Generation and Optimization of Numerical Programs by Symbolic Mathematical Methods
Fateman, Richard J.
Generation and Optimization of Numerical Programs by Symbolic Mathematical Methods Richard J FOR NUMERICAL COMPUTING, May 17-19, 1993 1 #12;5 The Future 21 5.1 Symbolic tools available in some form or numeric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.2 Recent CAS
Wroblewski, David (Mentor, OH); Katrompas, Alexander M. (Concord, OH); Parikh, Neel J. (Richmond Heights, OH)
2009-09-01
A method and apparatus for optimizing the operation of a power generating plant using artificial intelligence techniques. One or more decisions D are determined for at least one consecutive time increment, where at least one of the decisions D is associated with a discrete variable for the operation of a power plant device in the power generating plant. In an illustrated embodiment, the power plant device is a soot cleaning device associated with a boiler.
HOMOTOPY OPTIMIZATION METHODS FOR GLOBAL OPTIMIZATION
O'Leary, Dianne P.
HOMOTOPY OPTIMIZATION METHODS FOR GLOBAL OPTIMIZATION DANIEL M. DUNLAVY AND DIANNE P. O'LEARY under Grants CCR 02-04084 and CCF 05-14213. 1 #12;2 D.M. DUNLAVY AND D.P. O'LEARY point is generated
Barnette, Daniel W. (Veguita, NM)
2002-01-01
The present invention provides a method of grid generation that uses the geometry of the problem space and the governing relations to generate a grid. The method can generate a grid with minimized discretization errors, and with minimal user interaction. The method of the present invention comprises assigning grid cell locations so that, when the governing relations are discretized using the grid, at least some of the discretization errors are substantially zero. Conventional grid generation is driven by the problem space geometry; grid generation according to the present invention is driven by problem space geometry and by governing relations. The present invention accordingly can provide two significant benefits: more efficient and accurate modeling since discretization errors are minimized, and reduced cost grid generation since less human interaction is required.
Wagner, A.; Wambsgan, M.; Froehlich, S.
2004-01-01
University Karlsruhe (TH) - Department of Architecture Building Physics and Technical Building Services web-based method to generate specific energyconsumption data for the evaluation and optimisationof building operationAndreas Wagner, Mathias... about energy consumptionand specific data especially in large building stocks?user complaints and energy consumption arerarely considered in building operation?reduction of energy consumption and operation costsas well as ensuring a high work space...
Homotopy optimization methods for global optimization.
Dunlavy, Daniel M.; O'Leary, Dianne P. (University of Maryland, College Park, MD)
2005-12-01
We define a new method for global optimization, the Homotopy Optimization Method (HOM). This method differs from previous homotopy and continuation methods in that its aim is to find a minimizer for each of a set of values of the homotopy parameter, rather than to follow a path of minimizers. We define a second method, called HOPE, by allowing HOM to follow an ensemble of points obtained by perturbation of previous ones. We relate this new method to standard methods such as simulated annealing and show under what circumstances it is superior. We present results of extensive numerical experiments demonstrating performance of HOM and HOPE.
Decomposition methods for semidefinite optimization
Sun, Yifan
2015-01-01
optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Optimization over sparse matrixoptimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Visual-based methods in compliant mechanism optimization
Timm, Richard W. (Richard William)
2006-01-01
The purpose of this research is to generate visual-based methods for optimizing compliant mechanisms (CMs). Visual-based optimization methods use graphical representations (3-D plots) of CM performance to convey design ...
Model-Based Transient Calibration Optimization for Next Generation...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Based Transient Calibration Optimization for Next Generation Diesel Engines Model-Based Transient Calibration Optimization for Next Generation Diesel Engines 2005 Diesel Engine...
Building Energy Optimization Analysis Method (BEopt) - Building...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Building Energy Optimization Analysis Method (BEopt) - Building America Top Innovation Building Energy Optimization Analysis Method (BEopt) - Building America Top Innovation House...
Distributed Generation Dispatch Optimization under Various Electricity Tariffs
Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris
2007-01-01
price ($/kWh) Distributed Generation Dispatch Optimization Under Various Electricity Tariffs carbon (
Distributed optimization system and method
Hurtado, John E.; Dohrmann, Clark R.; Robinett, III, Rush D.
2003-06-10
A search system and method for controlling multiple agents to optimize an objective using distributed sensing and cooperative control. The search agent can be one or more physical agents, such as a robot, and can be software agents for searching cyberspace. The objective can be: chemical sources, temperature sources, radiation sources, light sources, evaders, trespassers, explosive sources, time dependent sources, time independent sources, function surfaces, maximization points, minimization points, and optimal control of a system such as a communication system, an economy, a crane, and a multi-processor computer.
Fast Quantum Methods for Optimization
Sergio Boixo; Gerardo Ortiz; Rolando Somma
2014-09-08
Discrete combinatorial optimization consists in finding the optimal configuration that minimizes a given discrete objective function. An interpretation of such a function as the energy of a classical system allows us to reduce the optimization problem into the preparation of a low-temperature thermal state of the system. Motivated by the quantum annealing method, we present three strategies to prepare the low-temperature state that exploit quantum mechanics in remarkable ways. We focus on implementations without uncontrolled errors induced by the environment. This allows us to rigorously prove a quantum advantage. The first strategy uses a classical-to-quantum mapping, where the equilibrium properties of a classical system in $d$ spatial dimensions can be determined from the ground state properties of a quantum system also in $d$ spatial dimensions. We show how such a ground state can be prepared by means of quantum annealing, including quantum adiabatic evolutions. This mapping also allows us to unveil some fundamental relations between simulated and quantum annealing. The second strategy builds upon the first one and introduces a technique called spectral gap amplification to reduce the time required to prepare the same quantum state adiabatically. If implemented on a quantum device that exploits quantum coherence, this strategy leads to a quadratic improvement in complexity over the well-known bound of the classical simulated annealing method. The third strategy is not purely adiabatic; instead, it exploits diabatic processes between the low-energy states of the corresponding quantum system. For some problems it results in an exponential speedup (in the oracle model) over the best classical algorithms.
Robust Methods for Engineering Design Optimization
Dennis, Brian
· Optimized design is 3% more efficient than usual straight blade #12;6 Optimization of Turbine Stator1 Robust Methods for Engineering Design Optimization Brian Dennis, PhD Research Associate ADVENTURE Project University of Tokyo Outline · Introduction · Robust Algorithms for Design Optimization · Example
Method for generating surface plasma
Miller, Paul A. (Albuquerque, NM); Aragon, Ben P. (Albuquerque, NM)
2003-05-27
A method for generating a discharge plasma which covers a surface of a body in a gas at pressures from 0.01 Torr to atmospheric pressure, by applying a radio frequency power with frequencies between approximately 1 MHz and 10 GHz across a plurality of paired insulated conductors on the surface. At these frequencies, an arc-less, non-filamentary plasma can be generated to affect the drag characteristics of vehicles moving through the gas. The plasma can also be used as a source in plasma reactors for chemical reaction operations.
Utility Solar Generation Valuation Methods
Hansen, Thomas N.; Dion, Phillip J.
2009-06-30
Tucson Electric Power (TEP) developed, tested and verified the results of a new and appropriate method for accurately evaluating the capacity credit of time variant solar generating sources and reviewed new methods to appropriately and fairly evaluate the value of solar generation to electric utilities. The project also reviewed general integrated approaches for adequately compensating owners of solar generation for their benefits to utilities. However, given the limited funding support and time duration of this project combined with the significant differences between utilities regarding rate structures, solar resource availability and coincidence of solar generation with peak load periods, it is well beyond the scope of this project to develop specific rate, rebate, and interconnection approaches to capture utility benefits for all possible utilities. The project developed computer software based evaluation method models to compare solar generation production data measured in very short term time increments called Sample Intervals over a typical utility Dispatch Cycle during an Evaluation Period against utility system load data. Ten second resolution generation production data from the SGSSS and actual one minute resolution TEP system load data for 2006 and 2007, along with data from the Pennington Street Garage 60 kW DC capacity solar unit installed in downtown Tucson will be applied to the model for testing and verification of the evaluation method. Data was provided by other utilities, but critical time periods of data were missing making results derived from that data inaccurate. The algorithms are based on previous analysis and review of specific 2005 and 2006 SGSSS production data. The model was built, tested and verified by in house TEP personnel. For this phase of the project, TEP communicated with, shared solar production data with and collaborated on the development of solar generation valuation tools with other utilities, including Arizona Public Service, Salt River Project, Xcel and Nevada Power Company as well as the Arizona electric cooperatives. In the second phase of the project, three years of 10 second power output data of the SGSSS was used to evaluate the effectiveness of frequency domain analysis, normal statistical distribution analysis and finally maximum/minimum differential output analysis to test the applicability of these mathematic methods in accurately modeling the output variations produced by clouds passing over the SGSSS array.
Fast Methods for Bimolecular Charge Optimization
Bardhan, Jaydeep P.
We report a Hessian-implicit optimization method to quickly solve the charge optimization problem over protein molecules: given a ligand and its complex with a receptor, determine the ligand charge distribution that minimizes ...
Digitally programmable signal generator and method
Priatko, G.J.; Kaskey, J.A.
1986-09-02
A digitally programmable signal generator (DPSG) and method are disclosed. The DPSG can be used in applications such as Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) to create an optimal match between the process laser's spectral profile and that of the vaporized material. Other applications include optical telecommunications, non-optical telecommunication in the microwave and radio spectrum, radar, electronic countermeasures, high speed computer interconnects, local area networks, high definition video transport and the multiplexing of large quantities of slow digital memory into high speed data streams. This invention extends the operation of DPSGs into the GHz range, while preserving all of the current art's DPSGs' operational features.
Decomposition methods for semidefinite optimization
Sun, Yifan
2015-01-01
Convex optimization for big data: Scalable, randomized, andparallel algorithms for big data ana- lytics. ” SignalThe real story of how big data analytics helped Obama win. ”
Hybrid robust predictive optimization method of power system dispatch
Chandra, Ramu Sharat (Niskayuna, NY); Liu, Yan (Ballston Lake, NY); Bose, Sumit (Niskayuna, NY); de Bedout, Juan Manuel (West Glenville, NY)
2011-08-02
A method of power system dispatch control solves power system dispatch problems by integrating a larger variety of generation, load and storage assets, including without limitation, combined heat and power (CHP) units, renewable generation with forecasting, controllable loads, electric, thermal and water energy storage. The method employs a predictive algorithm to dynamically schedule different assets in order to achieve global optimization and maintain the system normal operation.
Reducing gas generators and methods for generating a reducing gas
Scotto, Mark Vincent; Perna, Mark Anthony
2015-11-03
One embodiment of the present invention is a unique reducing gas generator. Another embodiment is a unique method for generating a reducing gas. Other embodiments include apparatuses, systems, devices, hardware, methods, and combinations for generating reducing gas. Further embodiments, forms, features, aspects, benefits, and advantages of the present application will become apparent from the description and figures provided herewith.
Stochastic Co-optimization for Hydro-Electric Power Generation
1 Stochastic Co-optimization for Hydro-Electric Power Generation Shi-Jie Deng, Senior Member, IEEE the optimal scheduling problem faced by a hydro-electric power producer that simultaneously participates in multiple markets. Specifically, the hydro-generator participates in both the electricity spot market
Apparatuses and methods for generating electric fields
Scott, Jill R; McJunkin, Timothy R; Tremblay, Paul L
2013-08-06
Apparatuses and methods relating to generating an electric field are disclosed. An electric field generator may include a semiconductive material configured in a physical shape substantially different from a shape of an electric field to be generated thereby. The electric field is generated when a voltage drop exists across the semiconductive material. A method for generating an electric field may include applying a voltage to a shaped semiconductive material to generate a complex, substantially nonlinear electric field. The shape of the complex, substantially nonlinear electric field may be configured for directing charged particles to a desired location. Other apparatuses and methods are disclosed.
Method for protecting an electric generator
Kuehnle, Barry W. (Ammon, ID); Roberts, Jeffrey B. (Ammon, ID); Folkers, Ralph W. (Ammon, ID)
2008-11-18
A method for protecting an electrical generator which includes providing an electrical generator which is normally synchronously operated with an electrical power grid; providing a synchronizing signal from the electrical generator; establishing a reference signal; and electrically isolating the electrical generator from the electrical power grid if the synchronizing signal is not in phase with the reference signal.
Biomedical signal processing --application of optimization methods for machine learning
Absil, Pierre-Antoine
Biomedical signal processing -- application of optimization methods for machine learning problems Biomedical signal processing -- application of optimization methods for machi #12;Data mining cocktail-party problem F. Theis Biomedical signal processing -- application of optimization methods for machi #12;Data
December 31, 2010 18:54 Optimization Methods and Software griewank Optimization Methods and Software
Schichl, Hermann
for Global Optimization in the COCONUT Environment Hermann Schichl and Mih´aly Csaba Mark´ot. Universit on the algorithmic differentiation methods implemented in the COCONUT Environment for global nonlinear optimization. The COCONUT Environment represents each factorable optimization problem as a directed acyclic graph (DAG
Conversion efficiency, scaling and global optimization of high harmonic generation
Falcao-Filho, Edilson L.
Closed form expressions for the high harmonic generation (HHG) conversion efficiency in the plateau and cut-off region are derived showing agreement with previous observations. Application of these results to optimal ...
XFEL diffraction: Developing processing methods to optimize data...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
XFEL diffraction: Developing processing methods to optimize data quality Citation Details In-Document Search Title: XFEL diffraction: Developing processing methods to optimize data...
Advanced Methods Approach to Hybrid Powertrain Systems Optimization...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Methods Approach to Hybrid Powertrain Systems Optimization of a Transit Bus Application Advanced Methods Approach to Hybrid Powertrain Systems Optimization of a Transit Bus...
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
A new database generation method combining maximin method and kriging prediction for eddy-current@evt.bme.hu Abstract: The accurate numerical simulation of the eddy- current testing (ECT) experiments usually requires-based adaptive methodology which yields to databases optimized to the given problem. Keywords: eddy-current
Entropy generation and jet engine optimization
Lucia, Umberto
2010-01-01
In 2009, it was shown that, with an original approach to hydrodynamic cavitation, a phenomenological model was realized in order to compute some of the physical parameters needed for the design of the most common technological applications (turbo-machinery, etc.) with an economical saving in planning because this analysis could allow engineers to reduce the experimental tests and the consequent costs in the design process. Here the same approach has been used to obtain range of some physical quantity for jet engine optimization.
Lan Pengfei; Takahashi, Eiji J.; Midorikawa, Katsumi [Extreme Photonics Research Group, RIKEN Advanced Science Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)
2010-11-15
We present the optimization of the two-color synthesis method for generating an intense isolated attosecond pulse (IAP) in the multicycle regime. By mixing an infrared assistant pulse with a Ti:sapphire main pulse, we show that an IAP can be produced using a multicycle two-color pulse with a duration longer than 30 fs. We also discuss the influence of the carrier-envelope phase (CEP) and the relative intensity on the generation of IAPs. By optimizing the wavelength of the assistant field, IAP generation becomes insensitive to the CEP slip. Therefore, the optimized two-color method enables us to relax the requirements of pulse duration and easily produce the IAP with a conventional multicycle laser pulse. In addition, it enables us to markedly suppress the ionization of the harmonic medium. This is a major advantage for efficiently generating intense IAPs from a neutral medium by applying the appropriate phase-matching and energy-scaling techniques.
Vapor generation methods for explosives detection research
Grate, Jay W.; Ewing, Robert G.; Atkinson, David A.
2012-12-01
The generation of calibrated vapor samples of explosives compounds remains a challenge due to the low vapor pressures of the explosives, adsorption of explosives on container and tubing walls, and the requirement to manage (typically) multiple temperature zones as the vapor is generated, diluted, and delivered. Methods that have been described to generate vapors can be classified as continuous or pulsed flow vapor generators. Vapor sources for continuous flow generators are typically explosives compounds supported on a solid support, or compounds contained in a permeation or diffusion device. Sources are held at elevated isothermal temperatures. Similar sources can be used for pulsed vapor generators; however, pulsed systems may also use injection of solutions onto heated surfaces with generation of both solvent and explosives vapors, transient peaks from a gas chromatograph, or vapors generated by s programmed thermal desorption. This article reviews vapor generator approaches with emphasis on the method of generating the vapors and on practical aspects of vapor dilution and handling. In addition, a gas chromatographic system with two ovens that is configurable with up to four heating ropes is proposed that could serve as a single integrated platform for explosives vapor generation and device testing. Issues related to standards, calibration, and safety are also discussed.
Methods for PDE-constrained optimization
Reed, Joseph Robert
2011-01-01
constrained optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4.16.5 Testing the optimization algorithm . . . . . . .6.5.1 The optimization algorithm in PLTMG 6.6 The proposed
Power generation method including membrane separation
Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA)
2000-01-01
A method for generating electric power, such as at, or close to, natural gas fields. The method includes conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas by means of a membrane separation step. This step creates a leaner, sweeter, drier gas, which is then used as combustion fuel to run a turbine, which is in turn used for power generation.
Optimization of Water Consumption in Second Generation Bioethanol Plants
Grossmann, Ignacio E.
of the ethanol production processes are designed by determining water consumption, reuse and recycle1 Optimization of Water Consumption in Second Generation Bioethanol Plants Mariano Martína of Tuzla, 75000 Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina Abstract In this work we address the water consumption
Well Placement Optimization and History Matching Using Hybrid Methods
Kim, Jeong Min
2015-08-10
introduced to mitigate the flaws of deterministic methods. To optimize the objective functions such as non-smooth and multi-modal, these methods are particularly useful. Particle swarm optimization (PSO), simulated annealing (SA), simultaneous perturbation...
Method of operating a thermoelectric generator
Reynolds, Michael G; Cowgill, Joshua D
2013-11-05
A method for operating a thermoelectric generator supplying a variable-load component includes commanding the variable-load component to operate at a first output and determining a first load current and a first load voltage to the variable-load component while operating at the commanded first output. The method also includes commanding the variable-load component to operate at a second output and determining a second load current and a second load voltage to the variable-load component while operating at the commanded second output. The method includes calculating a maximum power output of the thermoelectric generator from the determined first load current and voltage and the determined second load current and voltage, and commanding the variable-load component to operate at a third output. The commanded third output is configured to draw the calculated maximum power output from the thermoelectric generator.
Generation of stable subfemtosecond hard x-ray pulses with optimized...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
optimized nonlinear bunch compression Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Generation of stable subfemtosecond hard x-ray pulses with optimized nonlinear bunch...
Plasma plume MHD power generator and method
Hammer, J.H.
1993-08-10
A method is described of generating power at a situs exposed to the solar wind which comprises creating at separate sources at the situs discrete plasma plumes extending in opposed directions, providing electrical communication between the plumes at their source and interposing a desired electrical load in the said electrical communication between the plumes.
Apparatus and method for thermal power generation
Cohen, Paul (Pittsburgh, PA); Redding, Arnold H. (Export, PA)
1978-01-01
An improved thermal power plant and method of power generation which minimizes thermal stress and chemical impurity buildup in the vaporizing component, particularly beneficial under loss of normal feed fluid and startup conditions. The invention is particularly applicable to a liquid metal fast breeder reactor plant.
Optimal command generation for maneuvering the space station
Bryson, Amy Louise
2001-01-01
The objective of this research is to obtain near minimum-fuel and minimum-time maneuver commands for large-angle maneuvers for the international space station. Attitude and angular velocity waypoints are generated using the method of differential...
High-throughput generation, optimization and analysis of genome-scale metabolic models.
Henry, C. S.; DeJongh, M.; Best, A. A.; Frybarger, P. M.; Linsay, B.; Stevens, R. L.
2010-09-01
Genome-scale metabolic models have proven to be valuable for predicting organism phenotypes from genotypes. Yet efforts to develop new models are failing to keep pace with genome sequencing. To address this problem, we introduce the Model SEED, a web-based resource for high-throughput generation, optimization and analysis of genome-scale metabolic models. The Model SEED integrates existing methods and introduces techniques to automate nearly every step of this process, taking {approx}48 h to reconstruct a metabolic model from an assembled genome sequence. We apply this resource to generate 130 genome-scale metabolic models representing a taxonomically diverse set of bacteria. Twenty-two of the models were validated against available gene essentiality and Biolog data, with the average model accuracy determined to be 66% before optimization and 87% after optimization.
Carter, Richard J [Richland, WA; McCall, Jonathon D [West Richland, WA; Whitney, Paul D [Richland, WA; Gregory, Michelle L [Richland, WA; Turner, Alan E [Kennewick, WA; Hetzler, Elizabeth G [Kennewick, WA; White, Amanda M [Kennewick, WA; Posse, Christian [Seattle, WA; Nakamura, Grant C [Kennewick, WA
2010-10-26
Lexicon generation methods, computer implemented lexicon editing methods, lexicon generation devices, lexicon editors, and articles of manufacture are described according to some aspects. In one aspect, a lexicon generation method includes providing a seed vector indicative of occurrences of a plurality of seed terms within a plurality of text items, providing a plurality of content vectors indicative of occurrences of respective ones of a plurality of content terms within the text items, comparing individual ones of the content vectors with respect to the seed vector, and responsive to the comparing, selecting at least one of the content terms as a term of a lexicon usable in sentiment analysis of text.
Electrical motor/generator drive apparatus and method
Su, Gui Jia
2013-02-12
The present disclosure includes electrical motor/generator drive systems and methods that significantly reduce inverter direct-current (DC) bus ripple currents and thus the volume and cost of a capacitor. The drive methodology is based on a segmented drive system that does not add switches or passive components but involves reconfiguring inverter switches and motor stator winding connections in a way that allows the formation of multiple, independent drive units and the use of simple alternated switching and optimized Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) schemes to eliminate or significantly reduce the capacitor ripple current.
Method for generating a plasma wave to accelerate electrons
Umstadter, D.; Esarey, E.; Kim, J.K.
1997-06-10
The invention provides a method and apparatus for generating large amplitude nonlinear plasma waves, driven by an optimized train of independently adjustable, intense laser pulses. In the method, optimal pulse widths, interpulse spacing, and intensity profiles of each pulse are determined for each pulse in a series of pulses. A resonant region of the plasma wave phase space is found where the plasma wave is driven most efficiently by the laser pulses. The accelerator system of the invention comprises several parts: the laser system, with its pulse-shaping subsystem; the electron gun system, also called beam source, which preferably comprises photo cathode electron source and RF-LINAC accelerator; electron photo-cathode triggering system; the electron diagnostics; and the feedback system between the electron diagnostics and the laser system. The system also includes plasma source including vacuum chamber, magnetic lens, and magnetic field means. The laser system produces a train of pulses that has been optimized to maximize the axial electric field amplitude of the plasma wave, and thus the electron acceleration, using the method of the invention. 21 figs.
Method for generating a plasma wave to accelerate electrons
Umstadter, Donald (Ann Arbor, MI); Esarey, Eric (Chevy Chase, MD); Kim, Joon K. (Ann Arbor, MI)
1997-01-01
The invention provides a method and apparatus for generating large amplitude nonlinear plasma waves, driven by an optimized train of independently adjustable, intense laser pulses. In the method, optimal pulse widths, interpulse spacing, and intensity profiles of each pulse are determined for each pulse in a series of pulses. A resonant region of the plasma wave phase space is found where the plasma wave is driven most efficiently by the laser pulses. The accelerator system of the invention comprises several parts: the laser system, with its pulse-shaping subsystem; the electron gun system, also called beam source, which preferably comprises photo cathode electron source and RF-LINAC accelerator; electron photo-cathode triggering system; the electron diagnostics; and the feedback system between the electron diagnostics and the laser system. The system also includes plasma source including vacuum chamber, magnetic lens, and magnetic field means. The laser system produces a train of pulses that has been optimized to maximize the axial electric field amplitude of the plasma wave, and thus the electron acceleration, using the method of the invention.
Aerodynamic Shape Design of Nozzles Using a Hybrid Optimization Method
Xing, X.Q.
A hybrid design optimization method combining the stochastic method based on simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation (SPSA) and the deterministic method of Broydon-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (BFGS) is developed ...
Method for nonlinear optimization for gas tagging and other systems
Chen, T.; Gross, K.C.; Wegerich, S.
1998-01-06
A method and system are disclosed for providing nuclear fuel rods with a configuration of isotopic gas tags. The method includes selecting a true location of a first gas tag node, selecting initial locations for the remaining n-1 nodes using target gas tag compositions, generating a set of random gene pools with L nodes, applying a Hopfield network for computing on energy, or cost, for each of the L gene pools and using selected constraints to establish minimum energy states to identify optimal gas tag nodes with each energy compared to a convergence threshold and then upon identifying the gas tag node continuing this procedure until establishing the next gas tag node until all remaining n nodes have been established. 6 figs.
Method for nonlinear optimization for gas tagging and other systems
Chen, Ting (Chicago, IL); Gross, Kenny C. (Bolingbrook, IL); Wegerich, Stephan (Glendale Heights, IL)
1998-01-01
A method and system for providing nuclear fuel rods with a configuration of isotopic gas tags. The method includes selecting a true location of a first gas tag node, selecting initial locations for the remaining n-1 nodes using target gas tag compositions, generating a set of random gene pools with L nodes, applying a Hopfield network for computing on energy, or cost, for each of the L gene pools and using selected constraints to establish minimum energy states to identify optimal gas tag nodes with each energy compared to a convergence threshold and then upon identifying the gas tag node continuing this procedure until establishing the next gas tag node until all remaining n nodes have been established.
Distributed Generation Dispatch Optimization under Various Electricity Tariffs
Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris
2007-01-01
Optimization Under Various Electricity Tariffs Firestone,Optimization Under Various Electricity Tariffs Table of3 2.1 Electricity Tariff
A Method for Determining Optimal Residential Energy Efficiency Packages
Polly, B.; Gestwick, M.; Bianchi, M.; Anderson, R.; Horowitz, S.; Christensen, C.; Judkoff, R.
2011-04-01
This report describes an analysis method for determining optimal residential energy efficiency retrofit packages and, as an illustrative example, applies the analysis method to a 1960s-era home in eight U.S. cities covering a range of International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) climate regions. The method uses an optimization scheme that considers average energy use (determined from building energy simulations) and equivalent annual cost to recommend optimal retrofit packages specific to the building, occupants, and location.
Plasma generators, reactor systems and related methods
Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Pink, Robert J. (Pocatello, ID); Lee, James E. (Idaho Falls, ID)
2007-06-19
A plasma generator, reactor and associated systems and methods are provided in accordance with the present invention. A plasma reactor may include multiple sections or modules which are removably coupled together to form a chamber. Associated with each section is an electrode set including three electrodes with each electrode being coupled to a single phase of a three-phase alternating current (AC) power supply. The electrodes are disposed about a longitudinal centerline of the chamber and are arranged to provide and extended arc and generate an extended body of plasma. The electrodes are displaceable relative to the longitudinal centerline of the chamber. A control system may be utilized so as to automatically displace the electrodes and define an electrode gap responsive to measure voltage or current levels of the associated power supply.
Optimal Solar PV Arrays Integration for Distributed Generation
Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Li, Xueping
2012-01-01
Solar photovoltaic (PV) systems hold great potential for distributed energy generation by installing PV panels on rooftops of residential and commercial buildings. Yet challenges arise along with the variability and non-dispatchability of the PV systems that affect the stability of the grid and the economics of the PV system. This paper investigates the integration of PV arrays for distributed generation applications by identifying a combination of buildings that will maximize solar energy output and minimize system variability. Particularly, we propose mean-variance optimization models to choose suitable rooftops for PV integration based on Markowitz mean-variance portfolio selection model. We further introduce quantity and cardinality constraints to result in a mixed integer quadratic programming problem. Case studies based on real data are presented. An efficient frontier is obtained for sample data that allows decision makers to choose a desired solar energy generation level with a comfortable variability tolerance level. Sensitivity analysis is conducted to show the tradeoffs between solar PV energy generation potential and variability.
Advanced numerical methods in mesh generation and mesh adaptation
Lipnikov, Konstantine; Danilov, A; Vassilevski, Y; Agonzal, A
2010-01-01
Numerical solution of partial differential equations requires appropriate meshes, efficient solvers and robust and reliable error estimates. Generation of high-quality meshes for complex engineering models is a non-trivial task. This task is made more difficult when the mesh has to be adapted to a problem solution. This article is focused on a synergistic approach to the mesh generation and mesh adaptation, where best properties of various mesh generation methods are combined to build efficiently simplicial meshes. First, the advancing front technique (AFT) is combined with the incremental Delaunay triangulation (DT) to build an initial mesh. Second, the metric-based mesh adaptation (MBA) method is employed to improve quality of the generated mesh and/or to adapt it to a problem solution. We demonstrate with numerical experiments that combination of all three methods is required for robust meshing of complex engineering models. The key to successful mesh generation is the high-quality of the triangles in the initial front. We use a black-box technique to improve surface meshes exported from an unattainable CAD system. The initial surface mesh is refined into a shape-regular triangulation which approximates the boundary with the same accuracy as the CAD mesh. The DT method adds robustness to the AFT. The resulting mesh is topologically correct but may contain a few slivers. The MBA uses seven local operations to modify the mesh topology. It improves significantly the mesh quality. The MBA method is also used to adapt the mesh to a problem solution to minimize computational resources required for solving the problem. The MBA has a solid theoretical background. In the first two experiments, we consider the convection-diffusion and elasticity problems. We demonstrate the optimal reduction rate of the discretization error on a sequence of adaptive strongly anisotropic meshes. The key element of the MBA method is construction of a tensor metric from hierarchical edge-based error estimates. We conclude that the quasi-optimal mesh must be quasi-uniform in this metric. All numerical experiments are based on the publicly available Ani3D package, the collection of advanced numerical instruments.
Hybrid method for aerodynamic shape optimization in automotive industry
Dumas, Laurent
Hybrid method for aerodynamic shape optimization in automotive industry Freedeerique Muyl precisely the reduction of their drag coefficient, becomes one of the main topics of the automotive research
DYNAMIC EMBEDDED OPTIMIZATION AND SHOOTING METHODS FOR POWER
for Deregulated Electric Power Systems: Optimization, Control, and Computational Intelligence, J. Chow, F. Wu are not always established formally, nevertheless underlying optimization principles apply. Design questions is usually undesirable, and tends to be induced by inter- actions between generator controllers. In many
OPTIMAL OPERATION OF AN INTEGRATED ENERGY PARK INCLUDING FOSSIL FUEL POWER GENERATION,
Stanford University
OPTIMAL OPERATION OF AN INTEGRATED ENERGY PARK INCLUDING FOSSIL FUEL POWER GENERATION, CO2 CAPTURE combustion turbine, and wind generation. Energy park com- ponents are modeled using energy and mass balances. A formal optimization proce- dure is used to determine the optimal hourly dispatch of energy park
Probabilistic methods in combinatorial and stochastic optimization
Vondrák, Jan, 1974-
2005-01-01
(cont.) Packing/Covering problems, we prove upper and lower bounds on the adaptivity gap depending on the dimension. We also design polynomial-time algorithms achieving near-optimal approximation guarantees with respect ...
Optimization and global minimization methods suitable for neural networks
Neumaier, Arnold
Optimization and global minimization methods suitable for neural networks Wlodzislaw Duch and Jerzy Louis Pasteur, Blvd. Sebastien Brant, 67400 Illkirch, France Abstract Neural networks are usually and statistical methods in many applications. For neural networks with predetermined structure, for example
Second-generation-heliostat optimization studies. Final report
Not Available
1982-05-01
The objective of this study was to define and quantify cost reductions in the Martin Marietta Denver Aerospace Second Generation Heliostat resulting from design and cost optimization. These cost reductions were based on optimizing the heliostat performance vs. cost and engineering design, and reviewing the design specification in selected technological areas with a goal of removing nonrealistic requirements and eliminating or minimizing overdesign. Specific technological areas investigated were: (1) designing the heliostat for survival strength rather than stiffness and reducing the operational wind requirements as dictated by this design approach; (2) reducing the pointing accuracy and/or beam quality required for some fraction or all of the heliostat field; (3) modifying the operational temperature range; (4) relaxing the rate at which the heliostat must move in the slew mode; (5) using alternate beam safety strategies; (6) analyzing actual wind data for selected sites in the southwest United States vs. the heliostat design specification survival wind requirements; (7) estimating heliostat damage for winds in excess of the design specification over a 30 year period; (8) evaluating the impact of designing the heliostat for higher wind loads; and (9) investigating the applicability to heliostat design of the standard engineering practices for designing buildings.
Method and apparatus for generating acoustic energy
Guerrero, Hector N. (Evans, GA)
2002-01-01
A method and apparatus for generating and emitting amplified coherent acoustic energy. A cylindrical transducer is mounted within a housing, the transducer having an acoustically open end and an acoustically closed end. The interior of the transducer is filled with an active medium which may include scattering nuclei. Excitation of the transducer produces radially directed acoustic energy in the active medium, which is converted by the dimensions of the transducer, the acoustically closed end thereof, and the scattering nuclei, to amplified coherent acoustic energy directed longitudinally within the transducer. The energy is emitted through the acoustically open end of the transducer. The emitted energy can be used for, among other things, effecting a chemical reaction or removing scale from the interior walls of containment vessels.
Distributed Generation Dispatch Optimization under Various Electricity Tariffs
Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris
2007-01-01
Optimization Common DG devices are reciprocating engines, gas turbines, microturbines, and fuel cells.
Gradient-based Methods for Production Optimization of Oil Reservoirs
Foss, Bjarne A.
Gradient-based Methods for Production Optimization of Oil Reservoirs Eka Suwartadi Doctoral Thesis at NTNU, 2012:104 Printed by NTNU-Trykk #12;To my wife and my parents 3 #12;4 #12;Summary Production optimization for water flooding in the secondary phase of oil recovery is the main topic in this thesis
A New Method for Mapping Optimization Problems onto Neural Networks
Peterson, Carsten
LU TP 891 March 1989 A New Method for Mapping Optimization Problems onto Neural Networks Carsten for obtaining approximate solutions to difficult optimization problems within the neural network paradigm redundancy that has plagued these problems when using straightforward neural network techniques
Generation of Stable Sub-femtosecond Hard X-ray pulses with Optimized...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
Generation of Stable Sub-femtosecond Hard X-ray pulses with Optimized Nonlinear Bunch Compression Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Generation of Stable Sub-femtosecond...
Optimization of sequential attractor-based movement for compact behaviour generation
Toussaint, Marc
Optimization of sequential attractor-based movement for compact behaviour generation Marc Toussaint optimal robot motion based on a sequence of attractor dynamics in task space. This is motivated] and by the need for compact movement representations on which efficient optimization can be performed. We
Pedram, Massoud
Concurrent Optimization of Consumer's Electrical Energy Bill and Producer's Power Generation Cost their electric bill. On the other hand optimizing the number and production time of power generation facilities lower cost. I. INTRODUCTION There is no substitute for the status of electrical energy, which
A Method for Generating Phyllotaxis over Surfaces of Revolution
McCormack, Jon
Lindenmayer systems (L-systems) to model phyllotaxis in plants for the purposes of generat- ing realistic. Example images of plants, generated using this model, are also il- lustrated. #12;2 A MethodA Method for Generating Phyllotaxis over Surfaces of Revolution Jon McCormack Centre for Electronic
Method for Determining Optimal Residential Energy Efficiency Retrofit Packages
Polly, B.; Gestwick, M.; Bianchi, M.; Anderson, R.; Horowitz, S.; Christensen, C.; Judkoff, R.
