (ion, neutron, or ..gamma..-ray) is calculated at one angle with respect to the symmetry axis. The results are shown in tabular form, they are plotted graphically, and the moments of the spectrum to order ten are calculated both with respect to the origin and with respect to the mean.

  20. Integrated solar thermochemical reaction system for steam methane reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Feng; Diver, Rich; Caldwell, Dustin D.; Fritz, Brad G.; Cameron, Richard J.; Humble, Paul H.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Dagle, Robert A.; Wegeng, Robert S.

    2015-06-05

    Solar-aided upgrade of the energy content of fossil fuels, such as natural gas, can provide a near-term transition path towards a future solar-fuel economy and reduce carbon dioxide emission from fossil fuel consumption. Both steam and dry reforming a methane-containing fuel stream have been studied with concentrated solar power as the energy input to drive the highly endothermic reactions but the concept has not been demonstrated at a commercial scale. Under a current project with the U.S. Department of Energy, PNNL is developing an integrated solar thermochemical reaction system that combines solar concentrators with micro- and meso-channel reactors and heat exchangers to accomplish more than 20% solar augment of methane higher heating value. The objective of our three-year project is to develop and prepare for commercialization such solar reforming system with a high enough efficiency to serve as the frontend of a conventional natural gas (or biogas) combined cycle power plant, producing power with a levelized cost of electricity less than 6¢/kWh, without subsidies, by the year 2020. In this paper, we present results from the first year of our project that demonstrated a solar-to-chemical energy conversion efficiency as high as 69% with a prototype reaction system.

  1. Integrated solar thermochemical reaction system for steam methane reforming

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Feng; Diver, Rich; Caldwell, Dustin D.; Fritz, Brad G.; Cameron, Richard J.; Humble, Paul H.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Dagle, Robert A.; Wegeng, Robert S.

    2015-06-05

    Solar-aided upgrade of the energy content of fossil fuels, such as natural gas, can provide a near-term transition path towards a future solar-fuel economy and reduce carbon dioxide emission from fossil fuel consumption. Both steam and dry reforming a methane-containing fuel stream have been studied with concentrated solar power as the energy input to drive the highly endothermic reactions but the concept has not been demonstrated at a commercial scale. Under a current project with the U.S. Department of Energy, PNNL is developing an integrated solar thermochemical reaction system that combines solar concentrators with micro- and meso-channel reactors and heatmore »exchangers to accomplish more than 20% solar augment of methane higher heating value. The objective of our three-year project is to develop and prepare for commercialization such solar reforming system with a high enough efficiency to serve as the frontend of a conventional natural gas (or biogas) combined cycle power plant, producing power with a levelized cost of electricity less than 6¢/kWh, without subsidies, by the year 2020. In this paper, we present results from the first year of our project that demonstrated a solar-to-chemical energy conversion efficiency as high as 69% with a prototype reaction system.« less

  2. Thermochemical modeling of ceramic systems formed by combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Behrens, R.G.; Brush, H.T.

    1985-01-01

    Preliminary work showed that an appropriate stoichiometric mixture of yttrium, silicon dioxide, and graphite will react exothermically. However, the product which was formed was not the desired Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/ + SiC mixture, but rather a complex eutectic-like material. Preliminary attempts to ignite an exothermic reaction with an appropriate stoichiometric mixture of zirconium, silicon dioxide, and graphite (which was predicted to react and to form a ZrO/sub 2/ + SiC mixture) were not successful. The approach used to further study the high-temperature synthesis chemistry of these two complex chemical systems involved using equilibrium thermochemical modeling techniques. Parametric studies were performed to evaluate the effect of temperature and pressure on the gas and solid equilibrium phase relationships. While system temperature and pressure were varied in a systematic manner, stoichiometry of the reacting materials was held constant according to the equations 4Y + 3SiO/sub 2/ + 3C = 2Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/ + 3SiC and Zr + SiO/sub 2/ + C = ZrO/sub 2/ + SiC.

  3. Constructal method to optimize solar thermochemical reactor design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tescari, S.; Mazet, N.; Neveu, P.

    2010-09-15

    The objective of this study is the geometrical optimization of a thermochemical reactor, which works simultaneously as solar collector and reactor. The heat (concentrated solar radiation) is supplied on a small peripheral surface and has to be dispersed in the entire reactive volume in order to activate the reaction all over the material. A similarity between this study and the point to volume problem analyzed by the constructal approach (Bejan, 2000) is evident. This approach was successfully applied to several domains, for example for the coupled mass and conductive heat transfer (Azoumah et al., 2004). Focusing on solar reactors, this work aims to apply constructal analysis to coupled conductive and radiative heat transfer. As a first step, the chemical reaction is represented by a uniform heat sink inside the material. The objective is to optimize the reactor geometry in order to maximize its efficiency. By using some hypothesis, a simplified solution is found. A parametric study provides the influence of different technical and operating parameters on the maximal efficiency and on the optimal shape. Different reactor designs (filled cylinder, cavity and honeycomb reactors) are compared, in order to determine the most efficient structure according to the operating conditions. Finally, these results are compared with a CFD model in order to validate the assumptions. (author)

  4. Coding theory basics Toric codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Little, John B.

    Coding theory basics Toric codes Tools from the toric world Higher-dimensional polytopes. Little Toric Varieties in Coding Theory #12;Coding theory basics Toric codes Tools from the toric world(!) John B. Little Toric Varieties in Coding Theory #12;Coding theory basics Toric codes Tools from

  5. First principles computation of thermochemical properties beyond the harmonic approximation. I. Method and application to the water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Jan M.L.

    First principles computation of thermochemical properties beyond the harmonic approximation. I of thermochemical data for molecules and reactions hardly needs to be stressed. Compilations like the JANAF tables' list free energy functions, entropies, enthalpies, and molar heats as a function of temperature from

  6. Solar Thermochemical Fuels Production: Solar Thermochemical Fuel Production via a Novel Lowe Pressure, Magnetically Stabilized, Non-volatile Iron Oxide Looping Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-12-19

    HEATS Project: The University of Florida is developing a windowless high-temperature chemical reactor that converts concentrated solar thermal energy to syngas, which can be used to produce gasoline. The overarching project goal is lowering the cost of the solar thermochemical production of syngas for clean and synthetic hydrocarbon fuels like petroleum. The team will develop processes that rely on water and recycled CO2 as the sole feed-stock, and concentrated solar radiation as the sole energy source, to power the reactor to produce fuel efficiently. Successful large-scale deployment of this solar thermochemical fuel production could substantially improve our national and economic security by replacing imported oil with domestically produced solar fuels.

  7. HOSSEINI et al Optimization of NaOH thermo-chemical pre-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A municipal solid waste produced in urban and rural communities is a serious pollution source of water; Response Surface Method; water resource; pollution INTRODUCTION Large amount of solid waste is producedHOSSEINI et al Optimization of NaOH thermo-chemical pre- treatment for enhancing solubilisation

  8. Synthetic tomography of plume clusters and thermochemical piles A.L. Bull a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritsema, Jeroen

    seismic models. Large, thermochemical piles are weakly distorted by the tomographic filter. The power to distinguish between these given that each has unique consequences for the mode of heat and mass transport heterogeneity in the Earth's mantle. Combined with hypothesis-testing through geodynamical modeling and an under

  9. Influence of the Post-Perovskite Transition on Thermal and Thermo-Chemical Mantle Convection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tackley, Paul J.

    Influence of the Post-Perovskite Transition on Thermal and Thermo-Chemical Mantle Convection Paul J Physique du Globe de Paris, France Several studies have focused on the post-perovskite (PPV) transition, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. Post-Perovskite: The Last Mantle Phase Transition

  10. Study of the Anomalous Thermochemical Behavior of 1,2-Diazines by Correlation-Gas Chromatography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chickos, James S.

    Study of the Anomalous Thermochemical Behavior of 1,2-Diazines by Correlation-Gas Chromatography of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, Maryland 21250 The vaporization enthalpies and liquid vapor literature vaporization, sublimation, and fusion enthalpy data. Good agreement with the literature

  11. Materials Development for Improved Efficiency of Hydrogen Production by Steam Electrolysis and Thermochemical-Electrochemical Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yildiz, Bilge

    and Thermochemical-Electrochemical Processes Jennifer Mawdsley, Deborah Myers, and Bilge Yildiz Chemical Engineering and depositing a thin doped-ceria interlayer between the perovskite electrodes and zirconia electrolytes² area) deposited on one side of a 200-m thick YSZ (8 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia) or SSZ (10 mol

  12. Prediction of oxy-coal flame stand-off using high-fidelity thermochemical models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prediction of oxy-coal flame stand-off using high-fidelity thermochemical models and the one Abstract An Eulerian one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) model is applied to simulate oxy-coal combustion temperature and mixing rate on oxy-coal flame is simulated and discussed where flame stand-off is used

  13. KAOS/LIB-V: A library of nuclear response functions generated by KAOS-V code from ENDF/B-V and other data files

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farawila, Y.; Gohar, Y.; Maynard, C.

    1989-04-01

    KAOS/LIB-V: A library of processed nuclear responses for neutronics analyses of nuclear systems has been generated. The library was prepared using the KAOS-V code and nuclear data from ENDF/B-V. The library includes kerma (kinetic energy released in materials) factors and other nuclear response functions for all materials presently of interest in fusion and fission applications for 43 nonfissionable and 15 fissionable isotopes and elements. The nuclear response functions include gas production and tritium-breeding functions, and all important reaction cross sections. KAOS/LIB-V employs the VITAMIN-E weighting function and energy group structure of 174 neutron groups. Auxiliary nuclear data bases, e.g., the Japanese evaluated nuclear data library JENDL-2 were used as a source of isotopic cross sections when these data are not provided in ENDF/B-V files for a natural element. These are needed mainly to estimate average quantities such as effective Q-values for the natural element. This analysis of local energy deposition was instrumental in detecting and understanding energy balance deficiencies and other problems in the ENDF/B-V data. Pertinent information about the library and a graphical display of the main nuclear response functions for all materials in the library are given. 35 refs.

  14. Effects of Dopant Metal Variation and Material Synthesis Method on the Material Properties of Mixed Metal Ferrites in Yttria Stabilized Zirconia for Solar Thermochemical Fuel Production

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Leonard, Jeffrey; Reyes, Nichole; Allen, Kyle M.; Randhir, Kelvin; Li, Like; AuYeung, Nick; Grunewald, Jeremy; Rhodes, Nathan; Bobek, Michael; Klausner, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Mixed metal ferrites have shown much promise in two-step solar-thermochemical fuel production. Previous work has typically focused on evaluating a particular metal ferrite produced by a particular synthesis process, which makes comparisons between studies performed by independent researchers difficult. A comparative study was undertaken to explore the effects different synthesis methods have on the performance of a particular material during redox cycling using thermogravimetry. This study revealed that materials made via wet chemistry methods and extended periods of high temperature calcination yield better redox performance. Differences in redox performance between materials made via wet chemistry methods were minimal andmore »these demonstrated much better performance than those synthesized via the solid state method. Subsequently, various metal ferrite samples (NiFe 2 O 4 , MgFe 2 O 4 , CoFe 2 O 4 , and MnFe 2 O 4 ) in yttria stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) were synthesized via coprecipitation and tested to determine the most promising metal ferrite combination. It was determined that 10?wt.% CoFe 2 O 4 in 8YSZ produced the highest and most consistent yields of O 2 and CO. By testing the effects of synthesis methods and dopants in a consistent fashion, those aspects of ferrite preparation which are most significant can be revealed. More importantly, these insights can guide future efforts in developing the next generation of thermochemical fuel production materials. « less

  15. Tokamak Systems Code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, R.L.; Barrett, R.J.; Brown, T.G.; Gorker, G.E.; Hooper, R.J.; Kalsi, S.S.; Metzler, D.H.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Roth, K.E.; Spampinato, P.T.

    1985-03-01

    The FEDC Tokamak Systems Code calculates tokamak performance, cost, and configuration as a function of plasma engineering parameters. This version of the code models experimental tokamaks. It does not currently consider tokamak configurations that generate electrical power or incorporate breeding blankets. The code has a modular (or subroutine) structure to allow independent modeling for each major tokamak component or system. A primary benefit of modularization is that a component module may be updated without disturbing the remainder of the systems code as long as the imput to or output from the module remains unchanged.

  16. Project Profile: Thermochemical Storage with Anhydrous Ammonia: Optimizing the Synthesis Reactor for Direct Production of Supercritical Steam

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy's SunShot Initiative has made an award to University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) through the Concentrating Solar Power: Efficiently Leveraging Equilibrium Mechanisms for Engineering New Thermochemical Storage (CSP: ELEMENTS) funding program.

  17. DOI: 10.1002/cssc.200900138 Ceria as a Thermochemical Reaction Medium for Selectively Generating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Syngas or Methane from H2O and CO2 William C. Chueh and Sossina M. Haile*[a] To enable the transition away from a fossil-fuel-based energy economy, it is essential to address, in addition to energy ex a chemical fuel. For the production of hydrogen the reac- tion cycle is given as: ðTemperature THÞMO2 ! MO2Àd

  18. Baseload CSP Generation Integrated with Sulfur-Based Thermochemical Heat Storage- FY12 Q4

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document summarizes the progress of this General Atomics project, funded by SunShot, for the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2012.

  19. Baseload CSP Generation Integrated with Sulfur-Based Thermochemical Heat Storage- FY13 Q1

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document summarizes the progress of this General Atomics project, funded by SunShot, for the first quarter of fiscal year 2013.

  20. Baseload CSP Generation Integrated with Sulfur-Based Thermochemical Heat Storage- FY13 Q2

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document summarizes the progress of this General Atomics project, funded by SunShot, for the second quarter of fiscal year 2013.

  1. Synfuels from fusion: producing hydrogen with the tandem mirror reactor and thermochemical cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ribe, F.L.; Werner, R.W.

    1981-01-21

    This report examines, for technical merit, the combination of a fusion reactor driver and a thermochemical plant as a means for producing synthetic fuel in the basic form of hydrogen. We studied: (1) one reactor type - the Tandem Mirror Reactor - wishing to use to advantage its simple central cell geometry and its direct electrical output; (2) two reactor blanket module types - a liquid metal cauldron design and a flowing Li/sub 2/O solid microsphere pellet design so as to compare the technology, the thermal-hydraulics, neutronics and tritium control in a high-temperature operating mode (approx. 1200 K); (3) three thermochemical cycles - processes in which water is used as a feedstock along with a high-temperature heat source to produce H/sub 2/ and O/sub 2/.

  2. Synfuels from fusion: using the tandem mirror reactor and a thermochemical cycle to produce hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Werner, R.W.

    1982-11-01

    This study is concerned with the following area: (1) the tandem mirror reactor and its physics; (2) energy balance; (3) the lithium oxide canister blanket system; (4) high-temperature blanket; (5) energy transport system-reactor to process; (6) thermochemical hydrogen processes; (7) interfacing the GA cycle; (8) matching power and temperature demands; (9) preliminary cost estimates; (10) synfuels beyond hydrogen; and (11) thermodynamics of the H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/-H/sub 2/O system. (MOW)

  3. Thermochemically recuperated and steam cooled gas turbine system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Viscovich, P.W.; Bannister, R.L.

    1995-07-11

    A gas turbine system is described in which the expanded gas from the turbine section is used to generate the steam in a heat recovery steam generator and to heat a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel and the steam in a reformer. The reformer converts the hydrocarbon gas to hydrogen and carbon monoxide for combustion in a combustor. A portion of the steam from the heat recovery steam generator is used to cool components, such as the stationary vanes, in the turbine section, thereby superheating the steam. The superheated steam is mixed into the hydrocarbon gas upstream of the reformer, thereby eliminating the need to raise the temperature of the expanded gas discharged from the turbine section in order to achieve effective conversion of the hydrocarbon gas. 4 figs.

  4. Thermochemically recuperated and steam cooled gas turbine system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Viscovich, Paul W. (Longwood, FL); Bannister, Ronald L. (Winter Springs, FL)

    1995-01-01

    A gas turbine system in which the expanded gas from the turbine section is used to generate the steam in a heat recovery steam generator and to heat a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel and the steam in a reformer. The reformer converts the hydrocarbon gas to hydrogen and carbon monoxide for combustion in a combustor. A portion of the steam from the heat recovery steam generator is used to cool components, such as the stationary vanes, in the turbine section, thereby superheating the steam. The superheated steam is mixed into the hydrocarbon gas upstream of the reformer, thereby eliminating the need to raise the temperature of the expanded gas discharged from the turbine section in order to achieve effective conversion of the hydrocarbon gas.

  5. Current Research on Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baldwin, R. M.; Magrini-Bair, K. A.; Nimlos, M. R.; Pepiot, P.; Donohoe, B. S.; Hensley, J. E.; Phillips, S. D.

    2012-04-05

    The thermochemical research platform at the National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is primarily focused on conversion of biomass to transportation fuels using non-biological techniques. Research is conducted in three general areas relating to fuels synthesis via thermochemical conversion by gasification: (1) Biomass gasification fundamentals, chemistry and mechanisms of tar formation; (2) Catalytic tar reforming and syngas cleaning; and (3) Syngas conversion to mixed alcohols. In addition, the platform supports activities in both technoeconomic analysis (TEA) and life cycle assessment (LCA) of thermochemical conversion processes. Results from the TEA and LCA are used to inform and guide laboratory research for alternative biomass-to-fuels strategies. Detailed process models are developed using the best available material and energy balance information and unit operations models created at NREL and elsewhere. These models are used to identify cost drivers which then form the basis for research programs aimed at reducing costs and improving process efficiency while maintaining sustainability and an overall net reduction in greenhouse gases.

  6. THERMOCHEMICAL CONVERSION OF FERMENTATION-DERIVED OXYGENATES TO FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Wang, Yong

    2013-06-01

    At present ethanol generated from renewable resources through fermentation process is the dominant biofuel. But ethanol suffers from undesirable fuel properties such as low energy density and high water solubility. The production capacity of fermentation derived oxygenates are projected to rise in near future beyond the current needs. The conversion of oxygenates to hydrocarbon compounds that are similar to gasoline, diesel and jet fuel is considered as one of the viable option. In this chapter the thermo catalytic conversion of oxygenates generated through fermentation to fuel range hydrocarbons will be discussed.

  7. Code constructions and code families for nonbinary quantum stabilizer code 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ketkar, Avanti Ulhas

    2005-11-01

    Stabilizer codes form a special class of quantum error correcting codes. Nonbinary quantum stabilizer codes are studied in this thesis. A lot of work on binary quantum stabilizer codes has been done. Nonbinary stabilizer codes have received much...

  8. BAC-MP4 Predictions of Thermochemical Data for C1 and C2 Stable and Radical Hydrofluorocarbons and Oxidized Hydrofluorocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zachariah, Michael R.

    BAC-MP4 Predictions of Thermochemical Data for C1 and C2 Stable and Radical Hydrofluorocarbons performed to obtain a large body of thermochemical data on about 100 closed and open shelled fluorocarbon species. For about 70 of these species, literature values for enthalpies of formation were available

  9. Lifecycle assessment of microalgae to biofuel: Comparison of thermochemical processing pathways

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bennion, Edward P.; Ginosar, Daniel M.; Moses, John; Agblevor, Foster; Quinn, Jason C.

    2015-09-15

    Microalgae are currently being investigated as a renewable transportation fuel feedstock based on various advantages that include high annual yields, utilization of poor quality land, does not compete with food, and can be integrated with various waste streams. This study focuses on directly assessing the impact of two different thermochemical conversion technologies on the microalgae to biofuel process through life cycle assessment. A system boundary of a “well to pump” (WTP) is defined and includes sub-process models of the growth, dewatering, thermochemical bio-oil recovery, bio-oil stabilization, conversion to renewable diesel, and transport to the pump. Models were validated with experimentalmore »and literature data and are representative of an industrial-scale microalgae to biofuel process. Two different thermochemical bio-oil conversion systems are modeled and compared on a systems level, hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) and pyrolysis. The environmental impact of the two pathways were quantified on the metrics of net energy ratio (NER), defined here as energy consumed over energy produced, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Results for WTP biofuel production through the HTL pathway were determined to be 1.23 for the NER and GHG emissions of -11.4 g CO2 eq (MJ renewable diesel)-1. WTP biofuel production through the pyrolysis pathway results in a NER of 2.27 and GHG emissions of 210 g CO2 eq (MJ renewable diesel)-1. The large environmental impact associated with the pyrolysis pathway is attributed to feedstock drying requirements and combustion of co-products to improve system energetics. Discussion focuses on a detailed breakdown of the overall process energetics and GHGs, impact of modeling at laboratory- scale compared to industrial-scale, environmental impact sensitivity to engineering systems input parameters for future focused research and development and a comparison of results to literature.« less

  10. Lifecycle assessment of microalgae to biofuel: Comparison of thermochemical processing pathways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennion, Edward P.; Ginosar, Daniel M.; Moses, John; Agblevor, Foster; Quinn, Jason C.

    2015-09-15

    Microalgae are currently being investigated as a renewable transportation fuel feedstock based on various advantages that include high annual yields, utilization of poor quality land, does not compete with food, and can be integrated with various waste streams. This study focuses on directly assessing the impact of two different thermochemical conversion technologies on the microalgae to biofuel process through life cycle assessment. A system boundary of a “well to pump” (WTP) is defined and includes sub-process models of the growth, dewatering, thermochemical bio-oil recovery, bio-oil stabilization, conversion to renewable diesel, and transport to the pump. Models were validated with experimental and literature data and are representative of an industrial-scale microalgae to biofuel process. Two different thermochemical bio-oil conversion systems are modeled and compared on a systems level, hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) and pyrolysis. The environmental impact of the two pathways were quantified on the metrics of net energy ratio (NER), defined here as energy consumed over energy produced, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Results for WTP biofuel production through the HTL pathway were determined to be 1.23 for the NER and GHG emissions of -11.4 g CO2 eq (MJ renewable diesel)-1. WTP biofuel production through the pyrolysis pathway results in a NER of 2.27 and GHG emissions of 210 g CO2 eq (MJ renewable diesel)-1. The large environmental impact associated with the pyrolysis pathway is attributed to feedstock drying requirements and combustion of co-products to improve system energetics. Discussion focuses on a detailed breakdown of the overall process energetics and GHGs, impact of modeling at laboratory- scale compared to industrial-scale, environmental impact sensitivity to engineering systems input parameters for future focused research and development and a comparison of results to literature.