2011-04-01
Businesses, government agencies, consumers, policy makers, and utilities currently have limited access to occupant-, building-, and location-specific recommendations for optimal energy retrofit packages, as defined by estimated costs and energy savings. This report describes an analysis method for determining optimal residential energy efficiency retrofit packages and, as an illustrative example, applies the analysis method to a 1960s-era home in eight U.S. cities covering a range of International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) climate regions. The method uses an optimization scheme that considers average energy use (determined from building energy simulations) and equivalent annual cost to recommend optimal retrofit packages specific to the building, occupants, and location. Energy savings and incremental costs are calculated relative to a minimum upgrade reference scenario, which accounts for efficiency upgrades that would occur in the absence of a retrofit because of equipment wear-out and replacement with current minimum standards.
Apparatus and method for generating mechanical waves
Allensworth, D.L.; Chen, P.J.
1982-10-25
Mechanical waves are generated in a medium by subjecting an electromechanical element to an alternating electric field having a frequency which induces mechanical resonance therein and is below any electrical resonance frequency thereof.
Apparatus and method for generating mechanical waves
Allensworth, Dwight L. (Albuquerque, NM); Chen, Peter J. (Albuquerque, NM)
1985-01-01
Mechanical waves are generated in a medium by subjecting an electromechanical element to an alternating electric field having a frequency which induces mechanical resonance therein and is below any electrical resonance frequency thereof.
Distributed Generation Dispatch Optimization under Various Electricity Tariffs
Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris
2007-01-01
the Optimization of Cogeneration Dispatch in a Deregulatedheat and power (CHP), or cogeneration, systems make use ofheat and power (CHP), or cogeneration, systems make use of
Falcon: automated optimization method for arbitrary assessment criteria
Yang, Tser-Yuan (Livermore, CA); Moses, Edward I. (Livermore, CA); Hartmann-Siantar, Christine (Livermore, CA)
2001-01-01
FALCON is a method for automatic multivariable optimization for arbitrary assessment criteria that can be applied to numerous fields where outcome simulation is combined with optimization and assessment criteria. A specific implementation of FALCON is for automatic radiation therapy treatment planning. In this application, FALCON implements dose calculations into the planning process and optimizes available beam delivery modifier parameters to determine the treatment plan that best meets clinical decision-making criteria. FALCON is described in the context of the optimization of external-beam radiation therapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), but the concepts could also be applied to internal (brachytherapy) radiotherapy. The radiation beams could consist of photons or any charged or uncharged particles. The concept of optimizing source distributions can be applied to complex radiography (e.g. flash x-ray or proton) to improve the imaging capabilities of facilities proposed for science-based stockpile stewardship.
Particle Swarm Optimization Method in Multiobjective K.E. Parsopoulos
Parsopoulos, Konstantinos
(PSO) method in Mu|tiobjective Optimi~.a- tion (MO) problems. The ability of PSO to detect Pareto Algorithms are adapted to the PSO framework in order to develop a multi--swarm PSO that can cope effectively of the search space [20]. The Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is a Swarm Intel- ligence method that models
Plasma generators, reactor systems and related methods - Energy...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Visit the Technology Transfer and Commercialization Office Website Abstract: A plasma generator, reactor and associated systems and methods are provided in accordance with the...
Permutation Generation Methods* ROBERT SEDGEWlCK
Goodman, Fred
-up" Copyright Â© 1977, Associahon for Computing Machinery, Inc. General permismon to repubhsh, but not for profit by permission of the Association for Computing Machinery Computing Surveys, Vol 9, No 2, June 1977 #12;138 Â· R) An lteratlve method (Ives) A cychc method (Langdon) CONCLUSION ACKNOWLEDGMENTS REFERENCES v (iterative) design
Robot Locomotion Controller Generation Through Human-Inspired Optimization
Powell, Matthew Joseph
2013-11-13
This thesis presents an approach to the formal design, optimization and implementation of bipedal robotic walking controllers, with experimental application on two biped platforms. Standard rigid-body modeling is used to construct a hybrid sys- tem...
Plasma plume MHD power generator and method
Hammer, James H. (Livermore, CA)
1993-01-01
Highly-conducting plasma plumes are ejected across the interplanetary magnetic field from a situs that is moving relative to the solar wind, such as a spacecraft or an astral body, such as the moon, having no magnetosphere that excludes the solar wind. Discrete plasma plumes are generated by plasma guns at the situs extending in opposite directions to one another and at an angle, preferably orthogonal, to the magnetic field direction of the solar wind plasma. The opposed plumes are separately electrically connected to their source by a low impedance connection. The relative movement between the plasma plumes and the solar wind plasma creates a voltage drop across the plumes which is tapped by placing the desired electrical load between the electrical connections of the plumes to their sources. A portion of the energy produced may be used in generating the plasma plumes for sustained operation.
Optimal Projection Method in Sphere Decoding
Ghasemmehdi, Arash
2009-01-01
An entirely different approach to complexity reduction in sphere decoders is taken. Here we demonstrate that most of the calculations in the standard algorithms are in fact redundant in the sense that the calculated values are never used. This applies to all recursive sphere decoder algorithms, including the numerous variations of the Fincke-Pohst and Schnorr-Euchner strategies. We propose a method, which is applicable to lattices as well as finite constellations, to avoid these redundant calculations, thus reducing the complexity. We emphasize that the algorithms otherwise perform exactly as before, visiting the same points in the same order, and returning the same result. Pseudocode is given to facilitate immediate implementation. In simulation results, it is shown that the relative complexity gain with the proposed add-on goes up linearly as the dimension of the lattice increases. For instance, the complexity is reduced to one fourth for lattices at dimension sixty.
Method and system for SCR optimization
Lefebvre, Wesley Curt (Boston, MA); Kohn, Daniel W. (Cambridge, MA)
2009-03-10
Methods and systems are provided for controlling SCR performance in a boiler. The boiler includes one or more generally cross sectional areas. Each cross sectional area can be characterized by one or more profiles of one or more conditions affecting SCR performance and be associated with one or more adjustable desired profiles of the one or more conditions during the operation of the boiler. The performance of the boiler can be characterized by boiler performance parameters. A system in accordance with one or more embodiments of the invention can include a controller input for receiving a performance goal for the boiler corresponding to at least one of the boiler performance parameters and for receiving data values corresponding to boiler control variables and to the boiler performance parameters. The boiler control variables include one or more current profiles of the one or more conditions. The system also includes a system model that relates one or more profiles of the one or more conditions in the boiler to the boiler performance parameters. The system also includes an indirect controller that determines one or more desired profiles of the one or more conditions to satisfy the performance goal for the boiler. The indirect controller uses the system model, the received data values and the received performance goal to determine the one or more desired profiles of the one or more conditions. The system model also includes a controller output that outputs the one or more desired profiles of the one or more conditions.
Method and system for radioisotope generation
Toth, James J.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Fryxell, Glen E.; O'Hara, Matthew J.
2014-07-15
A system and a process for producing selected isotopic daughter products from parent materials characterized by the steps of loading the parent material upon a sorbent having a functional group configured to selectively bind the parent material under designated conditions, generating the selected isotopic daughter products, and eluting said selected isotopic daughter products from the sorbent. In one embodiment, the process also includes the step of passing an eluent formed by the elution step through a second sorbent material that is configured to remove a preselected material from said eluent. In some applications a passage of the material through a third sorbent material after passage through the second sorbent material is also performed.
Distributed Generation Dispatch Optimization under Various Electricity Tariffs
Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris
2007-01-01
data available and used to generate random solar radiationResource Data Center], The Solar Radiation Resourcedata were collected from [16]. The stochastic model of solar radiation
Method for using global optimization to the estimation of surface-consistent residual statics
Reister, David B. (Knoxville, TN); Barhen, Jacob (Oak Ridge, TN); Oblow, Edward M. (Knoxville, TN)
2001-01-01
An efficient method for generating residual statics corrections to compensate for surface-consistent static time shifts in stacked seismic traces. The method includes a step of framing the residual static corrections as a global optimization problem in a parameter space. The method also includes decoupling the global optimization problem involving all seismic traces into several one-dimensional problems. The method further utilizes a Stochastic Pijavskij Tunneling search to eliminate regions in the parameter space where a global minimum is unlikely to exist so that the global minimum may be quickly discovered. The method finds the residual statics corrections by maximizing the total stack power. The stack power is a measure of seismic energy transferred from energy sources to receivers.
Optimal generation of Fock states in a weakly nonlinear oscillator
B. Khani; J. M. Gambetta; F. Motzoi; F. K. Wilhelm
2009-09-25
We apply optimal control theory to determine the shortest time in which an energy eigenstate of a weakly anharmonic oscillator can be created under the practical constraint of linear driving. We show that the optimal pulses are beatings of mostly the transition frequencies for the transitions up to the desired state and the next leakage level. The time of a shortest possible pulse for a given nonlinearity scale with the nonlinearity parameter delta as a power law of alpha with alpha=-0.73 +/-0.029. This is a qualitative improvement relative to the value alpha=1 suggested by a simple Landau-Zener argument.
Optimal control methods for fast time-varying Hamiltonians
F. Motzoi; J. M. Gambetta; S. T. Merkel; F. K. Wilhelm
2011-06-21
In this article, we develop a numerical method to find optimal control pulses that accounts for the separation of timescales between the variation of the input control fields and the applied Hamiltonian. In traditional numerical optimization methods, these timescales are treated as being the same. While this approximation has had much success, in applications where the input controls are filtered substantially or mixed with a fast carrier, the resulting optimized pulses have little relation to the applied physical fields. Our technique remains numerically efficient in that the dimension of our search space is only dependent on the variation of the input control fields, while our simulation of the quantum evolution is accurate on the timescale of the fast variation in the applied Hamiltonian.
A Method for Evaluating Volt-VAR Optimization Field Demonstrations
Schneider, Kevin P.; Weaver, T. F.
2014-08-31
In a regulated business environment a utility must be able to validate that deployed technologies provide quantifiable benefits to the end-use customers. For traditional technologies there are well established procedures for determining what benefits will be derived from the deployment. But for many emerging technologies procedures for determining benefits are less clear and completely absent in some cases. Volt-VAR Optimization is a technology that is being deployed across the nation, but there are still numerous discussions about potential benefits and how they are achieved. This paper will present a method for the evaluation, and quantification of benefits, for field deployments of Volt-VAR Optimization technologies. In addition to the basic methodology, the paper will present a summary of results, and observations, from two separate Volt-VAR Optimization field evaluations using the proposed method.
Zebian, Hussam
2014-01-01
Efficient and clean electricity generation is a major challenge for today's world. Multivariable optimization is shown to be essential in unveiling the true potential and the high efficiency of pressurized oxy-coal combustion ...
Design method of dynamical decoupling sequences integrated with optimal control theory
Yutaka Tabuchi; Masahiro Kitagawa
2012-08-26
A method for synthesizing dynamical decoupling (DD) sequences is presented, which can tailor these sequences to a given set of qubits, environments, instruments, and available resources using partial information of the system. The key concept behind the generation of the DD sequences involves not only extricating the strong dependence on the coupling strengths according to the "optimal control," but also exploiting the "refocus" technique used conventionally to obtain DD sequences. The concept is a generalized one that integrates optimal control and designing of DD sequences.
Optimization of a Small Passive Wind Turbine Generator with Multiobjective Genetic Algorithms
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
: Multiobjective Optimization, Genetic Algorithms, Wind Energy, Vertical Axis Wind Turbine hal-00763673,version1 #12;2.2. The Wind Turbine Characteristics A Savonius Vertical Axis Wind Turbine of radius R = 0.5 mOptimization of a Small Passive Wind Turbine Generator with Multiobjective Genetic Algorithms A
Biological optimization systems for enhancing photosynthetic efficiency and methods of use
Hunt, Ryan W; Chinnasamy, Senthil; Das, Keshav C; Rolim de Mattos, Erico
2014-02-25
The present disclosure relates to biological optimization systems for enhancing photosynthetic efficiency and methods of use.
Simulation Methods for Optimal Experimental Design in Systems Biology
Timmer, Jens
Simulation Methods for Optimal Experimental Design in Systems Biology D. Faller Freiburg Center of a biological system, the authors conducted quantitative dynamic experiments from which the system structure and the parameters have to be deduced. Since biological systems have to cope with different environmental conditions
Methods for Optimal Pedestrian Task Scheduling and Routing Srihari Narasimhan
Qu, Rong
Methods for Optimal Pedestrian Task Scheduling and Routing Srihari Narasimhan IPVS, Universit to monitor the movement and behavior of pedestrians, especially where there are a huge number of visitors the pedestrian be- havior. As a result, the congestions as well as the queue sizes at different times can
STRUCTURAL TOPOLOGY OPTIMIZATION USING FINITE ELEMENT BASED LEVEL SET METHOD
Frey, Pascal
of Mechanical and Automation Engineering The Chinese University of Hong Kong THEME Optimization KEYWORDS, the standard Galerkin finite element method may produce oscillating results. In this paper, both equations set equation is a first order hyperbolic equation. It is well known that the standard Galerkin FEM may
A Comparison of Derivative-Free Optimization Methods for Groundwater
Kelley, C. T. "Tim"
A Comparison of Derivative-Free Optimization Methods for Groundwater Supply and Hydraulic Capture, 244 Wood Street, Lexington, MA 02420-9108 USA Abstract Management decisions involving groundwater-documented community problems are used for illustration purposes: a groundwater supply problem and a hydraulic capture
Numerical Methods for the QCD Overlap Operator: II. Optimal Krylov Subspace Methods
G. Arnold; N. Cundy; J. van den Eshof; A. Frommer; S. Krieg; Th. Lippert; K. Schäfer
2004-02-20
We investigate optimal choices for the (outer) iteration method to use when solving linear systems with Neuberger's overlap operator in QCD. Different formulations for this operator give rise to different iterative solvers, which are optimal for the respective formulation. We compare these methods in theory and practice to find the overall optimal one.For the first time, we apply the so-called SUMR method of Jagels and Reichel to the shifted unitary version of Neuberger's operator, and show that this method is in a sense the optimal choice for propagator computations. When solving the ``squared'' equations in a dynamical simulation with two degenerate flavours, it turns out that the CG method should be used.
Optimized post Gaussian approximation in the background field method
A. Rakhimov; Jae Hyung Yee
2003-08-11
We have extended the variational perturbative theory based on the back ground field method to include the optimized expansion of Okopinska and the post Gaussian effective potential of Stansu and Stevenson. This new method provides much simpler way to compute the correction terms to the Gausssian effective action (or potential). We have also renormalized the effective potential in 3+1 dimensions by introducing appropriate counter terms in the lagrangian
Fossil fuel combined cycle power generation method
Labinov, Solomon D [Knoxville, TN; Armstrong, Timothy R [Clinton, TN; Judkins, Roddie R [Knoxville, TN
2008-10-21
A method for converting fuel energy to electricity includes the steps of converting a higher molecular weight gas into at least one mixed gas stream of lower average molecular weight including at least a first lower molecular weight gas and a second gas, the first and second gases being different gases, wherein the first lower molecular weight gas comprises H.sub.2 and the second gas comprises CO. The mixed gas is supplied to at least one turbine to produce electricity. The mixed gas stream is divided after the turbine into a first gas stream mainly comprising H.sub.2 and a second gas stream mainly comprising CO. The first and second gas streams are then electrochemically oxidized in separate fuel cells to produce electricity. A nuclear reactor can be used to supply at least a portion of the heat the required for the chemical conversion process.
Branch and Bound for Boolean Optimization and the Generation of Optimality Certificates
Larrosa, Javier
optimization problems of the form (S, cost), where S is a clause set over Boolean variables x1 . . . xn, with an arbi- trary cost function cost : Bn R, and the aim is to find a model A of S such that cost algorithm that can model optimization concepts such as cost-based propagation and cost-based backjumping
Frey, Pascal
in many industries such as automotive industries. Structural optimization can be classified into sizing [5 parameter. Bendsøe and Sigmund [32] asserted the validity of the SIMP method in view of the mechanics
Optimized Hydrogen and Electricity Generation from Wind | Department of
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills and ReduceNovemberDOE'sManagementOpenEIthe U.S.Energy Optimized
Optimization of THz Radiation Generation from a Laser Wakefield Accelerator
Geddes, Cameron Guy Robinson
used to characterize these THz pulses. Keywords: T-rays generation, CTR, LWFA, Beam diagnostics PACS ultrashort electron bunches with energies up to 1 GeV [1] and energy spreads of a few-percent. Laser pulses interacting with a plasma create accelerated electrons which upon exiting the plasma emit terahertz pulses via
Optimal distributed power generation under network load constraints
Utrecht, Universiteit
, small wind turbine or central heating power units) can be inserted into any transmission line, mainly because of the development of novel components for decentral power generation (solar panels, small wind turbines and heat pumps). This gives rise to the question how many units of each type (solar panel
Evaluation of Regressive Methods for Automated Generation of Test Trajectories
Cukic, Bojan
. In simple terms,a test trajectoiy is defined as a series of data points, with each (possiblymultidimensional of test generation and the percentage of "acceptable" trajectories, measured by the domain specificEvaluation of Regressive Methods for Automated Generation of Test Trajectories Brian J. Taylor
Column-Generation Boosting Methods for Mixture of Kernels
Chandy, John A.
Column-Generation Boosting Methods for Mixture of Kernels Jinbo Bi Computer-Aided Diagnosis approach to classification and regres- sion based on column generation using a mixture of ker- nels logistic regression, etc. The idea is to map data into Permission to make digital or hard copies of all
Advances in interior point methods and column generation
González Brevis, Pablo; Brevis, Pablo
2013-11-28
In this thesis we study how to efficiently combine the column generation technique (CG) and interior point methods (IPMs) for solving the relaxation of a selection of integer programming problems. In order to obtain an ...
15.053 Optimization Methods in Management Science, Spring 2007
Mamani, Hamed
15.053 introduces students to the theory, algorithms, and applications of optimization. Optimization methodologies include linear programming, network optimization, integer programming, decision trees, and dynamic programming. ...
Predictive energy Optimization: The Next Generation of Energy Management
Dickinson, P.
2013-01-01
, demand response, electric vehicle charging, on site renewables, co-generation, energy star targets and a range of other complexities introduce the need to move beyond fixed logic and scripted responses. THE SOLUTION: Given the gap between MPC.... If the labor force was previously running at 100% then, to reach the increased output, additional labor is required. How should new labor be introduced? Should additional labor be full time employees as perhaps the cheapest option albeit with the risk...
Control and optimization system and method for chemical looping processes
Lou, Xinsheng; Joshi, Abhinaya; Lei, Hao
2014-06-24
A control system for optimizing a chemical loop system includes one or more sensors for measuring one or more parameters in a chemical loop. The sensors are disposed on or in a conduit positioned in the chemical loop. The sensors generate one or more data signals representative of an amount of solids in the conduit. The control system includes a data acquisition system in communication with the sensors and a controller in communication with the data acquisition system. The data acquisition system receives the data signals and the controller generates the control signals. The controller is in communication with one or more valves positioned in the chemical loop. The valves are configured to regulate a flow of the solids through the chemical loop.
Optimal_Performance_of_Hybrid_Generation_2011-05-24
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
and nuclear plants, the extraction of energy from wind does not affect the overall plant cost. The second method above is not considered an actual representation of the efficiency...
Optimal Path Generation for Monocular Simultaneous Localization and Mapping
Roorda, Timothy Isaac
2014-09-01
Monocular Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (MonoSLAM), a derivative of Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM), is a navigation method for autonomous vehicles that uses only an inertial measurement unit and a camera to map the environment...
The Method of Generated Solutions for Numerical Verification of ICE
for verifying numerical code. The exact solution to the set of equations is derived using mathematical methodsThe Method of Generated Solutions for Numerical Verification of ICE Code Amjidanutpan Ramanujam, Christopher Sikorski, Todd Harman* UUCS07006 School of Computing University of Utah Salt Lake City, UT 84112
The Method of Generated Solutions for Numerical Verification of ICE
for verifying numerical code. The exact solution to the set of equations is derived using mathematical methodsThe Method of Generated Solutions for Numerical Verification of ICE Code Amjidanutpan Ramanujam, Christopher Sikorski, Todd Harman* UUCS-07-006 School of Computing University of Utah Salt Lake City, UT 84112
Lee, Heung-Rae (Dublin, CA)
1997-01-01
A three-dimensional image reconstruction method comprises treating the object of interest as a group of elements with a size that is determined by the resolution of the projection data, e.g., as determined by the size of each pixel. One of the projections is used as a reference projection. A fictitious object is arbitrarily defined that is constrained by such reference projection. The method modifies the known structure of the fictitious object by comparing and optimizing its four projections to those of the unknown structure of the real object and continues to iterate until the optimization is limited by the residual sum of background noise. The method is composed of several sub-processes that acquire four projections from the real data and the fictitious object: generate an arbitrary distribution to define the fictitious object, optimize the four projections, generate a new distribution for the fictitious object, and enhance the reconstructed image. The sub-process for the acquisition of the four projections from the input real data is simply the function of acquiring the four projections from the data of the transmitted intensity. The transmitted intensity represents the density distribution, that is, the distribution of absorption coefficients through the object.
Lee, H.R.
1997-11-18
A three-dimensional image reconstruction method comprises treating the object of interest as a group of elements with a size that is determined by the resolution of the projection data, e.g., as determined by the size of each pixel. One of the projections is used as a reference projection. A fictitious object is arbitrarily defined that is constrained by such reference projection. The method modifies the known structure of the fictitious object by comparing and optimizing its four projections to those of the unknown structure of the real object and continues to iterate until the optimization is limited by the residual sum of background noise. The method is composed of several sub-processes that acquire four projections from the real data and the fictitious object: generate an arbitrary distribution to define the fictitious object, optimize the four projections, generate a new distribution for the fictitious object, and enhance the reconstructed image. The sub-process for the acquisition of the four projections from the input real data is simply the function of acquiring the four projections from the data of the transmitted intensity. The transmitted intensity represents the density distribution, that is, the distribution of absorption coefficients through the object. 5 figs.
SU-E-T-395: Multi-GPU-Based VMAT Treatment Plan Optimization Using a Column-Generation Approach
Tian, Z; Shi, F; Jia, X; Jiang, S; Peng, F
2014-06-01
Purpose: GPU has been employed to speed up VMAT optimizations from hours to minutes. However, its limited memory capacity makes it difficult to handle cases with a huge dose-deposition-coefficient (DDC) matrix, e.g. those with a large target size, multiple arcs, small beam angle intervals and/or small beamlet size. We propose multi-GPU-based VMAT optimization to solve this memory issue to make GPU-based VMAT more practical for clinical use. Methods: Our column-generation-based method generates apertures sequentially by iteratively searching for an optimal feasible aperture (referred as pricing problem, PP) and optimizing aperture intensities (referred as master problem, MP). The PP requires access to the large DDC matrix, which is implemented on a multi-GPU system. Each GPU stores a DDC sub-matrix corresponding to one fraction of beam angles and is only responsible for calculation related to those angles. Broadcast and parallel reduction schemes are adopted for inter-GPU data transfer. MP is a relatively small-scale problem and is implemented on one GPU. One headand- neck cancer case was used for test. Three different strategies for VMAT optimization on single GPU were also implemented for comparison: (S1) truncating DDC matrix to ignore its small value entries for optimization; (S2) transferring DDC matrix part by part to GPU during optimizations whenever needed; (S3) moving DDC matrix related calculation onto CPU. Results: Our multi-GPU-based implementation reaches a good plan within 1 minute. Although S1 was 10 seconds faster than our method, the obtained plan quality is worse. Both S2 and S3 handle the full DDC matrix and hence yield the same plan as in our method. However, the computation time is longer, namely 4 minutes and 30 minutes, respectively. Conclusion: Our multi-GPU-based VMAT optimization can effectively solve the limited memory issue with good plan quality and high efficiency, making GPUbased ultra-fast VMAT planning practical for real clinical use.
Kumar, Aditya; Shi, Ruijie; Kumar, Rajeeva; Dokucu, Mustafa
2013-04-09
Control system and method for controlling an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant are provided. The system may include a controller coupled to a dynamic model of the plant to process a prediction of plant performance and determine a control strategy for the IGCC plant over a time horizon subject to plant constraints. The control strategy may include control functionality to meet a tracking objective and control functionality to meet an optimization objective. The control strategy may be configured to prioritize the tracking objective over the optimization objective based on a coordinate transformation, such as an orthogonal or quasi-orthogonal projection. A plurality of plant control knobs may be set in accordance with the control strategy to generate a sequence of coordinated multivariable control inputs to meet the tracking objective and the optimization objective subject to the prioritization resulting from the coordinate transformation.
Guided wave methods and apparatus for nonlinear frequency generation
Durfee, III, Charles G. (Ann Arbor, MI); Rundquist, Andrew (Austin, TX); Kapteyn, Henry C. (Ann Arbor, MI); Murnane, Margaret M. (Ann Arbor, MI)
2000-01-01
Methods and apparatus are disclosed for the nonlinear generation of sum and difference frequencies of electromagnetic radiation propagating in a nonlinear material. A waveguide having a waveguide cavity contains the nonlinear material. Phase matching of the nonlinear generation is obtained by adjusting a waveguide propagation constant, the refractive index of the nonlinear material, or the waveguide mode in which the radiation propagates. Phase matching can be achieved even in isotropic nonlinear materials. A short-wavelength radiation source uses phase-matched nonlinear generation in a waveguide to produce high harmonics of a pulsed laser.
Yu, Wenbin
1 Analysis and optimization of heterogeneous materials using the variational asymptotic method material and void are mixed artifi- cially. Keywords: Topology optimization; Homogenization method; Unit of the effective properties of periodically heterogeneous materials, within a periodic base cell. The sensitivities
A gradient optimization method for efficient design of three-dimensional deformation processes
Zabaras, Nicholas J.
A gradient optimization method for efficient design of three-dimensional deformation processes Swagato Acharjee and Nicholas Zabaras Materials Process Design and Control Laboratory, Sibley School processes. The optimization is based on the continuum sensitivity method (CSM). CSM involves differentiation
Optimal Placement and Sizing of Distributed Generator Units using Genetic Optimization
and electricity in the distribution grid. A group of DG units can form a virtual power plant, being centrally controlled and behaving as a single power plant towards the grid. The extreme case is an energy island to conventional power plants distributed generation units such as PV cells (depending on solar illumination
AN INTERIOR-POINT METHOD FOR NONLINEAR OPTIMIZATION ...
2014-10-23
ear and nonsmooth optimization, Classification of optimization models, Gas network ...... The first part presents results on a small test library of low-
Mohsenian-Rad, Hamed
1 Optimal Integration of Renewable Energy Resources in Data Centers with Behind-the-Meter Renewable-- Renewable energy resources, such as wind and solar power, are rapidly becoming generation technologies-temporal variations, the integration of renewable energy resources is usually very challenging. Some of the previously
Alternative methods of modeling wind generation using production cost models
Milligan, M.R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Pang, C.K. [P Plus Corp., Cupertino, CA (United States)] [P Plus Corp., Cupertino, CA (United States)
1996-08-01
This paper examines the methods of incorporating wind generation in two production costing models: one is a load duration curve (LDC) based model and the other is a chronological-based model. These two models were used to evaluate the impacts of wind generation on two utility systems using actual collected wind data at two locations with high potential for wind generation. The results are sensitive to the selected wind data and the level of benefits of wind generation is sensitive to the load forecast. The total production cost over a year obtained by the chronological approach does not differ significantly from that of the LDC approach, though the chronological commitment of units is more realistic and more accurate. Chronological models provide the capability of answering important questions about wind resources which are difficult or impossible to address with LDC models.
Types of random numbers and Monte Carlo Methods Pseudorandom number generation
Mascagni, Michael
Types of random numbers and Monte Carlo Methods Pseudorandom number generation Quasirandom number generation Conclusions WE246: Random Number Generation A Practitioner's Overview Prof. Michael Mascagni #12;Types of random numbers and Monte Carlo Methods Pseudorandom number generation Quasirandom number
Municipal Solid Waste Generation: Feasibility of Reconciling Measurement Methods
Schneider, Shelly H.
2014-07-25
on a national level looks at products sold and assumes a useful product life. At the end of the product’s useful life, EPA follows the product flow through end-of-life management—generation, recycling, composting, disposal. The direct measurement method...
Generator Coordinate Method framework for Double Beta Decay
Andrzej Bobyk; Wies?aw A. Kami?ski
2014-11-10
We propose a consistent prescription for the derivation of the particle number and angular momentum projected QRPA (PQRPA) equation in the Generator Coordinate Method (GCM) framework for calculation of NME's of double-beta decay of axially deformed nuclei. We derive closed formulae for the calculation of excitation energies and wave functions of the intermediate nucleus.
An Efficient Method for Random Delay Generation in Embedded Software
International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)
An Efficient Method for Random Delay Generation in Embedded Software Jean-SÂ´ebastien Coron and Ilya Process Interrupts (rpi) as well as in software by placing "dummy" cy- cles at some points of the program. We give preliminary information on software random delays in Sect. 2. Related work. First detailed
Chu, Xi
Optimization of high-order harmonic generation by genetic algorithm and wavelet time laser fields by means of the genetic algorithm optimization of the laser-pulse amplitude and phase optimization 11 of the laser-pulse shape and intra-atomic phase matching. We show that by combining the GA
Oren, Shmuel S.
Unit Commitment and Transmission Switching With N-1 Reliability Kory W. Hedman, Student Member, IEEE present a co-optimization formulation of the generation unit commitment and transmission switching problem to hour. We also show that optimizing the topology can change the optimal unit commitment schedule
Design of a Lithium-ion Battery Pack for PHEV Using a Hybrid Optimization Method
Papalambros, Panos
Design of a Lithium-ion Battery Pack for PHEV Using a Hybrid Optimization Method Nansi Xue1 Abstract This paper outlines a method for optimizing the design of a lithium-ion battery pack for hy- brid, volume or material cost. Keywords: Lithium-ion, Optimization, Hybrid vehicle, Battery pack design
Seismic wave generation systems and methods for cased wells
Minto, James (Houston, TX); Sorrells, Martin H (Huffman, TX); Owen, Thomas E. (Helotes, TX); Schroeder, Edgar C. (San Antonio, TX)
2011-03-29
A vibration source (10) includes an armature bar (12) having a major length dimension, and a driver (20A) positioned about the armature bar. The driver (20A) is movably coupled to the armature bar (12), and includes an electromagnet (40). During operation the electromagnet (40) is activated such that the driver (20A) moves with respect to the armature bar (12) and a vibratory signal is generated in the armature bar. A described method for generating a vibratory signal in an object includes positioning the vibration source (10) in an opening of the object, coupling the armature bar (12) to a surface of the object within the opening, and activating the electromagnet (40) of the driver (20A) such that the driver moves with respect to the armature bar (12) and a vibratory signal is generated in the armature bar and the object.
Shape optimized headers and methods of manufacture thereof
Perrin, Ian James
2013-11-05
Disclosed herein is a shape optimized header comprising a shell that is operative for collecting a fluid; wherein an internal diameter and/or a wall thickness of the shell vary with a change in pressure and/or a change in a fluid flow rate in the shell; and tubes; wherein the tubes are in communication with the shell and are operative to transfer fluid into the shell. Disclosed herein is a method comprising fixedly attaching tubes to a shell; wherein the shell is operative for collecting a fluid; wherein an internal diameter and/or a wall thickness of the shell vary with a change in pressure and/or a change in a fluid flow rate in the shell; and wherein the tubes are in communication with the shell and are operative to transfer fluid into the shell.
Optimal energy-harvesting cycles for load-driven dielectric generators in plane strain
R. Springhetti; E. Bortot; G. deBotton; M. Gei
2014-03-13
The performances of energy harvesting generators based on dielectric elastomers are investigated. The configuration is of a thin dielectric film coated by stretchable electrodes at both sides. The film is first stretched, then charged and subsequently, afterwards it is released, and finally the charge is harvested at a higher electric potential. The amount of energy extracted by this cycle is bounded by the electric breakdown and the ultimate stretch ratio of the film as well as by structural instabilities due to loss of tension. To identify the optimal cycle that complies with these limits we formulate a constraint optimization problem and solve it with a dedicated solver for two typical classes of elastic dielectrics. As anticipated, we find that the performance of the generator depends critically on the ultimate stretch ratio of the film. However, more surprising is our finding of a universal limit on the dielectric strength of the film beyond which the optimal cycle is independent of this parameter. Thus, we reveal that, regardless of how large the dielectric strength of the material is, there is an upper bound on the amount of harvested energy that depends only on the ultimate stretch ratio. We conclude the work with detailed calculations of the optimal cycles for two commercially available elastic dielectrics.
Urquhart, B.; Sengupta, M.; Keller, J.
2012-09-01
A multi-objective optimization was performed to allocate 2MW of PV among four candidate sites on the island of Lanai such that energy was maximized and variability in the form of ramp rates was minimized. This resulted in an optimal solution set which provides a range of geographic allotment alternatives for the fixed PV capacity. Within the optimal set, a tradeoff between energy produced and variability experienced was found, whereby a decrease in variability always necessitates a simultaneous decrease in energy. A design point within the optimal set was selected for study which decreased extreme ramp rates by over 50% while only decreasing annual energy generation by 3% over the maximum generation allocation. To quantify the allotment mix selected, a metric was developed, called the ramp ratio, which compares ramping magnitude when all capacity is allotted to a single location to the aggregate ramping magnitude in a distributed scenario. The ramp ratio quantifies simultaneously how much smoothing a distributed scenario would experience over single site allotment and how much a single site is being under-utilized for its ability to reduce aggregate variability. This paper creates a framework for use by cities and municipal utilities to reduce variability impacts while planning for high penetration of PV on the distribution grid.
Global Optimization Methods for the Aerodynamic Shape Design of Transonic Cascades
Neumaier, Arnold
Global Optimization Methods for the Aerodynamic Shape Design of Transonic Cascades T. Mengistu, Canada Email: mengistu@me.concordia.ca, ghaly@alcor.concordia.ca ABSTRACT Two global optimization shape optimization of transonic cascades; the objective being the redesign of an existing turbomachine
Maurer, Helmut
Optimal Control of a Fedbatch Fermentation Process: Numerical Methods, Sufficient Conditions-bang and singular optimal controls in a fedbatch fermentation process are computed for a range of time horizons of the user. In this work we study optimal control of a fedbatch fermentation process. An analytic expression
Unconstrained paving and plastering method for generating finite element meshes
Staten, Matthew L. (Albuquerque, NM); Owen, Steven J. (Albuquerque, NM); Blacker, Teddy D. (Albuquerque, NM); Kerr, Robert (Albuquerque, NM)
2010-03-02
Computer software for and a method of generating a conformal all quadrilateral or hexahedral mesh comprising selecting an object with unmeshed boundaries and performing the following while unmeshed voids are larger than twice a desired element size and unrecognizable as either a midpoint subdividable or pave-and-sweepable polyhedra: selecting a front to advance; based on sizes of fronts and angles with adjacent fronts, determining which adjacent fronts should be advanced with the selected front; advancing the fronts; detecting proximities with other nearby fronts; resolving any found proximities; forming quadrilaterals or unconstrained columns of hexahedra where two layers cross; and establishing hexahedral elements where three layers cross.
Method and apparatus for automated, modular, biomass power generation
Diebold, James P; Lilley, Arthur; Browne, III, Kingsbury; Walt, Robb Ray; Duncan, Dustin; Walker, Michael; Steele, John; Fields, Michael; Smith, Trevor
2013-11-05
Method and apparatus for generating a low tar, renewable fuel gas from biomass and using it in other energy conversion devices, many of which were designed for use with gaseous and liquid fossil fuels. An automated, downdraft gasifier incorporates extensive air injection into the char bed to maintain the conditions that promote the destruction of residual tars. The resulting fuel gas and entrained char and ash are cooled in a special heat exchanger, and then continuously cleaned in a filter prior to usage in standalone as well as networked power systems.