  11. Lifecycle assessment of microalgae to biofuel: Comparison of thermochemical processing pathways

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bennion, Edward P.; Ginosar, Daniel M.; Moses, John; Agblevor, Foster; Quinn, Jason C.

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae are currently being investigated as a renewable transportation fuel feedstock based on various advantages that include high annual yields, utilization of poor quality land, does not compete with food, and can be integrated with various waste streams. This study focuses on directly assessing the impact of two different thermochemical conversion technologies on the microalgae to biofuel process through life cycle assessment. A system boundary of a “well to pump” (WTP) is defined and includes sub-process models of the growth, dewatering, thermochemical bio-oil recovery, bio-oil stabilization, conversion to renewable diesel, and transport to the pump. Models were validated with experimental and literature data and are representative of an industrial-scale microalgae to biofuel process. Two different thermochemical bio-oil conversion systems are modeled and compared on a systems level, hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) and pyrolysis. The environmental impact of the two pathways were quantified on the metrics of net energy ratio (NER), defined here as energy consumed over energy produced, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Results for WTP biofuel production through the HTL pathway were determined to be 1.23 for the NER and GHG emissions of -11.4 g CO2 eq (MJ renewable diesel)-1. WTP biofuel production through the pyrolysis pathway results in a NER of 2.27 and GHG emissions of 210 g CO2 eq (MJ renewable diesel)-1. The large environmental impact associated with the pyrolysis pathway is attributed to feedstock drying requirements and combustion of co-products to improve system energetics. Discussion focuses on a detailed breakdown of the overall process energetics and GHGs, impact of modeling at laboratory- scale compared to industrial-scale, environmental impact sensitivity to engineering systems input parameters for future focused research and development and a comparison of results to literature.

  12. Sparse Quantum Codes from Quantum Circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dave Bacon; Steven T. Flammia; Aram W. Harrow; Jonathan Shi

    2015-07-10

    We describe a general method for turning quantum circuits into sparse quantum subsystem codes. Using this prescription, we can map an arbitrary stabilizer code into a new subsystem code with the same distance and number of encoded qubits but where all the generators have constant weight, at the cost of adding some ancilla qubits. With an additional overhead of ancilla qubits, the new code can also be made spatially local. Applying our construction to certain concatenated stabilizer codes yields families of subsystem codes with constant-weight generators and with minimum distance $d = n^{1-\\varepsilon}$, where $\\varepsilon = O(1/\\sqrt{\\log n})$. For spatially local codes in $D$ dimensions we nearly saturate a bound due to Bravyi and Terhal and achieve $d = n^{1-\\varepsilon-1/D}$. Previously the best code distance achievable with constant-weight generators in any dimension, due to Freedman, Meyer and Luo, was $O(\\sqrt{n\\log n})$ for a stabilizer code.

  13. Efficient, transparent, and comprehensive runtime code manipulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruening, Derek L. (Derek Lane), 1976-

    2004-01-01

    This thesis addresses the challenges of building a software system for general-purpose runtime code manipulation. Modern applications, with dynamically-loaded modules and dynamically-generated code, are assembled at runtime. ...

  14. Maximizing Efficiency in Two-step Solar-thermochemical Fuel Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ermanoski, I.

    2015-05-01

    Widespread solar fuel production depends on its economic viability, largely driven by the solar-to-fuel conversion efficiency. Herein, the material and energy requirements in two-step solar-thermochemical cyclesare considered.The need for advanced redox active materials is demonstrated, by considering the oxide mass flow requirements at a large scale. Two approaches are also identified for maximizing the efficiency: optimizing reaction temperatures, and minimizing the pressure in the thermal reduction step by staged thermal reduction. The results show that each approach individually, and especially the two in conjunction, result in significant efficiency gains.

  15. CATALYSTS NHI Thermochemical Systems FY 2009 Year-End Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel M. Ginosar

    2009-09-01

    Fiscal Year 2009 work in the Catalysts project focused on advanced catalysts for the decomposition of sulfuric acid, a reaction common to both the Sulfur-Iodine (S-I) cycle and the Hybrid Sulfur cycle. Prior years’ effort in this project has found that although platinum supported on titanium oxide will be an acceptable catalyst for sulfuric acid decomposition in the integrated laboratory scale (ILS) project, the material has short comings, including significant cost and high deactivation rates due to sintering and platinum evaporation. For pilot and larger scale systems, the catalyst stability needs to be improved significantly. In Fiscal Year 2008 it was found that at atmospheric pressure, deactivation rates of a 1 wt% platinum catalyst could be reduced by 300% by adding either 0.3 wt% iridium (Ir) or 0.3 wt% ruthenium (Ru) to the catalyst. In Fiscal Year 2009, work focused on examining the platinum group metal catalysts activity and stability at elevated pressures. In addition, simple and complex metal oxides are known to catalyze the sulfuric acid decomposition reaction. These metal oxides could offer activities comparable to platinum but at significantly reduced cost. Thus a second focus for Fiscal Year 2009 was to explore metal oxide catalysts for the sulfuric acid decomposition reaction. In Fiscal Year 2007 several commercial activated carbons had been identified for the HI decomposition reaction; a reaction specific to the S-I cycle. Those materials should be acceptable for the pilot scale project. The activated carbon catalysts have some disadvantages including low activity at the lower range of reactor operating temperature (350 to 400°C) and a propensity to generate carbon monoxide in the presence of water that could contaminate the hydrogen product, but due to limited funding, this area had low priority in Fiscal Year 2009. Fiscal Year 2009 catalyst work included five tasks: development, and testing of stabilized platinum based H2SO4 catalysts, development and testing of metal oxide based H2SO4 catalysts, support of the ILS for catalyst studies, conducting a long term catalyst stability test at anticipated operating temperatures and pressures, and developing capabilities for conducting pressurized catalyst tests.

  16. Magnetic separation for a continuous solar-two-step thermochemical cycle for solar hydrogen/CO production using ferrites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arias, Francisco J.; Parks, Geoffrey T.

    2015-05-21

    A novel solar-two-step thermochemical concept for continuous production of H2 or CO from solar energy and H2O or CO2 using the redox pair MOFe2O3/MO as reactive particles is proposed and assessed. Here, an efficient continuous separation mechanism...

  17. The interaction between the post-perovskite phase change and a thermo-chemical boundary layer near the coremantle boundary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tackley, Paul J.

    The interaction between the post-perovskite phase change and a thermo-chemical boundary layer near convection with the newly-discovered post-perovskite (PPV) phase change are used to characterize its depth. The strongly exothermic nature of the post-perovskite phase change induces an anti

  18. CURRICULUM CODE: 611 & 613 MINOR CODE 061 DEGREE CODE: 31

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, Weigang

    CURRICULUM CODE: 611 & 613 MINOR CODE 061 DEGREE CODE: 31 DAAF 12/09 Hunter College of the City Stamp THIS AUDIT IS NOT OFFICIAL UNTIL APPROVED BY THE OFFICE OF THE REGISTRAR DEGREE AUDIT UNIT Student Specialization Section #12;CURRICULUM CODE: 611 & 613 MINOR CODE 061 DEGREE CODE: 31 DAAF 12/09 *****A SEPARATE

  19. CURRICULUM CODE_611 & 613 MINOR CODE 062 DEGREE CODE _31_

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, Weigang

    CURRICULUM CODE_611 & 613 MINOR CODE 062 DEGREE CODE _31_ 1/24/2006 Hunter College of the City-mail address Department Stamp THIS AUDIT IS NOT OFFICIAL UNTIL APPROVED BY THE OFFICE OF THE REGISTRAR, DEGREE Section Only For January 2010 Graduate #12;CURRICULUM CODE_611 & 613 MINOR CODE 062 DEGREE CODE _31_ 1

  20. Solar Thermochemical Fuels Production: Solar Fuels via Partial Redox Cycles with Heat Recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-12-19

    HEATS Project: The University of Minnesota is developing a solar thermochemical reactor that will efficiently produce fuel from sunlight, using solar energy to produce heat to break chemical bonds. The University of Minnesota is envisioning producing the fuel by using partial redox cycles and ceria-based reactive materials. The team will achieve unprecedented solar-to-fuel conversion efficiencies of more than 10% (where current state-of-the-art efficiency is 1%) by combined efforts and innovations in material development, and reactor design with effective heat recovery mechanisms and demonstration. This new technology will allow for the effective use of vast domestic solar resources to produce precursors to synthetic fuels that could replace gasoline.

  1. Techno-economic Analysis for the Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Liquid Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Tjokro Rahardjo, Sandra A.; Valkenburt, Corinne; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Machinal, Michelle A.

    2011-06-01

    ). This study is part of an ongoing effort within the Department of Energy to meet the renewable energy goals for liquid transportation fuels. The objective of this report is to present a techno-economic evaluation of the performance and cost of various biomass based thermochemical fuel production. This report also documents the economics that were originally developed for the report entitled “Biofuels in Oregon and Washington: A Business Case Analysis of Opportunities and Challenges” (Stiles et al. 2008). Although the resource assessments were specific to the Pacific Northwest, the production economics presented in this report are not regionally limited. This study uses a consistent technical and economic analysis approach and assumptions to gasification and liquefaction based fuel production technologies. The end fuels studied are methanol, ethanol, DME, SNG, gasoline and diesel.

  2. Speech coding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ravishankar, C., Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD

    1998-05-08

    Speech is the predominant means of communication between human beings and since the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, speech services have remained to be the core service in almost all telecommunication systems. Original analog methods of telephony had the disadvantage of speech signal getting corrupted by noise, cross-talk and distortion Long haul transmissions which use repeaters to compensate for the loss in signal strength on transmission links also increase the associated noise and distortion. On the other hand digital transmission is relatively immune to noise, cross-talk and distortion primarily because of the capability to faithfully regenerate digital signal at each repeater purely based on a binary decision. Hence end-to-end performance of the digital link essentially becomes independent of the length and operating frequency bands of the link Hence from a transmission point of view digital transmission has been the preferred approach due to its higher immunity to noise. The need to carry digital speech became extremely important from a service provision point of view as well. Modem requirements have introduced the need for robust, flexible and secure services that can carry a multitude of signal types (such as voice, data and video) without a fundamental change in infrastructure. Such a requirement could not have been easily met without the advent of digital transmission systems, thereby requiring speech to be coded digitally. The term Speech Coding is often referred to techniques that represent or code speech signals either directly as a waveform or as a set of parameters by analyzing the speech signal. In either case, the codes are transmitted to the distant end where speech is reconstructed or synthesized using the received set of codes. A more generic term that is applicable to these techniques that is often interchangeably used with speech coding is the term voice coding. This term is more generic in the sense that the coding techniques are equally applicable to any voice signal whether or not it carries any intelligible information, as the term speech implies. Other terms that are commonly used are speech compression and voice compression since the fundamental idea behind speech coding is to reduce (compress) the transmission rate (or equivalently the bandwidth) And/or reduce storage requirements In this document the terms speech and voice shall be used interchangeably.

  3. Comparison of the efficiency of a thermo-chemical process to that of a fuel cell process when both involve the same chemical reaction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bulusu, Seshu Periah

    2009-05-15

    This work assesses if a plausible theoretical thermo-chemical scheme can be conceived of, that is capable of extracting work from chemical reactants which can be compared with work produced by a fuel cell, when both processes ...

  4. ORGANIC MASS SPECTROMETRY,VOL. 23,54-56 (1988) Thermochemical vs. Kinetic Control of Reactions in an Ion Trap Mass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wysocki, Vicki H.

    1988-01-01

    ORGANIC MASS SPECTROMETRY,VOL. 23,54-56 (1988) OMS Letter Dear Sir Thermochemical vs. Kinetic energies. 519 REACTlON COORDINATE Figure 1. Enthalpies associated with deamination and dehydratt o n

  5. Dehydrogenation of N{sub 2}H{sub X} (X = 2 ? 4) by nitrogen atoms: Thermochemical and kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spada, Rene Felipe Keidel; Araujo Ferrão, Luiz Fernando de; Roberto-Neto, Orlando; Machado, Francisco Bolivar Correto

    2013-11-21

    Thermochemical and kinetics of sequential hydrogen abstraction reactions from hydrazine by nitrogen atoms were studied. The dehydrogenation was divided in three steps, N{sub 2}H{sub 4} + N, N{sub 2}H{sub 3} + N, and N{sub 2}H{sub 2} + N. The thermal rate constants were calculated within the framework of canonical variational theory, with zero and small curvature multidimensional tunnelling corrections. The reaction paths were computed with the BB1K/aug-cc-pVTZ method and the thermochemical properties were improved with the CCSD(T)/CBS//BB1K/aug-cc-pVTZ approach. The first dehydrogenation step presents the lowest rate constants, equal to 1.22 × 10{sup ?20} cm{sup 3} molecule{sup ?1} s{sup ?1} at 298 K.

  6. Conceptual design study FY 1981: synfuels from fusion - using the tandem mirror reactor and a thermochemical cycle to produce hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krikorian, O.H. (ed.)

    1982-02-09

    This report represents the second year's effort of a scoping and conceptual design study being conducted for the express purpose of evaluating the engineering potential of producing hydrogen by thermochemical cycles using a tandem mirror fusion driver. The hydrogen thus produced may then be used as a feedstock to produce fuels such as methane, methanol, or gasoline. The main objective of this second year's study has been to obtain some approximate cost figures for hydrogen production through a conceptual design study.

  7. C60,Bromobenzene Solvate: Crystallographic and Thermochemical Studies and Their Relationship to C60 Solubility in Bromobenzene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C60,Bromobenzene Solvate: Crystallographic and Thermochemical Studies and Their Relationship to C60 observed with fractional populations of 0.71 and 0.29. The enthalpy of solution of pure C60 in bromobenzene was determined to be solH[C60(s)] ) -11.5 ( 2.0 kJ/mol. The enthalpy of solution of the solvated crystal was sol

  8. Portable code development in C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, S.A.

    1990-11-06

    With a new generation of high performance computers appearing around us on a time scale of months, a new challenge for developers of simulation codes is to write and maintain production codes that are both highly portable and maximally efficient. My contention is that C is the language that is both best suited to that goal and is widely available today. GLF is a new code written mainly in C which is intended to have all of the XRASER physics and run on any platform of interest. It demonstrates the power of the C paradigm for code developers and flexibility and ease of use for the users. Three fundamental problems are discussed: the C/UNIX development environment; the supporting tools and libraries which handle data and graphics portability issues; and the advantages of C in numerical simulation code development.

  9. 21SPIRAL LIBRARY GENERATOR SPIRAL: A GENERATOR FOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moura, José

    21SPIRAL LIBRARY GENERATOR SPIRAL: A GENERATOR FOR PLATFORM-ADAPTED LIBRARIES OF SIGNAL PROCESSING Manuela Veloso6 Robert W. Johnson7 Abstract SPIRAL is a generator for libraries of fast software imple perform- ance of SPIRAL generated code. Key words: program generation, automatic performance tuning

  10. Generating code adapted for interlinking legacy scalar code and extended

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article) |productionPatent: FreeformArticle)GammatheSciTechmultiple datavector

  11. Generating code adapted for interlinking legacy scalar code and extended

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article) |productionPatent: FreeformArticle)GammatheSciTechmultiple

  12. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.K. Morton

    2011-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  13. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.K. Morton

    2010-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  14. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.K. Morton

    2012-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  15. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Bureau of Construction Codes is responsible for the administration of the State Construction Code Act (1972 PA 230), also known as the Uniform Construction Code.

  16. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Georgia's Department of Community Affairs periodically reviews, amends and/or updates the state minimum standard codes. Georgia has "mandatory" and "permissive" codes. Georgia State Energy Code...

  17. An Analysis of the Impact of Selected Fuel Thermochemical Properties on Internal Combustion Engine Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szybist, James P; Chakravathy, Kalyana; Daw, C Stuart

    2012-01-01

    In this study we model the effects of 23 different fuels on First and Second Law thermodynamic efficiency of an adiabatic internal combustion engine. First Law efficiency is calculated using lower heating value (LHV) while Second Law efficiency is calculated with exergy, which represents the inherent chemical energy available to produce propulsion. We find that First Law efficiency can deviate by as much as nine percentage points between fuels while Second Law efficiency exhibits a much smaller degree of variability. We also find that First and Second Law efficiency can be nearly the same for some fuels (methane and ethane) but differ substantially for other fuels (hydrogen and ethanol). The differences in First and Second Law efficiency are due to differences in LHV and exergy for a given fuel. In order to explain First Law efficiency differences between fuels as well as the differences between LHV and exergy, we introduce a new term: the molar expansion ratio (MER), defined as the ratio of product moles to reactant moles for complete stoichiometric combustion. We find that the MER is a useful expression for providing a physical explanation for fuel-specific efficiency differences as well as differences between First and Second Law efficiency. First and Second Law efficiency are affected by a number of other fuel-specific thermochemical properties, such as the ratio of specific heat and dissociation of combustion products.

  18. Steam generator tube rupture study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Free, Scott Thomas

    1986-01-01

    This report describes our investigation of steam generator behavior during a postulated tube rupture accident. Our study was performed using the steam generator, thermal-hydraulic analysis code THERMIT-UTSG. The purpose ...

  19. Confocal coded aperture imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tobin, Jr., Kenneth William (Harriman, TN); Thomas, Jr., Clarence E. (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01

    A method for imaging a target volume comprises the steps of: radiating a small bandwidth of energy toward the target volume; focusing the small bandwidth of energy into a beam; moving the target volume through a plurality of positions within the focused beam; collecting a beam of energy scattered from the target volume with a non-diffractive confocal coded aperture; generating a shadow image of said aperture from every point source of radiation in the target volume; and, reconstructing the shadow image into a 3-dimensional image of the every point source by mathematically correlating the shadow image with a digital or analog version of the coded aperture. The method can comprise the step of collecting the beam of energy scattered from the target volume with a Fresnel zone plate.

  20. Compiling Codes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News PublicationsAuditsCluster Compatibilitydefault SignEnvironmentAprilCompilerCompiling Codes

  1. Horizontal Code Transfer via Program Fracture and Recombination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sidiroglou-Douskos, Stelios

    2015-04-14

    We present a new horizontal code transfer technique, program fracture and recombination, for automatically replacing, deleting, and/or combining code from multiple applications. Benefits include automatic generation of new ...

  2. CURRICULUM CODE 308 DEGREE CODE _40

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, Weigang

    CURRICULUM CODE 308 DEGREE CODE _40 Hunter College of the City University of New York - Office Print) E-mail address OES Stamp THIS AUDIT IS NOT OFFICIAL UNTIL APPROVED BY THE OFFICE OF THE REGISTRAR Specialization Section #12;CURRICULUM CODE_308_ DEGREE CODE _40__ Course Prefix & Number Course Title Credits

  3. Continuous Integration for Automated Code Generation Tools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prieto Barreiro, I; Copy, B

    2014-01-01

    The UNICOS (UNi?ed Industrial COntrol System) [1] framework was created back in 1998 as a solution to build industry like control systems.

  4. Low Temperature Combustion with Thermo-Chemical Recuperation to Maximize In-Use Engine Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nigel N. Clark; Francisco Posada; Clinton Bedick; John Pratapas; Aleksandr Kozlov; Martin Linck; Dmitri Boulanov

    2009-03-30

    The key to overcome Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) load range limitations in reciprocating engines is based on proper control over the thermo-chemical properties of the in-cylinder charge. The studied alternative to achieve the required control of LTC is the use of two separate fuel streams to regulate timing and heat release at specific operational points, where the secondary fuel is a reformed product of the primary fuel in the tank. It is proposed in this report that the secondary fuel can be produced using exhaust heat and Thermo-Chemical Recuperation (TCR). TCR for reciprocating engines is a system that employs high efficiency recovery of sensible heat from engine exhaust gas and uses this energy to transform fuel composition. The recuperated sensible heat is returned to the engine as chemical energy. Chemical conversions are accomplished through catalytic and endothermic reactions in a specially designed reforming reactor. An equilibrium model developed by Gas Technology Institute (GTI) for heptane steam reforming was applied to estimate reformed fuel composition at different reforming temperatures. Laboratory results, at a steam/heptane mole ratio less than 2:1, confirm that low temperature reforming reactions, in the range of 550 K to 650 K, can produce 10-30% hydrogen (by volume, wet) in the product stream. Also, the effect of trading low mean effective pressure for displacement to achieve power output and energy efficiency has been explored by WVU. A zerodimensional model of LTC using heptane as fuel and a diesel Compression Ignition (CI) combustion model were employed to estimate pressure, temperature and total heat release as inputs for a mechanical and thermal loss model. The model results show that the total cooling burden on an LTC engine with lower power density and higher displacement was 14.3% lower than the diesel engine for the same amount of energy addition in the case of high load (43.57mg fuel/cycle). These preliminary modeling and experimental results suggest that the LTC-TCR combination may offer a high efficiency solution to engine operation. A single zone model using a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism was implemented in CHEMKIN and to study the effects of base fuel and steam-fuel reforming products on the ignition timing and heat release characteristics. The study was performed considering the reformed fuel species composition for total n-heptane conversion (ideal case) and also at the composition corresponding to a specific set of operational reforming temperatures (real case). The computational model confirmed that the reformed products have a strong influence on the low temperature heat release (LTHR) region, affecting the onset of the high temperature heat release (HTHR). The ignition timing was proportionally delayed with respect to the baseline fuel case when higher concentrations of reformed gas were used. For stoichiometric concentration of RG, it was found that by increasing the proportion of reformed fuel to total fuel (RG), from 0% to 30%, the amount of energy released during the LTHR regime, or HR{sub L}, was reduced by 48% and the ignition timing was delayed 10.4 CA degrees with respect to the baseline fuel case. For RG composition corresponding to certain operational reforming temperatures, it was found that the most significant effects on the HCCI combustion, regarding HR{sub L} reduction and CA50 delay, was obtained by RG produced at a reforming temperature range of 675 K-725 K.