Method and apparatus for automated, modular, biomass power generation
Diebold, James P. (Lakewood, CO); Lilley, Arthur (Finleyville, PA); Browne, Kingsbury III (Golden, CO); Walt, Robb Ray (Aurora, CO); Duncan, Dustin (Littleton, CO); Walker, Michael (Longmont, CO); Steele, John (Aurora, CO); Fields, Michael (Arvada, CO); Smith, Trevor (Lakewood, CO)
2011-03-22
Method and apparatus for generating a low tar, renewable fuel gas from biomass and using it in other energy conversion devices, many of which were designed for use with gaseous and liquid fossil fuels. An automated, downdraft gasifier incorporates extensive air injection into the char bed to maintain the conditions that promote the destruction of residual tars. The resulting fuel gas and entrained char and ash are cooled in a special heat exchanger, and then continuously cleaned in a filter prior to usage in standalone as well as networked power systems.
Fuel processor and method for generating hydrogen for fuel cells
Ahmed, Shabbir (Naperville, IL); Lee, Sheldon H. D. (Willowbrook, IL); Carter, John David (Bolingbrook, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Myers, Deborah J. (Lisle, IL)
2009-07-21
A method of producing a H.sub.2 rich gas stream includes supplying an O.sub.2 rich gas, steam, and fuel to an inner reforming zone of a fuel processor that includes a partial oxidation catalyst and a steam reforming catalyst or a combined partial oxidation and stream reforming catalyst. The method also includes contacting the O.sub.2 rich gas, steam, and fuel with the partial oxidation catalyst and the steam reforming catalyst or the combined partial oxidation and stream reforming catalyst in the inner reforming zone to generate a hot reformate stream. The method still further includes cooling the hot reformate stream in a cooling zone to produce a cooled reformate stream. Additionally, the method includes removing sulfur-containing compounds from the cooled reformate stream by contacting the cooled reformate stream with a sulfur removal agent. The method still further includes contacting the cooled reformate stream with a catalyst that converts water and carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide and H.sub.2 in a water-gas-shift zone to produce a final reformate stream in the fuel processor.
Next Generation Nuclear Plant Methods Technical Program Plan
Richard R. Schultz; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; David W. Nigg; Hans D. Gougar; Richard W. Johnson; William K. Terry; Chang H. Oh; Donald W. McEligot; Gary W. Johnsen; Glenn E. McCreery; Woo Y. Yoon; James W. Sterbentz; J. Steve Herring; Temitope A. Taiwo; Thomas Y. C. Wei; William D. Pointer; Won S. Yang; Michael T. Farmer; Hussein S. Khalil; Madeline A. Feltus
2007-01-01
One of the great challenges of designing and licensing the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is to confirm that the intended VHTR analysis tools can be used confidently to make decisions and to assure all that the reactor systems are safe and meet the performance objectives of the Generation IV Program. The research and development (R&D) projects defined in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Design Methods Development and Validation Program will ensure that the tools used to perform the required calculations and analyses can be trusted. The Methods R&D tasks are designed to ensure that the calculational envelope of the tools used to analyze the VHTR reactor systems encompasses, or is larger than, the operational and transient envelope of the VHTR itself. The Methods R&D focuses on the development of tools to assess the neutronic and thermal fluid behavior of the plant. The fuel behavior and fission product transport models are discussed in the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) program plan. Various stress analysis and mechanical design tools will also need to be developed and validated and will ultimately also be included in the Methods R&D Program Plan. The calculational envelope of the neutronics and thermal-fluids software tools intended to be used on the NGNP is defined by the scenarios and phenomena that these tools can calculate with confidence. The software tools can only be used confidently when the results they produce have been shown to be in reasonable agreement with first-principle results, thought-problems, and data that describe the “highly ranked” phenomena inherent in all operational conditions and important accident scenarios for the VHTR.
Next Generation Nuclear Plant Methods Technical Program Plan -- PLN-2498
Richard R. Schultz; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; David W. Nigg; Hans D. Gougar; Richard W. Johnson; William K. Terry; Chang H. Oh; Donald W. McEligot; Gary W. Johnsen; Glenn E. McCreery; Woo Y. Yoon; James W. Sterbentz; J. Steve Herring; Temitope A. Taiwo; Thomas Y. C. Wei; William D. Pointer; Won S. Yang; Michael T. Farmer; Hussein S. Khalil; Madeline A. Feltus
2010-09-01
One of the great challenges of designing and licensing the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is to confirm that the intended VHTR analysis tools can be used confidently to make decisions and to assure all that the reactor systems are safe and meet the performance objectives of the Generation IV Program. The research and development (R&D) projects defined in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Design Methods Development and Validation Program will ensure that the tools used to perform the required calculations and analyses can be trusted. The Methods R&D tasks are designed to ensure that the calculational envelope of the tools used to analyze the VHTR reactor systems encompasses, or is larger than, the operational and transient envelope of the VHTR itself. The Methods R&D focuses on the development of tools to assess the neutronic and thermal fluid behavior of the plant. The fuel behavior and fission product transport models are discussed in the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) program plan. Various stress analysis and mechanical design tools will also need to be developed and validated and will ultimately also be included in the Methods R&D Program Plan. The calculational envelope of the neutronics and thermal-fluids software tools intended to be used on the NGNP is defined by the scenarios and phenomena that these tools can calculate with confidence. The software tools can only be used confidently when the results they produce have been shown to be in reasonable agreement with first-principle results, thought-problems, and data that describe the “highly ranked” phenomena inherent in all operational conditions and important accident scenarios for the VHTR.
Next Generation Nuclear Plant Methods Technical Program Plan
Richard R. Schultz; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; David W. Nigg; Hans D. Gougar; Richard W. Johnson; William K. Terry; Chang H. Oh; Donald W. McEligot; Gary W. Johnsen; Glenn E. McCreery; Woo Y. Yoon; James W. Sterbentz; J. Steve Herring; Temitope A. Taiwo; Thomas Y. C. Wei; William D. Pointer; Won S. Yang; Michael T. Farmer; Hussein S. Khalil; Madeline A. Feltus
2010-12-01
One of the great challenges of designing and licensing the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is to confirm that the intended VHTR analysis tools can be used confidently to make decisions and to assure all that the reactor systems are safe and meet the performance objectives of the Generation IV Program. The research and development (R&D) projects defined in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Design Methods Development and Validation Program will ensure that the tools used to perform the required calculations and analyses can be trusted. The Methods R&D tasks are designed to ensure that the calculational envelope of the tools used to analyze the VHTR reactor systems encompasses, or is larger than, the operational and transient envelope of the VHTR itself. The Methods R&D focuses on the development of tools to assess the neutronic and thermal fluid behavior of the plant. The fuel behavior and fission product transport models are discussed in the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) program plan. Various stress analysis and mechanical design tools will also need to be developed and validated and will ultimately also be included in the Methods R&D Program Plan. The calculational envelope of the neutronics and thermal-fluids software tools intended to be used on the NGNP is defined by the scenarios and phenomena that these tools can calculate with confidence. The software tools can only be used confidently when the results they produce have been shown to be in reasonable agreement with first-principle results, thought-problems, and data that describe the “highly ranked” phenomena inherent in all operational conditions and important accident scenarios for the VHTR.
Chu, Shih-I
2015-01-01
PHYSICAL REVIEW A 91, 063408 (2015) Optimal control of high-order harmonics for the generation an efficient high-order-harmonic optimal control scheme for the generation of the ultrabroad supercontinuum NEWUOA (NEW Unconstrained Optimization Algorithm). For illustration, the high-order-harmonic generation
From Physics Model to Results: An Optimizing Framework for Cross-Architecture Code Generation
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Blazewicz, Marek; Hinder, Ian; Koppelman, David M.; Brandt, Steven R.; Ciznicki, Milosz; Kierzynka, Michal; Löffler, Frank; Schnetter, Erik; Tao, Jian
2013-01-01
Starting from a high-level problem description in terms of partial differential equations using abstract tensor notation, theChemoraframework discretizes, optimizes, and generates complete high performance codes for a wide range of compute architectures. Chemora extends the capabilities of Cactus, facilitating the usage of large-scale CPU/GPU systems in an efficient manner for complex applications, without low-level code tuning. Chemora achieves parallelism through MPI and multi-threading, combining OpenMP and CUDA. Optimizations include high-level code transformations, efficient loop traversal strategies, dynamically selected data and instruction cache usage strategies, and JIT compilation of GPU code tailored to the problem characteristics. The discretization is based onmore »higher-order finite differences on multi-block domains. Chemora's capabilities are demonstrated by simulations of black hole collisions. This problem provides an acid test of the framework, as the Einstein equations contain hundreds of variables and thousands of terms.« less
From Physics Model to Results: An Optimizing Framework for Cross-Architecture Code Generation
Marek Blazewicz; Ian Hinder; David M. Koppelman; Steven R. Brandt; Milosz Ciznicki; Michal Kierzynka; Frank Löffler; Erik Schnetter; Jian Tao
2013-07-24
Starting from a high-level problem description in terms of partial differential equations using abstract tensor notation, the Chemora framework discretizes, optimizes, and generates complete high performance codes for a wide range of compute architectures. Chemora extends the capabilities of Cactus, facilitating the usage of large-scale CPU/GPU systems in an efficient manner for complex applications, without low-level code tuning. Chemora achieves parallelism through MPI and multi-threading, combining OpenMP and CUDA. Optimizations include high-level code transformations, efficient loop traversal strategies, dynamically selected data and instruction cache usage strategies, and JIT compilation of GPU code tailored to the problem characteristics. The discretization is based on higher-order finite differences on multi-block domains. Chemora's capabilities are demonstrated by simulations of black hole collisions. This problem provides an acid test of the framework, as the Einstein equations contain hundreds of variables and thousands of terms.
Lapa, Celso M.F.; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A. [CNEN, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Rua General Severiano 90, Rio de Janeiro, RJ-22-294-900 (Brazil); Frutuoso e Melo, P.F. [COPPE/UFRJ, Cidade Universitaria, Centro de Tecnologia, Bloco G, sala 101, Ilha do Fundao, 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro - RJ (Brazil)
2002-07-01
Nuclear standby safety systems must frequently, be submitted to periodic surveillance tests. The main reason is to detect, as soon as possible, the occurrence of unrevealed failure states. Such interventions may, however, affect the overall system availability due to component outages. Besides, as the components are demanded, deterioration by aging may occur, penalizing again the system performance. By these reasons, planning a good surveillance test policy implies in a trade-off between gains and overheads due to the surveillance test interventions. In order maximize the systems average availability during a given period of time, it has recently been developed a non-periodic surveillance test optimization methodology based on genetic algorithms (GA). The fact of allowing non-periodic tests turns the solution space much more flexible and schedules can be better adjusted, providing gains in the overall system average availability, when compared to those obtained by an optimized periodic tests scheme. The optimization problem becomes, however, more complex. Hence, the use of a powerful optimization technique, such as GAs, is required. Some particular features of certain systems can turn it advisable to introduce other specific constraints in the optimization problem. The Emergency Diesel Generation System (EDGS) of a Nuclear Power Plant (N-PP) is a good example for demonstrating the introduction of seasonal constraints in the optimization problem. This system is responsible for power supply during an external blackout. Therefore, it is desirable during periods of high blackout probability to maintain the system availability as high as possible. Previous applications have demonstrated the robustness and effectiveness of the methodology. However, no seasonal constraints have ever been imposed. This work aims at investigating the application of such methodology in the Angra-II Brazilian NPP EDGS surveillance test policy optimization, considering the blackout probability growth during summer, due to the electrical power demand increase. Here, the model used penalizes test interventions by a continuous modulating function, which depends on the instantaneous blackout probability. Results have demonstrated the ability of the method in adapting the surveillance tests policy to seasonal behaviors. The knowledge acquired by the GA during the searching process has lead to test schedules that drastically minimize the test interventions at periods of high blackout probability. It is compensated by more frequent tests redistributed through the periods of low blackout probability, in order to provide improvement on the overall average availability at the system level. (authors)
Method of generating electricity using an endothermic coal gasifier and MHD generator
Marchant, David D. (Richland, WA); Lytle, John M. (Richland, WA)
1982-01-01
A system and method of generating electrical power wherein a mixture of carbonaceous material and water is heated to initiate and sustain the endothermic reaction of carbon and water thereby providing a gasified stream containing carbon monoxide, hydrogen and nitrogen and waste streams of hydrogen sulfide and ash. The gasified stream and an ionizing seed material and pressurized air from a preheater go to a burner for producing ionized combustion gases having a temperature of about 5000.degree. to about 6000.degree. F. which are accelerated to a velocity of about 1000 meters per second and passed through an MHD generator to generate DC power and thereafter through a diffuser to reduce the velocity. The gases from the diffuser go to an afterburner and from there in heat exchange relationship with the gasifier to provide heat to sustain the endothermic reaction of carbon and water and with the preheater to preheat the air prior to combustion with the gasified stream. Energy from the afterburner can also be used to energize other parts of the system.
An Improved Lagrangian Relaxation Method for VLSI Combinational Circuit Optimization
Huang, Yi-Le
2012-02-14
Gate sizing and threshold voltage (Vt) assignment are very popular and useful techniques in current very large scale integration (VLSI) design flow for timing and power optimization. Lagrangian relaxation (LR) is a common ...
A new method to generate dust with astrophysical properties
Hansen, J F; van Breugel, W; Bringa, E M; Graham, G A; Remington, B A; Taylor, E A; Tielens, A G
2010-04-21
In interstellar and interplanetary space, the size distribution and composition of dust grains play an important role. For example, dust grains determine optical and ultraviolet extinction levels in astronomical observations, dominate the cooling rate of our Galaxy, and sets the thermal balance and radiative cooling rates in molecular clouds, which are the birth place of stars. Dust grains are also a source of damage and failure to space hardware and thus present a hazard to space flight. To model the size distribution and composition of dust grains, and their effect in the above scenarios, it is vital to understand the mechanism of dust-shock interaction. We demonstrate a new experiment which employs a laser to subject dust grains to pressure spikes similar to those of colliding astrophysical dust, and which accelerates the grains to astrophysical velocities. The new method generates much larger data sets than earlier methods; we show how large quantities (thousands) of grains are accelerated at once, rather than accelerating individual grains, as is the case of earlier methods using electric fields.
On the method of optimal portfolio choice by cost-efficiency
Rüschendorf, Ludger
On the method of optimal portfolio choice by cost-efficiency Ludger R¨uschendorf*, Viktor Wolf Freiburg, Germany Abstract We develop the method of optimal portfolio choice based on the concept of cost-efficiency class of cost-efficient payoffs. While the results for the cost-efficient payoff given so far
Oh, Bong T.
2010-01-16
, vibration/noise control, and fluid mechanics, simultaneously. Higher product quality, less developing time and lower manufacturing cost will be achieved through a balanced and organic MDO method. In this paper, numerical stress analysis, optimization method...
Capacitive charge generation apparatus and method for testing circuits
Cole, Jr., Edward I. (Albuquerque, NM); Peterson, Kenneth A. (Albuquerque, NM); Barton, Daniel L. (Albuquerque, NM)
1998-01-01
An electron beam apparatus and method for testing a circuit. The electron beam apparatus comprises an electron beam incident on an outer surface of an insulating layer overlying one or more electrical conductors of the circuit for generating a time varying or alternating current electrical potential on the surface; and a measurement unit connected to the circuit for measuring an electrical signal capacitively coupled to the electrical conductors to identify and map a conduction state of each of the electrical conductors, with or without an electrical bias signal being applied to the circuit. The electron beam apparatus can further include a secondary electron detector for forming a secondary electron image for registration with a map of the conduction state of the electrical conductors. The apparatus and method are useful for failure analysis or qualification testing to determine the presence of any open-circuits or short-circuits, and to verify the continuity or integrity of electrical conductors buried below an insulating layer thickness of 1-100 .mu.m or more without damaging or breaking down the insulating layer. The types of electrical circuits that can be tested include integrated circuits, multi-chip modules, printed circuit boards and flexible printed circuits.
Capacitive charge generation apparatus and method for testing circuits
Cole, E.I. Jr.; Peterson, K.A.; Barton, D.L.
1998-07-14
An electron beam apparatus and method for testing a circuit are disclosed. The electron beam apparatus comprises an electron beam incident on an outer surface of an insulating layer overlying one or more electrical conductors of the circuit for generating a time varying or alternating current electrical potential on the surface; and a measurement unit connected to the circuit for measuring an electrical signal capacitively coupled to the electrical conductors to identify and map a conduction state of each of the electrical conductors, with or without an electrical bias signal being applied to the circuit. The electron beam apparatus can further include a secondary electron detector for forming a secondary electron image for registration with a map of the conduction state of the electrical conductors. The apparatus and method are useful for failure analysis or qualification testing to determine the presence of any open-circuits or short-circuits, and to verify the continuity or integrity of electrical conductors buried below an insulating layer thickness of 1-100 {micro}m or more without damaging or breaking down the insulating layer. The types of electrical circuits that can be tested include integrated circuits, multi-chip modules, printed circuit boards and flexible printed circuits. 7 figs.
Method of generating hydrogen by catalytic decomposition of water
Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Dorris, Stephen E. (LaGrange Park, IL); Bose, Arun C. (Pittsburgh, PA); Stiegel, Gary J. (Library, PA); Lee, Tae-Hyun (Naperville, IL)
2002-01-01
A method for producing hydrogen includes providing a feed stream comprising water; contacting at least one proton conducting membrane adapted to interact with the feed stream; splitting the water into hydrogen and oxygen at a predetermined temperature; and separating the hydrogen from the oxygen. Preferably the proton conducting membrane comprises a proton conductor and a second phase material. Preferable proton conductors suitable for use in a proton conducting membrane include a lanthanide element, a Group VIA element and a Group IA or Group IIA element such as barium, strontium, or combinations of these elements. More preferred proton conductors include yttrium. Preferable second phase materials include platinum, palladium, nickel, cobalt, chromium, manganese, vanadium, silver, gold, copper, rhodium, ruthenium, niobium, zirconium, tantalum, and combinations of these. More preferably second phase materials suitable for use in a proton conducting membrane include nickel, palladium, and combinations of these. The method for generating hydrogen is preferably preformed in the range between about 600.degree. C. and 1,700.degree. C.
-Area Generation Expansion using Tabu-search and Dynamic Programming Panida Jirutitijaroen, Student Member, IEEE using dynamic programming for the solution of generation expansion and placement considering reliability, Reliability, Tabu Search, Power System Optimization, Global Decomposition, Generation Adequacy, Dynamic
Thermoelectric generator cooling system and method of control
Prior, Gregory P; Meisner, Gregory P; Glassford, Daniel B
2012-10-16
An apparatus is provided that includes a thermoelectric generator and an exhaust gas system operatively connected to the thermoelectric generator to heat a portion of the thermoelectric generator with exhaust gas flow through the thermoelectric generator. A coolant system is operatively connected to the thermoelectric generator to cool another portion of the thermoelectric generator with coolant flow through the thermoelectric generator. At least one valve is controllable to cause the coolant flow through the thermoelectric generator in a direction that opposes a direction of the exhaust gas flow under a first set of operating conditions and to cause the coolant flow through the thermoelectric generator in the direction of exhaust gas flow under a second set of operating conditions.
Chu, Shih-I
-dimensional quantum study of the coherent control of high-order harmonic generation HHG processes in intense pulsed.65.Ky, 32.80.Wr The study of coherent control of atomic and molecular processes is a subject of muchOptimization of high-order harmonic generation by genetic algorithm and wavelet time
Methods and apparatus for cooling wind turbine generators
Salamah, Samir A. (Niskayuna, NY); Gadre, Aniruddha Dattatraya (Rexford, NY); Garg, Jivtesh (Schenectady, NY); Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran (Niskayuna, NY); Jansen, Patrick Lee (Alplaus, NY); Carl, Jr., Ralph James (Clifton Park, NY)
2008-10-28
A wind turbine generator includes a stator having a core and a plurality of stator windings circumferentially spaced about a generator longitudinal axis. A rotor is rotatable about the generator longitudinal axis, and the rotor includes a plurality of magnetic elements coupled to the rotor and cooperating with the stator windings. The magnetic elements are configured to generate a magnetic field and the stator windings are configured to interact with the magnetic field to generate a voltage in the stator windings. A heat pipe assembly thermally engaging one of the stator and the rotor to dissipate heat generated in the stator or rotor.
A source function method for generation of waves on currents in Boussinesq models
Kirby, James T.
A source function method for generation of waves on currents in Boussinesq models A. Chawlaa,*, J for the generation of waves internal to Boussinesq model grid boundaries (Wei G, Kirby JT, Sinha A. Generation Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Source function method; Wave generation; Boussinesq
Infeasibility Detection and SQP Methods for Nonlinear Optimization
Nocedal, Jorge
Foundation grant CMMI 0728190. Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, New York, NY was supported by National Science Foundation grant CCF-0514772 and by Department of Energy grant DE-FG02-87ER an alternative approach involving a single optimization strategy, and show that it is effective for finding
Compensating Customer-Generators: A taxonomy describing methods of compensating
Hughes, Larry
, investment in grid-connected generation capacity is growing at a faster rate than off-grid applications (IEA-generators for electricity supplied to the grid Larry Hughes1 Energy Research Group Electrical and Computer Engineering-generators that supply electricity to the grid. Although many practices exist for providing such compensation, confusion
Optimal selection of on-site generation with combined heat andpower applications
Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Bailey, Owen; HamachiLaCommare, Kristina
2004-11-30
While demand for electricity continues to grow, expansion of the traditional electricity supply system, or macrogrid, is constrained and is unlikely to keep pace with the growing thirst western economies have for electricity. Furthermore, no compelling case has been made that perpetual improvement in the overall power quality and reliability (PQR)delivered is technically possible or economically desirable. An alternative path to providing high PQR for sensitive loads would generate close to them in microgrids, such as the Consortium for Electricity Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) Microgrid. Distributed generation would alleviate the pressure for endless improvement in macrogrid PQR and might allow the establishment of a sounder economically based level of universal grid service. Energy conversion from available fuels to electricity close to loads can also provide combined heat and power (CHP) opportunities that can significantly improve the economics of small-scale on-site power generation, especially in hot climates when the waste heat serves absorption cycle cooling equipment that displaces expensive on-peak electricity. An optimization model, the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM), developed at Berkeley Lab identifies the energy bill minimizing combination of on-site generation and heat recovery equipment for sites, given their electricity and heat requirements, the tariffs they face, and a menu of available equipment. DER-CAM is used to conduct a systemic energy analysis of a southern California naval base building and demonstrates atypical current economic on-site power opportunity. Results achieve cost reductions of about 15 percent with DER, depending on the tariff.Furthermore, almost all of the energy is provided on-site, indicating that modest cost savings can be achieved when the microgrid is free to select distributed generation and heat recovery equipment in order to minimize its over all costs.
Matrix Eigenvalue Problems, Jacobi-type Methods, and Optimization on Graf3mannians *
Moore, John Barratt
Matrix Eigenvalue Problems, Jacobi-type Methods, and Optimization on Graf3mannians * K. Hiiper-algorithm and related schemes. With the advent of parallel machines, however, interest in Jacobi- type methods has-based methods. Another reason for the current popularity of Jacobi methods lies in their superior accuracy. 1
Constructal method to optimize solar thermochemical reactor design
Tescari, S.; Mazet, N.; Neveu, P.
2010-09-15
The objective of this study is the geometrical optimization of a thermochemical reactor, which works simultaneously as solar collector and reactor. The heat (concentrated solar radiation) is supplied on a small peripheral surface and has to be dispersed in the entire reactive volume in order to activate the reaction all over the material. A similarity between this study and the point to volume problem analyzed by the constructal approach (Bejan, 2000) is evident. This approach was successfully applied to several domains, for example for the coupled mass and conductive heat transfer (Azoumah et al., 2004). Focusing on solar reactors, this work aims to apply constructal analysis to coupled conductive and radiative heat transfer. As a first step, the chemical reaction is represented by a uniform heat sink inside the material. The objective is to optimize the reactor geometry in order to maximize its efficiency. By using some hypothesis, a simplified solution is found. A parametric study provides the influence of different technical and operating parameters on the maximal efficiency and on the optimal shape. Different reactor designs (filled cylinder, cavity and honeycomb reactors) are compared, in order to determine the most efficient structure according to the operating conditions. Finally, these results are compared with a CFD model in order to validate the assumptions. (author)
A Coupled Aero-Structural Optimization Method For Complete Aircraft Configurations
Stanford University
A Coupled Aero-Structural Optimization Method For Complete Aircraft Configurations James J. Reuther optimization of aero-structural systems. The framework permits the use of high-fidelity modeling of both de- scription, the information exchange between aero- dynamics and structures is accomplished through
Bertsimas, Dimitris J.
Our interest lies in solving sum of squares (SOS) relaxations of large-scale unconstrained polynomial optimization problems. Because interior-point methods for solving these problems are severely limited by the large-scale, ...
Pierce, Janine E. (Janine Elizabeth), 1980-
2004-01-01
Optimization methods are widely used to predict in-vivo muscle forces in musculoskeletal joints. Moment equilibrium at the joint center (usually defined as the origin of the joint coordinate system) has been used as a ...
Successive Backward Sweep Methods for Optimal Control of Nonlinear Systems with Constraints
Cho, Donghyurn
2013-08-13
Continuous and discrete-time Successive Backward Sweep (SBS) methods for solving nonlinear optimal control problems involving terminal and control constraints are proposed in this dissertation. They closely resemble the Neighboring Extremals...
Sparse Models and Methods for Optimal Instruments with an Application to Eminent Domain
Belloni, Alexandre
2011-07-12
We develop results for the use of LASSO and Post-LASSO methods to form first-stage predictions and estimate optimal instruments in linear instrumental variables (IV) models with many instruments, p, that apply even when p ...
Lee, Ho Sung
Title: Optimal Design of Thermoelectric Generators for Low Grade Heat Recovery Developed by Dr. Ho- grade waste heat recovery with the present optimal design. We consider low grade heat recovery from
Chen, Zaigao; Wang, Jianguo [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710049 (China) [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O. Box 69-12, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710024 (China); Wang, Yue; Qiao, Hailiang; Zhang, Dianhui [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O. Box 69-12, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710024 (China)] [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O. Box 69-12, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710024 (China); Guo, Weijie [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710049 (China)] [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710049 (China)
2013-11-15
Optimal design method of high-power microwave source using particle simulation and parallel genetic algorithms is presented in this paper. The output power, simulated by the fully electromagnetic particle simulation code UNIPIC, of the high-power microwave device is given as the fitness function, and the float-encoding genetic algorithms are used to optimize the high-power microwave devices. Using this method, we encode the heights of non-uniform slow wave structure in the relativistic backward wave oscillators (RBWO), and optimize the parameters on massively parallel processors. Simulation results demonstrate that we can obtain the optimal parameters of non-uniform slow wave structure in the RBWO, and the output microwave power enhances 52.6% after the device is optimized.
Geometry Optimization with QM/MM, ONIOM, and Other Combined Methods. I. Microiterations
Schlegel, H. Bernhard
Geometry Optimization with QM/MM, ONIOM, and Other Combined Methods. I. Microiterations Abstract: Hybrid energy methods such as QM/MM and ONIOM, that combine different levels of theory into one of theory and the larger, remaining region treated by an inexpensive method such as molecular mechanics (MM
Optimization and homotopy methods for the Gibbs free energy of ...
,,,
on the Gibbs free energy and we will propose several formulations and solution methods for its minimization. The paper is structured as follows. In Section 2.
Optimal Spectral-Galerkin Methods Using Generalized Jacobi ...
2006-01-07
Dec 1, 2004 ... We extend the definition of the classical Jacobi polynomials ... KEY WORDS: Generalized Jacobi polynomials; spectral-Galerkin method;.
A Numerical Method to solve Optimal Transport Problems with Coulomb Cost
Jean-David Benamou; Guillaume Carlier; Luca Nenna
2015-05-07
In this paper, we present a numerical method, based on iterative Bregman projections, to solve the optimal transport problem with Coulomb cost. This is related to the strong interaction limit of Density Functional Theory. The first idea is to introduce an entropic regularization of the Kantorovich formulation of the Optimal Transport problem. The regularized problem then corresponds to the projection of a vector on the intersection of the constraints with respect to the Kullback-Leibler distance. Iterative Bregman projections on each marginal constraint are explicit which enables us to approximate the optimal transport plan. We validate the numerical method against analytical test cases.
Method and apparatus for generating low energy nuclear particles
Powell, James R. (Shoreham, NY); Reich, Morris (Flushing, NY); Ludewig, Hans (Brookhaven, NY); Todosow, Michael (Miller Place, NY)
1999-02-09
A particle accelerator (12) generates an input particle beam having an initial energy level above a threshold for generating secondary nuclear particles. A thin target (14) is rotated in the path of the input beam for undergoing nuclear reactions to generate the secondary particles and correspondingly decrease energy of the input beam to about the threshold. The target (14) produces low energy secondary particles and is effectively cooled by radiation and conduction. A neutron scatterer (44) and a neutron filter (42) are also used for preferentially degrading the secondary particles into a lower energy range if desired.
Method and apparatus for generating low energy nuclear particles
Powell, J.R.; Reich, M.; Ludewig, H.; Todosow, M.
1999-02-09
A particle accelerator generates an input particle beam having an initial energy level above a threshold for generating secondary nuclear particles. A thin target is rotated in the path of the input beam for undergoing nuclear reactions to generate the secondary particles and correspondingly decrease energy of the input beam to about the threshold. The target produces low energy secondary particles and is effectively cooled by radiation and conduction. A neutron scatterer and a neutron filter are also used for preferentially degrading the secondary particles into a lower energy range if desired. 18 figs.
Global methods for optimizing over the efficient set
Phong, Thai Quynh
1994-12-31
Let X{sub E} denote the efficient set of the multiple objective linear programming problem VMAX Cx subject to x {element_of} X, where C is a p {times} n matrix and X is a polytope in R{sup n}. We consider the problem max {l_brace}dx : x {element_of} X{sub E}{r_brace} which has many applications in multiple decision making. Since X{sub E} is generally nonconvex, this problem is classified as a global optimization problem. It has been shown that there exists a simplex {Lambda} in R{sup p} such that X{sub E} = {l_brace} {element_of} X : g{lambda} - {lambda}Cx {<=} 0, {lambda} {element_of} {Lambda}{r_brace} where g{lambda} = sup {l_brace}Cy : y {element_of} X{r_brace}. We seek a global {epsilon}-optimal solution {bar x} such that dx {<=} d{bar x} + {epsilon}, {forall}x {element_of} X{sub E}. In our approach, the main problem is to check, for a given {alpha}, whether the set X{sub E}{sup {alpha}} = {l_brace}x {element_of} X{sub E} : dx {>=} {alpha}{r_brace} = {l_brace}x {element_of} : g{lambda} - {lambda}Cx {<=} 0, {lambda} {element_of} {Lambda}, dx {>=} {alpha}{r_brace} is empty or not. We show that this problem can be reduced to the problem of finding a point of the set D/C where D, C are convex sets in R{sup p} {times} R. Based on this fact we propose different algorithms for obtaining a global {epsilon}-optimal solution, namely (1) an Outer Approximation algorithm; (2) a Bisection Search algorithm; (3) a Branch and Bound algorithm. All these algorithms are implementable and require solving only linear programs. Moreover, they are efficient when the number of criteria p is small relative to n.
Thermoelectric generator and method for the fabrication thereof
Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.
1984-08-01
A thermoelectric generator using semiconductor elements for responding to a temperature gradient to produce electrical energy with all of the semiconductor elements being of the same type is disclosed. A continuous process for forming substrates on which the semiconductor elements and superstrates are deposited and a process for forming the semiconductor elements on the substrates are also disclosed. The substrates with the semiconductor elements thereon are combined with superstrates to form modules for use as thermoelectric generators.
Cold weather hydrogen generation system and method of operation
Dreier, Ken Wayne; Kowalski, Michael Thomas; Porter, Stephen Charles; Chow, Oscar Ken; Borland, Nicholas Paul; Goyette, Stephen Arthur
2010-12-14
A system for providing hydrogen gas is provided. The system includes a hydrogen generator that produces gas from water. One or more heat generation devices are arranged to provide heating of the enclosure during different modes of operation to prevent freezing of components. A plurality of temperature sensors are arranged and coupled to a controller to selectively activate a heat source if the temperature of the component is less than a predetermined temperature.
Thermoelectric generator and method for the fabrication thereof
Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO)
1987-01-01
A thermoelectric generator using semiconductor elements for responding to a temperature gradient to produce electrical energy with all of the semiconductor elements being of the same type is disclosed. A continuous process for forming substrates on which the semiconductor elements and superstrates are deposited and a process for forming the semiconductor elements on the substrates are also disclosed. The substrates with the semiconductor elements thereon are combined with superstrates to form modules for use thermoelectric generators.
Constraining climate model properties using optimal fingerprint detection methods
Forest, Chris Eliot.; Allen, Myles R.; Sokolov, Andrei P.; Stone, Peter H.
We present a method for constraining key properties of the climate system that are important for climate prediction (climate sensitivity and rate of heat penetration into the deep ocean) by comparing a model's response to ...
Randomized coordinate descent methods for big data optimization
Takac, Martin
2014-07-01
This thesis consists of 5 chapters. We develop new serial (Chapter 2), parallel (Chapter 3), distributed (Chapter 4) and primal-dual (Chapter 5) stochastic (randomized) coordinate descent methods, analyze their complexity ...
Control and Optimization of Power Systems with Renewables: Voltage Regulation and Generator Dispatch
Zhang, Baosen
2013-01-01
4 Generator Dispatch 4.1 ProblemRegulation . . . . . . .1.1.3 Generator Dispatch . . . .Regulation . . . . 1.2.3 Generator Dispatch . . . . 1.3 Our
XFEL diffraction: Developing processing methods to optimize data quality
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Sauter, Nicholas K.
2015-01-29
Serial crystallography, using either femtosecond X-ray pulses from free-electron laser sources or short synchrotron-radiation exposures, has the potential to reveal metalloprotein structural details while minimizing damage processes. However, deriving a self-consistent set of Bragg intensities from numerous still-crystal exposures remains a difficult problem, with optimal protocols likely to be quite different from those well established for rotation photography. Here several data processing issues unique to serial crystallography are examined. It is found that the limiting resolution differs for each shot, an effect that is likely to be due to both the sample heterogeneity and pulse-to-pulse variation in experimental conditions. Shotsmore »with lower resolution limits produce lower-quality models for predicting Bragg spot positions during the integration step. Also, still shots by their nature record only partial measurements of the Bragg intensity. An approximate model that corrects to the full-spot equivalent (with the simplifying assumption that the X-rays are monochromatic) brings the distribution of intensities closer to that expected from an ideal crystal, and improves the sharpness of anomalous difference Fourier peaks indicating metal positions.« less
A Role Casting Method Based on Emotions in a Story Generation System
Thawonmas, Ruck
A Role Casting Method Based on Emotions in a Story Generation System Ruck Thawonmas1 , Masanao point out a problem in the role casting method of a story generation system called OPIATE and then propose a solution to this problem. The existing casting method does not take into account the emotions
Method of optimizing performance of Rankine cycle power plants
Pope, William L. (Walnut Creek, CA); Pines, Howard S. (El Cerrito, CA); Doyle, Padraic A. (Oakland, CA); Silvester, Lenard F. (Richmond, CA)
1982-01-01
A method for efficiently operating a Rankine cycle power plant (10) to maximize fuel utilization efficiency or energy conversion efficiency or minimize costs by selecting a turbine (22) fluid inlet state which is substantially in the area adjacent and including the transposed critical temperature line (46).
Yokoyama, R.; Ito, K.
1995-12-01
An optimal operational planning method is proposed for cogeneration systems with thermal storage. The daily operational strategy of constituent equipment is determined so as to minimize the daily operational cost subject to the energy demand requirement. This optimization problem is formulated as a large-scale mixed-integer linear programming one, and it is solved by means of the decomposition method. Effects of thermal storage on the operation of cogeneration systems are examined through a numerical study on a gas engine-driven cogeneration system installed in a hotel. This method is a useful tool for evaluating the economic and energy-saving properties of cogeneration systems with thermal storage.
Methods for generating or increasing revenues from crops
Copenhaver, Gregory P.; Keith, Kevin; Preuss, Daphne
2007-03-20
The present invention provides methods of doing business and providing services. For example, methods of increasing the revenue of crops are provided. To this end, the method includes the use of a nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and mini chromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.
Plasma generators, reactor systems and related methods - Energy...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
and associated systems and methods are provided in accordance with the present invention. A plasma reactor may include multiple sections or modules which are removably...
A COUPLED-ADJOINT METHOD FOR HIGH-FIDELITY AERO-STRUCTURAL OPTIMIZATION
Stanford University
A COUPLED-ADJOINT METHOD FOR HIGH-FIDELITY AERO-STRUCTURAL OPTIMIZATION a dissertation submitted #12;vi #12;Abstract A new integrated aero-structural design method for aerospace vehicles is presented. The approach combines an aero-structural analysis solver, a coupled aero-structural adjoint solver, a geometry
Methods, systems, and computer program products for network firewall policy optimization
Fulp, Errin W. (Winston-Salem, NC); Tarsa, Stephen J. (Duxbury, MA)
2011-10-18
Methods, systems, and computer program products for firewall policy optimization are disclosed. According to one method, a firewall policy including an ordered list of firewall rules is defined. For each rule, a probability indicating a likelihood of receiving a packet matching the rule is determined. The rules are sorted in order of non-increasing probability in a manner that preserves the firewall policy.
Comparison of Global Optimization Methods for Drag Reduction in the Automotive Industry
Dumas, Laurent
Comparison of Global Optimization Methods for Drag Reduction in the Automotive Industry Laurent reduction problems in the automotive industry. All the methods consist in improving classical genetic of a GA is reduced by a factor up to 7. 1 Introduction The topic of drag reduction in the automotive
Comparison of two optimization methods to derive energy parameters for protein folding
Domany, Eytan
Comparison of two optimization methods to derive energy parameters for protein folding: perceptron potential, perceptron, Zscore 1 #12; Abstract Two methods were proposed recently to derive energy, by means of a perceptron learning scheme, energy parameters such that the native conformations have lower
Jeffrey J. Einerson; Jeffrey A. Phillips; Eric L. Shaber; Scott E. Niedzialek; W. Clay Richardson; Scott G. Nagley
2012-10-01
Multiple process approaches have been used historically to manufacture cylindrical nuclear fuel compacts. Scale-up of fuel compacting was required for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project to achieve an economically viable automated production process capable of providing a minimum of 10 compacts/minute with high production yields. In addition, the scale-up effort was required to achieve matrix density equivalent to baseline historical production processes, and allow compacting at fuel packing fractions up to 46% by volume. The scale-up approach of jet milling, fluid-bed overcoating, and hot-press compacting adopted in the U.S. Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development Program involves significant paradigm shifts to capitalize on distinct advantages in simplicity, yield, and elimination of mixed waste. A series of designed experiments have been completed to optimize compaction conditions of time, temperature, and forming pressure using natural uranium oxycarbide (NUCO) fuel. Results from these experiments are included. The scale-up effort is nearing completion with the process installed and operational using nuclear fuel materials. The process is being certified for manufacture of qualification test fuel compacts for the AGR-5/6/7 experiment at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL).
A new method for the design optimization of three-phase induction motors
Daidone, A.; Parasiliti, F.; Villani, M.; Lucidi, S.
1998-09-01
The paper deals with the optimization problem of induction motors design. In particular a new global minimization algorithm is described; it tries to take into account all the features of these particular problems. A first numerical comparison between this new algorithm and a method widely used in the design optimization of induction motors has been performed. The obtained results show that the proposed approach is promising.
Numerical study of a matrix-free trust-region SQP method for equality constrained optimization.
Heinkenschloss, Matthias (Rice University, Houston, TX); Ridzal, Denis; Aguilo, Miguel Antonio
2011-12-01
This is a companion publication to the paper 'A Matrix-Free Trust-Region SQP Algorithm for Equality Constrained Optimization' [11]. In [11], we develop and analyze a trust-region sequential quadratic programming (SQP) method that supports the matrix-free (iterative, in-exact) solution of linear systems. In this report, we document the numerical behavior of the algorithm applied to a variety of equality constrained optimization problems, with constraints given by partial differential equations (PDEs).
Wind turbine/generator set and method of making same
Bevington, Christopher M.; Bywaters, Garrett L.; Coleman, Clint C.; Costin, Daniel P.; Danforth, William L.; Lynch, Jonathan A.; Rolland, Robert H.
2013-06-04
A wind turbine comprising an electrical generator that includes a rotor assembly. A wind rotor that includes a wind rotor hub is directly coupled to the rotor assembly via a simplified connection. The wind rotor and generator rotor assembly are rotatably mounted on a central spindle via a bearing assembly. The wind rotor hub includes an opening having a diameter larger than the outside diameter of the central spindle adjacent the bearing assembly so as to allow access to the bearing assembly from a cavity inside the wind rotor hub. The spindle is attached to a turret supported by a tower. Each of the spindle, turret and tower has an interior cavity that permits personnel to traverse therethrough to the cavity of the wind rotor hub. The wind turbine further includes a frictional braking system for slowing, stopping or keeping stopped the rotation of the wind rotor and rotor assembly.
Method for changing removable bearing for a wind turbine generator
Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran (Niskayuna, NY); Jansen, Patrick Lee (Scotia, NY), Gadre; Aniruddha Dattatraya (Rexford, NY)
2008-04-22
A wind generator having removable change-out bearings includes a rotor and a stator, locking bolts configured to lock the rotor and stator, a removable bearing sub-assembly having at least one shrunk-on bearing installed, and removable mounting bolts configured to engage the bearing sub-assembly and to allow the removable bearing sub-assembly to be removed when the removable mounting bolts are removed.
Marchon, Cassia Helena
2008-10-10
This dissertation contains three essays. The first and second essays examine intergenerational mobility in earnings in Brazil using a data set spanning three generations. I use data from PNAD{a nationally representative household survey in Brazil. I...
Lavaei, Javad
1 Abstract-- The optimal power flow (OPF) problem is a critical problem for power generation flow on the line P: vector of active power generations Q: vector of reactive power generations L: loss/reactive power generation limits. Given the practical importance of the problem, a great many studies have been
Generation IV PR and PP Methods and Applications
Bari,R.A.
2008-10-13
This paper presents an evaluation methodology for proliferation resistance and physical protection (PR&PP) of Generation IV nuclear energy systems (NESs). For a proposed NES design, the methodology defines a set of challenges, analyzes system response to these challenges, and assesses outcomes. The challenges to the NES are the threats posed by potential actors (proliferant States or sub-national adversaries). The characteristics of Generation IV systems, both technical and institutional, are used to evaluate the response of the system and determine its resistance against proliferation threats and robustness against sabotage and terrorism threats. The outcomes of the system response are expressed in terms of six measures for PR and three measures for PP, which are the high-level PR&PP characteristics of the NES. The methodology is organized to allow evaluations to be performed at the earliest stages of system design and to become more detailed and more representative as design progresses. Uncertainty of results are recognized and incorporated into the evaluation at all stages. The results are intended for three types of users: system designers, program policy makers, and external stakeholders. Particular current relevant activities will be discussed in this regard. The methodology has been illustrated in a series of demonstration and case studies and these will be summarized in the paper.
Method of generating hydrogen gas from sodium borohydride
Kravitz, Stanley H. (Placitas, NM); Hecht, Andrew M. (Sandia Park, NM); Sylwester, Alan P. (Albuquerque, NM); Bell, Nelson S. (Albuquerque, NM)
2007-12-11
A compact solid source of hydrogen gas, where the gas is generated by contacting water with micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride in the presence of a catalyst, such as cobalt or ruthenium. The micro-disperse particles can have a substantially uniform diameter of 1-10 microns, and preferably about 3-5 microns. Ruthenium or cobalt catalytic nanoparticles can be incorporated in the micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride, which allows a rapid and complete reaction to occur without the problems associated with caking and scaling of the surface by the reactant product sodium metaborate. A closed loop water management system can be used to recycle wastewater from a PEM fuel cell to supply water for reacting with the micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride in a compact hydrogen gas generator. Capillary forces can wick water from a water reservoir into a packed bed of micro-disperse fuel particles, eliminating the need for using an active pump.
Computational Methods for Nucleosynthesis and Nuclear Energy Generation
W. R. Hix; F. -K. Thielemann
1999-06-29
This review concentrates on the two principle methods used to evolve nuclear abundances within astrophysical simulations, evolution via rate equations and via equilibria. Because in general the rate equations in nucleosynthetic applications form an extraordinarily stiff system, implicit methods have proven mandatory, leading to the need to solve moderately sized matrix equations. Efforts to improve the performance of such rate equation methods are focused on efficient solution of these matrix equations, by making best use of the sparseness of these matrices. Recent work to produce hybrid schemes which use local equilibria to reduce the computational cost of the rate equations is also discussed. Such schemes offer significant improvements in the speed of reaction networks and are accurate under circumstances where calculations with complete equilibrium fail.
Biological optimization systems for enhancing photosynthetic efficiency and methods of use
Hunt, Ryan W.; Chinnasamy, Senthil; Das, Keshav C.; de Mattos, Erico Rolim
2012-11-06
Biological optimization systems for enhancing photosynthetic efficiency and methods of use. Specifically, methods for enhancing photosynthetic efficiency including applying pulsed light to a photosynthetic organism, using a chlorophyll fluorescence feedback control system to determine one or more photosynthetic efficiency parameters, and adjusting one or more of the photosynthetic efficiency parameters to drive the photosynthesis by the delivery of an amount of light to optimize light absorption of the photosynthetic organism while providing enough dark time between light pulses to prevent oversaturation of the chlorophyll reaction centers are disclosed.
System and method of cylinder deactivation for optimal engine torque-speed map operation
Sujan, Vivek A; Frazier, Timothy R; Follen, Kenneth; Moon, Suk-Min
2014-11-11
This disclosure provides a system and method for determining cylinder deactivation in a vehicle engine to optimize fuel consumption while providing the desired or demanded power. In one aspect, data indicative of terrain variation is utilized in determining a vehicle target operating state. An optimal active cylinder distribution and corresponding fueling is determined from a recommendation from a supervisory agent monitoring the operating state of the vehicle of a subset of the total number of cylinders, and a determination as to which number of cylinders provides the optimal fuel consumption. Once the optimal cylinder number is determined, a transmission gear shift recommendation is provided in view of the determined active cylinder distribution and target operating state.
Method of inhibiting dislocation generation in silicon dendritic webs
Spitznagel, John A. (Export, PA); Seidensticker, Raymond G. (Forest Hills, PA); McHugh, James P. (Wilkins Township, Allegheny County, PA)
1990-11-20
A method of tailoring the heat balance of the outer edge of the dendrites adjacent the meniscus to produce thinner, smoother dendrites, which have substantially less dislocation sources contiguous with the dendrites, by changing the view factor to reduce radiation cooling or by irradiating the dendrites with light from a quartz lamp or a laser to raise the temperature of the dendrites.
Methods and devices for generation of broadband pulsed radiation
Borguet, Eric; Isaienko, Oleksandr
2013-05-14
Methods and apparatus for non-collinear optical parametric ampliffication (NOPA) are provided. Broadband phase matching is achieved with a non-collinear geometry and a divergent signal seed to provide bandwidth gain. A chirp may be introduced into the pump pulse such that the white light seed is amplified in a broad spectral region.
System and method for generating current by selective electron heating
Fisch, Nathaniel J. (Princeton, NJ); Boozer, Allen H. (Rocky Hill, NJ)
1984-01-01
A system for the generation of toroidal current in a plasma which is prepared in a toroidal magnetic field. The system utilizes the injection of high-frequency waves into the plasma by means of waveguides. The wave frequency and polarization are chosen such that when the waveguides are tilted in a predetermined fashion, the wave energy is absorbed preferentially by electrons traveling in one toroidal direction. The absorption of energy in this manner produces a toroidal electric current even when the injected waves themselves do not have substantial toroidal momentum. This current can be continuously maintained at modest cost in power and may be used to confine the plasma. The system can operate efficiently on fusion grade tokamak plasmas.
Next Generation Calibration Models with Dimensional Modeling...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Decision Tree Based Control Model-Based Transient Calibration Optimization for Next Generation Diesel Engines An Accelerated Aging Method for Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment Systems...
Systems and methods for generation of hydrogen peroxide vapor
Love, Adam H; Eckels, Joel Del; Vu, Alexander K; Alcaraz, Armando; Reynolds, John G
2014-12-02
A system according to one embodiment includes a moisture trap for drying air; at least one of a first container and a second container; and a mechanism for at least one of: bubbling dried air from the moisture trap through a hydrogen peroxide solution in the first container for producing a hydrogen peroxide vapor, and passing dried air from the moisture trap into a headspace above a hydrogen peroxide solution in the second container for producing a hydrogen peroxide vapor. A method according one embodiment includes at least one of bubbling dried air through a hydrogen peroxide solution in a container for producing a first hydrogen peroxide vapor, and passing dried air from the moisture trap into a headspace above the hydrogen peroxide solution in a container for producing a second hydrogen peroxide vapor. Additional systems and methods are also presented.
slowly driving the generator while flying fast in a crosswind direction. To achieve a periodic power
Mead, Judith W. (Peralta, NM); Montoya, Orelio J. (Albuquerque, NM); Rand, Peter B. (Albuquerque, NM); Willan, Vernon O. (Albuquerque, NM)
1984-01-01
Access to a space is impeded by generation of a sticky foam from a silicone polymer and a low boiling solvent such as a halogenated hydrocarbon. In a preferred aspect, the formulation is polydimethylsiloxane gel mixed with F502 Freon as a solvent and blowing agent, and pressurized with CO.sub.2 in a vessel to about 250 PSI, whereby when the vessel is opened, a sticky and solvent resistant foam is deployed. The foam is deployable, over a wide range of temperatures, adhering to wet surfaces as well as dry, is stable over long periods of time and does not propagate flame or lose adhesive properties during an externally supported burn.
Electrochemical methods for generation of a biological proton motive force
Zeikus, Joseph Gregory (Okemos, MI); Shin, Hyoun S. (Lansing, MI); Jain, Mahendra K. (Lexington, KY)
2008-12-02
Disclosed are methods using neutral red to mediate the interconversion of chemical and electrical energy. Electrically reduced neutral red has been found to promote cell growth and formation of reduced products by reversibly increasing the ratio of the reduced:oxidized forms of NAD(H) or NADP(H). Electrically reduced neutral red is able to serve as the sole source of reducing power for microbial cell growth. Neutral red is also able to promote conversion of chemical energy to electrical energy by facilitating the transfer of electrons from microbial reducing power to a fuel cell cathode.
Photo-voltaic power generating means and methods
Kroger, Ferdinand A. (Los Angeles, CA); Rod, Robert L. (Marina del Rey, CA); Panicker, Ramachandra M. P. (Camarillo, CA); Knaster, Mark B. (Ambler, PA)
1984-01-10
A photo-voltaic power cell based on a photoelectric semiconductor compound and the method of using and making the same. The semiconductor compound in the photo-voltaic power cell of the present invention can be electrolytically formed at a cathode in an electrolytic solution by causing discharge or decomposition of ions or molecules of a non-metallic component with deposition of the non-metallic component on the cathode and simultaneously providing ions of a metal component which discharge and combine with the non-metallic component at the cathode thereby forming the semiconductor compound film material thereon. By stoichiometrically adjusting the amounts of the components, or otherwise by introducing dopants into the desired amounts, an N-type layer can be formed and thereafter a P-type layer can be formed with a junction therebetween. The invention is effective in producing homojunction semiconductor materials and heterojunction semiconductor materials. The present invention also provides a method of using three electrodes in order to form the semiconductor compound material on one of these electrodes. Various examples are given for manufacturing different photo-voltaic cells in accordance with the present invention.
Photo-voltaic power generating means and methods
Kroger, Ferdinand A. (Santa Monica, CA); Rod, Robert L. (Marina del Rey, CA); Panicker, M. P. Ramachandra (Camarillo, CA)
1983-08-23
A photo-voltaic power cell based on a photoelectric semiconductor compound and the method of using and making the same. The semiconductor compound in the photo-voltaic power cell of the present invention can be electrolytically formed at a cathode in an electrolytic solution by causing discharge or decomposition of ions or molecules of a non-metallic component with deposition of the non-metallic component on the cathode and simultaneously providing ions of a metal component which discharge and combine with the non-metallic component at the cathode thereby forming the semiconductor compound film material thereon. By stoichiometrically adjusting the amounts of the components, or otherwise by introducing dopants into the desired amounts, an N-type layer can be formed and thereafter a P-type layer can be formed with a junction therebetween. The invention is effective in producing homojunction semiconductor materials and heterojunction semiconductor materials. The present invention also provides a method of using three electrodes in order to form the semiconductor compound material on one of these electrodes. Various examples are given for manufacturing different photo-voltaic cells in accordance with the present invention.
Xing, X.Q.
Simultaneous Perturbation Stochastic Approximation method has attracted considerable application in many different areas such as statistical parameter estimation, feedback control, simulation-based optimization, signal & ...
Efficient generation and optimization of stochastic template banks by a neighboring cell algorithm
Henning Fehrmann; Holger J. Pletsch
2014-11-17
Placing signal templates (grid points) as efficiently as possible to cover a multi-dimensional parameter space is crucial in computing-intensive matched-filtering searches for gravitational waves, but also in similar searches in other fields of astronomy. To generate efficient coverings of arbitrary parameter spaces, stochastic template banks have been advocated, where templates are placed at random while rejecting those too close to others. However, in this simple scheme, for each new random point its distance to every template in the existing bank is computed. This rapidly increasing number of distance computations can render the acceptance of new templates computationally prohibitive, particularly for wide parameter spaces or in large dimensions. This work presents a neighboring cell algorithm that can dramatically improve the efficiency of constructing a stochastic template bank. By dividing the parameter space into sub-volumes (cells), for an arbitrary point an efficient hashing technique is exploited to obtain the index of its enclosing cell along with the parameters of its neighboring templates. Hence only distances to these neighboring templates in the bank are computed, massively lowering the overall computing cost, as demonstrated in simple examples. Furthermore, we propose a novel method based on this technique to increase the fraction of covered parameter space solely by directed template shifts, without adding any templates. As is demonstrated in examples, this method can be highly effective..
Optimization of Virus Imprinting Methods To Improve Selectivity and Reduce Nonspecific Binding
Rubloff, Gary W.
Optimization of Virus Imprinting Methods To Improve Selectivity and Reduce Nonspecific Binding such as viruses are imprinted, special consideration must be taken to ensure the formation of complementary and release of the virus template after cross-linking. In this study, tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) was used
Coello, Carlos A. Coello
Multiobjective Optimization Techniques: A Study Of The Energy Minimization Method And Its, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil, 22453-900 +55-21-529-9433 +55@brain.jpl.nasa.gov Rua Marques de S. Vicente, 225, Gavea, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil, 22453-900 +55-21-529-9445 marley
Engineering Optimization, 2002, Vol. 34(1), pp. 6581 A VARIATION-BASED METHOD FOR PRODUCT
Chen, Wei
, standardization, or modularization among different products or product lines.'' The end result is a proliferationEngineering Optimization, 2002, Vol. 34(1), pp. 6581 A VARIATION-BASED METHOD FOR PRODUCT FAMILY; b Integrated Design Automation Laboratory (IDEAL), Department of Mechanical Engineering, University
Apel, C.T.; Layman, L.R.; Gallimore, D.L.
1988-05-10
A nebulizer is described for generating aerosol having small droplet sizes and high efficiency at low sample introduction rates. The nebulizer has a cylindrical gas permeable active surface. A sleeve is disposed around the cylinder and gas is provided from the sleeve to the interior of the cylinder formed by the active surface. In operation, a liquid is provided to the inside of the gas permeable surface. The gas contacts the wetted surface and forms small bubbles which burst to form an aerosol. Those bubbles which are large are carried by momentum to another part of the cylinder where they are renebulized. This process continues until the entire sample is nebulized into aerosol sized droplets. 2 figs.
Different electrode configurations to optimize performance of multi- electrode microbial fuel cells a b s t r a c t Scaling-up of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for practical applications requires compact. Introduction Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are an emerging method for achieving sustainable wastewater treatment
An enhanced algorithm for protocol conformance test sequence generation based on the UIO method
Allada, Ravindra
1993-01-01
An Enhanced Algorithm for Protocol Conformance Test Sequence Generation Based on the UIO Method. (December 1993) Ravindra Allada, B.E., Osmania University, Hyderabad, India Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Hosame Abu-Amara ...
Relative entropy and optimization-driven coarse-graining methods in VOTCA
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Mashayak, S. Y.; Jochum, Mara N.; Koschke, Konstantin; Aluru, N. R.; Rühle, Victor; Junghans, Christoph; Huang, Xuhui
2015-07-20
We discuss recent advances of the VOTCA package for systematic coarse-graining. Two methods have been implemented, namely the downhill simplex optimization and the relative entropy minimization. We illustrate the new methods by coarse-graining SPC/E bulk water and more complex water-methanol mixture systems. The CG potentials obtained from both methods are then evaluated by comparing the pair distributions from the coarse-grained to the reference atomistic simulations.We have also added a parallel analysis framework to improve the computational efficiency of the coarse-graining process.
Optimal selection of on-site generation with combined heat and power applications
Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Bailey, Owen; Hamachi LaCommare, Kristina
2004-01-01
Modeling with Combined Heat and Power Applications. LBNL-Tax on Microgrid Combined Heat and Power Adoption. JournalGeneration with Combined Heat and Power Applications Afzal
Banaji,. Murad
. The increase of random fluctuations in the generation of electricity when more wind and solar installations, wind and solar generation fluctuates depending on meteorological conditions. This new source to limited capacity, hydro-pump plants are currently employed. With the growing penetration of renewable
Modeling and Optimization of Next Generation Feedstock Development for Chemical Process
Grossmann, Ignacio E.
1929, 2011 #12;Motivation Energy Consumption by Manufacturing Industry 20061Industry, 20061 Primary for CPI · Utilize sun-light energy as carbon- based molecules · Renewable · Reduced CO2 emissions, USA PanAmerican Advanced Studies Institute Process Modeling and Optimization for Energy
Singh, Baljeet
2012-02-14
. I am grateful to my roommates Surinder Pal and Navdeep Singh for making my stay at TAMU much like home. I thank my colleagues and friends, Hrishikesh, Shalom, Luis, Avinash, Roshmik, Parikshit, Sandeep, Abhishek, Xiaoli, Monika and Mrinal...-1 A WEIGHTED RESIDUAL FRAMEWORK FOR FORMULATION AND ANALYSIS OF DIRECT TRANSCRIPTION METHODS FOR OPTIMAL CONTROL A Dissertation by BALJEET SINGH Submitted to the O ce of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial ful llment...
Tensor product methods and entanglement optimization for ab initio quantum chemistry
Szilárd Szalay; Max Pfeffer; Valentin Murg; Gergely Barcza; Frank Verstraete; Reinhold Schneider; Örs Legeza
2014-12-18
The treatment of high-dimensional problems such as the Schr\\"odinger equation can be approached by concepts of tensor product approximation. We present general techniques that can be used for the treatment of high-dimensional optimization tasks and time-dependent equations, and connect them to concepts already used in many-body quantum physics. Based on achievements from the past decade, entanglement-based methods, -- developed from different perspectives for different purposes in distinct communities already matured to provide a variety of tools -- can be combined to attack highly challenging problems in quantum chemistry. The aim of the present paper is to give a pedagogical introduction to the theoretical background of this novel field and demonstrate the underlying benefits through numerical applications on a text book example. Among the various optimization tasks we will discuss only those which are connected to a controlled manipulation of the entanglement which is in fact the key ingredient of the methods considered in the paper. The selected topics will be covered according to a series of lectures given on the topic "New wavefunction methods and entanglement optimizations in quantum chemistry" at the Workshop on Theoretical Chemistry, 18 - 21 February 2014, Mariapfarr, Austria.
Generator-Absorber heat exchange transfer apparatus and method using an intermediate liquor
Phillips, Benjamin A. (Benton Harbor, MI); Zawacki, Thomas S. (St. Joseph, MI)
1996-11-05
Numerous embodiments and related methods for generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) are disclosed, particularly for absorption heat pump systems. Such embodiments and related methods use the working solution of the absorption system for the heat transfer medium where the working solution has an intermediate liquor concentration.
Method for generating high-energy and high repetition rate laser pulses from CW amplifiers
Zhang, Shukui
2013-06-18
A method for obtaining high-energy, high repetition rate laser pulses simultaneously using continuous wave (CW) amplifiers is described. The method provides for generating micro-joule level energy in pico-second laser pulses at Mega-hertz repetition rates.
Marlin, Benjamin
Motivation Gradient Method Stochastic Subgradient Finite-Sum Methods Non-Smooth Objectives Modern) International Conference on Machine Learning Peter RichtÂ´arik and Mark Schmidt July 2015 #12;Motivation Gradient. Not gigabytes, but terabytes or petabytes (and beyond). #12;Motivation Gradient Method Stochastic Subgradient
Stone, M. E.
2012-11-07
The purpose of this document is to describe the current state of the art for determination of hydrogen generation rates of radioactive slurries and solutions to provide a basis for design, fabrication, testing, and implementation of a measurement method for Hydrogen Generation Rate (HGR) during qualification of waste feeds for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The HGR measurement will be performed on samples of the Low Activity Waste (LAW) and High Level Waste (HLW) staged waste feeds for the WTP as well as on samples from selected unit operations testing during the qualification program. SRNL has performed a review of techniques utilized to measure HGR of high level radioactive waste slurries, evaluated the Hanford 222-S Laboratory method for measurement of hydrogen, and reviewed the hydrogen generation rate models for Hanford waste.Based on the literature review, method evaluation, and SRNL experience with measuring hydrogen generation rate, SRNL recommends that a continuous flow system with online gas analysis be used as the HGR measurement method during waste qualification.
Vandersall, Jennifer A.; Gardner, Shea N.; Clague, David S.
2010-05-04
A computational method and computer-based system of modeling DNA synthesis for the design and interpretation of PCR amplification, parallel DNA synthesis, and microarray chip analysis. The method and system include modules that address the bioinformatics, kinetics, and thermodynamics of DNA amplification and synthesis. Specifically, the steps of DNA selection, as well as the kinetics and thermodynamics of DNA hybridization and extensions, are addressed, which enable the optimization of the processing and the prediction of the products as a function of DNA sequence, mixing protocol, time, temperature and concentration of species.
Implementation of a near-optimal global set point control method in a DDC controller
Cascia, M.A.
2000-07-01
A near-optimal global set point control method that can be implemented in an energy management system's (EMS) DDC controller is described in this paper. Mathematical models are presented for the power consumption of electric chillers, hot water boilers, chilled and hot water pumps, and air handler fans, which allow the calculation of near-optimal chilled water, hot water, and coil discharge air set points to minimize power consumption, based on data collected by the EMS. Also optimized are the differential and static pressure set points for the variable speed pumps and fans. A pilot test of this control methodology was implemented for a cooling plant at a pharmaceutical manufacturing facility near Dallas, Texas. Data collected at this site showed good agreement between the actual power consumed by the chillers, chilled water pumps, and air handlers and that predicted by the models. An approximate model was developed to calculate real-time power savings in the DDC controller. A third-party energy accounting program was used to track savings due to the near-optimal control, and results show a monthly KWH reduction ranging from 3% to 14%.
Robustness and Stability Optimization of Power Generating Kite Systems in a Periodic Pumping Mode
on the ground while flying fast in a crosswind direction. We are searching for an intrinsically open-loop stable pulls as strong as possible on its cable slowly driving the generator while flying fast in a crosswind
Optimization of three-color laser field for the generation of single ultrashort attosecond pulse
Chu, Shih-I; Liu, I-Lin; Li, Peng-Cheng
2011-11-09
We present an efficient and realizable scheme for the generation of an ultrashort single attosecond (as) pulse. The feasibility of such a scheme is demonstrated by solving accurately the time-dependent Schrödinger equation using the time...
Lewis, Robert Michael (College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA); Torczon, Virginia Joanne (College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA); Kolda, Tamara Gibson
2006-08-01
We consider the solution of nonlinear programs in the case where derivatives of the objective function and nonlinear constraints are unavailable. To solve such problems, we propose an adaptation of a method due to Conn, Gould, Sartenaer, and Toint that proceeds by approximately minimizing a succession of linearly constrained augmented Lagrangians. Our modification is to use a derivative-free generating set direct search algorithm to solve the linearly constrained subproblems. The stopping criterion proposed by Conn, Gould, Sartenaer and Toint for the approximate solution of the subproblems requires explicit knowledge of derivatives. Such information is presumed absent in the generating set search method we employ. Instead, we show that stationarity results for linearly constrained generating set search methods provide a derivative-free stopping criterion, based on a step-length control parameter, that is sufficient to preserve the convergence properties of the original augmented Lagrangian algorithm.
Kong, Peter C; Grandy, Jon D; Detering, Brent A; Zuck, Larry D
2013-09-17
Electrode assemblies for plasma reactors include a structure or device for constraining an arc endpoint to a selected area or region on an electrode. In some embodiments, the structure or device may comprise one or more insulating members covering a portion of an electrode. In additional embodiments, the structure or device may provide a magnetic field configured to control a location of an arc endpoint on the electrode. Plasma generating modules, apparatus, and systems include such electrode assemblies. Methods for generating a plasma include covering at least a portion of a surface of an electrode with an electrically insulating member to constrain a location of an arc endpoint on the electrode. Additional methods for generating a plasma include generating a magnetic field to constrain a location of an arc endpoint on an electrode.
Device and method for generating a beam of acoustic energy from a borehole, and applications thereof
Vu, Cung Khac; Sinha, Dipen N; Pantea, Cristian; Nihei, Kurt T; Schmitt, Denis P; Skelt, Christopher
2013-10-01
In some aspects of the invention, a method of generating a beam of acoustic energy in a borehole is disclosed. The method includes generating a first acoustic wave at a first frequency; generating a second acoustic wave at a second frequency different than the first frequency, wherein the first acoustic wave and second acoustic wave are generated by at least one transducer carried by a tool located within the borehole; transmitting the first and the second acoustic waves into an acoustically non-linear medium, wherein the composition of the non-linear medium produces a collimated beam by a non-linear mixing of the first and second acoustic waves, wherein the collimated beam has a frequency based upon a difference between the first frequency and the second frequency; and transmitting the collimated beam through a diverging acoustic lens to compensate for a refractive effect caused by the curvature of the borehole.
Device and method for generating a beam of acoustic energy from a borehole, and applications thereof
Vu, Cung Khac; Sinha, Dipen N.; Pantea, Cristian; Nihei, Kurt T.; Schmitt, Denis P.; Skelt, Chirstopher
2013-10-15
In some aspects of the invention, a method of generating a beam of acoustic energy in a borehole is disclosed. The method includes generating a first acoustic wave at a first frequency; generating a second acoustic wave at a second frequency different than the first frequency, wherein the first acoustic wave and second acoustic wave are generated by at least one transducer carried by a tool located within the borehole; transmitting the first and the second acoustic waves into an acoustically non-linear medium, wherein the composition of the non-linear medium produces a collimated beam by a non-linear mixing of the first and second acoustic waves, wherein the collimated beam has a frequency based upon a difference between the first frequency range and the second frequency, and wherein the non-linear medium has a velocity of sound between 100 m/s and 800 m/s.
Suleimanov, Yury V
2015-01-01
We present a simple protocol which allows fully automated discovery of elementary chemical reaction steps using in cooperation single- and double-ended transition-state optimization algorithms - the freezing string and Berny optimization methods, respectively. To demonstrate the utility of the proposed approach, the reactivity of several systems of combustion and atmospheric chemistry importance is investigated. The proposed algorithm allowed us to detect without any human intervention not only "known" reaction pathways, manually detected in the previous studies, but also new, previously "unknown", reaction pathways which involve significant atom rearrangements. We believe that applying such a systematic approach to elementary reaction path finding will greatly accelerate the possibility of discovery of new chemistry and will lead to more accurate computer simulations of various chemical processes.
A Review of Dynamic Generator Reduction Methods For Transient Stability Studies
Singh, Ruchi; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Lu, Shuai
2011-10-10
Due to the complex interconnected nature of power system, aggregate or reduced system is commonly used by operators and engineers for various power system studies. Transient stability studies need dynamically reduced models to include the dynamic effects of the generating units. Dynamic generator reduction is therefore an important component of power system dynamic reduction. The many different methods for generator reduction in power systems taken from the earliest available literature are discussed. This paper aims to provide an easy reference to researchers interested in exploring dynamic reduction of power systems.
Forman, Michael A; Young, Derek
2012-09-18
Examples of methods for generating data based on a communications channel are described. In one such example, a processing unit may generate a first vector representation based in part on at least two characteristics of a communications channel. A constellation having at least two dimensions may be addressed with the first vector representation to identify a first symbol associated with the first vector representation. The constellation represents a plurality of regions, each region associated with a respective symbol. The symbol may be used to generate data, which may stored in an electronic storage medium and used as a cryptographic key or a spreading code or hopping sequence in a modulation technique.
Subtask 1.24 - Optimization of Cooling Water Resources for Power Generation
Daniel Stepan; Richard Shockey; Bethany Kurz; Wesley Peck
2009-03-31
The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has developed an interactive, Web-based decision support system (DSS{copyright} 2007 EERC Foundation) to provide power generation utilities with an assessment tool to address water supply issues when planning new or modifying existing generation facilities. The Web-based DSS integrates water and wastewater treatment technology and water law information with a geographic information system-based interactive map that links to state and federal water quality and quantity databases for North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, Wyoming, Montana, Nebraska, Wisconsin, and Iowa.
Kusiak, Andrew
1 Abstract--A bi-objective optimization model of power and power changes generated by a wind the industrial data collected at a wind farm. The models and constraints derived from the data were integrated prediction, power ramp rate, data mining, wind turbine operation strategy, generator torque, blade pitch
An MILP-MINLP decomposition method for the global optimization of a source based model of the
Grossmann, Ignacio E.
and regulatory specifications of products. For example, the economic and operability benefits from optimal crude-oilAn MILP-MINLP decomposition method for the global optimization of a source based model. In this work we present two major contributions for the global solution of the problem. The first one
J. of Energetic Materials, Vol. 15, No. 4, 1997, pp. 289 311. A METHOD FOR PARAMETER OPTIMIZATION OF
Grantham, Walter J.