  5. SASSYS LMFBR systems analysis code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, F.E.; Prohammer, F.G.

    1982-01-01

    The SASSYS code provides detailed steady-state and transient thermal-hydraulic analyses of the reactor core, inlet and outlet coolant plenums, primary and intermediate heat-removal systems, steam generators, and emergency shut-down heat removal systems in liquid-metal-cooled fast-breeder reactors (LMFBRs). The main purpose of the code is to analyze the consequences of failures in the shut-down heat-removal system and to determine whether this system can perform its mission adequately even with some of its components inoperable. The code is not plant-specific. It is intended for use with any LMFBR, using either a loop or a pool design, a once-through steam generator or an evaporator-superheater combination, and either a homogeneous core or a heterogeneous core with internal-blanket assemblies.

  6. Research Summary: Corrosion Considerations for Thermochemical Biomass Liquefaction Process Systems in Biofuel Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, Michael P; Keiser, James R; Leonard, Donovan N; Whitmer, Lysle; Thomson, Jeffery K

    2014-01-01

    Thermochemical liquifaction processing of biomass to produce bio-derived fuels (e.g. gasoline, jet fuel, diesel, home heating oil, etc.) is of great recent interest as a renewable energy source. Approaches under investigation include direct liquefaction, hydrothermal liquefaction, hydropyrolysis, fast pyrolysis, etc. to produce energy dense liquids that can be utilized as produced or further processed to provide products of higher value. An issue with bio-oils is that they tend to contain significant concentrations of organic compounds, which make the bio-oil acidic and a potential source of corrosion issues in in transport, storage, and use. Efforts devoted to modified/further processing of bio-oils to make them less corrosive are currently being widely pursued. Another aspect that must also be addressed is potential corrosion issues in the bio-oil liquefaction process equipment itself. Depending on the specific process, bio-oil liquefaction production temperatures can reach up to 400-600 C, and involve the presence of aggressive sulfur, and halide species from both the biomass used and/or process additives. Detailed knowledge of the corrosion resistance of candidate process equipment alloys in these bio-oil production environments is currently lacking. This paper summarizes our recent, ongoing efforts to assess the extent to which corrosion of bio-oil process equipment may be an issue, with the ultimate goal of providing the basis to select the lowest cost alloy grades capable of providing the long-term corrosion resistance needed for future bio-oil production plants.

  7. MELCOR computer code manuals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Summers, R.M.; Cole, R.K. Jr.; Smith, R.C.; Stuart, D.S.; Thompson, S.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hodge, S.A.; Hyman, C.R.; Sanders, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. MELCOR is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission as a second-generation plant risk assessment tool and the successor to the Source Term Code Package. A broad spectrum of severe accident phenomena in both boiling and pressurized water reactors is treated in MELCOR in a unified framework. These include: thermal-hydraulic response in the reactor coolant system, reactor cavity, containment, and confinement buildings; core heatup, degradation, and relocation; core-concrete attack; hydrogen production, transport, and combustion; fission product release and transport; and the impact of engineered safety features on thermal-hydraulic and radionuclide behavior. Current uses of MELCOR include estimation of severe accident source terms and their sensitivities and uncertainties in a variety of applications. This publication of the MELCOR computer code manuals corresponds to MELCOR 1.8.3, released to users in August, 1994. Volume 1 contains a primer that describes MELCOR`s phenomenological scope, organization (by package), and documentation. The remainder of Volume 1 contains the MELCOR Users Guides, which provide the input instructions and guidelines for each package. Volume 2 contains the MELCOR Reference Manuals, which describe the phenomenological models that have been implemented in each package.

  8. Syngas Production By Thermochemical Conversion Of H2o And Co2 Mixtures Using A Novel Reactor Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pearlman, Howard; Chen, Chien-Hua

    2014-08-27

    The Department of Energy awarded Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT) an SBIR Phase II contract (#DE-SC0004729) to develop a high-temperature solar thermochemical reactor for syngas production using water and/or carbon dioxide as feedstocks. The technology aims to provide a renewable and sustainable alternative to fossil fuels, promote energy independence and mitigate adverse issues associated with climate change by essentially recycling carbon from carbon dioxide emitted by the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels. To commercialize the technology and drive down the cost of solar fuels, new advances are needed in materials development and reactor design, both of which are integral elements in this program.

  9. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Tennessee is a "home rule" state which leaves adoption of codes up to the local codes jurisdictions. State energy codes are passed through the legislature, apply to all construction and must be...

  10. Quantum convolutional stabilizer codes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chinthamani, Neelima

    2004-09-30

    Quantum error correction codes were introduced as a means to protect quantum information from decoherance and operational errors. Based on their approach to error control, error correcting codes can be divided into two different classes: block codes...

  11. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2009 S.B. 1182 created the Oklahoma Uniform Building Code Commission. The 11-member Commission was given the power to conduct rulemaking processes to adopt new building codes. The codes adopted...

  12. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Kentucky Building Code (KBC) is updated every three years on a cycle one year behind the publication year for the International Building Code. Any changes to the code by the state of Kentucky...

  13. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The State Building Code Council revised the Washington State Energy Code (WESC) in February 2013, effective July 1, 2013. The WESC is a state-developed code based upon ASHRAE 90.1-2010 and the...

  14. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Mississippi's existing state code is based on the 1977 Model Code for Energy Conservation (MCEC). The existing law does not mandate enforcement by localities, and any revised code will probably...

  15. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The West Virginia State Fire Commission is responsible for adopting and promulgating statewide construction codes. These codes may be voluntarily adopted at the local level. Local jurisdictions...

  16. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The North Carolina State Building Code Council is responsible for developing all state codes. By statute, the Commissioner of Insurance has general supervision over the administration and...

  17. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Rhode Island Building Code Standards Committee adopts, promulgates and administers the state building code. Compliance is determined through the building permit and inspection process by local...

  18. A Thermochemical and Theoretical Study of the Phenylpyridine Isomers M. A. V. Ribeiro da Silva,* M. A. R. Matos, and C. A. Rio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chickos, James S.

    A Thermochemical and Theoretical Study of the Phenylpyridine Isomers M. A. V. Ribeiro da Silva,* M. Louis, Missouri 63121 ReceiVed: NoVember 8, 1999 The standard (p° ) 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of formation for 2-, 3-, and 4-phenylpyridine in the gas phase were derived from the standard molar enthalpies

  19. Extracting Hybrid Automata from Control Code Steven Lyde, Matthew Might

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Might, Matt

    code for a thermo- stat and a nuclear reactor. We then pass the generated automata to the HyTech modelExtracting Hybrid Automata from Control Code Steven Lyde, Matthew Might University of Utah, Salt in particular-- can assist in the development of correct control code. However, current approaches to deploying

  20. Resolution Improvement and Pattern Generator Development for the Maskless Micro-Ion-Beam Reduction Lithography System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Ximan

    2006-01-01

    apertures of the pattern generator has been simulated in atracing code. New pattern generator design has been proposedfabricated pattern generator. Professor Ka-Ngo Leung Nuclear

  1. HIGH EFFICIENCY GENERATION OF HYDROGEN FUELS USING NUCLEAR POWER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BROWN,LC; BESENBRUCH,GE; LENTSCH,RD; SCHULTZ,KR; FUNK,JF; PICKARD,PS; MARSHALL,AC; SHOWALTER,SK

    2003-06-01

    OAK B202 HIGH EFFICIENCY GENERATION OF HYDROGEN FUELS USING NUCLEAR POWER. Combustion of fossil fuels, used to power transportation, generate electricity, heat homes and fuel industry provides 86% of the world's energy. Drawbacks to fossil fuel utilization include limited supply, pollution, and carbon dioxide emissions. Carbon dioxide emissions, thought to be responsible for global warming, are now the subject of international treaties. Together, these drawbacks argue for the replacement of fossil fuels with a less-polluting potentially renewable primary energy such as nuclear energy. Conventional nuclear plants readily generate electric power but fossil fuels are firmly entrenched in the transportation sector. Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. Hydrogen will be particularly advantageous when coupled with fuel cells. Fuel cells have higher efficiency than conventional battery/internal combustion engine combinations and do not produce nitrogen oxides during low-temperature operation. Contemporary hydrogen production is primarily based on fossil fuels and most specifically on natural gas. When hydrogen is produced using energy derived from fossil fuels, there is little or no environmental advantage. There is currently no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally attractive hydrogen production process available for commercialization, nor has such a process been identified. The objective of this work is to find an economically feasible process for the production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high-temperature nuclear reactor as the primary energy source. Hydrogen production by thermochemical water-splitting (Appendix A), a chemical process that accomplishes the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen using only heat or, in the case of a hybrid thermochemical process, by a combination of heat and electrolysis, could meet these goals. Hydrogen produced from fossil fuels has trace contaminants (primarily carbon monoxide) that are detrimental to precious metal catalyzed fuel cells, as is now recognized by many of the world's largest automobile companies. Thermochemical hydrogen will not contain carbon monoxide as an impurity at any level. Electrolysis, the alternative process for producing hydrogen using nuclear energy, suffers from thermodynamic inefficiencies in both the production of electricity and in electrolytic parts of the process. The efficiency of electrolysis (electricity to hydrogen) is currently about 80%. Electric power generation efficiency would have to exceed 65% (thermal to electrical) for the combined efficiency to exceed the 52% (thermal to hydrogen) calculated for one thermochemical cycle. Thermochemical water-splitting cycles have been studied, at various levels of effort, for the past 35 years. They were extensively studied in the late 70s and early 80s but have received little attention in the past 10 years, particularly in the U.S. While there is no question about the technical feasibility and the potential for high efficiency, cycles with proven low cost and high efficiency have yet to be developed commercially. Over 100 cycles have been proposed, but substantial research has been executed on only a few. This report describes work accomplished during a three-year project whose objective is to ''define an economically feasible concept for production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high temperature nuclear reactor as the energy source.'' The emphasis of the first phase was to evaluate thermochemical processes which offer the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen from water in which the primary energy input is high temperature heat from an advanced nuclear reactor and to select one (or, at most three) for further detailed consideration. During Phase 1, an exhaustive literature search was performed to locate all cycles previously proposed. The cycles located were screened using objective criteria to determine which could benefit, in terms of efficien

  2. Unfolding the color code

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aleksander Kubica; Beni Yoshida; Fernando Pastawski

    2015-03-06

    The topological color code and the toric code are two leading candidates for realizing fault-tolerant quantum computation. Here we show that the color code on a $d$-dimensional closed manifold is equivalent to multiple decoupled copies of the $d$-dimensional toric code up to local unitary transformations and adding or removing ancilla qubits. Our result not only generalizes the proven equivalence for $d=2$, but also provides an explicit recipe of how to decouple independent components of the color code, highlighting the importance of colorability in the construction of the code. Moreover, for the $d$-dimensional color code with $d+1$ boundaries of $d+1$ distinct colors, we find that the code is equivalent to multiple copies of the $d$-dimensional toric code which are attached along a $(d-1)$-dimensional boundary. In particular, for $d=2$, we show that the (triangular) color code with boundaries is equivalent to the (folded) toric code with boundaries. We also find that the $d$-dimensional toric code admits logical non-Pauli gates from the $d$-th level of the Clifford hierarchy, and thus saturates the bound by Bravyi and K\\"{o}nig. In particular, we show that the $d$-qubit control-$Z$ logical gate can be fault-tolerantly implemented on the stack of $d$ copies of the toric code by a local unitary transformation.

  3. Coding AuthentiCity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mercier, Rachel Havens

    2008-01-01

    This thesis analyzes the impact of form-based codes, focusing on two research questions: (1) What is the underlying motivation for adopting a form-based code? (2) What motivations have the most significant impact on ...

  4. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    New Hampshire adopted a mandatory statewide building code in 2002 based on the 2000 IECC. SB 81 was enacted in July 2007, and it upgraded the New Hampshire Energy Code to the 2006 IECC. In...

  5. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Much of the information presented in this summary is drawn from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program and the Building Codes Assistance Project (BCAP). For more deta...

  6. Building Energy Code

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Indiana Residential Building Code is based on the 2003 IRC with state amendments (eff. 9/11/05). This code applies to 1 and 2 family dwellings and townhouses. During the adoption process,...

  7. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Changes to the energy code are submitted to the Uniform Building Code Commission. The proposed change is reviewed by the Commission at a monthly meeting to decide if it warrants further...

  8. Guam- Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Much of the information presented in this summary is drawn from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program and the Building Codes Assistance Project (BCAP). For more...

  9. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2006 Iowa enacted H.F. 2361, requiring the State Building Commissioner to adopt energy conservation requirements based on a nationally recognized building energy code. The State Building Code...

  10. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Note: Much of the information presented in this summary is drawn from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program and the Building Codes Assistance Project (BCAP). For more...

  11. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Much of the information presented in this summary is drawn from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program and the Building Codes Assistance Project (BCAP). For more...

  12. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Prior to 1997, South Carolina's local governments adopted and enforced the building codes. In 1997, the law required statewide use of the most up-to-date building codes, which then required the...

  13. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The New Jersey Uniform Construction Code Act provides that model codes and standards publications shall not be adopted more frequently than once every three years. However, a revision or amendment...

  14. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The 2012 IECC is in effect for all residential and commercial buildings, Idaho schools, and Idaho jurisdictions that adopt and enforce building codes, unless a local code exists that is more...

  15. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Delaware Energy Code is reviewed by Delaware Energy Office every three years for potential updates to the most recent version of International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) and ASHRAE Standard ...

  16. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Legislation passed in March 2010 authorized the Alabama Energy and Residential Code (AERC) Board to adopt mandatory residential and commercial energy codes for all jurisdictions. This is the firs...

  17. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    All residential and commercial structures are required to comply with the state’s energy code. The 2009 New Mexico Energy Conservation Code (NMECC), effective June 2013, is based on 2009...

  18. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In September 2011 the Nebraska Building Energy Code was updated to the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) standards.  As with the previous 2003 IECC standards, which had been in...

  19. Green Construction Codes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blake, S.

    2011-01-01

    The network coding is a new paradigm that has been shown to improve throughput, fault tolerance, and other quality of service parameters in communication networks. The basic idea of the network coding techniques is to ...

  20. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Florida Building Commission (FBC) is directed to adopt, revise, update, and maintain the Florida Building Code in accordance with Chapter 120 of the state statutes. The code is mandatory...

  1. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A mandatory energy code is not enforced at the state level. If a local energy code is adopted, it is enforced at the local level. Builders or sellers of new residential buildings (single-family or...

  2. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The 1993 State Legislature updated the state energy code to the 1989 Model Energy Code (MEC) and established a procedure to update the standard. Then in 1995, following consultation with an...

  3. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Public Act 093-0936 (Illinois Energy Conservation Code for Commercial Buildings) was signed into law in August, 2004. The Illinois Energy Conservation Code for Commercial Buildings became effective...

  4. Coding with side information 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Szeming

    2005-11-01

    Source coding and channel coding are two important problems in communications. Although side information exists in everyday scenario, the e?ect of side information is not taken into account in the conventional setups. ...

  5. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Virginia Uniform Statewide Building Code (USBC) is a statewide minimum requirement that local jurisdictions cannot amend. The code is applicable to all new buildings in the commonwealth. The...

  6. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In March 2006, SB 459 was enacted to promote renewable energy and update the state's building energy codes.

  7. Bent functions at the minimal distance and algorithms of constructing linear codes for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    1 Bent functions at the minimal distance and algorithms of constructing linear codes for CDMA 1 In this paper we study linear codes for CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access). This is the standard for the 3rd Generation cellular communications systems. In this standard bent functions are used for constructing codes

  8. Survey and Down-Selection of Acid Gas Removal Systems for the Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Ethanol with a Detailed Analysis of an MDEA System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nexant, Inc., San Francisco, California

    2011-05-01

    The first section (Task 1) of this report by Nexant includes a survey and screening of various acid gas removal processes in order to evaluate their capability to meet the specific design requirements for thermochemical ethanol synthesis in NREL's thermochemical ethanol design report (Phillips et al. 2007, NREL/TP-510-41168). MDEA and selexol were short-listed as the most promising acid-gas removal agents based on work described in Task 1. The second report section (Task 2) describes a detailed design of an MDEA (methyl diethanol amine) based acid gas removal system for removing CO2 and H2S from biomass-derived syngas. Only MDEA was chosen for detailed study because of the available resources.

  9. Final LDRD report : advanced materials for next generation high-efficiency thermochemistry.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ambrosini, Andrea; Miller, James Edward; Allendorf, Mark D.; Coker, Eric Nicholas; Ermanoski, Ivan; Hogan, Roy E.,; McDaniel, Anthony H.

    2014-01-01

    Despite rapid progress, solar thermochemistry remains high risk; improvements in both active materials and reactor systems are needed. This claim is supported by studies conducted both prior to and as part of this project. Materials offer a particular large opportunity space as, until recently, very little effort apart from basic thermodynamic analysis was extended towards understanding this most fundamental component of a metal oxide thermochemical cycle. Without this knowledge, system design was hampered, but more importantly, advances in these crucial materials were rare and resulted more from intuition rather than detailed insight. As a result, only two basic families of potentially viable solid materials have been widely considered, each of which has significant challenges. Recent efforts towards applying an increased level of scientific rigor to the study of thermochemical materials have provided a much needed framework and insights toward developing the next generation of highly improved thermochemically active materials. The primary goal of this project was to apply this hard-won knowledge to rapidly advance the field of thermochemistry to produce a material within 2 years that is capable of yielding CO from CO2 at a 12.5 % reactor efficiency. Three principal approaches spanning a range of risk and potential rewards were pursued: modification of known materials, structuring known materials, and identifying/developing new materials for the application. A newly developed best-of-class material produces more fuel (9x more H2, 6x more CO) under milder conditions than the previous state of the art. Analyses of thermochemical reactor and system efficiencies and economics were performed and a new hybrid concept was reported. The larger case for solar fuels was also further refined and documented.

  10. Coding theory basics Evaluation codes from algebraic varieties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Little, John B.

    Coding theory basics Evaluation codes from algebraic varieties Interlude ­ counting rational points theory basics Evaluation codes from algebraic varieties Interlude ­ counting rational points on varieties Cubic surfaces and codes Outline 1 Coding theory basics 2 Evaluation codes from algebraic varieties 3

  11. Direct numerical simulation of a reacting turbulent channel flow with thermo-chemical ablation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    in the material itself); 3) sublimation of the material at high temperature; 4) mechan- ical erosion due species of the combustion products such as H2O, CO2, H2 or OH. As a consequence, the heterogeneous surface, the use of high energy solid propellant generates an hostile environment and the nozzle structure

  12. RH-TRU Waste Content Codes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washington TRU Solutions

    2007-07-01

    The Remote-Handled Transuranic (RH-TRU) Content Codes (RH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of RH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (RH-TRAMPAC).1 The RH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the RH-TRU 72-B. This document is a catalog of RH-TRU 72-B authorized contents by site. A content code is defined by the following components: • A two-letter site abbreviation that designates the physical location of the generated/stored waste (e.g., ID for Idaho National Laboratory [INL]). The site-specific letter designations for each of the sites are provided in Table 1. • A three-digit code that designates the physical and chemical form of the waste (e.g., content code 317 denotes TRU Metal Waste). For RH-TRU waste to be transported in the RH-TRU 72-B, the first number of this three-digit code is “3.” The second and third numbers of the three-digit code describe the physical and chemical form of the waste. Table 2 provides a brief description of each generic code. Content codes are further defined as subcodes by an alpha trailer after the three-digit code to allow segregation of wastes that differ in one or more parameter(s). For example, the alpha trailers of the subcodes ID 322A and ID 322B may be used to differentiate between waste packaging configurations. As detailed in the RH-TRAMPAC, compliance with flammable gas limits may be demonstrated through the evaluation of compliance with either a decay heat limit or flammable gas generation rate (FGGR) limit per container specified in approved content codes. As applicable, if a container meets the watt*year criteria specified by the RH-TRAMPAC, the decay heat limits based on the dose-dependent G value may be used as specified in an approved content code. If a site implements the administrative controls outlined in the RH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 2.4 of the RH-TRU Payload Appendices, the decay heat or FGGR limits based on a 10-day shipping period (rather than the standard 60-day shipping period) may be used as specified in an approved content code. Requests for new or revised content codes may be submitted to the WIPP RH-TRU Payload Engineer for review and approval, provided all RH-TRAMPAC requirements are met.

  13. Process Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Thermochemical Pathway by Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutta, A.; Talmadge, M.; Hensley, J.; Worley, M.; Dudgeon, D.; Barton, D.; Groendijk, P.; Ferrari, D.; Stears, B.; Searcy, E. M.; Wright, C. T.; Hess, J. R.

    2011-05-01

    This design report describes an up-to-date benchmark thermochemical conversion process that incorporates the latest research from NREL and other sources. Building on a design report published in 2007, NREL and its subcontractor Harris Group Inc. performed a complete review of the process design and economic model for a biomass-to-ethanol process via indirect gasification. The conceptual design presented herein considers the economics of ethanol production, assuming the achievement of internal research targets for 2012 and nth-plant costs and financing. The design features a processing capacity of 2,205 U.S. tons (2,000 metric tonnes) of dry biomass per day and an ethanol yield of 83.8 gallons per dry U.S. ton of feedstock. The ethanol selling price corresponding to this design is $2.05 per gallon in 2007 dollars, assuming a 30-year plant life and 40% equity financing with a 10% internal rate of return and the remaining 60% debt financed at 8% interest. This ethanol selling price corresponds to a gasoline equivalent price of $3.11 per gallon based on the relative volumetric energy contents of ethanol and gasoline.