J. of Energetic Materials, Vol. 15, No. 4, 1997, pp. 289 311. A METHOD FOR PARAMETER OPTIMIZATION** , and Walter J. Grantham* * School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering Washington State University Pullman a procedure for performing parameter optimization of ignition and growth continuum models for high explosive
Optimization of lithium target for epithermal neutrons generation B. Bayanov, V. Belov, V. Kindyukb
Taskaev, Sergey Yur'evich
producing target prototype are presented, the results of calculations of hydraulic resistance for heat with vacuum insulation and near threshold neutron generation. Pilot facility is under construction now on temperature of a surface being cooled, and there is no danger in case of coolant leakage into vacuum volume
Optimal sizing study of hybrid wind/PV/diesel power generation unit
Belfkira, Rachid; Zhang, Lu; Barakat, Georges [Groupe de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Automatique du Havre, University of Le Havre, 25 rue Philippe Lebon, BP 1123, 76063 Le Havre (France)
2011-01-15
In this paper, a methodology of sizing optimization of a stand-alone hybrid wind/PV/diesel energy system is presented. This approach makes use of a deterministic algorithm to suggest, among a list of commercially available system devices, the optimal number and type of units ensuring that the total cost of the system is minimized while guaranteeing the availability of the energy. The collection of 6 months of data of wind speed, solar radiation and ambient temperature recorded for every hour of the day were used. The mathematical modeling of the main elements of the hybrid wind/PV/diesel system is exposed showing the more relevant sizing variables. A deterministic algorithm is used to minimize the total cost of the system while guaranteeing the satisfaction of the load demand. A comparison between the total cost of the hybrid wind/PV/diesel energy system with batteries and the hybrid wind/PV/diesel energy system without batteries is presented. The reached results demonstrate the practical utility of the used sizing methodology and show the influence of the battery storage on the total cost of the hybrid system. (author)
Design and optimization of a bi-axial vibration-driven electromagnetic generator
Yang, Jin, E-mail: yangjin@cqu.edu.cn; Yu, Qiangmo; Zhao, Jiangxin; Zhao, Nian; Wen, Yumei; Li, Ping; Qiu, Jing [Department of Optoelectronic Engineering, Research Center of Sensors and Instruments, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)
2014-09-21
To scavenge energy from ambient vibrations with arbitrary in-plane motion directions and over a wide frequency range, a novel electromagnetic vibration energy harvester is designed and optimized. In the harvester, a circular cross-section elastic rod, not a traditional thin cantilever beam, is used to extract ambient vibration energy because of its capability to collect vibration from arbitrary in-plane motion directions. The magnetic interaction between magnets and the iron core contributes to a nonlinear oscillation of the rod with increased frequency bandwidth. The influences of the structure configurations on the electrical output and the working bandwidth of the harvester are investigated using Ansoft's Maxwell 3D to achieve optimal performance. The experimental results show that the harvester is sensitive to vibrations from arbitrary in-plane directions and it exhibits a bandwidth of 5.7 Hz and a maximum power of 13.4 mW at an acceleration of 0.6 g (with g=9.8 ms?²).
Taylor-Pashow, K.; Fondeur, F.; White, T.; Diprete, D.; Milliken, C.
2013-07-31
Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked with identifying and developing at least one, but preferably two methods for quantifying the suppressor in the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) system. The suppressor is a guanidine derivative, N,N',N"-tris(3,7-dimethyloctyl)guanidine (TiDG). A list of 10 possible methods was generated, and screening experiments were performed for 8 of the 10 methods. After completion of the screening experiments, the non-aqueous acid-base titration was determined to be the most promising, and was selected for further development as the primary method. {sup 1}H NMR also showed promising results from the screening experiments, and this method was selected for further development as the secondary method. Other methods, including {sup 36}Cl radiocounting and ion chromatography, also showed promise; however, due to the similarity to the primary method (titration) and the inability to differentiate between TiDG and TOA (tri-n-ocytlamine) in the blended solvent, {sup 1}H NMR was selected over these methods. Analysis of radioactive samples obtained from real waste ESS (extraction, scrub, strip) testing using the titration method showed good results. Based on these results, the titration method was selected as the method of choice for TiDG measurement. {sup 1}H NMR has been selected as the secondary (back-up) method, and additional work is planned to further develop this method and to verify the method using radioactive samples. Procedures for analyzing radioactive samples of both pure NGS and blended solvent were developed and issued for the both methods.
Method and apparatus for generating radiation utilizing DC to AC conversion with a conductive front
Dawson, John M. (Pacific Palisades, CA); Mori, Warren B. (Hermosa Beach, CA); Lai, Chih-Hsiang (So. Pasadena, CA); Katsouleas, Thomas C. (Malibu, CA)
1998-01-01
Method and apparatus for generating radiation of high power, variable duration and broad tunability over several orders of magnitude from a laser-ionized gas-filled capacitor array. The method and apparatus convert a DC electric field pattern into a coherent electromagnetic wave train when a relativistic ionization front passes between the capacitor plates. The frequency and duration of the radiation is controlled by the gas pressure and capacitor spacing.
Apparatus and method for recharging a string a avalanche transistors within a pulse generator
Fulkerson, E. Stephen (Livermore, CA)
2000-01-01
An apparatus and method for recharging a string of avalanche transistors within a pulse generator is disclosed. A plurality of amplification stages are connected in series. Each stage includes an avalanche transistor and a capacitor. A trigger signal, causes the apparatus to generate a very high voltage pulse of a very brief duration which discharges the capacitors. Charge resistors inject current into the string of avalanche transistors at various points, recharging the capacitors. The method of the present invention includes the steps of supplying current to charge resistors from a power supply; using the charge resistors to charge capacitors connected to a set of serially connected avalanche transistors; triggering the avalanche transistors; generating a high-voltage pulse from the charge stored in the capacitors; and recharging the capacitors through the charge resistors.
Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf
10 cctbx news: Fast triplet generator for direct methods, Gallery of direct-space asymmetric units crystallographic algorithms. In this article we give an overview of recent developments. Fast triplet generator for direct methods For almost a year the cctbx has included an experimental triplet generator in the cctbx
15.093 / 2.098 Optimization Methods (SMA 5213), Fall 2004
Bertsimas, Dimitris
This course introduces the principal algorithms for linear, network, discrete, nonlinear, dynamic optimization and optimal control. Emphasis is on methodology and the underlying mathematical structures. Topics include the ...
Sastry, S. Shankar
American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 1 A Dynamic Path Generation Method for a UAV of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in the urban environment is presented. For the missions of a team of UAVs is applied to a deployment scenario of sixteen rotary-wing UAVs flying in a cluttered urban area and showed
Parametric Study of PV Arc-Fault Generation Methods and Analysis of Conducted DC Spectrum
Parametric Study of PV Arc-Fault Generation Methods and Analysis of Conducted DC Spectrum Jay photovoltaic (PV) direct current (DC) arc- fault detectors use the frequency content of the PV system to detect by different PV arcs in the field. In this investigation, we (a) discuss the differences in establishing
Cantrell, Tyler Lee
2015-05-06
of common positron emitters used for PET imaging ……….. 4 Table 2 List of positron labelled radiopharmaceuticals for PET……………….. 5 Table 3 The radioactive decay data for 62Zn represented by the energy, intensity, and decay …………………………………………………… 12... with focuses in cancer diagnosis/management, cardiac surgery, and neurology/psychiatry, respectively (Bailey et al., 2005). PET imaging is currently very powerful with the use of FDG, an effective and powerful radiopharmaceutical, but it also currently...
Melcher, R.G.; Borders, R.A.; Coyne, L.B.
1986-03-01
The purpose of this study was to optimize monitoring methods and to investigate new technology for the determination of low levels of acrylonitrile (0.05 to 5 ppm) in workplace atmospheres. In the first phase of the study, a dynamic atmosphere generation system was developed to produce low levels of acrylonitrile in simulated workplace atmospheres. Various potential sorbents were investigated in the second phase, and the candidate methods were compared in a laboratory validation study over a concentration range from 0.05 to 5 ppm acrylonitrile in the presence of potential interferences and under relative humidity conditions from 30% to 95% RH. A collection tube containing 600 mg Pittsburgh coconut base charcoal was found to be the optimum tube for sampling for a full 8 -hr shift. No breakthrough was observed over the concentrations and humidities tested. The recovery was 91.3% with a total relative precision of +/-21% over the test range, and the recovery was not affected by storage for up to five weeks.
Power Generation Loading Optimization using a Multi-Objective Constraint-Handling Method via
Li, Xiaodong
bottom line. Increased pressures from environmental regulations, rising fuel costs, and green house gas
Uhm, H.S.; Lee, W.M.
1991-01-01
A steady-state source of neutrons is produced within an electrically grounded and temperature controlled chamber confining tritium or deuterium plasma at a predetermined density to effect implantation of ions in the surface of a palladium target rod coated with diffusion barrier material and immersed in such plasma. The rod is enriched with a high concentration of deuterium atoms after a prolonged plasma ion implantation. Collision of the deuterium atoms in the target by impinging ions of the plasma initiates fusion reactions causing emission of neutrons during negative voltage pulses applied to the rod through a high power modulator. The neutrons are so generated at a relatively high dose rate under optimized process conditions.
Hydrogen generation systems and methods utilizing sodium silicide and sodium silica gel materials
Wallace, Andrew P.; Melack, John M.; Lefenfeld, Michael
2015-08-11
Systems, devices, and methods combine thermally stable reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen and a non-toxic liquid by-product. The reactant materials can sodium silicide or sodium silica gel. The hydrogen generation devices are used in fuels cells and other industrial applications. One system combines cooling, pumping, water storage, and other devices to sense and control reactions between reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. Springs and other pressurization mechanisms pressurize and deliver an aqueous solution to the reaction. A check valve and other pressure regulation mechanisms regulate the pressure of the aqueous solution delivered to the reactant fuel material in the reactor based upon characteristics of the pressurization mechanisms and can regulate the pressure of the delivered aqueous solution as a steady decay associated with the pressurization force. The pressure regulation mechanism can also prevent hydrogen gas from deflecting the pressure regulation mechanism.
Krishnamoorthy, Sriram [ORNL; Bernholdt, David E [ORNL; Pitzer, R. M. [Ohio State University; Sadayappan, Ponnuswamy [ORNL
2009-01-01
Complex tensor contraction expressions arise in accurate electronic structure models in quantum chemistry, such as the coupled cluster method. This paper addresses two complementary aspects of performance optimization of such tensor contraction expressions. Transformations using algebraic properties of commutativity and associativity can be used to significantly decrease the number of arithmetic operations required for evaluation of these expressions. The identification of common subexpressions among a set of tensor contraction expressions can result in a reduction of the total number of operations required to evaluate the tensor contractions. The first part of the paper describes an effective algorithm for operation minimization with common subexpression identification and demonstrates its effectiveness on tensor contraction expressions for coupled cluster equations. The second part of the paper highlights the importance of data layout transformation in the optimization of tensor contraction computations on modern processors. A number of considerations, such as minimization of cache misses and utilization of multimedia vector instructions, are discussed. A library for efficient index permutation of multidimensional tensors is described, and experimental performance data is provided that demonstrates its effectiveness.
Hartono, Albert; Lu, Qingda; henretty, thomas; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; zhang, huaijian; Baumgartner, Gerald; Bernholdt, David E.; Nooijen, Marcel; Pitzer, Russell M.; Ramanujam, J.; Sadayappan, Ponnuswamy
2009-11-12
Complex tensor contraction expressions arise in accurate electronic structure models in quantum chemistry, such as the coupled cluster method. This paper addresses two complementary aspects of performance optimization of such tensor contraction expressions. Transformations using algebraic properties of commutativity and associativity can be used to significantly decrease the number of arithmetic operations required for evaluation of these expressions. The identification of common subexpressions among a set of tensor contraction expressions can result in a reduction of the total number of operations required to evaluate the tensor contractions. The first part of the paper describes an effective algorithm for operation minimization with common subexpression identification and demonstrates its effectiveness on tensor contraction expressions for coupled cluster equations. The second part of the paper highlights the importance of data layout transformation in the optimization of tensor contraction computations on modern processors. A number of considerations such as minimization of cache misses and utilization of multimedia vector instructions are discussed. A library for efficient index permutation of multi-dimensional tensors is described and experimental performance data is provided that demonstrates its effectiveness.
Discretization error estimation and exact solution generation using the method of nearby problems.
Sinclair, Andrew J.; Raju, Anil; Kurzen, Matthew J.; Roy, Christopher John; Phillips, Tyrone S.
2011-10-01
The Method of Nearby Problems (MNP), a form of defect correction, is examined as a method for generating exact solutions to partial differential equations and as a discretization error estimator. For generating exact solutions, four-dimensional spline fitting procedures were developed and implemented into a MATLAB code for generating spline fits on structured domains with arbitrary levels of continuity between spline zones. For discretization error estimation, MNP/defect correction only requires a single additional numerical solution on the same grid (as compared to Richardson extrapolation which requires additional numerical solutions on systematically-refined grids). When used for error estimation, it was found that continuity between spline zones was not required. A number of cases were examined including 1D and 2D Burgers equation, the 2D compressible Euler equations, and the 2D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The discretization error estimation results compared favorably to Richardson extrapolation and had the advantage of only requiring a single grid to be generated.
Device and method for generating a beam of acoustic energy from a borehole, and applications thereof
Vu, Cung Khac; Sinha, Dipen N; Pantea, Cristian; Nihei, Kurt T; Schmitt, Denis P; Skelt, Christopher
2013-10-01
In some aspects of the invention, a method of generating a beam of acoustic energy in a borehole is disclosed. The method includes generating a first broad-band acoustic pulse at a first broad-band frequency range having a first central frequency and a first bandwidth spread; generating a second broad-band acoustic pulse at a second broad-band frequency range different than the first frequency range having a second central frequency and a second bandwidth spread, wherein the first acoustic pulse and second acoustic pulse are generated by at least one transducer arranged on a tool located within the borehole; and transmitting the first and the second broad-band acoustic pulses into an acoustically non-linear medium, wherein the composition of the non-linear medium produces a collimated pulse by a non-linear mixing of the first and second acoustic pulses, wherein the collimated pulse has a frequency equal to the difference in frequencies between the first central frequency and the second central frequency and a bandwidth spread equal to the sum of the first bandwidth spread and the second bandwidth spread.
Backus, Sterling J. (Erie, CO); Kapteyn, Henry C. (Boulder, CO)
2007-07-10
A method for optimizing multipass laser amplifier output utilizes a spectral filter in early passes but not in later passes. The pulses shift position slightly for each pass through the amplifier, and the filter is placed such that early passes intersect the filter while later passes bypass it. The filter position may be adjust offline in order to adjust the number of passes in each category. The filter may be optimized for use in a cryogenic amplifier.
Application of optimal homotopy asymptotic method to nonlinear Bingham fluid dampers
Marinca, Vasile; Bereteu, Liviu
2015-01-01
Magnetorheological fluids (MR) are stable suspensions of magnetizable microparticles, characterized by the property to change the rheological characteristics when subjected to the action of magnetic field. Together with another class of materials that change their rheological characteristics in the presence of an electric field, called electrorheological materials are known in the literature as the smart materials or controlled materials. In the absence of a magnetic field the particles in MR fluid are dispersed in the base fluid and its flow through the apertures is behaves as a Newtonian fluid having a constant shear stress. When the magnetic field is applying a MR fluid behavior change, and behaves like a Bingham fluid with a variable shear stress. Dynamic response time is an important characteristic for determining the performance of MR dampers in practical civil engineering applications. The purpose of this paper is to show how to use the Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM) to solve the nonlinear d...
Concentration solar power optimization system and method of using the same
Andraka, Charles E
2014-03-18
A system and method for optimizing at least one mirror of at least one CSP system is provided. The system has a screen for displaying light patterns for reflection by the mirror, a camera for receiving a reflection of the light patterns from the mirror, and a solar characterization tool. The solar characterization tool has a characterizing unit for determining at least one mirror parameter of the mirror based on an initial position of the camera and the screen, and a refinement unit for refining the determined parameter(s) based on an adjusted position of the camera and screen whereby the mirror is characterized. The system may also be provided with a solar alignment tool for comparing at least one mirror parameter of the mirror to a design geometry whereby an alignment error is defined, and at least one alignment unit for adjusting the mirror to reduce the alignment error.
ICE-COLA: Towards fast and accurate synthetic galaxy catalogues optimizing a quasi $N$-body method
Izard, Albert; Fosalba, Pablo
2015-01-01
Next generation galaxy surveys demand the development of massive ensembles of galaxy mocks to model the observables and their covariances, what is computationally prohibitive using $N$-body simulations. COLA is a novel method designed to make this feasible by following an approximate dynamics but with up to 3 orders of magnitude speed-ups when compared to an exact $N$-body. In this paper we investigate the optimization of the code parameters in the compromise between computational cost and recovered accuracy in observables such as two-point clustering and halo abundance. We benchmark those observables with a state-of-the-art $N$-body run, the MICE Grand Challenge simulation (MICE-GC). We find that using 40 time steps linearly spaced since $z_i \\sim 20$, and a force mesh resolution three times finer than that of the number of particles, yields a matter power spectrum within $1\\%$ for $k \\lesssim 1\\,h {\\rm Mpc}^{-1}$ and a halo mass function within $5\\%$ of those in the $N$-body. In turn the halo bias is accura...
Multi-objective evolutionary methods for time-changing portfolio optimization problems
Hatzakis, Iason
2007-01-01
This thesis is focused on the discovery of efficient asset allocations with the use of evolutionary algorithms. The portfolio optimization problem is a multi-objective optimization problem for the conflicting criteria of ...
Higher-Order Methods for Determining Optimal Controls and Their Sensitivities
McCrate, Christopher M.
2010-07-14
The solution of optimal control problems through the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation offers guaranteed satisfaction of both the necessary and sufficient conditions for optimality. However, finding an exact solution ...
Thermoeconomic analysis method for optimization of combined heat and power systems
Silveira, J.L.; Tuna, C.E.
1999-07-01
In this paper, a thermoeconomic analysis method based on the second Law of Thermodynamics and applied to analyze four cogeneration system is presented. The objective of the developed technique is to minimize the operating costs of the cogeneration plant, namely Exergetic Manufacturing Cost (EMC), assuming a fixed rate of electricity production and process steam in exergy base. In this study a comparison is made between four configurations. The cogeneration system consisted of a gas turbine with a heat recovery steam generator, without supplementary firing, has the lowest EMC.
Generator-absorber-heat exchange heat transfer apparatus and method and use thereof in a heat pump
Phillips, Benjamin A. (Benton Harbor, MI); Zawacki, Thomas S. (St. Joseph, MI); Marsala, Joseph (Glen Ellyn, IL)
1994-11-29
Numerous embodiments and related methods for generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) are disclosed, particularly for absorption heat pump systems. Such embodiments and related methods use the working solution of the absorption system for the heat transfer medium.
Isotone Optimization in R: Pool-Adjacent-Violators Algorithm (PAVA) and Active Set Methods
Leeuw, Jan de; Hornik, Kurt; Mair, Patrick
2009-01-01
Optimization in R: Pool-Adjacent-Violators Algorithm (PAVA)discuss a generalized version of the Pool-Adjacent-Violators
Isotone Optimization in R: Pool-Adjacent-Violators Algorithm (PAVA) and Active Set Methods
Jan de Leeuw; Kurt Hornik; Patrick Mair
2011-01-01
Optimization in R: Pool-Adjacent-Violators Algorithm (PAVA)discuss a generalized version of the Pool-Adjacent-Violators
[SIAM conference on optimization
Not Available
1992-05-10
Abstracts are presented of 63 papers on the following topics: large-scale optimization, interior-point methods, algorithms for optimization, problems in control, network optimization methods, and parallel algorithms for optimization problems.
Generator-absorber-heat exchange heat transfer apparatus and method and use thereof in a heat pump
Phillips, Benjamin A. (Benton Harbor, MI); Zawacki, Thomas S. (St. Joseph, MI)
1998-07-21
Numerous embodiments and related methods for generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) are disclosed, particularly for absorption heat pump systems. Such embodiments and related methods use, as the heat transfer medium, the working fluid of the absorption system taken from the generator at a location where the working fluid has a rich liquor concentration.
Generator-absorber-heat exchange heat transfer apparatus and method and use thereof in a heat pump
Phillips, B.A.; Zawacki, T.S.
1998-07-21
Numerous embodiments and related methods for generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) are disclosed, particularly for absorption heat pump systems. Such embodiments and related methods use, as the heat transfer medium, the working fluid of the absorption system taken from the generator at a location where the working fluid has a rich liquor concentration. 5 figs.
Method and apparatus for improving the performance of a nuclear power electrical generation system
Tsiklauri, Georgi V. (Richland, WA); Durst, Bruce M. (Kennewick, WA)
1995-01-01
A method and apparatus for improving the efficiency and performance a of nuclear electrical generation system that comprises the addition of steam handling equipment to an existing plant that results in a surprising increase in plant performance. More particularly, a gas turbine electrical generation system with heat recovery boiler is installed along with a high pressure and a low pressure mixer superheater. Depending upon plant characteristics, the existing moisture separator reheater (MSR) can be either augmented or done away with. The instant invention enables a reduction in T.sub.hot without a derating of the reactor unit, and improves efficiency of the plant's electrical conversion cycle. Coupled with this advantage is a possible extension of the plant's fuel cycle length due to an increased electrical conversion efficiency. The reduction in T.sub.hot further allows for a surprising extension of steam generator life. An additional advantage is the reduction in erosion/corrosion of secondary system components including turbine blades and diaphragms. The gas turbine generator used in the instant invention can also replace or augment existing peak or emergency power needs.
Method and apparatus for steam mixing a nuclear fueled electricity generation system
Tsiklauri, Georgi V. (Richland, WA); Durst, Bruce M. (Kennewick, WA)
1996-01-01
A method and apparatus for improving the efficiency and performance of a nuclear electrical generation system that comprises the addition of steam handling equipment to an existing plant that results in a surprising increase in plant performance. More particularly, a gas turbine electrical generation system with heat recovery boiler is installed along with a micro-jet high pressure and a low pressure mixer superheater. Depending upon plant characteristics, the existing moisture separator reheater (MSR) can be either augmented or done away with. The instant invention enables a reduction in T.sub.hot without a derating of the reactor unit, and improves efficiency of the plant's electrical conversion cycle. Coupled with this advantage is a possible extension of the plant's fuel cycle length due to an increased electrical conversion efficiency. The reduction in T.sub.hot further allows for a surprising extension of steam generator life. An additional advantage is the reduction in erosion/corrosion of secondary system components including turbine blades and diaphragms. The gas turbine generator used in the instant invention can also replace or augment existing peak or emergency power needs. Another benefit of the instant invention is the extension of plant life and the reduction of downtime due to refueling.
A hardware Gaussian noise generator using the Box-Muller method and its error analysis
Lee, D; Villasenor, J D; Luk, W; Leong, P H.W
2006-01-01
Combined Tausworthe Generators,” Math. Computation, vol. 65,instances of the noise generator on a Xilinx Virtex-II ProPseudo Random Number Generators,” Proc. IEEE Symp. Field-
Optimization and geophysical inverse problems
Barhen, J.
2008-01-01
for Unconstrained Optimization and Nonlinear Equations,equality constrained optimization, SIAM J. Optim. , 7, 28.R. , Practical Methods of Optimization, Wiley, New York, 436
Frahm, Jan-Michael; Pollefeys, Marc Andre Leon; Gallup, David Robert
2015-12-08
Methods of generating a three dimensional representation of an object in a reference plane from a depth map including distances from a reference point to pixels in an image of the object taken from a reference point. Weights are assigned to respective voxels in a three dimensional grid along rays extending from the reference point through the pixels in the image based on the distances in the depth map from the reference point to the respective pixels, and a height map including an array of height values in the reference plane is formed based on the assigned weights. An n-layer height map may be constructed by generating a probabilistic occupancy grid for the voxels and forming an n-dimensional height map comprising an array of layer height values in the reference plane based on the probabilistic occupancy grid.
Magnetic filter apparatus and method for generating cold plasma in semicoductor processing
Vella, Michael C. (San Leandro, CA)
1996-01-01
Disclosed herein is a system and method for providing a plasma flood having a low electron temperature to a semiconductor target region during an ion implantation process. The plasma generator providing the plasma is coupled to a magnetic filter which allows ions and low energy electrons to pass therethrough while retaining captive the primary or high energy electrons. The ions and low energy electrons form a "cold plasma" which is diffused in the region of the process surface while the ion implantation process takes place.
An MILP-MINLP decomposition method for the global optimization of ...
2015-03-27
products. Large cost savings can be achieved by efficient blending schemes that satisfy ... operability benefits from optimal crude-oil blend scheduling can reach ...
Ernst, Damien
Advanced optimization methods for power systems P. Panciatici, M.C. Campi, S. Garatti, S.H. Low, D from a grid operator perspective 2 Taxonomy of optimization problems 3 Recent developments in the eld of optimization 4 Possible synergies with sister elds 5 Summary 6 References 2 / 53 #12;Context: An increasing
Method of controlling temperature of a thermoelectric generator in an exhaust system
Prior, Gregory P; Reynolds, Michael G; Cowgill, Joshua D
2013-05-21
A method of controlling the temperature of a thermoelectric generator (TEG) in an exhaust system of an engine is provided. The method includes determining the temperature of the heated side of the TEG, determining exhaust gas flow rate through the TEG, and determining the exhaust gas temperature through the TEG. A rate of change in temperature of the heated side of the TEG is predicted based on the determined temperature, the determined exhaust gas flow rate, and the determined exhaust gas temperature through the TEG. Using the predicted rate of change of temperature of the heated side, exhaust gas flow rate through the TEG is calculated that will result in a maximum temperature of the heated side of the TEG less than a predetermined critical temperature given the predicted rate of change in temperature of the heated side of the TEG. A corresponding apparatus is provided.
System and method for generating a deselect mapping for a focal plane array
Bixler, Jay V; Brandt, Timothy G; Conger, James L; Lawson, Janice K
2013-05-21
A method for generating a deselect mapping for a focal plane array according to one embodiment includes gathering a data set for a focal plane array when exposed to light or radiation from a first known target; analyzing the data set for determining which pixels or subpixels of the focal plane array to add to a deselect mapping; adding the pixels or subpixels to the deselect mapping based on the analysis; and storing the deselect mapping. A method for gathering data using a focal plane array according to another embodiment includes deselecting pixels or subpixels based on a deselect mapping; gathering a data set using pixels or subpixels in a focal plane array that are not deselected upon exposure thereof to light or radiation from a target of interest; and outputting the data set.
transfer systems, such as a boost, buck-boost, or flyback converters, this is not the case. Here, the timeHybrid Control Method for Optimal Transient Response and Output Filter Minimization for Buck-Boost type Converters Mor Mordechai Peretz Power Electronics Laboratory Dept. of Electrical and Computer
Next Generation Nuclear Plant Methods Research and Development Technical Program Plan -- PLN-2498
Richard R. Schultz; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; David W. Nigg; Hans D. Gougar; Richard W. Johnson; William K. Terry; Chang H. Oh; Donald W. McEligot; Gary W. Johnsen; Glenn E. McCreery; Woo Y. Yoon; James W. Sterbentz; J. Steve Herring; Temitope A. Taiwo; Thomas Y. C. Wei; William D. Pointer; Won S. Yang; Michael T. Farmer; Hussein S. Khalil; Madeline A. Feltus
2008-09-01
One of the great challenges of designing and licensing the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is to confirm that the intended VHTR analysis tools can be used confidently to make decisions and to assure all that the reactor systems are safe and meet the performance objectives of the Generation IV Program. The research and development (R&D) projects defined in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Design Methods Development and Validation Program will ensure that the tools used to perform the required calculations and analyses can be trusted. The Methods R&D tasks are designed to ensure that the calculational envelope of the tools used to analyze the VHTR reactor systems encompasses, or is larger than, the operational and transient envelope of the VHTR itself. The Methods R&D focuses on the development of tools to assess the neutronic and thermal fluid behavior of the plant. The fuel behavior and fission product transport models are discussed in the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) program plan. Various stress analysis and mechanical design tools will also need to be developed and validated and will ultimately also be included in the Methods R&D Program Plan. The calculational envelope of the neutronics and thermal-fluids software tools intended to be used on the NGNP is defined by the scenarios and phenomena that these tools can calculate with confidence. The software tools can only be used confidently when the results they produce have been shown to be in reasonable agreement with first-principle results, thought-problems, and data that describe the “highly ranked” phenomena inherent in all operational conditions and important accident scenarios for the VHTR.
Lin, Guoping; Tillement, O; Cai, Zhiping; Lefèvre-Seguin, V; Hare, J
2015-01-01
A method based on thermal bistability for ultralow-threshold microlaser optimization is demonstrated. When sweeping the pump laser frequency across a pump resonance, the dynamic thermal bistability slows down the power variation. The resulting line shape modification enables a real-time monitoring of the laser characteristic. We demonstrate this method for a functionalized microsphere exhibiting a submicrowatt laser threshold. This approach is confirmed by comparing the results with a step-by-step recording in quasi-static thermal conditions.
Marinca, Vasile
2015-01-01
In this paper, Optimal Homotopy Perturbation Method (OHPM) is employed to determine an analytic approximate solutions for nonlinear MHD Jeffery-Hamel flow and heat transfer problem. The Navier-Stokes equations, taking into account Maxwell's electromagnetism and heat transfer lead to two nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The obtained results by means of OHPM show a very good agreement in comparison with the numerical results and with Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM).
considered in finite dimensional optimization problem is employed. An augmented performance index. It is constructed as the sum of the original cost function and so-called penalty functions that have some diverging index can then be optimized in the absence of constraints, yielding a biased estimate of the solution
Burger, Eric M.; Moura, Scott J.
2015-01-01
5 minute ahead forecasts of wind and solar generationUsing actual wind and solar generation forecasts, ambientCalifornia ISO Wind and Solar Generation 5-Min Forecasts for
Oren, Shmuel S.
that is more controllable and flexible. The full control of transmission assets are not currently built into electric network optimization models. Optimal transmission switching is a straight- forward way to leverage economics, power system reliability, power transmission control, power transmission economics. NOMENCLATURE
Burger, Eric M.; Moura, Scott J.
2015-01-01
We present 5-minute wind and solar power forecasts reported6 presents the wind and solar power generation for theimpacts of wind generation on california power systems,”
Advanced Review Geometry optimization
Schlegel, H. Bernhard
Advanced Review Geometry optimization H. Bernhard Schlegel Geometry optimization is an important part of most quantum chemical calcu- lations. This article surveys methods for optimizing equilibrium geometries, lo- cating transition structures, and following reaction paths. The emphasis is on optimizations
Sampling and analytical methods development at the HGP-a generator facility
Thomas, D.M.
1982-10-01
During shakedown operations for the HGP-A generator plant sampling and analytical problems were encountered during the process chemistry monitoring effort. Acid-preservation of brine for cation analysis required the use of nitrous oxideacetylene flame for accurate A-A analysis of calcium. Analysis of gases for carbonate and sulfide was by specific ion electrode and alkalinity titration, respectively. Sulfide caused substantial interferences with the alkalinity method and corrections for sulfide were required. Sulfide also interfered with chloride analyses in the steam phase requiring removal of the sulfide by boiling. Analysis of dissolved silica in the brine was complicated by the presence of colloidal silica which produced erratic analytical results. An accurate evaluation of the hydrogen sulfide abatement system was possible only when the hydrogen sulfide concentrations in the treated and untreated steam were compared with a second component in the steam phase that was unaffected by caustic injection.
Variable cooling circuit for thermoelectric generator and engine and method of control
Prior, Gregory P
2012-10-30
An apparatus is provided that includes an engine, an exhaust system, and a thermoelectric generator (TEG) operatively connected to the exhaust system and configured to allow exhaust gas flow therethrough. A first radiator is operatively connected to the engine. An openable and closable engine valve is configured to open to permit coolant to circulate through the engine and the first radiator when coolant temperature is greater than a predetermined minimum coolant temperature. A first and a second valve are controllable to route cooling fluid from the TEG to the engine through coolant passages under a first set of operating conditions to establish a first cooling circuit, and from the TEG to a second radiator through at least some other coolant passages under a second set of operating conditions to establish a second cooling circuit. A method of controlling a cooling circuit is also provided.
System and method for generating and/or screening potential metal-organic frameworks
Wilmer, Christopher E; Leaf, Michael; Snurr, Randall Q; Farha, Omar K; Hupp, Joseph T
2015-04-21
A system and method for systematically generating potential metal-organic framework (MOFs) structures given an input library of building blocks is provided herein. One or more material properties of the potential MOFs are evaluated using computational simulations. A range of material properties (surface area, pore volume, pore size distribution, powder x-ray diffraction pattern, methane adsorption capability, and the like) can be estimated, and in doing so, illuminate unidentified structure-property relationships that may only have been recognized by taking a global view of MOF structures. In addition to identifying structure-property relationships, this systematic approach to identify the MOFs of interest is used to identify one or more MOFs that may be useful for high pressure methane storage.
System and method for generating and/or screening potential metal-organic frameworks
Wilmer, Christopher E; Leaf, Michael; Snurr, Randall Q; Farha, Omar K; Hupp, Joseph T
2014-12-02
A system and method for systematically generating potential metal-organic framework (MOFs) structures given an input library of building blocks is provided herein. One or more material properties of the potential MOFs are evaluated using computational simulations. A range of material properties (surface area, pore volume, pore size distribution, powder x-ray diffraction pattern, methane adsorption capability, and the like) can be estimated, and in doing so, illuminate unidentified structure-property relationships that may only have been recognized by taking a global view of MOF structures. In addition to identifying structure-property relationships, this systematic approach to identify the MOFs of interest is used to identify one or more MOFs that may be useful for high pressure methane storage.
Generator coordinate method for hypernuclear spectroscopy with a covariant density functional
H. Mei; K. Hagino; J. M. Yao
2015-11-10
We apply the generator coordinate method (GCM) to single-$\\Lambda$ hypernuclei in order to discuss the spectra of hypernuclear low-lying states. To this end, we use the same relativistic point-coupling energy functional both for the mean-field and the beyond-mean-field calculations. This relativistic GCM approach provides a unified description of low-lying states in ordinary nuclei and in hypernuclei, and is thus suitable for studying the $\\Lambda$ impurity effect. We carry out an illustrative calculation for the low-lying spectrum of $^{21}_\\Lambda$Ne, in which the interplay between the hypernuclear collective excitations and the single-particle excitations of the unpaired $\\Lambda$ hyperon is taken into account in a full microscopic manner.
Generator coordinate method for hypernuclear spectroscopy with a covariant density functional
Mei, H; Yao, J M
2015-01-01
We apply the generator coordinate method (GCM) to single-$\\Lambda$ hypernuclei in order to discuss the spectra of hypernuclear low-lying states. To this end, we use the same relativistic point-coupling energy functional both for the mean-field and the beyond-mean-field calculations. This relativistic GCM approach provides a unified description of low-lying states in ordinary nuclei and in hypernuclei, and is thus suitable for studying the $\\Lambda$ impurity effect. We carry out an illustrative calculation for the low-lying spectrum of $^{21}_\\Lambda$Ne, in which the interplay between the hypernuclear collective excitations and the single-particle excitations of the unpaired $\\Lambda$ hyperon is taken into account in a full microscopic manner.
Real-time Optimization Method for Optical Parameters of Ion Implanters
Ogata, Seiji [ULVAC, Inc., Research and Development Div., 2500 Hagizono Chigasaki Kanagawa 253-8543 (Japan); Nishihashi, Tsutomu; Tonari, Kazuhiko [ULVAC, Inc., Inst. Semiconductor Technology, 1220-1 Suyama Susono Shizuoka 410-1231 (Japan); Yokoo, Hidekazu; Suzuki, Hideo; Hisamune, Takeshi [ULVAC, Inc., Semiconductor Equipment Div. 2, 1220-14 Suyama Susono Shizuoka 410-1231 (Japan); Araki, Masasumi [ULVAC, Inc., Software Development Control Solution Div., Hagizono Chigasaki Kanagawa 253-8543 (Japan)
2006-11-13
Real-time optimization for optical parameters, such as applied voltage to the electrostatic quadrupole lens, has been realized by using newly developed high-speed computation algorithm for charged particle beams. The virtual optimization code has been incorporated in the control system of SOPHI-200, which is the ULVAC'S new medium current ion implanter. Automatic setup within 5minutes is achieved for any recipe of implantation.
Mead, J.W.; Montoya, O.J.; Rand, P.B.; Willan, V.O.
1983-12-21
Access to a space is impeded by generation of a sticky foam from a silicone polymer and a low boiling solvent such as a halogenated hydrocarbon. In a preferred aspect, the formulation is polydimethylsiloxane gel mixed with F502 Freon as a solvent and blowing agent, and pressurized with CO/sub 2/ in a vessel to about 250 PSI, whereby when the vessel is opened, a sticky and solvent resistant foam is deployed. The foam is deployable, over a wide range of temperatures, adhering to wet surfaces as well as dry, is stable over long periods of time and does not propagate flame or lose adhesive properties during an externally supported burn.
Shlapentokh, Alexandra
Diophantine Generation, Horizontal and Vertical Problems, and the Weak Vertical Method Alexandra Shlapentokh Diophantine Sets, Definitions and Generation Diophantine Sets Diophantine Generation Properties of Diophantine Generation Diophantine Family of Z Diophantine Family of a Polynomial Ring Going Down Horizontal
Tsai, Cheng-Chia Grote, Richard R.; Beck, Jonathan H.; Kymissis, Ioannis; Osgood, Richard M.; Englund, Dirk
2014-07-14
We describe a general method for maximizing the short-circuit current in thin planar organic photovoltaic (OPV) heterojunction cells by simultaneous optimization of light absorption and carrier collection. Based on the experimentally obtained complex refractive indices of the OPV materials and the thickness-dependence of the internal quantum efficiency of the OPV active layer, we analyze the potential benefits of light trapping strategies for maximizing the overall power conversion efficiency of the cell. This approach provides a general strategy for optimizing the power conversion efficiency of a wide range of OPV structures. In particular, as an experimental trial system, the approach is applied here to a ultra-thin film solar cell with a SubPc/C{sub 60} photovoltaic structure. Using a patterned indium tin oxide (ITO) top contact, the numerically optimized designs achieve short-circuit currents of 0.790 and 0.980?mA/cm{sup 2} for 30?nm and 45?nm SubPc/C{sub 60} heterojunction layer thicknesses, respectively. These values correspond to a power conversion efficiency enhancement of 78% for the 30?nm thick cell, but only of 32% for a 45?nm thick cell, for which the overall photocurrent is actually higher. Applied to other material systems, the general optimization method can elucidate if light trapping strategies can improve a given cell architecture.
Vu, Cung Khac; Nihei, Kurt; Johnson, Paul A; Guyer, Robert; Ten Cate, James A; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; Larmat, Carene S
2014-12-30
A system and a method for investigating rock formations includes generating, by a first acoustic source, a first acoustic signal comprising a first plurality of pulses, each pulse including a first modulated signal at a central frequency; and generating, by a second acoustic source, a second acoustic signal comprising a second plurality of pulses. A receiver arranged within the borehole receives a detected signal including a signal being generated by a non-linear mixing process from the first-and-second acoustic signal in a non-linear mixing zone within the intersection volume. The method also includes-processing the received signal to extract the signal generated by the non-linear mixing process over noise or over signals generated by a linear interaction process, or both.
Shepherd, Jason (Albuquerque, NM); Mitchell, Scott A. (Albuquerque, NM); Jankovich, Steven R. (Anaheim, CA); Benzley, Steven E. (Provo, UT)
2007-05-15
The present invention provides a meshing method, called grafting, that lifts the prior art constraint on abutting surfaces, including surfaces that are linking, source/target, or other types of surfaces of the trunk volume. The grafting method locally modifies the structured mesh of the linking surfaces allowing the mesh to conform to additional surface features. Thus, the grafting method can provide a transition between multiple sweep directions extending sweeping algorithms to 23/4-D solids. The method is also suitable for use with non-sweepable volumes; the method provides a transition between meshes generated by methods other than sweeping as well.
Gallegos-Lopez, Gabriel
2012-10-02
Methods, system and apparatus are provided for increasing voltage utilization in a five-phase vector controlled machine drive system that employs third harmonic current injection to increase torque and power output by a five-phase machine. To do so, a fundamental current angle of a fundamental current vector is optimized for each particular torque-speed of operating point of the five-phase machine.
Lee, Ben
Automatic Test Case Generation Using Multi-protocol Test Method Soo-in Lee, Yongbum Park, mckim}@icu.ac.kr Abstract - A method for testing multi-protocol implementation under test (IUT) with a single test suite has been proposed in the literature. It tests a multi-protocol IUT in an integrated way
Generator-absorber-heat exchange heat transfer apparatus and method and use thereof in a heat pump
Phillips, Benjamin A. (Benton Harbor, MI); Zawacki, Thomas S. (St. Joseph, MI)
1996-12-03
Numerous embodiments and related methods for generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) are disclosed, particularly for absorption heat pump systems. Such embodiments and related methods use the working solution of the absorption system for the heat transfer medium. A combination of weak and rich liquor working solution is used as the heat transfer medium.
Camiña, Steven L
2010-01-01
This paper investigates the modeling of research landscapes through the automatic generation of hierarchical structures (taxonomies) comprised of terms related to a given research field. Several different taxonomy generation ...
Smooth Path Planning of a Mobile Robot Using Stochastic Particle Swarm Optimization
Li, Yangmin
.mo Abstract-- This paper proposes a new approach using im- proved particle swarm optimization (PSO optimization methods that produce nonsmooth paths, the PSO method developed in this paper can generate smooth using mobile robots. To reduce computational cost of optimization, the stochastic PSO (S-PSO) with high
Digital slip frequency generator and method for determining the desired slip frequency
Klein, Frederick F. (Monroeville, PA)
1989-01-01
The output frequency of an electric power generator is kept constant with variable rotor speed by automatic adjustment of the excitation slip frequency. The invention features a digital slip frequency generator which provides sine and cosine waveforms from a look-up table, which are combined with real and reactive power output of the power generator.
Mowery, Jr., Alfred L. (Potomac, MD)
1993-01-01
By using the helium generated by the alpha emissions of a thermoelectric generator during space travel for cooling, the thermal degradation of the thermoelectric generator can be slowed. Slowing degradation allows missions to be longer with little additional expense or payload.
Grizzle, Jessy W.
and sinks. Optimal solutions are easy to specify if the drive cycle is known a priori. It is very challenging to compute controllers that yield good fuel economy for a class of drive cycles representative simulation on large numbers of real-world drive cycles. I. INTRODUCTION Hybrid vehicles have become
Method and apparatus for anti-islanding protection of distributed generations
Ye, Zhihong; John, Vinod; Wang, Changyong; Garces, Luis Jose; Zhou, Rui; Li, Lei; Walling, Reigh Allen; Premerlani, William James; Sanza, Peter Claudius; Liu, Yan; Dame, Mark Edward
2006-03-21
An apparatus for anti-islanding protection of a distributed generation with respect to a feeder connected to an electrical grid is disclosed. The apparatus includes a sensor adapted to generate a voltage signal representative of an output voltage and/or a current signal representative of an output current at the distributed generation, and a controller responsive to the signals from the sensor. The controller is productive of a control signal directed to the distributed generation to drive an operating characteristic of the distributed generation out of a nominal range in response to the electrical grid being disconnected from the feeder.
Trinh, Philippe H
2015-01-01
The standard analytical approach for studying gravity free-surface waves generated by a moving body often relies upon a linearization of the physical geometry, where the body is considered asymptotically small in one or several of its dimensions. In this paper, a methodology that avoids any such geometrical simplification is presented for the case of flows at low speeds. The approach is made possible through a reduction of the water-wave equations to a complex-valued integral equation that can be studied using the method of steepest descents. The main result is a theory that establishes a correspondence between a given physical flow geometry, with the topology of the Riemann surface formed by the steepest descent paths. Then, when a geometrical feature of the body is modified, a corresponding change to the Riemann surface is observed, and the resultant effects to the water waves can be derived. This visual procedure is demonstrated for the case of two-dimensional free-surface flow past a surface-piercing ship...
M. Bender; G. Bertsch; P. -H. Heenen
2003-11-07
We investigate truncation schemes to reduce the computational cost of calculating correlations by the generator coordinate method based on mean-field wave functions. As our test nuclei, we take examples for which accurate calculations are available. These include a strongly deformed nucleus, 156Sm, a nucleus with strong pairing, 120Sn, the krypton isotope chain which contains examples of soft deformations, and the lead isotope chain which includes the doubly magic 208Pb. We find that the Gaussian overlap approximation for angular momentum projection is effective and reduces the computational cost by an order of magnitude. Cost savings in the deformation degrees of freedom are harder to realize. A straightforward Gaussian overlap approximation can be applied rather reliably to angular-momentum projected states based on configuration sets having the same sign deformation (prolate or oblate), but matrix elements between prolate and oblate deformations must be treated with more care. We propose a two-dimensional GOA using a triangulation procedure to treat the general case with both kinds of deformation. With the computational gains from these approximations, it should be feasible to carry out a systematic calculation of correlation energies for the nuclear mass table.
Yeung, Edward S. (Ames, IA); Chen, Guoying (Laramie, WY)
1990-05-01
A method and means for a spatial and temporal probe for laser generated plumes based on density gradients includes generation of a plume of vaporized material from a surface by an energy source. The probe laser beam is positioned so that the plume passes through the probe laser beam. Movement of the probe laser beam caused by refraction from the density gradient of the plume is monitored. Spatial and temporal information, correlated to one another, is then derived.
heat and power Fuel cells Building energy a b s t r a c t The distributed generation (DG) of combined Wisconsin, retrofitted with solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and a hot water storage tank. The simpler model of renewable or non- renewable sources of power generation (e.g., photovoltaic (PV) cells, fuel cells
Stochastic optimization methods for extracting cosmological parameters from CMBR power spectra
Steen Hannestad
1999-11-17
The reconstruction of the CMBR power spectrum from a map represents a major computational challenge to which much effort has been applied. However, once the power spectrum has been recovered there still remains the problem of extracting cosmological parameters from it. Doing this involves optimizing a complicated function in a many dimensional parameter space. Therefore efficient algorithms are necessary in order to make this feasible. We have tested several different types of algorithms and found that the technique known as simulated annealing is very effective for this purpose. It is shown that simulated annealing is able to extract the correct cosmological parameters from a set of simulated power spectra, but even with such fast optimization algorithms, a substantial computational effort is needed.
Zhang, Xuesong
2009-05-15
&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY August 2008 Major Subject: Water Management and Hydrologic Sciences EVALUATING AND DEVELOPING PARAMETER OPTIMIZATION AND UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS... OF PHILOSOPHY Approved by: Chair of Committee, Raghavan Srinivasan Committee Members, Faming Liang Patricia K. Smith Francisco Olivera Head of Department, Ronald Kaiser August 2008 Major Subject: Water Management and Hydrologic Sciences iii...
Schlegel, H. Bernhard
with QM/MM methods II: Explicit quadratic coupling T. VREVEN*y, M. J. FRISCHy, K. N. KUDINz, H. B QM/MM systems is usually carried out by alternating a second-order optimization of the QM region using internal coordinates (`macro-iterations'), and a first-order optimization of the MM region using
Krstic, Miroslav
stochastic behavior · Scaled for medium size office or apartment complex [1] California ISO: System Status Power Generation Automated Modeling Laboratory Slide 6 of 28 BATTERY COMPRESSOR H2 STORAGE TANK SUPPLY
Alexander, Brentan R
2007-01-01
Humans are releasing record amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere through the combustion of fossil fuels in power generation plants. With mounting evidence that this carbon dioxide is a leading cause of global ...
Gill, Arjun
2013-05-01
of ATPG to not only include the conventional static defects but also to include test patterns for dynamic defects. The current industry practices consider test pattern generation for transition faults to screen dynamic defects. It has been observed...
Derivative-free optimization methods for surface structure determination of nanosystems
Meza, Juan C.; Garcia-Lekue, Arantzazu; Abramson, Mark A.; Dennis, John E.
2007-01-01
elec- tron diffraction ( LEED ) method, which uses a high-?the low energy electron diffraction ( LEED ) method [1, 2].LEED involves the use of an electron gun to bombard a sample
Eriksson, J.
2004-01-01
A method, based on simulation models, for active functional tests and optimization of coil energy recovery loop systems in Air Handling Units (AHUs) have been developed and a first version implemented in the program Engineering Equation Solver (EES...
Device and method for generating a beam of acoustic energy from a borehole, and applications thereof
Vu, Cung Khac (Houston, TX); Sinha, Dipen N. (Los Alamos, NM); Pantea, Cristian (Los Alamos, NM); Nihei, Kurt (Oakland, CA); Schmitt, Denis P. (Katy, TX); Skelt, Christopher (Houston, TX)
2010-11-23
In some aspects of the invention, a device, positioned within a well bore, configured to generate and direct an acoustic beam into a rock formation around a borehole is disclosed. The device comprises a source configured to generate a first signal at a first frequency and a second signal at a second frequency; a transducer configured to receive the generated first and the second signals and produce acoustic waves at the first frequency and the second frequency; and a non-linear material, coupled to the transducer, configured to generate a collimated beam with a frequency equal to the difference between the first frequency and the second frequency by a non-linear mixing process, wherein the non-linear material includes one or more of a mixture of liquids, a solid, a granular material, embedded microspheres, or an emulsion.
Comparison of heuristic methods for reliability optimization of series-parallel systems
Lee, Hsiang
2003-01-01
Three heuristics, the max-min approach, Nakagawa and Nakashima method, and Kim and Yum method, are considered for the redundancy allocation problem with series-parallel structures. The max-min approach can formulate the problem as an integer linear...
Optimized shooting method for finding periodic orbits of nonlinear dynamical systems
W. Dednam; A. E. Botha
2014-08-14
An alternative numerical method is developed to find stable and unstable periodic orbits of nonlinear dynamical systems. The method exploits the high-efficiency of the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm for medium-sized problems and has the additional advantage of being relatively simple to implement. It is also applicable to both autonomous and non-autonomous systems. As an example of its use, it is employed to find periodic orbits in the R\\"ossler system, a coupled R\\"ossler system, as well as an eight-dimensional model of a flexible rotor-bearing; problems which have been treated previously via two related methods. The results agree with the previous methods and are seen to be more accurate in some cases. A simple implementation of the method, written in the Python programming language, is provided as an Appendix.
Hopeck, James Frederick
2003-11-25
A method of forming a winding support structure for use with a superconducting rotor wherein the method comprises providing an inner support ring, arranging an outer support ring around the inner support ring, coupling first and second support blocks to the outer support ring and coupling a lamination to the first and second support blocks. A slot is defined between the support blocks and between the outer support ring and the lamination to receive a portion of a winding. An RTV fills any clearance space in the slot.
A Conformal Mapping Grid Generation Method for Modeling High-Fidelity Aeroelastic Simulations
Worley, Gregory
2010-07-14
This work presents a method for building a three-dimensional mesh from two- dimensional topologically identical layers, for use in aeroelastic simulations. The method allows modeling of large deformations of the wing in both the span direction...
A manual procedure for assembly sequence planning based on the exploded view method
Rivero, Andres R
1995-01-01
This thesis covers the development of a manual planning procedure based on the computerized method of exploded views to generate an optimal or near-optimal assembly sequence. Care has been taken to minimize iterative and ...
History Matching and Optimization Using Stochastic Methods: Applications to Chemical Flooding
Zhang, Zheng
2014-09-04
first presented the workflow of history matching in chemical flooding. Evolutionary algorithms are the method of choice due to its capability of calibrating various parameter types and its global search nature. Chemical flooding simulator UTCHEM...
A non-linear constrained optimization technique for the mimetic finite difference method
Manzini, Gianmarco; Svyatskiy, Daniil; Bertolazzi, Enrico; Frego, Marco
2014-09-30
This is a strategy for the construction of monotone schemes in the framework of the mimetic finite difference method for the approximation of diffusion problems on unstructured polygonal and polyhedral meshes.
Integrated method to create optimal dynamic strategic plans for corporate technology start-ups
Mikati, Samir Omar
2009-01-01
This thesis presents an innovative method for evaluating and dynamically planning the development of uncertain technology investments. Its crux centers on a paradigm shift in the way managers assess investments, toward an ...
A CLASS OF DISCONTINUOUS PETROV-GALERKIN METHODS. PART II: OPTIMAL TEST FUNCTIONS
Gopalakrishnan, Jay
.g. [24, 25]. Demkowicz was supported in part by the Department of Energy [National Nuclear Security, in particular, refers to the original contribution of Petrov [33]. The idea of Petrov-Galerkin method
A computational method and software development for make-to-order pricing optimization
Wang, Zhiyong, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
2006-01-01
High variability of demand and inflexible capacity are inevitable in a make-to-order production despite its cost savings. A computational method is proposed in this thesis to exploit pricing opportunities in the price ...
Hassanein, Ahmed (Bolingbrook, IL); Konkashbaev, Isak (Bolingbrook, IL)
2006-10-03
A device and method for generating extremely short-wave ultraviolet electromagnetic wave uses two intersecting plasma beams generated by two plasma accelerators. The intersection of the two plasma beams emits electromagnetic radiation and in particular radiation in the extreme ultraviolet wavelength. In the preferred orientation two axially aligned counter streaming plasmas collide to produce an intense source of electromagnetic radiation at the 13.5 nm wavelength. The Mather type plasma accelerators can utilize tin, or lithium covered electrodes. Tin, lithium or xenon can be used as the photon emitting gas source.
Wind turbine generators having wind assisted cooling systems and cooling methods
Bagepalli, Bharat (Niskayuna, NY); Barnes, Gary R. (Delanson, NY); Gadre, Aniruddha D. (Rexford, NY); Jansen, Patrick L. (Scotia, NY); Bouchard, Jr., Charles G. (Schenectady, NY); Jarczynski, Emil D. (Scotia, NY); Garg, Jivtesh (Cambridge, MA)
2008-09-23
A wind generator includes: a nacelle; a hub carried by the nacelle and including at least a pair of wind turbine blades; and an electricity producing generator including a stator and a rotor carried by the nacelle. The rotor is connected to the hub and rotatable in response to wind acting on the blades to rotate the rotor relative to the stator to generate electricity. A cooling system is carried by the nacelle and includes at least one ambient air inlet port opening through a surface of the nacelle downstream of the hub and blades, and a duct for flowing air from the inlet port in a generally upstream direction toward the hub and in cooling relation to the stator.
Method and apparatus for enhanced heat recovery from steam generators and water heaters
Knight, Richard A.; Rabovitser, Iosif K.; Wang, Dexin
2006-06-27
A heating system having a steam generator or water heater, at least one economizer, at least one condenser and at least one oxidant heater arranged in a manner so as to reduce the temperature and humidity of the exhaust gas (flue gas) stream and recover a major portion of the associated sensible and latent heat. The recovered heat is returned to the steam generator or water heater so as to increase the quantity of steam generated or water heated per quantity of fuel consumed. In addition, a portion of the water vapor produced by combustion of fuel is reclaimed for use as feed water, thereby reducing the make-up water requirement for the system.
Fuzzy logic controller optimization
Sepe, Jr., Raymond B; Miller, John Michael
2004-03-23
A method is provided for optimizing a rotating induction machine system fuzzy logic controller. The fuzzy logic controller has at least one input and at least one output. Each input accepts a machine system operating parameter. Each output produces at least one machine system control parameter. The fuzzy logic controller generates each output based on at least one input and on fuzzy logic decision parameters. Optimization begins by obtaining a set of data relating each control parameter to at least one operating parameter for each machine operating region. A model is constructed for each machine operating region based on the machine operating region data obtained. The fuzzy logic controller is simulated with at least one created model in a feedback loop from a fuzzy logic output to a fuzzy logic input. Fuzzy logic decision parameters are optimized based on the simulation.
System and method for determining an ammonia generation rate in a three-way catalyst
Sun, Min; Perry, Kevin L; Kim, Chang H
2014-12-30
A system according to the principles of the present disclosure includes a rate determination module, a storage level determination module, and an air/fuel ratio control module. The rate determination module determines an ammonia generation rate in a three-way catalyst based on a reaction efficiency and a reactant level. The storage level determination module determines an ammonia storage level in a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst positioned downstream from the three-way catalyst based on the ammonia generation rate. The air/fuel ratio control module controls an air/fuel ratio of an engine based on the ammonia storage level.
Method and apparatus for optimizing the efficiency and quality of laser material processing
Susemihl, I.
1990-03-13
The efficiency of laser welding and other laser material processing is optimized according to this invention by rotating the plane of polarization of a linearly polarized laser beam in relation to a work piece of the material being processed simultaneously and in synchronization with steering the laser beam over the work piece so as to keep the plane of polarization parallel to either the plane of incidence or the direction of travel of the beam in relation to the work piece. Also, depending to some extent on the particular processing being accomplished, such as welding or fusing, the angle of incidence of the laser beam on the work piece is kept at or near the polarizing or Brewster's angle. The combination of maintaining the plane of polarization parallel to plane of incidence while also maintaining the angle of incidence at or near the polarizing or Brewster's angle results in only minimal, if any, reflection losses during laser welding. Also, coordinating rotation of the plane of polarization with the translation or steering of a work piece under a laser cutting beam maximizes efficiency and kerf geometry, regardless of the direction of cut. 7 figs.
Method and apparatus for optimizing the efficiency and quality of laser material processing
Susemihl, Ingo (Norderstedt, DE)
1990-01-01
The efficiency of laser welding and other laser material processing is optimized according to this invention by rotating the plane of polarization of a linearly polarized laser beam in relation to a work piece of the material being processed simultaneously and in synchronization with steering the laser beam over the work piece so as to keep the plane of polarization parallel to either the plane of incidence or the direction of travel of the beam in relation to the work piece. Also, depending to some extent on the particular processing being accomplished, such as welding or fusing, the angle of incidence of the laser beam on the work piece is kept at or near the polarizing or Brewster's angle. The combination of maintaining the plane of polarization parallel to plane of incidence while also maintaining the angle of incidence at or near the polarizing or Brewster's angle results in only minimal, if any, reflection losses during laser welding. Also, coordinating rotation of the plane of polarization with the translation or steering of a work piece under a laser cutting beam maximizes efficiency and kerf geometry, regardless of the direction of cut.
An Electron Beam Method for Creating Combina-torial Libraries: Application to Next Generation
Wadley, Haydn
. Introduction Thermal barrier coatings (TBC) systems have been incorporated into gas turbine engines because Thermal Barrier Coatings Systems D.D. Hass, K. Dharmasena, and H.N.G. Wadley Department of Materials, VA 22903 U.S.A. The next generation of thermal barriers coating (TBC) systems used on turbine engines
A DYNAMIC CRASHING METHOD FOR PROJECT MANAGEMENT USING SIMULATION-BASED OPTIMIZATION
Kuhl, Michael E.
. The crashing method is focused on reducing the time of the activities on the critical path. The critical path of the critical path, ignoring the uncer- tainty related with the duration of the activities. Conse- quently, other paths that may have a high probability of becoming critical are ignored. As a way to overcome
Optimization of Jatropha Oil Extraction and Its By-Product Utilization by Pyrolysis Method
Kongkasawan, Jinjuta 1987-
2012-08-20
crisis. The purpose of this research is to investigate the optimum condition of Jatropha seed extraction via a screw press and its by-product utilization by a pyrolysis method for achieving the maximum mass conversion and energy recovery. In this study...
Method of optimizing performance of Rankine cycle power plants. [US DOE Patent
Pope, W.L.; Pines, H.S.; Doyle, P.A.; Silvester, L.F.
1980-06-23
A method is described for efficiently operating a Rankine cycle power plant to maximize fuel utilization efficiency or energy conversion efficiency or minimize costs by selecting a turbine fluid inlet state which is substantially on the area adjacent and including the transposed critical temperature line.
Medizade, Masoud (San Luis Obispo, CA); Ridgely, John Robert (Los Osos, CA)
2009-12-15
An arrangement which utilizes an inexpensive flap valve/flow transducer combination and a simple local supervisory control system to monitor and/or control the operation of a positive displacement pump used to extract petroleum from geologic strata. The local supervisory control system controls the operation of an electric motor which drives a reciprocating positive displacement pump so as to maximize the volume of petroleum extracted from the well per pump stroke while minimizing electricity usage and pump-off situations. By reducing the electrical demand and pump-off (i.e., "pounding" or "fluid pound") occurrences, operating and maintenance costs should be reduced sufficiently to allow petroleum recovery from marginally productive petroleum fields. The local supervisory control system includes one or more applications to at least collect flow signal data generated during operation of the positive displacement pump. No flow, low flow and flow duration are easily evaluated using the flap valve/flow transducer arrangement.
Lee, Jooyoung
of conformations to determine the minimum energy structure. We combine these methods by using conformations thermal kinetic energy, they will be able to overcome barriers, escape local minima, and explore the free Annealing Method Asim Okur,*, Benjamin T. Miller, Keehyoung Joo, Jooyoung Lee, and Bernard R. Brooks
Qin, Jianguo; Jiang, Li; Liu, Rong; Zhang, Xinwei; Ye, Bangjiao; Zhu, Tonghua
2015-01-01
The prompt gamma-ray spectrum from depleted uranium (DU) spherical shells induced by 14 MeV D-T neutrons is measured. Monte Carlo (MC) simulation gives the largest prompt gamma flux with the optimal thickness of the DU spherical shells 3-5 cm and the optimal frequency of neutron pulse 1 MHz. The method of time of flight and pulse shape coincidence with energy (DC-TOF) is proposed, and the subtraction of the background gamma-rays discussed in detail. The electron recoil spectrum and time spectrum of the prompt gamma-rays are obtained based on a 2"*2" BC501A liquid scintillator detector. The energy spectrum and time spectrum of prompt gamma-rays are obtained based on an iterative unfolding method that can remove the influence of {\\gamma}-rays response matrix and pulsed neutron shape. The measured time spectrum and the calculated results are roughly consistent with each other. Experimental prompt gamma-ray spectrum in the 0.4-3 MeV energy region agree well with MC simulation based on the ENDF/BVI.5 library, and ...
Clark, M. Collins (Albuquerque, NM); Coleman, P. Dale (Albuquerque, NM); Marder, Barry M. (Albuquerque, NM)
1993-01-01
A compact device called the split cavity modulator whose self-generated oscillating electromagnetic field converts a steady particle beam into a modulated particle beam. The particle beam experiences both signs of the oscillating electric field during the transit through the split cavity modulator. The modulated particle beam can then be used to generate microwaves at that frequency and through the use of extractors, high efficiency extraction of microwave power is enabled. The modulated beam and the microwave frequency can be varied by the placement of resistive wires at nodes of oscillation within the cavity. The short beam travel length through the cavity permit higher currents because both space charge and pinching limitations are reduced. The need for an applied magnetic field to control the beam has been eliminated.
Clark, M.C.; Coleman, P.D.; Marder, B.M.
1993-08-10
A compact device called the split cavity modulator whose self-generated oscillating electromagnetic field converts a steady particle beam into a modulated particle beam. The particle beam experiences both signs of the oscillating electric field during the transit through the split cavity modulator. The modulated particle beam can then be used to generate microwaves at that frequency and through the use of extractors, high efficiency extraction of microwave power is enabled. The modulated beam and the microwave frequency can be varied by the placement of resistive wires at nodes of oscillation within the cavity. The short beam travel length through the cavity permit higher currents because both space charge and pinching limitations are reduced. The need for an applied magnetic field to control the beam has been eliminated.
Resonantly enhanced method for generation of tunable, coherent vacuum-ultraviolet radiation
Glownia, J.H.; Sander, R.K.
1982-06-29
Carbon Monoxide vapor is used to generate coherent, tunable vacuum ultraviolet radiation by third-harmonic generation using a single tunable dye laser. The presence of a nearby electronic level resonantly enhances the nonlinear susceptibility of this molecule allowing efficient generation of the vuv light at modest pump laser intensities, thereby reducing the importance of a six-photon multiple-photon ionization process which is also resonantly enhanced by the same electronic level but no higher order. By choosing the pump radiation wavelength to be of shorter wavelength than individual vibronic levels used to extend tunability stepwise from 154.4 to 124.6 nm, and the intensity to be low enough, multiple-photon ionization can be eliminated. Excitation spectra of the third-harmonic emission output exhibit shifts to shorter wavelength and broadening with increasing CO pressure due to phase matching effects. Increasing the carbon monoxide pressure, therefore, allows the substantial filling in of gaps arising from the stepwise tuning thereby providing almost continuous tunability over the quoted range of wavelength emitted.
Resonantly enhanced method for generation of tunable, coherent vacuum ultraviolet radiation
Glownia, James H. (Los Alamos, NM); Sander, Robert K. (Los Alamos, NM)
1985-01-01
Carbon Monoxide vapor is used to generate coherent, tunable vacuum ultraviolet radiation by third-harmonic generation using a single tunable dye laser. The presence of a nearby electronic level resonantly enhances the nonlinear susceptibility of this molecule allowing efficient generation of the vuv light at modest pump laser intensities, thereby reducing the importance of a six-photon multiple-photon ionization process which is also resonantly enhanced by the same electronic level but to higher order. By choosing the pump radiation wavelength to be of shorter wavelength than individual vibronic levels used to extend tunability stepwise from 154.4 to 124.6 nm, and the intensity to be low enough, multiple-photon ionization can be eliminated. Excitation spectra of the third-harmonic emission output exhibit shifts to shorter wavelength and broadening with increasing CO pressure due to phase matching effects. Increasing the carbon monoxide pressure, therefore, allows the substantial filling in of gaps arising from the stepwise tuning thereby providing almost continuous tunability over the quoted range of wavelength emitted.
System and method for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor
Fisch, Nathaniel J. (Cambridge, MA)
1981-01-01
A system for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor providing steady-state generation of the thermonuclear power. A dense, hot toroidal plasma is initially prepared with a confining magnetic field with toroidal and poloidal components. Continuous wave RF energy is injected into said plasma to establish a spectrum of traveling waves in the plasma, where the traveling waves have momentum components substantially either all parallel, or all anti-parallel to the confining magnetic field. The injected RF energy is phased to couple to said traveling waves with both a phase velocity component and a wave momentum component in the direction of the plasma traveling wave components. The injected RF energy has a predetermined spectrum selected so that said traveling waves couple to plasma electrons having velocities in a predetermined range .DELTA.. The velocities in the range are substantially greater than the thermal electron velocity of the plasma. In addition, the range is sufficiently broad to produce a raised plateau having width .DELTA. in the plasma electron velocity distribution so that the plateau electrons provide steady-state current to generate a poloidal magnetic field component sufficient for confining the plasma. In steady state operation of the fusion reactor, the fusion power density in the plasma exceeds the power dissipated in the plasma.
System and method for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor
Bers, Abraham (Arlington, MA)
1981-01-01
A system for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor providing steady-state generation of the thermonuclear power. A dense, hot toroidal plasma is initially prepared with a confining magnetic field with toroidal and poloidal components. Continuous wave RF energy is injected into said plasma to estalish a spectrum of traveling waves in the plasma, where the traveling waves have momentum components substantially either all parallel, or all anti-parallel to the confining magnetic field. The injected RF energy is phased to couple to said traveling waves with both a phase velocity component and a wave momentum component in the direction of the plasma traveling wave components. The injected RF energy has a predetermined spectrum selected so that said traveling waves couple to plasma electrons having velocities in a predetermined range .DELTA.. The velocities in the range are substantially greater than the thermal electron velocity of the plasma. In addition, the range is sufficiently broad to produce a raised plateau having width .DELTA. in the plasma electron velocity distribution so that the plateau electrons provide steady-state current to generate a poloidal magnetic field component sufficient for confining the plasma. In steady state operation of the fusion reactor, the fusion power density in the plasma exceeds the power dissipated inthe plasma.
Zhang, D.; Rahnema, F.
2013-07-01
The coarse mesh transport method (COMET) is a highly accurate and efficient computational tool which predicts whole-core neutronics behaviors for heterogeneous reactor cores via a pre-computed eigenvalue-dependent response coefficient (function) library. Recently, a high order perturbation method was developed to significantly improve the efficiency of the library generation method. In that work, the method's accuracy and efficiency was tested in a small PWR benchmark problem. This paper extends the application of the perturbation method to include problems typical of the other water reactor cores such as BWR and CANDU bundles. It is found that the response coefficients predicted by the perturbation method for typical BWR bundles agree very well with those directly computed by the Monte Carlo method. The average and maximum relative errors in the surface-to-surface response coefficients are 0.02%-0.05% and 0.06%-0.25%, respectively. For CANDU bundles, the corresponding quantities are 0.01%-0.05% and 0.04% -0.15%. It is concluded that the perturbation method is highly accurate and efficient with a wide range of applicability. (authors)
Cao, Yuan Jie; Chang, Kyung Hwan; Shim, Jang Bo; Kim, Kwang Hyeon; Jang, Min Sun; Yoon, Won Sup; Yang, Dae Sik; Park, Young Je; Kim, Chul Yong
2015-01-01
To compare the dosimetrical differences between plans generated by helical tomotherapy using 2D or 3D margining technique in in prostate cancer. Ten prostate cancer patients were included in this study. For 2D plans, planning target volume (PTV) was created by adding 5 mm (lateral/anterior-posterior) to clinical target volume (CTV). For 3D plans, 5 mm margin was added not only in lateral/anterior-posterior, but also in superior-inferior to CTV. Various dosimetrical indices, including the prescription isodose to target volume (PITV) ratio, conformity index (CI), homogeneity index (HI), target coverage index (TCI), modified dose homogeneity index (MHI), conformation number (CN), critical organ scoring index (COSI), and quality factor (QF) were determined to compare the different treatment plans. Differences between 2D and 3D PTV indices were not significant except for CI (p = 0.023). 3D margin plans (11195 MUs) resulted in higher (13.0%) monitor units than 2D margin plans (9728 MUs). There were no significant d...
Generation of pseudostates for the Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian using the variational method
Kim, Yong-Dal
1989-01-01
Set. . . 22 25 26 33 IV A NEK BASIS SET FOR THE DIRAC-COULOMB HAMILTONIAN 45 4. 1 The Generat(on of the New Basis Set 4. 2 Construction of Matr(ces S and H 4. 3 The Solution f' or the New Basis Set 45 47 50 V CONCLUSION . REFERENCES 70... special, are used. . . . . . . . . . . . 4. 3 Energy dependence on parameter f for Ps/&-state (&; = 2) and Z = 92, when ten basis functsons, without any special, are used. . . . . . . . . . . . 4. 4 Energy dependence on parameter f for Ds/r state (r...
Optimization Online - Stochastic Programming Submissions - 2013
Stochastic Programming Submissions - 2013. January 2013. Generating moment matching scenarios using optimization techniques. Sanjay Mehrotra, David ...
Using modeling to generate alternatives (MGA) to expand our thinking on energy futures
Barlaz, Morton A.
Using modeling to generate alternatives (MGA) to expand our thinking on energy futures Joseph F. De modeling to generate alternatives (MGA) as a way to flex energy models and systematically explore: Mathematical methods (JEL: C02) Optimization Uncertainty Modeling Energy-economy optimization models encoded
Maris, H.J.; Stoner, R.J.