  14. Thermohydraulic analysis of U-tube steam generators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    da Silva, Hugo Cardoso

    1984-01-01

    Recent trends in plant safety analysis reveal a need for benchmark analytical representations of the steam generators to aid in the improvement of system codes and of fast codes for operator assistance. A model for such ...

  15. Mechanical code comparator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peter, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM); Dalton, Larry J. (Bernalillo, NM); Plummer, David W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A new class of mechanical code comparators is described which have broad potential for application in safety, surety, and security applications. These devices can be implemented as micro-scale electromechanical systems that isolate a secure or otherwise controlled device until an access code is entered. This access code is converted into a series of mechanical inputs to the mechanical code comparator, which compares the access code to a pre-input combination, entered previously into the mechanical code comparator by an operator at the system security control point. These devices provide extremely high levels of robust security. Being totally mechanical in operation, an access control system properly based on such devices cannot be circumvented by software attack alone.

  16. Solar Thermochemical Hydrogen Production Research (STCH): Thermochemical

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy BillsNo.Hydrogen4Energy SmoothEquipmentSolar PV in NewSolarCycle

  17. Remote-Handled Transuranic Content Codes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washington TRU Solutions

    2006-12-01

    The Remote-Handled Transuranic (RH-TRU) Content Codes (RH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of RH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (RH-TRAMPAC).1 The RH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the RH-TRU 72-B. This document is a catalog of RH-TRU 72-B authorized contents by site. A content code is defined by the following components: • A two-letter site abbreviation that designates the physical location of the generated/stored waste (e.g., ID for Idaho National Laboratory [INL]). The site-specific letter designations for each of the sites are provided in Table 1. • A three-digit code that designates the physical and chemical form of the waste (e.g., content code 317 denotes TRU Metal Waste). For RH-TRU waste to be transported in the RH-TRU 72-B, the first number of this three-digit code is “3.” The second and third numbers of the three-digit code describe the physical and chemical form of the waste. Table 2 provides a brief description of each generic code. Content codes are further defined as subcodes by an alpha trailer after the three-digit code to allow segregation of wastes that differ in one or more parameter(s). For example, the alpha trailers of the subcodes ID 322A and ID 322B may be used to differentiate between waste packaging configurations. As detailed in the RH-TRAMPAC, compliance with flammable gas limits may be demonstrated through the evaluation of compliance with either a decay heat limit or flammable gas generation rate (FGGR) limit per container specified in approved content codes. As applicable, if a container meets the watt*year criteria specified by the RH-TRAMPAC, the decay heat limits based on the dose-dependent G value may be used as specified in an approved content code. If a site implements the administrative controls outlined in the RH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 2.4 of the RH-TRU Payload Appendices, the decay heat or FGGR limits based on a 10-day shipping period (rather than the standard 60-day shipping period) may be used as specified in an approved content code.

  18. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of the State Fire Marshal is granted the authority to promulgate amendments, revisions, and alternative compliance methods for the code.

  19. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Kansas adopted the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) as "the applicable state standard" for commercial and industrial buildings. Enforcement is provided by local jurisdictions; t...

  20. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Pennsylvania Department of Labor and Industry (DLI) has the authority to upgrade commercial and residential energy standards through the regulatory process. The current code, the 2009 UCC, became...

  1. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Conservation Construction Code of New York State (ECCCNYS) requires that all government, commercial and residential buildings, including renovations involving building system replaceme...

  2. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Maryland Building Performance Standards (MBPS) are adopted by the Maryland Department of Housing and Community Development (DHCD) Codes Administration. As required by legislation passed in...

  3. Energy Codes and Standards - ASHRAE 90.1 2007 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reihl, K.

    2012-01-01

    at http://www.ashrae.org/pu blications/page/1604 Future Energy Codes The codes are driving towards ?Net Zero? buildings ? the building produces a much energy as it uses over the course of a year. Future Energy Codes Building envelope.....some Economizers Energy Recovery Decreased Lighting Power Densities Extensive controls for lighting & power How ?Green? can you go? Net Zero Energy used is generated on site, depends on defined ?Site? Carbon Neutral Use no fossil fuel Greenhouse Gas...

  4. Diophantine Generation,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shlapentokh, Alexandra

    Diophantine Generation, Horizontal and Vertical Problems, and the Weak Vertical Method Alexandra Shlapentokh Diophantine Sets, Definitions and Generation Diophantine Sets Diophantine Generation Properties of Diophantine Generation Diophantine Family of Z Diophantine Family of a Polynomial Ring Going Down Horizontal

  5. Recent MARS15 Developments, New Features and Event Generator Modes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    Recent MARS15 Developments, New Features and Event Generator Modes Fermilab Accelerator Physics-28, 2013 Nikolai Mokhov 8 MARS15 EXCLUSIVE EVENT GENERATORS Improved Cascade-Exciton Model code, CEM03. Mokhov, "CEM03.03 and LAQGSM03.03 Event Generators for the MCNP6, MCNPX and MARS15 Transport Codes", LANL

  6. The Application of the PEBBED Code Suite to the PBMR-400 Coupled Code Benchmark - FY 2006 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-09-01

    This document describes the recent developments of the PEBBED code suite and its application to the PBMR-400 Coupled Code Benchmark. This report addresses an FY2006 Level 2 milestone under the NGNP Design and Evaluation Methods Work Package. The milestone states "Complete a report describing the results of the application of the integrated PEBBED code package to the PBMR-400 coupled code benchmark". The report describes the current state of the PEBBED code suite, provides an overview of the Benchmark problems to which it was applied, discusses the code developments achieved in the past year, and states some of the results attained. Results of the steady state problems generated by the PEBBED fuel management code compare favorably to the preliminary results generated by codes from other participating institutions and to similar non-Benchmark analyses. Partial transient analysis capability has been achieved through the acquisition of the NEM-THERMIX code from Penn State University. Phase I of the task has been achieved through the development of a self-consistent set of tools for generating cross sections for design and transient analysis and in the successful execution of the steady state benchmark exercises.

  7. ENERGY EFFICIENCY LIMITS FOR A RECUPERATIVE BAYONET SULFURIC ACID DECOMPOSITION REACTOR FOR SULFUR CYCLE THERMOCHEMICAL HYDROGEN PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorensek, M.; Edwards, T.

    2009-06-11

    A recuperative bayonet reactor design for the high-temperature sulfuric acid decomposition step in sulfur-based thermochemical hydrogen cycles was evaluated using pinch analysis in conjunction with statistical methods. The objective was to establish the minimum energy requirement. Taking hydrogen production via alkaline electrolysis with nuclear power as the benchmark, the acid decomposition step can consume no more than 450 kJ/mol SO{sub 2} for sulfur cycles to be competitive. The lowest value of the minimum heating target, 320.9 kJ/mol SO{sub 2}, was found at the highest pressure (90 bar) and peak process temperature (900 C) considered, and at a feed concentration of 42.5 mol% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. This should be low enough for a practical water-splitting process, even including the additional energy required to concentrate the acid feed. Lower temperatures consistently gave higher minimum heating targets. The lowest peak process temperature that could meet the 450-kJ/mol SO{sub 2} benchmark was 750 C. If the decomposition reactor were to be heated indirectly by an advanced gas-cooled reactor heat source (50 C temperature difference between primary and secondary coolants, 25 C minimum temperature difference between the secondary coolant and the process), then sulfur cycles using this concept could be competitive with alkaline electrolysis provided the primary heat source temperature is at least 825 C. The bayonet design will not be practical if the (primary heat source) reactor outlet temperature is below 825 C.

  8. Report number codes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, R.N.

    1985-05-01

    This publication lists all report number codes processed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. The report codes are substantially based on the American National Standards Institute, Standard Technical Report Number (STRN)-Format and Creation Z39.23-1983. The Standard Technical Report Number (STRN) provides one of the primary methods of identifying a specific technical report. The STRN consists of two parts: The report code and the sequential number. The report code identifies the issuing organization, a specific program, or a type of document. The sequential number, which is assigned in sequence by each report issuing entity, is not included in this publication. Part I of this compilation is alphabetized by report codes followed by issuing installations. Part II lists the issuing organization followed by the assigned report code(s). In both Parts I and II, the names of issuing organizations appear for the most part in the form used at the time the reports were issued. However, for some of the more prolific installations which have had name changes, all entries have been merged under the current name.

  9. Value of Laboratory Experiments for Code Validations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wawersik, W.R.

    1998-12-14

    Numerical codes have become indispensable for designing underground structures and interpretating the behavior of geologic systems. Because of the complexities of geologic systems, however, code calculations often are associated with large quantitative uncertainties. This papers presents three examples to demonstrate the value of laboratory(or bench scale) experiments to evaluate the predictive capabilities of such codes with five major conclusions: Laboratory or bench-scale experiments are a very cost-effective, controlled means of evaluating and validating numerical codes, not instead of but before or at least concurrent with the implementation of in situ studies. The design of good laboratory validation tests must identifj what aspects of a code are to be scrutinized in order to optimize the size, geometry, boundary conditions, and duration of the experiments. The design of good and sometimes difficult numerical analyses and sensitivity studies. Laboratory validation tests must involve: Good validation experiments will generate independent data sets to identify the combined effect of constitutive models, model generalizations, material parameters, and numerical algorithms. Successfid validations of numerical codes mandate a close collaboration between experimentalists and analysts drawing from the full gamut of observations, measurements, and mathematical results.

  10. Modelling of the Arc-Jet Plasma Flow in the SR5 Nozzle Using a Thermochemical Nonequilibrium and a State-to-State Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lino da Silva, M.; Passarinho, F.; Alexandrova, T.; Dudeck, M.

    2005-05-16

    A numerical code has been set-up for estimating the relative importance of the different nonequilibrium physical-chemical processes in the SR5 facility arc-jet plasma generator. The code assumes a quasi-1D description of the flow in the plasma generator convergent-divergent nozzle, allowing the modelling of a large array of processes at low computational cost. The center streamline of the flow is simulated in the nozzle throat where arc energy input is treated as a constant energy input. This center streamline is not assumed to be affected by nozzle walls cooling in the diverging section. Chemical, V-T, V-V, V-D and R-T processes are taken into account for CO2-N2 and N2-O2 flows. The results for a CO2-N2 flow show that rotational equilibrium and near vibrational equilibrium are reached in the nozzle throat, and that the sudden expansion in the diverging section leads to a freezing of chemical compositions and vibrational temperatures, and also rotational nonequilibrium. Only chemical processes are found to affect sensibly the flow macroscopic parameters. Finally a comparison with a state-to-state model for an N2-O2 flow in the diverging section proved that some differences between the vibrational temperatures could be expected due to non-Boltzmann vibrational levels distributions. This is particularly true for the O2 first vibrational temperature.

  11. TRANSF code user manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weaver, H.J.

    1981-11-01

    The TRANSF code is a semi-interactive FORTRAN IV program which is designed to calculate the model parameters of a (structural) system by performing a least square parameter fit to measured transfer function data. The code is available at LLNL on both the 7600 and the Cray machines. The transfer function data to be fit is read into the code via a disk file. The primary mode of output is FR80 graphics, although, it is also possible to have results written to either the TTY or to a disk file.

  12. Nevada Energy Code for Buildings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Legislation signed in 2009 changed the process of adopting building codes in the state. Previously, the statewide code would only apply to local governments that had not already adopted a code,...

  13. Compiling Codes on Euclid

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    example.x example.c For C++ source code use mpiCC: % mpiCC -o example.x example.C PGI Compilers (CC++Fortran) See PGI compiler for information about this compiler. GNU Compilers...

  14. Compiling Codes on Hopper

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    example.x example.c For C++ source code use CC % CC -fast -o example.x example.C All compilers on Hopper, PGI, Pathscale, Cray, GNU, and Intel, are provided via five programming...

  15. Climate Code Foundation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barnes, Nick; Jones, David

    2011-07-05

    Climate Code Foundation - who are we? A non-profit organisation founded in August 2010; our goal is to promote the public understanding of climate science, by increasing the visibility and clarity of the software used in climate science...

  16. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Missouri does not have a statewide building or energy code for private residential and commercial buildings, and there currently is no state regulatory agency authorized to promulgate, adopt, or...

  17. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Oregon Energy Code amendments were most recently updated for both residential and non-residential construction in 2014. In October 2010 Oregon also adopted the Oregon Solar Installation...

  18. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Texas State Energy Conservation Office (SECO) by rule may choose to adopt the latest published editions of the energy efficiency provisions of the International Residential Code (IRC) or the...

  19. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Authority for adopting the state energy codes was previously vested in the Energy Security Office of the Department of Commerce (originally the Department of Public Services). In 1999-2000, the...

  20. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Massachusetts Board of Building Regulations and Standards has authority to promulgate the Massachusetts State Building Code (MSBC). The energy provisions in the MSBC were developed by the Boa...

  1. Systematic wireless network coding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shrader, Brooke E.

    We present a systematic network coding strategy for cooperative communication, in which some nodes may replicate-and-forward packets in addition to sending random linear combinations of the packets. We argue that if this ...

  2. Distributed Generation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electricity, US Data. 6. Distributed Generation: Standby Generation and Cogeneration Ozz Energy Solutions, Inc. February 28 th , 2005. For more information about...

  3. Distinctive characteristics of ASME performance test code 47, and comparison with performance test code 46

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horazak, D.A.; Bannister, R.L.; Archer, D.H.; Zachary, J.J.

    1998-07-01

    Performance Test Code 47, Gasification Combined Cycle Plant Performance, is being written to define the significant performance factors in a gasification combined cycle plant and recommend how these factors should be calculated from measurements. PTC 47 is unique in that it provides a test code for a technology that is now being demonstrated, but has not yet been commercialized. PTC 47 is similar to PTC 46, Overall Plant Performance, in its evaluation of overall plant performance, but is unlike PTC 46 in several areas. PTC 47 also extends beyond the scope of PTC 46 into areas of power generation technology now being demonstrated. The code will indicate where improved instrumentation and measurement techniques may be required to achieve a desired degree of certainty in the determination of performance factors. By providing a means for accurate testing, this code should also help develop this important technology, leading to full commercialization.

  4. Integrating S6 Code Search and Code Bubbles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reiss, Steven P.

    the results of the search. Index Terms--Code search, integrated development envi- ronments, test-based searchIntegrating S6 Code Search and Code Bubbles Steven P. Reiss Department of Computer Science Brown search over open source repositories as part of the Code Bub- bles integrated development environment

  5. FlexibleSUSY -- A spectrum generator generator for supersymmetric models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peter Athron; Jae-hyeon Park; Dominik Stöckinger; Alexander Voigt

    2015-03-18

    We introduce FlexibleSUSY, a Mathematica and C++ package, which generates a fast, precise C++ spectrum generator for any SUSY model specified by the user. The generated code is designed with both speed and modularity in mind, making it easy to adapt and extend with new features. The model is specified by supplying the superpotential, gauge structure and particle content in a SARAH model file; specific boundary conditions e.g. at the GUT, weak or intermediate scales are defined in a separate FlexibleSUSY model file. From these model files, FlexibleSUSY generates C++ code for self-energies, tadpole corrections, renormalization group equations (RGEs) and electroweak symmetry breaking (EWSB) conditions and combines them with numerical routines for solving the RGEs and EWSB conditions simultaneously. The resulting spectrum generator is then able to solve for the spectrum of the model, including loop-corrected pole masses, consistent with user specified boundary conditions. The modular structure of the generated code allows for individual components to be replaced with an alternative if available. FlexibleSUSY has been carefully designed to grow as alternative solvers and calculators are added. Predefined models include the MSSM, NMSSM, E$_6$SSM, USSM, R-symmetric models and models with right-handed neutrinos.

  6. Performing aggressive code optimization with an ability to rollback changes made by the aggressive optimizations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gschwind, Michael K

    2013-07-23

    Mechanisms for aggressively optimizing computer code are provided. With these mechanisms, a compiler determines an optimization to apply to a portion of source code and determines if the optimization as applied to the portion of source code will result in unsafe optimized code that introduces a new source of exceptions being generated by the optimized code. In response to a determination that the optimization is an unsafe optimization, the compiler generates an aggressively compiled code version, in which the unsafe optimization is applied, and a conservatively compiled code version in which the unsafe optimization is not applied. The compiler stores both versions and provides them for execution. Mechanisms are provided for switching between these versions during execution in the event of a failure of the aggressively compiled code version. Moreover, predictive mechanisms are provided for predicting whether such a failure is likely.

  7. Wind Generation Challenges & New Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCalley, James D.

    · Introduction · Grid Integration Challenges · "New" Technologies · Conclusions #12;Introduction #12;Proprietary · Testing and modeling thermal and renewable plants for grid code compliance GE Wind Generator & Electrical: AWEA, 1Q 2014 [1] #12;Wind Integration Challenges #12;Proprietary Information: This document contains

  8. Project Profile: Baseload CSP Generation Integrated with Sulfur...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    bonds of the storage medium. Publications, Patents, and Awards R. Buckingham, B. Wong, L. Brown, C. Sattler, F. Schaube, and A. Woerner. "Metal Oxide Based Thermochemical...

  9. Aalborg Universitet Loss Minimizing Operation of Doubly Fed Induction Generator Based Wind Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Weihao

    performance [1]. Moreover, some grid codes already require wind turbines to provide reactive power ability Wind Generation Systems Considering Reactive Power Provision. In Proceedings of the 40th Annual generator based wind generation systems when providing reactive power. The proposed method achieves its goal

  10. Quantum error control codes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdelhamid Awad Aly Ahmed, Sala

    2008-10-10

    by SALAH ABDELHAMID AWAD ALY AHMED Submitted to the O–ce of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulflllment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY May 2008 Major Subject: Computer Science QUANTUM ERROR CONTROL CODES A... Members, Mahmoud M. El-Halwagi Anxiao (Andrew) Jiang Rabi N. Mahapatra Head of Department, Valerie Taylor May 2008 Major Subject: Computer Science iii ABSTRACT Quantum Error Control Codes. (May 2008) Salah Abdelhamid Awad Aly Ahmed, B.Sc., Mansoura...

  11. Thermochemical nitrate destruction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cox, J.L.; Hallen, R.T.; Lilga, M.A.

    1992-06-02

    A method is disclosed for denitrification of nitrates and nitrites present in aqueous waste streams. The method comprises the steps of (1) identifying the concentration nitrates and nitrites present in a waste stream, (2) causing formate to be present in the waste stream, (3) heating the mixture to a predetermined reaction temperature from about 200 C to about 600 C, and (4) holding the mixture and accumulating products at heated and pressurized conditions for a residence time, thereby resulting in nitrogen and carbon dioxide gas, and hydroxides, and reducing the level of nitrates and nitrites to below drinking water standards.

  12. Sandia Energy - Thermochemical Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid youOxygenLaboratory FellowsStationary

  13. Thermochemical Feedstock Interface

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCEDInstallers/ContractorsPhotovoltaicsState ofSavings for Specific Measures 51 | BioenergyOffice

  14. Student Code Number: Thermodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feeny, Brian

    Student Code Number: Thermodynamics Ph.D. Qualifying Exam Department of Mechanical Engineering;Thermodynamics Qualifier January 2013 Problem 1 Air is compressed in an axial-flow compressor operating at steady of exergy destruction within the compressor, in kJ per kg of air flowing. #12;Thermodynamics Qualifier

  15. Introduction to Algebraic Codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Purdue University. W.Lafayette, Indiana ..... information. It motivated many scientists to study the codes transmitted by living beings, ...... We have the following diagram, where lines indicate inclusion relation,. ?. Fp4 Fp6 Fp10 ...... K over. the field K. There is a serious problem of being incomplete for the affine spaces: 69 ...

  16. What's the Code? Automatic Classification of Source Code Archives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giles, C. Lee

    show that source code can be accurately and automatically classified into topical categories and canWhat's the Code? Automatic Classification of Source Code Archives Secil Ugurel1, Robert Krovetz2, C.psu.edu 2NECResearchInstitute 4 IndependenceWay, Princeton,NJ 08540 {krovetz, dpennock, compuman} @research

  17. Space time coded code division multiplexing on SC140 DSP 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menon, Murali P

    2001-01-01

    is implemented on StarCore's SC140 fixed-point DSP core. The very large instruction word architecture of the SC140 is utilized to efficiently implement space-time coded code-division multiplexing system. The goal is to evaluate the suitability of space-time coded...

  18. Foundational development of an advanced nuclear reactor integrated safety code.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clarno, Kevin; Lorber, Alfred Abraham; Pryor, Richard J.; Spotz, William F.; Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Belcourt, Kenneth; Hooper, Russell Warren; Humphries, Larry LaRon

    2010-02-01

    This report describes the activities and results of a Sandia LDRD project whose objective was to develop and demonstrate foundational aspects of a next-generation nuclear reactor safety code that leverages advanced computational technology. The project scope was directed towards the systems-level modeling and simulation of an advanced, sodium cooled fast reactor, but the approach developed has a more general applicability. The major accomplishments of the LDRD are centered around the following two activities. (1) The development and testing of LIME, a Lightweight Integrating Multi-physics Environment for coupling codes that is designed to enable both 'legacy' and 'new' physics codes to be combined and strongly coupled using advanced nonlinear solution methods. (2) The development and initial demonstration of BRISC, a prototype next-generation nuclear reactor integrated safety code. BRISC leverages LIME to tightly couple the physics models in several different codes (written in a variety of languages) into one integrated package for simulating accident scenarios in a liquid sodium cooled 'burner' nuclear reactor. Other activities and accomplishments of the LDRD include (a) further development, application and demonstration of the 'non-linear elimination' strategy to enable physics codes that do not provide residuals to be incorporated into LIME, (b) significant extensions of the RIO CFD code capabilities, (c) complex 3D solid modeling and meshing of major fast reactor components and regions, and (d) an approach for multi-physics coupling across non-conformal mesh interfaces.

  19. Code Completion From Abbreviated Input

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Robert C.