1998-05-05
An optical heat generation and detection system generates a first non-destructive pulsed beam of electromagnetic radiation that is directed upon a sample containing at least one interface between similar or dissimilar materials. The first pulsed beam of electromagnetic radiation, a pump beam, produces a non-uniform temperature change within the sample. A second non-destructive pulsed beam of electromagnetic radiation, a probe beam, is also directed upon the sample. Physical and chemical properties of the materials, and of the interface, are measured by observing changes in a transient optical response of the sample to the probe beam, as revealed by a time dependence of changes in, by example, beam intensity, direction, or state of polarization. The system has increased sensitivity to interfacial properties including defects, contaminants, chemical reactions and delaminations, as compared to conventional non-destructive, non-contact techniques. One feature of this invention is a determination of a Kapitza resistance at the interface, and the correlation of the determined Kapitza resistance with a characteristic of the interface, such as roughness, delamination, the presence of contaminants, etc. 31 figs.
Maris, Humphrey J (Barrington, RI); Stoner, Robert J (Duxbury, MA)
1998-01-01
An optical heat generation and detection system generates a first non-destructive pulsed beam of electromagnetic radiation that is directed upon a sample containing at least one interface between similar or dissimilar materials. The first pulsed beam of electromagnetic radiation, a pump beam (21a), produces a non-uniform temperature change within the sample. A second non-destructive pulsed beam of electromagnetic radiation, a probe beam (21b), is also directed upon the sample. Physical and chemical properties of the materials, and of the interface, are measured by observing changes in a transient optical response of the sample to the probe beam, as revealed by a time dependence of changes in, by example, beam intensity, direction, or state of polarization. The system has increased sensitivity to interfacial properties including defects, contaminants, chemical reactions and delaminations, as compared to conventional non-destructive, non-contact techniques. One feature of this invention is a determination of a Kapitza resistance at the interface, and the correlation of the determined Kapitza resistance with a characteristic of the interface, such as roughness, delamination, the presence of contaminants, etc.
Method and system for generating a beam of acoustic energy from a borehole, and applications thereof
Johnson Paul A. (Santa Fe, NM); Ten Cate, James A. (Los Alamos, NM); Guyer, Robert (Reno, NV); Le Bas, Pierre-Yves (Los Alamos, NM); Vu, Cung (Houston, TX); Nihei, Kurt (Oakland, CA); Schmitt, Denis P. (Katy, TX); Skelt, Christopher (Houston, TX)
2012-02-14
A compact array of transducers is employed as a downhole instrument for acoustic investigation of the surrounding rock formation. The array is operable to generate simultaneously a first acoustic beam signal at a first frequency and a second acoustic beam signal at a second frequency different than the first frequency. These two signals can be oriented through an azimuthal rotation of the array and an inclination rotation using control of the relative phases of the signals from the transmitter elements or electromechanical linkage. Due to the non-linearity of the formation, the first and the second acoustic beam signal mix into the rock formation where they combine into a collimated third signal that propagates in the formation along the same direction than the first and second signals and has a frequency equal to the difference of the first and the second acoustic signals. The third signal is received either within the same borehole, after reflection, or another borehole, after transmission, and analyzed to determine information about rock formation. Recording of the third signal generated along several azimuthal and inclination directions also provides 3D images of the formation, information about 3D distribution of rock formation and fluid properties and an indication of the dynamic acoustic non-linearity of the formation.
Method and apparatus for generating motor current spectra to enhance motor system fault detection
Linehan, D.J.; Bunch, S.L.; Lyster, C.T.
1995-10-24
A method and circuitry are disclosed for sampling periodic amplitude modulations in a nonstationary periodic carrier wave to determine frequencies in the amplitude modulations. The method and circuit are described in terms of an improved motor current signature analysis. The method insures that the sampled data set contains an exact whole number of carrier wave cycles by defining the rate at which samples of motor current data are collected. The circuitry insures that a sampled data set containing stationary carrier waves is recreated from the analog motor current signal containing nonstationary carrier waves by conditioning the actual sampling rate to adjust with the frequency variations in the carrier wave. After the sampled data is transformed to the frequency domain via the Discrete Fourier Transform, the frequency distribution in the discrete spectra of those components due to the carrier wave and its harmonics will be minimized so that signals of interest are more easily analyzed. 29 figs.
Method and apparatus for generating motor current spectra to enhance motor system fault detection
Linehan, Daniel J. (Knoxville, TN); Bunch, Stanley L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Lyster, Carl T. (Knoxville, TN)
1995-01-01
A method and circuitry for sampling periodic amplitude modulations in a nonstationary periodic carrier wave to determine frequencies in the amplitude modulations. The method and circuit are described in terms of an improved motor current signature analysis. The method insures that the sampled data set contains an exact whole number of carrier wave cycles by defining the rate at which samples of motor current data are collected. The circuitry insures that a sampled data set containing stationary carrier waves is recreated from the analog motor current signal containing nonstationary carrier waves by conditioning the actual sampling rate to adjust with the frequency variations in the carrier wave. After the sampled data is transformed to the frequency domain via the Discrete Fourier Transform, the frequency distribution in the discrete spectra of those components due to the carrier wave and its harmonics will be minimized so that signals of interest are more easily analyzed.
Vosoughi, Naser; Naseri, Zahra
2002-07-01
Since suitable control of water level can greatly enhance the operation of a power station, a Fuzzy logic controller architecture is applied to show desired control of the water level in a Nuclear steam generator. with regard to the physics of the system, it is shown that two inputs, a single output and the least number of rules (9 rules) are considered for a controller, and the ANFIS training method is employed to model functions in a controlled system. By using ANFIS training method, initial member functions will be trained and appropriate functions are generated to control water level inside the steam generators while using the stated rules. The proposed architecture can construct an input output mapping based on both human knowledge (in from of Fuzzy if then rules) and stipulated input output data. In this paper with a simple test it has been shown that the architecture fuzzy logic controller has a reasonable response to one step input at a constant power. Through computer simulation, it is found that Fuzzy logic controller is suitable, especially for the water level deviation and abrupt steam flow disturbances that are typical in the existing power plant. (authors)
Blacker, Teddy D. (12205 Kashmir, N.E., Albuquerque, NM 87111)
1994-01-01
An automatic quadrilateral surface discretization method and apparatus is provided for automatically discretizing a geometric region without decomposing the region. The automated quadrilateral surface discretization method and apparatus automatically generates a mesh of all quadrilateral elements which is particularly useful in finite element analysis. The generated mesh of all quadrilateral elements is boundary sensitive, orientation insensitive and has few irregular nodes on the boundary. A permanent boundary of the geometric region is input and rows are iteratively layered toward the interior of the geometric region. Also, an exterior permanent boundary and an interior permanent boundary for a geometric region may be input and the rows are iteratively layered inward from the exterior boundary in a first counter clockwise direction while the rows are iteratively layered from the interior permanent boundary toward the exterior of the region in a second clockwise direction. As a result, a high quality mesh for an arbitrary geometry may be generated with a technique that is robust and fast for complex geometric regions and extreme mesh gradations.
Connectivity-based, all-hexahedral mesh generation method and apparatus
Tautges, T.J.; Mitchell, S.A.; Blacker, T.D.; Murdoch, P.
1998-06-16
The present invention is a computer-based method and apparatus for constructing all-hexahedral finite element meshes for finite element analysis. The present invention begins with a three-dimensional geometry and an all-quadrilateral surface mesh, then constructs hexahedral element connectivity from the outer boundary inward, and then resolves invalid connectivity. The result of the present invention is a complete representation of hex mesh connectivity only; actual mesh node locations are determined later. The basic method of the present invention comprises the step of forming hexahedral elements by making crossings of entities referred to as ``whisker chords.`` This step, combined with a seaming operation in space, is shown to be sufficient for meshing simple block problems. Entities that appear when meshing more complex geometries, namely blind chords, merged sheets, and self-intersecting chords, are described. A method for detecting invalid connectivity in space, based on repeated edges, is also described, along with its application to various cases of invalid connectivity introduced and resolved by the method. 79 figs.
Contacts to WTE operators in Austria using the Balance-Method to label the electricity generated
Arnold, Anton
to alternative methods include: - Cost savings of more than 90 % - Consideration of seasonal variation % uncertainty of the results - No need for new measurement systems - Retrospective determination (if necessary; - Temperature of the feed water; - Energy efficiency of the boiler. A European patent on the Balance
Waldo, Geoffrey S. (Santa Fe, NM)
2007-09-18
The current invention provides methods of improving folding of polypeptides using a poorly folding domain as a component of a fusion protein comprising the poorly folding domain and a polypeptide of interest to be improved. The invention also provides novel green fluorescent proteins (GFPs) and red fluorescent proteins that have enhanced folding properties.
System and method for generating current by selective minority species heating
Fisch, Nathaniel J. (Princeton, NJ)
1983-01-01
A system for the generation of toroidal current in a plasma which is prepared in a toroidal magnetic field. The system utilizes the injection of low-frequency waves into the plasma by means of phased antenna arrays or phased waveguide arrays. The plasma is prepared with a minority ion species of different charge state and different gyrofrequency from the majority ion species. The wave frequency and wave phasing are chosen such that the wave energy is absorbed preferentially by minority species ions traveling in one toroidal direction. The absorption of energy in this manner produces a toroidal electric current even when the injected waves themselves do not have substantial toroidal momentum. This current can be continuously maintained at modest cost in power and may be used to confine the plasma. The system can operate efficiently on fusion grade tokamak plasmas.
Methods and apparatuses for self-generating fault-tolerant keys in spread-spectrum systems
Moradi, Hussein; Farhang, Behrouz; Subramanian, Vijayarangam
2015-12-15
Self-generating fault-tolerant keys for use in spread-spectrum systems are disclosed. At a communication device, beacon signals are received from another communication device and impulse responses are determined from the beacon signals. The impulse responses are circularly shifted to place a largest sample at a predefined position. The impulse responses are converted to a set of frequency responses in a frequency domain. The frequency responses are shuffled with a predetermined shuffle scheme to develop a set of shuffled frequency responses. A set of phase differences is determined as a difference between an angle of the frequency response and an angle of the shuffled frequency response at each element of the corresponding sets. Each phase difference is quantized to develop a set of secret-key quantized phases and a set of spreading codes is developed wherein each spreading code includes a corresponding phase of the set of secret-key quantized phases.
Methods and apparatuses for self-generating fault-tolerant keys in spread-spectrum systems
Moradi, Hussein; Farhang, Behrouz; Subramanian, Vijayarangam
2015-12-22
Self-generating fault-tolerant keys for use in spread-spectrum systems are disclosed. At a communication device, beacon signals are received from another communication device and impulse responses are determined from the beacon signals. The impulse responses are circularly shifted to place a largest sample at a predefined position. The impulse responses are converted to a set of frequency responses in a frequency domain. The frequency responses are shuffled with a predetermined shuffle scheme to develop a set of shuffled frequency responses. A set of phase differences is determined as a difference between an angle of the frequency response and an angle of the shuffled frequency response at each element of the corresponding sets. Each phase difference is quantized to develop a set of secret-key quantized phases and a set of spreading codes is developed wherein each spreading code includes a corresponding phase of the set of secret-key quantized phases.
Cowan, Robert L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Ginosar, Daniel M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Dunks, Gary B. (Upland, CA)
2000-01-01
A method is described for synthesizing decaborane wherein at least about 90% of the boron atoms in the decaborane are the .sup.10 B isotope, comprising the steps of: (a) reacting boric acid with a C.sub.1 to C.sub.10 alkanol to form a .sup.10 B-alkyl borate wherein at least about 90% of the boron atoms in the boric acid are the .sup.10 B isotope; (b) reducing the .sup.10 B-alkyl borate to form an alkali metal .sup.10 B-borohydride; (c) converting the alkali metal .sup.10 B-borohydride to a .sup.10 B-tetradecahydroundecaborate ion; and (d) converting the .sup.10 B-tetradecahydroundecaborate ion to .sup.10 B-decaborane. Methods of preparing tetradecahydroundecaborate ions and decaborane from alkali metal borohydrides are also described.
Apparatus and method for generating a magnetic field by rotation of a charge holding object
Gerald, II, Rex E. (Brookfield, IL); Vukovic, Lela (Westchester, IL); Rathke, Jerome W. (Homer Glenn, IL)
2009-10-13
A device and a method for the production of a magnetic field using a Charge Holding Object that is mechanically rotated. In a preferred embodiment, a Charge Holding Object surrounding a sample rotates and subjects the sample to one or more magnetic fields. The one or more magnetic fields are used by NMR Electronics connected to an NMR Conductor positioned within the Charge Holding Object to perform NMR analysis of the sample.
Method for generating small and ultra small apertures, slits, nozzles and orifices
Khounsary, Ali M. (Hinsdale, IL)
2012-05-22
A method and device for one or more small apertures, slits, nozzles and orifices, preferably having a high aspect ratio. In one embodiment, one or more alternating layers of sacrificial layers and blocking layers are deposited onto a substrate. Each sacrificial layer is made of a material which preferably allows a radiation to substantially pass through. Each blocking layer is made of a material which substantially blocks the radiation.
Ness, E.
1999-09-02
Distributed generation, locating electricity generators close to the point of consumption, provides some unique benefits to power companies and customers that are not available from centralized electricity generation. Photovoltaic (PV) technology is well suited to distributed applications and can, especially in concert with other distributed resources, provide a very close match to the customer demand for electricity, at a significantly lower cost than the alternatives. In addition to augmenting power from central-station generating plants, incorporating PV systems enables electric utilities to optimize the utilization of existing transmission and distribution.
Kashiwagi, Makoto; Masui, Hideki; Denda, Yasutaka; James, David; Lantes, Bertrand; Mueller, Wolfgang; Garamszeghy, Mike; Leganes, Jose Luis; Maxeiner, Harald; Van Velzen, Leo
2007-07-01
Low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes (L-ILW ) generated at nuclear power plants are disposed of in various countries. In the disposal of such wastes, it is required that the radioactivity concentrations of waste packages should be declared with respect to difficult-to-measure nuclides (DTM nuclides), such as C-14, Ni-63 and a-emitting nuclides, which are often limited to maximum values in disposal licenses, safety cases and/or regulations for maximum radioactive concentrations. To fulfill this requirement, the Scaling Factor method (SF method) has been applied in various countries as a principal method for determining the concentrations of DTM nuclides. In the SF method, the concentrations of DTM nuclides are determined by multiplying the concentrations of certain key nuclides by SF values (the determined ratios of radioactive concentration between DTM nuclides and those key nuclides). The SF values used as conversion factors are determined from the correlation between DTM nuclides and key nuclides such as Co-60. The concentrations of key nuclides are determined by {gamma} ray measurements which can be made comparatively easily from outside the waste package. The SF values are calculated based on the data obtained from the radiochemical analysis of waste samples. The use of SFs, which are empirically based on analytical data, has become established as a widely recognized 'de facto standard'. A number of countries have independently collected nuclide data by analysis over many years and each has developed its own SF method, but all the SF methods that have been adopted are similar. The project team for standardization had been organized for establishing this SF method as a 'de jure standard' in the international standardization system of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). The project team for standardization has advanced the standardization through technical studies, based upon each country's study results and analysis data. The conclusions reached by the project team was published as ISO International Standard 21238:2007 'The Scaling Factor method to determine the radioactivity of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste packages generated at nuclear power plants'. This paper gives an introduction to the international standardization process for the SF method and the contents of the recently published International Standard. (authors)
Zeikus, Gregory J. (Okemos, MI); Shin, Hyoun S. (Lansing, MI); Jain, Mahendra K. (Lexington, KY)
2002-01-01
Disclosed are methods using neutral red to mediate the interconversion of chemical and electrical energy. Electrically reduced neutral red has been found to promote cell growth and formation of reduced products by reversibly increasing the ratio of the reduced:oxidized forms of NAD(H) or NADP(H). Electrically reduced neutral red is able to serve as the sole source of reducing power for microbial, cell growth. Neutral red is also able to promote conversion of chemical energy to electrical energy by facilitating the transfer of electrons from microbial reducing power to a fuel cell cathode.
Zeikus, Joseph G. (Okemas, MI); Park, Doo (Seoul, KR)
2001-01-01
Disclosed are methods using neutral red to mediate the interconversion of chemical and electrical energy. Electrically reduced neutral red has been found to promote cell growth and formation of reduced products by reversibly increasing the ratio of the reduced:oxidized forms of NAD(H) or NADP(H). Electrically reduced neutral red is able to serve as the sole source of reducing power for microbial cell growth. Neutral red is also able to promote conversion of chemical energy to electrical energy by facilitating the transfer of electrons from microbial reducing power to a fuel cell cathode.
EZPIX: a tablet entry method for computer-generated slides, drawings, and graphs
Williams, J.M.
1984-09-01
This manual outlines a method for making slides, drawings, maps, graphs, etc., with the touch of a button. A minicomputer-based program, called EZPIX, connects the host computer graphics system to a tablet on which one can digitize input and specify graphics commands from a menu. A minicomputer terminal serves as editor and provides local graphics output. The magic button does practically everything else. It signs you on, starts, builds, ends, executes and saves your command file, and signs you off. It even allows you to make a composite picture from an assortment of inappropriately sized originals. The graph and pie chart modes are handy, too.
Method and apparatus for the simultaneous display and correlation of independently generated images
Vaitekunas, Jeffrey J. (Chicago, IL); Roberts, Ronald A. (Crown Point, IN)
1991-01-01
An apparatus and method for location by location correlation of multiple images from Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) and other sources. Multiple images of a material specimen are displayed on one or more monitors of an interactive graphics system. Specimen landmarks are located in each image and mapping functions from a reference image to each other image are calcuated using the landmark locations. A location selected by positioning a cursor in the reference image is mapped to the other images and location identifiers are simultaneously displayed in those images. Movement of the cursor in the reference image causes simultaneous movement of the location identifiers in the other images to positions corresponding to the location of the reference image cursor.
Saykally, Richard J; Duffin, Andrew M; Wilson, Kevin R; Rude, Bruce S
2013-02-12
A method and apparatus for producing both a gas and electrical power from a flowing liquid, the method comprising: a) providing a source liquid containing ions that when neutralized form a gas; b) providing a velocity to the source liquid relative to a solid material to form a charged liquid microjet, which subsequently breaks up into a droplet spay, the solid material forming a liquid-solid interface; and c) supplying electrons to the charged liquid by contacting a spray stream of the charged liquid with an electron source. In one embodiment, where the liquid is water, hydrogen gas is formed and a streaming current is generated. The apparatus comprises a source of pressurized liquid, a microjet nozzle, a conduit for delivering said liquid to said microjet nozzle, and a conductive metal target sufficiently spaced from said nozzle such that the jet stream produced by said microjet is discontinuous at said target. In one arrangement, with the metal nozzle and target electrically connected to ground, both hydrogen gas and a streaming current are generated at the target as it is impinged by the streaming, liquid spray microjet.
MacPherson, D.C.; Nelson, L.D.; O`Brien, M.J.
1996-12-10
Apparatus performs a method of generating one or more output laser pulses in a range of 2 to 6 microns. When a plurality of the output laser pulses are generated, a first output pulse has any selected wavelength within the range and a second output pulse is temporally closely spaced relative to the first output pulse and has a chosen wavelength differing from the selected wavelength. An oscillator laser cavity is provided with a tunable oscillator rod capable of generating initial laser pulses within a range of from 750 to 1000 nm, and a tuning element is coupled to the rod. A flashlamp is operable to pump the rod. For two pulse operation, the flashlamp has a given duration. A Q-switch provides the initial laser pulses upon operation of the tuning element and the flashlamp. A Raman device coupled to the rod shifts the wavelength of such initial laser pulse into the range of from 2 to 6 microns to form the output laser pulse having a wavelength within the range. For multiple pulses, a controller causes the Q-switch to provide first and second ones of the initial laser pulses, spaced by a time interval less than the given duration. Also, a selector coupled to the tuning element is operable within such duration to successively select the wavelength of the first output pulse and the chosen wavelength of the second initial pulse. The Raman device is responsive to each of the initial light pulses to generate radiation at first and second Stokes wavelengths, each of said the output laser pulses being radiation at the second Stokes wavelength. 30 figs.
A new method for RF power generation for two-beam linear colliders
Braun, H.; Corsini, R.; D'Amico, T.; Delahaye, J. P.; Guignard, G.; Johnson, C.; Millich, A.; Pearce, P.; Rinolfi, L.; Riche, A.; Schulte, D.; Thorndahl, L.; Valentini, M.; Wilson, I.; Ruth, R. D. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94309 (United States)
1999-05-07
In this paper we discuss a new approach to two-beam acceleration. The energy for RF production is initially stored in a long-pulse electron beam which is efficiently accelerated to about 1.2 GeV by a fully loaded, conventional, low frequency ({approx}1 GHz) linac. The beam pulse length is twice the length of the high-gradient linac. Segments of this long pulse beam are compressed using combiner rings to create a sequence of higher peak power drive beams with gaps in between. This train of drive beams is distributed from the end of the linac against the main beam direction down a common transport line so that each drive beam can power a section of the main linac. After a 180-degree turn, each high-current, low-energy drive beam is decelerated in low-impedance decelerator structures, and the resulting power is used to accelerate the low-current, high-energy beam in the main linac. The method discussed here seems relatively inexpensive, is very flexible and can be used to accelerate beams for linear colliders over the entire frequency and energy range.
A new method for RF power generation for two-beam linear colliders
Braun, H.; Corsini, R.; DAmico, T.; Delahaye, J.P.; Guignard, G.; Johnson, C.; Millich, A.; Pearce, P.; Rinolfi, L.; Riche, A.; Schulte, D.; Thorndahl, L.; Valentini, M.; Wilson, I. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Ruth, R.D. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94309 (United States)
1999-05-01
In this paper we discuss a new approach to two-beam acceleration. The energy for RF production is initially stored in a long-pulse electron beam which is efficiently accelerated to about 1.2 GeV by a fully loaded, conventional, low frequency ({approximately}1 GHz) linac. The beam pulse length is twice the length of the high-gradient linac. Segments of this long pulse beam are compressed using combiner rings to create a sequence of higher peak power drive beams with gaps in between. This train of drive beams is distributed from the end of the linac against the main beam direction down a common transport line so that each drive beam can power a section of the main linac. After a 180-degree turn, each high-current, low-energy drive beam is decelerated in low-impedance decelerator structures, and the resulting power is used to accelerate the low-current, high-energy beam in the main linac. The method discussed here seems relatively inexpensive, is very flexible and can be used to accelerate beams for linear colliders over the entire frequency and energy range. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}
A new method of RF power generation for two-beam linear colliders
Braun, H; D'Amico, T E; Delahaye, J P; Guignard, Gilbert; Johnson, C; Millich, Antonio; Pearce, P; Rinolfi, Louis; Riche, A J; Schulte, Daniel; Thorndahl, L; Valentini, M; Wilson, Ian H; Ruth, Ronald D
1998-01-01
In this paper we discuss a new approach to two-beam acceleration. The energy for RF production is initially stored in a long-pulse electron beam which is efficiently accelerated to about 1.2 GeV by a fully loaded, conventional, low frequency (~1 GHz) linac. The beam pulse length is twice the length of the high-gradient linac. Segments of this long pulse beam are compressed using combiner rings to create a sequence of higher peak power drive beams with gaps in between. This train of drive beams is distributed from the end of the linac against the main beam direction down a common transport line so that each drive beam can power a section of the main linac. After a 180-degree turn, each high-current, low-energy drive beam is decelerated in low-impedance decelerator structures, and the resulti ng power is used to accelerate the low-current, high-energy beam in the main linac. The method discussed here seems relatively inexpensive is very flexible and can be used to accelerate beams for lin ear colliders over the...
Burin des Roziers, T.
2011-01-01
variables formula -&i [gJx)] -$IEpo [gi(x(t))] I&o [Vgi(x(t)) Epf [Vgi(x) . F(x(t))] . F(x)]. If the assumption thatthat $~e[,) [g;(x)] N ~e(,) [Vgi(x) “F(x)]. But %,[,) [gi(
Cleanroom Energy Optimization Methods
Naughton, P.; Schrecengost, R.
2004-01-01
so the cleanroom designer must be careful in designing the cleanroom air path. Careful selection of very low velocity, low pressure cooling coils is needed. After air passes through any internal sound attenuators and the discharge HEPA filters... pressure losses. 2) Reduce the cleanroom airflow in all areas or in selected areas with mixed cleanroom HEPA filter velocities. Many manufacturers use cleanroom unidirectional velocities of less than the historical average of 90 fpm (0.457 m...
nzhang
2013-12-17
May 2, 2014 ... population, using clockwise-shaped searching vectors instead of the original ... term, we can see the objective value function has many very narrow basins ..... People say we cannot enter the same river twice, but we.
Low-Thrust, High-Accuracy Trajectory Optimization
Ross, IM; Gong, Q; Sekhavat, P
2007-01-01
A. E. , Dynamic Optimization, Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. ,M. , “Space Trajectory Optimization and L 1 -Optimal ControlMethods for Trajectory Optimization,” Journal of Guidance,
NPIP: A skew line needle configuration optimization system for HDR brachytherapy
Goldberg, Ken
NPIP: A skew line needle configuration optimization system for HDR brachytherapy Timmy Siauwa) brachytherapy and needle planning by integer program (NPIP), a computational method for generat- ing needles than the current HDR brachytherapy workflow. Combined with robot assisted brachytherapy
Optimization Online - Probabilistic optimization via approximate p ...
W. van vAckooij
2015-05-27
May 27, 2015 ... Probabilistic optimization via approximate p-efficient points and bundle methods. W. van vAckooij(wim.van-ackooij ***at*** edf.fr )
Convex Optimization Convex Optimization
Masci, Frank
Convex Optimization #12;#12;Convex Optimization Stephen Boyd Department of Electrical Engineering Cataloguing-in-Publication data Boyd, Stephen P. Convex Optimization / Stephen Boyd & Lieven Vandenberghe p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0 521 83378 7 1. Mathematical optimization. 2
Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.; Palmintier, B.; Barrows, C.; Ibanez, E.; Bird, L.; Zuboy, J.
2014-09-01
This report outlines the methods, data, and tools that could be used at different levels of sophistication and effort to estimate the benefits and costs of DGPV. In so doing, we identify the gaps in current benefit-cost-analysis methods, which we hope will inform the ongoing research agenda in this area. The focus of this report is primarily on benefits and costs from the utility or electricity generation system perspective. It is intended to provide useful background information to utility and regulatory decision makers and their staff, who are often being asked to use or evaluate estimates of the benefits and cost of DGPV in regulatory proceedings. Understanding the technical rigor of the range of methods and how they might need to evolve as DGPV becomes a more significant contributor of energy to the electricity system will help them be better consumers of this type of information. This report is also intended to provide information to utilities, policy makers, PV technology developers, and other stakeholders, which might help them maximize the benefits and minimize the costs of integrating DGPV into a changing electricity system.
Strauss, C.E.
1997-11-18
Apparatus and method are disclosed for heterodyne-generated, two-dimensional detector array using a single detector. Synthetic-array heterodyne detection, permits a single-element optical detector to behave as though it were divided into an array of separate heterodyne detector elements. A fifteen-element synthetic array has successfully been experimentally realized on a single-element detector, permitting all of the array elements to be read out continuously and in parallel from one electrical connection. A CO{sub 2} laser and a single-element HgCdTe photodiode are employed. A different heterodyne local oscillator frequency is incident upon the spatially resolvable regions of the detector surface. Thus, different regions are mapped to different heterodyne beat frequencies. One can determine where the photons were incident on the detector surface even though a single electrical connection to the detector is used. This also prevents the destructive interference that occurs when multiple speckles are imaged (similar to spatial diversity), In coherent LIDAR this permits a larger field of view. An acoustooptic modulator generates the local oscillator frequencies and can achieve adequate spatial separation of optical frequencies of the order of a megahertz apart. 4 figs.
High speed optical and X-ray methods for evaluating laser-generated shock-wave in materials
Paisley, D.; Swift, D.
2000-11-01
Optical diagnostic techniques including interferometry, electronic streak photography, and transient x-ray diffraction are used to study the dynamic material response to shock loading by direct laser irradiation and impact by laser-launched plates. The Los Alamos Trident laser is one of several lasers that have been used to generate shocks of 10 Kbar to several Mbar in single crystal and polycrystalline materials. Incorporating optical velocity interferometry (line-VISAR and point-VISAR) with transient x-ray diffraction can provide a complete understanding of the dynamic material response to shock compression and release. Laser-launched flyer plates provide an ideal method to generate one-dimensional shocks in materials. The quality of the one-dimensionality of the launch and acceleration of plates is evaluated by line-imaging VISA.R. The line-imaging VISAR images the fringes along a line across the diameter of the plate. Each fringe maxima and minima provide acceleration and velocity information at the specific point on the plate. By varying the fringe constant number of fringes and fringe spacing on the plate, detailed experimental data can be obtained. For our experiments, most plates are 3-mm diameter and accelerated to 0.2-->6 km/sec.
Strauss, Charlie E. (Santa Fe, NM)
1997-01-01
Apparatus and method for heterodyne-generated, two-dimensional detector array using a single detector. Synthetic-array heterodyne detection, permits a single-element optical detector to behave as though it were divided into an array of separate heterodyne detector elements. A fifteen-element synthetic array has successfully been experimentally realized on a single-element detector, permitting all of the array elements to be read out continuously and in parallel from one electrical connection. A CO.sub.2 laser and a single-element HgCdTe photodiode are employed. A different heterodyne local oscillator frequency is incident upon the spatially resolvable regions of the detector surface. Thus, different regions are mapped to different heterodyne beat frequencies. One can determine where the photons were incident on the detector surface even though a single electrical connection to the detector is used. This also prevents the destructive interference that occurs when multiple speckles are imaged (similar to spatial diversity), In coherent LIDAR this permits a larger field of view. An acoustooptic modulator generates the local oscillator frequencies and can achieve adequate spatial separation of optical frequencies of the order of a megahertz apart.
Apparatus and method for generating continuous wave 16 .mu.m laser radiation using gaseous CF.sub.4
Telle, John M. (Los Alamos, NM)
1986-01-01
Apparatus and method for generating continuous wave 16 .mu.m laser radiation using gaseous CF.sub.4. Laser radiation at 16 .mu.m has been observed in a cooled static cell containing low pressure CF.sub.4 optically pumped by an approximately 3 W output power cw CO.sub.2 laser. The laser cavity employed was a multiple-pass off-axis-path two spherical mirror ring resonator. Unidirectional CF.sub.4 laser output power at 615 cm.sup.-1 exceeded 2 mW. Computer calculations indicate that for modest pump powers of about 40 W, approximately 1 W of emitted laser radiation at 16 .mu.m might be obtained.
Latcham, Jacob G. (Jacob Greco)
2009-01-01
An air-to-oil heat exchanger was modeled and optimized for use in a system utilizing a thermoelectric generator to convert low grade waste heat in flue gas streams to electricity. The NTU-effectiveness method, exergy, and ...
Wolberg, George
Optimizing Building Energy Use Objective: Perform a comprehensive energy audit of a targeted New York City building, identify inefficiencies, recommend modifications to improve energy efficiency, electricity-generation method, and the energy efficiency of buildings. Building energy efficiency determines
Friedmann, Roland
2009-03-05
For good performance and high durability PEM fuel cells run at high water saturation levels. However, excess liquid water generated by the oxygen reduction reaction at the cathode can block pores in the catalyst layer so that reactant gases can...
Multi-period portfolio optimization with alpha decay ... Transmission and Generation Investment in Electricity Markets: The Effects of Market Splitting and ... Improving Large Scale Day-ahead Security Constrained Unit Commitment Performance
Danon, Yaron
2006-01-01
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 562 (2006) 401406 Generating a multi-line neutron beam using an electron Linac and a U-filter R. Moreha,b,Ã, R.C. Blockb , Y. Danonb a Physics with the steady-state filtered neutron beams obtained using nuclear reactors [14]. The filter materials used
McLinko, Ryan M.
Space-based solar power (SSP) generation is being touted as a solution to our ever-increasing energy consumption and dependence on fossil fuels. Satellites in Earth's orbit can capture solar energy through photovoltaic ...
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
The Senate Bill 2793 authorizes the Public Service Commission (PSC) to utilize an alternative cost recovery for certain base load generation. The PSC is authorized to include in an electric...
Zhu, Ling; Long, R. J.; Mao, Shude [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, A20 Datun Rd, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Peng, Eric W.; Li, Biao [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Liu, Chengze [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Caldwell, Nelson [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Blakeslee, John P.; Côté, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; Gwyn, Stephen [National Research Council of Canada, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Cuillandre, Jean-Charles [Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Corporation, Kamuela, HI 96743 (United States); Durrell, Patrick [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Youngstown State University, One University Plaza, Youngstown, OH 44555 (United States); Emsellem, Eric [Université de Lyon 1, CRAL, Observatoire de Lyon, 9 av. Charles André, F-69230 Saint-Genis Laval, CNRS, UMR 5574, ENS de Lyon (France); Jordán, Andrés; Muñoz, Roberto; Puzia, Thomas [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Lançon, Ariane [Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l'Universite, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Mei, Simona, E-mail: lzhu@mpia-hd.mpg.de [GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, 77 av. Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris (France)
2014-09-01
We study the dynamics of the giant elliptical galaxy M87 from the central to the outermost regions with the made-to-measure (M2M) method. We use a new catalog of 922 globular cluster line-of-sight velocities extending to a projected radius of 180 kpc (equivalent to 25 M87 effective radii), and SAURON integral field unit data within the central 2.4 kpc. There are 263 globular clusters, mainly located beyond 40 kpc, newly observed by the Next Generation Virgo Survey. For the M2M modeling, the gravitational potential is taken as a combination of a luminous matter potential with a constant stellar mass-to-light ratio and a dark matter potential modeled as a logarithmic potential. Our best-fit dynamical model returns a stellar mass-to-light ratio in the I band of M/L{sub I} = 6.0 ± 0.3 M{sub ?} L{sub ?}{sup ?1} with a dark matter potential scale velocity of 591 ± 50 km s{sup –1} and scale radius of 42 ± 10 kpc. We determine the total mass of M87 within 180 kpc to be (1.5 ± 0.2) × 10{sup 13} M {sub ?}. The mass within 40 kpc is smaller than previous estimates determined using globular cluster kinematics that did not extend beyond ?45 kpc. With our new globular cluster velocities at much larger radii, we see that globular clusters around 40 kpc show an anomalously large velocity dispersion which affected previous results. The mass we derive is in good agreement with that inferred from ROSAT X-ray observation out to 180 kpc. Within 30 kpc our mass is also consistent with that inferred from Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray observations, while within 120 kpc it is about 20% smaller. The model velocity dispersion anisotropy ? parameter for the globular clusters in M87 is small, varying from –0.2 at the center to 0.2 at ?40 kpc, and gradually decreasing to zero at ?120 kpc.
Optimal power flow in microgrids using event-triggered optimization Pu Wan and Michael D. Lemmon
Lemmon, Michael
Optimal power flow in microgrids using event-triggered optimization Pu Wan and Michael D. Lemmon Abstract-- Microgrids are power generation and distribution systems in which users and generators-triggered distributed optimization algorithm to solve the optimal power flow (OPF) problem in microgrids. Under event
Csete, Maria
A finite-element method for calculating the illumination-dependence of absorption in three-dimensional nanostructures is presented based on the radio frequency module of the Comsol Multiphysics software package (Comsol ...
Berglof, K.
2010-01-01
Air-conditioning, refrigeration and heat pump equipment is using 15 to 20% of the electrical energy globally. Many times these systems do not operate in an effective way. The paper present a method for and experience from performance testing...