    Abbreviation Completion is a novel technique to improve the efficiency of code-writing by supporting code completion of multiple keywords based on non-predefined abbreviated input - a different approach from conventional ...

  20. Network coding for anonymous broadcast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sergeev, Ivan A

    2013-01-01

    This thesis explores the use of network coding for anonymous broadcast. Network coding, the technique of transmitting or storing mixtures of messages rather than individual messages, can provide anonymity with its mixing ...

  1. Rotationally invariant multilevel block codes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kulandaivelu, Anita

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to evaluate the performance of block codes that are designed to be rotationally invariant, in a multilevel coding scheme, over a channel modelled to be white gaussian noise. Also, the use ...

  2. Improving Code Compliance

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancingREnergy ToolsCoordinationDepartmentImproving Code

  3. Distributed generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ness, E.

    1999-09-02

    Distributed generation, locating electricity generators close to the point of consumption, provides some unique benefits to power companies and customers that are not available from centralized electricity generation. Photovoltaic (PV) technology is well suited to distributed applications and can, especially in concert with other distributed resources, provide a very close match to the customer demand for electricity, at a significantly lower cost than the alternatives. In addition to augmenting power from central-station generating plants, incorporating PV systems enables electric utilities to optimize the utilization of existing transmission and distribution.

  4. Design of proximity detecting codes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perisetty, Srinivas

    1997-01-01

    class of codes called Proximity Detecting Codes can be used to overcome this problem associated with asynchronous channels. A t-proximity detecting (t-PD) code can detect when a received word is within distance t from the transmitted codeword, when using...

  5. DOE Coordination Meeting CODES & STANDARDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    industry and code officials, develop templates of commercially viable footprints for fueling stations-order continuing education for code officials. 3 Date (FY)DescriptionMilestone #12;Hydrogen Safety Neil RossmeisslDOE Coordination Meeting DELIVERY FUEL CELLS STORAGE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY VALIDATION CODES

  6. Southeast Energy Efficiency Alliance's Building Energy Codes...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Southeast Energy Efficiency Alliance's Building Energy Codes Project Southeast Energy Efficiency Alliance's Building Energy Codes Project Building Codes Project for the 2013...

  7. NERSC Leads Next-Generation Code Optimization Effort

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    With the promise of exascale supercomputers looming on the horizon, much of the roadmap is dotted with questions about hardware design and how to make these systems energy...

  8. Jitblt : efficient run-time code generation for digital compositing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amelang, Daniel James

    2008-01-01

    87. [4] Blinn, J. , 1994: Composting, part 2: practice. IEEEgiven region. For some composting operator and pixel format

  9. Jitblt : efficient run-time code generation for digital compositing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amelang, Daniel James

    2008-01-01

    to maintain these software qualities while still allowingthat large gains in software quality can be had, but furtherabandon many important qualities of software implementation.

  10. NERSC Launches Next-Generation Code Optimization Effort

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJessework usesof Energy Moving Basic EnergyAwards NERSC InitiativeKicksLeads

  11. Roadmap Toward a Predictive Performance-based Commercial Energy Code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenberg, Michael I.; Hart, Philip R.

    2014-10-01

    Energy codes have provided significant increases in building efficiency over the last 38 years, since the first national energy model code was published in late 1975. The most commonly used path in energy codes, the prescriptive path, appears to be reaching a point of diminishing returns. The current focus on prescriptive codes has limitations including significant variation in actual energy performance depending on which prescriptive options are chosen, a lack of flexibility for designers and developers, and the inability to handle control optimization that is specific to building type and use. This paper provides a high level review of different options for energy codes, including prescriptive, prescriptive packages, EUI Target, outcome-based, and predictive performance approaches. This paper also explores a next generation commercial energy code approach that places a greater emphasis on performance-based criteria. A vision is outlined to serve as a roadmap for future commercial code development. That vision is based on code development being led by a specific approach to predictive energy performance combined with building specific prescriptive packages that are designed to be both cost-effective and to achieve a desired level of performance. Compliance with this new approach can be achieved by either meeting the performance target as demonstrated by whole building energy modeling, or by choosing one of the prescriptive packages.

  12. Methodology for fast detection of false sharing in threaded scientific codes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chung, I-Hsin; Cong, Guojing; Murata, Hiroki; Negishi, Yasushi; Wen, Hui-Fang

    2014-11-25

    A profiling tool identifies a code region with a false sharing potential. A static analysis tool classifies variables and arrays in the identified code region. A mapping detection library correlates memory access instructions in the identified code region with variables and arrays in the identified code region while a processor is running the identified code region. The mapping detection library identifies one or more instructions at risk, in the identified code region, which are subject to an analysis by a false sharing detection library. A false sharing detection library performs a run-time analysis of the one or more instructions at risk while the processor is re-running the identified code region. The false sharing detection library determines, based on the performed run-time analysis, whether two different portions of the cache memory line are accessed by the generated binary code.

  13. Wyner-Ziv coding based on TCQ and LDPC codes and extensions to multiterminal source coding 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Yang

    2005-11-01

    performs only 0.2 dB away from the Wyner-Ziv limit D??W Z(R) at high rate, which mirrors the performance of entropy-coded TCQ in classic source coding. Practical designs perform 0.83 dB away from D??W Z(R) at medium rates. With 2-D trellis-coded vector...

  14. The OPAL opacity code: New results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogers, F.J.; Iglesias, C.A.

    1994-12-31

    The OPAL code was developed to calculate the wide range of frequency-dependent and mean opacity data needed to model laboratory experiments and stellar interiors. We use parametric potentials to generate vastly more atomic data than used in earlier opacity work for all elements with atomic number less than 35. We have also developed an improved equation of state based on an activity expansion of the grand canonical partition function. We give herein a brief description of the OPAL code and present new results that include the effect of additional heavy elements compared to our earlier carbons. The importance of very heavy elements having atomic number greater than 30 is also discussed. We present some comparisons with recent results from the Opacity Project and some directions for future work.

  15. Update on the OPAL opacity code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogers, F.J.; Iglesias, C.A.; Wilson, B.G.

    1990-02-23

    Persisting discrepancies between theory and observation in a number of astrophysical properties has led to the conjecture that opacity databases may be inaccurate. The OPAL opacity code has been developed to address this question. The physical basis of OPAL removes several of the approximations present in past calculations. For example, it utilizes a much larger and more detailed set of atomic data than was used to construct the Los Alamos Astrophysical Library. This data is generated online, in LS or intermediate coupling, from prefitted analytic effective potentials and is of similar quality as single configuration, relativistic, self-consistent-field calculations. The OPAL code has been used to calculate opacities for the solar core and for Cepheid variable stars. In both cases, significant increases in the opacity compared to the Los Alamos Astrophysical Library were found. 37 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Update on the opal opacity code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogers, F.J.; Iglesias, C.A.; Wilson, B.G. )

    1990-05-01

    Persisting discrepancies between theory and observation in a number of astrophysical properties has led to the conjecture that opacity databases may be inaccurate. The OPAL opacity code has been developed to address this question. The physical basis of OPAL removes several of the approximations present in past calculations. For example, it utilizes a much larger and more detailed set of atomic data than was used to construct the los Alamos Astrophysical Library. This data is generated online, in LS or intermediate coupling, from prefitted analytic effective potentials and is of similar quality as single configuration, relativistic, self-consistent-field calculations. The OPAL code has been used to calculate opacities for the solar core and for Cepheid variable stars. In both cases, significant increases in the opacity compared to the Los Alamos Astrophysical Library were found.

  17. Theory and Implementation of Nuclear Safety System Codes - Part II: System Code Closure Relations, Validation, and Limitations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glenn A Roth; Fatih Aydogan

    2014-09-01

    This is Part II of two articles describing the details of thermal-hydraulic sys- tem codes. In this second part of the article series, the system code closure relationships (used to model thermal and mechanical non-equilibrium and the coupling of the phases) for the governing equations are discussed and evaluated. These include several thermal and hydraulic models, such as heat transfer coefficients for various flow regimes, two phase pressure correlations, two phase friction correlations, drag coefficients and interfacial models be- tween the fields. These models are often developed from experimental data. The experiment conditions should be understood to evaluate the efficacy of the closure models. Code verification and validation, including Separate Effects Tests (SETs) and Integral effects tests (IETs) is also assessed. It can be shown from the assessments that the test cases cover a significant section of the system code capabilities, but some of the more advanced reactor designs will push the limits of validation for the codes. Lastly, the limitations of the codes are discussed by considering next generation power plants, such as Small Modular Reactors (SMRs), analyz- ing not only existing nuclear power plants, but also next generation nuclear power plants. The nuclear industry is developing new, innovative reactor designs, such as Small Modular Reactors (SMRs), High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs) and others. Sub-types of these reactor designs utilize pebbles, prismatic graphite moderators, helical steam generators, in- novative fuel types, and many other design features that may not be fully analyzed by current system codes. This second part completes the series on the comparison and evaluation of the selected reactor system codes by discussing the closure relations, val- idation and limitations. These two articles indicate areas where the models can be improved to adequately address issues with new reactor design and development.

  18. Coding Archives - Nercenergy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News PublicationsAuditsCluster Compatibility Mode Cluster CompatibilityCoalCode of

  19. RH-TRU Waste Content Codes (RH-TRUCON)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2007-08-01

    The Remote-Handled Transuranic (RH-TRU) Content Codes (RH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of RH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (RH-TRAMPAC).1 The RH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the RH-TRU 72-B. This document is a catalog of RH-TRU 72-B authorized contents by site. A content code is defined by the following components: • A two-letter site abbreviation that designates the physical location of the generated/stored waste (e.g., ID for Idaho National Laboratory [INL]). The site-specific letter designations for each of the sites are provided in Table 1. • A three-digit code that designates the physical and chemical form of the waste (e.g., content code 317 denotes TRU Metal Waste). For RH-TRU waste to be transported in the RH-TRU 72-B, the first number of this three-digit code is “3.” The second and third numbers of the three-digit code describe the physical and chemical form of the waste. Table 2 provides a brief description of each generic code. Content codes are further defined as subcodes by an alpha trailer after the three-digit code to allow segregation of wastes that differ in one or more parameter(s). For example, the alpha trailers of the subcodes ID 322A and ID 322B may be used to differentiate between waste packaging configurations. As detailed in the RH-TRAMPAC, compliance with flammable gas limits may be demonstrated through the evaluation of compliance with either a decay heat limit or flammable gas generation rate (FGGR) limit per container specified in approved content codes. As applicable, if a container meets the watt*year criteria specified by the RH-TRAMPAC, the decay heat limits based on the dose-dependent G value may be used as specified in an approved content code. If a site implements the administrative controls outlined in the RH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 2.4 of the RH-TRU Payload Appendices, the decay heat or FGGR limits based on a 10-day shipping period (rather than the standard 60-day shipping period) may be used as specified in an approved content code. Requests for new or revised content codes may be submitted to the WIPP RH-TRU Payload Engineer for review and approval, provided all RH-TRAMPAC requirements are met.

  20. Next Generation Radioisotope Generators | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Generators Next Generation Radioisotope Generators Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) - The ASRG is currently being developed as a high-efficiency RPS technology...

  1. Neutronics activities for next generation devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gohar, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Neutronic activities for the next generation devices are the subject of this paper. The main activities include TFCX and FPD blanket/shield studies, neutronic aspects of ETR/INTOR critical issues, and neutronics computational modules for the tokamak system code and tandem mirror reactor system code. Trade-off analyses, optimization studies, design problem investigations and computational models development for reactor parametric studies carried out for these activities are summarized.

  2. Numerical code SELFAS-3 and electrodynamic aggregation of magnetized nanodust

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kukushkin, A B

    2010-01-01

    The principles of the parallel numerical code SELFAS-3 are presented. The code modifies previous version of the code to enable parallel computations of electrodynamic aggregation in a many-body system of basic blocks which are taken as strongly magnetized thin rods (i.e., one-dimensional static magnetic dipoles), with electric conductivity and static electric charge, screened with its own static plasma sheath. The aggregation modelling includes the electric current dynamics in a complicated evolving network to describe the processes of external and internal electric short-circuiting. The code enables the continuous modelling of a transition between the following states: randomly situated ensemble of solitary basic blocks; electric current-carrying filamentary system; restructured filamentary network with a trend towards a fractal skeletal structuring. The latter trend is illustrated with generation of a bigger magnetic dipole in (i) homogeneous random ensemble between the biased electrodes in the presence of ...

  3. What's coming in 2012 codes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lacey, E

    2011-01-01

    The 2012 IECC America?s Model Building Energy Code November 9, 2011 Presentation to Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference Dallas, TX Eric Lacey Responsible Energy Codes Alliance Responsible Energy Codes Alliance ? A broad... Texas Building Energy Performance Standards What is effective now? ? 2009 IRC ? January 1, 2012 ? Applies to all 1- and 2-family dwellings ? 2009 IECC ? April 1, 2011 ? Applies to all other buildings Texas Websites ? http://www.seco.cpa.s tate...

  4. Pradeep Agrawal Dr. Pradeep Agrawal's research is focused on the development of thermochemical pathways for converting ligno-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gallivan, Martha A.

    high pressure biomass gasification under conditions that mimic the next generation of gasification pressure biomass gasification. Gasification offers the advantage that all types of biomass (including agricultural waste and forest residue) can be gasified to produce syngas (CO + H2). Biomass gasification

  5. RH-TRU Waste Content Codes (RH TRUCON)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washington TRU Solutions

    2007-05-01

    The Remote-Handled Transuranic (RH-TRU) Content Codes (RH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of RH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (RH-TRAMPAC).1 The RH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the RH-TRU 72-B. This document is a catalog of RH-TRU 72-B authorized contents by site. A content code is defined by the following components: • A two-letter site abbreviation that designates the physical location of the generated/stored waste (e.g., ID for Idaho National Laboratory [INL]). The site-specific letter designations for each of the sites are provided in Table 1. • A three-digit code that designates the physical and chemical form of the waste (e.g., content code 317 denotes TRU Metal Waste). For RH-TRU waste to be transported in the RH-TRU 72-B, the first number of this three-digit code is “3.” The second and third numbers of the three-digit code describe the physical and chemical form of the waste. Table 2 provides a brief description of each generic code. Content codes are further defined as subcodes by an alpha trailer after the three-digit code to allow segregation of wastes that differ in one or more parameter(s). For example, the alpha trailers of the subcodes ID 322A and ID 322B may be used to differentiate between waste packaging configurations. As detailed in the RH-TRAMPAC, compliance with flammable gas limits may be demonstrated through the evaluation of compliance with either a decay heat limit or flammable gas generation rate (FGGR) limit per container specified in approved content codes. As applicable, if a container meets the watt*year criteria specified by the RH-TRAMPAC, the decay heat limits based on the dose-dependent G value may be used as specified in an approved content code. If a site implements the administrative controls outlined in the RH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 2.4 of the RH-TRU Payload Appendices, the decay heat or FGGR limits based on a 10-day shipping period (rather than the standard 60-day shipping period) may be used as specified in an approved content code.

  6. GENII Code | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    For more information on GENII to: http:radiologicalsciences.pnl.govresourceshardware.asp The GENII code-specific guidance report has been issued identifying applicable...

  7. Clark County- Energy Conservation Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In September 2010, Clark County adopted Ordinance 3897, implementing the Southern Nevada version of the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code for both residential and commercial buildings...

  8. Marin County- Solar Access Code

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Marin County's Energy Conservation Code is designed to assure new subdivisions provide for future passive or natural heating or cooling opportunities in the subdivision to the extent feasible. ...

  9. 86 Home Power #52 April / May 1996 Code Corner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric E.

    pumps lock up. · Generators and PV arrays develop ground-faults. This Code Corner and the next A ccidents happen--and, if they involve your PV system or one that you installed, they can be a disaster when stalled pump motors. These currents can cause long-term deterioration of the cables from overheating

  10. Minimum Energy Coding for Wireless NanoSensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shihada, Basem

    Minimum Energy Coding for Wireless NanoSensor Networks Murat Kocaoglu Ozgur B. Akan Next-generation nodes. With their extremely small size, nanosensor nodes can only provide limited energy. Hence, power for their realization. Authors in [1] provide a detailed survey on the state-of-the-art in nanosensors and emphasize

  11. Network Monitoring in Multicast Networks Using Network Coding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Tracey

    , and give some experimental results for one and two link failures in randomly generated networks. We also inference of possible locations of link failures or losses in a network. For distributed randomized network coding, we bound the probability of being able to distinguish among a given set of failure events

  12. What's the code? Automatic Classification of Source Code Archives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giles, C. Lee

    What's the code? Automatic Classification of Source Code Archives Secil Ugurel 1 , Robert Krovetz 2, zha} @cse.psu.edu 2 NEC Research Institute 4 Independence Way, Princeton, NJ 08540 {krovetz, dpennock, compuman} @research.nj.nec.com 3 School of Information Sciences and Technology The Pennsylvania State

  13. Molecular Cell Interaction of a DNA Zip Code with the Nuclear

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brickner, Jason

    Molecular Cell Article Interaction of a DNA Zip Code with the Nuclear Pore Complex Promotes H2A codes'' in the promoters of yeast genes confer interaction with the NPC and localization at the nuclear, they remain at the nuclear periphery for several generations, primed for reactivation. Tran- scriptional

  14. Near maximum likelihood multiuser receivers for direct sequence code division multiple access 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sim, Hak Keong

    Wideband wireless access based on direct-sequence code-division multiple access (DS-CDMA) has been adopted for third-generation mobile communications systems. Hence, DS-CDMA downlink communications systems form the platform ...

  15. The Method of Generated Solutions for Numerical Verification of ICE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for verifying numerical code. The exact solution to the set of equations is derived using mathematical methodsThe Method of Generated Solutions for Numerical Verification of ICE Code Amjidanutpan Ramanujam, Christopher Sikorski, Todd Harman* UUCS­07­006 School of Computing University of Utah Salt Lake City, UT 84112

  16. The Method of Generated Solutions for Numerical Verification of ICE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for verifying numerical code. The exact solution to the set of equations is derived using mathematical methodsThe Method of Generated Solutions for Numerical Verification of ICE Code Amjidanutpan Ramanujam, Christopher Sikorski, Todd Harman* UUCS-07-006 School of Computing University of Utah Salt Lake City, UT 84112

  17. ACCELERATION PHYSICS CODE WEB REPOSITORY.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WEI, J.

    2006-06-26

    In the framework of the CARE HHH European Network, we have developed a web-based dynamic accelerator-physics code repository. We describe the design, structure and contents of this repository, illustrate its usage, and discuss our future plans, with emphasis on code benchmarking.

  18. Accelerator Physics Code Web Repository

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zimmermann, F.; Basset, R.; Bellodi, G.; Benedetto, E.; Dorda, U.; Giovannozzi, M.; Papaphilippou, Y.; Pieloni, T.; Ruggiero, F.; Rumolo, G.; Schmidt, F.; Todesco, E.; Zotter, B.W.; Payet, J.; Bartolini, R.; Farvacque, L.; Sen, T.; Chin, Y.H.; Ohmi, K.; Oide, K.; Furman, M.; /LBL, Berkeley /Oak Ridge /Pohang Accelerator Lab. /SLAC /TRIUMF /Tech-X, Boulder /UC, San Diego /Darmstadt, GSI /Rutherford /Brookhaven

    2006-10-24

    In the framework of the CARE HHH European Network, we have developed a web-based dynamic accelerator-physics code repository. We describe the design, structure and contents of this repository, illustrate its usage, and discuss our future plans, with emphasis on code benchmarking.

  19. Secure Symmetrical Multilevel Diversity Coding 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Shuo

    2012-07-16

    Secure symmetrical multilevel diversity coding (S-SMDC) is a source coding problem, where a total of L - N discrete memoryless sources (S1,...,S_L-N) are to be encoded by a total of L encoders. This thesis considers a natural generalization of SMDC...

  20. LFSC - Linac Feedback Simulation Code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivanov, Valentin; /Fermilab

    2008-05-01

    The computer program LFSC (Code>) is a numerical tool for simulation beam based feedback in high performance linacs. The code LFSC is based on the earlier version developed by a collective of authors at SLAC (L.Hendrickson, R. McEwen, T. Himel, H. Shoaee, S. Shah, P. Emma, P. Schultz) during 1990-2005. That code was successively used in simulation of SLC, TESLA, CLIC and NLC projects. It can simulate as pulse-to-pulse feedback on timescale corresponding to 5-100 Hz, as slower feedbacks, operating in the 0.1-1 Hz range in the Main Linac and Beam Delivery System. The code LFSC is running under Matlab for MS Windows operating system. It contains about 30,000 lines of source code in more than 260 subroutines. The code uses the LIAR ('Linear Accelerator Research code') for particle tracking under ground motion and technical noise perturbations. It uses the Guinea Pig code to simulate the luminosity performance. A set of input files includes the lattice description (XSIF format), and plane text files with numerical parameters, wake fields, ground motion data etc. The Matlab environment provides a flexible system for graphical output.

  1. Publications NODC Taxonomic Code and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Center (NODC) has announced the availability of the third edition of its Taxonomic Code. This expanded edition has nearly 28,000 entries giving the sci- entific names and corresponding numer- ical codes (MESA) project and the Outer Conti- nental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) conducted

  2. XS, S, M, L: Creative Text Generators of Different Scales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montfort, Nick

    2013-05-14

    Creative text generation projects of different sizes (in terms of lines of code and length of development time) are described. “Extra-small,” “small,” “medium,” and “large” projects are discussed as participating in the ...

  3. Investment and Upgrade in Distributed Generation under Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Afzal

    2008-01-01

    ment of uncertainty via real options increases the value of2007) and the 2007 Real Options Conference in Berkeley, CA,distributed generation, real options JEL Codes: D81, Q40

  4. Renewable Energy Requirements for Future Building Codes: Options for Compliance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dillon, Heather E.; Antonopoulos, Chrissi A.; Solana, Amy E.; Russo, Bryan J.