Bender, M; Self, B; Schroeder, E; Giap, B
2015-01-01
provided the new-technology passive warming devices (Opt-on the most effective passive warming method to improve theComparing New-Technology Passive Warming Versus Traditional
An optimization for binarization methods by removing binary artifacts Marte A. Ramrez-Ortegn a,c,
Ziegler, Günter M.
of research groups continue developing binarization methods specialized in historical documents (Gatos et al al. (2010), Ntirogiannis et al. (2009), Gupta et al. (2007) and Gatos et al., 2006 compute
Crew Pairing Optimization with Genetic Harry Kornilakis and Panagiotis Stamatopoulos
Panagiotis, Stamatopoulos
- tions. The purpose of the crew pairing problem is to generate a set of pairings with minimal cost with near optimal cost. This problem, which is modelled by a set covering formulation, is solved with a genetic algorithm. The presented method was tested on actual flight data of Olympic Airways. 1
Gorissen, Bram L
2015-01-01
Comparison of optimization algorithms for inverse treatment planning requires objective function value evaluation.
Optimization Online Links. Optimization related societies. Mathematical Optimization Society · SIAM · INFORMS. Optimization related journals. Mathematical ...
Reed, Evan J. (Pine Island, MN); Armstrong, Michael R. (Albuquerque, NM)
2010-09-07
Strain waves of THz frequencies can coherently generate radiation when they propagate past an interface between materials with different piezoelectric coefficients. Such radiation is of detectable amplitude and contains sufficient information to determine the time-dependence of the strain wave with unprecedented subpicosecond, nearly atomic time and space resolution.
Zhou, Zhi; de Bedout, Juan Manuel; Kern, John Michael; Biyik, Emrah; Chandra, Ramu Sharat
2013-01-22
A system for optimizing customer utility usage in a utility network of customer sites, each having one or more utility devices, where customer site is communicated between each of the customer sites and an optimization server having software for optimizing customer utility usage over one or more networks, including private and public networks. A customer site model for each of the customer sites is generated based upon the customer site information, and the customer utility usage is optimized based upon the customer site information and the customer site model. The optimization server can be hosted by an external source or within the customer site. In addition, the optimization processing can be partitioned between the customer site and an external source.
Robust optimization based self scheduling of hydro-thermal Genco ...
Dec 29, 2013 ... Abstract: This paper proposes a robust optimization model for optimal self scheduling of a hydro-thermal generating company. The proposed ...
Hershkowitz, Noah (Madison, WI); Longmier, Benjamin (Madison, WI); Baalrud, Scott (Madison, WI)
2009-03-03
An electron generating device extracts electrons, through an electron sheath, from plasma produced using RF fields. The electron sheath is located near a grounded ring at one end of a negatively biased conducting surface, which is normally a cylinder. Extracted electrons pass through the grounded ring in the presence of a steady state axial magnetic field. Sufficiently large magnetic fields and/or RF power into the plasma allow for helicon plasma generation. The ion loss area is sufficiently large compared to the electron loss area to allow for total non-ambipolar extraction of all electrons leaving the plasma. Voids in the negatively-biased conducting surface allow the time-varying magnetic fields provided by the antenna to inductively couple to the plasma within the conducting surface. The conducting surface acts as a Faraday shield, which reduces any time-varying electric fields from entering the conductive surface, i.e. blocks capacitive coupling between the antenna and the plasma.
Wang Xiaoting; Schirmer, Sophie G. [Department of Applied Maths and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Bayat, Abolfazl; Bose, Sougato [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)
2010-07-15
We discuss how to prepare an Ising chain in a GHZ state using a single global control field only. This model does not require the spins to be individually addressable and is applicable to quantum systems such as cold atoms in optical lattices, some liquid- or solid-state NMR experiments, and many nanoscale quantum structures. We show that GHZ states can always be reached asymptotically from certain easy-to-prepare initial states using adiabatic passage, and under certain conditions finite-time reachability can be ensured. To provide a reference useful for future experimental implementations, three different control strategies to achieve the objective--adiabatic passage, Lyapunov control, and optimal control--are compared, and their advantages and disadvantages discussed, in particular in the presence of realistic imperfections such as imperfect initial state preparation, system inhomogeneity, and dephasing.
Optimization Journals, Sites, Societies - Optimization Online
Optimization related societies. Mathematical Optimization Society · SIAM · INFORMS. Optimization related journals. Mathematical Programming and ...
Global optimization in reduced space
Wechsung, Achim
2014-01-01
Optimization is a key activity in any engineering discipline. Global optimization methods, in particular, strive to solve nonconvex problems, which often arise in chemical engineering, and deterministic algorithms such as ...
Cisneros, Anselmo Tomas
2013-01-01
average density criteria (design sequence 1). design space, design criteria, and results of their though the design criteria-? and optimization
Design-by-Analogy Using the WordTree Method and an Automated WordTree Generating Tool
Oriakhi, Edgar Velazquez
2012-07-16
............................................................................... 44 Tutorial for the WordTree Express ........................................................... 45 IV EXPERIMENT: WORDTREE DESIGN METHOD...????????... 46 Overview... for the development of the WTE program. The topics covered are as follows: ? Goals of the WTE program ? WTE user interface layout ? WTE program code layout ? Challenges of the design ? Benefits of the design ? Tutorial Goals of the WordTree Express Program...
Player, Leah Montgomery
1994-01-01
When sampling for isocyanates utilizing OSHA methodology, a glass fiber filter coated with I-(2-pyridyl)piperazine is used for collection. For OSHA Method 42 which is used for 2,6-toluene diisocyanate, 2,4-toluene diisocyanate, and 1,6-hexamethylene...
Vu, Cung Khac; Nihei, Kurt; Johnson, Paul A.; Guyer, Robert; Ten Cate, James A.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; Larmat, Carene S.
2015-12-29
A method and system includes generating a first coded acoustic signal including pulses each having a modulated signal at a central frequency; and a second coded acoustic signal each pulse of which includes a modulated signal a central frequency of which is a fraction d of the central frequency of the modulated signal for the corresponding pulse in the first plurality of pulses. A receiver detects a third signal generated by a non-linear mixing process in the mixing zone and the signal is processed to extract the third signal to obtain an emulated micro-seismic event signal occurring at the mixing zone; and to characterize properties of the medium or creating a 3D image of the properties of the medium, or both, based on the emulated micro-seismic event signal.
Robin, A.M.; Kassman, J.S.; Leininger, T.F.; Wolfenbarger, J.K.; Wu, C.M.; Yang, P.P.
1991-09-01
This second Topical Report describes the work that was completed between January 1, 1989 and December 31, 1990 in a Cooperative Agreement between Texaco and the US Department of Energy that began on September 30, 1987. During the period that is covered in this report, the development and optimization of in-situ and external desulfurization processes were pursued. The research effort included bench scale testing, PDU scoping tests, process economic studies and advanced instrument testing. Two bench scale studies were performed at the Research Triangle Institute with zinc titanate sorbent to obtain data on its cycle life, sulfur capacity, durability and the effect of chlorides. These studies quantify sulfur capture during simulated air and oxygen-blown gasification for two zinc titanate formulations. Eight PDU runs for a total of 20 days of operation were conducted to evaluate the performance of candidate sorbents for both in-situ and external desulfurization. A total of 47 tests were completed with oxygen and air-blown gasification. Candidate sorbents included iron oxide for in-situ desulfurization and calcium based and mixed metal oxides for external desulfurization. Gasifier performance and sorbent sulfur capture are compared for both air-blown and oxygen-blown operation.
Nielsen, Finn Ã?rup
Canonical Ridge Analysis with Ridge Parameter Optimization F. Ã?. Nielsen, L. K. Hansen and S. C - PLS 1 = k 0 = k optimal k k = optimal k k Â£ Â£ 0 #12; Canonical Ridge Analysis with Ridge Parameter Optimization F. Ã?. Nielsen, L. K. Hansen and S. C. Strother The Human Brain Project, P20 MH57180 ``Spatial
Robertson, A.; Domeracki, W.; Newby, R.; Rehmat, A.; Horazak, D.
1992-10-01
After many years of experimental testing and development work, coal-fired pressurized fluidized bed (PFB) combustion combined-cycle power plants are moving toward reality. Under the US Department of Energy`s Clean Coal Technology Program, a 70-MWe PFB combustion retrofit, utilizing a 1525{degrees}F gas turbine inlet temperature, has been built and operated as a demonstration plant at the American Electric Power Company`s Tidd Plant in Brilliant, Ohio. As PFB combustion technology moves closer and closer to commercialization, interest is turning toward the development of an even more efficient and more cost-effective PFB combustion plant. The targeted goals of this ``second-generation`` plant are a 45-percent efficiency and a cost of electricity (COE) that is at least 20 percent lower than the COE of a conventional pulverized-coal (PC)-fired plant with stack gas scrubbing. In addition, plant emissions should be within New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and the plant should have high availability, be able to burn different ranks of coal, and incorporate modular construction technologies. In response to this need, a team of companies led by Foster Wheeler Development Corporation (FWDC). The key components in the proposed second-generation plant are the carbonizer, CPFBC, ceramic cross-flow filter, and topping combustor. Unfortunately, none of these components has been operated at proposed plant operating conditions, and experimental tests must be conducted to explore/determine their performance throughout the proposed plant operating envelope. The major thrust of Phase 2 is to design, construct, test, and evaluate the performance of the key components of the proposed plant.
Polyethylene fiber drawing optimization
Chiloyan, Vazrik
2011-01-01
Polymer fiber drawing creates fibers with enhanced thermal conductivity and strength compared to bulk polymer because drawing aligns the molecular chains. I optimize the polymer fiber drawing method in order to achieve ...
Communication Optimization for Customizable Domain-Specific Computing
Xiao, Bingjun
2015-01-01
Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .176 Communication Optimization
Convex and Nonsmooth Optimization Submissions - 2012. January 2012. Nonsmooth Optimization Necessary optimality conditions in pessimistic bilevel ...
Optimization related societies. Mathematical Optimization Society · SIAM · INFORMS. Optimization related journals. Mathematical Programming and ...
Wang, Haoqing
2015-01-01
Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .annotation optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Opt. is the time after optimization. Anno- phos is the time
Kohut, Sviataslau V.; Staroverov, Viktor N.; Ryabinkin, Ilya G.
2014-05-14
We describe a method for constructing a hierarchy of model potentials approximating the functional derivative of a given orbital-dependent exchange-correlation functional with respect to electron density. Each model is derived by assuming a particular relationship between the self-consistent solutions of Kohn–Sham (KS) and generalized Kohn–Sham (GKS) equations for the same functional. In the KS scheme, the functional is differentiated with respect to density, in the GKS scheme—with respect to orbitals. The lowest-level approximation is the orbital-averaged effective potential (OAEP) built with the GKS orbitals. The second-level approximation, termed the orbital-consistent effective potential (OCEP), is based on the assumption that the KS and GKS orbitals are the same. It has the form of the OAEP plus a correction term. The highest-level approximation is the density-consistent effective potential (DCEP), derived under the assumption that the KS and GKS electron densities are equal. The analytic expression for a DCEP is the OCEP formula augmented with kinetic-energy-density-dependent terms. In the case of exact-exchange functional, the OAEP is the Slater potential, the OCEP is roughly equivalent to the localized Hartree–Fock approximation and related models, and the DCEP is practically indistinguishable from the true optimized effective potential for exact exchange. All three levels of the proposed hierarchy require solutions of the GKS equations as input and have the same affordable computational cost.
A Problem Generator Jorg Fliege
Fliege, JÃ¶rg
A Problem Generator Jorg Fliege Fachbereich Mathematik Universitat Dortmund 44221 Dortmund;nd a new, previously unconsidered one. We propose a problem generator that can auto- matically generate new optimization problems. These problems can then be analyzed by scientists with, e. g., standard
Donchev, Todor I. (Urbana, IL); Petrov, Ivan G. (Champaign, IL)
2011-05-31
Described herein is an apparatus and a method for producing atom clusters based on a gas discharge within a hollow cathode. The hollow cathode includes one or more walls. The one or more walls define a sputtering chamber within the hollow cathode and include a material to be sputtered. A hollow anode is positioned at an end of the sputtering chamber, and atom clusters are formed when a gas discharge is generated between the hollow anode and the hollow cathode.
Optimal Pairings F. Vercauteren
International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)
Optimal Pairings F. Vercauteren Department of Electrical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit pairing is completely determined by its value on one set of generators of G1, G2: let G1 = P , G2 = Q with the occasional jumps caused by fundamentally new approaches. One line of research is focused on shortening
Optimal Pairings F. Vercauteren #
International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)
Optimal Pairings F. Vercauteren # Department of Electrical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit. Indeed, every pairing is completely determined by its value on one set of generators of G 1 , G 2 : let G improved ef ficiency, interspersed with the occasional jumps caused by fundamentally new approaches. One
Chopped random-basis quantum optimization
Tommaso Caneva; Tommaso Calarco; Simone Montangero
2011-08-22
In this work we describe in detail the "Chopped RAndom Basis" (CRAB) optimal control technique recently introduced to optimize t-DMRG simulations [arXiv:1003.3750]. Here we study the efficiency of this control technique in optimizing different quantum processes and we show that in the considered cases we obtain results equivalent to those obtained via different optimal control methods while using less resources. We propose the CRAB optimization as a general and versatile optimal control technique.
Nagy, Peter
2013-09-30
The main goal of the proposed project is the development of validated nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques for in situ monitoring of ferritic-martensitic steels like Grade 91 9Cr-1Mo, which are candidate materials for Generation IV nuclear energy structural components operating at temperatures up to ~650{degree}C and for steam-generator tubing for sodium-cooled fast reactors. Full assessment of thermomechanical damage requires a clear separation between thermally activated microstructural evolution and creep damage caused by simultaneous mechanical stress. Creep damage can be classified as "negligible" creep without significant plastic strain and "ordinary" creep of the primary, secondary, and tertiary kind that is accompanied by significant plastic deformation and/or cavity nucleation and growth. Under negligible creep conditions of interest in this project, minimal or no plastic strain occurs, and the accumulation of creep damage does not significantly reduce the fatigue life of a structural component so that low-temperature design rules, such as the ASME Section III, Subsection NB, can be applied with confidence. The proposed research project will utilize a multifaceted approach in which the feasibility of electrical conductivity and thermo-electric monitoring methods is researched and coupled with detailed post-thermal/creep exposure characterization of microstructural changes and damage processes using state-of-the-art electron microscopy techniques, with the aim of establishing the most effective nondestructive materials evaluation technique for particular degradation modes in high-temperature alloys that are candidates for use in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) as well as providing the necessary mechanism-based underpinnings for relating the two. Only techniques suitable for practical application in situ will be considered. As the project evolves and results accumulate, we will also study the use of this technique for monitoring other GEN IV materials. Through the results obtained from this integrated materials behavior and NDE study, new insight will be gained into the best nondestructive creep and microstructure monitoring methods for the particular mechanisms identified in these materials. The proposed project includes collaboration with a national laboratory partner and the results will also serve as a foundation to guide the efforts of scientists in the DOE laboratory, university, and industrial communities concerned with the technological challenges of monitoring creep and microstructural evolution in materials planned to be used in Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems.
An introduction to shape optimization, with
Frey, Pascal
An introduction to shape optimization, with applications in fluid mechanics Charles Dapogny1's method 4 Numerical treatment of shape optimization 5 To go further: two popular methods 2 / 91 #12 Examples Shape derivatives Numerics Other methods Introduction Â· The main target of shape optimization
Integrating Gasifiers and Reciprocating Engine Generators to...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
benefit industries that generate organic waste streams, such as food processing plants, pulp and paper factories, and large farms. Project Description This project optimized the...
Bennett, R.G.; Christian, J.D.; Kirkham, R.J.; Tranter, T.J.
1998-09-01
An improved method is described for producing {sup 99m}Tc compositions. {sup 100}Mo metal is irradiated with photons in a particle (electron) accelerator to produce {sup 99}Mo metal which is dissolved in a solvent. A solvated {sup 99}Mo product is then dried to generate a supply of {sup 99}MoO{sub 3} crystals. The crystals are thereafter heated at a temperature which will sublimate the crystals and form a gaseous mixture containing vaporized {sup 99m}TcO{sub 3} and vaporized {sup 99m}TcO{sub 2} but will not cause the production of vaporized {sup 99}MoO{sub 3}. The mixture is then combined with an oxidizing gas to generate a gaseous stream containing vaporized {sup 99m}Tc{sub 2}O{sub 7}. Next, the gaseous stream is cooled to a temperature sufficient to convert the vaporized {sup 99m}Tc{sub 2}O{sub 7} into a condensed {sup 99m}Tc-containing product. The product has high purity levels resulting from the use of reduced temperature conditions and ultrafine crystalline {sup 99}MoO{sub 3} starting materials with segregated {sup 99m}Tc compositions therein which avoid the production of vaporized {sup 99}MoO{sub 3} contaminants. 1 fig.
Nuclear Energy Density Optimization
M. Kortelainen; T. Lesinski; J. Moré; W. Nazarewicz; J. Sarich; N. Schunck; M. V. Stoitsov; S. Wild
2010-05-27
We carry out state-of-the-art optimization of a nuclear energy density of Skyrme type in the framework of the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) theory. The particle-hole and particle-particle channels are optimized simultaneously, and the experimental data set includes both spherical and deformed nuclei. The new model-based, derivative-free optimization algorithm used in this work has been found to be significantly better than standard optimization methods in terms of reliability, speed, accuracy, and precision. The resulting parameter set UNEDFpre results in good agreement with experimental masses, radii, and deformations and seems to be free of finite-size instabilities. An estimate of the reliability of the obtained parameterization is given, based on standard statistical methods. We discuss new physics insights offered by the advanced covariance analysis.
Thermophotovoltaic energy generation
Celanovic, Ivan; Chan, Walker; Bermel, Peter; Yeng, Adrian Y. X.; Marton, Christopher; Ghebrebrhan, Michael; Araghchini, Mohammad; Jensen, Klavs F.; Soljacic, Marin; Joannopoulos, John D.; Johnson, Steven G.; Pilawa-Podgurski, Robert; Fisher, Peter
2015-08-25
Inventive systems and methods for the generation of energy using thermophotovoltaic cells are described. Also described are systems and methods for selectively emitting electromagnetic radiation from an emitter for use in thermophotovoltaic energy generation systems. In at least some of the inventive energy generation systems and methods, a voltage applied to the thermophotovoltaic cell (e.g., to enhance the power produced by the cell) can be adjusted to enhance system performance. Certain embodiments of the systems and methods described herein can be used to generate energy relatively efficiently.
Power System Modeling of 20percent Wind-Generated Electricity by 2030
Hand, Maureen
2008-01-01
selected to achieve a cost-optimal generation mix over a 20-Conventional Generation Technology Cost and Performancethe future cost and performance of conventional generation
Vector Quantization Codebook Generation Method
Cockshott, P.; Lambert, R.B.; US patent 6438268 International Patent Application publication no wo 98/18262 Publication date 30 april 1998; Application no pct/gb97/02841 [More Details
Cockshott,P. Lambert,R.B. US patent 6438268 International Patent Application publication no wo 98/18262 Publication date 30 april 1998; Application no pct/gb97/02841
Enumerating a Diverse Set of Building Designs Using Discrete Optimization: Preprint
Hale, E.; Long, N.
2010-08-01
Numerical optimization is a powerful method for identifying energy-efficient building designs. Automating the search process facilitates the evaluation of many more options than is possible with one-off parametric simulation runs. However, input data uncertainties and qualitative aspects of building design work against standard optimization formulations that return a single, so-called optimal design. This paper presents a method for harnessing a discrete optimization algorithm to obtain significantly different, economically viable building designs that satisfy an energy efficiency goal. The method is demonstrated using NREL's first-generation building analysis platform, Opt- E-Plus, and two example problems. We discuss the information content of the results, and the computational effort required by the algorithm.
Optimization Online - Nonlinear Optimization Submissions - 2014
Nonlinear Optimization Submissions - 2014. January 2014. Constrained Nonlinear Optimization New active set identification for general constrained ...
Smart Grid Application of Optimal Transmission Switching
Ferris, Michael C.
;6 Introduction continued Electric Transmission Network Flow Problem Optimal Power Flow (OPF) AlternatingSmart Grid Application of Optimal Transmission Switching By, Kory W. Hedman, et al.* University (Professor, UC Berkeley) #12;2 Motivation Co-optimize transmission topology and generation dispatch
Euler's fluid equations: Optimal Control vs Optimization
Darryl D. Holm
2009-09-28
An optimization method used in image-processing (metamorphosis) is found to imply Euler's equations for incompressible flow of an inviscid fluid, without requiring that the Lagrangian particle labels exactly follow the flow lines of the Eulerian velocity vector field. Thus, an optimal control problem and an optimization problem for incompressible ideal fluid flow both yield the \\emph {same} Euler fluid equations, although their Lagrangian parcel dynamics are \\emph{different}. This is a result of the \\emph{gauge freedom} in the definition of the fluid pressure for an incompressible flow, in combination with the symmetry of fluid dynamics under relabeling of their Lagrangian coordinates. Similar ideas are also illustrated for SO(N) rigid body motion.
A Remarkable Property of the Dynamic Optimization Extremals?
Delfim Fernando Marado Torres
1910-10-81
the new relation, methods for obtaining conserved quantities along the ... the 4th International Optimization Conference in Portugal, Optimization 2001, Aveiro,.
Cisneros, Anselmo Tomas
2013-01-01
Key to Future Nuclear Power Generation in the U.Son Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (pp. 161-?300-?MW THTR nuclear power plant". Nuclear
PÃ¡zsit, Imre
2006-01-01
of neutrons and gamma photons generated in a multiplying sample Andreas Enqvista,Ã?, Imre PaÂ´ zsita , Sara is an analytical derivation of the full probability distribution of the number of neutrons and photons generated. With the introduction of a modified factorial moment of the number of neutrons and gamma photons generated in fission
Engineering Optimization Vol. 36, No. 4, August 2004, 419438
Wang,Liqun
Engineering Optimization Vol. 36, No. 4, August 2004, 419Â438 MODE-PURSUING SAMPLING METHOD FOR GLOBAL OPTIMIZATION ON EXPENSIVE BLACK-BOX FUNCTIONS LIQUN WANGa , SONGQING SHANb and G. GARY WANGb efficient global optimization methods. This article proposes a new global optimization method for black
Gschwind, Michael K
2013-07-23
Mechanisms for aggressively optimizing computer code are provided. With these mechanisms, a compiler determines an optimization to apply to a portion of source code and determines if the optimization as applied to the portion of source code will result in unsafe optimized code that introduces a new source of exceptions being generated by the optimized code. In response to a determination that the optimization is an unsafe optimization, the compiler generates an aggressively compiled code version, in which the unsafe optimization is applied, and a conservatively compiled code version in which the unsafe optimization is not applied. The compiler stores both versions and provides them for execution. Mechanisms are provided for switching between these versions during execution in the event of a failure of the aggressively compiled code version. Moreover, predictive mechanisms are provided for predicting whether such a failure is likely.
Brown, Matt
2013-01-01
Optimizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 and 26. APPENDIX B Optimizations Included in thisappendix are the three optimization steps which together
Jrgen Bauck Jensen Optimal Operation of Refrigera-
Skogestad, Sigurd
and compared with the Tmin-method. Considering the large amount of work that goes into the design of LNG LNG process is used as an example for optimal design and optimal operation of LNG processes
Nikolaidis, Efstratios
MIME 6740/8740 Optimization Theory and Applications Fall 2014 ________________________________________________________________________________________ Description: The course will cover fundamental concepts of optimization and numerical methods for solving optimization problems. It will present applications of optimization in mechanical and industrial engineering
Fighting dephasing noise with robust optimal control
Kevin C. Young; Dylan J Gorman; K. Birgitta Whaley
2010-05-28
We address the experimentally relevant problem of robust mitigation of dephasing noise acting on a qubit. We first present an extension of a method for representing $1/\\omega^{\\alpha}$ noise developed by Kuopanportti et al. to the efficient representation of arbitrary Markovian noise. We then add qubit control pulses to enable the design of numerically optimized, two-dimensional control functions with bounded amplitude, that are capable of decoupling the qubit from the dephasing effects of a broad variety of Markovian noise spectral densities during arbitrary one qubit quantum operations. We illustrate the method with development of numerically optimized control pulse sequences that minimize decoherence due to a combination of $1/\\omega$ and constant offset noise sources. Comparison with the performance of standard dynamical decoupling protocols shows that the numerically optimized pulse sequences are considerably more robust with respect to the noise offset, rendering them attractive for application to situations where homogeneous dephasing noise sources are accompanied by some extent of heterogeneous dephasing. Application to the mitigation of dephasing noise on spin qubits in silicon indicates that high fidelity single qubit gates are possible with current pulse generation technology.
On combining Laplacian and optimization-based mesh smoothing techniques
Freitag, L.A.
1997-07-01
Local mesh smoothing algorithms have been shown to be effective in repairing distorted elements in automatically generated meshes. The simplest such algorithm is Laplacian smoothing, which moves grid points to the geometric center of incident vertices. Unfortunately, this method operates heuristically and can create invalid meshes or elements of worse quality than those contained in the original mesh. In contrast, optimization-based methods are designed to maximize some measure of mesh quality and are very effective at eliminating extremal angles in the mesh. These improvements come at a higher computational cost, however. In this article the author proposes three smoothing techniques that combine a smart variant of Laplacian smoothing with an optimization-based approach. Several numerical experiments are performed that compare the mesh quality and computational cost for each of the methods in two and three dimensions. The author finds that the combined approaches are very cost effective and yield high-quality meshes.
Supplementary Material Learning optimal adaptation strategies in unpredictable motor tasks
Supplementary Material Learning optimal adaptation strategies in unpredictable motor tasks D.A. Braun, A. Aertsen, D.M. Wolpert, C. Mehring Contents 1 Adaptive Optimal Control Methods 2 1-adaptive Optimal Control Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.4 Arm Model
Cost-Optimal Operation of Energy Storage Units: Benefits of a Problem-Specific Approach
Siemer, Lars; Kleinhans, David
2015-01-01
The integration of large shares of electricity produced by non-dispatchable Renewable Energy Sources (RES) leads to an increasingly volatile energy generation side, with temporary local overproduction. The application of energy storage units has the potential to use this excess electricity from RES efficiently and to prevent curtailment. The objective of this work is to calculate cost-optimal charging strategies for energy storage units used as buffers. For this purpose, a new mathematical optimization method is presented that is applicable to general storage-related problems. Due to a tremendous gain in efficiency of this method compared with standard solvers and proven optimality, calculations of complex problems as well as a high-resolution sensitivity analysis of multiple system combinations are feasible within a very short time. As an example technology, Power-to-Heat converters used in combination with thermal storage units are investigated in detail and optimal system configurations, including storage ...
Garcia, David Ernest
2013-01-01
around. 3.3 Materials and Methods Codon Optimization of MK4.3 Materials and Methods Codon Optimization of PMK TheMaterials and Methods . 29 Codon Optimization
Optimization of Heat Exchangers
Ivan Catton
2010-10-01
The objective of this research is to develop tools to design and optimize heat exchangers (HE) and compact heat exchangers (CHE) for intermediate loop heat transport systems found in the very high temperature reator (VHTR) and other Generation IV designs by addressing heat transfer surface augmentation and conjugate modeling. To optimize heat exchanger, a fast running model must be created that will allow for multiple designs to be compared quickly. To model a heat exchanger, volume averaging theory, VAT, is used. VAT allows for the conservation of mass, momentum and energy to be solved for point by point in a 3 dimensional computer model of a heat exchanger. The end product of this project is a computer code that can predict an optimal configuration for a heat exchanger given only a few constraints (input fluids, size, cost, etc.). As VAT computer code can be used to model characteristics )pumping power, temperatures, and cost) of heat exchangers more quickly than traditional CFD or experiment, optimization of every geometric parameter simultaneously can be made. Using design of experiment, DOE and genetric algorithms, GE, to optimize the results of the computer code will improve heat exchanger disign.
dominic
2013-03-26
Lesson 30. Optimization (I). 1. A woman wants to build a rectangular garden next to a straight river. She will enclose the garden on 3 sides with fencing—the ...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Electricity, US Data. 6. Distributed Generation: Standby Generation and Cogeneration Ozz Energy Solutions, Inc. February 28 th , 2005. For more information about...
Optimization Online - Nonlinear Optimization Submissions - 2013
Nonlinear Optimization Submissions - 2013. January 2013. A Framework of Constraint Preserving Update Schemes for Optimization on Stiefel Manifold
Optimization Online - Nonlinear Optimization Submissions - 2012
Nonlinear Optimization Submissions - 2012. January 2012. Systems governed by Differential Equations Optimization Squeeze-and-Breathe Evolutionary Monte ...
Zabaras, Nicholas J.
: Efficiency/Scalability: Features: Optimized templated versions of core statistical models Data-based input: Data-driven Stochastic Input Models: Enables to integrate experimental data and underlying physics in graphs Data-Driven Stochastic Input Models . Integration of Multiscale Models with Stochastic Analysis
Convex and Nonsmooth Optimization Submissions - 2014. January 2014. Convex Optimization Generalized Gauss Inequalities via Semidefinite Programming
Carver Performance and Optimization
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Optimization Performance and Optimization Performance Monitoring Last edited: 2012-01-09 12:31:03...
An Application of Integrated Thermal and Electrical Energy Cogeneration Optimization
Ahner, D. J.; Mills, R. J.
1994-01-01
The savings associated with operations optimization of power generation and cogeneration facilities are large, and readily justify the hardware and software costs required for implementation of Energy Management Optimization Systems (EMOS...
Distributed Optimization System
Hurtado, John E. (Albuquerque, NM); Dohrmann, Clark R. (Albuquerque, NM); Robinett, III, Rush D. (Tijeras, NM)
2004-11-30
A search system and method for controlling multiple agents to optimize an objective using distributed sensing and cooperative control. The search agent can be one or more physical agents, such as a robot, and can be software agents for searching cyberspace. The objective can be: chemical sources, temperature sources, radiation sources, light sources, evaders, trespassers, explosive sources, time dependent sources, time independent sources, function surfaces, maximization points, minimization points, and optimal control of a system such as a communication system, an economy, a crane, and a multi-processor computer.
Hutter, Marcus
Optimization Difficulty Tansu Alpcan Introduction Definitions and Model Optimization Difficulty Bounds on Optimization Difficulty Conclusion Can we measure the difficulty of an optimization problem Science Australian National University ITW 2014, Hobart 1 / 22 #12;Optimization Difficulty Tansu Alpcan
System, apparatus and methods to implement high-speed network analyzers
Ezick, James; Lethin, Richard; Ros-Giralt, Jordi; Szilagyi, Peter; Wohlford, David E
2015-11-10
Systems, apparatus and methods for the implementation of high-speed network analyzers are provided. A set of high-level specifications is used to define the behavior of the network analyzer emitted by a compiler. An optimized inline workflow to process regular expressions is presented without sacrificing the semantic capabilities of the processing engine. An optimized packet dispatcher implements a subset of the functions implemented by the network analyzer, providing a fast and slow path workflow used to accelerate specific processing units. Such dispatcher facility can also be used as a cache of policies, wherein if a policy is found, then packet manipulations associated with the policy can be quickly performed. An optimized method of generating DFA specifications for network signatures is also presented. The method accepts several optimization criteria, such as min-max allocations or optimal allocations based on the probability of occurrence of each signature input bit.
Fuel cell generator energy dissipator
Veyo, Stephen Emery (Murrysville, PA); Dederer, Jeffrey Todd (Valencia, PA); Gordon, John Thomas (Ambridge, PA); Shockling, Larry Anthony (Pittsburgh, PA)
2000-01-01
An apparatus and method are disclosed for eliminating the chemical energy of fuel remaining in a fuel cell generator when the electrical power output of the fuel cell generator is terminated. During a generator shut down condition, electrically resistive elements are automatically connected across the fuel cell generator terminals in order to draw current, thereby depleting the fuel
ONLINE OPTIMIZATION AND SELECTION OF MEASUREMENTS
Skogestad, Sigurd
117 Chapter 7 ONLINE OPTIMIZATION AND SELECTION OF MEASUREMENTS This is the last of three chapters that discuss optimal operation of a general heat exchanger network. A method that combines the use of steady state optimization and decentralized feedback control is proposed. A general steady state model
Particle Filter with Swarm Move for Optimization
Yang, Shengxiang
method in particle swarm optimization (PSO). In this way, the PSO update equation is treated the ability of PSO in searching the optimal position can be embedded into the particle filter optimization in both convergence speed and final fitness in comparison with the PSO algorithm over a set of standard
Alexander Bolonkin; Robert Sierakowski
2007-01-19
Current research suggests the use of a liner quadratic performance index for optimal control of regulators in various applications. Some examples include correcting the trajectory of rocket and air vehicles, vibration suppression of flexible structures, and airplane stability. In all these cases, the focus is in suppressing/decreasing system deviations rapidly. However, if one compares the Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) solution with optimal solutions (minimum time), it is seen that the LQR solution is less than optimal in some cases indeed (3-6) times that obtained using a minimum time solution. Moreover, the LQR solution is sometimes unacceptable in practice due to the fact that values of control extend beyond admissible limits and thus the designer must choose coefficients in the linear quadratic form, which are unknown. The authors suggest methods which allow finding a quasi-optimal LQR solution with bounded control which is closed to the minimum time solution. They also remand the process of the minimum time decision. Keywords: Optimal regulator, minimum time controller, Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR). -- This paper is declared a work of the U.S. Government and not subject to copyright protection in the USA. The manuscript is accepted as paper AIAA-2003-6638 by 2nd AIAA Unmanned Unlimited Systems, Technologies, and Operations-Aerospace, Land, and See Conference and Workshop - Exhibit, San Diego, California, USA, 15-18 Sep. 2003.
Venkatasubramanian, Mani V.
. This is especially true for synchronous machines and their controls such as exciters, governors and limiters. In many, the estimation and periodic verification of the synchronous machine parameters and control parameters. Index Terms--Parameter estimation, synchronous generator model, simulation optimization method. I
An Approximate Inference Approach to Temporal Optimization in Optimal Control
Vijayakumar, Sethu
Motivation · Stochastic Optimal feedback control (SOFC) is a plausible move- ment generation strategy in goal with non-linear dynamics and non-quadratic costs SOFC law can only be found locally and iteratively, e SOFC Model Random variables we use here: xt state of a plant (joint angles q and velocities q) ut
Optimization of neural network feedback control systems using automatic differentiation
Rollins, Elizabeth, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
2009-01-01
Optimal control problems can be challenging to solve, whether using analytic or numerical methods. This thesis examines the application of an adjoint method for optimal feedback control, which combines various algorithmic ...
Interconnection networks synthesis and optimization
Zhu, Yi
2008-01-01
Synthesis and Optimization . . . . . . . . . . .1.Wire Style Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. PowerSynthesis and Optimization . 1. Overview . . . . . . . . . .
Steam System Optimization : A Case Study
Iordanova, N.; Venkatesan, V. V.; Calogero, M.
2002-01-01
The steam system optimization (generation, distribution, use and condensate return) offers a large opportunity for action to comply with the new levels of energy efficiency standards. Superior design and improved maintenance practices are the two...
Soliton molecules: Experiments and optimization
Mitschke, Fedor
2014-10-06
Stable compound states of several fiber-optic solitons have recently been demonstrated. In the first experiment their shape was approximated, for want of a better description, by a sum of Gaussians. Here we discuss an optimization strategy which helps to find preferable shapes so that the generation of radiative background is reduced.
Authors, Various
2012-01-01
3 1st Edition FTN4 OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES November 1979O. INTRODUCTION 1. COt1PILER OPTIMIZATIONS 2. SOURCE CODEcode. Most of these optimizations decrease central processor
July 2, 2007 1 Optimal Transmission Switching
Mangasarian, Olvi L.
. INTRODUCTION n large electric networks, transmission is traditionally characterized as a static systemJuly 2, 2007 1 Optimal Transmission Switching Emily Bartholomew Fisher, Student Member, IEEE an optimal generation dispatch and transmission topology to meet a specific inflexible load as a mixed