    2011-09-30

    As the model energy codes are improved to reach efficiency levels 50 percent greater than current codes, use of on-site renewable energy generation is likely to become a code requirement. This requirement will be needed because traditional mechanisms for code improvement, including envelope, mechanical and lighting, have been pressed to the end of reasonable limits. Research has been conducted to determine the mechanism for implementing this requirement (Kaufman 2011). Kaufmann et al. determined that the most appropriate way to structure an on-site renewable requirement for commercial buildings is to define the requirement in terms of an installed power density per unit of roof area. This provides a mechanism that is suitable for the installation of photovoltaic (PV) systems on future buildings to offset electricity and reduce the total building energy load. Kaufmann et al. suggested that an appropriate maximum for the requirement in the commercial sector would be 4 W/ft{sup 2} of roof area or 0.5 W/ft{sup 2} of conditioned floor area. As with all code requirements, there must be an alternative compliance path for buildings that may not reasonably meet the renewables requirement. This might include conditions like shading (which makes rooftop PV arrays less effective), unusual architecture, undesirable roof pitch, unsuitable building orientation, or other issues. In the short term, alternative compliance paths including high performance mechanical equipment, dramatic envelope changes, or controls changes may be feasible. These options may be less expensive than many renewable systems, which will require careful balance of energy measures when setting the code requirement levels. As the stringency of the code continues to increase however, efficiency trade-offs will be maximized, requiring alternative compliance options to be focused solely on renewable electricity trade-offs or equivalent programs. One alternate compliance path includes purchase of Renewable Energy Credits (RECs). Each REC represents a specified amount of renewable electricity production and provides an offset of environmental externalities associated with non-renewable electricity production. The purpose of this paper is to explore the possible issues with RECs and comparable alternative compliance options. Existing codes have been examined to determine energy equivalence between the energy generation requirement and the RECs alternative over the life of the building. The price equivalence of the requirement and the alternative are determined to consider the economic drivers for a market decision. This research includes case studies that review how the few existing codes have incorporated RECs and some of the issues inherent with REC markets. Section 1 of the report reviews compliance options including RECs, green energy purchase programs, shared solar agreements and leases, and other options. Section 2 provides detailed case studies on codes that include RECs and community based alternative compliance methods. The methods the existing code requirements structure alternative compliance options like RECs are the focus of the case studies. Section 3 explores the possible structure of the renewable energy generation requirement in the context of energy and price equivalence. The price of RECs have shown high variation by market and over time which makes it critical to for code language to be updated frequently for a renewable energy generation requirement or the requirement will not remain price-equivalent over time. Section 4 of the report provides a maximum case estimate for impact to the PV market and the REC market based on the Kaufmann et al. proposed requirement levels. If all new buildings in the commercial sector complied with the requirement to install rooftop PV arrays, nearly 4,700 MW of solar would be installed in 2012, a major increase from EIA estimates of 640 MW of solar generation capacity installed in 2009. The residential sector could contribute roughly an additional 2,300 MW based on the same code requirement levels of 4 W/ft{sup 2} of r

  5. San Francisco Building Code Amendments to the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . The California San Francisco Green Building Standards Code is Part 11 of twelve parts Chapter 13C of the official1 2010 San Francisco Building Code Amendments to the 2010 California Green Building Standards Code (Omitting amendments to 2010 California Building Code and 2010 California Residential Code which do

  6. Photon generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srinivasan-Rao, Triveni (Shoreham, NY)

    2002-01-01

    A photon generator includes an electron gun for emitting an electron beam, a laser for emitting a laser beam, and an interaction ring wherein the laser beam repetitively collides with the electron beam for emitting a high energy photon beam therefrom in the exemplary form of x-rays. The interaction ring is a closed loop, sized and configured for circulating the electron beam with a period substantially equal to the period of the laser beam pulses for effecting repetitive collisions.

  7. Cluster generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donchev, Todor I. (Urbana, IL); Petrov, Ivan G. (Champaign, IL)

    2011-05-31

    Described herein is an apparatus and a method for producing atom clusters based on a gas discharge within a hollow cathode. The hollow cathode includes one or more walls. The one or more walls define a sputtering chamber within the hollow cathode and include a material to be sputtered. A hollow anode is positioned at an end of the sputtering chamber, and atom clusters are formed when a gas discharge is generated between the hollow anode and the hollow cathode.

  8. Electric generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foster, Jr., John S. (Pleasanton, CA); Wilson, James R. (Livermore, CA); McDonald, Jr., Charles A. (Danville, CA)

    1983-01-01

    1. In an electrical energy generator, the combination comprising a first elongated annular electrical current conductor having at least one bare surface extending longitudinally and facing radially inwards therein, a second elongated annular electrical current conductor disposed coaxially within said first conductor and having an outer bare surface area extending longitudinally and facing said bare surface of said first conductor, the contiguous coaxial areas of said first and second conductors defining an inductive element, means for applying an electrical current to at least one of said conductors for generating a magnetic field encompassing said inductive element, and explosive charge means disposed concentrically with respect to said conductors including at least the area of said inductive element, said explosive charge means including means disposed to initiate an explosive wave front in said explosive advancing longitudinally along said inductive element, said wave front being effective to progressively deform at least one of said conductors to bring said bare surfaces thereof into electrically conductive contact to progressively reduce the inductance of the inductive element defined by said conductors and transferring explosive energy to said magnetic field effective to generate an electrical potential between undeformed portions of said conductors ahead of said explosive wave front.

  9. Multiterminal source coding: sum-rate loss, code designs, and applications to video sensor networks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Yang

    2009-05-15

    Driven by a host of emerging applications (e.g., sensor networks and wireless video), distributed source coding (i.e., Slepian-Wolf coding, Wyner-Ziv coding and various other forms of multiterminal source coding), has ...

  10. ETR/ITER systems code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barr, W.L.; Bathke, C.G.; Brooks, J.N.; Bulmer, R.H.; Busigin, A.; DuBois, P.F.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Fink, J.; Finn, P.A.; Galambos, J.D.; Gohar, Y.; Gorker, G.E.; Haines, J.R.; Hassanein, A.M.; Hicks, D.R.; Ho, S.K.; Kalsi, S.S.; Kalyanam, K.M.; Kerns, J.A.; Lee, J.D.; Miller, J.R.; Miller, R.L.; Myall, J.O.; Peng, Y-K.M.; Perkins, L.J.; Spampinato, P.T.; Strickler, D.J.; Thomson, S.L.; Wagner, C.E.; Willms, R.S.; Reid, R.L.

    1988-04-01

    A tokamak systems code capable of modeling experimental test reactors has been developed and is described in this document. The code, named TETRA (for Tokamak Engineering Test Reactor Analysis), consists of a series of modules, each describing a tokamak system or component, controlled by an optimizer/driver. This code development was a national effort in that the modules were contributed by members of the fusion community and integrated into a code by the Fusion Engineering Design Center. The code has been checked out on the Cray computers at the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computing Center and has satisfactorily simulated the Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor II (TIBER) design. A feature of this code is the ability to perform optimization studies through the use of a numerical software package, which iterates prescribed variables to satisfy a set of prescribed equations or constraints. This code will be used to perform sensitivity studies for the proposed International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). 22 figs., 29 tabs.

  11. Surface code quantum communication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Austin G. Fowler; David S. Wang; Charles D. Hill; Thaddeus D. Ladd; Rodney Van Meter; Lloyd C. L. Hollenberg

    2010-02-05

    Quantum communication typically involves a linear chain of repeater stations, each capable of reliable local quantum computation and connected to their nearest neighbors by unreliable communication links. The communication rate in existing protocols is low as two-way classical communication is used. We show that, if Bell pairs are generated between neighboring stations with a probability of heralded success greater than 0.65 and fidelity greater than 0.96, two-way classical communication can be entirely avoided and quantum information can be sent over arbitrary distances with arbitrarily low error at a rate limited only by the local gate speed. The number of qubits per repeater scales logarithmically with the communication distance. If the probability of heralded success is less than 0.65 and Bell pairs between neighboring stations with fidelity no less than 0.92 are generated only every T_B seconds, the logarithmic resource scaling remains and the communication rate through N links is proportional to 1/(T_B log^2 N).

  12. Using Generative Design Patterns to Generate Parallel Code for a Distributed Memory Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schaeffer, Jonathan

    for developing sequential software. Many of these advances have quickly moved from academia to common practice, University of Alberta,Edmonton,AB, T6G2E8, Canada School of Computer Science, University of Waterloo. INTRODUCTION The past decade has seen enormous strides forward in software engineering methodologies and tools

  13. Example of Environmental Restoration Code of Accounts

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter describes the fundamental structure of an example remediation cost code system, lists and describes the Level 1 cost codes, and lists the Level 2 and Level 3 cost codes.

  14. Multiterminal Video Coding: From Theory to Application 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yifu

    2012-10-19

    Multiterminal (MT) video coding is a practical application of the MT source coding theory. For MT source coding theory, two problems associated with achievable rate regions are well investigated into in this thesis: a new ...

  15. Generating Precise Dependencies for Large Software

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cortes, Corinna

    Generating Precise Dependencies for Large Software Pei Wang, Jinqiu Yang, Lin Tan University-term software development, especially for large software with millions of lines of code. This paper designs/C++ software projects. The tool extracts both symbol- level and module-level dependencies of a software system

  16. The Cost of Enforcing Building Energy Codes: Phase 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Alison

    2013-01-01

    practices among code officials. Stakeholders recommendboth applicants and code officials and help to inform thecomply with the code and code officials to enforce the new

  17. Aspen Code Development Collaboration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,; Cherry, Robert S. INL; Richard, Boardman D. INL

    2013-10-03

    Wyoming has a wealth of primary energy resources in the forms of coal, natural gas, wind, uranium, and oil shale. Most of Wyoming?s coal and gas resources are exported from the state in unprocessed form rather than as refined higher value products. Wyoming?s leadership recognizes the opportunity to broaden the state?s economic base energy resources to make value-added products such as synthetic vehicle fuels and commodity chemicals. Producing these higher value products in an environmentally responsible manner can benefit from the use of clean energy technologies including Wyoming?s abundant wind energy and nuclear energy such as new generation small modular reactors including the high temperature gas-cooled reactors.

  18. Technical Standards, Safety Analysis Toolbox Codes - November...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    report, Selection of Computer Codes for DOE Safety Analysis Applications, (August, 2002). Technical Standards, Safety Analysis Toolbox Codes More Documents & Publications DOE G...

  19. Program School/ Career: Descripton ISIS Program Codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Program School/ Career: Descripton ISIS Program Codes Program Career: Descripton College School;Program School/ Career: Descripton ISIS Program Codes Program Career: Descripton College School/ College 1

  20. Towards secure multiresolution network coding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Medard, Muriel

    Emerging practical schemes indicate that algebraic mixing of different packets by means of random linear network coding can increase the throughput and robustness of streaming services over wireless networks. However, ...

  1. Commercial Building Codes and Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Once an energy-efficient technology or practice is widely available in the market, it can become the baseline of performance through building energy codes and equipment standards. The Building...

  2. Gas Code of Conduct (Connecticut)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Gas Code of Conduct sets forth the standard of conduct for transactions, direct or indirect, between gas companies and their affiliates. The purpose of these regulations is to promote...

  3. Investigation of thermochemical biorefinery sizing and environmental sustainability impacts for conventional supply system and distributed pre-processing supply system designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David J. Muth, Jr.; Matthew H. Langholtz; Eric C. D. Tan; Jacob J. Jacobson; Amy Schwab; May M. Wu; Andrew Argo; Craig C. Brandt; Kara G. Cafferty; Yi-Wen Chiu; Abhijit Dutta; Laurence M. Eaton; Erin M. Searcy

    2014-08-01

    The 2011 US Billion-Ton Update estimates that by 2030 there will be enough agricultural and forest resources to sustainably provide at least one billion dry tons of biomass annually, enough to displace approximately 30% of the country's current petroleum consumption. A portion of these resources are inaccessible at current cost targets with conventional feedstock supply systems because of their remoteness or low yields. Reliable analyses and projections of US biofuels production depend on assumptions about the supply system and biorefinery capacity, which, in turn, depend upon economic value, feedstock logistics, and sustainability. A cross-functional team has examined combinations of advances in feedstock supply systems and biorefinery capacities with rigorous design information, improved crop yield and agronomic practices, and improved estimates of sustainable biomass availability. A previous report on biochemical refinery capacity noted that under advanced feedstock logistic supply systems that include depots and pre-processing operations there are cost advantages that support larger biorefineries up to 10 000 DMT/day facilities compared to the smaller 2000 DMT/day facilities. This report focuses on analyzing conventional versus advanced depot biomass supply systems for a thermochemical conversion and refinery sizing based on woody biomass. The results of this analysis demonstrate that the economies of scale enabled by advanced logistics offsets much of the added logistics costs from additional depot processing and transportation, resulting in a small overall increase to the minimum ethanol selling price compared to the conventional logistic supply system. While the overall costs do increase slightly for the advanced logistic supply systems, the ability to mitigate moisture and ash in the system will improve the storage and conversion processes. In addition, being able to draw on feedstocks from further distances will decrease the risk of biomass supply to the conversion facility.

  4. Quantum stabilizer codes and beyond 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarvepalli, Pradeep Kiran

    2008-10-10

    Dissertation by PRADEEP KIRAN SARVEPALLI Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY August 2008 Major Subject: Computer Science QUANTUM STABILIZER CODES... Committee Members, Donald K. Friesen Jennifer L. Welch Scott L. Miller Head of Department, Valerie E. Taylor August 2008 Major Subject: Computer Science iii ABSTRACT Quantum Stabilizer Codes and Beyond. (August 2008) Pradeep Kiran Sarvepalli, B.Tech., Indian...

  5. SUMMARY OF GENERAL WORKING GROUP A+B+D: CODES BENCHMARKING.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WEI, J.; SHAPOSHNIKOVA, E.; ZIMMERMANN, F.; HOFMANN, I.

    2006-05-29

    Computer simulation is an indispensable tool in assisting the design, construction, and operation of accelerators. In particular, computer simulation complements analytical theories and experimental observations in understanding beam dynamics in accelerators. The ultimate function of computer simulation is to study mechanisms that limit the performance of frontier accelerators. There are four goals for the benchmarking of computer simulation codes, namely debugging, validation, comparison and verification: (1) Debugging--codes should calculate what they are supposed to calculate; (2) Validation--results generated by the codes should agree with established analytical results for specific cases; (3) Comparison--results from two sets of codes should agree with each other if the models used are the same; and (4) Verification--results from the codes should agree with experimental measurements. This is the summary of the joint session among working groups A, B, and D of the HI32006 Workshop on computer codes benchmarking.

  6. Introduction Hi-C is a source code to hypercode translation system. Utilizing the GNU etags utility, Hi-C parses source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Gail E.

    Introduction Hi-C is a source code to hypercode translation system. Utilizing the GNU etags utility, Hi-C parses source code bases and generates the corresponding HTML pages. Symbol definitions files. Hi-C currently understands code written in over 18 languages. Hi-C makes it easy for development

  7. SECTION GS1020 CONSTRUCTION CODE REQUIREMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yuanlin

    101, Life Safety Code; 5. National Fire Protection Association Codes and Standards; 6. ANSI/ASME A17SECTION GS1020 ­ CONSTRUCTION CODE REQUIREMENTS PART 1 - GENERAL 1.1 RELATED DOCUMENTS A. Drawings includes the following: 1. Construction code requirements for all construction at Texas Tech University. 1

  8. @ Ontario 2006 Building Code Structural Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheikh, Shamim A.

    @ Ontario 2006 Building Code Part 4 Structural Design Structural Losds and P r o ~ d u l r;2006 Building Code @Ontario Division B -Part 4 #12;@Ontario 2006 Building Code Part 4 Structural Design Section #12;2006 Building Code @Ontario 4.q.2. Spsclfled Loads and Effects 4 . . 2 Loads and Effects (See

  9. Arithmetic completely regular codes J. H. Koolen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Bill

    Arithmetic completely regular codes J. H. Koolen W. S. Lee W. J. Martin December 4, 2013 Abstract In this paper, we explore completely regular codes in the Hamming graphs and related graphs. Experimental evidence suggests that many completely regular codes have the property that the eigenvalues of the code

  10. Energy Consumption of Minimum Energy Coding in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansson, Karl Henrik

    Energy Consumption of Minimum Energy Coding in CDMA Wireless Sensor Networks Benigno Zurita Ares://www.ee.kth.se/control Abstract. A theoretical framework is proposed for accurate perfor- mance analysis of minimum energy coding energy consumption is analyzed for two coding schemes proposed in the literature: Minimum Energy coding

  11. Petascale Parallelization of the Gyrokinetic Toroidal Code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ethier, Stephane; Adams, Mark; Carter, Jonathan; Oliker, Leonid

    2010-05-01

    The Gyrokinetic Toroidal Code (GTC) is a global, three-dimensional particle-in-cell application developed to study microturbulence in tokamak fusion devices. The global capability of GTC is unique, allowing researchers to systematically analyze important dynamics such as turbulence spreading. In this work we examine a new radial domain decomposition approach to allow scalability onto the latest generation of petascale systems. Extensive performance evaluation is conducted on three high performance computing systems: the IBM BG/P, the Cray XT4, and an Intel Xeon Cluster. Overall results show that the radial decomposition approach dramatically increases scalability, while reducing the memory footprint - allowing for fusion device simulations at an unprecedented scale. After a decade where high-end computing (HEC) was dominated by the rapid pace of improvements to processor frequencies, the performance of next-generation supercomputers is increasingly differentiated by varying interconnect designs and levels of integration. Understanding the tradeoffs of these system designs is a key step towards making effective petascale computing a reality. In this work, we examine a new parallelization scheme for the Gyrokinetic Toroidal Code (GTC) [?] micro-turbulence fusion application. Extensive scalability results and analysis are presented on three HEC systems: the IBM BlueGene/P (BG/P) at Argonne National Laboratory, the Cray XT4 at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and an Intel Xeon cluster at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Overall results indicate that the new radial decomposition approach successfully attains unprecedented scalability to 131,072 BG/P cores by overcoming the memory limitations of the previous approach. The new version is well suited to utilize emerging petascale resources to access new regimes of physical phenomena.

  12. Thermochemical Insight into the Reduction of CO to CH3OH with [Re(CO)]+ and [Mn(CO)]+ Complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiedner, Eric S.; Appel, Aaron M.

    2014-05-22

    To gain insight into thermodynamic barriers for reduction of CO into CH3OH, free energies for reduction of [CpRe(PPh3)(NO)(CO)]+ into CpRe(PPh3)(NO)(CH2OH) have been determined from experimental measurements. Using model complexes, the free energies for the transfer of H+, H–, and e– have been determined. A pKa of 10.6 was estimated for [CpRe(PPh3)(NO)(CHOH)]+ by measuring the pKa for the analogous [CpRe(PPh3)(NO)(CMeOH)]+. The hydride donor ability (?G°H–) of CpRe(PPh3)(NO)(CH2OH) was estimated to be 58.0 kcal mol–1, based on calorimetry measurements of the hydride transfer reaction between CpRe(PPh3)(NO)(CHO) and [CpRe(PPh3)(NO)(CHOMe)]+ to generate the methylated analog, CpRe(PPh3)(NO)(CH2OMe). Cyclic voltammograms recorded on CpRe(PPh3)(NO)(CMeO), CpRe(PPh3)(NO)(CH2OMe), and [CpRe(PPh3)(NO)(CHOMe)]+ displayed either a quasireversible oxidation (neutral species) or reduction (cationic species). These potentials were used as estimates for the oxidation of CpRe(PPh3)(NO)(CHO) or CpRe(PPh3)(NO)(CH2OH), or the reduction of [CpRe(PPh3)(NO)(CHOH)]+. Combination of the thermodynamic data permits construction of three-dimensional free energy landscapes under varying conditions of pH and PH2. The free energy for H2 addition (?G°H2) to [CpRe(PPh3)(NO)(CO)]+ (+15 kcal mol–1) was identified as the most significant thermodynamic impediment for the reduction of CO. DFT computations indicate that ?G°H2 varies by only 4.3 kcal mol–1 across a series of [CpXRe(L)(NO)(CO)]+, while the experimental ?G°H– values for the analogous series of CpRe(PPh3)(NO)(CHO) varies by 12.9 kcal mol–1. The small range of ?G°H2 values is attributed to a minimal change in the C–O bond polarization upon modification of the ancillary ligands, as determined from the computed atomic charges. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle.

  13. Code division multiple access signaling for modulated reflector technology

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Briles, Scott D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2012-05-01

    A method and apparatus for utilizing code division multiple access in modulated reflectance transmissions comprises the steps of generating a phase-modulated reflectance data bit stream; modifying the modulated reflectance data bit stream; providing the modified modulated reflectance data bit stream to a switch that connects an antenna to an infinite impedance in the event a "+1" is to be sent, or connects the antenna to ground in the event a "0" or a "-1" is to be sent.

  14. Optimal Bacon-Shor codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John Napp; John Preskill

    2012-09-04

    We study the performance of Bacon-Shor codes, quantum subsystem codes which are well suited for applications to fault-tolerant quantum memory because the error syndrome can be extracted by performing two-qubit measurements. Assuming independent noise, we find the optimal block size in terms of the bit-flip error probability p_X and the phase error probability p_Z, and determine how the probability of a logical error depends on p_X and p_Z. We show that a single Bacon-Shor code block, used by itself without concatenation, can provide very effective protection against logical errors if the noise is highly biased (p_Z / p_X >> 1) and the physical error rate p_Z is a few percent or below. We also derive an upper bound on the logical error rate for the case where the syndrome data is noisy.

  15. Arithmetic Coding for Data Compression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howard, Paul G.; Vitter, Jeffrey Scott

    1994-01-01

    of the particular sequence of events in the #0Cle. The #0Cnal step uses at most b,log 2 pc + 2 bits to distinguish the #0Cle fromall other possible #0Cles. We need some mechanism to indicate the end ofthe #0Cle, either a special end- of-#0Cle event coded just once... of the particular sequence of events in the #0Cle. The #0Cnal step uses at most b,log 2 pc + 2 bits to distinguish the #0Cle fromall other possible #0Cles. We need some mechanism to indicate the end ofthe #0Cle, either a special end- of-#0Cle event coded just once...

  16. Validation issues for SSI codes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Philippacopoulos, A.J.

    1995-02-01

    The paper describes the results of a recent work which was performed to verify computer code predictions in the SSI area. The first part of the paper is concerned with analytic solutions of the system response. The mathematical derivations are reasonably reduced by the use of relatively simple models which capture fundamental ingredients of the physics of the system motion while allowing for the response to be obtained analytically. Having established explicit forms of the system response, numerical solutions from three computer codes are presented in comparative format.

  17. Deployment of GTHTR300 Cogeneration for Hydrogen and Electric Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kazuhiko Kunitomi; Xing Yan; Isao Minatsuki

    2004-07-01

    JAERI (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute) has started the design study on the GTHTR300-cogeneration (GTHTR300C) aiming at producing electricity by a helium gas turbine and hydrogen by a thermochemical water splitting method (IS process method). The GTHTR300C is a block type High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) with its reactor thermal power of 600 MW and outlet coolant temperature of 950 deg. C. The Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) is located between the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and the gas turbine system. The heat capacity of the IHX is 170 MW and is used for hydrogen production. The balance of the reactor thermal power is used for electric generation. The GTHTR300C is designed based on existing technologies for the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) and the helium turbine power conversion technology under development for the Gas Turbine High Temperature Reactor (GTHTR300). This paper describes the deployment of the GTHTR300C together with the original design features and advantages of the system. (authors)

  18. Design and implementation of a high data rate wireless system using Low-Density Parity-Check codes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhatt, Tejas Maheshbhai

    2000-01-01

    . Various decoding algorithms for LDPC codes are implemented and complexity v/s bit error rate (BER) trade off is studied. The goal is to evaluate LDPC codes as a suitable candidate for the forward error correction in the next generation wireless systems...

  19. Ptolemy Coding Style Christopher Brooks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ptolemy Coding Style Christopher Brooks Edward A. Lee Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences was supported in part by the iCyPhy Research Center (Industrial Cyber-Physical Systems, supported by IBM (Industrial Cyber-Physical Systems, supported by IBM and United Technologies), and the Center for Hybrid

  20. Free Energy Code Online Discussion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Free Energy Code Online Discussion for Building Department Personnel Join us for this FREE 90 Bruce Cheney from Anchors Aweigh Energy, LLC want to hear from YOU on residential HVAC changeout issues of the California Energy Commission. Date: 3 dates currently offered, choose the one that works for you

  1. Generators, Recursion, and Fractals 1 Generators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verschelde, Jan

    Generators, Recursion, and Fractals 1 Generators computing a list of Fibonacci numbers defining a generator with yield putting yield in the function fib 2 Recursive Functions computing factorials, 24 April 2015 Intro to Computer Science (MCS 260) generators and recursion L-41 24 April 2015 1 / 36

  2. Tandem Mirror Reactor Systems Code (Version I)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, R.L.; Finn, P.A.; Gohar, M.Y.; Barrett, R.J.; Gorker, G.E.; Spampinaton, P.T.; Bulmer, R.H.; Dorn, D.W.; Perkins, L.J.; Ghose, S.

    1985-09-01

    A computer code was developed to model a Tandem Mirror Reactor. Ths is the first Tandem Mirror Reactor model to couple, in detail, the highly linked physics, magnetics, and neutronic analysis into a single code. This report describes the code architecture, provides a summary description of the modules comprising the code, and includes an example execution of the Tandem Mirror Reactor Systems Code. Results from this code for two sensitivity studies are also included. These studies are: (1) to determine the impact of center cell plasma radius, length, and ion temperature on reactor cost and performance at constant fusion power; and (2) to determine the impact of reactor power level on cost.

  3. Impacts of lateral code changes associated with the 2006 International Building Code and the 2008 California Building Code

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ratley, Desirée Page

    2007-01-01

    The 2008 California Building Code (CBC) will adopt the structural section of the 2006 International Building Code (IBC), which includes alterations to the procedure to determine earthquake design loading, and a drastic ...

  4. Hydrogen Safety, Codes and Standards Challenges | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing Tool Fits the Bill FinancingDepartment ofPowerScenarioCoalThermochemical

  5. POPCYCLE: a computer code for calculating nuclear and fossil plant levelized life-cycle power costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardie, R.W.

    1982-02-01

    POPCYCLE, a computer code designed to calculate levelized life-cycle power costs for nuclear and fossil electrical generating plants is described. Included are (1) derivations of the equations and a discussion of the methodology used by POPCYCLE, (2) a description of the input required by the code, (3) a listing of the input for a sample case, and (4) the output for a sample case.

  6. HIGH EFFICIENCY GENERATION OF HYDROGEN FUELS USING NUCLEAR POWER FINAL RECHNICAL REPORT FOR THE PERIOD AUGUST 1, 1999 THROUGH SEPTEMBER 30, 2002 REV. 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BROWN,LC; BESENBRUCH,GE; LENTSCH, RD; SCHULTZ,KR; FUNK,JF; PICKARD,PS; MARSHALL,AC; SHOWALTER,SK

    2003-12-01

    OAK-B135 Combustion of fossil fuels, used to power transportation, generate electricity, heat homes and fuel industry provides 86% of the world's energy [1-1,1-2]. Drawbacks to fossil fuel utilization include limited supply, pollution, and carbon dioxide emissions. Carbon dioxide emissions, thought to be responsible for global warming, are now the subject of international treaties [1-3,1-4]. Together, these drawbacks argue for the replacement of fossil fuels with a less-polluting potentially renewable primary energy such as nuclear energy. Conventional nuclear plants readily generate electric power but fossil fuels are firmly entrenched in the transportation sector. Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. Hydrogen will be particularly advantageous when coupled with fuel cells. Fuel cells have higher efficiency than conventional battery/internal combustion engine combinations and do not produce nitrogen oxides during low-temperature operation. Contemporary hydrogen production is primarily based on fossil fuels and most specifically on natural gas. When hydrogen is produced using energy derived from fossil fuels, there is little or no environmental advantage. There is currently no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally attractive hydrogen production process available for commercialization, nor has such a process been identified. The objective of this work is to find an economically feasible process for the production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high-temperature nuclear reactor as the primary energy source. Hydrogen production by thermochemical water-splitting (Appendix A), a chemical process that accomplishes the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen using only heat or, in the case of a hybrid thermochemical process, by a combination of heat and electrolysis, could meet these goals. Hydrogen produced from fossil fuels has trace contaminants (primarily carbon monoxide) that are detrimental to precious metal catalyzed fuel cells, as is now recognized by many of the world's largest automobile companies. Thermochemical hydrogen will not contain carbon monoxide as an impurity at any level. Electrolysis, the alternative process for producing hydrogen using nuclear energy, suffers from thermodynamic inefficiencies in both the production of electricity and in electrolytic parts of the process. The efficiency of electrolysis (electricity to hydrogen) is currently about 80%. Electric power generation efficiency would have to exceed 65% (thermal to electrical) for the combined efficiency to exceed the 52% (thermal to hydrogen) calculated for one thermochemical cycle. Thermochemical water-splitting cycles have been studied, at various levels of effort, for the past 35 years. They were extensively studied in the late 70s and early 80s but have received little attention in the past 10 years, particularly in the U.S. While there is no question about the technical feasibility and the potential for high efficiency, cycles with proven low cost and high efficiency have yet to be developed commercially. Over 100 cycles have been proposed, but substantial research has been executed on only a few. This report describes work accomplished during a three-year project whose objective is to ''define an economically feasible concept for production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high temperature nuclear reactor as the energy source.''

  7. Understanding and Managing Generation Y

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wallace, Kevin

    2007-12-14

    There are four generations in the workplace today; they consist of the Silent Generation, Baby Boom Generation, Generation X, and Generation Y. Generation Y, being the newest generation, is the least understood generation although marketers...

  8. IllinoisGRMHD: An Open-Source, User-Friendly GRMHD Code for Dynamical Spacetimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zachariah B. Etienne; Vasileios Paschalidis; Roland Haas; Philipp Moesta; Stuart L. Shapiro

    2015-08-18

    In the extreme violence of merger and mass accretion, compact objects like black holes and neutron stars are thought to launch some of the most luminous outbursts of electromagnetic and gravitational wave energy in the Universe. Modeling these systems realistically is a central problem in theoretical astrophysics, but has proven extremely challenging, requiring the development of numerical relativity codes that solve Einstein's equations for the spacetime, coupled to the equations of general relativistic (ideal) magnetohydrodynamics (GRMHD) for the magnetized fluids. Over the past decade, the Illinois Numerical Relativity (ILNR) Group's dynamical spacetime GRMHD code has proven itself as a robust and reliable tool for theoretical modeling of such GRMHD phenomena. However, the code was written "by experts and for experts" of the code, with a steep learning curve that would severely hinder community adoption if it were open-sourced. Here we present IllinoisGRMHD, which is an open-source, highly-extensible rewrite of the original closed-source GRMHD code of the ILNR Group. Reducing the learning curve was the primary focus of this rewrite, with the goal of facilitating community involvement in the code's use and development, as well as the minimization of human effort in generating new science. IllinoisGRMHD also saves computer time, generating roundoff-precision identical output to the original code on adaptive-mesh grids, but nearly twice as fast at scales of hundreds to thousands of cores.

  9. IllinoisGRMHD: An Open-Source, User-Friendly GRMHD Code for Dynamical Spacetimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zachariah B. Etienne; Vasileios Paschalidis; Roland Haas; Philipp Moesta; Stuart L. Shapiro

    2015-01-28

    In the extreme violence of merger and mass accretion, compact objects like black holes and neutron stars are thought to launch some of the most luminous outbursts of electromagnetic and gravitational wave energy in the Universe. Modeling these systems realistically is a central problem in theoretical astrophysics, but has proven extremely challenging, requiring the development of numerical relativity codes that solve Einstein's equations for the spacetime, coupled to the equations of general relativistic (ideal) magnetohydrodynamics (GRMHD) for the magnetized fluids. Over the past decade, the Illinois Numerical Relativity (ILNR) Group's dynamical spacetime, GRMHD code has proven itself as one of the most robust and reliable tools for theoretical modeling of such GRMHD phenomena. Despite the code's outstanding reputation, it was written "by experts and for experts" of the code, with a steep learning curve that would severely hinder community adoption if it were open-sourced. Here we present IllinoisGRMHD, which is an open-source, highly-extensible rewrite of the original closed-source GRMHD code of the ILNR Group. Reducing the learning curve was the primary focus of this rewrite, facilitating community involvement in the code's use and development, as well as the minimization of human effort in generating new science. IllinoisGRMHD also saves computer time, generating roundoff-precision identical output to the original code on adaptive-mesh grids, but nearly twice as fast at scales of hundreds to thousands of cores.

  10. Event Generator Benchmarking for Proton Radiography Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stepan G. Mashnik; Richard E. Prael; Arnold J. Sierk; Konstantin K. Gudima; Nikolai V. Mokhov

    2003-03-18

    We have benchmarked the QGSM code and event generators of the MARS and LAHET3 codes as potential candidates for high-energy programs to be used in simulations for the Proton Radiography (PRad) Project. We have compiled from the literature experimental data on spectra of particles emitted from proton-induced reactions at incident energies from 30 GeV to 70 GeV on different nuclei and have performed calculations for all reactions for which we found data with these three codes without any modifications and using only default parameters and standard inputs. Our results (514 plots) show that all three codes describe reasonably most of the studied reactions, though all of them should be further improved before becoming reliable tools for PRad. We present here our conclusions concerning the relative roles of different reaction mechanisms in the production of specific secondary particles. We comment on the strengths and weaknesses of QGSM, MARS, and LAHET3 and suggest further improvements to these codes and to other models.

  11. Arkansas Air Pollution Control Code (Arkansas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Arkansas Air Pollution Control code is adopted pursuant to Subchapter 2 of the Arkansas Water and Air Pollution Control Act (Arkansas Code Annotated 8-4-101). ) By authority of the same State...

  12. Network coding for speedup in switches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, MinJi, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2007-01-01

    Network coding, which allows mixing of data at intermediate network nodes, is known to increase the throughput of networks. In particular, it is known that linear network coding in a crossbar switch can sustain traffic ...

  13. N. Mariana Islands- Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Much of the information presented in this summary is drawn from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program and the Building Codes Assistance Project (BCAP). For more...

  14. Quantum error-correcting codes and devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gottesman, Daniel (Los Alamos, NM)

    2000-10-03

    A method of forming quantum error-correcting codes by first forming a stabilizer for a Hilbert space. A quantum information processing device can be formed to implement such quantum codes.

  15. Transforms for prediction residuals in video coding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kam??l?, Fatih

    2010-01-01

    Typically the same transform, the 2-D Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), is used to compress both image intensities in image coding and prediction residuals in video coding. Major prediction residuals include the motion ...

  16. A Better Handoff for Code Officials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conover, David R.; Yerkes, Sara

    2010-09-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Building Energy Codes Program has partnered with ICC to release the new Building Energy Codes Resource Guide: Code Officials Edition. We created this binder of practical materials for a simple reason: code officials are busy learning and enforcing several codes at once for the diverse buildings across their jurisdictions. This doesn’t leave much time to search www.energycodes.gov, www.iccsafe.org, or the range of other helpful web-based resources for the latest energy codes tools, support, and information. So, we decided to bring the most relevant materials to code officials in a way that works best with their daily routine, and point to where they can find even more. Like a coach’s game plan, the Resource Guide is an "energy playbook" for code officials.

  17. Reusing code by reasoning about its purpose

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Kenneth Charles

    2010-01-01

    When programmers face unfamiliar or challenging tasks, code written by others could give them inspiration or reusable pieces. But how can they find code appropriate for their goals? This thesis describes a programming ...

  18. Thermochem Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al., 2013) |InformationThe2009) | OpenThermalito,ThermoChem

  19. Biochemical & Thermochemical High Throughput Characterization...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    20 40 60 80 100 120 140 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 Frequency Corn Stover Corn Cob Miscanthus Wheat...

  20. Thermochemical Conversion | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram: Report15 MeetingDevelopmentDepartmentof EnergyTheConversion

  1. Multidimensional Fuel Performance Code: BISON

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-09-03

    BISON is a finite element based nuclear fuel performance code applicable to a variety of fuel forms including light water reactor fuel rods, TRISO fuel particles, and metallic rod and plate fuel (Refs. [a, b, c]). It solves the fully-coupled equations of thermomechanics and species diffusion and includes important fuel physics such as fission gas release and material property degradation with burnup. BISON is based on the MOOSE framework (Ref. [d]) and can therefore efficiently solve problems on 1-, 2- or 3-D meshes using standard workstations or large high performance computers. BISON is also coupled to a MOOSE-based mesoscale phase field material property simulation capability (Refs. [e, f]). As described here, BISON includes the code library named FOX, which was developed concurrent with BISON. FOX contains material and behavioral models that are specific to oxide fuels.

  2. CBP PHASE I CODE INTEGRATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, F.; Brown, K.; Flach, G.; Sarkar, S.

    2011-09-30

    The goal of the Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) is to develop a reasonable and credible set of software tools to predict the structural, hydraulic, and chemical performance of cement barriers used in nuclear applications over extended time frames (greater than 100 years for operating facilities and greater than 1000 years for waste management). The simulation tools will be used to evaluate and predict the behavior of cementitious barriers used in near surface engineered waste disposal systems including waste forms, containment structures, entombments, and environmental remediation. These cementitious materials are exposed to dynamic environmental conditions that cause changes in material properties via (i) aging, (ii) chloride attack, (iii) sulfate attack, (iv) carbonation, (v) oxidation, and (vi) primary constituent leaching. A set of state-of-the-art software tools has been selected as a starting point to capture these important aging and degradation phenomena. Integration of existing software developed by the CBP partner organizations was determined to be the quickest method of meeting the CBP goal of providing a computational tool that improves the prediction of the long-term behavior of cementitious materials. These partner codes were selected based on their maturity and ability to address the problems outlined above. The GoldSim Monte Carlo simulation program (GTG 2010a, GTG 2010b) was chosen as the code integration platform (Brown & Flach 2009b). GoldSim (current Version 10.5) is a Windows based graphical object-oriented computer program that provides a flexible environment for model development (Brown & Flach 2009b). The linking of GoldSim to external codes has previously been successfully demonstrated (Eary 2007, Mattie et al. 2007). GoldSim is capable of performing deterministic and probabilistic simulations and of modeling radioactive decay and constituent transport. As part of the CBP project, a general Dynamic Link Library (DLL) interface was developed to link GoldSim with external codes (Smith III et al. 2010). The DLL uses a list of code inputs provided by GoldSim to create an input file for the external application, runs the external code, and returns a list of outputs (read from files created by the external application) back to GoldSim. In this way GoldSim provides: (1) a unified user interface to the applications, (2) the capability of coupling selected codes in a synergistic manner, and (3) the capability of performing probabilistic uncertainty analysis with the codes. GoldSim is made available by the GoldSim Technology Group as a free 'Player' version that allows running but not editing GoldSim models. The player version makes the software readily available to a wider community of users that would wish to use the CBP application but do not have a license for GoldSim.

  3. Code input alternatives John C. Wright

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, John C.

    ;Summary Use a data-centric model for input creation (code namelists, IPS config file, etc) Database

  4. Bimodal codebooks for CELP speech coding 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woo, Hong Chae

    1988-01-01

    of Department) December 1988 ABSTRACT Bimodal Codebooks for CELP Speech Coding. (December 1988) Hong Chae Woo, B. S. , Kyungpook National U. , Korea Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Jerry D. Gibson With the maximum correlation multi-pulse search method..., near toll quality speech is achieved in multi-pulse excited linear predictive coding (MLPC). Code- excited linear predictive coding (CELP) is then developed for good quality syn- thetic speech using the analysis-by-synthesis method with two...

  5. Energy Code Compliance and Enforcement Best Practices

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This webinar covers how to access current practices, compliance best practices, and enforce best practices with energy code compliances.

  6. Building Energy Codes Program (BECP)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels| Department of Energy America:Antonio,Building Energy Codes

  7. Code requirements for concrete repository and processing facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hookham, C.J. [Black & Veatch, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Palaniswamy, R. [Bechtel Savannah River, Inc., North Augusta, SC (United States)

    1993-04-01

    The design and construction of facilities and structures for the processing and safe long-term storage of low- and high-level radioactive wastes will likely employ structural concrete. This concrete will be used for many purposes including structural support, shielding, and environmental protection. At the present time, there are no design costs, standards or guidelines for repositories, waste containers, or processing facilities. Recently, the design and construction guidelines contained in American Concrete Institute (ACI), Code Requirements for Nuclear Safety Related Concrete Structures (ACI 349), have been cited for low-level waste (LLW) repositories. Conceptual design of various high-level (HLW) repository surface structures have also cited the ACI 349 Code. However, the present Code was developed for nuclear power generating facilities and its application to radioactive waste repositories was not intended. For low and medium level radioactive wastes, concrete has a greater role and use in processing facilities, engineered barriers, and repository structures. Because of varied uses and performance/safety requirements this review of the current ACI 349 Code document was required to accommodate these special classes of structures.

  8. Quantum Coding with Finite Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marco Tomamichel; Mario Berta; Joseph M. Renes

    2015-05-28

    The quantum capacity of a memoryless channel is often used as a single figure of merit to characterize its ability to transmit quantum information coherently. The capacity determines the maximal rate at which we can code reliably over asymptotically many uses of the channel. We argue that this asymptotic treatment is insufficient to the point of being irrelevant in the quantum setting where decoherence severely limits our ability to manipulate large quantum systems in the encoder and decoder. For all practical purposes we should instead focus on the trade-off between three parameters: the rate of the code, the number of coherent uses of the channel, and the fidelity of the transmission. The aim is then to specify the region determined by allowed combinations of these parameters. Towards this goal, we find approximate and exact characterizations of the region of allowed triplets for the qubit dephasing channel and for the erasure channel with classical post-processing assistance. In each case the region is parametrized by a second channel parameter, the quantum channel dispersion. In the process we also develop several general inner (achievable) and outer (converse) bounds on the coding region that are valid for all finite-dimensional quantum channels and can be computed efficiently. Applied to the depolarizing channel, this allows us to determine a lower bound on the number of coherent uses of the channel necessary to witness super-additivity of the coherent information.

  9. DEPARTMENT CODE Department of Computer Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DEPARTMENT CODE Department of Computer Science College of Natural Sciences Colorado State and Amendment of this Code 19 #12;1 MISSION AND OBJECTIVES 3 Preamble This Code of the Department of Computer Science1 is a manual of operation that describes the functioning of the Department by codifying policy

  10. Update and inclusion of resuspension model codes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porch, W.M.; Greenly, G.D.; Mitchell, C.S.

    1983-12-01

    Model codes for estimating radiation doses from plutonium particles associated with resuspended dust were improved. Only one new code (RSUS) is required in addition to the MATHEW/ADPIC set of codes. The advantage is that it estimates resuspension based on wind blown dust fluxes derived for different soil types. 2 references. (ACR)

  11. Cost Codes and the Work Breakdown Structure

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    The chapter discusses the purpose of the work breakdown structure (WBS) and code of account (COA) cost code system, shows the purpose and fundamental structure of both the WBS and the cost code system, and explains the interface between the two systems.

  12. ACADEMIC INTEGRITY CODE REPORTING AND INVESTIGATION PROCEDURES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Droegemeier, Kelvin K.

    , or other persons may report suspected violations of the Integrity Code. Reporters are encouraged to providePage 1 ACADEMIC INTEGRITY CODE REPORTING AND INVESTIGATION PROCEDURES 1. DEFINITIONS a. Alleged Violator: a student alleged to have violated the Academic Integrity Code, or one about whom a reasonable

  13. NUMBER: 1530 TITLE: Code of Student Conduct

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . For the purposes of this Code, the term "University Official" is inclusive of "Faculty Member" as defined in IV 1530 1 NUMBER: 1530 TITLE: Code of Student Conduct APPROVED: August 27, 1970; Revised June 14, 2012 I. BASIS AND RATIONALE FOR A CODE OF STUDENT CONDUCT Old Dominion University

  14. Ultra-narrow bandwidth voice coding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holzrichter, John F. (Berkeley, CA); Ng, Lawrence C. (Danville, CA)

    2007-01-09

    A system of removing excess information from a human speech signal and coding the remaining signal information, transmitting the coded signal, and reconstructing the coded signal. The system uses one or more EM wave sensors and one or more acoustic microphones to determine at least one characteristic of the human speech signal.

  15. Undergraduate Academic Standing Processing Academic Standing Codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olszewski Jr., Edward A.

    8/16/2012 Undergraduate Academic Standing Processing Academic Standing Codes End-of-Term Codes Code Desc Max Hrs Notes 00 (or blank) Good Standing 18 PR Academic Probation 14 SU Academic Probation to the beginning of the term and allow registration, even if the prior term's academic standing prevents it

  16. Reducing Energy Demand in Buildings Through State Energy Codes...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reducing Energy Demand in Buildings Through State Energy Codes Reducing Energy Demand in Buildings Through State Energy Codes Building Codes Project for the 2013 Building...

  17. The Cost of Enforcing Building Energy Codes: Phase 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Alison

    2013-01-01

    State Energy Officials. Energy Code Best Practices: How to2012, April 17). Energy Code Best Practices: How toMeyers, Jim. Energy Code Enforcement: Best Practices from

  18. Technical Standards, Guidance on MELCOR computer code - May 3...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Standards, Guidance on MELCOR computer code - May 3, 2004 Technical Standards, Guidance on MELCOR computer code - May 3, 2004 May 3, 2004 MELCOR Computer Code Application Guidance...

  19. Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop: Code for Hydrogen Pipelines...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Working Group Workshop: Code for Hydrogen Pipelines Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop: Code for Hydrogen Pipelines Code for Hydrogen Piping and Pipelines. B31 Hydrogen...

  20. State and Local Code Implementation: Southwest Region - 2014...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Local Code Implementation: Southeast Region - 2014 BTO Peer Review State and Local Code Implementation: State Energy Officials - 2014 BTO Peer Review Green Codes and...

  1. State and Local Code Implementation: Southwest Region - 2014...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Local Code Implementation: Southeast Region - 2014 BTO Peer Review State and Local Code Implementation: State Energy Officials - 2014 BTO Peer Review State and Local Code...

  2. The Cost of Enforcing Building Energy Codes: Phase 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Alison

    2013-01-01

    S. (2011). Utilities and Building Energy Codes: Air QualityUtility Programs and Building Energy Codes: How utilityUtility Programs and Building Energy Codes: How utility

  3. Code Booster Award-winning research on code optimization explores multicore computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knowles, David William

    of physics research, from star formation to magnetic fusion devices. Unfortunately the code, LBMHD (LB

  4. TRAC code development status and plans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spore, J.W.; Liles, D.R.; Nelson, R.A.; Dotson, P.J.; Steinke, R.G.; Knight, T.D.; Henninger, R.J.; Martinez, V.; Jenks, R.P.; Cappiello, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    This report summarizes the characteristics and current status of the TRAC-PF1/MOD1 computer code. Recent error corrections and user-convenience features are described, and several user enhancements are identified. Current plans for the release of the TRAC-PF1/MOD2 computer code and some preliminary MOD2 results are presented. This new version of the TRAC code implements stability-enhancing two-step numerics into the 3-D vessel, using partial vectorization to obtain a code that has run 400% faster than the MOD1 code.

  5. National Agenda for Hydrogen Codes and Standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blake, C.

    2010-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of hydrogen codes and standards with an emphasis on the national effort supported and managed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). With the help and cooperation of standards and model code development organizations, industry, and other interested parties, DOE has established a coordinated national agenda for hydrogen and fuel cell codes and standards. With the adoption of the Research, Development, and Demonstration Roadmap and with its implementation through the Codes and Standards Technical Team, DOE helps strengthen the scientific basis for requirements incorporated in codes and standards that, in turn, will facilitate international market receptivity for hydrogen and fuel cell technologies.

  6. BBTR: an unstructured triangular mesh generator Andrea M.A. Barbera, Stefano Berrone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ceragioli, Francesca

    BBTR: an unstructured triangular mesh generator Andrea M.A. Barbera, Stefano Berrone Abstract In this paper we give a detailed description of the use of a MatlabR triangular mesh generator called BBTR produced by the mesh generator allow to set general boundary conditions. The code BBTR results

  7. ANALYTIC MODEL OF HARMONIC GENERATION IN THE LOW-GAIN FEL REGIME

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wurtele, Jonathan

    ANALYTIC MODEL OF HARMONIC GENERATION IN THE LOW-GAIN FEL REGIME G. Penn, M. Reinsch, J.S. Wurtele , LBNL, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA Abstract Harmonic generation using free electron lasers (FELs) requires with simulation results using the FEL code GENESIS, both for single stages of harmonic generation and for the LUX

  8. Primordial Gravitational Wave Calculations: Nonlinear vs Linear Codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garrison, David

    2015-01-01

    This work is a follow-up to the paper, "Numerical Relativity as a Tool for Studying the Early Universe". In this article, we present the first results of direct numerical simulations of primordial plasma turbulence as it applies to the generation of gravitational waves. We calculate the normalized energy density, strain and degree of polarization of gravitational waves produced by a simulated turbulent plasma similar to what was believed to have existed at the electroweak scale, 246 GeV. This calculation is completed using two numerical codes, one which utilizes full General Relativity calculations based on modified BSSN equations while the other utilizes a linearized approximation of General Relativity. Our results show that there is a significant difference between the spectrum of gravitational waves calculated using a nonlinear code as opposed to that calculated with a linear approximation. This implies that simulations that do not take into account nonlinear effects may not give accurate results.

  9. Primordial Gravitational Wave Calculations: Nonlinear vs Linear Codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Garrison

    2015-06-17

    This work is a follow-up to the paper, "Numerical Relativity as a Tool for Studying the Early Universe". In this article, we present the first results of direct numerical simulations of primordial plasma turbulence as it applies to the generation of gravitational waves. We calculate the normalized energy density, strain and degree of polarization of gravitational waves produced by a simulated turbulent plasma similar to what was believed to have existed shortly after the electroweak scale. This calculation is completed using two numerical codes, one which utilizes full General Relativity calculations based on modified BSSN equations while the other utilizes a linearized approximation of General Relativity. Our results show that there is a significant difference between the spectrum of gravitational waves calculated using a nonlinear code as opposed to that calculated with a linear approximation. This implies that simulations that do not take into account nonlinear effects may not give accurate results.

  10. NPS Master Curriculum Chart Report Generated on 5/6/2015 11:12:58AM Length PO APC JPME Dept Ph D. Committee ChairAcademic Associate Program OfficerDepartment ChairSchool / Curriculum / Degree Convenes Refresher P_Codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NPS Master Curriculum Chart Report Generated on 5/6/2015 11:12:58AM Length PO APC JPME Dept Ph D (Strategic Studies) 2301P 691 - Homeland Security and Defense 18 5238 265 NSA Mohammed M. Hafez Carolyn C

  11. Generation gaps in engineering?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, David J. (David Jinwoo)

    2008-01-01

    There is much enthusiastic debate on the topic of generation gaps in the workplace today; what the generational differences are, how to address the apparent challenges, and if the generations themselves are even real. ...

  12. Segmented Motion Compensation for Complementary Coded Ultrasonic Imaging 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cannon, Cormac; Hannah, John; McLaughlin, Steve

    Ultrasonic imaging using complementary coded pulses offers the SNR improvements of signal coding without the filter side-lobes introduced by single-transmit codes. Tissue motion between coded pulse emissions, however, can ...

  13. Texas Energy Code Compliance Collaborative 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herbert, C.

    2013-01-01

    wide cross section of E.E. industries ESL-KT-13-12-29 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 In 2012, Texas reported more new building starts than any other state – the next highest... seat. No enforcement is permitted, but builders report inspections are performed. 11 ESL-KT-13-12-29 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 Texas Health and Safety Code, Section 388.003 (c) A...

  14. Nuclear data to support computer code validation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, S.E.; Broadhead, B.L.; DeHart, M.D.; Primm, R.T. III

    1997-04-01

    The rate of plutonium disposition will be a key parameter in determining the degree of success of the Fissile Materials Disposition Program. Estimates of the disposition rate are dependent on neutronics calculations. To ensure that these calculations are accurate, the codes and data should be validated against applicable experimental measurements. Further, before mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel can be fabricated and loaded into a reactor, the fuel vendors, fabricators, fuel transporters, reactor owners and operators, regulatory authorities, and the Department of Energy (DOE) must accept the validity of design calculations. This report presents sources of neutronics measurements that have potential application for validating reactor physics (predicting the power distribution in the reactor core), predicting the spent fuel isotopic content, predicting the decay heat generation rate, certifying criticality safety of fuel cycle facilities, and ensuring adequate radiation protection at the fuel cycle facilities and the reactor. The U.S. in-reactor experience with MOX fuel is first presented, followed by information related to other aspects of the MOX fuel performance information that is valuable to this program, but the data base remains largely proprietary. Thus, this information is not reported here. It is expected that the selected consortium will make the necessary arrangements to procure or have access to the requisite information.

  15. Fire aerosol experiment and comparisons with computer code predictions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregory, W.S.; Nichols, B.D.; White, B.W.; Smith, P.R.; Leslie, I.H.; Corkran, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory, in cooperation with New Mexico State University, has carried on a series of tests to provide experimental data on fire-generated aerosol transport. These data will be used to verify the aerosol transport capabilities of the FIRAC computer code. FIRAC was developed by Los Alamos for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. It is intended to be used by safety analysts to evaluate the effects of hypothetical fires on nuclear plants. One of the most significant aspects of this analysis deals with smoke and radioactive material movement throughout the plant. The tests have been carried out using an industrial furnace that can generate gas temperatures to 300/degree/C. To date, we have used quartz aerosol with a median diameter of about 10 ..mu..m as the fire aerosol simulant. We also plan to use fire-generated aerosols of polystyrene and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). The test variables include two nominal gas flow rates (150 and 300 ft/sup 3//min) and three nominal gas temperatures (ambient, 150/degree/C, and 300/degree/C). The test results are presented in the form of plots of aerosol deposition vs length of duct. In addition, the mass of aerosol caught in a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter during the tests is reported. The tests are simulated with the FIRAC code, and the results are compared with the experimental data. 3 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Small Generator Aggregation (Maine)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This section establishes requirements for electricity providers to purchase electricity from small generators, with the goal of ensuring that small electricity generators (those with a nameplate...

  17. Streamlining of the RELAP5-3D Code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mesina, George L; Hykes, Joshua; Guillen, Donna Post

    2007-11-01

    RELAP5-3D is widely used by the nuclear community to simulate general thermal hydraulic systems and has proven to be so versatile that the spectrum of transient two-phase problems that can be analyzed has increased substantially over time. To accommodate the many new types of problems that are analyzed by RELAP5-3D, both the physics and numerical methods of the code have been continuously improved. In the area of computational methods and mathematical techniques, many upgrades and improvements have been made decrease code run time and increase solution accuracy. These include vectorization, parallelization, use of improved equation solvers for thermal hydraulics and neutron kinetics, and incorporation of improved library utilities. In the area of applied nuclear engineering, expanded capabilities include boron and level tracking models, radiation/conduction enclosure model, feedwater heater and compressor components, fluids and corresponding correlations for modeling Generation IV reactor designs, and coupling to computational fluid dynamics solvers. Ongoing and proposed future developments include improvements to the two-phase pump model, conversion to FORTRAN 90, and coupling to more computer programs. This paper summarizes the general improvements made to RELAP5-3D, with an emphasis on streamlining the code infrastructure for improved maintenance and development. With all these past, present and planned developments, it is necessary to modify the code infrastructure to incorporate modifications in a consistent and maintainable manner. Modifying a complex code such as RELAP5-3D to incorporate new models, upgrade numerics, and optimize existing code becomes more difficult as the code grows larger. The difficulty of this as well as the chance of introducing errors is significantly reduced when the code is structured. To streamline the code into a structured program, a commercial restructuring tool, FOR_STRUCT, was applied to the RELAP5-3D source files. The methodology employed follows Dijkstra's structured programming paradigm, which is based on splitting programs into sub-sections, each with single points of entry and exit and in which control is passed downward through the structure with no unconditional branches to higher levels. GO TO commands are typically avoided, since they alter the flow and control of a program’s execution by allowing a jump from one place in the routine to another. The restructuring of RELAP5-3D subroutines is complicated by several issues. The first is use of code other than standard FORTRAN77. The second is restructuring limitations of FOR_STRUCT. The third is existence of pre-compiler directives and the complication of nested directives. Techniques were developed to overcome all these difficulties and more and these are reported. By implementing these developments, all subroutines of RELAP were restructured. Measures of code improvement relative to maintenance and development are presented.

  18. Coded aperture imaging with self-supporting uniformly redundant arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fenimore, Edward E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1983-01-01

    A self-supporting uniformly redundant array pattern for coded aperture imaging. The present invention utilizes holes which are an integer times smaller in each direction than holes in conventional URA patterns. A balance correlation function is generated where holes are represented by 1's, nonholes are represented by -1's, and supporting area is represented by 0's. The self-supporting array can be used for low energy applications where substrates would greatly reduce throughput. The balance correlation response function for the self-supporting array pattern provides an accurate representation of the source of nonfocusable radiation.

  19. Studies of the steam generator degraded tubes behavior on BRUTUS test loop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chedeau, C.; Rassineux, B. [EDF/DER/MTC, Moret Sur Loing (France); Flesch, B. [EDF/EPN/DMAINT, Paris (France)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Studies for the evaluation of steam generator tube bundle cracks in PWR power plants are described. Global tests of crack leak rates and numerical calculations of crack opening area are discussed in some detail. A brief overview of thermohydraulic studies and the development of a mechanical probabilistic design code is also given. The COMPROMIS computer code was used in the studies to quantify the influence of in-service inspections and maintenance work on the risk of a steam generator tube rupture.

  20. Application of bar codes to the automation of analytical sample data collection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jurgensen, H A

    1986-01-01

    The Health Protection Department at the Savannah River Plant collects 500 urine samples per day for tritium analyses. Prior to automation, all sample information was compiled manually. Bar code technology was chosen for automating this program because it provides a more accurate, efficient, and inexpensive method for data entry. The system has three major functions: sample labeling is accomplished at remote bar code label stations composed of an Intermec 8220 (Intermec Corp.) interfaced to an IBM-PC, data collection is done on a central VAX 11/730 (Digital Equipment Corp.). Bar code readers are used to log-in samples to be analyzed on liquid scintillation counters. The VAX 11/730 processes the data and generates reports, data storage is on the VAX 11/730 and backed up on the plant's central computer. A brief description of several other bar code applications at the Savannah River Plant is also presented.

  1. Newtonian CAFE: a new ideal MHD code to study the solar atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gonzalez-Aviles, J J; Lora-Clavijo, F D; Guzman, F S

    2015-01-01

    We present a new code designed to solve the equations of classical ideal magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) in three dimensions, submitted to a constant gravitational field. The purpose of the code centers on the analysis of solar phenomena within the photosphere-corona region. We present 1D and 2D standard tests to demonstrate the quality of the numerical results obtained with our code. As solar tests we present the transverse oscillations of Alfvenic pulses in coronal loops using a 2.5D model, and as 3D tests we present the propagation of impulsively generated MHD-gravity waves and vortices in the solar atmosphere. The code is based on high-resolution shock-capturing methods, uses the HLLE flux formula combined with Minmod, MC and WENO5 reconstructors. The divergence free magnetic field constraint is controlled using the Flux Constrained Transport method.

  2. Newtonian CAFE: a new ideal MHD code to study the solar atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. J. Gonzalez-Aviles; A. Cruz-Osorio; F. D. Lora-Clavijo; F. S. Guzman

    2015-09-01

    We present a new code designed to solve the equations of classical ideal magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) in three dimensions, submitted to a constant gravitational field. The purpose of the code centers on the analysis of solar phenomena within the photosphere-corona region. We present 1D and 2D standard tests to demonstrate the quality of the numerical results obtained with our code. As solar tests we present the transverse oscillations of Alfvenic pulses in coronal loops using a 2.5D model, and as 3D tests we present the propagation of impulsively generated MHD-gravity waves and vortices in the solar atmosphere. The code is based on high-resolution shock-capturing methods, uses the HLLE flux formula combined with Minmod, MC and WENO5 reconstructors. The divergence free magnetic field constraint is controlled using the Flux Constrained Transport method.

  3. SAFE: A computer code for the steady-state and transient thermal analysis of LMR fuel elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayes, S.L.

    1993-12-01

    SAFE is a computer code developed for both the steady-state and transient thermal analysis of single LMR fuel elements. The code employs a two-dimensional control-volume based finite difference methodology with fully implicit time marching to calculate the temperatures throughout a fuel element and its associated coolant channel for both the steady-state and transient events. The code makes no structural calculations or predictions whatsoever. It does, however, accept as input structural parameters within the fuel such as the distributions of porosity and fuel composition, as well as heat generation, to allow a thermal analysis to be performed on a user-specified fuel structure. The code was developed with ease of use in mind. An interactive input file generator and material property correlations internal to the code are available to expedite analyses using SAFE. This report serves as a complete design description of the code as well as a user`s manual. A sample calculation made with SAFE is included to highlight some of the code`s features. Complete input and output files for the sample problem are provided.

  4. The Magnetic Reconnection Code: an AMR-based fully implicit sim... http://aspbooks.org/custom/publications/paper/359-0151.html 1 of 1 6/18/07 11:07 AM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ng, Chung-Sang

    the Jacobian matrix, which is handled by a code generator that calculates the derivative symbolically and then outputs code to calculate it. View Article Download Article Purchase Volume Back to Volume Astronomical for personal use without written permission from the ASP. Page generated in 0.118 seconds #12;

  5. Generating meshes for finite-difference analysis using a solid modeler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laguna, G.W.; White, W.T.; Cabral, B.K.

    1987-09-01

    One tool used by the Engineering Research Division of LLNL to help analyze the behavior of electronic systems in hostile environments is 3D finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) computation. FDTD codes solve Maxwell's equations,the differential equations of electromagnetism, on a uniform lattice of points. It is this uniform lattice, or ''mesh,'' that distinguishes finite-difference codes from other codes. The simple mesh makes FDTD codes computationally more efficient than other codes, which enables them to run larger problems and to run faster (up to thirty times faster than finite-element codes, for example). Therefore, within the Engineering Department at LLNL, Electronics Engineering (EE) has initiated a project to develop a mesh generator that will provide meshes suitable for FDTD analysis. This report describes the results of the first year of EE's FDTD Mesh Generation Project. During this year a preliminary version of an automated mesh generator was built and used to create a mesh of an object of interest to the High-Power Microwave Program, namely an electrically detonatable land mine. The code was verified by meshing basic solids such as spheres and cylinders. Because of the design of the code, there is no software limitation to the size of meshes that can be accommodated. The algorithm with a mesh space of approximately 500,000 cells has been demonstrated. The mesh generator can detect certain objects with walls that are thinner than the width of a cell. The code has internal graphics for viewing objects as they appear prior to being converted to a finite-difference representation. Additionally, via data files, the code is coupled to two external graphics packages for visually checking the meshes, namely TAURUS on the Cray and a new code, IMAGE, on the Silicon Graphics IRIS workstation.

  6. Group representations, error bases and quantum codes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knill, E

    1996-01-01

    This report continues the discussion of unitary error bases and quantum codes. Nice error bases are characterized in terms of the existence of certain characters in a group. A general construction for error bases which are non-abelian over the center is given. The method for obtaining codes due to Calderbank et al. is generalized and expressed purely in representation theoretic terms. The significance of the inertia subgroup both for constructing codes and obtaining the set of transversally implementable operations is demonstrated.

  7. Codes and Standards Technical Team Roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-06-01

    The Hydrogen Codes and Standards Tech Team (CSTT) mission is to enable and facilitate the appropriate research, development, & demonstration (RD&D) for the development of safe, performance-based defensible technical codes and standards that support the technology readiness and are appropriate for widespread consumer use of fuel cells and hydrogen-based technologies with commercialization by 2020. Therefore, it is important that the necessary codes and standards be in place no later than 2015.

  8. Gamma ray generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Firestone, Richard B; Reijonen, Jani

    2014-05-27

    An embodiment of a gamma ray generator includes a neutron generator and a moderator. The moderator is coupled to the neutron generator. The moderator includes a neutron capture material. In operation, the neutron generator produces neutrons and the neutron capture material captures at least some of the neutrons to produces gamma rays. An application of the gamma ray generator is as a source of gamma rays for calibration of gamma ray detectors.

  9. Generation to Generation: The Heart of Family Medicine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winter, Robin O

    2012-01-01

    Ageism in the Workplace. Generations Spring, 5. Westman,of caring for multiple generations simultaneously. StronglyGeneration to Generation: The Heart of Family Medicine

  10. Codes for the fast SSS QR eigens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Gu, B. Parlett, D. Ting, J. Xia, J. Comput. Electron. 1(2002), pp. 411-414. Codes for statistical condition estimations of linear systems and eigenproblems.

  11. Example Cost Codes for Construction Projects

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter provides an example outline of cost items and their corresponding cost codes that may be used for construction projects.

  12. Energy Citations Database (ECD) - Widget Code

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Widget Inclusion Code